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The Adventure Of Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo Vespucci

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2013

AMERIGO (AMERICO) VESPUCCI

 

Amerigo Vespucci (1452-1512):

 

                                  
                                             biography

Amerigo Vespucci

Amerigo VespucciBorn: 9-Mar-1454
Birthplace: Florence, Italy
Died: 22-Feb1512
Location of death: Seville, Spain
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: Buried, Abbazia Di Ognissanti, Florence, Italy

Gender: Male
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Explorer

Nationality: Italy
Executive summary: American eponym

Merchant and adventurer, who gave his name of Amerigo to the new world as America, was born at Florence on the 9th of March 1451. His father, Nastagio (Anastasio) Vespucci, was a notary, and his uncle, Fra Giorgio Antonio Vespucci, to whom he owed his education, was a scholarly Dominican and a friend of Girolamo Savonarola. As a student Amerigo is said to have shown a preference for natural philosophy, astronomy and geography. He was placed as a clerk in the great commercial house of the Medici, then the ruling family in Florence. A letter of the 30th of December 1492 shows that he was then in Seville; and until the 12th of January 1496 he seems to have usually resided in Spain, especially at Seville and Cadiz, probably as an agent of the Medici. In December 1495, on the death of a Florentine merchant, Juanoto Berardi, established at Seville, who had fitted out the second expedition of Christopher Columbus in 1493, and had also undertaken to fit out twelve ships for the king of Spain (April 9th, 1495), Vespucci was commissioned to complete the contract. As Ferdinand, on the 10th of April 1495, recalled the monopoly conceded to Columbus (this order of April 10th, 1495, was cancelled on June 2nd, 1497), “private” exploring now had an opportunity, and adventurers of all kinds were able to leave Spain for the West. Vespucci claims to have sailed with one of these “freelance” expeditions from Cadiz on the 10th of May 1497. Touching at Grand Canary on the way, the four vessels he accompanied, going thirty-seven days on a west-south-west course, and making 1000 leagues, are said to have reached a supposed continental coast in 16° N., 70° W. from Grand Canary (June 16th, 1497). This should have brought them into the Pacific. They sailed along the coast, says Vespucci, for 80 leagues to the province of Parias (or Lariab), and then 870 leagues more, always to the northwest, to the “finest harbor in the world”, which from this description should be in British Columbia or thereabouts. From there 100 leagues more to north and northeast to the islands of the people called “Iti”, from which they returned to Spain, reaching Cadiz on the 15th of October 1498. Still following Vespucci’s own statement, he, on the 16th of May 1499, started on a second voyage in a fleet of three ships under Alonzo de Ojeda (Hojeda). Sailing southwest over 500 leagues they crossed the ocean in forty-four days, finding land in 5° S. From there, encountering various adventures, they worked up to 15° N., and returned to Spain by way of Antiglia (Española, San Domingo), reaching Cadiz on the 8th of September 1500. Entering the service of Dom Manuel of Portugal, Vespucci claims to have taken part in a third American expedition, which left Lisbon on the 10th (or 15th) of May 1501. Vespucci has given two accounts of this alleged third voyage, differing in many details, especially dates and distances. From Portugal he declares that he sailed to Bezeguiche (Cape Verde), and from there southwest for 700 leagues, reaching the American coast in 5° S. on the 7th (or 17th) of August. From there eastward for 300 (150) leagues, and south and west to 52° S. (or 73° 30′; in his own words, “13° from the antarctic pole”, i.e. well into the antarctic continent). He returned, he adds, by Sierra Leone (June 10th), and the Azores (end of July), to Lisbon (September 7th, 1502). His second Portuguese (and fourth and last American) voyage, as alleged by him, was destined for Malacca, which he supposed to be in 33° S. (really in 2° 14′ N.). Starting from Lisbon on the 10th of May 1503, with a fleet of six ships, and reaching Bahia by way of Fernando Noronha (?), Vespucci declares that he built a fort at a harbor in 18° S., and from there returned to Lisbon (June 18th, 1504). In February 1505, being again in Spain, he visited Christopher Columbus, who entrusted to him a letter for his son Diego. On the 24th of April 1505, Vespucci received Spanish letters of naturalization; and on the 6th of August 1508 was appointed piloto mayor or chief pilot of Spain, an office which he held until his death at Seville on the 22nd of February 1512.

If his own account had been trustworthy, it would have followed that Vespucci reached the mainland of America eight days before John Cabot (June 16th against June 24th, 1497). But Vespucci’s own statement of his exploring achievements hardly carries conviction. This statement is contained (i.) in his letter written from Lisbon (March or April 1503) to Lorenzo Piero Francesco di Medici, the head of the firm under which his business career had been mostly spent, describing the alleged Portuguese voyage of March 1501 to September 1502. The original Italian text is lost, but we possess the Latin translation by “Jocundus interpreter”, perhaps the Giocondo who brought his invitation to Portugal in 1501. This letter was printed (in some nine editions) soon after it was written, the first two issues (Mundus Novus and Epistola Albericii de Novo Mundo), without place or date, appearing before 1504, the third, of 1504 (Mundus Novus), at Augsburg. Two very early Paris editions are also known, and one Strassburg (De Ora Antarctica) of 1505, edited by E. Ringmann. It was also included in the Paesi novamente retrovati of 1507 (Vicenza) under the title of Novo Mondo da Alb. Vesputio. The connection of the new world with Vespucci, thus expressed, is derived from the argument of this first letter, that it was right to call Amerigo’s discovery a new world, because it had not been seen before by anyone. This prepared the way for the American name soon given to the continent. (ii.) In Vespucci’s letter, also written from Portugal (September 1504), and probably addressed to his old school-fellow Piero Soderini, gonfaloniere of Florence 1502-12. From the Italian original (of which four printed copies still exist, without place or date, but probably before 1507) a French version was made, and from the latter a Latin translation, published at St. Dié in Lorraine in April 1507, and immediately made use of in the Cosmographiae Introductio (St. Dié, 1507) of Martin Waldseemüller (Hylacomylus), professor of cosmography in St. Dié University. Here we have perhaps the first suggestion in a printed book that the newly discovered fourth part of the world should be called “America, because Americus discovered it.” Since Alexander von Humboldt discussed the subject in his Examen critique de l’histoire de la géographie du nouveau continent (1837), vol. IV, the general weight of opinion, despite other defenses of Vespucci’s voyages, general consensus has been that he had no share in the first discovery of the American continent.

Father: Nastagio Vespucci
Mother: Lisabetta Mini
Brother: Antonio
Wife: Maria Cerezo (m. 1505)

 

Amerigo Vespucci detail
Giuseppe Maria Testi (after)
Santi Soldaini (designer of print)
Carlo Lasinio Padre (engraver)
Amerigo Vespucci
Copperplate engraving
Livorno: 1812
18 x 13 inches overall
Sold, please inquire as to the availability of similar items.

Elaborately decorated profile portrait of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who, as the banner at the top proclaims “bestowed his name upon a world.” Vespucci is set within an oval stone frame, garlanded in laurel leaf branches, with an ocean-scape in the background, and in the foreground with various symbols of exploration including a map, navigational instruments, globe, compass, hour glass, octant, anchor, lantern. Below the image are a row of laudatory verses and a brief biography of Vespucci, all in Italian. The extravagantly worded inscriptions demonstrate the great pride Italians took in his achievements.

Print inscriptions are below. Rough translations from the Italian are provided. In some cases archaic words are used that cannot be easily translated.

Text of Banner:

Tu destil nome un mondo e quei del paro, tuo nome rende famoso e chiaro.

Four Verses:

Genio Sublime, Splendor di Flora, Che il vasto Oceano, Sfidaste un oi.
[Sublime genius, splendid flower, who the vast ocean defied.]

Alta Scoperta, Che Festi allora, Dun Mondo incognito, L’olero stupi.
[Great discovery, that was celebrated then, of a then-unknown world, (l’olero) amazed.]

Morte ne tempo La tua findora, Perenne Gloria D’oblio cuopri
[Died in your time, your (findora), perennial glory, of oblivion discovered.]

Vive immortale, Tuo nome ancora, Esempre ai posteri, Vivia cosi.
[Immortal you live, your name still and always will live on in posterity.]

Biography:

Amerigo dister Nastasio d’Amerigo Vespucci nacque in Firenze il Marzo 1451. Dotato d’un genio sublime ardi tentare le vie dell’Oceano e fece quattro viaggi all sole e Coste de quell vasto Continente, che per consenso di tutte le Nazioni fu dal suo nome chiamato America. _____. Intraprese il primo: viaggio per servizio del Re di. Spagna il di so Maggio 1497. Gli Altri per il re di Portogullo a cui scuopri il Brasiles, e vi fece costruire il primo: Forte ___ Devesi ad Amerigo l’innvenvione dell importante metodo di prendere in mare la longitudine ___. Sell’atto d’intraprendere un quinto viaggio per il Re di Spagna fu sorpreso dalla morte nel 1516, o come altri vagbono nel 1508, e fu sepolto nell’ isole Ferzere restando per sempre il suo gloriosio. Neme che l’incidia e la calungia tentorono invarno di cancellare dalla memoria della grata Posterita, che lo dichiaro uno dei piu gran Navigatori , e dei pui rinomati ingegni del secoto XV.

[The biography explains that Nastasiro d’Amerigo Vespucci was born in Florence in March 1451. “Equipped with a sublime genius,” he “burned” with the desire to explore the byways of the ocean and made four voyages “along the coasts of that vast continent, so that with the consent of all nations it was named America.” It is said that he undertook his first voyage under the auspices of the King of Spain, on May 1497. (Later on in his life, Vespucci left behind a controversy when he said he did not in fact make that voyage.) The others were made for the King of Portugal, for whom he discovered Brazil. The biography asserts that Amerigo was an innovator in “the important method of navigating the sea using longitude.” It also states that he died suddenly in 1516, and was buried in the island of Ferzere, “remaining forever glorious.” (The Catholic Encyclopedia gives his date of death as 1512.) The statement concludes, “I declare him one of the great navigators, and the most renowned geniuses of the 15th Century.”]

A M E R I G O VERPUCCI    

             
Amerigo Vespucci (born in Florence in 1452), whose name was given to the American continents by Waldsmuller in 1507, worked in Seville (where he died) in the business house which fitted out Columbus’ second expedition. Here he gives an account of the first of his own four voyages. If his claims are accurate he reached the mainland of the Americas shortly before Cabot, and  at least 14 months before Columbus.

 

 

 

 

Account of His First Voyage, 1497


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Letter of Amerigo Vespucci

 

To Pier Soderini, Gonfalonier of the Republic of Florence

Magnificent Lord. After humble reverence and due commendations, etc. It may be that your Magnificence will be surprised by (this conjunction of) my rashness and your customary wisdom, in that I should so absurdly bestir myself to write to your Magnificence the present so-prolix letter:

 

knowing (as I do) that your Magnificence is continually employed in high councils and affairs concerning the good government of this sublime Republic.

 

And will hold me not only presumptuous, but also idlymeddlesome in setting myself to write things, neither suitable to your station, nor entertaining, and written in barbarous style, and outside of every canon of polite literature:

 

 but my confidence which I have in your virtues and in the truth of my writing, which are things (that) are not found written neither by the ancients nor by modern writers, as your Magnificence will in the sequel perceive, makes me bold.

 

 The chief cause which moved (me) to write to you, was at the request of the present bearer, who is named Benvenuto Benvenuti our Florentine (fellow-citizen), very much, as it is proven, your Magnificence’s servant, and my very good friend: who happening to be here in this city of Lisbon, begged that I should make communication to your Magnificence of the things seen by me in divers regions of the world, by virtue of four voyages which I have made in discovery of new lands:

 two by order of the king of Castile, King Don Ferrando VI, across the great gulf of the Ocean-sea, towards the west: and the other two by command of the puissant King Don Manuel King of Portugal, towards the south;

 

 telling me that your Magnificence would take pleasure thereof, and that herein he hoped to do you service: wherefore I set me to do it: because I am assured that your Magnificence holds me in the number of your servants, remembering that in the time of our youth I was your friend, and now (am your) servant:

and (remembering our) going to hear the rudiments of grammar under the fair example and instruction of the venerable monk friar of Saint Mark Fra Giorgio Antonio Vespucci: whose counsels and teaching would to God that I had followed:

for as saith Petrarch, I should be another man than what I am. Howbeit soever I grieve not: because I have ever taken delight in worthy matters: and although these trifles of mine may not be suitable to your virtues, I will say to you as said Pliny to Maecenas, you were sometime wont to take pleasure in my prattlings: even though your Magnificence

be continuously busied in public affairs, you will take some hour of relaxation to consume a little time in frivolous or amusing things: and as fennel is customarily given atop of delicious viands to fit them for better digestion, so may you, for a relief from your so heavy occupations, order this letter of mine to be read: so that they may withdraw you somewhat from the continual anxiety and assiduous reflection upon public affairs:

 and if I shall be prolix, I crave pardon, my Magnificent Lord. Your Magnificence shall know that the motive of my coming into his realm of Spain was to traffic in merchandise: and that I pursued this intent about four years:

 

during which I saw and knew the inconstant shiftings of Fortune: and how she kept changing those frail and transitory benefits: and how at one time she holds man on the summit of the wheel, and at another time drives him back from her, and despoils him of what may be called his borrowed riches: so that, knowing the continuous toil which main undergoes to win them, submitting himself to so many anxieties and risks, I resolved to abandon trade, and to fix my aim upon something more praiseworthy and stable: whence it was that I made preparation for going to see part of the world and its wonders: and herefor the time and place presented themselves most opportunely to me: which was that the King Don Ferrando of Castile being about to despatch four ships to discover new lands towards the west, I was chosen by his Highness to go in that fleet to aid in making discovery:

 

1497

and we set out from the port of Cadiz on the 10th day of May 1497, and took our route through the great gulf of the Ocean-sea: in which voyage we were eighteen months (engaged): and discovered much continental land and innumerable islands, and great part of them inhabited: whereas there is no mention made by the ancient writers of them:

I believe, because they had no knowledge thereof: for, if I remember well, I have read in some one (of those writers) that he considered that this Ocean-sea was an unpeopled sea: and of this opinion was Dante our poet in the xxvi. chapter of the Inferno, where he feigns the death of Ulysses, in which voyage I beheld things of great wondrousness, as your Magnificence shall understand.

 

As I said above, we left the port of Cadiz four consort ships: and began our voyage in direct course to the Fortunates Isles which are called to-day la gran Canaria, which are situated in the Ocean-sea at the extremity of the inhabited west, (and) set in the third climate: over which the North Pole has an elevation of 27 and a half degrees beyond their horizon

[note 1:

That is, which are situate at 27 1/2 degrees north latitude.] and they are 280 leagues distant from this city of Lisbon, by the wind between mezzo di and libeccio.

[note 2:

South-south-west. It is to be remarked that Vespucci always uses the word wind to signify the course in which it blows, not the quarter from which it rises.]

where we remained eight days, taking in provision of water, and wood and other necessary things: and from here, having said our prayers, we weighed anchor, and gave the sails to the wind, beginning our course to westward, taking one quarter by southwest

 

 

 

 [note 3: West and a quarter by south-west.]:

 and so we sailed on till at the end of 37 days we reached a land which we deemed to be a continent: which is distant westwardly from the isles of Canary about a thousand leagues beyond the inhabited region

 

verpuci arrived at the new world

 [note 4:

This phrase is merely equivalent to a repetition of from the Canaries, these islands having been already designated the extreme western limit of inhabited land.] within the torrid zone:

for we found the North Pole at an elevation of 16 degrees above its horizon, [note 5: That is, 16 degrees north latitude.] and (it was) westward, according to the shewing of our instruments, 75 degrees from the isles of Canary:

 whereat we anchored with our ships a league and a half from land; and we put out our boats freighted with men and arms: we made towards the land, and before we reached it, had sight of a great number of people who were going along the shore: by which we were much rejoiced: and we observed that they were a naked race:

they shewed themselves to stand in fear of us: I believe (it was) because they saw us clothed and of other appearance (than their own): they all withdrew to a hill, and for whatsoever signals we made to them of peace and of friendliness,

 

 

Vespucci map

 they would not come to parley with us: so that, as the night was now coming on, and as the ships were anchored in a dangerous place, being on a rough and shelterless coast, we decided to remove from there the next day, and to go in search of some harbour or bay, where we might place our ships in safety: and we sailed with the maestrale wind,

[note 6: North-west] thus running along the coast with the land ever in sight, continually in our course observing people along the shore: till after having navigated for two days, we found a place sufficiently secure for the ships, and anchored half a league from land, on which we saw a very great number of people:

and this same day we put to land with the boats, and sprang on shore full 40 men in good trim: and still the land’s people appeared shy of converse with us, and we were unable to encourage them so much as to make them come to speak with us:

 and this day we laboured so greatly in giving them of our wares, such as rattles and mirrors, beads, spalline, and other trifles, that some of them took confidence and came to discourse with us:

and after having made good friends with them, the night coming on, we took our leave of them and returned to the ships:

 and the next day when the dawn appeared we saw that there were infinite numbers of people upon the beach, and they had their women and children with them: we went, ashore, and found that they were all laden with their worldly goods

 [note 7: Mantenimenti. The word “all” (tucte) is feminine, and probably refers only to the women.]

which are suchlike as, in its (proper) place, shall be related: and before we reached the land, many of them jumped into the sea and came swimming to receive us at a bowshot’s length (from the shore), for they are very great swimmers, with as much confidence as if they had for a long time been acquainted with us:

and we were pleased with this their confidence. For so much as we learned of their manner of life and customs, it was that they go entirely naked, as well the men as the women. . . . They are of medium stature, very well proportioned: their flesh is of a colour the verges into red like a lion’s mane: and I believe that if they went clothed, they would be as white as we: they have not any hair upon the body, except the hair of the head which is long and black, and especially in the women, whom it renders handsome: in aspect they are not very good-looking, because they have broad faces, so that they would seem Tartar-like:

 they let no hair grow on their eyebrows, nor on their eyelids, nor elsewhere, except the hair of the head: for they hold hairiness to be a filthy thing:

 

 

 

 

vespucci map

they are very light footed in walking and in running, as well the men as the women: so that a woman recks nothing of running a league or two, as many times we saw them do: and herein they have a very great advantage over us Christians:

 they swim (with an expertness) beyond all belief, and the women better than the men: for we have many times found and seen them swimming two leagues out at sea without anything to rest upon.

Their arms are bows and arrows very well made, save that (the arrows) are not (tipped) with iron nor any other kind of hard metal:

and instead of iron they put animals’ or fishes’ teeth, or a spike of tough wood, with the point hardened by fire:

 they are sure marksmen, for they hit whatever they aim at: and in some places the women use these bows: they have other weapons, such as fire-hardened spears, and also clubs with knobs, beautifully carved.

Warfare is used amongst them, which they carry on against people not of their own language, very cruelly, without granting life to any one, except (to reserve him) for greater suffering.

 When they go to war, they take their women with them, not that these may fight, but because they carry behind them their worldly goods, for a woman carries on her back for thirty or forty leagues a load which no man could bear:

as we have many times seen them do. They are not accustomed to have any Captain, nor do they go in any ordered array, for every one is lord of himself: and the cause of their wars is not for lust of dominion, nor of extending their frontiers, no for inordinate covetousness, but for some ancient enmity which in by-gone times arose amongst them: and when asked why they made war,

 

they knew not any other reason to give than that they did so to avenge the death of their ancestors, or of their parents: these people have neither King, nor Lord, nor do they yield obedience to any one,

for they live in their own liberty: and how they be stirred up to go to war is (this) that when the enemies have slain or captured any of them, his oldest kinsman rises up and goes about the highways haranguing them to go with him and avenge the death of such his kinsman:

 

and so are they stirred up by fellow-feeling: they have no judicial system, nor do they punish the ill-doer: nor does the father, nor the mother chastise the children and marvelously (seldom) or never did we see any dispute among them:

 in their conversation they appear simple, and they are very cunning and acute in that which concerns them: they speak little and in a low tone: they use the same articulations as we, since they form their utterances either with the palate, or with the teeth, or on the lips:

 [note 8:

 He means that they have no sounds in their language unknown to European organs of speech, all being either palatals or dentals of labials.] except that they give different names to things.

Many are the varieties of tongues: for in every 100 leagues we found a change of language, so that they are not understandable each to the other. The manner of their living is very barbarous, for they do not eat at certain hours, and as often-times as they will:

 and it is not much of a boon to them [note 9: I have translated “et non si da loro molto” as “it is not much of a boon to them,.” but may be “it matters not much to them.”]

that the will may come more at midnight than by day, for they eat at all hours: and they eat upon the ground without a table-cloth or any other cover, for they have their meats either in earthen basins which they make themselves, or in the halves of pumpkins:

they sleep in certain very large nettings made of cotton, suspended in the air: and although this their (fashion of) sleeping may seem uncomfortable, I say that it is sweet to sleep in those (nettings):

 and we slept better in them than in the counterpanes. They are a people smooth and clean of body, because of so continually washing themselves as they do. . .

Amongst those people we did not learn that they had any law, nor can they be called Moors nor Jews, and (they are) worse than pagans: because we did not observe that they offered any sacrifice:

nor even had they a house of prayer: their manner of living I judge to be Epicurean: their dwellings are in common: and their houses (are) made in the style of huts, but strongly made, and constructed with very large trees, and covered over with palm-leaves, secure against storms and winds: and in some places (they are) of so great breadth and length, that in one single house we found there were 600 souls:

 and we saw a village of only thirteen houses where there were four thousand souls: every eight or ten years they change their habitations: and when asked why they did so:

(they said it was) because of the soil which, from its filthiness, was already unhealthy and corrupted, and that it bred aches in their bodies, which seemed to us a good reason:

their riches consist of bird’s plumes of many colours, or of rosaries which they make from fishbones, or of white or green stones which they put in their cheeks and in their lips and ears, and of many other things which we in no wise value: they use no trade, they neither buy nor sell.

In fine, they live and are contended with that which nature gives them. The wealth that we enjoy in this our Europe and elsewhere, such as gold, jewels, pearls, and other riches, they hold as nothing;

and although they have them in their own lands, they do not labour to obtain them, nor do they value them. They are liberal in giving, for it is rarely they deny you anything: and on the other hand, liberal in asking, when they shew themselves your friends. . . .

When they die, they use divers manners of obsequies, and some they bury with water and victuals at their heads: thinking that they shall have (whereof) to eat:

they have not nor do they use ceremonies of torches nor of lamentation. In some other places, they use the most barbarous and inhuman burial, which is that when a suffering or infirm (person) is as it were at the last pass of death,

his kinsmen carry him into a large forest, and attach one of those nets, of theirs, in which they sleep, to two trees, and then put him in it, and dance around him for a whole day:

 and when the night comes on they place at his bolster, water with other victuals, so that he may be able to subsist for four or six days:

 and then they leave him alone and return to the village: and if the sick man helps himself, and eats, and drinks, and survives, he returns to the village, and his (friends) receive him with ceremony: but few are they who escape:

 without receiving any further visit they die, and that is their sepulture: and they have many other customs which for prolixity are not related. They use in their sicknesses various forms of medicines,

[note 10:

That is, “medical treatment.”] so different from ours that we marvelled how any one escaped: for many times I saw that with a man sick of fever, when it heightened upon him, they bathed him from head to foot with a large quantity of cold water:

then they lit a great fire around him, making him turn and turn again every two hours, until they tired him and left him to sleep, and many were (thus) cured:

 with this they make use of dieting, for they remain three days without eating, and also of blood-letting, but not from the arm, only from the thighs and the loins and the calf of the leg:

also they provoke vomiting with their herbs which are put into the mouth: and they use many other remedies which it would be long to relate: they are much vitiated in the phlegm and in the blood because of their food which consists chiefly of roots of herbs, and fruits and fish: they have no seed of wheat nor other grain:

and for their ordinary use and feeding, they have a root of a tree, from which they make flour, tolerably good, and they call it Iuca, and another which they call Cazabi, and another Ignami:

 

they eat little flesh except human flesh: for your Magnificence must know that herein they are so inhuman that they outdo every custom (even) of beasts; for they eat all their enemies whom they kill or capture, as well females as males with so much savagery, that (merely) to relate it appears a horrible thing: how much more so to see it, as, infinite times and in many places, it was my hap to see it:

and they wondered to hear us say that we did not eat our enemies: and this your Magnificence may take for certain, that their other barbarous customs are such that expression is too weak for the reality:

and as in these four voyages I have seen so many things diverse from our customs, I prepared to write a common-place-book which I name Le quattro Giornate: in which I have set down the greater part of the things which I saw, sufficiently in detail, so far as my feeble wit has allowed me:

which I have not yet published, because I have so ill a taste for my own things that I do not relish those which I have written, notwithstanding that many encourage me to publish it: therein everything will be seen in detail: so that I shall not enlarge further in this chapter:

 as in the course of the letter we shall come to many other things which are particular: let this suffice for the general.

At this beginning, we saw nothing in the land of much profit, except some show of gold:

I believe the cause of it was that we did not know the language: but in so far as concerns the situation and condition of the land, it could not be better: we decided to leave that place, and to go further on, continuously coasting the shore:

upon which we made frequent descents, and held converse with a great number of people: and at the end of some days we went into a harbour where we underwent very great danger:

and it pleased the Holy Ghost to save us: and it was in this wise. We landed in a harbour, where we found a village built like Venice upon the water: there were about 44 large dwellings in the form of huts erected upon very thick piles, and they had their doors or entrances in the style of drawbridges: and from each house one could pass through all, by means of the drawbridges which stretched from house to house:

 and when the people thereof had seen us, they appeared to be afraid of us, and immediately drew up all the bridges: and while we were looking at this strange action, we saw coming across the sea about 22 canoes, which are a kind of boats of theirs, constructed from a single tree:

 which came towards our boats, as they had been surprised by our appearance and clothes, and kept wide of us:

and thus remaining, we made signals to them that they should approach us, encouraging them will every token of friendliness: and seeing that they did not come, we went to them, and they did not stay for us, but made to the land, and, by signs, told us to wait, and that they should soon return: and they went to a hill in the background, and did not delay long: when they returned, they led with them 16 of their girls, and entered with these into their canoes, and came to the boats:

and in each boat they put 4 of the girls. That we marvelled at this behavior your Magnificence can imagine how much, and they placed themselves with their canoes among our boats, coming to speak with us: insomuch that we deemed it a mark of friendliness:

 and while thus engaged, we beheld a great number of people advance swimming towards us across the sea, who came from the houses: and as they were drawing near to us without any apprehension:

just then there appeared at the doors of the houses certain old women, uttering very loud cries and tearing their hair to exhibit grief: whereby they made us suspicious, and we each betook ourselves to arms: and instantly the girls whom we had in the boats, threw themselves into the sea, and the men of the canoes drew away from us, and began with their bows to shoot arrows at us:

and those who were swimming each carried a lance held, as covertly as they could, beneath the water:

so that, recognizing the treachery, we engaged with them, not merely to defend ourselves, but to attack them vigorously, and we overturned with our boats many of their almadie or canoes, for so they call them, we made a slaughter (of them), and they all flung themselves into the water to swim, leaving their canoes abandoned, with considerable loss on their side, they went swimming away to the shore:

 there died of them about 15 or 20, and many were left wounded: and of ours 5 were wounded, and all, by the grace of God, escaped (death): we captured two of the girls and two men:

and we proceeded to their houses, and entered therein, and in them all we found nothing else than two old women and a sick man: we took away from them many things, but of small value:

and we would not burn their houses, because it seemed to us (as though that would be) a burden upon our conscience:

and we returned to our boats with five prisoners: and betook ourselves to the ships, and put a pair of irons on the feet of each of the captives, except the little girls:

and when the night came on, the two girls and one of the men fled away in the most subtle manner possible:

and next day we decided to quit that harbour and go further onwards: we proceeded continuously skirting the coast, (until) we had sight of another tribe distant perhaps some 80 leagues from the former tribe: and we found them very different in speech and customs:

we resolved to cast anchor, and went ashore with the boats, and we saw on the beach a great number of people amounting probably to 4000 souls: and when we had reached the shore, they did not stay for us, but betook themselves to flight through the forests, abandoning their things: we jumped on land, and took a pathway that led to the forest:

and at the distance of a bow-shot we found their tents, where they had made very large fires, and two (of them) were cooking their victuals, and roasting several animals, and fish of many kinds:

where we saw that they were roasting a certain animal which seemed to be a serpent, save that it had not wings, and was in its appearance so loathsome that we marvelled much at its savageness:

Thus went we on through their houses, or rather tents, and found many of those serpents alive, and they were tied by the feet and had a cord around their snouts, so that they could not open their mouths, as is done (in Europe) with mastiff-dogs so that they may not bite:

 

they were of such savage aspect that none of us dared to take one away, thinking that they were poisonous: they are of the bigness of a kid, and in length an ell and a half:

[note 11:

This animal was the iguana.] their feet are long and thick, and armed with big claws: they have a hard skin, and are of various colours:

they have the muzzle and face of a serpent: and from their snouts there rises a crest like a saw which extends along the middle of the back as far as the tip of the tail: in fine we deemed them to be serpents and venomous, and (nevertheless, those people) ate them:

 we found that they made bread out of little fishes which they took from the sea, first boiling them, (then) pounding them, and making thereof a paste, or bread, and they baked them on the embers:

thus did they eat them: we tried it, and found that it was good: they had so many other kinds of eatables, and especially of fruits and roots, that it would be a large matter to describe them in detail: and seeing that the people did not return, we decided not to touch nor take away anything of theirs, so as better to reassure them:

and we left in the tents for them many of our things, placed where they should see them, and returned by night to our ships: and the next day, when it was light, we saw on the beach an infinite number of people:

and we landed: and although they appeared timorous towards us, they took courage nevertheless to hold converse with us, giving us whatever we asked of them: and shewing themselves very friendly towards us, they told us that those were their dwellings, and that they had come hither for the purpose of fishing:

and they begged that we would visit their dwellings and villages, because they desired to receive us as friends:

 and they engaged in such friendship because of the two captured men whom we had with us, as these were their enemies:

insomuch that, in view of such importunity on their part, holding a council, we determined that 28 of us Christians in good array should go with them, and in the firm resolve to die if it should be necessary:

and after we had been here some three days, we went with them inland:

and at three leagues from the coast we came to a village of many people and few houses, for there were no more than nine (of these):

where we were received with such and so many barbarous ceremonies that the pen suffices not to write them down: for there were dances, and songs, and lamentations mingled with rejoicing, and great quantities of food:

and here we remained the night: . . . and after having been here that night and half the next day, so great was the number of people who came wondering to behold us that they were beyond counting:

and the most aged begged us to go with them to other villages which were further inland, making display of doing us the greatest honour: wherefore we decided to go:

 and it would be impossible to tell you how much honour they did us: and we went to several villages, so that we were nine days journeying, so that our Christians who had remained with the ships were already apprehensive concerning us:

and when we were about 18 leagues in the interior of the land, we resolved to return to the ships:

 and on our way back, such was the number of people, as well men as women, that came with us as far as the sea, that it was a wondrous thing: and if any of us became weary of the march, they carried us in their nets very refreshingly:

and in crossing the rivers, which are many and very large, they passed us over by skilful means so securely that we ran no danger whatever, and many of them came laden with the things which they had given us, which consisted in their sleeping-nets, and very rich feathers, many bows and arrows, innumerable popinjays of divers colours: and others brought with them loads of their household goods, and of animals:

 but a greater marvel will I tell you, that, when we had to cross a river, he deemed himself lucky who was able to carry us on his back:

 and when we reached the sea, our boats having arrived, we entered into them: and so great was the struggle which they made to get into our boats, and to come to see our ships, that we marvelled (thereat):

 and in our boats we took as many of them as we could, and made our way to the ships, and so many (others) came swimming that we found ourselves embarrassed in seeing so many people in the ships, for there were over a thousand persons all naked and unarmed:

they were amazed by our (nautical) gear and contrivances, and the size of the ships:

 and with them there occurred to us a very laughable affair, which was that we decided to fire off some of our great guns, and when the explosion took place, most of them through fear cast themselves (into the sea) to swim, not otherwise than frogs on the margins of a pond, when they see something that frightens them, will jump into the water, just so did those people: and those who remained in the ships were so terrified that we regretted our action:

 however we reassured them by telling them that with those arms we slew our enemies: and when they had amused themselves in the ships the whole day, we told them to go away because we desired to depart that night, and so separating from us with much friendship and love, they went away to land.

Amongst that people and in their land, I knew and beheld so many of their customs and ways of living, that I do not care to enlarge upon them: for Your Magnificence must know that in each of my voyages I have noted the most wonderful things, and I have indited it all in a volume after the manner of a geography:

and I entitle it Le Quattro Giornate: in which work the things are comprised in detail, and as yet there is no copy of it given out, as it is necessary for me to revise it. This land is very populous, and full of inhabitants, and of numberless rivers, (and) animals:

few (of which) resemble ours, excepting lions, panthers, stags, pigs, goats, and deer: and even these have some dissimilarities of form:

 they have no horses nor mules, nor, saving your reverence, asses nor dogs, nor any kind of sheep or oxen:

but so numerous are the other animals which they have, and all are savage, and of none do they make use for their service, that they could not be counted.

What shall we say of others (such as) birds? which are so numerous, and of so many kinds, and of such various-coloured plumages, that it is a marvel to behold them.

 The soil is very pleasant and fruitful, full of immense woods and forests: and it is always green, for the foliage never drops off.

The fruits are so many that they are numberless and entirely different from ours.

This land is within the torrid zone, close to or just under the parallel described by the Tropic of Cancer:

 where the pole of the horizon has an elevation of 23 degrees, at the extremity of the second climate.

 [note 12:

 That is, 23 degrees north latitude.] Many tribes came to see us, and wondered at our faces and our whiteness:

 and they asked us whence we came:

 and we gave them to understand that we had come from heaven, and that we were going to see the world, and they believed it.

In this land we placed baptismal fonts, and an infinite (number of) people were baptised, and they called us in their language Carabi, which means men of great wisdom.

 We took our dhparture from that port:

and the province is called Lariab:

and we navigated along the coast, always in sight of land, until we had run 870 leagues of it, still going in the direction of the maestrale (north-west) making in our course many halts, and holding intercourse with many peoples:

 and in several places we obtained gold by barter but not much in quantity, for we had done enough in discovering the land and learning that they had gold. We had now been thirteen months on the voyage:

and the vessels and the tackling were already much damaged, and the men worn out by fatigue:

we decided by general council to haul our ships on land and examine them for the purpose of stanching leaks, as they made much water, and of caulking and tarring them afresh, and (then) returning towards Spain:

and when we came to this determination, we were close to a harbour the best in the world:

into which we entered with our vessels: where we found an immense number of people: who received us with much friendliness: and on the shore we made a bastion

 [note 13: Fort or barricade]

with our boats and with barrels and casks, and our artillery, which commanded every point:

and our ships having been unloaded and lightened, we drew them upon land, and repaired them in everything that was needful:

and the land’s people gave us very great assistance: and continually furnished us with their victuals: so that in this port we tasted little of our own, which suited our game well:

for the stock of provisions which we had for our return-passage was little and of sorry kind: where (i.e., there) we remained 37 days: and went many times to their villages: where they paid us the greatest honour:

and (now) desiring to depart upon our voyage, they made complaint to us how at certain times of the year there came from over the sea to this their land, a race of people very cruel, and enemies of theirs:

and (who) by means of treachery or of violence slew many of them, and ate them: and some they made captives, and carried them away to their houses, or country:

 and how they could scarcely contrive to defend themselves from them, making signs to us that (those) were an island-people and lived out in the sea about a hundred leagues away:

and so piteously did they tell us this that we believed them: and we promised to avenge them of so much wrong:

 

and they remained overjoyed herewith: and many of them offered to come along with us, but we did not wish to take them for many reasons, save that we took seven of them, on condition that they should come (i.e., return home) afterwards in (their own) canoes because we did not desire to be obliged to take them back to their country:

and they were contented:

and so we departed from those people, leaving them very friendly towards us: and having repaired our ships, and sailing for seven days out to sea between northeast and east:

and at the end of the seven days we came upon the islands, which were many, some (of them) inhabited, and others deserted: and we anchored at one of them: where we saw a numerous people who called it Iti:

and having manned our boats with strong crews, and (taken ammunition for) three cannon shots in each, we made for land: where we found (assembled) about 400 men, and many women, and all naked like the former (peoples).

They were of good bodily presence, and seemed right warlike men: for they were armed with their weapons, which are bows, arrows, and lances: and most of them had square wooden targets:

and bore them in such wise that they did not impede the drawing of the bow: and when we had come with our boats to about a bowshot of the land, they all sprang into the water to shoot their arrows at us and to prevent us from leaping upon shore:

and they all had their bodies painted of various colours, and (were) plumed with feathers: and the interpreters who were with us told us that when (those) displayed themselves so painted and plumed, it was to betoken that they wanted to fight:

 and so much did they persist in preventing us from landing, that we were compelled to play with our artillery: and when they heard the explosion, and saw one of them fall dead, they all drew back to the land:

wherefore, forming our council, we resolved that 42 of our men should spring on shore, and, if they waited for us, fight them:

 

thus having leaped to land with our weapons, they advanced towards us, and we fought for about an hour, for we had but little advantage of them, except that our arbalasters and gunners killed some of them, and they wounded certain of our men:

and this was because they did not stand to receive us within reach of lance-thrust or sword-blow:

and so much vigour did we put forth at last, that we came to sword-play, and when they tasted our weapons, they betook themselves to flight through the mountains and the forests, and left us conquerors of the field with many of them dead and a good number wounded: and for that day we’ took no other pains to pursue them, because we were very weary, and we returned to our ships, with so much gladness on the part of the seven men who had come with us that they could not contain themselves (for joy):

and when the next day arrived,

 we beheld coming across the land a great number of people, with signals of battle, continually sounding horns, and various other instruments which they use in their wars: and all (of them) painted and feathered, so that it was a very strange sight to behold them:

wherefore all the ships held council, and it was resolved that since this people desired hostility with us, we should proceed to encounter them and try by every means to make them friends:

in case they would not have our friendship, that we should treat them as foes, and so many of them as we might be able to capture should all be our slaves: and having armed ourselves as best we could, we advanced towards the shore, and they sought not to hinder us from landing, I believe from fear of the cannons: and we jumped on land, 57 men in four squadrons, each one (consisting of) a captain and his company:

and we came to blows with them: and after a long battle (in which) many of them (were) slain, we put them to flight, and pursued them to a village, having made about 250 of them captives, and we burnt the village, and returned to our ships with victory and 250 prisoners, leaving many of them dead and wounded, and of ours there were no more than one killed and 22 wounded, who all escaped (i.e., recovered), God be thanked.

 

 

We arranged our departure, and seven men, of whom five were wounded, took an island-canoe, and with seven prisoners that we gave them, four women and three men, returned to their (own) country full of gladness, wondering at our strength: and we thereon made sail for Spain with 222 captive slaves: and reached the port of Calis (Cadiz)

 

on the 15th day of October, 1498,

 where we were well received and sold our slaves. Such is what befell me, most noteworthy, in this my first voyage.

Source:

Translation from Vespucci’s Italian, published at Florence in 1505-6, by “M. K.”, for Quaritch’s edition, London, 1885.

1497

Some great historians like German Arciniegas and Gabriel Camargo Perez think that his first voyage was done in June 1497 with the Spanish Juan de la Cosa.

1497

According to great and famous historians like Martin Fernandez de Navarrete, Germàn Arciniegas and Gabriel Camargo Perez, the first voyage of Amerigo Vespucci took place in 1497, probably in a trip organized by the King Ferdinando, who wanted to clarify if the main land was far away from the Hispaniola Island discovered by the Genoese Christopher Columbus.

 

The captain of this trip that sailed in May 1497 was possibly Juan Dias the Solis. With Vespucci, there was pilot and cartographer Juan de la Cosa (the then-famous captain who had sailed with Columbus in 1492).

 According to the first letter of Amerigo Vespucci, they landed in a main land at the 16 degrees latitude, probably the coast of La Guajira peninsula in present Colombia or the coast of Nicaragua.

Then they were following the coastal land mass of central America, and they returned to the Atlantic Ocean, crossing the strait of Florida between Florida and Cuba. In his letters, Amerigo Vespucci described this trip, and once Juan de la Cosa returned to Spain, so did the famous world map in which Cuba is represented like an island.

. 1499-1500

In about 1499–1500, Vespucci joined an expedition in the service of Spain, with Alonso de Ojeda (or Hojeda) as the fleet commander. The intention was to sail around the southern end of the African mainland into the Indian Ocean.[2] After hitting land at the coast of what is now Guyana, the two seem to have separated. Vespucci sailed southward, discovering the mouth of the Amazon River and reaching 6°S, before turning around and seeing Trinidad and the Orinoco River and returning to Spain by way of Hispaniola. The letter, to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici, claims that Vespucci determined his longitude celestially

 [3] on August 23, 1499,

while on this voyage. However, that claim might be fraudulent,[3] which could cast doubt on the letter’s credibility

[1] In the 18th century three unpublished “familiar” letters from vdVespucci to Lorenzo de’ Medici were rediscovered.

 One describes a voyage made in 1499-1500 which corresponds with the second of the “four voyages

 

Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 -February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer.

1499-1502

 He played a senior role in two voyages which explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502.

On the second of these voyages he discovered that South America extended much further south than previously known by Europeans. This convinced him that this land was part of a new continent, a bold contention at a time when other European explorers crossing the Atlantic thought they were reaching Asia (the “Indies”).

1501-1502

It describes a voyage to South America in 1501-1502.

Mundus Novus was published in late 1502 or early 1503 and soon reprinted and distributed in numerous European countries.[1] Lettera di Amerigo Vespucci delle isole nuovamente trovate in quattro suoi viaggi (“Letter of Amerigo Vespucci concerning the isles newly discovered on his four voyages”), known as Lettera al Soderini or just Lettera, was a letter in Italian addressed to Piero Soderini. Printed in 1504 or 1505, it claimed to be an account of four voyages to the Americas made by Vespucci between 1497 and 1504.

 

1501

Another was written from Cape Verde in 1501

 in the early part of the third of the “four voyages”, before crossing the Atlantic. The third letter was sent from Lisbon after the completion of that voyage.`

[1] Some have suggested that Vespucci, in the two letters published in his lifetime, was exaggerating his role and constructed deliberate fabrications. However, many scholars now believe that the two letters were not written by him but were fabrications by others based in part on genuine letters by Vespucci.

1501-1502

His last certain voyage was one led by Gonçalo Coelho in 1501–1502 in the service of Portugal. Departing from Lisbon, the fleet sailed first to Cape Verde where they met two of Pedro Álvares Cabral’s ships returning from India. In a letter from Cape Verde, Vespucci says that he hopes to visit the same lands that Álvares Cabral had explored, suggesting that the intention is to sail west to Asia, as on the 1499-1500 voyage.

 

[2] On reaching the coast of Brazil, they sailed south along the coast of South America to Rio de Janeiro’s bay. If his own account is to be believed, he reached the latitude of Patagonia before turning back; although this also seems doubtful, since his account does not mention the broad estuary of the Río de la Plata, which he must have seen if he had gotten that far south. Portuguese maps of South America, created after the voyage of Coelho and Vespucci, do not show any land south of present-day Cananéia at 25º S, so this may represent the southernmost extent of their voyages.

During the first half of this expedition in 1501,

 Vespucci mapped the two stars, Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri as well as the stars of the constellation Crux.

[3] Although these stars were known to the ancient Greeks, gradual precession had lowered them below the European skyline so that they were forgotten

.[4] On return to Lisbon,

 Vespucci wrote in a letter to de’ Medici that the land masses they explored were much larger than anticipated and different from the Asia described by earlier Europeans and, therefore, must be a New World, that is, a previously unknown fourth continent, after Europe, Asia, and Africa.

 

1502

Vespucci’s voyages became widely known in Europe after two accounts attributed to him were published between 1502 and 1504

1503

 

Little is known of his last voyage in 1503–1504 or even whether it actually took place. Vespucci’s real historical importance may well be more in his letters, whether he wrote them all or not, than in his discoveries. From these letters, the European public learned about the newly discovered continent of the Americas for the first time; its existence became generally known throughout Europe within a few years of the letters’ publication.

 

Verpucci attack natives

 

 [1] In 1507,

Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the new continent “America” after Vespucci’s first name, Amerigo.

In an accompanying book, Waldseemüller published one of the Vespucci accounts, which led to criticism that Vespucci was trying to usurp Christopher Columbus’s glory.

However, the rediscovery in the 18th century of other letters by Vespucci has led to the view that the early published accounts were fabrications, not by Vespucci, but by others.
 
          Vespucci was born in Florence, as the third child of a respected family. His father was a notary for the Money Changers’ Guild of Florence. Amerigo Vespucci worked for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici and his brother Giovanni and in 1492 they sent him to work at their agency in Seville, Spain.

 

 

1507

 It was the publication and widespread circulation of the letters that led Martin Waldseemüller to name the new continent America on his world map of 1507 in Lorraine.

Vespucci used a Latinised form of his name, Americus Vespucius, in his Latin writings, which Waldseemüller used as a base for the new name, taking the feminine form America.

 (See also Naming of America.)

Amerigo itself is an Italian form of the medieval Latin Emericus (see also Saint Emeric of Hungary), which through the German form Heinrich (in English, Henry) derived from the Germanic name Haimirich.

The two disputed letters claim that Vespucci made four voyages to America, while at most two can be verified from other sources. at the moment there is a dispute between historians on when Vespucci visited main land the first time.

1507

A Latin translation was published by the German Martin Waldseemüller in 1507 in Cosmographiae Introductio, a book on cosmography and geography, as Quattuor Americi Vespuccij navigationes (“Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci”).

“.

 

1508

   

 

 In 1508,

 after only two voyages to the Americas, the position of pilot major (chief of navigation) of Spain was created for Vespucci, with the responsibility of training pilots for ocean voyages.

.

1512

 He died of malaria on the date February 22, 1512 in Seville, Spain.

Two letters attributed to Vespucci were published during his lifetime. Mundus Novus (“New World”) was a Latin translation of a lost Italian letter sent from Lisbon to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici.


 

Returning home in 1512,

 he took part in the Portuguese expedition to Marocco and was severely wounded, leaving him lame for life. Feeling he was not sufficiently rewarded for his services, Magellan left the army without permission, leading to his disgrace with the king.

 

1513

In 1513, Vasco de Balboa had found an ocean on the far side of the New World discovered by Christopher Columbus. Magellan proposed to the Spanish king an expedition to find a passage through the New World to this ocean and to sail west to the Moluccas, thus proving that the Spice Islands lay on the Spanish side of the line of demarcation. King Charles approved the plan.

 Magellan took the oath of allegiance in the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana in Seville, and received the imperial standard.

He also gave a large sum of money to the monks of the monastery in order that they might pray for the success of the expedition.

 

1517

He gave up his nationality and offered his services to King Charles I (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V), ruler of Spain in 1517

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Stamps Of Amerigo Verpucci Centenary

 

italy


                               
Italian stamp of Magellan

 

AMERIGO VESPUCCI DISCOVERY OF AMERICA ITALY 1974 Sc 665-666

 POST OFFICE FOLDER

 

 

 

ITALY – CIRCA 1931: a stamp printed in the Italy shows Training Ship Amerigo Vespucci, 50th Anniversary of Royal Naval Academy at Livorno, circa 1931

anguilla

 

Belgie

 

France

 

 

 

 


 Named after Amerigo Vespucci :

Amerigo Vespucci Airport, Florence, Italy
Amerigo Vespucci (ship), an Italian tall ship
The Americas, geographic region including the continents of South America and North America


 See also
Naming of America

 Notes
Formisano, Luciano (Ed.) (1992). Letters from a New World: Amerigo Vespucci’s Discovery of America. New York: Marsilio. ISBN 0-941419-62-2. Pp. xix-xxvi.
 
” On a clear night with calm seas, stars could be identified near the horizon to judge latitude/longitude celestially. Although South America’s continental shelf drops quickly into the deep ocean beyond the Orinoco River, the mouth is on the shelf, avoiding the ocean swells and waves which hinder visibility of stars near the horizon. Seamen who could navigate from Europe to America and back could chart stars on the horizon, especially for a cartographer like Vespucci. ”

 References
Amerigo: the Man Who Gave His Name to America by Fernández-Armesto, Felipe; Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Archaeologist has found evidence of De Soto’s expedition

Ethan White, 15, left, uses a screen to sift sand at the circa 1606-1608 San Buenaventura de Potano Spanish mission location at his familyís property in north Marion County while his father, archaeologist Ashley White, feeds sand from one of the many excavation holes at the site, which includes a nearby area where Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto camped in August 1539.
Doug Engle/ Ocala Star-Banner
By FRED HIERS
Ocala Star-Banner
Published: Sunday, July 8, 2012 at 7:56 a.m.
Last Modified: Sunday, July 8, 2012 at 7:56 a.m.

Hernando De Soto’s route through Florida is as elusive to modern archaeologists as the gold the famed Spanish explorer sought throughout the southeastern United States.

Ever since De Soto’s 600 men set foot on the shores of Tampa Bay, arriving from Cuba almost 500 years ago, historians have debated the exact direction of his failed treasure-hunting expeditions as far north as Tennessee and North Carolina.

But in north Marion County, an archaeologist has found what his contemporaries deem rarer than the gold De Soto was seeking — physical evidence of the explorer’s precise journey through Marion County and enough information to redraw Florida De Soto maps and fuel many more archaeological digs based on his findings.

“It gets rid of the guesswork now on the route through Marion County,” said Ashley White, a local archaeologist who found the site. “Now, we know for sure he came up through the Black Sink Prairie to Orange Lake and looped around through Micanopy.”

From the De Soto site, which sits on the one-time Indian town known as Potano, De Soto eventually marched to Utinamocharra in present day Gainesville and later to Tallahassee for the winter.

Archaeologists who study Spain’s settlement of Florida and De Soto’s exploration into the Southeast United States, regard White’s find as priceless and have little doubt as to the site’s authenticity.

“I looked at the archaeological evidence. There is absolutely no doubt that is a De Soto contact site, and I am 99.99 percent sure this is the town of Potano, the major Indian town,” said Jerald Milanich, the author of multiple books about De Soto’s expedition and curator emeritus in archaeology of the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida.

“Until now, we really had no one location until all the way up to Tallahassee. Now we have a midway place.”

LUCKY FIND

White’s initial discovery was less a product of painstaking exploration than dumb luck.

Historians before White had dug thousands of pits into Florida’s backwoods and sifted tons of dirt in hopes of finding artifacts linked to the explorer, without success. The only confirmed De Soto site in Florida is in Tallahassee, where De Soto’s men wintered for five months.

White himself had walked his family’s property for two years looking for remnants of what he thought was a 17th century Spanish cattle ranch. He found little more than Indian artifacts.

Then in 2005, a series of hurricanes and storms inundated the 700-acre property owned by his wife, Michelle White, a bioarchaeologist.

“There is a lot of drainage (on the ranch) … and all this sand broke loose and we had artifacts just lying on top of the ground,” Ashley White said.

One was a coin minted before De Soto’s 1539 expedition. It was in a clump of pines near Black Sink Prairie.

At the time, however, White’s attention was riveted on the remains of a 16th century structure he discovered a couple of hundred yards away.

That structure turned out to be the mission of San Buenaventura de Potano, which was established some years after De Soto came through. There, White’s family found copper coins of the era and brown streaks from what remained of the posts that anchored the church. It was enough to make him put the other site on the back burner.

White didn’t know it at the time, but the first site was what other historians had been looking for: physical evidence of De Soto’s exploration.

Meanwhile, the second site yielded its own archaeological treasure trove — about 100 medieval coins, the largest cache from that era in North America.

“Still, the original thought was that it was a Spanish ranch outpost, and that was our hypothesis for probably two years of the work here,” White said. “(The De Soto) trail, it’s not the first thing on your mind in Central Florida archaeology.”

White’s hypothesis began to change as he examined the scant remains of the building and nearby artifacts and realized they shared similar architectural characteristics with other Florida mission buildings along Indian trails. Among those artifacts were colorful, handmade glass beads from the late 16th century, coins, pieces of pottery and nails.

Gifford Waters, historical archaeology collections manager of the Florida Museum of Natural History and an expert on Spanish missions, said finding the mission remains so close to the De Soto site reinforces the legitimacy of White’s discovery.

Missionaries would have used De Soto’s records to establish their churches along Indian trails and towns, Waters said.

“This (the De Soto site) is an extremely important site, historically and archaeologically,” he said.

With some more archaeology, the White site “will be accepted as strongly as the Martin site in Tallahassee,” Waters said. “It helps us to learn more about the Spanish expedition, but also more about the Indians.”

 

PIECES OF THE PAST

When White returned to his first site, where he found the oldest coin, he found two more coins. Both were minted before De Soto’s Florida exploration began and were much older than those at the mission site. He also found glass beads, made near present day Venice, Italy, that were more complex and older than those found at the mission site.

Then White found a few links of iron chain mail from Spain, with designs De Soto’s men would have woven onto their garments to protect them from Indian spears and arrows. The way the chain mail was linked predated the mission.

He also unearthed a pig jaw, unique to the domesticated herd of European animals De Soto brought to help feed his men.

There had been other Spanish explorers, such as Panfilo de Narvaez, but they had not brought old world pigs, nor had they traveled as far inland.

Other archaeologists such as Milanich say the collection of artifacts represented a town on the move.

In their book, Milanich and archaeologist Charles Hudson had laid historical groundwork for the De Soto site more than 20 years ago. They attempted to map De Soto’s trail based on written records and artifacts. Hudson is a professor of anthropology and history emeritus at the University of Georgia and author of many books on the history and culture of the Indians of the Southeast.

Those written records, which include at least three accounts written at the time by men who traveled with De Soto, put the explorer at the White site beginning on Aug. 11, 1539, and for the next three weeks.

Thousands of Potano Indians lived in the town and along lakes and rivers up into present day Alachua County. The Potano Indians were a subset of the Timucua Indians who called North Central Florida home.

Milanich based some of his theories about De Soto’s routes on Indian trails, many of which became modern highways and railroads.

“And we knew the trails led to Indian towns and knew De Soto in 1539 traveled on the Indian trails to get food and looking for wealth,” Milanich said.

But the written records of those who traveled with De Soto were difficult to decipher. Geographical locations recorded hundreds of years ago using only descriptions of marshes, rivers and wetlands left many archaeologists like Milanich uncertain.

“As an archaeologist, I’d like to tell you we know everything, but we don’t. We just have bits and scraps of information,” he said.

UNEARTHING STORIES

Like bread crumbs marking a trail, archaeologists have to depend on things explorers left behind, such as the beads and coins.

“Like other Spanish explorers, the De Soto expedition brought trade goods they could give to the Indians to get them to be their friends, to pay them off, to provide bearers to carry their supplies, to get food and even get women, to get consorts,” Milanich said.

It was that search for food that drove De Soto to White’s location in 1539.

“Food was always a problem. If you’re not eating, forget it,” Milanich said. “And it was a huge operation going through central Marion County.”

Unsure when winter would begin in Florida, De Soto was looking for a town to occupy with enough food to feed his troops.

Potano likely had a central communal wooden building, a plaza, a chief’s home and several huts where other Indians lived.

But De Soto and the Indians didn’t always coexist peacefully.

The Spaniard plundered towns that didn’t cooperate and killed Indians who refused to help, often in a spectacle that served as a warning to other Indians.

The Europeans also exposed the indigenous people to diseases against which they had no immunity. Thirty years later, when the French met the Potano, the population had plummeted from as many as 30,000 to about 3,000 people.

Most of the Indians were happy to see De Soto leave, urging him on with tales of gold to the north, Milanich said. As soon as a route was staked out, De Soto sent word to his men scattered in a long trail behind him to follow.

In 1539, the Indians rebelled against De Soto’s brutality and the diseases his expedition spread. They killed De Soto’s men when they could get away with it as the Spaniards marched north. Captured Indian guides made the exploration as difficult as possible, sending the Spaniards wandering aimlessly in the hot, humid Florida summer.

De Soto finally marched to Tallahassee and wintered there into 1540.

“De Soto makes it all the way into Arkansas and they spend the next year running around looking for gold. There is none. There is no wealth,” Milanich said.

“He had invested his fortune, his reputation and that of his family and his relatives and everything else. So he must have felt he couldn’t get out at the time. He couldn’t give up,” Milanich said.

De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi and was interred in those waters.

Sixty-four years after his death, the Spanish built the mission of San Buenaventura de Potano just across a creek from White’s De Soto site.

“The discovery of the (Potano) site is really a beginning, not an end,” Milanich said. “The start of a lot more research, of learning about the area. It helps us to understand what things were like on a summer day in 1539, and I’m sure it’s very exciting for people to realize that they had a very important bit of history right in their own backyard.”
SOURCE :NEWSCHIEF WEB BLOG

koleksi sejarah pertualangan(bersmbung)

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THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST,TO GET IT PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT WITH UPLOAD YOUR ID COPY.

 

The Adventure Of

Ferdinand Magellan

 

 

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

Pengantar

Cerita tentang Columbus pertama kali saya dengar saat belajar sejarah dunia di Don Bosco high School Padang tahun 1962, setelah itu saya berusaha mencari informasi tetapi tidak pernah sewcara lengkap,karena kesibukan sekolah dan kemudian berkerja yang snagt sibuk hanya sedikit informasi yang dapat ditemui,baru saat pension tahun 2001 saya punya banyak kesempatan meneruskan hobi sejarah saya menemui sebuah buku ensiklopedia tahun 1952 yang isinya sangat menarik karena dari ksiah tragis menimpa Columbus pada ekspidisi terakhir ia di tangkap, mengapa bisa terjadi seperti itu ? Hal ini perlu menjadi pelajaran bagi generasi penerus ,agar hal yang baik dari Columbus dapat dijadikan pedoman dan diteruskan tetapi hal yang jelek jangan diulang, belajarlah dari sejarah, maka kemudian secara serius saya kumpulkan seluruh informasi terkait Columbus dan akhirnya terjawablah tentang keberhasilan dan kegagalan Columbus.Untuk menambah informasi dalam pengantar ini saya kutip dari ensikopodia indesia tahun 1952 setelah menemukan informasi pertualangan Columbus, menjadi obsesi saya untuk mengetahui pertualangan selanjutnya yang menuju Lautan Pasific termasuk Indonesia, saya sudha mendengar tentang Magellan dan pernah melihat kuburan porrtugis di tepi panta kota padang dan juga membaca kisah pertulangan magellan ke Mluku dan filipina serta amerika selatan, nah saya mulai mengumpulkan informasi dan silahkan membaca kisahnya dibawah ini

Bagian pertama

Introductions

 

 20071002xjason0.jpg

 

INTRODUCTION

1480–1521

 

Ferdinand Magellan

Civilization: Hispanic: Portugal Era Exploration,                                                                                                                Fieldof expoloration:Pacific ocean

Ferdinand Magellan organized the first voyage which successfully circumnaviated the globe, and in the process discovered the Straights of Magellan, the Philippines, and several other important geographical landmarks. His momentous expedition was considred a great success even though only 18 of over 200 crewmen returned alive, and Magellan himself was not one of them. He is credited with being the first person to circumnaviate the globe, however, since he was not killed until after reaching the Far East, and he had traveled extensively in the region on prior voyages.

In 1498 the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and established a trade route for the Portuguese to the Far East. Seven years after his return, Ferdinand Magellan joined another Portuguese expedition, led by Francisco Almeida to India. He participated in the Battle of Dui and spent years sailing the region for Portugal under both Almeida and Albuquerque. Eventually, however, Magellan fell out of favor with his superiors due to accusations of illegal trading. Magellan sought to defend himself from these charges, but to no avail. By 1514 he was back in Portugal without employment, and with powerful enemies at the Portuguese court.

In 1513, Balboa had discovered the Pacific Ocean. Magellan was a talented sailor with a broad knowledge of the Far East, and conceived of the idea of sailing to the far east by finding a passage through the new world. After presenting his idea first to the King of Portugal, he proceded to the Court of Charles V, where he gained a much more positive reception. Spain was especially eager to pursue the idea of a western route to the east in order to rival Portugal, which had already established itself in the region.

After several years of preparation, Magellan was provided with five ships and about 250 sailors for his voyage. They embarked from Seville, in August 1519 and by January 1520 reached Rio de la Plata, south of Brazil. At this point, Magellan had to proceed carefully. No passage around the Cape of South America was known at the time, and the waters were rocky and treacherous. One of the ships was lost on a scouting expedition, one returned to Spain, and a minor mutiny was averted. Finally, on November 28, three of the ships successfully negotiated the Straights of Magellan, and entered the Pacific Ocean.

It took only a little over three months to cross the Pacific, and the fleet reached Guam safely in March 1521. From there they proceded to the Philippines, which were unknown to Magellan, since his previous travels in the region had not taken him so far North. It occurred to Magellan to befriend the local king and claim the region for Spain, and so he agreed to aid a local chieftain in one of his battles. This turned into a very costly skirmish—the natives used poison arrows and Magellen and many of the other sailors were killed. The command of the expedition turned to Juan Elcano, who loaded up two of the remaining ships with spices and other valuables before attempting to return to Spain. The return journey was complicated by the fact that the Portuguese were dominant in the region, and were somewhat hostile to the Spanish venture. On of the ships was captured by the Portuguese, and the other was forced to dock at a Portuguese station before returning to Spain. Nevertheless, Juan Elcana piloted the Victoria back to Spain, a little less than the years after beginning the momentous jou

Related informations

 

This Portuguese-born navigator was one of the great explorers of his era – the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean, he also played a crucial role in the first circumnavigation of the world.

Ferdinand Magellan was born in 1480 into a noble Portuguese family. His parents died when he was still a boy and he became a court page in Lisbon. In 1505, he enlisted in the fleet of the Portuguese viceroy to the Indies, and spent the following years involved in a series of Portuguese expeditions in India and Africa. In 1511, he was with the fleet that conquered Malacca (on the Malay Peninsula), thus gaining control of the most important trade routes in the region. He also explored the islands of present-day Indonesia as far east as the Moluccas (also known as the Spice Islands).

In 1512, Magellan returned to Lisbon, and the following year, he was wounded during an expedition to Morocco, which left him with a permanent limp. After a disagreement with the Portuguese king, in 1517 Magellan went to Spain to try and enlist the Spanish king’s support for an expedition to reach the Moluccas by sailing westwards. The Spanish wanted a share in the valuable spice trade from the Moluccas, but the Portuguese controlled the eastwards route round southern Africa. Magellan was successful and in September 1519 set out with a fleet of five vessels. In spite of a mutinous crew, rough weather, scurvy, a desperate lack of provisions and unknown waters, Magellan managed to cross the Atlantic and navigate through the straits at the southern point of South America which were later named after him.

Now with only three ships, Magellan sailed on into the Pacific with rapidly diminishing supplies, which led to many of the crew dying of starvation and scurvy. After around 14 weeks they reached an island, probably Guam, in the western Pacific. They then sailed on to the Philippines. On 27 April 1521, Magellan was killed there after becoming involved in a battle between two rival local chieftains.

One ship from the fleet eventually reached Spain in September 1522, having completed the first ever circumnavigation of the globe.

 

 

Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃w ðɨ mɐɣɐˈʎɐ̃jʃ]; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes, IPA: [ferˈnando ðe maɣaˈʎanes]; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who became known for having organised the expedition that resulted in the first circumnavigation of the Earth completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the “Spice Islands” (modern Maluku Islands in Indonesia).

Magellan’s expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named “peaceful sea” by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. (For background see Exploration of the Pacific.)

The Magellanic Penguin was named for him, as he was the first European to note it;[1] other memorials are the Magellanic clouds, now known to be nearby dwarf galaxies; the twin lunar craters of Magelhaens and Magelhaens A; and the Martian crater of Magelhaens.[2]

Souce wiki

 

 

A True Hero of Exploration: The Adventures of Magellan

by T. A. Roth

The story of Magellan’s voyage around the world is one of almost uninterrupted adventure and peril.

