Late Ming Imperial ceramic Found In Indonesia

source

 https://iwansuwandy.wordpress.com/2012/10/30/late-ming-imperial-ceramic-found-in-indonesia/

 

Dr Iwan Collections Found in Indonesia

copyright @ 2012

Late Ming Dragon Fish Imperial bowl

artifact

 

Digital Restoration

compare with

International Collection

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The Singer With The Golden Voice Enrico Caruso Hiatory Collections

Sumber Info

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/10/27/the-legend-singer-history-collectionsenrico-caruso-golden-voice-singer/

Pengantar

Para pecinta musik tentunya masih ingat dengan penyanyi suara emas bariton almarhum Pavaroti, dan bagi yang senior penyanyi legendari bersuar emas Mario Lanza yang saya sudah pernah menulis artikel tentar penyannyi ini lengkap dengan kolekis piringhitam(Record player) yang saya miliki.

Sebenarnya masih ada seorang penyanyi legendari yang memiliki sura emas yang bagi generasi muda banyak tidak diketahui yaitu

introduction

The music lovers surely remember the golden voice baritone singer Pavaroti deceased, and for the senior gold bersuar legendary singer Mario Lanza I’ve written this article tentar penyannyi complete with kolekis piringhitam (record player) that I have.

Actually there are a legendary singer who has gold sura for many young people do not know that

Enrieco Caruso yang berasal dari negara yang yang sama dengan Mario Lansa yaitu Italia.

Sudah lama saya mencari informasi dan koleksi yang terkait dengannya, barulah hari ini saya menemukan sebuah majalah berbahasa Belanda yang lama tenta penyanyi tersebut.

Untuk pecinta musik Internasional dan khususnya Indonesia saya akan menterjemahkan infomasi tersebut kedalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris, serta melakukan penellitian lebih lanjut dari beberapa sumber yang ada agar seluruh pecinta musik di dunia khususnya penyanyi bariton mengenalnya dan menginggatnya lebih baik.

Selamat menikmati karya tulis ini

Enrieco Caruso from the same country with Mario Lansa namely Italy.

I’ve been looking for information and collections associated with it, then today I found an old Dutch-language magazine tenta singer.

For music lovers and especially International Indonesia infomasi I will translate it into Indonesian language and English, as well as doing further penellitian from several sources that there will be music lovers all over the world especially baritones and menginggatnya know him better.

Enjoy this paper

Jakarta Oktober 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Terjemahan Artikel

Zo was  Het Leven  van Enrico Caruso  De Zanger  Met De Gouden Stem

sorry the tyranslation  only for the  premium member

Maaf terjemahan hanya untuk anggota Premium saja

Untuk membaca Informasi Lebih Lengkap silahkan klik sumber data

 

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/10/27/the-legend-singer-history-collectionsenrico-caruso-golden-voice-singer/

 

Caruso, Enrico - Golden Voice Of Enrico Caruso Volume 3 DB Cover Art

Golden Voice Of Enrico Caruso Volume 3 MP3 Download

the end @ copyright 2012

Contoh Buku elektronik dalam CD-rom ciptaan Driwan:”Koleksi sejarah Pendudukan jepang di Sumatra 1942-1945″

ThThisis is the sample Od Dr Iwan CD-rom without illustration and not edited, the complete Cd with illustration exist but only for premium member please subscribed via comment

The Dai Nippon Occupations Sumatra

History Collections

1942-1945

 

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

INTRODUCTION

By 13th February,

 the headquarters of the Group decided that a reconnaissance must be made to discover whether or not the Japanese intended to land on Sumatra.

The position in Singapore was known to be desperate, and it was felt that the enemy would assuredly attempt to extend the range of their conquests.

 A single Hudson from No. 1 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, accordingly took off in the afternoon and presently returned with the report that there was a concentration of Japanese shipping north of Banka Island.

 This seemed to show that an invasion of Sumatra was imminent. An unsuccessful night attack by Blenheims in darkness and rain was succeeded at first light on 14th February

by an offensive reconnaissance carried out by five Hudsons. They discovered between twenty-five and thirty transports, heavily escorted by naval vessels and fighter aircraft. The suspected invasion was on the way.

 

The five Hudsons, subsequently reinforced by all available bomber aircraft, delivered a series of attacks upon the convoy and achieved conspicuous success. Six transports were sunk or badly damaged for the loss of seven aircraft.

The squadrons engaged, Nos. 1 and 8 of the Royal Australian Air Force and Nos. 27, 62, 84 and 211 of the Royal air Force, fulfilled their tasks without fighter protection, for the Japanese had staged an attack by parachute troops on P.I, the fighter airfield at Palembang.

The attackers were able to cut the road to the south and west of the airfield and to overpower the meagre ground defences. Wing Commander Maguire, the Station Commander, at the head of twenty men, hastily collected, delivered a counterattack which held off the enemy long enough to make possible the evacuation of the wounded and the unarmed.

He was presently driven back into the area of the control tower, where he held out for some time, short of ammunition and with no food and water, until compelled to withdraw after destroying stocks of petrol and such aircraft as remained.

 

The fighters which should have accompanied the bomber force attacking the convoy belonged to No. 226 (Fighter) Group, formed

on 1st February

The Surrender:

Slowly being pushed back on February 13,

Percival was asked by his senior officers about surrendering. Rebuffing their request, he continued the fight.

The next day,

Japanese troops secured Alexandra Hospital

and massacred around 200 patients and staff.

Early on the morning of February 15,

the Japanese succeeded in breaking through Percival’s lines. This coupled with the exhaustion of the garrison’s anti-aircraft ammunition led

Percival to meet with his commanders

at Fort Canning. During the meeting, Percival proposed two options: an immediate strike at Bukit Timah to regain the supplies and water or surrendering.

Informed by his senior officers that no counterattack was possible, Percival saw little choice other than surrender.

Dispatching a messenger to Yamashita, Percival met with the Japanese commander at

the Ford Motor Factory later that day to discuss terms. T

he formal surrender was completed shortly after 5:15 that evening.

February 15, 1942 –

 Singapore surrenders, when food, water, ammunition, and gasoline are nearly gone. They were taken to the Ford Motor Company assembly plant on the outskirts of Singapore town. Here Lt. General A. E. Percival yielded to Lt. General Tomoyuki Yamashita’s 25th Army.

820 British seaman were lost, while 2,081 were picked up by flotilla destroyers. Of the 88 Japanese planes, only four were shot down.

It is thought that the Naval Base was evacuated, just before the fall of Singapore on February 15, 1942. The Aquarius sailed on February 12/13, 1942 and sunk off the Sumatra coast north of Banka Island by air attack. Three survivors were picked up, but they also died shortly after. Unfortunately, the Aquarius never made its Darwin, Australia, destination. The Aquarius was launched on February 14, 1934, as the R.A.F.A. (Royal Air Force Auxilliary) “Aquarius,” and was an aircraft tender. It arrived originally in Singapore on May 28, 1934. There are many accounts of the Aquarius in various sources, and some accounts are about two U.S.A. ships also named Aquarius. There was a listing for an Aquarius as a U.S. Navy attack cargo ship (AKA 16) of the C2 type commissioned in 1943. However this ship is thought to have been 6094 tons and did not sink. It ended up in the Soviet Union in 1945. One account has the passengers of the ship at 1,000 and while the British vessel carried 60-70 persons. In both cases, it is stated that there were three survivors picked up, who then died shortly thereafter. One account says they were picked up by ML 310s. The same account has the the ship being sunk by a Japanese destroyer near Tjebia Island (off Sumatra) on February 15, 1942.

I originally thought that the Aquarius was the ship that my uncle died on when it sunk. Now I know that Alexander Malcolm died after the sinking of the SS Redang.. The SS Redang was registered in Bangkok, Thailand, to the Siam Steam Navigation Fleet, and was seized by the British government, and was then made part of the Singapore Strait Steamship Company. On February 12, 1942, this ship was attacked by two Japanese destroyers and sunk. Alexander Malcolm and his friend, Tommy Hand, died 50 miles from the Berhala Strait one of many casualties of World War II.

 

DEI troops survivors of the battle of Palembang (Sumatra) 15 Feb 1942 this troops would cease to exist after Battle of Java (march 1942)

they’re known as a KNIL in indonesia, people who try to get a better luck by joining the army rather than live as a poor farmer

on 15th February,

 the day on which the fortress of Singapore surrendered unconditionally, the greatest success up till then scored in the Far Eastern War had been achieved, and achieved by the Royal Air Force and the Royal Australian Air Force. The landing of the enemy at the mouth of the Palembang River had been completely arrested, thousands of his men had been killed or wounded, and his plan of invasion brought temporarily to naught. The action fought that day on the coast of Sumatra shows only too plainly what might have been accomplished on the coasts of Siam and Malaya had an adequate Air Force been available

Sad to say, this highly successful counter-measure had no sequel.

There were no troops or naval craft available to exploit the victory and the reaction of the Japanese was immediate and violent.

They made another parachute troop landing on Palembang airfield and in the neighbourhood of the town. It was successful and its success jeopardized the situation at P.II, the secret airfield, where stocks of food, ammunition and bombs were running very low. Orders were reluctantly given for a retreat to Java.

All aircraft were to fly; their ground staff were to go by ship and to embark at Oesthaven.

 Here occurred an administrative blunder which added to the difficulties of the Air Force and considerably reduced its further capacity for fighting.

The Dutch authorities at the port had already set on fire the bazaar and destroyed all equipment of a military kind.

A dark pall of smoke lay over the town, and beneath it the airmen striving to carry out their orders and to reach Java as quickly as possible found themselves faced with an obstacle created not by the enemy, but by the British Military Embarkation Officer.

He was one of those men to whom an order is as sacred and inflexible as are the Commandments of Sinai. All officers

and men of the ground staff were to be clear of the port by midnight, but they were to leave, so he ordained, without their motor transport or their equipment.

 In other words, they were to reach Java in a condition in which they would be quite unable to take any further part in operations.

To every remonstrance he returned the same answer: those were the orders. It says something for his personality that they were obeyed. No. 41 Air Stores Park left behind them spare Hurricane engines and other urgent stores; so did the Repair and Salvage Unit of No. 266 (Fighter) Wing, and the anti-aircraft guns and ammunition brought away with such difficulty from P.I and P.II were also abandoned.

This departure, in an atmosphere which can only be described as that of panic, was quite unnecessary, for two days later Group Captain Nicholetts at the head of fifty volunteers from No. 605 (Fighter) Squadron, returned to Oesthaven by sea from Batavia in H.M.S. Ballarat of the Royal Australian Navy and spent twelve hours loading the ship to the gunwales with such air force equipment as could by then still be salvaged.

 

With its Royal Dutch Shell oil refineries at nearby Pladju, the city of Palembang in southern Sumatra, Dutch East Indies was a major objective early in the Japanese campaign southwards.

The Allied defenses there consisted of two air groups located in Pangkalan Benteng airfield, also known as P1, and Prabumulih airfield, or P2.

 

The air forces there consisted of the Royal Air Force No. 225 Bomber Group (with two Royal Australian Air Force squadrons) with 40 Blenheim bombers and 35 Hudson light bombers and No. 226 Fighter Group with two squadrons of Hurricane fighters and a number of Hurricane and Buffalo fighters that carried wound from the earlier Malayan and Singapore campaigns.

A few American B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers were in Palembang in Jan 1942, but they were withdrawn to Java and Australia before the Japanese invasion.

The ground troops were led by the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Lieutenant Colonel L. N. W. Vogelesang, with 2,000 troops under his command in the Palembang area, organized in one South Sumatra Garrison Battalion and one home guard Landstorm company in reserve; there were other Dutch troops in other areas of southern Sumatra, but they lacked mobility and played no part in the subsequent Japanese invasion. A few Dutch navy officers were also present, with one minelayer (Pro Patria) and two patrol boats (P-38 and P-40) under their command.

On 13 Feb 1942,

 the Japanese invasion fleet approached southern Sumatra. While the Allied aircraft took off to attack the naval vessels, Japanese Army Ki-56 and Ki-21 transport planes delivered about 160-180 paratroopers and their supplies over P1 airfield and 90 troopers near the Pladju refineries, escorted by a large force of Ki-43 fighters.

The paratroopers failed to take P1 airfield, and another 60 paratroopers were dropped two hours as reinforcements. Those who landed at Pladju gained control of the entire industrial complex without damaging any equipment, though they were driven out after a Landstorm counterattack; the Dutch troops then began a demolition operation to destroy the oil refineries, setting equipment on fire.

By the next morning, unable to hold ground, the Japanese paratroopers advanced to the Musi, Salang, and Telang Rivers, and waited there for the main invasion force to arrive.

The main Japanese invasion force for southern Sumatra was under the command of Japanese Navy Vice Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa. The fleet consisted of the heavy cruiser Chokai, light cruiser Sendai, 8 destroyers, and 22 transports, which held the invasion force of Japanese Army 229th Infantry Regiment and one battalion from the 230th Infantry Regiment.

A covering force sailed in the distance, which was consisted of the carrier Ryujo, four heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, and three destroyers. The invasion fleet was first engaged by British river boat HMS Li Wo, which engaged the much larger Japanese ships with its lone 100-millimeter gun; Li Wo eventually was damaged beyond repair, and rammed into the nearest Japanese transport before being sunk.

 Meanwhile, an Allied fleet consisted of Dutch cruisers De Ruyter, Java, and Tromp, British cruisers Exeter and Hobart, and 10 destroyers attempted to intercept the invasion fleet, but the fleet gave up after being attacked by aircraft from Ryujo and nearby ground bases. As the Japanese landing forces sailed up the river leading up to Palembang, British aircraft based in Sumatra attacked, sinking the transport Otawa Maru.

While the invasion started, an episode of massacre took place nearby.

On 12 Feb

, 330 soldiers, nurses, and civilians commandeered the vessel SS Vyner Brooke and attempted to escape from Singapore.

 

 On 14 Feb,

 the freighter was found by Japanese aircraft off the Bangka Island off southeastern Sumatra, sinking her with three bomb hits. The 90-some survivors of the sinking and the Japanese aircraft strafing made it to Bangka Island’s Radji Beach. In the evening of 14 Feb, all but one civilian women left the group for a local village with their children, leaving the men on the beach with the Australian military nurses.

Shortly after, Japanese soldiers discovered those on the beach, and massacred the men with bayonets. The nurses were marched into the ocean, and when they reached waist-deep water, they were fired upon with rifles. Nurse Vivian Bullwinkel, British Army Private Pat Kingsley, and several other survivors hid in the nearby jungle for several days; Kingsley later died from his bayonet wound. They were eventually found and placed into a prisoners of war camp. Bullwinkel survived the brutal camp treatment and gave evidence against the Japanese at the 1947 war crimes trial in Tokyo.

On 15 Feb,

it was decided that southern Sumatra, with its weak defenses, was to be abandoned. All of the aircraft and some of the personnel were sent to Java, where the Dutch East Indies seat of government was located; remaining personnel were transferred to India. The aerial evacuation was completed by the evening of 16 Feb, while the evacuation by sea did not complete until 20 Feb.

With southern Sumatra evacuated, the 8,000 Dutch reserve troops and 1,200 para-military policemen in northern Sumatra were practically stranded. Lacking adequate transportation, the Dutch were dispersed in small groups. On 8 Mar, they received word of Dutch commander-in-chief General Hein ter Pooten’s surrender in Java on 8 Mar; however, most of them chose to disobey the surrender order.

On 28 Feb 1942,

a sizeable Japanese force set sail from Singapore for northern Sumatra; the force consisted of 27 transports, three cruisers, ten destroyers, and various other smaller vessels, divided in four groups. On 12 Mar, Operation T was launched with landings at Baloeng Bay on Sabang Island, Cape Pedro near Kotaradja airfield, and Iri. The second landing took place at Tandjoengtiram, where the four battalions landed to secure a beach head for the landing of tanks, air groups, and the divisional headquarters. All landings were nearly unopposed as the Dutch lacked the resources to do so.

.

Dutch East Indies Campaign, Sumatra Timeline

23 Jan 1942 Japanese bombers attacked Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies for the first time.
7 Feb 1942 Japanese aircraft attacked Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, destroying 34 RAF aircraft.
11 Feb 1942 The Japanese invasion fleet for Sumatra, Dutch East Indies departed Cam Ranh Bay, French Indo-China.
14 Feb 1942 360 paratroopers of Japanese 1st Airborne Division landed at Pangkalanbenteng airfield near Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies; in response, ABDA command sent 5 cruisers and 11 destroyers to transport troops to Palembang; Dutch destroyer HNLMS Van Ghent in this force ran aground on the next day and would be scuttled. Meanwhile, the British ship Vyner Brooke, escaping from Singapore with 300 on board, was bombed off Sumatra; around 100 survivors, including 22 Australian nurses, reach shore on Banka island; the men were marched away by the Japanese and bayoneted and shot, the wounded were bayoneted where they laid, and the nurses were herded into the sea and machine gunned; one, Sister Vivian Bulwinkel, was wounded but survived to tell of the atrocity; she died in 2000, aged 85.

 

Dutch East Indies Campaign, Sumatra

13 Feb 1942 – 28 Mar 1942Contributor:C. Peter Chen15 Feb 1942 100 additional Japanese paratroopers arrived at Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, helping with the securing oil refineries and other facilities. 200 kilometers to the south, British troop transport Ocrades arrives at Oosthaven with 3,400 Australian troops, but the ship would continue on to Java without disembarking the troops. North of Palembang, Japanese troops disembarked at the mouth of the Musi River; the British RAF interfered by attacking the landing with over 50 aircraft, sinking 20 landing craft and killing 100 Japanese. Finally, in the Bangka Strait, Japanese naval gunfire sank British tug HMS Yin Ping; 50 were killed, 25 survived.
17 Feb 1942 Japanese carrier aircraft from Ryujo sank Dutch destroyer HMNS Van Nes, escorting Dutch troopship Sloet van Beele, in the Bangka Strait; 69 were killed, 60 survived.
12 Mar 1942 On Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, Japanese troops landed at Sabang at 0235 hours, Koetaradja at 0330 hours, Idi at 0540, and Laboehanroekoe at 0700 hours. They would capture the airfield at Medan in the morning.
28 Mar 1942 Dutch Major General Roelof T. Overakker surrendered his 2,000 troops at Blangkedjeren, marking the end of resistance on Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.

 

Photographs

 

 

Information from Dai Nippon Club Netherland

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

Indische en buitenlandse zegels
Op Sumatra is een grote verscheidenheid aan zegels en opdrukken gebruikt. In het begin zijn zegels zonder opdruk gebruikt, met uitzondering van zegels die de beeltenis van de koningin droegen, die waren niet toegestaan. Japanse postzegels mochten in alle bezette gebieden gebruikt worden, we komen ze dan ook veel tegen.Vanaf eind september 1942 tot medio april 1943 vormde Sumatra een administratieve eenheid met Malakka, waardoor we veel Japanse bezettingszegels van Malakka tegenkomen. Ook zegels uit andere bezette gebieden, zoals Mandsjoerije komen af en toe voor, meestal met gelegenheidsafstempelingen. De afstempeling bepaalt waar en wanneer de zegels gebruikt zijn.
 
 

 

Lokale en regionale opdrukken
Als snel komen in 1942 de eerste instructies om vooroorlogse postzegels van een opdruk te voorzien. Dit werd zowel lokaal als regionaal gedaan, waardoor meer dan 50 verschillende opdrukken ontstaan. Vele lokale opdrukken kunnen nog verder onderverdeeld worden, zoals de kruisopdrukken van Midden Sumatra, waarvan meer dan 20 subtypen bestaan.Het is bijzonder dat zelfs twee Nederlandse postzegels overdrukt zijn. De grotere postkantoren hadden een voorraad Nederlandse postzegels van 5 en 12½ cent, die meegezonden konden worden naar Nederland om retourpost te frankeren. Als gevolg van de instructie om alle voorradige zegels te overdrukken zijn op sommige postkantoren, zoals bijvoorbeeld Pajakombo, ook Nederlandse zegels overdrukt.
 
 

 

Algemene opdrukken
Eind 1942, begin 1943 zijn semi-algemene opdrukken uitgegeven. Deze zegels werden voorzien van een opdruk Dai Nippon (Groot Japan) of Dai Nippon Yubin (Groot Japan Post). Op 29 april 1943 verschenen zegels van 3½ en 10 cent uit een definitieve serie. Deze werden op 1 augustus 1944 gevolgd door nog 10 waarden. Op 1 januari 1944 verscheen een algemene T-opdruk. De semi-algemene en de T-opdrukken zijn ook aangebracht op zegels die al een opdruk hadden.

Original content © 2009 Dai Nippon. All rights reserved. Contact the Webmaster with any technical problems or comments.

 

 
Vooroorlogse postwaardestukken en opdrukken
In het begin van de bezetting werden vooroorlogse postwaardestukken zonder opdruk gewoon doorgebruikt, vooral briefkaarten. Vrij snel werden op Sumatra en in het marine gebied postwaardestukken voorzien van opdrukken, meestal dezelfde als bij de postzegels. Niet alleen briefkaarten, maar ook allerlei andere postwaardestukken, zoals internationale brief- en antwoordkaarten, enveloppen, postbladen en verhuiskaarten.
 
 

 

De eerste gedrukte postwaardestukken uit de bezetting
De eerste uitgifte van een nieuwe briefkaart vond in juni 1942 plaats op Celebes. De bekende Dai Nippon briefkaarten van Java verschenen in september 1942 en in mei 1943 kwam een nieuwe briefkaart op Sumatra in omloop. Eind 1943 verscheen er voor Java en Sumatra een gezamelijke uitgifte, een nieuwe 3½ cent Dai Nippon briefkaart in een kleiner formaat om papier te besparen.
 
 

 

Andere nieuwe uitgiften
Op Sumatra zijn er daarna geen nieuwe postwaardestukken meer verschenen, wel op Java en in het marine gebied, zoals een nieuwe verhuiskaart op Java en een definitieve kaart voor het gehele marine gebied.
 
 

 

Tariefsverhogingen
Op 1 juli 1944 werd in het marine gebied het tarief voor een briefkaart verhoogd naar 4 cent. Dit resulteerde in een verscheidenheid aan regionale uitgiften. Een jaar later, op 1 juli 1945, werd het tarief op Java verhoogd naar 5 cent en kwamen ook hier nieuwe kaarten in omloop. Op Sumatra werd het tarief pas op 15 augustus 1945, de dag van de Japanse capitulatie, verhoogd naar 7 cent. Hier zijn geen nieuwe kaarten uitgegeven.
 
 

 

Postwaardestukken van Malakka gebruikt in Indië
In de Riouw en Lingga archipel en op de Anambas Eilanden werden postwaardestukken van Malakka gebruikt, zoals bij de postzegels. Het tarief voor een briefkaart was hier 2 cent, wat later verhoogd werd naar 4 cent. Hier werden ook postwaardestukken gebruikt die we niet uit Nederlands-Indië kennen, zoals de aangetekende enveloppe. Het tarief hiervoor bedroeg 15 cent, tijdens de oorlog werd het verhoogd naar 23 cent.
 
 

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

Dai nippon Occupation Indonesia Postal History courtecy Dai Nippon Club Netherland

 

Algemeen
Het innen van rechten tijdens de Japanse bezetting en de Republikeinse periode ging op dezelfde manier als voor de oorlog. In het algemeen moesten de rechten betaald worden door diegene waarvoor het stuk werd opgemaakt. Dit werd gedaan door fiscaalzegels op de daarvoor bestemde documenten te plakken, zoals plakzegels, loonzegels, handelszegels, enz.
 
 

 

Plakzegels
Plakzegels zijn vooral gebruikt voor de rechten op kwitanties, polissen van verzekeringen, hypotheekakten, wissels, huurcontracten, enz., waarbij het transactiebedrag meer dan f10.00 bedroeg.In het begin zijn vooroorlogse plakzegels doorgebruikt, al snel werden ze overdrukt, meestal met dezelfde opdrukken als de postzegels. Na verloop van tijd werden nieuwe plakzegels enz. in de Maleise en/of Japanse taal gedrukt. Tijdens de Republikeinse periode zijn evenals tijdens de Japanse bezetting zegels zonder opdruk doorgebruikt, vervolgens van een opdruk voorzien en uiteindelijk zijn nieuwe plakzegels enz. gedrukt.
 
 

 

Loonzegels
Loonbelasting was verschuldigd over de lonen die verantwoord werden op speciale loonlijsten. De verschuldigde belasting bedroeg 4% van de lonen die aan werknemers betaald werden en 2% van de lonen van huishoudelijk personeel. De formulieren en loonzegels waren evenals plakzegels op het postkantoor verkrijgbaar. De zegels bestonden uit twee delen, de linker helft werd op de originele loonlijst geplakt, de rechter op een kopie daarvan.
 
 

 

Gezegeld papier
Gezegeld papier werd gebruikt voor notariële akten, uittreksels van overheidsbesluiten, zoals benoemingen en loonsverhogingen, uittreksels uit de burgerlijke stand en registratie van hypotheken bij het kadaster. Het recht werd berekend naar de grootte van het papier. Vooroorlogs gezegeld papier werd doorgebruikt, later voorzien van een opdruk en uiteindelijk werd nieuw papier gedrukt. Tijdens de Republikeinse periode is evenals tijdens de Japanse bezetting het papier zonder opdruk doorgebruikt en vervolgens van een opdruk voorzien. Nieuw papier is niet gedrukt.
 
 

 

Andere belastingen
Andere belastingen, rechten en vergunningen zoals, gemeentebelasting, verkeersbelasting, slachtvergunningen en tabaksbelasting moesten ook voldaan worden

 

Dai Nippon Occupation Indonesia fiscal revenue collections courtecy Dai Nippon Club Nertherland

 

 

 

 
 

 

a map of Japanese occupied Sumatra with the postmarked province

 

and the Japanese had taken Palembang in southern Sumatra.

Likely this was one of the Hurricanes flown by the 64th Sentai. Photo was taken at Palembang in 1942, after the airfield was occupied by Kato’s group; those are Japanese ground crews lounging beneath the captured plane. The type is Hurricane IIB

The group was under the command of then-Major Kato Tateo, probably the most famous of the Japanese army’s fighter pilots.

On January 16,

 

on 23rd January

an attack on Palembang by twenty-seven Japanese bombers showed that the main airfield in Sumatra, P.I, could not be adequately protected.

January,27th.1942

Japanese bombers attacked Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies for the first time

 

  1. Click to enlarge the picture  
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  
  5.  
  6.    

Since the outbreak of the Pacific War in 1941,

Japan and then trying to control natural resources, especially petroleum by attacking and controlling the occupied Dutch East Indies, including Indonesia, which was then known as the best producer of petroleum (Sumatra) where the oil produced can be directly used as fuel ships without having to go through the distillation process first.

 

Beginning in February 1942,

 

Japan started to invade the territory of Sumatra and began putting his patrol boats around the Java Sea, having previously managed to control some areas in Kalimantan and Sulawesi.

 

Then the Japanese overran the oil city of Palembang as a very valuable time

  • on February 13, 1942.

 

The next day, February 14, 1942

 

 history records the sinking British ship HMS Li Wo by the Japanese navy when the ship was evacuating troops from Java (another source notes that the ship HMS Li Wo was on his way from Singapore to Batavia when ditengeelamkan).

 

February 1942 closed with the outbreak of War of the Java Sea, where the Allied navy joined in ABDACOM (American-British-Dutch-Australian Command) was defeated by the Japanese navy. Dutch East Indies government surrendered unconditionally and surrender its colonies of Indonesia to Japan through Kalijati Agreement on March 8, 1942.

 

February,7th.1942

Japanese aircraft attacked Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, destroying 34 RAF aircraft

February,11th.1942

The Japanese invasion fleet for Sumatra, Dutch East Indies departed Cam Ranh Bay, French Indo-China

February,14th.1942

360 paratroopers of Japanese 1st Airborne Division landed at Pangkalanbenteng airfield near Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies; in response, ABDA command sent 5 cruisers and 11 destroyers to transport troops to Palembang; Dutch destroyer HNLMS Van Ghent in this force ran aground on the next day and would be scuttled. Meanwhile, the British ship Vyner Brooke, escaping from Singapore with 300 on board, was bombed off Sumatra; around 100 survivors, including 22 Australian nurses, reach shore on Banka island; the men were marched away by the Japanese and bayoneted and shot, the wounded were bayoneted where they laid, and the nurses were herded into the sea and machine gunned; one, Sister Vivian Bulwinkel, was wounded but survived to tell of the atrocity; she died in 2000, aged 85.

   
   
   
   

14th February 1942,

HMS Li-Wo in action 14 Feb 1942 North of Banka Straits

 

HMS Li-Wo in action 14 Feb 1942 North of Banka Straits

The Sinking of HMS ‘Li-Wo’

Introduction

On Wednesday 6th March 2002 I visited my niece in Cardiff. Quite casually, she handed me an A4 brown envelope saying that her grandfather (and my father) had given it to her a few years before he died. Inside, I found a 24 page photocopied letter, penned by my father, to the Imperial War Museum about the sinking of HMS ‘Li Wo’.

I have reproduced the letter below exactly as it was written.

Moyra Jones 7th March 2002


The Director

Imperial War Museum

Lambeth Rd

London S.E.1

Sunday 30/8/64

 

Dear Sir,

On the 14th August, this year, I visited London with my Daughter and Nephew, and took them to The Imperial War Museum.

It was a surprise, and a proud moment, and a sad one, when I saw the scale Model of H.M.S. “Li-Woo” (sic), as I am one of the few survivors of the short but epic action, North of the Banka Straits, on Sat 14th February 1942.

I feel that I must write to you, correcting much of the information about the Ship and the action that took place, between H.M.S “Li-Woo”, and a Japanese convoy and Japanese Naval Escorts.

I commented to one of the Attendants on duty, that the facts were wrong, and was advised by him, to see the Records in the Records Department, of which I did.

Which of course, after seeing them, decided to write to you, hoping most sincerely, that you will investigate most fully, the facts I intend to give.

Before I give any account, I wish to make it perfectly clear, that I seek no glory, I seek no financial gain, and I seek no publicity.

My object and reason is purely and simply this.

Ever since 5-30 P.M. Saturday 14th 1942. I have honoured and admired the memory of the Bravest Man I ever knew.

Lt. Wilkinson V.C. R.N.

This is the first time I have written to anyone about this action, as until that visit to the Imperial War Museum, I was always under the impression that the true real facts were fully known.

I wonder how many of the gun’s crew, who composed of “Prince of Wales”, and “Repulse” survivors were interviewed? Or interrogated over this action? I also wish to add, that I was never asked for an account of the action after the war had ended, and the reason why I was unable to give an account during my 3 1/2 years as a Japanese P.O.W. was simply this:-

When I was first taken P.O.W. the survivors of the “Li-Woo” were in a tempory P.O.W. Camp at Muntok, in Banka Island, with Army, Navy, R.A.F. personel, and with many civilians, of which there were many children.

I was only at that Camp, which had no real British Military Administration for a week at the most, when I escaped with Lt. Col. Daly of Dal Force Malaya, Lt. Eno, Army, Sgt. Ken Wharton, Australian Army, only to be eventually betrayed by Natives, and handed over to the Japanese, when we landed at Java.

During my captivity, the Japs never knew that we were recaptured P.O.W.s.

I deemed that discretion was the better of Valour.

I could not mention the “Li-Woo” action North of the Banka Straits, without giving myself away that I was an escaped P.O.W.

The punishment was death.

Also we were mixed with many Dutch, and Dutch Eurasians, many of the Eurasians were Pro-Jap, and would give away their own Mother.

Here now is the facts as I know them, nothing added, nothing exaggerated.

After being sunk on the “Prince of Wales” I was sent up into Malaya with:-

C.P.O. Rogers “Repulse”

Ldg/Smn Adly(sic) “Repulse”

Ldg/Smn Bennett “Repulse”

Ldg Smn Countant “Prince of Wales”.

I need not bother you about details, as it is non revelant to the “Li-Woo”, except this.

After returning to Singapore from Malaya, we were detailed to patrol the Jahore Straits in small boats. We operated from a small village opposite Paula Ubin Island.

We were recalled from there to the Orange Hotel, Thursday afternoon 12th Feb 1942.

We were then detailed to go aboard the “Li-Woo” to sail for Java.

On arrival aboard, we were detailed as Guns Crew, being that the others were Torpedo ratings, and C.P.O Rogers, a Rangetaker, I was appointed Gun Layer.

My Guns crew consisted of C.P.O Rogers, Ldg/Smn Adley, Bennett Countant, and two stoker ratings who were with us in the Jahore Straits Patrol.

We left Singapore Harbour late Thursday night Feb 12th 1942 only to drop anchor outside the Harbour.

On Friday 13th Feb 1942 we sailed for Java with the “Fu Woo” a sister ship. We were attacked many times by aircraft, and came through.

On Sat 14th Feb 1942 we dropped anchor close inshore, we were informed that we were anchoring for a while, trusting to luck that we would not be spotted by enemy aircraft, as the Captain intended to go through the 80 miles of the Banka Straits in darkness.

We were spotted by a Jap seaplane just had we got under way again.

Between 4-30. 5-0 P.M we sighted smoke on the horizon off the Port Bow. It was a convoy.

Lt Wilkingson (sic) asked if anyone could recognise if any of the warships were Jap.

Informed him that I had served two years on the China Station, 1936-1938 and was familiar with Jap warships.

He told me to come to the bridge, and then handed me his telescope.

I saw one Jap light cruiser and two Jap destroyers, without looking for any more, I told him they were Japanese.

He then asked me if I had any doubt, I told him “none whatever”.

The convoy was about 10 mile away, and I was told to report back to the gun.

Captain Wilkingson’s words to us was this:-

“A Jap convoy is ahead, I am going to attack it, we will take as many of those Jap Bastards, as possible, with us.

Those words I will never forget, they have always been fixed clearly in my mind.

I returned to the gun, AND I CHECKED THE AMMUNITION, AND REPORTED IT FROM THE GUN, TO CAPTAIN WILKINGSON.

My report to him was this.

SIX SEM-ARMOUR PIERCING SHELLS.

FOUR GRAZE FUSE SHELLS.

THREE A.A. SHELLS.

He replied :- “Gunlayer, is that all the ammunition you have”?

I answered :- “Yes Sir”, thirteen shells in all, plus three practice shell.”

How or why 13 practice shells came into it, I don’t know, all I can assume is this.

Possibly, it was because for most of the crew, it was their first taste of action, and I know the effect it has on many.

Admitted there was thrteen shells, but they were 6. S.A.P. 4 GRAZE FUSE and 3. A.A.

I do not class a practice shell as shell for action.

Do you think that I can ever forget that moment.

The hopelessness of knowing that I had only six shells that could do any damage, and realising that two shells would probably be wasted before we found the range and target.

The “Li Woo’s” Gunnery Officer joined us, Captain Wilkinson’s name is the only one I remember.

The Gunnery Officer was Ginger headed, I believe he was a New Zealander.

I had a hurried conference with him, and said to him :-

“Look Sir, I have only six shells that can do any damage, four that can do harm if we fire at the super structure as anti personel shells, then our last hope is to set the A.A. shells at Fuse 2 and hope for the best.”

I also pointed out, that unless we were lucky with our first shot, as all we had was “Gunlayers Control”, “Gunlayers Firing”, with no range Finder and no Inclanometre to help, we might waste two shells at least, before we were on target, should we use the practice shells as our ranging shots?”

He paused for a moment, then replied: “it might be a good idea, but then again it might not, as if we can get in close enough, and we find our target, it is a wasted effort.” I received the order to load with S.A.P.

Approx. half an hour later we engaged the enemy.

Our selected target was a transport of between four to five thousand tons.

At an estimated range of four thousand yards, deflection six left, we opened fire.

The first shell was over target.

I ordered, “Fixed Sight, Rapid Salvos.” I know that at least three of our remaining five S.A.P. shells, were bang on target, as fire broke out on her immediately.

Soon she was blazing furiously. In less than two minutes our ammunition was expended.

Captain Wilkinson selected another target, the ship nearest to him, about 800 tons and deliberately rammed and sank it.

We were now among the Jap convoy, helpless, drifting, and no ammo.

I will never forget another hero of this action, a man unknown, unsung, unpraised.

An R.A.F. sargeant who manned the Vickers Lewis Gun, from the time the ship left Singapore, to when the “Li Woo” sank.

It was his deadly accurate fire, that wipe (sic) out the four man gun’s crew aboard the Jap transport we rammed.

The enemy’s gun was about 30 to 40 M.Metre. It was this gun that caused our first casualties.

I myself was wounded in the chest. The R.A.F. Sargent then swept the bridge and decks with his deadly fire, killing many.

He then opened up on another transport about 200 yards away.

The Jap convoy cleared away from us, and we came under fire from the Jap warships.

It was a fearful experience as it took the Japs five to ten minutes to find our range, their gunnery was lousy, and the noise of their shells whistling overhead, always expecting the next one to land inboard, knowing that we had to just sit there and take it, and and the helplessness of not being able to do anything about it.

When they eventually found our range, it was all over.

The “Li-Woo” listed to Starboard and sank stern first.

When we survivors were swimming in the water, the Japs transports closed in. I myself was on one of two rafts which for safety we had tied together. The transports came towards us, and picked up their own survivors, we were then under the impression when they came slowly at us that they were going to pick us up as well.

But we were in for a shock. They came right at us and deliberately rammed us but we realise just before, what their intentions were, and hastily dived into the sea.

With my own eyes, and there are times when the memory of it is most vivid, I saw that transport go among a group of survivors, and mamouver amongst them with churning screws, killing at least a dozen.

It was only the sudden darkness that saved us.

We succeeded in regaining the rafts, and all night we could see the transport we set on fire blazing fiercely.

The following afternoon,

Sunday 15th Feb

 we were picked up by other survivors who were in a boat, with a sail and oars.

It was badly holed, and the gunwales was four inches above the water.

It was only its buoyancy tanks keeping it afloat.

Just after sunrise on Monday

100 additional Japanese paratroopers arrived at Palembang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, helping with the securing oil refineries and other facilities. 200 kilometers to the south, British troop transport Ocrades arrives at Oosthaven with 3,400 Australian troops, but the ship would continue on to Java without disembarking the troops. North of Palembang, Japanese troops disembarked at the mouth of the Musi River; the British RAF interfered by attacking the landing with over 50 aircraft, sinking 20 landing craft and killing 100 Japanese. Finally, in the Bangka Strait, Japanese naval gunfire sank British tug HMS Yin Ping; 50 were killed, 25 survived17 Feb 1942

 

16th Feb, 1942,

we were washed ashore.

My shipmate C.P.O Rogers was in the sailing boat.

We seemed to separate in groups, just aimlessly walking around the Island, there were four of us in the group I was in, C.P.O Rogers was one of them.

Late that afternoon we ran into a Jap patrol and was taken prisioner.

A few days later I met L/Smn Adley, and Bennett, they also had run into a Jap patrol, but were not so fortunate as we were.

The Jap patrol opened fire on them, L/Smn Adley was shot in the arm, and Ldg/ Smn Bennett was bayonetted.

That is my story, nothing added, nothing exaggerated.

My one intention, and the only reason why I have written this down, is that the facts should be known, in fact must be known to all, the courage and bravery, and the great achievement accomplished by Lt. Wilkingson V.C. of H.M.S Li-Woo, on Saturday 14th February 1942, against tremendous odds.

I was on the gun deck, during the short journey from Singapore to the end of the “Li-Woo”.

I was the Gunlayer. I will state most emphatically, that to the best of my knowledge, there was no member of the “Li-Woo s” original crew, a member of that gun’s crew.

How can a practise shell cause a transport vessel to burst into flames?

Sunday afternoon we could see her, an abandoned, floating, blackened wreck, smoking slightly.

Do you think it possible?

I will willingly travel to London and undergo any interrogation you wish to put me through. But please, I beg of you, please see that “Lt. Wilkingson V.C. gets the credit that is due to him.

Is this too much to ask, for a man who made the Supreme Sacrifice, and who won the Highest Award that his Country could bestow upon him?

It was my intention after seeing the model of the “Li-Woo” to get in touch with C.P.O. Rogers. I believe that he resides at Bristol, but for the time being, I have decided against it, so that you can have the opportunity to check my story, without any collusion between C.P.O. Rogers or any one else, with me.

I swear to you on oath, that since the war ended, I have not seen or communicated with any of the “Li-Woo” survivors.

There is a lot more details, small ones, that I can give you, but, my aim is, as I have stated previously, Let “Lt Wilkingson V.C. have the just credit due to him, and the facts put right.

Yours sincerely,

T.H. Parsons

E/34 Room

Chace Guildhouse

London Rd

Coventry.

Late Leading Seaman T.H.PARSONS

D/JX.143539

P.S AFTER READING MY STORY WOULD YOU PLEASE PASS ON TO NAVAL RECORDS.


Follow up

HOUSE OF COMMONS

LONDON SWLA 0AA

01-219 4166

From:

The Rt Hon. James Callaghan, MP. 8th January 1986

 

Dear Mr Parsons,

Thank you for your letter with the account of your service in the Far East during the last war. First, allow me to congratulate you on the determination and courage you showed throughout the period.

I will readily take up the matter up with the Ministry of Defence in order to secure a statement from the Admiralty that you took part in the “Li-Wo” action but will not do so until you have been to see me in Cardiff on 18th January, at the offices of the GMBATU, 17 Newport Road, between 10.00 and 11.00 a.m.

I shall look forward to seeing you then, when we can discuss any additional points that need to be put forward.

Yours sincerely,

(Signed Jim Callaghan)


 

This is to certify

that

LEADING SEAMAN THOMAS HENRY PARSONS D/JX 143539

On the 14th February 1942

took part in the action when his Majesty’s Patrol Ship

LI-WO whilst on patrol duty off Singapore, gallantly

engaged the superior forces of the enemy, inflicting

significant damage on a convoy of troopships before being

sunk by a Japanese cruiser. The heroism and self sacrifice

of the many who died and the few who survived were in the

highest traditions of the Royal Navy.

George Younger

20th February 1986 SECRETARY OF STATE FOR DEFENCE

 

 

 

February 15, 1942.

Battle of Singapore, British Surrender. Lt.-Gen. Yamashita (seated, centre) thumps the table with his fist to emphasize his terms — unconditional surrender. Lt.-Gen. Percival sits between his officers, his clenched hand to his mouth. (Photo from Imperial War Museum)

February,17th.1942

Japanese carrier aircraft from Ryujo sank Dutch destroyer HMNS Van Nes, escorting Dutch troopship Sloet van Beele, in the Bangka Strait; 69 were killed, 60 survived

By 18th February,

 the evacuation from Sumatra to Java of air force pilots and ground staff had been completed and more than 10,000 men belonging to different units, and in a great state of confusion, had arrived in the island.

To add to the difficulties of the situation, the civilians in Java, who up till the landing of the Japanese on Singapore Island had shown calmness and confidence, now began to give way to despair and were soon crowding on to any vessel they could find which would take them away from a country they regarded as lost.

The confusion brought about by the mass of outgoing refugees and incoming reinforcements is more easily imagined than described, and the scenes enacted a few days before in Singapore were reproduced on an even larger scale in Batavia. Equipment, motor transport, abandoned cars, goods of every size, description and quality, littered its choked quays, and still troops and air force ground staff poured in, hungry, disorganized and, for the moment, useless. Inevitably their spirits and discipline suffered, and the climax was reached when it became necessary to disband one half-trained unit.

These few were the only men for whom the burden proved insupportable. The rest rose gallantly to their hopeless task and under the stimulus of Air Vice-Marshal Maltby and Air Commodore W. E. Staton, overcame the chaotic circumstances of their lot and in less than twelve days were ready to renew a hopeless contest.

The fighter strength available had, by the 18th, been reduced to twenty-five Hurricanes, of which eighteen were serviceable.

The bomber and reconnaissance squadrons were in equally desperate case. At Semplak airfield, twelve Hudsons, and at Kalidjati, six Blenheims, sought to sustain the war. Behind them, No. 153 Maintenance Unit and No. 81 Repair and Salvage Unit, together with No. 41 Air Stores Park, did what they could to provide and maintain a ground organization. On 19th February all the Blenheims available, to the number of five, attacked Japanese shipping at Palembang in Sumatra, and this attack was repeated

 on the 20th and 21st,

a 10,000 ton ship being set on fire.

On the 19th and 22ndFebruary 1942

 the Japanese delivered two ripostes at Semplak which proved fatal. Of the dwindling force of bomber aircraft, fifteen were destroyed. Yet even after this crushing blow the Air Force still had some sting

 left. On 23rd February,

 three Blenheims claimed to have sunk a Japanese submarine off the coast.

By then the hopes originally entertained by Wavell and the Chiefs of Staff in London of building up the strength of the Allies in Java had been abandoned; Supreme Allied Headquarters had left the island and handed over to the Dutch Command, to which henceforward the remains of the Air Force looked for guidance and orders.

They came from General ter Poorten, who had as his Chief of Air Staff, Major General van Oyen. Under the swiftly developing menace of invasion, these officers, with Maltby and General H. D. W. Sitwell, made what preparations they could to maintain the defence. Despite the encouraging messages which they received about this time from the Prime Minister, the Secretary of State for Air and the Chief of the Air Staff, Maltby and Sitwell knew that no help from the outside could be expected for a long time.

General ter Poorten had under him some 25,000 regular troops backed up by a poorly armed militia numbering 40,000. Sitwell could count only upon a small number of British troops, two Australian infantry battalions, four squadrons of light tanks and three antiaircraft regiments, of which the 21st Light accounted for some thirty Japanese aircraft before the end came. On the sea, Admiral Dorman commanded a small mixed force of which the main units were a British, an Australian, an American and two Dutch cruisers.

No breathing space for the organization of these inadequate and ill-armed forces was afforded by the enemy.

 

On 26th February,

 a Japanese convoy, numbering more than fifty transports with a strong naval escort, was discovered by air reconnaissance to be moving through the Macassar Strait southwards towards the Java Sea.

On the next day, Admiral Dorman put out to meet it. Hopelessly outgunned and outnumbered he fought a most gallant action and lost his entire fleet, a sacrifice which secured a respite of twenty-four hours. Subsequent to the naval battle the Air Force attacked twenty-eight ships of the convoy eventually found north of Rembang

by No. 1 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force,

 being close to the runway, were taken off under fire and reached a nearby airfield at Andir. Kalidjati had fallen; a small ground defence party composed of Army and Air Force officers and men, ably supported by the local Dutch defence force, fought with great gallantry to defend it and died to the last man.

Their efforts were, however, of no avail, for they had been surprised by the swift move of the Japanese who, after landing at Eretanwetan in the early hours of that morning, had encountered no opposition on the ground either on the beaches or at the various strong points covering the river crossings.

The fact was that by then conditions in Java were too confused and desperate to make further defence anything but local and spasmodic.

Nevertheless the Air Force struggled on for a few more days. Nos. 232 and 605 (Fighter) Squadrons had remained in action from

the 17th to 27th February

 doing their utmost to conduct the air defence of Batavia. The normal odds which they were required to meet were about ten to one and they had little warning of the approach of enemy aircraft.

Their task would have been eased and might, perhaps, have been successfully accomplished had they received as reinforcements the P.40 fighters carried on the U.S. aircraft carrier Langley.

 After considerable delays this ship had been ordered to sail for the Javanese port of Tjilitjap. She set out on what was a forlorn hope and as soon as she came within range of Japanese bomber and torpedo aircraft based on Kendari in the Celebes, she was attacked and sunk.

By noon on 28th February

the total strength of the fighters was less than that of a single squadron, but still the hopeless fight continued. It was decided to retain No. 232 Squadron, under the command of Squadron Leader Brooker, since all its pilots and ground staff had volunteered to remain in Java. Vacancies were filled by volunteers from No. 605 and on 1st March the reconstructed squadron, in the company of ten Dutch Kittyhawks and six Dutch Buffalos, all that remained of a most gallant and skilled Air Force which had been in constant action

on the night of the 28th February.

 It was in this action, in which a small force of American Fortresses took part, that Squadron Leader Wilkins, the outstanding commander of No. 36 Squadron, was killed. The squadron claimed to have sunk eight ships; the Americans, seven.

Feb-March, 1942: HMAS BURNIE – last ship to leave Sumatra, second last to leave Java. Photostream acquisition.

4238. Built at Mort’s Dock, Balmain [Sydney] on the British Admiralty’s account, and commissioned on April 10, 1941, HMAS BURNIE had been one of the small and gallant band of RAN corvettes that remained behind to pick up rearguards and stragglers as the Dutch East Indies fell to the advancing might of Japan in early 1942.

With powerful Japanese units all around them, they and a group of Dutch ships, including the minesweeper ABRAHAM CRIJNSSEN see pic Nos 985-6], had run the gauntlet of the circling enemy to safely reach Australia, an escape that the sloop HMAS YARRA and two her convoy charges [see preceding entry] had tragically failed to make. Pic NO. 985, showing ABRAHAM CRIJNSSEN disguising herself with vegeatation as an island, is here:

www.flickr.com/photos/41311545@N05/4327771396/

From Feb. 18-20, 1942

during the evacuation of Sumatra, HMAS BURNIE had stood off Oosthaven where, after laying demolition charges, she had embarked the rearguards and taken them to Tanjong Priok. She was the last Allied ship to leave Sumatra. On the way out at Java Head she and HMAS BENDIGO rescued survivors from the torpedoed Dutch ship BOERO and carried them to Tjilatjap.

Subsequently, with Commodore John Collins, RAN, and the former captain of HMS PRINCE OF WALES, Captain Leonard Bell, RN, embarked, BURNIE was also, with HMAS BALLARAT, one of the last two ships to get out of Java [see preceding entries]. BALLARAT had turned back to scuttle the small and unserviceable British minesweeper HMS GEMAS that had turned up just as they were leaving Harbour, and embarked her crew. Thus BALLARAT became to last ship to leave Java.

BURNIE was later with the British pacific Fleet at Okinawa. After the war, moving to Royal Navy control in 1946, she was sold to the Royal Netherlands Navy, and was re-named CERAM. She was finally decommissioned in 1958.

a Dutch ship called the SS Rooseboom that sailed from Padang on the island of Java 

on 26th February 1942,

 bound for Columbo in what was then Ceylon. Padang was, at that time, the last port on the official escape route for Allied troops and civilians from Singapore and Malaya. 

 

 

Dai Nippon Syonanto(Singapore) Postalhistory

including Sumatra area(1942-1943)

Singapore Postal History(Sumatra under Dai Nippon center Singapore)

 

 

 

 

March 1942

 

THE CAMPAIGN IN JAVA AND SUMATRA, FEBRUARY – MARCH 1942

On 1 March 1942 at 11.35pm the Rooseboom was steaming west of Sumatra

 

On 1 March 1942 at 11.35pm

 the Rooseboom was steaming west of Sumatra when it was spotted by the Japanese submarine I-59 and torpedoed. It capsized and sank rapidly leaving one life boat (designed to hold 28) and 135 people in the water. 80 people were in the lifeboat the rest clung to flotsam or floated in the sea. Two of these survivors, one of whom was a Corporal Walter Gibson, were picked up nine days later by the Dutch freighter Palopo. Until the end of the Second World War they were assumed to be the only survivors. Sadly, Robert Kingshott did not survive and his body was never recovered. The reason that I mention Walter Gibson, is that he wrote an account of his survival which demonstrates the conditions he, and others, endured in the days following the sinking.

 

According to Gibson in and around the lifeboat were an estimated 135 survivors, many with injuries, including Gibson himself who was in the lifeboat due to those injuries. By the time the boat had drifted for more than 1,000 miles, to ground on a coral reef, less than 100 miles from Padang, Rooseboom’s starting point, only five of its 80 passengers remained alive, and one of those drowned in the surf while trying to land.

 

In Gibson’s account the ordeal that followed the sinking showed the worst of human nature under some of the most extreme conditions. On the first night many of those in the water drowned or gave up. Some twenty men built a raft from flotsam and towed it behind the boat. The raft slowly sank and all twenty perished three days later. In the first few days discipline collapsed men and women went mad with thirst, some drinking sea water which sent them into hallucinations. Many threw themselves overboard rather than face further suffering, and a gang of five renegade soldiers positioned themselves in the bows and at night systematically pushed the weaker survivors overboard to make the meagre rations go further. Gibson claims to have organized an attack on the renegades with a group of others who rushed them and pushed them en masse into the sea. Brigadier Paris died, hallucinating before he fell into his final coma. The Dutch captain was killed by one of his own engineers. Towards the end Gibson realized that all who remained alive were himself, another white man, a Chinese girl named Doris Lin (who turned out to be a secret agent for the British) and four Javanese seamen. That night the Javanese attacked the other white man and started to eat him alive. Later the oldest Javanese died.

 

The lifeboat eventually landed on Sipora, an island off Sumatra and only 100 miles from Padang, where the Rooseboom started its journey 30 days earlier. One of the Javanese seaman drowned in the surf whilst the other two disappeared into the jungle and have never been found. After a period of being treated by some of the local population Doris Lin and Gibson were discovered by a Japanese patrol. Gibson was returned to Padang as a prisoner of war while Lin was shot as a spy soon afterwards. 

 

It is not clear at what point Robert died, but I would hope that his death was quick and as painless as possible.

 

Robert was my 5th cousin once removed

Soyrce: Jan Brian Kingshot

On the 1st March 1942 she was scuttled on the coast of Madura oppositeon march ist at the coast madura

By 1st March1942,

 the position became clear enough after the confusion of the previous two days. The convoy which No. 36 Squadron had attacked was one of three all making for Java. What remained of the Blenheims and Hudsons after the bombing of Semplak, took off from Kalidjati whither they had been transferred, and did their best to interfere with the Japanese landing at Eretanwetan, some eighty miles from Batavia.

They went in again and again, some pilots being able to make three sorties, and accounted for at least three and possibly eight ships, but they could not prevent the landing.

By dawn on 1st March

the bomber crews, who had operated almost without a break for thirty-six hours, were approaching the limit of endurance.

 Hardly had they dispersed, however, to seek the rest which had at last been given them, when the Dutch squadrons sharing their airfield left without notice.

The Dutch aircraft had just disappeared into the clear morning air when a squadron of Japanese light tanks, supported by lorry-borne infantry, made their appearance.

 The exhausted pilots of No. 84 Squadron, who had by then reached their billets eight miles away, had no time to return to their aircraft, which were in consequence all destroyed or captured; but the last four Hudsons possessed



THE CAMPAIGN IN JAVA AND SUMATRA, FEBRUARY – MARCH 1942

 

beside the Royal Air Force, attacked the Japanese, who were engaged on two new landings begun that night at Eretanwetan.

 Despite intense anti-aircraft fire, twelve Hurricanes went in low and inflicted heavy losses on Japanese troops in barges and set on fire six small sloops and three tanks. They also caused a certain number of casualties and a certain amount of damage to the Japanese troops going ashore at another point on the west coast of Java.

Though the Royal Air Force could hamper the landings and increase their cost in terms of casualties, they could not prevent them, and the next day saw the Hurricanes pinned to their airfield at Tjililitan, whence they were withdrawn with some difficulty to Andir, near Bandoeng. During the withdrawal they maintained a running fight with Japanese fighters.

The last remnants of the Air Force maintained the fight for another three days, attacking the newly captured airfield at Kalidjati

Robert is recorded as dying “at sea”

 on 2nd March 1942.

Robert William George Kingshott was a Warrant Officer Class II with 7 Coast Regiment, Royal Artillery. His service number was 840146.

 

 

on the nights of the 3rd, 4th and 5th March.

These assaults were made by the remaining Vildebeests of No. 36 (Torpedo Bomber) Squadron, of which only two were serviceable when the end came. On the morning of the 6th, they were ordered to seek the dubious safety of Burma, but both crashed in Sumatra and were lost. At the same time the gallant remnant of No. 1 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, took its three remaining Hudsons to Australia.

In Java, as in Malaya, the attitude of the local white population contributed in no small measure to the swift and overwhelming disaster. The feelings of the Dutch in Java can best be described as those of confused despair.

The island on which they lived and from which they drew the source of their great wealth had been at peace for many generations.

Now, the prospect of the destruction by fire and high explosive of all that had been built up and handed on to them from the past stared them in the face and their hearts misgave them. If any great show of resistance were to be made, Surabaya and Bandoeng would burn.

Why then make it, when the chances of success were infinitesimal? When it is remembered that the chief Far Eastern bastion of an ally far stronger than they were had fallen after a bare fortnight’s siege, their attitude is understandable.

 It was, however, responsible for the grim scenes which were enacted during the last few hours of resistance. ‘I was in command that morning’, records an officer of the Royal Air Force writing of the events of the last day, ‘of a big convoy with all the remaining spare arms, ammunition and such-like equipment of the Royal Air Force in Java. We practically had to fight our way through the mess to prevent the lorries being forcibly stopped, and get them, according to our orders, up on to the hill roads where we understood—poor mutts—that at last we would have another go at the Nips’.

The surrender of Java was thus a foregone conclusion as soon as the Japanese had set firm foot upon the island.

Nevertheless it took place in circumstances which, to say the least of it, showed little consideration towards the armed forces, ill-armed and ill-prepared though they were.

On 5th March,

 ter Poorten convened a conference in Bandoeng which was attended, amongst others, by Maltby and the Army Commander, Sitwell. At this meeting, the Dutch Commander-in-Chief painted a picture of the situation which could not  have been more gloomy.

 Bandoeng, he said, might fall at any moment, and if its outer defences were pierced, he did not propose to defend the town.

 The native Indonesians were very hostile to the Dutch and this hostility made it quite impossible to retire to the hills and there carry on a guerilla war. Nevertheless, though he himself was prepared to surrender, he would, he said, issue orders to the local Dutch commanders to maintain the fight.

He had, he averred, instructed his troops not only to do so, but also to disregard any order which he might be compelled to issue calling upon them to lay down their arms.

 In the event, when discussing the final terms of surrender with General Maruyama, the Japanese Commander-in-Chief, the Dutch Commander subsequently withdrew this order to disobey orders.

The attitude of ter Poorten does not seem to have been shared by General Schilling, commanding at Batavia, who was prepared to emulate the selfless gallantry of Admiral Dorman, but who did not possess enough weight to influence the general situation.

 After some discussion, the Dutch Commander-in-Chief was induced to name an area north of Santosa as the spot where British forces should concentrate for a final stand, but he made no secret of his opinion that to do so would be folly or worse.

That grim evening, therefore, Maltby and Sitwell were brought face to face with the imminence of disaster. One slender hope remained. General Schilling, who had not been present at the conference, was understood to favour a retreat to the hills in south-west Java whither, it was said, he had already been able to transfer a certain quantity of stores and ammunition with the courageous intention of prolonging resistance.

Hardly had this faint flame been kindled, when it expired. Ter Poorten made any such move impossible by making Schilling responsible for the defence of Bandoeng while at the same time issuing orders that it was not to be defended, and forbidding any further fighting.

The two British officers took what counsel they could together. The surrender of some of those under their command, those for example at the airfield of Andir, was inevitable.

Andir was part of Bandoeng which had been declared an open town, and the officers and other ranks at Poerwokerta had neither rations nor arms. Their position was, in the circumstances, hopeless. For the rest, Santosa seemed to offer the only chance but, when reconnoitred, it was found to be quite unsuitable for defence and to be inhabited by Dutchmen who had obviously no intention of continuing the struggle.

Throughout this confused period, matters were further complicated by the efforts made to evacuate as many men of the Royal Air Force as could be got away. They left from Poerwokerta, priority of passage being accorded to aircrews and technical staff.

 

 By 5th March

seven out of twelve thousand had been taken off, but by then no more ships were available for they had all been sunk and about 2,500 of the air force awaiting evacuation were therefore left stranded in the transit camp.

In these attempts to send away as many skilled men as possible the Dutch gave but little help.

They could not be brought to realize that our airmen were quite unpractised as soldiers and would be of far greater value playing their part as trained members of an aircrew or as technicians on the ground, in some other theatre of war, than they would be trying, without arms or food, to stage a last stand.

Santosa being unsuitable, about 8,000 mixed English and Australian forces, of whom some 1,300 belonged to the Royal Air Force, were concentrated at Garoet; here, too, the Dutch District Civil Administrator, Koffman, proved unsympathetic.

 He feared what he described as ‘a massacre of the whites’ if any guerrilla warfare were attempted, and made no effort to collect supplies or to give any aid to the British forces which had so inconveniently arrived in his district. They were by then in a sorry plight and by then, too, the last embers of resistance in the air had expired.

 

 By 7th March,

 only two undamaged Hurricanes were left and on that day these, the last representatives of a fighter force which, during the campaign in Sumatra and Java, had accounted for about forty aircraft, their own losses amounting to half as much again, were destroyed.

On the next day, 8th, Match 1942

came the inevitable climax. About 9 a.m., to their great astonishment, the British commanders received a translation of a broadcast, made an hour previously by ter Poorten, in which he said that all organized resistance in Java had ceased, and that the troops under his command were no longer to continue the fight.

The Dutch land forces, in striking contrast to their Navy and Air Force, had capitulated almost without a struggle. They felt themselves to be no match for the Japanese.

This broadcast revoked all previous decisions and was ter Poorten’s final word. Maltby and Sitwell were placed in an impossible position.

 A decision of decisive import had been taken and promulgated without reference to them.

If, however, they decided to disregard it, their troops, should they continue the struggle, would, under international law, be subject to summary execution when captured. They had few arms, and what there were, were in the hands of men untrained to them; they were surrounded by a hostile native populace, with little food and, for drinking, they had nothing but contaminated water.

 In such conditions and with medicine-chests empty, they were in no state to carry on the fight. Moreover their whereabouts and intentions were well known to the enemy.

 In these circumstances, the two commanders had no alternative but to comply with the Dutch Commander-in-Chief’s order to surrender. Four days later they negotiated terms with the Japanese commander in Bandoeng, Lieutenant General Maruyama. He undertook to treat all prisoners in accordance with the terms of the Geneva Convention of 1929.

How they subsequently fared can be gathered from a description of the arrival in Batavia two years later of a contingent which had been sent to one of the numerous islands of the Malayan archipelago, there to work on airfields.

 It has been set down by a squadron leader, once a Member of Parliament, who survived the horrors of Java, horrors which were repeated in Malaya, in Siam, in Korea, in Japan—anywhere where the Japanese were in control of unarmed and defenceless men—and is one of the few printable pages of a diary kept intermittently during his captivity and hidden from his gaolers:

Of all the sights thatI would like to forget [he writes]I think I would put first some of these returning island drafts being driven into Batavia . . . Imagine a series of barbed wire compounds in the dark with ourselves a gathering furtive stream of all races East and West, in every kind of clothing or none; here an old tunic in rags with a pair of cut down pyjama trousers, there a blanketed shivering malaria case or someone with night-blindness groping along with a stick, blundering over gypsy bundles of still sleeping prisoners.

 At the side runs a camp road with one high floodlight and all of us waiting to see if any of our friends have made the grade and returned.

At last a long procession of stooping figures creeps down the road with jabbering Nips cracking at their shins with a rifle or the flat of a sword. Most of them half naked, and they leading those going blind with pellagra.

Others shambling along with their feet bound up in lousy rags over tropical sores (not our little things an inch across but real horrors), legs swollen up or half paralysed with beri-beri, enormous eyes fallen into yellow crumpled faces like aged gnomes.

 And then a search—God knows what for after months in a desert and weeks at sea. Some Jap would rush up and down hurling anything any of them still possessed all over the place, while as sure as the clock, the dreadful hopeless rain would begin again like a lunatic helplessly fouling his bed.

 Everything swilling into the filthy racing storm gutters; men trying to reach out and rescue a bit of kit and being picked up and hurled bodily back into the ranks; others clutching hold of a wife’s photo or suchlike souvenir of home, small hope for the Nips always liked pinching and being obscene about a woman’s picture.

And at last after two or three hours when everyone was soaking and shivering with cold, the dreary, hunted column would crawl down the road out of the patch of light where the great atlas moths disputed with the bats, away into an isolation compound, with no light, no food, no knowledge of where to find a tap or latrine, with wet bedding or none at all.

The Nips would disappear laughing and cackling back to bed, we faded away to our floor space and all was quiet again; and the evening or the morning was the eight or nine hundredth day and God no doubt saw that it was good.

In few respects does a nation show itself in its true colours more clearly than in its treatment of enemies who have the misfortune to fall into its hands.

 To describe as bestial the behaviour of the Japanese towards their prisoners of war of whatever race or rank is an insult to the animal world.

Of the thousands of Royal Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force officers and airmen who fell into Japanese hands in Malaya, Sumatra, Java and later Burma, 3,462 only were found alive, after due retribution had fallen from the skies above Hiroshima upon the sons of Nippon.

Not by any means all the Air Force was captured in Java. Some, as has been related, were successfully taken by ship to Australia, and a small number to Ceylon. By a combination of good fortune and stern courage a still smaller number escaped.

 Of these, the most remarkable was Wing Commander J. R. Jeudwine, commanding No. 84 Squadron, which it will be recalled lost the last of its Blenheims at the capture of Kalidjati.

Such pilots and ground staff as remained had been sent to the port of Tjilitjap, there to be taken by ship to Australia.

 No ship, however, was forthcoming; the port was in flames, and the ‘Scorpion’, the only seaworthy vessel to be found, was a ship’s lifeboat capable of holding at most twelve.

To try to avoid capture by taking to the woods and jungles near the shore there to await rescue by submarine offered a slender chance.

To seek that help in an open boat seemed certain death. Jeudwine and ten others chose this course and boarded the ‘Scorpion’. Flying Officer C. P. L. Streatfield alone knew the elements of sailing; Pilot Officer S. G. Turner could handle a sextant and was chosen as navigator; the remainder of the crew was made up of another officer and seven Australian sergeants.

On the evening of 7th March,

they put to sea, bound for Australia which the navigator calculated would take sixteen days. It took forty-seven. Through all that time they never lost heart, though as day after day passed in blazing sun or torrential rain, the chances of reaching land grew smaller and smaller.

They played games, held competitions, but found ‘that the mental exercise made us very hungry and that talking and arguing brought on thirst’. Saturday night at sea was kept religiously, a ration of liquor being issued, which was found on closer investigation to be a patent cough cure.

 Their worst experience was the visit paid to them by a young whale, about twice the size of the ‘Scorpion’, who came to rest lying in a curve with its tail under the boat.

 ‘Eventually it made off, and when we had regained the power of movement, we passed round a bottle of Australian “3 Star” Brandy . . . after which we did not care if we saw elephants, pink or otherwise, flying over us in tight formation’. At long last, they sighted land near Frazer Islet, were found by a Catalina flying boat of the United States Navy, and taken to Perth. An American submarine sent at once to Java found no sign of their comrades.

Such men as these typify the spirit of the less fortunate who had fought to the end in circumstances which, from the very beginning, made victory impossible, and even prolonged defence out of the question. It was through no fault of theirs that they did not accomplish more.

The straits to which they were reduced, flying unsuitable aircraft in the worst conditions, were soon reproduced on the same scale farther north. How the Air Force fared in the first campaign of Burma must now be told

8th March 1942

Status of land still owned Sultanate fortress, but the de facto held by the Dutch government. Because of the strong Dutch influence the Sultanate party can not do much in overcoming the problem of possession of the fort. Until finally the Japanese Army troops occupied the fort in 1942 after the Dutch surrendered to the Japanese with marked with kalijati Agreement in March 1942 in West Java.

March,12th.1942

On Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, Japanese troops landed at Sabang at 0235 hours, Koetaradja at 0330 hours, Idi at 0540, and Laboehanroekoe at 0700 hours. They would capture the airfield at Medan in the morning

 

 

 

 

16th March 1942

 

 

 

 

The postal service in Singapore re-opened on 16th March 1942,

Japanese Occupation of Malaya

a display by Susan McEwen  17th January 2009

Susan’s display comprised three rounds, with a great deal of interest during the viewing. Some pictures of the display below are followed by some notes from Susan with scans and notes about five items.

 

 

Introduction.

A display of this subject needs to start with an expression of our respect to those who endured the occupation, and lived through that difficult time.  Philatelically it was a time of Overprints, provisional postmarks and a lack of documentation which means we have to rely on the material for information.  Work by previous collectors is much appreciated and acknowledged.

Approach for the display:

Topics of interest to me, which hopefully hang together to tell the story of the Occupation.  Covering the stamp, postal history, postal stationery and Revenues of the occupation.

A full report will appear in the May edition of the Newsletter.

Meanwhile here are a few scans and notes relating to them.

1.      The postal service in Singapore re-opened on 16th March 1942, this card shows Double frame chops to convert it to Occupation use, posted 17th March  2nd day.