 His men faced harrowing hardships, storms, mutiny, disease, starvation, sunstroke, shipwreck, cowardice and desertion, treachery, savage warfare, and vicious national jealousies.

Yet at great cost they prevailed over all obstacles and after three year’s one of Magellan’s ships returned to Spain with only 18 of the 250 who set forth.

This book follows one of the greatest adventure stories of all time and accurately portrays the lives of the fascinating indigenous peoples the Spanish encountered in their voyages.

The Adventures of Magellan by George M. Towle
Ferdinand Magellan by Frederick A. Ober

 

Magellan and his men plant the cross in the Philippines.

Almost every school child manages to learn the basic facts about world exploration. They know that Columbus discovered America, Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean, and Magellan was the first sailor to lead a crew of Europeans around the entire globe.

But what they often don’t know is that biographies of early explorers are some of the most exciting adventure stories in all of world history,

 

 and that first hand accounts of the earliest explorers provide fascinating insights into the lives of the indigenous peoples the encountered in their travels.

Many of the most exhilarating adventures of exploration were undertaken by Spanish sea-farers but in spite of their enormous significance, histories written for English Speaking audiences often pass over their achievements too quickly.

Fortunately, Heritage History has an outstanding collection of the biographies of world explorers written for a general audience and based on original sources.

 Two of our authors in particular, Frederick Ober, and George M. Towle, both wrote fascinating series about the lives of world explorers and both series can be found on the Spanish Empire collection.

Instead of featuring these outstanding series, however, today we’re focusing just one hero—the story of Ferdinand Magellan.

The lives of all explorers are filled with peril and adventure, but the personality of the hero and the particulars of the calamities, trials, and difficulties that befall them are very different.

The character of the noble Magellan, for example, could not be more unlike that of the nefarious Pizarro. The one had a true missionary spirit and dealt as fairly with the natives as possible; while the other sought only personal gain through unrestrained violence.

To fully appreciate the audacity of Magellan’s voyage, it is important to remember the date at which it was undertaken.

Magellan’s story is both inspiring and a warning. Magellan was a great leader and an admirable gentlemen who undertook his courageous voyage with noble intentions and dignity of spirit. His combination of intelligence, patience, courage, and unshakeable resolve, allowed him to put down a mutiny and inspire his crew in almost impossible circumstances, and his life story is a refreshing contrast to those of other, more roguish heroes of exploration. But his faith and courage only serve to contrast his character with those of the majority of men he encountered. Duplicitous Moslem kings, treacherous tribal chiefs, cowardly crewmen, and jealous courtiers alike conspired to foil his efforts. The ultimate success of his voyage, in spite of all obstacles, is one of the greatest, and most fascinating, achievements in human history.

We recommend our collection of world exploration biographies primarily for middle school and high school students simply because most are told in a level of detail that is best appreciated by older students. They are, however, a feast of adventure stories for students of any age who are mature

Background: Spanish search for a westward route to Asia

Christopher Columbus‘ 1492–1503 voyages to the West had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498.

Spain urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain.(wiki)

1517

Funding and preparation

In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda, Factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, and with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I, future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Magellan’s project, if successful, would realize Columbus’ plan of a spice route by sailing west without damaging relations with the Portuguese. The idea was in tune with the times and had already been discussed after Balboa’s discovery of the Pacific. On 22 March 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July. He raised them to the rank of Commander of the Order of Santiago. The king granted them:[12]

  • Monopoly of the discovered route for a period of ten years.
  • Their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found, with 5% of the resulting net gains.
  • A fifth of the gains of the travel.
  • The right to levy one thousand ducats on upcoming trips, paying only 5% on the remainder.
  • Granting of an island for each one, apart from the six richest, from which they would receive a fifteenth.

The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown, which provided ships carrying supplies for two years of travel. Expert cartographer Jorge Reinel and Diogo Ribeiro, a Portuguese who had started working for Charles V in 1518[13] as a cartographer at the Casa de Contratación, took part in the development of the maps to be used in the travel. Several problems arose during the preparation of the trip, including lack of money, the king of Portugal trying to stop them, Magellan and other Portuguese incurring suspicion from the Spanish, and the difficult nature of Faleiro.[14] Finally, thanks to the tenacity of Magellan, the expedition was ready. Through the bishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca they obtained the participation of merchant Christopher de Haro, who provided a quarter of the funds and goods to barter.

The fleet

 

 

Victoria, the sole ship of Magellan’s fleet to complete the circumnavigation. Detail from a map by Ortelius, 1590.

 

 

The Nao Victoria Replica in the Nao Victoria Museum, Punta Arenas, Chile

The fleet provided by King Charles V included five ships: the flagship Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), under Magellan’s command; San Antonio (120 tons; crew 60) commanded by Juan de Cartagena; Concepcion (90 tons, crew 45) commanded by Gaspar de Quesada; Santiago (75 tons, crew 32) commanded by Juan Serrano; and Victoria (85 tons, crew 43), commanded by Luis Mendoza. (The last ship was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, where Magellan took an oath of allegiance to Charles V.) Trinidad was a caravel, and all others rated as carracks (Spanish carraca or nao; Portuguese nau).

The crew

The crew of about 270 included men from several nations: including Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Greece, England and France.[15] Spanish authorities were wary of Magellan, so that they almost prevented him from sailing, switching his mostly Portuguese crew to mostly men of Spain. It included about 40 Portuguese, among them Magellan’s brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, João Serrão, a relative of Francisco Serrão, Estêvão Gomes and Magellan’s indentured servant Enrique of Malacca. Faleiro, who had planned to accompany the voyage, withdrew prior to boarding. Juan Sebastián Elcano, a Spanish merchant ship captain settled at Seville, embarked seeking the king’s pardon for previous misdeeds, and Antonio Pigafetta, a Venetian scholar and traveller, asked to be on the voyage, accepting the title of “supernumerary” and a modest salary. He became a strict assistant of Magellan and kept an accurate journal. The only other sailor to report the voyage would be Francisco Albo, who kept a formal logbook. Juan de Cartageña was named Inspector General of the expedition, responsible for its financial and trading operations.

Departure and crossing of the Atlantic

On 10 August 1519, the five ships under Magellan’s command left Seville and descended the Guadalquivir River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the river. There they remained more than five weeks. Finally they set sail on 20 September.

King Manuel I ordered a Portuguese naval detachment to pursue Magellan, but the explorer evaded them. After stopping at the Canary Islands, Magellan arrived at Cape Verde, where he set course for Cape St. Augustine in Brazil. On 27 November the expedition crossed the equator; on 6 December the crew sighted South America.

As Brazil was Portuguese territory, Magellan avoided it and on 13 December anchored near present-day Rio de Janeiro. There the crew was resupplied, but bad conditions caused them to delay. Afterwards, they continued to sail south along South America’s east coast, looking for the strait that Magellan believed would lead to the Spice Islands. The fleet reached Río de la Plata on 10 January 1520.

For overwintering, Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, 1520. On Easter (April 1 and 2), a mutiny broke out involving three of the five ship captains. Magellan took quick and decisive action. Luis de Mendoza, the captain of Victoria, was killed by a party sent by Magellan, and the ship was recovered. After Concepcion’s anchor cable had been secretly cut by his forces, the ship drifted towards the well-armed Trinidad, and Concepcion’s captain de Quesada and his inner circle surrendered. Juan de Cartagena, the head of the mutineers on the San Antonio, subsequently gave up. Antonio Pigafetta reported that Gaspar Quesada, the captain of Concepcion, and other mutineers were executed, while Juan de Cartagena, the captain of San Antonio, and a priest named Padre Sanchez de la Reina were marooned on the coast. Most of the men, including Juan Sebastián Elcano, were needed and forgiven.[16] Reportedly those killed were drawn and quartered and impaled on the coast; years later, their bones were found by Sir Francis Drake.[17][18] A replica of the Victoria can be visited in Puerto San Julian(wiki)

 

 

Reconstruction Historical Fact Of

 Magellan Adventures

1519

Magellan  voyage began in 1519,

only six years after

Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.

 At that time, neither

Cortez nor Pizarro  had yet made their fame as conquistadors and Spanish settlements in the New World were still few.

The full mineral wealth of the Spanish possessions in America was not yet realized and discovering a western trade route to the Far East was foremost in men’s minds.

Absolutely nothing was known of the Pacific Ocean at the time; there were no provisioning stations outside the Caribbean and the men who embarked on the trip were as stalwart as those who first sailed the unknown seas with Columbus.

 

Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 280 men.

 Only one ship, and eighteen men returned from the voyage.

Magellan’s voyage was accompanied by perils of all kinds, from mutiny, to starvation, to tribal warfare.

Like Columbus he had to deal with the jealousy of Royal courts at home as well as tribal wars and rivalries among the natives.

Also like Columbus, Magellan sincerely believed that part of his mission was to spread Christianity among the natives, but on this front, his initial success was undone by treachery and superstition.

Even when his struggling fleet, after enormous sufferings, made its way to a trading port in the Spice Islands, the remaining crew had to deal with perfidious Moslem and Portuguese traders who sought to prevent their return to Spain.

 Although the afflictions of nature; including storms, temperature extremes, disease, and starvation took a heavy toll on the crew, the losses due to human deceit and aggression were even more devastating.

 

 

 

Magellan

El Nino may have helped Magellan cross the Pacific

El Nino may have helped Magellan cross the Pacific
By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID, AP Science Writer
Fri May 16, 5:23 PM ET
 
WASHINGTON – The El Nino phenomenon that has puzzled climate scientists in recent decades may have assisted the first trip around the world nearly 500 years ago.

Explorer Ferdinand Magellan encountered fair weather on Nov. 28, 1520, after days of battle through the rough waters south of South America. From there his passage across the Pacific Ocean may have been eased by the calming effects of El Nino, researchers speculate in a new study.

When an El Nino occurs, the waters of the Equatorial Pacific become warmer than normal, creating rising air that changes wind and weather patterns. The effects can be worldwide, including drought in the western Pacific and more rain in Peru and the west coast of South America.

1518-1520

Tree ring data indicate that an El Nino was occurring in 1519 and 1520 and may even have begun in 1518.

After passing through the strait later named for him, Magellan sailed north along the South American coast and then turned northwest, crossing the equator and eventually arriving at the Philippines, where he was killed in a battle with natives.

Magellan was seeking the so-called spice islands, now part of Indonesia, and his course took him north of that goal.

But the route may have been dictated by mild conditions and favorable winds during an El Nino, anthropologists Scott M. Fitzpatrick of North Carolina State University and Richard Callaghan of the University of Calgary, Canada, propose in a new study of his trip.

Their research is summarized in Friday’s edition of the journal Science and is scheduled to be published in full in the August edition of the Journal of Pacific History.

They were studying early exploration trips and were struck by the fact that Magellan sailed unusually far north, Fitzpatrick explained in a telephone interview.

“We had not considered El Nino until afterward, when we were trying to account for why the winds were so calm when he came into the Pacific,” he said. “We knew it was unusual.”

The researchers used a computer to model wind and weather conditions across the Pacific during an El Nino and then compared that to Magellan’s route.

Magellan’s journals show that many of the crew had died or were sick with scurvey, so he may simply have chosen to sail with the existing winds and currents, reducing the number of crew needed to operate his ships, Fitzgerald said.

“It could have been an adept maneuver,” the researchers wrote, allowing him to move west along the past of least resistance.

In his writings, Magellan said he chose the northerly route because of reports of a famine in the spice islands. This also could be accurate, Callaghan and Fitzpatrick say, as El Nino conditions often result in drought in that region.

Magellan had received correspondence from a friend in the spice islands before setting out and so may have known about a famine there, Fitzgerald said. But that cannot be determined for certain, because the correspondence was destroyed in the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755.

While the actual reasons for Magellan’s choice of route remain uncertain, El Nino conditions “may have been largely responsible for structuring the route and extent of what many consider the world’s greatest voyage,” the researchers wrote.

The trip, in fact, may be the earliest record of an El Nino, Fitzpatrick said.

Sir Francis Drake encountered mild conditions in the Strait of Magellan when he sailed through in 1578, but he then faced months of Pacific storms that scattered his ships, sinking one. Captain James Cook seems also to have benefited from El Nino conditions centered on 1769 during his Pacific exploration.
El Niño May Have Been Factor In Magellan’s Pacific Voyage

 

A new paper by North Carolina State University archaeologist Dr. Scott Fitzpatrick shows that Ferdinand Magellan’s historic circumnavigation of the globe was likely influenced in large part by unusual weather conditions — including what we now know as El Niño — which eased his passage across the Pacific Ocean, but ultimately led him over a thousand miles from his intended destination.

(Credit: iStockphoto)

ScienceDaily
(May 16, 2008)

— A new paper by North Carolina State University archaeologist Dr. Scott Fitzpatrick shows that Ferdinand Magellan’s historic circumnavigation of the globe was likely influenced in large part by unusual weather conditions — including what we now know as El Niño — which eased his passage across the Pacific Ocean, but ultimately led him over a thousand miles from his intended destination.

Magellan set out from Spain in 1519 with hopes of claiming the wealth of the Spice Islands, or Moluccas, for the Spanish. Two years later the explorer claimed the first European contact with a Pacific island culture when he landed on Guam — 1,500 miles north of the Spice Islands. How did he make it that far? And how did he miss the Spice Islands by that much?

The paper, co-authored by Fitzpatrick and University of Calgary researcher Dr. Richard Callaghan, uses computer modeling and historical data to determine the role oceanographic conditions may have played in Magellan’s smooth voyage after rounding the notorious Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America and in his decision to sail far north of the Spice Islands — which Magellan knew lay along the equator.

The paper concludes that unusually benign weather conditions, likely associated with an El Niño event, allowed Magellan to sail north and may have persuaded him to continue in that direction to avoid starvation — making Magellan’s voyage not only the first to circumnavigate the globe, but apparently the earliest historical record of an El Niño event.

Specifically, the paper finds that Magellan likely sailed around Cape Horn and directly into the tail end of an El Niño event, resulting in much smoother sailing than would normally have been the case and allowing him to easily sail to the north along the coast of Chile. Fitzpatrick and Callaghan also hypothesize that, after leaving the Chilean coast, Magellan may have chosen to continue on his northerly route in order to take advantage of prevailing winds and currents that had them moving at a good speed and allowed him to rest his sailors, who were by then suffering from scurvy and other maladies.

Magellan claimed that he sailed far to the north of the Spice Islands due to concerns that the islands had no food, and Fitzpatrick and Callaghan found some evidence to support this hypothesis. Their paper notes that the Pacific region appears to have been experiencing an El Niño event in 1519 and 1520 — during the bulk of Magellan’s voyage — and that an El Niño is often associated with drought and accompanying famines in the area.

Fitzpatrick is an assistant professor of anthropology in NC State’s Department of Sociology and Anthropology, and is founder and co-editor of the Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology. This researche will also be published in the Journal of Pacific History in August.

 

 

 

Year

Event

1480

Born to a noble family in Portugal.

1505

Traveled with Francisco de Almeida to the far East.

1509

Participated in the Battle of Diu

1513

Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean.

1514

Accused of trading illegally with the Moors and relieved for service for Portugal.

1515

Presented plan to sail beyond the New World to reach East Asia to the King of Portugal, but was rejected.

1517

Gained audience with Charles 5 of Spain and presented his plan with some success.

1519

Five ships and a crew of over 250 men were commisioned for the journey.

1520

Reached Rio de la Plata in South America in January, 1520.

1520

Passed the Magellan Straights in November, 1520.

1521

Reached the Island of Guam in March, with over 150 crewmen still alive.

1521

Death of Magellan in the Philippines in April, after being shot with poison arrows.

1521

Remainder of Magellan’s crew reach the Spice Islands in November.

1522

The Victoria, under command of Juan Elcano rounds the Cape of Good Hope in May.

1522

The Victoria returns safely to Spain, on September 6.

 

 

 

 

Image Links

   
Ferdinand Magellan  in Ferdinand Magellan The ships of Magellan  in Ferdinand Magellan Monument to Magellan on the spot where he was killed  in Ferdinand Magellan
Magellan planting the cross in the Philippine Islands  in Builders of our Country Vol. I Ferdinand Magellan  in Builders of our Country Vol. I Ferdinand Magellan, the first circumnavigator of the world  in Book of Discovery
Magellan  in European Hero Stories Magellan leaving home in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan Magellan wounded. in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan
An attempt to assassinate Magellan in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan The Giant and the mirror in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan Meeting with the Natives. in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan
The baptism of the kings. in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan The Death of Magellan in Voyages and Adventures of Magellan The Reception at Borneo in Voyages and Adventures of Magellansilahkan ke bagian kedua

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Cerita tentang Columbus pertama kali saya dengar saat belajar sejarah dunia di Don Bosco high School Padang tahun 1962, setelah itu saya berusaha mencari informasi tetapi tidak pernah sewcara lengkap,karena kesibukan sekolah dan kemudian berkerja yang snagt sibuk hanya sedikit informasi yang dapat ditemui,baru saat pension tahun 2001 saya punya banyak kesempatan meneruskan hobi sejarah saya menemui sebuah buku ensiklopedia tahun 1952 yang isinya sangat menarik karena dari ksiah tragis menimpa Columbus pada ekspidisi terakhir ia di tangkap, mengapa bisa terjadi seperti itu ? Hal ini perlu menjadi pelajaran bagi generasi penerus ,agar hal yang baik dari Columbus dapat dijadikan pedoman dan diteruskan tetapi hal yang jelek jangan diulang, belajarlah dari sejarah, maka kemudian secara serius saya kumpulkan seluruh informasi terkait Columbus dan akhirnya terjawablah tentang keberhasilan dan kegagalan Columbus.Untuk menambah informasi dalam pengantar ini saya kutip dari ensikopodia indesia tahun 1952 setelah menemukan informasi pertualangan Columbus, menjadi obsesi saya untuk mengetahui pertualangan selanjutnya yang menuju Lautan Pasific termasuk Indonesia, saya sudha mendengar tentang Magellan dan pernah melihat kuburan porrtugis di tepi panta kota padang dan juga membaca kisah pertulangan magellan ke MAluku dan filipina serta amerika selatan, nah saya mulai mengumpulkan informasi 

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1480

1480 Magellan Born to a noble Family in Portugal

 

Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521)  was born to a minor Portuguese noble family in 1480 and by the age of 12 had become a pageboy to his Queen, at the Court of King John II. Like many of the younger Portuguese nobility he received his education at Court and could look forward to a military command, a diplomatic post or an administrative position in Portugal or her colonies

 

Magellan was born around 1480 either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province, in Portugal. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, alcaide-mór of Aveiro (1433–1500) (son of Pedro Afonso de Magalhães and wife Quinta de Sousa) and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa.[3] After the death of his parents during his tenth year, he became a page to Queen Leonor at the Portuguese royal court because of his family’s heritage

 

 20071002xjason0.jpg

1505

 

. However fired by the exploits of earlier Portuguese explorers like Dias and Da Gama he began his career as a soldier/adventurer on the 1505 expedition to India under the command of Francisco de Almeida. After seven years of distinguished service in India, Malacca (Malaysian peninsula) and the Moluccas (Spice Islands) he returned to Portugal but received little recognition from his King, Manuel I, and no increase in his pension.

 

 Worse still he had put all his savings into backing a scheme by a Portuguese trader to ship pepper from India to Portugal. The merchant had subsequently died and his father had fled the country to escape his son’s creditors. Magellan who had only a meager pension to live on was broke and so he volunteered for a Portuguese campaign against Morocco; where he again distinguished himself with his bravery.

 

However he not only suffered a severe leg wound which caused him to limp for the rest of his life, he also, whilst in the position of Quartermaster suffered the unjust accusations of dishonesty, theft and treason. Magellan found the charges against him contemptuous and he rashly abandoned his post to return to Lisbon and clear his name. The King, Manuel I refused to intercede on his behalf and ordered him back to Morocco. Magellan returned to face trial and was cleared of all charges but his relationship with his King had deteriorated to such an extent that Manuel I refused all of Magellan’s requests for financial recognition of his loyal service and told him that he could take his offers of service elsewhere. This was the principle reason why Magellan came to sail around the world under the Spanish flag.

 

Related info

 

In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated in several battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu.[4] He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin.[5] In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed.[6] These actions earned him honors and a promotion(wiki)

 

1511

 

Pada tahun 1511, Portugis merajalela di selat Malaka. Imperium Aceh lumpuh dibuatnya. Bersamaan dengan itu, kesibukan lalu lintas perdagangan pun tersendat di kawasan yang sangat sibuk itu.

Kerakusan Portugis membuat kapal-kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan Eropa tak bisa lewat. Akhirnya, pantai barat yang ombaknya dikenal ganas terpaksa dipilih sebagai jalur alternatif perdagangan dunia.

Sepotong pesisir di muara sungai Arau tiba-tiba menjadi persinggahan yang ramai di tepian samudera Indonesia sebelum kapal-kapal dagang melanjutkan pelayaran ke Jawa. Pelabuhan kecil yang awalnya bernama kampung Batung itu kini bernama kota Padang

 

Kepopuleran pelabuhan Muaro  Padang sebagai kota pelabuhan internasional sudah dimulai sejak tahun 1511 saat Portugis memblokade selat Malaka setelah menguasai kerajaan Malaka Blokade itu untuk melumpuhkan kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh yang sebelumnya mengendalikan aktifitas perdagangan di selat Malaka.

Akibatnya kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan sebagian Eropa terpaksa memutar haluan, dan menjadikan kawasan pantai barat Sumatera sebagai penghubung ke laut Jawa melalui perairan Sunda. Pelabuhan Muaro seperti diselamatkan ombak. Mendadak ia ternama sebagai kota pelabuhan karena disinggahi kapal dagang dari Inggris, Perancis dan Cina.

Peningalan portugeus di Kota Padang berupa makam didepan penjara ditepi pantai padang sampai tahun 1963 masi dapat dilihat kemudian hilang dimakan abrasi gelombang lautan hiindia yang hebat sehingga tepipantai berkurrang hampir 30 meter.

Lihat foto dan lukisan pantai padang milik Dr Iwan dibawah ini

 

 

Padang beach and Monkey Hill in 1891

 

 

Kuburan portugis ditepipantai padang 

Padang beach and monkey hill in 1892

Portugeus soldier grave at the padang beach 1892 

Kuburan portugis idepan penjara dekt tepi pantai padang

In 1930,

Lokasi kuburan portugis tahun 196 s udah hilang akibat abrasi gelombang laut,fot Dr Iqwan dan kakaknya dr Edhie

 

Padang Beach in 1971

On the Moluccan expedition of 1511,

Magellan’s friend, Francisco Serrao had been shipwrecked and had taken refuge on the island of Ternate where, despite later voyages there by the Portuguese, he had chosen to remain.

 He had sent letters back to Portugal extolling the riches of the islands and urging Magellan to visit him. Because the exact longitude of the Moluccas was uncertain, Magellan thought that their far easterly position might bring them into the Spanish hemisphere as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillias of 1494.

 

His plan was to sail west and like Columbus before him to try and find the western route to the east and the Spice Islands.

 

This expedition he hoped would ensure his financial security as well as bringing him the fame and recognition he felt was long overdue. To this end he began to study all the maps, pilots logs, charts and journals he could obtain.

 

 He knew that Columbus had failed to find a passage around the Central American coastline, that Cabot had likewise failed in the North, that the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci had possibly reached as far South as the River Plate estuary and Patagonia without encountering a passage and that Balboa had crossed the Panamanian Isthmus and seen a great ocean that was different to the Atlantic.

 

He became convinced that a southwestern route was there south of the River Plate, and the scientist, mapmaker and scholar Rui Faleiro, who thought that the likely passage was just below the 40 degree South latitude, shared this belief.

 

He also assured Magellan that the ocean Balboa had seen could not be more than a couple of thousand miles across and that the Spice Islands must therefore be in the Spanish half of the world as laid down by the Treaty of Tordesillias. With his humiliation at the hands of the Portuguese King fresh in his mind, it was to Spain that Magellan now offered his knowledge and his services.

This plan may have been encouraged by the news of Juan Diaz de Solis’ Spanish expedition of 1515 which had reached 35 degrees South before an exploratory landing party led by Solis himself had encountered death and disaster.

They were attacked by hostile natives, slaughtered, butchered roasted and then eaten in view of the rest of the crew watching from the safety of their ships.

 

The expedition was aborted but the news from the survivors back in Spain seemed to indicate that with the coastline bearing west at that point, a likely passage through to Balboa’s Ocean lay just South of that latitude.

 

Magellan’s plan interested the young Spanish monarch Charles I (later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and a formal agreement was made between the two in March 1518, whereby Magellan was appointed Captain General of the proposed expedition, given five ships, and the prospective governorship of any new lands he might discover plus one fifth of the profits from the voyage.

 

 

 

The five ships, San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago were all small, (none above 130 tons), old and somewhat the worse for wear. They all needed extensive repairs and renovation to make them seaworthy for such a voyage much to the amusement of Alvarez the Portuguese agent in Spain. Alvarez did his utmost to sow seeds of doubt amongst Magellan’s new backers, whilst gauging what potential threat they might pose to the Portuguese possessions overseas.

 

Satisfied that they were as poorly armed as they were fitted, Alvarez thought Portuguese interests might be best served by an opportunist attack on them if they should stray anywhere near Portuguese colonial interests.

 

His interference in Magellan’s preparations led to Spanish misgivings over the number of Portuguese members of the proposed crews and in the end only 37 of the 270 odd crew were Portuguese with three of the five captains of the individual ships being Spanish. The remainder of the various crews comprised of Greeks, Italians, French, Flemings, Africans, Spanish, an Englishman and Malays including Enrique, a slave from Malacca who Magellan had brought back to Portugal on his previous expedition East.

 

Also on board was a Venetian, Antonio Pigafetta, a Papal Ambassador at the court of King Charles. Whether he was on board out of a sense for adventure, or on behalf of the Pope should any dispute arise over whose half the Spice Islands were in, or as a spy for his native Venice is unclear. Whatever his reasons Pigafetta kept a detailed journal of the voyage, describing the weather, wildlife and indigenous people as well as the conditions the crew were forced to endure.

Related info

 

In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the “Spice Islands” in the Moluccas, where he remained. He married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.[7][8](wiki)

 

1514

 

After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp. He was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514(wiki)

 

1515

Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this(wiki)

 

1517

 

In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa[9]), he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married his daughter by his second wife María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa.[10] They had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães[11] and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age(wiki)

 

 

 

 

 

1519

 

 Throughout the voyage his admiration for Magellan, for his command and character is displayed on every page. Two other important members of the company were Albo, a Greek pilot who kept a detailed navigational log from the first sighting of the Brazilian Coast until the sighting of Cape Vincent on the return

(November 29th 1519 to September 4, 1522)

 

and San Martin an astrologer and astronomer who made calculations on the exact point of longitude the ships had reached; he was also the most accomplished pilot at celestial navigation amongst Magellan’s crew.

 

 

 

1519

 

On September 20, 1519

 the flotilla of five ships finally sailed off into the Atlantic heading first for the Canaries and then onto South America.

 

However, the course taken south went along the Coast of Africa until Sierra Leone and then went across the Atlantic was both extremely long and hazardous being susceptible to extreme changes in the wind and weather.

 

Already there was talk of mutiny amongst the Spanish Officers who had plenty of experience in crossing the Atlantic. Magellan knew this route was well known for its unpredictable weather and that most ships tried to avoid it, but he was anxious to negate any Portuguese attempts to intercept and destroy his expedition and despite the misgivings of some of his Spanish officers refused to jeopardize his mission by altering his course.

 

The Spanish Captains, Castilians of high birth considered themselves more knowledgeable and it wasn’t long before there was open insubordin-ation resulting in the replacement of Cartogena as the Captain of the San Antonio with another Spaniard, Antonio de Coca.

 

 

On November 29th

 the fleet sighted the coastline of Brazil near where the modern port of Recife stands

 

and on December 13th

 they moored in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janiero) where they were able to replenish their supplies by bartering with the natives “For the King in a deck of playing cards ……….. they gave me six chickens, thinking that they had got the better of me” (Pigafetta). They were also able to buy young native women from their fathers for the price of a hatchet or knife. Magellan allowed his crew some freedom and many of them set up ‘love nests’ with their women on shore, but he still kept a firm discipline when it mattered – executing the ship’s master of the Victoria for sodomizing a young apprentice seaman.

 

 

 

 

 

The threat of mutiny by his Spanish captains was also a constant source of concern and he was forced to arrest de Coca for conspiring to release Cartagena from his confinement on the Victoria. Because they were technically moored in a Portuguese colony, albeit one that had not established a proper trading post, they sought to leave as soon as they had recuperated

 

 and by December 26th

 they were sailing out of Guanabara Bay and heading south. After two weeks the ships had reached Cape St Mary where Magellan is reputed to have said of the large hill behind the Cape “I see a mountain” [Montem Video] thereby naming the place where Uruguay’s capital city now stands.

 

They explored the estuary of the River Plate, ruling out any possible channel and then continued South with the weather growing increasingly colder, the terrain bleaker and the seas rougher before stopping briefly at Bahia de los Patos (literally Ducks’ Bay) named after the abundant penguins found there.

 

The penguins along with sea lions provided the necessary fresh food supplies and after sheltering from tremendous storms they continued southwards.

 

By March 31st 1520

they had reached 49 degrees 15’ South, but the ships were taking such a heavy battering in the worsening climate that Magellan put into a sheltered bay named St Julian to wait out the rest of the Southern winter and to make good all the vital repairs that the different ships needed.

 

In order to survive the winter and still have enough provisions to continue the search, Magellan cut the daily rations in half much to the annoyance of his crew. His determination to find a southwestern passage was fuelled by the knowledge that should he fail he faced the choice between a return to Spain in disgrace and with little prospect of further backing, or risking sailing east, south of the Cape of Good Hope, away from the Portuguese shipping lines and onto the Spice Islands.

 

This latter option meant the possibility of being intercepted by the Portuguese that would have caused his sponsor the King of Spain great embarrassment and would have further damaged his reputation at both courts.

 

 

In a resolute speech to his men, he promised them the paradise of the Moluccas if they would honor their commitment, trust his leadership and behave accordingly.

 

 Most of the crew were probably won over by Magellan’s stand but certainly not the Castilian Officers and Captains whose resentment of his single mindedness and inflexibility was still growing.

 

The following night April 1st,1520

 

 Easter Sunday the Spanish-led mutiny took place. Capatins Quesada and Cartagena on the Concepcion, Captain Mendoza of the Victoria and the master of the Concepcion del Cano with other Officers plotted to overthrow Magellan and return to Spain.

 

To this end they boarded the San Antonio and took command, so that when Magellan awoke the following morning he found that only his own ship the Trinidad along with the smaller Santiago were still loyal to him.

 

The three mutineers’ ships gave them a firepower advantage of two to one and if they had moved with the same decisiveness as Magellan they would have without doubt succeeded. However, the mutineers were unable to coordinate their efforts or win the total loyalty of their crews and as a result suffered the consequences.

 

Characteristically Magellan moved swiftly and with great opportunism. Taking advantage of the mutineers’ attempts at negotiation he sent Espinosa, the Trinidad’s loyal master of arms along with a disguised boarding party and retook the Victoria that same evening.

 

Having regained numerical superiority he then blockaded the bay and forced a showdown. It is not known for certain whether Magellan was instrumental in cutting loose the anchors of the San Antonio but the ship did indeed break loose of its anchorage and drifted broadside of the Trinidad enabling Magellan to board and recapture her.

 

The Concepcion had no choice now but to surrender, so that within 48 hours the mutiny had taken place and been extinguished. Magellan’s justice was swift but by the standards of the day not unduly brutal. Although many of the crew had participated in the mutiny, forty were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.

 

 

However Magellan could not afford to lose such a large number of his company and so he pardoned the lot; they were put to work, chained by the feet, working the pumps, clearing the putrid bilges and undertaking other menial hard labor.

 

Of the ringleaders, Mendoza had already been killed by Espinosa on the retaking of the Victoria, but was still taken ashore, decapitated and quartered. Quesada who was alive suffered the same punishment. Cano was spared and put in chains in the bilges with the other mutineers and Cartagena who had been a perpetual thorn in Magellan’s side for the whole expedition was also spared but later was left marooned along with a priest on the desolate coast when the ships finally departed. He was never heard of or seen again.

 

The winter in Patagonia was extremely hard and life very uncomfortable for the crew who had to refit the ships for the voyage ahead. Their rations had been cut by half and there was little wild food locally apart from mussels.

 Several of them froze to death and there were many cases of frostbite. Pigafetta made copious notes of the region that Magellan had called Patagonia because the natives had such large feet encased in big leather boots (Patagonia means large foot in Spanish).

In fact two of the native men were captured to be taken back as presents for the King, but neither survived the journey.

 

The Santiago was the first ship to be repaired and Magellan, eager to find the Western passage as soon as possible, sent her on an exploratory probe along the coast.

 

 Unfortunately 70 miles south near the Santa Cruz estuary a sudden gale drove her aground and she broke up, leaving the crew stranded.

 

 Two members trekked for eleven days back to San Julian to alert Magellan and an overland rescue party was organized.

 

It was not until August 24th

1520

 

 Magellan with Santiago’s crew redistributed amongst the four remaining ships and Serrano the ‘Santiago’s’ captain, now installed as the Captain of the Concepcion that Magellan finally left the bay.

 

They moved along the coast near to where the Santiago had been wrecked to a better winter anchorage in the estuary of the Santa Cruz where there were plenty of supplies of fish, seals and seabirds to replenish their stores.

 

on 18th October 1520

 

After a two-month stay and unknowingly within 300 miles of it, on 18th October they set off in search of the passage.

 

Three days later they had reached the Cape of the Virgins (named by Magellan) and Magellan instructed the Concepcion and the San Antonio to investigate a small inlet at the far side of the bay sided by high peaks.

 

After an anxious wait of five days the two ships returned with the news that the inlet was not a river but a strait leading into a bay followed by another Strait leading into an even larger bay. The passage had been found.

 

Carefully sounding their way through the straits they reached Cape Valentine where Magellan sent the San Antonio to investigate the southeast channel whilst taking the other three ships southwest in what was proved to be the right direction.

 

The San Antonio, was carrying the bulk of the fleet’s provisions, had a Portuguese pilot Gomes who was both jealous and disaffected with Magellan’s command and together with the fleet’s treasurer Guerra they took control of the ship from the Captain Mesquita.

 

Persuading the rest of the crew that Magellan was leading them all to certain doom and starvation they retraced their route to the South Atlantic and straight home to Spain, where, despite Mesquita’s testimony, their tales of Magellan’s injustice were believed.

 

It is interesting to note that whilst Magellan had always made every attempt to save or rescue his crew when abandoned, the San Antonio made no effort to retrieve the marooned Cartagena at St Julian.

 It was now of paramount importance to Magellan that he succeeded in his mission, as he knew the consequences he must face if he returned to Spain unsuccessful after the San Antonio told her story.

21 October

 

 

 

The Strait of Magellan cuts through the southern tip of South America connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

Passage into the Pacific

The journey resumed. The help of Duarte Barbosa was crucial in facing the riot in Puerto San Julian; Magellan appointed him as captain of the Victoria. The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden storm. All of its crew survived and made it safely to shore. Two of them returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring rescue to their comrades. After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before resuming the voyage.

At 52°S latitude on 21 October, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. Four ships began an arduous trip through the 373-mile (600 km) long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos, (“All Saints’ Channel”), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints’ Day. The strait is now named the Strait of Magellan. He first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait, but the latter, commanded by Gómez, deserted and returned to Spain on 20 November. On 28 November, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness.[19] Magellan and his crew(wiki)

 

 

 On November 28, 1520

 

 after spending 36 days in the ‘Magellan’ Straits the three remaining ships entered what Magellan called the Mar Pacifico. Magellan with greatly diminished stores now made the almost fatal mistake of not seeking out new provisions for the journey across the Pacific.

 

He still believed that the distance to the Moluccas was not much more than the length of the Mediterranean and therefore it was prudent to push on as speedily as possible.

 

 

 

 

1921

 

His wife died in Seville around 1521.(wiki)

 

on Feb 13, 1521

 

 He kept the South American coastline in sight whilst heading north to about 30º South before heading northwest and crossing the equator on Feb 13, 1521 at about 160-165º W longitude, missing both the Tahitian and Marquesas Island groups, where they could have amply replenished their supplies and the crew could have recovered. Both food and water were running out and what was left was rotten or putrid, so that the crew was suffering from malnutrition and scurvy.

 

Pigafetta describes,

 

 “We ate biscuit that was no longer biscuit but powder of biscuits swarming with worms that had eaten the good. It stank strongly of rat urine. Rats were sold for half a ducat each and even so we could not always get them.”

 

Magellan realized that if they were approaching the Moluccas they had to find a place to harbor soon, so that the crew could recover before sailing too close to the dangers of Portuguese waters where he knew he might be challenged. Unfortunately his knowledge of this part of the world was based on third hand travelers’ and merchants’ tales and having come from an easterly direction he was not at all sure of the geography, believing that he was quite near the Japanese coast.

On February 28th 

 

they had reached 13º North and sailing west arrived at the island of Guam (having passed by unnoticed the Marshall Islands).

 

 From the logs and journals available Magellan’s course had taken him across the Pacific missing out every one of the large South Sea Island groups. It was incredible misfortune.

 

Both crew and ships were barely functional by the time they reached Guam, but the crew was too ill or weak to consider mutiny and tended to optimism in Magellan’s belief that they had reached the northern edge of the Molucca archipelago.

 

Magellan was able to re-supply the ships, but constant thieving by the natives including one of the longboats from the Trinidad forced him to use a raiding party that killed seven natives and wounded several others. Pigafetta recounts that when the natives were hit by crossbow bolts they were so astonished that they promptly pulled them out and as a result died from hemorrhaging. This trouble with the natives caused Magellan to rename the islands, Islas le los Lodrones [Islands of Thieves].

Although the crew were refreshed by new supplies of water, fruit and fish a longer rest was needed before any possible encounter with the Portuguese and so sailing southwest the four ships arrived a week later at the island of Samur in the Philippines.

 

They settled on the smaller island of Homonhon where they were visited by friendly natives who brought them fresh food, spices, and wine. Magellan cemented the friendship by becoming a blood brother with the Chief.

 

It was also obvious from the jewelry worn that gold was plentiful in these islands. From measurements made by both Albo and San Martin it became apparent that the expedition had passed beyond the Spanish hemisphere and had already entered the Portuguese domain.

 

 This was slightly awkward for Magellan as he had assured King Charles that the Moluccas lay just within the Spanish half. Having journeyed all this way across the Pacific, losing 19 men through scurvy and suffering all manners of deprivation to find themselves already within territory reserved for Portuguese exploitation was a sever blow.

 

However there was provision in the Treaty of Tordesillias for discovered unclaimed territory in either half to belong to the discoverer if he could establish trading ports and conclude alliances with the local rulers.

 

Sailing on they arrived at the small island of Limosawa where to the delight of all parties concerned, Magellan’s Malay slave Enrique was able not only to understand the natives but also to be understood himself.

 

 Although Enrique was thought to have originally come from Sumatra it was quite possible that he was already a captured slave by then and it has been suggested that only someone from the Central Philippines could have understood the dialect. If this was so it means that Enrique, a humble Philippine slave was the first man to have circumnavigated the globe.

 

Striking up another friendship with the local native Chief, Magellan’s fleet was taken on to the larger island of Cebu, where once again Magellan not only became the local ruler’s (Humabon) blood brother and established trading agreements but also converted him and two thousand of his people to Christianity.

 

It was clear that Magellan had plans for Humabon and Cebu to become the central base for subsequent Spanish exploitation of the Philippines.

 

The crews were refreshed by the abundance of good food and water and were also able to indulge in their favorite pastime of rampant sexual liaisons with the women of Cebu. Pigafetta’s journal interestingly notes that the men of Cebu pierced their penises with gold or tin bolts that often had small spurs attached to either end. Females from the age of six upwards progressively had their vaginas opened and enlarged to accommodate these penis appendages. Pigafetta confirms a fact that is hardly surprising by noting that the women of Cebu seemed to prefer

 

Magellan’s men as lovers rather than the locals.

 

Learning that Humabon had several rivals to the rulership of Cebu, Magellan forced other local chiefs to accept Humabon’s authority.

 

However one, Lapulapu, refused and Magellan personally took charge of a force of both Spanish and natives to subjugate him.

 

April 27, 1521

 

 

Magellan himself was killed in a tribal war

 he became involved in on behalf of a treacherous chieftain, and the final leg of his voyage was completed without him.

 

 

Whether his success as a great Christian warrior and leader had clouded his judgment or whether he just underestimated the opposition, the fact was the campaign was a disaster and brought about Magellan’s death.

 

Unable to use the firepower of his ships because of an outlying reef, Magellan’s men were overwhelmed by superior numbers, and although his own personal resolution and bravery ensured that the majority of his men were able to escape, he himself was cut down and killed on April 27, 1521.

 

The invulnerability of the Spanish had been destroyed and with it Humabon’s faith in them. At a subsequent banquet, Serrano and Barbosa, who had assumed joint command (along with a party of men that included San Martin), were ambushed and killed by Humabon.

 

Enrique, who had been promised his freedom should Magellan die and then found that Serrano would not honor this was probably instrumental in helping set up the trap. Fortunately Pigafetta who relished banquets and parties was suffering from a head wound and did not attend.

 

The Philippine expedition that had begun so promisingly had ended in tatters. Carvalho assumed command, and owing to the loss of manpower to crew three ships, the Concepcion the least seaworthy of the three was scuttled and burnt.

 

There followed six months of meandering around the Philippines and Brunei, most of it spent searching out fresh supplies.

 

Related info

 

Death in the Philippines

 

 

Monument in Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu in the Philippines.

Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam. Magellan called Guam the “Island of Sails” because they saw a lot of sailboats. They renamed as Ladrones Island (Island of Thieves) because many of the small boats of Trinidad were stolen there. On 17 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago, but they were not the first Europeans.[20]

Magellan relied on Enrique, his Malay servant and interpreter, to communicate with the native tribes. He had been indentured by Magellan in 1511 after the colonization of Malacca, and had accompanied him through later adventures. They traded gifts with Rajah Siaiu of Mazaua[21] who guided them to Cebu on 7 April.

Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards; both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians. Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy, Datu Lapu-Lapu, on Mactan. Magellan wanted to convert Lapu-Lapu to Christianity, as he had Humabon, but Lapu-Lapu rejected that. On the morning of 27 April 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu’s troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.[22]

 

 

Magellan’s voyage led to Limasawa, Cebu, Mactan, Palawan, Brunei, Celebes and finally to the Spice Islands.

Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan’s death:

When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries… The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly… Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice… A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain’s face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native’s body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off.[22]

Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. But after the battle, the remaining ships’ masters refused to free the Malay. Enrique escaped his indenture on 1 May with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen.

Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano languages – which he started at Mazaua on 29 March and his list grew to a total of 145 words. He continued communications with indigenous peoples during the rest of the voyage.

“Nothing of Magellan’s body survived, that afternoon the grieving rajah-king, hoping to recover his remains, offered Mactan’s victorious chief a handsome ransom of copper and iron for them but Datu Lapulapu refused. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan’s existence had vanished from the earth.”[23]

)wiki)

On September 21st 

 

after fleeing Brunei Carvallho who had never received the full confidence of his crew, and who stood accused of unnecessarily abandoning crew members in tricky situations was deposed as commander being replaced by Espinosa, with Cano the former mutineer, being made Captain of the Victoria.

 

 

Finally on November 8, 1521

 

 the two ships sailed into the harbor of Tidore to a warm welcome. They had hoped and expected to be met by Magellan’s shipwrecked friend Serrao but he had died from poison some eight months before as a result of becoming too involved in local native politics (compare with Magellan).

 

Albo who had been keeping his navigational log since first crossing the Atlantic was able to confirm that the Moluccas were placed in the Portuguese hemisphere.

 

This did not deter the Spanish, however, because the local feeling was strongly anti-Portuguese and with the help of a disaffected Portuguese trader called Larosa, a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Rajah of Tidore.

 

 In fact the Portuguese had apparently been awaiting Magellan’s ships from the onset of the voyage with two squadrons of warships.

 One Squadron had been sent to the Cape of Good Hope should he strike east for the Moluccas, the other to the estuary of the River Plate should he attempt to find the western passage.

 

When both failed to locate Magellan, the Indian fleet had been alerted and a small force had been sent to the Moluccas.

 

This expedition had ended in disaster and death as they had antagonized the local Rajah with their treatment of the local women. A few days before the two Spanish ships had arrived in Tidore, the survivors had fled back to Malacca without any knowledge of the Spanish ships imminent arrival.

 

Fortunately Espinosa managed to keep his own crew from their usual sexual indulgences and apart from signing treaties and purchasing a large cargo of cloves, he enjoyed an amicable relationship with the locals and their rulers.

 

on December 18th

The two ships laden with their cargoes prepared to leave for Spain on December 18th, but almost immediately the Trinidad sprung such a bad leak that she was forced to remain to carry out extensive repairs.

 

 Thus the Victoria under the command of Cano finally left on her own on December 21st and by sailing southwest to Timor and through the Timor Sea into the Indian Ocean she took a fluctuating course due west two degrees either side of 40 degree parallel.

 

The journey turned out to be a nightmare, probably worse than the crossing of the Pacific as the crew were forced to do arduous work on the pumps to combat the appalling leaks, all on rations of just rice and water as the meat and other fresh produce had spoilt through lack of salt or any other preservative.

 

 

May 19, 1522,

 

With the crew on the verge of mutiny and in extremely harsh conditions the Cape of Good Hope was eventually rounded on May 19, 1522, but the Victoria was badly damaged and 21 of her Crew were to die from starvation, disease or exhaustion between the Cape and the Cape Verde Islands.

 

Desperate to get fresh food and also slaves to man the pumps Cano was forced to take the huge risk of putting into the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. By pretending to be part of a Spanish fleet that had been blown off course in a storm whilst returning from the Americas they were able to harbor and negotiate for new supplies.

 

 Carelessly one of the crewmembers used some cloves (that could only have come from the Portuguese Moluccas) as part of the transactions and when their ruse was discovered Cano was forced to put to sea immediately, thereby abandoning 13 of his crew (including Pigafetta).

 

Caro sailed on to Spain with a crew of only 18, arriving September 6, 1522 at the harbor of San Lucar, a circumnavigation of the Earth that had taken just two weeks under three years to complete.

 

It is interesting to note that while on the Cape Verde Islands they had discovered that although all the logs on the boat showed that it was a Wednesday, the calendars on land all showed it to be a Thursday. At first they puzzled over the mistake they thought they had made before eventually realizing that by traveling a 360-degree circumference of the globe they had lost a day.

Cano was received as a hero and, at an enquiry set up into the voyage, condemned Magellan’s unfairness, thereby lending weight to the arguments of the deserters of the San Antonio. It was not until much later when other crewmembers accounts, including Pigafetta’s, became known that Magellan’s reputation was restored.

 

April 6, 1522

 

Meanwhile the crew of the Trinidad under Espinosa had embarked on an equally hazardous and grueling voyage trying to re-cross the Pacific from west to east. Departing Tidore on April 6, 1522 after having made the necessary repairs they sailed north east, but lacking knowledge of the northern Pacific’s wind system they struggled up to the 44 degree parallel just off the Japanese coast still hoping to get some westerly winds.

 

But with inadequate provisions, a broken main mast and a crew succumbing to scurvy they were forced to retreat south, finally surrendering to a Portuguese force that had been sent to the Moluccas. Of the 54 Europeans who set off from Tidore only 21 survived, the rest were imprisoned, and only four of them, including Espinosa ever made it back to Spain. Larosa, the Portuguese trader who had opted to return with the Trinidad rather than the Victoria was beheaded as a traitor. The local rajah, with the arrival of the Portuguese force repudiated all the agreements and treaties he had made with the Spanish.

 

Of the 270 odd crew that had left in 1519, only 35 altogether returned to Spain. Although he had died in the Philippines, it is to Magellan that the credit for the voyage belongs. He had found the western route to the east and had achieved what Columbus had tried and failed to do.

 

Dr IwanNote

During boy  untol highschool in 1955-1963 , I still saw the five portugeus soldier tomb at the  hindia oceam padang beach at the front of Padang Jail, later I foun the picture of padang beach  with the painting by Datuk Satin 1939 and we can see the graves,now nothing leave anymore because the beach abrations,look the painting below

 

 

And also the fort of portugeus at Cingkuk island west sumatra at the front of Painan  and bayang village

 

 

 

Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

 

 

 

 

 Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

 

 

As for the Moluccas, Spanish interest waned for two reasons. First the Portuguese with established bases in Southern Africa, India and Malaya were in a far better position to exploit the Moluccas that were after all proven to be in their hemisphere.

 

Secondly, the Spanish American possessions that at first had seemed largely worthless were now, after Cortes Conquest of Mexico, proving to be abundant in gold and silver. In 1529 Charles signed away any claims for the Moluccas that Spain had in return for 350,000 ducats at the Treaty of Saragossa.

When the Spanish later continued their exploration of the Pacific it was from their base in Panaman.

 

The work Magellan had done in the Philippines eventually paid off, as the islands became Spain’s largest Pacific colony lasting almost until the 20th Century.

 

In purely financial and diplomatic terms the voyage was a failure; the small profits raised on the Victoria’s cargo of cloves failed to offer a reasonable return; the human cost was terrible; diplomatically it had offended the Portuguese and scientifically it had failed to prove Spanish claims to the Moluccas.

 

 Yet despite the overt goals of the expedition being a failure, Magellan’s personal goal of finding a western route to the east and the knowledge of the globe resulting from that was one of mankind’s greatest successes. Magellan’s voyage had given the world its known dimensions, although it would take another three centuries to fill in all the gaps.

 

Albo’s navigational log together with San Martin’s observations had given the unknown Pacific its dimensions of one third of the earth’s surface whereas previous knowledge/speculators had limited it to a sea a little larger than the Mediterranean. Magellan’s route, particularly through the straits named after him was attempted many times in expeditions that followed his but with little success.

 

 The two voyages that did succeed in the passage then floundered in the Pacific. A mendacious campaign was mounted that the whole route had been a sham, so difficult was it proving to replicate, that the true worth of his seamanship was recognized.

 

Lesser men would have failed and indeed did so, but Magellan was a genuine leader, he had a determined self-belief allied with a stubborn nature that belied his romantic notion of heroism and honor. Intensely proud of his nobility and his own worth, he could be tough when needed, humane and caring when circumstances warranted it and always courageous. He always tried to deal fairly with the natives and his expedition while under his command carried out none of the atrocities that previous and future Colonials seemed to revel in. From his voyage the new humanists in Europe, the philosophers, scholars, scientists and artists were able to gain a truer understanding of their world and with this information continue to challenge the dogma and medieval beliefs that were still prevalent. He had provided the answer to man’s seemingly eternal quest to find the true shape and size of the Earth.

Source Iain Murray.

 

Related info

 

Return

 

Map

The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after the explorer’s death.

The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail all three of the remaining ships. Consequently, on 2 May they abandoned and burned Concepción. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, the expedition fled westward to Palawan. They left that island on 21 June and were guided to Brunei, Borneo by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where Pigafetta, an Italian from Vicenza, recorded the splendour of Rajah Siripada’s court (gold, two pearls the size of hens’ eggs, etc.).

 

In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and an armament of 62 cannons, more than five times the armament of Magellan’s ships. Brunei people were not interested in the Spanish cargo of cloves, but these proved more valuable than gold upon the return to Spain. Pigafetta noted the refined goods of the court, including porcelain and eyeglasses (neither of which were yet widely available in Europe).

When reaching the Maluku Islands (the Spice Islands) on 6 November, the total crew numbered 115. They traded with the Sultan of Tidore, a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who was the ally of the Portuguese.

The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, tried to return to Spain by sailing westwards. However, as they left the Spice Islands, the Trinidad began to take on water. The crew tried to discover and repair the leak, but failed. They concluded that Trinidad would need to spend considerable time being overhauled, but the small Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crew. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and tried to return to Spain via the Pacific route. This attempt failed. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese, and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control.

Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano. By 6 May the Victoria rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put into Cape Verde, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crew on 9 July in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon).

On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan’s voyage arrived in Spain aboard the Victoria, almost exactly three years after the fleet of five ships had departed. Magellan had not intended to circumnavigate the world, only to find a secure way through which the Spanish ships could navigate to the Spice Islands. After his death, Elcano decided to push westward, thereby completing the first known voyage around the entire Earth.

Maximilianus Transylvanus interviewed some of the surviving members of the expedition when they presented themselves to the Spanish court at Valladolid in the autumn of 1522. He wrote the first account of the voyage, which was published in 1523. Pigafetta’s account was not published until 1525, and was not published in its entirety until 1800. This was the Italian transcription by Carlo Amoretti of what is now called the “Ambrosiana codex.” The expedition eked out a small profit, but the crew was not paid full wages.[24]

Four crewmen of the original 55 on Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1522; 51 had died in war or from disease. In total, approximately 232 sailors of assorted nationalities died on the expedition around the world with Magellan.[25]

Survivors

When Victoria, the one surviving ship, returned to the harbor of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 237 men were on board. Among the survivors were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) was a Genoese or Savonese[26] Chief Steward.[27] His history is preserved in the nominative registers at the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is referred to with the exact Latin patronymic, “de Judicibus”. He was initially assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of five ships of the Spanish fleet of Magellan. Martino de Judicibus embarked on the expedition with the rank of captain.

18 men returned to Seville aboard Victoria in 1522:

Name

Rating

Juan Sebastián Elcano, from Getaria (Spain)

Master

Francisco Albo, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia)

Pilot

Miguel de Rodas (in Tui, Galicia)

Pilot

Juan de Acurio, from Bermeo

Pilot

Antonio Lombardo (Pigafetta), from Vicenza

Supernumerary

Martín de Judicibus, from Genoa

Chief Steward

Hernándo de Bustamante, from Alcántara

Mariner

Nicholas the Greek, from Nafplion

Mariner

Miguel Sánchez, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia)

Mariner

Antonio Hernández Colmenero, from Huelva

Mariner

Francisco Rodrigues, Portuguese from Seville

Mariner

Juan Rodríguez, from Huelva

Mariner

Diego Carmena, from Baiona (Galicia)

Mariner

Hans of Aachen, (Holy Roman Empire)

Gunner

Juan de Arratia, from Bilbao

Able Seaman

Vasco Gómez Gallego, from Baiona (Galicia)

Able Seaman

Juan de Santandrés, from Cueto (Cantabria)

Apprentice Seaman

Juan de Zubileta, from Barakaldo

Page

Aftermath and legacy

 

 

Monument of Ferdinand Magellan in Punta Arenas in Chile. The statue looks towards the Strait of Magellan.

Antonio Pigafetta’s journal is the main source for much of what is known about Magellan and Elcano’s voyage. The other direct report of the voyage was that of Francisco Albo, last Victoria’s pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation through an account written by Maximilianus Transylvanus, a relative of sponsor Christopher de Haro, who interviewed survivors in 1522 and published his account in 1523.

In 1525,

soon after the return of Magellan’s expedition, Charles V sent an expedition led by García Jofre de Loaísa to occupy the Moluccas, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas. This expedition included the most notable Spanish navigators: Juan Sebastián Elcano, who, along with many other sailors, died of malnutrition during the voyage, and the young Andrés de Urdaneta. They had difficulty reaching the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. The Portuguese were already established in nearby Ternate and the two nations had nearly a decade of skirmishing over the “possession.” (occupied by indigenous peoples.)

Since there was not a set limit to the east, in 1524 both kingdoms had tried to find the exact location of the antimeridian of Tordesillas, which would divide the world into two equal hemispheres and to resolve the “Moluccas issue”. A board met several times without reaching an agreement: the knowledge at that time was insufficient for an accurate calculation of longitude, and each gave the islands to their sovereign. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 1529 between Spain and Portugal. It assigned the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain. The course that Magellan charted was followed by other navigators, such as Sir Francis Drake. In 1565, Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the Manila-Acapulco route.

Magellan’s expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan’s name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans.

Magellan’s crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a “camel without humps”, which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The llama, vicuña and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black “goose” that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin.

The full extent of the Earth was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi). The expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon returning the expedition found its date was a day behind, although they had faithfully maintained the ship’s log. They lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, opposite to Earth’s daily rotation.[28] This caused great excitement at the time, and a special delegation was sent to the Pope to explain the oddity to him.

Two of the closest galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds in the southern celestial hemisphere, were named for Magellan sometime after 1800. The Magellan probe, which mapped the planet Venus from 1990 to 1994, was named after Magellan. The Ferdinand Magellan train rail car (also known as U.S. Car. No. 1) is a former Pullman Company observation car that was re-built by the U.S. Government for presidential use from 1943 until 1958. Also a starship of the TV series Andromeda was named Pax Magellanic, in reference of the Magellanic Clouds.

Three craters, two located on the Moon and one on Mars, have been named after Magellan using the spelling “Magelhaens”. The names were adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1935 (Magelhaens on the Moon), 1976 (Magelhaens on Mars), and 2006 (Magelhaens A on the Moon).[2]

As of 2011[update], various initiatives are being planned to celebrate the fifth centenary of the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Seville and Sanlucar de Barrameda are planning a three-year program of events from 2019-2022.[citation needed

(wiki)

Book Links

Ferdinand Magellan  by  Frederick Ober

 

 

References

Contemporary

Short Biography

Francisco de Almeida Distinguished himself in the wars against Granada, and was appointed first governor of Portuguese India.
Alfonso de Albuquerque Naval officer who helped establish a Portuguese colony in India at Goa.
Juan Elcano Took command of Magellan’s expedition after his death, and completed the journey to Spain.
Vasco da Gama Sailed from Europe to the Orient by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor. Ruled Hapsburg Austria, the Low Countries, Spain and parts of Italy.
Manuel I of Portugal King of Portugal during the era of discovery of the Far East Trade.

 

References

Further reading

Primary sources

Secondary sources

Online sources

 

 

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2013

 

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Lambang Kesultanan Deli

Sumber

 

1436

Pada abad ke 15 sudah berdiri kerajaan yang bernama Haru atau Aru , ini dapat kit abaca dari laporan Fei Sin tahun 1436 :

 

Menurut laporan Tome Pirres tentang Aru sebagai berikut:

 

1612

Kisah kerajaan Deli dimulai dari beririnya Kesultanan Aru(Haru) pada tahun 1612

 

Pada masa itu Aceh dipimpin oleh Sultan Iskandar Muda dan beliau mengalami keultian menghadapi perusush berbangsa RUM(Turki) ,dan Muhamma Dalhik dapat membunuh perusuh tersebut,bacalah kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

Tahun 1612 Kerajaan Aru dapat ditaklukan oleh Pasukan Kerajaan Aceh dibawah pimpiann Panglima Gocah Pahlawan dan akhirnya diangkat oleh sultan Iskandar menjadi wakil kerajaan Aceh untuk wilayah Sumatera Timur yang berkedudukan di sungai Lalang(Deli Tua)

 

1623

Keberadaan Medan sebagai wilayah yang ramai tak lepas dari campur tangan Sultan Iskandar Muda dari Aceh yang berjaya saat itu. Sultan Aceh mengirimkan salah seorang panglima terbaiknya, yaitu Panglima Gocah Pahlawan, untuk menaklukan wilayah Medan yang banyak didiami oleh orang Batak Karo. Sebagai representasi Aceh di Tanah Deli, didirikanlah Kesultanan Deli dengan sultan pertamanya Tuanku Panglima Gocah Pahlawan, pada tahun 1623. (bakosultanal)

1630

Menurut Hikayat Deli, seorang pemuka Aceh bernama Muhammad Dalik menjadi laksamana di Kesultanan Aceh. Muhammad Dalik, yang kemudiannya juga dikenali sebagai Gocah Pahlawan dan bergelar Laksamana Khuja Bintan (ada pula sumber yang mengeja Laksamana Kuda Bintan), adalah keturunan daripada Amir Muhammad Badar ud-din Khan, seorang bangsawan dari Delhi, India yang mengahwini Putri Chandra Dewi, puteri Sultan Samudera Pasai. Dia mendapat kepercayaan dari Sultan Aceh untuk menjadi wakil bekas wilayah Kerajaan Haru yang berpusat di daerah Sungai Lalang-Percut. Dalik mendirikan Kesultanan Deli yang masih di bawah Kesultanan Aceh pada tahun 1630.(wiki)

1632

Pada tahun 1632, kerajaan Aceh menetapkan berdirinya Kerajaan Deli,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

Panglima Gocah Pahlawan menikahi adik Datuk Hitam Sunggal yang bernama Puteri Nang Buluan Beru Surbakti

1634

Pada tahun 1634,dari pernikahan Panglima Gocah ini lahirlah puteranya bernama Perunggit

 

Sebelum mangkat Tuanku Panglima Gocah Phlawan menyerahkan kekuasaannya kepada puteranya Tuanku Panglima Perunggit untuk menjadi Sultan

1640

Secara turun menurun masyarakat disekitar lokasi makam tersebut menyebut makam itu dengan nama “Makam Raja Keling”,Portugis mencata Gocah Pahlawan mangkat tahun 1640-1641 dalam usia 70-75 tahun

1653

 Setelah Dalik meninggal pada tahun 1653, puteranya Tuanku Panglima Perunggit mengambil alih kekuasaan dan pada tahun 1669 mengumumkan memisahkan kerajaannya dari Aceh. Ibu kotanya berada di Labuhan, kira-kira 20 km dari Medan(wiki)

 

1654

Lahirlah Tuanku Panglima Panderap di Aru putra Raja Deli II

 

 

Foto Lokasi makam Gocah Pahlawan

Menurut catatan “Hikayat Deli” yang ditulis Panglima Besar Deli pada tahun 1654 dan penuturan saksi-saksi penduduk setempat yang mayoritas bersuku Karo ,makam Panglima Gocap  berada didekat batu besar yang bentuknya  sekilas menyerupai posisi manusia  yang sedang jongkok dan dikenal dengan istilah “Batu Jerguk”

 

Secara turun menurun masyarakat disekitar lokasi makam tersebut menyebut makam itu dengan nama “Makam Raja Keling”,Portugis mencata Gocah Pahlawan mangkat tahun 1640-1841 dalam usia 70-75 tahun

 

Foto  batu Jerguk

Menurut T.Husni O Delikhan ,beliau pernah bermalam dimakam yang kemudian diykini adalah makam Puteri Nang Baluan Surbekti,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

1669

Kesultanan Deli ialah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan pada tahun 1669 oleh Tuanku Panglima Perunggit di wilayah bernama Tanah Deli (kini Medan, Indonesia). Kerajaan Deli merupakan sebuah kerajaan ufti(wiki)

 

Pada tahun 1669 Perunggit menikah dengan adik Raja Sukapiring dan saat yang sama ia memproklamirkan Deli Lepas dari Kesultan Aceh kisahnya sebagai beikut:

 

 

 

 

 

1698

Tuanku Panglima Parunggit mangkat,ia digantikan oleh puteranya Tuanku Panglima Panderap,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

1705

Tuanku Panglima Gandar Wahid lahir

1720

Satu pertikaian dalam pergantian tampuk kekuasaan pada tahun 1720 menyebabkan Deli terpecah dan terbentuknya Kesultanan Serdang. Setelah itu, Kesultanan Deli sempat direbut Kesultanan Siak Sri Indrapura dan Aceh(wiki)

1728

Tuanku Panglima Padarap Wafat dan saat pemilihan penerus kerajaan deli terjadilah perselisihan,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

Pada tahun 1728 Pasutan memindahkan pusat kerajaan  ke Kampung Alaikisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

Untuk memperkuat kedudukannya ia mengangkat gealr datuk kepada 4 kepala suku ,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

Pada masa kekuasaan Tuanku Pasutan kerajaan Siak berperang dengan kerajaan Aceh untuk merebut Kerajan Deli

1805

Tuanku Kanduhid mangkat dan digantikan putranya Tuanku Amaluddin,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

 

1809

 

Tunku Raja Amaluddin menikah dengan anak Raja Hitam dari Langkat ,dan memperoleh putra Tuanku Osman di Labuhan

1814

 

 

Putera Deli, Langkat dan Serdang.

menjadi sebuah kesultanan merdeka pada tahun 1814 selepas mendapat kemerdekaan daripada Kesultanan Siak(wiki)

Sultan Siak mengangkat Tuanku Amaluddin menjadi Sultan Pnglima Mangendar Alam kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

1823

John Anderson berkujnung ke Medan tahun 1823,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

Osman Perkasa Alam Shah diangkat swakil direktur dengan gelar Sultan Moeda Panglima Perkasa Alam

 

1824

Sultan Amaluddin mangkat,ia digantikan puteranya Osman Perkasa Alam Shah,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

 

 

1825

Deli menguat dan melepaskan diri dari kekuasan Aceh,menaklukan wilayah kecil disekitarnya menjadi wilayah deli,wilayah tersbeut  adalah :

 

1851

Sulatn Osman memperoleh putra pertama Tengku Mahmud

 

1852

Tuanku Osmann menikah dengan isteri kedua Raja Siti Asmah ,putrid Raja Mohammad Ali sultan Asahan.

 

1853

 

Pedang Bawar yang diberikan sultan Aceh kepada Sulatn Deli

 

Deli ditaklukan lagi oleh Sultan Aceh,dan bagaimana nasibnya Sultan Osman  yang dijadikan wakil sultan Aceh , kisahnya sebagai berikut.

 

Cucu Sultan Osman bernama Tengku Ma’mun Al Rasyid lahir

 

1854

Sultan Osman membangun sebuag Mesjid Megah besr dna permanent dengan anma Mesjid Al Osmani di Labuan Deli

 

Foto Mesjid Al Osmani

1857

Sultan Osman sebelum mangkat pada usia muda  pernah menikah dan memiliki 3 putera   Tengku Mahmud,soelaiman dan Haji Ismail.,kisahnya sebagai berikut.:

 

 

Foto sultan Mahmud

Pada tahun 1858 setelah Sultan Osman Mangkat, putra sulungnya Sultan Mahmud dinobatkan sebagai pengantinya ,kishanya sebagai berikut:

 

Selama lima belas tahun memerintah sultan Mahmud bekerja sma dengan pihak asing membuka perkebunan tembakau dikerajaan deli,diawali pengusaha Jakobus Nienhuys denga nama Deli Maatscvhapij

1858

Pada tahun 1858, Tanah Deli menjadi milik Belanda setelah Sultan Siak, Sharif Ismail, menyerahkan tanah kekuasaannya tersebut kepada mereka. (wiki)

1862

Pada bulan Agustus 1862 timbul isu bahwa kerajaan deli tidak mengakui kerajaan Siak sewhingga Resident Riau hindia belanda melakukan inspeksi ke kerajan deli,kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

 

Selanjutnya sulatn Deli membuat kontrak perjanjian dengan pihak Hindia belanda  yang dikenal dengan Acte van Verband kisahnya sebagai berikut

 

1863

Pada tahun 1861, Kesultanan Deli secara rasmi diakui merdeka dari Siak dan Aceh. Hal ini menyebabkan Sultan Deli bebas untuk memberikan hak-hak lahan kepada Belanda mahupun perusahaan-perusahaan luar negeri yang lain.

Pada masa ini Kesultanan Deli berkembang pesat. Perkembangannya dapat terlihat dari semakin kayanya pihak kesultanan berkat usaha perladangan terutamanya tembakau dan lain-lain.

1870

 

 

Foto istana Kota batu dilabuhan Deli 1870

1872

Sultan mahmud merenovasi Mesjid Al Osmani dan saat ini timbul ancaman kepada Kesltanan deli  dari para Kepala di Timbangan Langkat karena tidak meratanya pembagian lahan anata pribumi dna pihak kolonial, dan pihak hindia Belanda membantu kerajan Deli kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

1873

Sultan mahmud meninggal,digantikan puteranya Sultan Ma’mun Al Rasyid

 

 

Foto Sultan Ma’mun

 

1886

Sultan Ma’mun membangun  Kampung bahari di  Labuhan deli,pada masa ini perdaganagn tembakau  semakin maju dan kemakmuran kesultan deli  mencapai puncaknya dan pusat pemerintahan dipidhka ke Medan.(tembakau Deli)

Sebuah alat berangka tahun 1886 teronggok berdiri tanpa fungsi apapun. Di sebelahnya terlihat tumpukan tembakau yang telah berujud tanah coklat, hancur dan hanya terlihat serat-seratnya saja.

 

Tembakau Deli adalah simbol kejayaan Kerajaan Deli. Melalui komoditas inilah Kerajaan Deli tersohor di dunia pada awal abad ke-19. Namun, seiring dengan menurunnya kekuasaan Deli akibat campur tangan penjajah, menurunkan pula produksi komoditas tembakau di Tanah Deli.

Deli adalah tanah yang subur dan makmur. Jika kini kita tidak dapat melihat kejayaan Deli dengan tembakaunya, sudah sepantasnya jika kita berharap dapat melihat Kelapa Sawit jaya di pasar dunia.

Oleh Agung Christianto

 

 

 

 

 

 

1888

Sultan deli membangun istana  Maimoon

 

Kiahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 Beberapa bangunan peninggalan Kesultanan Deli juga menjadi bukti perkembangan daerah ini pada masa itu, misalnya

 

Istana Maimun..(wiki)

Dalam benak gw waktu itu, medan isinya orang batak semua. tnyata gw salah. banyak juga penduduk keturunan melayu disini. salah satu bukti peninggalan kerajaan melayu yang pernah berjaya adalah

 

 Istana Maimun.

Aga disayangkan, sewaktu gw kesana sekitar 2 thn silam, kondisinya sudah seperti rumah hunian yang dipenuhi jemuran dan antena televisi. mudah2an skr sudah kembali seperti layaknya Istana yang dulu pernah berjaya

Berlokasi di Jl. Brigjen Katamso Medan (10 km dari bandara), Istana Maimun merupakan peninggalan Sultan Kerajaan Deli (jadi inget soto deli di deket kesawan, enak banget!!!)bernama Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah. pusat kerajaan deli ini didominasi dengan warna kuning (warna khas orang melayu) dan selesai dibangun tahun 1888 dengan arsitek berkebangsaan Italia. kalau diperhatikan, bangunan ini memiliki perpaduan antara budaya Islam dan Eropa, dengan beberapa material (seperti ubin dan marmer) yang memang langung diimpor dari Eropa. Bagunan terdiri dari 2 lantai dengan 3 bagian yaitu bangunan induk, sayap kiri dan sayap kanan. pengaruh budaya eropa agaknya cukup kental tertata di istana ini, dari mulai lampu, kursi, meja, lemari, jendela sampai pintu dorong. sedangkan pengaruh Islam dapat dilihat dari bentuk lengkungan (arcade) di bagian atap yang menyerupai perahu terbalik (lengkungan persia) yang biasanya dijumpai pada bangunan2 di kawasan timur tengah.

salah satu ruang yang ada di dalam bangunan adalah balaiurung. tempat ini biasa digunakan untuk upacara penobatan Sultan Deli dan tempat keluarga sultan sungkem2an di hari raya Islam. selanjutnya terdapat 40 kamar yang terdiri dari 20 kamar di lantai atas (tempat singasana sultan) dan lainnya di bagian bawah. tnyata dilantai bawah ada penjaranya jg lho.

Di komplek istana, kita bisa liat sebuah meriam yang agaknya dikeramatkan. meriam ini punya cerita. konon legendanya di jaman kesultanan Deli lama tinggallah seorang putri cantik bernama Putri Hijau. kecantikannya sempat membuat Sultan Aceh jatuh cinta dan hendak melamar tuk dijadikan permaisuri. namun lamaran tersebut ditolak kedua saudara laki2 sang putri.

 Sultan Aceh marah, dan timbullah perang antara kesultanan aceh dan deli. dengan kesaktiannya, seorang saudara sang putri menjelma menjadi ular tangga dan seorang lagi menjadi sepucuk meriam yang tidak pernah berhenti menembak tentara aceh (meriam ini yang skr ada di Istana Maimun). kesultanan deli lama mengalami kekalahan dan putra mahkota yang menjelma menjadi meriam meledak sebagian karena kecewa. ledakan itu konon melontarkan bagian belakang meriam sampai ke Labuhan Deli dan bagian depan ke dataran tinggi Karo.

Sang putri kemudian ditawan, dimasukkan ke peti kaca dan dibawa ke aceh. sampai di Ujung Jamboe Aye membuat permintaan terakhir dengan upacara penyerahan beras dan telur sebelum peti diturunkan dari kapal. saat upacara dimulai, angin ribut berhembus, disertai gelombang laut yang sangat tinggi. dari dalam laut muncul saudara sang putri yang menjelma menjadi ular naga dan dengan rahangnya ia mengambil peti adiknya dan dibawa masuk ke laut(Siertha)

 

Istana Maimun terlihat dari depan

 

Istana Maimun ini didesain atau dirancang oleh arsitek dari Italia yang kemudian dibangun oleh Sultan Deli, Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah pada taun 1888 silam, Istana Maimun memiliki luas sebesar 2.772 meter persegi dengan jumlah ruangan sebanyak 30 kamar.
Istana Maimun menjadi salah satu tempat tujuan wisata yang sudah cukup populer, bukan hanya karena usianya yang sudah tua, melainkan desain interiornya yang sangat unik dapat mengundang para wisatawan berkunjung ke Istana Maimun ini,

 

dengan memadukan unsur-unsur warisan kebudayaan dari Melayu dan gaya Islam, Spanyol, India dan Italia. namun sayang sekali sekarang keadaanya kurang begitu terurus. Jika kita sedang melewati tempat ini pada waktu sore hari, kita dapat melihat anak-anak bermain sepak bola di halaman istana ini.

Istana Maimun tepatnya terletak di Jl. Brigjen Katamso Kota Medan sekitar 10 km dari bandara, wisata Istana Maimun merupakan sebuah peninggalan dari Sultan Kerajaan Deli Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah. Bagunan ini terdiri dari 2 lantai dengan memiliki 3 bagian bangunan induk, sayap kiri dan sayap kanan dan dipengaruhi budaya Eropa yang cukup kental.

 

Istana Maimun penghuni medan lorong atas

 
 

Istana Maimun penghuni medan

 

 

istana maimun tampak ruangan dalam

(josheiwaf)

 

 

 

1889

 

Foto jalan Tjong a Fie (Kesawan ) Medan in 1889

Bandingkan dengan

 

The Kesawan Streen(Tjong a Fie Street) Medan in 1920

 

 

 

 

1893

Putera Sulung

 

 sultan Tengku Amaluddin

 diangkat sebagai Tsahilah Tjendera selaku Tengku Besar Deli

 

1894

Sulatan Ma’mun datang ke labuhan deli dengan kereta api khusus milik sultan

 

Foto acara penyambutan Sultan di stasiu keret api labuhan deli 1894

 

Abad ke 20

Awal Abad ke 20

Kejayaan Deli pun masih dapat kita saksikan hingga saat ini, yaitu Istana Maimun dan Masjid Raya Al-Mahsun. Kedua bangunan monumental itu didirikan oleh sultan ke-9 Kerajaan Deli, Sultan Ma’mun Al-Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah, pada awal abad ke-20.



Pada saat itu, Medan telah menjadi kota niaga yang berkembang pesat. Hubungan raja dengan asing (Belanda) untuk membuka lahan tembakau, semakin meramaikan lalu lintas barang di kota ini. Tembakau Deli pun dikenal luas sebagai tembakau kelas 1 karena ditanam di lahan yang sangat cocok, demikian setidaknya papar Profesor Abdul Rauf dari Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU), saat diskusi dengan Tim EGI 2009 Sumatera Utara (Selasa, 19 Mei 2009
).

 

Hingar bingar perdagangan di Medan pun tidak dilakukan sendiri oleh Kesultanan Deli. Selain Belanda sebagai pemilik modal, orang Jawa turut serta didatangkan ke Tanah Deli sebagai tenaga ahli di bidang pertanian tembakau, sedangkan orang China sebagai pemasarannya. Suatu kolaborasi etnis yang hingga kini menjadi bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Medan.

Tjong A Fie adalah pelopor etnis China untuk membangun Medan. Pada awal abad ke-19, jiwa muda Tjong A Fie membawanya untuk merantu hingga ke Tanah Deli. Di sini, dengan dibantu oleh saudaranya Tjong Yong Hian, A Fie melakukan perdagangan dengan penduduk setempat. Kesuksesannya dalam niaga menarik hati Pemerintah Belanda untuk mengangkatnya sebagai Walikota (semacam itu sekarang-red) yang khusus mengurusi komunitas China di Medan. Selain itu, Kekaisaran China pun memberi kepercayaan kepada A Fie sebagai Duta Besar untuk wilayah Indonesia.

Kemajemukan Medan di masa lalu inilah yang telah menjadi cikal bakal perkembangan Medan dewasa ini. Bukan hanya etnis lokal (Batak) dan Melayu saja, tetapi orang Jawa, China, India dan lainnya, telah bahu membahu membangun Medan, hingga menjadikan kota terbesar ke-4 di Indonesia ini semakin menggeliat.

Catatan kota tua Medan merupakan awal dari perjalanan Ekspedisi Geografi Indonesia ke-6, yang mengambil kajian Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Perjalanan yang diawali pada tanggal 19 Mei 2009, dilakukan untuk mengamati fenomena geografi pada suatu trase atau rute tertentu. Fenomena itu meliput abiotik, biotik, kultur, dan dampak lingkungan yang diakibatkan dari interaksi ketiga unsur tersebut.

Untuk kesekian kalinya BAKOSURTANAL pun memberikan sumbangan nyata kepada daerah untuk mengangkat potensi wilayahnya.

Oleh Agung Christianto

read more about Tjong a Fie

 TJONG A FIE History collections

 

 

THE HISTORY OF TJONG A FIE

Koleksi SEJARAH

Tjong A Fie

Sejarah Mansion A Tjong A Fie


Sebuah rumah yang menonjol yang terletak di jantung Kota Medan di Kesawan Square, rumah yang indah penuh dengan karakter dan budaya belakang sejarah di Medan.

Sejarah Tjong A Fie

 

Tjong Nam Fung, was born from a family known as Hakka and Tjong A Fie was born in 1860 in the village Sungkow, Moyan or Meixien.

He was raised from a humble home, with his brother, Tjong Yong Hian. Both must submit a school from a young age to help their father in his shop. Even with a limited education, Tjong A Fie Quick to learn business skills and trades and immediately pursue his dreams to become independent and successful, therefore leaving the village in search of a better life

Tjong Fung Nam, lahir dari keluarga Hakka dan lebih dikenal sebagai Tjong A Fie lahir pada 1860 di desa Sungkow, Moyan atau Meixien. Ia dibesarkan dari sebuah rumah sederhana, dengan kakaknya, Tjong Yong Hian. Keduanya harus menyerahkan sekolah dari usia muda untuk membantu ayah mereka di tokonya. Bahkan dengan pendidikan yang terbatas, Tjong A Fie Cepat belajar keterampilan bisnis dan perdagangan dan segera mengejar mimpi-mimpinya untuk Menjadi Independen dan Sukses, Oleh karena meninggalkan desanya dalam mencari kehidupan yang lebih baik.

 

Tjong A Fie Mansion, the command center of the local Chinese community at the turn of the 20th century

 

 

In 1880, after sailing for months, he finally arrived at the port of Deli (Medan). That time at his brother Tjong Yong Hian Have been living in Sumatra for five years and has become a respected merchant in Sumatra. However, independent of Tjong A Fie want to look for his own life and goes about his own work. Tjong A Fie began to study and develop the business skills of working for the Sui For Tjong. He developed the social skills to interact with people of all races, Chinese, Malay, Arab, India, including the Netherlands. He began by learning the Malay language the national language Being used in Medan Deli

Tjong A Fie

Pada tahun 1880, setelah berlayar selama berbulan-bulan, ia akhirnya tiba di pelabuhan Deli (Medan). Itu waktu di Tjong Yong saudaranya Hian Apakah sudah tinggal di Sumatera selama lima tahun dan telah menjadi seorang pedagang dihormati di Sumatera. Namun, Tjong A Fie independen ingin mencari hidup sendiri dan pergi tentang menemukan karyanya sendiri. Tjong A Fie mulai belajar dan mengembangkan keterampilan bisnis dari bekerja untuk Tjong Sui Untuk. Dia mengembangkan keterampilan sosialnya berinteraksi dengan orang-orang dari semua ras, Cina, Melayu, Arab, India, termasuk Belanda. Dia mulai dengan mempelajari bahasa Melayu yang yang Menjadi bahasa nasional yang digunakan di Deli Medan.

Aula Menghibur

 

Tjong A Fie tumbuh dan Menjadi orang yang dihormati di Medan Sumatera, di mana dia tinggal jauh dari judi, alkohol dan Prostitusi di kota Medan berkembang. Dengan rasa yang kuat tentang kepemimpinan dan keadilan, ia Menjadi mediator bagi Cina. Belanda juga mencari Pls bantuannya Perkebunan mereka memiliki masalah dengan isu-isu perburuhan. Kemampuannya untuk memecahkan masalah ini membuatnya mendapatkan Cina untuk Menjadi Mayor. Dengan kinerja yang luar biasa, ia terpilih menjadi Kapten (Kapten).

Para Berbagai kamar

 

Tjong A Fie dikenal sebagai pengusaha dihormati WHO memiliki jaringan sosial yang baik dan telah membangun hubungan baik dengan Sultan Deli, Al Rasjid Perkasa Alamsjah Makmoen Moeda raja dan tuan. Seperti Mereka Menjadi teman yang baik, Tjong A Fie terpercaya Menjadi pribadi-Nya dan membantu banyak urusan bisnis ditangani.

Tjong A Fie juga Menjadi orang China pertama yang memiliki perkebunan tembakau. Ia juga dikembangkan dan diperluas untuk perkebunan teh di Bandar Baroe dan Besar Kelapa / Palm Perkebunan Kelapa.

Seiring dengan saudaranya Tjong Yong Hian tua, Tjong A Fie mitra joint dengan Tio Tiaw Siat juga dikenal sebagai Chang Pi Shih, pamannya serta Konsulat China di Singapura dan mendirikan sebuah perusahaan kereta api yang dikenal sebagai The Chow-Chow & Swatow Railyway Co.Ltd. di Cina

Ruang Tidur

Tjong A Fie, kontributor sosial yang sangat aktif, menyumbangkan sebagian besar kekayaan-bangunannya banyak fasilitas untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat miskin terlepas dari keyakinan ras, kebangsaan atau budaya termasuk banyak tempat ibadah Seperti kuil-kuil Cina & Hindu, Masjid dan Gereja.

Sebagai orang yang dihormati di Medan WHO memiliki banyak Perkebunan, kelapa sawit dan pabrik gula, bank dan perusahaan kereta api, ia mempekerjakan lebih dari 10.000 pekerja. Seperti yang direkomendasikan oleh Sultan Deli, Tjong A Fie diangkat anggota gemeenteraad (dewan kota) dan cultuurraad (budaya dewan)

4 Februari 1921, Tjong A Fie meninggal dari ayan atau perdarahan di otak, di rumahnya di Jalan Kesawan, Medan. Ini Shook kota Medan, Ribuan kawanan untuk membayar hormat dari seluruh termasuk Sumatera Timur, Aceh, Padang, Penang, Malaysia, Singapura dan Jawa. Dia Menjadi legenda dikenal oleh banyak orang di Medan sampai hari ini.

Empat bulan sebelum kematiannya, Tjong A Fie menulis Will di hadapan Notaris Grave Dirk Johan den Facquin.

Side mobil: Mungkin ini nama yang aneh adalah miss-ejaan Kuburan de Fouquain – seperti misalnya ditunjukkan pada Blog Pucca di: Kenangan dari Grave Notaris Nonya Fouquain de – tapi entah cara saya tidak ingin mengucapkan Bahwa nama terkemuka dengan aksen amerika .

Ditulis dalam surat wasiatnya, ia ingin semua kekayaannya untuk dikelola oleh Yayasan Toen Moek Tong tersebut yang didirikan di Medan dan Sungkow pada saat kematiannya. Foundation, yang berbasis di Medan telah diberikan lima misi. Tiga dari Mereka adalah untuk Memberikan bantuan keuangan kepada Orang muda berbakat yang ingin menyelesaikan pendidikan mereka, tanpa ada pilihan budaya atau ras. Foundation juga akan membantu para penyandang cacat yang mampu untuk bekerja tidak lagi termasuk Buta atau Mereka dengan penyakit yang fatal. Ketiga, Yayasan juga Akan Membantu Korban bencana alam dari setiap ras atau kebangsaan.

1873-1924 Aturan Sultan Rashid Al Perkasa Alamsyah Ma’mum, “Builder”.
1878-Miao Zhenjun didirikan oleh orang-orang Chaozhou di Tanjung Mulia (antara Titipapan & Labuan)
Guandi 1880-Miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) didirikan oleh orang-orang Guangdong di Medan (Jl Irian Barat. 2).
Guanyin 1880-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) didirikan oleh orang-orang Xinghua di Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 Surat kabar pertama “Deli Courant” diterbitkan.
 
Side Catatan: dalam memeriksa web untuk “Deli Courant” Saya DATANG di banyak gerai makanan cepat saji, atau di toko makanan, di mana Mereka melayani “toko makanan” (Belanda untuk makanan lezat), tetapi juga referensi ke Sutan Sharir – sebuah awal Penting indonesian Negarawan – satu itu para pendiri negara pada kenyataannya, WHO Apakah Akar di Padang dan Medan. Apakah ia juga telah menjadi teman saya studi di Leiden Opa Otto University, di mana Mereka Baik hukum dipelajari. Di perjalanan kembali ke Hindia, Sharir membuat perjalanan laut yang panjang sebagai ‘baby sitter’ pro forma pamanku Ernst (alias Paman Kiddie) Opa sejak Otto masih pada membayar Pemerintah dan berhak atas satu ‘hamba’. Dia memilih untuk membantu Sharir temannya sebagai gantinya.
 
Sjahrir: politik dan pengasingan di Indonesia – Hasil Google Books oleh Rudolf Mrazek – 1994 – Biografi & Otobiografi – 526 halaman
128 Pada 1909-1934 Gemeente Medan (Medan: Deli Courant, 1934), yang menyebutkan Deli Itu adalah sedikit seperti Hindia Timur, liar barat: jika Anda Apakah melakukan pembunuhan di Batavia, Anda masih akan disambut di Medan – dan setiap sepatu Belanda merupakan potensi besar bangsawan di Deli. Sharir Saya Disebutkan sebelumnya dalam entri jurnal saya
 
Kita sekarang dapat melanjutkan dengan timeline:

1886 Lapangan Menjadi ibukota Sumatera Utara.
1886 “Witte Societeit” (“klub lebih besar”) didirikan di samping kantor pos. [Lihat di bawah ini foto]

 

1888 Sultan Deli (Sultan Rashid Al Perkasa Alamsyah Ma’mum) pindah dari Deli Labuan [serangkaian pitcures bawah ini]


ke Istana Maimun di Medan. [Setelah dua foto eksterior dan interior:]
 

1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) didirikan di Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 – Pulo Brayan dekat)
Shoushan 1891-gong (Guanyin) didirikan oleh Fujianese di Deli Labuan
1895-Miao Zhenjun didirikan oleh orang-orang Chaozhou di Titipapan.
Hotel De Boer 1898 dibangun.
1898-1939 Publikasi dari “Post Sumatera De” oleh Joseph Hallermann, seorang Jerman.
1900 Tjong A Fie rumah dibangun.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu Temple) didirikan di Medan (Baru Jl Pandu 2.)
1907 Sultan Masjid ini dibangun [lihat gambar di bawah ini]
 
 

 

1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Pembangunan kantor pos (Snuyf, arsitek – kepala Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Lapangan adalah kota kecil. Penduduk = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam) [lihat gambar di bawah ini]
 

  

 

1913 Tjong A Fie menyumbangkan menara jam balai kota.
Gerobak ditarik kuda 1917 adalah nara sumber dengan Sapu digunakan untuk membersihkan kota.
1923 Renovasi Balai Kota.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yii-dadi) didirikan oleh orang-orang Chaozhou di toko-toko Durian.
1924-1945 Aturan Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Bermotor kendaraan nara sumber yang digunakan untuk menggantikan kuda mobil untuk membersihkan kota.
1929 Kantor Perusahaan Dagang Belanda (sekarang Bank Exim) telah selesai (digunakan oleh Gunseikanbu Selama pendudukan Jepang).
1936-ting Guanyin (Guanyin) dibangun oleh Hakka perempuan di Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) didirikan oleh perempuan Chaozhou di Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
Akhir 1942 pemerintahan Belanda. Penduduk = 80.000.
2000 populasi Field = 1.898.013
 
. Cf: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia
Deli Maatschappij NV de bedrijf van een adalah Nederlands koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf pintu adalah pada tahun 1869 Nienhuys opgericht Yakub als een tabakscultuurmaatschappij Met voor het concessie Sultanaat Deli di Sumatera, Nederlands-Indie. Di Deli Maatschappij voor de 50% geparticipeerd werd pintu de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. Dalam de eeuw negentiende exploiteerde Deli Maatschappij de 120 000 hektar. De activiteiten vormden Maatschappij voor een van de een impuls sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor Deli Maatschappij van de di Medan Paleis van het tegenwoordig van de Gouverneur Sumatera.

Terjemahan: Deli Maatschappij NV adalah sebuah perusahaan asal Belanda kolonial. Perusahaan ini didirikan pada tahun 1869 oleh budaya tembakau Nienhuys Yakub sebagai perusahaan dengan konsesi untuk Kesultanan Deli di Sumatera, Hindia Belanda. Di Deli Company ada partisipasi 50% dari Masyarakat Perdagangan Belanda. Pada Abad Kesembilan Belas Deli Company dieksploitasi 120.000 hektar. Kegiatan perusahaan membentuk suatu dorongan untuk pertumbuhan yang kuat dari kota Medan. Markas mantan Deli Company di Medan saat ini istana Gubernur Sumatera. [Lihat foto di bawah ini di sebelah kiri]

 

English Version

THE HISTORY OF TJONG A FIE

History of The Tjong A Fie Mansion

A prominent home located in the heart of Medan City at Kesawan Square, this beautiful mansion is full of characters and cultures behind its history in Medan.

The History of Tjong A Fie

Tjong Fung Nam, born from Hakka family and more popularly known as Tjong A Fie is born on 1860 in the village of Sungkow, Moyan or Meixien.  He was raised from a simple home, with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian.  Both have to give up schooling from a young age to help their father in his shop.  Even with limited education, Tjong A Fie quickly learned the business and trading skills and soon pursued his dreams to become independent and successful, hence leaving his village in search for a better life.

 

Tjong A fie

In 1880, after sailing for months, he finally arrived at the port of Deli (Medan).  At that time his brother Tjong Yong Hian had already been living in Sumatra for 5 years and had became a respected merchant in Sumatra.  However, the independent Tjong A Fie wanted to find his own living and went about finding his own work.  Tjong A Fie started to learn and develop business skills from working for Tjong Sui Fo. He developed his social skills interacting with people of all races, Chinese, Melayu, Arab, India, including Dutch.  He began by learning the language Bahasa Melayu which became the national language used in Medan Deli.

 

The Entertaining Hall

Tjong A Fie grew and became a well respected person in Medan Sumatra, where he stayed away from gambling, alcohol and prostitution in the developing town of Medan.  With his strong sense of leadership and fairness, he became the mediator for the Chinese. The Dutch also seek his help when their plantations have problems with labor issues.  His ability to solve these issues earned him to become the Chinese lieutenant. With his outstanding performance, he was elected to become a Captain (Kapiten).

 

The various rooms

Tjong A Fie was known as a respected businessman who has good social networks and has build good relation with the Sultan Deli, Makmoen Al Rasjid Perkasa Alamsjah and Tuanku Raja Moeda.  As they became good friends, Tjong A Fie became his trusted person and helped dealt with many business matters.

Tjong A Fie also became the first Chinese to own a tobacco plantation. He also developed and expanded to tea plantation in Bandar Baroe and large coconut/palm oil plantations.

Along with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian, Tjong A Fie joint partner with Tio Tiaw Siat also known as Chang Pi Shih, his uncle as well as consulate of China in Singapore and set up a railway company known as The Chow-Chow & Swatow Railyway Co.Ltd. in China

 

The Bedroom

Tjong A Fie, a very active social contributor, donated much of his wealth building many facilities for the welfare of the poor regardless of race, cultural beliefs or nationality including many places of worships such as Chinese & Hindu temple, Mosques and Churches.

As a well respected person in Medan who owns many plantations, palm oil and sugar factories, banks and railway companies, he employed more than 10.000 workers. As recommended by Sultan Deli, Tjong A Fie was appointed member of gemeenteraad (city council) and cultuurraad (cultural council)

4 February 1921, Tjong A Fie passed away from apopleksia or bleeding in the brain, in his home at Jalan Kesawan, Medan.  It shook the city Medan, thousands flock to pay respect from all over including Sumatera Timur, Aceh, Padang, Penang, Malaysia, Singapore and Java. He became a legend known by many in Medan till today.

Four months before his death, Tjong A Fie wrote his will in the presence of notary Dirk Johan Facquin den Grave.

Side  car: this odd name is probably a miss-spelling of Fouquain de Grave–as for instance shown in Pucca’s Blog: Memories of a Nonya Notaris Fouquain de Grave–but either way I would not want to pronounce that eminent name with an American accent.

Written in his will, he wanted all his wealth to be managed by Yayasan Toen Moek Tong which was established in Medan and Sungkow at the time of his death. The Yayasan based in Medan has been given 5 missions. Three of them are to provide financial help to young talented people that wished to complete their education, without no cultural or racial choice. Yayasan will also help the disabled who are no longer able to work including the blind or those with fatal illness.  Thirdly, the Yayasan will also help victims of natural disaster of any race or nationality.

1873-1924 The rule of Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, “the Builder”.
1878 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Tanjung Mulia (between Titipapan & Labuhan)
1880s Guandi-miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) was erected by Guangdong people in Medan (Jl. Irian Barat 2).
1880s Guanyin-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) was erected by Xinghua people in Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 The first newspaper “Deli Courant” was published.

 

Side Note: in checking the web for “Deli courant” I came across many fastfood outlets, or deli’s, where they serve ”delicatessen” (Dutch for delicacies) but also a reference to Sutan Sharir–an important early Indonesian statesman–one of that country’s founding fathers in fact, who had roots in Padang and Medan. He had also been a study friend of my Opa Otto at Leiden University, where they both studied law. On the way back to the Indies, Sharir made the long ocean trip as the pro forma ‘babysitter’ of my uncle Ernst (aka Oom Kiddie) since Opa Otto was still on Government pay and entitled to one ‘servant’. He opted to help out his friend Sharir instead.

 

Sjahrir: politics and exile in Indonesia – Google Books Result by Rudolf Mrázek – 1994 – Biography & Autobiography – 526 pages
128 In Gemeente Medan 1909-1934 (Medan: Deli Courant, 1934),  which mentions that Deli was a bit like the East Indies wild west: if you had committed murder in Batavia, you’d still be welcome in Medan–and every Dutch loafer was a potential grand seigneur in Deli. I mentioned Sharir before in my journal entry

 

Now we can continue with the timeline:

1886 Medan became the capital of northern Sumatra.
1886 “Witte Societeit” (“a rather grand club”) was erected next to the post office. [see photo hereunder]

 

1888 Sultan of Deli (Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah) moved from Labuhan Deli [series of pitcures below]

 

 

 

to the Maimoon Palace in Medan. [following two photographs of exterior and interior:]

 

 

 

 

1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 – near Pulo Brayan)
1891 Shoushan-gong (Guanyin) was erected by Fujianese in Labuhan Deli
1895 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Titipapan.
1898 Hotel De Boer was constructed.
1898-1939 Publication of “De Sumatra Post” by Joseph Hallermann, a German.
1900 Tjong A Fie mansion was built.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu temple) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pandu Baru 2)
1907 Sultan Mosque was built [see pictures below]

 

 

1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Construction of post office (Snuyf, architect – head of Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Medan was a small city. Population = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam) [see pictures below]

 

 

 

 

 

1913 Tjong A Fie donated the city hall’s clock tower.
1917 Horse drawn carts with brooms were used for town cleaning.
1923 Renovation of City Hall.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yuhuang-dadi) was erected by Chaozhou people in Kedai Durian.
1924-1945 The rule of Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Motorized vehicles were used to replace the horse drawn cars for town cleaning.
1929 Office of Netherlands Trading Company (now Bank Exim) was completed (used by Gunseikanbu during the Japanese occupation).
1936 Guanyin-ting (Guanyin) was erected by Hakka women in Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) was erected by Chaozhou women in Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
1942 End of Dutch rule. Population = 80,000.
2000 Medan’s population = 1,898,013

 

Cf.: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia

De N.V. Deli Maatschappij is een Nederlands bedrijf van koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf is in 1869 opgericht door Jacob Nienhuys als tabakscultuurmaatschappij met een concessie voor het Sultanaat Deli in Sumatra, Nederlands-Indië. In de Deli Maatschappij werd voor 50 % geparticipeerd door de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. In de negentiende eeuw exploiteerde de Deli Maatschappij 120.000 hectare. De activiteiten van de maatschappij vormden een impuls voor een sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij in Medan is tegenwoordig het paleis van de Gouverneur van Sumatra.

Translation: The NV Deli Maatschappij is a Dutch company of colonial origin. The company was founded in 1869 by Jacob Nienhuys as a tabacco culture company with a concession for the Sultanate Deli in Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies. In the Deli Company there was a 50% participation of the Netherlands Trading Society. In the nineteenth century the Deli Company exploited 120,000 hectares. The activities of the company formed an impulse for the strong growth of the city of Medan. The onetime headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan is today the palace of the Governor of Sumatra. [See photo below on the left]

 

1893

//

The Sultang of Deli Mammon Al Rasyid Perkasa alam in 1893

 

tHE bATTAKS wOMEN IN 1893

 

The Battaks Village “Bekioen” in 1893

1895

1894

 

 

 

 

The Nias Island in 1894

 

 

 

 

190Sultan of Langkat Abdoe azis Abdoel djalil Rahmatsyah in 18950

1900

 

The Tiongha Water seller Medan in 1900

 

 

 

The India Bombay Bhamana Medan in 1900

 

 

 

The DEI KNIL

enter Medan City in 1900

1900

 

Foto pernikahan tengku Amaluddin  dengan Tengku Maheran tahun 1900

20 agustus 1900

Tengku Amaluddin memperoleh seorang putra Tengku Osman

 

1901

Setelah tengku Osman Lahir,Tengku Maheran ibnya meninggal dunia

1903

3 mei 1903, sultan deli menidrikan

 

Kantor Kerapatan Besar(Kantor Sultan)

 

Anggota Pengadilan sultan deli di Istana Medan

Pad masa Pemerintahanya sultan deli banyak membangun fasilitas umum,kisahya sebagai berikut:

 

Atas jasanya Sultan Deli dianugrahkan bintang oleh pemerintah Hindia belanda

 

Foto bintang Knight Order Of The Dutch Lion

1903

Tengku besar Amaluddin menikah lagi setalh isteri pertamanya meninggal dengan Encek Maryam (Encek Negara)

 

1905

Perumahan Keluarga sultan dan

 

Taman Derikhan                                                                                                                                  dibangun didepan mesjid raya Al Mahsun

 

 

 

 

 

1905

Sultan deli mendirikan istana baru

 

“Istana Kota Maksum”

 

 

Istana tengku besar deli

 

 

1906

Sultan deli mendirikan mesjid raya  dan tengku Amaluddin menikah lagi denga adik kandung isterinya yang sudah meninggal yaitu Tengku Chalijah.

 

1907

Kontrak Acte van Verband diperbagharui pasal-pasalnya sehingga banyak memberika keuntunga kepada pemerintah hindia beanda

1909

Sultan deli meresmikan  Ustana baru dan mesjid Raya dihadiri  Sultan Langkat dan Sultan Serdang.

1910

 

//

Tobacco deli plantation in 1910

1911

 

Tengku Otteman

 

Berangkat  ke Batavia melanjutkan pendidikan tinngi dibidang hokum

1918

Tengku Otteman menamatkan epndidikan Tinggi Hukum di Batavia

 

 

 

 

 

1920

Kunnujgan gubernur general Hindia belanda  de Fock ke kerajaan deli

 

Foto k De Fock di istana Maimoon tahun 1920

1922

 

The Sultan deli Palace at Medan in 1922

 

The Battaks women and children in 1922

1923

 

 

Toba lake in 1923

 

 

1923.Acara Besar-besaran menyambut ulang tahun SultanMa’maun ke 70 di Istana Maimoon

 

 

1924

 

Foto pemakaman Sultan Ma’mun yang  mangkat dalam usia 71

 

Sebagai pengantinya putra sulungnya Amaluddin sebagai Sulatan deli X bernama Amaluddin Sani Perkasa Alamsyah

 

Foto penotbatan Sulatan Amaluddin 1924

 

 Sultan Amaluddin meminta putranya Tengku Otteman bekerja di Makamah Agung kerajan Deli

 

 

 

1926

 

Tengku Otteman

menikah dengan Raja Amnah putrid Raja Chulan Dihilir Negeri Perak (Malaya)

 

Foto pernikahan Tengku Otteman

 

 

 

1926

Gubernur General Hindia belanda mengeluar surat keputusan yang menetapkan Tengku Otteman sebagai Putra Mahlota Kerajaan Deli, dan di Istana Maimoon diadakan perayaan besar=besaran secara adat kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

Surat Cindra Gelaran sebagai berikut

 

 

Setelah tamat membaca surat Cindera  gelaran dilangsungkan acara penembakan meriam dan diadkan pula acara peanugrahan gelar kepada Raja Annah isteri Tengku Mahkota ,kisahnya sebagai berikut :

 

 

Foto Tengku Mahkota Otteman berserta isteri Tengku Puan Indera

 

 

 

1927

 

The ceremony of Sultan Langkat dead”Pemakaman”  at Keraton Langkat in 1927

1930

 

 

 

The Tionghoa medan Tomb in 1930

1931

 

Foto Tengku Amaruddin putra kedua Sultan Amaluddin

Tengku Mahkota berkunjung ke Eropah bersam adiknya menghadap Ratu Wihelmina,dan kemudian ke Mesir ,kisahnya sebagai berikut

 

 

Foto Tengku Otteman  meninjau pabrik karet di Endhovend

 

Foto Tengku Ottemen dengan pangeran Belanda

 

Foto Tengku ottoman naik perahu Gendola menitari sungai

 

1934

Tengku Puan Indera isteri Tengku Otteman, mereka memperoleh 4 orang putri

 

Tengku mahkota berangkat ke Puklau Penang dan Negeri Perak dan kemudian  menemani ayahnya ke Betawi untuk mengikuti perayaan  Peringatan Ratu wihelmina

 

 

Foto Bintang Knight Order F Oranje Nassau yang dianugerahkan kepada sultan Amaluddin oleh Ratu Belanda

 

 

 

1935

Tengku Mahkota Otteman menikah lagi dengan Raja Nor Shida putrid Harun Al rasyid Kechik Sulubg dan  ia diberikan  gelar Tengku Puan Besar kisahnya sebagai berikut:

 

1942

 

 

The dai nippon POW camps policlinic sketc bey the prisoner of war Meda in 1942

 

1943

 

//

The Great Mosqee of Medan in 1943

 

 

The native Battaks guitar in 1943

1945

Indonesia mempropklamasiksi Kemerdekaan 17 Agustsus 1945

Sultan Amaluddin Mangkat dan putanya

 

 sulatan Otteman

 diangkat sebagai gantinya dan saat ini kedudukan Sultan hanya sebagai kepala adat

 

 

 

 

 

1946

Bagaimanakah kisahnya Kerajaan deli tahun 1946 inilah kisahnya:

 

 

Sultan ottoman beserta isteri

 

1967

Bagaimankah sejarah Kerajaan Deli selanjutnya pada tahun 1967 , inilah kisahnya

 

Pertalian dengan Raja Perak lihat table dibawah ini

 

 

Sultan Azmi Perkasa Alam

 

1967

Sultan Azmi mengantikan ayah sebagai Sultan Deli dan  kisah selanjutnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

30 Agustus 1966 Putera Sullan Azmi  lahir dan diberi nama Otteman III

1998

Sultan Azmi mangkat dan digantikan oleh

 

 sultan ottoman III

 

 1989

Tengku Otteman Mahmud tamat pendidikan Akademi Militer Magelang dan menikah dengan Ir HJ Siska Marabintang,mereak meperoleh dua anak Aria Lamidji dan Zulkarnain Otteman Mangendar Alam

 

 

 

 

1998

 

Sultan Azmi manglat dan puteranya diangkat menjadi penganti dengan nama Sultan Otteman Mahmud Panderap Perkas aAlam sebagai kepala adat Kerajaan deli, kendatipun beliau tidak dapat sepenunuhnya memimpin karena tugasnya sebagai anggota TNI .

Selanjutnya timbullah kejadian yang tragis menimpa  Kerajaan deli,kisahnya sebagai berikut

 

Tahun 1998 anal sultan Otteman Mahmud lahir dengan nama Tengku Artia Lamiji

2006

Sultan Otteman Mahmud mangkat karena kecelakaan saat bertugas di TNI,kisahnya sebagai berikut

 

2005

Tengku Mahmudf Aria diangkat menjadi sultan Deli XIV,kisahmnya sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

 

Foto Aji sultan termuda

 

Arakan jenazah sultan Deli yang dimakamkan

 

 

 

Foto Sultan Deli XIV

Bagaimanka informasi Kerajaan deli saat ini bacalahla kisah selanjutnya dibawah ini

One of Medan’s numerous mosques, with tiled minaret and domes visible.

A tiny random portion of the many impressive rooms of taxidermy at the Rahmat International Wildlife Museum and Gallery

Entrance to the Chinese Daoist temple of Vihara Gunung Timur.

View toward the main hall with incense burner at left. Chinese Daoist temple of Vihara Gunung Timur.

  

Street view of Perhimpunan Shri Mariamman, a Tamil Indian Hindu temple.

 

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2013

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The History

Of

 Columbus Adventures

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2013

 

 

 

PROLOGUE

Nature of Discovery

Discovery has startled the world more than Conquest. Scarcely

surprising than some discoveries is the fact that the world has so often and for so long a time seemed to call for a discoverer in vain.

Notably this is the case with the two most important discoveries that have ever been made, and both in the fifteenth century;

that of the art of printing and the finding of a new world. For thousands of years the world had transcribed its thought into permanent legible characters by means of the stylus, the stalk of the papyrus, or the chisel. Slow and laborious were these methods, yet the splendid civilizations of the great Eastern Empires, the Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and the Medo-Persian, had produced their literature without the aid of the printing press, while the later civilizations of Greece and Rome; countries that gave to all coming time the noblest literatures, transcribed them by the painful process of the pen

 

The wonderful brain of the Greek could construct a Parthenon, the wonder of the age; and the Roman reared that pile, so noble in its simplicity—the Pantheon; yet neither could discern the little type that should make the rapid multiplying of letters easy, nor place in relief upon a block of wood the tracery of a single leaf; and the wonder is no less, but increases as we consider the fact that two vast continents, the half of an entire planet, had for so many centuries eluded the gaze of men who went down to the sea in ships, who for centuries had navigated an inland sea for two thousand miles,while from

 

Iceland

and

 

Jutland intrepid mariners

 

and Buccaneers had plowed the ocean with their keels.

For nearly three centuries

 

Aristotle,

 

 

Aristotle,following the teachings of the Pythagoreans,

 

had asserted the earth was round, and had declared that the great Asiatic Empire could be reached by sailing westwardly, a view that was confirmed by

 

Seneca, the Spaniard,

who affirmed that India could be reached in this way; and all down the centuries the probability of discovery, as we now look back upon those times, seems to be increasing; but, somehow, Discovery still refused to enter the open gate leading to the New World,

 

and this, notwithstanding the fact that the Canary and Madeira Islands had been discovered some years before, and the Portuguese navigators had followed the coast of Africa for thousands of miles, as far as the Cape of Good Hope,

 

Columbus himself having skirted the coast to the Cape of Storms.

 

The spheroidicity of the earth was generally accepted by enlightened men,

though the Copernican system was not known,

 

and it was believed that there must be a large unknown continent to the west. There was such a continent, two of them indeed, and they were nearer the African coast, along which Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian navigators had coursed, than the distance they had covered from the Pillars of Hercules

 

 

to the Cape of Good Hope. Yet, though the times wanted a discoverer, he was not to be found

The Norsemen

 

WAS AMERICA DISCOVERED BY THE NORSEMEN ?

This has long been a disputed question.

 Norse scholarship has always insisted upon the discovery; scholars looking upon the matter from the outside have disputed the claim. One of the principal chains of evidence offered heretofore has been supplied bythe Norse Sagas stories of mingled fact, romance and myth;

 

(complete legend e-book in CD-ROM exist but only for premium member)

but they have been distrusted, and up to recent time the preponderance of evidence has rather been against the Icelandic claim. But latterly new evidence has been brought to light, which seems to fully establish the fact of the discovery of America by the Norsemen from Iceland, about A. D.  1000.

To cite the testimony of the Sagas, one must suffice for evidence in that direction.

 

 

The Eyrbyggia Saga the oldest extant manuscript,remains of which date back to about the year 1300 has the following:

 “After the reconciliation between

 

Steinhor and the people of Alpta-firth,

 

Thorbrand’s sons,

 

Snorri

 

and Thorleif,

 

went to Greenland.Snorri went to Wineland (Vinland) the Good with Karlsefni;and when they were fighting with the Skrellings there in Wineland,

Thorbrand Snorrason, a most valiant man, was killed.” In the Icelandic Annals, also, the oldest of which is supposed to have been written in the south of Iceland about the year 1280, mention is made of Vinland.

In the year 1121 it is recorded that “Bishop Eric Uppsi sought Wineland.”

The same entry is found in the chronological lists. These would seem to supply historical references to the Norse discovery of America, set down in such a manner as to indicate that the knowledge of the fact was widely diffused.

 

 

 

One of the most interesting accounts taken from

the Norse records

 

Norsemen landing in Iceland

is that found in a parchment discovered in a Monastery library of the Island of Flato, and which was transferred to Copenhagen and submitted

 

inspection of Professor Rafn

 

and other noted Icelandic scholars. Professor Rafn reproduces the record in his “Antiquities.” The story is as follows: “In the year 996, while sailing from Iceland to Greenland,

 

Biarne Heriulfson

 

was driven southward by a storm, when they came in sight of land they had never before seen. Biarne did not try to land, but put his ship about and eventually reached Greenland.

 

Four years after, in A. D. 1000,

 

Leif

 

the son of Eric the Red,

 

sailed from Brattahlid

 

in search of the land seen by Biarne. This land Leif soon discovered; he landed, it is supposed on the coast of Labrador  La

which he named Helluland,

 

because of the numerous flat stones found there, from the word hella, a flat stone. Finding the shore inhospitable, he again set sail and soon reached a coast thence it is not far to Vinland.”

 

Still again and the evidence must end with this citation in an old manuscript, written according to the Icelandic scholar Dr. Vigfasson, as early as 1260–1280, referring to the date A. D. 1000, the manuscript records: “Wineland the Good found. That summer King Olaf

 

 

look king olaf ancient coin below

 

sent Leif to Greenland,

 

to proclaim Christianity there.

He sailed that summer to Greenland.

He found in the sea men upon a wreck, and helped them. There found he also Wineland the Good, and arrived in the autumn at Greenland.”

It is objected to the discovery of America from Greenland that no runic (Scandinavian) inscriptions have been found in any part of the North American continent.

But the answer to this objection is that the Northmen never pretended that they had colonized Vineland; they simply recounted their discovery of the country and their unsuccessful attempts to colonize it.

Runic inscriptions, therefore, and other archaeological remains, are not to be expected in a region where no permanent settlements were made. Besides, as Mr. Reeves points out, the rigorous application of the test would make the discovery of Iceland itself disputable.

In conclusion, as to this matter, we have only to add that the statements put forth seem not only to confirm what we meet with in the Sagas, but, taken by themselves alone, they seem to fully establish the fact of the discovery of America by the Icelanders, even had the Sagas never been written. And now leaving the Norsemen and their discoveries

RELATED INFORMATIONS

Reverse Heyerdahl: Ancient-style reed boat tackles Atlantic

By Pat Reber Jul 7, 2007, 1:07 GMT

Washington/New York – Like the great Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl, a German biologist and amateur anthropologist is obsessed with ancient long-distance seafaring.

But while Heyerdahl’s 1947 Kon-Tiki and later Ra expeditions proved that ancients could have used trade winds and ocean currents to drift westward around the globe to South America and the South Pacific, Dominique Goerlitz wants to prove the opposite.

Goerlitz, 41, and a crew of eight plan to set sail Wednesday from New York in a prehistoric-style reed boat to show that people 6,000 to 14,000 years ago could have made the more complicated eastwardly journey from the New World to get back home again.

The reed boat – called the Abora III – is constructed along the lines of Heyerdahl’s Ra, out of 17 tonnes of reed papyrus that grows at the 3,800-metre-high Lake Titicaca on the border of Peru and Bolivia. Goerlitz in fact had some input from the late Norwegian explorer on some of his earlier boats launched in Europe.

Unlike the Ra, however, the Abora has 16 leeboards – or retractable foils – for steering, a refinement that will enable Abora to tack into the wind and carry it eastwards.

‘Why did I not see this?’ Goerlitz quoted Heyerdahl as saying after their first meeting in 1995 in Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Heyerdahl was referring to the keel-board evidence in ancient drawings that Goerlitz had found.

First stop on the Abora’s projected three-and-a-half-month journey is the Azore islands, where Goerlitz hopes to put in for fresh provisions by August 10, and then to Cadiz on Spain’s southern tip and the Canary Islands. The boat will be equipped with modern navigation and communications equipment.

One of the crew members, Bolivian Fermin Limachi, 38, the son of a man who worked on a Heyerdahl boat, helped build Goerlitz’s Abora. The Amyra Indians of the high Andes are the world’s only known people who still know how to form reeds into tight tapered bundles for sea- worthy vessels.

The idea that ancient people could have navigated and steered large vessels across vast oceans – not just drifted in wind and currents – flies in the face of all established academic knowledge.

That in fact is what spurs Goerlitz on – that, and the fact that people laughed at Heyerdahl, too.

‘We act as though the ancients were second class people,’ Goerlitz told Deutsche Presse-Agentur dpa. ‘Yet they must have been advanced sailors, and I’m convinced they had advanced navigation.’

Goerlitz cites the evidence: Plants known to have originated exclusively in the New World, like **** and tobacco, were found in the tomb of the ancient Egyptian ruler Ramses II. Vintage 6,000-year- old rock drawings in Egypt’s Wadi Hammamat depict reed boats with keels on the side.

But what clinched Goerlitz’s conviction was a lowly plant called the bottle gourd.

Goerlitz, who says he makes his living as a freelance lecturer, is working on his doctorate in invasion biology at the University of Bonn.

For more than a decade, he has bugged his professors about how the bottle gourd, which was essential for the development of irrigation and agriculture across a world that had not yet discovered pottery, managed to spring as a full-blown domesticated plant within a relatively short time in Asia, the Americas and Africa.

The standard answer was that the seed was first domesticated in one place, and then floated to the other places.

‘I asked my botany professor, and he shrugged his shoulders,’ Goerlitz said. ”We assume it got there under its own power,’ I was told. ‘Ask the archeologists’.’

The archeologists didn’t know either, and they sent Goerlitz to the ethnologists, who also didn’t know.

Goerlitz was convinced that the answer lay in vibrant long- distance ocean voyages, carried out for trade or colonization long before historians believe was possible.

Goerlitz found confirmation in more recent molecular biology studies showing that the bottle gourd, in fact, grew 9,000 years ago in southern Africa, and yet also emerged as a full-blown domesticated plant, without any evidence of gradual cultivation, in the Americas about 6,000 to 10,000 years ago.

‘There’s amazing evidence that people could sail in every direction, and the evidence in the books must be completely wrong. People who spread agriculture … from Asia to Africa, these must have been advanced sailors,’ Goerlitz said.

The Abora’s website, www.abora3.de, will be posting live reports on the journey, estimated to cost more than 500,000 dollars.

© 2007 dpa – Deutsche Presse-Agentur

Kon Artist?
Though evidence against his theory grew, Kon-Tiki sailor Thor Heyerdahl never steered from his course.

    By Richard Conniff
    Smithsonian magazine, July 2002, Subscribe

One of the first lessons you learn going into the field as an anthropologist, archaeologist or journalist is never to come back empty-handed. The cost of the expedition, the need to gratify sponsors, the urge to make a name, all turn up the pressure to get the story. So it’s easy to forget the second great lesson of fieldwork: beware of a story that’s just a little too good.

Thor Heyerdahl, who died in April at the age of 87, spent much of an active and sometimes inspiring life in the thrall of one good story. He believed that, long before Columbus, early ocean travelers—tall, fair-skinned, redheaded Vikings much like himself—spread human culture to the most remote corners of the earth. Academics scoffed, particularly at his idea that the islands of the mid-Pacific had been colonized by way of South America, rather than by Polynesians from the western Pacific. In 1947, Heyerdahl risked his life attempting to prove his point. He built a balsa-log raft, the Kon-Tiki, and in one of the great ocean adventures of the 20th century, he and his small crew made the harrowing 4,300-mile voyage from Peru to French Polynesia.

In the process, Heyerdahl established himself as an almost mythic hero. His best-selling book Kon-Tiki inspired a new generation of scholars—many of whom went on to systematically refute their hero’s great idea.

The trouble with a good story is that it has a way of distorting the facts: we see what we want to see and close our eyes to everything else. In the 1970s, scholars and filmmakers were so enraptured with the idea of peace-loving, Stone Age hunter-gatherers they failed to notice that the gentle Tasaday were a very modern Filipino hoax. In the harsher zeitgeist of more recent times, a hotly disputed book, Darkness in El Dorado, charges that anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon believed so firmly in the savagery of Venezuela’s Yanomami that he instigated the very bloodshed he went there to document. (Chagnon steadfastly denies the charge.)

A good story can be so compelling that teller and subject become entrapped together in its charms, and this was never more true than when Heyerdahl came swashbuckling onto Easter Island in 1955, determined to find hard evidence of South American origins.

He liked to be known to the islanders as Señor Kon-Tiki, and asked, among other things, for samples of old pottery, a technology known in South America but not in Polynesia. One enterprising islander promptly broke up a pot and buried the shards, a ruse Heyerdahl readily detected. “If there is a moral to all this,” another member of the expedition wrote later, “it is that archaeologists should be cautious about telling local, nonprofessionals what they would like to find.” Incautiously, Heyerdahl displayed a stuffed caiman from South America and the llama-like camel on a pack of cigarettes, to elicit the kinds of artifacts he sought.

His 1958 book, Aku-Aku, described just how brilliantly he succeeded. After discovering that the islanders had secret family caves full of “ancient” stone sculptures, Heyerdahl gained admission to them by invoking his own considerable spiritual aura, or aku-aku. By giving the islanders clothing, food and cigarettes, he persuaded them to hand over almost a thousand carvings, some of them redolent of South America: a penguin, llamas, a reed boat like the ones used on Lake Titicaca in Peru.

When I visited the islanders in 1992, they still clearly admired Señor Kon-Tiki, and they celebrated him as “good p.r. for Easter Island.” But they delighted in pointing out how selective and misleading he had been in the evidence he marshaled for his hypothesis.

One day I was talking with an island businessman in gold-rimmed glasses and a blue button-down shirt. “Thor knew I was a very good carver, and he came to see me,” he said. “He asked me to take out of my cave all the ancient objects that I had there, to sell to him. I told him I didn’t have anything, and he said, ‘I know exactly what you have. At the entrance to your cave, there is the head of a whale…’ And he started mentioning things that he insisted I had. I said I didn’t have them, and he said, ‘No, no, no! You have them and I’ll pay you for them.’ So I understood perfectly well that he was saying, ‘Carve them and I’ll pay you.’”

He thought about this for a moment, then added: “He was fooling the world. He was making his own spectacle….He was writing the book to make people say, ‘Ah!’ And it was good for the island in a certain way, because tourists came.”

The first time I heard this, I didn’t believe it: the islanders have a rich tradition of making up their own history, and they naturally wanted to seem like the shrewd ones in this relationship. But the implication that Aku-Aku was riddled with genial deceptions by Heyerdahl and the islanders, on one another and the world, came up over and over, with only minor variation.

One of the most interesting accounts came from a man whose secret cave was the source of 47 of the celebrated stone figures. In his 1975 book, The Art of Easter Island, Heyerdahl described at length how he determined their authenticity, concluding, “It was obvious to all of us that Pedro Pate could not have staged this cave. …” Pate, now deceased, was a 73-year-old fisherman and carver at the time of my visit, and he laughed at the idea of authenticity. When he’d first brought a sack of carvings to Heyerdahl’s camp, he said Heyerdahl refused to look at them. The venue was wrong. “He said, ‘No, no, no, you take these things to the caves,’” where Heyerdahl could discover them

At Pate’s cave, Heyerdahl wrote, he was particularly impressed with a carving of a two-masted reed boat, on which the dust lay a half-inch thick. He carried it out of the cave himself. To demonstrate that no modern islander could have produced such a masterpiece, Heyerdahl reported that one of the best carvers on the island had tried to create a replica; the result, he wrote, was clumsy and unconvincing.

I showed Pate a two-page photograph of the reed boat from Heyerdahl’s book, and he grinned. He’d carved the boat himself, he said. Dubious, I offered him $100 to carve such a boat now, 37 years later, and he accepted. When I visited him again, he was working in front of his house, with the half-formed sculpture propped up on a block of wood and his chisels, rasps and an adze laid out beneath him on a piece of corrugated cardboard.

A few days later, he presented me with the 18-inch-long reed boat he had carved. It was as good as the one in the book. I paid him, and as he wrapped the boat for me to take, he told me confidentially, like a shopkeeper suggesting a second pair of pants to go with a new suit, that he had actually carved two.

When I got the news, ten years later, that Heyerdahl had died, I retrieved that old carving from my yard. It’s broken into pieces now, and clotted with leaf litter and mud. I phoned an Easter Island archaeologist, William Ayres, who chairs the Pacific Island Studies program at the University of Oregon, and he confirmed that many of Heyerdahl’s cave carvings are now deemed modern. I leafed through my old notes from an interview with an islander who used to kid Heyerdahl in later years about the faked carvings. But Heyerdahl stuck by his story to the end. Once, at a conference, a colleague asked him how he could persist with the South American hypothesis when his own archaeologists had produced overwhelming evidence that the Easter Island culture had, in fact, come from Polynesia. Heyerdahl looked down at him like a giant crane peering down on a small worm, and he said, ‘‘Well, I have my audience.”

An audience is what everyone who works in the field ultimately wants: a chance to climb up out of the dust and make the world say, “Ah!” But at what cost? Turning over Pedro Pate’s sculpture and studying it under the light at my desk, it seemed to me that what I held in my hand was that titillating and very dangerous thing: a good story.         

As a child, author Richard Conniff regarded Thor Heyerdahl as a hero

“ANCIENTS IN AMERICA”

The Far-Traveling Egyptians

Statues: In 1914, archaeologist M.A. Gonzales was excavating some Mayan ruins in the city of Acajutla, Mexico when he was surprised by the discovery of two statuettes that were clearly Egyptian. One male and one female, the carvings bore ancient Egyptian dress and cartouches. They are thought to depict Osiis and Isis.
Inscriptions: Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs have been found in New South Wales, Australia. Located on a rock cliff in the National Park forest of the Hunter Valley, north of Sydney, the enigmatic carvings have been known since the early 1900s. There are more than 250 carvings of familiar Egyptian gods and symbols, including a life-sized engraving of the god Anubis. The hieroglyphs tell the story of explorers who were shipwrecked in a strange and hostile land, and the untimely death of their royal leader, “Lord Djes-eb.” From this information, scholars have been able to date the voyage to somewhere between 1779 and 2748 BC.
Fossils: In 1982, archaeologists digging at Fayum, near the Siwa Oasis in Egypt uncovered fossils of kangaroos and other Australian marsupials.
Language: There are striking similarities between the languages of ancient Egypt and those of the Native Americans that inhabited the areas around Louisiana about the time of Christ. B. Fell, of the Epigraphic Society, has stated that the language of the Atakapas, and to a lesser extent those of the Tunica and Chitimacha tribes, have affinities with Nile Valley languages involving just those words one would associate with Egyptian trading communities of 2,000 years ago.
Artifacts: Near the Neapean River outside Penrith, New South Wales, a scarab beetle – a familair Egyptian symbol – carved from onyx was unearthed. Another was found in Queensland, Australia.
Tombs: The April 5, 1909 edition of The Phoenix Gazette carried a front-page article about the discovery and excavation of an Egyptian tomb in the Grand Canyon by none other that the Smithsonian. The Smithsonian has since denied knowledge of any such discovery.
The Scattered Tribes of Israel

Inscriptions:
In 1889, the Smithsonian’s Mound Survey project discovered a stone in a burial mound in eastern Tennessee on which is inscribed ancient Hebrew lettering. Known as The Bat Creek Stone, experts have identified its letters as being Paleo-Hebrew dating from the first or second century A.D. Some of the letters spell out: “for Judea.”
An abridged version of the Ten Commandments was found carved into the flat face of a large boulder resting on the side of Hidden Mountain near Los Lunas, New Mexico. Known as The Los Lunas Inscription, its language is Hebrew, and the script is the Old Hebrew alphabet with a few Greek letters mixed in.
Artifacts:
In June, 1860, David Wyrick found an artifact on the general shape of a keystone near Newark, Ohio that is covered in four ancient Hebrew inscriptions translated as: “Holy of Holies,” “King of the Earth,” “The Law of God” and “The Word of God.”
In November of that same year, Wyrick found an inscribed stone in a burial mound about 10 miles south of of Newark, Ohio. The stone is inscribed on all sides with a condensed version of the Ten Commandments or Decalogue, in a peculiar form of post-Exilic square Hebrew letters. A robed and bearded figure on the front is identified as Moses in letters fanning over his head.
Asians on the West Coast

Stories:
Indian traditions tell of many “houses” seen on Pacific waters. Could they have been ships from Asia?
Chinese history tells a charming account of voyages to the land of “Fusang.”
Old Spanish documents describe oriental ships off the Mexican coast in 1576.
Coins: In the summer of 1882, a miner in British Columbia found 30 Chinese coins 25 feet below the surface. The examined coins of this style were invented by the Emperor Huungt around 2637 B.C.
Artifacts:
Japanese explorers and traders left steel blades in Alaska and their distinctive pottery in Ecuador.
Underwater explorations off the California coast have yielded stone artifacts that seem to be anchors and line weights. The style and type of stone point to Chinese origins.
Structures: California’s East Bay Walls, ancient low rock walls east of San Francisco Bay, have long been a mystery. No one knows who built them or why. In 1904, Dr. John Fryer, professor of Oriental languages at U.C. Berkeley, declared: “This is undoubtedly the work of Mongolians… the Chinese would naturally wall themselves in, as they do in all of their towns in China.”
http://paranormal.about.com/library/weekly/aa080700b.htm
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Ponce De Leon Never Searched for the Fountain of Youth
How did this myth about the Spanish explorer even get its start?

 

    By Matthew Shaer
    Smithsonian magazine, June 2013, Subscribe

 
Ponce de Leon
Ponce de León’s name wasn’t tied to the Fountain of Youth until 14 years after his death. (The Granger Collection, NYC)
More from Smithsonian.com

    Setting Sail: the 500th Anniversary of Juan Ponce de León’s Discovery of Florida

Half a millennium ago, in 1513, the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León departed Puerto Rico for the verdant island of “Bimini”—an uncharted land in what is now the Bahamas. He eventually landed instead in Florida, where he staked a claim for the Spanish Crown and ensured himself a spot in the annals of history.