2.      Cover to show issued Single frame chop stamps and a ‘Request’ stamp, the 6c red. The Japanese would convert on request some, but not all, pre-occupation stamps to Japanese use by handstamping them with SFC, at a charge of the face value of the stamp.  Surely only philatelists would bother to have stamps converted in this way, someone just wanting to post a letter could buy a stamp at face value, rather than take his own stamps for converting.

3.      Photo postcard, endorsed on the back ‘Parade through Market Street Bentong, Pahang’  can anyone confirm the location ?

 

4.      Straits stamps converted to Occupation use with Single frame chops, in red, used at Medan in the  Japanese Occupied East Indies.  Initially the Sumatra part of DEI was administered from Singapore,  later  when Sumatra had its own postal administration Japanese-Malayan stamps were still accepted.

5.      Most of the post during the occupation was within the peninsular of Malaya.  This cover is from Singapore (CDS SYONAN 17.5.17)to Sarawak.  The note ‘In Romanise’ means the letter is written in Romanised Malay, not Jawi, and is information for the censor.

. Digest of operations

17th – 19th March 1942

Preparations for the assault on Batavia continue. Several BB taskforces have bombarded the port, causing widespread damage on military facilities. Collateral damage is minimal, due to selective targeting. The worlds leading battleship – the Yamato – has joined in the attacks.

Teloekbetoeng on nearby Sumatra was also bombarded by several taskforces. CA’s Mogami and Chokai report excellent gunnery and considerable damage to the colonial defenders.

Pomala in the Celebes fell on the 18th. A starving Dutch occupying force readily laid down their arms.

On the Kokoda track near Port Moresby, a large detachment of Australian troops surrendered early in the afternoon on March 19th. The remainder of the Port Moresby brigade have been located nearby and are likely to be rounded up shortly.

Headline Japan Times:-

YAMATO PREPARES FOR SEA TRIALS AT KURE! DESTINATION RESTRICTED BUT CHURCHILL AND ROOSEVELT BEWARE!

March,22th 1942

By 22 Mar,

 the Japanese had routed many Dutch resistance pockets, while Muslim uprisings, sparked by the Japanese invasion, seriously hampered Dutch efforts. The Muslim rebels were threatening civilian evacuation columns at every opportunity, while providing every piece of intelligence they gathered to the Japanese. Morale soon plummeted, and desertions became more frequent across all resistance groups.

 

 

 

22 March 1942

A military spokesman for Southeast Asia Command announced this evening that Batavia, last significant Allied stronghold in the Dutch East Indies, has fallen to the Japanese.

 Under constant air, sea and land bombardment for the last two weeks the postition of the defenders had been adjudged all but hopeless and had been anticipated as likely to occur at any time. “The troops fought on inspite of having no reasonable expectation of relief or rescue and thereby imposed a decisive delay in the enemy’s timetable of conquest.”

The garrison of slightly under 20,000 was composed of mostly Dutch forces but contained small contingents of British and Australian troops. Well over 100,000 enemy troops were involved in the final assault.

A small taste of what is to come saw Allied heavy bombers based in India smashing at a Japanese column advancing in North Burma and at their main supply base in Mandalay.

At Mandalay several enemy aircraft were destroyed on the ground and numerous supply dumps were seen to explode and burn furiously.

The enemy column hit the previous day lost a large number of tanks to the bombers. Neither attack was seriously opposed in the air by Japanese aircraft.

At sea two days ago, Allied ships damaged a Japanese submarine approxiamately 100 miles WSW of Ceylon. A large oil slick was observed before contact was broken off.

Operations between 20th to 22nd March 1942

BATAVIA FALLS! JAVA JOINS THE GREATER EAST ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE!

Java

After several further BB bombardments, elements from a numer of elite infantry divisions stormed Batavia

on the morning of the 22nd.

Facing only light resistance, first the Chinese then the European districts were taken within several hours. By early afternoon, the Dutch high command signalled a request for cessation of hostilities. It is estimated that well over twenty thousand prisoners of war have been taken. However it is understood that leading members of ABDA had alreadly fled the beleaguered enclave.

Kokoda trial

All remaining Port Moresby garrison units have been rounded up, after only minor skirmishes.

China

Several Chinese divisions were routed

on the 21st March.

 These units were thought to be fleeing Nanning, however after a short battle some 60 miles to the NW of the city, they were last observed retreating back to the city, in some disorder.

Announcements

With the fall of Java, Batavia is to be renamed Jakarta
Furthermore Singapore is to be renamed Syonan (Light of the South)

Heavy armour enters Jakarta (formerly Batavia)

This was the last known photo of him before taken prison March 1942!

Gerrit Hendrik Schuppers
I am trying to reconstruct the war history of my father. My father is Dutch, was a KNIL-soldier/gunner, Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (= Royal Netherlands Indies Army), 2nd Bat. Field Artillery. Before the Japs came, he rotated from Tjimahi/Bandung, to many other places at Java and Sumatra before taken POW. Please contact me.
His name: Schuppers, Gerrit Hendrik, born 6th September 1921. He died last 12th December 2004 and took most of the secrets with. His KNIL (army) number that time: 96406.Thanks to Wes Injerd and Henk Beekhuis for their translations to my fathers camp-card, in short here-after my fathers ‘war-history’ for sure known now.


Below is a picture of my father taken before leaving Holland 1940. The other one, taken at Pangkalansusu/Sumatra, New Years Day 1941. This was the last known photo of him before taken prison March 1942!

1) 11th March 1942 taken POW at Java (presumably Madura) at Camp C or III (administration no: 8480)
2) Date unknown: to POW Darmo at Surabaya/Java (administration no: ?)
3) April 6th , 1943: transported to POW-camp Djengi (Also spelled as Changi or Chengi) at Singapore (administration no.?)
4) April 14th , 1943: transport by train from Singapore to Thailand
5) April 21st , 1943: Arrived at Thailand Camp 6 Burma Railroad (administration no: 8329)
6) Date unknown: back to Djengi at Singapore again (administration no: ?)
7) June 5th , 1944: embarked MV TEIA MARU (ex Aramis) for Moji / Japan
8) June 18th , 1944 arrival at Fukuoka #12 Miyata; the Dutch group for this camp represented 100 men of which one officer, the 1st Lt. Horstman.
9) August 15th , 1945 renamed to #F-9B), administration no: 31500 and released
10) September 20th , 1945: turned over to Capt. Griffin at Nagasaki-Port and repatriated by USNS ??? (Aircraft Carrier?) to Okinawa (medical checks)
11) September ??, 1945: left for Manila by USNS or HMS ?? to the 5th Replacement Camp
12) November 29th , 1945: 5600 KNIL-troops reunited and ordered by the Dutch Government to leave Manila for Balikpapan / Borneo by HMS ?? (British Aircraft Carrier?) and a battalion of Marines left Manilla for Makassar.Is there anyone who can tell me more at the notices #1, 2, 6, 10, 11 and 12?


Manila Replacement Camp 11 Nov 1945

Click for larger picture

Click for larger picture

 

March,23th 1942

Maru was the ex-Van Waerwijck, scutlled in March 1942 at Tandjong Priok

 

March,26th 1942

 

 

 

The Malayan inspection– Lieutenant Colonel Shizuo Saeki (left of officer with walking stick) takes questions from the observation group with inquires about the breakthrough.

 

South front inspection schedule—March 9th Tokyo,March 13th Hong Kong,March 19th Bangkok,March 20th Kuala Lumpur,March 21st Singapore,March 24th Sumatra,March 26th Singapore,April 1st Manila,April 4th Clark Airfield,April 7th Tokyo

 

.

March,28th.1942

Dutch Major General Roelof T. Overakker surrendered his 2,000 troops at Blangkedjeren, marking the end of resistance on Sumatra, Dutch East Indies

 

 

 

On 28 Mar,

 Major General R. T. Overakker surrendered at Blangkedjeren, finally marking the end of resistance on Sumatra.

A small number of guerrilla groups continued fighting for the following year, but they were generally ineffective in the face of a resourceful occupation force.

Sources: Armchair Reader World War II, Wikipedia

 

April  1942

 

Kamp Sabang. Nie Nie Nie Nie Belawan. Sannn Sannn Sannn Sannn Bangkinang

May 1942

May 17th 1942

 

CDS SYONAN 17.5.17)

Most of the post during the occupation was within the peninsular of Malaya.  This cover is from Singapore (CDS SYONAN 17.5.17)to Sarawak.  The note ‘In Romanise’ means the letter is written in Romanised Malay, not Jawi, and is information for the censor.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July ,2nd . 1942

 

2.7.1942

 Fragment Dai nippon overprint  west sumatra cross early on Kon 10 cent used CDS Sidjoendjoeng.2.7.42

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July,17th.1942

 

1942 (July 17), censored cover from Medan to Koetaradja (J.S.C.A. 2SS3. Bulterman 22a), a 7½¢ letter sheet with Aceh Star overprint, thin star type, with stamp imprint tied by “Si() 17.7.15” cds, along with Meden 23.7.15 transit, plus brown censor tape across top and violet boxed handstamp, forwarded to Koetaradja. Fresh and Very Fine, rare.
Estimate $2,500 – 3,500.

Dainippon occupation Koetaradja

Briefkaart Japanse bezetting met ovaal handstempel 75 sen,

c. 1942, censored cover from Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan, franked with Japan 10s Showa definitive, Sumatra censor’s stamp below. Cover wrinkles, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

1942,  Official free port stampless air letter from Sumatra to Tokyo, Japan, with two light strikes of blue bilingual DINES handstamp, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

August 1942

 

August ,3th. 1942

 

3.8.1942.

Oof cover Dai nippon emergency overprint Lampong Hinomaru red ball , type 1 during Sumatra under DN Singapore administration(April 1st 1942-1943), very rare, Ihave sold one postally used cover with this stamps to bulterman that put in his catalogue

 

 

Envelope, 1942 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued Lampong entire (Bulterman 118b. J.S.C.A. 10SS13), a splendid mint entire, showing Lampong in violet, ball and medium size “5” in red violet, plus  postmaster chief postmark overprint “LTT” in black with manuscript “10 sen”. Fresh and Very Fine, rare.
Estimate $3,000 – 4,000.

 

 

Envelope, 1942 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued Lampong entire (J.S.C.A. 10SS13. Bulterman 116b var), a splendid mint entire showing lampong, LTT and a large “5” all in black with manuscript “10 sen”, but with “ball” overprint in unlisted red color, pristine, Very Fine, rare.
Estimate $3,000 – 4,000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December  1942

 

 

 

11

22 april 2009, 7:00 uur – Philip Levert van Postzegelvereniging Haarlemmermeer

Voor serieus sparen van Indische bezettingszegels is een catalogus onmisbaar, bijvoorbeeld die van de vereniging Dai Nippon. De bondsbibliotheek heeft literatuur, het Postmuseum beschikt over een paar uitgebreide verzamelingen. Japanners noemen hun land Nippon, tijdens de bezetting was het woord Japan verboden. Het Japanse (Nipponse) bestuur over Nederlands-Indië duurde van maart 1942 tot september 1945.

Begintoestand

Eerst iets over het toenmalige Ned.Indië. Ned.Indië – nu Indonesië – is enorm uitgestrekt. Viervijfde van de inwoners woont echter op de belangrijke eilanden Java en Sumatra, veruit de meesten op het dicht bevolkte Java. Dat waren in 1941 miljoenen inheemsen (6% daarvan Chinezen), 100.000 Hollanders en ca. 200.000 Indo’s. Nederland had in Ned.Indië miljarden geïnvesteerd in o.a. landbouwcultures, mijnbouw en infrastruktuur. Het Ned.Indische leger, het KNIL, telde in 1941 60.000 man waarvan 3/4 inheemsen. Het was niet georganiseerd om een buitenlandse agressor het hoofd te bieden. Ook de marine was veel te zwak en Nederland was in 1940 door Nazi-Duitsland bezet. Met Java als centrum was Ned. Indië een zeer ontwikkeld gebied.

In 1939 reden bijvoorbeeld op Java 100.000 auto’s rond, weinig minder dan in Nederland. Het wegen- en spoorwegnet waren in betere toestand dan nu, misschien had het gewone volk het toen ook beter dan nu. Bij het bestuur waren maar een handvol Nederlanders betrokken welke de topfuncties bezetten. Indonesiërs – toen inheemsen genoemd – met hogere studie-opleiding op topfuncties waren er ook. Daar had je echter maar weinig van. Op de Indische posterijen was niets aan te merken. Een brief deed er meestal korter over dan in het huidige Indonesië. De post werd bijna alleen gebruikt door  Chinezen en Hollanders want het gros der inheemsen was destijds analfabeet. Dit is te zien als je de oplagecijfers van postzegels vergelijkt met die van Nederland.

De Japanse inval

Begin 1942, kort na Pearl Harbour werd Nederlands-Indië binnen enkele weken door een Japanse overmacht van circa 160.000 man veroverd. De strijd kostte enige duizenden doden, waaronder 2550 Nederlanders. Moeilijke tijden braken aan. De Hollanders en een deel van de Indo’s werden van hun bezit beroofd en geïnterneerd  in zogenaamde Jappenkampen, vrouwen en kinderen apart van mannen en jongens. KNIL-militairen en vele burgergevangenen werden afgevoerd naar verre landen zoals Japan, Malakka en Siam (Thailand) waar ze slavenarbeid moesten verrichten, o.a. aan de beruchte Birmaspoorweg.

Vrouwen, kinderen en een klein aantal mannen bleven achter in kampen in Nederlands-Indië, bijna alle op Java en Sumatra. Als bekend was de toestand in de Jappenkampen ten hemel schreiend, een deel van de geïnterneerden heeft de transporten en de kamptijd daarom niet overleefd. Buiten de kampen was het ook slecht. Zeker een miljoen inheemsen werd dank zij Japans wanbeheer slachtoffer van ziekte en voedselgebrek. De Jap echter organiseerde inheemse anti-westerse strijdgroepen om de wind er bij het volk onder te houden. Deze vormden de basis van het latere Indonesische leger, de TNI. Onder Japans militair gezag werd ook een inheems marionettenbewind geïnstalleerd met Ir Soekarno als spreekbuis.

In augustus 1945 capituleerde Japan voor de Amerikaanse overmacht en de atoombommen. Ned.Indië was toen nog steeds bezet behalve Nieuw Guinea en enige kustplaatsen op Borneo. Ook nog in Japanse handen waren Malakka, Singapore, Siam (Thailand), Frans Indo China (Vietnam), Hongkong, Korea en grote delen van China.

De Amerikanen bleven ver weg, de Engelsen vanuit Birma en India gaven prioriteit aan de bevrijding van hun eigen gebieden. Pas september-october 1945 verschenen kleine Engels/Engels Indische troepeneenheden langzaam aan op de belangrijke eilanden Java en Sumatra. Zij zorgden voor ontwapening en afvoer van de Japanners, en bescherming en evacuatie van de Jappenkampen waar vrouwen en kinderen belaagd werden door bendes jonge Indonesiërs.

Op Java kwamen zo Engels-Indische enclaves in Batavia (Djakarta), Semarang, Bandoeng, Soerabaja, op Sumatra in Palembang, Belawan-Medan. Over de tijd na de Japanse bezetting zie een volgend artikel.

Toestand onder de Jap

De Japanse bezetter ontsloeg in 1942 direct de meeste Nederlanders, met een vertraging van enige maanden werden deze in kampen geïnterneerd. Hun bestuursfuncties werden bezet door onbekwame Japanse militairen want jammer maar helaas: het schip Tayo Maru met enige honderden speciaal voor Indië opgeleide Japanners was mei 1942 door de Amerikanen getorpedeerd.

Een (maakwerk-) brief vermoedelijk uit Medan (Sumatra), gefrankeerd met bezettingszegels van staten op Malakka, met propagandastempel, zonder datumstempel.

Van de post mochten kampbewoners geen gebruik maken, post van buiten mochten ze niet ontvangen. Ook buiten het kamp was het uitkijken. Wie een privé-brief verstuurde of ontving was eigenlijk al verdacht. De brief mocht alleen in de Maleise taal geschreven zijn. Of de geadresseerde de brief of kaart zou ontvangen en daar blij mee moest zijn was zeer de vraag. Op veel plaatsten mochten alleen maar briefkaarten verstuurd worden. De Japanse Gestapo, Kempei Tai geheten, steunde op een groot aantal fantasierijke inheemse verklikkers, niemand was te vertrouwen.

Deze Kempei Tai sloeg willekeurig toe met vaak marteling of dood als gevolg. Overigens maakte de als bevrijder ingehaalde Jap zich bij niet-collaborerende inheemsen al snel diep gehaat door wanbeleid en ranselcultuur: de Japanse generaal sloeg de kolonel, de kolonel de kapitein enzovoort terwijl geslagen worden voor Indonesiërs een dodelijke belediging is. Als bekend kregen de Hollanders in de Jappenkampen regelmatig slaag met stokken, zwepen of geweerkolven: buiten het kamp/werkgebied werd volstaan met de vuist of de vlakke hand. Kinderen daarentegen werden nooit geslagen.

Niet-militaire post tussen de eilanden onderling hield door oorlogsomstandigheden bijna op te bestaan. Hollandse postgebruikers waren er niet meer. Gevolg: poststukken en echt gebruikte postzegels uit de Japanse tijd zijn nu nog wel te krijgen, maar toch redelijk schaars. De Japanners voerden direct hun jaartelling (1942 werd 2602) en hun tijd (1½ uur vooruit) in. Ook werd Nederlands-Indisch geld vervangen door bezettingsbiljetten. Er ontstond een enorme inflatie. In augustus 1945 had het geld nog maar een duizendste van de waarde in 1942 maar de posttarieven veranderden nauwelijks. Het eerste bezettingsgeld had een Hollandse tekst (zie afbeelding), in 1944 werd het vervangen door biljetten in roepia-waardes met Maleise tekst.

Bestuursorganisatie onder de Jap

Het enorme eilandenrijk werd bestuurlijk in aparte militaire zones gesplitst:

  • Java, Sumatra en enige eilanden bij Sumatra: legerdistrikt, bestuurd vanuit Batavia (Djakarta). Lange tijd viel Noord Sumatra onder Engels-Malakka, landmachtcommando Singapore.
  • De vele eilanden oost en noord van Java: marinedistrikt, bestuurd vanuit Singapore.

Beide zones vielen onder een hogere autoriteit waar ook Malakka, Siam, Burma, enzovoort onder ressorteerde: commando Zuid. Samenwerking tussen de zones was er niet.

De postzegels

In Nederlands Indië waren aanwezig de Kreislerseries karbouw en Wilhelmina met en zonder watermerk, no 272 (NVPH Ned.Indiënummers) 5 c cijfer, de Konijnenbergserie Wilhelmina 274-289, restbestanden Moehamadijah 293-297, Danserserie 298-303, ‘Bijzondere Vluchten’zegel LP 18, en portzegels 23-28, 30-33, 35, 39, 40. Deze werden doorgebruikt, vanaf juli 1942 voorzien van een opdruk (‘chop’).

‘Chop’zegels in mijn bezit met ‘Dai Nippon’ briefkaart, stempeldatum onleesbaar.

De Japanners hadden trouwens koerserende zegels van Japan meegenomen welke gebruikt bekend zijn in Nederlands Indië: uiteraard durfde de posterijen daarmee gefrankeerde post niet te weigeren. In de begintijd werden dus Nederlands-Indische zegels zonder chop gewoon doorgebruikt.

 Deze gebruikte zegels zijn te herkennen als de jaaropgave in de balk door het rondstempel leesbaar is: 02 of 03 of 04 of 05, weergevende de Japanse jaartelling 2602, 2603, 2604, 2605. Ze zijn schaars en aan de prijs, vooral voor plaatsen buiten Java. Het kan dus lonen uw gestempelde Nederlands-Indië-doubletten nader te bekijken, je weet maar nooit.

De zegels met chop zijn een chaotisch verzamelgebied: complimenten voor het uitzoekwerk van de Dai Nippon Vereniging. Afhankelijk van tijd en plaats werden opdrukzegels gefabriceerd per provincie, per distrikt of per postkantoor. Afgezien daarvan heb je diverse types en variaties want vele (niet alle) werden met de hand aangebracht. Zie de Dai Nippon catalogus. Die onderscheidt chops van de marinegebieden Noord, West en Zuid-Oost Borneo, Celebes, Noord Celebes, Samarin

da, Ambon, Lombok. Voor legergebied Sumatra, ingedeeld in hoofdstukken ‘general’, ‘semi general’, ‘local’ en ‘provincial’, zijn vele postkantoren te vinden plus de provincies Atjeh, Tapanoeli, Riau, Jambi, Palembang, Lampung, Banka/Billiton, Benkoelen en de Oostkust. De opdrukken kunnen zijn een kruis, ster of andere figuur  (belangrijk was de afbeelding van Wilhelmina onherkenbaar te maken), teksten in Japanse lettertekens al of niet in kastje, en in marinegebied (bijna) altijd een anker, verschillend per eiland of postkantoor.

Een (maakwerk-) brief uit Soerabaja (Java), gefrankeerd met twee definitieve Java-bezettingszegels en enige Ned.Indische zegels met en zonder chop. Let op de stempeldatum 6-7-05: 6 juli 2605 oftewel 6 juli 1945, vijf weken voor de Japanse capitulatie.

Om het spannend te maken bestaan er ook zegels met meerdere opdrukken (in Dai Nippon catalogus ‘simplified’ niet gecatalogiseerd). Leuk zijn de briefkaarten, dezelfde als vroeger maar ‘Nederlands-Indië’ is op de ingedrukte karbouwenzegel door ‘Dai Nippon’ vervangen, zie afbeelding. Tevens is een Japanse tekst toegevoegd welke de vroegere Hollandstalige tekst vervangt.  De verzamelaar moet voor dit verzamelgebied helaas bedacht zijn op naoorlogs maakwerk en vervalsingen terwijl echtheidcertificaten niet bestaan.

.

Stamps,and other are like Djambi NIPPON MA, SOUTH SUMATRA POSTMASTER

 

Krijgsgevangenen

 

 


Degenen die krijgsgevangen zijn gemaakt worden in aparte kampen ondergebracht en gedwongen om onmenselijk zware dwangarbeid te verrichten. Zeer berucht zijn de Birma-spoorlijn, de Pakan Baroe-spoorlijn en de mijnen in Japan. Velen komen hier om door uitputting, ondervoeding, mishandeling of ziekte.

Dai nippon IPL(IP Lengkong postmaterOf Palembang)

overprint

Postmaster MN overprint

Tjpoeroep  postmaster overprint

Loeboeklingau postmaster Arifin overprint

Dai Nippon Arifin postmaster ringsingnet overprint

Dai Nippon Loeboeklingau postmaster  Arifin ringsignet r overprint on adresskaart of postpakket send to padang in 1943

Liwa overprint

1943

Postal Card, 1943, 3½¢ black (Bulterman 25), overprinted “Gun Sei Bu A Ti E Shu Si Bu No In” in violet, unused, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.(fake ?)

January 1943

January,17th.1943

 

1943, card from Sipirok to Atjeh (Bulterman 136), a clean 3½¢ Tapanoeli Japanese Flag postal card, cancelled by Sipirok 18.1.7.10 cds, violet boxed chop, fresh and Very Fine.
Estimate $1,000 – 1,500.

February 1943

February,2nd.1943

DEI Military Postcard used during Dai Nippon Occupation Aceh, the dutch briefcard  overprint handwritten in dai Nippon languagua postcard send from  CDS showa katakana Tapaktuasn  3.2.18 to Koetaradja Atjeh.

Atjeh “Star” overprints, franked by various adhesives overprinted by the Atjeh “star” occupation chops. Includes 3 cards with Netherlands Indies 3½¢ stamp, but with different color or size chips, including a usage on a feldpost card. Nice specialist group, F-VF.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

February 1943,although there was no special notes for an incident that occurred  on February 14, but there are some historical events that occurred in this month and it is important to note.

 

 Beginning with the Japanese effort to master the eastern region of Indonesia, by sending additional troops to Tanimbar, Kai Islands, and West Irian.

 

Japan’s defeat in the Solomon Islands in February 1943 made the Americans back in charge of the Pacific region.

 

This defeat made many changes to the policy of Japan in Indonesia, especially in military policy.

 

Throughout 1943, Japan many Japanese built up the army (like Heiho, Giyugun, and Defenders of the Homeland or MAP) as a form of anticipation of an attack of the Allies to Indonesia later.

March 1943

March,2nd. 1943

 

 

2.3.1943.

Fragment cover palembang Dai Nippon square overprint, used CDS 18.3.2,this time sumatra still under Singapore Dai nippon Military adminsitration, al Sumatra area had got permission to overprint the Dutch East Indie stamps with Ryal Head picture, but also the other deffinitive,but different in Java no emergency ovpt because different military administration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March,6th.1943

 

1943, registered censored cover from Bangoen-Poerba (J.S.C.A. 14S11) (now Bangunpurba on Sumatra), franked with two unoverprinted Netherlands Indies 2½c plus Japan 25s Showa, Pematang-Siantar backstamp, Fine to Very Fine, unusual mixed franking. J.S.C.A. 15,000 yen ++ (HK$ 1,450).
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March,5th. 1943

 

 

5.3.1943

Off cover  Japan homeland stamp used at medan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

march,13th. 1943

 

 

 

One year anniversary  great east Asia War issued at Atjeh in march,13th. 1943

これは、日本占領地スマトラのアチェ州で発行された、東亜戦争一周年を記念し

Fragment one years nniversary dai Nippon occupation Sumatra issued at Medan in march 13th.1943

 

 

March,14th.1943

1943, registered cover from Benkoelen to Nagoya, Japan, a 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued Bengkulu framed “Dai Nippon” entire, with additional 10¢ (pair) adhesives added, each cancelled by 19.4.14 cds’s. Front also shows dual censor chops and Benkoelen registration label, fresh and F-VF, a great Rarity, unlisted used in both Bulterman and the JSCA, a show piece.
Estimate $7,500 – 10,000

 

 

March,14.1943

 

Kempetei Freeport stempless propaganda pictorial  ajo menjang kolonisasi postcard from lampong to klakah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March,30.1944

 

 

1943, cover from Djambi, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 13S1//13S11, 11S2 etc), franked with Netherlands Indies  kon Dai Nippon T overprint machinal (for all Sumatra issued) and non queen unoverprinted 1c, 4c and 5c, plus dai nippon yubin overprinted 5c, 10c, 15c and 17½c; Syonan transit and two Sumatra censor backstamps, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.)date 30.3.04)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 1943

 

April,5th.1943

Postally used  sencored Dai Nippon overprint hinomaru of Tapanoeli on DEI Karbouw 31/2 cent [postal stationer sent from CDS Sipirok  18,4,5k to Meulaboh (Atjeh)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1943

Dai Nippon Occupation Indonesia

March,17th. 1943

 

17.3.1943

Rejoined fragment with the photocopy Japanese postal stationer 2c,overprint Dai nippon added 1 1/2 cent , used CDS  Boekittingi 18.3.17.

March,19th.1943

1943, newspaper sent from Padang, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 13S1), the Japanese-language Sumatora Shimbun (“Sumatra Newspaper”) of Wednesday, March 15, 1943, complete and entire, franked with Dai Nippon yubin westcoast over[rint on  Netherlands Indies 1c definitive tied (on wrapper and on newspaper) byPadang cds, violet Sumatra censor’s handstamp on the wrapper; Padang vertical 2-line backstamp on the wrapper. Only minor wear and aging, Fine to Very Fine overall.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 

April,26th.1943

1943, newspaper sent from Padang, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 13S1), the Japanese-language Sumatora Shimbun (“Sumatra Newspaper”) of Friday, April 26, 1943, complete and entire, franked with Netherlands Indies 1c definitive tied (on wrapper and on newspaper) byPadang cds, violet Sumatra censor’s handstamp on the wrapper; Padang vertical 2-line backstamp on the wrapper. Only minor wear and aging, Fine to Very Fine overall.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 

 

 

March,28th. 1943

 

28.3.1943

Violet Dai nippon est sumatra overprint Postcard staioner 31/2 cent DEI , postally used from CDS Tarutung.

postally used Black Dai Nipponin box  overprint east sumatra on Postcard Stationer DEI 31/2 cent

 

Rare DN overprint Hinomaru Tapanuli

 

 

Dai Nippon syonanto (Malayan) Stamps used and found In Sumatra

Red Dai Nippon(DN0 overprint in frame type 2 (single frame) on straits 1 cent, very rare and never seen used postally cover at Sumatra, the different color overprint like black,green and brown very rare and never seen used at sumatra, please report. The collections below @copyright Dr iwan s. and just found two postally cover with commemorative postmark used at Syonanto(Singapore) will put under Dai nippon Singapore postmark.

1942. DN in frame type 2 red overprint straits 5 c, very rare postally cover if used at Sumatra

1942.DN in frame type 2 red overprint straits 8 cent, very rare postally used at Sumatra

DN in frame type 2 red overprint on Straits 15 cent, very rare postally used cover at sumatra.

DN overprint on single frame (type 1) on Negeri Sembilan 30c used in Sumatra, very rare postal cover (wh have that item please report)

Red Dai Nippon 2602 Penang overprint on straits 8c, this stamps very rare used postally cover at Sumatra (never seen ,please report )

1942. DN 2602 Malaya overprin Negeri sembilan 8c and 20c , very rare if used oncover at Sumatra.

Very rare Red Dai Nippon overprin type 2 single frame on straits 2c used CDS PRIAMAN ( the late bigger eartquake location 2009), only one report,who have on postal cover please report.

9.8.1942. DN overprint Perak 8 cent used Syonanto(Singapore) , rare used postally cover at Sumatra

1943 commerative stamps one years the fall of Singapore on Japan Toyo stamps 4c overprint + 2c

1943. Used strip two Commemorative one years the fall of Singapore by Bai Nippon Armed Forces, overprint Japan Toyo stamps 2 cent added 1 cent, the other series green 4c+2c

Clear Syonanto(Singapore) postal CDS on DN Malaya 2 cents overprint Perak 10 cent

2.8.2603(1943) Dai Nippon Malaya overprint on Perak 1c used in Malaya(city please identify), and not clear postal CDS on Perak 10c and 8 c issued at Singapore

1944-1955. Sideways Dai nippon Malaya overprin Negeri sembilan stamp 3c issued at syonato(Singapore) as the center of DN Malaya Military administration 1942-1945

19.1.1945 Dai Nippon Malaya overprint Negeri sembilan stamp , red on 2cent, black on 3c and 6 cent used in Syonanto(singapore, please correction )

 

 

 

 

 

April 1943

 

April,16th. 1943

 

16.4.1943

.Small Dai Nippon west Sumatra overprint, postally used postcard cds Medan 18.4.16

(18 syowa was  1943)

 

 

 

 

 

April,16th. 1943

 

Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (April 16) registered cover to Sumatra, franked with Japan 30s Showa tied by ‘Galang’ cds. Japanese Censor’s red boxed cachet with blue pencil annotation. Dutch Indies style ‘Censuur 32’ backstamp (April 17) and indistinct ‘Pematang-Siantar’ arrival backstamp

 

 

 

May 1943

 

June 1943

June.8th.1943

Sencored Dai Nippon postal stationer 31/2 cent send from CDS Palembang  18.5.8 to manggala Lampong

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1943

 

Dai Nippon Postalstatione r with IPL (Ip Lengkong postmaster Initial) without Frame type bigger  Palembang Overprint on DEI Karbour 31/2 cent send from CDS Palembang 18(1943).6(june).3 to Manggala Lampong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June,9th,1943

 

 card from Palembang to Tokyo, Japan (Bulterman 165b), a 3½¢ black card, canceled Palembang 8.6.9.1 and censored. Since Showa year 16 is 1941, year date can not be correct. Clean and Very Fine.
Estimate $1,000 – 1,500.

 

June,10th.1943

 

1943 (June 10), cover from Pematanji to Perlanaan (J.S.C.A. 15S7), franked with General Issue 10c tied by Pematanji postmark, neat Perlanaan receiver at left, red Pematanji censor’s handstamp, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 

June,15.1943

The same Sencored Dain Nippon sumatera postal stationer 31/2 sen send from CDS Palembang 18(1943).6(june) 15to Mangala Lampong in 1945

 

Read the letter at the back of post card

 

 

 

 

 

July  1943

 

1943 (July 12), cover from Kotanapan to Pontianak (Bulterman 142), a 7½¢ Tapanuli letter sheet with red Japanese flag and framed, violet “Dai Nippon”, cancelled by Kotanopan 18.7.12 cds, with black instructional chop. (hinomaru)Exceptionally fresh and clean, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate $1,500 – 2,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1943

August,17th 1943

(CDS Medan 18.8.17)

 

Straits stamps converted to Occupation use with Single frame chops, in red, used at Medan in the  Japanese Occupied East Indies.  Initially the Sumatra part of DEI was administered from Singapore,  later  when Sumatra had its own postal administration Japanese-Malayan stamps were still accepted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August,24th 1943

 

 

24.8.1943

Fragment Dai nippon acheh star overprint used at Koetaraja(now bandar Aceh)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August,27th 1943

Japanese Occupation of Malaya, 1943 (Aug. 27)

cover to Pontianak, franked with Japanese Occupation of Perak 10c ‘Dai Nippon 2602 Malaya’ overprint (Scott N20) tied by ‘Medan Sumatra East Coast’ cds. Censor’s violet boxed cachet with orange oval chop.

 

 

 
       

 

August,28th.1943

 

1943, card from Padang Pandjang  to Medan (J.S.C.A. 14SS1. Bulterman 146), a 1½¢ on 2s Horsemen postal card for the West Coast, tied by Boekittingi g 18.8.28 cds, along with red censor chip and partial violet chips, light fold through center, otherwise Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate $1,500 – 2,000.

 

 

September  1943

 

September,8th.1943

 

Japanese Occupation Riau Archiphelago which under Dai Nippon Malaya command at Syoananto(Singapore) until 1945 that is why they used dai Nippon Ma;laya stamps look Dai Nippon club collections below

Center

Fragment cover CDS Tandjong Pinang 8.9.2603, also left 5.7.2604(1944) dan left tandjongbalai karimeun29.9.3

 

Omdat zowel Sumatra als Malakka onder het bestuur van het 25ste leger met als hoofdkwartier Singapore viel, werden zij eind september 1942 administratief samengevoegd. Niet alleen het eiland Sumatra, maar ook alle Indische eilanden die onder Singapore gelegen zijn. Hiervan zijn de Riouw en Lingga archipel en de Anambas en Natuna eilanden de voornaamste. In april 1943 werd de administratieve eenheid verbroken, maar de hierboven genoemde eilanden bleven administratief onder Singapore.

 

Daarom zijn hier Japanse bezettingszegels van Malakka gebruikt. Dit zijn zeldzaamheden en kunnen alleen aan het poststempel herkend worden

 

 

Tandjong Batoe 2604.2.24 and  Dabosingkep 2.3.2603

Courtecy Dai Nippon club Netherland.

 

 
Postwaardestukken van Malakka gebruikt in Indië
In de Riouw en Lingga archipel en op de Anambas Eilanden werden postwaardestukken van Malakka gebruikt, zoals bij de postzegels. Het tarief voor een briefkaart was hier 2 cent, wat later verhoogd werd naar 4 cent. Hier werden ook postwaardestukken gebruikt die we niet uit Nederlands-Indië kennen, zoals de aangetekende enveloppe. Het tarief hiervoor bedroeg 15 cent, tijdens de oorlog werd het verhoogd naar 23 cent.

 

 

Othe Sumatra postal used stationer and cover courtecy Dai Nippon club Netherland

 

 

Many falsification during this era, that is why many study and discussion about that, like in Dai Nippon Club announcement below in 2012

Falsificaten project Een project om vervalsingen van opdrukken uit de Japanse bezetting te beschrijven is van start gegaan. De eerste opdruk die onder de loep genomen wordt is de Atjeh ster. Hebt u informatie over verschillende typen steropdrukken en/of vervalsingen, neem dan contact op met R.G. Ackerstaff, Jan van Goyenlaan 1, 3401 NM IJsselstein, email rob@ackerstaff.com.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September,29th. 1943

Japanese Occupation of Malaya, 1943 (Sept. 29)

Send from Mr Oesman oebis marchnat  Lai Besar (big) streat  Kotanopan south Tapanuli CDS in dai nippon katakana char Kotanopan sumatora tapanuli 17.8.29 cover to Mr M.Joenoes Dalyus Toko Intan(diamond shop) Gadji Djafri street  Pontianak, franked with Japanese Occupation of Perak 10c ‘Dai Nippon 2602 Malaya’ overprint (Scott N20) tied by ‘Kotanopan Sumatra Tapanari’ cds. Censor’s violet boxed cachet at left

 

 

 
       

 

 

October   1943

October,17th. 1943

 

 

Rare Dai nippon Bangka overprint on DEI kon 10 cent , used CDS Soegai Liat Banka island  18.10.17.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October,26th. 1943

 

Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (Oct. 26)

registered stampless cover from Tandjong Karang to Singapore, with ‘DINES’ boxed handstamp in blue, registration label tied by ‘Tandjong Karang’ cds. Censor’s cachet in blue with oval chop in orange. Singapore ‘Syonan’ backstamp (Nov. 5).

 

 

 


October,26th. 1943

Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (Oct. 26) registered cover from Tandjong Karang to Singapore, franked with 10c, 20c Dutch Indies with ‘Lampong’ bilingual handstamps tied by ‘Tandjong Karang’ cds with additional strike tying registration label. Censor’s cachet in blue with oval chop in orange. Singapore ‘Syonan’ backstamp (Nov. 5)

 

October,29th.1943

1943 (Oct 29), registered censored cover from Djambi to Nagoya, Japan, a splendid, highly attractive cover, franked by 11 adhesives, 9 of which bear large type Dai Ni Hon Yubin overprints in violet for use in Jambi. A stunning, visually attractive large size cover, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

November   1943

 

November,8th. 1943

 

 
Japanese Occupation of Malaya, 1943 (Nov. 8)

 Cover fron CDS Tandjoeng balei Karimoen Riau island  to Johore Baru , franked with two Japanese Occupation of Malaya 2c Fruit pairs (Scott N30) tied by Dutch Indies style ‘Tandjongbalei Karimon’ cds. Censor’s violet boxed cachet and oval chop route 33

 

 

\

 

November,18th. 1943

 

Palembang Dai Nippon square overprin used cds Prabumoelih (King moved) the oil city south Sumatra ,my son work at Indonesia Oil company Pertamina sumatra center explortaion & production center.

Palembang Dai Nipponsquare overprint also used in other south sumatra , used CDS Pagaralam south sumatra.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November,22th.1943

1943, card to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 14SS1. Bulterman 146), a 1½¢ on 2s Horseman postal card for the West Coast, cancelled by 18.11.22 cds, violet censor chip, fresh and Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate $1,500 – 2,000

 

 

December 1943

December,1st.1943

 

Very rare 1943 (Dec 1), cover from Palembang to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 7SS1. Bulterman 69), a 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued postal entire with IP Lengkong ring signet ring, franked with additional 5¢ (2) and 10¢ Netherlands Indies adhesives, each bearing signet strikes in blue or red, to registered, censored cover used to Japan. Fresh and Very fine, a tremendous rarity and major exhibition piece, choice.
Estimate $30,000 – 40,000.

MA on DEI Port  40 and 20 cent on document  1943

Telegraphic money order or daftar pembayaran langanan post

(provenance Dr iwan suwandy 1972)

Decemmber.12th.1943

1943, registered cover from Padang to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 4SS3. Bulterman 149), a 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued West Coast entire with Sumatra cross and large “Dai Nippon” chop, franked additionally by unoverprinted 20¢ and overprinted 10¢ Netherlands Indies adhesives, all tied by Padang 18.10.12 cds’s. Front also shows red censor chop and partial censor tape along with padang registration label, with reverse showing Singapore receiver, F-VF, a rare and attractive entire.
Estimate $4,000 – 6,000

 

 

 

 

December ,23th. 1943

Dai Nippon Bold west sumatra Dai nippon Yubin overpint on lettersheet 71/2 cent (restored) cds Padang 23.12.1944.to Simatra sinbun(newspaper) Medan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December ,26th. 1943

 

26.12.1943

Rare Dai Nippon Lampong ovpt. on DEI Kon 10 cent CDS Telok Betong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December ,27th. 1943

 

 

CDS Palembang 18.12.27

Dai Nippon Postmaster Initial overprint on DEI Kon 10 cent, IPL(I.Piet lengkong) postmaster palembang first from his sihnet ring and then five type of IPL , the other Post office also issue the Ring signet or handsign overprint from all post office at south Sumatra-look at Dainippon occupation Sumatra catalogue, the guinined overprint very rare on postally used cover (please report)

 

 

 

 

 

 

December,30th.1943

 

 

Money order send from CDS showa 18.12.30(30.12.1943) to Sigli used Dai Nippon Overprint Dai Nippon laya 2602 on Malaya Perak stamps 2×10 cent

これは、太平洋戦争中の1943年12月、スマトラのアチェ州(地震・津波の被害が最も

 

 

 

 

December  1943

 

 

The photocopy of Straits postal stationer used at Bintan riouw Island, this area still under Singapore center DN military admin. from 1942 -1945 different from another sumatra island only until April 1st 1943 center move to Bukittingi(Didik collection)

 

 

1944, cover from Djambi, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 13S1, 13S14, 13S15), franked with unoverprinted Netherlands Indies 1c, 4c and 5c definitives, tied by DJAMBI postmark; violet Djambi censor’s handstamp below and lengthy vertical 3-line censor’s handstamp in the center, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

1944, registered cover from Djambi to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 11S61, 11S64), franked with Netherlands Indies overprinted 20c and 40c definitives, tied by Djambi 31.3.44 cds’s, boxed red “Kakitome” (registered) handstamp alongside, violet censor’s handstamp below; Syonan transit and two censor’s backstamps. Cover a bit wrinkled and worn, about Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000
.

1944, registered cover from Tapatoean to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 11S61), franked with pair Netherlands Indies 20c definitive with printed 1-line “Sumatra” overprint, Medan censor’s handstamp alongside. Cover wrinkled and worn, about Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 
1944, newspaper, sent from Padang, Sumatra to Shizuoka, Japan, the Japanese-language Sumatora Shimbun (“Sumatra Newspaper”) of Wednesday, Jan. 16, 1944, complete and entire, franked with unoverprinted Japan 1s Showa definitive tied (on the wrapper and on the newspaper) by Padang, Sumatra cds, Bukin-Tinggi censor’s handstamp below. A bit worn (as would be expected), Fine to Very Fine overall.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

1944, registered cover from Senlimeuni to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 11S66), a large-size adversity cover made from a Dutch receipt form, franked with Netherlands Indies 10c block of 4 with 1-line Sumatra overprint, faint violet Sumatra censor’s handstamp at left and several Japanese-language Senlimeuni cds’s (“Surimun” in Japanese). Cover worn (as expected), about Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

1944

January,19th.1944

1944, registered censored cover from Natal tapanoeli , franked with pair each of Japan 7s and 8s Showa definitives; Pematang Siantar , Sumatra East Coast backstamp. Cover wrinkles and small edge tears, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

(may be fake,many Switzerland cover exist E Strechutsen because did not  not open and closed by sencored label ?)

 

 

January,25th.1944

1944, card from  Tandjong Pandan billiton(Belitung) island Pantian to Palembang (J.S.C.A. 9SS1. Bulterman 33), a 3½¢ postal card with red Banka and Belitung chop, tied by Tand() 19.1.29  tandjong Pandan cds, along with red boxed chop, used to Palembang, F-VF.
Estimate $1,000 – 1,500.

 

 

March 1944

March.2nd .1944

c. 1942, picture post card from Baremban to Fukui-Ken, Japan, franked with unoverprinted Netherlands Indies 1c and 3c, red censor’s handstamp alongside; back has sketch of Japanese soldiers outside Manila, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

March.23th.1944

 

1943, registered cover from Padang 19.3.23 , Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 4S75-76, 4S161-162), large-size, franked with 5 overprinted Netherlands Indies definitives, violet censor’s handstamp below, numerous Padang cds’s and Sumatra “New Life” commemorative cancels (S11); reverse bears Syonan transit and violet straight line Padang Central P.O. Japanese backstamp. Some cover wear, Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 

June  1944

 

Japanese Occupation of Malaya, 1944 (June 26)

cover to Japan franked with 4c Tin Dredger pair (Scott N3), tied by Malayan-style ‘Tandjongpinang’ cds. Censor’s violet boxed cachet and Tokyo stamp dealer’s red circular receiving handstamp. Minor flap damage not affecting stamps or markings

 

 

 

 

September,9th.1944

The stamp is a 1943 definitive issue for the Japanese Occupation of Sumatra.

Tebing Tinggi (Deli) is a town on Sumatra (as distinct from Tebing Tinggi the island).

The date on the cancel looks like 19.9.21 which doesn’t make sense unless the Japanese used a different calendar, like “in the year of the reign of emperor …”

I would appreciate any information I can get on the cancel, the rectangular Japanese stamp, and the rest of the typewritten text (I can’t even tell names from titles or address elements).

The Japanese chop reads ‘Sumatra – [illegible personal seal]/Censored’. The date 19.9.21 probably translates to 21 September 1944 (19th year of the Showa Era).

Dr Iwan note

This dai Nippon showa date read from back 21.8.19(1944) on Postcard,note cover because cover must sencored labe,the square only for postcard

 

 

October  1944

 Japan homeland definitif stamp used at Batusangkar west sumatra. 6.10.1944

November  1944

November,7th.1944

1934, wrapper used from CDS Koetaradja 19.11.7  Atjeh (J.S.C.A. 13S1) to sabang , franked with unoverprinted Netherlands Indies 1c definitive tied by Sumatra town cancel; publisher’s purple handstamp below, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

 

Fragment

 18-11-04

 Djambi Nippon  MA overprint on DEI revenue 40 cent block four

 

 
       

 

 

 

1944, post card from Atjeh to Koeteradja (J.S.C.A. 2S44), franked with Netherlands Indies 3½c with Atjeh star over tapaktoan print, violet Koeteradja censor’s handstamp at right, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1945

Dai Nippon Sabang camp

Sabang: De in de loop der tijden gevangen genomen TNI militairen, zijn ondergebracht in verschillende interneringskampen. Hoewel zij buiten de kampen natuurlijk geen vrije beweging hebben, genieten zij in de kampen een grote bewegingsvrijheid en hebben zij een eigen organisatie met eigen bakkerij, cantine, etc.

1945

Sabang: De in de loop der tijden gevangen genomen TNI militairen, zijn ondergebracht in verschillende interneringskampen. In de kampen genieten deze geinterneerden een grote bewegingsvrijheid. Met kaartspelen korten de gewezen leiders en officieren van de republikeinse strijdorganisaties de

 

 

 

Three postal history of Aceh

1.The homemade cover free stamp(stampless) to the tiho hoin(justice court) at Bireun and sencore chope have sencored

2,The Dai nippon Postal stationer card sumatra send from Teuku Taungoh Gunseibu Syoin(Dai Nippon Military Office of Koetardja city) CDS  Koetaradjia 20.1.18 means January,18th 1945 to Tiho Hoin(Justice court) at Bireun

3.Dai Nippon Postcard Karbouw 3 ½ cent CDS  20.7.4 means july 4th 1945 to sjaefamaoen lhoseumawe at Biruen with sencore handchoped

 

1945, cover from Bukit Tinggi to Malacca (J.S.C.A. 15S7), franked with General Issue 10c, tied by Bukit Tinggi, Sumatra cds, Sumatra censor number 5’s handstamp at left and Bukit Tinggi censor’s handstamp on censor etiquette on the reverse. Stamp damaged at bottom and cover worn in places, otherwise Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.

 

February,20th.1945

Postally used Dai Nippon sumatra postal stationersent from M Jaiani Kokusai Denkin Kyoku  cds showa Boekittinggi 20.2.12(12.2.1945) to Mr choo Kwai Low 8 North Bridge road Syonan(Singapore)

 

March.7th.1945

c. 1944, censored cover from Bukit Tinggi 20.3.7 to Malacca (J.S.C.A. 15S7), franked with General Issue 10c; reverse shows fancy censor’s etiquette with handstamp as the one on front, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000

ご報告が遅くなりましたが、先月25日、本のメルマガ第439号が配信となりました。僕の連載「日豪戦争」では、今回は日本降伏の話を書きましたが、そのなかから、まずは、こんなモノを持ってきました。(画像はクリックで拡大されます)

        

 これは、1945年9月2日、降伏文書調印の日に東京湾に停泊していたオーストラリア海軍のシュロップシャー艦内の郵便局から差し出されたカバーです。

 連合国側が対日戦争の戦後処理に関する基本方針を決めたのは、1943年11月、ローズヴェルト、チャーチル、蒋介石の3者によるカイロ会談だったことは良く知られています。

 カイロ会談の内容は、同年12月1日、日本の無条件降伏要求と降伏後の日本領土の縮小などをうたった「カイロ宣言」として発表され、米英ソのテヘラン会談、ヤルタ会談を経て、ポツダム宣言の基礎となりましたが、この重要な会談に際して、オーストラリア代表は参加していません。

 1941年12月に日本と米英蘭との戦争が勃発したことを受けて、1942年1月1日付で発せられた「連合国宣言」には、最終的に26ヵ国が署名しましたが、その序列は米英中ソの4ヵ国を主要国とし、それ以外の国は同格としてアルファベット順になっていました。オーストラリアは、アルファベット順では最初の国となったものの、あくまでも“その他大勢”の一員でしかなく、連合国全体の意思決定に関与できるメンバーとはみなされていません。

 しかし、ダーウィン空襲など国土が直接の攻撃を受け、日本軍との戦闘で多大な犠牲を払ってきたオーストラリアは、対日戦争に関しては、米英中ソの後、オーストラリアまでが主要国であり、アルファベット順のベルギー以下が同格であるとひそかに自負していました。

 したがって、カイロ宣言の決定(その内容に対する賛否は別として)に自分たちが関与できなかったことについて、大いに不満です。

 そこで、オーストラリアは、1944年、ニュージーランドとともにキャンベラ協定(第一次世界大戦時に編成されたオーストラリア・ニュージーランド軍団 :Australian and New Zealand Army Corpsにちなみ、オーストラリア・ニュージーランド合同の軍事組織を意味する“アンザック協定”とよばれることもある)を締結。独自に、対日戦の戦後処理や南ならびに南西太平洋での安全保障、南太平洋政策での両国の協同をニュージーランドと約しています。主要国の決定に無条件で唯々諾々と従うわけではないとのアピールでした。

 その後も、ヤルタ会談やポツダム会談などにオーストラリアが直接関与することはありませんでしたが、そうしている間にも連合国による日本包囲網は次第に狭められていき、日本の敗戦を既定方針として日本占領の具体的な計画が策定されるようになります。

 その過程において、1945年7月、オーストラリア海軍のコルヴェット艦ゴーラーならびに駆逐艦のネイピア、ネパール、ニザーム、ノーマン、キベロン、クイックマーチが日本近海に派遣されました。

 8月15日正午、昭和天皇が玉音放送で国民に対して「終戦」を告げ、降伏の意思を明らかにした日本に対しては連合国の軍隊が進駐することになりますが、英国およびオーストラリア海軍の人員は米国第3艦隊上陸部隊の一員という形式を取って、日本海軍の横須賀鎮守府を接収するとともに、連合軍の東京上陸を補佐する任務を与えられ、8月30日、横須賀に上陸します。マッカーサーがコーンパイプを咥えて篤次の飛行場に降り立った、まさにその日でした。

 9月2日、日本と連合国との降伏文書が米戦艦ミズーリ上で調印され、オーストラリアからは豪州軍総司令のトマス・ブレイミーが署名しました。

 ちなみに、ブレイミーは、戦時中、部下に対して「諸君らが闘っているのは奇妙な人種である。人間と猿の中間にあると言っていい。文明存続のために我々は最後まで戦いぬかねばならない。日本人を根絶しなければならない。」と訓示していた人物です。オーストラリア国家を代表して“ジャップ”の降伏を受理したことは、さぞや痛快な出来事だったんでしょうな。

 降伏文書調印の当日、湾内に停泊していた連合国の艦船は258隻にも上ったそうですが、オーストラリア海軍からは、上述の艦船に加え、重巡洋艦のシュロップシャーとホバート、駆逐艦のバターン、セスノック、イプスウィッチなどが湾内に停泊していました。今回ご紹介のカバーは、そのうちのシュロップシャーから差し出されたものです。

 シュロップシャーはもともとは英国海軍の重巡洋艦として1926年2月に起工し、1928年7月に進水、1929年9月に就役し、地中海艦隊に所属していました。第2次大戦が勃発すると、大西洋やインド洋で活動していましたが、1942年8月、第一次ソロモン海戦でオーストラリア海軍の重巡洋艦キャンベラが撃沈されたため、その不足を補うため、同年12月、英国海軍を退役し、翌1943年4月、オーストラリア海軍に移管されています。

 オーストラリア海軍への移管後は、1943年12月のダイレクター作戦(ニューブリテン島・アラウェ上陸作戦)ならびにグロスター岬上陸作戦、1944年3月のアドミラルティ諸島の戦い、同4月のニューギニア・ホーランディアならびにアイタペ上陸作戦、同5月のビアク島上陸作戦、同7月のアイタペの戦いおよびサンサポール上陸作戦、同9月のモロタイ島上陸作戦、同年10月のレイテ沖海戦以降のフィリピンの戦いなど、日豪戦争の主要な戦いに参加しました。

 降伏文書調印の当日、シュロップシャーの艦内郵便局では、“TOKYO BAY/JAPAN”の文字が入った日付印と、降伏文書調印を祝う“Official Signing Of Japanese Surrender(日本降伏の公式調印)”の文字の入った記念スタンプが使われています。

 こうした記念印の類は、降伏文書調印の場となった米戦艦ミズーリ号をはじめさまざまな艦船でさまざまなタイプのものが使われていますが、オーストラリア海軍に関しては、シュロップシャーのほかホバート、ワラムンガでも使われました。

 なお、シュロップシャーは降伏文書の調印後もしばらく日本にとどまっていましたが、1945年11月18日、シドニーに向けて日本を出港しています

 

 

 

 

Literature

 

 

From dai Nippon Club Netherland

CATALOGI – Japanse bezetting Nederlands-Indië en Republiek
 
Auteur / uitgever Titel Prijs (euro’s)
Dai Nippon Catalogue of the postage stamps of the Netherlands East Indies under Japanese occupation 1942-1945. Engels, 276 pagina’s, kleur, 2001. 35,00
 
Dai Nippon Catalogue of the postage stamps of the Republic of Indonesia, 17 August 1945 – 27 December 1949. Engels, 345 pagina’s, kleur, 2005. 35,00
 
Dai Nippon Catalogue Vienna & Philadelphia printings and sub areas of the Republic of Indonesia. Engels, 290 pagina’s, kleur, 2003. 35,00
 
Dai Nippon Catalogue / Handbook Revenues Netherlands Indies Japanese occupation 1942-1945 and Republic of Indonesia Administration 1945-1949. Engels, 474 pagina’s, 2008. 65,00
 
Saros Katalog Prangko Indonesia. Indonesisch/Engels, 340 pagina’s, kleur, 2009. 49,50
 
 
BOEKEN – Japanse bezetting Nederlands-Indië en Republiek
 
Auteur / uitgever Titel Prijs (euro’s)
G.J. Bessels Postwaardestukken gedrukt door de Koninklijke Drukkerijen N.V.
G. Kolff & Co. te Batavia. Nederlands, 458 pagina’s, full colour, 2011.
75,00
 
G.J. Bessels NICA Timor NICA Soemba Medan porten / Medan postage due. Nederlands/Engels, 97 pagina’s, 2004. 25,00
 
N.F. Hedeman &
R. Boekema
Dai Nippon in South East Asia. Engels, 186 pagina’s, 1948. 14,00
 
R. Boekema Auction catalogue, Dutch East Indies 1941-1945. Engels, 480 pagina’s, 1975. 27,50
 
Ch. Boissevain &
L.B.Vosse
Zijn stempel gedrukt, een beschrijving van de Ricardo collectie. Nederlands/Engels, 118 pagina’s, 1997. 11,50
 
J.R. van Nieuwkerk The Postal History of the Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, and New Guinea during the Japanese Occupation and Immediate Aftermath 1942-1946. Engels, 496 pagina’s, kleur, 2008. 85,00
 
 
ARTIKELEN – Japanse bezetting Nederlands-Indië en Republiek
 
Auteur / uitgever Titel Prijs (euro’s)
Y. Aoki A different view of the Nongkodjadjar cover. Reprint from Japanese Philately. Engels, 5 pagina’s. 0,60
 
A.V.P.I. Periodieke Publicatie no.3. Nederlands, 28 pagina’s. 4,50
 
R. Boekema De cirkelvormige opdruk van Ambon. Nederlands, 25 pagina’s. 4,50
 
W. Bruijnesteijn v. C Republiek Indonesië, de boekdruk-opdrukken van 1945. Nederlands, 15 pagina’s. 1,15
 
M. Hardjasudarma Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees in Japanese occupied Netherlands Indies. Engels, 15 pagina’s. 1,80
 
M. Hardjasudarma The Rising Sun over Insulinde. Engels, 8 pagina’s. 0,95
 
M. Hardjasudarma Republik Indonesia: the war of independence 1945-1949. Engels, 14 pagina’s. 1,70
 
R. Hausman Typering van de ankeropdrukken van Bali, Lombok en de Kleine Soenda Eilanden. Verkrijgbaar in het Nederlands en Engels,19 pagina’s. 2,30
 
R. Hausman Datering tijdens de Japanse bezetting. Nederlands, 3 pagina’s. 0,35
 
R. Hausman,
L. Kuiper, &
B. Hiegentlich
The “Gouvernement Nippon” overprint: another Ampenan (Lombok) initiative. Kopie uit Japanese Philately. Engels, 19 pagina’s. 2,30
 
R. Hausman &
B. Hiegentlich
The “Smoking typewriter” of Ambon postmaster The Tiong Hao. Kopie uit Japanese Philately. Engels, 20 pagina’s. 2,40
 
J. Jeffries Stamps of South Moluccas fact or fantasy? and Stamps of Permesta. Engels, 8 pagina’s. 0,95
 
L. Kuiper Japanese occupation stamps of Dutch East India. Engels, 22 pagina’s. 2,60
 
D.G. Piket De filatelistische nalatenschap van de Japanse bezetting van Nederlands-Indië. Nederlands, 14 pagina’s. 1,70
 
H. Ramkema Function chops and emergency issues in the Navy area of the Japanese occupation of Dutch East Indies. Engels, 6 pagina’s. 0,70
 
A. Ryantori Rp. 2.50 overprint on 1946 president Soekarno is no longer a mystery. Engels, 9 pagina’s. 1,10
 
H.J. Verschuur De noodportzegels van Medan. Nederlands, 16 pagina’s. 4,50
 
 

 

Theend @copyright 2012

The sample Of Driwan E-book in CD ROM The Indonesian Independece Revolution and War

THITHE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER SORRY cTHIS SAMPLE WITHOUT ILLUSTRATION

CONTOH iNFO INI KHUSUS UNTUK PARA FILATELIS INDONESIA UNTUK JADI BAHAN KAJIAN LEBIH LANJUT SILAHKAN MEMBERI KOMENTAR.SEBAGIAN INFO SAYA AMBIL DARI FB

 khusus saya tujukan info ini untuk teman saya Susilo ricard,Prof dr Eko Prasetyo, Goenawan Bogor dan Rasjid siagian

‘THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENT REVOLUTION AND WAR 1945-1950″

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Limited pruvate E-BOOK in CD ROM Edition

Copyright@2012

kotak rokok masa perang kemrdekaan di sumatra,salah satu koleksi langka yang ditampilkan dalam buku saya

SEKALI MERDEKA TETAP MERDEKA

 

 Independent day august,17th.1945

Sunday august,12th.1945

When Sukarno,Hatta and Dr R went to Dalat via Singapore  by flight  they stop at singapore

Sukarno ,hatta and dr Radjiman flight from Saigon to Singapor at taiping arport

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence.

The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

Source:Archives: taiping

Surkarno and Mohammad Hatta , the later president and vice-president of the Republic of Indonesia flew to Taping for discussions of independence in which Indonesia and Malaysia would fall under one flag.

The plan never got shape and in 1945, Indonesia declared independence without Malaysia.

Source

http://capuccino-lieza.blogspot.com/

Taiping Airport (IATA: TPG, ICAO: WMBI) is an airport in Taiping, Malaysia. It is located at Jalan Muzaffar Shah formerly Creagh Road, Assam Kumbang and also called as Tekah Airport.

 The Taiping  airport also marked a significant in the history of Malaysia, when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia landed at the airport on 12 August 1945 for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi and Ibrahim Yaakub who were leaders of a political party named KRIS to talk about the possibility of joining Malaya with Indonesia, when Indonesia achieved independence.

 The meeting was arranged by the Japanese officers during the World War II. However, the plan was never succeed and Indonesia announced its independence without Malaya

Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Airport

read more

Dr. Burhanuddin alHelmy, atau nama penuhnya, Burhanuddin

mustaphah.jpg

national-express-malaysia.blogspot.com

200 × 285 – Dr Burhanuddin Al Helmi. Dr Burhanuddin, a colossal

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta in Taiping, August 1945.

Another significant mark in the history of Taiping airport was when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence. The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

After the end of the Japanese occupation, Taiping airport only served flights to other airports within Perak, leaving Ipoh as the only Perak airport to provide passenger services to other Malay states. Today, the airport is no longer in regular use. Taiping airport is recognised by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and carries the 3-letter IATA code of TPG

Source

http://sembangkuala.wordpress.com/tag/taiping/

 

 

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.

saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.

Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia dari seluru Indonesia .

Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat itu.

Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

 

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.

Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.

Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.

Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun datang atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.

Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.

Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0 .

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception because that time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud  and many cries.

No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with young man militan included the Medical Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

 

The Informations above always seeden in Indonesia exhibition,but the complete info in CD-ROM many unpublished info and illustrations exist.

Because too many of my frined still didn’t bought the original complete CD-ROM due to the many problem , I will show the list of Info part July-August 1945

Especially for my new friend Dr Eko Prasetyo manado,and Mr Richard susilo Tokyo

I hope after read this Informations they will bought the limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM

RTHE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENT RECVOLUTION AND WAR 1945-1950

Let read carefully

1.July 1945

Dalam konferensi tanggal 21-23 Juli 1945

 masalah pendirian kembali CPN tidak lagi didiskusikan. Perdebatann yang agak sengit berkisar pada masalah pertanggung-jawaban, mencari siapa yang salah dan masalah-masalah pribadi.

Akhirnya dilakukan pemilihan pimpinan Partai dengan hasil pengikut De Groot mendapat mayoritas. De Groot berhasil bertahan berkat oposisi yang tampil compang-camping dan tidak taktis serta manuvernya yang cekatan dan menyakinkan.

 

Dalam hubungan di Belanda pendapat Roestam tidak sesuai dengan suasana “De Waarheid” dan juga PI yang diwakili oleh Setiadjit yang pada tahun 1944 duduk dalam Indische Commissie untuk perjuangan bersama yang dalam bulan Maret 1945 mengeluarkan pernyataan “Voor de bevrijding van Indonesie” (untuk Kemerdekaan Indonesia).

Ini merupakan pernyataan persetujuannya untuk bergabung dengan sukarela dalam suatu “vernieuwd gemenebest (persemakmuran bersama yang diperbaharui) dan akhirnya menyerukan agar “bekerja dengan sukarela” untuk memerdekaakan Indonesia dan bahkan menolak pengiriman “tentara milisi”.

 

Bagi de Groot dan kawan-kawan yang ingin menyebarluaskan gambaran tentang Gerakan De Waarheid/CPN yang moderat secara nasional,

 

 

 

visi Roestam Effendi

 tidak bisa diterima sama sekali

 

 

 

 World War II in the Pacific
General George C. Marshall
at Potsdam Conference July 1945
:
At the Potsdam Conference July 1945
General George C. Marshall, US Army Chief of Staff, agreed to transfer Java and nearby islands to the British Southeast Asia command raising the anger of General McArthur who planned the restoration of the Dutch government.
 
 
 Potsdam, Germany July 1945
Those present are (from left to right):
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;
U.S. President Harry S. Truman;
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
 (Seated, left to right):
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;
U.S. President Harry S. Truman;
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
Standing (left ot right):
Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, Truman’s
Chief of Staff; British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin;
U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes;
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov
   
  The Potsdam Conference
July 17-August 2, 1945
was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzolern, in Potsdam, Germany.August 2, 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee,
who replaced Churchill after the Labour Party’s defeat of the Conservatives in the 1945 general election—
had gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on May 8 (V-E Day).
The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties
issues, and countering the effects of war
 
 July 1945

UK PM Clement Attlee, US President Harry S. Truman and USSR General Secretary Joseph Stalin
at the Potsdam Conference deciding the world’s fate

 General McArthur’s reaction:

“After the Borneo campaign, I had planned to proceed with the Australian troops
to Java and to retake the Netherlands East Indies. Then, as in New Guinea, restoration
of Dutch government would have brought the return of orderly adninistration and law.
But for reasons I have never been able to discover, the proposed movement was vetoed
by Washington – even in the face of my assurances that its full success was certain at minor cost

 

(2)In July 1945 

Daan Mogot graduated from PETA

During the Japanese occupation, Daan Mogot entered the military organization formed by native Japanese in Java, the Defenders of the Homeland or PETA. The year was 1942, he became a member of PETA’s first generation. Daan Mogot actual age has not been determined eligible by the Japanese of 18 years. At that time he was 14 years old.

Because of his accomplishments, he was appointed manager of PETA members in Bali, then moved in Jakarta. When I was in Bali, he got two true friends of Kemal Idris and Zulkifli Lubis.

Those from Japan Seinen Dojo instructor was appointed as a Assistant Instructor. Therefore, training will be given to them much lighter than had ever received training at the Dojo in Tangerang Seinen. Education and training can be accomplished through four generations. The first batch started in December 1943 and the fourth generation, the last completed month of July 1945, before the Japanese surrender to the Allies on August 15, 1945.

There are 50 people taken from the first batch of trainees to attend educational “guerilla warfare” under the command of Captain Yanagawa. Among those who participated a special exercise that is Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Zulkifli Lubis, Kusno Wibowo, Sabirin Mukhtar, Syatibi and Effendi. The type of exercise is given, among others, how to maintain a dove, because birds that can be used for communication devices. In addition they are trained how to use a good weapon to face the opponent.

After the 50th person inducted into the officer, they no longer served as an Assistant Instructor, but a shodancho.

Once inducted into PETA officers, each officer returned to his native region. In Bali, Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis and Kemal Idris, along with several other officers set up PETA and PETA train candidates in there.

The reason Japan founded PETA in Bali because Bali is considered a defense areas and landing sites.

For that power is prepared, especially in the Nagara and Klungkung. Japan gives credence to the Daan Mogot train in Tabanan, Kemal Idris in the Nagara and Zulkifli Lubis in Klungkung.

 Although the three friends separated their posts, but they always make contact, either discuss matters relating to training as well as about the fate of people who are suffering under the soles of the invaders.

Specific training activities when it is preparing to face an enemy attack the defense on the beach. During the year the shodancho in Bali is doing well. The next year they should be separated.

 Four people shodancho should go back to Java, while Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis, and Kemal Idris, who stayed.

 They act as instructors PETA, provide training to prospective officers until they are proficient in various fields of the army.

Daan Mogot is famous in the history of the revolution time of war to maintain the independence of Indonesia in fighting in the forest-Serpong, Tangerang Banten Lengkong, when the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang he leads try to seize weapons from the Japanese army on 25 January 1946.

Ironically, while he struggled to maintain the independence of Indonesia even willingly fall on the battlefield, his father was killed by robbers who thinks “people Manado” (Minahasa people) as londoh-londoh (minions) the Netherlands.

One time, Major Daan Mogot meet with his cousin Alex Kawilarang. Wearing a green cap, he was down on his motorcycle. 17-year-old youth was later picked up by Alex on the roadside, and he showed the face of joy. A warm meeting place.

Then they chatted in the house. Daan Mogot told me that he now lives in New Asem Jalan, riding on the family Singgih. Immediately disambungnya story of the struggle. About the attacks in Pondok Gede.

 He is also a story about his father who had just killed, is not known with certainty by whom. “A lot of true anarchy going on here,” said Alex. “Indeed, it is a must Torang clean up. Therefore, the weapon must be in the hands of Torang pe “continued Daan. He said again to Alex, “Torang, people of Manado, do not do the absurd. Caution, caution! Torang must actually demonstrate, at the side where we are. “

Then Daan also talked about his thoughts on a college to educate the youth who want to become soldiers, who later turned out to happen, is the establishment of “military academy” (military academy) on November 18, 1945 in Tangerang.