As legend has it , and as scholars have maintained for centuries, Ponce was in search of the Fountain of Youth, a fabled wellspring thought to give everlasting life to whoever bathed in or drank from it. But new scholarship contradicts the old fable and suggests that Ponce was interested not in longevity but political gain.

The real story goes something like this: In 1511, messy political squabbling forced Ponce to surrender the governorship of Puerto Rico, an appointment he had held since 1509. As a consolation prize, King Ferdinand offered him Bimini, assuming the stalwart conquistador could finance an expedition and actually find it.

J. Michael Francis, a historian at the University of South Florida, St. Petersburg who has spent decades studying the Spanish colonies in the Americas , says no mention of a Fountain of Youth occurs in any known documents from Ponce’s lifetime, including contracts and other official correspondence with the Crown. In fact, Ponce’s name did not become connected with the Fountain of Youth until many years after his death, and then only thanks to a Spanish court chronicler out to discredit him.

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés disliked Ponce, contending that he was gullible, egocentric and dull-witted. The animosity probably had something to do with court politics: Oviedo aligned himself with Diego Columbus, who was the son of Christopher and the man who helped push Ponce out of Puerto Rico.

In Historia general y natural de las Indias, Oviedo’s account of the Spanish settling of the Americas, he relates a tale in which Ponce, deceived by Indians, goes tromping off on a futile hunt for the Fountain of Youth. It’s all a literary device intended to make Ponce appear foolish. Although visits to spas and mineral baths were common in the 16th century, actually believing water could reverse aging was apparently considered pretty silly.

Oviedo’s satiric version of Ponce’s travels stuck. “You’ve got this incredible story that started out as an invention,” Francis says, “and by the 17th century, it has become history.” (For what it’s worth, Ponce died at age 47 after being wounded by an arrow in a fight with an Indian tribe in Florida.)

Of course, not all tall tales are codified by the passing years into something approaching fact. Sherry Johnson, a historian at Florida International University, says the myth of Ponce de León and his magical fountain remain because of the romance. “Instinctively, we latch on to it—this idea that we might never get old,” she says. It also fits the self-made mythos of America, a young country where, we’re taught, anything is possible.

Florida continues to capitalize on what could be its greatest legend, with hundreds of tourists drinking each day from the stone well at St. Augustine’s Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park. Despite debunking efforts by Francis and others, the story of Ponce’s fountain just won’t die.

 

It was the glory of Italy to furnish the greatest of the discoverers of the New World. Not only Columbus

, but Vespucci (or Vespucius)

Amerigo Vespucci

 

, the Sebastian Cabots,

 

and Verazzani

 

were born under Italian skies; yet singularly enough the country of the Caesars was to gain not a square foot of territory for herself where other nations divided majestic continents between them

 

 

AMERIGO (AMERICO) VESPUCCI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amerigo Vespucci (1452-1512):
Account of His First Voyage, 1497

                                 
                                              A M E R I G O VERPUCCI    

             
Amerigo Vespucci (born in Florence in 1452), whose name was given to the American continents by Waldsmuller in 1507, worked in Seville (where he died) in the business house which fitted out Columbus’ second expedition. Here he gives an account of the first of his own four voyages. If his claims are accurate he reached the mainland of the Americas shortly before Cabot, and  at least 14 months before Columbus.

Letter of Amerigo Vespucci

To Pier Soderini, Gonfalonier of the Republic of Florence

Magnificent Lord. After humble reverence and due commendations, etc. It may be that your Magnificence will be surprised by (this conjunction of) my rashness and your customary wisdom, in that I should so absurdly bestir myself to write to your Magnificence the present so-prolix letter: knowing (as I do) that your Magnificence is continually employed in high councils and affairs concerning the good government of this sublime Republic. And will hold me not only presumptuous, but also idlymeddlesome in setting myself to write things, neither suitable to your station, nor entertaining, and written in barbarous style, and outside of every canon of polite literature: but my confidence which I have in your virtues and in the truth of my writing, which are things (that) are not found written neither by the ancients nor by modern writers, as your Magnificence will in the sequel perceive, makes me bold. The chief cause which moved (me) to write to you, was at the request of the present bearer, who is named Benvenuto Benvenuti our Florentine (fellow-citizen), very much, as it is proven, your Magnificence’s servant, and my very good friend: who happening to be here in this city of Lisbon, begged that I should make communication to your Magnificence of the things seen by me in divers regions of the world, by virtue of four voyages which I have made in discovery of new lands: two by order of the king of Castile, King Don Ferrando VI, across the great gulf of the Ocean-sea, towards the west: and the other two by command of the puissant King Don Manuel King of Portugal, towards the south; telling me that your Magnificence would take pleasure thereof, and that herein he hoped to do you service: wherefore I set me to do it: because I am assured that your Magnificence holds me in the number of your servants, remembering that in the time of our youth I was your friend, and now (am your) servant: and (remembering our) going to hear the rudiments of grammar under the fair example and instruction of the venerable monk friar of Saint Mark Fra Giorgio Antonio Vespucci: whose counsels and teaching would to God that I had followed: for as saith Petrarch, I should be another man than what I am. Howbeit soever I grieve not: because I have ever taken delight in worthy matters: and although these trifles of mine may not be suitable to your virtues, I will say to you as said Pliny to Maecenas, you were sometime wont to take pleasure in my prattlings: even though your Magnificence be continuously busied in public affairs, you will take some hour of relaxation to consume a little time in frivolous or amusing things: and as fennel is customarily given atop of delicious viands to fit them for better digestion, so may you, for a relief from your so heavy occupations, order this letter of mine to be read: so that they may withdraw you somewhat from the continual anxiety and assiduous reflection upon public affairs: and if I shall be prolix, I crave pardon, my Magnificent Lord. Your Magnificence shall know that the motive of my coming into his realm of Spain was to traffic in merchandise: and that I pursued this intent about four years: during which I saw and knew the inconstant shiftings of Fortune: and how she kept changing those frail and transitory benefits: and how at one time she holds man on the summit of the wheel, and at another time drives him back from her, and despoils him of what may be called his borrowed riches: so that, knowing the continuous toil which main undergoes to win them, submitting himself to so many anxieties and risks, I resolved to abandon trade, and to fix my aim upon something more praiseworthy and stable: whence it was that I made preparation for going to see part of the world and its wonders: and herefor the time and place presented themselves most opportunely to me: which was that the King Don Ferrando of Castile being about to despatch four ships to discover new lands towards the west, I was chosen by his Highness to go in that fleet to aid in making discovery: and we set out from the port of Cadiz on the 10th day of May 1497, and took our route through the great gulf of the Ocean-sea: in which voyage we were eighteen months (engaged): and discovered much continental land and innumerable islands, and great part of them inhabited: whereas there is no mention made by the ancient writers of them: I believe, because they had no knowledge thereof: for, if I remember well, I have read in some one (of those writers) that he considered that this Ocean-sea was an unpeopled sea: and of this opinion was Dante our poet in the xxvi. chapter of the Inferno, where he feigns the death of Ulysses, in which voyage I beheld things of great wondrousness, as your Magnificence shall understand. As I said above, we left the port of Cadiz four consort ships: and began our voyage in direct course to the Fortunates Isles which are called to-day la gran Canaria, which are situated in the Ocean-sea at the extremity of the inhabited west, (and) set in the third climate: over which the North Pole has an elevation of 27 and a half degrees beyond their horizon [note 1: That is, which are situate at 27 1/2 degrees north latitude.] and they are 280 leagues distant from this city of Lisbon, by the wind between mezzo di and libeccio. [note 2: South-south-west. It is to be remarked that Vespucci always uses the word wind to signify the course in which it blows, not the quarter from which it rises.] where we remained eight days, taking in provision of water, and wood and other necessary things: and from here, having said our prayers, we weighed anchor, and gave the sails to the wind, beginning our course to westward, taking one quarter by southwest [note 3: West and a quarter by south-west.]: and so we sailed on till at the end of 37 days we reached a land which we deemed to be a continent: which is distant westwardly from the isles of Canary about a thousand leagues beyond the inhabited region [note 4: This phrase is merely equivalent to a repetition of from the Canaries, these islands having been already designated the extreme western limit of inhabited land.] within the torrid zone: for we found the North Pole at an elevation of 16 degrees above its horizon, [note 5: That is, 16 degrees north latitude.] and (it was) westward, according to the shewing of our instruments, 75 degrees from the isles of Canary: whereat we anchored with our ships a league and a half from land; and we put out our boats freighted with men and arms: we made towards the land, and before we reached it, had sight of a great number of people who were going along the shore: by which we were much rejoiced: and we observed that they were a naked race: they shewed themselves to stand in fear of us: I believe (it was) because they saw us clothed and of other appearance (than their own): they all withdrew to a hill, and for whatsoever signals we made to them of peace and of friendliness, they would not come to parley with us: so that, as the night was now coming on, and as the ships were anchored in a dangerous place, being on a rough and shelterless coast, we decided to remove from there the next day, and to go in search of some harbour or bay, where we might place our ships in safety: and we sailed with the maestrale wind, [note 6: North-west] thus running along the coast with the land ever in sight, continually in our course observing people along the shore: till after having navigated for two days, we found a place sufficiently secure for the ships, and anchored half a league from land, on which we saw a very great number of people: and this same day we put to land with the boats, and sprang on shore full 40 men in good trim: and still the land’s people appeared shy of converse with us, and we were unable to encourage them so much as to make them come to speak with us: and this day we laboured so greatly in giving them of our wares, such as rattles and mirrors, beads, spalline, and other trifles, that some of them took confidence and came to discourse with us: and after having made good friends with them, the night coming on, we took our leave of them and returned to the ships: and the next day when the dawn appeared we saw that there were infinite numbers of people upon the beach, and they had their women and children with them: we went, ashore, and found that they were all laden with their worldly goods [note 7: Mantenimenti. The word “all” (tucte) is feminine, and probably refers only to the women.] which are suchlike as, in its (proper) place, shall be related: and before we reached the land, many of them jumped into the sea and came swimming to receive us at a bowshot’s length (from the shore), for they are very great swimmers, with as much confidence as if they had for a long time been acquainted with us: and we were pleased with this their confidence. For so much as we learned of their manner of life and customs, it was that they go entirely naked, as well the men as the women. . . . They are of medium stature, very well proportioned: their flesh is of a colour the verges into red like a lion’s mane: and I believe that if they went clothed, they would be as white as we: they have not any hair upon the body, except the hair of the head which is long and black, and especially in the women, whom it renders handsome: in aspect they are not very good-looking, because they have broad faces, so that they would seem Tartar-like: they let no hair grow on their eyebrows, nor on their eyelids, nor elsewhere, except the hair of the head: for they hold hairiness to be a filthy thing: they are very light footed in walking and in running, as well the men as the women: so that a woman recks nothing of running a league or two, as many times we saw them do: and herein they have a very great advantage over us Christians: they swim (with an expertness) beyond all belief, and the women better than the men: for we have many times found and seen them swimming two leagues out at sea without anything to rest upon. Their arms are bows and arrows very well made, save that (the arrows) are not (tipped) with iron nor any other kind of hard metal: and instead of iron they put animals’ or fishes’ teeth, or a spike of tough wood, with the point hardened by fire: they are sure marksmen, for they hit whatever they aim at: and in some places the women use these bows: they have other weapons, such as fire-hardened spears, and also clubs with knobs, beautifully carved. Warfare is used amongst them, which they carry on against people not of their own language, very cruelly, without granting life to any one, except (to reserve him) for greater suffering. When they go to war, they take their women with them, not that these may fight, but because they carry behind them their worldly goods, for a woman carries on her back for thirty or forty leagues a load which no man could bear: as we have many times seen them do. They are not accustomed to have any Captain, nor do they go in any ordered array, for every one is lord of himself: and the cause of their wars is not for lust of dominion, nor of extending their frontiers, no for inordinate covetousness, but for some ancient enmity which in by-gone times arose amongst them: and when asked why they made war, they knew not any other reason to give than that they did so to avenge the death of their ancestors, or of their parents: these people have neither King, nor Lord, nor do they yield obedience to any one, for they live in their own liberty: and how they be stirred up to go to war is (this) that when the enemies have slain or captured any of them, his oldest kinsman rises up and goes about the highways haranguing them to go with him and avenge the death of such his kinsman: and so are they stirred up by fellow-feeling: they have no judicial system, nor do they punish the ill-doer: nor does the father, nor the mother chastise the children and marvelously (seldom) or never did we see any dispute among them: in their conversation they appear simple, and they are very cunning and acute in that which concerns them: they speak little and in a low tone: they use the same articulations as we, since they form their utterances either with the palate, or with the teeth, or on the lips: [note 8: He means that they have no sounds in their language unknown to European organs of speech, all being either palatals or dentals of labials.] except that they give different names to things. Many are the varieties of tongues: for in every 100 leagues we found a change of language, so that they are not understandable each to the other. The manner of their living is very barbarous, for they do not eat at certain hours, and as often-times as they will: and it is not much of a boon to them [note 9: I have translated “et non si da loro molto” as “it is not much of a boon to them,.” but may be “it matters not much to them.”] that the will may come more at midnight than by day, for they eat at all hours: and they eat upon the ground without a table-cloth or any other cover, for they have their meats either in earthen basins which they make themselves, or in the halves of pumpkins: they sleep in certain very large nettings made of cotton, suspended in the air: and although this their (fashion of) sleeping may seem uncomfortable, I say that it is sweet to sleep in those (nettings): and we slept better in them than in the counterpanes. They are a people smooth and clean of body, because of so continually washing themselves as they do. . .

Amongst those people we did not learn that they had any law, nor can they be called Moors nor Jews, and (they are) worse than pagans: because we did not observe that they offered any sacrifice: nor even had they a house of prayer: their manner of living I judge to be Epicurean: their dwellings are in common: and their houses (are) made in the style of huts, but strongly made, and constructed with very large trees, and covered over with palm-leaves, secure against storms and winds: and in some places (they are) of so great breadth and length, that in one single house we found there were 600 souls: and we saw a village of only thirteen houses where there were four thousand souls: every eight or ten years they change their habitations: and when asked why they did so: (they said it was) because of the soil which, from its filthiness, was already unhealthy and corrupted, and that it bred aches in their bodies, which seemed to us a good reason: their riches consist of bird’s plumes of many colours, or of rosaries which they make from fishbones, or of white or green stones which they put in their cheeks and in their lips and ears, and of many other things which we in no wise value: they use no trade, they neither buy nor sell. In fine, they live and are contended with that which nature gives them. The wealth that we enjoy in this our Europe and elsewhere, such as gold, jewels, pearls, and other riches, they hold as nothing; and although they have them in their own lands, they do not labour to obtain them, nor do they value them. They are liberal in giving, for it is rarely they deny you anything: and on the other hand, liberal in asking, when they shew themselves your friends. . . .

When they die, they use divers manners of obsequies, and some they bury with water and victuals at their heads: thinking that they shall have (whereof) to eat: they have not nor do they use ceremonies of torches nor of lamentation. In some other places, they use the most barbarous and inhuman burial, which is that when a suffering or infirm (person) is as it were at the last pass of death, his kinsmen carry him into a large forest, and attach one of those nets, of theirs, in which they sleep, to two trees, and then put him in it, and dance around him for a whole day: and when the night comes on they place at his bolster, water with other victuals, so that he may be able to subsist for four or six days: and then they leave him alone and return to the village: and if the sick man helps himself, and eats, and drinks, and survives, he returns to the village, and his (friends) receive him with ceremony: but few are they who escape: without receiving any further visit they die, and that is their sepulture: and they have many other customs which for prolixity are not related. They use in their sicknesses various forms of medicines, [note 10: That is, “medical treatment.”] so different from ours that we marvelled how any one escaped: for many times I saw that with a man sick of fever, when it heightened upon him, they bathed him from head to foot with a large quantity of cold water: then they lit a great fire around him, making him turn and turn again every two hours, until they tired him and left him to sleep, and many were (thus) cured: with this they make use of dieting, for they remain three days without eating, and also of blood-letting, but not from the arm, only from the thighs and the loins and the calf of the leg: also they provoke vomiting with their herbs which are put into the mouth: and they use many other remedies which it would be long to relate: they are much vitiated in the phlegm and in the blood because of their food which consists chiefly of roots of herbs, and fruits and fish: they have no seed of wheat nor other grain: and for their ordinary use and feeding, they have a root of a tree, from which they make flour, tolerably good, and they call it Iuca, and another which they call Cazabi, and another Ignami: they eat little flesh except human flesh: for your Magnificence must know that herein they are so inhuman that they outdo every custom (even) of beasts; for they eat all their enemies whom they kill or capture, as well females as males with so much savagery, that (merely) to relate it appears a horrible thing: how much more so to see it, as, infinite times and in many places, it was my hap to see it: and they wondered to hear us say that we did not eat our enemies: and this your Magnificence may take for certain, that their other barbarous customs are such that expression is too weak for the reality: and as in these four voyages I have seen so many things diverse from our customs, I prepared to write a common-place-book which I name Le quattro Giornate: in which I have set down the greater part of the things which I saw, sufficiently in detail, so far as my feeble wit has allowed me: which I have not yet published, because I have so ill a taste for my own things that I do not relish those which I have written, notwithstanding that many encourage me to publish it: therein everything will be seen in detail: so that I shall not enlarge further in this chapter: as in the course of the letter we shall come to many other things which are particular: let this suffice for the general. At this beginning, we saw nothing in the land of much profit, except some show of gold: I believe the cause of it was that we did not know the language: but in so far as concerns the situation and condition of the land, it could not be better: we decided to leave that place, and to go further on, continuously coasting the shore: upon which we made frequent descents, and held converse with a great number of people: and at the end of some days we went into a harbour where we underwent very great danger: and it pleased the Holy Ghost to save us: and it was in this wise. We landed in a harbour, where we found a village built like Venice upon the water: there were about 44 large dwellings in the form of huts erected upon very thick piles, and they had their doors or entrances in the style of drawbridges: and from each house one could pass through all, by means of the drawbridges which stretched from house to house: and when the people thereof had seen us, they appeared to be afraid of us, and immediately drew up all the bridges: and while we were looking at this strange action, we saw coming across the sea about 22 canoes, which are a kind of boats of theirs, constructed from a single tree: which came towards our boats, as they had been surprised by our appearance and clothes, and kept wide of us: and thus remaining, we made signals to them that they should approach us, encouraging them will every token of friendliness: and seeing that they did not come, we went to them, and they did not stay for us, but made to the land, and, by signs, told us to wait, and that they should soon return: and they went to a hill in the background, and did not delay long: when they returned, they led with them 16 of their girls, and entered with these into their canoes, and came to the boats: and in each boat they put 4 of the girls. That we marvelled at this behavior your Magnificence can imagine how much, and they placed themselves with their canoes among our boats, coming to speak with us: insomuch that we deemed it a mark of friendliness: and while thus engaged, we beheld a great number of people advance swimming towards us across the sea, who came from the houses: and as they were drawing near to us without any apprehension: just then there appeared at the doors of the houses certain old women, uttering very loud cries and tearing their hair to exhibit grief: whereby they made us suspicious, and we each betook ourselves to arms: and instantly the girls whom we had in the boats, threw themselves into the sea, and the men of the canoes drew away from us, and began with their bows to shoot arrows at us: and those who were swimming each carried a lance held, as covertly as they could, beneath the water: so that, recognizing the treachery, we engaged with them, not merely to defend ourselves, but to attack them vigorously, and we overturned with our boats many of their almadie or canoes, for so they call them, we made a slaughter (of them), and they all flung themselves into the water to swim, leaving their canoes abandoned, with considerable loss on their side, they went swimming away to the shore: there died of them about 15 or 20, and many were left wounded: and of ours 5 were wounded, and all, by the grace of God, escaped (death): we captured two of the girls and two men: and we proceeded to their houses, and entered therein, and in them all we found nothing else than two old women and a sick man: we took away from them many things, but of small value: and we would not burn their houses, because it seemed to us (as though that would be) a burden upon our conscience: and we returned to our boats with five prisoners: and betook ourselves to the ships, and put a pair of irons on the feet of each of the captives, except the little girls: and when the night came on, the two girls and one of the men fled away in the most subtle manner possible: and next day we decided to quit that harbour and go further onwards: we proceeded continuously skirting the coast, (until) we had sight of another tribe distant perhaps some 80 leagues from the former tribe: and we found them very different in speech and customs: we resolved to cast anchor, and went ashore with the boats, and we saw on the beach a great number of people amounting probably to 4000 souls: and when we had reached the shore, they did not stay for us, but betook themselves to flight through the forests, abandoning their things: we jumped on land, and took a pathway that led to the forest: and at the distance of a bow-shot we found their tents, where they had made very large fires, and two (of them) were cooking their victuals, and roasting several animals, and fish of many kinds: where we saw that they were roasting a certain animal which seemed to be a serpent, save that it had not wings, and was in its appearance so loathsome that we marvelled much at its savageness: Thus went we on through their houses, or rather tents, and found many of those serpents alive, and they were tied by the feet and had a cord around their snouts, so that they could not open their mouths, as is done (in Europe) with mastiff-dogs so that they may not bite: they were of such savage aspect that none of us dared to take one away, thinking that they were poisonous: they are of the bigness of a kid, and in length an ell and a half: [note 11: This animal was the iguana.] their feet are long and thick, and armed with big claws: they have a hard skin, and are of various colours: they have the muzzle and face of a serpent: and from their snouts there rises a crest like a saw which extends along the middle of the back as far as the tip of the tail: in fine we deemed them to be serpents and venomous, and (nevertheless, those people) ate them: we found that they made bread out of little fishes which they took from the sea, first boiling them, (then) pounding them, and making thereof a paste, or bread, and they baked them on the embers: thus did they eat them: we tried it, and found that it was good: they had so many other kinds of eatables, and especially of fruits and roots, that it would be a large matter to describe them in detail: and seeing that the people did not return, we decided not to touch nor take away anything of theirs, so as better to reassure them: and we left in the tents for them many of our things, placed where they should see them, and returned by night to our ships: and the next day, when it was light, we saw on the beach an infinite number of people: and we landed: and although they appeared timorous towards us, they took courage nevertheless to hold converse with us, giving us whatever we asked of them: and shewing themselves very friendly towards us, they told us that those were their dwellings, and that they had come hither for the purpose of fishing: and they begged that we would visit their dwellings and villages, because they desired to receive us as friends: and they engaged in such friendship because of the two captured men whom we had with us, as these were their enemies: insomuch that, in view of such importunity on their part, holding a council, we determined that 28 of us Christians in good array should go with them, and in the firm resolve to die if it should be necessary: and after we had been here some three days, we went with them inland: and at three leagues from the coast we came to a village of many people and few houses, for there were no more than nine (of these): where we were received with such and so many barbarous ceremonies that the pen suffices not to write them down: for there were dances, and songs, and lamentations mingled with rejoicing, and great quantities of food: and here we remained the night: . . . and after having been here that night and half the next day, so great was the number of people who came wondering to behold us that they were beyond counting: and the most aged begged us to go with them to other villages which were further inland, making display of doing us the greatest honour: wherefore we decided to go: and it would be impossible to tell you how much honour they did us: and we went to several villages, so that we were nine days journeying, so that our Christians who had remained with the ships were already apprehensive concerning us: and when we were about 18 leagues in the interior of the land, we resolved to return to the ships: and on our way back, such was the number of people, as well men as women, that came with us as far as the sea, that it was a wondrous thing: and if any of us became weary of the march, they carried us in their nets very refreshingly: and in crossing the rivers, which are many and very large, they passed us over by skilful means so securely that we ran no danger whatever, and many of them came laden with the things which they had given us, which consisted in their sleeping-nets, and very rich feathers, many bows and arrows, innumerable popinjays of divers colours: and others brought with them loads of their household goods, and of animals: but a greater marvel will I tell you, that, when we had to cross a river, he deemed himself lucky who was able to carry us on his back: and when we reached the sea, our boats having arrived, we entered into them: and so great was the struggle which they made to get into our boats, and to come to see our ships, that we marvelled (thereat): and in our boats we took as many of them as we could, and made our way to the ships, and so many (others) came swimming that we found ourselves embarrassed in seeing so many people in the ships, for there were over a thousand persons all naked and unarmed: they were amazed by our (nautical) gear and contrivances, and the size of the ships: and with them there occurred to us a very laughable affair, which was that we decided to fire off some of our great guns, and when the explosion took place, most of them through fear cast themselves (into the sea) to swim, not otherwise than frogs on the margins of a pond, when they see something that frightens them, will jump into the water, just so did those people: and those who remained in the ships were so terrified that we regretted our action: however we reassured them by telling them that with those arms we slew our enemies: and when they had amused themselves in the ships the whole day, we told them to go away because we desired to depart that night, and so separating from us with much friendship and love, they went away to land. Amongst that people and in their land, I knew and beheld so many of their customs and ways of living, that I do not care to enlarge upon them: for Your Magnificence must know that in each of my voyages I have noted the most wonderful things, and I have indited it all in a volume after the manner of a geography: and I entitle it Le Quattro Giornate: in which work the things are comprised in detail, and as yet there is no copy of it given out, as it is necessary for me to revise it. This land is very populous, and full of inhabitants, and of numberless rivers, (and) animals: few (of which) resemble ours, excepting lions, panthers, stags, pigs, goats, and deer: and even these have some dissimilarities of form: they have no horses nor mules, nor, saving your reverence, asses nor dogs, nor any kind of sheep or oxen: but so numerous are the other animals which they have, and all are savage, and of none do they make use for their service, that they could not be counted. What shall we say of others (such as) birds? which are so numerous, and of so many kinds, and of such various-coloured plumages, that it is a marvel to behold them. The soil is very pleasant and fruitful, full of immense woods and forests: and it is always green, for the foliage never drops off. The fruits are so many that they are numberless and entirely different from ours. This land is within the torrid zone, close to or just under the parallel described by the Tropic of Cancer: where the pole of the horizon has an elevation of 23 degrees, at the extremity of the second climate. [note 12: That is, 23 degrees north latitude.] Many tribes came to see us, and wondered at our faces and our whiteness: and they asked us whence we came: and we gave them to understand that we had come from heaven, and that we were going to see the world, and they believed it. In this land we placed baptismal fonts, and an infinite (number of) people were baptised, and they called us in their language Carabi, which means men of great wisdom. We took our dhparture from that port: and the province is called Lariab: and we navigated along the coast, always in sight of land, until we had run 870 leagues of it, still going in the direction of the maestrale (north-west) making in our course many halts, and holding intercourse with many peoples: and in several places we obtained gold by barter but not much in quantity, for we had done enough in discovering the land and learning that they had gold. We had now been thirteen months on the voyage: and the vessels and the tackling were already much damaged, and the men worn out by fatigue: we decided by general council to haul our ships on land and examine them for the purpose of stanching leaks, as they made much water, and of caulking and tarring them afresh, and (then) returning towards Spain: and when we came to this determination, we were close to a harbour the best in the world: into which we entered with our vessels: where we found an immense number of people: who received us with much friendliness: and on the shore we made a bastion [note 13: Fort or barricade] with our boats and with barrels and casks, and our artillery, which commanded every point: and our ships having been unloaded and lightened, we drew them upon land, and repaired them in everything that was needful: and the land’s people gave us very great assistance: and continually furnished us with their victuals: so that in this port we tasted little of our own, which suited our game well: for the stock of provisions which we had for our return-passage was little and of sorry kind: where (i.e., there) we remained 37 days: and went many times to their villages: where they paid us the greatest honour: and (now) desiring to depart upon our voyage, they made complaint to us how at certain times of the year there came from over the sea to this their land, a race of people very cruel, and enemies of theirs: and (who) by means of treachery or of violence slew many of them, and ate them: and some they made captives, and carried them away to their houses, or country: and how they could scarcely contrive to defend themselves from them, making signs to us that (those) were an island-people and lived out in the sea about a hundred leagues away: and so piteously did they tell us this that we believed them: and we promised to avenge them of so much wrong: and they remained overjoyed herewith: and many of them offered to come along with us, but we did not wish to take them for many reasons, save that we took seven of them, on condition that they should come (i.e., return home) afterwards in (their own) canoes because we did not desire to be obliged to take them back to their country: and they were contented: and so we departed from those people, leaving them very friendly towards us: and having repaired our ships, and sailing for seven days out to sea between northeast and east: and at the end of the seven days we came upon the islands, which were many, some (of them) inhabited, and others deserted: and we anchored at one of them: where we saw a numerous people who called it Iti: and having manned our boats with strong crews, and (taken ammunition for) three cannon shots in each, we made for land: where we found (assembled) about 400 men, and many women, and all naked like the former (peoples). They were of good bodily presence, and seemed right warlike men: for they were armed with their weapons, which are bows, arrows, and lances: and most of them had square wooden targets: and bore them in such wise that they did not impede the drawing of the bow: and when we had come with our boats to about a bowshot of the land, they all sprang into the water to shoot their arrows at us and to prevent us from leaping upon shore: and they all had their bodies painted of various colours, and (were) plumed with feathers: and the interpreters who were with us told us that when (those) displayed themselves so painted and plumed, it was to betoken that they wanted to fight: and so much did they persist in preventing us from landing, that we were compelled to play with our artillery: and when they heard the explosion, and saw one of them fall dead, they all drew back to the land: wherefore, forming our council, we resolved that 42 of our men should spring on shore, and, if they waited for us, fight them: thus having leaped to land with our weapons, they advanced towards us, and we fought for about an hour, for we had but little advantage of them, except that our arbalasters and gunners killed some of them, and they wounded certain of our men: and this was because they did not stand to receive us within reach of lance-thrust or sword-blow: and so much vigour did we put forth at last, that we came to sword-play, and when they tasted our weapons, they betook themselves to flight through the mountains and the forests, and left us conquerors of the field with many of them dead and a good number wounded: and for that day we’ took no other pains to pursue them, because we were very weary, and we returned to our ships, with so much gladness on the part of the seven men who had come with us that they could not contain themselves (for joy): and when the next day arrived, we beheld coming across the land a great number of people, with signals of battle, continually sounding horns, and various other instruments which they use in their wars: and all (of them) painted and feathered, so that it was a very strange sight to behold them: wherefore all the ships held council, and it was resolved that since this people desired hostility with us, we should proceed to encounter them and try by every means to make them friends: in case they would not have our friendship, that we should treat them as foes, and so many of them as we might be able to capture should all be our slaves: and having armed ourselves as best we could, we advanced towards the shore, and they sought not to hinder us from landing, I believe from fear of the cannons: and we jumped on land, 57 men in four squadrons, each one (consisting of) a captain and his company: and we came to blows with them: and after a long battle (in which) many of them (were) slain, we put them to flight, and pursued them to a village, having made about 250 of them captives, and we burnt the village, and returned to our ships with victory and 250 prisoners, leaving many of them dead and wounded, and of ours there were no more than one killed and 22 wounded, who all escaped (i.e., recovered), God be thanked. We arranged our departure, and seven men, of whom five were wounded, took an island-canoe, and with seven prisoners that we gave them, four women and three men, returned to their (own) country full of gladness, wondering at our strength: and we thereon made sail for Spain with 222 captive slaves: and reached the port of Calis (Cadiz) on the 15th day of October, 1498, where we were well received and sold our slaves. Such is what befell me, most noteworthy, in this my first voyage.

Source:

Translation from Vespucci’s Italian, published at Florence in 1505-6, by “M. K.”, for Quaritch’s edition, London, 1885.

 

Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 -February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. He played a senior role in two voyages which explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502. On the second of these voyages he discovered that South America extended much further south than previously known by Europeans. This convinced him that this land was part of a new continent, a bold contention at a time when other European explorers crossing the Atlantic thought they were reaching Asia (the “Indies”).

Vespucci’s voyages became widely known in Europe after two accounts attributed to him were published between 1502 and 1504.[1] In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the new continent “America” after Vespucci’s first name, Amerigo. In an accompanying book, Waldseemüller published one of the Vespucci accounts, which led to criticism that Vespucci was trying to usurp Christopher Columbus’s glory. However, the rediscovery in the 18th century of other letters by Vespucci has led to the view that the early published accounts were fabrications, not by Vespucci, but by others.
 
          Vespucci was born in Florence, as the third child of a respected family. His father was a notary for the Money Changers’ Guild of Florence. Amerigo Vespucci worked for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici and his brother Giovanni and in 1492 they sent him to work at their agency in Seville, Spain. In 1508, after only two voyages to the Americas, the position of pilot major (chief of navigation) of Spain was created for Vespucci, with the responsibility of training pilots for ocean voyages. He died of malaria on the date February 22, 1512 in Seville, Spain.

Two letters attributed to Vespucci were published during his lifetime. Mundus Novus (“New World”) was a Latin translation of a lost Italian letter sent from Lisbon to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici. It describes a voyage to South America in 1501-1502. Mundus Novus was published in late 1502 or early 1503 and soon reprinted and distributed in numerous European countries.[1] Lettera di Amerigo Vespucci delle isole nuovamente trovate in quattro suoi viaggi (“Letter of Amerigo Vespucci concerning the isles newly discovered on his four voyages”), known as Lettera al Soderini or just Lettera, was a letter in Italian addressed to Piero Soderini. Printed in 1504 or 1505, it claimed to be an account of four voyages to the Americas made by Vespucci between 1497 and 1504. A Latin translation was published by the German Martin Waldseemüller in 1507 in Cosmographiae Introductio, a book on cosmography and geography, as Quattuor Americi Vespuccij navigationes (“Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci”).[1] In the 18th century three unpublished “familiar” letters from vdVespucci to Lorenzo de’ Medici were rediscovered. One describes a voyage made in 1499-1500 which corresponds with the second of the “four voyages”. Another was written from Cape Verde in 1501 in the early part of the third of the “four voyages”, before crossing the Atlantic. The third letter was sent from Lisbon after the completion of that voyage.`[1] Some have suggested that Vespucci, in the two letters published in his lifetime, was exaggerating his role and constructed deliberate fabrications. However, many scholars now believe that the two letters were not written by him but were fabrications by others based in part on genuine letters by Vespucci. It was the publication and widespread circulation of the letters that led Martin Waldseemüller to name the new continent America on his world map of 1507 in Lorraine. Vespucci used a Latinised form of his name, Americus Vespucius, in his Latin writings, which Waldseemüller used as a base for the new name, taking the feminine form America. (See also Naming of America.) Amerigo itself is an Italian form of the medieval Latin Emericus (see also Saint Emeric of Hungary), which through the German form Heinrich (in English, Henry) derived from the Germanic name Haimirich. The two disputed letters claim that Vespucci made four voyages to America, while at most two can be verified from other sources. at the moment there is a dispute between historians on when Vespucci visited main land the first time. Some great historians like German Arciniegas and Gabriel Camargo Perez think that his first voyage was done in June 1497 with the Spanish Juan de la Cosa. Little is known of his last voyage in 1503–1504 or even whether it actually took place. Vespucci’s real historical importance may well be more in his letters, whether he wrote them all or not, than in his discoveries. From these letters, the European public learned about the newly discovered continent of the Americas for the first time; its existence became generally known throughout Europe within a few years of the letters’ publication.

                                 

 Voyages

According to great and famous historians like Martin Fernandez de Navarrete, Germàn Arciniegas and Gabriel Camargo Perez, the first voyage of Amerigo Vespucci took place in 1497, probably in a trip organized by the King Ferdinando, who wanted to clarify if the main land was far away from the Hispaniola Island discovered by the Genoese Christopher Columbus. The captain of this trip that sailed in May 1497 was possibly Juan Dias the Solis. With Vespucci, there was pilot and cartographer Juan de la Cosa (the then-famous captain who had sailed with Columbus in 1492). According to the first letter of Amerigo Vespucci, they landed in a main land at the 16 degrees latitude, probably the coast of La Guajira peninsula in present Colombia or the coast of Nicaragua. Then they were following the coastal land mass of central America, and they returned to the Atlantic Ocean, crossing the strait of Florida between Florida and Cuba. In his letters, Amerigo Vespucci described this trip, and once Juan de la Cosa returned to Spain, so did the famous world map in which Cuba is represented like an island. In about 1499–1500, Vespucci joined an expedition in the service of Spain, with Alonso de Ojeda (or Hojeda) as the fleet commander. The intention was to sail around the southern end of the African mainland into the Indian Ocean.[2] After hitting land at the coast of what is now Guyana, the two seem to have separated. Vespucci sailed southward, discovering the mouth of the Amazon River and reaching 6°S, before turning around and seeing Trinidad and the Orinoco River and returning to Spain by way of Hispaniola. The letter, to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici, claims that Vespucci determined his longitude celestially [3] on August 23, 1499, while on this voyage. However, that claim might be fraudulent,[3] which could cast doubt on the letter’s credibility. His last certain voyage was one led by Gonçalo Coelho in 1501–1502 in the service of Portugal. Departing from Lisbon, the fleet sailed first to Cape Verde where they met two of Pedro Álvares Cabral’s ships returning from India. In a letter from Cape Verde, Vespucci says that he hopes to visit the same lands that Álvares Cabral had explored, suggesting that the intention is to sail west to Asia, as on the 1499-1500 voyage.[2] On reaching the coast of Brazil, they sailed south along the coast of South America to Rio de Janeiro’s bay. If his own account is to be believed, he reached the latitude of Patagonia before turning back; although this also seems doubtful, since his account does not mention the broad estuary of the Río de la Plata, which he must have seen if he had gotten that far south. Portuguese maps of South America, created after the voyage of Coelho and Vespucci, do not show any land south of present-day Cananéia at 25º S, so this may represent the southernmost extent of their voyages. During the first half of this expedition in 1501, Vespucci mapped the two stars, Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri as well as the stars of the constellation Crux.[3] Although these stars were known to the ancient Greeks, gradual precession had lowered them below the European skyline so that they were forgotten.[4] On return to Lisbon, Vespucci wrote in a letter to de’ Medici that the land masses they explored were much larger than anticipated and different from the Asia described by earlier Europeans and, therefore, must be a New World, that is, a previously unknown fourth continent, after Europe, Asia, and Africa.

 Named after Amerigo Vespucci :

Amerigo Vespucci Airport, Florence, Italy
Amerigo Vespucci (ship), an Italian tall ship
The Americas, geographic region including the continents of South America and North America

 See also
Naming of America

 Notes
Formisano, Luciano (Ed.) (1992). Letters from a New World: Amerigo Vespucci’s Discovery of America. New York: Marsilio. ISBN 0-941419-62-2. Pp. xix-xxvi.
 
” On a clear night with calm seas, stars could be identified near the horizon to judge latitude/longitude celestially. Although South America’s continental shelf drops quickly into the deep ocean beyond the Orinoco River, the mouth is on the shelf, avoiding the ocean swells and waves which hinder visibility of stars near the horizon. Seamen who could navigate from Europe to America and back could chart stars on the horizon, especially for a cartographer like Vespucci. ”

 References
Amerigo: the Man Who Gave His Name to America by Fernández-Armesto, Felipe; Weidenfeld & Nicolson

Archaeologist has found evidence of De Soto’s expedition

 

Ethan White, 15, left, uses a screen to sift sand at the circa 1606-1608 San Buenaventura de Potano Spanish mission location at his familyís property in north Marion County while his father, archaeologist Ashley White, feeds sand from one of the many excavation holes at the site, which includes a nearby area where Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto camped in August 1539.
Doug Engle/ Ocala Star-Banner
By FRED HIERS
Ocala Star-Banner
Published: Sunday, July 8, 2012 at 7:56 a.m.
Last Modified: Sunday, July 8, 2012 at 7:56 a.m.

Hernando De Soto’s route through Florida is as elusive to modern archaeologists as the gold the famed Spanish explorer sought throughout the southeastern United States.

Ever since De Soto’s 600 men set foot on the shores of Tampa Bay, arriving from Cuba almost 500 years ago, historians have debated the exact direction of his failed treasure-hunting expeditions as far north as Tennessee and North Carolina.

But in north Marion County, an archaeologist has found what his contemporaries deem rarer than the gold De Soto was seeking — physical evidence of the explorer’s precise journey through Marion County and enough information to redraw Florida De Soto maps and fuel many more archaeological digs based on his findings.

“It gets rid of the guesswork now on the route through Marion County,” said Ashley White, a local archaeologist who found the site. “Now, we know for sure he came up through the Black Sink Prairie to Orange Lake and looped around through Micanopy.”

From the De Soto site, which sits on the one-time Indian town known as Potano, De Soto eventually marched to Utinamocharra in present day Gainesville and later to Tallahassee for the winter.

Archaeologists who study Spain’s settlement of Florida and De Soto’s exploration into the Southeast United States, regard White’s find as priceless and have little doubt as to the site’s authenticity.

“I looked at the archaeological evidence. There is absolutely no doubt that is a De Soto contact site, and I am 99.99 percent sure this is the town of Potano, the major Indian town,” said Jerald Milanich, the author of multiple books about De Soto’s expedition and curator emeritus in archaeology of the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida.

“Until now, we really had no one location until all the way up to Tallahassee. Now we have a midway place.”

LUCKY FIND

White’s initial discovery was less a product of painstaking exploration than dumb luck.

Historians before White had dug thousands of pits into Florida’s backwoods and sifted tons of dirt in hopes of finding artifacts linked to the explorer, without success. The only confirmed De Soto site in Florida is in Tallahassee, where De Soto’s men wintered for five months.

White himself had walked his family’s property for two years looking for remnants of what he thought was a 17th century Spanish cattle ranch. He found little more than Indian artifacts.

Then in 2005, a series of hurricanes and storms inundated the 700-acre property owned by his wife, Michelle White, a bioarchaeologist.

“There is a lot of drainage (on the ranch) … and all this sand broke loose and we had artifacts just lying on top of the ground,” Ashley White said.

One was a coin minted before De Soto’s 1539 expedition. It was in a clump of pines near Black Sink Prairie.

At the time, however, White’s attention was riveted on the remains of a 16th century structure he discovered a couple of hundred yards away.

That structure turned out to be the mission of San Buenaventura de Potano, which was established some years after De Soto came through. There, White’s family found copper coins of the era and brown streaks from what remained of the posts that anchored the church. It was enough to make him put the other site on the back burner.

White didn’t know it at the time, but the first site was what other historians had been looking for: physical evidence of De Soto’s exploration.

Meanwhile, the second site yielded its own archaeological treasure trove — about 100 medieval coins, the largest cache from that era in North America.

“Still, the original thought was that it was a Spanish ranch outpost, and that was our hypothesis for probably two years of the work here,” White said. “(The De Soto) trail, it’s not the first thing on your mind in Central Florida archaeology.”

White’s hypothesis began to change as he examined the scant remains of the building and nearby artifacts and realized they shared similar architectural characteristics with other Florida mission buildings along Indian trails. Among those artifacts were colorful, handmade glass beads from the late 16th century, coins, pieces of pottery and nails.

Gifford Waters, historical archaeology collections manager of the Florida Museum of Natural History and an expert on Spanish missions, said finding the mission remains so close to the De Soto site reinforces the legitimacy of White’s discovery.

Missionaries would have used De Soto’s records to establish their churches along Indian trails and towns, Waters said.

“This (the De Soto site) is an extremely important site, historically and archaeologically,” he said.

With some more archaeology, the White site “will be accepted as strongly as the Martin site in Tallahassee,” Waters said. “It helps us to learn more about the Spanish expedition, but also more about the Indians.”

 

PIECES OF THE PAST

When White returned to his first site, where he found the oldest coin, he found two more coins. Both were minted before De Soto’s Florida exploration began and were much older than those at the mission site. He also found glass beads, made near present day Venice, Italy, that were more complex and older than those found at the mission site.

Then White found a few links of iron chain mail from Spain, with designs De Soto’s men would have woven onto their garments to protect them from Indian spears and arrows. The way the chain mail was linked predated the mission.

He also unearthed a pig jaw, unique to the domesticated herd of European animals De Soto brought to help feed his men.

There had been other Spanish explorers, such as Panfilo de Narvaez, but they had not brought old world pigs, nor had they traveled as far inland.

Other archaeologists such as Milanich say the collection of artifacts represented a town on the move.

In their book, Milanich and archaeologist Charles Hudson had laid historical groundwork for the De Soto site more than 20 years ago. They attempted to map De Soto’s trail based on written records and artifacts. Hudson is a professor of anthropology and history emeritus at the University of Georgia and author of many books on the history and culture of the Indians of the Southeast.

Those written records, which include at least three accounts written at the time by men who traveled with De Soto, put the explorer at the White site beginning on Aug. 11, 1539, and for the next three weeks.

Thousands of Potano Indians lived in the town and along lakes and rivers up into present day Alachua County. The Potano Indians were a subset of the Timucua Indians who called North Central Florida home.

Milanich based some of his theories about De Soto’s routes on Indian trails, many of which became modern highways and railroads.

“And we knew the trails led to Indian towns and knew De Soto in 1539 traveled on the Indian trails to get food and looking for wealth,” Milanich said.

But the written records of those who traveled with De Soto were difficult to decipher. Geographical locations recorded hundreds of years ago using only descriptions of marshes, rivers and wetlands left many archaeologists like Milanich uncertain.

“As an archaeologist, I’d like to tell you we know everything, but we don’t. We just have bits and scraps of information,” he said.

UNEARTHING STORIES

Like bread crumbs marking a trail, archaeologists have to depend on things explorers left behind, such as the beads and coins.

“Like other Spanish explorers, the De Soto expedition brought trade goods they could give to the Indians to get them to be their friends, to pay them off, to provide bearers to carry their supplies, to get food and even get women, to get consorts,” Milanich said.

It was that search for food that drove De Soto to White’s location in 1539.

“Food was always a problem. If you’re not eating, forget it,” Milanich said. “And it was a huge operation going through central Marion County.”

Unsure when winter would begin in Florida, De Soto was looking for a town to occupy with enough food to feed his troops.

Potano likely had a central communal wooden building, a plaza, a chief’s home and several huts where other Indians lived.

But De Soto and the Indians didn’t always coexist peacefully.

The Spaniard plundered towns that didn’t cooperate and killed Indians who refused to help, often in a spectacle that served as a warning to other Indians.

The Europeans also exposed the indigenous people to diseases against which they had no immunity. Thirty years later, when the French met the Potano, the population had plummeted from as many as 30,000 to about 3,000 people.

Most of the Indians were happy to see De Soto leave, urging him on with tales of gold to the north, Milanich said. As soon as a route was staked out, De Soto sent word to his men scattered in a long trail behind him to follow.

In 1539, the Indians rebelled against De Soto’s brutality and the diseases his expedition spread. They killed De Soto’s men when they could get away with it as the Spaniards marched north. Captured Indian guides made the exploration as difficult as possible, sending the Spaniards wandering aimlessly in the hot, humid Florida summer.

De Soto finally marched to Tallahassee and wintered there into 1540.

“De Soto makes it all the way into Arkansas and they spend the next year running around looking for gold. There is none. There is no wealth,” Milanich said.

“He had invested his fortune, his reputation and that of his family and his relatives and everything else. So he must have felt he couldn’t get out at the time. He couldn’t give up,” Milanich said.

De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi and was interred in those waters.

Sixty-four years after his death, the Spanish built the mission of San Buenaventura de Potano just across a creek from White’s De Soto site.

“The discovery of the (Potano) site is really a beginning, not an end,” Milanich said. “The start of a lot more research, of learning about the area. It helps us to understand what things were like on a summer day in 1539, and I’m sure it’s very exciting for people to realize that they had a very important bit of history right in their own backyard.”

http://www.newschief.com/article/20120708/NEWS/120709981?tc=ar

SEBASTIANO CABOTO (Sebastian Cabot)

 

Sebastian Cabot (c. 1484 – 1557, or soon after), originally Sebastiano Caboto, was an Italian explorer, born probably in Venice. Sebastian Cabot told Englishman Richard Eden that he was born in Bristol and carried to Venice at four years of age. However, he also told Gasparo Contarini, the Venetian ambassador at the court of Charles V that he was Venetian, educated in England. Contarini noted it in his diary.

Voyage to Newfoundland
He may have sailed with his father John Cabot (who is variously credited with Genoese, Venetian or Gaetan origins), in the service of England, in May, 1497. John Cabot and perhaps Sebastian, sailing from Bristol, took their small fleet along the coasts of a “New Found Land”. There is much controversy over where exactly Cabot landed, but two likely locations that are often suggested are Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Cabot and his crew (including perhaps Sebastian) mistook this place for China, without finding the passage to the east they were looking for. Some scholars maintain that the name America comes from Richard Amerik, a Bristol merchant and customs officer, who is claimed on very slender evidence to have helped finance the Cabot voyages.

 Early employment with England and Spain
By 1512 Sebastian was certainly employed by Henry VIII as a cartographer at Greenwich. In the same year he accompanied Willoughby to Spain, where he was made captain by Ferdinand V. After Ferdinand’s death he returned to England, where, in 1517, he tried fruitlessly to win the support of Vice-Admiral Perte for a new expedition. In 1522, although once more in the employ of Spain as a member of the “Council of the Indies” and holding the rank of pilot-major, he secretly offered his services to Venice, undertaking to find the Northwest Passage to China.

 Voyages to America
Finally, he received the rank of captain general from Spain, and was entrusted on March 4, 1525, with the command of a fleet which was to find Tarshish, Ophir, and Cathay, along with a new route to the Moluccas. The expedition consisted of three ships with 150 men, and set sail from Cádiz on April 5, 1526, but only went as far as the mouth of the Río de la Plata.

Cabot went ashore and left behind his companions, Francisco de Rojas, Martin Méndez, and Miguel de Rodas, with whom he had quarrelled. He explored the Paraná River as far as its junction with the Paraguay and built two forts. The first one, called Sancti Spiritu, was the first Spanish settlement in present-day Argentina; near its former location lies the town of Gaboto (Santa Fe Province), named after the explorer.

In August 1530, Cabot returned to Spain, where he was at once indicted for his conduct towards his fellow commanders and his lack of success, and was banished as of February 1, 1532 to Oran in Morocco. After a year, he was pardoned and went to Seville; he remained pilot-major of Spain until 1547, when without losing either the title or the pension, he left Spain and returned to England, where he received a salary with the title of great pilot.

 Later life
In the year 1553 Charles V made unsuccessful attempts to win him back. In the meantime Cabot had reopened negotiations with Venice, but he reached no agreement with that city. After this he aided both with information and advice the expedition of Willoughby and Chancellor, was made life-governor of the “Company of Merchant Adventurers”, and equipped (1557) the expedition of Borough. After this, nothing more is heard of him; he probably died soon afterwards.

 Accounts of journeys
The account of Cabot’s journeys written by himself has been lost. All that remains of his personal work is a map of
                   
the world drawn in 1544; one copy of this was found in Bavaria, and is still preserved in the Bibliotheque National in Paris. This map is especially important for the light it throws on the first journey of John Cabot. The accounts of the journeys of John and Sebastian Cabot were collected by Richard Hakluyt.

 

 

Christopher Columbus

 

THE PERSONAL HISTORY OF COLUMBUS

 

In treating our subject we naturally begin at the starting point of biography, the birthplace. The generally accepted statement has been that Columbus was born at Genoa, especially as Columbus begins his will with the well known declaration,

” I, being born in Genoa.”

 

But it has been asserted by numerous writers that in this Columbus was mistaken, just as for a long time

 

General Sheridan was mistaken in supposing himself to have been born in a

little Ohio town,

 

 

Nelsonville Ohio town square

when he learned, within a year or two of his death, that he was born in Albany, N.Y.

 

But passing this, it remains to be said that the evidence of the Genoese birth of Columbus may now be considered as fully established. As to the time of his birth there has been not a little question.

 

Henry Harrisse, the American scholar

already referred to, placed it between March 25th, 1446, and March 20th, 1447. This, however, we can hardly accept, especially as it would make Columbus at the time of his first naval venture only thirteen years of age.

 

Tarducci

gives 1435 or 1436 as the year of his birth. This is also the date given by

 

Irving,

and it would seem to be the most probable. This is the almost decisive testimony of

 

 

Andres Bernaldez,better known as

 

the Curate of Los Palacios,

who was most intimate with Columbus and had him a great deal in his house. He says the death of Columbus took place in his seventieth year.

 His death occurred May 20th, 1506, which would make the year of his birth probably about 1436. And now starting with Genoa as the birthplace of Columbus and about the year 1435 or 1436 as the time of his birth, we proceed with our story.

 Christopher Columbus (or Columbo in Italian) was the son of

 

Dominico Columbo and

 

Susannah Fontanarossa his wife.

The father was a wool carder, a business which seems to have been followed by the family through several generations. He was the oldest of four children, having two brothers.

 

Bartholomew who joined his brother exploration

 

and

 

Giacomo (James in English, in Spanish, Diego),and one colombus sister.Of the early years of Columbus little is known. It is asserted by some that Columbus was a wool comber – no mean occupation in that day – and did not follow the sea.

On the other hand, it is insisted and Tarducci and Harrisse hold to that view that, whether or not he enlisted in

 

tarducci expeditions against the Venetians and Neapolitans

(and the whole record is misty and uncertain), Columbus at an early age showed a marked inclination for the sea, and his education was largely directed along the lines of his tastes, and included such studies as geography, astronomy, and navigation. It is certain that when

 

Columbus arrived at Lisbon

 

he was one of the best geographers and cosmographers of his age, and was accustomed to the sea from infancy. Happily his was an age favorable for discovery. The works of travel were brought to the front. The closing decade of the fifteenth century was a time of heroism, of deeds of daring, and discovery.

 Rude and unlettered to some extent, yet it was far more fruitful, and brought greater blessings to the world than are bestowed by the effeminate luxury which often characterizes a civilization too daintily pampered, too tenderly reared. Life then was at least seriou

Navigation Tools of the Day

Improvement in Navigation Tools Right here it may be in place to state how invention promoted Columbian discovery.

 

The compass had been known for six hundred years.

 

sextant

 

But at this time the quadrant and sextant were unknown; it became necessary to discover some means for finding the altitude of the sun, to ascertain one’s distance from the equator.

This was accomplished by utilizing

the Astrolabe

 

, an instrument only lately used by astronomers in their stellar work. This invention gave an entirely new direction to navigation, delivering seamen from the necessity of always keeping near the shore, and permitting the little ships to sail free amidst the immensity of the sea, so that a ship that had lost its course, formerly obliged to grope its way back by the uncertain guidance of the stars, could now, by aid of compass and astralobe, retrace its course with ease. Much has justly been ascribed to the compass as a promoter of navigation, but the astralobe was surely just as important.

 

Columbus and the King of Portugal

Columbus Approaches the King of Portugal

 

The best authorities place the arrival of Columbus at Lisbon about the year 1470. It is probable Columbus was known by reputation to

 

Alfonso V, King of Portugal.

It is unquestionable that Columbus was attracted to Portugal by the spirit of discovery which prevailed throughout the Iberian peninsula,fruits of which were just beginning to be gathered.

 

 

 

Iberian pennisula

 

Prince Henry of Portugal,who was one of the very first of navigators, if not the foremost explorer of his day, had established a Naval College and Observatory,

 

to which the most learned men were invited,

 

while under the Portuguese flag

 

the greater part of the African coast had been already explored.

 

Having settled in Lisbon, at the Convent of All Saints, Columbus formed an acquaintance with

 

Felipa Monis de Perestrello, daughter of Bartholomew de Perestrello,

 

Bartholomew de Perestrello, an able navigator with whom Prince Henry had made his first discovery. The acquaintance soon ripened into love, and Columbus made her his wife.

 

Felipa’s father soon died, and then with his wife and her mother

 

 

 

Columbus moved to Porte Santo,

 

where a colombus son was born to them, whom they named Diego.

 

Diego.

Felipa hence forth disappears from history; there is no further record of her.

At Porto Santo

 

Columbus supported his family and helped sustain his aged father.

Meanwhile Columbus was imbibing to the full the spirit of discovery so widely prevalent. It was not his wife who materially helped him at this time, but his   mother-in-law, who, observing the deep interest that Columbus took in all matters of exploration and discovery, Bartholomew de Peretello,s wife gave him all the manuscripts and charts which her husband had made

 

. These, along with his own voyages to some recently discovered places, only renewed the burning desire for ,exploration and discovery.

But the sojourn at Portugal must be briefly passed over. The reports that came to his ears while living at Porto Santo only intensified his convictions of the existence of an empire to the West. He heard of great reeds and a bit of curiously carved wood seen at sea, floating from the West; and vague rumors reached him at different times, of “strange lands” in the Atlantic – most if not all of them mythical.

But they continued to stimulate interest as they show the state of public thought at that time respecting the Atlantic, whose western regions were all unknown. All the reports and all the utterances of the day Columbus watched with closest scrutiny. He secured old tomes for fullest information as to what the ancients had written or the moderns discovered.

 All this served to keep the subject fresh in his mind, for his convictions were constantly strengthened by contemporary speculators.

 

Toscanelli, an Italian mathematician,

had written,

look his map below

 

at the instance of King Alfonso, instructions for a western route to Asia. With him Columbus entered into correspondence, which greatly strengthened his theories.

Constant thought and reflection resulted in his conception of a course to take, which, followed for a specific time, would result in the discovery of an empire. He would subdue a great trans-Atlantic empire, and from its riches he would secure the wealth to devote to expeditions for recovering the Holy Land, and so he would pay the Moors dearly for their invasion of the Iberian peninsula, a truly fanciful but not a wholly unreasonable conception, as the times were.

At last he found means to lay his project before the King of Portugal. But the royal councilors treated the attempt to cross the Atlantic as rash and dangerous, and the conditions required by Columbus as exorbitant.

 

The adventurous King, John II,

had more faith in his scheme than his wise men, and, with a dishonesty not creditable to him, attempted at this time to reap the benefit of Columbus’ studies and plans by sending out an expedition of his own in the direction and by the way traced in his charts. But the skill and daring of Columbus were wanting, and at the first trouble at sea the expedition sought safety in flight. It turned back to

the Cape de Verde islands,

 

and the officers took revenge for their disappointment by ridiculing the project of Columbus as the vision of a day dreamer.

Columbus’s brother Bartholomew had endeavored about this time to interest the British monarch in the project, but the first of the Tudors had too much to do in quelling insurrection at home, and in raising revenues by illegal means, to spend any moneys on visionary projects. Henry III would have none of him.

  Columbus’s Stay at the Franciscan Monastery

 

Columbus at the Franciscan Monastery

Meantime, indignant at the infamous treatment accorded him, and with his ties to Portugal already dampened by the death of his wife, he determined to shake the dust of Portugal off his feet, and seek the Court of Spain.

 

 

He would start at once for

 

Cordova, where the Spanish Court then was.

Leaving Lisbon secretly, near the close of 1484, he chose to follow the sea coast to Palos,

 

instead of taking the direct inland route, and most happily so; for, in so doing he was to gain a friend and a most important ally. Weary and foot sore, on his journey, he finally arrived at Palos, then a small port on the Atlantic, at

 

the mouth of the Tinto, in Andalusia

 

here hunger and want drove him to seek assistance from the charity of the Monks, and ascending the steep mountain road to

the Franciscan monastery of Santa Maria de La Rabida, he met the pious prior, Father Juan Perez, who, struck with his imposing presence, despite his sorry appearance, entered into conversation with him.

 

 

 

 

 

COLUMBUS’S ARRIVAL AT THE CONVENT OF LA RABIDA.

 

As the interview grew in interest to both the parties, Columbus was led to impart to the prior his great project, to the prior’s increasing wonder, for in Palos the spirit of exploration was as large as in Lisbon.

Columbus was invited to make the Convent his place of sojourn,

 

an invitation he was only too glad to accept.

Then Father Perez

 

sent for his friend, a well known geographer of Palos,

 

Palos and, deeply interested in all that related to exploration and the discovery of new lands, the three took the subject into earnest consideration, thorough discussion of the question being had. It was not long before Father Perez became deeply interested in the plans of Columbus.

To glorify God is the highest aim to which one can address himself; of that feeling Father Perez was thoroughly possessed; and how could he more fully glorify him than by aiding in the discovery of new lands and the spreading of Christianity there? Impelled by this feeling, he urged Columbus to proceed at once to Cordova, where the Spanish Court then was, giving him money for his journey, and a letter of commendation to his friend, the father prior of the monastery of

El Prado Fernando de Talavera,

 

the queen’s Confessor, and a person of great influence at Court. There was hope, and there was a period of long and weary waiting yet before him

Columbus Approaches the Spanish Court

 

Columbus Approaches the Spanish Court

Arriving at Cordova, Columbus found the city a great military camp, and all Spain aroused in a final effort to expel the Moors. Fernando, the Confessor, was a very different man from Perez, and instead of treating Columbus kindly, received him coolly, and for a long while actively prevented him from meeting the king.

 

The Copernican theory,

though held by some, was not at this time established.

 

Copernican

At length, through the friendship of de Quintanilla,

 

Comptroller of the Castilian Treasury,

 

matheo  Geraldini, the Pope’s nuncio,

 

and his brother, Allessandro , tutor of

 

the children of

 

Ferdinand and Isabella,

Columbus was made known to Cardinal Mendoza,

 

who introduced him to the king. Ferdinand listened to him patiently, and referred the whole matter to a council of learned men,

 

and it was not till 1491 (six years later) that the Commission reported the project “vain and impossible, and not becoming great princes to engage in on such slender grounds as had been adduced

Alessandro Geraldini (1455-1525)

 

Alessandro, who was Antonio’s younger brother, was born in the palace next to

 

Palazzo Angelo Geraldini.

He accompanied  Antonio to Spain, where he became the tutor to the royal children.  When Antonio died, he took over the support of Christopher Columbus and was influential in ensuring that the project went ahead. 
 
Alessandro became chaplain to

 

Catherine of Aragon,

 and accompanied her to England in 1501 for her marriage to

 

Arthur, Prince of Wales.

He was with her at

 

 

Ludlow

when Prince Arthur died a year later.  Since he was of the view (unwelcome to Catherine’s parents) that the marriage had been consummated, he was recalled to Spain.

In 1516, Alessandro asked Pope Leo X

 

 

to send him to the episcopal see of Santo Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic),

 

 

 

where he became the first Christian bishop in the New World.  He was already 64 when he undertook the 200-day voyage to Santo Dominigo, and he stayed there until his death nine years later.

 

A wooden Crucifix that Pope John Paul II

 

 

gave to

 

 

the Duomo in 1986

 

 

 

 

is a copy of the one that Alessandro Geraldini installed in

 

 

 

the Cathedral of Santo Domingo in 1523,

and symbolises the evangelisation of the New World.

His portrait (16th century) is in the Pinacoteca

Columbus Before Queen Isabella and the Spanish Court

 

The report of the Commission seemed a death blow to the hopes of Columbus. Disappointed and sick at heart, and disgusted at six years of delay, Columbus turned his back on Spain,

 

 “indignant at the thought of having been beguiled out of so many precious years of waning existence.” Determined to lay his project before

 

Charles VIII, of France,

he departed, and stopped over at

 

the little Monastery of La Rabida, from whose Prior,

 

Juan Perez,

six years before, he had departed with such sanguine hopes, for

 

Cordova.

The good friar was greatly moved. Finally he concluded to make another and final effort. Presuming upon his position as the queen’s Confessor, Perez made an appeal direct to Isabella, and this time with the result that an interview was arranged, at which Isabella was present. His proposals would have at once been accepted but that Columbus demanded powers* which even

 

de Talavera

pronounced “arbitrary and presumptuous,” though they were of like character with those conceded by Portugal to Vasco de Gamba.

 Angered and indignant at the rejection of his terms, which were conditioned only upon his success, Columbus impulsively left the royal presence, and taking leave of his friends, set out for France, determined to offer his services to

 

Louis XII.

* His principal stipulations were (1) that he should have, for himself during his life, and his heirs and successors forever, the office of admiral in all the lands and continents which he might discover or acquire in the ocean, with similar honors and prerogatives to those enjoyed by the high admiral of Castile in his district. (2)

That he should be viceroy and governor-general over all the said lands and continents, with the privilege of nominating three candidates for the government of each island or province, one of whom should be selected by the sovereigns. (3) That he should be entitled to reserve for himself one-tenth of all pearls, precious stones, gold, silver spices, and all other articles and merchandises, in whatever manner found, bought, bartered, or gained within his admiralty, the cost being first deducted. (4) That he, or his lieutenant, should be the sole judge in all causes and disputes arising out of traffic between those countries and Spain, provided the high admiral of Castile had similar jurisdiction in his district.

 

 

 

 

Isabella to Support Columbus Voyage

 

Isabella Agrees to Support Christopher Columbus’s Voyage

But no sooner had Columbus gone, than the queen, who we may believe regretted the loss of possible glory of discovery, hastily dispatched a messenger after him, who overtook him when two leagues away and brought him back.

Although Ferdinand was opposed to the project, Isabella concluded to yield to Columbus his terms and agreed to advance the cost,

 

14,000 florins,

about $7,000, from her own revenues, and so to Spain was saved the empire of a New World. On May 12 Columbus took leave of the king and queen to superintend the fitting out of the expedition at

 

the port of Palos. The hour and the man had at last met.

 

Fitting Out the Expedition

What thoughts and apprehensions filled the heart and mind of Columbus as he at last saw the yearning desires of years about to be met, may be to some extent conceived; they certainly cannot be expressed.

Not a general at the head of his great army who, at a critical moment in battle, sees the enemy make the false move which insures him the victory, could feel more exultant than Columbus must have felt when he left the presence of the Spanish Court, and, after seven years of weary and all but hopeless waiting at last saw the possibilities of the great unknown opening up before him, and beheld, in a vision to him as clear and radiant as the sun shining in the heavens,

a New World extending its arms and welcoming him to her embrace. It would seem as if everything now conspired to atone for the disappointing past.

 

His old tried friend, Perez, prior of

 

the La Rabida monastery, near Palos,

received him with open arms, and well he might, for had not his kind offices made success possible? And the authorities, as if to make good the disappointments of seven years, could not now do too much.

All public officials, of all ranks and conditions in the maritime borders of

 

Andalusia were commanded to furnish supplies and assistance of all kinds. Not only so, but as superstition and fear made ship owners reluctant to send their vessels on the expedition, the necessary ships and men were to be provided, if need be, by impressments, and it was in this way vessels and men were secured.

In three months the expedition was ready to sail. The courage of Columbus in setting sail in untried waters becomes more evident when we consider the size of the ships comprising the little expedition.

They were three in number;

 

the largest of them, the Santa Maria, was only ninety feet long, being about the size of our modern racing yachts.

 

Her smaller consorts, the Pinta and

 

the Nina,

were little caravels, very like our fishing smacks, without any deck to keep the water out. The Santa Maria had four masts, of which two were square rigged, and two fitted with lateen sails like those used on the Nile boats; this vessel Columbus commanded.

 

Martin Alonzo Pinzon commanded the Pinta, and his brother,

 

Vincente Yanez Pinzon, the Nina.

Look his stamps

 

The fleet was now all ready for sea; but before setting sail Columbus and most of his officers and crew confessed to

 

Friar Juan Perez,

and partook of the Sacrament. Surely such an enterprise needed the blessing of heaven, if any did

 

Christopher Columbus bidding farewell to the Queen of Spain on his departure for the New World, August 3, 1492

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Pengantar

Cerita tentang Columbus pertama kali saya dengar saat belajar sejarah dunia di Don Bosco high School Padang tahun 1962, setelah itu saya berusaha mencari informasi tetapi tidak pernah sewcara lengkap,karena kesibukan sekolah dan kemudian berkerja yang snagt sibuk hanya sedikit informasi yang dapat ditemui,baru saat pension tahun 2001 saya punya banyak kesempatan meneruskan hobi sejarah saya menemui sebuah buku ensiklopedia tahun 1952 yang isinya sangat menarik karena dari ksiah tragis menimpa Columbus pada ekspidisi terakhir ia di tangkap, mengapa bisa terjadi seperti itu ? Hal ini perlu menjadi pelajaran bagi generasi penerus ,agar hal yang baik dari Columbus dapat dijadikan pedoman dan diteruskan tetapi hal yang jelek jangan diulang, belajarlah dari sejarah, maka kemudian secara serius saya kumpulkan seluruh informasi terkait Columbus dan akhirnya terjawablah tentang keberhasilan dan kegagalan Columbus.Untuk menambah informasi dalam pengantar ini saya kutip dari ensikopodia indesia tahun 1952

 Hal 337

Columbus pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1942  ia bertolak dan tanggal 14 Oktober mendarat di pulau Guanahani ,salah satu pulau dari kepulaan Bahamas ,selanjutnya ia  menemukan pulau Cuba  dan Haiti(Hispanola)  dan bulan Januari 11493 kembali ia .

Pelayaran kedua  tahun 1493-1496 dan ia menemukan  Jmaica dan Porto Rica  dan didirikanya kota Isabella  dipulau Hispanola .

Dalam Pelayan yang ketiga kalinya (1498-1500)  tibalah ia dipulau Trinidad  dan dimuara sungai Orinoco, tetapi orang-orang memusuhinya  dan mempersalahkannya  karena ia bertindak sewenang-wenang ,lalu mereka mengusahakan  supaya Bobadilla  datang untuk membawa Columbus  pulang ke Spanyol . Babadilla datang  lalu Columbus dirantainya dan dipulangkan ke Spanyol.

Setelah Columbus diampuni  ia mengadakan pelayaran keempat (1502-1504) dan pada waktu itulah   ia berlayar menyusuri pantai Amerika Tengah . Ia meninggal di Valladolid , kini tulangnya disimpan di Savilla .

Columbus tidak tahu bahwa ia menemukan benua baru.

Menurut beberapa informasi Ia menyangka tiba di India,karena itu penduduk asli dinamakannya Indian.

Bagaimana kisahnya sampai terjadi seperti tersebut diatas, marilah membaca dengan teliti kisah elngkap dibawah ini, apa keberhasilan dan apa kegagalan, mengapa ia dibebaskan oleh Ratu Isabella walaupun sudah berbuat yang tidak benar ? dan bagaimana dengan Tulangnya yang disimpan di Savilla apakah asli atau palsu?

Sorry, bahasa pengatar kisah ini dalam bahasa inggris agar dapat dibaca oleh seluruh dunia. 

 Jakarta October 2013

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

introduction
The story about Columbus first time I heard while studying the history of the world in Padang Don Bosco high School in 1962 , after that I tried to find information but never sewcara incomplete , due to busy school and then work that snagt busy little information that can be found , a new time pension of 2001 I had a lot of opportunity to continue my hobby to see a history book 1952 encyclopedia whose content is very interesting because of the tragic befall ksiah Columbus at last expedition he was arrested , why could happen that way ? This should be a lesson for future generations , so that ‘s a good thing from Columbus can be used as guidelines and forwarded but bad things do not repeat , learn from history , it seriously then I gather all relevant information about Columbus and finally terjawablah Columbus successes and failures . To add to the information in this introduction I quoted from ensikopodia indesia 1952
 It 337
Columbus on August 3, 1942 he departed and landed on 14 October on the island of Guanahani , one of the islands of the Bahamas island , then he discovered the island of Cuba and Haiti ( Hispanola ) and he returned in January 11493 .
Second voyage in 1493-1496 , and he found Jamaica and Porto Rico and builded  Isabella  city at island of  Hispanola .
Waiters in the third (1498-1500) he came  island of Trinidad and Orinoco river , but the people against him and blame her because she acted arbitrarily , then they pursue that Bobadilla came to bring Columbus back to Spain . Babadilla came and Columbus  was   in chain sent back home  to Spain .

After Columbus forgiven a,  he entered a fourth voyage (1502-1504) and at that time he sailed down the coast of Central America . He died in Valladolid ,  his bone now stored at  Savilla .
Columbus did not know that he had found a new continent.
According to some information he thought arrived in India, because the original named Indian population.
How did it come to happen as mentioned above, let’s peruse elngkap story below, what is success and what is failure, why he was released by Queen Isabella despite doing bad things? and how the bones are stored in Savilla whether genuine or fake?

  Jakarta, October 2013
Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

First Voyage of Columbus: Meeting the Islanders (1492)


Christopher Columbus had read the journals of Marco Polo, the famed Venetian merchant who travelled to China in 1170-1190 and told of Cipangu (Japan) and thousands of other populated islands. When Columbus sailed west from the Canaries in 1492, he fully expected to reach these islands in the China Sea. Instead he reached the Bahamas, and met its inhabitants, the Taino.

Sources: Two accounts exist from the first voyage. One, a letter written by Columbus on the return trip for Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, was printed in 1493, with 15 more editions in the next five years. The second primary source is the logbook or journal kept by Columbus, presented in 1493 to the Spanish monarchs. A summary of the log was written by Columbus’s son Ferdinand. The manuscript eventually passed to a Dominican monastery in Seville, where friar Bartolomé de las Casas used it for his Historia de las Indias, published in 1558. Since the original and all  known copies later disappeared, the summaries by las Casas and Ferdinand remain the only extant sources of Columbus’ journal.

 

August,3rd 1492

Voyages of Christopher Columbus

It was before sunrise on Friday morning, August 3, 1492, that Columbus, with 30 officers and adventurers and 90 seamen, in all 120 souls, set sail, “in the name of Christ,”

On the morning of August 3, 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera for the Canary Islands with three ships. The convoy consisted of one larger carrack, the Santa Maria from which Columbus led the expedition, and two smaller caravels, the Niña and the Pinta.

 

First voyage

 

A ship replica of the Santa Maria

Columbus led his three ships – the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria – out of the Spanish port of Palos on August 3, 1492.

 

 

from behind the little island of Saltes. Those inclined to be superstitious regarding Friday will do well to note that it was on a Friday

 

Columbus set sail from Palos; it was on Friday, the 12th of October, that he landed in the New World; on a Friday he set sail homeward; on a Friday, again, the 15th of February, 1493, land was sighted on his return to Europe, and that on Friday, the 15th of March, he returned to Palos.

The story of that eventful trip has never ceased to charm the world, nor ever will so long as the triumphs of genius, the incentives of religion, and the achievements of courage have interest for mankind.

A marginal note in Columbus’s own copy of Peter d’Ailly’s Imago Mundi , now in the Columbina Library in Seville, reads:

 “Note: Sailing south from Lisbon to Guinea, I carefully noted the distance, as pilots and sailors do. Then I took the sun’s elevation many times, using a quadrant and other instruments. I found myself in agreement with Alfraganus, that is to say, the length of a degree is 56 miles. Thus this measurement must be accepted. As a result, we are able to state that the earth’s cir­cumference at the equator is 20,400 miles….”

We know from another marginal note that an astronomer named Joseph, in the service of the king of Portugal, had calculated the latitude of Los Idolos Island, off the Guinea coast, as one degree five minutes north.

The accepted lati­tude for Lisbon at the time was 40 degrees 15 minutes north. Columbus considered Lisbon and Los Idolos Island to be on the same meridian, and estimated the distance between the two places by dead-reckoning, probably comparing his own estimate with estimates made by the Portuguese navigators. By a simple calculation, he obtained the figure of 56 miles to the degree – close enough to Alfraganus’s figure of 56.

 To obtain the circumference of the earth at the equator, he simply multiplied 56 by 360. Columbus measured distance at sea by the Italian nautical mile, and thus, when he writes that the circumference of the earth is 20,400 miles, he is referring to Italian nautical miles.

 One Italian nautical mile is equivalent to 1480 meters (4856 feet), and, converted into modern units, Columbus’s meas­ure of the circumference of the earth was thus 30,185 kilo­meters (18,756 miles), or about 25 percent less than the true value of 40,010 kilometers, or 24,861 miles.

His reading of Marco Polo and the Toscanelli letter and map had convinced Columbus that Asia extended much farther to the east than Ptolemy had thought and that, conse­quently, Cipangu lay about as far to the west of Spain as – in fact – the West Indies lie.

Columbus’s argument for the feasibility of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing west hinged on this figure of 56 miles to the equatorial degree. Since he was seeking royal support for his venture, he needed an authority of more weight than either Marco Polo or Toscanelli to underpin this crucial number; while they might both be dismissed as rather dotty fantasists, it was not so easy to dismiss Alfraganus, who carried all the authority of the Arab astronomical and mathematical tradition behind him. Columbus’s claim to have verified Alfraganus’s calculations must be seen in this light.

“Alfraganus” is the Latin version of the Arabic name al-Farghani, and refers to Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani. He was one of the scholars associated with the Caliph al-Ma’mun’s great efforts to produce Arabic versions of Greek scientific texts in early ninth-century Bagh­dad. He may well have himself taken part in the scientific expedition which, sometime between 820 and 833, set out to measure the actual length of one degree of a meridian.

This was probably the first attempt since the time of Eratos­thenes to measure the length of a degree.

Although there are no surviving eyewitness accounts of the experiment, we know from later sources how it was done: Two locations were identified whose latitudes, determined astronomically, dif­fered by one degree. A north-south baseline connecting them was carefully laid out by sighting along pegs, and the length of that baseline was measured.

 In the experiment in which al-Farghani took part, two pairs of locations were actually chosen, one pair in northern Iraq, on the plain of Sinjar, and the other near Kufah – both areas as flat and feature­less as possible. The results were then compared, and the length of a degree established as56 miles.

Al-Farghani subsequently wrote a very influential little book on astronomy, a number of copies of whose Arabic text survive. The title can be translated Compendium of the Science of the Stars and Celestial Motions.

This was twice translated into Latin in Spain during the Middle Ages, once by Gerard of Cremona and once by John of Seville, working under the auspices of Alfonso the Wise. A Hebrew translation also survives. The Compendium, in its Latin version, was widely circulated in Europe and remained a standard author­ity almost to the time of Galileo; it was first printed in 1493, the same year Columbus returned from his first voyage.

It is worth quoting al-Farghani’s exact words, for they were of supreme importance to Columbus: “In that way we find that the value of a degree on the celestial sphere, taken on the circumference of the earth, is 56 miles, each mile being equal to 4000 black cubits, as was ascertained during the time of al-Ma’mun – May God’s grace be upon him! And on this point a large number of the learned are in agreement.”

Yet the correct value for the length of a degree on the meri­dian is not 56 but roughly 69 statute miles, of 60 nautical miles (by definition), or 111 kilometers and a fraction. How could competent astronomers, skilled in mathematics, have made an error of such magnitude?

The basic unit of measurement in the Arab world was the dhira’, or cubit. Originally, this was the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger, but a sophisticated cul­ture could not tolerate the variation implicit in this ancient unit of measurement, so the length of a cubit was standar­dized.

The earliest standard cubit is known as the “legal cubit”, so called because it is the one used in the holy law of Islam, the shar’iya . It is equivalent to 49.8 centimeters (19.6 inches). For surveying purposes, al-Ma’mun introduced another cubit, equivalent to 48.25 centimeters (19 inches). Finally, there is the “black cubit,” the standard for which was indicated on the Nilometer on the island of Rawda, in the Nile River. This was equivalent to 54.04 centimeters (21.28 inches). Which cubit did al-Farghani use? 

The obvious answer is that he used the “black cubit” of 54.04 centimeters, since he actually uses that term. But we know from other sources that the black cubit had not yet been introduced during the reign of al-Ma’mun, when the length of a degree was measured on the plain of Sinjar. So in spite of the terminology al-Farghani uses, his “black cubit” must in fact refer to either the “surveying cubit” of 48.25 centimeters, or to the legal cubit of.49.8 centimeters. The latter is the more likely, since we know that it was the most commonly used unit during al-Farghani’s lifetime.

There are 4000 cubits in an Arab mile. If al-Farghani used the legal cubit as his unit of measurement, then an Arab mile was 1995 meters (6545 feet) long. A degree on the meridian would measure 113 kilometers (70.25 miles) – two kilometers greater than the true value, but well within acceptable limits of error. If he used al-Ma’mun’s surveying cubit, then a degree contained 109 kilometers (67.73 miles) – two kilo­meters less than the true value, but an equally respectable result under the circumstances.

In other words, al-Farghani’s so-called “short degree” of 56 miles was not short at all, but was very close to the true length of a degree of the meridian. The error was not al-Farghani’s, but Columbus’s. Unaware that an Arab mile was considerably longer than an Italian nautical mile, Columbus seized upon the figure of 56 miles for the length of the degree and used it to justify the theory which – in all probabil­ity – he already held.

It was Columbus’s intention to steer southwesterly for

 

the Canary Islands,

and thence to strike due west due to misconception occasioned by the very incorrect maps of that period.

On the third day

 

colombus out the Pinta’s rudder

 

was found to be disabled and the vessel leaking, caused, doubtless, by her owner, who did not wish his vessel to go,

the ship having been impressed and thinking to secure her return. Instead of this, Columbus continued on his course and decided to touch at the Canaries, which he reached on the 9th. Here he was detained for some weeks, till he learned from a friendly sail that

 

three Portuguese war vessels

 

had been seen hovering off

 

the island Gomera,

where he was taking in wood, water, and provisions. Apprehensive, and probably rightly so, that the object was to capture his fleet, Columbus lost no time in putting to sea.

Three days into the journey, on August 6, 1492, the rudder of the Pinta became broken and unhung, rendering the ship disabled. The owners of the ship, Gomez Rascon and Christoval Quintero, were suspected of sabotage, as they and their ship had been pressed into service against their will.

 Invasion, Conquest, Rebellion

A. Invasion

1. Columbus and Guacanagari

The reasons for Europeans to leave their homelands in great numbers to seek their fortunes in unknown lands are argued over by historians and are many. Disease and famine from 1100- 1500 was catastrophic. The disparity of classes and inheritance patterns limiting wealth to first born sons added to the fact that those that survived were not satisfied with their plight.  Portugal was granted an Eastern passage to Asia and Spain under Isabella and Ferdinand had just defeated the Moors at Grenada in Jan 1492 and decided to expel Jews a few months later.

This imperialism and religious ‘holy war’ pattern developed out of the invasions by ‘infidels’, crusades and the need for increased commerce due to economic and ecological disasters for 400 years all over Europe. So Isabella and Ferdinand took a chance on a Genoese mariner to try to find Asia to the West.

All of the notions that Columbus and his men were concerned about sailing off a flat sea was the kind of false embellishment and drama perpetrated by many writers that persist today as taught in the schools. Columbus and his men may not have been clear on the existence of an entire continent between Europe and Asia, but it became clear that they in fact had run into what became to them as the West Indies and later a ‘New World’.

 

Santa Maria, Pinta, Niña

 

Columbus (Colon

)

Landing San Salvador 1492

On October 12, 1492 Columbus with his three ships the Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina arrived on a small island in the Bahamas. As he landed he claimed the territory for Spain by putting up a flag, a cross and naming the islands, the first being San Salvador. The Indians were Taino and Columbus found the people to be friendly so he manacled and kidnapped 10-25 Indians.  After they were captured  they were read what has been called the ‘requerimiento’ in Spanish, sort of a justification for what they were doing. On the island of Hispaniola, the flagship, the Santa Maria was washed up on the rocks on Christmas Eve , 1492. The main cacique, Guananagari,of the Taino in the area ordered his people to man canoes and rescue people and goods in the breakers. The rescued material  was used to build a settlement called Navidad (for Christmas day). Columbus left some of the men at Navidad on Hispaniola and quickly returned to Spain on the Nina. Guanangari tried to help the colony but other caciques resented the demands for food and gold and burned Navidad and Guanangari’s village.  Columbus returned with more ships and men on three more voyages.

Leaving for New World

AND NOW FOR THE NEW WORLD.

The captain of the Pinta was able to secure the rudder temporarily with cords until the Canary Islands could be reached on August 9, 1492. Here the fleet repaired the Pinta and re-rigged the Niña’s lateen sails to standard square sails.

While securing provisions from the island of La Gomera, Columbus received word that three Portuguese caravels had been seen hovering near El Hierro with the supposed intention of capturing him. However, on September 6, 1492 the westward voyage began without incident.

Early in the voyage, Columbus predicted that land should be found within 700 leagues (approx. 2500 miles), and ordered the commanders of the other vessels to refrain from sailing at night once that distance had passed to avoid wrecking. He also hedged his bets by keeping two logs of the distance traveled – a secret log with the true distance, and an altered copy that he shared with the crew, showing much less.

His objective was to sail west until he reached Asia (the Indies) where the riches of gold, pearls and spice awaited. His first stop was the Canary Islands where the lack of wind left his expedition becalmed until September 6.

Once underway, Columbus benefited from calm seas and steady winds that pushed him steadily westward (Columbus had discovered the southern “Trades” that in the future would fuel the sailing ships carrying goods to the New World). However, the trip was long, longer than anticipated by either Columbus or his crew. In order to mollify his crew’s apprehensions, Columbus kept two sets of logs: one showing the true distance traveled each day and one showing a lesser distance. The first log was kept secret. The latter log quieted the crew’s anxiety by under-reporting the true distance they had traveled from their homeland.

This deception had only a temporary effect;

It was early morning on the 6th of September that Columbus again set sail, steering due west, on an unknown sea. He need fear no hostile fleets, and he was beyond the hindrance of plotting enemies on shore; and yet so far from escaping trouble it seemed as if he had but plunged into deeper tribulations and trials than ever.

 

As the last trace of land faded from view the hearts of the crews failed them. They were going they knew not where; would they ever return?

Tears and loud lamentings followed,

 

and

 

Columbus and his officers had all they could do to calm the men.

After leaving the Canaries the winds were light and baffling, but always from the East.

On the 11th of September, when about 450 miles west of Ferro, they saw part of a mast floating by, which, from its size, appeared to have belonged to a vessel of about 120 tons burden.

To the crew this meant the story of wreck; why not prophetic of their own? The discovery only added to their fears. And now a remarkable and unprecedented phenomenon presented itself.

On the 13th of September,

at night fall, Columbus, for the first time in all his experience, discovered that the needle did not point to

 

the North star,

 

but varied about half a point, or five and a half degrees to the northwest. As he gave the matter close attention Columbus found the variation to increase with every day’s advance.

This discovery, at first kept secret, was early noticed by the pilots, and soon the news spread among the crews, exciting their alarm.

 

If the compass was to lose its virtues, what was to become of them on a trackless sea? Columbus invented a theory which was ingenious but failed wholly to allay the terror. He told them that the needle pointed to an exact point, but that the star Polaris revolved, and described a circle around the pole. Polaris does revolve around a given point, but its apparent motion is slow, while the needle does not point to a definite fixed point. The true explanation of the needle variations sometimes it fluctuates thirty or forty degrees is to be found in the flowing of the electrical currents through the earth in different directions, upon which the sun seems to have an effect.

 

Columbus took observations of the sun every day,

 

with an Astrolabe, and shrewdly kept two logs every day (SEE COLUMBUS JOURNAL). One of these, prepared in secret, contained the true record of the daily advance; the other, showing smaller progress, was for the crew, by which means they were kept in ignorance of the great distance they were from Spain.

Indications of Land

On the 14th of September the voyagers

 

discovered a water wagtail and a heron hovering about the ships, signs which were taken as indicating the nearness of land, and which greatly rejoiced the sailors.

 

On the night of the 15th  a meteor fell within five lengths of the Santa Maria.

 

 

On the 16th

the ships entered the region of the trade winds; with this propitious breeze, directly aft, the three vessels sailed gently but quickly over a tranquil sea, so that for many days not a sail was shifted. This balmy weather Columbus constantly refers to in his diary, and observes that “the air was so mild that it wanted but the song of nightingales to make it like the month of April in Andalusia.”

 

 

 

[Fig.1: Columbus meeting the Taino on Hispaniola. Letter, 1493].

The Spaniards first encountered

 

the Arawakan-speaking Taino in the southeast Bahamas.

 

 

These island were called the Lucayos (Leeward Islets) by the Spanish, and the local Arawakan dialect is named Lucayan.

Columbus left Palos, Spain with the three ships Santa Maria, Niña, and Pinta on August 3, 1492, passing Cadiz a few days later on the way to the Canary Islands. On September 6, after repairing the Pinta’s rudder, they headed due west from the Canaries along latitude 28º N to find a direct passage to Japan and the East Indies. Crossing the seaweed-filled

 

Sargasso Sea on September 16-29, they made several false sightings of land.

Guanahaní (San Salvador or Watling):

 

Guanahaní (San Salvador or Watling):.

On the 18th of September

the sea, as Columbus tells us, was “as calm as the Guadalquiver at Seville.”

Air and sea alike continued to furnish evidences of life and indications of land, and Pinzon, on the Pinta, which, being the fastest sailer, generally kept the lead, assured the admiral that indications pointed to land the following day.

On the 19th,

 

soundings were taken and no bottom found at two hundred fathoms.

On the 20th,

 

several birds visited the ships; they were small song birds, showing they could not have come a very long distance; all of which furnished cause for encouragement.

After 29 days out of sight of land, on October 7, 1492, the crew spotted shore birds flying west, and they changed direction to make their landfall. A later comparison of dates and migratory patterns leads to the conclusion that the birds were Eskimo curlews and American golden plovers.

Columbus Voyages Discover Birds in America

There were four Columbus voyages to sea-side lands of American. After the initial exploration in 1492-1493, others soon followed in response to the original discoveries. The second voyage of 493-1496 discovered the Lesser Antilles and Cuba. There was a third exploration in 1497-1498, with the final voyage of first discovery from 1502-1504.

Christofforus de Columbo received government approval and funding for the first voyage of discovery. Official documents were issued from the king and queen to allow him to sail, expenses paid, for the new world of the west Indies. Articles of agreement were signed in April 1492

Admiral Columbus set forth a few months later, on August 3rd. The sailing vessels are the now famous caravels Pinta and Nina, and the Santa Maria with their crews of sailing men.

By mid-September while floating along in the western Atlantic Ocean, there were birds being seen. Among the sea birds seen were

 

the boat-swain bird,

 

booby,

 

petrels,

 

and man-of-war bird. Terns and ducks were noted in the chronicles resulting from the brave men’s voyages.

It was mid-October when land fall in the new world occurred, and

the first sightings were made of new types pf wild birds.

Information from the voyages as summarized here, is based on an original translation of the journal narratives

.

The original spelling is retained.

 

 

 

 

 

Journal of the First Voyage –

 

 

On October 8, 1492,

Columbus observed that the needle of his compass no longer pointed to the North star, a phenomenon which had never before been recorded. The needle instead had varied a half point to the Northwest, and continued to vary further as the journey progressed. He at first made no mention of this, knowing his crew to be prone to panic with their destination unknown, but after several days his pilots took notice with much anxiety. Columbus keenly reasoned that the needle didn’t point to the North star, but to some invisible point on the Earth. His reputation as a profound astronomer held weight with the crew, and his theory alleviated their alarm.

A legend is that the crew grew so homesick and fearful that they threatened to sail back to Spain. Although the actual situation is unclear, most likely the sailors’ resentments merely amounted to complaints or suggestions.

 

On October 8, ducks and other land birds were observed flying southwest (box), and Columbus changed course. At 2 AM on October 12, crewmen from the Pinta sighted land in the Bahamas at latitude 24º N (fig.2).

 


by October 10

the crew’s apprehension had increased to the point of near mutiny. Columbus headed off disaster by promising his crew that if land was not sighted in two days, they would return home.

11 october

The next day land was discover

A New World is Revealed

Columbus’s journal of his first voyage to America has been lost. However, we do have an accurate abstract of the journal written by Bartolome de las Casas in the 1530s. Las Casas was an historian and Columbus’s biographer who had access to the original journal of the voyage.

 We join Columbus’s account as his expedition approaches the islands of the Bahamas. Throughout the account, Columbus refers to himself in the third person as the “Admiral

 

COLUMBUS – What If?

Written by
Aileen Vincent-Barwood
Saudiaramco World

It is possible that the first words spoken by Christopher Columbus on stepping ashore in the New World were the Arabic greeting “As-salam alaykum” ?

Arabic had been the scientific language of most of humankind from the eighth to the 12th century. It is probably for this reason that Columbus, in his own words, considered Arabic to be “the mother of all languages,” and why, on his first voyage to the New World, he took with him Luis de Torres, an Arabic-speaking Spaniard, as his interpreter.

Columbus fully expected to land in India, where he knew that the Arabs had preceded him. He also knew that, for the past five centuries, Arabs had explored, and written of, the far reaches of the known world. They had been around the perimeter of Africa and sailed as far as India. They had ventured overland beyond Constantinople, past Asia Minor, across Egypt and Syria – then the western marches of the unknown Orient – and into the heart of the Asian continent. They had mapped the terrain, traced the course of rivers, timed the monsoons, scaled mountains, charted shoals and reached China, and, as a result, had spread Islam and the Arabic language in all these regions (See Aramco World, November-December 1991).

It was on the 33rd day of his voyage, October 12, 1492, that Columbus made his landfall. At that point, he probably stood on the shores of a Bahamian island named Guanahani – which he immediately renamed San Salvador and claimed for “their sovereign majesties, the king and queen of Spain.”

Probably the first of his surprises that day was his discovery that the “Indians,” as he called the islanders he greeted, did not speak Arabic.

Still, he remained undaunted and wrote in his log for Friday, October 12, that he was certain he had only to sail on through these outer islands of India to reach the riches of Cipangu (Japan) and China,
a journey of only a further 1000 miles. Here, he was convinced, he would greet the Great Khan, an emperor of vast wealth who spoke Arabic and ruled over lands of gold, silver and gems, silks, spices
and valuable medicines.

 

 

One may wonder how Columbus, a 41-year-old professional mapmaker, avid reader, researcher and seasoned mariner, a man who had spent the greater part of his adult life planning his great venture to the west, could have been so far off in his calculations.

One explanation may be that, as well as a master mariner, he was also a clever politician. As a Christian whose expedition was funded by two Christian monarchs, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, Columbus’s miscalculations may well have been due not to a lack of navigational information – of which there was a great deal available – but to a calculated decision to use “acceptable” sources of scientific knowledge and to exclude or ignore other, more “foreign” sources.

During the seven centuries of Arab dominion over Spain and Portugal, from AD 711 to 1492, there had developed a culture of Muslim arts and sciences which had a deep and permanent effect on the life, arts and sciences of Europe. The roots of this culture went as far back as Europe’s Dark Ages, which can be defined as lasting roughly from AD 476 to 1000, during which the Arab world was the incubator of Western civilization. The Arabs not only preserved, refined, updated and translated into Arabic the rich heritage of classical Greek knowledge, but they also added original and significant new contributions (See Aramco World, May-June 1982).

Once Europe began its explorations of the world of knowledge, it turned not to Greek or Roman sources, most of which were lost or inaccessible, but to Arabic scientific writings. Recognizing this, Europeans in the 12th century embarked on a massive program of translation of these sources, founding a college of translators in Toledo, Spain, from which most of the Arab works on mathematics and astronomy were first made available to Europe’s scholars.

During that period and even earlier – in fact, dating back to the days of the Roman Empire (27 BC to AD 284) – people had discussed the idea of sailing west to find the riches of the Golden East. Yet no one had ever tried it.

By the seventh century, however, the Arabs were thoroughly familiar with the eastward approaches to the Orient. For over 300 years they had explored much of the known world. From Delhi and Agra in the east, through Tehran, Baghdad and Damascus, to Cairo, Tripoli, Tunis and Cordoba in the west, Arab scientists and explorers had expanded the knowledge of the known world and pushed back the horizons of the unknown.

Ultimately, this knowledge – along with philosophy, logic, mathematics, natural history and much else – was to be found written down in the great libraries that were the flowers of Spain’s brilliant Muslim-Christian-Jewish culture, and in libraries elsewhere in Europe. Arab geographical encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps and charts, as well as books on mathematics, astronomy and navigation, and treatises on vastly improved navigational instruments, reposed there in Muslim Spain and in the Middle East.

So, too, did the theory of “the new world beyond the Sea of Darkness,” the idea of an uncharted continent that lay to the west of the known world. There seems to be little doubt that it was the Arabs who first made the maps that led Columbus to the New Wo

 

Growing up in a major seaport, Columbus could not have escaped hearing about Arab exploits and Arab seafaring skills at an early age. The son of Domenico Colombo, a prosperous weaver, Cristoforo Colombo was born in 1451 and grew up in Genoa. A great cosmopolitan merchant center in the mid-1400’s, Genoa had colonies in Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, Constantinople, and on the shores of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

From these far-flung colonies, Genoese merchants, colonists, diplomats and missionaries ventured forth into Anatolia, Georgia, the Caspian Sea, Persia and India. In the mid-15th century, the Levantine coast was an open door to the East, ideally situated for trading with the ports of the Black Sea and Asia Minor. Indeed, 200 years earlier, when recording his wondrous tales of his journeys to the Far East, the Venetian traveler Marco Polo wrote of meeting Genoese and Venetian merchants on the Great China Road. From some of Columbus’s letters, we know that he was profoundly affected by Marco Polo’s account of his travels.

The prosperous Colombo family lived in a house near the Porta Sant’ Andrea, and by his own account, we know that by the time he was 10 years old, the young Columbus loved the bustle of the port. He would linger on the docks and watch the seamen going back and forth from the giant sailing ships crowding the harbor, ships that had arrived across shining seas from far-off and exotic places like Chios and Constantinople, Egypt and Tunis and Syria. He and his friends liked to play games among the bales and crates of silk and cotton, the kegs of oil and wine and spices.

Entranced, he would sit down with the sailors, a small blue-eyed, red-haired lad, and listen raptly to their tales of the magical lands to the east. It is hard to imagine that the boy Columbus would not have been stirred by the daring exploits of these sailors, many of them from the Levant – or by the tales he heard later when, as a seagoing lad of 14, sailing out of Genoa, he listened to the shipboard tales of the venturesome Arab traders who roamed the eastern Mediterranean.

He was unlettered and unread in those days. Not until years later did he teach himself to read, and then it was not in his native Italian, but in Castilian Spanish.

 

 

By the time Columbus arrived in Portugal, he was somewhere in his mid-20’s. The Christians had reconquered much of Spain and Portugal from the Muslims. Nonetheless, because of the Muslim heritage, the Iberian Peninsula was still Europe’s center of intellectual and artistic endeavor. Lisbon, where Columbus lived while planning his voyage into the Atlantic, was the capital of Portugal and a learned city in which it would have been easy for him to get the books and materials he needed to pursue his research. Since his youth, he had learned Spanish, Portuguese, Latin and other languages. It therefore seems likely that Columbus – sailor, navigator, professional cartographer and later son-in-law of one of Henry the Navigator’s sea captains – would have drawn on this wealth of Muslim geographical knowledge.

Indeed, Columbus wrote in a letter in 1501 that during his many voyages to all parts of the world, he had met learned men of various races and sects and had “endeavored to see all books of cosmography, history, and philosophy and of other sciences.” It is therefore unlikely he would have overlooked the more than four centuries of Muslim science and exploration available to him so close at hand.

According to one of his biographers, the American Samuel Eliot Morison, author of Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Columbus did some “heavy combing through ancient and medieval authorities on geography” before setting out on his voyage “in order to gather information and ammunition for his next bout with the experts.” If this is so, he could hardly have missed such translated works as al-Biruni’s History of India and Yaqut’s Mu’jam al-Buldan. It would seem also that he would have delved eagerly into Ibn Bat-tuta’s 13th-century Rihlah (Journey), in which that greatest of early travelers writes about his 120,000-kilometer (75,000-mile) trip from North Africa to China and back.

From several of his other biographers, most notably the Spanish priest Fray Bartolome de las Casas, it is also known that Columbus was an avid reader of books on geography and cosmography. Four of the books he owned have been preserved: a 1485 Latin translation of the Book of Ser Marco Polo, an Italian translation of Pliny’s Natural History printed in 1489, Pierre d’Ailly’s Imago Mundi and minor treatises, and a 1477 edition of the Historia Rerum Ubique Gestarum by Pope Pius II.

 

Columbus also admitted relying heavily on information he gleaned from the school of navigation founded by Prince Henry of Portugal, often known as Henry the Navigator. Around 30 years before Columbus’s first voyage, some of the prince’s caravels had sailed west, to the outer edge of the Azores and perhaps as far as present-day Newfoundland. Concluding that there were other lands to explore beyond what Ptolemy had described in his second-century Guide to Geography, and eager to retain and organize the geographical information in the possession of sailors and navigators – many of them from the Levant – the prince established the school at Sagres, in southern Portugal, to act as a sort of clearing house for present and future knowledge of the sea. It may have been from this source that Columbus discovered that when, years earlier, Vasco da Gama had sailed along Africa’s east coast, he was guided by an Arab pilot, Ahmad ibn Majid, who used an Arab map then unknown to European sailors.

And yet, despite all this available information, Columbus made a major miscalculation of the distance he had to sail to reach the other side of the globe.

That the earth was a sphere was not a new idea, and it was widely accepted by well-educated people in Columbus’s time. So was the Greeks’ division of the spherical earth into 360 degrees, but where sources differed was on the question of the length of a degree. The correct measurement, we know today, is about 111 kilometers (60 nautical miles) per degree at the equator. In the third century BC, the Libyan-born Greek astronomer Eratosthenes, director of the library at Alexandria, had come up with a remarkably accurate calculation of 110 kilometers (59.5 nautical miles) per degree; in the second century, the great Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy had calculated the degree at 93 kilometers (50 nautical miles). In the ninth century, Muslim astronomer Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad al-Farghani, whose works were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages and who – under the name Alfraganus – was studied widely in Europe, had calculated that a degree measured 122 kilometers (about 66 nautical miles) – not as accurate a result as that of Eratosthenes, but better than Ptolemy’s.

 

 

Either Columbus erroneously used Roman miles in converting al-Farghani’s calculations into modern units of distance – thus coming up with a figure of 45 miles per degree at the equator – or, after first deciding that al-Farghani’s figure was right, chose in the end, perhaps for reasons of policy, to follow the revered and irrefutable Ptolemy, whose Geography, in its first printed Latin edition, had gained great popularity in 15th-century Europe. In the first case, Columbus would have underestimated the distance he had to sail to reach Asia by a third; in the second, by some 25 percent.

Had Columbus but accepted the ninth-century findings of a consortium of 70 Muslim scholars, working under the aegis of Caliph ‘Abd Allah al-Ma’mun, who had gathered them to determine the length of a degree of latitude, he might have avoided many mistakes.

Using wooden rods as measures, the caliph’s scholars traveled a north-south road until they saw a change of one degree in the elevation of the pole star. Their measurements resulted in an amazingly accurate figure for the earth’s circumference: 41,526 kilometers, or 22,422 nautical miles – the equivalent of 115.35 kilometers per degree. By Columbus’s time, a wealth of knowledge gleaned from Arab science and exploration rested in the libraries of Spain and Portugal. Al-Biruni had accurately determined latitude and longitude and – six hundred years before Galileo – had suggested that the earth rotated on its own axis. One hundred years later, in the ninth century, the mathematician al-Khwarizmi had measured the length of a terrestrial degree and Arab navigators were using magnetic needles to plot accurate courses. It was around this time, too, that the Arab astronomers Ibn Yunus and al-Battani – or Albategnius, as he was known in Europe – improved the ancient astrolabe, the quadrant, the sextant and the compass to the point that, for hundreds of years afterward, no long-distance traveler could venture forth without them. By the 12th century, the Hispano-Arab geographer al-Idrisi had completed his voluminous world atlas containing dozens of maps and charts (See Aramco World, July-August 1977).

In calculating the distances he had to travel to reach India and the Orient, Columbus chose not to rely on the Arab and Muslim sources. He was, instead, greatly persuaded by the theory of Paolo Toscanelli, a Florentine physician who dabbled in astronomy and mathematics. When he saw Toscanelli’s charts stating that Marco Polo’s estimate of the length of Asia was correct, and that it was only 3000 miles from Lisbon westward to Japan and 5000 to Hangzhou, China, Columbus accepted the figures he wished most to hear. It was Toscanelli’s chart he took with him on his first voyage of discovery.

 
   

 

Columbus also believed that his voyage west from Spain to India, though difficult, would be short. Using maps and information based on the calculations of Ptolemy and Martin Behaim, the German cartographer, he believed he could reach China after no more than a 4000-mile voyage. This notion was confirmed by Pierre d’Ailly’s Imago Mundi, a book that, according to Columbus’s son and biographer Ferdinand, was his father’s bedside companion for years. (Columbus’s copy, its margins covered with hundreds of hand-written notes, is in the Seville museum.) D’Ailly believed that the western ocean, between Morocco and the eastern coast of Asia, was “of no great width.” He followed the system of Marinus of Tyre, a second-century Greek who made Eurasia very wide east to west, and the Atlantic Ocean narrow, and predicted that the latter could be crossed in a few days with a fair wind.

According to Columbus’s log – the original of which has been lost, or, as some historians suggest, destroyed – he sailed his tiny fleet of three small ships to the New World by dead reckoning. This means he crossed the vast expanse of Atlantic Ocean between the Canary Islands and the Bahamas using only a mariner’s compass and dividers, a quadrant and lead line, an ampolleta, or half-hour glass, a ruler, and charts. His charts were sheepskins that showed the coasts of Spain, Portugal and North Africa, the Azores, Madeira and the Canaries. He took his course from his mariner’s compass, developed from the magnetic needle used four centuries before by Arab navigators. His quadrant was an early invention of the great Arab astronomer Ibn Yunus of Cairo.

There is no doubt that Columbus deserves to be celebrated, in this anniversary year, for his courage, perseverance, sailing skills and superb navigational ability. On the other hand, one can only wonder what might have happened that October day in 1492 had he heeded eight centuries of Arab invention and navigational knowledge. Certainly it would have made his navigation easier, his fears fewer, and his landfall more acc

 

Aileen Vincent-Barwood,

former Middle East correspondent,
newspaper editor and author,
free-lances from upstate New York.

This article appeared on pages 2-9 of the
January/February 1992 print edition of

Saudi Aramco World.

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday October 11

The course was W.S.W., and there was more sea than there had been during the whole of the voyage. They saw sand-pipers, and a green reed near the ship. Those of the caravel Pinta saw a cane and a pole, and they took up another small pole which appeared to have been worked with iron; also another bit of cane, a land-plant, and a small board. The crew of the caravel Niña also saw signs of land, and a small branch covered with berries. Everyone breathed afresh and rejoiced at these signs. The run until sunset was 27 leagues.

After sunset the Admiral returned to his original west course, and they went along at the rate of 12 miles an hour. Up to two hours after midnight they had gone 90 miles, equal to 22 1/2 leagues. As the caravel Pinta was a better sailer, and went ahead of the Admiral, she found the land, and made the signals ordered by the Admiral. The land was first seen by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana. But the Admiral, at ten o’clock, being on the castle of the poop, saw a light, though it was so uncertain that he could not affirm it was land. He called Pero Gutierrez, a gentleman of the King’s bedchamber, and said that there seemed to be a light, and that he should look at it. He did so, and saw it. The Admiral said the same to Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, whom the King and Queen had sent with the fleet as inspector, but he could see nothing, because he was not in a place whence anything could be seen.

After the Admiral had spoken he saw the light once or twice, and it was like a wax candle rising and failing. It seemed to few to be an indication of land; but the Admiral made certain that land was close. When they said the Salve, (Salve Regina) which all the sailors were accustomed to sing in their way, the Admiral asked and admonished the men to keep a good look-out on the forecastle, and to watch well for land; and to him who should first cry out that he saw land, he would give a silk doublet, besides the other rewards promised by the Sovereigns, which were 10,000 maravedis to him who should first saw it. At two hours after midnight the land was sighted at a distance of two leagues.”

 

Columbus ordered the three ships to halt and wait for daylight before venturing further.

 

 

 

 

The next morning, as Columbus reports in the 1493 Letter,

 ” On the thirty-third day after I departed Cadiz, I came to the Indian sea, where I found many islands inhabited by men without number… To the first of these I gave the name of the blessed Saviour [San Salvador]… But the Indians call it Guanahaní…” [Taino for “iguana”]

 

 

The Taino islanders arrived in large numbers with cotton, parrots, and spears to trade with the Spaniards: ” Presently many inhabitants of the island assembled… That we might form great friendship, ..

 

. I gave to some of them red caps, and

 

glass beads to put round their necks, and many other things of little value, which gave them great pleasure, and made them so much our friends it was a marvel to see.

They afterwards came to the ship’s boats… bringing us parrots, cotton threads in skeins, spears, and many other things; and we exchanged them for… glass beads and small bells. “[Journal, Oct. 12, 1492]

 

Columbus notes the appearance of the Taino, and their use of body paint

:

 

 

” They go as naked as when their mothers bore them, and so do the women, although I did not see more than one young girl. All I saw were young men, none more than 30 years of age.

 

They are very well made, with very handsome bodies, and very good countenances.

 

Their hair is short and coarse… down to the eyebrows, except a few locks behind, which they wear long and never cut. Some paint themselves white, others red, and others of what color they find. Some paint their faces, others the whole body, some only round the eyes, others only on the nose. “[Journal, Oct. 12, 1492]

 

Some of the Taino wore gold ornaments, in which the Spaniards took much interest

” I saw that some of them had a small piece [of gold] fastened in… the nose, and by signs I was able to make out that to the south… there was a king who… possessed a great quantity. “[Journal, Oct. 13, 1492]

Columbus soon learned that the Taino of Guanahaní had enemies on other islands called the Caniba (Caribs):

 

” I saw some with marks of wounds on their bodies, and I made signs to ask what it was, and they [told] me that people from other adjacent islands came with the intention of seizing them, and that they defended themselves. I believe… that they come here from the mainland to take them prisoners. “[Journal, Oct. 12, 1492]

The Taino lacked iron and used spears with sharpened wood or bone tips: ” They neither carry nor know anything of arms, for I showed them swords, and they took them by the blade and cut themselves through ignorance. They have no iron, their darts [short spears] being wands without iron, some of them having a fish’s hook at the end, and others being pointed in various ways. “[Journal, Oct. 12, 1492]

 

His journal continues:

“Friday October 12

 
The Santa Maria, Columbus’s flagship
 
The vessels were hove to, waiting for daylight; and on Friday they arrived at a small island of the Lucayos, called, in the language of the Indians, Guanahani. Presently they saw naked people. The Admiral went on shore in the armed boat, and Martin Alonso Pinzon, and Vicente Yanez, his brother, who was captain of the Niña. The Admiral took the royal standard, and the captains went with two banners of the green cross, which the Admiral took in all the ships as a sign, with an F and a Y and a crown over each letter, one on one side of the cross and the other on the other.

Having landed, they saw trees very green, and much water, and fruits of diverse kinds. The Admiral called to the two captains, and to the others who leaped on shore, and to Rodrigo Escovedo, secretary of the whole fleet, and to Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, and said that they should bear faithful testimony that he, in presence of all, had taken, as he now took, possession of the said island for the King and for the Queen his Lords, making the declarations that are required, as is now largely set forth in the testimonies which were then made in writing.”

Shortly after landing, many of the island’s inhabitants assembled on the beach and Columbus gave them gifts of red hats and beads. The natives reciprocated with gifts of parrots, cotton and other goods. In describing the natives, Columbus wrote: “They go as naked as when their mothers bore them, and so do the women, although I did not see more than one girl. They are very well made, with very handsome bodies, and very good countenances.”

References:

 

Columbus’s journal appears in Olson, Julius, The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985-1503 (1926);

Dyson, John, Columbus: for Gold, God, and Glory (1991);

Morrison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea (1942

 

The “league” used by Columbus is estimated by modern researchers to measure 2.67 nautical miles. 

The exact location and name of the island where Columbus first made landfall is in dispute.

We do know that it is in the Bahamas and that Columbus spent 5 days exploring the area before sailing
to Cuba.

Land was sighted at 2 a.m. on October 12,

by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana (also known as Juan Rodriguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta. Columbus would later assert that he had first seen the light which was suspected as land, and thus earned the reward of 10,000 maravedís.  Columbus called the island (in what is now The Bahamas) San Salvador, although the natives called it Guanahani. Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is an unresolved topic; prime candidates are Samana Cay, Plana Cays, or San Salvador Island (named San Salvador in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus’ San Salvador). The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. Columbus proceeded to observe the natives and how they went about.

 

 

 

 

 

OCTOBER 12, 1492 –

 Christopher Columbus Discovers America

 

Christopher Columbus Discovers America

A New World is Revealed

Columbus’s journal of his first voyage to America has been lost. However, we do have an accurate abstract of the journal written by Bartolome de las Casas in the 1530s. Las Casas was an historian and Columbus’s biographer who had access to the original journal of the voyage. We join Columbus’s account as his expedition approaches the islands of the Bahamas. Throughout the account, Columbus refers to himself in the third person as the “Admiral”:

On Oct. 12, 1492, as every schoolchild has been taught, Columbus came ashore on an island northeast of Cuba. He later named it San Salvador (Holy Savior).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Discovery of the West Indies, 12 October 1492 – 15 January 1493

 

 

Friday, 12 October

“… I saw no animal of any kind in this island, except parrots. …”

Saturday, 13 October

 

“… They brought skeins of spun cotton, and

 

Parrot

 

, and darts, and

 

other trifles that would be tedious to describe, …”

The Islanders had dugout canoes, similar to those later illustrated by Oviedo and other chroniclers:” They came to the ship in small canoes, made out of the trunk of a tree like a long boat, and all of one piece, and wonderfully worked… They are large, some of them holding 40 to 45 men, others smaller, and some only large enough to hold one man. They are propelled with a paddle like a baker’s shovel, and go at a marvelous rate… “[Journal, Oct. 13, 1492]

Rum Cay: Leaving Guanahaní with native guides aboard on October 15, the Spanish ships passed Rum Cay which they named Santa Maria de la Concepción. They encountered a single man in a canoe with trade goods already including some Spanish-made items, going from Santa Maria to Fernandina (Long Island):  “He had a little of their bread, about the size of a fist, a calabash of water, a piece of brown earth [pigment] powdered and then kneaded, and some dried leaves [probably tobacco], which must be a thing highly valued by them, for they bartered with it at San Salvador. He also carried with him a basket of their make, in which he had a string of glass beads and two blancas [copper coins], [showing] he came from…San Salvador…”.[Journal, Oct. 15, 1492]

[Fig.2: Map of the first two weeks of Columbus’ first voyage in the Caribbean (after Morison 1942).]

Fernandina: The next four days (Oct.16-19) were spent at Fernandina, where Columbus saw more of the trading skill of the natives: ” These people are like those of [San Salvador], and have the same speech and manners, except that these here seem to be somewhat more domesticated and tractable, and more intelligent… [because] they know better how to bargain than the others did.” [Journal, Oct. 16, 1492]

Here Columbus also saw dogs and other aspects of daily life such as houses, hammocks, clothing, and personal ornaments:”…Their beds and coverings are like nets of cotton… The houses are all like tents and very high and with good chimneys, but… I have not seen… [a village] of more than… twelve to fifteen houses. Here they found that married women wore cotton drawers, but girls do not, except some who were already eighteen years old. There are here mastiffs and small dogs, and here they found a man who had in his nose a piece of gold, which might have been half the size of a castellano…” [Journal, Oct. 17, 1492]

[

 

Sunday, 21 October

 

‘At ten o’clock I arrived here at the Cape of the Islet and anchored, … Here are some great lagoons, and around them, on the banks, the verdure is marvellous; and round about there is a marvellous amount of woodland, the grass like in April in Andalusia,

and the singing of the little birds such that it would seem that man would never wish to leave here; and the flocks of parrots obscured the sun, and big and little birds of all sorts, and so different from ours that it is marvellous. …”

 

Colombus the first leap and kiss the earth

Fig.3: Native house in Hispaniola (Oviedo 1547) ]

Samoet (Isabella, now Crooked Island): A short distance east was the island called Samoet where the Spaniards anchored from October 20-24, 1492: “There [came] many… [as on] the other islands, just as naked and just as painted… They brought spears and some skeins of cotton to exchange, and they bartered these with some sailors for bits of glass from broken cups and for bits of earthenware. Some of them wore some pieces of gold, hanging from the nose, and they gladly gave these for a hawks’ bell, of the kind made for the foot of a sparrow-hawk, and for glass beads…” [Journal, Oct. 22, 1492]. Morison (1942) notes that Columbus carried the standard trade goods used by the Portuguese in West Africa: Venetian glass beads, red caps, and small round bells called hawks’ bells, used in falconry.

Colba (Juana, now Cuba):

After briefly sailing west, on Oct. 25-26 they ran into shoals (the Islas de Arena), and turned south. On Oct. 27, Cuba was sighted and the Spaniards spent five weeks (Oct.28-Nov.5, 1492) along its northeast coast. “As soon as we had arrived at… Juana… I proceeded [west] along its coast… for some distance… seeing however, no towns or cities situated on the seacoast, but only some villages and rude farms, with whose inhabitants I was unable to converse, because… they took flight. “[Letter, 1493]

Columbus’ first Cuban landing was at Bahia Bariay, near a fishing camp: “The Admiral jumped into the boat and went to shore, and he came to two houses, which he believed to be those of fishermen who fled from terror. In one of them he found a [kind of] dog that never barked, and in both houses he found nets of palm-fibre and lines and horn fish hooks, and bone harpoons, and other fishing-tackle, and many fires in the houses… In each one of the houses many persons lived together.” [Journal, Oct. 28, 1492]

 

 

Sunday, 28 October

 

“… never beheld so fair a thing; trees all along the river, beautiful and green, and different from ours,

 

with flowers and

 

fruits each according to their kind,

 

many birds and

 

little birds which sing very sweetly. …”

Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on October 28) and the northern coast of Hispaniola, by December 5. Here, the Santa Maria ran aground on Christmas morning 1492 and had to be abandoned. He was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. Columbus founded the settlement La Navidad and left 40 men.

Monday, 29 October

 

“… There were dogs that never barked,

 

 

wild birds tamed in their houses, … large birds and small birds and

 

the chirping of crickets, …”

Next day Columbus visited río de Mares (Puerto Gibara), where he found more large houses containing furniture, wooden carvings, and tame birds. “[The houses] looked like tents in a camp, with no regular streets, but one here and another there. Inside, they were well swept and clean, and their furnishing…[was] made of very beautiful palm branches… There were wild birds, tamed, in their houses… They found many images made like women, and many heads like masks, very well worked. He did not know if they had them for their beauty or whether they worshipped them.” [Journal, Oct. 29, 1492]

Ferdinand’s account provides a valuable description of duhos, carved seats found in Taino cacique houses: “They seated each in a chair made of one piece and in a strange shape, for it resembled some short-legged animal with a tail as broad as the seat of the chair [which] had a head in front with eyes and ears of gold. They call these seats duhos.” [Arrom 1988]

[Fig.4: Stone duho, or carved seat with effigy head, from the West Indies (Fewkes 1922; Berlin Museum.)]

After fanciful descriptions by his native guides of western Cuba, Columbus decided to turn back east. ” There are two more provinces in that part [of Cuba] which lies towards the west, which I did not visit; one of these the Indians call Anan, whose inhabitants are born with tails…  [perhaps the Ciboney, who occupied cave sites; Letter, 1493]

Columbus returned to río de Mares for the next twelve days (Nov. 1 – 12, 1492): “…presently there came to the ships more than sixteen boats or canoes, with spun cotton and their other trifles, of which the admiral commanded that nothing should be taken, in order that they might know that the admiral sought nothing except gold, which they call nucay… “[Journal, Nov. 1, 1492]

 

Artifacts, Documents Reveal Info About Those Columbus Met in Cuba
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Life News (Social and Behavioral Sciences)   Keywords
CUBA CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS ARAWAKAN INDIANS ARCHAEOLOGY EL CHORRO DE MAITA SPANISH COLONIZERS AL 

Available for logged-in reporters only
Description

Interpretations of a now defunct form of Spanish writing, in combination with a joint U.S.-Cuban archaeological effort, are granting researchers insight into the Cuban people who Christopher Columbus encountered on his first voyage to the “New World.”

During the two previous summers, an archaeological effort in eastern Cuba has recovered several thousand pottery and stone artifacts from the site of a former large native village, El Chorro de Maita. 
 
Newswise — Interpretations of a now defunct form of Spanish writing, in combination with a joint U.S.-Cuban archaeological effort, are granting researchers insight into the Cuban people who Christopher Columbus encountered on his first voyage to the “New World.”

During the two previous summers, an archaeological effort in eastern Cuba has recovered several thousand pottery and stone artifacts from the site of a former large native village, El Chorro de Maita. The effort is co-led by The University of Alabama and the Central-Eastern Department of Archaeology of the science ministry of Cuba and sponsored by the National Geographic Society. Roberto Valcarcel led the Cuban contingent.

Dr. Jim Knight, a UA professor of anthropology who set up and is advising the project, said the artifacts from the site, in combination with the research of documents archived in Spain, are shedding light on the early history of the Indians of Cuba.

“We should be able to put together a map of who was where – where the different towns and tribes were and which Spaniards were where and what they were up to,” Knight said. Handwritten documents originally produced by the early Spanish colonizers of Cuba recorded, as it were, some of the 16th-century “news of the day,” Knight said. On at least one occasion, a detailed inventory of the possessions of an early Spanish colonizer provides insight into 16th-century life. The researchers’ insight, however, doesn’t come without effort.

“It’s handwritten in a script that is barely recognizable as Spanish, even to a native speaker,” Knight said. Dr. John Worth, an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of West Florida who is trained in interpreting the period’s writings, traveled to Spain to review the material and ordered relevant copies for further study. “Our hope is to correlate the documents with what we’re finding at the site,” Knight said.

The people Columbus encountered during his first voyage to northeastern Cuba in 1492 are known as Arawakan Indians. There is no concrete evidence, Knight said, that Columbus visited El Chorro de Maita, but this large village was occupied by Arawakans. There has been speculation since the 1940s, Knight said, that Columbus did visit the site. “That’s never been proven, but it’s in the right area,” he said.

The Arawakans of that day were of a similar level of sophistication, although quite different culturally, as the Mississippian Indians, their contemporaries, who lived at Moundville, some 13 miles south of Tuscaloosa and which Knight has studied for more than 30 years.

“They were chiefdoms, as were the inhabitants of Moundville,” Knight said. “And they were agriculturalists, but they primarily grew root crops instead of corn.”

Chiefdom is the name given to societies of the period that were headed by a chief, who would have unusual ritual, political or entrepreneurial skills. The societies were very hierarchical, with power concentrated within other kin leaders, who would then redistribute the resources to the others.

Artifacts recovered from the site, including evidence of the manufacturing of “idolillos,” or little idols, at portions of the site is among the evidence that the society had both elite and non-elite members, Knight said. The elite members of the group would have produced and worn these small, human-shaped figurines as part of a necklace. “They probably represent a god-figure, but we don’t know which god,” Knight said.

Working alongside the Cuban and U. S. professional archaeologists during the excavations were students from Syracuse and Penn State, and three students from The University of Alabama.

The project is a part of the UA Cuba Initiative, which provides opportunities for UA students to pursue their education under a special academic license granted by the U.S. government. Since 2002, UA has received academic travel licenses from the U.S. Department of the Treasury which permits travel to Cuba for specific academic activities.

 

 

 

 

Brooke Persons 
These five artifacts are among the several thousand recovered from the site of a 16th Century Cuban village during joint U.S. Cuban archaeological excavations during the last two summers. Two of these artifacts (top row, right) are examples of unfinished “idolillos,” or little idols. These human-shaped figurines were produced at the site and worm by elite members of the group as part of a necklace.

 

Saturday, 3 November

“… all he had seen was so beautiful that his eyes would never tire beholding so much beauty, and the songs of the birds large and small. …”

Sunday, 4 November

 

“Presently at sunrise the Admiral got into the barge and went ashore

 

to hunt the birds that he had seen the day before. …”

Columbus failed to find any gold on Cuba, although a silver nose ring ornament was seen, the only mention of silver on this voyage.  The next day, still believing they were near Cipangu (Japan), Columbus sent two of his men inland with Taino guides to search for the local chief and sources of spice. They returned in four days, after “… [marching] twelve leagues, [to] a village of fifty large wooden huts, thatched with palms, and shaped like tents or pavillions… There must have been as many as a thousand families in that village, because all the people of the same kindred live in a single house… The principal men of that country came out to meet them, and carried them on their shoulders to the village… ” [Ferdinand Columbus, ch.5]

Finding no large towns, and returning to the ships, the Spaniards saw many people “…on their way to their villages, men and women, with a brand in their hands, the herbs for smoking which they are in a habit of using.” [Journal, Nov. 6, 1492].With this (the first historical mention of tobacco smoking), Columbus also notes other plants cultivated at río de Mares: “…these lands are very fertile; they are full of mames which are like carrots and have the flavor of chestnuts; and they have beans and kidney beans very different from ours and much cotton, which they do not sow… ” [Journal, Nov. 4, 1492]

 

 

Tuesday, 6 November

 

“… They saw many kinds of trees and plants and

 

fragrant flowers;

 

saw birds of many kinds different from those of Spain, except partridges and nightingales which sang; and geese, of which there were many; … “

Saturday, 17 November

 

“… many birds he saw … “

[Fig.5: Fruit-bearing trees of Hispaniola, including the mamey (Mammea americana), guava (Psidium guajaba), guanabana (Annona muricata), and the plantain or banana (Musa sp.) (Benzoni 1572).]

He also encountered natives who claimed cinnamon and gold could be found at a place to the southeast called Bohío (Hispaniola; now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Bohío, Taino for the rectangular houses of the nobles, also meant home country (Morison 1942).

There, as the Cubans claimed, “…they wore [gold] round their neck and on the ears and legs, and also pearls… [and] there were large ships and merchandise..”.

From the Taino on Cuba Columbus also heard about hostile Caribs on Bohío: “…far from there were men with one eye, and others with dogs’ noses who ate men..”. [Journal, Nov. 4, 1492]. ” All the people who have been found up to this time have… the very greatest fear of those of Caniba or Canima [Caribs] and they say that they live in the island of Bohío which must be very large, as it appears, and he believes that those of Caniba take these people… from their lands and houses. ” [Journal, Nov. 26, 1492]

Although Columbus did not encounter Caribs on this voyage, he conveyed reports from Dominica, a Leeward Island later visited on the second voyage: “This island [Dominica] is inhabited by a certain people who are considered very warlike by their neighbors. They eat human flesh. The said people have many kinds of row-boats, in which they cross over to all the other Indian islands, and seize and carry away every thing that they can. They differ in no way from the others, only that they wear long hair like the women. They use bows and darts made of reeds, with sharpened shafts fastened to the larger end, as we have described. On this account they are considered warlike, wherefore the other Indians are afflicted with continual fear..”. [Letter, 1493]

Departing río de Mares on November 12, Columbus set out for an island called Babeque (Great Inigua) where: “…the people… gather gold on the shore at night with candles, and…with a mallet they make bars of it. “[Journal, Nov. 12, 1492].  Unfavorable winds kept Columbus from Babeque, although on November 22 Martin Alonso Pinzón broke away in the Pinta and sailed (against orders) for this place of alleged gold. The Pinta was not seen again until January 6, 1493. Columbus, meanwhile, sailed around the northeast coast of Cuba for the rest of November, observing that the local Taino  ” …carry for weapons… reeds baked in the sun, on the lower ends of which they fasten some shafts of dried wood rubbed down to a point… [though] it frequently happened when I sent two or three of my men to some of the villages, that… they would quickly take flight… not because any hurt or injury had been inflicted on any one of them… but they are by nature fearful and timid.” [Letter, 1493]

Evidence for long distance trade by the Taino included beeswax found in one house on Cuba (thought to come from the Yucatec Maya who practiced beekeeping), and a variety of sea-going canoes: “…On every island there are many canoes… with which they cross to all those islands, which are innumerable, and with these boats they perform their trading, and carry on commerce among them. I saw some of these… canoes which were carrying seventy and eighty rowers. [Letter, 1493]

 

 

 

 

Tuesday, 27 November

“… As he went along it was a marvellous thing to see

 

the trees and greenery and

 

the very clear water, and the birds and

 

he amenity, … “

 

 

Autographed sketch by Christopher Colombus of the Northwest
coast of Hispanola (Haiti), executed in December 1492.

Columbus toppled as indigenous people rise up after five centuries
Explorer’s reputation is victim of region’s pink tide of leftwing governments

Rory Carroll in Caracas and Lola Almudevar in SucreFriday October 12, 2007
The Guardian

Victorian illustration by T Sinclair idealising Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the New World. Photograph: PoodlesRock/Corbis
 

He had been sailing west for five weeks and sensed he was close when at 2am on October 12, with nothing but stars and moon to illuminate the waves, it was spotted: a dark lump ahead. Land. Christopher Columbus had reached the New World.