As a sponsor realization of the idea of ​​establishing a military academy school, then on 18 November 1945 he was appointed as Director of the Military Academy Tangerang (MAT) at the time he was 17 years old.

Actually in Yogyakarta also stand Military Academy Yogya (Yogya MA) almost simultaneously, which is dated 5 November 1945. The idea of ​​establishing a military academy is indeed like that be imagined by Daan Mogot.

 

 

 (c)In July 1945,

 

 Sudirman and several other officers maps that include the category of “dangerous” were called to Bogor on the grounds will receive further training.

Only then there is the impression that Japan intends to capture them. Even if they were in Bogor “Advanced Training” was canceled, because the single

 

(1)DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION JAVA’S  JULY 1945 CALENDER

THE  DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION JAVA’S CALENDER COLLECTION , JULY  2605 (1945) with few days of August , THE LAST MONTH BEFORE SURRENDER TO THE ALLIED ARMED FORCES, AND THE BACK OF THIS CALENDER A NOTE HANDWRITTEN Married 16/7-1941 no.124 at Soerabaja.

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

(, if some have the other month,  August until December ‘s Calender please show us-auth).

 

(2)In July 1945 

Daan Mogot graduated from PETA

During the Japanese occupation, Daan Mogot entered the military organization formed by native Japanese in Java, the Defenders of the Homeland or PETA. The year was 1942, he became a member of PETA’s first generation. Daan Mogot actual age has not been determined eligible by the Japanese of 18 years. At that time he was 14 years old.

Because of his accomplishments, he was appointed manager of PETA members in Bali, then moved in Jakarta. When I was in Bali, he got two true friends of Kemal Idris and Zulkifli Lubis.

Those from Japan Seinen Dojo instructor was appointed as a Assistant Instructor. Therefore, training will be given to them much lighter than had ever received training at the Dojo in Tangerang Seinen. Education and training can be accomplished through four generations. The first batch started in December 1943 and the fourth generation, the last completed month of July 1945, before the Japanese surrender to the Allies on August 15, 1945.

There are 50 people taken from the first batch of trainees to attend educational “guerilla warfare” under the command of Captain Yanagawa. Among those who participated a special exercise that is Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Zulkifli Lubis, Kusno Wibowo, Sabirin Mukhtar, Syatibi and Effendi. The type of exercise is given, among others, how to maintain a dove, because birds that can be used for communication devices. In addition they are trained how to use a good weapon to face the opponent.

After the 50th person inducted into the officer, they no longer served as an Assistant Instructor, but a shodancho.

Once inducted into PETA officers, each officer returned to his native region. In Bali, Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis and Kemal Idris, along with several other officers set up PETA and PETA train candidates in there. The reason Japan founded PETA in Bali because Bali is considered a defense areas and landing sites. For that power is prepared, especially in the Nagara and Klungkung. Japan gives credence to the Daan Mogot train in Tabanan, Kemal Idris in the Nagara and Zulkifli Lubis in Klungkung. Although the three friends separated their posts, but they always make contact, either discuss matters relating to training as well as about the fate of people who are suffering under the soles of the invaders. Specific training activities when it is preparing to face an enemy attack the defense on the beach. During the year the shodancho in Bali is doing well. The next year they should be separated. Four people shodancho should go back to Java, while Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis, and Kemal Idris, who stayed. They act as instructors PETA, provide training to prospective officers until they are proficient in various fields of the army.

Daan Mogot is famous in the history of the revolution time of war to maintain the independence of Indonesia in fighting in the forest-Serpong, Tangerang Banten Lengkong, when the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang he leads try to seize weapons from the Japanese army on 25 January 1946.

Ironically, while he struggled to maintain the independence of Indonesia even willingly fall on the battlefield, his father was killed by robbers who thinks “people Manado” (Minahasa people) as londoh-londoh (minions) the Netherlands.

One time, Major Daan Mogot meet with his cousin Alex Kawilarang. Wearing a green cap, he was down on his motorcycle. 17-year-old youth was later picked up by Alex on the roadside, and he showed the face of joy. A warm meeting place. Then they chatted in the house. Daan Mogot told me that he now lives in New Asem Jalan, riding on the family Singgih. Immediately disambungnya story of the struggle. About the attacks in Pondok Gede. He is also a story about his father who had just killed, is not known with certainty by whom. “A lot of true anarchy going on here,” said Alex. “Indeed, it is a must Torang clean up. Therefore, the weapon must be in the hands of Torang pe “continued Daan. He said again to Alex, “Torang, people of Manado, do not do the absurd. Caution, caution! Torang must actually demonstrate, at the side where we are. “

Then Daan also talked about his thoughts on a college to educate the youth who want to become soldiers, who later turned out to happen, is the establishment of “military academy” (military academy) on November 18, 1945 in Tangerang.

As a sponsor realization of the idea of ​​establishing a military academy school, then on 18 November 1945 he was appointed as Director of the Military Academy Tangerang (MAT) at the time he was 17 years old. Actually in Yogyakarta also stand Military Academy Yogya (Yogya MA) almost simultaneously, which is dated 5 November 1945. The idea of ​​establishing a military academy is indeed like that be imagined by Daan Mogot.

 

 (c)In July 1945,

 Sudirman and several other officers maps that include the category of “dangerous” were called to Bogor on the grounds will receive further training. Only then there is the impression that Japan intends to capture them. Even if they were in Bogor “Advanced Training” was canceled, because the single August 14, 1945 the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively. At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

 

 

AUGUST 1945

 

a.Early August 1945:
The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

August 14, 1945

the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively.

 

August ,6th.1945:

At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

 

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY

That same day, following TG 35.3′s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit.

August,8th. 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan.

 August ,9th.1945:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4]

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5]

August,10th. 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state.

 August,12th. 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity.

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000.

 August,13th. 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!”

August,14th. 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day.

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks.

 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescrip

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

 

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

 


Dutch prisoners just after release from a Japanese concentration camp, 1945.Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August

August,15th.1945

 

 

The rare money order fragment send to Serang CDS 15.8.05 ,and  the date on the  money order 2605,

 

 

 

 

 

.August,17th. 1945

 

 

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

Declaration event

 

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

.


Provisional guards for President Sukarno, Jakarta, 1945.

 

 

PRANGKO DEFINIT dAI NIPPON SUMATRA DIGUNAKAN DIKANTOR POS pADANG DENGAN STEMPEL DAI NIPPON HURUF KANJI pA-DA-N(G) DENGAN TANGGAL SHOWA 20.8.17 YANG BERARTI 17 AGUSTUS 1945, SAYANG SUDAH DICOPOT DARI SAMPUL, SUART DIKIRIM SAAT KEMERDEKAN INDONESIA DI PROKLAMASI DI jAKARTA, INI KOLEKSI SANGAT HISTORIS, SAAT PROKLAMASI KANTOR POS PADANG MASIH DIKUASAI DAI NIPPON. koleksi ini juga ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Independdent revolution and War

 

At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

 

 August,18th. 1945:

Ini koleksi kartupos milter jepang yang digunakan dengan prangko pendudkan jepand jawa dikirim dari Djatinegara ke magelang stempelpos 18 agustus 1945.ternyata satu hari setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan kantor pos jatinegara masih dikuasai Dai Nippon

 

 

 

 September,2nd. 1945:

Formal Surrender Ceremonies:

September,15th. 1945:

Cessation of Hostilities:

Surrender(National Archives)

 

B. The chronology of Indonesian Independence Proclamation

a.SUNDAY-AUGUST.12th.1945

__________________________________

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

 

C John Lennon Remembrance in Words for the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima
     
 
The first atomic bomb
Imagine there’s no Heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for todayImagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peaceYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as oneImagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the worldYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will live as one– Lyrics to “Imagine” by
John Lennon, 1971.
 
A-bomb goes off on Hiroshima
   
 
A watch that survived the blast which stopped at precisely 8:15
 
Devastation in Hiroshima….
   
 
One day after the bomb blast
 
Boy with burned back
   
 
A woman whose face is disfigured from the blast. Later, when the rain would fall, some of the mobile survivors would actually drink the rain water which was poisonous with radiation.
 
Young Japanese boy suffers from radiation burns
   
 
Japanese female whose face is totally disfigured from heat and radiation.
 
Another burn casualty from the A-bomb
May Man have learned from the lessons never to repeat again the tragedies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki… 

 

 

 

 

Translate Indonesia:

Manusia mungkin telah belajar dari pelajaran untuk tidak mengulangi lagi

tragedi Hiroshima dan Nagasaki

Bayangkan ada Surga
Sangat mudah jika Anda mencoba
Tidak ada neraka di bawah kita
Di atas kita hanya angkasa
Bayangkan semua orang

Hidup untukBayangan Hari ini

tidak ada negara
Hal ini tidak sulit untuk dilakukan
Tidak ada yang membunuh atau mati
Dan tidak ada agama juga
Bayangkan semua orang
Hidup dalam Damai Kamu  mungkin mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan menjadi seperti satu bayangan tidak memiliki harta
Aku ingin tahu apakah Anda dapat
Tidak perlu untuk keserakahan atau kelaparan
Sebuah persaudaraan manusia
Bayangkan semua orang
Berbagi semua dunia kamu dapat mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan hidup sebagai salah satu-lirikuntuk “Bayangkan”

oleh
John Lennon, 1971

 

John lennon Record Imagine 1971 Collections

 

 
 
 
 
Target Hiroshima Nagasaki
Dead/Missing 70,000-80,000 35,000-40,000
Wounded 70,000 40,000
Population Density 35,000 per sq mile 65,000 per sq mile
Total Casualties 140,000-150,000 75,000-80,000
Area Destroyed 4.7 sq mile 1.8 sq mile
Attacking Platform 1 B-29 1 B-29
Weapon(s) ‘Tall Boy’ 15 kT
(15,000 tons of TNT)
‘Fat Man’ 21 kT
(21,000 tons of TNT)    
     
  “Ground Zero” at Hiroshima. The A-bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945.JAPAN – The 509th CG B-29 takes off from North Field, Tinian at 0245 hours. At two-minute intervals, 2 observation B-29′s follow. At 0815 hours local, an atomic bomb is released over Hiroshima from 31,600 ft; it explodes 50 seconds later. More than 80% of the city’s buildings are destroyed and over 71,000 people are killed. The B-29 lands on Tinian at 1458 hours followed within the hour by the 2 observation aircraft.– Source: Air War Pacific Chronology: America’s Air War Against Japan in East Asia and the Pacific 1941-1945″ by Eric Hammel, (Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Press, 1988, ISBN 0-935553-26-6)  
     
     
     
       
The atomic bomb used to flatten Nagasaki…  
 
     
   
           
Today, Japan does not forget the loss of life and destruction through nuclear weapons…
 
Hiroshima’s A-bomb dome is a constant daily reminder of the consequences of a nuclear bomb
 
A young woman rings the bell on the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima
 
Japanese visitors at Peace Memorial Park
 
Japanese Youth Rally– they file in a field declaring “Stop Nuclear DU Weapons.”  The hut by the two vans at the top had musicians providing “live” entertainment.

B.THE V. ESBENSEN’S CATALOGUE 1980 OF INDONESIA STRUGGLE FOR INDPENDENCE POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS 1945-19450

After the official end of the war on 15.8.45 the Japanese(Dai Nippon) were instructed to maintain Government service until Allied Forces arrived.Therefore the Dai Nippon Occupation Postal services continue operating after 15.8.45.TGhe Republic Postal services was officially inaugurated on Sumatra sometime during October 1945(the earliest date is note known).

The affect of the change of postal administration started to appear during the first week of November 1945.Thus for the purpose of postal history,the Japanese Occupation postal service ended during October 1945. But the cgange from one postal administration to the next was gradual and the effects of the occupation lasted for about three years.Japanese occupation stamp without Republican overprint were sold at some post offices as late as January or February 1948.The date on which Japanese occupation stamps because invaluid is not know,but it was probably about mid-1948.

Giving exact information about 1945-1949 postal history odf the Republic is practically imposible because nearly all official records were destroyed prior to 1950 and philatelist did not do any serious research inti this postal history while it was still fresh.(Dr Iwan have starting in 1956 until now,and in 1985 had communication and echange info with Mr V.Esbesensen during he stayed at Canada,but in 1994 he moved to Singapore,but he did not want to met Mr Suwito Harsono,and one year after that he was pass away)

It appears that the Republic collected Japanese Occupation stamps at a number of central points.These stamps were then overprinted with Republican overprint and redistributed.However,many stamps without republican overprint also appear to have been redistributed.Thus one can find stamps of Bangka-Billiton Dai Nippon overprint were used in Tapanoeli or middle Sumatra,stamps of overprint Dai Nippon Palembang used in the East Coast province etc.How stamps of Bangka-Billiton came into Republican hands is not clear because the Republic did not control Bnagka-Billiton.

The situation in Java almost same with Sumatra,but in java the Dutch East Indie stamps without queen potriat like dancer stamps never overpr8int by dai Nippon ,also the postal stationer karbouw 31/2 cent,different in Sumatra all kind of DEI stamps were overprint in every province and redidency.

According to a post office circular Dutch east Indies and Japanese Occupation stamps remained valid after the postal service were taken over by the Republic,but the Nederlanda indies and Japanese characters were supposed to be crossed out .

As aresult many different crude overprints were used to cross out the words.It is believed,but cannot be proved.taht most of these overprints were applied to stocks of mint stamps at local post offices before the stamps were sold to the publ8ic(Dr Iwan have the unused stamps sample ).

But in some case it is imposisible to prove wheter an overprint was applied by the postal services(my friend,retires postman told Dr Iwan that the postman used parker ink ),  was applied by the postal services or by a private person.But at that time few people would have bought stamp to keep at home and street mail boxes were probably none existent.Thus the stamps pn most non-phillatelic items would have been purchased and applied when these iyems were brought into a post officed to be mailed.

(Dr Iwan will discussed about the rare philatelic items based on V.Esbensen Catalogue 1980 and other Dai Nippon Club catalogue,the discussion only in the specialist full illustration CD-ROM Only because the common philatelist very difficult to understand if they did not know about the Dai Nippon Occupation Java and Suamtra postal hisyory 1941-1945, for that Dr Iwan asked sorry in the common cheapest CD-ROM this infoo did not exist)

August .14th 1945

(1)14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day. 

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks. 

Emp eror Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement 

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August  

Sunday august,12th.1945

When Sukarno,Hatta and Dr R went to Dalat via Singapore  by flight  they stop at singapore

 

Sukarno ,hatta and dr Radjiman flight from Saigon to Singapor at taiping arport

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence.

The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

Source:Archives: taiping

Monday, August 13th 1945

1)After returning from Dalat to Saigon,we heard that Russia had attacked Manchuria, and thus the blows against Japan were complete,coming from all direction(ibid yazni,page 117)

-Tuesday, August .14th .1945

August,14th.1945

Sukarno,Hatta and Dr Radjiman  Wedijodiningrat were invited by the highest command Japanese Military in east Asia to Dalat (Indochina)

a)to recieved  the decision of  Japanese Government about Indonesia Independence. In the official meeting ,General Terauchi

said :”Depand on your masters to decide when Indodesia will Independent”( Hatta,Legend and reality around Proclamation 17 Agustus,Mimbar Indonesia 17 Agustus 1951,no 32/33)

b) On the 12th of August ( which happened to coincide with may birthday) MARSHAL TERAUCHI told us in Dalat (300 km from Saigon) the decision of the Japanese Government to give up the question of Indonesia’s Independence to the Committee for Preparation of Indonesian Independence.

He said : “It is you gentlemen who are to carry this out, and it is entirely up to you to decide its execution”.

Sukarno then asked :”It is right if we do it a week from now ?

“It is up to you gentlemen” Answered Terauchi.

(Yasni Z,Bung Hatta Anwers,1981,page 116)

Field Marshal Terauchi

(1) ,who waswn’t Indonesian’s  friend ,Independence was forced by the government in Tokyo (gogle,internet).

(2)the vintage photo of Field Marshal Terauchi and his room with Sukarno’s  photo (P,google,internet)

The vintage  photo of Indonesian Proclamators

(1) Sukarno and Hatta during that time.

 

(2) I haven’t found the photo of Dr Radjiman

e) The Vintage picture postcard of Dalat and Saigon cochinchina

(   Emperor Bodai’s palace were in Dalat and used by Marskal Terauchi as Dai Nippon East Asia Command administrations Building, and Saigon after vietnam liberation change name to be Ho Chi Minh City-read the Vietnam Document and Postal History-auth)

1) when back from Dalat to Jakarta (Via Saigon and Singapore-auth),

(1) the three delegations meet with Mr Teuku Hassan,Dr Amir and Mr Abbas  , the member of PPKI (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan) or the committee for the Preparation of Independence from Sumatra, which will departed with us to Djakarta.They have heard that Russian have anounced the War to Japan and  in-vasion Mansjuria(Manchuria), After the discussion we have conclution that the Japanese were falling down  willn’t in month and we must proclaimed Indonesia Independence fastly. ( they don’t know about the US “H”Bomb auth)(Ibid,Hatta,1951)

(2 In the morning of August 14 , before we were to be flown back to Jakarta on a bomber, we met Dr Amir. He asked whether it was true that Russian had attacked Japan in Manchuria ? I said tjat it was right.Then Dr Amir said :” then it won’t be much longer”

I said ,”That’s right.We are not counting in months anymore bur a most in just weeks . Psychollogy Japan had already lost, being attacked from the south and the North”(ibid Yasni ,p-117,1985)

(3)So the three of us (Sukarno,Hatta and Radjiman) started home for Indonesia. In Singapore, we recieved an invitation from the Commander of the Japanese army there) . Delegates from North Sumatra (Dr Amir,Abbas and Hassan) were invited to a party by a lower level of the Japanese army leadership. We were invited by a higher level. It looked as though the Japanese were afraid for us to meet (ibid,Yasni,p 117,1984)

(2 )Sukarno annouced that  Independence will be fastly  in Kemayoran airpot.

(a)After came back at Jakarta, in Kemayoran airport (Kemayoran now the Jakarta Fair area, and Sukarno Hatta international airport in Cengkareng Tangerang-auth), sukarno have said in he front of many peoples “ In before I have said that our Independence  before the “Jagung”  berbuah”or seeds…., now I can concluded that. Independence before “Jagung” were flowered)”  (ibid Hatta,1951)

(b) When we arrived at Kemayoran airpot in Jakarta, we were met by the Gunseikan.

Without going home first, we were taken to the Palace to meet the Gunseikan. We were welcomed with a happy face and clear laughter by the Gunsereikan , and had dinner  with high –ranked  Japanese authoritied, there were even a toast and congratulation over “Indonesia Independence” (Yasni,p-117,1984)

(3) Emperor Hirohito asked the Dai Nippon Military  surrendered to allied Army(D) 

(4) Sjahrir Told Hatta that Japanese have aksed peace to Allied Armed Forces and suggest Sukarno annouced via radio Indonesia Independence.

(a)In the afternoon 14th Agustus , Sjahrir came to told me that Japanese have asked peace to Allied, and he asked how about our Independence ? I have aswered our Independence was on our hands.

The Sjahrir’s opinion,that the Indonesia Indepen-dence proclamation  willn’t by the commitee of preparation Indonesian Independecde because the allied Army will said that the  birth of Republic of Indonesia  was made by the Japanese. Better only Sukarno  himself annouced as the  leader under the people’s named via Radio.(ibid,Hatta,1951)

(b) This party was over around 1.30 in the afternoon. Only then did we go home.At Home I found Syahrir waiting. “How was it?”he said .

I said that the japanese had given the matter up to us.  Then Syahrir said that it would be better if the proclamation of Independence  were not made by the Committee for the Preparationb of Independence, because Japan had already surrendered, whilst the Committee were made by Japan. It would be better if the proclamation were made just by Bung Karno.

I said , would he want to do that, because, after all, he was the Chairman of that Committee. I phoned Bung Karno tight away. I asked :”You weren’t asleep yet?”.Bung Karno answered :”No,not yet” Then I said :”Something important has come up, Syahrir and I would like to come now for a few minutes”. Bung karno said :”Alright,please comenow”

Syahrir and I went there immedietely. Bung Karno was waiting for us. Syahrir then suggested that Bung Karno himself should make the proclamation. Sukarno said that, however things might be, it would not be right for him to seize the opportunity himself in this matter without acting together with the Committee.

Syahrir said that with the regard to this matter, Bung Karno should act as leader of the people, while the Committee was made by Japan.

Again Bung Karno said that no matter how things might be, we had cooperated with the Japanese for quite a long time.

Bung Karno also said at that time that he did not yet know for certain and was not yet convinced that the Japanese had surrendered already, as Syahrir said.

“All right then , tommorow,together with Bung Hatta, I’ll go yo the Gunseikanbu to make inquiries; that won’t be too late ,will it?” Bung karno said. Said Syahrir ,”No,that won’t be too late”.(Yasni,1984,p-118)

AUGUST 15th 1945

Money order fragment,destination postal circulaire stamped CDS Serang 20.8.05

 

(2) Although Dai Nippon was officially surrendered, the Dai Nippon Military Administration still exist in Indonesia

(,they have waited to give the power to Allied army, but the allied army very late came to Indonesia, that is way the Japanese Military Administration still exist until The British Army under allied army came. The unique and postal  history collection will proved that situation-auth)

1.In 15th August,

(a)the Japanese have asked” Peace” to Allied Armed forces( they didn.t like  to say “Surrendered”,may be they ashamed and still had the power -auth), that is way we dicided

(b) to invited the member of PPPK (Indonesia Independence prepatory Committee) to have the meeting at 10.00 morning in the Sanyo Office at Pejambon 2.

 

(c) Indonesia Indepence Proclamation must be announce as fast as we could, the Indonesia National Basic Law (UUD) must be “Mufakat” without any discussed  and the Indonesia Governerment at Central and Regional area must be done in several days only.

(d) The PPKI’s members from regional area must came back to their area with bring the complete instructions from the Indonesia Independence Government. If they back latetly,may be the Japanese will banned them backhome because the Japanese have the powered from the Allied Army( Jurukuasa  underpower.)

(e) That True Japanese had aggreed Indonesian Independence, but may be the allied army will asked the Japanese army to liquidatied Indonesia and will tried to gave back to Dutch East Indie Government.

(f) Organized revolution must exist, then Indonesion Independence could resisted with all Indonesian people’s struggled. Depend on this ,then I am “menentang” or against the Youngman,Peta and peoples’s “Merebut Kekuasaan” or Fight the Power theory, that suggested in the afternoon by in memoriam Subianto and subadio, the Parlemen’s member now.

(g)The fight of Power must be after the Independence Proclamation by Bung karno via Radio.To the two Men I said that I like Revulution, but against the “Putsch”or Rebellion.The Young men didn’t sustified to this explenation but latter they have said that that were true and Subianto have done my special tasked until he was died in Serpong. (ibid Hatta,1951)

2.The following morning (15th August 1945)

we went to the Gunseikanbu,( Dai nippon Military Administration Headquaters , the present Pertamina building-auth). There was nobody there. Except for a single Lieutenant by the name of Nomura, If I’m not mistaken.

Everybody had been summoned to the Gunserei-kanbu .I thought, the Japanese had indeed already surrendered.

Subardjo, assistant to  Admiral Tadashi Maeda,

 

who was also with us at the time suggested that we go straight away to Admiral Maeda. Which we did, and we met Maeda.(in 1946 Maera was arrested by the Allied army,in 1946 bring backhome to japan as ther retired Navy, and in 1976 he had gave Indonesia Narariya Star Medal  by Indonesian Gverment, and in 1977 he was pass away-info from samsi jacobalis book,2000)

Bung karno asked whether the rumours were true, the Japan had surrendered .Maeda was silent , for sevela minutes he did not anwer and his head was bowed. I pinched Bung Karno and whispered :”It looks as if the rumours are true”

In the end , Maeda drew a long breath and said :” According to Allied broadcasts,yes.But we have not yet recieved any instruction at all from Tokyo. It is those instructions  from Tokyo that are decive”(He didn’t told that The Tenno Haika Hirohito asked the Military to Surrender –auth)

After that we took leave from Maeda. As you know, Bung Karno was Chairman of The Preparatory Commi-tee, I was the Vice Chairmain, and for daily activity Siebardjo assited us. I told Soebardjo to call a meeting of all members of the Prepatory Committee for the morning of 16th August 1945 at Pejambon (now Foreign affair Ministry office-auth) Soebardjo called all the members by phone: they were all staying in the Hotel Des Indes.

(d)In the afternoon of 15th August 1945

Two people came to my house, Soebianto (margono’s son) and soebadio. Both urged me to influence Soekarno to be willing to make the proclamation on behalf ofthe leaders of the people. Not on behalf of the Prepatory Committee, because ita was made by Japan.

I said that this depneded on Soekarno himself. I wondered whether he would want to do what or not. But I was afraid he would not want to, because he was the Chairman of that committee. If be stepped foward alone, he woulkd be usurping other people’s right. Maybe he wouldnot want to do that.

Soebianto and Soebadio continued to press me and said :” If you pres him, of course Bung Karno will do it.”I said :” On what grounds would I press him? He,myself, the member of the Committee, all have worked together with the Japanese, but if there somebody who will make the proclamation who ever never cooperated with the Japanese, it be best for him just vto do it.

We continue to argue, at the end those two people said : “Well, in arevolutionary period, Bung Hatta cannot be brought in.” I answered :” That is not how it is. I am now preparing a revolution. The revolution has not begun yet. We are preparing for it. I don not want to make a Putsch as Hitler did in Germany, which failed . If we act , we must succeed” then the two went away.

It shloud also be said here,that on the night of 15 august, in preparation fdor the meetinmg of the Prepatory Committee next morning in 16 August, I typed out the opening of the Constitution to be used as the text for proclamation.

While I was typing, Soebardjo came in, it was about eight o’clock at night.He said,”Bung Karno is being  attacked by the youth. We should go there together “. So I went in Soebardjo’s car because my driver was not there.Wikana talked a lot. Wikana insisted that the proclamation should be made the same night (The night of August 15th).Soekarno sait it could not de done because it was only tomorrow (August 16th) that we were going to have a meeting. Wikana said, we do not want the proclamation made by the Prepatory Committee is rgarded as made by Japan. I said, if the Prepatory Committee is regarded as made by Japan,Bung Karno and I, and also many other leaders, have been cooperatin with the Japanese for a long time.So if things are like this, it is neccessary to look for somebody to make the proclamation, chosen from among who have never cooperated with the Japanese.

And we will back them up.  But the youth still wanted Bung karno to do it. At the time Wikana said,that, if by twelve midninght Bung karno had not proclaimed the Indepnedence of Indonesia the on the following morning(16 August 1945) there would be bloodshed.Then Bung karno became angry.He stood up straight away and went up to Wikana, and, pointing to his neck, Bung karno said :” Here is my neck. You needn’t wait till tomorrow. Take me down and finishe me off this very night.”

“ Oh,that’s not what I mean,Bung” said Wikana.”Then ,what do you mean ?”.”The people and our youth will rebel and will start killing the Ambonese here”, said Wikana.

Then I put in ,:”Why  the Ambonese? You want to start a revolution, why do it by killing your own people , you want to kill innocent people? He answered :’ Well, the Ambonese are considered to be NICA (Netherlands Indische Civil Agency-auth) , aqccomplices of the Dutch”. I said :” That’s only what people think. For some time already, they have worked together with us, and now you want tokill them? What sort of way is that ?”

TEMPERS WERE RUNNING HIGH, the I SUGGESTED TO Bung Karno that the four of us should talk inside. These four were Bung karno, myself,Dr Boentaran and soebardjo. For fifteen minutes we talked in another room at Pegansaan Timur, I suggested to Bung Karno that he should tell thoise young people to find someone from among themselves who had never cooperated with Japanese to make the proclamation, and we would state we would(shall?) back them up to the full. Let them makes the proclamation.

After about fifteen minutes we came out again and Bung Karno firmly told them so.In turned out that they still wanted Bung Karno to make the proclamation. Not a single one of them was ready or dared do it.

“To nignt we will not come to an agreement. It is useless”’said Bung Karno,”I am determined to go on with the meeting of the Preparatory Commitee tomorrow. Then proceed with the proclamation of Independence. If you do not agree, that’sis your business.I’m not going to take their right for myself. There’s no use in your pressing me, just go home first, and we’ll stop here”(ibid Yasni,1984).

Thursday-AUGUST 16th 1945

1)SUKARNO AND HATTA , IN THIS MORNING AT 4.00 PM carried off  BY SUKARNI CS TO RENGASDENGKLOK .

(1)Vintage Hatta’s version in 1951

At 16 August 1945 ,10.00 morning, all members of PPKI  and several femous man with pers were presented in Pedjambon 2 building, but who weren’t present were…

…..the invitator, Sukarno and Hatta, because they at 4.00 morning they were carried out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni cs.

Their  reason have told by Sukarni  for bring us,  because Sukarno didn.t proclaimed the Indonesia Indepenced like what their will or  preffered , then the Youngmen , PETA(ex Dainippon defend Homeland army) and peoples will “bertindak” done themself.

In Jakarta will be an Revolution to fight the power from Japanese, that is way Bung karno and us must be flee to Rengasdengklok to administratived the Indonesia Independent Government there.

When heared that , in the front of my face(mind) that the Disasters will happened  to Indonesia, the mad actions of the younmen willn’t succeeded .This  Rebellion will killed the Indonesian Revolution.

At this day , the Hot blood youngmen could not relized their own theory. Rebellion didn’t happened , outside Jakarta theren’t preparations aanymore. The Japanese have ready with their completed war machined to welcome all will be happaned.

In Rengasdengklok weren’t any meeting. There we workless “mengangur” Lost worked one day to saw from far the vision without based with reality.But, if there a place in Indonesia that realy be the fight of the power was at Rengasdengklok. The Rengasdengklok’s PETA have arrested  theJapanese’s  Wedana(Village’s Chief and two or three Japanese”Sakura” who adminstratived the Rice. The Jakarta’s  Syotyokan(Mayor)this day have came to Rengasdengklok to check the Rice stock, he also arrested “coup d’etats .

For Who and under the whomed’s  name the PETA fight the power there? For  and under the name of Indonesian Independence?  Indonesian Independence wasn,t birth this day and There wasn,t exist Indonesia Revolusioner Government.

In the afternoon Mr Subardjo have came as the Gunseibu’s envoy to bring us Home and Sukarni didn’t against that. In the night we came back to Djakarta also with Sutardjo and Sukarn and the Peta asked what about the Wedana, we said released him. At this nignh the the chief of Revolutiuon , will be started, and came back to the hand of Sukarno-Hatta (ibid Hatta,1951)

(2)Later Version By Hatta in 1984

At four o’clock in the morning, after my last meal before sunrise ( this during the Moslem fasting month). Soekarni came to my house with somebody from PETA ( I don’t remenbmber his name anymore) to fetch me.

Soekarni said :”I,m asking you to came with us”. “Where to?” I said.”Out of town” he said.”What are we going out of town for ?”I said again. Soekarni anwered : “ Well, we are going to free Indonesia and continue the Goverment from there, out of town”

”What government, it hasn’t been formed ye t.Independence hasn’t been proclaimed yet, only tomorrow morning. What gouvernment are you talking about?”

“Well that is how it is.This is the decision of the youth. Bung Karno and you aare going to be taken out of town, independence will proclaimed there “ said Soekarni.

I answer ,:” Oh,that’s how it is. What you are trying to do is the same as Hitler’s abortive Putsch in Munich,that is,trying to seize power without any backbone and mature planning” I laso said :” We were gpoing to proclaim our independence and you’re going to make a failure of it”

Soekarni said again :” Well,in any case ,just come with us,Bung. If you don’t come. Bung karno won’t want to come either”

From my house I was tkaen to Bung Karno’shouse. From there Bung Karno, Fatmawati, Guntur, all of us, were taken to the border of Krawang in the direction of Rengasdengklok. Near krawang before turning off to Rengasdengklok, the car stopped. We were removed into a pick-up vehicle. The milk for baby Guntur was left behind in the previous car, which was sent back to Jakarta. Perhaps the reason was to prevent people from knowing where they had taken us. With that pick-up finally arrived in Rengasdengklok.

We were put in the office of the Daidan ( a lower administrative unit of PETA) . We were ordered to sit there. The house was two-storied, upstair seemed to be their bedrooms. We sat there together . Then the Wedana of Rengasdengklok was brought there.He was startled to see us there.

After sitting there for an hour, we were told to move to another house not far away.It seemd to be the house of a Chinese, a landowner herer. We were guarded by a young man with a bambooo spear. Until close to tweleve noon nothing happened . Then I called the guard and asked him to call Soekarni. I said :” The man who brought us here, his name is soekarni,” He still didn’t know. I told him to ask the daidan.

The guard went away, Of course, he should not have left us. But Bung Karno and I told him to go, so he went. Miltarily of course, he was in fact being indisciplinary. Not long after that the guard came back with Soekarni. We asked him :”How is it, have you stated your revolution ? This morning you said that the people would attack.Have the people attacked jakarta yet ?”

He said , there had been no contact with Jakarta,yet. Bung Karno and I told him tophone Jakarta, to contact his headquaters and asked them whether it had taken place or whether it had failed or was it just talk and there had been no realization at all

He went . We waited for a long time. It almost an hour, and still he had not comeback. I thought,  nothing was happenening.

About two o’clock in the afternoon he came back at last and said that he tried to contact Jakarta; it was very difficult to make contacct at first, but at least he had done so,he said.

“And what has happened ? have the people attacked Jakarta ?” .”No,there’s been no attack”,he said.”This morning you said that the people were going to attack and disarm the Japanese, therefore you brought us here. Now,itseems , nothing has happened. So,you’ve failed.” I said.”That is not sure yet.” H e replied.

Thus , we just waited and waited as we had done since morning. All that Bung Karno and I did was to take turns with Fatmawati holding Guntur and trying to quieten him.

 

Guntur with Sukarno and Fatmawati

 

He kept on crying because there was no milk. Fatmawati couldnot feed him and there was no canned milk because it had been left in the car had been sent back to Jakarta that morning.

When it was my turn to be holding Guntur on my lap, he uninated. My trouser were wet and I had no change.So I could not say mt prayers, wheas it was fasting month. Only aound one in the afternoon was atin of milk brought and only then  did Guntur become quiet.

That evening toward six o’clock,Soebardjo came from Jakarta looking for us. He negotiated with the Daidan to take us  back to Jakarta.

First the daidan refused. Soebardjo pointed out “What is the use of detaining Bung karno and Bung Hatta here ? Nothing is happening in Jakarta. It is absolutely queit there. The meeeting this morning was cancelled because you brought Bung Karno and Bung Hatta here. Why must it be like this ?”

When we were to be taken back to Jakarta , i asked jokingly,”Better if we spent the night here, it is ill-time now,” Fatmawati(Soekarno’s wife)protested :”No, the tin of milk for Guntur which the guard brought is finished. Guntur will suffer and will cry again.At least we started for Jakarta.

In the end we were ready again to go back to Jakarta.

Soekarni also went with us.

Funny things happaned also on our way ack. Soekarno,myself and Soebardjo sat in the back in the car, while Soekarni sat in front next to the driver. Fatmawati and Guntur together with Soetardjo were in another car.

On our way to Jakarta before we passed Krawqang, we saw smoke in the distance, said Soekarni :” Now then the people have started to burn down the properties of the Chinese.” Bung Karno told the driver to goon, then to stop for a while when we told the driver to have a look. Laten on, he said it was only the people burning rice straw. We all doubled up with laughter. Soekarni did look slightly embarrassed.

When we reached jakarta, Soetardjo accompanied Fatmawati and Guntur home to 56 pegangsaan street (now Proklamasi street)with their own car ,

Bung Karno and myself ,Soebardjo and soekarni went to my place with our car.

I immediately asked Soebardjo to phone Hotel de Indess  to CALL A MEETING THAT SAME NIGHT OF MEMBERS OF THE PREPATORY COMMITTEE AT MIDNIGHT AT HOTEL das INDES to continue the meeting which had not taken place that morning.look at the picture of Hotel Des Indes  below

 

Those at Hotel des Indes said by phone that for some time past the Japanese has instructed the hotel management sot to allow meetings to be held after ten at night.

Soebardho suggested we try to ask MAEDA’S AGREEMENT TO HOLD THE MEEETING AT HIS HOUSE. We AGREED WITH Soebardjo suggestion.Maeda answered by phone:”He would with pleasure put his house at our disposal for the meeting and he was happy to hear that the two of us had returned to Jakarta. All 21 members were invited to hold that  MIDNIGHT MEETING.

Each of us wanted to go home first since there were still a few hours to go before midnight.”What about me?” asked Soekarni.”You go home too”I said. “But,I can’t go like this, in my PETA uniform”. “Why are you afraid. You took tke risk,you dared make a revolution, why should you be afraid of being arrested by the Japanese?”. In the end i lent him a few clothes, which happened to fiyt. Perhaps a bit tight, but he went home in those cloth. Going back to Jakaeta he was in PETA uniform, although he had no right to them because he was not a member of PETA.

Then there was a telephone call from Miyoshi, my laisson man at the Gunseikanbu, saying that the Sumobucho wanted to see me. I told Miyoshi that we would come around 10. p.m. . After taking bath I phoned Bung Karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the Gunseikan at 10 p.m.

First we went to Maeda’s house and accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the house of the Sumabucho. (Read Dai Nippon Military adminstration Java about the Dai Nippon official goverment-auth) .

Maeda was delighted we were back and shook hands with us. The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meeting any longer. “What can we do? We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo no changes are to be made anymore.

We immediately answered rather harshy :”You are a Samurai. General Terauchi at Dalat left it to us. What about your oath and your promise as a Samutai to us ?” “We are in a different position now”, he said. “You alway stalk, about your Samurai spirit. Show it to us no”,We retorted.

Bung karno and I indeed used rather harsh words and apparentley Miyoshi refined it translation a little, but eventually, we didn’t achieve anything.

Bung Karno said again :” So, if our youth takes action,will your army shoot them ?” The Sumobucho said :” Yes, we are forced to. Thoses are the Allied instructions, there is nothing esle to be done.”

Maeda went home earlier. He seemed bored by that endless talk. In the end, after about one hour, we also left the house of the Sumobucho and returned to Maeda’s house.Maeda just laughed, saying that the Sumobucho had no standpoint. At the beginning we were five people gathered there, that is,Bung Karno

 

 

, myself(Bung Hatta)

 

, Soebardjo

 

, Sayuti Melik and Soekarni.

We agreed ten to write the text odf the proclamation. I said that the text had been prpared since last night, was at my place. It wasn’t quite ready; I was typing it, when I was taken to Bung Karno’s house.

Bung karno said that we should make just a short text ,” Bung Hatta knows better Indonesian than I do. Think about it and write it down” said Bung Karno.

To think and write at the same time is rather difficult. I’ll think out the sentences and Bung Karno write them down” I said.

Then I spoke the sentences of the draft proclamation, and Bung Karno wrote them down on paper. The two main sentences that i dictated were,” We, the Indonesian peopke, hereby proclaim the Independence of Indonesia. The tranfer of power and the like, matters relating there to will be carried out carefully and in the shortest possible time”

Bung Karno slowly read the text of the proclamation. Tree time he read it. Ultimately everybody agreed unanimously, everybody accepted it happily. Everybody shouter :”Agrreed”.

Then I asked the all saying:” So this is an important document for the history of our nation.Let us all who are present here sign this document . Just as when George Washington made his proclamation, evereybody present signed the document .” Nobody answere. Dilence. Then Soekarni said:” It is not good if all of us sign the document. Soekarno-Hatta is sufficient on behalf of all the people of Indonesia

Everybody was happy. I was rather annoyed, because they were given an opportunity to make history, but didn’it want to take it (may be they were affraid to Japanese ????-auth ,what your comment?). So, it seem they only looked like tigers from the outside. Iapparently they were brave, but in fact they were not).

The meeting was ended, everybody was happy. Maeda

came down from his room upstairs. He shook hands with everybody present. We ordered the btext of the proclamation to be retyped, multiplied and broadcast.

Thus, only that night had the Sunobucho told us that since tweleve noon that day instruction had been recieved by Japan from the Allies that the status quo was not to be changed, and therefore the holding of meetings could not be approved. But Maeda not only gave permission , but even put his house at our disposal for that historic meeting. I think the reason Maeda did that was HIS CONSCIENCE AS SAMURAI SOLDIER HE FELT BOUND BY Japan’s promise, and (perhaps) he felt he was going to punished by the Allies anyway, so it was better to help the wishes of the Indonesian ppeople to reach the treshold of their ieals.

That is my private guess. So, the meeting which was to be held in the morning 0f 16th August 1945 was cancelled which we had been carried off to Rengasdengklok, and it was not true the Japanese prevent it.

It is necessary to note here, which I learnt afterwards, that threre was a proposal by Soekarni which he conveyed through Soebardjo, to add five more names to participate in the signing of the text of the proclamation, but Soebardji did not mention this during the early morning meetin in August 17. Maybe it was because Soekarni had said that night it was enough for just two people to sign it (ibid Yasni,1984).

 

and then typing by Sayuti Melik

(In the originnal text, Soekarno writting some off Hatta dictated were stripped and changed from”Af-voi vo q(not clear) change to”Penjerahan”(recapitulation) and then change to”pemindahan”, the word “ dioesahakan’ change to “diselenggarakan” Djakarta 17-8-’05 Wakil2 bangsa Indonesia. This text of Proclamation’s concept than Type by Sayuti Melik with change Djakarta hari 17 Boelan 8 tahoen 05 (japanese year 2605 or 1945) , atas nama bangsa Indonesia(On behalf of Indonesian people ) Soekarno- Hatta, this original concept informed on the merdeka magazine during six moth Independent “Merdeka” by the owner B.M.Diah, and many years keep by him and then after many years he gave back to president Soeharto and now keep in MONAS monument Jakarta-auth)

(3)Other version were written by the Youngmen like Adam Malik,Sukarni,etc but didn’t listed here.

 

AUGUST,17.1945)Batavia, 17th/1945Photo: ABC Press

“Better to the hell than to becolonized again” was painted on a streetcar in Jakarta on 17 August 1945. This is the day of the Proclamasi, the day Sukarno plants the red and white flag in front of his home in Jakarta and proclaims the independent Republic of Indonesia. Two days after the surrender of Japan the situation is chaotic, and the Dutch government is not even inclined to consider acknowledging the republic.

The Indonesians will have to endure two wars and wait for more than four years until sovereignty is officially granted, on 29 December 1949.

______________________________________

DURING AND AFTER INDEPENDENCE PROCLAMATION

IN 17th AUGUST 1945.

A.Samsi Jacobalis ,2000,books info :

In the early moning Chaerul saleh bring  The copy of Indonesian independent proclamotion direct from Maeda house, and the documen gave to Eri sadewo at Prapatan 10 for copying and disebarluaskan after the ceremony at Eat pegangsaan styreet (private documantation by DR.Rushdy Hussein)

Mamahit had met Dr Muwardi the leader of Barisan banteng,he told hi  that Bung Karno this morning still sleep and did’t wat absudr(tak mau diganggu0 becaus eafter backhome fro m maeda house early in the morning his Malaria kambuh(exist again) . He will dibangunkan(call from sleep) about 9 o’clock for preparing himself to read the proclamation(mengucapkan proklamasi).

During proclamation only PPKI member,pejuang and old potiticia generation ,also the memeber of Prapatan 10 and student who live outside asrama ,with peoples. Sayhrir,Chaerul saleh.Sukarni and Adam malik didnot join the proclamation ceremony, Adam Malik in his book said that he didn’t joint (hadir)  because waiting the moment (kesempatan) in Domei for send telegraph about proclamation abroad(menirim berita proklamasi keluar negeri dari kantor berita jepang Domei).

During proclamation ceremony by Bung Karno in the front of his house at Pegangsaan street, the Studet at prapatan 10 jakarta also read the copy of Indonesian Independet Proclamation by Eri Sudewo as  the ceromy Inspectuer (inspektur upacara) ,The command of ceremony salamun,the up of flag Muhardewo.

Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 merupakan tonggak bagi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proses proklamasi yang berjalan cepat dan agak mendadak mengakibatkan reaksi yang beragam di kalangan masyarakat, pun demikian di kalangan kepolisian.

B.Info Of Indonesian Independent proclamation

(1)From Kuala tungkal Jambi

. August 17, 1945 Proclamation of Independence and Public Speech Kuala Tungkal

Head Office Telegraph Kuala Tungkal H. M. Kurchi / Madiah Syahbandar Kuala Tungkal, always follow the developments within and outside the country through radio broadcasts are heard in secret so as not known by the Japanese authorities. RI heard the news of the proclamation of independence by H. M. Kurchi on August 17, 1945, and then circulated(disebarluaskannya) to community leaders and youth. On August 20, 1945 a number of youth, among others, M. Kasim, Tuhirang Duladji at 07.00 am and flying the red and white flag at the port of Kuala Tungkal, which is then followed by a flag-raising by people in their homes.

(2)The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

(Indonesian: Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi)

was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia’s independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept 17 August 1945 as Indonesia’s independence date[1]

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed President and Vice-president, respectively, were the document’s signatories.

Declaration event

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of August 16, by Sukarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi’s house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now the “Museum of the Declaration of Independence“, JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta).

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik.[2][3] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia‘s independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia’s independence, scheduled for August 24.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing.

The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation’s diversity.

The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be defunct Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue.

Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers ‘in the name of the nation of Indonesia’

Soekarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Soekarno’s house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. In fact there was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, and the Japanese high command in Indonesia had given their permission for the nation’s independence. The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

Draft

Indonesian

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan,d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempoh yang sesingkat-singkatnja

Djakarta (Jakarta), 17-8-45

Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia

Amendments

Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:

  • “tempoh“: changed to “tempo“, both meaning “time period”.
  • 17-8-45: changed to “hari 17, boelan 8, tahoen 05″ (“day 17, month 8, year 05″ of the Japanese sumera calendar); the number “05″ is the short form for 2605.
  • “Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia” (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to “Atas nama bangsa Indonesia” (“in the name of the nation of Indonesia”).

Final text

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence

The monument commemorating the Indonesian Declaration of Independence

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.

Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,

Soekarno/Hatta.

English translation

An English translation published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as of October 1948 included the entire speech as read by Sukarno. It incorporated remarks made immediately prior to and after the actual proclamation. George McTurnan Kahin, a historian on Indonesia, believed that they were omitted from publication in Indonesia either due to Japanese control of media outlets or fear of provoking a harsh Japanese response.[4]

PROCLAMATION

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA HEREBY DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE OF
INDONESIA. MATTERS WHICH CONCERN THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND
OTHER THINGS WILL BE EXECUTED BY CAREFUL MEANS AND IN THE
SHORTEST POSSIBLE TIME.

DJAKARTA, 17 AUGUST 1945

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA

SOEKARNO—HATTA

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

B.Hatta Version

____________________________________________________

SATURDAY, AUGUST. 17th. 1945

________________________________________________

a)Proclamation Preparationed

1) Hatta’s version

(1) vintage version  (ibid,Hatta.1951)

At midnight(r early morning 17th August 1945-auth) , after the meeting with Sumobutjo where the Japanese have been the caretaker under the allied, there were the meeting with all the members of Independence prepatory Committee, the  delegation of Youngmen and people .

In the meeting  depend on the youngmen suggestion have the” round”(all said yes-auth) conclusion that the Indonesia Independent proclamation only sign by Sukarno-Hatta under the name of Indonesia’s nation.(Hatta didn’t told where and how the Independence declaration was produced, may be for the security. The detailed were told later in 1984 –auth.)

(2)later version (ibid,Yusni,1984)

I phoned Bung karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the  Gunseikan at 10.00 PM (August 16th 1945). First we went to Maeda’s house, amd, accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the House of the Sumobucho (where the Gunsereikan, the hignest Dai Nippon military ‘s chief in Java, who know ? please give us information? –auth

The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meetings any longer.(HE SAID)”‘WHAT CAN WE DO ?We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo, no changes are to be made anymore.”

We also left the house of the Sumobucho  and returned to Maeda’s house. At the beginning we were five people gather there. We agreed then to write the text of the proclamation. Etc read above!LOOK AT THE PHOTO OF BUNG KARNO AND BUNG HATTA IN BUNG KARNO HOUSE JUST BEFORE PROCLAMATIONS *ill.017

Later on, just before the meeting broke up, I asked for food of my before-dawn meal from Maeda. Before I went home in Soekarno’s car, we agreed to meet again at 10.00 a.m. that morning at Pegangsaan Timur , Soekarno,s house , to hold the ceremony of reading the text of the proclamation.

(This was the new information after 43 years independend  in 1984,that only five people in the meeting, and what about the member of Prepatory Committee as told in 1951 ?Hatta din’t mentioned in 1984?-who  have the factual collection about this, please momment- auth)

(3) Other version

Many version depend on the writers, (I haven’t written in this blocked, if someone need please tell us in the comment, and we will write in special topic-auth)

2)Proclamation ceremony

(1)vintage Hatta version

17 Agustus 1945 , 10.00 o,clock (Indonesia time )

the text of Indonesian Independence was proclaimed  to all the people (in the front of Sukarno house,East  Pengasaan street, the house was burned and now become the Pola Buildings and in the the locations was build Proclamation Sukarno-Hatta statue, the lattest locations was moved from the first location –look at the pictured postcard.(MANY MYSTERIOUS GUEST DURING BUNG KARNO READ THE TEXT WITH BUNG HATTA BESIDE HIM, because later many of that mysterious guest behind Bung Hatta were disapeared with black coloue, also the guest behind Bung Karno only Bu Fatmawati Sukarno dan Larief were said, who know the other mysterious gueast plese give info,look carefully the  mysterious guest from the three version  picture from the same photos below:

and compare with the Proclamation statue,the Bung Hatta Position not like  the really during proclamation,he look Bung Karno , look carefully  below:

Hatta didn’t mantioned who read the Text of proclamation Sukarno or another people in  vintage and later version, also in another version by Moerdijanto(1952) “ Ir Sukarno and Drs Moh Hatta , on behalf of Indonesia nation, proclaimed Independence of all Indonesia. After read the proclamation text etc…”  ? please comment and show us your factual collection related to this historic moment, one information  have found , please read (2)- auth)

(2)Merdeka magazine’s version (17 Feb.1946)

The Narasion left of the Proclamation photo( the photo was cutted and the two ladies beside Fatmawati and two men with PETA uniform didn.t seen and not got quality repro.uth) :Your excellency, PJM(Paduka Yang Mulia),Presiden Ir. Soekarno , between  M.Hatta and Colonel Abdul Latief Hendradiningrat (wrong , because that moment he haven’t choose as President snd Abdul latief ex PETA ,didn’t rank Colonel-auth), Proclaimed on Behalf of all peoples(Indonesia) Indonesia Independence.

(3)Vintage  Proclamations day ‘s collections

(a) Document history collection

(1)Until this day I haven’t found the original document related with the text of Indonesia  Independence Proclamations , only Repro photos of Proclamations ceremony  and the Sukarno handwritten ‘s concept WITHOUT SIGN in Merdeka Magazine (feb.1946)

(2) I have seen before a Java characnewspaper date August,17th,2605. without the informations of Proclamation and only the information of the Indonesia Independence preparation Committee. ( if someone have the original document/photos  about the cremony and  the text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation please contact us-auth)

(3) The original photo’s repro of  Indonesia Independence proclamations ,  Sukarno in Complete  White dress with “Kopiah”Cap, was holding bigger paper, not small Independece proclamation’s text, biside him at the left Hatta in white complete Dress and he put his hand back , without “Kopiah”Cap and at the right Abdoel latief Hendraningrat with PETA uniform, was holding Samurai.

They were standing in the front of the House and the vintage  loudspeaker was used.

In the back of repro photo,Violet  Handstamped “Foto Departemen Penerangan,Sumber”Foto Deppen” harus disebutkan jika foto dipakai untuk publikasi apapun. Kode negatip:”(the Photo of Indonesia “Penerangan”Departemen, source “Foto Deppen” must said if the photo was used for publication. Negative Code:

), Biside the stamped, three pen’s handwritten : 3 , R 83-4442 and  ½ Hal. In the biggest photo  we could seen Fatmawati (Sukarno wife, Hatta alone stilln’t married, and ten people , (Who were them ? please comment, because in small photo in another magazine Fatmawati didn’t seen and only five people with civil dress  behind sayuti Melik and  added three men with PETA uniform in the back of Hatta-auth) (page).(D)

in the front of Sukarno House, we can see Hatta  without cap and Soekarno with cap in the right side, and  Abdoel latief Hendradiningrat with PETA uniform and  two youngmen with civil dress (? Who) one  holding  the flag at left, and the other one in the center to pull the string to up the flag , also we can see Fatmawati(Sukarno’s wife who had made the flag)  from behind  Fatmawati with kebaya ,selen-dang on hair and  long stripdesign ‘s wear , and, beside her,  two another women with kebaya dress withoutt selendang on their hairs (who ?), and the leftside were seen  one  civillian’s youngmen (who ?).( who know the persons in the photo, please comment)

(5) The Situation before Independence proclamation ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur (D.Bassa,Merdeka Magazine,Jakarta, 17 February 1946)

In looked at the situation during Independence proclamation at East Pegangsaan , and at that memorable time, the writer was in the center of thousand youngmens.

Long before the ceremony, the sukarno’s house were different than anotther day, everybody who passed in the front of me that time with the meaning of that will be opened the new page of history.

In the front (beranda) and in the center o the house were exist many peoples , included envoys from other indonesian island ( outside Java-auth)  , the member of Independence Preparation Commitee, the other day(16 August)  they haved meeting to choose President and Vice-president Republic of Indonesia( The writer wrong , he didn’t know that the meetinh had cancelled because Sukarno-Hatta bring out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni and Wikana-auth)

I couldn’t caculated how many youngmen and “Pelopor” guard(Barisan) which still came at this day. (Hatta later’s  information,” There were also rumours that it was(The Independence proclamation-auth) going to be read at Ikada Stadium (now was change to Market).

Therefore, may people went to Ikada, so that only about 100 people were present at the ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur; not many, but it was quite solemn, although it was short and concise.Ibid Yusni,1984,p-129)

Bung Karno and Bung Hatta Had came from the place (“Somewhere”? I think Sukarno stayed in that house because the Independence  Proclamation in the varanda at front of his house-auth) with Their Ex guard from PETA (? WHO) and the Independent Proclamation will fastly done (soon). My Heart Became “quiet” (easy) and “steady” (peace), although before feeled ‘sanctions’ (doubtness), The Independence will annouced “soon”.

The preparations of ceremony were done, the ceremony command’s(R.A.Abdoel Latif Hendraningrat)  words that asked all the participants : Famous men, youngmen and gilrs, the member of “Pelopor” (Barisan Pelopor) etc, to stand with “teratur” and must look atPresident and vice-president (the writers  haved written this article sixt month later, that is way he used the rank that time-aut)

 the ceremony with “Tertib” as still heared in my ear when write this article. He have said :”The People of Independence State must know how to honoured their “Leaders” (the writers used word President and vice prisident, he made the wrong statement again, that time Sukarno-Hatta only the National leaders-auth )

Everybody have done like the Young Opsir’s said . “The Indonesian Leaders Sukarno Hatta” in the front of the youngmen,students and Pelopor which stood in the bigger  “perkarangan” outside of the house were under the undrawned word’s feelling ( tak dapat dilukiskan dengan kata-kata), but deep in my heart I had feeled “Inocent (Kesoetjian) and happiness(kebahagiaan)”

After 55 years,this day,august.18th.2011, someone in Metro television  Jakarta told that he ,name Ilyas Karim still alive now) had “mengibarkan” the Red and white flag during Indonesia Independence Proclamation look the illustration below,a young man with short trouser in the center of the picture beside Abdul Latief Hendranigrat  (with PETA army dress and samurai  sword),also one young man hold the flag still donnot know who,why the man told now? very difficilut to confirmDr Iwan note.

This is the rare picture I have just found,we can see many people in the front of flag pole.who is the women with jilbab who pick the flag an 12 women behind her ,who?and at theother side many young people.who? still more research need,please the family tell me.

(6)Situation during Independence’s Proclamation ceremony (ibid,Basa.D,1946)

The text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation was readed by Dr Moewardi, the  Ceremonial,s Chief, and after that readed together ( by all the participants included Sukarna and Hatta, many years everybody have wrong that Sukarno had read the text, because in 1950 The Radio of Republic  Indonesia (RRI) have produced the record Indonesia National Song”Indonesia Raya” arranged by Indonesian National Police’s band command by in memoriam  R.Sudjasmin with the sound of Sukarno who read the proclamarion text, I have that record. Every morning the RRI have played this record as the started’s song before the beginning of the program -auth)

R.Soewirjo on the behalf of Jakarta city ‘s people, also gave “sambutan”’s word , “We, Indonesian People have choosed our  way to confrontated the difficult situation of this time, that we have dicided as the best and right moment  to proclaimed our  Independence at this day.(Later  he became the first Mayor of Jakarta-auth)

The Ceremonial’s participant have more attantioned when Hatta have came in the front of Microphone  and told about the meaning of Indonesia Independence text.

Soekarno have made the ceremonial’s participant into the  melanchollied’s felling(terharu),  when he said :” After many centuries all of  the people of Indonesia had fighted (became to be reality-auth)  , the duty and loaded (beban)  as the people of Independence’s state have became more heavy.

Sukarno said :”All the people,  at long time  in their heart have the believed  that  the Independence of any nation must be found by the power of their own nation.Sukarno also said “The enemy willn’t declined the “Red-White” Indonesia national’s flag before stepped up the dead-bodies of 70 millions Indonesia People bodies. We only like to see the Red-white flag inclined but not declined . Lets we guarded and  took care the flag still “berkibar”,fleed, until the end of the century  ”

The ceremony were closed with “Soempah Kesetiaan” The loyalty’s of the people and sung the Indonesia  national’s Song “Indonesia Raja” ( the tradition now that the National Song only Sing with or without Band during the inclination of the Flag ,

Only two photos exist taken By Frans mendur until now

From the front

And from the backside of Flag Pole(this photo not many published,may be someone in the picture had the political problem?

 

Photographer Frans Mendur (also Frans Mendoer)

 The writer have said the Song have sung at the end of ceremony after the inclination of the flag,I think that true , because if we look at the historic’s photo by Mendur ‘s brother every bodie’s mouth especially Sukarno and Hatta still closed not sung/open , if   some one have another information please comment-auth.)

The Bung Karno Introduction Said in Indonesia language :

Gentlemen All.I . has, anda-saudara brothers present here to witness an all-important event in our history.
Decades of our nation to independence Indonesia has stragulle our homeland. Rqatus hundreds and even years!
Wave action we are to achieve our independence there were ups and downs, but our souls remain to toward ideals.
Also in   Japan, era,  our efforts to achieve national independence did not halt. in the Japanese era, it seems we rely on them, but in essence we are still preparing its own power, we still believe in the own power .Sekarang it is time we really take the fate of the nation’s homeland dn fate in our own hands.
Only a nation that dared to take fate in own hands, will stand with the strong DAPT.
So, last night we had menadakan deliberations with leaders of the people of Indonesia Indonesia legendary eluruh. Deliberative ity seiiya one word opinion, that now comes the time to declare independence.
Brothers with this, we declare our unanimity embroidery iyu.Dengarlah proclamation.

PROCLAMATION
We the people of Indonesia hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.
The things about the transfer of power and others carried out by carefully and within shortest possible time.

Jakarta, August 17, 1945
Indonesia on behalf of the Nation
Soekarno-Hatta
Brief, only two sentences, not to 30 kata.Kata-simple words carefully chosen, neutral, unemotional, not incite, a notification that does not offend siapapun.Ditujukan to our own people and to all dunia.Bahwa, starting today, Indonesia merdeka.Pemindahan the takeover of power and not from anyone. Organized by regularly and not careful maksunya semerawutan.Dalam tempo shortest = brevity means that before any data or come back to destroy the independence kita.Disusul with words that also cover a brief and quiet, but clear.
So brothers and saudar. We have now been merdeka.Tidak merdeka.Kita now there’s one more ties that bind our land and our nation is currently preparing kita.Mulai State kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Indonesia.Merdeka Republic, eternal, and immutable . God bless Insyaalah independence (derived from the set of Regulations-Regulations Invitation RI, 1989 Jakrta.penusun and publisher of the New Ichtiar PT-van Hoeve)
After That Latif Hendranigrat with Uniform Map hoist (up) the Red and white flags with honor (honor to). The Indonesian national anthem sing together without derigent spontanously (conductor0.
The simple ceremony without protocoler, Hundreds attended only by people, with ordinary Their shirts, without honor troops (Honouraly), without music corps, without a radio journalist and becaus ethat time without reception of Ramadan month (fasting, Feast) bodies every proud and many cries . No Dai nippon Kempeitai attack, although the Bull Movement (Barisan bull) Had already exist to protect the command by Dr. Muwardi and Sudiro with Youngman militants included the Medicla Doctoral student in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from Their headquaters (Headquarters) at Prapatan 10 street

Original info:

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.Saya telah ,inda saudara-saudar hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia daris eluruh Indonesia .Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat iyu.Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

 

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun data atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,

with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),

Why rthis photo was cutting?and the women with head cup disappeared who is she?

without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception becaus ethat time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud and many cries.No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with youngman militan included the Medicla Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

3)AFTER PROCLAMATION CEREMONY

After the proclamation of independence 17/8-1945, the youth Jakarta moves to spread the news of the proclamation. Not only the villages in Jakarta, but the various corners of the country. “Better dead than colonized again,” the expression of the people to maintain independence. The situation 63 years ago got hotter when NICA troops allied with the free ride back to Indonesia.
All villages in Jakarta was established fortifications of barbed wire and bamboo spears. So if there are soldiers who entered the village NICA then heard a voice of command: Siaaap. Because of that era is also called the ‘time ready’.

Considering the event has been going 63 years, and have rarely experienced it, let us remind you again how the atrocity NICA soldiers during the revolution. They opened fire on people who look suspicious. To that end, President Sukarno announced so people do not leave the house after eight o’clock. Records in the National Archives of just eight thousand people have been killed between September and December 1945.
 Youths in the village of Kwitang aged 12 -18 years, participated as a student army even if it means carrying bamboo spears.
Many of them breathed her last the bullet NICA. At that time the mother-village kampong setting up soup kitchens for the fighters. Unknown in terms of corruption until they are willing to defend the homeland menymbangkan possessions they have.
Among the most feared fighters Dutch Betawi KH Nur Ali was from Bekasi. Until the Dutch courage to give a great gift for anyone who can catch it live or die. Betawi hero, Imam Syafi’ie collect the thugs Pasar Senen be a scary force the Netherlands. They operate in various neighborhoods in Jakarta

a) VINTAGE VERSION(ibid Hatta,1951)

The youngmen, Student, the Communication official and the writer”wartawan”  of Japanese Domei  announced the text of Indonesian Independence proclamations to all Indonesia.

b) Later Version (ibid Yusni,1984)

Among those present at that midnight meeting were also people from the Japanese news agency Domei in Jakarta. They succeeded in sending the news abroad that very same morning. The outside world was soon informed about this important event.

When they broadcast the news, the announcer’s booth was locked from the inside, to prevent the possibility of disturbance from the Japanese guard.

c)Samsi Jacobalis version(2000):

The Student ‘s attampt to sedn the new about proclamtion abroad trough Dai nippon Doemi radio not succeded. Suyono Martosewoyo which alway stayed at Dr Abdulrahman Saleh house , now that at that house there were the illegal radio broadcast  and with the permission of the owner that radio broadcast , Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were invited to Medical doctor Faculty Campus at Salemba street  for repeat the reading of Indonesian Independent Proclamatiomn  snf speaking(oration) through that illegal radio broadcasting, the instrument were bring to Physiology Laboratorium,where the attampt radio broadcasting had been trail by the student.Also exist Dr Abdulrachman Saleh,Mr Subarjo,Dr Buntaran,Mr Iwan Kusumasumatri,Wangsawijaya Bung hatta secretary,Suyono Martosewoyo .

d) Other Version

Many version have written, but all of the informations without   the factual documents ( that is way willn’t list in this infomation sheets , the factual documens and photos still needed, please comment-auth)

THE POSTAL HISTORY

 During Indonesia Independence

Proclamation day

AUGUST,17th,1945

During Indonesian Independence day Dai Nippon still had power at Postal office ,given by the British allied Forces until they came to Indonesia,

To proved thi situation ,until this day Dr Iwan only have two postally history collections:’

(1)                   Off cover, Dai Nippon  sumatra Definitive stamp,cds Padangin ahow date 20.8.17(17.8.1945)

(2)                 Money order fragment,dai Nippon java stamp CDS Malang 17.8.45

August,18th.1948

(a)The rare dai nippon Postal card, used with add Dai Nippon Java stamp  send from CDS Djatinegara  18.8.45 to Magelang

The next day on August 18, 1945. Japan dissolve Map and stripped of their weapons, then they are sent home to their respective homelands. After the announcement of the formation of BKR, Soedirman trying to gather them back and gather strength People’s Security Agency (BKR). Together with Mr. Resident Banyumas. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo and several other figures, Soedirman a coup d’etat from the hands of Japan peacefully. Japanese Army Battalion Commander Major Yuda pretty much handed weapons. Therefore BKR Banyumas an entity that has a complete weapon

original info:

Pada bulan Juli 1945, Soedirman dan beberapa orang perwira Peta lainnya yang termasuk kategori “berbahaya” dipanggil ke Bogor dengan alasan akan mendapat latihan lanjutan. Hanya kemudian ada kesan bahwa Jepang berniat untuk menawan mereka. Sekalipun mereka sudah berada di Bogor “Pelatihan Lanjutan” dibatalkan, karena tunggal 14 Agustus 1945 Jepang sudah menyerah kepada sekutu. Sesudah itu Soedirman dan kawan-kawannya kembali lagi ke dai dan masing-masing. Pada saat Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia dikumandangkan, Soedirman berada di Kroya.

Esok harinya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945. Jepang membubarkan Peta dan senjata mereka dilucuti, selanjutnya mereka disuruh pulang ke kampung halaman masing-masing. Setelah pengumuman pembentukan BKR, Soedirman berusaha mengumpulkan mereka kembali dan menghimpun kekuatan Badan Keamanan Rakyat (BKR). Bersama Residen Banyumas Mr. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo dan beberapa tokoh lainnya, Soedirman melakukan perebutan kekuasaan dari tangan Jepang secara damai. Komandan Batalyon Tentara Jepang Mayor Yuda menyerahkan senjata cukup banyak. Karena itu BKR Banyumas merupakan kesatuan yang memiliki senjata terlengkap.

Agustus,19th.1945

Ingkang Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senopati Ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatullah ingkang kaping IX ing Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat,

pada kedudukannya dengan kepercayaan bahwa Sri Paduka Kanjeng Sultan akan mencurahkan segala pikiran,tenaga,jiwa dan raga untuk keselamatan daerah Yogyakarta sebagai bagian Republik Indonesia.

Jakarta 19 Agustus 1945
Jogja berdiri dibelakang Negara Indonesia,… bahkan ketika Belanda masuk lagi ke Indonesia… dan terpaksa Republik ini harus memindahkan Ibukotanya dari Jakarta ke Jogjakarta…. Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX tidak segan-segan membantu …!!! Segala gaji pemerintahan, penyiapan gedung untuk menjalankan roda pemerintahan… dikeluarkan dari ‘kocek pribadi’ Kanjeng Sultan …!!!

Peti-peti duit emas dan gulden… dikeluarkan oleh Kanjeng Sultan… dan Bung Hatta mengetahui sekitar 5 Juta Gulden telah dikeluarkan Kanjeng Sultan …. dan ia pernah menanyakan apakah perlu diganti… ???

Sampai akhir hayatnya… Kanjeng Sultan HB IX… tidak pernah menjawab… seolah mengerti betul akan “sepi ing pamrih rame ing gawe” …!!! Ntaaagh apa jadinya,… jika saat itu Kanjeng Sultan HB IX tidak fully support untuk Ibu Pertiwi ini …. ???

Ada kisah menarik tentang Kanjeng Sultan HB IX setelah pasca Indonesia merdeka… seorang wanita tua pedagang beras sudah biasa ‘nebeng’ jika ada kendaraan yang lewat …!!! Ketika asyik menunggu… kemudian ada Jeep Willys yang lewat… si wanita tua itu menyuruh sang supir… untuk menaikkan karung-karung berasnya… !!! Setelah itu, wanita tua itu nebeng… dan sampai ditempat yang dituju… meminta lagi sang supir untuk menurunkan karung berasnya … !!! Sang supir kembali menurunkan karung-karung beras permintaan wanita tua itu… !!! Kemudian setelah seluruh karung beras diturunkan… wanita tua itu memberikan duit Rp. 1,- namun supir itu menolak… dan langsung melanjutkan perjalanan …!!! Wanita tua itu

Sukarno addressed the youth of Jakarta on Ikada field (now part of Merdeka Square) on 19 August 1945 to inform them on Indonesia’s proclamation of independence

Pada tanggal 19 Agustus 1945 anggota-anggota polisi di markas Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai Semarang menurunkan bendera Hinomaru dan menggantinya dengan Sang Saka Merah Putih secara lancar dan tertib.

August,20th.1945

The postally used dai Nippon Shiokuio Haikyu Humiai private  card send from CDS Semarang 20.8.05  to Bajoeran with dai Nippon Java stamp.Dai Nippon still had power at Semarang Post office

(during dai Nippon occupation,all Dai Nippon office must paid if send letter,except the military post and the postal office,different with Dutch and NRI free _Beabs Bea _Vrij Post)

The letter about Coconut Oil distribution.special for the “pegawai negeri”Civil employee. Price f 0,04 per liter from Syokoku Haikyu Kumia(dai Nippon basic need office like now BULOG- national logistic organization)

 

Note in the letter: attation! When You came please bring this Postcard

August,29th.1945

The very rare earliest Ryo Kano(port had paid) used on the postal used Sumatra 31/2 cent Card to increase the rate of stamps,this done because lack of stamps, and the official chopped with dai Nippon character overprint with blob violet ink ,only one ever seen,send from CDS in katakana dai Nippon Padang 20.8.29(August,29th.1945) to Padang Pandjang west Sumatra.

 

August,21th.1945

Beberapa hari setelah peristiwa pengibaran bendera  di semarang tanggal 19 agustus 1945 , para anggota markas kepolisian Surabaya mengadakan pertemuan yang dipimpin oleh IP.1 M. Jassin dan PIK.1 Soetardjo yang menghasilkan keputusan bahwa para anggota kepolisian bersedia untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan Indonesia

AUGUST,21th,1945

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat

BirthtrajectoryPoliceinWestSumatra

Police were three friends who like to survive in the city of Padang facing the Allies / Dutch struggle for independence period of 1945-1946. Police Commissioner Johny Anwar, Inspector Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspector Pol. Boer Tamar (Photo: Collection / documentation Adrin Kahar)
 
August 17, 1945, from Jakarta Indonesia echoed the Declaration of Independence by Soekarno-Hatta on behalf of the people of Indonesia. People in West Sumatra is officially not yet able to receive clear information about independent, even though that time Indonesia has the atmosphere of “Dawn of Independence” as it has announced the establishment Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Independence (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) in Jakarta (May 28, 1945 ). The atmosphere at that time still showed the Japanese military government rule, the prisoners of war are released. Units Gyu-gun and Heiho (paramilitary troops and the People’s Voluntary Army Japan) consisting of the sons of Indonesia has been disbanded and the weapons collected by the Japanese. The offices of civil administration and police continue running as usual but the leadership held by the Japanese have been uncertain.

In the town of Padang and surrounding areas in those days there were several police units, such as: West Sumatra Police Residency (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), City Police Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Outer City Police Padang (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) and Forces A Special Police (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Padang City Police Office is located in the center of town (now: Police face portion of Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Padang Outer City Police Office on Jl. Teak (now: Police Police Hospital complex Sumatra) and Tokubetsu-tai-based complex in Belantung Catholic Seminary (now: Jos Soedarso complex, Jl. Sudirman). All police units are under the leadership of the Japanese people, except the Outer City Police Padang Indonesia have led people (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue).

 

On August 21, 1945,

 four police officers at the rank of Keishi (Police Commissioner) in West Sumatra, called by Keimubucho (Chief Constable of West Sumatra) and was told that the Greater East Asia War was stopped. Prompted by the Japanese police chief so that all the police weapons were collected. Demand-cho Keimubu it can not be accepted by police officers, instead they demand that the Japanese side immediately hand over the leadership offices to the Indonesian Police. Four Indonesian police officers are: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue and Soelaiman Effendi.

on 21 August 1945

It may be noted, that before the flag-raising event in the middle of the city of Padang, has been first hoisted at the headquarters of the Red White BPPI (Balai Pemuda Indonesia Illumination) jl. Mudik market on 21 August 1945

The certificate of the children iisued by dai Nippon Surakarta kooti jimmu kyoku(bagian pencatatan Jiwa)

August,23th.1945

The People’s Safety Agency (BKR), which was formed on August 23, 1945 set up his headquarters in Jalan Cilacap No. 5 for the residency of Jakarta, four days after its formation. Moefreini Moe’min, a former battalion syodancho of Jakarta I was appointed as chairman. A number of officers engaged in it is Singgih, Daan Yahya Kemal Idris, Daan Mogot, Islam Salim, Jopie Bolang, Oetardjo, Sadikin (Cikampek Regiment), Darsono (Cikampek Regiment), and others.

August,23th.1945

The unique scarce Dai Nippon Grogolsuntyo (lurah grogol Jakarta era dai nippon ) ‘s Poor certificate and did not had worked(workless)

August,24th.1945

pada tanggal 21 Agustus empat keishi (komisaris polisi di tingkat Karesidenan) di Padang, yaitu Ahmadin Datuk Berbangso, Kaharudin Datuk Rangkayo Basa, R. Suleiman, dan Sulaiman Effendi setelah mendengar kabar proklamasi telah dikumandangkan langsung memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mengambil senjata agar tidak disalahgunakan oleh pihak Jepang.

Sedangkan Polisi di ibukota Jakarta lebih belakangan dalam menyatakan bergabung secara resmi kepada republik

The Dai Nippon revenue 15 cent  at Grabag on complete received Money (kwitansi)document for paying Tobacco 933 kg f 1866

August,27th.1945

Only weapons with bamboo spears capitalize the people of Indonesia in Jakarta ready to sacrifice lives to defend the newly proclaimed independence of Bung Karno and Bung Hatta.

 In the picture looks troops BKR (Rows of People’s Security) with bamboo spears on the shoulders of the middle line which is specifically formed on August 27, 1945 in order to face the troops NICA (Netherlands) who came to colonize Indonesia hitchhike back to the Allies (Britain).

on 23-8-1945

The NRI flag –rising in the Outer City Police Station Jalan Jati Padang on 23-8-1945

 


On August 28, 1945 night,

held more talks between the Indonesian side (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin and Soelaiman Effendi) with the Japanese (Keimubu / Police and Honbu / Government) in the way of the Rose (the former British Consulate building, next to the hotel Estuary now).

 

The conclusion that can be pointed out Japan that the Japanese would not surrender to government offices and the police to Indonesia without any provision granted by the Supreme Allied leaders in Singapore.

 

Before the meeting ended the Indonesian side also gave a statement: “Tomorrow we will fly the flag red and white, do not deter the Japanese side.”

 

Towards 22 o’clock hour,

 three police officers were leaving the place of negotiation and the way Rose was escorted by Kenpeitai (Japanese Military Police).

 

Arriving at the intersection of five end Kampong Java, appear motherly (Police Inspector) Bachtaruddin of Tokubetsutai with some young leaders in Padang has been waiting to find out the results of negotiations with the Japanese.

 

On that night

 Bachtaruddin given the task with the help of the youth mobilize the masses to be present to enliven the red and white flag raising will be done in the Office of Police on the morning of August 29, 1945.


At about 7:00 am on August 29, 1945

 along the north field Nanpo Hodo (now: Imam Bonjol field), from the side post office, front office and front office Police Syuchokan (now: Padang City Hall) visible members of the public lively, young and old, youth groups, including groups of students gathered to watch the ceremony raising / raising the flag on government buildings.


In the meantime the Japanese soldiers armed to the teeth to hold a guard-guard at the crowd around people, but no incidents occurred.

 

Raids flag in front of Padang Police

conducted by members of the police themselves, while raising the flag on the building Syuchokan carried out by young men and a post office in Padang flag was raised by a young man who is actually also PTT postal workers, telegraph and telephone in the city of Padang.(the leader of PTT was Mr Mas Soedibjo) .
After the  flag-raising ceremony in front of Padang City Police Office, on the morning of 29-8-1945 was also an important event is reported by telephone to all Police Regional Office of West Sumatra se, explained also that the leadership of the police was already in the hands of Indonesia.

Instructed the officials of the Indonesian police of the highest rank in the office of District Police to take over the leadership.

 

The night of 29-8-1945,

starting at 19:00 there was a meeting of senior police officers held at the Office of Police Padang Besar.

Tonight it was agreed that national ice structure and personnel of West Sumatra as follows:
1. Raden Soelaiman, as Chief Constable of West Sumatra, Padang and concurrently Chief of Police
2. Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, as Deputy Chief Constable of West Sumatra;
3. Soelaiman Effendi, as the Head of Administration and concurrently Head of Strategy / Politics at the Office of Police of West Sumatra;
4. Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongues, as the inter-Area Police Officer Consolidation in West Sumatra.
To increase the cadre of middle-power in West Sumatra Police, recruited several youths graduate high school. Police armed cadres of the first of Padang, which are: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

Original info:

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat 

Tiga sekawan POLRI yang betah bertahan dalam kota Padang menghadapi tentara Sekutu/Belanda, perjuangan kemerdekaan periode 1945-1946. Komisaris Polisi Johny Anwar, Inspektur Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspektur Pol. Boer Tamar (Foto: Koleksi/dokumentasi Adrin Kahar)

 

17 Agustus 1945, dari Jakarta dikumandangkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Soekarno-Hatta atas nama rakyat Indonesia. Rakyat di Sumatera Barat secara resmi belum dapat menerima informasi yang jelas tentang merdeka, sungguhpun masa itu Indonesia telah dalam suasana “Fajar Kemerdekaan” seperti yang telah diumumkan berdirinya Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) di Jakarta (28 Mei 1945). Suasana pada waktu itu memperlihatkan masih berkuasanya pemerintahan militer Jepang, para tawanan perangnya sudah dilepaskan. Kesatuan-kesatuan Gyu-gun dan Heiho (Lasykar Rakyat dan Tentara Sukarela Jepang) yang terdiri dari putera-putera Indonesia telah dibubarkan dan senjata-senjata dihimpun oleh pihak Jepang. Kantor-kantor pemerintahan sipil dan polisi tetap berjalan sebagaimana biasa tapi unsur pimpinan yang dipegang oleh Jepang sudah tidak menentu.

Dalam kota Padang dan sekitarnya pada masa itu terdapat beberapa unit kepolisian, seperti: Kepolisian Keresidenan Sumatera Barat (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), Kantor Polisi Kota Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) dan Pasukan Istimewa Polisi (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Kantor Polisi Kota Padang berlokasi di pusat kota (sekarang: bahagian muka Polres Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota di Jl. Jati (sekarang: kompleks Rumah Sakit POLRI Polda Sumbar) dan Tokubetsu-tai bermarkas di kompleks Seminari Katolik di Belantung (sekarang: kompleks Yos Soedarso, Jl. Sudirman). Semua unit-unit kepolisian tersebut dibawah pimpinan orang-orang Jepang, kecuali Polisi Padang Luar Kota mempunyai pimpinan orang Indonesia (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa).

Pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945, empat orang perwira polisi yang berpangkat Keishi (Komisaris Polisi) di Sumatera Barat dipanggil oleh Keimubucho (Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat) dan diberi tahu bahwa Perang Asia Timur Raya telah berhenti. Diminta oleh Kepala Polisi Jepang itu supaya semua senjata-senjata polisi dikumpulkan. Permintaan Keimubu-cho itu tidak dapat diterima oleh perwira-perwira polisi tersebut, malah mereka menuntut supaya pihak Jepang segera menyerahkan pimpinan kantor-kantor Polisi kepada orang Indonesia. Empat perwira polisi Indonesia itu adalah: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa dan Soelaiman Effendi.

Pada tanggal 28 Agustus 1945 malam, diadakan lagi perundingan antara pihak Indonesia (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin dan Soelaiman Effendi) dengan pihak Jepang (Keimubu/Kepolisian dan Honbu/Pemerintahan) di jalan Mawar (gedung bekas Konsulat Inggris, di sebelah hotel Muara sekarang). Kesimpulan yang dapat dikemukakan Jepang, bahwa pihak Jepang tidak akan menyerahkan kantor-kantor pemerintahan dan kepolisian kepada pihak Indonesia tanpa ada ketentuan yang diberikan oleh Pimpinan Tertinggi Tentara Sekutu di Singapura. Sebelum pertemuan diakhiri pihak Indonesia memberikan pernyataan pula: “Besok kami akan mengibarkan bendera merah putih, janganlah pihak Jepang menghalanginya”. Menjelang jam 22.00, tiga orang perwira polisi tersebut meninggalkan tempat berunding dan jalan Mawar dikawal oleh Kenpeitai (Polisi Tentara Jepang). Sesampai di persimpangan lima ujung Kampung Jawa, kelihatan Keibu (Inspektur Polisi) Bachtaruddin dari Tokubetsutai bersama beberapa orang pimpinan pemuda di Padang telah menunggu untuk mengetahui hasil perundingan dengan pihak Jepang.

Pada malam itu juga Bachtaruddin mendapat tugas dengan bantuan para pemuda-pemuda menge-rahkan massa rakyat untuk hadir meramaikan pengibaran bendera merah putih yang akan dilakukan di Kantor Besar Polisi pada esok pagi 29 Agustus 1945.

Kira-kira jam 07.00 pagi tanggal 29 Agustus 1945 di sepanjang jalan sebelah Utara lapangan Nanpo Hodo (sekarang: lapangan Imam Bonjol), dari samping kantor Pos, di muka kantor Polisi dan di muka kantor Syuchokan (sekarang: Balai Kota Padang) terlihat anggota masyarakat ramai, tua muda, pemuda-pemuda termasuk pelajar-pelajar berkelompok kelompok berkumpul ingin menyaksikan upacara pengibaran/penaikan bendera Merah Putih pada gedung-gedung pemerintah.

Dalam pada itu serdadu-serdadu Jepang bersenjata lengkap meng-adakan penjagaan-penjagaan di keliling keramaian rakyat, namun tidak ada terjadi insiden-insiden. Penggerekan bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Padang dilakukan oleh anggota Polisi sendiri, sedangkan penaikan bendera Merah Putih di gedung Syuchokan dilaksanakan oleh pemuda-pemuda dan yang di kantor Pos Padang bendera Merah Putih dinaikkan oleh pemuda PTT yang sebenarnya adalah juga pegawai pos, telegraf dan telepon di kota Padang. Dapat dicatat, bahwa sebelum terjadi peristiwa penaikan bendera Merah Putih di tengah kota Padang ini, telah lebih dahulu berkibar Merah Putih di markas BPPI (Balai Penerangan Pemuda Indonesia) jl. Pasar Mudik pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945 dan di Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota Jalan Jati pada tanggal 23-8-1945.

 

Seselesainya upacara pengibaran bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Kota Padang, pada pagi 29-8-1945 itu juga peristiwa penting ini diberitakan dengan telepon kepada semua kantor Polisi Wilayah se Sumatera Barat, dijelaskan pula bahwa pimpinan kepolisian sudah berada di tangan orang Indonesia. Diinstruksikan kepada pejabat-pejabat polisi bangsa Indonesia yang tertinggi pangkatnya pada kantor Polisi Wilayah supaya mengambil alih pimpinan.

 

Malam tanggal 29-8-1945, dimulai jam 19.00 diadakan rapat para perwira senior polisi bertempat di Kantor Besar Polisi Kota Padang. Malam itu disepakati susunan dan personalia Polisi RI Sumatera Barat sebagai berikut:

  1. 1.      Raden Soelaiman, sebagai Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat, merangkap Kepala Polisi Kota Padang
  2. 2.     Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, sebagai Wakil Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  3. 3.     Soelaiman Effendi, sebagai Kepala Administrasi merangkap Kepala Siasat/Politik pada Kantor Besar Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  4. 4.     Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa, sebagai Petugas Konsolidasi Kepolisian antar Wilayah di Sumatera Barat.

 

 

Untuk menambah tenaga kader menengah POLRI di Sumatera Barat, direkrut beberapa pemuda-pemuda tamatan sekolah menengah. Kader-kader POLRI angkatan pertama dari Padang ini, diantaranya adalah: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

Dr iwan ever met KOMBES POL Johnny Anwar in 1963 during the winner of west sumatra lawn tennis Police open tournament at Padang,his daughter Windy anwar Dr iwan high school classmate at Don Bosco High School Padang.

NOVEMBER 1945

 

Billing of Electricity from the Republic Indonesia at Bajaman,read the slogan Soekarna Hatta our Indonesia leader

November,2nd.1945

Postally used fragmen cover send from CDS Sragen 2.12.05 on dai Nippon java stamp

November,3rd.1945

The dai Nippon revenue used on document buying bicicle.

November,5th,1945

The soerskarta chineseoverseas(tionghoa) calling letter

November,7th.1945

The dai Nippon Sumatra Postal stationer 31/2 send card send from CDS Pematangsiantar add the haandchopped overprint T dai Nippon on DEI stamp

TRI di bawah pimpinan Djarot tertangkap oleh pasukan inggris ketika mencoba infiltrasi ke Soerabaja | 1945

beberapa persenjataan yang di pakai oleh TRI yang di sita oleh tentara inggris

yang tertangkap dan terluka ketika BOS 45
   

Brimob pertama kali terbentuk dengan nama Pasukan Polisi Istimewa. Kesatuan ini pada mulanya diberikan tugas untuk melucuti senjata tentara Jepang, melindungi kepala negara, dan mempertahankan ibukota. Brimob turut berjuang dalam pertempuran 10 November 1945 di Surabaya.

Di bawah pimpinan Inspektur Polisi I Moehammad Jasin, Pasukan Polisi Istimewa ini memelopori pecahnya pertempuran 10 November melawan Tentara Sekutu.

November,8th.1945

Masyumi declares itself to be a political party

November,9th.1945

Sukarno asks Sjahrir to form a Cabinet.

British 5th Indian Division lands at Surabaya

Pada tanggal 9 November 1945,

Gubernur Suryo berpidato agar seluruh rakyat Jawa Timur bersiap-siap mengangkat senjata untuk menghadapi agresi Inggris

NOVEMBER,1oth.1945

Pertempuran 10 November di Surabaya
Pertempuran 10 November 1945 di kota Surabaya diawali oleh ultimatum Mayor Jenderal Mansergh, Panglima Tentara Darat Sekutu di Jawa Timur, yang memerintahkan rakyat Surabaya untuk menyerahkan senjata yang mereka miliki.

Ultimatum ini menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat Surabaya karena dianggap menghina dan merendahkan martabat bangsa Indonesia. Setelah mengadakan pertemuan guna menindaklanjuti ultimatum tersebut,.
On November 10, 1945, fierce fighting broke out between British troops and Indonesian freedom fighters after the British lost Brigadier Mallaby got killed in battle on 30th October. British turned to an all-out combat from the sea, air and land and they largely captured Surabaya the second largest city in Indonesia in three days the newly-recruited and poorly armed army fought for 3- weeks in which thousands of people died.

Although the battle was lost, the resistance they put up against much stronger forces helped Indonesia get international support for their freedom later and every year November 10th is celebrated as the “Hero’s day” in Indonesia

Battle of Surabaya

The Battle of Surabaya was fought between pro-Independence Indonesian soldiers and militia against British and Dutch troops as a part of the Indonesian National Revolution. The peak of the battle was in November 1945. Despite fierce resistance, British and Indian troops managed to conquer Surabaya, the second-largest city in Indonesia, on behalf of the Netherlands. The Battle was the heaviest single battle of the Revolution and became a national symbol of Indonesian resistance. [2] Considered a heroic effort by Indonesians, the battle helped galvanise Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence. 10 November is celebrated annually as Heroes’ Day (Hari Pahlawan).

By the time the Allied forces arrived at the end of October 1945, the pemuda (‘youth’) foothold in Surabaya city was described as “a strong unified fortress”. [4] Ferocious fighting erupted when 6,000 Indian troops landed in the city to evacuate European internees. Following the killing on 30 October of the British commander, Brigadier W. S. Mallaby, [4] the British retaliated with a punitive sweep that began on 10 November, under the cover of air attacks. Although the European forces largely captured the city in three days, the poorly armed Republicans fought for three weeks, and thousands died as the population fled to the countryside.

Despite the military defeat suffered by the Republicans and a loss of manpower and weaponry that would severely hamper Republican forces for the rest of the Revolution, the battle and defence mounted by the Indonesians galvanised the nation in support of independence and helped garner international attention. For the Dutch, it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support. It also had the effect of convincing Britain that wisdom lay on the side of neutrality in the Revolution; [2] within a few years, in fact, Britain would support the Republican cause in the United Nations.

Battle of Surabaya
Part of Indonesian National Revolution

An Indian soldier fires at snipers from behind a knocked out Indonesian tank in
Surabaya, November 1945.
Date 27 October – 20 November 1945
Location Surabaya, Indonesia
Result British victory

  • British forces occupy Surabaya
 Belligerents
Indonesia United Kingdom

Netherlands

Commanders and leaders
Bung Tomo A. W. S. Mallaby
Robert Mansergh
Strength
20,000 infantry
100,000 irregulars
[1]
30,000 (peak) [1]
with tanks, aircraft and warships
Casualties and losses
6,000 [2] – 16,000 [1] killed 600 [3] – 2,000 [1] killed

1. Background

On 17 August 1945, Soekarno and Hatta declared the independence of Indonesia in Jakarta, two days after the Japanese Emperor’s surrender in the Pacific. As the news about the independence declaration spread throughout the archipelago, ordinary Indonesians felt a sense of freedom that led most to regard themselves as pro-Republican. [5] In the following weeks, power vacuums existed, both from outside and within Indonesia, creating an atmosphere of uncertainty, but also one of opportunity. [6] On 19 September 1945, a group of Dutch internees supported by the Japanese raised the Dutch flag outside the Hotel Yamato (formerly Hotel Oranje) in Surabaya, East Java. This provoked Nationalist Indonesian militia, who overran the Dutch and Japanese, and tore off the blue part of the Dutch flag, changing it into the Indonesian flag. [7] The leader of the Dutch group, Mr Pluegman, was killed because of mass anger. [7]

A defiant Bung Tomo in Surabaya, one of the most revered revolutionary leaders. Note the Imperial Japanese Army uniform he is wearing. This photo became an iconic image of the revolution. [8]

The senior Japanese commander in Surabaya, Vice Admiral Shibata Yaichiro, supported the Republicans and gave Indonesians ready access to arms. [2] On 3 October, he surrendered to a Dutch navy captain, the first Allied representative to arrive. Recognising the reality of Indonesian control of the city, he ordered his forces to hand over their remaining weapons to the Indonesians. The Indonesians were to hand them to the Allies, but neglected to do so. [2]

British forces brought in a small Dutch military contingent which it termed the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA). The British became worried about the increasing boldness and apparent strength of the nationalists, who attacked demoralised Japanese garrisons across the archipelago with rudimentary weapons such as bamboo spears in order to seize their arms.[citation needed] The main goals of British troops in Surabaya were the seizing of weapons from Japanese troops and Indonesian militia, taking care of former prisoners-of-war (POW), and sending the remaining Japanese troops back to Japan.

In September and October 1945 a series of incidents took place involving pro-Dutch Eurasians, and atrocities were committed by Indonesian mobs against European internees. [9] In late October and early November, the leadership of the mass Muslim organisations Nahdlatul Ulama and Masyumi, declared that war in defence of the Indonesian fatherland was Holy War, and thus an obligation for all Muslims. Kyai and their students, began to stream into Surabaya from Islamic boarding schools throughout East Java. The charismatic Bung Tomo made use of local radio to encourage an atmosphere of fanatical revolutionary fervour across the city. [2] Six thousand British Indian troops were sent into the explosive[clarification needed] city on 25 October to evacuate European internees and within three days fighting began. [2] After heavy fighting between the Indian forces and around 20,000 Indonesian armed regulars of the newly formed People’s Security Army (TKR) and mobs of 70,000-140,000 people, the British flew in the influential President Sukarno, and his ministers Hatta and Amir Sjarifuddin, and a ceasefire was achieved on 30 October. [2]

 

2. Prelude

On 26 October 1945, Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby reached an agreement with Mr Suryo, the Republic of Indonesia’s governor of East Java, that the British would not ask Indonesian troops/militia to hand over their weapons. An apparent misunderstanding about the agreement between British troops in Jakarta (led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison) and Mallaby’s troops in Surabaya was to have serious ramifications.

Initially British troops were 6,000-strong lightly armed Indian soldiers from 49th Infantry Brigade of the 23rd Indian Division. When the battle reached its peak, the British sent additional troops which consisted of 24,000 fully armed soldiers from the 5th Indian Division, 24 Sherman tanks, 24 armed aircraft, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers. [1]

Indonesian forces consisted of 20,000 soldiers from the newly formed Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR; People’s Security Troops) and estimated 100,000-120,000 irregulars. TKR was formed by the former members of Peta, a semi-military organisation during Japanese occupation. The irregulars consisted of pro-Independence mob, armed with rifles, swords, and bamboo spears. Some of their weapons were taken from the demoralised Japanese troops. [4]

3. Battle

3. 1. Beginning

On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons. The leader of Indonesian troops and militia was angered, seeing it as a breaking of the agreement reached with Mallaby earlier. On 28 October 1945, they attacked the British troops in Surabaya killing more than 200 fully prepared soldiers. On 30 October, in desperation, the British flew Sukarno (president of RI), Mohammad Hatta (the vice president of RI), and Amir Syarifuddin Harahap (the minister of information of Indonesia) into Surabaya. The three were seen as the only Indonesian leaders able to quell fighting between Republican and British Indian forces in which the British brigade were hopelessly outnumbered and facing annihilation. A cease fire was negotiated with Major General Hawthorn (the commander of 23rd Indian Division) and Brigadier Mallaby and immediately adhered to. Fighting, however, soon recommenced after confused communications and mistrust between the two sides, leading to the famed Battle of Surabaya. [10]

3. 2. Death of Brigadier Mallaby

The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby where he was killed on 31 October 1945.

Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby, the British brigade commander in Surabaya was killed on 30 October 1945 under circumstances that remain debated today. Brigadier Mallaby was traveling about Surabaya to spread the news about the new agreement to his troops. When his car approached the British troops post on International building near the Jembatan Merah (“Red Bridge”), his car was surrounded by Indonesian Republican militia. Fearing that their commander was about to be attacked by the militia, the British troops in the International building, led by Major Venu K. Gopal, fired into the air to disperse the Indonesian militia. [4] The militia, thinking that British were taking hostile action, fired back at the British troops. [4]

Captain R.C. Smith, who was in the stationary car, reports that a young republican shot and killed Mallaby after a short conversation. Smith then reports throwing a grenade from the car in the direction of where he thought the shooter was hiding. Although he is not sure whether it hit its target, the explosion caused the back seat of the car to ignite. [4] Other accounts, according to the same source, [4] stated that it was the explosion and not a shooter that killed Mallaby. Regardless of its exact details, Mallaby’s death was a significant turning point for the hostilities in Surabaya, and a catalyst for the battle to come. The British ordered an Indonesian surrender, and on 10 November they rolled out a large retaliatory attack. [2]

November 10 (Heroes’ Day/Hari Pahlawan)Indonesian counterattack in Surabaya. Fighting continues for three weeks. 600 Indian troops defect from the British and join the Indonesians.

November 11Sjahrir moves a proposal through KNIP to take powers away from the President and transfer them to a Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The effect is to make Sukarno’s position less powerful for a while.

The republic was soon faced with military threats to its very existence. British troops landed in Indonesia as a contingent of the Allied Forces to disarm the Japanese. Dutch troops also seized this opportunity to land in the country, but for a different purpose, – namely, to regain control of the former East Indies. At the beginning they were assisted by British troops under General Christison, a fact later admitted by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Commander of the Allied Forces in Southeast Asia based in Myanmar. In fact, the British troops were officially only assigned to the task of repatriating Allied prisoners of war and internees.

On November 10, 1945,

fierce fighting broke out between British troops and Indonesian freedom fighters in which the British lost Brigadier Mallaby. As a result, the British turned to all-out combat from the sea, air and land. The newly-recruited army of the Republic soon realized the superiority of the British forces and withdrew from urban battles. They subsequently formed guerrilla units and fought together with armed groups of the people.

Under the pretext of representing the Allied Forces, the Dutch sent in more troops to attack Indonesian strongholds. Between 1945 and 1949 they undertook two military actions.

November,10th.1945

The earliest Repoblic Indonesoa Official letter used dai Nippon Form with ovewrprint by typemachine,and red official stamped(rare document)

NOVEMBER,10 th.1945

At dawn on 10 November, a day now commemorated in Indonesia as Heroes’ Day, British troops began a methodical advance through the city under the cover of naval and air bombardment. Fighting was heavy with British troops clearing buildings room by room and consolidating their gains. Despite the fanatical resistance of Indonesians, half the city was conquered in three days and the fighting over in three weeks. At least 6,000 Indonesians died and perhaps 200,000 fled the devastated city. [2] British and Indian casualties totalled approximately 600. [3]

East java in nov.10th 1945

, Indonesia commemorates thebloody fighting in Surabaya, East Java, on 10 November 1945,  between local patriots and the British military forces who came to help the Dutch re-conquer the country.

Actually the fighting also took place in other parts of Indonesia a.o in Bandung, West Java,  but the one in Surabaya was the fiercest one that killed so many people.

I hope that today’s commemoration would remind Indonesians that the country exists because there were patriotic men and women who sacrificed their blood, sweat and tears to defend the country’s independence

The Republicans lost much of their manpower, but it was the loss of weaponry that would severely hamper Republican military efforts for the remainder of the independence struggle. [2] The battle for Surabaya was the bloodiest single engagement of the war, and demonstrated the determination of the rag-tag nationalist forces; their sacrificial resistance became a symbol and rallying-cry for the Revolution. It also made the British reluctant to be sucked into a war it did not need, considering how stretched their resources in southeast Asia were during the period after the Japanese surrender; within a few years, in fact, Britain openly supported the Republican cause in the United Nations. It was also a watershed for the Dutch as it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support. [2] In November 1946, the last British troops left Indonesia. The “Heroes of the 10th of November” statue in Surabaya commemorates this battle. 10 November is now commemorated in Indonesia as “Heroes’ Day”, in memory of the battle.

November ,11th.1945

Keesokan harinya tanggal 11 november 1945 pertempuran pun pecah, segenap lapisan masyarakat, polisi, TKR, pemuda, dan pelajar bahu membahu melakukan perlawanan. Walaupun perbedaan kekuatan dengan tentara sekutu sangat besar namun itu tidak menyurutkan semangat tempur rakyat Surabaya dan kota Surabaya berhasil dipertahankan selama 21 har

November,11th.1945
Diplomacy and Fighting
——————————————————————————–

Meanwhile, on November 11, 1945,

Vice-President Hatta issued a manifesto that outlined the basic policy
of the new Republic. It was a policy of good neighborhood and peace with the rest of the world.

On November 14 of the same year, the newly-appointed Prime Minister, Sutan Syahrir, introduced a parliamentary system,
with party representation, in the Republic.

Republik Indonesia at Bali
From October 1945 until late January 1946 there was a short period of Republican rule on Bali.
 

The dai Nippon anchor east area Bali used on fragmen CDS Denpasar 2.11,1945(very rare)

November 12th.1945

Sudirman becomes leader of army forces on Java.on 12 November 1945. During the conference at the headquarters of the army Yogjakarta, leaders of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia Sumatra gave six votes on behalf of the Division of Sumatra to Colonel sudirman, so Sudirman found sound a little more than Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo which  currently nominated as well as Panglima Beasr (Book General Sudirman, Chapter Selection of Great Commander, Tjokropranolo)

November,12th.1945

Sudirman becomes leader of army forces on Java.on 12 November 1945. During the conference at the headquarters of the army Yogjakarta, leaders of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia Sumatra gave six votes on behalf of the Division of Sumatra to Colonel sudirman, so Sudirman found sound a little more than Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo which  currently nominated as well as Panglima Beasr (Book General Sudirman, Chapter Selection of Great Commander, Tjokropranolo)

on 12 November 1945. conference at the headquarters of the army Yogjakarta, leaders of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia Sumatra gave six votes on behalf of the Division of Sumatra to Colonel Sudirman, so Sudirman got slightly more votes than Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo currently nominated also as Commander in Chief (Book General Sudirman, Chapter Selection Palingma Large, Tjokropranolo)

Unique Selection of Great Commander General Sudirman

When Allied troops, as represented by the British with being followed by the Dutch landed behind him, and they demanded the Japanese weapons from our hands again, then erupted everywhere new battles. First with Japan, now with the Allies. We are not willing to give back the weapons we seized it. The new battles are not only happening in Jakarta and its surroundings, but also in Semarang, and the largest and longest in the city of Surabaya, from 28 to October 30, 1945, and from 10 to 30 November 1945. Soedirman who was appointed by the Government as the Chief of the Division of Sunan Gunung Jati or Division V, and are responsible for Banyumas and Kedu, also faced attacks from the British who came to the majors Semarang Ambarawa and Banyubiru. Thanks to the spirit of leadership Soedirman British troops can be removed. In such an atmosphere that’s Colonel Sudirman selected as Commander in Chief. Which to choose is the Division Commander and Commander of the Regiment who gathered in Yogyakarta on 12 November 1945. Rank since it was General. In that election he defeated another colon-colon. Judging from the military education, then the other candidates were far higher than that of General Sudirman. This unique selection reflects the Zeitgeist or “spirit day” at the time. That is the spirit of revolution everywhere. Our people as if stricken with fever. Fever revolution. The spirit of the revolutionary struggle raged everywhere. Waged in public meetings, organized by the Movement from the time our politicians, and by means of the new Government was formed, and therefore less than perfect. Everywhere our people actively remodel the Dutch East Indies colonial system and system of Japanese militarism. People fed up with both systems during colonialism and militarism Iampau it. People can not wait, and in the old system’s overhaul effort, not infrequently arise turmoil of chaos. Serobot-pilfer, good fortune and even oust-kidnap kidnap occasionally occur. Who is undergoing his own situation at that time, really feel the revolution, the rapid changes in force lightning. Especially among our youth. Often a quick change without the rule of “normal”. Sometimes even “anarchistis” at all. Irosionalitas and emotionality often overcome rationality and cold mind. It’s a revolution! Eine Umwertung aller Werte. Penjungkirbalikkan all kinds of value. An “inspiration razende van de historie”. An “inspiration that look rather than history.” And the “inspiration of history” was “a meeting point of all that is the nation’s consciousness with what is living under the nation’s historical consciousness.” He ontmoetingspunt, en het van het vewuste onderbewuste in de geschiedenis! “The choice of Commander Soedirman fall in such situations. Many emotions in the subconscious in determining that choice. Many are not pleased rationalistic mind into consideration the choices. Indeed the revolution has its own values. Moreover the character of popular revolution, as the revolution we had it. Agree or disagree, the reality is that the values ​​of magical emotions, instincts and vibration-mystical charismatic in determining the course of our revolution at that time. Also in the selection of Grand Commander of RI for the first time, those values ​​will determine. Of course, rational values ​​and cool thoughts Also living at that time. But the more prominent and more powerful are the values ​​of magical emotions, instincts charismatic and mystical vibrations mentioned above. And that then empties into the decision-lift Sudirman as the Commander in Chief. The chosen candidate instead of having levels rationality and high technical military skills, the product of Western education in big cities, but the chosen people was a child, raised in the village, then by a wave of revolution which catapulted to the top, and is a milestone confidence of the majority of the division commander and the commanders regiment were present at that time. The composition of divisions and regiments of our army at that time was far from perfect. Headquarters, the headquarters were uncertain, and often have to move. The Division Commander and the commanders of the regiment did not all have the military-technical skill perfect, according to measures such as the West. Skill military service may be questionable, but which can not be doubted is the struggle to defend the spirit and soul of the Proclamation, against the return of colonialism. If the choice of Commander in Chief position at the time submitted to the Central Government, then it most likely that the choice will not fall to Soedirman. And indeed, the Government at that time, executive power in the hands of PM Sjahrir want another character. Among Urip Sumohardjo, a Dutch-educated military man, but the patriotic spirit. Also proposed lane, which at the time It received the titular rank of General. In the meeting of the Division Commander and Commander of the Regiment also called names Sjarifuddin Sjahrir and Amir, who sits in Cabinet as Minister of Information Sjahrir. Apparently, the pattern of placing the army under the leadership of the civil-political power at that time was about to be applied by politicians. But the majority of the audience chose Soedirman. One thing that is unique in our revolution. Great Commander of the first is not appointed by the Government, but elected “democratically” by the division commander and regimental commander. That’s the revolutionary atmosphere of the time. That is also Zeit -Geist her, or the “spirit of the age” full of revolutionary populist soul. Elan revolutionary erupted out onto the surface of our society that is churning away in the election results reflect that. Elan revolutionary leadership of the army was entrusted to a person we Soedirman. ( dr. H. Roeslan Abdulgani Soedirman Commander Role in Revolution Indonesia, Restu Agung, Jakarta, 2004, p.32-35.

original info:

pada tanggal 12 November 1945. dalam konperensi di Markas besar tentara Yogjakarta, Para pemimpin Tentara Republik Indonesia dari Sumatra memberikan enam suara atas nama Divisi Sumatra kepada Kolonel Sudirman, sehingga Pak dirman mendapat suara sedikit lebih banyak dari Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo yang saat ini dicalonkan juga sebagai Panglima Besar (Buku Jendral Sudirman,Bab Pemilihan Palingma Besar,Tjokropranolo)

Pemilihan Unik Panglima Besar Jenderal Soedirma

November,13th.1945

The  Age newpaper about Surabaya Battle in 1945

November 14th.1945

Sjahrir is installed as first Prime Minister of Indonesia.

Some Japanese troops battle Republican forces on Java, Sumatra, Bali.

Dutch abandon Aceh forever.

Japanese-favored leaders removed from NU and Muhammadiyah.

Kongres Ummat Islam Indonesia meets, remakes the originally Japanese-organized Masyumi as an Indonesian and Islamic political party. Natsir is head of the new Masyumi party.

Partai Kristen Indonesia is founded.

Barisan Tani Indonesia (Indonesian Peasants Front) is organized by PKI to promote land reform and take actions against landowners.

November 15TH AND 16TH 1945

RM Suryo make a ceasefire agreement with the British army commander Brigadier General Mallaby in Surabaya on October 26, 1945. Still three days of fighting erupted in Surabaya October 28 to 30 who make Britain pressed. President Sukarno decided to come to Surabaya to reconcile both parties.

The ceasefire agreed not known sepebuhnya by indigenous fighters. Still, it contacts the weapon that killed Mallaby. This infuriated the British troops. Commander named General Mansergh Surabaya people ultimatum to hand over all weapons at November 9, 1945, or the next day Surabaya will be destroyed.

Responding to an ultimatum, President Sukarno gave a decision entirely in the hands of the government of East Java, that is, reject or give up. Governor Suryo explicitly addressed in RRI that Arek-Arek Suroboyo British ultimatum will fight until death.

So great battle erupted between the people of East Java against the British in Surabaya, which began on 10 November 1945. During three weeks of fighting which occurred in Surabaya eventually became a ghost town. Governor Suryo including the last group to leave Surabaya to then build an emergency government in Mojokerto.

September 10, 1948, RM Suryo car intercepted the rebel members of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) in the middle of the woods Peleng, Kedunggalar, Ngawi. Two police officers passing by car arrested. To 3 people and then stripped naked, dragged into the woods and murdered. Bodies to 3 people found the next day by a search of firewood.

R. M. T. Soerjo buried in the tomb Sasono Mulyo, Sawahan, Magetan. A monument built to commemorate his services located in District Kedunggalar Ngawi district.

3. 3. The main battle

Bren gunners of 3/9th Jat Regiment cover the advance of their regiment against Indonesian nationalists, circa 15-16 November 1945.

Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was angered when he heard that Brigadier Mallaby had been killed in Surabaya. During a lull in fighting, the British brought in reinforcements and evacuated the internees. [2] An additional two brigades (9th and 123rd Indian) of the 5th Indian Division led by Major General Robert Mansergh were deployed with Sherman and Stuart tanks, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers (including HMS Cavalier) in support. [1] [11]

Aftermath

The Brirish and Indian armed forced attacked Surabaya in November 1945

The Republicans lost much of their manpower, but it was the loss of weaponry that would severely hamper Republican military efforts for the remainder of the independence struggle. [2]

The battle for Surabaya was the bloodiest single engagement of the war, and demonstrated the determination of the rag-tag nationalist forces; their sacrificial resistance became a symbol and rallying-cry for the Revolution.

It also made the British reluctant to be sucked into a war it did not need, considering how stretched their resources in southeast Asia were during the period after the Japanese surrender; within a few years, in fact, Britain openly supported the Republican cause in the United Nations.

 It was also a watershed for the Dutch as it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support. [2] In November 1946, the last British troops left Indonesia. The “Heroes of the 10th of November” statue in Surabaya commemorates this battle. 10 November is now commemorated in Indonesia as “Heroes’ Day”, in memory of the battle.

Sydney Morning Herald, Sept 25th

Batavia september,28th Newspaper

Java were comperatively quaet on Wendsday,butfour Dutchmen were murdered at surabays

 
 

Sewaktu Tentara Sekutu, yang diwakili oleh Inggris dengan dibuntuti oleh Belanda dibelakangnya mendarat, dan mereka menuntut senjata Jepang kembali dari tangan kita, maka meletuslah dimana-mana pertempuran-pertempuran baru. Dulu dengan Jepang, kini dengan Sekutu. Kita tidak sudi menyerahkan kembali senjata yang kita rebut itu. Pertempuran-pertempuran baru tidak hanya terjadi di Jakarta dan sekitarnya, tetapi juga di Semarang, dan yang terbesar serta paling lama adalah di kota Surabaya, dari 28 hingga 30 Oktober 1945, dan dari 10 hingga 30 Nopember 1945. Soedirman yang pada waktu itu diangkat oleh Pemerintah sebagai Panglima Divisi Sunan Gunung Jati atau Divisi V, dan yang bertanggungjawab untuk daerah Banyumas dan Kedu, menghadapi juga serangan-serangan Inggris yang datang dari jurusan Semarang menuju ke Ambarawa dan Banyubiru. Berkat semangat kepemimpinan Soedirman tentara Inggris dapat dienyahkan. Dalam suasana demikian itulah Kolonel Soedirman dipilih sebagai Panglima Besar. Yang memilih adalah para Panglima Divisi dan Komandan Resimen yang berkumpul di Yogyakarta pada tanggal 12 Nopember 1945. Pangkatnya sejak itu adalah Jenderal. Dalam pemilihan itu beliau mengalahkan colon-colon lain. Ditinjau dari pendidikan kemiliteran, maka calon-calon lain itu jauh lebih tinggi dari Jenderal Soedirman. Pemilihan yang unik ini mencerminkan Zeitgeist atau “Semangat Zaman” waktu itu. Yaitu semangat revolusi dimana-mana. Rakyat kita seakan-akan terserang demam. Demam revolusi. Semangat perjuangan revolusioner di mana-mana berkobar. Dikobarkan dalam rapat-rapat umum, yang diselenggarakan oleh kaum politisi kita dari zaman Pergerakan, dan oleh alat-alat Pemerintahan yang baru dibentuk, dan karenanya kurang sempurna. Di mana-mana rakyat kita giat merombak sistem kolonialisme Hindia-Belanda dan sistem militerisme Jepang. Rakyat muak terhadap kedua sistem kolonialisme dan militerisme masa Iampau itu. Rakyat tidak sabar lagi, dan di dalam usaha merombak sistem lama itu, tidak jarang timbul gejolak kekacauan. Serobot-menyerobot, daulat mendaulat dan malahan culik-menculik adakalanya terjadi. Siapa yang menjalani sendiri situasi pada waktu itu, benar-benar merasa adanya revolusi, adanya perubahan cepat kilat yang sedang berlaku. Terutama di kalangan pemuda kita. Seringkali perubahan cepat itu tanpa aturan “normal”. Kadangkadang malahan “anarchistis” sama sekali. Irosionalitas dan emosionalitas seringkali mengatasi rasionalitas dan pikiran dingin. Memang itulah revolusi ! Eine Umwertung aller Werte. Penjungkirbalikkan segala macam nilai. Suatu “razende inspirasi van de historie”. Suatu “ilham yang memandang daripada sejarah”. Dan “ilham sejarah” itu adalah “titik temu dari segala apa yang merupakan kesadaran bangsa dengan apa yang hidup di bawah kesadaran sejarah bangsa itu. “He ontmoetingspunt, van het vewuste en het onderbewuste in de geschiedenis!” Pilihan atas Panglima Besar Soedirman jatuh dalam situasi demikian. Banyak emosi di bawah sadar ikut menentukan pilihan itu. Banyak pikiran rasionalistis tidak berkenan masuk dalam pertimbangan pilihan tersebut. Memang revolusi mempunyai nilai-nilai sendiri. Apalagi revolusi yang berwatak kerakyatan, seperti revolusi kita dulu itu. Setuju atau tidak setuju, realitanya ialah bahwa nilai-nilai emosi magis, naluri kharismatis dan getaran-mistis ikut menentukan jalannya revolusi kita pada waktu itu. Juga dalam pemilihan Panglima Besar RI untuk pertama kalinya, nilai-nilai tersebut ikut menentukan. Sudah barang tentu nilai-nilai rasional dan pikiran dingin hidup Juga pada waktu itu.

Namun yang lebih menonjol dan lebih kuat adalah nilai-nilai emosi magis, naluri kharismatik dan getaran mistis tersebut di atas. Dan itulah yang kemudian bermuara ke dalam keputusan mengangkat Soedirman sebagai Panglima Besar.

Yang terpilih bukan calon yang memiliki kadar rasionalitas dan ketrampilan militer teknis yang tinggi, produk dari didikan Barat di kota-kota besar, melainkan yang terpilih adalah seorang anak rakyat, dibesarkan di desa, yang kemudian oleh gelombang revolusi terlempar ke atas, dan merupakan tonggak kepercayaan mayoritas para panglima divisi dan para komandan resimen yang hadir pada waktu itu. Susunan divisi serta resimen tentara kita pada waktu itu jauh dari sempurna. Markas-markas pun belum menentu, dan seringkali harus berpindah-pindah. Para Panglima Divisi serta para komandan resimen pun tidak semuanya memiliki kepandaian kemiliteran-teknis yang sempurna, seperti menurut ukuran-ukuran Barat.

Kepandaian kemiliterannya boleh diragukan, namun yang tidak dapat diragukan adalah semangat dan jiwa perjuangannya membela Proklamasi, melawan kembalinya kolonialisme.

Andaikata pilihan jabatan Panglima Besar pada waktu itu diserahkan kepada Pemerintah Pusat, maka besar sekali kemungkinan bahwa pilihan tidak akan jatuh kepada Soedirman. Dan memang, Pemerintahan yang pada waktu itu kekuasaan eksekutifnya berada di tangan PM Sjahrir menginginkan tokoh lain.

Di antaranya Urip Sumohardjo, seorang tokoh militer didikan Belanda, tetapi berjiwa patriotik. Juga dikemukakan Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono, yang pada waktu itu mendapat pangkat Jenderal Tituler. Dalam rapat para Panglima Divisi dan Komandan Resimen disebut juga nama-nama Sjahrir dan Amir Sjarifuddin, yang duduk sebagai Menteri Penerangan dalam Kabinet Sjahrir.

Rupanya pola menempatkan pimpinan ketentaraan di bawah kekuasaan sipil-politis pada waktu itu hendak diterapkan oleh kaum politisi. Namun mayoritas hadirin memilih Soedirman. Suatu hal yang unik dalam revolusi kita. Panglima Besar yang pertama tidak diangkat oleh Pemerintah, melainkan dipilih secara “demokratis” oleh para panglima divisi dan komandan resimen. Itulah suasana revolusio

ner pada waktu itu. Itulah juga Zeit-geist-nya, atau “semangat zaman” revolusioner yang penuh dengan jiwa kerakyatan. Elan revolusioner yang meletus keluar ke atas permukaan masyarakat kita yang sedang bergolak mencerminkan diri dalam hasil pemilihan tersebut.

Elan revolusioner tersebut mempercayakan kepemimpinan tentara kita kepada seorang pribadi Soedirman. (Dr. H. Roeslan Abdulgani Peranan Panglima Besar Soedirman dalam Revolusi Indonesia, Restu Agung, Jakarta, 2004, hal.32-35.

November,14th.1945

President Soekarno inaugurated St sjahrir Cabinete,Republic change from Presidedentiil to parlementary cabinet.

November,17th.1945

The Vintage book illustration,the first meeting between British allied army  lead by Let.general christison , Ducth Let.general Dr  Van mook and NRI Prime menistry Soetan sjarir at British allied headquarters Jakarta.

The vintage book illustration IPPOS photo, After the first meeting above, Prime ministry Soetan sjarir had  speaking with USA journaklid Ktut Tantri about the Soerabaja Battle.

November,18th.1945

The repob;lic Indonesia document of the permit to burn (izin menguburkan Mayat)

deathman (izin menguburkan Mayat)

November,20th.1946

The Dai Nippon Java 5 cent postal stationer sewnd from CDS Boemiajoe to Parakan.

November,22th.1945

Dai Nippon revenue without overprint used at bukittinggi(fragment)

November 23th.1945


A British soldier fires at snipers in Surabaya, November 1945.Many of the British occupying troops in Indonesia in 1945 were actually from India. Nehru strongly protested the use of Indian troops against Indonesians; this was an important reason that the British withdrew.

British Foreign Secretary Bevin urges negotiations between the Dutch and the Republic.

PKI begins operating again through front organizations

NOVEMBER,28th.1945

28.11.45 :British attack Chinine Fabric in Bandoeng

Padang major letter sign by the secretary

November 23th.1945

soerabaja 1945

A British soldier fires at snipers in Surabaya, November 1945.Many of the British occupying troops in Indonesia in 1945 were actually from India. Nehru strongly protested the use of Indian troops against Indonesians; this was an important reason that the British withdrew.

British Foreign Secretary Bevin urges negotiations between the Dutch and the

Republic.

PKI begins operating again through front organizations

NOVEMBER,28th.1945

28.11.45 :British attack Chinine Fabric in Bandoeng

Padang major letter sign by the secretary

The postally used Dai Nippon karbouw  31/2 cent postal stationer card  with add 5 cent stamp,incread rate to81/2cent c,send from CDS Priaman  28.11.45 to Padang(fotocopy of ex Dr iwan collections,sold to Mr Karel)

November,30th.1945

The rare original TKR(tentara Keamanan Rakyat)People security Army, Pajakoemboh official stamped document

November,30th.1945

The rare original TKR(tentara Keamanan Rakyat)People security Army, Pajakoemboh official stamped document

General sudirman inspection The TKR army

 

December 1945

Batavia(Jakarta) Map issued by  AFNEI Headquaters in december 1945

MAP OF KONINGSPLEIN ,Risjwijk palace AND ITS SURROUNDINGS(now Monumen Nasional-MONAS and Istana Merdeka)

Blue point is location of Kerkhof in Tanah Abang.
Source:
“Batavia Military Guide Map”, published by Survey HQAFNEI in December 1945.

Early December 1945,

The Battle at Soerabaja,Semarang,Djakarta,Bandoeng and Ambarawa.

Dec.1st: The earliest Dai Nippon Postal stationer card 31/2 cent used at Blora (east java ) Post office by Republican with CDS-post cancelled with International date 1.12.45 not in Dai Nippon date 05, also Chinese overseeas Blora had written indonesia national Independence greeting ” SALAM MERDEKA”  this card send to  Parakan to tell that he have recieved the latter and thank you.

Dec. 3rd :Mr  Longemaan, Dutch colonial menister , announced that Dutch kingdom will meeting NRI prime minister St Syahrir , but our didn’t  excepted with President Sukarno.

Dec.4th : Prime minister St Syahril annouced that the meeting with Dutch gouverment only if Dutch execpted State of Republic Indonesia in facct and Justice.

December,1st.1945

Source :

Henriko Mei Erikson Simatupang

Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1946

pasukan kita (NRI)mulai menembakkan mortir ke sasaran pangkalan Udara Polonia dan Sungai Mati.

December,1st.1945

The Dai Nippon Karbouw 31?2 cent without overprint postal sattioner ccard send from CDS Blora to Parakan.

December,2nd.1945

 Keesokan harinya Belanda menyerang kembali daerah belakang kota. Kampung Besar, Mabar, Deli Tua, Pancur Bata dan Padang Bulan ditembaki dan di bom. Tentu tujuannya adalah memotong bantuan logistik bagi pasukan yang berada di kota.

 Tapi walaupun demikian, moral pasukan kita makin tinggi berkat kemenangan yang dicapai.
Karena merasa terdesak, Belanda meminta kepada Pimpinan RI agar tembak menembak dihentikan dengan dalih untuk memastikan garis demarkasi yang membatasi wilayah kekuasaan masing-masing.

Dengan adanya demarkasi baru, pasukan-pasukan yang berhasil merebut tempat-tempat di dalam kota, terpaksa ditarik mundur

.Selagi kita akan mengadakan konsolidasi di Two Rivers, Tanjung Morawa, Binjai dan Tembung, mereka diserang oleh Belanda.

 Pertempuran berjalan sepanjang malam. (ibid simatupang HME)

Dec.5th 1945 :

(1). The British allied forces leave Banjoebiroe village at central Java due to the situation that they cann’t defend themself against the NRI troops attacked . Ambarawa were surrounded by Republican’s  troops and many Allies forces dropped with parachutes rom airfighter to the Republican area.

(2). At Singapore , there were meeting between Admiral  Lord Mounbatten , Let.Gen. Christison and Dr H.J. van Mook to take the strong attacked in order to stabilized the worse security situation in Java and give back the authority to Dutch east indie Gouverment (that time called “NICA” Netherlands Indie civil Agency-auth) .

(c) At Least , Banjoebiroe Fort occupied by the Republic Indonesia People army(laskar).

Dec.8th , 1945:

Bogor attacked by British Allied forces with NICA soldier.

Dec.9th. 1945

(1) Republican troops occupied Semarang Airport “Kalibanteng” that is why the allied forces couldn’t dropped troops and amunition etc to battle area around Ambarawa ,and this situation made Allied forces became weaker . Soekaboemi ,s bombardement .

(2)Soekaboemi were Boombing

Dec.11th 1945

 Colonel Sudirman ‘s meeting with the Republican Armies ‘s    commanders   in order to prepared the Ambarawa Liberation General attack (Serangan Umum-very popular among Indonesian) . b. The Indonesian Poeple Security Army (TKR_Tentara keamanan Rakjat)  had succeed to protect the British Food convoy from Jakarta to Bandung.

Dec.12th.1945

The General Ambarawa Liberation attacked strating  at 4.30 pm in this day with Sudirman coordination. Col Sudirman order to made Road Barricade between Semarang and Ambarawa in order to prevent Allied  reinforcement  form semarang . The Allies borbardement the village around Ambarawa but didn’t succeed to help Allied forces March across Tuntang River.

Des.13th. 1945

:a.The battle between Indonesian people with British army at Bekasi  at Bekasi and that city was flamming  by British armies. b. Many  Tebingtinggi(North sumatra) people army (Laskar) attacked Dai Nippon offices there in order to find the guns , but they didn;t succeeed , many died shooted by the dai Nippon soldiers.

Dec,14th.1945

(1)The first Republican Cancelled CDS Padang REP. Indonesia 14.12.45 on Postal saving book , this the earliest Republican postmark at Padang West Sumatra.

(2)The Natived Indonesian People  with army occupying Ambarawa

Dec.15th . The British allied forces leaving Ambarawa back to Semarang and republican armies marched into the city ( Sudirman became the hero of Ambarawa battle, and later  he were choose  to The highest command of Indonesia National Armed Forces-auth)

December,15th.1945

The document of Oei Tiong Ham semarang, house billing payment with dai Nippon java revenue(Oei is the the king of Sugar cane in Indonesia and asia)

Dec.17th 1945

The British allied forces  burned  Bekasi

 

Dec.18th ,1945

Col Sudirman was choosen by all Indonesian regional commander to be The Highest Command (Panglima Besar) of republic Indonesia  TKR (People Secured Army) and his rank up to General .  Dr H.J. van Mook arrived at Netherlands in order to the meeting with his Government about Polical action against Indonesia.

THE Dai Nippon Sumatra revenue f1- and f0,60 ,used on fragmen without overprint at Bukittinggi 18.12.1945

December,19th.1945

Overprint revenue solo on DEI and Dai Nippon Java stamps on complete document od dai Nippon zaisan Kanri(weeskamer_Balai peninggalan Harta)

The Magazine Reporter’s travel Permit card issued by TNI(Indonesia national Amry) Garoet

December,20th.1945

The fotocopy od postally used official cover free stamp with repoeblik Indonesia stamped,cds Sawahloento,middle suamtra,20.12.45

(provenance Dr iwan,this cover had sold to Mr Karel)

Governor Sumatra announcement(Maklumat)

December,22th.1945

The rare revenue overprint tasikmaja on DEI port stam,used as the received of tasikmalaja hospital billing

December,25th.1945

The fotocopy of postally used cover with republiacan revolution special postmark TETAP MERDEKA(always independence)

Dec.24th.1945

 Agrreement between TKR and British Allied Forces about APWI (Allied Prisoner od War Indonesia) action against  Dai Nippon’s POW. The earliest Republic Indonesia postal used cover send withs CDS Sawahloento ( west sumatra) Rep. Indonesia 24.12.45 to Padang with overprint repoebelik Indonesia on DN overprint DEI Stamps kon 10 cent(triple overprints)

December,24th.1945

The rare revenue overprint tasikmaja on DEI port stamp,used as the received of tasikmalaja hospital billing

Dec.24th.1945

 Agrreement between TKR and British Allied Forces about APWI (Allied Prisoner od War Indonesia) action against  Dai Nippon’s POW.

TKR(Tentara Keaman Rakyat_People Security Army ) truck bring the APWI

The earliest Republic Indonesia postal used cover send withs CDS Sawahloento ( west sumatra) Rep. Indonesia 24.12.45 to Padang with overprint repoebelik Indonesia on DN overprint DEI Stamps kon 10 cent(triple overprints) .

The fotocopy of rare postally used cover, Middle sumatra Padang overprint “Repoebelik Indonesia “ on DEI Kon.10 cent  stamps send from sawahloento to Indonesian red cross Padang

Dec. 27th.1945

(1)The London meeting between British and Netherland about Indonesian situasion. The Badan pekerja KNIP (Center Indonesia National Comittee -worker ) choosen the president(ketua) KNIP Mr Soepeno, vice : m.Natsir, and secretary Mr Sjafroedin Prawiranegara.

(2)The threads of Menistry of  informations (NRI)’s  alsways life

Dec 29th.

1945

 British allied army have take over the gun(melucuti)  of  Indonesia National Police (POLRI) at Jakarta

Dec.30th.1945

800 Dutch Marine landing at Tandjong Priok  Batavia(Jakarta)  and they marched in the center of the city (Photo-IPPHOS)

By the time that the British had departed Java at the end of December 1946, some 55,000 Dutch troops had landed. In the following months, by a combination of military and other means including the deployment of economic blockades with Singapore, the Republic’s major source of cash and clandestine weapon supplies, the Dutch had re-established civil administration in Jakarta and other coastal cities.  Elsewhere in Indonesia the Dutch mounted bloody pacification actions outraging nationalists and antagonizing world opinion.

Dec.30th.1945

800 Dutch Marine landing at Tandjong Priok  Batavia(Jakarta)  and they marched in the center of the city (Photo-IPPHOS)

Th elder brothe(saudar tua0 Dai Nippon soldier before back home,made the remenvrance picture in the front of the statue  at Binjei East Sumatra,near medan.

December ,30th.1945

Serangan Belanda pada tanggal 30 Desember 1946 ini benar-benar melumpuhkan kekuatan laskar kita. Daerah kedudukan laskar satu demi satu jatuh ke tangan Belanda.

Dalam serangan Belanda berhasil menguasai Sungai Sikambing, sehingga dapat menerobos ke segala arah.Perkembangan perjuangan di Medan menarik perhatian Panglima Komandemen Sumatera. Ia menilai bahwa perjuangan yang dilakukan oleh Resimen Lasykar Rakyat Medan Area, ialah karena kebijakan sendiri. (ibid simatupang HME)

December,21th.1945

The Indonesian Police became the  international police CP(civilian Police) in Jakarta

Under Kawi hill,miss Deventry,the foreign reporter told the story of Surabaya battle.

December,20th.1945

The fotocopy od postally used official cover free stamp with repoeblik Indonesia stamped,cds Sawahloento,middle suamtra,20.12.45

(provenance Dr iwan,this cover had sold to Mr Karel

Governor Sumatra Mr Teukeu Mohammad Hasan  announcement(Maklumat) in December,20th.1945

Original Text

Makloemat(Maklumat) Gobernoer(gubernur) Soematera(Sumatra)

No : 4/1945

Meras perloe(perly) Oentoek(Untuk) Ketentraman Oemoem(umum)Mengadalan peratoeran(peraturan) Segabai berikut:

Sub satoe(satu): 1.Dilarang keras memboeat(membuat)

                                    a.Kesalahan terhadap seseorang

                                    b.Perampokan

                        c.Pengganggoean (penganguan) kemerdekaan

Perdjalanan(perjalanan) Laloelintas(lalulintas) dari segala orang-

Orang didjalan(dijalan) oemoem(umum) oleh orang-orang  jang(yang) tidak berkoeasa

Memindahkan harta benda oartikoelir(pribadi) dari soetoe(suatu)

tempat ke tempat lain dengan tidak mempoenjai(mempunyai) soerat(surat) izin jang(yang) diberikan oleh jang(yang) poenja(punya) dengan senang hati dan djoega(juga) ditanda tangani oleh pemerintah, berarti perampokan.

Sub Doea(dua): Pelangaran pelangaran jang(yang) terseboet(tersebut) di    sub satoe(satu) nomor 3 dihoekoem(dihukum) berat, nomor 1 dan 2 dapat dihoekoem(dihukum) mati.

Sub Tiga : Peratoeran(peraturan) ini moelai(mulai) berlakoe(berlaku) pada hari penggoemoeman(pengumuman).

                                                                                                Medan, 20 desember 1945

Goebernoer(Govenor) Soematera Dari

Repoeblik Indonesia                                    MrMr Teukoe Mohammad Hasan

Diumumkan di Sumatra Barat  pada tanggal 25 desember 1945 oleh residen sumatera barat Dt Parpadi Baringek

The picture of Governur Sumatra Mr Teuku Mohammad Hasan

The Orbituary Of Mr teuku moh.Hassan when information during he was passed away in September,21th.1997

 

On December 22,

Sutan Syahrir announced Indonesia’s acceptance of the British proposal to disarm and confine to internment camps 25,000 Japanese troops throughout the country. This task was successfully carried out by TNI, the Indonesian National Army. Repatriation of the Japanese troops began on April 28, 1946.

Because fighting with Dutch troops continued, the seat of the Republican Government was moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta

h .1945

(1)Solo (Soerakarta) had  developed the Native Red-soldiers
 or Red People Army(Laskar Merah)

(2)the threads of NRI Prime Menistry’s life.

Dec 26th Dutch NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Agency) Soldier tried to kill prime menister St.Syahril , but didn’t succeed.

The Indonesian Pamphlet,

(not date,no name)

Independence OR DIE?
NOT!
HIDOEP (LIFE), TO INDONESIA RAYA, PROSPEROUS, INDEPENDENT!
Slogan “Freedom or Death” is very dangerous for the State and people of Indonesia, for which many are interested in her youth Indonesia! Thousands of youths have led to death by the rebels to use this slogan!
Indonesia is very membutuhi (requires) the youths to Indonesia menyusus new prosperous, safe and merdeka.Amat dibutuhi to later become pemimpindisemua circles, whether in government or in economics, engineering and commerce.
Before the war was very kekurabngan Indonesia Indonesia educated people (scientists), even those who attended high school or technique is very less (a little). Lack of seeds for the coming age it becomes even greater, than the cause (because) in almost all the time Jepangsekolah Japan was closed and thereafter fall, teaching is also very less so than Sebat (result) confusion (confusion) common.
Among the most important question now is added as soon as possible Indonesian youth are educated, but rather the educated son of Mother Earth being led to death by insurgents using a false slogan that! From where the hell’s motto? Native Japanese dai! As the saying Paduka Tuan Soetan Sjahrir in his essay “Our Struggle” page 8 “Oeh because he (our youth) are not knowledgeable others, he organized cra propaganda and agitation in people a lot of it like he saw and taught the Japanese, that is fascistis, very sad state of the soul kita.Peganganbya many times the youth was none other than the motto Independence or Death.
Free or die motto is none other than the teaching of Japanese “Jibaku”. What is it biased jibakyu bring victory Japanese bai? Of not! Japan fell, collapsing and blocking the Indonesian people themselves hold the rank and high work and leadership among industry trade, technical and general economic.the Japanese  means   so lack of  leaders of Indonesia and forced to wear a lot of foreigners, that is his hope, the Japanese! ! Batalkanlah(donnot confirmation) mean hell it’s Japanese! Disposal should be the motto of the Free fake Dead or  Live helped lead Indonesia to a bias toward security, prosperity, justice and freedom!\

Original info:

MERDEKA ATAU MATI?

TIDAK!!

HIDOEP(HIDUP) ,SUPAYA INDONESIA RAYA,MAKMUR DAN MERDEKA!!

Semboyan”Merdeka atau Mati” amat berbahaya bagi Negara dan rakyat Indonesia,sebab yang banyak tertarik olehnya pemuda-pemuda Indonesia!Ribuan pemuda-pemuda sudah digiring ke kematian oleh si pemberontak dengan memakai semboyan ini !!

Indonesia amat membutuhi(membutuhkan) pemuda-pemuda untuk menyusus Indonesia baru yang makmur,aman dan merdeka.Amat dibutuhi untuk dikemudian hari menjadi pemimpindisemua kalangan,baik di pemerintahan maupun di ekonomi,teknik dan perdagangan.

Sebelum perang Indonesia sudah amat kekurabngan orang Indonesia terpelajar(ilmuwan),malah orang yang bersekolah menengah atau teknik amat kurang(sedikit).Kekurangan bibit untuk zaman yang akan datang itu menjadi lebih besar lagi,dari sebab (oleh karena) di waktu Jepangsekolah hamper semua ditutup dan sesudahnya Jepang jatuh,pengajaran juga amat kurang sekali dari sebat (akibat) kekalutan(kekacauan) umum.

Antara soal yang terpenting sekarang yaitu tambahnya secepat mungkin pemuda Indonesia yang terpelajar,tetapi sebaliknya anak Ibu Pertiwi yang terpelajar digiring ke kematian oleh pemberontak dengan memakai semboyan palsu itu! Dari mana semboyan Jahanam itu?? Asalnya dai Jepang! Seperti kata Paduka Tuan Soetan Sjahrir di karangannya “Perjuangan Kita” halaman 8”Oeh karena ia(pemuda kita) tidak berpengetahuan lain, cra ia mengadakan propaganda dan agitasi pada rakyat banyak itu seperti dilihatnya dan diajarkan dari jepang,yaitu fascistis,sangat menyedihkan keadaan jiwa pemuda kita.Peganganbya banyak kali tak lain dari pada semboyan Merdeka atau Mati.

Semboyan merdeka atau mati tak lain daripada pengajaran Jepang”Jibaku”.Apa jibakyu itu bias membawa kemenangan bai Jepang?tentu tidal! Jepang jatuh,runtuh dan menghalangi orang Indonesia sendiri memegang pangkat dan pekerjaan tinggi dan juga pimpinan di kalangan dagang industry,teknik dan ekonomi umum.Maksudnya jepang supaya Indonesia kekurangan pemimpin bangsa Indonesia dan terpaksa memakai orang asing banyak-banyak,yaitu harapannya,orang Jepang!!!! Batalkanlah maksud Jahanam si jepang itu! Buangkan semboyan palsu Merdeka atu Mati. Hiduplah supaya bias turut menuntun Indonesia kearah keamanan,kemakmuran ,keadilan dan kemerdekaan!!

Sumatra:  1945 – 1946

Mr John Searby has kindly allowed us to publish his photographs here

This selection of photographs is from John’s time in Sumatra and includes Padang, Medan and Palembang. John served as an MT Driver, with the 1st Battalion, The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment.

Some pictures on this page include Japanese soldiers. According to John, British Troops were sent in to Sumatra with orders to disarm the Japanese, but it was soon evident the Japanese were not at all keen to agree. Disarming them was not possible, but they reluctantly agreed to taking orders from the British, whilst keeping up the appearance of governing the majority of the Country themselves.