 


At sunrise he took a small boat and armed men to shore and planted a royal standard. With a solemn oath he took possession of the territory for the king and queen of Spain. Natives emerged from the trees and watched from a distance, puzzled. It was 1492.

More than five centuries later the anniversary of that event resounds with an ominous clang. Millions of people in central and South America lament that encounter in the Bahamas as the beginning of their ancestors’ annihilation.
The indigenous inhabitants lost everything to the invaders: gold, land, freedom, culture, until there was almost nothing left. Disease and slaughter wiped most of them out. “It was a calamity,” said Mark Horton, an archaeologist and Columbus expert at the University of Bristol.

Now, however, a counter-attack is under way. After centuries as underdogs, indigenous people are rising up – peacefully – to seize political power and assert their heritage.

The so-called pink tide of leftwing governments has surged on the back of indigenous movements intent on dismantling the region’s eurocentric legacy – starting with Columbus.

Across the Andes the explorer once feted as a hero by the Europeanised elite is having his story rewritten, his statue toppled and his name turned to mud. Leading the assault is Venezuela’s president, Hugo Chávez.

“They taught us to admire Christopher Columbus,” he said during a recent televised address, his tone incredulous, while flicking through a 1970s school textbook. “In Europe they still speak of the ‘discovery’ of America and want us to celebrate the day.”

Instead Mr Chávez has renamed October 12

“indigenous resistance day” and mounted a campaign against colonial residue. Textbooks are to be revised under a curriculum that will stress the opposition to Spanish conquest as doomed but heroic.

This week the president, who boasts of having an indigenous grandmother, renamed the cable car system which soars over Caracas, the capital, as Warairarepano, which means big mountain in an indigenous coastal tongue.

“For Chávez this is a natural cause because of his philosophy about the mistreatment of the downtrodden and the need for redress,” said Larry Birns, of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs thinktank.

City authorities confirmed this week that a bronze Columbus statue which activists toppled from a Caracas plaza three years ago will remain under wraps. Repairs were almost complete but it would not return to its plinth because the site had been renamed: Avenue Columbus is now Avenue Indigenous Resistance. The statue is expected to go to a museum.

In contrast, a statue of María Lionza, a legendary indigenous queen who is the subject of a thriving cult, has been prominently restored. Last night thousands of devotees made their way to the holy mountain of Sorte for an annual festival which honours her and an indigenous chief and black slave killed by the Spanish.

Rehabilitated

Scholars tend to assign Columbus a walk-on part in history as the one who opened the New World door but had little role in the bloody aftermath. “He was part of a process that was inevitable, of Europe coming into contact with the wider world,” said Dr Horton. “It’s mistaken to see him as a totem of the bad guys. He actually wasn’t too bad.”

It has been a rollercoaster reputation. A dispute with Spain’s king and queen landed Columbus in chains and disgrace. The Victorians rehabilitated him as an inspiration for their own explorers, a valiant image which largely endures in the west. Spain hopes DNA analysis will prove he came from Castille, while Italy hopes to confirm he was Genoese.

The 500th anniversary in 1992 prompted debate in the US about whether he should be recast as a villain but the controversy petered out, leaving the navigator a bruised but still revered figure. US schoolchildren get the day off on what remains Columbus Day.

In South America, however, radical leftwing governments in Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela are busy overturning what they see as his legacy: centuries of domination by Spaniards and their descendants, pale-skinned elites who continued oppressing darker compatriots even after the continent gained independence.

“Even now they conceive us as animals, as dogs. That has got to change, which is what we are fighting for – to be recognised as equal citizens with equal rights,” said Wilber Flores, a congressman and president of Bolivia’s indigenous parliament.

In Venezuela Mr Chávez enshrined indigenous rights in a new constitution and made the country’s 35 tribes visible through state-funded TV stations which broadcast from regions barely known to city-dwellers.

In Ecuador President Rafael Correa, who often wears traditional dress and speaks in Quechua, has rallied indigenous voters behind his effort to “reinvent” the country along socialist lines.

President Evo Morales, an Aymara Indian and Bolivia’s first indigenous leader, has also fused indigenous rights with a socialist agenda hostile to Washington. He regards the US as the latest manifestation of a predatory colonialism that started in 1492.

Last month it voted against a United Nations declaration on indigenous rights.

Rapacious

Mr Morales has accused the US of raiding Bolivia’s natural resources and persecuting coca farmers as **** producers when in fact they are cultivating a plant that has had other, innocent, uses since the Incas.

He will mark the anniversary of Columbus’s landing with a visit to the coca growing region of Chapare, which is playing host to a summit of indigenous people from across Latin America.

In an interview with the Guardian the Bolivian leader suggested the rapacious intruders who crossed an ocean thirsting for riches, and those who later invented capitalism, should have been studying, not conquering, the natives.

“Indigenous communities know how to live in harmony with mother earth and that is the difference between us and Europe and the United States.”

Further explorations in Cuba found ritual use of human heads in nearly deserted Taino villages. These were interpreted by Columbus as due to ancestor worship. ” The sailors also found in one house a man’s head in a small basket [jaba], covered with another basket, and hanging to a post of the house. They found another of the same kind in another village. The admiral believed that they must be the heads of some principal ancestors, because those houses were of a kind so that many persons find shelter in one house, and they could only be relations, descendants of one common ancestor. ” [Journal, Nov. 29, 1492]. According to Rouse and Arrom (1992), Columbus’ interpretation seems accurate.

Bohío (Española): Reaching Cuba’s eastern end on December 5, Columbus again started north for Babeque, but seeing the island of Bohío off to the east, he followed more favorable winds to this large island, which they called Española (Hispaniola). There they remained for a month until January 6, 1493.

 

 On December 5,

when the Niña anchored at Puerto Saint Nicholas. “Many fires were seen that night, and by day much smoke as if from lookouts, which seemed to be designed to guard against some people with whom they were at war…” [i.e. the Caribs]. [Journal,, Dec. 6, 1492]

Columbus was impressed by the country’s fertility. In the harbor mouth was “… a field of trees of a thousand kinds, all laden with fruit… believed to be spices and nutmegs… Opposite the harbor there was a beautiful fertile plain and in the middle of it [a] river, and… in this neighborhood there must be large centers of population… [but] the Indians took to flight and fled when they saw the ships.” [Journal, Dec. 6, 1492]

 

Friday, 7 December

 

“… He went a short distance into that country, which is all cultivated, and

 

heard sing the nightingale and

 

other songbirds like those of Castile. … “

Thursday, 13 December

 

“… And because the Indians aboard had understood that

 

the Admiral , it seems that Indian who went with the Christians told them something of it, and so they brought parrots, and gave them as they wanted, without asking anything for them. … “

The Spaniards sat at anchor through heavy weather from December 8-10. Believing there were villages, Columbus “…sent six men…two or three leagues inland, in order to discover if they could have speech. They went and returned, having found [only] some huts and very wide roads, and places where many people had made fires. “[Journal, Dec. 10, 1492].  On December 12, a larger group of natives were encountered, and fled except for a young woman who was brought back to the ship. Speaking the same language as the Cuban Taino, she had a small piece of gold in her nose and seemed to be a member of the nobility. Columbus gave her clothing and sent her back to her people.

Next day, when Spaniards went to her town they found it momentarily deserted. The villagers returned, however, when a Taino interpreter reassured them that the Spaniards were not Caribs. “When at last they had lost their fear, they… brought what they had to eat, which was bread of niames [yams] that is roots like large carrots which they grow… their mainstay of life. They make bread from these roots and boil and roast them, and they taste like chestnuts… They gave… bread and fish and whatever they had. And as [they] had understood that the admiral wished to have a parrot … they brought them parrots and gave them as many as they asked. “[Journal, Dec. 13, 1492]. The high ranking girl they had met the previous night appeared borne on the shoulders of retainers to give thanks for the gifts. Columbus’ men had high praise for these villagers and for the land’s fertility.

[Fig.6: New World parrots from the 1502 Cantino Map.]

Columbus sailed towards Tortuga Island on December 15, returning to the coast of Haiti later that day. He landed at Valle de Paraiso (Paradise Valley), from which flowed the river Guadalquivir (today, Trois-Rivières). The next morning, Columbus found an Indian in a canoe, and “…had him and his canoe taken aboard the ship, and… gave him glass beads, hawks’ bells and brass rings, and carried him in the ship [to] a village…16 miles from there near the sea…” [Journal, Dec. 16, 1492]

Soon over 500 men had assembled by the ship, many eager to trade bits of gold worn in their ears or noses. In hopes of more gold, Columbus remained there (Cabo de Elefantes) for several days. The young chief of the island arrived borne on a litter accompanied by over 200 men, to dine on board with Columbus, exchanging gold for cloth, amber beads, and red shoes. After the chief departed, his brother arrived and told Columbus that “..

.in their language they called the king cacique…[and that] there were many islands near… in which very much gold was produced… so great a quantity that they gather it and sift it with sieves, and they smelt it and make bars and a thousand worked articles..”  [Journal, Dec. 18, 1492]

On December 20, Columbus landed at Acul Bay. Islanders came, “…some [running] to bring us the bread they make of niames [yams], which they call ajes… and they brought us water in gourds and clay pitchers… They did all this with such generosity of heart and such joy that it was wonderful… for they did the same and as freely when they gave pieces of gold as when they gave a gourd of water…” [Journal, Dec. 21, 1492]

On December 22, a chief invited Columbus to visit his island, sending a large canoe of men and a mask with beaten gold ears, tongue, and nose. Columbus sent six men, led by his secretary “…so he might prevent the others doing anything unjust to the Indians. For the Indians were so liberal and the Spaniards so greedy and unrestrained… [that] the admiral ordered that nothing should be accepted from them without something being given in exchange.” [Journal, Dec. 22, 1492].

 

Saturday, 22 December

 

“… After evening fell the lord gave them three very fat geese, … “

Sunday, 23 December

 

“… Afterwards the king gave to each one some cotton cloth which the women wear, and parrots for the Admiral, and

 

some pieces of gold. … “

That same day, the ship was visited by more than 120 canoes full of people, bringing gifts of bread, fish, and seeds. Some men went ashore to a village ” …better laid out in streets than any of those previously found… [canoes] went ahead to give news to the cacique, as they call him there. Up to that time the admiral had not been able to understand whether by this they meant ‘king’ or ‘governor.’ They also use another name for a ‘grandee,’ whom they call nitayno… [Journal, Dec. 23, 1492]. As confirmed by Friar Pané, later appointed by Columbus to record Taino customs, the word nitaíno is the source of Taino, name of the island culture.

The cacique gave food and cotton cloths like those worn by women, parrots for the admiral, and pieces of gold. Before sunrise on Christmas Eve, Columbus set sail for a land described by an Indian visitor the previous day: “…they spoke of Cipangu, which they call Cibao, [declaring] that there was a great quantity of gold there, and that the cacique carries banners of beaten gold, but that it is very far to the east. “[Journal, Dec. 24, 1492]. Thus Columbus continued to believe he was near the fabled land previously reported by Marco Polo.

Wreck of the Santa Maria: Perhaps dreaming of Japan, Columbus slept at 11:00 PM on Christmas Eve in calm seas, leaving the tiller to a ship’s boy or gromet. By early Christmas morning, however, currents had eased the Santa Maria onto a reef. In a last attempt to lighten and save the ship, Columbus ordered the mast cut, only running it further aground. The local cacique, Guacanagarí, hurried from his village (near modern Caracol) offering canoes to help unload the wrecked ship, and houses for Columbus’ crew. Next day, a native canoe came to trade gold for hawks’ bells: “…they called out and showed the pieces of gold, crying “chuque chuque,” meaning hawks’ bells, for they almost go crazy for them… they called the admiral and asked him to have a hawk’s bell kept until next day, since they would bring him four pieces of gold as large as the hand.” [Journal, Dec. 26, 1492]

Guacanagari told more tales of the riches of Cibao, which Columbus still thought was Cipangu (Japan). “The king ate in the caravel with the admiral… and gave him a repast of two or three kinds of ajes and with them shrimp and game, and other foods which they had, and some of their bread which they call cacabi [cassava made from yuca root]…. The king now wore a shirt and gloves, which the admiral had given him, and he rejoiced more over the gloves than over anything which had been given to him…

They brought the admiral a large mask, which had great pieces of gold in the ears and eyes and in other places… which the king himself placed on the admiral’s head... ” [Journal, Dec. 26, 1492]

Villa de la Navidad: In these apparently friendly environs, Columbus used supplies salvaged from the Santa Maria to found a colony where he left 39 men, the rest sailing on the Niña: “…to [this colony] we give the name of our Lord of the Nativity [Villa de la Navidad]. And I commanded a fort to be built there… in which I left as many men as seemed necessary, with all kinds of arms, and plenty of food for more than a year.” [Letter, 1493].  Columbus was confident that the fort would be safe from the natives. Its ultimate fate, however, would also rest on the actions of the colonists themselves.

 

Return to Spain:

 On January 4, 1493,

Columbus departed for Spain, two days later meeting up again (after six weeks) with Pinzón and the Pinta. During a storm on Feb.14, fearing all record of the discovery might be lost, Columbus summarized his journal in the letter which has provided much of this description

Sunday, 13 January

 

“… He had his face all stained with charcoal, although in parts they are wont to use different colors;

he wore his hair very long and drawn together and fastened behind, and gathered into a little net of parrots’ feathers; and

 

he as naked as the others. … “

COLUMBUS’S SECOND AND LARGEST VOYAGE

 

 

 

 

Columbus Returns Ready for War

COLUMBUS DISCOVERS DESCTRUCTION OF “LA NAVIDAD”

 

WAR WITH INDIANS OF HISPANIOLA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Columbus’s Second Voyage they brought Horses

 

COLUMBUS’ COLONIAL GOVERNMENT

 

Bartolomeo Columbus Arrives to Help his Brother

While Columbus is Away Exploring a Group of Spaniards Rebel under Muxica

Columbus Forces Natives to Dig and Pan for Gold

 

 

 

Francisco de Bobadilla Arrives as Governor and Arrests both Christopher and Bartolomeo Columbus

 

 

 

 

KOLEKSI SEJARAH PERTUALANGAN(ADVENTURE HISTORY) (CONTINIU)

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On January 15, 1493,

 he set sail for home by way of the Azores. To achieve that goal, “He wrestled his ship against the wind and ran into a fierce storm.”

Leaving the island of Santa Maria in the Azores, Columbus headed for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon.

 He anchored next to the King’s harbor patrol ship on March 4, 1493, where he was told a fleet of 100 caravels had been lost in the storm.

 Astoundingly, both the Niña and the Pinta were spared. Not finding the King John in Lisbon, Columbus wrote a letter to him and waited for the king’s reply. The king requested that Columbus go to Vale do Paraíso to meet with him. Some have speculated that his landing in Portugal was intentional.

Relations between Portugal and Castile were poor at the time. Columbus went to meet with the king at Vale do Paraíso (north of Lisbon). After spending more than one week in Portugal, he set sail for Spain. Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. He reached Spain on March 15.

He was received as a hero in Spain. He displayed several kidnapped natives and what gold he had found to the court, as well as the previously unknown tobacco plant, the pineapple fruit, the turkey and the sailor’s first love, the hammock. He did not bring any of the coveted East Indies spices, such as the exceedingly expensive black pepper, ginger or cloves. In his log, he wrote “there is also plenty of ají, which is their pepper, which is more valuable than black pepper, and all the people eat nothing else, it being very wholesome” (Turner, 2004, P11). The word ají is still used in South American Spanish for chili peppers.

Columbus’s report to the royal court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: “Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful…the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold…There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals…”.

In his first journey, Columbus visited San Salvador in the Bahamas (which he was convinced was Japan), Cuba (which he thought was China) and Haiti (where he found gold).

 

 

But still discontent was growing. Gradually the minds of the men were becoming diseased through terror, even the calmness of the weather increasing their fears, for with such light winds, and from the east, too, how were they ever to get back? However, as if to allay their feelings, the wind soon shifted to the southwest.

A little after sunset on the 25th, Columbus and his officers were examining their charts and discussing the probable location of the island Cipango,* which the admiral had placed on his map, when from the deck of the Pinta arose the cry of ” Land ! Land ! ” At once Columbus fell on his knees and gave thanks to Heaven. Martin Alonzo and his crew of the Pinta broke out into the Gloria in Excelsis,” in which the crew of the Santa Maria joined, while the men of the Nina scrambled up to the masthead and declared that they, too, saw land.

At once Columbus ordered the course of the vessels to be changed toward the supposed land. In impatience the men waited for the dawn, and when the morning appeared, lo ! the insubstantial pageant had faded, the cloud vision, for such it was, had vanished into thin air. The disappointment was as keen as the enthusiasm had been intense; silently they obeyed the admiral’s order, and turned the prows of their vessels to the west again.

* Cipango was an imaginative island based upon the incorrect cosmography of Toscanelli, whose map was accepted in Columbus’s time as the most nearly correct chart of any extant. The Ptolemaic theory of 20,400 geographical miles as the Equatorial girth was accepted by Columbus, which lessened his degrees of latitude and shortened the distance he would have to sail to reach Asia. The island Cipango was supposed to be over 1000 miles long, running north and south, and the distance placed at 52 degrees instead of the 230 degrees which actually separates the coast of Spain from the eastern coast of Asia. The island was placed in about the latitude of the Gulf of Mexico.

A week passed, marked by further variations of the needle and flights of birds. The first day of October dawned with such amber weather as is common on the Atlantic coast in the month of “mists and yellow fruitfulness.” The pilot on Columbus’s ship announced sorrowfully that they were then 520 leagues, or 1560 miles, from Ferro. He and the crew were little aware that they had accomplished 707 leagues, or nearly 2200 miles. And Columbus had a strong incentive for this deception; for, had he not often told them that the length of his voyage would be 700 leagues? and had they known that this distance had already been made, what might they not have done! On the 7th of October the Nina gave the signal for land, but instead of land, as they advanced the vision melted and their hopes were again dissipated.

The ship had now made 750 leagues and no land appeared. Possibly he had made a mistake in his latitude; and so it was that, observing birds flying to the southward, Columbus changed his course and followed the birds, recalling, as he says in his journal, that by following the flight of birds going to their nesting and feeding grounds the Portuguese had been so successful in their discoveries. On Monday, the 8th, the sea was calm, with fish sporting everywhere in great abundance; flocks of birds and wild ducks passed by. Tuesday and Wednesday there was a continual passage of birds.

 On the evening of this day, while the vessels were sailing close together, mutiny suddenly broke out. The men could trust to signs no longer. With cursing and imprecation they declared they would not run on to destruction, and insisted upon returning to Spain. Then Columbus showed the stuff he was made of. He and they, he said, were there to obey the commands of their Sovereigns; they must find the Indies. With unruffled calmness he ordered the voyage continued.

On Thursday, the 11th, the spirit of mutiny gave way to a very different feeling, for the signs of the nearness of land multiplied rapidly. They saw a green fish known to feed on the rocks, then a branch with berries on it, evidently recently separated from a tree, floated by them, and above all, a rudely carved staff was seen. Once more gloom and mutiny gave way to sanguine expectation. All the indications pointing to land in the evening, the ships stood to the west, and Columbus, assembling his men, addressed them. He thought land might be made that night, and enjoined that a vigilant lookout be kept, and ordered a double watch set. He promised a silken doublet, in addition to the pension guaranteed by the Crown, to the one first seeing land

Columbus Reaches the New World

The first sight of the new world – Columbus discovering America

The morning light came, and, lifting the veil that had concealed the supreme object of their hopes, revealed a low, beautiful island, not fifty miles long, and scarcely two leagues away. Columbus gave the signal to cast anchor and lower the boats, the men to carry arms. Dressed in a rich costume of scarlet, and bearing the royal standard, upon which was painted the image of the crucified Christ, he took the lead, followed by the other captains, Pinzon and Yanez. Columbus was the first to land; and as soon as he touched the shore he fell down upon his knees and fervently kissed the blessed ground ” three times, returning thanks to God for the great favor bestowed upon him. The others followed his example; and then, recognizing the Providence which had crowned his efforts with success, he gave the name of the Redeemer San Salvador to the discovered island, which was called by the natives ” Guanahani.” * And now the crews, who but a few days previously had reviled and cursed Columbus, gathered around, asking pardon for their conduct and promising complete submission in future.

* It is simply impossible to say which one of that long stretch of islands, some 3000 in number, extending from the coast of Florida to Haiti, as if forming a breakwater for the island of Cuba, Guanahani is. Opinion greatly varies. San Salvador, or Cat Island, was in early favor Humboldt and Irving the latter having the problem worked out for him by Captain A. S. Mackenzie, U. S. N. favored that view. The objections are that it is not “a small island ” as Columbus called it, and it does not answer to the description of having “a vast lake in the middle” as Columbus says of Guanahani in his journal. Navette advocates the Grand Turk Island which has the lake. Watling’s Island was first advocated by Munoz and accepted by Captain Beecher, R. N., in 1856, and Oscar Perchel in 1858. Major, of the British Museum, has taken up with Watling’s Island, as did Lieutenant J. B. Murdoch, U. S. N., after a careful examination in 1884. This view is accepted by C. A. Schott of the U. S. Coast Survey. On the other hand, Captain G. V. Fox, U. S. N., in 1880, put forth an elaborate claim for Samana, based upon a very careful examination of the route as given in Columbus’s journal. This claim, with careful consideration of other conditions, has been very carefully examined by Mr. Charles H. Rockwell, an astronomer, of Tarrytown, N. Y. Mr. Rockwell assents to Captain Fox’s view, which he finds confirmed by the course Columbus took in bringing his ship to land. He also traverses Captain Beecher’s claim for Watling’s Island, which he finds to be inconsistent with Columbus’s narrative. As we have said, the problem is beset with difficulties, both as relates to the sailing course, and the extent and topography of the island ; and at the present time it appears to be well nigh insoluble. Where the external conditions are met, the internal conditions, including the large lake, seem wanting ; the difficulties in the case seem to be irresistible.

Columbus supposed at last he had reached the opulent land of the Indies, and so called the natives Indians. But it was an island, not a continent or an Asiatic empire, he had found; an island very large and level, clad with the freshest trees, with much water in it, a vast lake in the middle, and no mountains.”

Likely Origins of the Legend


According to tradition, the natives of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Cuba told the early Spanish explorers that in Bimini (Beniny), a land to the north, there was a river, spring or fountain where waters had such miraculous curative powers that any old person who bathed in them would regain his youth. About the time of Columbus’s first voyage, says the legend, an Arawak chief named Sequene, inspired by the fable of the curative waters, had migrated from Cuba to southern Florida. It seems that other parties of islanders had made attempts to find Bimini, which was generally described as being in the region of the Bahamas.
Juan Ponce de Leon (1460-1521), who had been with Columbus on his second voyage in 1493 and who had later conquered and become governor of Puerto Rico, is supposed to have learned of the fable from the Indians. The fable was not new, and probably Pence de Leon was vaguely cognizant of the fact that such waters had been mentioned by medieval writers, and that Alexander the Great had searched for such waters in eastern Asia. A similar legend was known to the Polynesians, whose tradition located the fountain of perpetual youth in Hawaii.

As described to the Spanish, Bimini not only contained a spring of perpetual youth but teemed with gold and all sorts of riches. The fact that the party of Arawaks who had gone in that direction had never returned was taken as evidence that they must have found the happy land!

In that age of discovery, when new wonders and novelties were disclosed every year, not only the Spanish explorers but also men of learning accepted such stories with childlike credulity. Pietro Martire d’Anghiera (1472-1528), an Italian geographer and historian who moved to Spain in 1487 and who is known as “Peter Martyr” wrote to Pope Leo X in 1513: “Among the islands of the north side of Hispaniola, there is about 325 leagues distant, as they say who have searched the same, in which is a continual spring of running water, of such marvelous virtue that the water thereof being drunk, perhaps with some diet, maketh old men young again.” The chronicler himself discounted the tale, but he told his Holiness that “they have so spread this rumor for a truth through all the court, that not only all the people, but also many of them whom wisdom or fortune hath divided from the common sort, think it to be true.”

Ponce de Leon, who had become wealthy in the colonial service, equipped three ships at his own expense and set out to find the land of riches and perhaps the mythical fountain that would restore his health and make him young again. It is a common, mistake to suppose that he was then an old man. He was only about fifty-three.

Ponce de Leon, like most of the other early Spanish explorers and conquerors, was looking primarily for gold, slaves and other “riches,” and it is not likely that he actually put much stock in the fable of the fountain of youth, if he had heard about it at all.

That fable was not associated with de Leon’s name until long afterwards, when Hernando de Escaiante de Fontaneda told it in his account of Florida. In 1545 Fontaneda, at the age of thirteen, was shipwrecked on the coast of Florida and spent seventeen years as a captive of the Indians. He was finally rescued, probably by the French in northeastern Florida, and later returned to the peninsula as an interpreter for Menendez in 1565. Antonio de Herrera y Tordesilias (1540?-1625) had access to Fontaneda’s manuscript and incorporated the story in his history of the Indies.

Whether any Europeans had visited Florida before Ponce de Leon’s first expedition is not known for certain. Some authorities suppose that both John Cabot and Amerigo Vespucci had explored and mapped part of the coast. At any rate, Alberto Cantino’s Spanish map of 1502 indicated a peninsula corresponding to Florida.

On March 27, 1513 (not 1512 as often stated), after searching vainly for Bimini among the Bahamas, Ponce de Leon sighted the North American mainland, which he took to be an island, and on April 2 he landed somewhere on the eastern coast. Nobody knows for certain where he first set foot on Florida soil. Some suppose that it was north of St. Augustine, while others think it was as far south as Cape Canav- eral. Either because the discovery was made during the Easter season, or because he found flowers on the coast, or for both reasons, he named the country La Florida. In Spanish, Easter Sunday is la pascua florida, literally “the flowery passover.” “And thinking that this land was an island they named it La Florida because they discovered it in the time of the flowery festival.”

From a book about American history called A Book About American History, by George Stimpson

 

Voyages of Columbus

 

Voyages and Dates

Men and Supplies

Area Explored

First Expedition 1492-1493

3 ships

Bahamas, Hispaniola, Cuba

Second Expedition 1493-1496

17 ships, 1,500 colonists

Cuba, Leeward Is., Puerto Rico

Third Expedition 1498-1500

convicts

Trinidad, Venezuela

Fourth Expedition 1502

4 ships

Honduras, marooned in Jamaica

 

Columbus enslaved around 2000 Taino and in 1495 when his demands for gold did not satisfy, he waged all out war “with God’s aid soon gained complete victory, killing many Indians and capturing others who were also killed”. Columbus was never really satisfied with the Caribbean Indians who had relatively small amounts of gold. After his fourth voyage Columbus died in relative obscurity. The precedence for the treatment of Native peoples had been set and each time Spanish reached new native people they were under orders to read the requerimiento and if they did not swear allegiance to the Pope and Spanish Crown.

” I certify to you that, with the help of God, we shall powerfully enter into your country and shall make war against you in all ways and manners that we can, and shall subject you to the yoke and obedience of the Church and of Their Highnesses. We shall take you and your wives and your children and shall make slaves of them, and as such shall sell and dispose of as them as Their Highnesses may command. And we shall take your goods, and shall do all the mischief and damage that we can, as to vassals who do not obey and refuse to receive their lord and resist and contradict him”

In most cases the Indians were not provided with translations and the Spanish did what they wanted. However, Spanish treatment of Indians was backfiring since the colonies in Hispaniola and Cuba were decimating Indian labor the temptation of the mainland of MesoAmerica became overwhelming. Although, Columbus was not rewarded in Spain he was made a legend in America and initiated what has been referred to as the Columbian Exchange.

Columbus Landing in the New World

The natives dwelling on the island were found to be a well proportioned people with fine bodies, simple in their habits and customs, friendly, though shy in manner, and they were perfectly naked. They thought the huge ships to be monsters risen from the sea or gods come down from heaven. Presents were exchanged with them, including gold bracelets worn by the natives. Inquiry was made as to where the gold came from. For answer the natives pointed by gestures to the southwest

. Columbus tried to induce some of the natives to go with him and show where the land of gold was to be found. But this they refused to do; so on the next day (Sunday, the 14th), taking along by force seven natives, that he might instruct them in Spanish and make interpreters of them, he set sail to discover, if possible, where gold was to be had in such abundance, and which, he thought, must be Cipango.

He was, of course, in the midst of the Bahama group, and did not have to sail far to discover an island.

On the 15th

 he discovered the island Conception. On the third day he repeated the forms of landing and took possession, as he did

also on the 16th,

when he discovered an island which he called Fernandina, known to be the island at present called Exuma.

On the 19th

 another island was discovered, which Columbus named Isabella, and which he declared to be ” the most beautiful of all the islands ” he had seen. The breezes brought odors as spicy as those from Araby the Blest; palm trees waved their fringed banners to the wind, and flocks of parrots obscured the sky. It was a land where every prospect pleased.

But no it was not a land of gold. Leaving Isabella after a five days’ sojourn,

on Friday, the 26th of October,

 he entered the mouth of a beautiful river on the northeast terminus of the island of Cuba, where sky and sea seem to conspire to produce endless halcyon days, for the air was a continual balm and the sea bathes the grasses, which grow to the water’s edge, whose tendrils and roots are undisturbed by the sweep of the tides.

Upon the delights that came to Columbus in this new found paradise we cannot dwell; admiration and rapture mingled with the sensations that swept over the soul of the great navigator as he contemplated the virgin charms of a new world won by his valor.But the survey of succeeding events must be rapid.

From the 28th of October till November 12th

 Columbus explored the island, skirting the shore in a westerly direction. He discovered during that time tobacco, of which he thought little, but which, singularly enough, proved more productive to the Spanish Crown than the gold which he sought but did not find.

On the 20th of November

Columbus was deserted by Martin Pinzon, whose ship, the Pinta, could outsail all the others. Martin would find gold for himself. This was a kind of treachery which too often marred the story of Spanish exploration in the New World.

For two weeks after the Pinta’s desertion

 Columbus skirted slowly along the coast of Cuba eastwardly till he doubled the cape. Had he only kept on what was now a westerly course he would have discovered Mexico. But it was not to be.

 Before sailing he lured on board six men, seven women, and three children, a proceeding which nothing can justify.

Taking a southwesterly course, on Wednesday, December 5th, Columbus discovered Haiti and San Domingo, which he called Hispaniola, or Little Spain. The next day he discovered the island Tortuga, and at once returned to Haiti, exploring the island; there, owing to disobedience of orders, on Christmas morning, between midnight and dawn, the Santa Maria was wrecked upon a sand bank, near the present site of Port au Paix. A sorry Christmas for Columbus, indeed !

The situation was now critical. The Pinta, with her mutinous commander and crew, was gone; the Santa Maria was a wreck. But one little vessel remained, the little, undecked Nina. Suppose she should be lost, too? how would Spain ever know of his grand discoveries? Two things were necessary: he must at once set out on his return voyage, and some men must be left behind. The first thing he did was to build, on a bay now known as Caracola, a fort, using the timbers of the wrecked Santa Maria. In this he placed thirty nine men. Nature would surely give them all the shelter and provisions they needed.

David Reed, dreed@flmnh.ufl.edu, New study blames Columbus for syphilis spread

 

The Lost Fort of Columbus

On his voyage to the Americas in 1492, the explorer built a small fort somewhere in the Caribbean. A construction contractor from Washington State has spent decades trying to find it.

By Frances Maclean
Photographs by Les Stone
Smithsonian magazine, January 2008

Christopher Columbus, anchored somewhere along the island’s Atlantic coast, upped sails to begin the long voyage back to Spain with news he had discovered a western route to the Orient. The next day—Christmas, 1492—his flagship, the Santa María, lodged in a reef. He ordered his men to dismantle the ship and build a fort with its timbers onshore. Three weeks later, Columbus finally set sail aboard the Niña, leaving behind a fortified village, christened Villa de la Navidad, and 39 sailors charged with exploring the coast and amassing gold.

A year later, Columbus returned with 17 ships and 1,200 men to enlarge the settlement. But he found La Navidad in ashes. There were no inhabitants and no gold.

Over the years, many scholars and adventurers have searched for La Navidad, the prize of Columbian archaeology. It is believed to have been in Haiti. The French historian and geographer Moreau de Saint-Méry sought La Navidad there in the 1780s and ’90s; Samuel Eliot Morison, the distinguished American historian and Columbus biographer, in the 1930s; Dr. William Hodges, an American medical missionary and amateur archaeologist, from the 1960s until his death in 1995; and Kathleen Deagan, an archaeologist at the University of Florida at Gainesville, in the mid-1980s and again in 2003.

And then there’s Clark Moore, a 65-year-old construction contractor from Washington State. Moore has spent the winter months of the past 27 years in Haiti and has located more than 980 former Indian sites. “Clark is the most important thing to have happened to Haitian archaeology in the last two decades,” says Deagan. “He researches, publishes, goes places no one has ever been before. He’s nothing short of miraculous.”

Moore first visited Haiti in 1964 as a volunteer with a Baptist group building a school in Limbé, a valley town about ten miles from the northern coast. In 1976, he signed on to another Baptist mission in Haiti, to construct a small hydroelectric plant at a hospital complex in the same town. The hospital’s director was Dr. Hodges, who had discovered the site of Puerto Real, the settlement founded circa 1504 by the first Spanish governor of the West Indies. Hodges also had conducted seminal archaeological work on the Taino, the Indians who greeted Columbus. Hodges taught Moore to read the ground for signs of pre-Columbian habitation and to identify Taino pottery.

The Taino, who flourished from a.d. 1200 to 1500, were about 500,000 strong when Columbus arrived. They were reputedly a gentle people whose culture, archaeologists believe, was becoming more advanced. “Taino” means “noble” or “good” in their Arawak language; they supposedly shouted the word to the approaching Spanish ships to distinguish themselves from the warring Carib tribes who also inhabited Hispaniola, the island Haiti shares with the Dominican Republic. Male and female Taino chiefs ornamented themselves in gold, which sparked the Spaniards’ avarice. Within a few years of Columbus’ arrival, the Taino had all but vanished, the vast majority wiped out by the arduousness of slavery and by exposure to European diseases. A few apparently escaped into the hills.

For two decades Moore has traveled Haiti by rural bus, or tap-tap, with a Haitian guide who has helped him gain access to remote sites. Diminutive Haitian farmers watched with fascination as Moore, a comparative giant at 6-foot-2, measured areas in his yard-long stride and poked the soil with a stick. Often he uncovered small clay icons—a face with a grimace and bulging eyes—known to local residents as yeux de la terre (“eyes of the earth”), believed to date to Taino times and to represent a deity. Moore bunked where he could, typically knocking on church doors. “The Catholics had the best beds,” Moore says, “but the Baptists had the best food.”

In 1980, Moore showed some of his artifacts to the foremost archaeologist of the Caribbean, Irving Rouse, a professor at Yale. “It was clear Clark was very focused, and once he had an idea, he could follow through,” Rouse recalled to me. “Plus he was able to do certain things, such as getting around Haiti, speaking Creole to the locals and dealing with the bureaucracy, better than anyone else.” Moore became Rouse’s man in Haiti, and Rouse became Moore’s most distinguished mentor. Rouse died in February 2006 at age 92.

 

On his voyage to the Americas in 1492, the explorer built a small fort somewhere in the Caribbean. A construction contractor from Washington State has spent decades trying to find it

By Frances Maclean
Photographs by Les Stone
Smithsonian magazine, January 2008

Rouse encouraged Moore, a 1964 graduate of the Western Washington College of Education, to apply to the Yale Graduate School. His application was rejected. “I didn’t get the credentials,” Moore said one day as he sipped a cup of strong Haitian coffee on the terrace of a harborside inn in Cap-Haïtien. “I didn’t play the academic game. But as it turned out, I’m kind of glad. If I had, I’d be excavating five-centimeter holes with all the others, drowning in minutiae.”

The rented Jeep rocketed between ruts in the mountain road to Dondon, an old market town about 20 miles from Cap-HaÔtien. Haiti’s history has marched over this road, originally a Taino thoroughfare, from colonial times, when coffee and sugar plantations enriched France, to the slave revolts of the 1790s (which led to Haiti’s independence in 1804 and the world’s first black-governed republic), to the 19-year U.S. occupation begun in 1915, to the rebels’ toppling of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 2004. (Haitians elected a new president, Réne Préval, in February 2006. More than 8,000 United Nations peacekeeping forces deployed in Haiti since 2004 are credited with quelling political unrest and violent gangs and reducing drug trafficking.) Moore turned the Jeep onto a side road, and we stopped in a clearing near a river. Shouldering water jugs and lunch, a pair of guides led us across it.

As we hiked, Moore explained the theory behind his search for La Navidad. He takes what might appear to be an indirect approach, locating as many former Indian sites as possible. That’s partly because it is believed that Columbus built the fort inside an Indian village. “The Taino built a large village inland every 12 miles and paired it with a smaller village on the coast,” he says. “The small village took care of the boats, caught shellfish and such to feed the larger. I mark the map with each village I find. A pretty pattern. I think it will eventually show where La Navidad was.”

The guides stopped in front of a cave hidden by brush and ropy liana vines. Caves were holy places to the Taino. They believed that human life originated in one, and that people populated the earth after a guard at the cave entrance left his post and was turned to stone. Before entering a sacred cave, the Taino made an offering to the spirits. Because they did not believe in blood sacrifice, they gave the contents of their stomachs, an act aided by beautifully carved tongue depressors.

A mellow light filled the cave’s large, domed entry chamber; to one side, a row of heads resembling a choir or jury was chiseled into the face of a boulder, their mouths wide open in an eternal song or scream. Fierce-faced carved figures marched across the opposite wall. The Taino carvings appear to warn intruders to stay out. Moore has no explanation for the figures’ expressions. “I leave interpretation to others,” he says. A tiny elevated room held the source of the light: a chimney hole latticed with greenery. Stick figures held forth on a wall. Candle butts and an empty bottle rested in an altar niche carved in a boulder. Under the bottle lay folded papers that Moore did not read. “Voodoo,” he said.

One night, when Moore was entertaining friends at his harborside cinder-block house in Cap-HaÔtien—he lives there with his wife, Pat, a nurse from Nebraska with 16 years’ service in Haiti’s rural clinics—the conversation turned to the fate of the Taino. “The Taino really weren’t all wiped out,” Moore said. “There are groups in New York, Puerto Rico and Cuba who call themselves the descendants. They’re reviving the language and ceremonies and want the world to know ‘Hey, we’re still here.'”

“The descendants in Haiti are secretive,” a visiting archaeologist chimed in.

A guide named Jean Claude led Moore up a narrow mountain trail to a high, flat ridge that could be reached only by climbing three other mountains, a destination recalling the Creole proverb, Deyo mon ge mon (“Beyond the mountains are more mountains”). Jean Claude’s brother had found a site he thought Moore should see.

 

On his voyage to the Americas in 1492, the explorer built a small fort somewhere in the Caribbean. A construction contractor from Washington State has spent decades trying to find it

By Frances Maclean
Photographs by Les Stone
Smithsonian magazine, January 2008

The ridge had dark brown soil, which Moore said indicated that fires had burned there long ago. He took the GPS coordinates and then probed the soil with a stick, pulling out large potsherds and many seashells. There were three Indian houses here, Moore concluded. “I’m standing in the garbage dump.”

Moore sat down and adjusted his hat against the sun. We were at 1,700 feet, and the trade winds dried the sweat as soon as it broke. “A fine place for a house at any time,” Moore said. “Lookouts would have lived here,” he added, pointing to the sweep of Atlantic coastline on the horizon. “Anyone living here would have seen Columbus’ fleet come along the coast. They would have seen the fires lit by other lookouts to mark its progress, then lit their own to warn people down the way that invaders were here.”

He went on: “Invaders they were. They made slaves of the Indians, stole their wives. That’s why the Indians killed the Santa María crew and burned La Navidad.” He gestured at a point on the horizon. “Bord de Mer de Limonade. That’s where I think La Navidad is. Samuel Eliot Morison thought so. Dr. Hodges too.

“When I come back, I’ll do a little spade-excavating there, at least eliminate it,” Moore said. “Of course the coastline will have changed since 1492. We’ll see.”

Frances Maclean is a freelance writer in Washington, D.C.
Photographer Les Stone specializes in out-of-the-way stories

 

 

 

 

Columbus Returns to Spain

COLUMBUS RETURNS TO SPAIN.

It was not until Friday, January 4, 1493, that the weather was sufficiently favorable so that Columbus could hoist sail and stand out of the harbor of the Villa de Navidad, as he named the fort, because of his shipwreck, which occurred on the day of the Nativity. Two days later the ship Pinta was encountered. Pinzon on the first opportunity boarded the Nina, and endeavored, but unsuccessfully, to explain his desertion and satisfy the admiral. The two vessels put into a harbor on the island of Cuba for repairs, and continued to sail along the coast, now and then making a harbor. On Wednesday, the 16th day of January, 1493, they bade farewell to the Queen of the Antilles, and then the prows of the Nina and the Pinta, the latter the slower sailer because of an unsound mast, were turned toward Spain, 1450 leagues away.

It is not possible within the limits of this chapter to follow Columbus from day to day as he sails a sea now turbulent and tempestuous, as if to show its other side, in marked contrast to the soft airs and smooth waters that had greeted the voyagers when their purpose held “To sail beyond the sunset and the baths Of all the western stars.”

Nor can we follow with minuteness Columbus in his subsequent career. He had made the greatest discovery of his or any other age: he had found the New World, and this, more than anything else, has to do with “The Story of America.”

Columbus and Indians from the New World at the court of Barcelona

It was on Friday, March 15, 1493,

just seven months and twelve days after leaving Palos, that Columbus dropped anchor near the island of Saltes.

 It was not until the middle of April

 that he reached Barcelona, where the Spanish Court was sitting. As he journeyed to Court his procession was a most imposing one as it thronged the streets, his Indians leading the line, with birds of brilliant plumage, the skins of unknown animals, strange plants and ornaments from the persons of the dusky natives shimmering in the air. When he reached the Alcazar or palace of the Moorish Kings, where Ferdinand and Isabella were seated on thrones, the sovereigns rose and received him standing. Then they commanded him to sit, and learned from him the story of his discovery. Then and there the sovereigns confirmed all the dignities previously bestowed

 

A depiction of Columbus claiming possession of the New World in a chromolithograph made by the Prang Education Company in 1893

 

 

The explorers returned to Europe in early March 1493, landing in Portugal.

Columbus Innocent Over Anthrax In The Americas

 

Columbus took a lot of things to the New World but anthrax wasn’t one of them

(chromolithograph by the
Prang Education Company,
1893)

 

When Europeans invaded the Americas they introduced many Old World diseases that decimated Native Americans. Scientists had thought that anthrax was one of them. New research shows, however, that the deadly bacteria arrived in the Americas thousands of years earlier, when Stone Age humans crossed the Bering land bridge.

The military Ames strain behind the 2001 anthrax attacks, however, is a recent Asian immigrant.

Anthrax bacteria can live in soil for decades as tough spores, until they are inhaled by a grazing animal. Then they multiply explosively, kill the animal, and bleed into the soil to await the next victim.

The disease was a scourge of cows, cowboys and settlers in the Wild West: spores still mark the route of the Chisholm Trail and other cattle drives. It is only since the intense genetic analysis of anthrax that followed the 2001 attacks, though, that enough has been known about the bug to trace its family tree in the Americas.

When Europeans invaded the Americas they introduced many Old World diseases that decimated Native Americans. Scientists had thought that anthrax was one of them. New research shows, however, that the deadly bacteria arrived in the Americas thousands of years earlier, when Stone Age humans crossed the Bering land bridge.

The military Ames strain behind the 2001 anthrax attacks, however, is a recent Asian immigrant.

Anthrax bacteria can live in soil for decades as tough spores, until they are inhaled by a grazing animal. Then they multiply explosively, kill the animal, and bleed into the soil to await the next victim.

The disease was a scourge of cows, cowboys and settlers in the Wild West: spores still mark the route of the Chisholm Trail and other cattle drives. It is only since the intense genetic analysis of anthrax that followed the 2001 attacks, though, that enough has been known about the bug to trace its family tree in the Americas

Anthrax initially evolved in southern Africa, earlier work has demonstrated. Paul Keim of the Northern Arizona University, who led the genetic investigation of the attacks, says that normally anthrax spores do not move far from their dead victims, so it was probably humans carrying scavenged, spore-infested hair and hides who moved one anthrax “family” into northern Africa, then across Eurasia.

That transfer then continued, Keim says. His new work confirms previous studies suggesting that many strains of American anthrax came on European wool and cattle in recent centuries. The Ames strain used in the anthrax attacks, for example, naturally occurs only in Texas, but differs from Eurasian anthrax by only about eight mutations, showing it is a recent immigrant.

But the analysis also shows that most of the anthrax lurking in the grasslands from northern Canada to Mexico differs by up to 106 mutations, showing it branched off from the Eurasian form long ago – roughly when humans and animals entered the Americas from Siberia then moved south as grasslands opened up in central Canada around 13,000 years ago

The line of descent shows a clear gradient from north to south,” Keim says. Moreover the family tree shows one introduced ancestor gave rise to all the more recent members of the family. The fact it moved from north to south shows it was carried by the invading humans, not animals moving back north as the glaciers retreated.

For anthrax, at least, Columbus is off the hook. But the finding may also have implications for the extinction of many American mammals shortly after humans arrived.

Journal reference: PLoS ONE (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004813)

 

 

Columbus Carried Syphilis From New World to Europe, Study Suggests

By Randy Dotinga
HealthDay Reporter
2 hours, 49 minutes ago
 

MONDAY, Jan. 14 (HealthDay News) — A new analysis of the genetics of syphilis provides support for the theory that the disease hitched a ride with Christopher Columbus from the New World back to the Old World.

 
But in a new wrinkle, the research suggests the disease may not have been transmitted through sex until it adapted to the environment in Europe.

“It evolved this whole new transmission mode, and it didn’t take very many genetic changes,” said study lead author Kristin Harper, a graduate student at Emory University. “What this tells us is that new transmission modes may evolve pretty rapidly. This is important to us today, because we’re worried about things like avian influenza going from human to human.”

Syphilis is usually easily treated today, typically with antibiotics such as penicillin. But U.S. health officials have failed in their efforts to eliminate it; minorities and gay men have been among those most likely to be infected.

Then there’s the long-running controversy over how syphilis found its way to Europe, where it spread havoc for centuries. One theory holds that the disease was already in Europe before the explorer Columbus returned, but people didn’t diagnose it correctly, Harper said.

The most familiar theory suggests that syphilis came to the Europe via frisky sailors on the Columbus expedition, and historical records suggest the disease did appear on the continent in 1495, three years after Columbus set sail for what proved to be the New World.

Harper and her colleagues tried to track the evolution of syphilis by examining genes from it and other diseases related to the pathogen known as Treponema.

The researchers looked at 21 genetic regions in strains of the pathogen from 26 parts of the world. Treponema causes syphilis and a disease known as yaws, a “flesh-eating” infection of the joints, bones and skin found in tropical regions.

According to the study authors, the results of their genetic research reveal that the syphilis strains appeared most recently and are most closely related to strains that cause yaws in South America.

But in a twist, the study results also suggested that yaws first appeared not in the New World but in the Old World, Harper said.

In essence, she said, the theory goes something like this: Yaws appeared in Africa and eventually made its way to South America and the New World as humans migrated. Then the germs made their way to Europe with the help of sailors and may have evolved into the venereal disease known as syphilis, perhaps because of different environmental conditions.

“It’s especially neat when I think about contacts between Europeans and Native Americans,” Harper said. “As far as diseases go, it seemed like a one-way street: Europeans brought measles and smallpox (to the Indians). But this is an example of disease going the other way. That seems kind of fair.”

The findings are published in the Jan. 15 issue of the Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases.

The new research makes sense to Dr. Bruce Rothschild, professor of medicine at the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, who’s studied the evolution of syphilis by examining skeletal remains.

“It confirms everything we’ve done,” he said. “When you’ve got two sets of totally different diagnostic techniques that come up with the same answer, that really increases the power of the technique.”

More information

Learn more about syphilis from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

 

 

New study blames Columbus for syphilis spread
Tue Jan 15, 2008 10:55am ET
 
By Julie Steenhuysen

CHICAGO (Reuters) – New genetic evidence supports the theory that Christopher Columbus brought syphilis to Europe from the New World, U.S. researchers said Monday, reviving a centuries-old debate about the origins of the disease.

They said a genetic analysis of the syphilis family tree reveals that its closest relative was a South American cousin that causes yaws, an infection caused by a sub-species of the same bacteria.

“Some people think it is a really ancient disease that our earliest human ancestors would have had. Other people think it came from the New World,” said Kristin Harper, an evolutionary biologist at Emory University in Atlanta.

“What we found is that syphilis or a progenitor came from the New World to the Old World and this happened pretty recently in human history,” said Harper, whose study appears in journal Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases.

She said the study lends credence to the “Columbian theory,” which links the first recorded European syphilis epidemic in 1495 to the return of Columbus and his crew.

“When you put together our genetic data with that epidemic in Naples in 1495, that is pretty strong support for the Columbian hypothesis,” she said.

Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, starts out as a sore, but progresses to a rash, fever, and eventually can cause blindness, paralysis and dementia.   Continued…

© Reuters 2008. All Rights Reserved

Most recent evidence of its origins comes from skeletal remains found in both the New World and the Old World. Chronic syphilis can leave telltale lesions on bone. “It has a worm-eaten appearance,” Harper said in a telephone interview.

SYPHILIS FAMILY TREE

Harper used an approach that examines the evolutionary relationships between organisms known as phylogenetics. She looked at 26 strains of Treponema, the family of bacteria that give rise to syphilis and related diseases like bejel and yaws, typically a childhood disease that is transmitted by skin-to-skin contact.

The study included two strains of yaws from remote areas of Guyana in South America that had never been sequenced before.

“We sequenced 21 different regions trying to find DNA changes between the strains,” Harper said.

They concluded that while yaws is an ancient infection, venereal syphilis came about fairly recently. Harper suspects a nonvenereal subspecies of the tropical disease quickly evolved into venereal syphilis that could survive in the cooler, European climate.

But it is not clear how this took place. “All we can say is the ancestor of syphilis came from the New World, but what exactly it was like, we don’t know,” she said.

In a commentary published in the same journal, Connie Mulligan of the University of Florida and colleagues disagreed with Harper’s analysis, suggesting her conclusions relied too heavily on genetic changes from the Guyana samples.

Mulligan suggested that better clues would come from DNA extracted from ancient bones or preserved tissues.

Harper concedes that more work needs to be done to explain the journey of syphilis to the New World. “This is a grainy photograph,” she said.

(Editing by Maggie Fox)

 

Christopher Columbus in an undated image courtesy of the Library of Congress. New genetic evidence supports the theory that Columbus brought syphilis to Europe from the New World, U.S. researchers said on Monday, reviving a centuries-old debate about the origins of the disease. REUTERS/Handout

Mummy lice found in Peru may give new clues about human migration

Filed under Natural History, Research, Sciences on Thursday,

 February 7, 2008.
GAINESVILLE, Fla.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

— Lice from 1,000-year-old mummies in Peru may unravel important clues about a different sort of passage: the migration patterns of America’s earliest humans, a new University of Florida study suggests.

“It’s kind of quirky that a parasite we love to hate can actually inform us how we traveled around the globe,” said David Reed, an assistant curator of mammals at the Florida Museum of Natural History on the UF campus and one of the study’s authors.

DNA sequencing found the strain of lice to be genetically the same as the form of body lice that spawns several deadly diseases, including typhus, which was blamed for the loss of Napoleon’s grand army and millions of other soldiers, he said.

The discovery of these parasites on 11th-century Peruvian mummies proves they were infesting the native Americans nearly 500 years before Europeans arrived, Reed said. His findings are published this week in an online edition of the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

“This definitely goes against the grain of conventional thought that all diseases were transmitted from the Old World to the New World at the time of Columbus,” he said.

It came as a surprise to Reed and his research team that the type of lice on the mummies was of the same genetic type as those found as far away as the highlands of Papua, New Guinea, instead of the form of head lice that is widespread in the Western Hemisphere, Reed said. This latter version, the bane of many school children, accounts for more than half the cases of lice that appear in the United States, Canada and Central America, he said.

“Given its abundance in the Americas on living humans, we thought for sure that this form of lice was the one that was here all along and had been established in the New World with the first peoples,” he said.

“We hope to be able to understand human migration patterns by investigating their parasites since people have carried these parasites with them as they moved around the globe,” he said. “Called a parascript, it’s a whole other transcript of our evolutionary history that can either add to what we know or in some cases inform us about things we didn’t know.”

Looking at evidence from parasites’ perspectives, for example, may yield valuable clues about when the first Americans arrived on the continent and which route they took, Reed said. Building upon this DNA sequencing work, scientists may be able to link the 1,000-year-old lice found in the Western Hemisphere with those in Siberia or Mongolia, confirming existing theories that America’s earliest residents originated there, he said.

Had these immigrants traveled by land masses, there was a very small window of time, about 13,000 years ago, when the glaciers retreated enough to allow passage through the Bering Strait on the way to South America, Reed said. Another proposed theory is a seafaring route, but this would have required sophisticated oceangoing vessels for which no evidence from the time exists, he said.

Being able to chart these early migration patterns would give insight into how these early immigrants lived, Reed said. “If you’re skirting the edge of glaciers, it’s obviously a very cold time period and humans would have needed certain creature comforts just to stay alive, such as tight clothing to maintain warmth,” he said.

Today, the people who don’t have the opportunity to change their clothes are the ones at risk for epidemic typhus, which along with the lesser-known diseases of relapsing fever and trench fever are carried by body lice, Reed said. These pests lay their eggs in clothing fibers and washing the clothes is all it takes to get rid of them, he said.

“The disease pops up primarily in refugees who have been displaced from their homeland with the clothes on their backs and nothing else,” he said. “They’re living in crowded conditions where hygiene is poor.”

Reed said he hopes the team’s lice research might someday increase human understanding of typhus by pinpointing where the disease originated.

Studying parasites to learn about their hosts’ history has been around for only about 20 years, Reed said. “By looking at things like tapeworms, pinworms, lice or bedbugs that humans have carried around for at least tens of thousands of years, and in some cases millions of years,” he said, “we can learn much more about human evolutionary history.”

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA – NEWS

Writer
Cathy Keen, ckeen@ufl.edu, 352-392-0186

Source
David Reed, dreed@flmnh.ufl.edu, 352-273-1971

 

 

 

Discovery Of America: Revolutionary Claims Of A Dead Historian
ScienceDaily (Apr. 10, 2007) — Dr Alwyn Ruddock, a former reader in history at the University of London, was the world expert on John Cabot’s discovery voyages from Bristol to North America (1496-98). What she was said to have found out about these voyages looked set to re-write the history of the European discovery of America. Yet, when Dr Ruddock died in December 2005, having spent four decades researching this topic, she ordered the destruction of all her research.

In an article published in Historical Research, Alwyn Ruddock’s extraordinary claims are explored by Dr Evan Jones of the University of Bristol.

In Spring 2006, all Dr Ruddock’s research material was destroyed, in line with the instructions in her will.  However, her correspondence with her intended publisher, the University of Exeter Press, survived.  Using this correspondence Dr Jones has investigated the research that Dr Ruddock had worked on, and kept secret, for so many years.

“To describe Alwyn Ruddock’s claims as revolutionary,” said Dr Jones, “is not an exaggeration.” Her apparent findings include information about how John Cabot persuaded Henry VII to support his voyages and why the explorer was able to win the backing of an influential Italian cleric: Fr. Giovanni Antonio de Carbonariis, an Augustinian friar who was also in charge of collecting the Pope’s taxes in England. 

Dr Ruddock’s most exciting claims, however, involve John Cabot’s 1498 voyage to America . While the fate of this expedition has long been a mystery, Dr Ruddock appears to have found evidence of a long and complex exploration of the American coastline, which culminated in Cabot’s return to England in the spring of 1500, followed shortly by his death. During this voyage, Dr Ruddock suggests that Cabot explored a large section of the coastline of North America, claiming it for England in the process.

Dr Ruddock intended to reveal that while Cabot was sailing south down the coast of America his chief supporter, Fra Giovanni, was establishing a religious colony in Newfoundland.  Having disembarked from his ship, the Dominus Nobiscum, Fra Giovanni apparently established a settlement and built a church. This church, the first to be built in North America, was named after the Augustinian church of San Giovanni a Carbonara in Naples.

Dr Jones said: “Ruddock’s claims about the 1498 voyage are perhaps the most exciting of all. For while we have long known that Fra Giovanni accompanied the expedition, along with some other ‘poor Italian friars’, nothing has been known of what happened to their mission. If Ruddock is right, it means that the remains of the only medieval church in North America may still lie buried under the modern town of Carbonear.”

Dr Ruddock’s claims are clearly extraordinary but are they all correct? This is an issue that remains, in large part, to be resolved. In his article, Dr Jones shows that in many cases Alwyn Ruddock’s claims can be substantiated by reference to previously unknown material.  However, much remains to be done.

Dr Jones continued: “In publishing this article now my intent was to put into the public domain what appear to be the last vestiges of Dr Ruddock’s research.  While her correspondence does not give all the answers, it does provide many clues that historians can use to investigate her claims. I also hope that the publication of this article might persuade people who possess knowledge of Dr Ruddock’s research to come forward.  For it is clear from her correspondence that many people must possess useful knowledge, ranging from her ex-students at the British Library to the ‘old and historic families in Italy’ who gave her access to their private archives.”

As to why Alwyn Ruddock should have chosen to have all her research destroyed on her death, Dr Jones confesses that he has no clear answers. In her obituary in the Guardian newspaper, it was suggested that she destroyed the first draft of her book “because it did not meet her exacting standards.”  This does not explain, however, why she wanted everything destroyed – including her microfilms, her photographs and the transcripts of the documents she used.

“What is clear,” said Dr Jones, “is that she had a great sense of possession for her work and she felt this gave her the moral right to take her secrets to the grave. But even if all the documents she claimed to have found do come to light eventually, the mystery of why she sought to suppress her own basic research may never be resolved.”

——————————————————————————–

Adapted from materials provided by University of Bristol.
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Artifacts, Documents Reveal Info About Those Columbus Met in Cuba

 


Skeletons point to Columbus voyage for syphilis origins
More evidence emerges to support that the progenitor of syphilis came from the New World

Skeletons don’t lie. But sometimes they may mislead, as in the case of bones that reputedly showed evidence of syphilis in Europe and other parts of the Old World before Christopher Columbus made his historic voyage in 1492.

None of this skeletal evidence, including 54 published reports, holds up when subjected to standardized analyses for both diagnosis and dating, according to an appraisal in the current Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. In fact, the skeletal data bolsters the case that syphilis did not exist in Europe before Columbus set sail.

“This is the first time that all 54 of these cases have been evaluated systematically,” says George Armelagos, an anthropologist at Emory University and co-author of the appraisal. “The evidence keeps accumulating that a progenitor of syphilis came from the New World with Columbus’ crew and rapidly evolved into the venereal disease that remains with us today.”

The appraisal was led by two of Armelagos’ former graduate students at Emory: Molly Zuckerman, who is now an assistant professor at Mississippi State University, and Kristin Harper, currently a post-doctoral fellow at Columbia University. Additional authors include Emory anthropologist John Kingston and Megan Harper from the University of Missouri.

“Syphilis has been around for 500 years,” Zuckerman says. “People started debating where it came from shortly afterwards, and they haven’t stopped since. It was one of the first global diseases, and understanding where it came from and how it spread may help us combat diseases today.”

‘The natural selection of a disease’

The treponemal family of bacteria causes syphilis and related diseases that share some symptoms but spread differently. Syphilis is sexually transmitted. Yaws and bejel, which occurred in early New World populations, are tropical diseases that are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or oral contact.

The first recorded epidemic of venereal syphilis occurred in Europe in 1495. One hypothesis is that a subspecies of Treponema from the warm, moist climate of the tropical New World mutated into the venereal subspecies to survive in the cooler and relatively more hygienic European environment.

The fact that syphilis is a stigmatized, sexual disease has added to the controversy over its origins, Zuckerman says.

“In reality, it appears that venereal syphilis was the by-product of two different populations meeting and exchanging a pathogen,” she says. “It was an adaptive event, the natural selection of a disease, independent of morality or blame.”

An early doubter

Armelagos, a pioneer of the field of bioarcheology, was one of the doubters decades ago, when he first heard the Columbus theory for syphilis. “I laughed at the idea that a small group of sailors brought back this disease that caused this major European epidemic,” he recalls.

While teaching at the University of Massachusetts, he and graduate student Brenda Baker decided to investigate the matter and got a shock: All of the available evidence at the time actually supported the Columbus theory. “It was a paradigm shift,” Armelagos says. The pair published their results in 1988.

In 2008, Harper and Armelagos published the most comprehensive comparative genetic analysis ever conducted on syphilis’s family of bacteria. The results again supported the hypothesis that syphilis, or some progenitor, came from the New World.

A second, closer look

But reports of pre-Columbian skeletons showing the lesions of chronic syphilis have kept cropping up in the Old World. For this latest appraisal of the skeletal evidence, the researchers gathered all of the published reports.

They found that most of the skeletal material did not meet at least one of the standardized, diagnostic criteria for chronic syphilis, including pitting on the skull known as caries sicca and pitting and swelling of the long bones.

The few published cases that did meet the criteria tended to come from coastal regions where seafood was a big part of the diet. The so-called “marine reservoir effect,” caused by eating seafood which contains “old carbon” from upwelling, deep ocean waters, can throw off radiocarbon dating of a skeleton by hundreds, or even thousands, of years. Analyzing the collagen levels of the skeletal material enabled the researchers to estimate the seafood consumption and factor that result into the radiocarbon dating.

“Once we adjusted for the marine signature, all of the skeletons that showed definite signs of treponemal disease appeared to be dated to after Columbus returned to Europe,” Harper says.

“The origin of syphilis is a fascinating, compelling question,” Zuckerman says. “The current evidence is pretty definitive, but we shouldn’t close the book and say we’re done with the subject. The great thing about science is constantly being able to understand things in a new light.”

###

Emory University is known for its demanding academics, outstanding undergraduate experience, highly ranked professional schools and state-of-the-art research facilities. Emory encompasses nine academic divisions as well as the Carlos Museum, The Carter Center, the Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Emory Healthcare, Georgia’s largest and most comprehensive health care system

 

 

Colombus Second voyage

Before he left Spain on his second voyage,

Columbus had been directed by Ferdinand and Isabella to maintain friendly, even loving, relations with the natives Admiral Columbus left from Cádiz, Spain,

 to find new territories on September 24, 1493, with 17 ships carrying supplies, and about 1,200 men to peacefully colonize the region. It goes without saying that this was in direct competition with Portugal.

Columbus’s Second Voyage Columbus’s Second Voyage to the New World

The rejoicing over, the good news spread everywhere, and Columbus was the hero of the civilized world. Ferdinand and Isabella at once addressed themselves to the task of preserving and extending their conquests, and a fleet of seventeen vessels and fifteen hundred men was organized to prosecute further discovery.

It was on September 25, 1493,

 that Columbus set sail with his fleet.

On October 13,

 the ships left the Canary Islands as they had before, following a more southerly course..

 

Second voyage.

Columbus’s Second Voyage to the New World

in October, 1495,

laden with welcome supplies. These were in charge of Torres, who was accompanied by a royal commissioner, Aquado, who was empowered to make full investigation of the charges brought against Columbus. It was evident to the admiral that he should take early occasion to return to Spain and make explanation to his sovereigns. Accordingly, in the spring of 1496, Columbus set sail for Cadiz, where he arrived on June 11, 1496. He was well received, and was successful in defending himself against the many charges and the clamor raised against him. Ships for a third voyage were promised him, but it was not until the late spring of 1498

that the expedition was ready for sailing.

 

Michele de Cuneo’s Letter on the Second Voyage, 28 October 1495

 

c. Fauna and Flora

“To continue, we shall now tell of the birds.