The Picture  from Padang in 1945

By March 1946

 the struggle front had been weakened by resignations and defections. Emboldened in its newly won support, the Republican government then launched a counter coup effectively pre-empting the emergence of a socialist current in the nationalist revolution.

 DR OEI BOEN ING SOLO’S RECEIPT OF PATIENT BILLING
Illustration Caption  Oen Revenue 1946. still used the Dai nippon Java revenue 10 cent.
.

The receipt still used the Dai Nippon Java revenue without overprint (late used).

 
:::dr.Oen Boen Ing ::: picture

Dr. Oen Boen Ing became involved in polyclinics Jisheng Tsi Sheng Yuan Yuanturned, When the war of independence came,polyclinics turned into makeshift hospitals, accommodating the fighters and refugees.

According to the testimony Soelarso, Chairman of the Society of Ex-Army Student Detachment Rumpun II Brigade XVII, “… regardless of the shot Netherlands, Dr Oen and out of military areas to treat the soldiers …”

(Name of clinic or Jisheng Tsi Sheng Yuan Yuan it means the Institute of Life Rescue. This clinic was founded by eight young men who joined the Chinese Tsing Hua Chiao Hui Nien (abbreviated HCTNH),
which means Chinese Youth Association. They are Jap Kioe Ong, Tan Kiong Djien, The Tjhioe Tik, Sie Ngo Spot, Sie Boen Tik, Gan Kok Sien, Tiauw Tan An, and Jap Pole Liem.
In 1935 Dr. Oen Boen Ing became involved in the ministry of the clinic and subsequently became the founding pemprakarsa Health Foundation Tsi Sheng Yuan)

Angka tiga punya makna penting
Sebagai dokter, Oen Boen Ing terkenal tidak membeda-bedakan pasiennya, apapun juga kelompok etnis, suku, agama, dan kelas sosialnya. Bahkan pasien dibiarkannya mengisi ataupun tidak mengisi kotak uang yang terletak di ruang praktiknya secara suka rela. “Tugas seorang dokter adalah menolong,” demikian semboyan kehidupan dan pelayanan Dr. Oen.

Selain itu, Dr. Oen selalu membuka praktiknya sejak pk. 3.00 dini hari. Konon ini dihubungkan dengan hari kelahirannya, 3 Maret 1903. “Maka semua karya saya sebaiknya dimulai dengan angka 3,” begitu katanya. Angka tiga memang menjadi ciri kehidupan Dr. Oen Boen Ing. Nomor telepon di rumahnya 3333.

Bangunan pertama di Rumah Sakit Kandang Sapi yang didirikannya, dinamai Triganda, dan diresmikan pada 3 Maret 1963.

Ketika Dr. Oen meninggal dunia pada 1982, rakyat banyak sungguh merasakan kehilangan yang besar. Hal ini tampak dari kehadiran ribuan rakyat kecil kepadanya yang berdiri di tepi jalan untuk memberikan penghormatan mereka yang terakhir kepada orang yang telah berjasa memberikan kehidupan yang lebih sehat kepada mereka di tengah-tengah keberadaan mereka yang serba kekurangan.

Penghargaan
Karena jasa-jasanya dan pengabdiannya yang tanpa pamrih kepada masyarakat, Dr. Oen Boen Ing mendapatkan penghargaan Satya Lencana Bhakti Sosial dari pemerintah Republik Indonesia pada 30 Oktober 1979. Beliau juga dianugerahi gelar kebangsawanan oleh Sri Mangkunegoro VIII Solo, dengan nama Kanjeng Raden Toemenggoeng Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo. Pada 24 Januari 1993 Sri Mangkunegoro IX menaikkan gelarnya dari Kanjeng Raden Toemenggoeng menjadi Kanjeng Raden Mas Toemenggoeng Hario Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo

Dr Iwan Notes


Dr Oei Boen Ing in his lattest life have help many Indonesian poor patients like Becak drivers with free of charge for his private medical practise at his own home almost 30 years ( in this patient billing he charge only 200 Rupiah from March 1945 to February 1946 consultation and medicines).

Dr Oei Boen Ing were the Medical doctor hero in Solo and his name was using to the name of a big NGO Hospital at Solo. (Dr Iwan S suggest Indnesian Menistry of Health suggest to the Indonesian President SBY to honor him as the Indonesia National Health Hero in August ,17th. 2010 ,may be together with another Tionghoa (ex Chinese Overseas) National hero like Indonesia naval heros John Lee ).

This very rare memoriable cover was better to show in special frame at Dr Oei Boen Ing Hospital Solo, if the hospital want that show during Indonesian Indepence Day  Anniversary in August,17th please)

April 1947

April,2nd.1947

240 people from America arrived at Tanjong Priok and went to the inner place(meneruskan perjalanan kedaerah pedalaman)

April,8th.1947

Bank Indonesia Palembang tjabang (branch) tjoeroep cover  with handwritten port Rp 1,50 have paid Tj “Bea 1,50 telah dibajar Tjp”, CDS Tjoeroep 8-4-47 to  Palembang,

April,5th.1947

The Malang Post magazine no 11 info

(a) cover

(b)Penjara di Zaman Repoeblik

Pada hari sabtu,22 maret 1947 setelah minta izin dari tuan R.P. Bahroedin, pemimpin Pejara Daderah Malang, wartawan kitanbersama fotograaf Malang POst melangkah pintu yang meisahkan ribuan orang hukuman dari dunia luar.Kepala keamanan penjara tuan soentro menyambut kita dengan ramah-tamah. Kesan pertama yang kita dapat dari dalam penjara adalah suasana tenang dan tentram serta merasa seperti masuk dlam satu pusat  pemberi pekerjaaan yang walaupun ada sedikit primitif(sederhana) tapi cukup berguan untuk orang yang dipenjarakan, Kemudian kita melihat rumah sakit yang diatur begitu resik,hingga tidak perlu malu dengan rumah sakit biasa, tetapi persediaan obatnya masih kurang. Seblum seorang hukuman baru dapat dicampurkan dengan orang hubuman lain, mereka dimasukkan dalm blok orang baru atau karantina seperti  pulau Onrust, orang baru ditilik kesehatannya oleh dokter penjara Dr Drajat, apabila kesehatannya tidak membahhayakan barulah orang baru itu dicampurkan dengan orang hukuman lain, dalam ruamh sakit diberikan perawatan baik malah ada yang diberei minum susu sehingga mereka merasa kerasan disnan. Dari rumah sakit kita mnuju ke bermacam pekerjaaaan , seperti tempat memintal,menenum,mengayam tikar,bengkel besi,pembikinan barang dari kulit. Yang tidak bekerja disini,bekerja  cocok tanam. buah-buahan dan sayuran.kita melihat kelas buta huruf ,dimana kebetulan gurunya sedang mengajar sejumlah anak umur 16 tahun kebawah. Orang dewasa juga diajar surat menyurat. Akhirnya kita sampai kedapur, bagan penting karewna masyarakat sudah memasrahkan orang yang berdosa sehingga mereka jangan kekurangan makan dn menderita busung lapar, mereka dihukum perbuatannya dan tidak boleh menghukum jiwanya,  DSelain itu juga kita melihat penjara wanita,mereka juga  dapat bantal empuk dan pakaian perempuan penjara,sarung dan bajukurung biru yang s Semua serba baik,mereka tidak tidur diatas beton tetapi diatas ranjang dan sifat pe njara seperti rumah sekolah. (Perlu dibaca oleh pemimpin penjara masa kini untuk dijadikan contoh)

April.8th.1947

Envelop met aantekening “Bea 1,50 telah dibajar Tjp”, Tjoeroep 8-4-47 naar Palembang, pracht ex.

April.17th.1947

The Fake CTO cover from Medan CTo over rate cover during Japanese Occupation and Indonesian Independence revolution, Mr Gho kong Liang from padang ever told to me and I have contact Mr Phoa at Hongkong, I still have his letter,he did not trade philately anymore,he trade Paper money-Dr Iwan note)

April,17th.1947

Postally used free potr republic homemade cover CDs lheusomawe 17.4.47 to Bireun (provenance dr Iwan suwandy 1985)

April,17th-47

Bon pinjaman uang untuk pembelian busi mobil harga F.300 dari Wakil Kepala  Djabatan perhubungan komado Medan are (Markas Pertempoeran Komando Medan Area ) di Tanjungmorawa(rare original leasing bonds )

April 24 th.1947

Dutch create state of Pasundan in western Java

Fera Gunawan

Comment by Henriko simatupang(FB)

Henriko Mei Erikson Simatupang menurut beberapa senior, sampul2 yg berkategori philatelic used (not real used) spt ini memang tdk bisa diikutkan dlm kompetisi…tetapi terkadang justru di sampul2 spt ini bisa diperoleh fakta keberadaan beberapa item tertentu yg justru tdk/belum muncul di katalog atau di pasaran. jadi ini bisa dibuat bahan riset filateli. selain itu jika sampul2 tsb msh lengkap dgn resi registernya, bisa diperkirakan kapan kira2 prangko tsb di release. kenapa dikira2 ? karena surat edaran pos ttg penerbitan benda filateli pada zaman revolusi sulit diperoleh. kalau bpk lihat di ZWP itu diistilahkan dgn vbd & lbd…kalau istilah pak Agus Wibawanto cap ini adalah cbf (cancelled by favour)(still in reaseach the originality of the CDS)

Read more comment from Indonesian Phillatelist

Sangadji Stamp Sy turut setuju dengan pendapat Mbak Fitriyeni Suharto, pada saat tahun-tahun itu 1945-1947 rasanya “belum ada” negatif thinking to mencari keuntungan sendiri melalui sampul, perangko dan cap pos, Namun ada baiknya juga perlu mempelajari maksud-maksud dari si pembuat tsb?

(Dr Iwan note, during that time there one postal history CTO gang from Medan Sajoer St Maharadja, Padang Gho kong Liang, and Surabaya Phoa Lim Kway, they made many CTO covers, but now we found new CTO covers like this took Jong Koe Medan which never seen before 1990)

Other same controversial Medan CTO Cover

) S A M P U L M E D A N MASA REVOLUSI

SEBAGIAN CONTOH “SAMPUL MEDAN” YG MEMANCING KONTROVERSI

Source: http://oldstamp.blogspot.com/2012/10/s-m-p-u-l-m-e-d-n-masa-revolusi.html

April,28th.1947

The unpaid Bonds of The Battle ‘s command Medan Area Tanjongmorawa

April ,29th.1947

(a)The rare Repoeblic Indonesia Income Tax Paid at Padang Panjang West sumatra Postal office with CDS 29.7.1947

(b) The earliest used of ORI overprint repoblik Indonesia revenue  -.15 lima belas sen (fifteen cent) for buying bond(andeel) Menara Kudus(cigaret factory)

May 1947

In early Mei 1947, S.M.Amin was pointed as the Young Guvernour(Gubernur Muda) North Sumatra, by telegram from Vice president Moh,Hatta via Resident Aceh T.Chik Myhamaad Daudsyah.,before he was the chief executive of DPR Aceh , at last Mei he went to Pematang siantar where the capital of Sumatra Province ,in order to meet the Govermur Sumatra Tewuku Mohammads Hassan where he was inagurated , before the capital at Medan but  moving because the Dutch pressuded. Several days working, S.M.Amin must solved the LOGAM (metal) and Marsuse affairs.

original informations:

LOGAM affair,

Peristiwa ini terjadi berkaitan dengan perasaan tidak puas dalm kalangan masyarakat yang terbatas pada mereka yang berasal dari  Tapanuli utara, dengan tuduhan bahwa  Pemerintah meng anak tirikan  mereka, katanya seluruh pejabat berasal dari Aceh,tidak ada yang berasal dari tapanuli utara. Untuk menu nnukkan rasa tidak puas, mereka mengakan suatu demonstrasi , yang hampir menimbulkan suatu pertumpahan darah.Syyukur situasi dapat dikuasai . Namum keadaan tetap dirasa gawat sehingga Pemerintah tetap waspada dan merasa perlu dikeluarkan sebuah Maklumat  Peringatan yang ditujukan kepada rakyat  agar kejadian perpecahan agar tidak terjad9i,maklumat ini ditanda tangani oleh Gubernur Muda S>M>Amin, REsiden Aceh T.Muhammad Daudsyah dan Residen Tapanuli Dr F.L.Tobing.

MARSUSE AFFAIR

Tantangan kedua yang dihadapi adalah dari pihak “Lasjkar Marsuse” dibawah pimpinan Timur pane. Lasjkar Marsuse ini adalah gabungan beberapa lasjkar yang bersatu dan menuntut suatu pengakuan resmi oleh Pemerintah serta  dana pernelanjaan setiap bulan sejumlah Rp.120.000.000,-,suatu jumalh yang tidak sedikit seh8ingga tuntutan itu ditolak, akibatnya Timur Pane dengan beberapa pengawalnya kemudian mendatangi gubernur muda sumatra  utara dan berusaha memperoleh uang tersebut dengan bujukan-bujukan. Bujukan ini juga tidak berhasil ,sehingga keluar ancaman dengan kata=kata:”BILAMANA WAKIL PRESIDEN NANTI TIBA DI PEMATANG SIANTAR” (wakil presiden memang  sedang ditunggu kedatangannya dari Bukittinggi)”AKAN SAYA USAHAKAN MEMPEROLEHNYA DARI BELIAU DAN BILAMANA TIDAK BERHASIL,MAKA AN TERJADI BANJIR DARAH”. Tetapi yang terjadi adalah banjir darah sebagai akibat serbuan belanda kearah daerah republik, serbuan yang dikenal dengan sebutan “Politioneel Actie”.

In May 1947, a ship named KM Trade. Bali arrested by the Dutch in the waters of Kuala Tungkal and Sea village to jambi. In addition to commodities such as rice, on the ship there is also a passenger:

1. Captain M. Thaib RH (Company Commander Kuala Tungkal)

2. Sergeant Major Cedet / Kadir Naning (Adjutant) and several bodyguards

3. National Outcome Inspector Helper. Asmara Siagian II (police officer)

4. Teacher David (Head of Religious Bureau Kuala Tungkal)

5. H. Abdullah Aziz (Kuala Tungkal Religious Judge)

6. H. Mohd. Thaib (Office of Civil Religion Kuala Tungkal)

7. Gumri Abdullah (religious teacher) and several other civilians.

KM. Bali with all its passengers were taken to Tanjung Pinang (Riau), while the rice in the waste into the sea.

Captain M. Thaib RH and Letda R. Umar and his men captured in Tanjung Pinang, other civilian passengers were freed. Captain M. Thaib RH and his men were released after the handover of sovereignty of Indonesia.

May,5t,1947

President Soekarno order as the higest Command Indonesian Army, in as fast Indonesian amred forces (TRI-tentara repoeblik Indonesia)  and the Lasjkar joined in in one organization TNI(tentara Nasional Indonesia _ Indonesia National Army)

May,6th,1947

(a)The rare emergency overprint  prangko on dai Nippon revenue at palembang, postally used cover send fro Palembang  cds 6.5.47

Machinal Overprint on dai Nippon occupation sumatra Revenuve ,there are several different settings of these overprints. 2000 copies of f.50 and f 1,- values and 5.0000.- copies of the f2,- and f 2.50 values were issued.Known used at Kajoeagoeng,Lahat,Palembang,Pendopo and Tandjongradja.Most used copies are CTO,approximately 15 genuinely used entires exist,Most of the stamp are off center. (V.esbensen.1980)

I have nly the unsued stamps,(Dr Iwan notes)

I had seen the postally used cover courtecy Ricardo during International philatelixc shows at Jakarta 1995,and look the fotocopy of that collections below(Dr Iwan Notes).

(b) The original letter of badan pemeriksaan Military Police Division Banteng I Sumatera

May,8th.1947

THe overprint repoeblik Indonesia -from java on Ned Indie karbouw 2 cent stamp(5x) postally used from Tjiawi to Djkarta.

May,10th.1947

The Document of repoeblic Indonesia soerakarta  Justice Court ,about the  “Ahliwaris”

May,10th,1947

On May 10, 1947 Battleship Dutch then looked at the tip of the island Poncan Tower and soon anchorage, 1.5 Miles from the Port of Sibolga, with berlabuhnya Dutch war ships, Sibolga standby entire force deployed to keep things that are not desirable , Unity Tapanuli security delivered protest filed by the Company Commander of Navy Oswald Siahaan to Warship Netherlands, but incidents of the negotiators Oswald Siahaan with Dutch ship shootout.

3) With the incident then the chairman of the Defense Council Tapanuli Dutch Warships ordered to immediately leave the port if no action will be taken. The whole combat ready troops firing when the Dutch ship did not go, because the Dutch did not leave the Ship Defense Council ordered to shoot a Dutch ship, resulting in the crossfire between the forces of Indonesia by the Dutch Warship for 6 hours, Dutch Warship finally shoot blindly Ship The Dutch left the Gulf War Sibolga

4) With the blind blindly Dutch war ship then fired Sibolga MAS KADIRAN mepercepat ordered and mobilized for the completion of the manufacture of cannon, unfortunately while testing the cannon, one of the members of Barisan SPECIAL POLICE Residency Tapanuli named “LUNCIUS Simanjuntak” dead less than a month the death Luncius Simanjuntak cannon shooter Distance MAS KADIRAN completed with the name calling Meriam Meriam “LUNCIUS” in order to commemorate the name of one of the members who died while testing the cannon. Finally, experts in these techniques can resolve the 3 pieces of cannon, a cannon shooter distance size of 8 inches, one anti-aircraft cannon and a cannon Anti Tank Cal. 3.8 inch.

i. SPECIAL POLICE FORCES row Tapanuli INTO CAR Brigade residency residency Tapanuli

(MBK Tapanuli)

1) In accordance with the provisions of the Branch Bureau of Police for the Sumatra and Tapanuli Command Chief Residency at the melting renamed “POLICE CAR residency Tapanuli Brigade” Brigade POLICE CAR’s name is based on the letter of Command Chief of Police No. Young. : 126 / 78 / 91 November 14, 1946. concerning the establishment of Mobile Brigade in each of the residency of the formation of the Brigade Police Cars are meant to uniform name, rank structure, the task of working procedures of the police forces that are at the Residency in Indonesia where the name of a wide Variety of Police, there PATRIOT POLICE, POLICE EXEMPLARY, SPECIAL POLICE Barisan , POLICE FAST MOTION. etc.

2) The main purpose of the establishment of Mobile Brigade is composed Forces – the small army as the core of a strong police firepower with high mobility, in each residency in the form of Mobile Brigade residency (MBK) and led by a TK-POLICE INSPECTOR I / II as for the strength of 100 people or more, with space covering the entire residency, Administration, Organization and under the leadership Tactical Police Chief Residency.

3). In addition to the residency of Mobile Brigade (MBK), the Center / Bureau held Reservists are called Mobile Brigade LARGE (MBB), led by the Bureau MBB A POLICE COMMISSIONER receiving command and directly responsible to the Head of State Police. Reservists / MBB-strength 100 s / d 600 Armament Members who complete it.

May 11 th.1947.


Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak governed the “Daerah Istimewa Kalimantan Barat” in cooperation with the Dutch (corresponding to today’s Kalimantan Barat province). He was arrested in 1950 for involvement in a plot against the Indonesian government.

Dutch create state of West Kalimantan with Sultan of Pontianak at head; Sjahrir protests
Dutch vehicle in flames after a guerilla ambush at Puncak, April 1947

May,11th,1947

Radio Station at delangoe picture during “diresmikan” President Soekarno

May ,15th.1947

Used local soematra repoblik Indonesia bea meterai (revenue) f.15,- type WSR 2.(rare nominal)(if the speciaolist collector want to know the different of type WSR 1 and WSR 2 ,please subscribed as the block premium member-Dr Iwan Not, different design of repoeblik Indonesia bea meterai)

May,18th.1947

the rare Palembang republic overprint PTT NRI on Dai Nippon stamp used on complete document

May,22th.1947

The official letter from Bandung ,cds Bandoeng BKT 1 22.3.47 to  Batavia centrum. arrived CDS  Batavia C 10.at the back of cover.

May,23th.1947

The used local Sumatra repoblik Indonesia revenue f 1,-(small f) in may,23th 1947, theearliest  12/3.47. two different colour,type WSR 2.

May,24th,1947

The recieved of building cionstruction from palembang with  Overprint Palembang PTT NRI in round ball Dai Nippon revenue

May,25th.1947

Darmojuwono Ordained Priest, May 25, 1947.  Now Archbishop of Semarang, Indonesia

May,29th.1947

The latest used of Local  sumatra repoeblik Indonesia revenue f.150  in May.29th,1947, the earliest Sepetember,16th.1946,type WSR 1

May,30th.1947

The tranportation(pengankutan)  of  last  350  APWI_allied Prisoner  War Indonesia (rombongan tahanan perang) from Republic area arrived at Jakarta.

In May 1947

Dr Soedjono P Pusponegoro,

Pediatrician at Central hospital Jakarta(RSCM )

November 1945 May 1947 Physician, Kendal
Director, Kardinah Hospital, Tegal
May 1947 February  1950 Pediatrician, Central Hospital, Djakarta
concurrently teaching at the Medical School, University of the Republic of Indonesia, Djakarta

INDONESIA MERDEKA CENSOR MAIL BATAVIA AUSTRALIAN POSTMARKS Fine  covers from Batavia (Jakarta) to Holland with Australian postmarks ‘Batavia Centrum’ dated May 1947

June 1947

a)In June 1947, Lieutenant Young A. Page Yatub and Sergeant Tambunan arrested by the Dutch Navy in the waters between Kuala Tungkal Sea and the village, they served to bring fighters from Kuala Tungkal incorporated in Lasyakar commander to be sent to the Front Estuary Rupit / Lubuk Linggau.

Dutch complain that Indonesia is stopping shipments of rice to Dutch-controlled areas.Egypt and Syria recognize the Republic of Indonesia.

Menistery Moh.Roem, Mr Amir Sjarifuddin,Hemangku Buwono and Mr A.Madjid arrive at Jakarta due to Prime Menistry St Sjahrir invitation because the situation became worst(suasana semakin Genting)

Kamping.
Java Semarang June 1947
Parade on the Bodjong, the main street of Semarang

June,2nd.1946

June.2nd.1947

1947 (2 June). Batavia – USA. Reg high fkd env. mns Boat mail. Special label reverse.[ 535479

This day was the earliest used of Sumatra new value overprint on Sukarno stamp(Zon 91-96).Loose used stamp mostsly CTO but there exist very few CTO covers.Aproximately 125genuinely used entires exist.The different type of the overprint are identifiend in on full sheet, the earlist date used CDS Koelasimpang 2.6.47(v.esbense,1980)

I have found only one genuinely cover send from Pematang Siantar to Bukittinggi(ex dr iwan collection sold to Mr Karel), and the off cover CDS  Pematang siantar  19.8.47 and CDS (boekit) tinggi …,8.47. I also have the complete set of the five different stamnp in mint condition,I also have seen the surabaja collector have the full sheet of this stamp(Dr Iwan Note)

June ,3th.`1947

(a)Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (Indonesian Army) is renamed Tentara Nasional Indonesia or TNI.as the unity of TRI and Lajkar Rakyat  Indonesia.

(b) The used local sumatra repoeblik Indonesia revenue  f.25,-, earliest date June,3th.1947, and the latest November.13th.1947( the revenue became up in june from  f 15,-)

Dengan truk ditangkap prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI), dievakuasi. TNI dibentuk oleh penggabungan dari tentara Republik dan pemuda-pemuda di 3 Juni 1947. Di Jawa mereka memiliki sekitar 110.000 dan sekitar 64.000 orang di Sumatera. Indonesia 18 Februari 1948.

Dengan truk ditangkap prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI), dievakuasi. TNI dibentuk oleh penggabungan dari tentara Republik dan pemuda-pemuda di 3 Juni 1947. Di Jawa mereka memiliki sekitar 110.000 dan sekitar 64.000 orang di Sumatera. Indonesia 18 Februari 1948.

mungkin maksud teks nya : dengan truk rampasan, TNI di evakuasi…
mungkin ini pergeseran pasukan hasil perjanjian renville atau linggarjati…?

hehehe ada penampakan truk eks-KNIL… ada chevrolet, ada ford,… (kebelakang makin nga jelas…)

Duh… coba yg bikin film merah putih liat thread ini yah… jadi ngga bakal truk isuzu dan hino ikut nonggol jadi pemeran… hehehehe… kayanya sih ada ford wanabe… tapi parah banget culunnya ngga dapet… hehehehe

btw itu pistol mauser eks tentara Jepang veteran manchuria atau kopiannya cina atau ori buatan jerman yah…?

yg ini buat foto foto yg udah di post di trit TNI

Coba deh perhatikan orang sebelah kiri no 3.. kok kyk orang Soviet ya..? apa orang Indo pake model baju Tentara merah..??

Mauser seri C-96

June,5th.1947

The rare document of Aceh Railway (Kereta Api) office

June,8th.1947

Envelop met aantekening “Bea 1,50 telah dibajar Tjp”, Tjoeroep 8-4-47 naar Palembang,

June,9th.1947

The Unpaid bond Billing  of Komando tempur Medan Area Tanjoengmorawa (east sumatra)

June,1oth.1947

This day was the earliest used Sumatra ORI handstamped overprint(Dai Nippon type 71).The Ori overprint was used throughout Sumatra.However ,the overprinting was clesrly done locally with local handstamped. Therefore there exist many minor varieties of the over[rint.Approximately 25 gunuinely used entires exist of all types put to gether,the earliest date use CDS Soegeipenoeh 10.6.47 postally sencored cover.(v.esbensen<1980)

I have found only CTO postally used made by Mr Postman Soewil,only one postcard.this ORI overprint the Padang repoebelik Indonesia overprint KON 10 cent.

And I also have a complete collection of mint ORI stamp

 On overprint Rep:Ind: on  Dai Nippon definitive Sumatra stamp

 1 c , 3 c,30 c,40 c,50 c ,-(triple Overprint) –Dr Iwan’s note,

June,11th.1947

Postallyb used NRI overprint repoeblik Indonesia 15 sen on Dai nippon postal stationer send from to boekittinggi cds 11.7.46(provenance Dr Iwan suwandy,1985)

The earliest used of the Djokjakarta issued stamps CDS 11.7.1947 (info V.esbensen catalogue ,1980)

And Dai Nippon catalogue 1981

I ever seen the postal used cover with this three Yogya issued stamps,50 sen dark blue Wayang,60 sen red NRI flag ,and 80 sen violet Borobudur.

I have 50 sen used moneyOrder fragment

and Block four mint 60 sen flag(Dr Iwan note)

June,16th.1947

the rare document of the chief of Loerah amapaloe west sumatra repoeblic village(Waminegeri pemerintah repoeblik Indonesia) official stamped . the document about “harta Poesaka”

June,17th,1947

the rare Medeka newspaper card send  express mail from Djakrta to jogyakarta,with 2x 15 sen and 1×40 sen java repoeblic Indonesia definitive stamps.

The book ‘s  illustration of djokjakarta batik(ibid winkler,1948)

June ,18th.1947

The very rare postally used emergency stamps overprint prangko on dai nippon revenue  f0,50 and f 2,- cds Palembang 18.6.47 to Painan west sumatra.

and the complete series of the stamp above in mint (unused) condition.

June,22th.1947

The Ned Indie Briefkaart kartoepos karbouw 3 1/2 cent send from  Gouw Ho machine fabric Pejagalan 2 CDS Batavia 26.6.47 first type to Semarang

The Poster of Bale Poestaka Batvia Centrum the Lampoeng Book by K.R.A.A. Probonegoro.(rare Nica poster)

(c)the rare bookstore cover with Dr sun

Sun Jat-sen san min chu I book promotion

June,17th.1947

1947, Bedarfs-Dienstbrief aus “BATOE RADJA 5.7.47” auf Aufdruckprovisorium F 2,50 auf 40 Sen, rs. Dienststempel “TJABANG G.P.I.I. BATOERADJA”, Faltung und Beförderungsspuren, ungewöhnlicher Beleg

June,24th.1947

The photo of Megawati Sukarno Putri during baby and his mother Megawati at left in June 1947,now

she ex president Indonesia.

June 26.1947

(a)Dutch forces mobilize for an invasion of Madura, and eventually Java. William Foote, a USA diplomat, intervenes and offers to mediate between Dutch and Indonesians. The invasion is postponed.

(b) The rare Komando Tempoer Medan area Billing Bond which never pain,sign at Kabanjahe 26.7.1947.

 

June 27.1947

(a)president’s announcement No.6 YEAR 1947

Berhubung with the urgency of the situation at the present time, the President of the Indonesian republic, on 06/27/1947, government  completely took power for a while,

Yogyakarta, 03:30 hours

dated 26.7.1947

President of the Indonesian republic

Soekarno

at the same time, General Spoor, the DEI chief command, issuing orders dag (Day Order):

1, Day of week begins with the transfer 26/06/1947 all vehicles by the Dutch Military. 2. Sunday afternoon began with the consolidation of all forces that will participate in aksi.3.Senin 30/06/1947 at 3:30 am (AM) beginning with affeideningsactie vanuit aanvalpunten (attack points) 4.senen 06.00 (AM) morning begins with a general attack across the front. 5.Didaerah which has been occupied by Dutch troops have conducted large-besaran.6.Seluruh pengankapan houses of any nation must also digeledah.7.Perintah is valid if the Saturday date of 06/28/1947 at 14:00 (PM) tidka revoked.

With the leaking of the above order of the day, the Great Commander General Sudirmasn menegeluarkan command as follows:

1.Angkatan the Republic of Indonesia and all the people should remain firm, vigilant, alert and ready (not careless) .2. If the Dutch army at one place has started to conduct the attacks on the Indonesian side should be held as well as possible resistance, no (not necessary) to wait for another command from the helm of the republic Indonesia.3.Gerakan Prerang Force general on the whole of Indonesia to maintain a State run by orders from the helm of the army of the Republic of large-scale battles Indonesia.4.Jika ynag didajului actual (executed) by dutch army, then the resistance simultaneously (total) that best

original Info:

MAKLUMAT PRESIDEN RI  NO.6 TAHUN 1947

bBerhubung dengan gentingnya keadaan pada waktu sekarang,maka Presiden repoeblik Indonesia,pada tanggal 27.6.1947 ,mengambil kekuasaan Pemerintah sepenuhnya untuk sementara waktu,

Yogyakarta,jam 03.30

tanggal 26.7.1947

Presiden Repoeblik Indonesia

Soekarno

at the same time,General Spoor ,the DEI chief command , mengeluarkan dag order(Day Order):

1, Hari minggu 26.6.1947 dimulai dengan pengoperan semua kendaraan oleh Militer Belanda. 2. Minggu sore dimulai dengan konsolidasi seluruh pasukan yang akan ikut dalam aksi.3.Senin 30.6.1947 jam 03.30 pagi(AM) dimulai dengan affeideningsactie vanuit aanvalpunten(titik serangan) 4.senen jam 06.00(AM) pagi dimulai dengan serangan umum diseluruh front.5.Didaerah yang telah diduduki oleh tentara belanda harus diadakan pengankapan besar-besaran.6.Seluruh rumah dari bangsa apapun juga harus digeledah.7.Perintah ini berlaku jika pada hari sabtu tanggal 28.6.1947 jam 14.00(PM) tidka dicabut.

Dengan bocornya perintah harian diatas, maka Panglima Besar Jendral Sudirman  menegeluarkan perintah sebagai berikut:

1.Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia dan rakyat seluruhnya harus tetap tegas,awas,waspada dan siap sedia(jangan lengah).2.Jika disalah satu tempat tentara Belanda telah mulai mengadakan serangan maka dari pihak Indonesia harus segera mengadakan perlawanan sebaik-baiknya,tidak usah(tidak perlu)  menunggu Komando lagi dari pucuk pimpinan Angkatan Prerang republik Indonesia.3.Gerakan umum mengenai seluruh Indonesia untuk mempertahankan Negara dijalankan dengan perintah dari pucuk pimpinan angkatan perang Republik Indonesia.4.Jika pertempuran besar-besaran ynag sesungguhnya didajului(dijalankan) oleh tentara belanda,maka perlawanan serentak(total) yang sebaik-baiknya

(b)Amir Sjarifuddin and the “Left Wing” withdraw support of Sjahrir. Sjahrir leaves the government and becomes Indonesia’s representative at the United Nations. Amir Sjarifuddin becomes Prime Minister

Dutch soldiers in Batavia, 1947. By the start of the first Dutch “police action”, there were 92,000 Dutch forces in Indonesia.

June,29th.1947

The picture of Genral sudirman,and othe TNI leader , during sworn by President sukarno at Djogja Palace inaugurated  by Presiden sukarno at president nRI  Palace Jogya.

 

the unpaid bonds for medan areacommand  headquater ‘s car (TRI 26) reapiar  by Mr Abdoekl Rahman Tandjong Morawa left. this bod sign by Letnasn A.rahman with medan area official choped,

 

also look the picture of Medan area headquaters  after burn during politional action

 

June,30th.1947

The rare Repoeblic Indonesia Special Card with pen line overprint on dancer 2 cent with Repoeblic Java definitive 3 cent, postally used send from Djakarta.

July 1947

(1) the month of July 1947, Vice President Mohammad Hatta arrived in Siantar in the review of the Sumatran, after several ahari he was disana.Gubernur sumatra received the news of a private intelligence, that the Dutch army had occupied the city of high cliffs and continue toward the town of siantara, being The TNI and Police beriat no nothing.

 

(2)This is important news as soon submitted to the vice president M. Hatta. meanwhile sma news from the TNI and police followed, so that immediate action should be taken to save the Vice President who happened to be in Sumatra Siantar.Gubernur Pematang instructed to his car, Chrysler’s 7-seat (white elephant) immediately covered with leaves so that the color white no longer visible from the ship flying the Dutch.

 

(3)After consultation with the Vice-President Hatta, Governor sumatra plan to bring him to Brastagi, through Kananjahe and so on through Sidikalang to Bukittinggi. For that SM Amin ordered his driver to fill a full tank for the trip jauh.SEmentara Car gurbenur Sumatra past noon ready wrapped and covered with leaves. Since that time is the Fast, then paced a little food for Iftar are already prepared, had taken Similarly, the car used Sumatra.Anak Vice President and governors of Sumatra Governor and Wife and all goods are in his house had been left in Siantar,  not enough  time anymore to take care of it, handed it to God SWT.

 

(4)Rombongan just waiting for the arrival of Governor Mr Young. SM.Amin, so that can go together, but setalh how long to wait, he never dtang, his car was not returned from filling the fuel (BBM). Apparently accomplice in Siantar NICA has begun to play a role.

 

(5)Therefore it was already two o’clock in the afternoon (PM) then took the decision to Sumatra Guernur bernagkat to Brastagi, Mr. SM Amin was able to catch up later. Head with rush to Brastagi need to done in order  to prevent the Vice President was arrested by Dutch troops, it turns out later that the Dutch troops entered the town of siantar approximately 45 minutes after Vice President Moh.Hatta entourage departed, the group survived until the Brastagi afternoon.

look the illustration of vice presiden Moh Hatta  during departed to balige from pematang siantara and  from there to Tapanoeli and Bukittingi

Governor Young SM Amin who still lives in Siantar the Dutch army entered the city, asked to come to the office to the Netherlands to be examined

original info(ibid. Mr teuku Mohammad hassan,1986)

Dalam bulan July 1947,

 wakil Presiden Mohammad hatta tiba di pematang siantar dalam peninjauan ke sumatera, sesudah beberapa ahari beliau berada disana.Gubernur sumatra menerima berita dari seorang intel pribadi, bahwa tentara Belanda sudah menduduki kota Tebing tinggi dan terus menuju kota Pematang siantar,sedang dari pihak TNI dan Polisi belum ada berita apa-apa.

 berita penting ini segera disampaikan kepada wakil Presiden M.Hatta. sementara itu berita yang sma dari TNI dan Polisi menyusul,sehingga segera perlu diambil tindakan untuk menyelamatkan Wakil Presiden yang kebetulan berada di Pematang Siantar.

Gubernur Sumatera menginstruksikan supaya mobilnya,Chrysler 7-seat(Gajah Putih) segera ditutup dengan daun-daun agar warna putihnya tidak kelihatan lagi dari kapal terbang Belanda.

 Sesudah bermusyawarah dengan Wakil Presiden Hatta,Gubernur sumatra merencanakan untuk membawa beliau ke Brastagi,melalui Kabanjahe dan seterusnya melalui Sidikalang ke Bukittinggi.

Untuk itu S.M Amin menyuruh supirnya untuk mengisi bensin penuh untuk perjalanan jauh.Sementara Mobil gurbenur Sumatera lewat tengah hari siap dibalut dan ditutup dengan daun-daunan

.Berhubung waktu itu adalah bulan Puasa,maka serba sedikit makanan untuk berbuka puasa yang sudah disiapkan,terpaksa dibawa pula dengan mobil yang digunakan Wakil Presiden dan gubernur Sumatra.Anak dan Isteri Gubernur Sumatra dan seluruh barang-barang yang ada dirumahnya terpaksa ditinggal di siantar,tidak cukuk waktu lagi untuk mengurusnya,diserahkan saja kepada Allah SWT.

Rombongan hanya menunggu kedatangan Gubernur Muda Mr.SM.Amin,supaya dapat berangkat bersama, tetapi setalh menunggu berapa lama, ia tak kunjung datang,ternyata mobilnya belum kembali dari mengisi bahan bakar(BBM).

Rupanya kaki tangan NICA di siantar sudah mulai memainkan peranannya,. Oleh karena waktu sudah menunjukkan jam dua siang(PM) maka Guernur Sumatra mengambil keputusan untuk bernagkat ke Brastagi,sedang Mr SM Amin bisa menyusul kemudian.

 Berangkat dengan bvuru-buru ke Brastagi perlu duilakukan untuk mencehag Wakil Presiden ditangkap oleh tentara Belanda,ternyata kemudian bahwa tentara belanda masuk kota Pematang siantar kira-kira 45 menit setlah rombongan Wakil Presiden Moh.Hatta berangkat,rombongan selamat sampai di Brastagi sore hari.

Gubernur Muda SM AMIN yang masih tinggal di Pematang siantar waktu tentara Belanda masuk kota,diminta datang kekantor belanda untuk diperiksa.

Source : ex Gubernur Muda Mr.SM.Amin(dalam bukunya)

(2)The July 1947,

 

HUa Ning Tsing Nien Hui bewij van Lichmaatschap tevens contributiekaat(Chinese overseas Contrubution Card)

In July 1947

the Dutch launched a military offensive to reinforce their urban bases and to intensify their attacks on guerrilla strongholds. The offensive was, however, put to end by the signing of the Renville Agreement on January 17, 1948. The negotiation was initiated by India and Australia and took place under the auspices of the UN Security Council.

It was during these critical moments that the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) stabbed the newly- proclaimed Republic of Indonesia in the back by declaring the formation of the “Indonesian People’s Republic” in Madiun, East Java. Muso led an attempt to overthrow the Government, but this was quickly stamped out and he was killed.

 

 

July,1st.1947

the very rare Dai Nippon Java 5 sen used with added  repoeblik Indonesia 17.8.45 anniversary bull stamps,cds Poerwokerto  send to Kebumen central java.

 

The extreme rare,Postal used cover with overprint Soekarno stamps, and Fi,- overprint  independe fund Sumatra stamps send from CDS Maninjau (west suamtra,near lake) to Bukittinggi

July,2nd.1947

The unpaid Gasoline(bensin) five liter to Bengkel Rahman  from medan area command tanjong morawa.sign with official stamped.which never paid until the owner died.J

(1)                       The Dutch  at 23.30 PM

tell the United nation commision that starting at December,19th.1948 10.00 AM Jkarta Time didnot tied with the Renville Agreement. and at 23.45 this day The Dutch have delivered a letter to Indonesia delegation’s secretary  with the same information, and the delegation informed to the Republuic Indonesia gouverfnment at Djokja but cannot communicated because the Dutch had broken the communikasion(pihak belanda telah memutuskan hubungan antara Jakata dan Djokja). In this nigh the member of Indonesian delegatioan were arrested by the Dutch.

(2)Dutch organize Negara Sumatra Selatan state, with capital at Palembang.and the ceremony  transfered of power will be in february,2th. 1949

(3) In this night 40 RI military leader were moved  by catalina amphibi RI 006  flight to Sumatra, but when came back to Jogya the flight have “sergap”  by the Dutch ,until broke.

December, 18th.1948

(a)Dutch officials tell representatives of the United States and the Republic of Indonesia in Jakarta that they are cancelling the Renville agreement. The news does not reach Yogya, as the Dutch have already cut the phone lines there.

(b)at  11.30 PM ,Dr Beel  had annouce that the Dutch Federal state didnot related with renville agreement anymore, which meaning thje second agrattion will starting.

(c) the latest used indonesia 3rd independence stamp on  on sencored  chop postcard.

 

 

December 19th.1948

Dutch version

the second in December 1948 and January 1949. The operations took place during the time of the Indonesian fight for independence

Second Police Action (Operatie Kraai)
Dutch military aggression II
The second Politionele Acties was aimed at forcing the Republic to cooperate with the Dutch government in the implementation of the federalist policy as stipulated in the Linggadjati Agreement.

 The purpose was to organize the new Indonesia as a federal state that would remain closely associated with the Netherlands. Alleged breaches of the armistice by the Indonesians was also a motivator.

During this operation (kraai = Dutch ‘crow’), Yogyakarta was directly attacked and the Indonesian administration, including president Sukarno, was put under arrest. Furthermore, all major cities and roads on Java were occupied

In both ‘police actions’,

more than 100,000 Dutch troops were involved. This number makes obvious the fact that the operations did not constitute limited police actions as claimed by
the Dutch government, but full-fledged military campaigns.

 Overall, the Dutch suffered approximately 5,000 fatalities, the death toll on the Indonesian side is estimated to be as high as 150,000.

 

What really Happened read more the history fact below compiled by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Dengan terjadinya Agresi Militer Belanda II pada tanggal 19 Desember 1948, maka berakhirlah masa tugas Polisi Keamanan di sekitar garis tersebut.
Militerisasi Polisi

 

 

Agresi Militer Belanda II
Pada tanggal 19 Desember 1949 Belanda melancarkan agresinya yang ke-2 dengan menyerang ibukota yang pada waktu itu ada di Yogyakarta. Dalam waktu singkat, Belanda berhasil menguasai Pangkalan Udara Maguwo serta kota. Tidak hanya Yogya, Belanda juga menyerang daerah lain yang menjadi teritorial RI. Di Yogya Mobbrig ikut menyerang tentara Belanda yang akan masuk ke dalam kota dan puncaknya dalam serangan umum 1 Maret Mobbrig ikut terlibat aktif di dalam penyerangan tersebut.

Organisasi Kepolisian Selama Agresi Militer II
Setelah Yogyakarta berhasil diduduki oleh pasukan Belanda, polisi bersama alat negara lainnya meninggalkan kota. Di luar kota berpusat Pemerintahan Militer di bawah pimpinan Panglima Besar Jenderal Sudirman yang dibantu oleh Staf Kemanan yang terdiri dari Jaksa Agung Tentara sebagai Kepala Staf, KKN dan Komandan Korps Polisi Militer Jawa masing-masing sebagai Wakil Kepala I dan II.

(1)On December,19th.1948 in the morning Dutch soldiers boombing Bukittinggi, the Ducth begun attacked repoeblic Indonesia. at afrternoon Mr Syafruddin Prawiranegara,Menteri kemamukarn RI whic stayed at bukittingi from the central gouvernment ,with Colonel Hidaya, The comandenemen comandant TNI Sumatra who just take the command from Mayor General Soehardjo Hardjowardojo, vist Mr T.M.Hassan the chief of central Commisariat at his house at BGarai(valley) Sianok Bukittinggi, for meeting aboutmthe movement against the Dutch army, they didnot know the situation of presieenrt and vice president Repoeblic Indonesia.this day no info from Yogja.Mr Sjafruddin Prawira negara told that in order to save the stae NRI, he accepeted to built PDRI(pemerintah daruata republic Indonesa-emergengy gouvernment RI) and at night ,9.00 PM the NRI official will move out Bukittinggi to Halaban (onderneming or Plantation) near Payakumbuh.

(2)Second Dutch “police action” begins at 5:30 A.M. without warning. Yogya falls to the Dutch.Emergency government for Indonesia is declared (PDRI) at Payakumbuh nearby under Sjafruddin Prawiranegara. Soedirman radios his immediate support for the emergency government.Civil government of republic, including Sukarno, Hatta, Sjahrir, allows itself to be captured, hoping to outrage world opinion; Sukarno and Sjahrir are taken into Dutch custody, and eventually flown to Bangka. look the illustraion of sukarno.hatta and Haji Agus Salim at Maguwo Airport when the dutch took them to custody in Bangka.

the illustratio of Hotel Manumbing at bangka whete Bung Karno,bung Hatta were exile.

Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya remains in his palace, and does not leave during the entire Dutch occupation.Dutch occupy Bukittinggi.Tan Malaka escapes again during the confusion.

Panglima Besar Soedirman
Soedirman is warmly remembered today as perhaps the greatest hero of the revolution. Towards the end of the fighting, he fell ill and directed troops from his sickbed.Soedirman was another complex character in the revolutionary era. He had been impressed by Japanese military traditions and the spirit of bushido; yet he was also thought to be sympathetic to the leftist movement of Tan Malaka. He was one of the military figures who was not completely trusting of the political leadership (such as Sjahrir), as to them the political leadership seemed more interested in compromise than victory. This feeling was certainly strengthened when the entire political leadership allowed itself to be taken captive by the Dutch on December 19, 1948.

On 19 December 1948

at 05:30 am Maguwo airfield was bombed by the Dutch Mitchell bombers (B 25) is immediately followed by a battalion of troops jumping green beret who was assigned to seize the flying field Maguwo. On the morning of this miraculous Dutch terdfiri aircraft from aircraft Spitfire, Mustang, Lockheed and Mitchell seemed hovering above the city of Djokja which soon opened the attack by shooting at and dropping bombs in several places. In the Netherlands Maguwo menerjunlan payungdengan troops seize field goal Maguwo.penduduk menyhangka city does not at all that it was an explosion and gunfire attacks that actually means, they suspect that the heavy temabakan just war, because war forces the GoI has planned a latihanbesar- besara. semaking intensified after his shots and more bombs being dropped, then people realize. after the victim began to fall. They realize vahw abelanda tealh their attacks. Sekalipunkesatuan in Maguwo too small, yet still provided resistance under the leadership of opsit picket Kasmiran, patriotic resistance which lasted bravely than 06 000 hours (AM) until 7:00 to finally air cadet kasmiran with approximately 40 members of his unit killed on the field of service. However the new field at 08.00 hours seluurh Maguwo successfully controlled by the Dutch, they immediately opened the air bridge to lower Semarang Djokja Engineers heavy equipment and transport equipment for eprsiapan seize Djokja. Meanwhile the relationship anatara base Maguwo Djokja disconnected so the situation can not be known at all by the dreamers who are in town n RI Djokja. Dutch movement from the city Djokja Maguwo dimuali sjak morning and at 14:15 (PM) they arrived on the edge of the east and from here they try to occupy the city. Teridir of their movement and group movement setaip memepunyai groups specific tasks to further isolate the town in order to soldiers of the Republic of Indonesia that will try to get out of town can be prevented.

Dutch troops launch on sat afresi colonial, Great Commander General Sudirman was nearly issued a flash command:

QUICK ORDER NO I/PB/48

1.we  has been attacked

2. On 19 December 1948 the Dutch Armed Forces attacked the Yogyakarta city and the airfield Maguwo

3.The  dutch’s  government  had  cancel truce agreement

4.All  Armed Forces carry out the plan that has been set to face the Dutch attack

Issued in place, on 19 December 1948, jam.08.00

Commander of the Armed Forces of the Republic Indonesia

Lieutenant General Sudirman.

Thus flash command Zbesar Commander, thus exercise plan on a large war-bvesaran by the TNI on 19 December 1948 can not be implemented because of the impending attack of the Dutch. Who carried out the TNI since today is perintah siasat Panglima Besar namely organizing Universe diembani Guerrilla warfare by the military Pemerinath.

On this day, since morning, Republican Leader of the Government of yanga da fi palace in Yogya gather and sit under Pimpina President Sukarno. sidangs elesai then my head after da Sjagfruddin Prawiranegara SH, prosperity minister, who was in Sumatra, was given powers by President Sukarno to form an emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) sui Sumatran, the mandate has been delivered through the radio and reads as follows:

MANDATE OF THE PRESIDENT TO

 Syafruddin Prawiranegara SH

We inform the President of the Republic of Indonesia on Sunday abhwa jqm 19.12.1948 06.00 am dutch seranggannya has begun on the capital of Yogyakarta. If the state Government can not run again kewajibannnya we depute to Mr. Syafruddin Prawiranegara, Minister of the Republic of Indonesia Prosperity for memebentuk Daruart Republican government in Sumatra.

Yogyakarta 19 desembver 1948

President Vice President Soekarno Hatta.

In addition to the above mandate issued to the Maramis SH, Minister of Finance who was outside Megeri and dr.Sudarmono in New Delhi as follows.

Prof. Dr. Sudarmono, Plar, Mr Maramis.New delhi

We are the President of the Republic of Indonesia memebrikan that on Sunday 19.12.1948 at 06.00 am on the Dutch had begun its attack on the capital city of Yogyakarta. If efforts Sjafruddin Butler State Emergency SH to form a government in Sumatra unsuccessful, kapada brothers Exulle Gouvernmen empowered to form the Republic of Indonesia in India. please be advised this is in connection with Sjafruddin in sumatra.jika relationship is not possible, please take the necessary action

Yogjakarta 19 december 1948

Vice President Mohammad Hatta, Agus Salim _Menteri Overseas.

Similarly, the President has expressed amanantnya as follows:

TRUSTEES OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

The beloved nation!

On this day December 19, 1948, at 06.00 am the Netherlands have begun with the attack on the city of Yogyakarta and surrounding areas. with this action is evident that Belands tealh again start a colonial war to destroy the Government and the Republic of Indonesia so that they can re-colonize the entire country and the nation of Indonesia. We Setealh berusha months with all sincerity to resolve disputes nBelanda premises are suddenly their memebri not know in advance the appropriate use of a weapon that is on them to do their will with no mengindahkanadanya paksaaan by KTN in Yogyakarta, with no presence memperduluikan ceasefire agreement, they eliminated all possibilities to achieved a peace compromise . We believe , that the entire people of Indonesia and those are areas that are Republican or area occupied by the Dutch in unison will be standing behind a bunch of the republic of Indonesia to oppose any effort and in our mind that there are actions that violate this humanity. We know that the deeds of their weapons, the Dutch may be able to seize and occupy some of the important place, but no way they can break the spirit of our fight or shut = Indonesia’s national independence which we tealh insyafkan and maintain over the years.

We have our independence proclaimed on August 17, 1945 and ntealh pervasive in our souls, it is impossible dapatr suppressed with violence. Let my people, we defend the homeland and our independence with the strength of victory will surely believe in us. Isja gods.

Yogyakarta, 19 December 1948

President of the Republic of Indonesia

Sukarno

indonesian version:

Pada tanggal 19 desember 1948 jam 05.30 pagi lapangan terbang Maguwo di bom oleh pesawat pembom Mitchell Belanda(B 25) yang segera diikuti dengan penerjunan satu batalion pasukan baret hijau yang ditugaskan untuk merebut lapang terbang Maguwo. Pada pagi hari ini bebrapa pesawat Belanda yang terdfiri dari pesawat Spitfire,Mustang,Lockheed dan Mitchell tampak melayang-layang diatas kota Djokja yang tak lama kemudian membuka serangan dengan menembaki dan menjatuhkan bom dibeberapa tempat. Di maguwo Belanda menerjunlan pasukan payungdengan tujuan merebut lapangan Maguwo.penduduk kota memang tidak menyhangka sama sekali bahwa ledakan serta tembakan itu adalah serangan serangan yang sesunguhnya, mereka menduga bahwa temabakan berat itu hanyalah latihan perang saja, karena pihak angkatan Perang RI telah merencanakan suatu latihanbesar-besara. setlah tembakan semaking menghebat dan bom semakin banyak yang dijatuhkan,barulah rakyat sadar. setelah korban mulai berjatuhan. Barulah mereka sadar vahw abelanda tealh melancarkan serangannya. Sekalipunkesatuan yang ada di maguwo terlalu kecil,namum perlawanan tetap diberikan di bawah pimpinan opsit piket Kasmiran,perlawan yang patriotik berlangsung dengan gagah berani dari jam 06.000 (AM) sampai 07.00 hingga akhirnya kadet udara kasmiran bersama lebih kurang 40 orang anggota kesatuannya gugur dimedan bakti. namum baru pada jam 08.00 seluruh lapangan maguwo berhasil dikuasai oleh Belanda,segera mereka membuka jembatan udara Semarang Djokja untuk menurunkan alat -alat Zeni berat dan alat transport bagi eprsiapan merebut Djokja. Sementara itu hubungan anatara pangkalan Maguwo Djokja terputus sehingga situasi tersebut tidak dapat diketahui sama sekali oleh pemimpi n RI yang berada dikota Djokja. Gerakan belanda dari maguwo ke kota Djokja dimuali sjak pagi hari dan jam 14.15 (PM) mereka baru tiba ditepi timur dan dari sini mereka berusaha menduduki kota. Gerakan mereka teridir dari gerakan kelompok dan setaip kelompok memepunyai tugas tertentu untuk selanjutnya mengisolir kota agar pasukan Republik Indonesia yang akan berusaha keluar kota dapat dicegah.

pada sat tentara belanda melancarkan afresi kolonialnya, segra Panglima Besar Jendral Sudirman mengeluarkan perintah kilat :

PERINTAH KILAT NO I/PB/48

1.kita Telah diserang

2. Pada tanggal 19 desember 1948 Angkatan Perang belanda menyerang kota Yogyakarta dan Lapangan terbang Maguwo

3.Pemerintah belanda tealh membatalkan persetujuan gencatan senjata

4.Semua Angkatan Perang menjalankan rencana yang telah ditetapkan untuk menghadapi serangan Belanda

Dikeluarkan di Tempat,Tanggal 19 desember 1948,jam.08.00

Panglima Besar Angkatan Perang republik indonesia

Letnan Jenderal Sudirman.

Demikianlah perintah kilat Panglima Zbesar , dengan demikian rencana Latihan perang secara besar-bvesaran oleh TNI pada tanggal 19 desember 1948 tidak dapat dilaksanakan karena adanya serangan pihak belanda. Yang dilaksanakan TNI sejak hari ini adalah perintahsiasat Pamnglima Bsar yakni menyelenggarakan perang Gerilya Semesta yang diembani oleh Pemerinath militer.

Pada hari ini,sejak pagi Pemimpin Pemerintah Republik yanga da di yogya berkumpul fi istana dan bersidang dibawah pimpina presiden sukarno. sesudah sidangs elesai maka kepa da Sjagfruddin Prawiranegara SH,menteri kemakmuran, yang sedang berada di sumatera ,diberi kekuasaan oleh Presiden Sukarno untuk membentuk Pemerintahan darurat Republik Indonesia(PDRI) sui sumatra, mandat tersebut telah disampaikan melalu radio dan berbunyi sebagai berikut :

MANDAT PRESIDEN KEPADA SYAFRUDDIN PRAWIRANEGARA SH

Kami Presiden Republik Indonesia memberitahukan abhwa pada hari Minggu tanggal 19.12.1948 jqm 06.00 pagi belanda telah muali seranggannya atas ibukota Yogyakarta. Jika dalam keadaan Pemerintah tidak dapat menjalankan kewajibannnya lagi kami menguasakan kepada Mr Syafruddin Prawiranegara ,Menteri Kemakmuran Republik Indonesia untuk memebentuk pemerintah Republik Daruart di Sumatra.

Yogyakarta 19 Desembver 1948

Presiden Soekarno Wakil Presiden Hatta.

Selain mengeluarkan mandat tersebut diatas kepada Maramis SH,menteri Keuangan yang sedang berada diluar Megeri dan dr.Sudarmono di new Delhi sebagai berikut.

Prof. Dr Sudarmono,Plar, Mr Maramis.New delhi

Kami Presiden Republik Indonesia memebrikan bahwa pada hari minggu tanggal 19.12.1948 jam 06.00 pagi Belanda telah mulai serangannya atas Ibu Kota Yogjakarta. Jika ikhtiar Sjafruddin Prawira Negara SH untuk membentuk Pemerintah Darurat di sumatra tidak berhasil, kapada saudara-saudara dikuasakan untuk membentuk Exulle Gouvernmen Republik Indonesia di India. harap maklum hal ini berhubung dengan Sjafruddin di sumatra.jika hubungan tidak mungkin,harap diambil tindakan seperlunya

Yogjakarta 19 desember 1948

Wakil Presiden Moh Hatta _Menteri Luar negeri Agus Salim.

Demikian pula Presiden RI telah menyampaikan amanantnya sebagai berikut:

AMANAT PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA

Bangsaku Yang tercinta !!!

Pada hari ini tanggal 19 Desember 1948,pada jam 06.00 pagi

Belanda telah mulai dengan serangan atas kota Yogyakarta dan sekitarnya . dengan tindakan ini nyata bahwa Belands tealh memuali lagi perang kolonialnya untuk menghancurkan Pemerintah dan negara Republik Indonesia agar mereka dapat menjajah kembali seluruh tanah air dan bangsa Indonesia.

Setelah kita berbulan-bulan berusaha dengan segala ketulusan hati untuk menyelesaikan pertikaian denga nBelanda secara sekonyong-konyong mereka dengan tidak memebri tahu lebih dahulu mempergunakan alat senjata yang ada pada mereka untuk melakukan kehendak mereka dengan paksaaan dengan tidak mengindahkanadanya KTN di Yogyakarta, dengan tidak memperduluikan adanya perjanjian gencatan senjata, mereka telah meniadakan segala kemungkinan untuk mencapai penyeledsaian secara damaui.

Kami percaya,bahwa seluruh rakyat Indonesia maupun yang berada didaerah Republik ataupun yang berada didaerah yang diduduki Belanda serentak akan berdiri dibelakang republik Indonesia untuk menentang sengan segala tenaga dan batin yang ada pada kita tindakan yang melanggar    perikemanusiaan ini.

Kami mengetahui,bahwa dengan perbuatan senjata mereka, belanda mungkin akan dapat merebut dan menduduki beberapa tempat yang penting, akan tetapi tidak mungkin mereka dapat mematahkan semangat perjuangan kita atau mengurung =kan kemerdekaaan bangsa Indonesia yang tealh kita insyafkan dan pertahankan selama ini.

Kemerdekaan kita yang telah kita Proklamirkan pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 dan telah meresap pada jiwa kita,mustahil dapatr ditindas dengan kekerasan. Marilah bangsaku,kita pertahankan tanah air dan kemerdekaan kita dengan segala tenaga yang ada percayalah kemenangan pasti akan pada kita .Isja allah.

Yogyakarta,19 desember 1948

Presiden republik Indonesia

Sukarno

(d) DECEMBER, 19TH.1948

Master Tapanuli IN THE NETHERLANDS

DUTCH TO AGGRESSION – II

1) The Netherlands carried out the attack to Sibolga both from the Sea, Army and Air Sibolga and eventually fell into the hands of the Dutch Army, with the entry into the Dutch Army Dutch Army menghempang Sibolga for the MAS KADIRAN with MBK Tapanuli Forces based in Padang Sidempuan leading to the Bridge Trunk Toru, The Netherlands Army continued to advance to the Padang Sidempuan but in Batang Toru Bridge in the Dutch Army Forces Prevent by MBK, then there was a very fierce battle, with the assistance of the Dutch Army aircraft may eventually repelling forces MBK Tapanuli to P. Sidempuan.

2) After the Batang Toru grab the next in the Japanese Army bombed the city with two P. Sidempuan Force Aircraft and MAS Chairman MBK Tapanuli KADIRAN on the pull back to Penyabungan and some survive in Kampung Pijor Koling battle in Pijor Koling loss Padang Besar and finally Sidempuan fall into the hands of the Dutch Army.

ASSAULT regained SIDEMPUAN PADANG CITY

With the fall of the City of P. Sidempuan into the hands of the Dutch Army in Kampung Goti Defense held talks back to seize the city of Padang Sidempuan. So-I MMB Forces SUMATRA Forces Leadership and MBK Iptu Ibn Tapanuli KADIRAN and MAS Chairman Brigade FORCES CAPTAIN ROBINSON-B Leader Battle Hutapea held for 3 days in the City of P. Sidempuan and eventually can reclaim. After the city can seize P. Sidempuan Japanese Army retreated to the Batang Toru, but only 6 hours in control suddenly appear 2 Aircraft fired the city and attack back P. Sidempuan is getting help from Sibolga and ultimately the City P. Sidempuan can Movement controlled by another Dutch soldier in the Netherlands can no longer stand MBK Forces Tapanuli and MBB-I Sumatera and brigade-B Company and the Indonesian Navy continues to retreat from the village of Goti – Pijor Koling – Door to Kampung Padang Huraba and survive in the Village and Village Huraba Huraba called by FORT HURABA

During Operation Kraai,

a Dutch-led offensive on the city of Yogyakarta on 19 December 1948, Maria Ulfa santoso  husband was killed outside Maguwo.[1]

In the beginning of 1946

the basis of a new commando parachutist unit was formed by a part of the disbanded No2 (Dutch) Troop and the Korps Insulinde. The Depot Speciale Troepen (green berets), the School Opleiding Parachutisten (red berets), and later the 1st Parachutist company arose independently.

In 1948

 The Depot Speciale Troepen was renamed Korps Speciale Troepen. In those days these units executed a number of short missions against the Indonesian republicans and a large-scale operation at Celebes



DJOKJAKARTA
In December 1948, when the military and the political situation deteriorated drastically, the government ordered to conduct the second  Politional Action.

Aerial photo of Dutch parachutes and cargo planes at Maguwo Airport near Jogjakarta
after Dutch paratroopers and regular troops attacked the nationalist position there – December 19, 1948

 

On 19 December 1948

Dutch commando parachutists were the first, by launching a spectacular airborne operation, at the republican capital Djokjakarta. The entire Indonesian republican government, including President Soekarno, was captured.

19 December 1948
Second Police Action to capture Jogjakarta
 
IThe Dutch launched a second “police action”
that captured Jogjakarta on December 19, 1948
Sukarno, Hatta, and other republican leaders were arrested and
exiled to northern Sumatra on the island of Bangka.

 

(e)The Rice Coupon(Bon Beras0 Of The South sumatar republic gouvernment issue under orde GSS 19.12.48, the value of coupon 5 kg rice. ,sign by the command Colonel M.simbolon, look the coupon and  profile picture of Colonel M.Simbolon below.

 

 

 

December, 20th.1948

(1)Army executes Sjarifuddin, withdraws from Yogya.All of Indonesia except for Aceh and parts of Sumatra are under Dutch control. Guerilla warfare heats up; Soedirman leads guerilla war from sickbed.Many American newspapers publish editorials against the Dutch.

Pasukan TNI lagi mandi waktu jaman grilya

foto berikut ini adalah kesatuannya pak almarhum worang waktu bergrilya di jawa…

barisan kesatuannya pak worang setelah gencatan senjata antara indonesia dan belanda..

waktu jaman grilya, kerjaan mereka ngak berperang melulu… tapi kalau ada waktu main ping pong juga…

koleksi foto pak worang waktu jaman grilya di jawa 1946 sampai 1949…

foto ini waktu pasukan worang berada di ambon waktu penumpasan rms, latar belakang, kendaraan lapis baja belanda yang dilumpuhkan….

Foto foto ini saya ambil dari album keluarga worang di Fb…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2) Warna Warta Middle Java Newspaper info;

(a)

Top of Form

Authorities of the Republic of the Detained


On Sunday, December 19, 1948

 which plainly, the Imperial Army occupied the entire city of Jogjakarta, some authorities have detained terkemukapun Republic. They are President Sukarno, Vice President drs Moh.hatta, Foreign Minister Haji Agus Salim, Air Commodore Suryadarma, Advisor to the President Sutan Sjahrir, state secretary Mr. Pringgodigdo and several members of its chairman Mr KNIP diantaranya Asaat.

Time has imprisoned the next day head of the delegation Republuik Mr.Moh.Roem, advisor Dr Setiabudi and meneteri delegai Moh.Natsir Information. On the other hand there are the pictures loaded Prsediden Sukarno and other pemebesar. Front Keprseidenan Jogjakarta, with a Dutch officer.
Illustrations of the republic authorities who have been arrested in Djokja December 19, 1948.
(B) Movement Tenatara In Java, it can be said is complete, the most important cities occupied,
On Sunday, December 19, the last three hours of noon (PM), the whole town had been occupied Jogjakarta Imperial Army, occupied the next day Kaliurang and other places around Djokja. Motion carried on the other cleaning jurusanpun went smoothly. briefly mentioned herein may be the name of an important place in many areas already occupied.
In Central Java, selainya Djokja and Kaliurang, Lali, Solo, Klaten, Wonogiri and Sragen. Kedu tealh area occupied Parakan, Waterford, Wonosobo and Magelang. Mutara coastal areas of Java island has been occupied Pati, Holy, Rembnag, Purwodadi, Juana, Japara, Cepu, Bojonegoro, Tuban, Tripe and Blora. Dibagain south west of Central Java, can be called several places Banjarnegara, Kebumen and Purworejo. East has been occupied menjawa Wlingi, Turen, Dampit, Kepanjen, Blitar, Kediri, Magetan, Ngawi, Madison and Plossso. Area has been occupied setalh offerings take place rapidly once movement, attack, djasinga, Pandegelang, Rangkasbitung, Baja, Labuan and Menes.
In some places were Sumatra successive tururt been released, Chart Siapi-fire, Asahan, Bukittinggi, Tandjung long, Rantau Prapat, Balige, Kota Pinang, Pajakumbuh, Sibolga, and fort Sidikalang van der Capellen (Batusangkar). (Note Dr iwan: Tarutung not yet occupied)
Generally movements in the Javanese soldiers are finished, place the judging Tnetara kingdom now taken measures to secure for the state, so that the area was soon taking part in the prosperity with establishment efforts throughout Indonesia.
(C) His Majesty and the federal government Mangkunegara cooperation with Indonesia
Excellency’s wise and PK Surakarta Kangjeng Susuhunan Prince Mangkunegoro cooperation by holding meetings with civilian and military authorities of the Government of Indonesia Federaal Meanwhile, who was recently placed in Solo, has resumed taking over government and Mangkunegaran Kesunanan. rtentu wise decision that will help the ongoing government-regulated as soon as mungkin.karena ityu, then the distribution of dry goods will soon start DAPT, and actions that relieve the suffering of the people in Kasunanan and Mangkuneraran be taken as well.
(D) Word of Majesty Queen Juliana
Her Majesty Queen Juliana fulfill the word of the Queen Mother on December 7, 1942 the people of Indonesia. sri Majesty Queen of the Netherlands which now has mngesahkan Dutch royal charter the United States of Indonesia are now realizing a free and sovereign. Royal army brought peace and order to enable the implementation of the Word of the Queen Mother.
illustration of the Dutch royal crown since 8 September handed over to the Princess Juliana by her mother, in this picture with His Majesty Queen Juliana Prins Bernhard.
(E) Illustrations pasukaaan Group of the Dutch city of Solo, seen by the People.
(F) Prohibition of Weapons Store
To all the people dipermaklumkan military rule below, which come into force for the entire Central Java dadesrah: “According to the regulation of regional leaders and the Army Central Java, all the people who have no right to have firearms, ammunition, explosive items, and explosive items, there possibility of being shot to death in place, no longer use the trial.
Cardinal Justinus Darmojuwono in his first 78 write what Happens this week (last cardinal Archbishop-Jakarta)
Fhari week sbelum Christmas morning 1948
I ride a bicycle from residence in Ganjuran sauya menuniakan duty to Bantul to grazing.
 I am a little surprised to hear the sound keapal flying from the south and after seeing some great airplanes, I believe that the aircraft does not belong to the Republic of Indonesia, especially after bewberapa time bomb explosions sounded quite thrilling hai.
Arriving at the place, it turns out the people first and after the church ceremony verkumpul.Sebelum speaking they claim that the exercise is being conducted by the Air Force and Army of the Republic of Indonesia in Maguwo and Yogyakarta.
 They let me in his view, I purposely did not deny them, because memamng not know, but the heart does not believe in the truth of their opinions. Halted at noon, running the group after group of refugees from Yogyakarta with their goods to the South. Where to? shelter with relatives, acquaintances? Mostly without mengertti for sure, where are you going?
Apparently, the city of Yogyakarta was occupied by Dutch troops. Tense atmosphere of the people. Sense of fear, confused, khawatit, as if every time there will be invasion or attack from the enemy.
Within two to three orders membungi scorching sound harimsudah 2 sugar mills and buildings = buildings = f building that can be used as the headquarters of the Dutch army and at the same ORI money is no longer valid.

Pembesar Republik Yang Ditahan

Pada hari minggu tanggal 19 Desember yang lalau ,waktu Tentara Kerajaan menduduki seluruh kota Djokjakarta, maka beberapa pembesar Republik terkemukapun telah ditahan. Mereka itu ialah Presiden sukarno,Wakil Presiden drs Moh.hatta,menteri Luar negeri Haji agus salim, Komodor  udara Suryadarma,Penasehat Presiden Sutan sjahrir, sekretaris negara Mr. Pringgodigdo dan beberapa anggota KNIP dianataranya ketuanya Mr Asaat. Waktu keesokan harinya telah ditawan ketua delegasi Republuik Mr.Moh.Roem, penasehat delegai Dr Setiabudi dan meneteri Penerangan Moh.Natsir. Dilain bagian ada dimuat gambarnya Prsediden sukarno dan pemebesar lainnya .didepan Keprseidenan Djokjakarta,bersama seorang opsir belanda.

Illustrasi pembesar republik yang telah ditawan di Djokja 19 Desember 1948.

(b) Gerakan Tenatara Di Jawa dapat dikatakan selesai ,kota-kota terpenting diduduki,

Pada hari minggu tanggal 19 Desember yang lalu jam 3 lohor(PM), seluruh kota Djokjakarta telah diduduki Tentara Kerajaan , keesokan harinya menduduki Kaliurang dan lain-lain tempat disekitar Djokja. Gerakan pembersihan yang dilakukan dilain jurusanpun berlangsung lancar. secara singkat disini dapat disebutkan nama tempat yang penting saja diberbagai daerah yang sudah diduduki.

Di Jawa Tengah,selainya Djokja dan kaliurang, Lali,Solo,Klaten,Wonogiri dan Sragen. didaerah Kedu tealh diduduki Parakan,Temanggung,Wonosobo dan magelang. Didaerah pantai mutara pulau jawa telah diduduki Pati,Kudus,Rembnag,Purwodadi,juana,Japara,Cepu,Bojonegoro,Tuban, Babat dan Blora. Dibagain selatan barat dari jawa Tengah ,dapat disebut beberapa tempat Banjarnegara,Kebumen dan Purworejo. dijawa Timur telah diduduki Wlingi,Turen,Dampit,Kepanjen,blitar,Kediri,Magetan,Ngawi,Madiun dan Plossso. Daerah banten telah diduduki setalh berlangsung gerakan tjepat sekali, Serang,djasinga,Pandegelang, rangkasbitung,Baja,Labuan dan Menes.

Di Sumatera beberapa tempat pun berturut-tururt telah dibebaskan , Bagan siapi-api,Asahan,Bukittinggi,Tandjung panjang,Rantau Prapat,Balige,Kota Pinang,Pajakumbuh,Sibolga, sidikalang dan fort van der Capellen(Batusangkar).(catatan Dr iwan : Tarutung belum diduduki)

Umumnya gerakan tentara di jawa sudah selesai, ditempat yang ditilik Tnetara Kerajaan sekarang diambil tindakan buat mengamankan keadaan, supaya daerah itu lekas mengambil bagian dalam usaha pembanguna kemakmuran seluruh Indonesia.

(c)Susuhunan dan Mangkunegara kerjasama dengan Pemerintah federal Indonesia

Paduka yang bijaksana Kangjeng Susuhunan Surakarta dan P.K. Pangeran Mangkunegoro dengan mengadakan kerja sama yang rapat dengan pembesar militer dan sipil dari Pemerintahan Federaal Indonesia Sementara, yang baru-baru ini ditempatkan di Solo, telah memulai kembali mengambil pemerintahan atas Kesunanan dan mangkunegaran. keputusan yang bijaksana itu rtentu akan membantu berlangsungnya pemerintahan yang teratur dengan selekas mungkin.karena ityu, maka pembagian bahan pakaian akan segera dapt dimulai, dan tindakan yang meringankan penderitaan rakyat di Kasunanan dan Mangkuneraran akan diambil juga.

(d)Sabda Sri Baginda Ratu Juliana

Sri Baginda Ratu Juliana menunaikan sabda Ibu Suri pada tanggal 7 Desember 1942 pada rakyat Indonesia. sri Baginda Ratu Nederland yang sekarang telah mngesahkan anggaran dasar kerajaan belanda yang kini mewujudkan Negara Indonesia Serikat yang merdeka dan berdaulat. Tentara kerajaan datang membawa keamanan dan ketertiban untuk memungkinkan penyelenggaraan Sabda Ibu Suri.

illustrasi mahkota kerajaan belanda sejak 8 September diserahkan kepada Puteri Juliana oleh ibundanya,pada gambar ini seri baginda ratu juliana bersama prins Bernhard.

(e) Illustrasi Rombongan pasukaaan Belanda masuk kota Solo dilihat oleh Rakyat.

(f)Larangan Menyimpan Senjata

Kepada segenap penduduk dipermaklumkan peraturan militer dibawah ini,yang belaku untuk seluruh dadesrah Jawa Tengah: “Menurut peraturan dari Pemimpin Daerah serta Tentara Jawa Tengah,semua orang yang tiada berhak terdapat mempunyai senjata api,mesiu, barang yang mudah meledak, dan barang peledak, ada kemungkinan ditembak mati pada tempatnya,tiada pakai pemeriksaan pengadilan lagi.

JUstinus Kardinal Darmojuwono in 1 78 write what his happen this day(terakhir uskup Agung-kardinal Jakarta)

Fhari minggu pagi sbelum Natal 1948

saya naik sepeda dari tempat kediaman sauya di Ganjuran menuju Bantul untuk menuniakan tugas pengembalaan.

 Saya agak heran mendengar suara keapal terbang dari arah selatan dan setelah melihat beberapa kapal terbang besar, saya yakin bahwa kapal terbang tersebut bukan milik Republik Indonesia, apalagi sesudah bewberapa waktu terdengar ledakan-ledakan bom yang cukup mendebarkan hai.

Sampai di tempat, ternyata orang-orang mula verkumpul.Sebelum dan sesudah upacara gereja saat berbicara mereka menyatakan bahwa sedang diadakan latihan oleh Angkatan Udara dan Angkatan darat Republik Indonesia di Maguwo dan Yogjakarta.

 Mereka saya biarkan dalam pandangannya, saya sengaja tidak membantah mereka,karena memamng tidak tahu benar,tetapi dalam hati tidak percaya akan kebenaran pendapat mereka. Muali tengah hari, mengalir rombongan demi rombongan pengungsi dari Yogjakarta dengan barang-barangnya ke arah Selatan. Kemana? tempat saudara,kenalan? Kebanyakan tanpa mengertti secara pasti,mau kemana?

Ternyata,kota Yogjakarta diduduki oleh tentara Belanda. Suasana mencekam rakyat. Rasa ketakutan,binggung,khawatit, seolah-olah setiap saat akan ada serbuan atau serangan dari pihak musuh.

Dalam waktu dua tiga harimsudah terdengar perintah membungi hanguskan 2 pabrik gula dan gedung=gedung bangunan yang dapat f=dipergunakan pihak tentara Belanda sebagai markas dan sekaligus uang ORI tidak berlaku lagi.

December 22th 1948

(1)Nasution declares military government for Java.

92) On December,22th,1948 the PDRI Cabinet were built with the Java Commisariat.

UN is outraged at Dutch; Dutch attack while UN observers are at Kaliurang.

19 Asian countries boycott Dutch.

Dutch-chosen members of East Indonesia state government vote to condemn the “police action”.

USA suspends postwar aid to the Netherlands (Marshall Plan money) that is budgeted for military use in Indonesia.

December 23th.1948

Informasi from Justinus Kardinal Darmojuwono (ex kardinal Jakarta)

December 23th.1948

(a)On December 23, 1948, the Dutch warship fired on defense TNI / AD in Solok Kampung Tanjung Sea Muara Sabak subdistrict jambi . In this battle of teachers from the Army / Army Private Joseph and Private Amat. After the shootings in the Tanjung melakuakn Solok, Dutch troops landed in the village of the sea, while the soldiers landing, one of Sea Village community named santung attacking Dutch troops alone and can hurt one Dutch soldier and santung dibrondong automatic weapons and killed the scene.

Placement Forces For Guerrilla War

Bataliyon Jambi led by Major A. Marzuki prepare the transfer of command from the base of Coconut Gardens  City to Km 15  Tempino street , Rubber plantation sites Cottage Table (5 km from the highway)
Bataliyon Merangin led by Lieutenant Colonel Aaron Sohar is located in Muara Tembesi, placing his army consisting of:
In Kuala Tungkal placed a section of the Army by Lt. Commander A. Young Fattah Leside and one Detachment Commander Lieutenant CPM with Syamsul Bakhri Young and his deputy Sergeant Major A. Murad Alwi, in addition there is a unity with the Navy Commander, Sergeant Major. T. Anwar Shah

(b)Information from Justinus Cardinal Darmojuwono (ex cardinal Jakarta)

According to the schedule three days before Christmas, I still have to visit the Catholics in Brosot, Kulon Progo and I was scared too. I came home with 12 kg of rice free ride in the sack pillow, because I know that the hospital and the orphanage where I dwell / lodgings, food supplies running low sekalai. On the way home I saw clouds of smoke that floated to the top of the sugar mills Gisikan, 3 km from Ganjurab, and each followed by a thrilling blast. Home until the sugar factory was situated alongside Ganjuran Ruamh sick (hospital) has not been on earth hanguskan.masih in discussion.

December, 24th.1948

UN Security Council calls for end to hostilities..

24 December 1948
Sukarno taken hostage in Jogjakarta

24 December 1948. Sukarno taken hostage in Jogjakarta.

Sukarno Hatta taken hostage in Jogjakarta, after 2nd Police action
Exiled to Brastagi and then Prapat, from Prapat to the island of Bangka.
An emergency Republican government was established in western Sumatra
.

agresi militer ke 2 1948

Tentara belanda menginterogasi dan memeriksa para tawanan dari kereta api

Agresi militer belanda ke 2 1948 (jan de bruin ) Tentara belanda mengawasi daerah perbatasan antara jakarta dan jawa barat

stuart nya belanda jalan berdampingan dengan tram di jakarta

Tentara republik mengiterogasi mata2 belanda dengan todongan senapan

pesawat milik jepang di bom oleh serangan udara belanda 1946-19450

para pengungsi dikawal oleh tentara ned- indies setelah angresi militer ke II 1948

The ambonese KNil Dutch nica militer during Politional action at ambon in December 1948

Dalam perkembangannya terjadi pergantian pimpinan militer, Divisi X dirubah menjadi Divisi IV, dengan Panglimanya Mayor Jenderal Soetarto dan divisi ini dikenal dengan nama Divisi Panembahan Senopati, yang membawahi 5 Brigade tempur.

 Diantaranya Brigade V dibawah pimpinan Suadi dan mempunyai Batalyon XIV dibawah komando Mayor Slamet Rijadi, yang merupakan kesatuan militer yang dibanggakan. Pasukannya terkenal dengan sebutan anak buah “Pak Met”.

Selama agresi Belanda II,

 pasukannya sangat aktif melakukan serangan gerilya terhadap kedudukan militer Belanda, pertempuran demi pertempuran membuat sulit pasukan Belanda dalam menghadapi taktik gerilya yang dijalankan Slamet Rijadi.

Namanya mulai disebut-sebut karena hampir di-setiap peristiwa perlawanan di kota Solo selalu berada dalam komandonya.

.

Dalam palagan perang kemerdekaan II, Slamet Rijadi dinaikkan pangkatnya menjadi Letnan Kolonel, dengan jabatan baru Komandan “Wehrkreise I” (Panembahan Senopati )yang meliputi daerah gerilya Karesidenan Surakarta, dan dibawah komando Gubernur Militer II pada Divisi II, Kolonel Gatot Subroto.

Dalam perang kemerdekaan II

inilah Let.Kol. Slamet Rijadi, membuktikan kecakapannya sebagai prajurit yang tangguh dan sanggup mengimbangi kepiawaian komandan Belanda lulusan Sekolah Tinggi Militer di Breda Nederland. Siang dan malam anak buah Overste (setingkat Letnan Kolonel) J.H.M.U.L.E. van Ohl digempur habis-habisan, dengan penghadangan, penyergapan malam, dan sabotase. Puncaknya ketika Letkol. Slamet Rijadi mengambil prakarsa mengadakan “serangan umum kota Solo” yang dimulai tanggal 7 Agustus 1949, selama empat hari empat malam. Serangan itu membuktikan kepada Belanda, bahwa gerilya bukan saja mampu melakukan penyergapan atau sabotase, tetapi juga mampu melakukan serangan secara frontal ketengah kota Solo yang dipertahankan dengan pasukan kaveleri, persenjataan berat-artileri, pasukan infantri dan komando yang tangguh. Dalam pertempuran selama empat hari tersebut, 109 rumah penduduk porak poranda, 205 penduduk terbunuh karena aksi teror Belanda, 7 serdadu Belanda tertembak dan 3 orang tertawan sedangkan dipihak TNI 6 orang gugur.

Setelah terjadi gencatan senjata dan penyerahan kota Solo kepangkuan Republik Indonesia, Overste Van Ohl yang mewakili pihak Belanda demikian terharu begitu mengetahui bahwa Letkol. Slamet Rijadi—sebagai wakil pihak RI— yang selama ini dicari-carinya ternyata masih sangat muda. Ia dilaporkan berkata, ” Oooh … Overste tidak patut menjadi musuh-ku … Overste lebih pantas menjadi anakku, tetapi kepandaiannya seperti ayahku”.

December, 25th.1948

Information from JUstis Cardinal atmoyuwono:

Christmas day is celebrated as usual at midnight, I had never witnessed such celebration on the night ini.Gereja sekhidmat crowded, is not large, sesuana really touching, lighting of the candles are still available and kerosene lamps as far persediaaan permit. Christmas songs, which they had memorized, soar with the roundness of prayer, please safe from harm, which would come, but erratic. In light of the faint-crush coincide, if they unite seoalah BODY, BREATH, AND SOUL TOGETHER FOR SAFETY SAKE PRAY TOGETHER, A dilupakan.JIka memories are not easily remembered again, it’s palpable sense of concern, serene, thanks, oddly has been freed from feeling horrified, just compassion.

December 26th.1948

Justinus Cardinal atmoyuwono information from:

The next day the 26th of december, earth scorching the sugar mills with a fire in a haystack that has been placed on building the factory. really horrible. In general, tile roofed buildings that can not be burned to the ground, only that they call “scale, place of residence of the head of the factory, burned out, because the roof is made of shingle.

December, 27th.1948

Info from Justinus:

The next day halted early in the morning (early morning) while the fire still burning here and there, or at least smoldering, berdatabngan thousands of people, continuous, men, women, young people, children from all directions towards the mill that has been scorching the earth. The target of their sugar warehouse. They broke the door of the barn and took the sugar that is stored there. Some are carrying sacks of sugar carried satyu berdua.kenayakan with other tools, because it was too heavy to carry one bag at a time. who came running, which went with hasty steps. So many days to fill out the warehouse. Local authorities are powerless to set aside part of inventory. (Genesis sma according to a story that Mrs. Dr. Iwan, with an arsenal of the former ex-Japan, earth lift oleg Kongsi People in the back ground, nausea, left muala Gurka, the events of 1945-1946, later banned by tentra gurka ally, one day a folk terdengar4 temabkan who jumped on the fence kalikecil yard shot and fell dead house, look at the picture house in 1948 below)

In such circumstances, an accident would occur, and some even to death because of one sack of sugar falling yangb terjatuh.terus buried without any help. All search purposes pribadi.Sesudah sugar runs out, they began to empty space in the factory buildings: tables, chairs, scales and not ektinggalan doors, windows, boards of the remaining buildings, zinc. day and night the sound of demolition or zinc roofs, roof trusses, all disassembled, transported and finally dismantled so that the marble klantai penulutabn few days after the fire, the sugar mills have shown the ruins of a sad face. People mengalihakan term scorched Earth to earth lift.

After starting at the city of Yogyakarta was occupied and refugee flows, nuns Pimpina Hospitals and orphanage difficulties which are difficult to be solved is about food. ORI money is no longer acceptable by the public as a means of exchange, will dignati guilders mereka.Memang said patient is not much, but increasingly more patients victims of attacks, both from a layer of ordinary people and soldiers

original info:

Menurut jadwal tiga hari sebelum Natal,saya masih harus mengunjungi umat katolik di Brosot,Kulon Progo dan saya ketakutan juga. Saya pulang dengan membonceng beras 12 kg dalam karung bantal, sebab saya tahu bahwa Rumah sakit dan Panti asuhan dimana saya diam/mondok, persediaan makanan menipis sekalai. Pada perjalanan pulang saya saksikan kepulan asap yang mengalun ke atas dari arah pabrik gula Gisikan,3 km dari Ganjurab, dan masing diikuti ledakan yang mendebarkan. Sampai dirumah ternyata pabrik gula Ganjuran yang letaknya berdampingan dengan Ruamh sakit(hospital) belum dibumi hanguskan.masih dalam pembicaraaan.

December, 24th.1948

UN Security Council calls for end to hostilities.

December,25th.1948

Information from JUstis Kardinal atmoyuwono:

hari raya Natal dirayakan seperti biasa pada tengah malam, belum pernah saya menyaksikan perayaaan sekhidmat seperti pada malam ini.Gereja penuh sesak, memang tidak besar,sesuana mengharukan sungguh,penerangan dari lilin-lilin yang masih tersedia dan lampu minyak tanah sejauh persediaaan mengizinkan. Nyanyian Natal, yang mereka sudah hafal,melambung dengan kebulatan doa, mohon selamat dari bahaya, yang tentu datang,tetapi tidak menentu. Dalam terang samar-samar berhimpit-himpitan,seoalah-olah mereka mempersatukan bADAN,NAPAS, DAN JIWA UNTUK BERSAMA-SAMA BERDOA DEMI KESELAMATAN BERSAMA, Suatu kenangan yang tidak mudah dilupakan.JIka dikenang kembali,rasanya diraba rasa prihatin,syahdu,syukur,anehnya sudah terlepas dari rasa tercekam,tinggal keharuan.

December, 26th.1948

informasi dari Justinus Kardinal atmoyuwono:

hari berikutnya tanggal 26 desember,pabrik gula dibumi hanguskan dengan menyulut api pada tumpukan jerami yang sudah ditempatkan di gedung pabrik. mengerikan sungguh. Pada umumnya gedung gedung yang beratapkan genteng tidak dapat terbakar habis, hanya yang mereka namakan “besaran , tempat kediaman pimpinan pabrik,terbakar habis, karena atap dibuat dari sirap.

December ,27th.1948

Info from Justinus:

hari berikutnya muali pagi-pagi buta (early morning) selagi api disana-sini masih menyala, atau sekurang-kurangnya masih membara,berdatabngan ribuan orang, terus menerus,laki-laki,perempuan,muda mudi,anak kecil dari segala jurusan menuju ke pabrik yang sudah dibumi hanguskan. Yang menjadi sasaran mereka gudang gula. Mereka mendobrak pintu gudang dan mengambil gula yang disimpan disitu. Ada yang membawa satyu karung gula dipikul berdua.kenayakan dengan alat-alat lain, sebab terlalu berat untuk membawa satu karung sekaligus. yang datang berlarian, yang pergi dengan langkah tergesa-gesa. Demikian berhari-hari hingga isi gudang habis. Pemerintah setempat tidak berdaya untuk menyisihkan sebagian persediaan. (Kejadian yang sma menurut cerita Ibu Dr Iwan, dengan gudang bekas eks Jepang, dibumi angkat oleg Rakyat di belakang tanah Kongsi, mual-muala dibiarkan Gurka,kejadian tahun 1945-1946, kemudian dilarang oleh tentra gurka sekutu, suatu hari terdengar4 temabkan seorang rakyat yang meloncat di pagar rumah kalikecil tertembak dan jatuh meninggal dihalaman rumah,lihat gambar rumah tersebut tahun 1948 dibawah ini)

Dalam keadaan semacam itu,tentu terjadi suatu kecelakaan,bahkan ada yang sampai meninggal karena tertimpa satu karung gula yangb terjatuh.terus tertimbun tanpa ada pertolongan. Semua mencari keperluan pribadi.Sesudah gula habis,mulai mereka mengosongkan ruang di gedung pabrik: meja,kursi,timbangan dan tidak ektinggalan pintu,jendela,papan dari sisa bangunan,seng. siang malam terdengar suara pembongkaran atap atau seng,kerangka atap, semua dibongkar,diangkut dan akhirnya marmer klantai dibongkar sehingga beberapa hari sesudah penulutabn api, pabrik gula tersebut sudah memperlihatkan wajah reruntuhan yang menyedihkan. Orang mengalihakan istilah Bumi hangus kepada bumi angkat.

Sesudah mulai saat kota Yogya diduduki dan mengalir pengungsi,suster pimpina Rumah sakit dan Panti asuhan mengalami kesulitan yang sukar dipecahkan ialah soal bahan makanan. Uang ORI tidak diterima lagi oleh umum sebagai alat tukar, akan dignati gulden kata mereka.Memang pasien tidak banyak,tetapi makin hari makin tambah pasien korban serangan,baik dari lapisan rakyat biasa maupun dari tentara.

 

 

 

 

Dutch Nica boat Patrol In Djambi river in December 1948

 

 

In violation of the Renville agreement, on December 19, 1948,

the Dutch launched their second military aggression.

They invaded the Republic capital of Yogyakarta, arrested President Soekarno,

Vice-President Mohammad Hatta and other leaders, and detained them on the island of Bangka, off the east coast of Sumatra.

A caretaker Government, with headquarters in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, was set up under Syafruddin Prawiranegara.

 

 

 

 

 

 

December,29th.1948

CENTRAL SUMATRA
Ten days later,

on 29 December 1948,

 this event was followed by parachuting the battle group over Sumatra and the conquest of the oilfields near Djambi.

On 5 January 1949

 another hazardous airborne operation was carried out on the oilfields near Rengat and Ajer Molek at Sumatra. These three airborne operations took place in less than three weeks by the same red and green berets of this battle group.

For the last time, on 10 March 1949,

the battle group was parachuted over Gading, south-east of Djokjakarta on 27 December 1949.
The political situation changed resulting in the transfer of sovereignty to the Federal Republic of Indonesia.

In the spring of 1950 part of the soldiers demobilize in Indonesia. The other part returned to the Netherlands.

 

December 31,1948

Dutch accept UN call for ceasefire in Java.

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indonesia Independence Revolution and War’s Postal and Document History Collections 1949

 


 

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book Exhibition

 

 

 

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR

part V 1949

Base On  Postal And Document Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy,2011

 

The Driwan’s Indonesia Independence Revolution And War  Cybermuseum

Indonesia Independence Revolution And War Collection part V in 1949

 

 

 

 

 

A.PROLOG

1. Markas Komando Djawa 1948-1949

k

Abdul Haris Nasution Kol.TNI beliefs (the last of the Five-Star Bigger General) that the soldiers who do not have the support of the people must be defeated.
In the Revolution of Independence I (1946-1948), when leading Siliwangi Division, Pak Nas pulled the second lesson. People supporting the TNI. From this was born the idea of guerrilla warfare as a form of people’s war. Method of warfare is freely developed after Pak Nas became Commander of Java in the Revolution of Independence II (1948-1949).

original info in Indonesian language:

Keyakinan Kol.TNI Abdul Haris Nasution (terakhir Jendral besar Bintang Lima)  bahwa tentara yang tidak mendapat dukungan rakyat pasti kalah.
Dalam Revolusi Kemerdekaan I (1946-1948), ketika memimpin Divisi Siliwangi, Pak Nas menarik pelajaran kedua. Rakyat mendukung TNI. Dari sini lahir gagasannya tentang perang gerilya sebagai bentuk perang rakyat. Metode perang ini dengan leluasa dikembangkannya setelah Pak Nas menjadi

Panglima Komando Jawa dalam masa Revolusi Kemerdekaan II (1948-1949).

look the cover of vintage book “Markas Komando Djawa “(Java Command Headquaters)

2.The Indonesian East Sumatra  National Police(POLRI) 1949


MAS KADIRAN

Mobile Brigade residency Tapanuli In militarization

1) Based on the assessment board of the Regional Defence Forces Tapanuli Mobile Brigade in Militerisasikan be KERESIDNENAN Tapanuli IV Battalion Regiment Brigade XI Tapanuli I TRI and MAS KADIRAN became Battalion Commander IV-I TRI Brigade Regiment with the rank XI MAJOR TRI (Army of the Republic of Indonesia) by the number of troops as much as 380 people complete with weapons including Heavy Weapons (cannon) and the Panzer Wagon Lezonik with Ammunition and Weapons and ammunition reserves.

2) With the Militerisasikan MBK Tapanuli be YON IV MEN I TRI Brig XI under the Tactical Commander Brigade Regiment I Tapanuli XI MAJOR Panggabean and Technical MARADEN under Chief Residency Tapanuli.

k. MBK / YON IV MEN – I Brig XI Tapanuli IN muster to Parapat

1) Dutch aggression in East Sumatra expanding cities in Sumatra in the East was controlled by the Dutch and the Dutch would extend their area by going to the area Parapat. Based on the Regional Defense Command Council Tapanuli and MEN-I Commander Brig IV MAJOR Tapanuli MARADEN Panggabean order Yon IV Force Brig XI MEN-I leave for Parapat Dutch troops to hold its speed of movement. Based on the MAS command KADIRAN with troops depart to Parapat.

2) On arrival in Parapat KADIRAN MAS Coordination with the Force held the Third Regiment under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Tapanuli Siahaan Jansen and the coordination is in agree that MAS KADIRAN as BATTLE COMMANDERS in Parapat to stem the movement of the Dutch troops. Forces MBK / YON – IV MEN – MEN I and members – aided III Society makes Defense Barricades arranged in a big way from AEK Nauli to Parapat and conduct reconnaissance and Pos-Pos Defense in Relay from AEK Nauli to Parapat

3) On day 15 in Parapat obtained news from investigators that the Dutch troops were 15 km from Aek Nauli, the troops under the command MAS KADIRAN ready to fight by way of ambush and destruction in Aek Nauli, at 03.00.Wib all Troops ready in Aek Nauli and at 05.00.Wib pass-Battle fierce battle in a big way Aek Nauli – Parapat.

4) At 10.00.Wib appear 2 Aircraft by firing on the Dutch Defense – defense and an important place in Parapat, the emergence of two Dutch-owned Aircraft Defense Forces opened fire on a split MAS KADIRAN resulting Blind Defense Forces become fragmented and MAS KADIRAN ordered his troops to retreat to Parapat. In this battle forces suffered many losses KADIRAN MAS.

5) Within 21 days Forces MBK / YON IV MEN – I Tapanuli KADIRAN MAS leader, top PerintahDewan Defense and Commander of the Regiment – I IX Brigade Troops Tapanuli to MBK Tapanuli / YON IV MEN – I Brig XI returned to the Parent Unit in Sibolga and Parapat Area Commander in the hand over to the MAJOR LEBERTY terimakan Malau in Parapat.

l. ESTABLISHMENT OF MOBILE Brigade – I SUMATRA AND MOBILE Brigade Tapanuli SOUTH

1) Based on the warrant of the Branch Bureau of the Republic of Indonesia National Police Mobile Brigade was formed for the Great Sumatra – Sumatra (Aceh and East Sumatra – Tapanuli) and designated as Pimpinanya POLICE INSPECTOR CLASS – I SUMATRA Humala Silalahi with the position and is headquartered in the School of Agriculture Sibarani Video Boti and by the Command Chief of Police Residency Tapanuli in the form of Mobile Brigade Tapanuli SOUTH and designate as chairman POLICE INSPECTOR Ibn based in Padang Sidempuan.

m. BATTLE MBB – I SUMATRA TO Legion PENGGEMPUR

1) When Using MAJOR GENERAL Suparto in Tarutung to Briefings on the Residency in Tapanuli Forces which was attended by COLONEL Siahaan Jansen, MARADEN Panggabean MAJOR, MAJOR MAJOR Bejo and MAS KADIRAN. at the hearing that there was fighting between troops MBB-Sumatra with Legion forces on the track Penggempur Boti, COLONEL Siahaan Jansen as a responsible regional security in Toba asked MAJOR MARADEN Panggabean and MAS KADIRAN and MAJOR Bejo for review to the Field.

2) Arriving at the song Boti into four commanders met Humala Silalahi MBB-I Chief of Sumatra, from the explanation POLICE INSPECTOR Humala Silalahi that legions PENGGEMPUR successfully disarmed troops Armament-Sumatra MBB, MBB troops heard this – I do Assault precedes Sumatra. Hearing this explanation then COLONEL Siahaan Jansen as Regiment Commander – Brigade III – XI Tapanuli, ask MARADEN Panggabean MAJOR, MAJOR MAJOR MAS KADIRAN Bejo and to take precautions.

3) With the approval of the 3 Commander, then on Apply Tapanuli troops to secure the area, then there was fighting in Sibolga, Tarutung, songs Boti, Porsea, until the Border Labuhan Batu, OLD MOUNTAIN, CITY LONG LINGGA Pinang. Finally, with the Wisdom of the Government of Indonesia Tapanuli, Chairman-chairman and Chairman of the Peoples Party in Tarutung, then there was peace in Pangaribuan to stop the fighting by both sides because Indonesia only harm and benefit the nation the Netherlands, with the result that the talks are not mutually agree to end strike each of the forces in drag to the parent Its units, troops MBB Tapanuli in Drag to Padang Sidempuan.

n. The Tapanuli Brothers ‘s War

1) Some months duration Tapanuli area free of distractions Battle of the armed movement, but movement of the Dutch troops who are in Parapat not cease to infiltration by Divide and Conquer between the People by the People, the Army Forces, all the more so where the Force Commander has been no readiness so often drawn to the pitting, especially after the gathering of forces-forces of East Sumatra in Tapanuli, so that the number of troops in Tapanuli the friction between troops is very possible.

1) So that was happening in Tapanuli of the strongest forces of East Sumatra was at loggerheads in Tapanuli, one party is in force Unity Bull Lead by the MAJOR L. Malau and one more party-B Forces Brigade and the Brigade Leaders MAJOR Bejo-A led by Saragih ROS Two troops of the East Sumatra in Tapanuli berselih understand, so that the combined strength of weapons including XI Brigade became broken and each brings their way individual and eventually attack the Dormitory BATALIYON Brigade – XI in Padang Sidempuan. In this case his Battalion Commander Dies

2) With the crisis MAS KADIRAN MBK Chief Commissioner KLS I Tapanuli and M. Nurdin To Police Resident Resident Tapanuli in calling facing Tapanuli Dr. F.L. TOBING in the talks that Chief MBK Tapanuli MAS KADIRAN firmly take the road side with brigade-B in South Tapanuli and MAS KADIRAN appealed to Chief Resident Tapanuli Dr.FLTOBING to bring his troops into the field Sidempuan to avoid clashes between the Brigade – A and brigades – B.

3) The battle between the forces and Bull Brigade – B occurs which began STEM Toru, Pandaan and arrived in Sibolga, after many casualties the two armies finally entered into negotiations in Sibolga which was attended by Dr. VICE PRESIDENT. Mohd. HATTA. Completed negotiations then Brigade – B led MAJOR Bejo, supported by MAS KADIRAN back to South Tapanuli Bull Forces Leadership and L. Tapanuli Malau to North and Central Tapanuli be submitted to the brigade and Army XI Tapanuli Navy Indonesia

Weigh SOVEREIGNTY AND RECEIVED BY DUTCH POLICE

In residency Tapanuli

1) Under the command of Police Chief of North Sumatra, in order to prepare troops MAS KADIRAN MBB-I-Aceh, North Sumatra Police to handover the Netherlands to the Indonesian police, with the news of the Joint Officer CAPTAIN IBRAHIM HAJI, on the appointed day the North Sumatra Police chief Mr Darwin Karim and Mas Kadiran with 2 Company MBB-I-Aceh, North Sumatra and 1 Battalion – B Mursalin Tello leaders went to Padang Sidempuan to weigh thank the Dutch police, from Padang Sidempuan continued to Sibolga and Tarutung, Weigh accept walk safely, orderly and smooth .

2) While the time to wait for orders received in the weigh in East Sumatra, North Sumatra Police chief Adjunct Senior Commissioner then DARWIN KARIM live in Sibolga with Staff-staff to take care of everything for Police Police stations have received throughout the South Tapanuli, Mas Kadiran ordered Company – C towards Sibolga Go to Company D and P. Sidempuan, Staff Member MBB-I-Aceh, North Sumatra in order to join the Mas Kadiran Sibolga. While Company A and B remain in Balige to wait for the next command into the East Sumatra to Weigh received by the Dutch Police.

V. Weigh THANK THE POLICE

DUTCH IN EASTERN SUMATRA

By Order Police chief Comr for Sumatra Mr. Commandments UMAR SAID and North Sumatra Police Chief to enter into eastern Sumatra to conduct weigh thank the Dutch National Police, on the day that has been set by two men of Mas Kadiran in Balige. Hanafi Commander and went to Sumatra, West Sumatra MBB East Regional division of MBB-Sumatra-Aceh leader Mas Kadiran do weigh receive in P, Siantar, high cliffs danMedansedangkan MBB-II Sunar do weigh received in Tanjung Balai and Rantau Prapat.

 

 

 

original info in Indonesia language:

MOBILE BRIGADE KERESIDENAN TAPANULI DI MILITERISASI

1) Berdasarkan Ketetapan dewan Pertahanan Daerah Tapanuli Pasukan MOBILE BRIGADE KERESIDNENAN TAPANULI di Militerisasikan menjadi BATALYON IV RESIMEN I TRI BRIGADE XI TAPANULI dan MAS KADIRAN menjadi KOMANDAN BATALYON IV RESIMEN-I TRI BRIGADE XI dengan Pangkat MAYOR TRI (Tentara Republik Indonesia ) dengan jumlah Pasukan sebanyak 380 orang lengkap dengan senjatanya termasuk Senjata Berat (Meriam) dan Panser Wagon Lezonik dengan Amunisi serta Cadangan Senjata dan Amunisi.

2) Dengan di Militerisasikan MBK Tapanuli menjadi YON IV MEN I TRI BRIG XI secara Taktis di bawah Komandan Resimen I BRIGADE XI Tapanuli MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN dan Tehnis di bawah Kepala Polisi Keresidenan Tapanuli.

k. MBK / YON IV MEN – I BRIG XI TAPANULI DI KERAHKAN KE PARAPAT

1) Agresi Belanda di Sumatera Timur semakin luas Kota –kota di Sumatera Timur sudah di kuasai oleh Belanda dan Belanda akan meluaskan daerahnya dengan menuju daerah PARAPAT. Berdasarkan Perintah Dewan Pertahanan Daerah Tapanuli dan Komandan MEN-I BRIG IV TAPANULI MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN agar Pasukan Yon IV MEN-I BRIG XI berangkat menuju Parapat menahan gerak lajunya Pasukan Belanda. Berdasarkan perintah tersebut MAS KADIRAN dengan Pasukannya berangkat ke Parapat.

2) Setibanya di Parapat MAS KADIRAN mengadakan Koordinasi dengan Pasukan RESIMEN III TAPANULI dibawah Komando LETKOL JANSEN SIAHAAN dan dalam Koordinasi ini di sepakati bahwa MAS KADIRAN sebagai KOMANDAN PERTEMPURAN di Parapat guna membendung gerak Pasukan Belanda. Pasukan MBK / YON – IV MEN – I dan Anggota MEN – III dibantu Masyarakat membuat Pertahanan Barikade di jalan besar yang disusun dari AEK NAULI sampai PARAPAT dan mengadakan Pos-Pos pengintaian dan Pertahanan secara Estafet dari AEK NAULI sampai PARAPAT

3) Pada hari ke 15 di Parapat didapat berita dari penyelidik bahwa Pasukan Belanda sudah berada 15 Km dari Aek Nauli, maka Pasukan yang berada di bawah Komando MAS KADIRAN siap untuk melawan dengan cara Penghadangan dan Penghancuran di Aek Nauli, pada pukul 03.00.Wib seluruh Pasukan sudah siap di Aek Nauli dan pada pukul 05.00.Wib terjadilah Pertempuran –Pertempuran yang sengit di jalan besar Aek Nauli – Parapat.

4) Pukul 10.00.Wib muncul 2 Pesawat Terbang Belanda dengan menembaki Pertahanan – pertahanan dan tempat penting di Parapat, munculnya 2 Pesawat Terbang milik Belanda menembaki Pertahanan Pasukan MAS KADIRAN secara membagi Buta sehingga mengakibatkan Pertahanan Pasukan menjadi terpecah dan MAS KADIRAN memerintahkan Pasukannya untuk mundur ke Parapat. Dalam Pertempuran ini Pasukan MAS KADIRAN mengalami banyak kerugian.

5) Dalam waktu 21 hari lamanya Pasukan MBK / YON IV MEN – I Tapanuli Pimpinan MAS KADIRAN, atas PerintahDewan Pertahanan dan Komandan Resimen – I BRIGADE IX Tapanuli agar Pasukan MBK Tapanuli / YON IV MEN – I BRIG XI kembali ke Induk Satuan di Sibolga dan Komandan Parapat Area di serah terimakan kepada MAYOR LEBERTY MALAU di Parapat.

l. PEMBENTUKAN MOBILE BRIGADE BESAR – I SUMATERA DAN MOBILE BRIGADE KABUPATEN TAPANULI SELATAN

1) Berdasarkan Surat Perintah dari Cabang Jawatan Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia untuk Sumatera dibentuk Mobile Brigade Besar – I Sumatera (Aceh-Sumatera Timur – Tapanuli ) dan ditunjuk sebagai Pimpinanya INSPEKTUR POLISI KELAS – I SUMATERA HUMALA SILALAHI dengan kedudukan dan bermarkas di Sekolah Pertanian Sibarani Lagu Boti dan berdasarkan Perintah Kepala Kepolisian Keresidenan Tapanuli di bentuk MOBILE BRIGADE KABUPATEN TAPANULI SELATAN dan di tunjuk sebagai pimpinannya INSPEKTUR POLISI IBNU berkedudukan di Padang Sidempuan.

m. PERTEMPURAN MBB – I SUMATERA DENGAN LEGIUN PENGGEMPUR

1) Pada Saat MAYOR JENDERAL SUPARTO berada di Tarutung untuk melakukan Brifing terhadap Pasukan Keresidenan di Tapanuli yang di hadiri oleh KOLONEL JANSEN SIAHAAN, MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN, MAYOR BEJO dan MAYOR MAS KADIRAN. di dengar bahwa terjadi Pertempuran antara Pasukan MBB-I Sumatera dengan Pasukan Legiun Penggempur di LAGU BOTI, KOLONEL JANSEN SIAHAAN selaku penanggung jawab Kemananan di Daerah Toba meminta kepada MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN dan MAS KADIRAN serta MAYOR BEJO untuk meninjau ke Lapangan.

2) Sesampainya di Lagu Boti ke 4 Komandan ini menemui HUMALA SILALAHI Kepala MBB- I Sumatera, dari penjelasan INSPEKTUR POLISI HUMALA SILALAHI bahwa LEGIUN PENGGEMPUR berhasil melucuti Persenjataan Pasukan MBB- I Sumatera, mendengar hal ini Pasukan MBB – I Sumatera mendahului melakukan Penyerangan. Mendengar penjelasan ini maka KOLONEL JANSEN SIAHAAN sebagai KOMANDAN RESIMEN – III BRIGADE – XI TAPANULI, meminta kepada MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN, MAYOR BEJO dan MAYOR MAS KADIRAN untuk mengambil tindakan pengamanan.

3) Dengan adanya persetujuan dari ke 3 Komandan, maka di kerahkanlah Pasukan untuk mengamankan daerah Tapanuli, maka terjadilah pertempuran di SIBOLGA, TARUTUNG, LAGU BOTI, PORSEA, sampai dengan ke Perbatasan LABUHAN BATU, GUNUNG TUA, LINGGA PANJANG KOTA PINANG. Akhirnya dengan Kebijaksanaan Pemerintah RI Tapanuli, Ketua-ketua partai dan Ketua Adat di Tarutung, maka terjadilah Perdamaian di PANGARIBUAN untuk menghentikan Pertempuran oleh kedua pihak karena hanya merugikan Bangsa Indonesia dan menguntungkan pihak Belanda saja, dengan hasil Perundingan itu di sepakati untuk tidak saling menyerang akhirnya masing-masing Pasukan di tarik ke induk Satuannya, pasukan MBB Tapanuli di Tarik ke Padang Sidempuan.

 

 

n. PERANG SAUDARA DI TAPANULI

1) Beberapa Bulan lamanya daerah Tapanuli bebas dari gangguan gerakan Pertempuran bersenjata, tetapi gerakan tentara Belanda yang berada di Parapat tidak henti-hentinya melakukan Infiltrasi dengan Politik Adu Domba antara Rakyat dengan Rakyat, Pasukan dengan Pasukan, terlebih–lebih dimana Komandan Pasukan belum ada kesiapan sehingga sering terpancing untuk di adu domba, apalagi setelah berkumpulnya Pasukan-Pasukan dari Sumatera Timur di Tapanuli, sehingga dengan banyaknya Pasukan di Tapanuli maka gesekan-gesekan antar Pasukan sangat mungkin terjadi.

1) Demikian yang terjadi di Tapanuli dari Pasukan yang terkuat dari Sumatera Timur tersebut berselisih paham di tapanuli, satu pihak pasukan Kesatuan Banteng yang di Pimpin oleh MAYOR L. MALAU dan satu pihak lagi Pasukan BRIGADE-B Pimpinan MAYOR BEJO dan BRIGADE-A yang di pimpin oleh SARAGIH ROS Dua Pasukan dari Sumatera Timur tersebut berselih paham di Tapanuli, sehingga gabungan Kekuatan Senjata yang termasuk BRIGADE XI menjadi pecah dan masing-masing membawa jalannya masing-masing dan akhirnya terjadi Penyerangan ke Asrama BATALIYON BRIGADE – XI di Padang Sidempuan. Dalam hal ini Komandan Batalyon nya Meninggal Dunia

2) Dengan adanya krisis tersebut MAS KADIRAN Kepala MBK Tapanuli dan KOMPOL KLS I M. NURDIN Kepada Polisi Residen Tapanuli di panggil menghadap Residen Tapanuli Dr. F.L. TOBING dalam pembicaraan itu Kepala MBK Tapanuli MAS KADIRAN dengan tegas mengambil jalan memihak BRIGADE-B di Tapanuli Selatan dan MAS KADIRAN memohon kepada Kepala Residen Tapanuli Dr.F.L.TOBING untuk membawa Pasukannya ke Padang Sidempuan untuk mengindari Bentrokan antara BRIGADE – A dan BRIGADE – B.

3) Pertempuran antara Pasukan Banteng dan Brigade – B terjadi dimana mulai BATANG TORU, PANDAAN dan sampai di SIBOLGA, setelah banyak memakan korban akhirnya kedua pasukan mengadakan Perundingan di Sibolga yang di hadiri oleh WAKIL PRESIDEN Dr. MOHD. HATTA. Selesai perundingan maka BRIGADE – B di pimpin MAYOR BEJO yang di dukung oleh MAS KADIRAN kembali ke Tapanuli Selatan dan Pasukan Banteng Pimpinan L. MALAU ke Tapanuli Utara dan Tapanuli Tengah di serahkan kepada BRIGADE XI TAPANULI dan Pasukan Angkatan Laut Indonesia

KEDAULATAN DAN TIMBANG TERIMA DENGAN KEPOLISIAN BELANDA

DI KERESIDENAN TAPANULI

1) Berdasarkan Perintah Kepala Kepolisian Sumatera Utara, MAS KADIRAN agar mempersiapkan Pasukan MBB-I Sumut-Aceh untuk serah terima Kepolisian Belanda kepada Kepolisian Indonesia, dengan adanya berita dari Joint Officer KAPTEN IBRAHIM HAJI, pada hari yang sudah ditentukan maka kepala Kepolisian Sumut Bapak Darwin Karim dan Mas Kadiran dengan 2 Kompi MBB-I Sumut-Aceh dan 1 Batalyon – B pimpinan MURSALIN TELLO berangkat ke Padang Sidempuan untuk timbang terima dengan Kepolisian Belanda, dari Padang Sidempuan dilanjutkan ke Sibolga dan Tarutung, Timbang terima berjalan dengan aman, tertib dan lancar.

2) Sementara waktu untuk menunggu perintah dalam timbang terima di Sumatera Timur, maka Kepala Kepolisian Sumut AKBP DARWIN KARIM tinggal di Sibolga bersama Staf-stafnya untuk mengurus segala sesuatu untuk Kepolisian timbang terima Kepolisian diseluruh Tapanuli Selatan, Mas Kadiran memerintahkan Kompi – C untuk menuju Sibolga dan Kompi D Menuju ke P.Sidempuan, Anggota Staf MBB-I Sumut-Aceh agar menuju Sibolga bergabung dengan Mas Kadiran. Sedangkan Kompi A dan B tetap tinggal di Balige untuk menunggu Perintah selanjutnya masuk ke Sumatera Timur untuk Timbang terima dengan Kepolisian Belanda.

V. TIMBANG TERIMA DENGAN KEPOLISIAN

BELANDA DI SUMATERA TIMUR

Atas Perintah Kepala Kepolisian untuk Sumatera Bapak KOMBES POL UMAR SAID dan Perintah Kepala Kepolisian Sumatera Utara agar masuk kedalam Sumatera Timur untuk mengadakan timbang terima dengan Kepolisian Belanda, pada hari yang sudah di tentukan Mas Kadiran dengan dua Kompi yang berada di Balige. dan Hanafi Komandan MBB Sumbar berangkat ke Sumatera Timur dengan pembagian Daerah MBB-I Sumatera-Aceh Pimpinan Mas Kadiran melakukan timbang terima di P,Siantar, Tebing tinggi danMedansedangkan MBB-II Sunar melakukan timbang terima di Tanjung Balai dan Rantau Prapat.

 

 

Dr Anas from Pajakoemboeh West Sumatra Pro Dutch Nica

MUNGKIN tidak banyak sejarawan Sumatra Barat yang mengetahui biografi dr. Anas, terutama yang terkait dengan peran politiknya selama masa Pemerintah Darurat Republik Indonesia (PDRI) di Sumatra Barat. Di masa PDRI, dr. Anas, yang tinggal di Payakumbuh (rumahnya dekat Gereja), dianggap sebagai ‘orang NICA’.

Audrey Kahin (2005 [versi terjemahan]:186) menyebut-nyebut nama dr. Anas sebagai salah seorang yang diculik oleh kelompok-kelompok nasionalis di Sumatra Barat yang anti Perjanjian Renville dan yang ingin mengkudeta pemerintahan Residen Rasyid.

 ‘Peristiwa 3 Maret [1947]’ itu –

 demikian sering disebut – digerakkan oleh beberapa tokoh dari partai Islam dan Adat yang antara lain dipimpin oleh Saalah St. Mangkuto. Orang seperti dr. Anas yang disebut sebagai ‘pegawai tiga zaman’ menjadi sasaran kebencian rakyat pasca Perjanjian Renville. Banyak di antara mereka yang dikait-kaitkan pula dengan ‘Singkarak Charter’, yaitu rencana pendirian Negara Boneka Minangkabau oleh Belanda.

Ada pula yang mengait-ngaitkan dr. Anas dengan Peristiwa Situjuah yang menewaskan 69 orang republiken. (lihat al.: Sjamsir Djohary,

Peristiwa Situdjuh (15 Djanuari 1949)’

[Skripsi IKIP Padang, 1971]). Ia dikait-kaitkan dengan Letnan Kamaluddin alias Tambiluak yang dituduh sebagai pengkhianat bangsa, yang membocorkan pertemuan pemimpin-pemimpin PDRI Wilayah Sumatera Tengah kepada pihak Belanda. Saksi-saksi mata mengatakan bahwa Tambiluak alias Kamaluddin, salah seorang mantan pemain sepakbola andalan dari ‘Elftal’ Club Horizon, adalah seorang tukang cukur pada ‘Sutan Karajaan Barbier’ di Payakumbuh yang salah seorang pelanggan setianya adalah dr. Anas. Namun, menurut Audrey Kahin, opcit.:219) tak ada bukti kuat yang menunjukkan bahwa Tambiluak terlibat dalam pembocoran rapat rahasia para petinggi PDRI di Situjuah kepada Belanda.

Belum dapat diketahui secara pasti kapan dr. Anas lahir, tapi sangat mungkin tahun 1908 atau sesudahnya. Data yang kami ketahui mengenai biografinya juga masih fragmentaris. Fajar Rillah Vesky yang mewawancarai keluarga dr. Anas di Payakumbuh mengatakan bahwa dr. Anas dan istrinya berasal dari Kotogadang. Ibunya bernama Jamilah dan ayahnya berdarah Jawa, namanya Atmo Wisastro yang konon masih termasuk trah Sultan Hamengku Buwono 1. Di rumahnya di Payakumbuh pernah menginap Bung Hatta, Rosihan Anwar, dan Abdul Muis. Pengarang roman SalahAsuhan itu adalah ipar kontan dr. Anas karena mengawini kakaknya, Nuriah, yang mati muda. Salah seorang sahabat dr. Anas adalah Prof. Dr. Amir Hakim Usman, linguis Unand dan UNP yang meninggal tahun 2006.

Audrey Kahin dalam ‘Strugle for Indpendence: West Sumatra in the Indonesiaan national revolution 1945- 1950 (PhD thesis Cornell University, 1970:296) mencatat bahwa dr. Anas pernah mendapatkan training masalah kesehatan di Belanda. Yang jelas, dr. Anas dan istrinya, Djoeasa Anas, telah hijrah ke Belanda menyusul gagalnya aksi polisionil Belanda yang hendak merebut kembali Indonesia tahun 1947. Tampaknya dia punya seorang anak angkat yang bernama Nadia Anas. Tahun 1966 Nadia menikah di Den Haag dengan R. Budi Hartono yang keturunan Indonesia. Tampaknya dr. Anas dan istrinya sudah meningal di Belanda. Tapi saya belum menemukan tarikh meninggal mereka.

Foto-foto keluarga dr. Anas, termasuk foto ini, telah diserahkan ke KITLV Leiden. Foto ini (10 x 14 cm.) diambil waktu resepsi pernikahan Nadia Anas dengan R. Budi Hartono di Den Haag pada bulan Maret 1966. (Akad nikah diadakan pada hari Senin, 4 April jam 9:00 pagi di Balaikota Den Haag, Burg. De Monchyplein). Sebelum sampai di KITLV Leiden, foto ini dikoleksi oleh Antiquariat Minerva, Den Haag. Perempuan yang berkebaya dan berselendang yang duduk itu adalah Ibu Djoesa Anas, dan pria berkacamata dan memakai jas yang duduk di sebelahnya adalah dr. Anas, suaminya.

Fajar mengatakan bahwa konon dr. Anas meninggalkan testamen di Belanda, yang diminta jemput kepada kemenakannya, Dr. Johar. Sayang sekali Dr. Johar telah meninggal pula sebelum sempat menjemput testamen itu ke Belanda. Jika testamen itu memang ada dan dapat ditemukan, mungkin akan dapat diketahui kenapa dr. Anas memilih pro Belanda. Kisah hidup orang-orang Minang yang pro Belanda seperti dr. Anas masih belum banyak terungkap dalam sejarah Minangkabau

 

B.CHRONOLOGY HISTORIC COLLECTION 1949

 

JANUARY 1949

 

Julius Kardinal information article(1978)

at the early January 1949(Pada permulaan bulan januari 1949,)

Bantul regency capital city, 6 km from Ganjuran, Army occupied the Netherlands. makinmencekam atmosphere bai population. At lunch time there was a sudden often datanganya Dutch soldiers, all panicked, ran to evacuate, although most are not true and at night came the attacks of the Parties to the TNI. One morning I received a report from the hospital kitchen that supplies of fuel wood is almost gone. At about 9:00 I was with a young man riding a bike into the village behind the hospital to look for firewood. Apparently the village was deserted, the people already displaced. Fortunately, the intended father’s family home and tend to have quite a lot of firewood supply and willing to help. unfinished pembuicaraan how far the transportation of the eruption sounded, followed by the hiss and the two eruptions in place. Soon there was an eruption of the other majors, the same hiss and ended with two eruptions as well. We both immediately ride a bike to the hospital to attend disana.Seluruh residents Hospitals and orphanages as well as the nurses had to hide under the table trying to seek shelter where dabn thought safe. The atmosphere of panic, fear, all suspect that will eventually hit. Praying and surrender to God. Apparently the former mill complex and Hospital in mortars from two places, thank goodness no one hit the building, so there were no casualties in the complex. Mortar fire lasted approximately setngah hours.

Once convinced that the bombing had stopped, held talks with the five young men in my room. There is still a couple of cloth napkins and a red ink, they immediately make the flag of the Red Cross, seeking gaklah and they are ready to go out to look for victims who need help. New sja out of the hospital, they ran back to my room to meet them head nurse, Captain-ranking commander with about 50 of his men, there was talk among other things: “Father, here are some members of the TNI?.” No “.” Father knows that all around there TNI soldiers, beraapoa their numbers. “” Do not know if the number of Catholic norang I know “.” necessarily “” In this complex there are soldiers who were hiding and no gun?. “No” ” may be searched? “Yes, but you along with me and the chief nurse and lived outside the fruit ank”. Begin a search Kareena arrival of the Captain and how scary. ” It’s certainly the army “.” Instead of, patients’ chief nurse replied. “Later, if it has been cured of menenbak again”. “SEalama in rumag ill be tangunggan me.” “I will take it”. ” not possible, as long so be patient. “

in these circumstances occur a search throughout the complex, opening each door and entered the room followed by a thumbs gun and questions set geramdiajukan. A search is completed quickly enough and no less thorough. Done a search there is an interview with the captain led pasukan.Di bebrapa factory environment they found a grenade that was not working anymore, but can pose a hazard, then it will d9ibawa to amrkas them for the sake of the security. The captain then asked the youth workers who are dikamar sya, I imagine they would have objected. after a long talk, decided bahewa they’ll come, they ettapi no later than 17:00 hours should’ve come back here. Belumkembali If at that time, I will come kemarkas them. After that they went, the youth participate bebrapa carrying grenades and landmijn, after they left, a sense of relief filled the whole complex, all felt very tired during the bnayak who did not receive food, I myself also experienced a sma. but strangely I feel so sleepy and continue bed rest. Approximately 1500 hrs knock at the door, finally forced to pound because I did not hear him in bed “what else” I thought. It turns out that TNI members ready to come now with straw and kerosene, they heard the news that all the occupants sick dikompleks ruamh dibaw aoleh Dutch soldiers, they are ready for the scorching earth Hospitals and complexity. I spoke with the leaders and take her to see the whole complex so intent membuni scorching canceled and they returned to markasnya.Baru they disappeared, there appeared youth “carrier” and landmijn grenade with the atmosphere of joy and experiences, they shared cigarettes and bread ynag given as a receipt love by the captain. Thus ended the first operation of the army beland, seasudah was still many times suddenly come small patrols, but not exceptional shock until they leave the special area Jogyakarta

original info

Ibu kota Kabupaten Bantul,  6 km dari Ganjuran, diduduki Tentara Belanda. suasana makinmencekam bai penduduk. Pada waktu siang sering mendadak terdengar  datanganya tentara Belanda, semua panik,lari mengungsi,meskipun kebanyakan tidak benar dan pada waktu malam terdengar serangan dari Pihak TNI. Pada suatu pagi saya mendapat laporan dari dapur Rumah sakit bahwa persediaan kayu bakar sudah hampir habis. Kira-kira jam 09.00 saya dengan seorang pemuda naik sepeda masuk desa dibelakang Rumah sakit untuk mencari kayu bakar. Ternyata desa itu sepi, orang-orang sudah mengungsi. Untunglah ayah keluarga yang dituju ada dirumah dan mempunyai persediaan kayu bakar cukup banyak dan rela membantu. belum selesai pembuicaraan bagaimana cara pengangkutannya terdengar letusan dari jauh,diikuti dengan  desisan dan 2 letusan di tempat. Sebentar lagi dari lain jurusan terdengar letusan,desisan yang sama dan berakhir dengan 2 kali letusan juga. Kami berdua segera naik sepeda ke Rumah sakit untuk hadir disana.Seluruh penghuni Rumah sakit dan Panti Asuhan serta para perawat sudah bersembunyi di bawah meja dabn mencoba mencari perlindungan dimana dikira aman. Suasana panik,takut, semua menduga bahwa akhirnya akan kena. Bedoa dan menyerahkan diri kepada Tuhan. Ternyata bekas pabrik dan kompleks Rumah Sakit di mortir dari dua tempat,syukurlah bangunan tidak ada yang kena,sehingga tidak ada korban didalam kompleks. Tembakan mortir berlangsung kira-kira setngah jam.

Sesudah yakin bahwa pengeboman sudah berhenti, diadakan perundingan dengan 5 orang pemuda yang ada di kamar saya. Masih ada berberapa kain serbet makan dan ada tinta merah,dengan segera mereka membuat bendera Palang Merah,mencari gaklah dan mereka siap keluar guna mencari korban yang perlu ditolong. Baru sja keluar dari rumah sakit, mereka lari kembali ke kamar saya dengan suster kepala menemui mereka, komandannya berpangkat Kapten dengan kira-kira 50 orang anak buahnya, terjadi pembicaraan antara lain:”pastor ,disini ada beberapa orang anggota TNI ?.”Tidak ada”.”Pastor tahu bahwa di sekitar ada tentara TNI, beraapoa jumlah mereka”.”Tidak tahu, kalau jumlah norang katolik saya tahu”.”tentu” “Di kompleks ini ada tentara yang bersembunyi dan ada senjatanya?.”Tidak ada””Boleh digeledah ?”Boleh,tetapi bersama dengan saya  dan suster Kepala dan ank buah tinggal diluar”. Mulailah pengeledahan kareena kedatangan Kapten tersebut dan caranya menakutkan.” Ini tentu tentara”.”BUkan,pasien” jawab suster Kepala.”Nanti jika sudah sembuh tentu menenbak lagi”.”SEalama di rumag sakit menjadi tangunggan saya”.”ini akan saya bawa”.” tidak mungkin,selama jadi pasien”.

dalam suasana semacam ini terjadi pengeledahan seluruh kompleks,setiap membuka pintu dan masuk kamar diikuti dengan acungan pistol dan pertanyaaan yang geramdiajukan. Pengeledahan cukup cepat selesai dan tidak kurang teliti. Selesai pengeledahan masih ada wawancara dengan kapten pimpin  pasukan.Di lingkungan pabrik mereka menemukan bebrapa granat  yang sudah tidak bekerja lagi, tetapi dapat menimbulkan bahaya, maka akan d9ibawa ke amrkas mereka demi keamana. maka Kapten minta tenaga pemuda yang ada dikamar sya, sudah saya bayangkan mereka akan keberatan. sesudah agak lama bicara,diputuskan bahewa mereka akan ikut, ettapi mereka selambat-lambatnya jam 17.00 harus udah kembali disini. JIka pada waktu itu belumkembali, saya akan datang kemarkas mereka. Setelah itu mereka pergi, bebrapa pemuda ikut membawa granat dan landmijn, sesudah mereka pergi ,rasa lega memenuhi seluruh kompleks, semua merasa telah sangat lelah karena siang bnayak yang tidak memperoleh makanan,saya sendiri  pun mengalami yang sma. tetapi anehnya saya merasa mengantuk sekali dan terus istirahat tidur. Kira-kira jam 15.00 pintu diketuk,akhirnya terpaksa dipukul-pukul karena saya dalam tidur tak mendengarnya”ada apa lagi” pikir saya. Ternyata yang datang sekarang anggota TNI siap dengan jerami dan minyak tanah,mereka mendengar kabar bahwa semua penghuni dikompleks ruamh sakit dibaw aoleh tentara belanda, mereka siap untuk membumi hanguskan Rumah sakit dan kompleksnya. Saya berbicara dengan pemimpinnya dan mengantarnya melihat seluruh kompleks sehingga maksud membuni hanguskan dibatalkan dan mereka kembali ke markasnya.Baru saja mereka menghilang,muncullah pemuda “pembawa”granat dan landmijn dengan suasana gembira serta menceritakan pengalaman, mereka membagikan sigaret dan roti ynag diberikan sebagai tanda terima kasih oleh Kapten tersebut. Demikianlah berakhir operasi pertama dari tentara beland, seasudah itu masih berkali-kali secara mendadak datang patroli kecil ,tetapi tidak menimbulkan kejutan luar biasa sampai mereka meninggalkan daerah istimewa Jogyakarta.

January,1st.1949

The dutch KNIL Convoy in January 1st 1949

Article of in memoriam Mayoor Ds C.van Bruegel in January 1949

Marine officer visist KL Camp in January 1950

(a)            On January 1, 1949,

(b)  a soldier (soldier) Indo Dutch military truck leaving from banyumas to pick up groceries in Gombong, Kretek to drop down the village headman a moment home and saw his mistress, he will be taken back by his friends when returning from Gombong, but when picked up he was not there, so that “disinggahinya” also Lurah, according to a statement they had “secured” by TNI troops grilya. Diwonohardjo, approximately 6 km from Gombong, a Dutch Colonial Army troops fought with the forces of the Republic 150-strong Indonesian people.

(b)PTT Djakarta salary book with handsign of the chief of ptt office Djakarta.

On the initiative of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru of India, a meeting of 19 nations was convened in New Delhi that produced a resolution for submission to the United Nations, pressing for total Dutch surrender of sovereignty to the Republic of Indonesia by January 1, 1950. It also pressed for the release of all Indonesian detainees and the return of territories seized during the military actions.

January,4th.1949

Achmed Sukarno (1902-1970). The Indonesian nationalist leader, statesman, and president, photographed on January 4, 1949

 

(a)January, 4th.1949
In these days of early republican forces facing Dutch engineers in kaliombo column near Magelang, so that a truck full of equipment besra dutch engineers damaged

(b)Postallyused lettersheet stationer  10 sen send from batavia centrum to Buitenzorg(bogor)

January 5th.1949

Dutch accept UN call for ceasefire in SumatraSultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya refuses Dutch offer to head new Javanese state, resigns as head of Yogya government, and gives help to Republic guerilla fighters.

 

January,6th.1949

the information from Warna warta Djawa tengah newswpaper :

(A) the Word Series Ratu Juliana

My goal is to fulfill my mother’s ability. Who really really hope that the Government of Indonesia is formed within a few weeks to come nini.Pemilihan which will be held selekans free as possible.

On 6 January the lalau, Series Queen Juliana said to Indonesia that looks like this:

My mother has been able to establish an independent and sovereign Indonesia, the Netherlands and Indonesia entered the union on the basis of sovereign kemaunan respectively, merdekan and on the same basis.

in February 1948 kesangupan oitu tealh repeated again, a sign that it truly became Queen of ability.

My goal since the throne is the ability memenjuhi my mother, to give to people in Indonesia: peace, happiness and prosperity in a sovereign self-government.

My goal really is to the federal government in recent weeks Indonesia was formed; government that will run the obligations on the basis of responsibility and democracy. XSelekas possible if it has been able, to be held the election, thus establishment of United States of Indonesia will soon be achieved.

(B) GENERAL SUDIRMAN NOT captive

General sudirman now being seriously ill and is being maintained well but not captured by the army commander of the TNI Belanda.Kolonel Hidajat in Sumatra, on 28 December 1948 tealh take over (over) Pimpina total republican army.

(C) FACTS MR ASAAT

Before military action, Mr Asaat once said that the situation in the republic is beyond miserable than in the war. Denagn these words then one can draw the conclusion that if a held state military movements in that region in more baik.Seorang other princes, saying that the food supply in the republic’s only up to a month Maret.Sesudah famine will arise which hebat.dari words This is also one can draw conclusions that this second military movement led to improvements to the area not only brings tersebut.tentara tegush security and long, but brought the lightness in sehar-day life, also by providing food, clothing and medicine.

(D) some federal pemrintah Indonesia propaganda illustration in this newspaper: Hours gadang Bukittingi committee, Abdul Kadir Wijoyo Atmojo Jakarta, trucks mengangukt nakanan, and Indonesian youth in Practice.

Original info:

 

(a)Sabda Seri Rau Juliana

Tujuanku ialah memenuhi kesanggupan Ibuku. Harapanku yang sungguh sungguh ialah supaya Pemerintah Indonesia dibentuk dalam beberapa minggu yang datang nini.Pemilihan yang bebas akan diadakan selekans mungkin.

Pada tanggal 6 januari yang lalau, Seri Ratu Juliana bersabda untuk Indonesia yang isinya seperti berikut :

Ibuku telah sanggup mendirikan Indonesia yang merdeka dan berdaulat ,mengadakan perserikatan Indonesia Nederland dan berdaulat  atas dasar kemaunan masing-masing ,merdekan dan atas dasar yang sama.

dalam bulan Februari 1948 kesangupan oitu tealh diulangi lagi, tanda bahwa memang sungguh-sungguh menjadi kesanggupan Ratu.

Tujuanku sejak naik tahta ialah memenjuhi kesanggupan ibuku, untuk memberi kepada bangsa di Indonesia : ketentraman,Kebahagiaan  dan kemakmuran dalam pemerintahan sendiri yang berdaulat.

Tujuanku yang sungguh-sungguh ialah supaya pemerintahan federal Indonesia dalam beberapa minggu ini dibentuk; pemerintahan yang akan menjalankan kewajiban atas dasar tanggung jawab dan demokrasi. XSelekas mungkin jika telah dapat, akan diadakan pemilihan, dengan begitu pembentukan Negara Indonesia Serikat akan lekas tercapai.

(b) JENDRAL SUDIRMAN TIDAK DITAWAN

Jendral sudirman sekarang sedang menderita sakit keras dan sedang dipelihara baik-baik tetapi tidak ditawan oleh tentara Belanda.Kolonel Hidajat Komanda  TNI di sumatra, pada tanggal 28 desember 1948 tealh mengambil oper(alih) Pimpina tentara republik Seluruhnya.

(c) KETERANGAN Mr ASAAT

Sebelum aksi militer, Mr Asaat pernah mengatakan bahwa keadaan di republik adalah melebihi sengsaranya daripada dalam perang. Denagn kata-kata ini maka orang dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa jika diadakan gerakan militer keadaan didaerah tersebut lebih baik.Seorang pembesar lainnya,mengatakan ,bahwa persedian makanan di republik hanya sampai bulan Maret.Sesudah itu akan timbul bahaya kelaparan yang hebat.dari kata-kata ini juga orang dapat menarik kesimpulan vbahwa gerakan militer yang kedua ini membawa perbaikan kepada daerah tersebut.tentara tidak hanya membawa keamanan yang tegush dan lama, tetapi mebawa keringanan dalam kehidupan sehar-hari,juga dengan memberikan bahan makanan,pakaian dan obat-obatan.

(d) beberapa illustrasi propaganda pemrintah federal Indonesia dalam surat kabar ini : Jam gadang Bukittingi, komite abdul kadir Wijoyo atmojo Jakarta,truk mengangukt nakanan ,dan pemuda Indonesia di Latih.

January,9th.1949

Tanda terima Pengiriman (Ontvangbewij or Recieved) Pospakket from batavia with overprint Indonesia stamps and wilhelmina stamps.

January, 8th.1949
On this day happen ambushes ambushes against forces which raised the victim diphak dutch dutch and can be taken from the Netherlands a gun and bullets mitraljur.

January,12th.1949

The chief OF PTT NRI Mas Suharto were kidnapped and arrest by Dutch Nica

The chief OF PTT NRI Mas Suharto were kidnapped and arrest by Dutch Nica soldier, and after that he never found (until this day his graved never found)

January, 14th.1949
On this day a truck dutch meuat a carrier Brent Blongkong fall in time, because the pole above the bridge has been drilled temtara times zrepublik (grilya) some time before

January,15th.1949

Situjuh Incident

Situjuah incident that killed 69 people republicans.

 (See al.: Sjamsir Djohary, ‘Events Situdjuh (15 of January 1949)’ [Thesis IKIP Padang, 1971]). He has been linked with Lieutenant Tambiluak alias Kamaluddin who was accused of being traitors, who leaked the meeting of leaders of the Central Emergency Government Areas of Sumatra to the Dutch.
Eyewitnesses said that Tambiluak alias Kamaluddin, a former mainstay of the football players ‘Elftal’ Club Horizon, is a barber in ‘Sutan Karajaan Barbier’ in Payakumbuh that one of his loyal customers is dr. Anas. However, according to Audrey Kahin, op cit.: 219) there is no strong evidence to suggest that Tambiluak involved in the leaking of a secret meeting in the Emergency Government officials Situjuah to the Dutch.