 

“First, going from the island of Ferro to

the island of Guadaloupe,

 

for six days almost constantly

 

we saw in the air many hawks flying across.

 

We also saw an infinite number of swallows, and that is why we thought we were near either to an island or a continent.

 

“There are in all the islands, as well as of the Caribs as of the Indians, where I have been, innumerable parrots of three kinds, viz.,

 

green all over and not very big,

 

green spotted with red and not too big, and as big as chickens,

 

spotted with green, red and black. Of the last I have eaten several times, their flesh tastes like that of the starling.

 

There are also wild pigeons, some of them white-crested, which are delicious to eat.

 

There are also innumerable swallows and

 

sparrows and

 

some little birds of the forest. …

“d.

The Indians

 

… the Indian arrows of canes, … and

 

The Plains Indian War Bonnet

the indian feathers are taken from parrots’ wings. …”
,

On the 3d of November

 he sighted land, a small, mountainous island, which Columbus called Dominica, after Sunday, the day of discovery.

.

 

On November 3, 1493,

Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica. On the same day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Santa Maria la Galante.

After sailing past Les Saintes (Todos los Santos), he arrived at Guadaloupe (Santa Maria de Guadalupe), which he explored between November 4 and November 10, 1493.

The exact course of his voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands including Montserrat (Santa Maria de Monstserrate), Antigua (Santa Maria la Antigua), Redondo (Santa Maria la Redonda), Nevis (Santa María de las Nieves), Saint Kitts (San Jorge), Sint Eustatius (Santa Anastasia), Saba (San Cristobal), Saint Martin (San Martin), and Saint Croix (Santa Cruz). He also sighted the island chain of the Virgin Islands, which he named Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgines, and named the islands of Virgin Gorda, Tortola, and Peter Island (San Pedro).

He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed at Puerto Rico (San Juan Bautista) on November 19, 1493. The first skirmish between Americans and Europeans since the Vikings took place when his men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors.

 

On November 22,

 he returned to Hispaniola, where he found his colonists had fallen into dispute with natives in the interior and had been killed, but he did not accuse Chief Guacanagari, his ally, of any wrongdoing.

 Another Chief, named Caonabo, was charged and became the earliest known American native resistance fighter.

Columbus established a new settlement at Isabella, on the north coast of Hispaniola, where gold had first been found, but it was a poor location and the settlement was short-lived. He spent some time exploring the interior of the island for gold. Finding some, he established a small fort in the interior.

 

It was not till November 27th

 that Columbus arrived in the harbor of La Navidad. He fired a salute, but there was no response. On landing the next morning, he found the fortress gone to pieces and the tools scattered, with evidences of fire.

Buried bodies were discovered twelve corpses those of white men. Of the forty who had been left there, not one was present to tell the tale.

But all was soon revealed, and a harrowing, sorrowful tale it was. From a friendly chief, Guacanagari whom Columbus at first suspected of treachery, and was never quite satisfied of his innocence it was learned that mutiny, perfidy, and lust had aroused resentments and produced quarrels, resulting in a division into two parties, who, separating and wandering off, were easily overwhelmed by the superior numbers of the incensed natives.

Having discovered the Windward Islands, Jamaica, and Porto Rico, he founded a new colony in Hispaniola (Haiti or San Domingo), which he named Isabella, in honor of his queen. The place had a finer harbor than the ill fated port of the Nativity. He named his brother Bartolommeo lieutenant governor, to govern when he should be absent on his explorations.

31 th November

 Then again they set sail, and in two weeks discovered several islands in the Caribbean waters

On February 2, 1494,

Columbus sent back to Spain twelve caravels under the command of Antonio de Torres, retaining the other five for the use of the colony, with which he remained. The vessels carried specimens of gold and samples of the rarest and most notable plants.

Besides these, the ships carried to Spain five hundred Indian prisoners, who, the admiral wrote, might be sold as slaves at Seville an act which places an indelible stain upon the brilliant renown of the great admiral: that one inhuman act admits of no palliation whatever.

Of the troubles that ensued it is impossible to give any account in detail. Men returning, disappointed at not finding themselves enriched, complained of Columbus as a deceiver, and he was charged with cruelty, and, indeed, there was scarcely a crime that presumably was not laid at his door.

 Then troubles broke out in the colony; the friar, incensed at Columbus, excommunicated him, and the admiral, in return, cut off his rations. Then the men, in the absence of Columbus, off on trips of exploration, gave way to rapine and passion, and the poor natives had no other means than flight to save their wives and daughters.

Matters proceeded from bad to worse, the colony growing weaker through dissension. Finally four vessels from Spain arrived at Isabella

 

 May,5th

He  arrived at Cuba (which he had discovered during his first voyage and named Juana) on April 30 and Jamaica on May 5. He explored the south coast of Cuba, which he believed to be a peninsula rather than an island, and several nearby islands including the Isle of Youth (La Evangelista), before returning to Hispaniola on August 20.

 

He left Hispaniola on April 24, 1494,

He nevertheless sent a letter to the monarchs proposing to enslave some of the native peoples, specifically the Caribs, on the grounds of their aggressiveness and their status as enemies of the Taino.

Although his petition was refused by the Crown, in February 1495 Columbus took 1,600 Arawak (a different tribe, who were also hunted by the Carib) as slaves. There was no room for about 400 of them and they were released.

The many voyages of discovery did not pay for themselves; there was no funding for pure science in the Renaissance. Columbus had planned with Isabella to set up trading posts with the cities of the Far East made famous by Marco Polo, but which had been blockaded as described above. Of course, Columbus would never find Cathay (China) or Zipangu (Japan), and there was no longer any Great Kahn. Slavery was practiced widely at that time, amongst many peoples of the world, including some Indians. For the Portuguese — from whom Columbus received most of his maritime training — slavery had resulted in the first financial return on a 75-year investment in Africa.

Five hundred sixty slaves were shipped to Spain; 200 died en route and half the remainder were ill when they arrived. After legal proceedings, some survivors were released and ordered to be shipped home, others sent by Isabella to be galley slaves. Columbus, desperate to repay his investors, failed to realize that Isabella and Ferdinand did not plan to follow Portuguese policy in this respect. Rounding up the slaves led to the first major battle between the Spanish and the natives in the New World.

Columbus was anxious to pay back dividends to those who had invested in his promise to fill his ships with gold. And since so many of the slaves died in captivity, he developed a plan while in the province of Cicao on Haiti. Columbus imposed a tribute system similar to that of the Aztec on the mainland. The natives in Cicao on Haiti all those above 14 years of age were required to find a certain quota of gold every three months. Upon their return, they would receive tokens that they wore around their necks. Any Indian found without a copper token had their hands cut off and subsequently bled to death.

Despite such extreme measures, Columbus did not manage to obtain much and many “settlers” were unhappy with the climate and disillusioned about their chances of getting rich quick. A classic gold rush had been set off that would have tragic consequences for the Caribbean, though anthropologists have shown there was more intermarriage and assimilation than previously believed (see the Black Legend). Columbus allowed settlers to return home with any Indian women with whom they had started families or, to Isabella’s fury, owned as slaves.

From Haiti he finally returned to Spain

Ferdinand Columbus’s Account of the Return Passage, 1496

Sunday, 10 April

 

“… but before they touched land a muster of

 

Indian women came out of the bush,

 

carrying bows, arrows and wearing plumes, apparently determined to defend the country. … Among other things which they found

 

in the houses were big parrots,

 

honey,

 

beeswax,

 

iron which they used to make

 

hatchets, and

 

looms, like ours on which rugs are made, …

 

 

 

Columbus blamed for Little Ice Age
Depopulation of Americas may have cooled climate
By Devin Powell
Web edition : Thursday, October 13th, 2011
Text Size

MINNEAPOLIS — By sailing to the New World, Christopher Columbus and the other explorers who followed may have set off a chain of events that cooled Europe’s climate for centuries.

The European conquest of the Americas decimated the people living there, leaving large areas of cleared land untended. Trees that filled in this territory pulled billions of tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, diminishing the heat-trapping capacity of the atmosphere and cooling climate, says Richard Nevle, a geochemist at Stanford University.

“We have a massive reforestation event that’s sequestering carbon … coincident with the European arrival,” says Nevle, who described the consequences of this change October 11 at the Geological Society of America annual meeting.

Tying together many different lines of evidence, Nevle estimated how much carbon all those new trees would have consumed. He says it was enough to account for most or all of the sudden drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide recorded in Antarctic ice during the 16th and 17th centuries. This depletion of a key greenhouse gas, in turn, may have kicked off Europe’s so-called Little Ice Age, centuries of cooler temperatures that followed the Middle Ages.

By the end of the 15th century, between 40 million and 80 million people are thought to have been living in the Americas. Many of them burned trees to make room for crops, leaving behind charcoal deposits that have been found in the soils of Mexico, Nicaragua and other countries.

About 500 years ago, this charcoal accumulation plummeted as the people themselves disappeared. Smallpox, diphtheria and other diseases from Europe ultimately wiped out as much as 90 percent of the indigenous population.

Trees returned, reforesting an area at least the size of California, Nevle estimated. This new growth could have soaked up between 2 billion and 17 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the air.

Ice cores from Antarctica contain air bubbles that show a drop in carbon dioxide around this time. These bubbles suggest that levels of the greenhouse gas decreased by 6 to 10 parts per million between 1525 and the early 1600s.

“There’s nothing else happening in the rest of the world at this time, in terms of human land use, that could explain this rapid carbon uptake,” says Jed Kaplan, an earth systems scientist at the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne in Switzerland.

Natural processes may have also played a role in cooling off Europe: a decrease in solar activity, an increase in volcanic activity or colder oceans capable of absorbing more carbon dioxide. These phenomena better explain regional climate patterns during the Little Ice Age, says Michael Mann, a climate researcher at Pennsylvania State University in State College.

But reforestation fits with another clue hidden in Antarctic ice, says Nevle. As the population declined in the Americas, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere got heavier. Increasingly, molecules of the gas tended to be made of carbon-13, a naturally occurring isotope with an extra neutron. That could be because tree leaves prefer to take in gas made of carbon-12, leaving the heavier version in the air.

Kaplan points out that there’s a lot of uncertainty in such isotope measurements, so this evidence isn’t conclusive. But he agrees that the New World pandemics were a major event that can’t be ignored — a tragedy that highlighted mankind’s ability to influence the climate long before the industrial revolution.

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/335168/title/Columbus_blamed_for_Little_Ice_Age 

Auron Renius,colombus & The Genoc8de (f The Taino Nation

Columbus’s Third Expedition to the New World

COLUMBUS SETS FORTH ON A THIRD EXPEDITION.

 

On May 30, 1498, with six ships, carrying two hundred men, besides sailors, Columbus set out on his third expedition.

Taking a more southerly course, Columbus discovered the mouth of the Orinoco, which he imagined to be the great river Gihon, mentioned in the Bible (Genesis ii, 13) as the second river of Paradise ; so sadly were our admiral’s geography and topography awry ! Columbus also discovered the coast of Para and the islands of Trinidad, Margarita, and Cabaqua, and then bore away for Hispaniola.

 

 

Third voyage

 

Location of city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the starting point for Columbus’ third journey.

 

 

On his third expedition,

Columbus explored the region before returning to Hispaniola in 1498 where he had left his brothers in charge, Diego and Bartholomew.

Conditions

there were in decline so he stepped up the terror campaign against the Taino,

 

ruling with an iron hand causing resentment from the colonists and local chiefs alike. Complaints of his brutality got back to the Spanish monarchs and in 1500 they sent a Chief Justice to bring him and his brothers back to Spain in chains.

However he was released on his arrival and allowed a fourth and final expedition, which he conducted with the same brutality as previous ones. By the time he finally left in 1504, the Taino had been reduced from as many as eight million to around 100,000 people arguably making Columbus a war criminal by today’s standards and guilty of committing some of the worst atrocities against another race in history. Some were killed directly as punishments for ‘crimes’ such as not paying tribute to the invaders. Many who could not or would not pay had their hands cut off and were left to bleed to death.

 

Columbus and his men are

documented by the chronicles of Las Casas, know as Brev’sima relaci-n,

to have partaken in mass hangings, roasting people on spits, burnings at the stake and even hacking young children to death and feeding them to dogs as punishment for the most minor of crimes. The Spanish masters massacred the natives, sometimes hundreds at a time for sport, making bets on who could split a man in two, or cut a head off in one blow. By 1542 there were only 200 Taino remaining and after they were considered extinct, as was becoming more and more the case throughout the Caribbean basin

 

Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean

Giles Tremlett in Madrid
Monday August 7, 2006
The Guardian

Christopher Columbus, the man credited with discovering the Americas, was a greedy and vindictive tyrant who saved some of his most violent punishments for his own followers, according to a document uncovered by Spanish historians.
As governor and viceroy of the Indies, Columbus imposed iron discipline on the first Spanish colony in the Americas, in what is now the Caribbean country of Dominican Republic. Punishments included cutting off people’s ears and noses, parading women naked through the streets and selling them into slavery.

——————————————————————————–

“Columbus’ government was characterised by a form of tyranny,” Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian who has seen the document, told journalists.
One man caught stealing corn had his nose and ears cut off, was placed in shackles and was then auctioned off as a slave. A woman who dared to suggest that Columbus was of lowly birth was punished by his brother Bartolomé, who had also travelled to the Caribbean. She was stripped naked and paraded around the colony on the back of a mule.

“Bartolomé ordered that her tongue be cut out,” said Ms Varela. “Christopher congratulated him for defending the family.”

The evidence has been found in a previously lost report drawn up at the time for the Spanish monarchs as they became worried by growing rumours of Columbus’ barbarity and avarice. The document was written by a member of an order of religious knights, the Order of Calatrava, who had been asked to investigate the allegations against Columbus by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand, who ruled Spain together at the time.

The report, by Francisco de Bobadilla, lay undiscovered in a state archive in the Spanish city of Valladolid until last year. Bobadilla had already been named governor of the Indies, replacing Columbus, at the time of the report.

The 48-page document gathers evidence from Columbus’ enemies and supporters of his seven-year reign. Ms Varela, one of the two Spanish historians to have studied the document, described life in the colony as “horrifying and hard”.

Bobadilla collected the testimonies of 23 people who had seen or heard about the treatment meted out by Columbus and his brothers. “Even those who loved him had to admit the atrocities that had taken place,” Ms Varela said.

Columbus and his brothers were forced to travel back to Spain. Columbus was in chains but, although he never recovered his titles, he was set free and allowed to sail back to the Caribbean.

“Columbus and his brothers come across in the text as tyrants,” Ms Varela said. “Now one can understand why he was sacked and we can see that there were good reasons for doing so.

“The monarchs wanted someone who did not give them problems. Columbus did not solve problems, he created them.”

 

By Auron Renius
June 14, 2009

Christopher Columbus is well known for discovering the New World and is seen as a hero of medieval exploration by many scholars today. However, what many text books fail to mention is the fact that he was a genocidal maniac who set in motion what would become probably the worst case of genocide imposed on one nation of human beings by another.

Obsessed with finding a sea rout to Asia and the Far East, Columbus set out on his ‘Enterprise of the Indies’ in 1492, backed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.  However, instead of finding a rout to the rich trade in the East, Columbus and his crew discovered the New World, and soon set about subjugating and murdering the local population and removing the vast wealth from the land.

It was the old story told over again, with sickening disappointment. He found the colony was more disorganized than ever. For more than two years Columbus did his best to remedy the fortunes of the colony. At last an insurrection broke out. It was necessary to act promptly and decisively. Seven ringleaders were hanged and five more were sentenced to death. At this time the whole colony was surprised by the arrival at St. Domingo of Francisco de Bobadilla, sent out by Ferdinand and Isabella as governor, and bearing authority to receive from Columbus the surrender of all fortresses and public property. Calumny had done its work! Bobadilla then released the five men under sentence of death, and finally, when Columbus and Bartholomew arrived at St. Domingo, Bobadilla caused them both to be put in chains, to be sent to Spain.

 

Seldom has a more touching, more cruel, more pathetic picture been presented in the world’s sad history of cruelty and wrong !

Shocked as the master of the ship was at the spectacle of Columbus in irons, he would have taken them off, but Columbus would not allow it; those bracelets should never come off but at the command of his Sovereigns!

It was early in October, 1500, that the ships with the three prisoners, Columbus and his brothers, Bartholomew and Diego, left Isabella.

On the 25th of November, after an unusually comfortable passage, the vessels entered the harbor of Cadiz. The sight of the venerable form of Columbus in chains as he passed through the streets of Cadiz, where he had been greeted with all the applause of a conqueror, was more than the public would suffer.

Long and loud were the indignant protests that voiced the popular feeling. The news of the state of affairs coming to Isabella, a messenger was dispatched with all haste to Cadiz, commanding his instant release. When the poor broken hearted admiral came into the queen’s presence Isabella could not keep the tears back while he, affected at the sight, threw himself at the feet of his sovereigns, his emotion bursting out in uncontrollable tears and sobs and this was Columbus’s reward for discovering a new world !

 

 

Columbus discovering the New World.  I

A small colony was established in Hispaniola consisting of thirty-nine of his crew, the rest returned to Spain with Columbus along with gold, spices and natives taken as slaves to be given as gifts for his royal patrons.

The following year, he led a second expedition comprising of seventeen large ships and one and half thousand new colonists, arriving in the Americas a month later.  By the time he got back to Hispaniola, his men there had been slaughtered by the locals and a second colony was founded.

 

Columbus punished the local tribe, known as the Taino, severely.  He enslaved many and executed many more; according to Ward Churchill, former professor of ethnic studies at the University of Colorado, by 1496, the population had been reduced from as many as eight million to around three million.

On his third expedition, he explored the region before returning to Hispaniola in 1498 where he had left his brothers in charge, Diego and Bartholomew.  Conditions there were in decline so he stepped up the terror campaign against the Taino, ruling with an iron hand causing resentment from the colonists and local chiefs alike.  Complaints of his brutality got back to the Spanish monarchs and in 1500 they sent a Chief Justice to bring him and his brothers back to Spain in chains

Taíno tribes

 

were forced westward, some two-hundred years before the Spanish arrival, by a bloodthirsty tribe known as Caribs (this is where the word cannibal came from). They would raid a village, kill all of the adult men and consume their flesh. The women were spared for slavery, as were the young men, who were castrated.

 

In Cuba, the Taínos found a paradise openly available and very suitable for their peaceful lifestyle. The Ciboneyes eventually became servants of the Taínos, who were more evolved and technologically advanced.

 

Typical Taíno societies performed the traditional activities of fishermen and hunters, and introduced agriculture to the island. Their staples included maize (corn), beans, squash, peanuts, yucca, and tobacco. They created a variety of tools and artifacts by polishing stones and carving wood, and they were accomplished potters, crafting a variety of utilitarian pieces and small figurines of animal and human forms, male and female, which represented spirits considered sacred by each community.

 

The Taínos also made houses, called bohíos,

out of cane or bamboo, and formed villages, which were ruled by caciques or behiques, whose functions comprised those of priests, doctors, and chiefs. They also cultivated cotton, using it to weave fishing nets and sleeping hammocks. Tobacco was used for religious, medicinal, and ceremonial purposes.

 

 

Taino men wore no clothes,

 

but the women wore skimpy cotton aprons that covered them in front from the waist down to their knees, and both sexes appear to have enjoyed equal status in their society. It is speculated that they were both very sexually promiscuous, and we know for a fact that both sexes were fond of painting their bodies in bright colors, and wearing jewelry made from shiny stones, feathers and shells.

 

“The indians that Columbus and his men encountered in Cuba were a simple and happy people living in a peaceful and gentle world,” writes Jorge Guillermo in his book, Cuba: Five-Hundred Years of Images. “They had no enemies, human or otherwise, and were therefore unused to combat. Their pathetic inability to resist the Spanish invaders made their eventual submission in the hands of the conquistadores an inevitability.”

 

By the mid-sixteenth century, Cuba’s indigenous population had dropped to less than a few thousand as a result of disease, mass suicides and Spanish exploitation.

 

Concilio Taíno Guatu-Ma-cu A Borikén

(Español)
We are a Taino pueblo, blood descendants of the native people that Christopher Columbus encountered on his first voyage to the Americas. Our Yukayeke (Taino village) is led by Cacike Caciba Opil (Chief Sacred Rock of the Spirit). He was elected by the women of our Yukayeke in Taino tradition. We are a Taino people under restoration. Our pueblo was founded in 1992 as a registered nonprofit corporation in the Department of State of Puerto Rico, and incorporated as The Concilio Guatu-ma-cu A Boriken, Inc. in 2000. We received Federal nonprofit recognition (501C3) in 2007. We integrate Taino descendants into our yukayeke everyday, and for that reason our pueblo is growing. We include people from across the island of Boriken (Puerto Rico), the United States (including New York and Texas), Dominican Republic, and Europe. Taino traditions, spirituality and ancestral ceremonies based in the Taino religion are alive in
our pueblo.

El Concilio Taino is bringing cultural awareness and increasing public knowledge for those who have an interest in Taino culture throughout the island of Puerto Rico and abroad through education, including the revelation of the true Taino history, and the sharing of our customs, language, areytos (ceremonial dance), music and song, and craftwork.

Thanks to rising interest in Taino heritage, we regularly are invited to bring demonstrations of our ancestral traditional instruments to schools. We also teach the making of traditional maracas de higuera (dried native fruit) in different communities. We offer workshops in the crafting of ancestral pottery, using traditional methods and the open-flame firing of mud-clay from Mother Earth. We are invited to present authentic Taino areytos, nationally and internationally, throughout the year. Our educational outreach is supported by Fomento Artesanal,the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture, and the Puerto Rican Tourism Company.

Through heritage education, our children and young students have been transformed into bastions of traditional values who enjoy their knowledge and take it to their schools, teachers and other students. They have created projects in their classrooms, such as ceremonial plazas and other projects dedicated to our Taino ancestors. Our outreach has awakened a consciousness, through the channeling of positive energy in cultural directions. This has rescued people of diverse communities, the majority youth and young adults, who were living a way of life that was harmful for society and for themselves.

Our Cacike Caciba Opil (Martin D. Veguilla) is an official consultant of Taino traditions to the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture (I.C.P.). Thanks to the breakthrough research of Dr. Juan Carlos Martinez Cruzado (University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez, Year 2000) documenting the first the Amerindian mtDNA of the Taino of Boriken, our pueblo has been able to document our Taino blood. Our Cacike’s Taino Mitochondrial DNA is Haplogroup-C, whose origins are the Arawak (Ingneri) ancestors of the Taino, originating from the border of the Orinoco River in the Amazons of Venezuela.

 

Thanks to the efforts and dedication of the people of our Taino pueblo, and our Cacike Caciba Opil, a new generation is growing. We are proud knowing they will never know life without our rich Taino traditions, or the depth of our spirituality.

 

Cacike Caciba Opil with the men of our pueblo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Taino Indians and the Jose Maria Cave

Taino Indians

Dominican Republic, 1500 AD

The Taino Indians of the island of Hispaniola in the West Indies, now

Dominican Republic and Haiti, are believed to be the first tribe of the New

World to have encountered the famous explorer Christopher Columbus.  In a

rock art cave called Jose Maria within the East National Park are many

painted images.  Among them is one panel that may depict a conquest

event.  Also visible are images that seem to bear on the mythology.

Depicted among these pictographs is the mythology and history ofthe Taino people. They worshipped the bat and the owl, which were belived tocarry spirits away to the afterlife, and Atabey, the goddess of freshwater and mother of the yucca plant.

Also seen with the images could be a forced tribute to theSpaniards that required the Taino to provide labor and food. This tributeis seen on a large limestone wall inside the Jose Maria Cave. It startsoff with an image of a grater.

This was used to grind the roots of theguayaga plant or the yucca plant, the main ingredient of casaba bread.

Next is a image of a barbeque where they baked the bread after formingthe dough. The word barbeque actually came from the Taino Indians and haslasted for hundreds of years. The cacique or chieftain is pictured nextto the yucca plant, identified because he was the only one allowed towear a headress. From there is a scene of the bread being loaded onto aspanish longboat and then travelling back to feed the Spaniards.

The Taino Indians had a treaty with the Spaniard which was brokenwhen Juan de Esquivel in 1503 led a battle into the village. Thechieftain was killed and thereby breaking the treaty. After that theTaino Indians were almost annihilated by the Spaniards over a period ofabout 20 years.

Hopefully with the interpretation of the over 1,200 pictographsand the finding of a grotto or sinkhole not more than 3 miles away,historians and archaeologists will be able to find out more about theTaino, their customs, and their religion.

 

 

30th  May 1498

Third voyage and arrest

On May 30, 1498,

Columbus left with seven ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World. He was accompanied by the young Bartolomé de Las Casas, who would later provide partial transcripts of Columbus’ logs.

Columbus led the fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo, his wife’s native land.

July, 31th

 He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Columbus landed on the south coast of the island of Trinidad on July 31.

August,12th

 From August 4 through August 12, he explored the Gulf of Paria which separates Trinidad from Venezuela. He explored the mainland of South America, including the Orinoco River. He also sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita Island and sighted and named Tobago (Bella Forma) and Grenada (Concepcion). He described the new lands as belonging to a previously unknown new continent, but he pictured it hanging from China, bulging out to make the earth pear-shaped.

August, 19th

Columbus returned to Hispaniola on August 19 to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontent, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world. Columbus repeatedly had to deal with rebellious settlers and natives.

He had some of his crew hanged for disobeying him. A number of returned settlers and friars lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him of mismanagement.

August, 23 th

The king and queen sent the royal administrator Francisco de Bobadilla in 1500, who upon arrival (August 23) detained Columbus and his brothers and had them shipped home.

In 2005, a long lost state report was rediscovered depicting Columbus as a particularly cruel ruler.

The report may explain part of the reasons for the Spanish Crown’s decision to remove Columbus from his position as first governor of the Indies.

 Columbus refused to have his shackles removed on the trip to Spain, during which he wrote a long and pleading letter to the Spanish monarchs. They accepted his letter and let Columbus and his brothers go free.

Although he regained his freedom, he did not regain his prestige and lost all his titles including the governorship.

September, 1499

As an added insult, the Portuguese had won the race to the East Indies: Vasco da Gama returned in September 1499 from a trip to India, having sailed east around Africa.

 

 

 

 

Columbus’s Last Voyage

1502

HIS LAST VOYAGE.

The rest is soon told.

The acts of the miserable creature, Bobadilla,

 

were instantly disapproved, and he was recalled, but was drowned on his way home. Columbus, however, was not allowed to return to Hispaniola,

but after two years’ waiting sailed from

Cadiz, May 9, 1502,

 

with four vessels and a hundred and fifty men, to search for a passage through the sea now known as the Gulf of Mexico.

Look Dr Iwan collection , postal history cover sent from CADIZ in 1815

 

 

Fourth voyage

Nevertheless, Columbus made a fourth voyage, nominally in search of a Westward Passage to the Indian Ocean.

 

Fourth voyage.

 

The Four Voyages of Columbus 1492-1503

 

 

Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando, he left Cádiz, Spain on May 11, 1502, with the ships Capitana, Gallega, Vizcaína and Santiago de Palos. He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue the Portuguese soldiers who he heard were under siege by the Moors. On June 15, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. He arrived at Santo Domingo on June 29, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. Instead, while Columbus’s ships sheltered at the mouth of the Jaina River, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane. The only ship to reach Spain had Columbus’s money and belongings on it, and all of his former enemies (and a few friends) had drowned.

After a brief stop at Jamaica, he sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on July 30. Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as “long as a galley” and was filled with cargo. On August 14, he landed on the American mainland at Puerto Castilla, near Trujillo, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, before arriving in Almirante Bay, Panama on October 16.

In Panama, he learned from the natives of gold and a strait to another ocean. After much exploration, he established a garrison at the mouth of Rio Belen in January 1503. On April 6, one of the ships became stranded in the river. At the same time, the garrison was attacked, and the other ships were damaged. He left for Hispaniola on April 16, but sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel any farther, the ships were beached in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, on June 25, 1503.

Columbus and his men were stranded on Jamaica for a year. Two Spaniards, with native paddlers, were sent by canoe to get help from Hispaniola. In the meantime, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, he successfully intimidated the natives by correctly predicting a lunar eclipse, using astronomic tables made by Rabbi Abraham Zacuto who was working for the king of Portugal. Help finally arrived on June 29, 1504, and Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain on November 7.

DNA verifies Columbus’ remains in Spain

Spanish bones linked to explorer, but Dominican claim could still be valid

 

Tourists walk by the purported tomb of Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus in the Cathedral of Seville, Spain. Spanish researchers who have studied DNA samples from 500-year-old bone slivers say at least some of Columbus’ remains do indeed lie within the tomb.

MADRID, Spain – Spanish researchers said Friday that they have resolved a century-old mystery surrounding Christopher Columbus’s burial place, which both Spain and the Dominican Republic claim to be watching over. Their verdict: Spain’s got the right bones.

A forensic team led by Spanish geneticist Jose Antonio Lorente compared DNA from bone fragments that Spain says are from the explorer — and are buried in a cathedral in Seville — with DNA extracted from remains known to be from Columbus’ brother Diego, who is also buried in the southern Spanish city.

“There is absolute matchup between the mitochondrial DNA we have studied from Columbus’ brother and Christopher Columbus,” said Marcial Castro, a Seville-area historian and high school teacher who is the mastermind behind the project, which began in 2002. Mitochondria are cell components rich in DNA.

He spoke a day before the 500th anniversary Saturday of Columbus’ death in the northern Spanish city of Valladolid.

Castro and his research colleagues have been trying in vain for years to convince the Dominican Republic to open up an ornate lighthouse monument in the capital, Santo Domingo, that the Dominicans say holds the remains of the explorer.

Dominicans dismiss findings
Juan Bautista Mieses, the director of the Columbus Lighthouse — a cross-shaped building several blocks long — dismissed the researchers’ findings and insisted Friday that Columbus was indeed buried in the Dominican Republic.

“The remains have never left Dominican territory,” Bautista said.

The goal of opening the lighthouse tomb was to compare those remains to the ones from Diego in Seville and determine which country had buried the man who arrived in the New World in 1492, landing at the island of Hispaniola, which today comprises the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

Castro stressed in an interview that, although his team is convinced the bones in Seville are from Columbus, this does not necessarily mean the ones in Santo Domingo are not. Columbus’ body was moved several times after his death, and the tomb in Santo Domingo might conceivably also hold part of the right body. “We don’t know what is in there,” Castro said.

Castro said that in light of the DNA evidence from Spain, the objective of opening the Santo Domingo tomb would be to determine who, if not Columbus, is buried there. “Now, studying the remains in the Dominican Republic is more necessary and exciting than ever,” he said.

However, Bautista said he would not allow the remains to be tested. “We Christians believe that one does not bother the dead,” he said.

 

Lost Spanish caravel found in Panama may be from 4th Voyage of Columbus


For the past few years, Panamanian salvage divers have been recovering remains of the wooden hulk of a wrecked Spanish caravel, found in 1997

 

 

under 6 meters of water at the Caribbean port of Nombre de Dios. Little by little, archaeologists from the National Cultural Institute of Panama at nearby Porto Bello have accumulated evidence that this may have been one of four ships used by Columbus during his last voyage in 1502-1503, when the Genoese mariner sailed along the coast from Honduras to Panama.

On May 9, 1502, Columbus and 135 men left the Spanish port of Cadiz with a small fleet of four caravels named La Capitana, Santiago de Palos, La Gallega, and La Vizcaína (Morison 1942). Caravels (fig.1) were high, square-rigged ships about 60-70 ft long, with 50-70 tons cargo capacity. Other examples were the Niña and the Pinta of Columbus’s first voyage (see AR 1,3 p.39).   By July 30 the Spaniards had reached the Bay Islands off Honduras, where they encountered Maya-like traders carrying textiles, cacao beans, and copper implements in large canoes with awnings (see AR 2,1, p.33). As reported in the memoirs of Columbus’ nephew Ferdinand Colón, the Spanish ships then turned east along the so-called Costa de las Orejas (“coast of the ears”), named for the long earlobes of Jicaque and Payan natives wearing egg-sized earspools.

Sailing south from Honduras to Panama (often amid bad weather and contrary winds), and landing at a few shore points to barter for gold ornaments, in January 1503 the Spaniards stopped at the mouth of the Río Belén. There, learning of rich gold sources through local Guaymis, they attempted to found a colony called Santa Maria de Belén. By the spring of 1503, however, hostilities had commenced with parties of Quibián (Guaymi) warriors. The Spaniards took hostages, and a boatload of Spaniards were killed a few miles up the Río Belén. Columbus decided to evacuate, and after abandoning one of the ships (the Gallega) which had been careened behind a sandbar, sailed from Belén on April 16, 1503.

Fig.1: Drawing of a Spanish Caravel ca. 1493 (Letter of Columbus, Lenox Library).

A week later, upon reaching Porto Bello, the Vizcaina was leaking so badly from wormholes it too was abandoned, and on April 23, 1503 the Spaniards crowded into the remaining two ships and sailed for home. It is the scuttled remains of the Vizcaina which Portobello archaeologists now think they have found. Artifacts from the wreck seem consistent with this theory. Lying on a shallow sandbank, the twin-masted, wooden caravel hulk still held its anchors, but had been stripped of all rigging and material possessions of the crew.

Archaeologists from the Instituto Cultural, working with salvagers from Conquest Panama Inc. and Investigaciones Marinas del Istmo S.A, believe this shows evidence of deliberate abandonment or scuttling. A variety of other details on hull construction, cannon types, pottery, and food remains all appear to corroborate that this ship may indeed be La Vizcaina. Stone cannonballs were among the first artifacts recovered from the site.

Five cannons of two early types called Versos and Lombards were left on deck, now encrusted with coral and barnacles. The swivel-mounted, breach loading Lombard was a fault-prone weapon known to have been used on Columbus’ expeditions. Due to their tendency to misfire (and sometimes blow up the shooter), the Spanish stopped using them after about 1520.

Construction details have also helped date the ship. Its hull timbers, hammered together with wooden pegs, were not sealed in lead, which protected the hulls against wood-boring worms (such as had infested all four ships on the 1502-3 voyage).


1506


A little history
Columbus died and was buried in Valladolid on May 20, 1506. He had asked to be buried in the Americas, but no church of sufficient stature existed there.

Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja, a river island next to Seville.

In 1537,

 Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of one of Columbus’ sons, Diego, sent the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial.

 

 

1508

Lead sheathing became mandatory among Spanish shipbuilders by royal decree in 1508. Sherds from pottery amphorae for olive oil, typical of early 16th century New World voyages, have also come from the sunken vessel. Food remains including coconut husks and shellfish show Spaniards were living off local resources by the time they reached the spot where they abandoned La Gallega. Based strictly on chronology, the wreck could also be that of a ship known to be lost by Francisco Pizarro en route to Cartagena, Colombia as part of the attempt by Alonzo de Ojeda to colonize that region (1508-1509). Whether or not it is confirmed to be La Vizcaina, it would in any case be the first ship to be found from the early part of the Spanish Conquest, for which there are few contemporary images or related material remains.

[Gaynor, T. in The Guardian, 5 Nov. 2001; Fernando Colon, 1530, Journals; Morison, S.E., 1942, Admiral of the Ocean Sea; “New World Explorers I: The First Voyage of Columbus,” Athena Review Vol. 1, no. 3 (1997); “New World Explorers II: The Fourth Voyage of Columbus,” Athena Review, Vol. 2, no. 1 (1998)]

It was the middle of June when Columbus touched at San Domingo, where he was not permitted to land. He set sail, and was dragged by the currents near Cuba. Here he reached the little island of Guanaja, opposite Honduras, and voyaged along

the Mosquito coast

 

 

, having discovered the mainland, of which he took possession.

After suffering from famine and many other forms of hardship, he went to Jamaica

 

and passed a terrible year upon that wild coast.

 

Christopher Columbus, on his voyage attempting to discover a western passage to the Indies, is stranded in Jamaica, where he and his crew have stopped to gather supplies. The local people are unwilling to provide the food and supplies Columbus demands, and his crew is growing hungry and restless.

 

Stuck in this awkward position, Columbus (it is said) hits on an ingenious solution: from his astrological charts, he knows that a total lunar eclipse will happen in a few days. When the day arrives, he gathers the local people, tells them that he is very angry with them for withholding supplies, and that he will show his wrath by causing the moon to disappear.

As if on cue, the moon begins to fade away behind the shadow of the earth. The local people are struck with terror, and they offer Columbus whatever he wishes, if only he will return the moon to its place in the sky. Columbus relents, the moon reappears in a few minutes, and Columbus and his crew are lavishly resupplied and sent on their way by the grateful Jamaicans

In June, 1504,

 

Colombus provision was made for returning to Spain,

and on November 7th of that year, after a stormy voyage and colombus narrow escape from shipwreck,

 

Columbus landed at San Lucar de Barrameda,

 

and made his way to Seville.

 

 

 

He found himself without his best friend and protector, for

Queen  Isabella was then on her deathbed.

 

Nineteen days later she breathed her last. Ferdinand would do nothing for him. A year and a half of poverty and disappointment followed, and then his kindliest friend, Death, came to his relief, and his sorrows were at an end.

Columbus died on Ascension Day, May 20, 1506, at Valladolid,

 

in the act of repeating, Pater, in manus tuas depono spiritum meum,—” Lord, into Thy hands I commit my spirit.” Death did not end his voyages.

His remains, first deposited in the Monastery of St. Francis, were transferred, in 1513, to the Carthusian Monastery, of Las Cuevas. In 1536 his body, with that of his son, Diego, was removed to Hispaniola and placed in

 

the cathedral of San Domingo,

where it is believed, and pretty nearly certain, they were recently discovered.

 

 

There seems no sufficient evidence that they were ever taken to

Havana

 

Christopher Columbus on his Death Bed

 

Columbus’s Death and Burial, and the movement of his bones over centuries

 

Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain, on May 20, 1506, at the age of 54. He had suffered through a long terminal illness that first showed symptoms on his third voyage eight years before. His son Fernando records the cause of death as “gout.” But in those days, gout was anything that caused joint pain. Recent research by Gerald Weissmann indicates that the most likely cause of death was Reiter’s Syndrome, a rare tropical disease.

Following his death, Christopher Columbus perhaps travelled more in death than even in life. His bones moved location in Spain, then went to the Caribbean, mover a number of times there, before being (perhaps) finally repatriated to Spain to rest in Seville Cathedral

After Christopher Columbus’ death body underwent excarnation – that is the flesh was removed so that only his bones remained. In his will, Columbus requested his remains to be taken to the Caribbean island of La Espanola. However he was initially buried in the Castilian city of Valladolid, where he died on May 20, 1506. Christopher Columbus, died without the fanfare. He was buried, with only a handful in attendance, in a small monastery at Valladolid, Spain, wearing the habit of the third order of Saint Francis and, according to his wishes, in the chains he wore upon his arrest after his third voyage to the New World. Only three lines of text marked his obituary in the official record

1.Valladolid. He was first first interred in Valladolid. He remained at Valladolid only three years as his bones were disinterred and moved to Seville’s Carthusian monastery.

2. The monastery of La Cartuja in Seville. When Columbus’ eldest son and heir Diego died in 1526, he was buried beside his father.

In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of one of Columbus’ sons, Diego,

 

sent the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial.

His son Diego is the authority for the statement that his remains were buried in the Carthusian Convent of Las Cuevas, Seville,

 

within three years after his death. According to the records of the convent, the remains were given up for transportation to Haiti in 1536, though other documents placed this event in 1537. It is conjectured, however, that the removal did not take place till

1541, when the Cathedral of Santo Domingo was completed,

 

though there are no records of this entombment. The bones certainly were moved to Hispaniola.

And there matters stood for over two centuries.

  1. 1.      Santiago, Santo Domingo. So the remains of Columbus were moved across the Atlantic, and were buried under the right side of the altar in the cathedral in Santo Domingo. In 1795,the French captured the island of Hispaniola from Spain.

 

  1. 2.      By now the Spanish viewed Columbus’ remains as a national treasure, and wished to prevent their capture by the French. So, relying on old records, they dug up his remains and removed them to Havana, Cuba.

 

1795

There they lay until 1795,

when Spain ceded Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus’ remains should not fall into the hands of foreigners.

In 1877,

however, workers digging in the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing bones and bearing the inscription, “Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon.” That’s the Spanish way of saying Christopher Columbus.

The Dominicans say that these were the genuine remains and that the Spaniards took the wrong body back in 1795.

 

However the tale is confused by the fact that in 1877,

workers restoring the cathedral in Santo Domingo found, under the left side of the altar, a box containing human remains. The box bore the name Columbus.

 They unearthed an urn containing bones and displaying the inscription: “The illustrious and distinguished male, Don Christopher Columbus.” It was thought by some that the “left” and “right” sides of the altar depended upon the direction one is facing. And therefore, some argue, the body that had been moved to Haiti in 1795 was really that of Diego, while the Admiral’s remains had been in Santo Domingo all along.

 Haiti. When, in 1795,

 Haiti passed under French control, Spanish authorities removed the supposed remains of Columbus to Havana. On the occupation of Cuba by the United States they were once more removed to Seville (1898).

1898

 

A set of remains that the Spaniards believed were Columbus’ was first shipped to Havana, Cuba, and then back to Seville when the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898.

 

 Havana. A century later, when Cuba became independent following the Spanish-American War in 1898, his remains were moved back to the Cathedral of Seville

 Seville Cathedral.

They were placed on an elaborate catafalque. Columbus’ tomb in the cathedral of Seville is guarded by four statues of kings representing the Kingdoms of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Navarre.How ever, a lead box bearing an inscription identifying “Don Christopher Columbus” and containing fragments of bone and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo in 1877. The DNA tests currently being carried out are to try to determine where Columbus’ bones actually are today.

All you need to know about Reiters Syndrome or Reactive Arthritis “A systemic illness characterized by a combination of arthritis (inflammation of the joints), conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, a membrane in the eye), and urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Reactive arthritis is a type of seronegative spondyloarthropathy, meaning that the rheumatic factor is serologically negative and has a rheumatic effect on the spine. Other diseases in this category include anklyosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis (Sigal, 2001

Thus passed away the greatest of all discoverers, a man noble in purpose, daring in action, not without serious faults, but one inspired by deep religious feeling, and whose character must be leniently measured by the spirit of the age in which he lived. He received from his country not even the reward of the flattering courtier, for he was deprived of the honors his due, and for which the royal word had gone forth; and in the end, when the weight of years was upon him and there was nothing more he could discover, he was allowed by Ferdinand to die in poverty, ” with no place to repair to except an inn.”

 

But if king Ferdinand VII of Spain

was not a royal giver Columbus was more than one. For the world will never forget the inscription that, for very shame, was placed upon a marble tomb over his remains he was now seven years dead and which reads

“A Castilla y a Leon Nuevo mundo dio Colon.”

 

To Castile and Leon Columbus gave a new world.

As to the character of Columbus, there is wanting space here for considering the subject at any length; nor does it at all seem necessary.

Time has given the great navigator a character for courage, daring, and endurance, which no modern historian can take from him least of all can the statement, that the falsification of the record of his voyage was reprehensible, stand.

It was no more reprehensible than

 

the act of Washington

in deceiving the enemy at Princeton;

 

and in Columbus’s case his foes were the scriptural ones “of his own household.” Living in an age when buccaneering was honorable and piracy reputable, it will not do to gauge Columbus by the standard of our day.

 It is sufficient to say that he was great, in the fact that he put in practice what others had only

 

dreamed of. Aristotle

was sure of the spheroidicity of the earth,

 

 

and was certain that ” strange lands ” lay to the west : Columbus sailed and found; he went, he saw, he conquered

Over the next ten years Columbus would make three more voyages to the “New World,” which only bolstered his belief that he reached the Far East by sailing West. It was on his fourth and final voyage, while exploring the coast of Central America that Columbus found himself in dire straits. He left C�diz, Spain on May 11, 1502, with the ships Capitana, Gallega, Vizca�na and Santiago de Palos. Unfortunately, thanks to an epidemic of shipworms eating holes in the planking of his fleet, Columbus’ was forced to abandon two of his ships and finally had to beach his last two caravels on the north coast of Jamaica on
June 25, 1503.

Initially, the Jamaican natives welcomed the castaways, providing them with food and shelter, but as the days dragged into weeks, tensions mounted. Finally, after being stranded for more
than six months, half of Columbus’ crew mutinied, robbing and murdering some of the natives,
who, themselves grew weary of supplying cassava, corn and fish in exchange for little tin
whistles, trinkets, hawk’s bells and other rubbishy goods.

With famine now threatening, Columbus formulated a desperate, albeit ingenious plan

Almanac to the rescue

Coming to the Admiral’s rescue was Johannes M�ller von K�nigsberg (1436-1476), known by
his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus. He was an important German mathematician, astro-
nomer and astrologer.

Before his death, Regiomontanus published an almanac containing astronomical tables cover-
ing the years 1475-1506. Regiomontanus’ almanac turned out to be of great value, for his
astronomical tables provided detailed information about the sun, moon and planets, as well
as the more important stars and constellations by which to navigate.

After it was published, no sailor dared set out without a copy. With its help, explorers were
able to leave their customary routes and venture out into the unknown seas in search of
new frontiers.

Columbus, of course, had a copy of the Almanac with him when he was stranded on Jamaica.
And he soon discovered from studying its tables that on the evening of Thursday, Feb. 29,
1504, a total eclipse of the moon would take place soon after the time of moonrise.

Armed with this knowledge, three days before the eclipse, Columbus asked for a meeting with
the natives Cacique (“chief”) and announced to him that his Christian god was angry with his
people for no longer supplying Columbus and his men with food. Therefore, he was about to
provide a clear sign of his displeasure: Three nights hence, he would all but obliterate the
rising full moon, making it appear “inflamed with wrath,” which would signify the evils that
would soon be inflicted upon all of them.

Bad moon rising

On the appointed evening, as the Sun set in the West and the moon started emerging from
beyond the eastern horizon, it was plainly obvious to all that something was terribly wrong.
By the time the moon appeared in full view, its lower edge was missing!

And, just over an hour later, as full darkness descended, the moon indeed exhibited an eerily
inflamed and “bloody” appearance: In place of the normally brilliant late winter full moon there
now hung a dim red ball in the eastern sky.

According to Columbus’ son, Ferdinand, the natives were terrified at this sight and “. . . with
great howling and lamentation came running from every direction to the ships laden with pro-
visions, praying to the Admiral to intercede with his god on their behalf.” They promised that they would gladly cooperate with Columbus and his men if only he would restore the moon back to its normal self. The great explorer told the natives that he would have to retire to confer privately with his god. He then shut himself in his cabin for about fifty minutes.

“His god” was a sandglass that Columbus turned every half hour to time the various stages of the eclipse, based on the calculations provided by Regiomontanus’ almanac.

Just moments before the end of the total phase Columbus reappeared, announcing to the natives that his god had pardoned them and would now allow the moon to gradually return. And at that moment, true to Columbus’ word, the moon slowly began to reappear and as it emerged from the Earth’s shadow, the grateful natives hurried away.

They then kept Columbus and his men well supplied and well fed until a relief caravel from Hispaniola finally arrived on June 29, 1504. Columbus and his men returned to Spain on

Another side to the story

In an interesting postscript to this story, in 1889, Mark Twain, likely influenced by the eclipse trick, wrote the novel, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court. In it, his main character, Hank Morgan, used a gambit similar to Columbus’.
 

Morgan is about to be burned at the stake, so he “predicts” a solar eclipse he knows will occur, and in the process, claimed power over the sun. He gladly offers to return the sun to the sky in return for his freedom and a position as “perpetual minister and executive” to the king.

The only problem with this story is that on the date that Mark Twain quoted
— June 21, 528 A.D. —
no such eclipse took place. In fact, the moon was three days past full, a setup that can’t gene-rate an eclipse.Perhaps he should have consulted an almanac!

Coming Feb. 20: Total Eclipse of the Moon
Sky Calendar & Moon Phases
Lunar Eclipse Galleries

Joe Rao serves as an instructor and guest lecturer at New York’s Hayden Planetarium. He writes about astronomy for The New York Times and other publications, and he is also an on-camera meteorologist for News 12 Westchester, New York.

Original Story: How a Lunar Eclipse Saved Columbus

 

Another mystery awaits
Lorente is the director of the Laboratory of Genetic Identification at the University of Granada. He usually works on criminal cases but has also helped identify people killed under military regimes in Latin America. His lab works regularly with the FBI.

Castro says the team is now focusing their DNA tools on another Columbus mystery: his country of origin. Traditional theory says he was from Genoa, Italy, but another line of argument says Columbus was actually from the Catalonia region of northeast Spain.

 

One piece of evidence supporting this latter idea is that when Columbus wrote back from the New World in Spanish — not Italian — he used words and phrases that reflected influence from the Catalan language, Castro said.

The new team has now collected DNA samples from more than 350 men in Catalonia whose last name is Colom — the Catalan way of saying Columbus — and from 80 in Italy whose last name is Colombo. The material is obtained by wiping the underside of their tongues with a cotton swab.

Checking the Y chromosome
The idea is to compare the genetic material with DNA from another authenticated Columbus relative, his son Hernando, who is buried in Seville. In this case, the analysis focuses on another kind of DNA: genetic markers from the Y chromosome, which men receive only from their fathers.

DNA from Y chromosomes is much more scarce than the mitochondrial kind and deteriorates more rapidly. The team is using Hernando’s because that of his purported father is in bad shape.

Lorente and company want to see if the DNA pattern in Columbus’ Y chromosome still shows up in men in either Catalonia or Italy, which would suggest he is from one place or the other, Castro said.

 

It is not known when the results of this second study will be available, because the data from Italy is still scant.

“The people whose last name is Colombo are cooperating less than the Coloms in Spain,” he said.

© 2006 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

  1. 3.    U.S.-Cuban Dig Seeks Insight into People Columbus Encountered
  2. 4.    U.S.-Cuban Dig Seeks Insight into People Columbus Encountered
    Libraries
    Life News (Social and Behavioral Sciences)   

    Researchers in an ongoing U.S.-Cuban archaeological expedition are attempting to learn more about the native people Christopher Columbus encountered on his first voyage to the New World. They hope to find evidence of how the site’s former residents were affected by the Spanish conquest of Cuba. 
    Newswise — Researchers in an ongoing U.S.-Cuban archaeological expedition, co-led by The University of Alabama, are attempting to learn more about the native people Christopher Columbus encountered on his first voyage to the New World.

    UA’s department of anthropology and the Central-Eastern Department of Archaeology of the science ministry in Cuba are partnering in the effort, funded by the National Geographic Society and focused on a former large native village, El Chorro de Maita, in eastern Cuba.

    “This season, the team is mapping the site and determining the size and location of residential areas within it,” said Dr. Jim Knight, professor of anthropology at UA who set up the project and is advising it. “We hope to find evidence of how the residents of this large Indian town were affected by the Spanish conquest of Cuba.”

    The expedition, which began July 15 and is scheduled to continue until Aug. 10, provides a historic opportunity for the two UA graduate students who are participating in the expedition alongside professional archaeologists. Roberto Valcarcel is leading the Cuban contingent.

    “This is the first ever international U.S.-Cuban partnership in archaeology to involve U.S. students,” Knight said.

  3. 5.    The people Columbus encountered during his first voyage to northeastern Cuba in 1492 were Arawakan Indians. There is no evidence, Knight said, that Columbus visited El Chorro de Maita, but this large village was also occupied by Arawakans.The Arawakans of that day were of a similar level of sophistication, although quite different culturally, as the Mississippian Indians, their contemporaries, who lived at Moundville, some 13 miles south of Tuscaloosa. Knight has studied the Mississippian Indians for more than 30 years.

    “They were chiefdoms, as were the inhabitants of Moundville,” Knight said. “And they were agriculturalists, but they relied on root crops instead of corn.”

    Chiefdom is the name given to societies of the period that were headed by a chief, who would have unusual ritual, political or entrepreneurial skills. The societies were very hierarchical, with power concentrated among kin leaders, who would redistribute their resources to others. The effort presents researchers with an opportunity to fill a void in knowledge about the Arawakans, Knight said.

    As part of the project, Dr. John Worth will travel to Spain to search the archives for documents relating to the early history of the Indians of Cuba. The project is a part of the UA Cuba Initiative, which provides opportunities for UA students to pursue their education under a special academic license granted by the U.S. government.

    Knight said the two countries’ researchers are focused on archaeology rather than the strained relations between the U.S. and Cuban governments. Since 2002, UA has received academic travel licenses from the U.S. Department of the Treasury which permits travel to Cuba for specific academic activities.

    “The licenses encourage the kind of work that we’re doing,” Knight said. “The only politics we’re interested in is 16th century politics. It’s all about archaeology and history.”

    UA’s department of anthropology is part of the College of Arts and Sciences, the University’s largest division and the largest liberal arts college in the state. Students from the College have won numerous national awards including Rhodes Scholarships, Goldwater Scholarships and memberships on the “USA Today” Academic All American Teams.

    The University of Alabama, a student-centered research university, is in the midst of planned, steady enrollment growth with a goal of reaching 28,000 students by 2010. This growth, which is positively impacting the campus and the state’s economy, is in keeping with UA’s vision to be the university of choice for the best and brightest students. UA, the state’s flagship university, is an academic community united in its commitment to enhancing the quality of life for all Alabamians.

More “Opinions” on Christopher Columbus

COLOMBUS PHILLATELIC COLLECTIONS

 

COLOMBUS BIOGRAPHY

Christopher Columbus Biography

The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and in Spanish it is Cristóbal Colón. Columbus was born between 25 August and 31 October 1451 in Genoa, part of modern Italy. His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Christopher’s mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian (his very name would translate in XVI century Genoese language as Christoffa Corombo pron. In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of 10. In 1470 the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern.



Columbus first took to the sea when he was 14 years old and this continued throughout his younger life. During the 1470s, he went on numerous trading trips that took him to the Aegean Sea, Northern Europe, and possibly Iceland. In 1479, he met his brother Bartolomeo, a mapmaker, in Lisbon. He later married Filipa Moniz Perestrello and in 1480, his son Diego was born.

The family stayed in Lisbon until 1485, when Columbus’ wife Filipa died. From there, Columbus and Diego moved to Spain where he began trying to obtain a grant to explore western trade routes. He believed that because the earth was sphere, a ship could reach the Far East and set up trading routes in Asia by sailing west.

For years, Columbus proposed his plans to the Portuguese and Spanish kings, but he was turned down each time. Finally, after the Moors were expelled from Spain in 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella reconsidered his requests. Columbus promised to bring back gold, spices, and silk from Asia, spread Christianity, and explore China. He then asked to be admiral of the seas and governor of discovered lands.

After receiving significant funding from the Spanish monarchs, Columbus set sail on August 3, 1492 with three ships, the Pinta, Nina, and Santa Maria, and 104 men. After a short stop at the Canary Islands to resupply and make minor repairs, the ships set out across the Atlantic. This voyage took five weeks – much longer than Columbus expected, as he thought the world was smaller than it is. During this time, many of the crew members contracted diseases and died, or died from hunger and thirst. Finally, at 2 a.m. on October 12, 1492, Rodrigo de Triana, sighted land in area of the present-day Bahamas. When Columbus reached the land, he believed it was an Asian island and named it San Salvador. Because he did not find riches, Columbus decided to continue sailing in search of China. Instead, he ended up visiting Cuba and Hispaniola.


On November 21, 1492, the Pinta and its crew left to explore on its own.

Then on Christmas Day, Columbus’ Santa Maria wrecked off the coast of Hispaniola. Because there was limited space on the lone Nina, Columbus had to leave about 40 men behind at a fort they named Navidad. Soon after, Columbus set sail for Spain, where he arrived on March 15, 1493, completing his first voyage west.

After the success of finding this new land, Columbus set sail west again on September 23, 1493 with 17 ships and 1,200 men. The purpose of this journey was to establish colonies in the name of Spain, check on the crew at Navidad, and continue his search for riches in what he still thought was the Far East. On November 3, the crew members sighted land and found three more islands, Dominica, Guadeloupe, and Jamaica, which Columbus thought were islands off of Japan. Because there were still no riches there, they went on to Hispaniola, only to discover that the fort of Navidad had been destroyed and his crew killed after they mistreated the indigenous population.


At the site of the fort Columbus established the colony of Santo Domingo and after a battle in 1495, he conquered the entire island of Hispaniola. He then set sail for Spain in March 1496, and arrived in Cadiz on July 31.

Columbus’s third voyage began on May 30, 1498 and took a more southern route than the previous two. Still looking for China, he found Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and Margarita, on July 31. He also reached the mainland of South America. On August 31, he returned to Hispaniola and found the colony of Santo Domingo there in shambles.

After a government representative was sent to investigate the problems in 1500, Columbus was arrested and sent back to Spain. He arrived in October and was able to successfully defend himself against the charges of treating both the locals and Spaniards poorly.


Columbus’ final voyage began on May 9, 1502 and he arrived in Hispaniola in June. Once there, he was forbidden from entering the colony so he continued to explore further. On July 4, he set sail again and later found Central America. In January 1503, he reached Panama and found a small amount of gold but was forced out of the area by those who lived there. After numerous problems and a year of waiting on Jamaica after his ships had problems, Columbus set sail for Spain on November 7, 1504. When he arrived there, he settled with his son in Seville. After Queen Isabella died on November 26, 1504, Columbus tried to regain his governorship of Hispaniola. In 1505, the king allowed him to petition but did nothing. One year later, Columbus became ill and died on May 20, 1506.

. Cortes and Motecuhzuma II

Hernon Cortes (1485-1547)

 

was a classic Spanish conquistador who came from lesser nobility and was the first generation Spaniards involved in the conquest of the Americas.

Cortes came to Hispaniola in 1503 (age 18) and played a part in subjugating the Native Americans in Cuba. Against a revocation, by Gov. Velasquez, of orders Cortes led an expedition of 600 to the mainland of Mexico in Feb 1519. By spring of 1519 Cortes had worked his way from Yucatan up the coast to near today’s Vera Cruz. Along the way Cortes had engaged a Nahuatl speaking woman named Malintzin (Malinche)

 

who would be of great value to the expedition. Today, she is very controversial for having thrown in with the Spanish. In Vera Cruz the first emissaries the Aztec ruler Motecuhzuma (Montezuma) met with the Spanish. Motecuhzuma II or Motecuhzuma Xocoyotin had risen to power in 1502 and the Aztec Empire which was a Triple Alliance of powerful city states around Lake Texcoco who ruled 50 city states in the Valley of Mexico. The main city was Tenochtitlan that had a population of 200,000 people.

 

Motecuhzuma II

    

Motecuhzuma’s headdress

 

Aztec Capital: Tenochititlan

 

Cortes on the causeway into Tenochititlan

Spanish accounts written later promoted many false ‘legends’ about the conquest of the Aztecs by a few hundred Spaniards. A common misconception is that the Aztecs thought Cortes was the returning Quetzalcoatl and the people were blinded by superstition. This is propaganda that purposefully portrays the Spanish as smarter and more rational than the Aztecs. The truth is that the Aztecs resisted and that they were overwhelmed by fellow Indian groups and European diseases.

When Motecuhzoma’s emissaries brought offerings to the Spanish, Cortes had them shackled. With the help of Malinche Cortes formed alliances with Totonac and Tlaxcalans, enemies of the Aztecs and moved toward the Aztec Empire in Nov 1519 massacring any Indians in his way.

When Cortes first entered the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan,  Motecuhzoma welcomed him as a guest with further gifts and put him up in his father’s palace.

A native account observes that when they gave the Spanish gold, “…they seemed to smile, to rejoice and be very happy. Like monkeys they grabbed for the gold. It was as though their hearts were put to rest, brightened, freshened.

For gold was what they greatly thirsted for, they were gluttonous for it…”. For several months the Spanish remained as guests, but in April 1520 Gov. Velasquez sent 18 ships under Capt. Narvaez  to arrest Cortes and return him to Cuba.

Cortes had learned of this from Indian messengers, attached Narvaez ‘s and his men, and convincing them to stay with his expedition. Back in Tenochtitlan, Alvarado lost his temper and slaughtered ceremonial participants of ritual sacrifice, so that when Cortes returned with several thousand ally Indians the Spanish were under siege in the palace.

 Since Motecuhzoma had allowed Cortes to return he was  deposed and replace by his brother, Cuitlahuac. Stories vary greatly as to what happened to Motecuhzuma. Was he stoned by his own people (Spanish accounts)?

Did the Spanish murder him (Indian accounts)?

We know that Alvarado murdered a number of Aztec nobles, but we can not be sure Motecuhzuma was among the dead. On June 30, 1520 Cortes and his men made a night retreat across the causeway over Lake Texcoco. Thousands of Aztec warriors attached and Cortes and his men took heavy casualties, with many drowning in the lake weighted down with gold looted from Motecuhzoma’s treasury. The Spanish call this ‘Noche Triste’ (Sad Night).

 

Cortes and Alvarado both survived and made it to Tlaxcala. By Dec 1520 Cortes had reinforcements and had 700 Spaniards and 75,000 Indian warriors. It is believed that smallpox began to take a toll of the people of Tenochtitlan. Cuitlahuac died, probably of smallpox and a nephew, Cuauhtemoc

,

succeeded and assembled an Aztec army of 50,000. Cortes took the surrounding towns on Lake Texcoco and attached the city of Tenochtitlan by boat and causeway. Cuautemoc and his warriors fought for three months. Cortes was forced to level the city to create an open ground advantage not possible in streets and buildings. It is thought that smallpox continued to take a toll with the Aztec army and populous. Cuauhtemoc surrendered on Aug 13, 1521 and the Spaniards raped surviving women and demanded more gold tribute.

Over the next 20 years the Spanish continued to subject other groups like the Tarascans of  Michoacan and numerous Mayan groups. In Yucatan it took until 1547 to control Indian people. eventually the Spanish moved into Guatemala and other areas of Central America. In the 1540s Spanish conquistadors felt the need for more riches and sent expeditions to Florida, New Mexico and California. They were generally disappointed and North America’s frontier was considered poor. The Spanish never identified the gold fields in California’ Sierra Nevada Mountains, they merely named them.

The Spanish enslavement and destruction of the Native Americans continue unquestioned. A priest who had participated as an adventurer and Dominican priest in the conquest, Bartolome de Las Casas protested the treatment of Indians and wrote a sensational book, Destruction of the Indies ( 1547). The book had  two important influences. First, it brought about a famous debate in Spain (1550-1551) between Bartolome de las Casas and one Juan Gines de Sepulveda to resolve the legal and ethical validity of enslaving Native Americans. Generally, de las Casas won but in reality no one obeyed any edict and some say it encouraged the enslavement of African people. However, Indian populations in the Caribbean had been reduced by 90% by 1550 and Africans were brought to America to replace Indian slaves that had died. This pattern continued well into the 1800s in North and South America.

 

 

 

3. Pizarro and Atahualpa

Atahualpa (Atabalipa) (1497-1533)

 

is considered to be the last sovereign emperor of the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyu-Land of the Four Quarters).  Even though he defeated his half brother, Huascar, he was never officially installed. Atahualpa and Huascar were half brothers and their father, Inca Huayana Capac died of smallpox along with many nobles including the planned heir to the throne. Smallpox came from indirect contact of the Spanish around 1525 probing into Panama and the coast of Ecuador. The decimation of high ranking leaders created enough turmoil to launch a civil war between Atahualpa in the north at Cajamarca and Huascar at Cusco. At the Battle of Chimborazo and Quipaipan in 1532, Atahualpa’s army of 80,000 defeated Huascar’s army that probably started with less than 50,000. As Atahualpa was resting at Cajamarca, Pizzaro was just coming from Ecuador.