Original info:

Peristiwa Situjuah yang menewaskan 69 orang republiken. (lihat al.: Sjamsir Djohary, ‘Peristiwa Situdjuh (15 Djanuari 1949)’ [Skripsi IKIP Padang, 1971]). Ia dikait-kaitkan dengan Letnan Kamaluddin alias Tambiluak yang dituduh sebagai pengkhianat bangsa, yang membocorkan pertemuan pemimpin-pemimpin PDRI Wilayah Sumatera Tengah kepada pihak Belanda.

Saksi-saksi mata mengatakan bahwa Tambiluak alias Kamaluddin, salah seorang mantan pemain sepakbola andalan dari ‘Elftal’ Club Horizon, adalah seorang tukang cukur pada ‘Sutan Karajaan Barbier’ di Payakumbuh yang salah seorang pelanggan setianya adalah dr. Anas. Namun, menurut Audrey Kahin, op cit.:219) tak ada bukti kuat yang menunjukkan bahwa Tambiluak terlibat dalam pembocoran rapat rahasia para petinggi PDRI di Situjuah kepada Belanda.

 

January,19th.1949

The rare postally used cover from malang to Medan(Negara Sumatra Timur) East Sumattera State ,the part of Indonesia federal state.

UN Security Council demands release of the Republican government, and independence for Indonesia by July 1, 1950.

There was significant guerilla activity against the Dutch during this period, led by Nasution and Sudirman. At the height of Dutch activity in the 1940s, there were around 150,000 Dutch forces in Indonesia

January,22th.1949

(ibid Mrs Ahmad Yani Book, 1981 info)

 

Muntilan  on 22 Januari 1949,

when it was attacked by a platoon strength, the result seminary (education catholic priest) occupied by Dutch troops were damaged

26January1949
On 26 January, the TNI (the guerrillas) attack again for the second time and seminary Muntilan city burned. Governor Wongsonegoro provide good sample of  Grilya as governor, he steadfastly followed the Governor of the Military Headquarters who move around a lot on the mountain-gunung.where the officeTe center that was originally located  mountain cleft, can not long be maintained, the Dutch soldiers can quickly find out, then continue constantly rummaging through the region. Therefore the TNI military and civilian centers move south gets Wonosobo, a large office pegunungasn, consisting of multiple sound distrik.Here no longer shots and canon (kanonade) like every night and every day there was a large area near the city. It’s an ideal complex for the central leadership

Original info

Muntilan pda tanggal 22 Januari 1949 ,ketika diserang dengan kekuatan satu peleton,hasilnya  seminari (pendidikan imam katolik) yang ditempati oleh tentara Belanda  mengalami kerusakan

 

 

26 Januari 1949

Pada tanggal 26 januari ,TNI(pasukan gerilya) menyerang lagi  untuk kedua kalinya kota muntilan dan seminari dibakar. Gubernur  Wongsonegoro  memberikan cntoh yang baik sebagai Gubernur Grilya, ia dengan tabah mengikuti  Markas Gubernur Militer yang sering berpindah-pindah  di gunung-gunung.Tempat perkantorang pusat yang mulanya berada dilereng gunung Sumbing,tidak dapat lama dipertahankan,tentara belanda cepat dapat  mengetahuinya,lalu terus menerus mengobrak-abrik wilayah itu. Karena itu TNI memindahkan pusat militer dan sipil  kebagian selatan Wonosobo,suatu perkantoran pegunungasn yang besar,terdiri atas  beberapa  distrik.Disini tidak kedengaran lagi tembakan dan  canon(kanonade)  seperti setiap malam dan setiap siang terdengar didaerah dekat kota besar. Sungguh suatu kompleks yang ideal  buat pusat pimpinan.

January.28th.1949

On January 28, 1949, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution to establish a cease-fire, the release of Republican leaders and their Yogyakarta.

January,29th.1949

(a)The invitation to join the ceremony of tranferred the power from Dutch Federal Government to Wali Negara South Sumatra in february,1st 1949 , send from the chief of 7 oeloe village Palembang.

January,21th.1949

On January 21, 1949, with the city of Kuala Tungkal occupied by the Dutch public figures, scholars, intellectuals fled to the outskirts, which are located opposite the Kuala Tungkal. they dated January 25, 1949 meeting which consisted of various tribes to collect kekauatan to counterattack. Above consensus together, they form the Front pengurunya Wilderness with the following composition:

Chairman: H. Shamsuddin (cum treasurer)

Vice Chairman: A. Sanusi (Teacher Trenches fires)

Members: 1. H. Hanafiah (Head of Good Dyke)

2. Kadir (Sacred Head Dyke)

3. Imran (Head Dyke Mangrove)

4. Zuhri (Head Dyke Palembang)

5. Durasit (Head Parit Sungai Rawai)

6. Abdullah (head of the Trench fires)

Part Penggempur: Abdul Congratulations

Help By: 1. Zaidun

2. H. Saman Mangku (Market Kuala Tungkal)

3. H. Hanafiah (Head of Good Dyke)

Front Jungle forming a line called “Barisan Bally Red ‘.

The purpose of establishing the Barisan / Lasyakar Red Bally is to demolish the Dutch who occupied Kuala Tungkal. Therefore, should be chosen who will lead the Barisan Merah Bally, especially when invaded / attacked the Dutch position.

Then elected Abdul Samad called then moved at the term “Commander” (more popularly known as “Commander Adul”). It was also agreed when the Dutch attacked the Red Bally must together with the TNI and the tactics are under military command

On January 21, 1949 at 11:30 pm, beberpa Dutch ships attacked Kuala Tungkal with cannon and mortar firing. One of them was shot targets Great Mosque (Jami ‘) Kuala Tungkal, when the Islamic manaumat was getting ready to perform Friday prayers.

As a result of the attack, not last Friday prayers. When he feels safe, Dutch troops landed, still firing heavy weapons to protect his troops who were conducting pendarata.

TNI troops led by Lieutenant Young A. Fattah held resistance, backing toward the Trenches Gompong. Two soldiers and a young fighter named teacher of English R. Happy autumn shot dutch at the moment will blow up the Landman who had previously installed near the Post Office.

Kuala Tungkal Kewedanaan government led by the district officer with the Chief of Police Regional Noerdin Mahyuddin Harahap IPI, Head Tungkal Ilir Masdar Kewedanaan Government and its staff in Kuala Tungkal under a hail of bullets and mortar cannon backwards towards the village of Parit Gompong Pembengis through except for some sub-district officials, among others, Masdar, the Police , Information and others, Wedana Noerdin, Police Chief Mahyuddin Harahap and others continued the journey to the village of Parit Deli Betara Left Tungkal Ilir district.

Pembengis is a small village situated 7 (seven) Km from Kuala Tungkal, filled with refugees of various groups, in addition to government officials and military forces.

After the Dutch troops landed in Kuala Tungkal, the Dutch continued to advance to the araha pembengis with intent to break the resistance of military forces. At 17.00 pm in the Trenches Gompong intercepted by military forces led by Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR, resulting in a shoot for 15 (fifteen) minutes. Holland then retreat to Kuala Tungkal to suffer casualties beberpa people were killed and wounded

January,23th.1949

On January 23, 1949, after retiring from Kuala Tungkal, a squad of military forces under the command of Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR, 1023 Sector Commander assigned to patrol the Dutch Army stalking position. In the Trenches Gompong they met with the Dutch Army, causing a battle that resulted in some Dutch soldiers killed and wounded.

On January 23, 1949 night, the people of Seberang Tungkal trench Congratulations, arson military dormitory in the way of the Old Kuala Tungkal Prosperity. The force is led by Abdul Samad (Adul)

January,25th.1949

With Kuala Tungkal occupied by the Dutch, then the community leaders in the Trenches Congratulations Kuala Tungkal Tungkal III on January 25, 1949 have formed the Front, headed by H. Woods Shamsuddin prince Tungkal III.

Front board Rimba are those who’ve studied the practice Bally Red is the practice based on the teachings of Islam yangmeyakini that if the deeds carried out as specified, it is concerned will be able to avoid the bullets fired at him.

The formation of this Front, received rave reviews from the public because it fits with their belief that the war against the Dutch colonialists, when autumn meant masti martyr for fighting for the interests of defending the nation, state and religion as taught by the scholars at that time

January.26th,1949

The airline was established as Garuda Indonesian Airways on January 26, 1949.

FEBRUARY 1949

February.4th.1949

On 4 February 1949, the convoy was intercepted grilyawan dutch republic in Kotawinangun.Sebuah vehicle full of passengers managed to dihamcurkan, while others fled with the vehicle body shot full of holes grilyawqan republic.
Mrs Ahmad yani book,1981’s info

After 40 days dipengungsian (since december 1948), Yani dating, he dsatang with the native Indonesian sarong, wearing capin (skullcap), commonly used to pack Yani, but with clothes that he had entered the town of Magelang who had occupied the Netherlands. desperate to enter the cities to look for his wife, children will be taken out of town, but apparently they had fled in advance Mr. Yaniv dahulu.Jadi keep searching until finally meet, of course, look for it without neglecting his duty assignment. So it is that perjalana to the mountains, day and night went on, dropping and climbing, with the hope of ever meeting with the general kota.Dapur not exist, so eat drink, shelter and other daily necessities provided by the people, their hearts bauik once, save ,they  also been struggling to keep the Independence of their nation  Homeland and the people and the army at that time fought shoulder to shoulder, there is a courier, there are so security desa.ada who became rescuers and even some that into the mountains a few months tentara.Sesudah Yani got a promotion to lieutenant colonel, commander of the Brigade menjasdi 9. Yani if ​​you come home to see wife and kids once a week.Brigade “di pengungsian” brigade was given the name White Horse (see photo Mr yani symbol in front of a white horse brigade )


One day I forgot the date, when Mr. Edhi is still predominantly Sarwo Yani. When I was in mantenan “dilereng” mountain cleft, apparently there are spies who know the Dutch, then told Belanda.Akan but at night, the battalion entered the village of Pak Surono East Java, location within the journey toward barat.Senag once at that time, when met with troops of friends, the liver becomes more mongko (strong), fighting spirit so much tebal.Kira about 04.00 am (PM) Sarwo Edhi (President-in-law this SBYsaat) dating.memberitahu that dutch up the mountain to to Mantenan, I soon (Mrs. Ahmad yani) take the kids out of the house to hide from the pursuit of the Netherlands, from dawn until 11:00 (AM) morning in the ravine, which turned out to Nyona Ahmad sought dutch yani.Kepada residents asking where the Dutch army wife Ahmad yani whom he met on the population, fled the house where I entered and found no clue what investigated but nothing.Para population was quiet, did not want to show my place to hide in the ravine, they were righteous faithful, protect its children anak.Begitulah character the mountain village full of originality, a simple, honest and setia.Meskipun fear and the fear-dutch Dutch takui but they remained silent would not divulge the place where the wife of Ahmad yani located. Fortunately, child-anakkupun nothing menanggis silent, depending on feeding my baby in my arms. 04.00 armpit banging on the door, the cry: “There is a dutch, running, lari.Bale-bale where I slept with three children quickly cleaned, rolled into one, throwing up the roof, kept running down kejurang, without regard to the presence of venomous animals, kakipun tealh leech into food = many times, not felt, run, run kredalam abyss sebenarnya.Kepala pack yani Staff, Major Ismullah) fell, as did doctors Soejono, there is no doctor who metawat us, simply by nurses saja.Memang in grilya war we play a lot of cats with the Dutch, the Netherlands dating we go, we go dutch again. The next day I moved again, moving from place to another is always done at night, now go up the mountain again, higher, continue to rise almost to the top once it’s dinggin. But the bullets whistling and the sound of gunfire over the head, it really made shock.hearing the bullets whistling sound and the shot without seeing the person, make the “girapen” “jujo” (Javanese term). There is quite some time, when I heard the shot menjadis eperti people of “Gilo” (unconscious), perhaps it’s called panic.Pada time we often get the drugs from below, from kota.Obat Wardoyo was sent by doctors, can also cigarettes and other lainnya.Abangku, Mas Slamet, seems indeed like a village, so he did not suspect that the Dutch out kota.Daerah where I fled the area behind the day is called MMC (Merapi Merbabu Complex).

Original Info:

Setelah 40 hari dipengungsian (sejak desember 1948), Pak Yani dating, Ia dsatang dengan dengan berpakainan kain sarung,memakai capin(kopiah)  ,cara yang biasa dipakai pak Yani, akan tetapi  dengan pakaian itu ia berhasil masuk kota Magelang yang sudah diduduki Belanda.Nekat masuk kota  untuk mencari anak isterinya  akan dibawa keluar kota,tetapi ternyata mereka  sudah mengungsi terlebih dahulu.Jadi Pak Yani terus mencari hingga akhirnya ketemu,sudah barang tentu mencarinya itu tanpa mengabaikan tugas kewajibannya. Maka demikianlah perjalana ke gunung,siang malam berjalan terus ,menurun dan mendaki,dengan harapan sekali-kali bertemu dengan orang kota.Dapur umum juga tidak ada,jadi makan minum,tempat tinggal dan lain keperluan sehari-hari disediakan  oleh rakyat,mereka bauik hati sekali,ramah tamah sekali.Mereka itu juga sudah berjuang untuk tetap merdekanya tanah air dan bangsanya.Memang rakyat dan tentara pada waktu itu berjuang bahu membahu,ada yang menjadi kurir ,ada yang jadi keamanan desa.ada yang jadi penolong dan bahkan ada  juga yang menjadi tentara.Sesudah beberapa bulan digunung itu Pak Yani mendapat promosi menjadi letnan Kolonel,menjasdi komandan  Brigade 9 .Pak Yani kalau pulang melihat anak dan istri dipengungsian sekali seminggu.Brigade itu diberi nama brigade Kuda putih(lihatlah foto pak yani didepan lambing brigade Kuda putih)

Pada suatu hari yang tanggalnya aku lupa,saat Pak sarwo Edhi yang masih turut Pak Yani. Saat aku berada di mantenan dilereng gunung Sumbing,rupa-rupanya  ada mata-mata Belanda yang mengetahui,lalu memberitahu kepada Belanda.Akan tetapi  pada malam hari itu ,battalion Pak Surono masuk desa dari Jawa Timur,didlam perjalanan menuju  arah barat.Senag sekali pada waktu itu ,apabila bertemu dengan pasukan teman, hati ini menjadi lebih mongko(kuat),semangat berjuang jadi lebih tebal.Kira-kira jam 04.00 pagi(PM)  Sarwo Edhi (mertua Presiden RI  SBYsaat ini)dating.memberitahu  bahwa belanda naik gunung  menuju ke Mantenan,segera saya(Ibu Ahmad yani)  membawa  anak-anak keluar rumah untuk bersembunyi dari kejaran belanda,dari subuh sampai jam 11.00(PM)  pagi  berada di jurang,yang dicari belanda ternya Nyona Ahmad yani.Kepada penduduk tentara Belanda bertanya mana isteri Ahmad yani pada penduduk yang dijumpainya, rumah tempatku mengungsi  dimasuki dan diperiksa.tetapi tidak menemukan petunjuk apa-apa.Para penduduk pun diam saja,tidak mau menunjukkan tempatku bersembunyi di jurang itu,mereka itu berbudi setia,melindungiku beserta anak-anak.Begitulah  watak orang desa dipegunungan yang penuh keaslian,sederhana,jujur dan setia.Meskipun takut kepada belanda dan di takut-takui Belanda tetapi mereka itu tetap diam tidak mau membocorkan tempat dimana isteri Ahmad yani berada. Untunglah anak-anakkupun diam tak ada yang menanggis,bayiku tergantung menyusu di pelukanku. Jam 04.00 ketiak pintu digedor,terdengar teriakan:”Ada belanda,lari,lari.Bale-bale dimana aku tidur dengan tiga  anak cepat-cepat dibersihkan,digulung jadi satu,lempar keatas atap,terus lari turun kejurang,tanpa mengindahkan adanya binatang berbisa,kakipun tealh menjadi santapan lintah berkali=kali,tidak terasa,lari,lari kredalam jurang yang sebenarnya.Kepala Staf pak yani,mayor Ismullah) gugur,demikian juga dokter Soejono,maka tidak ada dokter yang metawat kita,cukup dengan perawat  saja.Memang dalam perang grilya kita sering main kucing-kucing dengan belanda,Belanda dating kita pergi,belanda pergi kita kembali .Keesokan harinya aku pindah lagi,kepindahan dari tempat ke tempat lain yang selalu dilakukan pada malam hari,sekarang naik gunung lagi,lebih tinggi,terus naik hamper ke puncak rasanya dinggin sekali. Akan tetapi desingan peluru dan suara tembakan diatas kepala itu,sungguh membuatkan shock.Mendengar suara desingan peluru dan tembakan tanpa melihat orangnya,menjadikan “girapen””jujo”(istilah jawa).Ada beberapa waktu lamanya,apabila mendengar bunyi tembakan aku menjadis eperti orang yang “gilo”(dibawah sadar),barangkali itu yang dinamakan panic.Pada waktu itu sering kita mendapat obat-obatan dari bawah,dari kota.Obat tersebut dikirim oleh dokter Wardoyo,juga dapat rokok dan lain-lainnya.Abangku,Mas Slamet,rupanya memang seperti orang desa ,jadi ia tidak dicurigai Belanda kalau keluar masuk kota.Daerah dimana aku mengungsi adalah daerah yang dibelakang hari di sebut MMC(Merapi Merbabu Complex).

 

(1)February,3th.1949

Tanda terima Pengiriman Ontvangbewijs(Recive notes) Pospakket with overprint Indonesia  1 gld and wilhelmina 10 cent  stamps

(1a)February  7 th.1949

Resolution is introduced in United States Senate to stop all Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands. Resolution is defeated on March 8.

Feb.5th.1949

Ontvangbewijs-Recieve pospakket sent from  batavia to tangerang withj overprin indonesia stamp 3×40 cent and Wilhelmina 10 cent  stamps

 

FEB,7th.1949

Dated February 7, 1949 by 9 (nine) of fruit boats, led by Abdul Samad who fondly known as Commander Adul. 41 people who all have learned the practice before the Dutch occupation of the Red Bally Kuala Tungkal, armed with machetes, knives, kris, spears and other sharp weapons, departing from ditches Welcome to Kuala Tungkal. Divided into four troops, each led by:

1. Abdul Smaad

2. H. warrant

3. H. Nafiah

4. Zainuddin

Bally Red Front army commander Tungkal Area H. Saman (Saman Commander)

Bally Red Commander with some leaders of the Barisan troops Bally Red (BSM).

Keris weapon Commander Haji Saman

Some equipment / weapon of war in the traditional red sash paramilitary troops against Military Aggression Belnda in Kuala Tungkal 1949

At 24.00 pm, they subjugate the Dutch defense simultaneously and suddenly, the Netherlands did not expect / suspect before. Pertempuran(battle) happen until 09.00 am in the morning. Since the attacks carried out tiba-tiba/mendadak, many Dutch soldiers who became casualties, of whom there were soldiers at the rank of Captain. Bally Barisan Merah 2 (two) people died of Arup bin Wahid and A. Rachman and two taken prisoner.

With the success of this first attack, then add to the efficacy of public confidence Bally Red deeds, so the more expressed their desire to fight the Dutch atta

Feb.8th and 9th 1949,

Tanda Penerimaan Ontvangbewijs(Recieve) of Sending Pospakket with Wilhemina stamps.

February,11th.1949

On February 11, 1949 following an attack on the Dutch carried out jointly by the troops led by A. Fattah Leside and Barisan Merah Bally total 430 people led by Commander H. Abdul Hamid.

The battle took place in the Trench III Tungkal V. Rows of Red Bally fought bravely armed with machetes, saber, dagger and spear. In a battle going one on one duel. 45 (forty five) Bally Barisan Merah including Commander H. Abdul Hamid fall near the former plant padai Cang Kui Thurs. An Armed Forces and Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside wounded. In the Netherlands too many victims whose numbers were falling dapoat not known with certainty.

Attack From the Trenches Bakau and death of Commander Adul

The first boat was placed at the front of the boat penglima Adul with Sergeant Major Murad CPM Alwi and two members of the CPM is Corporal Corporal Badari and Muhammad as well as 7 (seven) members of the Red Bally among others Abdullah. Sergeant Major CPM Buimin Hasan along with several members of the CPM and the Barisan Bally Red are on the boat finished third.

Once the troops are in the midst of the sea, met with a Dutch warship. Adul Commander and his friends immediately fired a shot aimed at the Dutch Army who were on board.

At once the shooting is intense from both sides. Commander Adul jumped into the water and swam towards the Dutch ship boarded the ship in order to invade the Dutch Army was on the ship. At the time of holding on to anchor the ship, Commander Adul kept mowed by machine-gun fire by the Dutch Army so that the handle apart and sinks do not arise again, the chief Adul fall in place.

Bally Red army commander Tungkal Area Abdusshamad Front (Commander Adul) (Photo May 1937 when he was in Johore Malaysia)

Belada soldiers continued firing machine gun that resulted in several broken or overturned boat, including boat which was Sergeant Major CPM. A. Murad Alwi. A member of Barisan Merah Bally who participated in the boat was shot and killed at that time also.

In a hail of bullets that the Dutch Army, Sergeant Major Murad Alwi trying to reach the coast of Ulu Kuala Tungkal Ladder King, by floating in water, breathe only through your nose, which sought to remain above the water surface. After a successful landing in trouble susuah Ladder King Ulu, Murad Alwi realized that his left hand got a bullet fired through the Netherlands.

From Ladder King Ulu, Murad Alwi headed Trenches Gompong where he met his friends who then took him to Beramitam and continues to the Gulf Nilau to get help and treatment.

In this battle, as many as 30 (thirty) members of the Barisan Bally Red and two CPM of Badari and Corporal Corporal Mohammed died, while 15 others were wounded, including Sergeant Major CPM. A. Murad Alwi. Sergeant Major CPM. Hasan Buimin with members of troops who are in a boat can save themselves and landed on the beach.

Kuala Tungkal Dutch ship was attacked by Bally Red Army and Armed Forces by using boats and weapons swords and others. (Painting)

 

February,15th.1949

For the continuation of the struggle, it is necessary fundraiser / food in a more coordinated. Then on 15 February 1949 in Pembengis kulatungkal Jambi,set improvement board “Front Jungle”, namely:

Chairman: H. Shamsuddin (cum treasurer)

Vice Chairman: A. Sanusi (Teacher)

Penggempur Head: H. Saman (Head of Good Dyke)

Members: 1. Amri (Teacher)

2. H. Zakaria (Imam Mosque)

3. Alan (Member DPW)

4. Tarli (Member DPW)

Kitchen: People Pembengis

Supplies: Dharma Bhakti People

Information: Bureau of Information which consists of Hasan. AR, and Rusli Asrie Rashid Rashid.

Documentation: Head Masdar

With Wilderness Front refinement, then the preparations the resistance could be done better and planned, many donations from the community such as rice, coconuts, vegetables, chicken, fish, sugar, coffee, cigarettes and others were taken by boat or on foot. Not infrequently they come from enrolling to fight against the Dutch.

Special task lighting is to arouse the fighting spirit of the people, through leaflets that are made simple contents of the broadcast quoted ALL INDIA RADIO, BBC broadcasts to the Far East whose content is beneficial struggle.

Tools such as radio-Accu, stencils and typewriter obtained from people who voluntarily provide for the struggle. Accu radio donated by H. Dahlan was a businessman from Kuala Tungkal.

After beberpa times Pembengis were attacked by the Netherlands because it is situated not far from Kuala Tungkal about 7 (seven) Km, then felt insecure as the headquarters of the Front Rimba, Rimba therefore Front deployed administrators control every aspect of the place.

 

February, 22th.1949

On  dated 22 February 1949 the NRI grilyaw conduct ambushes against the dutch in Srumbung, Beseran and Weru, respectively by 25.19 and the company of Dutch soldiers being 18.ketika repair at the nexus telepon.Di Beseran Grilyawan fall victim to 6 people , whereas the part of the Netherlands an estimated 16 people and several aides.

 

February ,23th.1949

The Jambi,Tanjung Jabung Kuala Tungkal Raid

This raid occurred on February 23,  1949, the people who will engage in battle or red barret Bally had gathered in the village Pembengis Pembengis and has prepared the soup kitchen. People who become Barisan Merah Pria is dating from every Kepenghuluan (villages now) and each has brought a red cloth the size of 4 cm width and a length of 1 Meter stengah with traditional weapons according to the tribes in question, such as kris, spears , kampilan, sundang, machetes, cauliflower and others. Furthermore, the people will participate in conducting the raid, their names are recorded, which address, from which the village, noting the age and their families. Bally Red cloth should be worn at the time of invasion by forces including military forces, because in addition to the identification of members of the invading forces, is also the foundation of faith by deeds Bally Red every battle. Once everything has been prepared, then combined forces to leave the village it started moving toward the Trenches Gompong Pembengis, because this is the place Trenches Gompong final preparations, because of distance to the city of Kuala Tungkal only about an hour. In the Trenches Gompong is set on the division of groups, an explanation of the intended target, battle tactics, determine the special officers and the invasion of the Dutch defense strategies.

D. Formation of groups, leadership groups and target groups Invasion

1. After arriving in the Trenches Gompong, jumalah who will joined in the attack from the people amounted to 370 people and the Armed Forces of Indonesia as many as 30 people so that altogether 400 people. The first preparation, the examination of traditional weapons, like a dagger, the dagger, machete cauliflower, sundang, kampilan and others by a pawing weapon named Sahibar, which determined which ones should be brought guns invading and should not be taken. So all that will be joined in the attack did not kerkecuali TNI tested by eating pepper (sahang), where if that takes sahang or it was not spicy pepper, then they should not be invaded. Finally after all have provisions above, then the people of the 370 people who will fight terebut iktu allowed to go only 270 people with a military people plus 30 people, then who will conduct raids into the city of Kuala Tungkal only 300 people. To create the spirit and courage in this battle, given a drink of water that has been dijampi by the commander of the Red Bally H. Saman.

2. After finishing these studies, then arranged small groups of this number 300 men into 3 groups, all of which were assembled in three large groups, each of these three groups determined direction. Indonesian Armed Forces to be around groups of 10 people who directly amenjadi raid leader and as Vice drawn from the ranks of the people of Bally Red.

3. After the talks held between the Commander H. Saman Bally Red Army as the Commander and his staff leadership with the leadership battle Tungkal Front Area of ​​the National Army of Indonesia represented by Deputy Commander Cadet Sergeant Major Battle. AD. Madhan. AR and its commanders Sector are: Cadet Sergeant Major Anwarsyah Navy, as Commander Sergeant Major Sector II CPM Buimin Hasan, as the Commander Sector Commander III and Pol. Zulkarnain Idris as the Commander of Sector IV. From the results perebukan or negotiations have been able to set up leaders of the major groups III and at the same time also determine the target raid assault tactics and how to go back Kepangkalan Gompong Trenches.

4. From the results of these negotiations has been able to set the leadership of the propagators of the three groups and the division of the raid targets as well as offensive tactics are as follows:

a. Group I was led by Commander H. Saman and assigned as Deputy Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR targeting kepertahanan assault Dutch army in the office of Post (PO. Diamond Queen is now) and the defense of the Dutch Army at home right now Chief of Police. Movement of the attack was carried out after the group II and III attacked and burned the houses in the way the Port of Customs on the road in the Trenches I Ulu Palembang. The road taken by the group I was way students now, after moving from Simpang Gompong trench.

b. The task of the TNI led by Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR in group I was once seen fires in the Port of Ilir road as well as fires in the Trenches I and have a shootout, then the troops on the group I carry out attacks on Dutch soldiers in the post of Defence Police and the Post Office house with gunfire Kijanju Japanese machine guns and other weapons fire and threw hand grenades Japanese-made machine gun in place of the post office. Meanwhile troops pasuskan sling-led by the commander of the Red H. Saman began to move into town with cries of “Yes-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram” and stormed kepertahanan dutch army.

5. Group II, chaired by the Sector Commander III CPM Buimin Sergeant Hasan and Commander Sector Commander Pol IV. Zulkarnain Idris, the Deputy of the Barisan Bally Red H. Sayamsuddin and M. Sanusi who has the task of moving towards the Port road, through the Fishermen’s circuitry, veering through the bridge through the back way towards the goal of the Great mesji houses would be burned. While the military led by Sergeant Major yasng CPM stand on the back of the Grand Mosque, in order to protect the troops who served the Red Bally burned houses in the way of the Port has been burned. Zulkarnain Idris Force Commander at the Crossroads Commander survive and if the houses had been burned in the street Seaport, then this forces the defense menghantan Dutch Army in Simpang Empat at home Rivai. Pamuncak ST. Fire houses in the street and the harbor is a commando attack on the burning of houses by the Group III conducted the attack from the Trenches I.

6. Group III was led by Cadet Sergeant Major AL. Arwansyah assisted by Sergeant Corporal Syamsik of AL and AL and Barisan Sakiban Bally Red headed by Head of Masdar. Task Group III, the main thing is to burn the houses in the area of ​​Palembang on the road and the road near the cemetery and destroy tanks of water available in each house. While the military to protect them dar those shots. Motion carried on the road if the Port has seen fire and had a shootout with the Dutch Army. Thus, the Dutch Army was besieged by seranagan of Ilir and ulu.

E. The course of the Battle

1. Arriving at the Simpang Parit Gompong, each group dispersed into three majors with a unanimous determination to uphold all the decisions and plan their invasion.

In the middle of the pitch-dark night around 2 move all groups to their respective targets:

a. Group I to the way students are now heading to the Dutch defense in the post office is now PO. Diamond Queen and the current police chief’s house.

b. Group II is now moving towards the road on the edge of Fisherman sungat Dyke II, then entered the bridge the road continues to the back of the Great Mosque, and the houses of the Port road.

c. Group III moves forward towards the path of Sriwijaya, langusng to the cemetery road continues to divide the two directions of the road and as well as towards Palembang umah police chief.

2. At 3:15 minutes midnight, the group II who holds the key to the raid, had managed to set fire to houses in the Port road, which is a sign for the group III started his movement set fire to houses in the cemetery road and the road Palembang at 4 pajar fire has been coloring the sky red both of Ilir Pelaguhan road or from Parit Ulu I have been shooting, the bullets like fireflies in the night, flying toward its target, a voice shouts Barisan Merah Bally called “YA-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram”, reverberated and echoed in pajar sidikini. They advanced without shaking to the Dutch Army kepertahanan with traditional weapons hump machetes, spears, swords, dagger, dagger and others. “Esa lost two fairly, never come into force retroactively dubalang, Fisabilillah their determination, martyrdom purpose”.

3. Among the Dutch army had panic attacks from Ilir and from Ulu, also accompanied by a thunderous shouts of Barisan Merah Pria then at that time also held a group I suddenly shots kepertahanan Dutch Army Post Office (PO. Queen of Diamonds) now and Police in the house (street Nusa Indah) now, accompanied dnegan throwing hand grenades made in Japan, along with Bally’s Red Army, led by Commander H. Saman with cries of “Yes-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram” by firing a pistol in his left hand and right hand on the knob war kepertahanan Army invaded the Netherlands, followed by a red sash around the troops. From all directions from either side Ilir, as well as from the Middle gemuruhlah next Ulu and voice calls greatness “YA-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram” interspersed with shots of firearms, pasukana Dutch Army in the Post Office and Police Chief of home defense, began to leave defense they retreated towards the waterfront near the Ferry port now, while firing blindly, but the Barisan Merah Bally continues to pursue even if among them there are ayng shot the Dutch army. TNI troops, army come forward with ways to shoot a moving target, especially the Dutch troops are retreating, because given the bullets are extremely limited, and also members of these forces teleh use traditional weapons, like a dagger or a sword that has been revoked dibabkan bullets in their weapons have been depleted.

4. The morning sun has its light emitting dar UPUK east coincided with that bang-bang kancu martyrs and gun fire from the Dutch navy patrol boat in the river Pengabuan have caused explosions in downtown Kuala Tungkal both of Ilir, in Ulu and back-street Students, who as if to block the withdrawal of troops raid this way. The shooting mortars and cannon kancu of this ship did not stop approximately 3 hours.

5. The sky looked overcast, clouds covered the sky as if this vast and bi glimpsed through the clouds of sunlight that is about 5 feet high from the east UPUK. However ldakan-mortar explosion are still visible around the arena battles of the trenches I still shots karabon one-one that conducted by Cpl AL Sakiban target is not clear what is fired. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR signaling the Saman H. commander who at that time was behind the cliff path along with a few special men who accompanied him, in addition to the right at the intersection of four BNI now, while Cadet Sergeant Madhan. BRI AR are present in which the sign is to regularly retreat back to base. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR along with the soldiers I usman and Asnawi and Ilyas, who turns invisible warrior I finally know this (Ilyas) were killed at the time throwing grenades at the Post Defense Army Chief of Police of the Netherlands at home now. Commander H. Saman, along with some of his men saw Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR and two of his men began moving back toward the Dutch Army Defense Pos that have been abandoned, then the commander of H. Saman-even moving backwards calmly standing on foot despite mortar explosions still there. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR digundikan Dutch defense until after the Post Office, seen one automatic weapon Owen Holland-gun and one gun is the result of that battle.

6. At the time rewind back to this base, look fabric is used as stretchers to carry the members of Barisan Bally Red wounded from the street and road Sriwijaya Students, and other friends who are killed can not be brought back.

 

F. Cover

1. So … a little story of The War of Independence History of Struggle of the Republic of Indonesia in the District of Tanjung Jabung in general, kecamata Tungkal Ilir particular that really happen that we serve in Attractions Flashback. About the invasion of the Netherlands Army in defense of Kuala Tungkal, for combinations of the Indonesian national army and the people of the Barisan Bally Red line to the defense of the Dutch Army in the city of Kuala Tungkal, which is the power of “single” is a potent and powerful, which may eventually repulsed Army troops Holland has a complete and modern weaponry and as one of the allied forces who took part won World War II past.

2. The raid on Thursday night and Friday on February 23, 1949 but we can repel the Dutch troops, get 2 pieces of LE and an Owen gun-gun, then on the ranks of the TNI and the people of Red Bally, many of which fall as a nation and as kusuma martyrs, who numbered as many as 68 people

 

February,26th.1949

The rare Federal State postal stationer smelt 2 sen type one G 95 with “Van Den”(type two  ,common with ven de) send from Padang to Padang Panjang(all west sumatra area  under federal state,except some village still under PDRI state.(this card send by my friend Wirako’s father,Dir MHI Ang Ie Siang)

February.23th.1949

Basis battle acttacked move to  Pembengis village

Moved to Pembengis base invasion

After several raids from the sea which resulted in many casualties, then the elders of both the TNI and the Red Bally decided to divert the attack from the mainland. Location was chosen as the center / base to prepare the troops is Pembengis located approximately seven (7) km from Kuala Tungkal.

To support / coordinate the implementation of the attack through the Front Wilderness that has been enhanced to take care of receiving assistance from the public for purposes perjungan such as rice, coconuts, vegetables, fish, sugar, coffee, bread, cigarettes and others, in addition to registering and selecting those that expressed a desire to contribute to fight and fight against the Dutch Army,

For purposes, Forest Front, get a radio-aid batteries from H. Dahlan an entrepreneur that can be used to obtain useful information to better establish the continuation of the struggle. Information obtained by officers who are members of the Bureau of Information Wilderness Front transmitted to the public, among others, BBC Radio broadcast from the Far East for the benefit of struggle.

With the death of Commander and Commander H. Adul Abdul Hamid, the head of the Barisan Merah Bally replaced by Commander H. Saman, who had always accompanied the Commander Adul in raids against the Dutch Army.

In the final preparations to Kuala Tungkal invasion, have signed up to the board at Forest Front Pembengis number 1000 (one thousand) people to participate in fighting the Dutch attack, after selection by an assessment team received as many as 441 (four hundred and forty-one), the rest is prepared as a backup .

After all the preparations done, including practice teaching / practice Bally Red Direct Commander H. Saman, then on February 23, 1949 number of 441 (four hundred and forty-one) consisting of members of Bally Red line, the TNI, Police, Civilian Employee, Village Administrator and Village clergy, led by Pangluma H. Saman attacked the Dutch position in Kuala Tungkal. This attack meruapakan the greatest number of troops and the best preparation than with attacks carried out previously.

In Force attack was contained, among others:

1. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR (representing the Sector Commander Tungkal 1023 Front Area) A. Fattah Leside being treated wounds, with 3 (three) members of the TNI, namely, Syamsik Sergeant, Corporal (L) and Cpl Sakiban Sahring CPM.

2. H. Shamsuddin (Chairman of the Front Wilderness / prince Tungkal III)

3. M. Sanusi (Vice-Chairman of the Front Wilderness)

4. Masdar Event (Head Tungkal Ilir)

5. Police Commander Zulkarnaen Idris, Bustami and others

Troops are divided into 21 (twenty one) group dipimpini by a Chairman and Vice-direct group led by Commander H. Saman. Departure done from Pembengis (Old Mosque) and before arriving in Kuala Tungkal stopped some time at the Masjid Parit Gompong while carrying out the practice Bally Red as final preparations prior to the raid.

Before dawn, troops stormed Kuala Tungkal, through the checkpoints Netherlands. Occurs single combat with unequal weapons. Bally Red troops set fire to houses in the neighborhood used as a residence / dormitory Dutch Army, without heeding shots Dutch engine, so a lot of Dutch soldiers out of fear and panic ran up to their war ships anchored at the jetty Kuala Tungkal.

After raged almost as long as 3 (three) hours, the Barisan Merah Bally resigned return to Pembengis leaving the victim sebayak 30 (thirty) people died as a hero. In the Netherlands also fell victims to death and many serious injuries and minor.

Since the attacks, the Dutch Army to make the barriers of barbed wire fence around their camp, so that military and Red Bally will not strike again. But in reality, the TNI and the Red Bally never stop the attack. Dutch soldiers who were patrolling out of camp is always blocked and intercepted by the TNI and the Barisan Merah Bally.

February,24th.1949

Tanda Penerimaaan _Ontvangbewij,(The recieved) of sending Pospakket from Toko Kie Batavia to Ambon with overprint Indonesia stamp 40 cent.

February, 27th.1949
On 27 February afternoon, a convoy was attacked in the Netherlands succeeded Blabag grilyawan dihancurkan the NRI, but the team was forced to retire due blocker dating dutch military assistance from Magelang

 

March 1949

March, 1th.1949

(1)Guerillas retake Yogya for six hours under Suharto. (Later, this event would be called the “serangan umum” or “public offensive”.)

(2) the very rare change of adressstationer 2  sen dancer stationer, send from Hollandia Ned New guinea (mnow west papua) to Tanjung Pandan Billiton (very rare city postmark of West Papua and Billiton island Sumatra)

 

 

March,4th.1949

(1)Ontvangbewijs (Recieved of sending) Pospakket cds Batavia centrum 4.3.49 with overprint Indonesia stamps 2×40 send and 2x1gld

(2)The chinese overseas Medical doctor,dentist and Apotheecers organization letter send to Dr Thung Batavia,with nica -USA stamp 1 and 2 cent.

March,5th.1949

On 5 March 1949, the company 27 dijogja blocking and damaging a truck and two Dutch soldiers..

March,7th.1949

The Money Order(Poswessel)  recieved CDS SALAM 7.3.49(The city near Magelang and mountain)

March,8th.1949

(a) March, 8th, 1949
NRI Grilyawan booby-trap the Dutch managed to damage the truck and killing its passengers

(b)On March 8, 1949, again the combined military forces Kuala Tungkal Jambi and Bally Red with strength of 150 people (one hundred and fifty) people led by Commander H. Saman attacked the Dutch position in Kuala Tungkal. In this raid, 68 (sixty eight) Barisan Merah Bally fall, and in the Netherlands is expected to fall a victim who directly witnessed by the survivors back to base.

Panglima Camak Dari Sungai Undan (Riau)

Commander Camak From River Undan (Riau)

On March 8, 1949 Dutch Army troops landed in the village bay beehive, a member of Bally Red happened to be in the Gulf market beehive named H. Baslan saw Dutch troops landed, H. Bally Red line Baslan members armed with machetes hump. H. Baslan were fired upon with automatic weapons by the Dutch Army and the fall of the scene. H. Baslan semapt injured left arm of a Dutch Army (original Dutch)

 

March,9th.1949

Ontvangbewijs (Recieved of sending) Pospakket cds Batavia centrum 9.3.49 with  6×50 sen ,2×40 sen overprint Indonesia and 1 gld overprint indonesia(rate  4.8 gulden).

 

March,16th.1949

On March 16, 1949, Commander Camak Barisan leaders of the Red River Bally Undan (Riau) led the 250 (two hundred and fifty) troops march stormed Kuala Tungkal Bally. Participated in this raid 25 (twenty five) troops led by Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR.

Troops dispatched from the Old Mosque Pembengis. In this raid, Commander Camak under a hail of bullets fired by the Dutch invaded with his army, jumped over the barbed wire directly invaded the Netherlands in the camp. Semantara troops kept firing to protect them. Because the unbalanced force which forces the Red Bally only use sharp weapons such as machetes, swords, dagger, dagger, spear and the like. While the Netherlands using modern senajata automatic machine guns and other like-lai, Bally Red Army withdrew back to Pembengis. In battle, the commander Camak with 36 (thirty six) members of Barisan Merah Bally fall.

J. Sector Headquarters 1023 always moving

After several times attacked by military forces along the Barisan Merah Bally, based in Pembengis, the Dutch Army increased patrols to Pembengis and surrounding both by sea using BO patrol boat equipped with heavy weapons as well as by land from the Trenches Gompong so pembengis not safe anymore .

1023 Tungkal Area Sector Commander Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Laside with staff.
Standing in front from left to right: Sergeant Major Moerad Alwie, Madhan Cadet Sergeant Major AR, A. Young Lieutenant Fattah Laside and Sakiban. Squatting in front of Major Buimin Hasan.

For further struggle interests of the loading and preparation struggle berpinda-moved from place to place (mobile). Sector Commander Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside first move its headquarters to the Trenches Trench VII, then to the Mangrove, River Gebar and last base of the spines / Punggur River.

Strategy and tactics of the struggle then continue to use the strategy and tactics of war grilya (hita-and-run). In order for the strategy and tactics are run more efficiently and effectively, therefore 1023/Tungkal Sector structure Sector Area or Area Tungkal enhanced by including the following:

Sector Commander / Battle:
Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside accompanied by Lieutenant (N) Makky Perdana Kusuma.

Vice Commander:
Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR.

Sub-Sector Commander Betara River / Ditch Deli:
Sergeant Major (L) T. Anwar Shah.

Pengabuan River Sub-Sector Commander:
Sergeant Major CPM A. Murad Alwi.

In addition there are several Unity Unity Tempur Tempur ie, each led by Sergeant Major CPM Buimin Hasan, Idris Zulkarnaian Police Commander, Sergeant Major (L) Sanusi and Sakiban moving from place to place (mobile). For the Dutch guerrilla attack. Until the announcement of the Cease Fire Ipenghentian shootout / ceasefire). Pengahadangan against Dutch troops continue to be made of them in Punggur River, Gulf of beehive, paar serindit River, Market Nilau Bay, River and other Gebar

 

 

March,17th.1949

The Diensbriefkaaart(Official Postcard),free stamp of Landsdrukkereij Batavai(Official printing) send from batavia to Semarang.

March, 18th.1949
TNI Grilyawan block accompaniment dutch army in Karang Anyar.

March,19th.1949

(a)March, 19th.1949
  Grilawan TNI soldiers blocking the dutch truk at  the tunnel Ijo

(b)The Chan’s Book Store promotional cover send from  CDS Batavia centrum to Probolinggo with dancer 3 cent stamp.

March, 20th.1949
Truck motorcade ambush happened again in Karang Anyar causing casualties bnayak Netherlands

March, 22th.1949
Two trucks were destroyed dutch for violating anti-personnel mines placed the republic. In kaliputih.

March,24th.1949

the rare federal state postal stationer smelt 5 sen type one G 95 with van den,send  from Padang to Padang Panjang(this card send from my friend wirako’s father to my father in law- the family historic collections)

March, 25th.1949
a Dutch truck can be destroyed grilyawa TNI. On the bridge Komentere, also 3 days I n truck dutch with seven people on board were destroyed griya TNI shot in Prembun.

March, 27th.1949
Deterrence in Blabag (Magelang), which managed to destroy two Dutch truck and the TNI ehilangan a stengundan a pistol

March, 28th.1949
Company TNI Gatotkoco, morning facing a Dutch convoy consisting of a jeep and truck nermuatan 5 dutch soldiers, jeeps and trucks stelah The former passed, the next truck was shot by the military so that its contents were destroyed breresama and in close combat successfully destroyed a truck again, and some guns can be taken (info from Mrs. Ahmad Yani is highly detailed, taken from her husband’s report)

March 31

U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson privately tells Dutch that their Marshall Plan aid is still in jeopardy

April 1949


Sjarifudin Prawiranegara headed the emergency PDRI government while Sukarno, Hatta, and the rest of the regular Republican government were being held by the Dutch. He would be involved in Indonesian politics for many years to come, as part of the rebel PRRI government in 1958, and yet again as a signer of the “Petition of 50″ criticizing the government in 1980.

 

April,2nd.1949

The postally used cover CDS Bandoeng ,the capital city Pasundan State of Indonesia Federaal

April 6th.1949.

91)United States Senate passes resolution to stop Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands, but only if the UN Security Council votes sanctions against the Netherlands.

(2) The picuters of Malioboro road corner, during the PTT repaired the phone cables.

Colonel sungkono and general Schefellar inspection the federal army in April 6th 1949

April,6th.1949

Colonel sungkono spoken to the KNIL  federal army Bataljon  soldier  at in 6.4.1949

11 dankwoord Kol. Sungkono t.g.v. overdr. bataljon federale troepen aan Ind. achtergr. Gen Scheffelaar 500406, 12+13 vertrek Ned. troepen uit Batavia – inladen ruimbagage, Indonesië, okt. 1950

 

April,8th.1949

KODIM (military area command) Muntilan

 mobilized 600 people to ruin people’s highway and rail at men of 26 platoon Blambang.Satu block a convoy near Salam.

April, 12th.1949..

Read phonetically

 

(b) the battle on the River Gebar in April 1949, dutch temtara patrol intercepted by navy troops led by Sergeant Major (L) T. Anwar Shah was accompanied by Lieutenant (N) Makky Perdanan Kusuma. After fighting a long time since losing in the number and types of weapons, troops backed by the victim’s 3 (three) people were slightly injured among them Lieutenant (N) Makky Perdanan dip aha Kusuma shot left.

April 12, 1949, Dutch soldiers using heavily armed BO ship docked in Bay Village Market NIlau, by landing troops by fully armed. Seeing the Dutch army landed, the troops march Bally Red spread around the Gulf Market Nilau, see the Dutch soldiers who were walking hand in hand towards the mainland, a member of the Barisan Bally named Aban Red Army invaded the Netherlands alone, have not had time to get to the Dutch Army troops, Aban has Automatic weapons were fired upon by the Dutch Army and Aban died the scene.

K. KL soldiers. Netherlands In the Capture

In early April 1949 after the headquarters moved to the Base of Sector 1023 Duri, a Dutch war ship approached the shore Jetty spines. Earlier the Dutch Army had been frequently patrolling the base of spines around the coast because that area 1023/Tungkal Sector headquarters are in this place.

The warship filled with native Dutch soldiers called Koningkelijke Leger (KL). Before arriving in Kuala Jetty Duri, the ship ran aground in the middle of the ocean because the water was receding. With a lifeboat 3 (three) persons to kuala Jetty Dutch soldiers with the intention of investigating the situation spines, but not biased to land because of low tide.

A Dutch Navy who were captured by the army of the republic of Indonesia (TRI)

being interrogated by Lieutenant Young A. Haddy D. Head III.

One of them by using a fishing boat that was passing by tried to reach land Jetty Kuala spines where there are houses and a Post Customs (Customs). Before samapi on the mainland, a boat accidentally overturned by the owner, then by the population residing in Kuala Jetty Duri Dutch Army is busy-busy arrested and taken to River Punggur, of whom helped Adnan Hasibuan a Customs Officer on duty at Jetty Kuala Duri .

Looking at these events, two Dutch soldiers who were on the boat right back to the ship. River Punggur Dutch soldiers were taken to the Sector Commander 1023 A. Fattah Leside was examined by Lieutenant Young A. Hadi Chief of Bureau III? Intel’s Northern Front, which happened to be in the village in order to help their duties in a combat situation Tungkal Front Area.

In the afternoon a patrol boat equipped with a BO Dutch heavy and light weapons opened fire towards the Jetty Kuala Sungai Punggur spines and without a definite direction (blindly). Dutch soldiers went ashore and then continue shooting. Apsukan TNI withdrew kepedalaman while shooting a reply to slow down the Dutch Army. In the event thirty (30) residents were arrested by the Dutch and taken to the Kuala Tungkal.

Lieutenant Young A. Haddy D. Head III Intel TNI

 

April, 9th.1949


Blondo and Japunan ambush in between and Magelang Magelang, Dutch managed to destroy three trucks and passenger were injured and some die

 

April, 11th.1949


On the afternoon of 18 and 19 by the TNI company unload railroad between Kewaluan_Secang, besides water reservoirs in the station Secak destroyed anyway

April,13th.1949

(a)  April, 13th.1949


A Dutch truck struck a land mine the Cement (Muntilan), so it was destroyed, while the company TNI 28 (1 platoon) to attack the Dutch soldiers who were repairing the railroad tracks that have been dismantled grilyawan.

April, 14th.1949
Rakyat Indonesia during the day dismantling the railway Secang_Brangkal.

(b)the rare Indonesia federal state letter sheet(Postblad-warkatpos) postal stationer queen wilhelmina  10 cent send from Pasundan state capital ,Bandung to Batavia(Jakarta)

April,14th.1949

 
 14 April 1949
GOC sponsored meeting in Jakarta
 
 
 
 
 

 

April, 15th.1949

TNI attacked near Magelang and 18 companies with the people burn Alkadapi weaving shed, and dismantle the railway between kembbangan_Krinting and cut telephone wires.

April 16th.1949.

(a)  April, 16th.1949


Today the Dutch Army counterattack with a power of 2 platoons to Payaman, the counterattack was the Republicans suffered six casualties.

(b)Tan Malaka is captured and executed by a TNI commander after a Dutch contingent attacks the town where he was staying.the latest information the tomb of Tan Malaka was found,the bone is DNA test and cofirmed.

April, 21th, 1949
Sebuag bren carrier violated dutch landmine mounted army and people of the Republic in Martoyudan so damaged and passengers were injured.

 

April, 22th.1949.

Dutch announce that they will return the Republican government to Yogya if the guerilla war stops.

April,23th.1949

Free of Revenue,Acte van overleiden(Deth Certificate) od Batavia for European people  (Rosalia Julia Lapre.)

April,27th.1949


Dutch republic block party in Kalijambe convoy near the Great Kali jemabatan, and bren carrier violates landmijn TNI dutch so burned, kemudianmenyusul 32 truck and stopped. A mortar shells that had been converted into bombs and hung on a tree top Republican released tenrara dutch convoy running dibawahnya.sehingga two trucks on fire and Dutch soldiers tewas.tak bebrapa soon feed truck dutch menghujam bnatuan with tembakasn Republican army, but can release away from danger

 

Mei 1949

On May 7, 1949,

an agreement was signed by Mohammad Roem of Indonesia and Van Rooyen of the Netherlands, to end hostilities, restore the Republican Government in Yogyakarta, and to hold further negotiations at a round table conference
under the auspices of the United Nations

Mrs Ahmad Yani Book,1981 info

Just a picture of the guerrilla movement and activities of anti grilya dri months January to May 1949 in Wehrkrei II are as follows:
City districts and city districts continually confounded by the TNI and Grilyawan motorcade Netherlands has always been a target of ambushes. Many of the vehicles destroyed by landmines Netherlands on the highway between Semarang Yogja.Jalan this every day be passed by a large convoy protected by armored forces and infantry entered the Dutch army patrol belanda.Sebaliknya, but only up to 5 miles patrolled one day, for example around and Karanganyar. (notes Dr. Iwan, very difficult to acquiring a collection of postal history of this area, I just registered memeproleh receipt of Salam course, if anyone have it please berkean show it to me, Terim akasih)
Detasmen dengn akekuatan a Dutch patrol platoons to a company with headquarters in Zmagelang, which was guarded by a battalion uinfantri lengkap.Kadang dutch with the statement-sometimes they do a mass purge baser especially if they know the location of a complex grilya military, patrol commander of the Dutch led by Let.Kolonel van Zeuten, the serine TURT with his army into the mountains.
City magelang already scorching the earth by the military on both aggression served until December 1948 Dutch troops entered the city of Magelang, was once garnizunyang Magelan of large, full of military banguna, but now 80% have been destroyed, except nenerapa military buildings, office drinking water companies (waterleideng) and PTT as well as electricity, most residents had joined the army to evacuate the slopes of the mountain cleft and trim, as well merapi_merbabu.Ynag only residents living within the city and residents of Indonesia tionghoa including pegaswai country that are less convinced of the need for them to join the organization grilya. They would then continue to be supervised by KDM and it turns out that most remained sympathetic to RI, while immediately establishing Poh Chinese Tui An armed by Belanda.Tentara KNIL very enterprising and often patrolled the purge malakukan, tindakanmereka against the people very hard, they play the shot and fuel only if they encounter little resistance in the village-dutch kampung.Patroli and cleaning action for the people still berate tindkana arbitrary. (see photo at begrilya yani pack with his white horse brigades)

 

 

 

 

Original info

Sekedar gambaran kegiatan gerakan gerilya dan anti grilya dri bulan January sampai Mei 1949 di Wehrkrei II adalah sebagai berikut :

Kota kabupaten dan kota distrik terus-menerus  dikacaukan oleh Grilyawan TNI dan iring-iringan kendaraan Belanda selalu menjadi sasaran penghadangan .Banyak kendaraan Belanda hancur karena ranjau darat di jalan raya antara Semarang Yogja.Jalan ini tiap hari diliwati oleh konvoi  besar dilindungi oleh pasukan berlapis baja dan infantry belanda.Sebaliknya tentara Belanda mengadakan patrol,tetapi hanya sampai 5 km  yang dipatroli satu hari, misalnya sekeliling Parakan,Temanggung,SEcang,Magelang,Grabak,Plikon(Bandengan),Salaman,Muntilan,Purworejo,Kemiri,Pituruh,Purwodaadi,Gembong,Kebumen,Prembom,kolowinagun dan Karanganyar.(catatan Dr iwan,sangat sulit memeroleh koleksi postal histori dari daerah ini, saya hanya memeproleh resi kiriman tercatat dari Salam saja,bila ada yang memilikinya harap berkean memperlihatkannya kepada saya,terima kasih)

Detasmen patrol Belanda dengn akekuatan 1 peleton sampai 1 kompi dengan pusatnya di Zmagelang,yang dijaga oleh satu battalion uinfantri belanda dengan pernjataan lengkap.Kadang-kadang mereka mengadakan suatu gerakan pembersihan baser-besaran terutama jika mereka mengetahui letak suatu kompleks grilya TNI,komandan patrol Belanda dipimpin oleh Let.Kolonel van Zeuten, yang serin turt dengan pasukannya ke gunung-gunung.

Kota magelang sudah dibumi hanguskan oleh TNI pada agressi kedua desember 1948 sampai tentara Belanda masuk kota Magelang,Magelan dari dulunya adalah garnizunyang besar,penuh dengan banguna militer,tetapi kini 80% sudah hancur,kecuali nenerapa bangunan militer,kantor perusahan air minum(waterleideng) dan PTT serta listrik,sebagian besar penduduk telah mengungsi ikut tentara ke lereng-lereng gunung Sumbing dan merapi,serta merapi_merbabu.Ynag tinggal didalam kota hanya penduduk tionghoa dan penduduk Indonesia termasuk pegaswai negeri  yang kurang yakin akan perlunya mereka bergabung dengan organisasi grilya. Mereka itu selanjutnya terus diawasi oleh KDM dan ternyata bahwa kebanyakan tetap bersimpati kepada RI,sedangkan orang Tionghoa segera mendirikan Poh An Tui yang dipersenjatai oleh Belanda.Tentara KNIL sangat giat berpatroli dan sering malakukan aksi pembersihan,tindakanmereka terhadap rakyat amat keras,mereka main tembak dan bakar saja jika mereka menjumpai sedikit saja perlawanan di kampong-kampung.Patroli dan aksi pembersihan belanda bagi rakyat tetap berate tindkana sewenang-wenang.(lihatlah foto pak yani saat begrilya dengan brigades kuda putihnya)

(1)Sukarno and Hatta remain in custody on Bangka.

(2) Sadar _Ontwaken magazine,Mei 1949-The chinese overseas magazined lead by Thio In Lok ,every one month. intersting info about Pao An Tui.

In the unconscious has been described by colleagues Soegardo about PAT (Pao’s tui) which summarily describes that PAT is only logical that there is, for defending the rights of the Chinese nation has. Among the many questions surrounding the establishment of PAT, it is our attention, that all fees that amount is not small shouldered by the Chinese community itself, so that by the time the organization has never sounded kesahnya complaints about financially, could be the water as the Chinese community and the PAT as a fish . But the situation at that time was really sad karewna kwmungkinan PAT dissolution exists, financial kiarena not suffice. If PAT is dissolved, menunjukn that Chinese society is still too weak in the union to mengalang an organization to defend human rights. No one has objected the PAT in Indonesia, which defended the rights of Chinese people as no other person able to membelanya.Tidak there was a broad outlook will Indonesiapun with this prizip meolak. (Parent Iwan spoke about how the leadership of Dr. Poh An Tui city Padang, Chinese dilingkungankampung maintain and defend the legendary Chinese moans of other tribes, such as Tanah Kongsi burning efforts by spraying petrol dikalikecil, Dr. Iwan still remember the night told to mengungsi home Ntjek Ko Lai because he wanted dibakar. Small-time record of dr iwan

Didalam sadar pernah diuaraikan oleh rekan Soegardo tentang PAT(Pao an tui) yang ringkasnya melukiskan bahwa sudah sewajarnya PAT itu ada, untuk membela hak-has azasi dari bangsa Tionghoa.

Diantara banyak soal sekitar pendirian PAT ,adalah sangat menarik perhatian kita,bahwa segala biaya yang jumlahnya tidak sedikit dipikul oleh masyarakat Tionghoa sendiri,sehingga pada waktu organisasi itu tidak pernah kedengaran keluh-kesahnya soal finasial ,bisa merupakan air sebagai masyarakat Tionghoa dan PAT sebagai ikannya.

Tetapi keadaan pada waktu itu sungguh menyedihkan karewna kwmungkinan dibubarkannya PAT itu ada, kiarena keuangan tidak mencukupkan. Jika PAT dibubarkan ,menunjukn bahwa masyarakat Tionghoa masih terlampau lemah dalam persatuannya untuk mengalang suatu organisasi guna membela hak azasi.

 Tak ada seorangpun yang keberatan adanya PAT di Indonesia ini,yang membela hak azasi bangsa Tionghoa karena tidak ada lain orang yang mampu membelanya.

Tidak ada seorang Indonesiapun dengan pandangan luas akan meolak prinzip ini.

(Orang Tua Dr Iwan bercerita bagaimana pimpinan Poh An Tui kota Padang,dilingkungankampung Tionghoa menjaga dan membela kaum Tionghoa daris erangan suku lain,seperti upaya membakar Tanah Kongsi dengan menyiramkan bensi dikalikecil, Dr iwan Masih ingat malam-maolam disuruh mengungsi ke rumah Ntjek Ko Lai karena katanya Kali Kecil mau dibakar.-catatan dr iwan)

May,1st,1949

1 May 1949 afternoon, the Dutch launched a commando raid on the village Sruni, Sawangan, Kalijaya, Wudoropayung, Kemnaguaan, and Tembono, many people lose their lives and property.

Pada tanggal 1 mei 1949 sore, Belanda melancarkan komando raid atas desa Sruni,Sawangan,Kalijaya,Wudoropayung, Kemnaguaan, dan Tembono, banyak penduduk yang kehilangan jiwa  dan harta bendanya.

May,3rd.1949

Pada tanggal 3 mei patrol Belanda dari Gombong mengadakan pengroyokan di Prapat dan menangkap 20 orang pemuda.


May, 3rd.1949
  On 3 May the Dutch patrol of Gombong pengroyokan held in Prapat and catch 20 young men.
May
, 4th.1949
On this day, when the Dutch army patrol mkenembak three young men dead and the village Kruwet Merawan 26 people, two trus was shot dead and one wounded luka.Demikianlah circumstances surrounding the post-occupation and villages diwasi patrol the Netherlands, people suffering from afflictions due 1001 macamk accused of helping bergrilya republic and joined the army and the guerrillas have melanjt sebagainya.Penyusunan reign, prepared as a base for some tahunpun grilya war when diperlukan.Serangan night, ambushes, peruskan road, machine-gun fire and so tealh become a habit for people.
In the meantime General sudirman sick and need to rest in Magelang, shortly afterwards he wafat.Bapak and mother living in Plengkung Sudirman, not far from the mother tingga temapt ahmad yani, only bebrapa saj house, they bertetangga.Pak yani mewndapat duty to escort the bodies of to Yogyakarta to the tomb pahklawan Semaki.

MAY,5th.1949

THE BATTLE AT FORT HURABA

1) On May 5, 1949 at around 04.00.Wib Dutch Army from Pijor koling held siege attack of four majors, assisted by 2 members of Mobile Brigade road Bookmarks Tapanuli named MAKALEO and Syamsul Bahri, the Dutch attack was captured FORT HURABA, Troops MBK Tapanuli in Fort Huraba Tolang and retreated to his native troops led brigade-B CAPTAIN ROBINSON Hutapea back to Kampung Tolang

2) Arriving in the village of MAS Tolang KADIRAN collect all the existing forces and ordered the attack on replies to the Dutch troops who have occupied FORT HURABA, Battle happen again with the help of troops firing mortars KADIRAN MAS can be expelled from FORT HURABA and at 16.30.Wib FORT HURABA can the reclaim and Dutch troops retreated into the field of battle FORT Sidempuan HURABA losses in the troops led by MAS members MBK KADIRAN 10 people were killed, 12 people from the Forces Brigade – B were killed and losses Weapons.

3) After the Dutch troops retreated from FORT HURABA Dutch troops never again attack the FORT HURABA, only MAS KADIRAN never received a letter from the Dutch in Padang Sidempuan Army to surrender and give up when the going gets Position, but the letter was returned by the MAS KADIRAN delivered by a woman trader named MARIAM the contents of the letter reads “WE DO NOT WANT TO MEYERAH ..!!! PLEASE COME TO FORT HURABA IF TRUE MASTER – MASTER want to colonize. WE THANK-BEANS BEANS WITH OUR “

4) With the CEACH FIRE in September 1949 the MAS KADIRAN A commander of the Battle Command Battle Fortress Fortress Huraba submit to Aiptu USMAN Huraba Danki – A MBK Tapanuli and Mas Kadiran Penyabungan left to take care of everything in case of delivery of the purposes of sovereignty and Weigh received by Dutch Army.

r. PUTTING POLICE CHIEF POSITION NORTH SUMATRA

Penyabungan city is the capital of South Tapanuli, after the city of Padang Sidempuan in the Dutch Army controlled, as the Civil Administration / Regent is KING LUBIS lord, is the king Oloan police chief and commander of troops is a MAJOR Bejo. For the Chief Constable of North Sumatra occurred Kepakuman because at Sibolga and Dutch troops occupied Sidempuan P. DARWIN’S FATHER KARIM Kapala as North Sumatra Police went to Paya Kumbu, then proposed by MAS KARIM DARWIN’S FATHER KADIRAN to lead the police in North Sumatra.

s. POLICE TRAINING IN FIRST CHRISTMAS

With the CEACH FIRE / truce, and no longer Dutch attacks as head of the MAS KADIRAN MBK Tapanuli DARWIN’S FATHER KARIM propose to add members to MBK Tapanuli and practice it, the proposal to be approved later KADIRAN MAS Mas Kadiran choose Youth-Youth of the Guerrilla Merapi 60 people and of the Brigade – B led MAJOR Bejo as many as 50 people. The next 110 Youth Education gets sent keNataluntuk Police and other exercises and as Chief of Police Education and Training. North Sumatra Police chief Adjunct Senior Commissioner DARWIN KARIM lift Iptu Ibn as Chief of Police Education and Training at Christmas.

t. Mobile Brigade residency Tapanuli

ASKED TO BE ORGANIC army

MAS KADIRAN summoned FATHER SAID UMAR Sumatra Police chief in Bonjol, Mr. Umar Said asks you about the status of the Mas Kadiran Tapanuli MBK “WHAT IS ORGANIC Mobile Brigade SIGN IN OR REMAIN IN POLICE Army ‘Mas Kadiran then replied” IF WE ARE STILL IN NEED WORKERS IN POLICE THEN WE WILL CONTINUE TO BE A MEMBER OF POLICE BECAUSE WE ARE STRIVING FOR INDEPENDENCE OF THE POLICE IS “thus Sumatra Police chief Mr Umar Said That set MBK Tapanuli remain in the Police and the rank was raised to MAS KADIRAN KLS POLICE COMMISSIONER-II with Position COMMANDERS BIG CAR Brigade – I SUMUT – ACEH, after inauguration the next day please Mas Kadiran Prayer Restu to Mr. Said Omar to return to Penyabungan and when he got in Penyabungan reports to the Chief Constable of North Sumatra Mr. Darwin Karim.

May 7th.1949.

(a) May, 7th.1949
  Dutch posts in Pituruh has dipencilkan by TNI troops fired mortars and from here north kearag, several Dutch dropping his supply of air to air umbrella heading the remote separately, saying it was not enough power to destroy postersebut

 

(b)“Roem-Royem” agreement: Dutch agree to restore the Republic of Indonesia government, to hold talks according to the UN Security Council resolution of January 28, and to work towards a settlement based on the Renville agreement.

Based on Aneta information Jakarta said the Republic Radio “Voice of Sumatra” the PDRI government  about Van Royen-Roem Agreement. The PDRI goverenment accept the Roem-Royen agreement on  such codition(atas syarat-syarat) :

a) Pasoekan Republik harus diperkenankan tetap menduduki posisi yang ada ditempatnya sekarang.

b)Tentara Belanda haruslah dengan perlahan-lahan ditarik mundur dari posisinya sekarang ini.

c)Pengembalian Pemrintahan Republik ke Djokja haruslah dengan tidak bersyarat(tanpa syarat)

d)Souvereinieteit (Kedaulatan)Republik atas Jawa,Sumatra,madura serta pulau-pulau sekitarnya,harus diakui oleh Belanda menurut perjanjian Linggarjati.

May,15th.1949

Sejak tanggal 15 Mei 1949,

 pemerintahan ini mempunyai suatu alat kepolisian dengan nama Polisi Pemerintahan Militer (PPM) yang terbentuk dari penggabungan Polisi Negara dan CPM. Dalam tiap-tiap komando distrik militer (KDM) dibentuk detasemen yang menangani bagian kriminal, dokumentasi, keuangan, dan perlengkapan. Pimpinan dalam daerah ini dipegang oleh KDM, sedangkan komandan detasemen ialah pegawai polisi atau anggota CPM dengan pangkat paling tinggi.

Demokrasi Parlementer
Sesuai Dengan perjanjian KMB, Indonesia diharuskan mengganti sistem ketatanegaraan nya menjadi bentuk federal yang terdiri dari negara-negara bagian maka Republik Indonesia pun berdiri dan UUD 1945 dianggap tidak berlaku lagi karena tidak sesuai dengan prinsip negara federal.

Wilayah RIS sendiri terdiri atas Negara Republik Indonesia, Negara Indoneisa Timur, Negara Pasundan, Negara Jawa Timur, Negara Madura, Negara Sumatera Timur, Negara Sumatera Selatan, daerah Jawa Tengah, Daerah Bangka, Belitung, Riau, Dayak Besar, Banjar, Kalimantan Tenggara, Kalimantan Timur, dan daerah Istimewa Kalimantan Barat.

May,16th.1949.

The Postally Used Lettersheet postblad warkatpos ,from Batavia(Jakarta) to Semarang.with Wilhelmina stamps 10 sen.

 

 

May,25th.1949

General Spoor, commander of the Dutch in Indonesia, resigns. He dies of a heart attack on May 25.