Francisco Pizzaro (1471-1541)

 

was from Trujillo, Spain and the illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro Rodriguez (1446-1522), a military officer, and Francisca Gonzalez Mateo. Pizzaro left Spain in 1502 and spent 2 years in Hispaniola. He set out with in 1513 with the Balboa expedition to cross the Isthmus of Panama. Pizzaro settled in Panama and became associated with Pedrarias Davila who did not trust Balboa and actually had Pizzaro arrest Balboa (he was convicted and executed in 1519). This loyalty was repaid and Davila was made mayor of Panama City from 1519-1523. In 1524 Pizzaro formed a partnership with a priest Hernando de Luque and a soldier, Diego de Almagro to conquer lands to the south. They made three troubled expeditions  in 1524, 1526 and 1530.

 Earlier failures forced Pizarro to make a trip to Spain to solicit Charles V for support and he got his brothers to go with him. Pizarro landed in Ecuador and after the Battle of Puna against Punian Indians he was joined by Hernando de Soto they established a settlement called San Miguel de Piura in July of 1523. It was Hernando de Soto that on an exploration mission returned with an Incan envoy from Atahualpa.

Pizzaro marches to Cuzco

Cuzco area

Cuzco today/ note Inca wall

Pizarro marched with 106 soldiers and 62 horsemen to Cajamarca where Atahualpa was resting with his army of 80,000. Atahualpa was confidant that his army could deal with less than 200 men. However, Pizarro recalling Cortes’ capture of Motecuzuma hatched a similar plan to draw Atahualpa and his entourage of unarmed nobles into an ambush in the town square on Nov 16, 1532, while Atahualpa’s army stayed on the hills surrounding the city.

 As Atahualpa came carried on a litter to meet with a priest envoy, Pizarro and his men sprang out from their concealed positions and massacred the nobles and captured Atahualpa. Since, Atahualpa was being held hostage the Incan generals backed off into the hills and the Spanish demanded gold and silver ransom. The ransom was to fill a room 7x5x3 meters once with gold and twice with silver. Supposedly, Atahualpa learned to play chess during the waiting for the loads of gold and silver ransom. The Inca complied but Pizarro decided to stage a mock trial with charges like idolatry and revolting against the Spanish. This seems odd since on the earlier contact with the envoy priest, Fr. Valverde, he did not read the requerimiento to submit to the Spanish Crown and the Catholic Church. However, Atahualpa was found guilty and sentenced to be executed by burning. This was against Incan religion and would cause the soul to not be able to travel to the afterlife and ultimately Fr. Valverde conceded to convert Atahualpa to Christianity so that he was executed by strangulation (garrote) on July 26, 1533, instead of burning. Atahualpa’s brother, Inca Tupac Huallpa succeeded him as a puppet ruler and likewise another brother Manco Inca.

Pizarro and his men went on to after resupply made their way  to Cusco where they discovered great quantities of gold and silver as the pillaged the capital city. Pizzaro found the mountainous capital difficult to resupply and eventually established Lima, Peru on the central coast  in 1535. Pizarro and his old partners ended up quarreling over jurisdiction of the spoils of engaged in the Battle of Las Salinas in 1538 where Pizarro’s old partner Almagro was executed. Later, Almagro’s son exacted revenge and  led a coup against Pizarro in his palace and assassinated him on June 26, 1541. Ironically, Atahualpa’s sister Ines Yupanqui  who had been ‘given’ to Pizarro married another Spaniard and took a daughter and went to Spain.

4.  Smith and Wahunsenacawh

Along the Virginia coast and tributaries that flowed into the Chesapeake Bay, a confederacy of Virginia Algonkians (30 groups) under the leadership of  Wahunsenacawh of the Powhatan. Wahunsenacawh (1545-1618) was sometimes referred to as Powhatan and began  unifying these groups around 1580

.

 

 

Powhatan Confederacy 1580-1618

 

 

Group

Leader/Capital Town

Location

Powhatan

Wahunsenacawh/Werowocomoco

York River

Arrohatecks

   

Appamatucks

   

Pamunkeys

Opechanacanough/ Youghtanund

 

Mattaponis

   

Chiskiaks

   

Kecoughtans

   

Chickahominey (some autonomy)

   

Captain John Smith (1580-1631) was an English soldier of fortune who shipped off to sea at age 16. Smith had a long career as a mercenary in the Middle East (Ottoman Empire) but returned to England and became involved in the Virginia Company of London to encourage settlement along the Atlantic Seaboard.

 

Smith sailed with three ships commanded by Capt. Newport and landed at Cape Henry on April 26, 1607. By May they chose a site they called Jamestown. By December the situation was desperate and Smith was captured seeking food by Wahunsenacawh’s brother Opechanacanough to the capitol Werowocomoco. ‘Legend’ has it that Wahunsenacawh’s daughter, Pocahontas (Matoaka) (1595-1617) saved Smith form being killed.

 However, this was something Smith wrote 17 years later and most historians conclude that this was a fabrication.

 

What is more likely is that Wahunsenacawh tried to create an alliance with Smith and the new settlement at Jamestown. The ‘romance’ between Smith and Pocahontas is also unlikely. In 1608 Smith took Opechanacanough hostage and demanded food ( twenty tons of corn). These aggressive tactics to gain food led to an all out war between the Powhatans and English colonists. Somehow Smith was injured/burned by gunpowder and returned to England in 1609, never returning. The war continued and in 1613 Pocahontas was captured by the English and held for ransom of the release of English prisoners. Whether, Pocahontas wished to remain with the English is unclear, but she eventually was baptized Rebecca and married a widower named John Rolfe. Thus, Pocahontas became Rebecca Rolfe. She had a son, Thomas Rolfe, born Jan 30 1615. In 1616 the Rolfes went to England as propaganda to attract settlers to the still struggling Jamestown.

 

Pocahontas was treated well in London and met James I and other members of the court. Whether, she say Smith again is not clear and under what circumstances. In March 1617 the Rolfes set sail but at Gravesend on the Thames River Pocahontas became ill. She was taken ashore where she died (probably of a respiratory infection) and she was buried as Rebecca Rolfe. Her son remained in London with some Powhatan ‘ladies in waiting’. John Rolfe returned to Virginia and became a successful tobacco farmer. Wahunsenacawh also succumbed to disease in 1618 and his younger brother, Opechanacanough became leader of the Powhatan. Opechanacanough continued to war with the English in 1622 an 1644. John Rofe was killed in 1622 against the Powhatan. Eventually, in 1644 Opechanacanough at 90 years of age was captured by the English and shot in the back. However, Thomas Rolfe survived and returned to Virginia in 1632 and inherited land from his father and uncle, Opechanacanough. Thomas with English and Powhatan is recognized as one of the ‘First Families of Virginia’ with many tracing their roots to Pocahontas and Wahunsenacawh. Those claiming descent are First Ladies Edith Wilson (Pres. W. Wilson), Nancy Reagan (Pres. R. Reagan), George Wythe Randolph, Gov. Harry Flood Boyd and Admiral Richard Byrd.

B. Conquest: God, Gold, Glory

1. Spanish Encomienda

As we have seen in the invasion  of America Europeans created various policies and decrees to justify conquest and subjugation. These were initiated  by the Spain and Portugal during the Crusades and invasion of Africa to justify treatment of non-Christians and ‘pagans’. The Doctrine of Discovery and requiiemento were applicable to the New World as long as they were ‘discovered’ to be ‘not be under dominion of Christian rulers’. Initially, the Crown of Castile created a policy to grant protection and religious instruction to Native Americans in exchange for labor and land use. This feudal system in America was referred to as Encomienda System. In actually Spain was granting Spanish colonists Indian labor and land as an economic incentive to benefit the Council of the Indies which managed affairs for the Crown and Church in America. Indians were to be clothed, feed, educated, and protected. In the Caribbean the Spanish abused the entire program and the Indians died of diseases or starved to death. Spain tried to modify  the problem with legislation but failed to change conditions.

As Native Americans died at an alarming rate,  African slaves were brought in to replace the Indians for labor but were treated worse. A one time priest in Cuba, Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas

 

dedicated his work in Spain to get the Crown in Castile to stop the mistreatment of Native Americans. The publication of …Brief history of the Destruction of the Indies in 1549 documents his own experiences and Las Casas estimated that 50 million Native Americans died in the first fifty years of Spanish colonization.

 

A trial ensued and Spain acknowledged the abuses, abolished slavery in the silver and gold mines, but were unable to enforce change. In fact the Council of the Indies softened the changes by just asking encomienda grantees to lower tribute and not require personal services. Even these changes were virtually impossible to enforce. As the Spanish expanded colonization to Meso America and South America the encomienda system continued to operate, but the breakdown of Native American populations and the increase of mestizos, who were not liable to encomienda service caused the system to collapse. In some areas like Potosi, Bolivia the abuse of the encomienda system was extreme. Mount El Cerro contain one of the largest outcrops of silver in the world. In 1572 Spanish Viceroy Francisco de Toledo implemented a forced labor policy, called ‘la mita’ that required all Native American males between 18-50 to work in the mines in intermittent periods. This resulted in a 80% death rate and required importing Native Americans and African slaves. The silver produced (from just Potosi) at least 25% of Spain’s revenue

.

Today, Quechua still mine the area and chew coca leaves to suppress hunger and altitude sickness. The city of Potosi is one of the most depressed in Bolivia.

 

Many want to make El Cerro a World Heritage Site, but recent assays indicate the there is a lot more silver.

children mine workers at Potosi today

Silver and gold mines were also exploited in Southern Mexico and provided more revenue after Potosi was played out. The Spanish Crown received their royal fifth plus, taxes and profit on the sale mercury needed to more efficiently process the ores.

Since Spanish conquistadors were not satisfied with Meso and South America,  expeditions were launched into North America. The expeditions of  DeSoto (1539), Coronado (1540) and Cabrillo (1542) initiated expansion into the ‘Northern Frontier’. The colonial expansion and encomienda began at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) and Sante Fe, New Mexico (1598). 

In Florida missions extended up into the panhandle with a settlement and presidio at Pensacola.  Sante Fe was the first settlement but the Spanish established missions within the Native American Pueblos. At first the Indian Pueblo of San Juan was the capitol but by 1608 Sante Fe became the Spanish colonial capitol.

Later, in 1769 the Spanish finally began to colonize California with the beginnings at San Diego, with 21 missions stretching out to just north of San Francisco at San Rafael. The pueblos at San Diego, Los Angeles, Monterey and San Jose were the colonial outposts in the west.

Castillo, St. Augustine, FL

Santa Fe, NM

Old Town, San Diego, CA

2. English Capitalism and Puritanism

Given that Spain had received authority from the Pope in Rome and had produced contrived decrees of Doctrines of Discovery, England and France were left with the crumbs. Eventually, they went to war with Spain. Initially, they probed the Spanish by financing ‘privateers’ (pirates) to raid Spanish ports and ships in America. For England this began with Queen Elizabeth I (ERI) sending her ‘sea dogs’ like Sir Frances Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh to prey upon the Spanish in the mid 1500s. Not only were they successful in pillaging Indian silver and gold, they also brought back valuable intelligence on the weaknesses of the Spanish Armada.. After the English under ERI defeated the Spanish in 1588, her successor James I formed the Virginia Company as capitalistic enterprise to find gold and riches in America. The first settlers established Jamestown in 1607, but as we have already seen Jamestown failed at many levels. No gold was found nor a Northwest passage to China. Only later did new colonists with better agrarian skills stumble (with the help of Pocahontas) upon a cash crop, tobacco. By 1619 50,000 lbs. of cured tobacco was  shipped annually to England. James I early on found tobacco to be ‘loathsome’ and harmful, but the fad (addiction) had taken hold in England. Also, in 1619, twenty African slaves were brought to Jamestown to work on the eleven plantations. However, epidemics and war with the Powhatan took their toll and the colonists at Jamestown suffered a 60% loss of life. As a result James I revoked the Virginia Company’s charter in 1624 and put the colony under direct royal administration. Much of the failure was placed on the Virginia Company for dumping ill prepared new settlers with little food or provisions. Thus, one of the first capitalistic enterprises was a failure and had to be bailed out by the government

.

One group of replacement colonists bound for Jamestown were Separatists (Puritans) from the Church of England. Initially they escaped England and sought refuge in the United Netherlands (Holland). Later these puritans were provided free passage to Jamestown by the Virginia Company and decided to leave Holland. In 1620 when they sailed on the Mayflower, they were blown off course and landed at Plymouth. The Puritans on board this ship called themselves Pilgrims.. Since other Europeans had sought refuge at Plymouth, since it was a protected harbor by Cape Cod, disease had impacted the Native American people of the area. This was noted by the Puritan/English as being sign of their destiny under God to settle the land unimpeded. Since they were out of the jurisdiction the Plymouth settlers decided organize a democracy under Puritan code. The first winter was hard and the initial Mayflower group lost half of their numbers by Spring of 1621. The surviving Wampanoag Native Americans and their leader (sachem), Massasoit saw an opportunity for an alliance with the English  to deal with neighboring enemy groups and sent two English speaking emissaries to negotiate. One of these was Squanto (Tisquantum) who had been captured and sold into slavery only to gain passage back to Plymouth and find his people at Patuxet wiped out by an epidemic.

 

Squanto stayed with the Plymouth colonists and taught them how to plant CBS, fish and hunt. In the Fall in the Native American tradition of giving thanks with Massasoit and many Wampanoag feasting with the Pilgrims on Nov 21, 1621. This of course has become a uniquely American holiday, Thanksgiving

.

More Puritans and other English came and expanded into new settlements at Wollaston, Duxbury, and Weymouth. When settlers resorted to stealing from surrounding Native American village storage caches, the Indian sachems (leaders) cut off trade and support. Miles Standish led a raid against a Massachusett tribal sachem, Wituwamet, and cut off his head as a war trophy. many of the colonist problems were blamed on the in ability to maintain a system of communal sharing, so land was divided into specific plots and put up for sale. When Charles I succeeded James I, he established a new enterprise/investment group called the Massachusetts Bay Company and sponsored 1000 new settlers to the colony. As smallpox continued to decimate Native American groups the new governor of the colony, John Winthrop saw disease as an act of God again in favor of the colonists, Manifest Destiny. As colonists moved south and west into Massachusetts and Connecticut they ran into new Native American groups like the Narragansett Mohegan, and Pequot. Small squabbles and violence erupted into all out war called the Pequot War 1633-1637, which ended in the controversial Mystic Massacre (1637).

 

Some 600 Pequot, mostly women and children were surrounded and massacred. Even allied Indian groups at the large scale slaughter by Puritan colonists. The Pequot were subjected to all out genocide, even with their name being eradicated from written records. Other English separatist colonies like Rhode Island were splinter groups or new colonies started like Maryland which was established for English Catholics.

In 1675-1676 conflict in the north erupted again between Puritans and surviving Wampanoag under the leadership of Massasoit’s son Meacomet or King Philip. Pressure from Puritans to gain new land and convert Native Americans into ‘praying towns’ brought King Philip to the conclusion that he must resist. He allied with neighboring tribes and engaged in a rather bloody war that claimed the lives of 3000 Native Americans and 600 colonists (these numbers are contested). The English in the end had better firepower and King Philip was hunted down and killed in 1676. Surviving leaders were executed and most captives were sold into slavery for New England homes or the markets in the West Indies.

The English continued to expand along the Eastern Seaboard with the Quaker, William Penn negotiating with the Delaware (Leni Lenape) for land to sell to Pennsylvania Dutch and Scot Irish settlers beginning in 1683. In 1663 Charles II created the Carolina Charter

r

the was the impetus to settle North and South Carolina.

The English in New England developed small farms under the religious and work ethic of a Puritan code. Gentry English settlers in Virginia and the Carolinas acquired larger plots of land that required greater labor in the form of African slaves to replace the rapidly dying Native American slaves. Georgia was a penal colony but eventually adopted the large plantation pattern. The English settlement of Barbados connected trade of slaves, tobacco, hides, sugar and rice at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. In New England whaling and early industrial plants emerged as important exports. The English did not use Native American labor to the degree that the Spanish did, nor did they try to integrate Native Americans openly. They separated themselves from Native peoples by first  removing (1830>) all surviving Eastern Woodland Native Americans west of the Mississippi to Oklahoma. Once removed the Native Americans were relegated to reservations in Oklahoma and all of the West. In some cases the reservation included traditional land in other cases the particular group was moved to non traditional land often far away.

 

3. French Fur and Sugar

After initial explorations of the St. Lawrence

 

by Jacques Cartier in the 1530s and Samuel de Champlain’s surveying in the neaerl6y 1600s, Champlain founded Quebec in 1608. Later, Sieur of Laviolette established Trois-Rivieres as another strategic outpost along the St. Lawrence. In Cartier’s interaction with Iroquois-Huron people he heard a word for ‘village’, kanata,  which he thought to mean the country and people thus we got the word Canada and Canadians for both Native Americans and colonists. The French also used the term  ‘New France’, which rapidly went beyond Canada as the beaver fur trade

 

expanded and beaver ‘felt’ hats

 

added to the demand. The relationships with the Iroquois deteriorated and French tended to ally themselves with the Algonquin people and Huron. Initial fur trade was controlled by Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) under a group of investors, Compagnie des Cent Associes, trading with Indians and French called coureur des bois (runner of the woods). Missionaries, like the Jesuits, were supposed to civilize the Indians to enhance trade alliances. However, both the coureur des bois and Jesuits did not abide by the wishes of the government in France. The coureur des bois often married Native Americans and lived with and as Native American. Later, these people became known as Metis. The government tried to control them by issuing limited permits and those with permits became known as ‘voyageur’ (traveler). With the many lakes and interconnecting rivers travel was by canoe between ‘rendezvous posts’ like Grand Portage, MN on Lake Superior

where goods were traded for fur and then shipped to Montreal that was a processing and trading post.

Birch Bark canoe Construction

Finished Canoe

Grand Portage

Fur

The Jesuits (called Black Robes) came to Canada in 1611 worked with the Montagnais, Algonquin and Hurons. They tended to be an independent communal order that did not always agree with government demands. The Native Americans found the Jesuits to be inflexible and responsible for the epidemics that decimated the people. To achieve in roads in Native American culture the Jesuits learned Native American culture and language, which they recorded in letters to their headquarters called the Jesuit Relations (1616-1672). These letters in the ‘JR’ have provided early ethnographic information on Native American groups that have since been decimated

.

Father Marquette and Joliet expanded French interests down the Mississippi River to New Orleans. This addition referred to as Louisiana,  connected trade to the West Indies in Haiti and Saint Kitts to South America in French Guiana. As France expanded in the West Indies (Caribbean) with colonies in Guadalupe, Martinique and Saint Lucia; sugar became the most important commodity in the tropics. In the West Indies African slaves were exploited since the Native American population had been reduced by over 90%. This was France’s First Colonial Empire (1608-1830). The conflict for most of empire was between England, Spain and France. At the end in the 18th century much of the conflict for North America was between England and France. It was out of these conflicts that emerged the United States.

English and French Colonial Conflicts

 

 

War: North American (European)

Dates

Native Americans

Results

King William’s War (War of the Grand Alliance)

1689-1697

 

Treaty of Ryswick

Queen Anne’s War (War of Spanish Succession)

1702-1713

 

Treaty of Utrecht

King George’s War (War of Austrian Succession)

1744-1748

 

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle

The French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War)

1754-1763

Fr: Algonquin, Huron/Eng. : Iroquois

Treaty of Paris

War of the American Revolution

1778-1783

   

French Revolution

1793-1802

   

War of 1812 (Napoleonic Wars)

1803-1815

   
       

4. Dutch Trade

The Netherlands (Dutch) were primarily traders in the New World and initially established the United East India Company (VOC) and in 1609 hired the English navigator, Henry Hudson to find a Northwest passage to Asia. Hudson explored the Atlantic Coast including New York Harbor’s Staten and Manhattan Islands. On a second voyage Hudson went north and found Hudson’s Bay but the harsh conditions resulted in a mutiny and Henry Hudson disappeared. In 1621 the West India Company (WIC) was formed to manage trade in America. In 1626 Pieter Minuit negotiated for the purchase of Manhattan Island from a group of Wappinger Indians for 60 guilders (~$24). Minuit and a number of the settlers were really French/Belgium Protestants (Huguenots or Walloons). They established a colony known as New Amsterdam. The Indians assumed they still had use rights but were harassed and pushed out. They built a fort at Ft. Neck on Long Island. Gov. Stuyvesant hired a soldier/mercenary John Underhill to deal with his Indian problem. Underhill had married a Dutch woman and moved from Massachusetts Bay Colony to New Amsterdam. Underhill was one of the leaders of the Mystic Massacre against the Pequots in 1637.  Underhill attacked the Massapequa’s Ft. Neck and killed over 120 men, women and children. Conflict also arose between the English and Dutch over trading rights and Indian alliances. New Amsterdam’s  Governor Peter Stuyvesant built a fortified wall (today’s Wall Street) across the bottom of Manhattan Island. however, war was averted. Trade with wampum beads

became common place along the Atlantic Seaboard and the Dutch continued to provide guns, silver and swords. Eventually, the English threatened again with a contingent of warships in 1664 and Stuyvesant, although furious,  opted for surrender and New Amsterdam became New York.

 

The end of the 18th century brought great changes in Europe and Colonial America, principally with the United States followed by nation building continuing into the 19th century throughout the America’s. Thus Native Americans would deal with specific governments shaped in the New World. In some cases Native Americans played substantial roles in the emergence of these nations, in others there were few Native American left or their role in the country was minimal.

 

C. Rebellion

[Note: In many books on history of the Americas rebellion is the least covered or downplayed because as the founding premise to many of the American colonial nations it is uncomfortable or inconvenient to note the Native American rebellion of unjust treatment by the European Americans that rebelled against their Old World European governments. Often Native Americans were portrayed as invisible or submissive. The different attitudes about land use and ownership, the language of treaties and the lack of adherence to policy in a frontier atmosphere led to continuous conflict in all phases of invasion and conquest. Disease took such a terrible toll and proved to be the European’s secret weapon. In all the conflicts and wars Native American’s sought spiritual guidance to provide motivation and power. It could be argued that liberty and rebellion are more of a Native American idea. So it is quite embarrassing for European Americans to admit that they not only stole land and resources, but the ideas behind their democratic nations.]

 

1. Pueblo Revolt 1680

When Spain expanded into the North American frontiers like the Southwest in 1598, some new pueblos like Santa Fe were established, but many mission churches were placed directly in Indian pueblos. This may have been because of the permanence of these Indian pueblos like Taos and the fact that their total destruction would have been rather obvious

.

These city-state Native American pueblos numbered 60-70 at the time the Spanish but were reduced to ~ 19. The Spanish exacted the encomienda system to build missions, Hispanic pueblos and individual ranches.

Today’s Southwest Indian Pueblos

 

Acoma

Keresan

 

Laguna

Keresan

 

Santa Ana

Keresan

 

Zia

Keresan

Zia symbol on New Mexico state flag

Cochiti

Keresan

 

Santo Domingo

Keresan

 

San Felipe

Keresan

 

Jemez

Tanoan: Towa

 

San Juan

Tanoan: Tewa

2005 Ohkay Owingeyh Pueblo; base of Pueblo Revolt 1680; N. Pueblo Council

San Ildefonso

Tanoan: Tewa

 

Santa Clara

Tanoan: Tewa

 

Tesuque

Tanoan: Tewa

 

Nambe

Tanoan: Tewa

 

Pojoaque

Tanoan: Tewa

reestablished 1930s

Taos

Tanoan: Tiwa

 

Picuris

Tanoan: Tiwa

 

Sandia

Tanoan: Tiwa

 

Isleta

Tanoan: Tiwa

 

Zuni orig 7 villages/ 3 today

Zuni

 

Hopi 5-8 villages

Uto-Aztecan/Shoshonean

3 Mesas, Hano is a Tewa refugee village from the Pueblo Revolt

Since Spanish priests were so immersed within the traditional Indian pueblos conflict over religion intensified. Priests were insistent that Pueblo people convert and destroyed traditional centers of worship called kivas. Sacramental objects like masks and kachinas were burned. Those that resisted, including traditional holy men were seen as subversive or criminals and were imprisoned, flogged, tortured and executed. Major uprisings such as at Acoma in 1598 resulted in burning the pueblo and pushing many off the cliff. Survivors were punished with; males over 25 got one foot amputated and 20 years labor; males 12-25 got twenty years and females 12+ got twenty years. In 1630 Fr. Dominguez reported  about 60 missionaries in walled compounds within the Indian Pueblos, but the number dwindled to 33 by 1680. Early rebellions gave information about the strength and weaknesses of the Spanish. A San Juan Pueblo medicine man named Pope (Popay) may have organized the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Popay and others had been identified as conspirators against Spanish rule and were publically flogged. In the summer of 1680 Popay

 

established a base at Taos Pueblo and sent runners

s

with knotted cords to verify an alert to all the Indian Pueblos including the Hopi towns 300 miles west.. The first messengers were captured and new runners went out with a message to move the rebellion from Aug 11 to Aug 10, 1680. At dawn most of the Indian pueblos struck and killed 21 missionaries (they had been warned and asked to leave) out of 33. Over 2500 Indians attacked Santa Fe with 300 settlers/ colonists killed. Many fled into Texas, but some Mexican Indians and mixed blood (mestizo) stay in New Mexico. For 12 years the Pueblos resisted reconquest. Between 1692 and 1696 the Spanish returned under Don Diego de Vargas. De Vargas retook Santa Fe and promised peace. Once Pueblo leaders relinquished power de Vargas executed Pueblo leaders and enslaved their families. On June 4, 1696 a second revolt occurred but it was rather unsuccessful. Many refugees hid out in Navajo and Hopi land where the Spanish never reestablished missions. The Spanish became less insistent on total conversion and actually needed each other for protection from increasing raids from Navajo, Ute and Apache groups. A number of Pueblos were abandoned before and during the reconquest. Many refugees settled into present day Jemez Pueblo.

2. Jesuit Missions and Guarani 1750

The Guarani (Warani) are a large linguistic group of Tupi-Guarani speakers from Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina. The Guarani proper lived along the Paraguay River and its branches mostly in present day Paraguay.

 

They were traditionally sedentary farmers of CBS and manioc living in large palisaded villages. Pre-contact population estimates are at 400,000 or more.

The Spanish first explored the outflow of the Parana/Paraguay River at the Rio de plata in 1511. In 1537 Gonzalo de Mendoza founded Asuncion (later the capitol) and imposed a policy of enslavement of the Guarani. When Jesuit priests and monks arrived in 1585 they offered the Guarani protection from slavery in return for conversion. In 1608 King Philip III of Spain gave royal authority to the Jesuits for encomienda that overruled earlier Franciscan missionary jurisdiction. To the east in Sao Paulo, Brazil there was a bustling port of slave traders, many of Portuguese, African and Indian descent called Paulistas. For over 100 years the Paulistas, unchallenged,  launched slave hunting expeditions called ‘bandeiras’.  Initially they had taken more than 1 million Indian slaves from the coastal regions of Brazil and they began sending banderias into the western interior along the Paraguayan borders. The Jesuits had built 12 missions on the lower part of the Paraguay River and were sending missionaries above the falls to build 3 more missions. Between 1629-1631 Portuguese Paulista armies attacked and burned the upper missions and carried off  60,000 Christian Guarani to be sold into slavery. In this turmoil the Jesuits began to arm the Guarani and formed a defense force for the existing missions. In 1641 Christian Guarani defeated an army of 800 Paulista on the Aracay River. The Jesuits and Guarani built new missions (29) and increased their defense forces to 7,000 Guarani.  Also, new missions were built and some peace came to the missions. In 1732 there were 32 missions and 141,000 Christian Guarani. In 1734 the first of a number of smallpox epidemics struck. In 1750 the boundaries between Spain and Portugal put some of the upper missions in Portuguese territory and the Guarani refused to leave, which erupted into a guerilla war for 7 years and the destruction of 7 missions. The Jesuits got a royal decree annulling the boundary and restoring some of the missions

.

In 1767 King Charles III of Spain issued a royal edict to expel the Jesuit order from all Spanish dominions to develop revenue to tax all converts. This is referred to as the Jesuit Reductions. Although an army moved into the existing Jesuit missions with an army of over 144,000 Guarani, the Jesuits just left and Franciscan took their place. However, the Guarani found that they lost considerable freedom under the Franciscans and thousands of Guarani returned to the forest or drifted into towns. By 1848 the missions were gone, unoccupied.

However, the Guarani still make up a great deal of the population of Paraguay and the social language of Paraguay is Guarani

.

NOTE: The 1986 film, “The Mission

with Robert DeNiro, Jeremy Irons and Liam Neeson depicts the Guarani mission story around 1750 when the boundaries changed and the Battle of Mbobore, when Guarani actually defeated the Paulista. People and events are combined or compressed but the film gives a vivid account of the conflict between what the Jesuits , Guarani and the Paulistas. The music won most of the awards and combines European and Native American music. The Native Americans are mostly from Venezuela.

3. Pontiac’s Rebellion

The Indian War of 1763-1766 is often referred to as Pontiac’s War or Pontiac’s Conspiracy, but today scholars see this conflict of much more dispersed throughout the Old Northwest and not a unified action controlled by the Ottawa leader Pontiac

.

The Old Northwest was centered on the Ohio River Valley and the British and French had just ended a serious of conflicts with the French and Indian Wars (Seven Years War) of 1754-1763. These frontier regions of this colonial period were in turmoil with unsettled trade alliances between Native American groups caught between British and French attempts at swaying Native American loyalty. British troops and militia had treated all Native American groups with a heavy hand and outright cruelty. Native American groups were capable of violent and cruel acts, but British troops under General Jeffrey Amherst

 

had acted in pure revenge by destroying entire unoffending villages of ‘Christian’ Indians. After the French and Indian Wars colonial settlers expected lands to open up including land pensions to veterans or survivors. The British tried to control the post war land grab via a Royal Proclamation of 1763 that created a boundary between colonists and Native Americans. Gen. Amherst cut the payments promised to loyal Native Americans and ordered traders to cut off supplies of ammo and powder. Gen. Amherst and his officers at various frontier outposts like Ft. Detroit treated the Native Americans with open contempt and ridicule.

 

Ft. Detroit

 

Siege At Ft. Detroit

This shift of power and colonial expansion was compounded by increased food shortages and epidemics. An influential Native America religious leader, known as Neolin, the Delaware Prophet, began to preach an anti-European sentiment that spread to many tribes in the Old Northwest. The Delaware Prophet revealed that in a vision the Master of life was displeased with the people for becoming dependent on European trade goods and alcohol  peddled by unscrupulous white trades. Neolin further warned that continued dependency would bring destruction and death. Part of the scare was well founded with the spread of epidemic diseases like smallpox. In the Old Northwest these tribe/nations had formed confederacies for military and trading power and included the Great lakes Confederacy (Ottawa, Ojibwa, Potawatomi), the Illinois Confederacy (                         ) and the Shawnee Confederacy (Shawnee, Miami, Delaware). Other refugee groups like the Mingo (Iroquois who broke away to Ohio) were influenced by the Delaware Prophet, Neolin. However, these groups could never fully unify and make up their mind whether to support the new British authority or hope that French power might be restored. The French were less patronizing and paid better in trade goods. As conditions deteriorated and unrest grew, many groups sent out War Belts (Wampum) to the various groups.

War officially began when Pontiac of the Ottawa led an attack on Ft. Detroit and began a drawn out siege. Eight other British forts were attacked over a two month period. Many scholars are not sure this was a coordinated conspiracy on the part of Pontiac or even the French. Initially at Ft. Detroit the British tried to drive the warriors of the Great Lakes Confederacy away from the siege of Ft. Detroit but were defeated at the Battle of Bloody Run on July 31, 1763.  Some were burned with considerable loss of life of settlers, soldiers and traders, as well as captives taken. At Ft. Miami (near Ft. Wayne, IN) on May 27, 1763 the fort’s British commander was lured out of the forts gate by his Indian mistress and killed by Miami warriors. At Ft. Ouiatenora  (Lafayette, IN) local Indians were more friendly with the British garrison and announced that they were obligated to take the fort and capture the British forces, but did not harm them. At Ft. Pitt the Indians surrounded the fort but could not assault the walls successfully and engaged in a siege to cut off supplies. General Amherst sent a relief expedition and suggested to the expedition’s  commanding officer that he might use smallpox contaminated blankets to weaken the Delaware warriors. It turns out that the British officers in the fort already had tried to give a Delaware negotiation party contaminated blankets. Historical evidence indicates that the attempt may no have worked since the Delaware party did not come down with Smallpox. However, smallpox may have infected other Indian villages from a different vector. The relief column was intercepted at the Battle of Bushy Run on Aug. 5, 1763 and suffered heavy losses, but managed to get through to Ft. Pitt.

 

In the north at Ft. Niagara 300 Seneca, Ottawa and Ojibwa attacked a  column with supplies along the Niagara Falls portage and defeated a relief force from the fort. This engagement is called the ” Devil’s Hole Massacre” and more than 70 British soldiers and teamsters were killed. Such defeats led frontier areas to feel unprotected and respond with vigilantism. In western Pennsylvania a group of vigilantes from Paxton, PA marched into a ‘Christian  Indian” village of Susquehannocks in Dec 1763 and murdered six people. Not satisfied these vigilantes, called the Paxton Boys, drummed up more followers and marched into Lancaster, PA to find 14 more Susquehannocks held in jail for protection. The Paxton Boys broke into the jail all killed all the unarmed Susquehannocks. They then went into Philadelphia looking for more Indians that sought refuge in the city. This time a militia organized by Benjamin Franklin stopped the group , but no charges were brought against the Paxton Boys.

By Spring of 1764 Gen. Amherst was replaced by Gen. Gage. Indian raids continued, so the bounty for Indian scalps was levied again for all Indians over the age of 10. Gage sent punishing expeditions into the Old Northwest and tried to negotiate unauthorized treaties. When Col. Bradstreet came into Ft. Detroit , Pontiac had sent a peace wampum belt but Bradstreet chopped the belt up to discredit Pontiac. This muddled the effectiveness of these expeditions and caused many of the tribes, that were ready to negotiate, to hesitate and ultimately dragged out the conflict. It was not until the summer of 1765 that various tribes decided to negotiate for peace and ironically Pontiac emerged as the primary negotiator. After a number of preliminary meetings, Pontiac and other tribal representatives  from the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Miami, Kickapoo and Mascouten attended. A wampum shell peace belt

 

was presented with this statement:

“We tell you now the French never conquered us neither did they purchase a foot of our Country, nor have they the right to give it to you.

We gave them  liberty to settle for which they always rewarded us and treated us with great civility while there had it in their power,

but as they are become now your people, if you expect to keep these posts, we will expect to have proper returns from you.”

The British never acknowledged this difference in perception of land tenure, nor did they even pay for the use of the land. Pontiac was never an overall leader of the Native American forces, but he helped end it. This confusing  and muddled conflict had been costly with 400 soldiers killed and 2000 settlers killed and captured. Native American casualties may have been around 500 killed and captured, 5-6,000 deaths occurred due to European diseases.

Unfortunately Pontiac’s War reinforced the British idea of segregation between colonists and Native people that was so much a part of the entire British Empire. Certain land rights were recognized, but frontier colonists began to resent denial of Western frontier lands which stimulated eventual unrest that led to the American Revolution.

4. The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee

In the American West the Oklahoma/ Indian Territory quickly ran out of room for the Eastern and Prairie Native American groups relocated there. California had reservations established early but the reservations were never made official and ratified by congress due to Anglo land owners wanting all the land for themselves. Southern California Indians languished in some kind of limbo and were ignored by the government. After the Civil War many settlers poured into the West as railroads sped up settlement due to a federal bailout for rail tycoons giving them free land to sell to new immigrants. This influx of settlers coupled with the depletion of game especially the American Bison, led to the many wars of the West after 1866. Initially the US Army found the mounted Plans warriors to be superior fighters than the mostly green immigrant troopers of the Western postings. So commanders put into place a policy of extermination of the Plain’s cultures food base the American Bison. The American Bison was 60 million strong in the early 1800s, but by 1880 it was virtually extinct (~1400 head). Once the Plains people were relegated to reservations on unwanted lands they starved to death mostly due to corrupt Indian Agents. Children were sent to boarding schools where they were beaten for speaking traditional language, had there hair cut and were taught menial jobs like housekeeping and ditch digging. As the corrupt Indian Agents were replaced by missionaries the Western tribes faced cultural extinction. Although Christianity was dominant some traditions were combined with the Christian teachings into new forms.

In Western Nevada around 1870 a Paiute holy man had a vision that dictated that performing certain songs would bring the Messiah who would bless the righteous, return the traditional ways,  and swallow up evil people. This movement was the 1st Ghost Dance and spread west to California and Oregon. Ten years later in the 1880s another Paiute, Wovoka,

 

was influenced by Tavibo, and had a vision in which songs and righteous behavior would bring a return of the Messiah, Jesus, and that evil Whites would be swallowed up and that deceased ancestors would return to the earth. These teachings were learned about by Plains people and they sent a delegation by train to Nevada to learns the songs This delegation included the Lakota leaders Short Bull and kicking Bear. When they returned many Lakota (Western Sioux), Arapaho, and Cheyenne adopted Wavoka’s songs and invented new ones. People sang and danced until they passed out. Some embellished the songs with Ghost Shirts that were reputed to be bullet proof. Many leaders like Sitting Bull and Red Cloud doubted the effectiveness of bringing back the dead, but they saws no harm in the singing and dancing. As the dancing spread in 1889-1890 Indian Agents became at first nervous and then hysterical about the dancing, especially agent McLaughlin.

 

Mc Laughlin blamed Sitting Bull and sent Indian police to arrest the aging holy man on Dec 15, 1890. A skirmish erupted and Sitting Bull and his son were murdered. However, Sitting Bull was not a prominent leader of the Ghost Dance movement as McLaughlin claimed, and other groups continued to perform the songs and dancing. An early ethnologist, James Mooney, actually recorded some performances on film.

Sitting Bull

Kicking Bear

Ghost Shirt

Wounded Knee I

A Miniconjou (Lakota) leader named Bigfoot

 

was an ardent follower of the Ghost Dance and eventually his band of around 380 were intercepted on the way to the Pine Ridge Agency by the US Army 7th Cavalry. On Dec 28, 1890 the band was forced to camp on Wounded Knee Creek, SD. The next morning, Dec 29, they found themselves surrounded by soldiers with rifles and several rapid fire Hotchkiss repeating cannon. When the soldiers disarmed the Miniconjou, shots were fired and the soldiers opened up with their rifles and the Hotchkiss guns killing around 300 men, women and children. Many children that surrendered were gunned down when they came out of hiding. The few wounded survivors were taken to a makeshift first aid station in a church. One of the physicians in attendance was a you Santee Sioux, recently graduated from medical school. His name was Charles Eastman and he later wrote of this experience

.

 

Two days later Eastman and others went out to the site of the massacre and found among the frozen bodies a few infants still alive. One little girl was named ‘Lost Bird’ and later wrote an autobiography. Many in the East were incensed at the harshness of the action and wondered whether it was simply an act of revenge by the 7th Cavalry for the Little Bighorn defeat. To Native Americans Wounded Knee became a symbol for the loss of sacred power. The Lakota holy man, Black Elk, saw Wounded Knee as the fulfillment of his vision of when the ‘Sacred Hoop” would be broken.

Wounded Knee II

In the 1960s the conflict of Vietnam and the Civil Right’s Movement, Native Americans caught in urban slums started becoming aware of the treatment of Native American a century earlier. A popular book at the time called Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee

 

emphasized a Native American view to the Indian Wars of the West. These urban Indians formed a civil rights group called the American Indian Movement (AIM). In various protests AIM tried to bring attention to the plight of broken treaties and promises. AIM took over the abandoned federal prison Alcatraz in 1969 and marched on Washington DC to take over the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The news media began to portray AIM as radical and the FBI began to target the group. AIM decided to return to their roots and traveled to the Pine Ridge Reservation to seek spiritual rejuvenation and guidance. In Feb 1973 AIM took over the hamlet of Wounded Knee

 

in protest of a trial of a murder of a local Indian where the murderer only got man slaughter. This action led to a 71 day siege with federal troops surrounding the barricaded AIM members and two AIM activists killed by sniper fire.

 

AIM’s demands for the Ft. Laramie Treaty to be honored included the return of Lakota lands. Through negotiation the siege was ended but the federal government did not meet their promises and harassed AIM members. A virtual civil war griped Pine Ridge Reservation between AIM supporters and FBI funded supporters. In 1975 at the small hamlet of Ogallala on Pine Ridge a shoot out between AIM members and the FBI resulted in 2 AIM members and 2 FBI agents killed. This launched a huge manhunt and Leonard Peltier was hunted down in Canada and broke back to the US for trial . Peltier was found guilty of the FBI killings and given  to a double life sentence. Later, it was found that the FBI withheld and tampered with evidence to frame Peltier. Peltier’s weapon did not kill the FBI agents, but although Peltier claims he knows who did it, he refuses to reveal the name(s). At Pine Ridge the civil war subsided and AIM has become less active. Some reservation based Native Americans have never liked the radical approach of AIM and found it to be an urban movement that should never have interfered with tribal politics. Yet, on the flip side AIM did bring attention to the problems of America’s “unfinished business”. On Pine Ridge anniversary marches are held for Wounded Knee I & II with the 1990 100th Anniversary being the most important.

Memorial march 1993

   

 

 

 

5. Maya Rebellion 1994

Much of the history of the Americas since Columbus has been written the colonial conquerors. Even the rebellions we have described are seldom included in mainstream history books, especially textbooks. Native American are viewed as dead or invisible.

The classical Maya recorded the history of their civilization in books, on stone and on ceramics. Only recently have we been able to decipher the Maya hieroglyphics. They recorded detailed history of rulers and events intertwined with mythical references. As colonial New Spain evolved into the nations of Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras Native Americans or indigenous people were not give a voice nor were they included in written history. Even when education came to local indigenous communities, local history was not included in the curriculum. Local Maya people and culture was viewed by the government and the church as worthless, idolatrous and superstitious even into the 1950s through today. The Maya, like the Tzolzil and Zinacanteca had been keeping track of local history through village historians who were responsible for maintaining a oral memory.  The civil rights movements in the US influenced many groups to form grass roots organizations, usually referred to as in indigenous congresses. These organizations recognized the need to teach traditional culture, language and history. Basically, indigenous knowledge was seen not only of having value but essential for building cultural esteem and sovereignty. In Chiapas, Mexico and other areas emerged a revival of traditional knowledge and demands for government reform especially in education and land tenure.

In the 1980s a mysterious outsider, only known as Marcos

 

s

came to live among the Maya of Chiapas, Mexico. Marcos revitalized an old rebel group known as the Zapatista Army of National Liberation. An indication of the brewing rebellion was noted when a group of protestors marched into the colonial city of San Cristobal de las Casas on Oct 12, 1992 (500 years after Columbus’ arrival to the New World) and knocked down a statue of conquistador Diego de Mazariegos. The statue was smashed to bit with sledge hammers and protestors retreated  to the mountains with souvenirs of the historical event. It seemed as if these Maya protestors were well aware of the significance of the history of five centuries of oppression.

1978 dedication of Mazariegos statue

1992 riot and Mazariegos statue rmoval

Modern Zapatista Army

The Chiapas area was settled by Diego de Mazariegos in 1528 and eventually he established the town of San Cristobal as a center to the highland area. However, the nature of his conquest and colonial imposition of the encomienda imposed on the surrounding Maya villages is not at all clear. The remnants of the Maya Empire were small highland villages with local ruler ship. Some colonial historians portray Mazariegos as milder conquistador that was protector of the ‘naturales’ (Indians); while other historians argue that slavery was rampant and that the ‘encomenderos’ (those that were given encomiendas or tribute rights) were no better than slavers. The ‘encomenderos’ created an economic gimmick to consistently keep the local village Indians in debt by cheating them in all trade deals and pay. Furthermore, disease reduced the Maya population by 2/3 in the first fifty years of colonization. The legendary priest, turned bishop, Bishop de Las Casas spent two years (1545-1547) in Chiapas and tried to stop slavery with little success. The local land owners/encomenderos saw Las Casas as barrier to progress and blamed his clerics for labor shortages and lost revenue. Las Casas was forced to leave and took his fight to the courts in Spain. In Chiapas the Spanish controlling families continued their economic suppression with the trade of Indian produced raw material, like cacao, cotton and tobacco, exchanged for high priced finished goods that with added credit kept the Maya always indebt. San Cristobal was the center of this exploitive system and people were eventually pushed into starvation. Conditions led to the 1712 Tzeltal (Maya) uprising that is considered the bloodiest in Meso-American history. the abuse continued and by the mid 1800s the press in Mexico City cited Chiapas as a ‘slave state’. This was part of the fuel for the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1920, but change did not come to Chiapas. After the revolution the Mexican government’s Dept. of Indigenous Affairs acknowledged continued slavery in Chiapas. So when San Cristobal leaders erected a statue of Mazariegos in 1978 it was an obvious symbol of denial of the reality of past history. At various times anthropologists and Marxist activists have used the Chiapas arena as an example of the continued oppression of indigenous people. However, they have never made good on any promises to get change. Many religious groups including evangelical Christians and the catholic church have maintained missionary efforts but seem to impotent in getting meaningful change. The Maya people really do not want  any of these people but have found some provision and health benefits to their presence. The truth is that the Maya people want control of their own destiny, sovereignty, and they know the must gain it for themselves. they have to write their own history and make their own history. That is the impetus and reason for their action on Oct 12, 1992.

 

 

On New Years’ Day 1994 the world was stunned when indigenous

rebels of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation

 

seized four cities in Chiapas, including San Cristobel. The name of the rebel group, Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejercito Zapatista de Liberacion Nacional, EZLN) comes from Emiliano Zapata the commander during the Mexican Revolution. Strangely enough the group retreated into the mountains after taking the four cities, chased by 12,000 Mexican troops, but have ceased using weapons. Instead they (EZLN) and their enigmatic leader Marcos have sought international support for their cause. They have made a series of declarations of their demands and meetings with other indigenous groups. The latest meeting was “Third Encuentro of the Zapatistas with the People of the World” on Dec 28, 2007-Jan 1, 2008

 

La Lucha Continua: a talking mural

 
 


Photo:
Scott Braley

Emiliano Zapata

The son of a ‘strong farmer’, Zapata grew up to become the most famous leader of the Mexican Revolution. A gifted organiser, Zapata also spoke Náhuatl, his local indigenous language. Elected leader of his village in 1909, Zapata began recruiting an insurgent army even before the Revolution beginning in 1910 which overthrew the dictator Porfirio Díaz.

Zapata’s Liberation Army of the South did not accept the new reformist government under Francisco Madera. The Zapatistas fought on against government troops lead by Victoriano Huerta, the general who overthrew Madera in February, 1913, and was then deposed in 1914. At the following Convention in Aguascalientes, called to decide the future of Mexico, the Zapatistas demanded ‘tierra y libertad’ – land and freedom – for their people. This was the core of Zapata’s ‘Plan de Ayala’, produced in November 1911.

Zapata remained in opposition, fighting against terrible repression, until 1919. Lured to a meeting with government troops apparently mutinying against President Carranza, he was gunned down on April the 10th, 1919. Zapata’s ghost was seen to ride the hills of his native state, Morelos.

Zapata’s memory, like his ghost, rides on in Mexico. His name has been invoked by the indigenous rebel army in Chiapas, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), in their struggle against exactly the same social ills that Zapata fought against: large landlords and (often foreign-owned) big business running a corrupt and repressive régime that leaves the peasants, particularly indigenous peoples, landless and exploited.

 

Emiliano Zapata
Father of the Zapatista Movement

 

The Mexican Revolution

Born on August 8, 1879, in the village of Anenecuilco, Morelos (Mexico), Emiliano Zapata was of mestizo heritage and the son of a peasant medier, (a sharecropper or owner of a small plot of land).[1]. From the age of eighteen, after the death of his father, he had to support his mother and three sisters and managed to do so very successfully. The little farm prospered enough to allow Zapata to augment the already respectable status he had in his native village. In September of 1909, the residents of Anenecuilco elected Emiliano Zapata president of the village’s “defense committee,” an age-old group charged with defending the community’s interests. In this position, it was Zapata’s duty to represent his village’s rights before the president-dictator of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz, and the governor of Morelos, Pablo Escandón. During the 1880s, Mexico had experienced a boom in sugar cane production, a development that led to the acquisition of more and more land by the hacienderos or plantation owners. Their plantations grew while whole villages disappeared and more and more medieros and other peasants lost their livelihoods or were forced to work on the haciendas. It was under these conditions that a plantation called El Hospital neighboring Zapata’s village began encroaching more and more upon the small farmers’ lands. This was the first conflict in which Emiliano Zapata established his reputation as a fighter and leader. He led various peaceful occupations and re-divisions of land, increasing his status and his fame to give him regional recognition.

In 1910, Francisco Madero, a son of wealthy plantation owners, instigated a revolution against the government of president Díaz. Even though most of his motives were political (institute effective suffrage and disallow reelections of presidents), Madero’s revolutionary plan included provisions for returning seized lands to peasant farmers. The latter became a rallying cry for the peasantry and Zapata began organizing locals into revolutionary bands, riding from village to village, tearing down hacienda fences and opposing the landed elite’s encroachment into their villages. On November 18, the federal government began rounding up Maderistas (the followers of Francisco Madero), and only forty-eight hours later, the first shots of the Mexican Revolution were fired. While the government was confident that the revolution would be crushed in a matter of days, the Maderista Movement kept gaining in strength and by the end of November, Emiliano Zapata had fully joined its ranks. Zapata, a rather cautious, soft-spoken man, had become a revolutionary.

During the first weeks of 1911, Zapata continued to build his organization in Morelos, training and equipping his men and consolidating his authority as their leader. Soon, Zapata’s band of revolutionaries, poised to change their tactics and take the offensive, were known as Zapatistas. On February 14, Francisco Madero, who had escaped the authorities to New Orleans, returned to Mexico, knowing that it was time to restart his revolution with an all-out offensive. Less than a month later, on March 11, 1911, “a hot, sticky Saturday night,”[2], the bloody phase of the Mexican Revolution began at Villa de Ayala. There was no resistance from the villagers, who were mostly sympathetic to the revolution, being sharecroppers or hacienda workers themselves, and the local police were disarmed quickly. Not all battles that followed were this quick, however. The revolution took its bloody course with the legendary Pancho Villa fighting in the northern part of Mexico, while Zapata remained mainly south of Mexico City. On May 19, after a week of extremely fierce fighting with government troops, the Zapatistas took the town of Cuautla. Only forty-eight hours later, Francisco Madero and the Mexican government signed the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, which ended the presidency of Porfirio Díaz and named Francisco León de la Barra, former ambassador to Washington, as interim president.

Under different circumstances, this could have meant the end of the Mexican Revolution. Madero’s most important demands had been met, Díaz was out of office, and regular elections were to be held to determine his successor. León de la Barra, however, was not a president to Zapata’s liking. While of great personal integrity, his political skills were lacking. The new president could not assuage the peasants, especially since his allegiance was clearly with the rich planters who were trying to regain control of Mexico, aided by the conditions of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez. Even though Zapata had been ordered to cease all hostilities, he and 5,000 men entered and captured Cuernavaca, the capital of his native state of Morelos.

In 1911, Madero was elected president of Mexico, and Zapata met with him to discuss the demands of the peasantry. The meeting was fruitless and the former allies parted in anger. The only joy those days held for the thirty-one-year-old Zapata was his marriage to his bride Josefa, only six days after the ill-fated meeting with the president. Officially, the Zapatistas were disbanded and Zapata himself was in retirement. The police forces, in disarray after fighting the revolutionary forces, were no match for the new wave of bandits that were now roaming the land. The situation in Mexico deteriorated, assassination plots against the new president surfaced, renewed fighting between government and revolutionary forces ensued, and the smell of revolution was once again hanging over the cities of Mexico. In the “Plan of Ayala” (the city of his forced retirement), Zapata declared Madero incapable of fulfilling the goals of the revolution and promised to appoint another provisional president, once his revolution succeeded, until elections could be held. As part of his plan, a third of all land owned by the hacienderos was to be confiscated, with compensation, and redistributed to the peasantry. Any plantation owner who refused to cede his land would have it taken from him without compensation. The revolution was once again in full swing, and it was in these days that Zapata first used his now famous slogan of Tierra y Libertad or Land and Liberty.[3]

It was in February of 1913, after almost three years of violent struggle, that the formerly loyal federal General Victoriano Huerta murdered Madero, and the Zapatistas reached the outskirts of Mexico City. Huerta offered to unite his and Zapata’s troops in a combined assault on the city, but Zapata declined. Even though Huerta eventually was declared the new president, after a sham of an election, he was forced to abandon the country in 1914, after yet another revolutionary faction, under “constitutionalist” Venustiano Carranza, forced his ouster. At this point there were three major revolutionary powers in Mexico, the army of Pancho Villa to the north (the Villistas), the “Constitutionalist Army” of Carranza, and the Zapatistas to the south.[4] In an attempt to consolidate these forces and become their supreme commander, Carranza arranged a meeting, which was held at Aguascalientes, in which the Zapatistas and the Villistas — a majority at the meeting — agreed to a new provisional president, a choice which Carranza rejected. War broke out between Carranza’s moderates and the more radical Zapatistas and Villistas.

On November 24, Emiliano Zapata ordered the Liberation Army of the South (the new name for his fighting force of over 25,000 men) to occupy Mexico City. Eventually, Villa and Zapata held a meeting at the national palace and agreed to install a civilian in the presidency. The war had not ceased, however, and Carranza, whose government operated from Veracruz, held a constitutional convention, naturally without inviting Zapata or Villa. After the convention, Carranza’s forces managed to defeat Pancho Villa and isolate Zapata in Morelos. “Zapata ruled Morelos; but Carranza ruled Mexico. Morelos could never survive indefinitely alone…”[5] The federal powers under Carranza (a government now officially recognized by the Wilson Administration) and the Zapatistas in Morelos seemed at a permanent stalemate. Carranza knew that he could never fully take Mexico while Zapata was still alive and in charge of his army. To rid himself of his enemy, Carranza devised a trap. A letter had been intercepted in which Zapata invited a colonel of the Mexican army who had shown leanings toward his cause to meet and join forces. This colonel, Jesús Guajardo, under the threat of being executed as a traitor, pretended to agree to meet Zapata and defect to his side. On Thursday, April 10, 1919, Zapata walked into Carranza’s trap as he met with Guajardo in the town of Chinameca. There, at 2:10 PM, Zapata was shot and killed by federal soldiers, and as the man Zapata hit the ground, dead instantly, the legend of Zapata reached its climax. Carranza did not achieve his goal by killing Zapata. On the contrary, in May of 1920, Álvaro Obregón, one of Zapata’s right-hand men, entered the capital with a large fighting force of Zapatistas, and after Carranza had fled, formed the seventy-third government in Mexico’s history of independence. In this government, the Zapatistas played an important role, especially in the Department of Agriculture. Mexico was finally at peace.

Zapata’s Ideology

Zapata’s revolution was first and foremost an agrarian one. It would in no way be fair to call Zapata a communist, even though his revolution fits into nearly the same time frame as that in Russia. Nevertheless, all throughout Zapata’s speeches and writings, a few socialist themes keep recurring, such as agrarian reform in favor of giving some of the lands of the haciendas to the peasants. One of the more “socialist” ideas in Zapata’s ideology is the re-establishment of ejidas or communally owned lands with shared use rights — a system common among the Mexican indios. This was, however, not a contradiction to private property. One might choose to argue that even that attitude was not truly socialist, since Zapata was fighting for the restoration of titles that had been usurped by the planters and not necessarily a full, sweeping redistribution of all hacienda lands. One of the best documents describing Zapata’s positions, which have been described as “bourgeois-democratic and anti-imperialist as well as … anti-feudal”[6], is the 1917 Manifesto of the People. The revolutionary Zapata sounds very conciliatory in this statement of principles:

To unite Mexicans by means of a generous and broad political policy which will give guarantees to the peasant and to the worker as well as to the merchant, the industrialist and the businessman; to grant facilities to all who wish to improve their future and open wider horizons for those who today lack it; to promote the establishment of new industries, of great centers of production, of powerful manufacturies [sic] which will emancipate the country from the economic domination of the foreigner… [7]

Zapata’s main goal was the political and economic emancipation of Mexico’s peasantry. Land reform was not an end in itself but a means to achieve this popular independence. Doubtlessly, Zapata argued for the destruction of the reigning feudal system which kept the sharecroppers and small-time farmers in perpetual poverty. Nonetheless, Zapata was, as always, cautious and prudent in not arguing for the dismantling of all haciendas but rather for a kind of coexistence between an empowered peasant population and a number of larger plantation owners. Throughout Zapata’s writings, terms such as “economic liberty” and even “growth and prosperity” point out that a Marxist interpretation of the original Zapatista movement would be out of place.

As mentioned before, Zapata’s ideology can be described with such inventive terms as “liberal-bourgeois,” a very conservative-sounding ideology indeed. According to biographer and political scientist Robert Millon, such a liberal-bourgeois society would be a democracy in which small property owners hold the majority of land, and the government is responsible for preventing foreign imperialism (in the sense of imposition of economic or political control)[8]. The anti-imperialist stance, seen before in Zapata’s Manifesto when he proclaimed that the revolution must “emancipate the country from the economic domination of the foreigner,” allows for a more modern interpretation of Zapata’s ideology, that of the dependency theorists. Simplified, dependency theory states that a nation cannot fully develop economically and socially as long as it remains dependent on or under the control of the “First World” — in Mexico’s case under the influence of its big brother north of the border.

In a chapter called “Misconceptions Concerning Zapatista Ideology,” the aforementioned author, Robert Millon, debunks some of the myths surrounding Zapata’s beliefs and those of his followers. Many biographers of Zapata as well as chroniclers of the Mexican Revolution explain the Zapatista ideology as “Indianist,” socialist, or even anarchist. As mentioned before, there are socialist elements, but they are by no means predominant. As far as “Indianist” ideology is concerned, it would be hard to argue that Zapata, a mestizo who always donned the garb of a small-time farmer and not the traditional white breeches of the Indians, was a racial purist. On the contrary, Zapata’s ideology was quite inclusionary, trying to create a feeling of local and national identity among all racial groups. Zapata was, if nothing else, a realist. He certainly read and studied much about communism, calling it a “good and humane” ideology, but ultimately turned away from it, regarding Marxism as “impractical.”[9].

Overall, it would be incorrect to state that Zapata had no socialist or communist leanings and did not attempt to implement any of the goals of those ideologies. It would, however, be an equally specious and rather tendentious description of Zapata to paint him as a communist, bent on destroying private property and seeking supremacy for those of pure Indian blood. The Mexican Revolution was in no way a communist one, unlike the Russian revolution that occurred almost simultaneously. Emiliano Zapata was a highly intelligent, rational leader, trying to lead the people of southern Mexico out of extreme poverty. He was a realist who knew when to fight and when to play politics. His legacy lives on today in the contemporary Zapatista Rebels of Chiapas. Their view of Zapata is decidedly different from the one presented here and their ideology differs significantly from that of Zapata himself. Nevertheless, they are attempting to achieve the same goal as Zapata, to lead their people out of despair and into a fair, equal future, free from oppression.

The Myth of Zapata

Throughout history, political and revolutionary leaders have been glorified by their followers in life as well as in death. Few in modern history, however, have experienced the apotheosis that has been bestowed upon Emiliano Zapata. It is no exaggeration to equate the veneration of Zapata with that of a religious figure. Naturally, there is a multitude of poems and songs written about the Mexican Revolution, some dealing with the swashbuckling and ruggedly romantic Pancho Villa, but many more commemorating the heroic life of martyr Emiliano Zapata. Marlon Brando portrayed him on the silver screen in Viva Zapata!, less than forty years after his death. Many revolutionary songs speak of Zapata and of his death (see La Muerte de Zapata from Alberto Mesta’s page on Corridos Mexicanos or Mexican Folk Songs).

Even during his lifetime, Zapata was portrayed as a rather bloodthirsty, ham-fisted, and undereducated peasant, hell-bent on finishing his revolution, no matter what the cost. As so often happens, fiction and fact do not correlate very well. The popular image of Zapata, most likely propagated by his enemies, is far from the truth. Zapata led his men into battle only when it was the logical military choice and when he realistically foresaw a victory. When Zapata’s forces occupied Mexico City, the infamy that had preceded him caused many of the city’s inhabitants to quake with fear, fully expecting to be brutalized or killed by the savage peasants from the south. Many were surprised (and indubitably very relieved) when Zapatista peasants went door to door, merely asking for some food to aid the under-supplied and under-fed forces.

The deification of Zapata is a more recent phenomenon than that of his vilification. It is not at all unusual to find contemporary poetry and literature, especially among the new Zapatistas, that elevate Zapata to a Christ-like state.

From “The Story of the Questions — The Real Story of Zapata:”
“That Zapata appeared here in the mountains. He wasn’t born, they say. He just appeared just like that. They say he is Ik’al and Votan who came all the way over here in their long journey, and so as not to frighten good people, they became one. Because after being together for so long Ik’al and Votan learned they were the same and could become Zapata. And Zapata said he had finally learned where the long road went and that at times it would be light and at times darkness but that it was the same, Votan Zapata, and Ik’al Zapata, the black Zapata and the white Zapata. They were both the same road for the true men and women.”
From current Zapatista writing: “The man who assassinated Zapata, Colonel Guajardo, was promoted to General and given a reward of 52,000 pesos for his act, instead of being tried and convicted. After being shot, Zapata was loaded onto a mule and taken to Cuautla, where he was dumped on the street. To prove that he was really dead, flashlights were shown on his face and photographs taken. This didn’t destroy the myth of his death, because Zapata could not and would not die! Like Commandante Marcos, he was too smart to be killed in an ambush. Hadn’t Zapata’s white horse been seen on top of the mountain? Every single person in the valley of Morelos still believes to this day that Zapata is still alive. Perhaps they are right.”
[10]

As is evident in these words, there is a cult of personality that lives on after Zapata’s physical death. Emiliano Zapata has certainly become a messianic figure for Mexico. The modern Zapatistas draw strength from this myth, and they claim to be the true heirs to the tradition started by a peasant revolutionary with a vision of social justice

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Atlantis on line, adventures and discovery Columbus,web blog,2013

Aileen Vincent-Barwood,  Columbus what If , on pages 2-9 of the
January/February 1992 print edition of Saudi Aramco World.

 

Columbus’s journal appears in Olson, Julius, The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985-1503 (1926);

Dyson, John, Columbus: for Gold, God, and Glory (1991);

Francis Maclean,The Lost Fort Of Columbus

Giles Tremlett.lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of The Caribean in Madrid,

Iwan suwandy,Columbus postal History,2013

Jim Knight dr, artifact,document reveal Info about those Columbus met in Cuba Libraries

Lorente , the director of the Laboratory of Genetic Identification at the University of Granada

Morrison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea (1942

Scienencenews web blog, Columbus blames for  Little Ice Age

Unknown,Columbus Reaches New World

Wiki,Columbus biography,2012

 

 

 

The Author Profile

 

Ret.Police Colonel Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
a. In 1955, During yang boy I starting stamps collection. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

During PRRI r Iwan 13 years old study  at Frater Middle School Padang directed by Fr Eric , look the APRI landed at Padang and  collected many information related to PRRI like news paper,postal history,document,banknote PRRI

 

and keep the private portrait at  his house in the front of Dewan banteng Office in Bundo kandung street No 16 Padang.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.


Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

 

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police

 

 

4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

 

 

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7. between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor

8.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.including some document and postal history related to PRRIm Indonesia Independence War and Dai Nippon Occupation west suamtra.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

 

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Independence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupation sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.Between 1990-199

I was in the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak, three time,the last stayed at BB motel in the front of

 

 Kucing’s central jail at Tabuan street,before I sated at Borneo Hotel and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

10.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.

All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.

This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and Afghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.

11. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

 

 

12, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.

13. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

14. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) The Padang West Sumatra My Loving Birth City

Part (a) The Minangkabau History collevtions

(b)The Minangkabau Tambo

(c)The Minangkabau folklore

(d)The minangkabau cousine

Part Ethnic Tionghoa at West Sumatra

Part Antique Collections Found In West sumatra

(8)and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thank you verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 550.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 121.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

 

 

THE END

COPYRIGHT @Dr IWAN 2013