May,29th.1949

The First Flight cover from amsterdam to Paramaribo

via Makassar celebes  in 29 May 1949

 

May,31th.1949.

(1)On May,31th.1949,

Panittia status Tapanoeli telah mengadakan suatu rapat di Taroetoeng yang dihadiri oleh lebih kurang 200 orang yang mewakili seluruh masyarakat demikian”Aneka”.

Diantara para hadirin juga terdapat beberapa orang terkemuka yang berhaluan Republik.

Setelah diadakan suatu perdebatan yang panjang lebar,maka rapat mengambil suatu resolusi ,dimana disetujui status ketatanegaraan untuk tapanuli.

Dalam suatu rapat di Balige,yang dihadiri oleh lebih kurang 700 orang, telah disetujui tujuan panitia status Tapanoeli. Pembentukan suatu Dewan Perwakilan Tapanoeli telah diperbincangkan dengan teliti,bahkan telah disertai dengan perayaan,demikian Aneta. Selanuutjnya juga di Sibolga telah diadakan rapat untuk memperbincangkan hal ini.Untuk pekerjaaan pembangunan kembali telah dibentuk suatu panitia yang diberinama “Pembangunan Bersama Saerah Tapanoeli”

(2) Postally used Posttas stationer card 5 sen send from bogor to Jatinegara,Prison  Bukit duri, a letter to the custodian at Bukit Duri prison with their officias stamped:” de factory Gevangenen kamp meester cornelis(very rare and only one ever seen-Dr Iwan note)

the letter :

Bogor 01/31/49

greetings and Happy

Thank God we say to the Divine Presence, this is blown over the first of our mouths, I arrived home safely.

Mas (elder brother) was ketir scenery and atmosphere, very different from what dahulu.Apa-aspired to in the fumble prisoners will all but I am not surprised.

While this is in addition to working on something, just stay home writing maaaf. Bogor air (air) was dinggin once.

Sofyan bung in Bogor is still working. What are the kurasai. only then can I be glad when there is no longer prisoners in Bukit Duri. Mas all these signs of suhardja letter, tell the brothers. Sorry for the other brothers

Bogor 31/1.49

salam dan Bahagia

Alhamdulilah kami ucapkan kepada hadirat Ilahi, atas inilah yang terhembus pertama-tama dari mulut kami,dengan selamat saya tiba dirumah.

Mas(elder brother) memang ketir pemandangan dan suasana ,amatlah berbeda dengan dahulu.Apa-apa yang dicita-citakan dalam tawanan meleset semua akan tetapi saya tidak heran.

Sementara ini selain mengerjakan sesuatu,hanya tinggal dirumah menulis maaaf. Bogor udaranya (hawa) terasa dinggin sekali.

bung Sofyan ada di Bogor masih  bekerja. Sedang apa yang kurasai. saya barulah dapat bersenang hati bila tak ada tawanan lagi di Bukit Duri. Mas semua inilah tanda surat dari suhardja,katakan kepada saudara-saudara. Kasihan pada saudara-saudara yang lain.

June 1949

June,7th,1949

the rare change of adress dancer 2 cen added overprint Indonesia federaal stampF 1.-,postally used via airmail from Malili(rare area) to Semarang ,

June,10th.1949

(1)Postally used circulair letter from the chineseoversees  Medical Doctor,Dental health and aphothekeer organiztions ,alaydrus street ,Central jacarta to the member with federal usa printing stamps 1 and 2 cent.

(2)Menurut keterangan Sultan Djokja ,pada hari ini lebih kurang seratus orang pembesar Republik dan orang partikelir beserta keluarga,oleh Belanda telah diangkut dari Magelang ke Djokja. Sebagai alasan orang-orang itu dianggap berbahaya untuk keamanan dan ketertiban  umum serta mereka mendapat pangilan pemerintah Repoeblik,sedangkan hal tersebut ternyata tidak benar.Hal ini telah dilaporkan kepada ketua delegasi Republik,supaya dengan perantaraan PBB diajukan protes.

Keterangan Sultan yang kedua ,mengenai soal pelemparan granat tangan dihalaman tempat kediaman Iboe Soekarno.Sultan menerangkan ,bahwa difihak orang Belanda ingin memperlihatkan kepada dunia ketridak sanggupan pemerintah republik untuk mempertahankan keamana dan ketertiban,jika telah dikembalikan ke Djokja dan bahwa kejadian itu dibesar-besarkan. Kabar yang mengatakan bersumber dari pihak Republik,bahwa granat tangan itu dilempar oleh pihak FDR dan bukanlah oleh PKI,menurut Sultan pihak resmi Republik sama sekali tidak tahu dan sampai sekarang rtidak ada bukti bahwa orang Indonesia yang telah melemparkanya. Akhirnyaditerangkan oleh Sultan bahwa sampai pada waktu Pemerintak Republik dikembalikan,maka tentara Belanda bertanggung Jawab atas keamanan penduduk di Djokja.

Sultan Jogja menerangkan dalam konperensi pers di Djokja sekembalinya dari kunjungan ke Jakarta dan Bangka ,bahwa kunjungan tersebut memberikan kepuasan. Mungkin dalam minggu ini akan diumumkan, kapan berlangsungnya penyerahan kekuasaan di Djokja oleh Belanda kepada republik.Kembalinya Presiden Soekarno dan Drs Moh Hatta beserta pemimpin rfepubli lainnya, sangat bisa terjadi dua atau tiga hari steelah terjadi penyerahan kedaulatan tersebut,hal ini juga tergantung kepada  keresidenan Djokja.

KETERANG Dr SOEKIMAN, Ketua Masjumi dr Soekimanpun telah memberi satu uraian yang panjang lebar tentang kunjungan Hatta ke Aceh. dikatakannya rombongan Hatta sangat menyesal karena sudah tidak dapat bertemu muka dengan Mr Sjafroeddin,akan tetapi ini tidaklah mengakibatkan hal yang tidak enak. Dr Soekiman menegaskan bahwa seluruh Aceh ada menyokong kesepakatan  van Royen-Roem.Sebelumnya Hatta datang di Aceh,pihak PNI sangat menentang persetujuan itu, akan tetapi pendirian ini telah berubah setelah Mr Ali Sastroamidjojo memberikan keterangan selengkapnya.  Dr Soekiman menceritakan juga, bahwa pada waktu sebelumnya rombongan pemimpin republik datang, lapangan terbang Longah di Aceh telah ditembaki dengan sanpan mesin dan dibom dari udara oleh pasukan Belanda.Tapi pihak militer belanda yang berkuasa menyangkal dengan keras keterangan tersbut diatas.

Pembantu Mimbar Oemoem di Djokja memberikan informasi dari Dr Halim,seorang anggota Badan Pekerja KNI(Komite nasional Indoensia), ia menerangkan bahwa setelah Pemerintah Republik nanti kembali ke Djokja, pada pokoknya ia setuju sekali dengan adanya kabinet parlementer , karena lebih demokratis dari kabinet Presidentiel. Tetapi menilik suasana pada waktu ini, justru dalam waktu peralihan ,figur-figur seperti Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta yang tidak terikat dalam salah satu patai atau golongan , masih diperlukan untuk dapat mengatasi segala pertentangan partai dan golongan sekalipun mereka itu  sebagai manusia juga tidak luput dari kesalahan dan kekurangan. Dr Halim setuju sekali bila diadakan resuffle kabinet buat menganti beberapa orang yang dipandang kurang kuat.

INTERVIEW WITH THE RESULTS dr.j.h. van Royen by BMDiah leader Merdeka newspaper published in the Daily Panarangan:

a. Apabilakah conceivably pemrintah Republican masters to come back? The answer: The Return of the Republic to Djokja is preceded by two terms: the evacuation of civilians and the achievement of a formula to hold a “Cease fuire order” which is being discussed by the two sub-commission for it, and I hope by the end of this week reached a command to stop fighting . Then with the Dutch troops will be withdrawn segrara mundur.Ini at least take a week and I beraharap at the end of this week reached a command to stop fighting.

b. The Conference will be held Bilakan bunda.Jawabannya table: Selaks as possible, I hope that after the Republic back and aprlemennya approve the agreement was made, it will be taken as a date destination July 15 to hold a Round table conference.

c.Bagaimanakah may hold an agency representative to welcome kedaulatn.Jika right for freedom and limited state of mind this people? only in Dutch-controlled area for those who want to follow the lead of the Netherlands while the class of the republic can not speak? he replied: I think the will of the people and independence of thought has already been firmly expressed desire for independence that would not indicate that there is a real will of the people? not the greatness of the popularity of President soekarno it as fact will of the people? However, regarding the matter of election of some form of state or constitutional legendary esuatu Indomnesia area had to be done together under international supervision. If the Dutch troops had withdrawn from the areas occupied by itself for both parties, for the followers of the Republic there is no reason to say that they are oppressed to express their opinions and for those who think differently should be gaining independence cukup.Pemilihan so this should be done under international supervision. In this case the limits of something where the sound was to be done pemunggutan also in harmony with a healthy mind. Self-determination sendir it properly recognized, but also in this great little area must ditemntukan first, for example by a constituent assembly.

d) if the master trust in the current Republican leaders opposed to host negotiations? answer: I sunguh put their trust in them. in connection with this question, the chairman of the Dutch delegation was advancing petanyaan replies: “Are People Indonesia will put their trust in them, also Kapau transfer of sovereignty has been done, we Jawan: Stay at least to their confidence in the Indonesian People depend on their results in the fight for independence by way talks with the host delegation led (headed), also with the wisdom of his leadership in running the master Lovink ini.Apabila approvals done in the land can be implemented with the help of masters and kepercayaabn Indonesia into larger nation against the Dutch government’s intention, then their position will be stronger and higher also harhat and their degrees in the eyes of the people, the more the days after the transfer of sovereignty.

FACTS ABOUT MR Roem RETURNS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF DJOKJA.Dalam a question and answer between the editor in chief harin Indonesia Merdeka with delegation chairman Mr.Moh.Roem, he stated that the Government return to Djokja Rrepublik within the next week is not yet possible, but can be expected to occur in this June as well. As is known by the sound of a communique slah United Nations Commission for Indonesia, the return of republican government may hope will happen daslam mid-June and the day that the Sultan of Yogyakarta ditentukan.Saat not been able to take over the government leadership seluruj Jogja around the 20th of June.

To the question whether the delay in the return of government to Djokja RFepublik caused difficulties djumpai about cease fire, Mr. Roem replied, delayed because of problems of refugees and the withdrawal of Dutch troops.

(Source of info: Panarangan Newspaper, Padang, 16 june 19 549)

 

 

HASIL WAWANCARA DENGAN dr.j.h. van Royen oleh  B.M.Diah pemimpin surat kabar Merdeka yang dimuat dalam harian Panarangan:

a. Apabilakah menurut pikiran tuan pemrintah Republik Dapat kembali? Jawabannya: Kembalinya Republik ke Djokja adalah didahului oleh dua syarat: evakuasi orang sipil dan kedua tercapainya suatu formula untuk mengadakan “Cease fuire order” yang sedang dibicarakan oleh kedua sub-komisi untuk itu,dan saya berharap pada akhir minggu ini tercapai bentuk perintah menghentikan pertempuran. Kemudian dengan segrara pasukan belanda akan ditarik mundur.Ini sekurang-kurangnya memakan waktu satu minggu dan saya beraharap pada akhir minggu ini tercapai bentuk perintah menghentikan pertempuran.

b. Bilakan akan diadakan Konperensi meja bunda.Jawabannya : Selaks-lekasnya,saya harap sesudah Republik kembali dan aprlemennya menyetujui persetujuan yang dibuat, maka akan diambil sebagai tanggal tujuan 15 Juli untuk mengadakan konperensi meja Bundar.

c.Bagaimanakah mungkin mengadakan suatu badan yang representatif untuk menyambut kedaulatan.Jika hak kemerdekaan dan menyatakan pikiran rakyat itu terbatas?hanya pada daerah yang dikuasai Belanda bagi mereka yang mau mengikuti pimpinan Belanda sedangkan golongan republik tidak dapat bersuara?jawabnya : Menurut hemat saya kehendak rakyat itu dan kemerdekaan menyatakan pikiran itu sudah tegas bukankah  keinginan untuk kemerdekaan itu menunjukkan bahwa ada kehendak rakyat yang nyata? bukankah kebesaran popularitas Presiden soekarno itu sebagai kenyataan kehendak rakyat? Akan tetapi mengenai soal pemilihan sesuatu bentuk negara atau ketatanegaraan daris esuatu daerah Indomnesia memang harus dilakukan bersama dibawah pengawasan Internasional. Apabila tentara belanda sudah ditarik dari daerah yang diduduki dengan sendirinya bagi kedua belah pihak,bagi pengikut Republik tidak ada alasan mengatakan bahwa mereka ditindas untuk menyatakan pendapatnya dan bagi mereka yang berpikiran  lain haruslah mendapat kemerdekaan cukup.Pemilihan demikian ini harus dilakukan dibawah pengawasan Internasional. Dalam hal ini batas-batas sesuatu tempat dimana dilakukan pemunggutan suara itu haruslah pula selaras dengan pikiran yang sehat. Hak menentukan nasib sendir itu benar diakui,tetapi juga dalam hal ini besar kecil daerah itu harus ditemntukan lebih dahulu,umpamanya oleh konstituante.

d) apakah tuan menaruh kepercayaan pada pemimpin Republik yang sekarang lawan tuan berunding?jawabannya: Saya sunguh menaruh kepercayaan kepada mereka. berhubung dengan pertanyaan ini,ketua delegasi belanda itu memajukan petanyaan balasan:”Apakah Rakyat Indonesia akan menaruh kepercayaan kepada mereka,juga kapau penyerahan kedaulatan  sudah dilakukan, jawan kita : Tetap tidaknya kepercayaan Rakyat Indonesia kepada mereka tergantung kepada hasil mereka dalam memperjuangkan kemerdekaan dengan jalan berunding dengan delegasi yang tuan pimpin(ketuai),Juga dengan kebijaksanaan tuan Lovink dalam menjalankan pimpinannya dinegeri ini.Apabila persetujuan yang diperbuat dapat dilaksanakan dengan penuh bantuan tuan-tuan dan kepercayaabn bangsa Indonesia menjadi lebih besar terhadap maksud pemerintah Belanda,maka kedudukan mereka akan lebih kuat  dan lebih tinggi pula harhat dan derajat mereka dimata rakyat,lebih-lebih dimasa sesudah penyerahan kedaulatan.

KETERANGAN MR ROEM TENTANG PENGEMBALIAN PEMERINTAHAN REPUBLIK KE DJOKJA.Dalam suatu tanya jawab antara pemimpin redaksi harin Merdekan denga ketua delegasi Indonesia Mr.Moh.Roem, beliau menyatakan bahwa pengembalian Pemerintah Rrepublik ke Djokja  dalam minggu depan ini belum mungkin , tapi bisa diharap akan terjadi dalam bulan Juni ini juga. Seperti diketahui menurut bunyi slah satu komunike Komisi PBB untuk Indonesia,pengembalian pemerintahan republik dapat diharap akan terjadi dalam pertengahan bulan Juni dan harinya tidak ditentukan.Saat itu Sultan Jogja sudah dapat mengambil alih pimpinan pemerintahan seluruj Jogja sekitar tanggal 20 juni.

Atas pertanyaan apakah tertundanya pengembalian pemerintahan Republik ke Djokja disebabkan kesukaran yang djumpai soal cease fire, Mr Roem menjawab, tertunda karena adanya soal pengungsi dan penarikan tentara Belanda.

(sumber info: Panarangan Newspaper,Padang,16 june 1949)

 

June,13th.1949

Mr.Mohammad Roem visit “Sekolah RakyaT”(people school” at Dukuh (two photo)

June,14th.1949

Mr van Maarseveen had pointed as the Dutch menistry of oversees area(menteri usrusa n saerah seberang lautan) , and the menistry will visit Indonesia in order the get the general situation, and Mr van Schaik as the Dutch menistry of internal affair(menteri dalam Negeri)

June,16th.1949

(1)The Postal used letetr from Chinese oversead Medical doctor,Dentish and Aphother organization with NICA USA stamps 2 sen dan 1 sen.

(2)The Federal state PTT official letter to Mr Soewil first Class officer PTT Padang from the Chief of PTTT 4th area (Sumatra) C.den Haan about mr Soewil moving to Laboehan Bilik Est sumatra.

(3)PANARAGAN NEWS PAPER from PADANG

 

Information from Panarangan newspaper from Padang West Sumatra Wensday,June,15th.1949.,:

(1)Round Table Conference at Den Haag May be Agust 1st 1949.

(2)The PDRI(Pemrintah Daroerat Rep8ublik Indonesia) accept the Roem-Royen Agreement with condition(dengan syatat)

(3) Dutch must “Mengakui Kedaulatan” the sovereign of Republic Indonesia State (NRI) on Java,sumatra,Madura and the island around it

(4)The Federalis of Sumatra want to meet Mr Sjafroeddin: Warta Indonesia newspaper had recievd informations that the Sumatra Federalis leaders want to meet the leader of PDRI(Pemerintah Daroerat Repoeblik Indonesia) ,Mr Sjafroeddin Prawiranegara.The Main speking about the status of Aceh and Nias to the Sumatra Federal state and the  status of Sumatra in relationship commjunication with another area in Indonesia.

.

June,19th,1949

(1) The very rare Est Sumatra Stae(Negara sumatra Timur) Merriage act(Surat Kawin Negraa Sumatra Timur Bahagian agama ,with the emblem of NST.)

(2)June, 11th.1949
Postally used cover from cds batavia centrum to Jogja, with 10 cent wilh  wilhelmina stamp.the included love letter:

My thoughts.

At a time when dusk blind chickens, mountains visible in the sky golden yellow, signifying the king’s almost night and day.

There was no view except from the sky that surround the house hatiku.Dibelakang porters and field, faint eye could see that look just tegals verdant. The city that became the center of my life. The first time I began to see the natural beauty authorized.

… City of Jakarta, a city that permai.Hati Nica-flirt seduce the news Lien family circumstances disini.Kebetulan dik at that time I was playing around at home like Ni and we were sitting diserambi muka.Sekonyang suddenly there came a letter carrying postbode addressed to Ms. Ni and saw the letter before I can know that the letter from Dik Lien. After we settle for words and we chatted to go home, feeling that it received a letter from a friend or sis comes home famili.After  stepped into the room really was a letter located on the table. Whose letter from hell?

I know the last new letter from you and the inner I  understand. with news and discussion of the letter was as if a fortune alighted dibadanku, well, apparently dik Lien wrote kemari.Aku count (say) many thanks for your kindness that the brothers want to waste the time to write letters and will not forget us family here, hopefully saj onwards. Have younger brother received a letter from dik Seger, they all have in Semarang open. Hanyas my family who still live in Yogyakarta, the same mother and my sister is in salatiga, only the father who still  living in mobile jogya.We  always thinking about it why they can not go back as soon as possible bersama.Mungkin dik Lien had received a letter from Supartinah salatiga. Perhaps they were still there long, since waiting for the arrival of the father of Jogya.Kami herein have not been to school only temporarily akat take privatlessen pending in August is coming up and we had to comply with the Federal government, because there was no school here, but not why the sister Republic of study and participate remember in my soul like a son of Indonesia. Lien dik certainly not going to open the school.Wah kasiahan deh if  remember the  kid in Yogyakarta patiently educating school, It will soon be restored, by itself you can study  with tenang as usual.

seringkah (always) dik Lien met with Sud. He was still with you. Does he always tells me its after my peaving .How  close to him to convey greetings.

Well so enough news from me, worship me for RAMA (father ), tante (aunt ) and Mukarta Mbak, Mas Slamet and thank you …… unforgetable my nationality salut for you , MERDEKA!

June,21th.1949

the rare postcard from Onderneming(Plantation) Dolok Oeloe  Deli-Batavia Rubber Maatshapij(Factory) with  Ned Indie 5 cent stamps CDS Pematang Sianatar 21.6.49.

(b) The photo of presdient Soekarno and  VIce Presiden Hatta  press conference with American jourlanist at Bangka Island  which they were “Diasingkan” (four photos)

 June 24t1949.

Dutch troops begin evacuating Yogya

June,25th 1949

First flight cover from Amsterdam to Paramarino via Makassar,send cover from makssar with DEI Nica stamps

First fligh cover send from Pangkal Ping  via Batavia to shanghai

June,27th,1949

Delivery of truce negotiations and Sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia

On June 27, 1949 Principles of Agreement “Rum Royen” announced the contents of which include the peghentian tenbak firing from both sides. On August 1, 1949 signed the joint agreement “Termination Shoot Shoot” from both sides. Implementation is disseminated through radio announcements, the overall wire TNI in the archipelago. Meanwhile, from the dutch H. Y. Lovink act as Deputy Supreme Crown of the Netherlands in Jakarta, delivered throughout the Netherlands Army. Cessation of gunfire followed and supervised by UNCI and after poko agreement is implemented then continue the Round Table Conference in The Hague.

At Edinburgh on August 3, 1949 announced the termination shootout by the power of the Dutch military, with emphasis on instruction / command termination Shoot Shoot it in the form of pamphlets that circulated from the airplane because the position of the TNI in the pockets of guerrillas.

This leaflet was signed by the Military Governor of South Sumatra Dr. A. K. Gani, which reads as follows: “THE ORDER OF SUPREME COMMANDER TTKD TNI. AUTHORITY GIVEN KON.SUM.KOL. Hidayat, THEN SOUTH SUMATRA TO ALL ORDERS AND UNITY TNI AGENCY OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE OF SHOOTS AND SHOOT STOPPING HOSTILITY AND REMAIN place EACH DATED 03 AUGUST 1949 FROM 24.00 HOURS. INDONESIA TIME COMMAND TTK HBS Dr. A.K. Gani “.

The original wire is directly delivered by the Military Governor of South Sumatra to the Government Resident of the Emergency Civil Affairs Sub Commander Territorial Edinburgh and Edinburgh.

As a continuation of the wire termination shootout by the Military Governor of South Sumatra was issued on the instruction-instruction as follows:

1. Notice to the commander-the commander of Force (Battalion, Company, Section) regarding the determination of the TNI hangout for each unit of concentration.

2. To be held talks between Vice TBA Introduction of Van Schendel and Lieutenant Colonel A. G. W. Navis with the Local Joint Committee consisting of Colonel Abunjani, Regent M. Kamil and major Brori Mansyur.

Fire Ceas order not to breach the ceasefire by each of the warring parties and based on the results of the meeting Estuary Tembesi October 27, 1949 between Indonesia and the Netherlands under the coordination UNCI / Three Nations Commission agreed that all troops should leave and empty pockets . To that end, representatives of the Local Joint Committee TNI Major Brori Mansyur and from the Dutch Lieutenant Wolterbeck use the facility held a meeting Dutch BO Motor / meetings with the leaders of the Front Tungkal Area, which was attended, among others, Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside, Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR, Hasan Buimin Sergeant Major, Sergeant Major Sergeant Arwansyah Syamsi with bodyguards, in the first week of November 1949 in the Trenches Deli (Tungkal Ilir) deliver instruction and manage technical implementation of TNI forces evacuations in place of concentration Merlung Battalion joined the staff of Gatot Kaca and co- colleagues from the Front Sengeti Area. While waiting for the next settlement, supply and logistical aid sent periodically to the Tungkal Ulu by the Dutch facility administered by the Joint Committee staff.

Evacuation is obvious disappointment for the troops Tungkal Area, let alone the countryside except the city of Kuala Tungkal, merupaka intact areas of the Republic of Indonesia by people who Republikien, but by realizing greater importance in the struggle. There is no other alternative, but to follow evacuation instructions, with a heavy heart and tears during a farewell to the people who like fish and water unite in the struggle for Sports and grief of this beloved Republic of Indonesia.

Perundingan Genjatan Senjata dan Penyerahan Kedaulatan Republik Indonesia

Pada tanggal 27 Juni 1949 Pokok-pokok Persetujuan “Rum Royen” diumumkan yang isinya antara lain mengenai peghentian tenbak menembak dari kedua belah pihak. Pada tanggal 1 Agustus 1949 ditanda tangani persetujuan bersama “Penghentian Tembak Menembak” dari kedua belah pihak. Pengumuman pelaksanaannya disebarkan melalui radio, kawat keseluruhan jajaran TNI di Nusantara. Sedangkan dari pihak belanda H. Y. Lovink bertindak sebagai Wakil Tertinggi Mahkota Belanda di Jakarta, menyampaikan keseluruh Tentara Belanda. Penghentian tembak menembak ini diikuti dan diawasi oleh UNCI dan setelah poko persetujuan ini dilaksanakan barulah dilanjutkan Konferensi Meja Bundar di Den Haag.

Di Jambi pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1949 diumumkan penghentian tembak menembak oleh KUasa Militer Belanda, dengan memperbanyak intruksi/Perintah Penghentian Tembak Menembak itu dalam bentuk surat selebaran yang disebarkan dari pesawat udara karena kedudukan TNI berada di kantong-kantong gerilya.

Selebaran ini ditandatangani oleh Gubernur Militer Sumatera Selatan Dr. A. K. Gani, yang berbunyi sebagai berikut: “ATAS PERINTAH PANGLIMA TERTINGGI TNI TTKD. KUASA DIBERIKAN KON.SUM.KOL. HIDAYAT, MAKA SUMATERA SELATAN MEMERINTAHKAN KEPADA SEMUA KESATUAN TNI SERTA BADAN PERJUANGAN RAKYAT YANG BERSENJATA MENGHENTIKAN TEMBAK MENEMBAK DAN PERMUSUHAN SERTA TETAP DITEMPAT MASING-MASING MULAI TANGGAL 03 AGUSTUS 1949 JAM 24.00. WAKTU INDONESIA TTK PERINTAH HBS Dr. A.K. GANI”.

Asli kawat ini langsung disampaikan oleh Gubernur Militer Sumatera Selatan kepada Pemerintah Sipil Darurat Residen RI Jambi dan Komandan Sub Teritorial Jambi.

Sebagai kelanjutan dari kawat penghentian tembak menembak oleh Gubernur Militer Sumatera Selatan tersebut dikeluarkan pada intruksi-intruksi sebagai berikut:

1. Pemberitahuan kepada Komanda-komandan Pasukan (Batalyon, Kompi, Seksi) TNI tentang penentuan tempat berkumpul masing-masing kesatuan konsentrasi.

2. Supaya diadakan Perundingan Pendahuluan antara Wakil TBA yang terdiri dari Van Schendel dan Letnan Kolonel A. G. W. Navis dengan Local Joint Commitee yang terdiri dari Kolonel Abunjani, Bupati M. Kamil dan mayor Brori Mansyur.

Ceas Fire agar jangan sampai terjadi pelanggaran gencatan senjata tersebut oleh masing-masing pihak yang berperang dan berdasarkan hasil rapat Muara Tembesi 27 Oktober 1949 antara RI dan Belanda di bawah koordinasi UNCI/Komisi Tiga Negara disetujui bahwa semua pasukan TNI harus meninggalkan dan mengosongkan kantong-kantong. Untuk itu, utusan Local Joint Committee dari TNI Mayor Brori Mansyur dan dari pihak Belanda Letnan Satu Wolterbeck mempergunakan fasilitas Motor BO Belanda mengadakan rapat/pertemuan dengan Pimpinan Front Tungkal Area yang dihadiri antara lain Letnan Muda A. Fattah Leside, Sersan mayor Kadet Madhan. AR, Sersan Mayor Buimin Hasan, Sersan Mayor Arwansyah dengan pengawal Sersan Dua Syamsi, pada minggu pertama November 1949 di Parit Deli (Tungkal Ilir) menyampaikan intruksi dan mengatur tekhnis Pelaksanaan Evakuasi Pasukan TNI ketempat konsentrasi di Merlung bergabung dengan staf Batalyon Gatot Kaca dan rekan-rekan dari Front Sengeti Area. Selama menunggu penyelesaian selanjutnya, bantuan suplay dan logistik dikirim secara periodic ke Tungkal Ulu oleh fasilitas Belanda yang diatur oleh petugas Joint Committee.

Evakuasi tersebut jelas menimbulkan kekecewaan bagi pasukan Tungkal Area, apalagi daerah pedalaman kecuali kota Kuala Tungkal, utuh merupaka daerah Republik Indonesia dengan rakyatnya yang Republikien, tetapi dengan menyadari kepentingan yang lebih besar dalam perjuangan. Tidak ada alternatif lain, selain mematuhi intruksi evakuasi tersebut, dengan berat hati dan tetesan air mata sewaktu terjadi perpisahan dengan rakyat yang manunggal seperti ikan dan air dalam sukan maupun dukanya perjuangan menegakkan Republik Indonesia tercinta ini.

 

 

 

 

June, 29th.1949

Indonesian troops enter Yogya.from south sector lead by Let.col soeharto(later presiden Indonesia) and north Sector lead by Col.Djatikusumo, look the picture of them with Sri Paku Alam.

 

 

June,30th.1949.

The Postally used private Banjarmasin “Depot Masa “book store  cover,send from cds Banjarmasin to Bing Sin ‘s Book store Surabaya-simpang..

July 1949

The photo of high dutch commisaris nigh  Lovink ‘sreception in june 1949,the chiel of Repoeblik Indonesia delegation Mr.Moh Roem “hadir’ (two photos)

July, 1st.1949

Jawa Pos (Djawa Post) newspaper publishes first issue in Surabaya.

 

 

 

July,3rd.1949

the picture of Sultan Yogja with the leader of military grilya at Kepatihan

July,4th.1949

(1)the rare official free stamps cover from cds Djambi 4.7.50 to Batavia(very arre cover from Djambi because in 1949 until July under PDRI state,and after PDRI gave the autority to NRI Jogya,Djambi became federal state until the soeverinity to RIS december.27th.1949(only five month under federal state)

 

 

 

 

(2) The Batavia’s Chinese overseas Medical doctor,dentist and aphothekeer organization circulair letter with smelt 3 sen stamp  to the member Dr Tung sin Nio (the first lady doctor from Medical Faculty of Indonesia University)

July,5th.1949

(a)Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, the leader of PDRI cs ready back to  Yogya “dijemput” by Dr Leimena and Moh Natsir and before depature Moh.Natsir speaking(pidato) ,also Sjafruddin Prawiranegara and other realted pictures(five  photos )

(b) the meeting between  Dutch delegation and Indonesian delegation  supervied by United Nation at Yogja on this day.

July 6th,1949

(a) President Soekarno arrived at Yogja this day, also another menistry Ali sastroatmidjojo,Haji Agus salim.(two photosZ)

(b)Republican government returns to Yogya. Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX receives Sukarno and Hatta at the Kraton.

July,7th.1949

(a)Sjafruddin Prawiranegara arrive at Kemyoan airport from suamtra(six photos)

(b) Sjafruddin Prawiranegara arrived at Yogja( five photos) and  meeting with president soekarno(three photos)

 

July,8th.1949

(1)Tanggal 8 juli 1949,didesa Krejo Kecamatan Ponjong, daerah Gunung Kendeng, saya(Rosihan anwar) dan Letkol Soeharto(kelak jadi presiden) bertemu presiden Soekarno  dan Wakil Presiden Hatta  untuk meratakan jalan kearah dimulainya KMB(konperensi meja Bundar)  di den Haag(napak tilas KMB,kompas,28 januari 2010)

(2)Panglima Besar General sudirman arrived at Yogja freom gureilla  area, “disambut” welcome by the chief of PDRI Syafruddin prawiranegraa (two photos)

 

Let.col.Suharto(later presiden RI) behind General sudirman.

(3) Postally used Book store “Kamadjoean” Semarang’s private cover, send from Semarang to Surabia. 

July,12th.1949

Postally used  Postal stationer  briefkaart_Kartoepos stationer 5 sen, send from stairgt Stamped TEMANGGOENG  to Semarang (rare post mark).

July ,13th.1949

(a)Power is transferred back from the emergency PDRI government under Prawiranegara to the Republican government in Yogya under Sukarno.Dutch-created states hold conference, support joining the Republic.

(b) After transferred of Power fro PDRI, begin the first NRI Cabinet meeting(bersidang) at Yogjakarta.( one photo)

 

 

(c) The Dutch delegation  lead by DR. Van Royen arrived at Maguwo airtport Yogja, welcome by the Indonesian delegiati n leader Mr.Moh Roem (two photoa)  and at night for the distinguist guest ,presiden Soekarno made the reception(one photos)

 

 

August 1949

Republic troops retake Surakarta.

The rarest Indonesian revolutionary stamps was Surakarta Military Stamp,

issued during august 1949 for a military service in the Surakarta(Solo) area after the Dutch had taken over nearly all Republican areans on.Java,500 copies were printed,of which about 25 exist today.Mr Vrijdag have one on cover appear to be unique.light karang-Pandan 15….,on home made cover to surabaia,envelope made from a PT Surakarta official circulare about collection oftaxes(the illustration very bad,but I try to repaired with modern digital technologic.This the only one I ever seen until now)

This rare stamps without gum .design by Djoko Koentoro,info from dai Nippon club catalogue,look below

DR Iwan ever seen  five collection,one used off cover from Dai Nippon catalogue

And three from Indonesian collections harijanto Surabaya,ariesta jogya,and one trader in Jakarta.

Also block three from Suwito harsoono collections,at least block eight ex collections lakmana suryadarma-thung Kimtek and now belonging to Jakarta collectors trader Erick.

(I donnot have this rare stamps because too many fake one,and I want tke used on cover,still hunting until now-Dr Iwan note)

The Military Surakrta stamps information from V.Esbensen Catalogue 1980:

Surakarta Military stamp issued during August 1949 for a military postal services in Surakarta(Solo) area after the Dutch had taken over nearly all republican areas on Java.500 copies were printed,of which 25 exist today(added block eight ex suraydarma ,Tung Kim Tek now Eric collection and bloc three ex Suwito collection,total 36 exist).Revenue stamps(I ever seen) and a postal card(I never seen) exist today.The following cover(look above) appears to be unique,only one evers seen until now.

In Esbensen catalogue only one used  send from Karang Pandan to soerabaja on home made cover of  PTT Surakarta official circulair about  collections of Taxes

 

In July 2012,

New info from my friend via facebook,he found two block eight Soerakarta Military Stamps in mint unperforrated plate block 0150 and 0473 , are these genuine or fake still in research, thus same with Ir Eric collections of ex General suryadarma collections. please comment from the senior philatelist

 

 

August,4th.1949

The Rare  food distribution zegel label , for used in the Ombilin coal mine store Sawahloento West Sumatra.

August 7th.1949

Darul Islam movement formally breaks with the Republic of Indonesia.

August,9th.1949

The rare Money Order (binnenlanden Postwissel) send from pontianak in city with smelt 121/2 sen stamps.

August, 11th.1949

Ceasefire on Java.

August 12th 1949

Postally used federal state postal stationer smelt 2 sen send from Pajakumbuh with federal postal Satmped CDS Republik Indonesia stamped which the  rep Indonesia clean off(dibersihkan) to Van Dorp book store Batavia centrum(jakarta pusat)(This special  card send from Mr W.D my senior  phillatelist friend’s farther Dr Adnan  W.D, the medical doctor in Payakumbuh where my father and grandfather live during Dai Nippon Occupation,my sister Elina born there in 1947-Dr iwan Notes)

August, 15th.1949

a)Ceasefire on Sumatra.Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya coordinates handovers from Dutch to Republic.Dutch begin releasing 12,000 prisoners.

b) in this day Rosihan anwar,senior reporter, by Skymaster airoplane depature from Jakarta and arriev schipol airport in august 17th 1949.

c)postally used cover from batavia centrum with ovpt Indonesia stamps to semarang

August,17th,1949.

In this day the Indonesia KMB delegation arrive schipol airpot and staright to Kurhaus. Prime menister Moh Hatta made anniversary of Indonesia Independece Proclamation reseption, at the reseption Rosihan anwar seen Sultan hamid from pomntianak, Anak Agung Gde Agung ZPrime menister of NIT(negara Indonesia Timur) they were the BFO leader,also Dutch employeed.

 

The pamphlet in 17 august 1949 four year Indonesian Independent  proclamations

 

the 4th anniversary of Indonesian independence – August 17, 1949

The Dutch economy was very dependent upon the wealth coming from its southeast Asian colony —
and the Dutch were in no

Crowds in Djakarta celebrating the 4th anniversary of Indonesian independence – August 17, 1949

Achmed Sukarno challenging his Indonesian countrymen to grand acts of patriotism

 

 

 

 

August,19th.1949

the official free stamps cover from Resident Ommelanden batavia Meestercornelis(jatinegara) to Batavia centrum(Jakarta pusat),rare postally used cover from jambi,because  Jambi still fight with Dutch army until june 1949.(provenanance Dr Iwan At Jakarta in 2011)

 

(b) After Presiden soekarno and vice Prsediedent Moh.Hatta back to Yogja, The PDRI  Sjafruddi PrawiraNearaa hasd gave back the NRI Gouvernment ’s  Mandat to them. and on august,20th.1948, the instruction of Vive Prime menistry for Sumatra at Kutaradja for vice the the central Gouvernment, with the president instruction ,the vice Prime menistry will helped by the Dewan pembantu and Penasehat(advisor) which consist The Gouvernment comisaris(Komisaris Pemerintah) for north sumatra,Central sumatra and south sumatra and Panglima Tentara and Territorial Sumatra

 

August,20th.1949

The Advocate cover send registered  from  Pontianak  to same  city Potianak with wilhelmina stamp,overprint indonesia and smelt numeric stamp rate 35 sen . this time Pontianak as the Dewan Kalimantan Barat State,lead by Sultan Hamid II.

Provenance Dr Iwan  at Pontianak In 1992

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 23 th.1949

1)Round Table conference begins in the Hague. Hatta head delegation for the Republic of Indonesia, Sultan of Pontianak heads delegation from the Dutch-created states.

2)Postal Used cover send from Bangkalan CDS 23.8.49 to Sorabaia CDS  24.8.49 (rare cover send during KMB Round Table conference.)

3) Special Post Mark Ronde Tafel conference s’gravenhage 1949 send from s’grafeluke zaal 23.8.49 to Althier.

4)Bagaimana jalannya KMB? Tiga delegasi yang berunding Belanda,Republik Indonesia,Golongan Federal yang dihimpun dalam Bijzonder Fedral Overleg(BFO) .Dalam praktik Republik dan BFO menyatu bila menghadapi Belanda, beberapa Komisi dibentuk :Komisi politik :  disana Bung Hatta domina, Ekonomi ,disana DR Sumitro Djojohadikusumo menyangkal kebenaran angka-angka utang yang diajukan Belanda, Komisi Pertahanan,dimana Republik diwakili oleh DR J.Leimena dan Kolonel TB Simatupang serta Komisi Kebudayaan dima Mr ali Sastroamijoyo berperan.

Hasil KMB, Belanda tidak bersedia menyerahkan Papua (Irian) Barat  kepada Republik Indonesia Seikat.Penyelesaiaannya ditangguhkan untuk masas satu tahun , RIS harus mengoper hutang Belanda yang telah dibuatnya dalm memrangi NRI 4.100 Juta Gulden,sedangkan menurut hitungan Sumitro justru Belanda yang berutang kepada Indonesia 500 juta gulden.di bidang pertahanan  Belanda mau membikin tentara KNIL sebagai intisari tentara RIS, ini ditolak dengan tegas oleh Leimena dan TB Simatupang akhirnya Belanda setuju TNI kekuatan pokok tentara RIS.Belanda tetap tidak mau mengakui proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 oleh Sukarno-Hatta, Belanda hanya mengakui penyerahan kedaulatan tanggal 27 Desember 1949 sebagai bermulanya negara merdeka berdaulat berbentuk Federal yaitu RIS.

World Recognition and Indonesia’s Sovereignty

The Round Table conference was opened in the Hague on August 23, 1949, under the auspices of the UN. It was
concluded on November 2 with an agreement that Holland was to recognize the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia.

 

 

September 1949

Sept.5th.1949

On the 5th of September 1949 talks held in Bangko  Regents Office, the delegation of the Local Joint Committee escorted the heavily armed military section with a red and white flag.

Negotiations went lancer with the results as follows:

1. The concentration of military forces

a. Troops belonging to the battalion “Gatot Kaca” gathered at the Port Merlung and Trade, as a liaison officer Lieutenant Junior ditnjuk A. Hadi

b. Troops belonging to the Battalion “Cindur Mato” gathered in Rantau Ikil and Land Grows, as Liaison Officer was appointed Second Lieutenant M. Nawawi.

c. Troops belonging to the Battalion “Gajah Mada” gathered at the Bangko as Liaison Officer was appointed Lieutenant Suhaimi.

2. Pemberitahun

a. Notification to the concentration and position in the cease-fire Battalion Commander Sub territory handed over to Edinburgh via couriers.

b. All will be summoned to the Battalion Commander Tembesi Estuary and will be given instructions by Major Brori Mansyur Local Joint Committee as Members of Indonesia Jambi area.

c. Prior to October 10, 1949, the Dutch Army had to be withdrawn from towns outside the city of Edinburgh, and was replaced by TNI troops.

d. Dutch assistance was sought in the transfer of members of the TNI from the pockets of concentration Guerrilla place.

e. Wasted Ayang troops will occupy the Muara Tebo.

f. Forces BT, BB, CPM Team, Police Squad’s time to move to the Air samapai thunder where Dutch troops will leave the Muara Bungo so that these forces immediately occupied the Muara Bungo.

g. Regarding Troops Battalion Gatot Kaca, Major Brori Mansyur held the first talks between the envoys battalion Gatot Kaca Captain (N) Soerjono with leaders of the Dutch Army Detachment, Kuala Tungkal tensions. Major Brori Mansyur accompanied by Major Z. Rivai directly intervened to negotiate with Chief of Staff Captain Wolterbeck Regiment in the Trenches Deli Dutch Kuala Tungkal.

After a full explanation is given, then the TNI in Kuala Tungkal willing to concentrate on Tungkal Ulu, namely TNI CPM Squad led by Sergeant Major A. Murad Alwi, Navy forces under the command of Sergeant Major T. Arwansyah, while the police led by Inspector Mahyuddin remain in Kuala Tungkal

 

 

September,8th,1949

Departemen van Gezonheid(Health) roundschrijfen(round letter) about the International certificate of Pooken(cacar or variolla) vaccinatie(vactination). send to all health office in Indonesia federal state send b y the secratary of Healt department Dr G.Sieburg:

1.Inspectuer v.gezonheid Oost-java Suarbaya, Batavia,Semarang,Padang and sabang.

2.Residentie artsen(Medical doctor) banjarmasin,Samarinda,pontianak,Pangkalpinang,and tanjungpinang.

3.Menistry of Healt Negara te Pasoendan(Pasundan state)(the menistry was my friend father Dr Kornel singawinata,look his picture in December ,27th.1949).

3.Health and Social departemen of Negara Sumatera Selatan.Palembang.(Osut sumatra State)

4. Menistry of heakt Negara Indonesia Timur NIT(east Indonesia State) at Makasssar.

5. menistry of Healt Negara sumatra timur(East sumatra State) at Medan

6, the chief of Health departement at batavia

7.Directir of Pasteur Insttitue at bandung

8. The Seaport Medical doctor at Tandjoeng Priok,Soerabaja,Semarang,Makasa,belawan.

with the variolla certicate form.

September,28th.1949

September,28th.1949

28.9.48, Erstflugbrief KLM Batavia-Bangkok-Shanghai mit Buntfrankatur[ Brief]

Sekian terima kasih para filatelis indonesia sudah berkunjung ke web blog saya, saya tunggu komentar anda, sebelumnya terima kasih atas info yang anda upload di FB

jika masih penasaran silahkan lihat dan klik

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salam dari

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Koleksi Sejarah Kesehatan Indonesia(Health History Collections)

Koleksi Sejarah Kesehatan Indonesia

(Indonesia health History Collections)

Marie Thomas, wanita Indonesia pertama yg lulus dari Sekolah Dokter Jawa (thn 1922) #sejarahIndonesia 

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Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

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 Marie Thomas, wanita Indonesia pertama yg lulus dari Sekolah Dokter Jawa (thn 1922) #sejarahIndonesia

 

Marie Thomas

 

STOVIA 

Di Hindia Belanda pada tahun 1851

 Sebuah sekolah kedokteran didirikan , dokter pertama sekolah Djawa dan Sekolah Kedokteran kemudian disebut (Sekolah Sampai Training Of Dokter Pribumi).

Untuk waktu yang lama itu hanya terbuka untuk anak laki-laki pribumi. Mungkin Aletta Jacobs, dokter wanita pertama di Belanda, mempengaruhi penerimaan anak perempuan ke Fakultas Kedokteran

Tentu saja selama tur dunianya pada April 18, 1912, ia  bertemu dengan Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda AWF Idenburg. 

Sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh surat perjalanannya yang  menghimbau  penerimaan gadis-gadis untuksekolah   kedokteran:
“Bahkan ketika membahas dokter wanita untuk wanita pribumi dan rumah sakit untuk para wanita, hanya bantuan medis perempuan dan pelatihan Dokter Djawas  wanita, yang mulia   itu lebih dekat kepada kita daripada banyak pejabat dengan isu-isu yang telah kita bahas sebelumnya. 
 

Sampai sekarang  seluruh  gadis pribumi  yang mendaftar untuk Sekolah Dokter Djawa ,  selalu kembali keluar  dengan  dalih, tapi hanya karena kesulitan  para pemegang  kekuasaan di departemen  tetapi juga karena kesulitan bagi  orang-orang muda untuk menerima pendidikan kedokteran yang  terlalu berat dan  merasa tidak cukup  keinginan untuk  memiliki dokter wanita dari  wanita pribumi  “[i].

 Baca Lebih Lanjut

STOVIA, Sejarah Tonggak Kebangkitan Nasional

 

School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen (bahasa Indonesia: Sekolah Pendidikan Dokter Hindia), atau yang juga dikenal dengan singkatannya STOVIA, adalah sekolah untuk pendidikan dokter pribumi di Batavia pada zaman kolonial Hindia-Belanda.

Saat ini sekolah ini telah menjadi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia.

 
Sejarah Berdirinya STOVIA
Kekhawatiran akan kurangnya tenaga juru kesehatan untuk menghadapi berjangkitnya berbagai macam penyakit berbahaya di wilayah-wilayah jajahannya, membuat pemerintah kolonial menetapkan perlunya diselenggarakan suatu kursus juru kesehatan di Hindia Belanda. Pada 2 Januari 1849, dikeluarkanlah Surat Keputusan Gubernemen no. 22 mengenai hal tersebut, dengan menetapkan tempat pendidikannya di Rumah Sakit Militer (sekarang RSPAD Gatot Subroto) di kawasan Weltevreden, Batavia (sekarang Gambir dan sekitarnya).

Pada tahun 5 Juni 1853,

kegiatan kursus juru kesehatan ditingkatkan kualitasnya melalui Surat Keputusan Gubernemen no. 10 menjadi Sekolah Dokter Djawa, dengan masa pendidikan tiga tahun.

Lulusannya berhak bergelar “Dokter Djawa”, akan tetapi sebagian besar pekerjaannya adalah sebagai mantri cacar.

Selanjutnya Sekolah Dokter Djawa yang terus menerus mengalami perbaikan dan penyempurnaan kurikulum.

Pada tahun 1889

namanya diubah menjadi School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Geneeskundigen (atau Sekolah Pendidikan Ahli Ilmu Kedokteran Pribumi),

lalu pada tahun 1898

diubah lagi menjadi School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen (atau Sekolah Dokter Pribumi).

Akhirnya pada tahun 1913,

diubahlah kata Inlandsche (pribumi) menjadi Indische (Hindia) karena sekolah ini kemudian dibuka untuk siapa saja, termasuk penduduk keturunan “Timur Asing” dan Eropa, sedangkan sebelumnya hanya untuk penduduk pribumi. Pendidikan dapat diperoleh oleh siapa saja yang lulus ujian dan masuk dengan biaya sendiri.

Lahirnya Boedi Oetomo
Budi Utomo (ejaan Soewandi: Boedi Oetomo) adalah sebuah organisasi pemuda yang didirikan oleh Dr. Sutomo pada tanggal 20 Mei 1908.

Berdirinya Budi Utomo menjadi awal gerakan yang bertujuan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia walaupun pada saat itu organisasi ini awalnya hanya ditujukan bagi golongan berpendidikan Jawa.

Saat ini tanggal berdirinya Budi Utomo, 20 Mei, diperingati sebagai Hari Kebangkitan Nasional.

Latar Belakang Lahirnya Boedi Oetomo
Budi Utomo lahir dari inspirasi yang dikemukakan oleh Wahidin Soedirohoesodo alumnus Sekolah Dokter Djawa, disaat beliau sedang berkeliling ke setiap sekolah untuk menyebarkan beasiswa, salah satunya di STOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen).

Sejak saat itu, mahasiswa STOVIA mulai terbuka pikirannya dan mereka mulai mengadakan pertemuan-pertemuan dan diskusi yang sering dilakukan di perpustakaan STOVIA oleh beberapa mahasiswa, antara lain Soetomo, Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemo, Goembrek, Saleh, dan Soeleman.

Mereka memikirkan nasib bangsa yang sangat buruk dan selalu dianggap bodoh dan tidak bermartabat oleh bangsa lain (Belanda), serta bagaimana cara memperbaiki keadaan yang amat buruk dan tidak adil itu.

Para pejabat pangreh praja (sekarang pamong praja) kebanyakan hanya memikirkan kepentingan sendiri dan jabatan.

Dalam praktik mereka pun tampak menindas rakyat dan bangsa sendiri, misalnya dengan menarik pajak sebanyak-banyaknya untuk menyenangkan hati atasan dan para penguasa Belanda.

 

Pada hari Minggu, 20 Mei 1908,

pada pukul sembilan pagi, bertempat di salah satu ruang belajar yaitu di ruang Anatomi gedung STOVIA, Soetomo menjelaskan gagasannya. Dia menyatakan bahwa hari depan bangsa dan Tanah Air ada di tangan mereka. Maka lahirlah Boedi Oetomo. Namun, para pemuda juga menyadari bahwa tugas mereka sebagai mahasiswa kedokteran masih banyak, di samping harus berorganisasi. Oleh karena itu, mereka berpendapat bahwa “kaum tua”-lah yang harus memimpin Budi Utomo, sedangkan para pemuda sendiri akan menjadi motor yang akan menggerakkan organisasi itu.

Sepuluh tahun pertama Budi Utomo mengalami beberapa kali pergantian pemimpin organisasi.

Kebanyakan memang para pemimpin berasal kalangan “priayi” atau para bangsawan dari kalangan keraton, seperti Raden Adipati Tirtokoesoemo, bekas Bupati Karanganyar (presiden pertama Budi Utomo), dan Pangeran Ario Noto Dirodjo dari Keraton Pakualaman.

Pada tahun 1912

pelatihan dokter kedua di Surabaya dibuka,  Sekolah Kedokteran Hindia  (NIAS). Kedua sekolah (Medical School dan NIAS) dibuka untuk semua orang dan bagi perempuan.

Hal ini tidak mustahil bahwa itu diharapkan oleh kelompok-kelompok baru – anak perempuan dan non-pribumi – mengakui, kekurangan dokter dalam pengurangan koloni. Sekarang semua populasi dirawat, mengubah judul dokter dokter India asli [ii].

 Meskipun gadis yang mengikuti program tersebut, tetapi mereka memiliki pelatihan mereka sendiri dan membayar untuk akomodasi mereka sendiri selama studi yang bersangkutan.

Siswa laki-laki diberi uang saku dan tinggal di sebuah pondok pesantren. Sebagai gantinya, mereka memiliki kontrak yang disebut mortgage bond.  

Bahkan saat masuk mereka ke Medical School telah mereka menandatangani deklarasi di mana mereka berkomitmen setelah lulus mereka setidaknya sepuluh tahun berturut-turut dalam pelayanan pemerintah untuk melayani pada setiap lokasi di mana pemerintah mereka akan mengirim [iii]

Tujuan pemerintah jelas:.

” Dalam pandangan dari keinginan untuk ikatan antara Negara dan dokter-Djawa memperkuat dan  mencegah mereka merasa rendah diri  karena sampai sekarang sering terjadi, rasa hormat mereka untuk perubahan pensiun lebih menguntungkan “[iv]

Pada keberangkatan. dari publik dalam sepuluh tahun memiliki harga penuh akan dikembalikan tanpa layanan. 

Beberapa wanita Belanda di Batavia mendirikan beasiswa di (Beasiswa Pelatihan Dokter Pribumi Perempuan,Sovia).

Milik pendiri termasuk Charlotte Jacobs, adik Aletta Jacobs dan apoteker di Batavia, penulis Marie-Kooij dari Zeggelen dan Elisabeth van Deventer-Maas, istri penulis “eereschuld A. Dana tersebut dimaksudkan tidak hanya  untuk mendukung pendidikan dokter wanita , tetapi juga bahwa  Mahasiswa perawat  pertama yang pada tahun 1912 menggunakan PEF terdaftar di Sekolah Kedokteran, Marie Thomas.

The IIAV (International Institute dan Arsip untuk Perempuan di Amsterdam)  memiliki sebuah foto di mana dewan Sovia pose dengan Klantje pertama mereka.


Marie Thomas

source

Liesbeth Hesselink,


Marie E. Thomas dilahirkan pada tahun 1896 di Likupang (dekat Manado Minahasa).

Tidak diketahui bagaimana mereka mendapat ide untuk mendaftar untuk pendidikan  sarjana Kedokteran .

Sejak 1889,

 Hanya  berasal dari siswa lulusan ELS (Sekolah Dasar eropah-european large school), . Sekolah utama yang tidak dapat diikuti  oleh untuk anak perempuan, berdasarkan hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa Marie telah menjadi  lulusan  Sekolah  ELS.

Dalam data kelahirannya ,  mungkin Marie Thomas  yang begitu muda  sudah lulus dari sekolah  ELS Manado , dan pada  usia yang sangat muda, harus meninggalkan rumah keluarga untuk sekolah di . Manado selama  empat tahun untuk mengikuti sekolah  Sekolah Eropa tersebut 

Menurut laporan tahunan untuk tahun 1911,

hanya ada gadis Kristen pribumi di ELS. Dari ini, Anda dapat menyimpulkan bahwa Marie beragama agama Kristen .

Sejak 1902

 Calon Mahasiwa  Sekolah Kedokteran harus mengikuti  ujian masuk secara tertulis.

Setelah Marie ini berhasil, ia pindah ke Batavia yang jauh. Mungkin dia menemukan tempat tinggal dengan kerabat atau orang-orang dari Minahasa,dari tempat kelahirannya.

Di sekolah dia adalah satu-satunya gadis di antara sekitar 180 anak laki-laki dan bahkan  dua tahun kemudian sesama mahasiswa dari Minahasa , Anna Warouw,   juga terdaftar yang kemudian juga lulus sebagai doker wanita kedua di Indonesia..

 

Pada tahun 1922

lulus

Marie  lulus dari  Sekolah Kedokteran, pada waktu itu sekolah dan pelatihan kedokteran  berlangsung selama  10 tahun.

Setelah lulus nya, Marie menjadi pusat perhatian dan ia dihujani dengan hadiah atas  kinerjanya  yang luar biasa, tapi  posisi soliter tetap  ditekankan.

Dia bergabung dengan pemerintah dan mulai bekerja di rumah sakit besar (CBZ saat ini RSCM ) di Weltevreden (pinggiran kota Batavia saat itu ).

Dia mengkhususkan diri dalam bidang kebidanan.

Dalam iklan yang pernikahannya diumumkan ia menyebut dirinya asisten obstetri di Weltevreden.

The Museum Boerhaave memiliki beberapa foto yang diambil saat ia keluar dari rumah sakit wanita, ini dibuat adalah beberapa hari sebelum pernikahannya .

Di balik salah satu gambar menulis N.J.A.F. Boerma, dosen kebidanan sejak tahun 1920  di Sekolah Kedokteran dan sebagai seorang dokter perempuan di CBZ, “untuk menghormati Ibu Marie Thomas, yang sayangnya meninggalkan kami.”

 

English version

In the Dutch East Indies in 1851
establish a medical school, the first school physician Java and then called the School of Medicine (School of Indigenous Up Training of Physicians).
For a long time it was only open to young indigenous men. Maybe Aletta Jacobs, the first female doctor in the Netherlands, affecting acceptance of girls into Medical School.

Indeed, during his world tour on April 18, 1912 meeting with the Governor General AWF Idenburg. It has it –

as evidenced by the letter of the journey – calling for acceptance of girls medical training:
“Even when discussing female to female doctors and hospitals for indigenous women, only female medical assistance and training Djawas female doctor, HE was. Much closer to us than many officials with the issues that we discussed earlier.

Until now had all the native girls, who signed up for the doctor Djawa school, back out, always under the pretext, but only because the stakeholders in the department of difficulty sharing power with young people to receive medical education is too heavy and recognize the desire to have a female doctor for indigenous women do not feel quite “[i].

In 1912
The second physician training in Surabaya opened, the Dutch East Indies Medical School (NIAS). Both schools (Medical School and NIAS) is open to all people and for women. It is not impossible that it was expected by the new groups – young women and non-native – admitted that the shortage of doctors in the reduction of the colony. Now all the treated population, change the title of the original Indian doctor doctor [ii].

 Although the girl who attend the program, but they have their own training and pay for their own accommodation during the study in question. \

Male students were given pocket money and living in a boarding school. Instead, they have a contract called a mortgage bond.

Even when they go to Medical School have them sign a declaration in which they committed after their graduation at least ten consecutive years in government service to serve at any location where their government will send [iii]

Purpose of government is clear:. “In view of the desire for bonding between the State and strengthen the doctor-Java and zoodoende prevent them, because until now often the case, their respect for the changes in retirement benefit” [iv]
On departure. from the public in the past ten years has the full price will be returned without service.

Some Dutch women in Batavia established scholarship (Scholarship Training Indigenous Women Physicians, Sovia).

Owned founders include Charlotte Jacobs, sister Aletta Jacobs and pharmacists in Batavia, author Marie-Kooij from Zeggelen and Elisabeth van Deventer-Maas, wife of the author of “eereschuld A. Dana were intended not only to support the study of female doctors, but also that the nurses. Student The first in 1912 using PEF enrolled in the School of Medicine, Marie Thomas. The IIAV (International Institute and Archives for the Women in Amsterdam) is to have a picture in which the board Sovia pose with their first Klantje.

Marie Thomas

Marie E. Thomas was born in 1896 in Likupang (near Manado Minahasa). It is not known how they got the idea to apply for graduate medical education.

Since 1889,
 only students admitted to ELS (Elementary School), or head of school already. Primary schools were not accessible for girls, from which it can be concluded that Marie had become ELS.

At birth no ELS, maybe he is so Manado through, making them at a very young age, the family had to leave. Manado four European Schools,

according to the annual report for 1911,
only indigenous Christian girl in ELS. From this you can conclude that Christianity is Marie.

Since 1902
 School of Medicine is a candidate for the written entrance examination.

Following Marie’s work, he moved to Batavia far. Maybe he found shelter with relatives or people from the Minahasa, its birthplace.

At school she was the only girl among the approximately 180 boys and two years later a fellow student, Anna Warouw, even from the Minahasa registered.

In 1922
Marie graduated graduated from the Medical School, the training takes place at the time was 10 years.

After his graduation, Marie inserted into the center of attention and showered with gifts, a superb performance, but also the position of solitary emphasized.

He joined the government and went to work at a large hospital (CBZ) in Weltevreden (Batavia suburbs).

She specializes in the field of obstetrics. In the ad that announced his marriage he calls her obstetric assistant at Weltevreden. The Museum Boerhaave has some photos he took her out of the hospital, this was made a few days before her wedding.

Behind one write image N.J.A.F. Boerma, obstetrics since 1920 lecturer at the School of Medicine and as a woman doctor in CBZ, “in honor of Mother Marie Thomas, who sadly left us.”

Original info in Dutch

In Nederlands-Indië werd in 1851 een doktersschool opgericht; eerst dokter djawa-school geheten en later STOVIA (School Tot Opleiding Van Inlandsche Artsen). Lange tijd stond deze alleen open voor Inlandse jongens. Misschien heeft Aletta Jacobs, de eerste vrouwelijke arts in Nederland, invloed uitgeoefend op de toelating van meisjes tot de STOVIA. Zeker is dat zij tijdens haar wereldreis op 18 april 1912 een ontmoeting had met gouverneur generaal A.W.F. Idenburg. Hierbij heeft zij – zo blijkt uit haar reisbrieven – gepleit voor toelating van meisjes tot de geneeskunde opleiding:

“Ook bij de bespreking van vrouwelijke doctoren voor de inlandsche vrouwen en voor hospitalen van deze vrouwen, met uitsluitend vrouwelijke medische hulp en de opleiding van vrouwelijke doctor djawas, stond Z.Exc. veel dichter bij ons dan menige zijner ambtenaren met wij deze kwesties reeds vroeger bespraken. Tot dusver worden nog alle inlandsche meisjes, die zich aanmelden voor de doctor djawa-school, teruggewezen, altijd onder een of ander voorwendsel, doch eenvoudig omdat de machthebbenden bij dat departement de moeilijkheid van het gezamenlijk met de jonge mannen te ontvangen medisch onderwijs te zwaar inzien en de wenschelijkheid van het hebben van vrouwelijke doctoren voor de inlandsche vrouwen niet genoeg voelen.”[i]

In 1912 werd een tweede artsopleiding in Soerabaja geopend, de Nederlandsch Indische Artsenschool (NIAS). Beide scholen (STOVIA en NIAS) werden opengesteld voor alle bevolkingsgroepen en voor vrouwen. Het is niet onaannemelijk dat men hoopte door nieuwe groepen  – meisjes en niet-Inlanders – toe te laten, het tekort aan artsen in de kolonie te verminderen.  Nu alle bevolkingsgroepen werden toegelaten, veranderde de titel van Inlandsch arts in Indisch arts.[ii]  Weliswaar werden meisjes tot de opleiding toegelaten, maar zij moesten hun opleiding zelf betalen en voor eigen onderdak tijdens de studie zorgen. Mannelijke studenten kregen een toelage en verbleven in een internaat. In ruil hiervoor moesten zij een zogenoemde akte van verband aangaan. Al bij hun toelating tot de STOVIA moesten zij een verklaring tekenen, waarbij zij zich verbonden na hun afstuderen minstens tien achtereenvolgende jaren in gouvernementsdienst te dienen op elke standplaats waarheen het gouvernement hen zou zenden.[iii] De doelstelling van het gouvernement was duidelijk: “Met het oog op de wenschelijkheid om den band tusschen den Staat en de dokters-djawa te versterken, en zoodoende te voorkomen dat zij, zooals tot dusver veelvuldig voorkwam, hunne betrekking voor eene meer lucratieve bij particulieren verwisselen”.[iv] Bij vertrek uit overheidsdienst binnen tien jaar moest het volle pond worden terugbetaald ongeacht het aantal dienstjaren.

Enkele Nederlandse vrouwen in Batavia richtten een studiefonds op (Studiefonds voor Opleiding van Vrouwelijke Inlandsche Artsen, SOVIA). Tot de oprichtsters behoorde onder andere Charlotte Jacobs, de zuster van Aletta Jacobs en apothekeres te Batavia, de schrijfster Marie Kooij-van Zeggelen en Elisabeth van Deventer-Maas, de echtgenote van de schrijver van ‘Een eereschuld’. Het fonds beoogde niet alleen de studie van vrouwelijke doktoren te ondersteunen, maar ook die van verpleegsters. De eerste leerlinge die zich in 1912 met gebruikmaking van het studiefonds inschreef aan de STOVIA was Marie Thomas. Het IIAV (Internationaal Instituut en Archief voor de Vrouwenbeweging te Amsterdam) is in het bezit van een foto waar het bestuur van SOVIA poseert met hun eerste ‘klantje’.

Marie Thomas

Marie E. Thomas werd in 1896 geboren in Likupang (in de buurt van Manado, Minahasa). Het is niet bekend hoe zij op het idee kwam om zich in te schrijven voor de artsopleiding. Sinds 1889 werden alleen leerlingen toegelaten die op een ELS (Europese Lagere School) of een hoofdenschool hadden gezeten. Hoofdenscholen waren niet toegankelijk voor meisjes, waaruit geconcludeerd kan worden dat Marie op een ELS heeft gezeten. In haar geboorteplaats was echter geen ELS; waarschijnlijk heeft ze die dus in Manado doorlopen, waardoor ze al op heel jonge leeftijd het ouderlijk huis heeft moeten verlaten. In Manado waren vier Europese scholen; volgens het jaarverslag over 1911 zaten er alleen christelijke inlandse meisjes op de ELS. Hieruit kun je afleiden dat Marie de christelijke godsdienst had.

Sinds 1902 moesten gegadigden voor de STOVIA een schriftelijk toelatingsexamen afleggen. Nadat Marie hiervoor was geslaagd, vertrok ze naar het verre Batavia. Misschien vond ze daar onderdak bij familie of bij mensen uit de Minahasa, haar geboortestreek. Op school was ze het enige meisje tussen ongeveer 180 jongens tot twee jaar later een medeleerlinge, Anna Warouw, ook uit de Minahasa zich inschreef.

In 1922 studeerde Marie af aan de STOVIA; de opleiding duurde in die tijd 10 jaar. Bij het behalen van haar diploma werd Marie in het zonnetje gezet en overladen met cadeaus, hetgeen haar uitzonderlijke prestatie maar ook haar eenzame positie benadrukte. Ze trad in dienst van de overheid en ging werken in het grote ziekenhuis (CBZ) in Weltevreden (een voorstad van Batavia). Ze specialiseerde zich op het gebied van de verloskunde. In de advertentie waarin haar huwelijk bekend werd gemaakt noemt zij zich verloskundig-assistente te Weltevreden. Het museum Boerhaave heeft enkele foto’s waar ze afscheid neemt van het vrouwenhospitaal; deze zijn enkele dagen voor haar huwelijk gemaakt.  Achterop een van de foto’s schrijft N.J.A.F. Boerma, sinds 1920 docent verloskunde aan de STOVIA en als vrouwenarts werkzaam in het CBZ, “ter eere van Mej. Marie Thomas die ons helaas gaat verlaten”.

Dr. Thomas aan het werk als verloskundige

 

Dr. Thomas bekerja sebagai bidan


Marie memiliki suaminya Mohamad Yusuf di Fakultas kedoteran , dia duduk untuk waktu yang lama bersama-sama di dalam kelas.

Dalam transisi dari persiapan ke departemen medis dari Sekolah Kedokteran  telah baik untuk  tugas  geometri. Suaminya  berasal dari Solok (pantai barat Sumatera).

Mungkin dia bukan seorang Kristen, karena ELS satunya Solok akhir tahun 1910 hanya untuk anak laki-laki asli non kristen  – dan anak laki-laki dan perempuan Eropa lebih lanjut.

Dia bekerja pada saat pernikahannya sebagai oftalmik(dokter mata) ke Padang (pantai barat Sumatera).

Pernikahan itu dalam dua hal tertentu: kedua pasangan memiliki dua agama yang berbeda sebagai etnis yang lain, mereka masing-masing terletak di bagian yang berbeda dari Indonesia.

Setelah pernikahannya, Marie menempatkan dirinya sebagai dokter pemerintah di Padang, tapi setelah 1931 itu tidak disebutkan seperti itu.
Tampaknya tiga puluhan pasangan awal abad kedua puluh yang hidup  di Weltevreden .

Pada tahun 1931

itu dinyatakan bangkrut karena  Mohamad Yusuf, yang  merupakan dokter pribadi di Weltevreden mengalami  peristiwa dramatis bagi pasangan tersebut ,  sehingga Mohamad harus  ditahan di penjara Struiswijk.

 Pada tahun 1932

 Marie bergabung dengan Dewan Persatoean-Minahasa [Indonesia  Minahasa].

Ini partai politik nasionalis moderat, didirikan pada tahun 1927, yang mengabulkan gugatan dari Indonesia federal untuk menjamin identitas dan otonomi Minahasa.

Meskipun sekarang Marie yang menikah dengan orang sumatra , hatinya masih tanah  kelahirannya.

Presiden Persatoean Minahasa, Sam Ratu Langie kemudian di Dewan Rakyat (pseudo-parlemen di Hindia Belanda), jadi mungkin terjadi papan di Batavia. Ini mungkin tampak seperti Marie Belanda mitranya Aletta Jacobs samping dokter juga menjadi aktif secara politik.

Keanggotaan Dewan hanya berlangsung tiga tahun, saya menduga bahwa pasangan pergi pindah ke Bukittinggi (sebelumnya Fort de Kock) . Mungkin Marie sebagai pendiri Sekolah Kebidanan Bukittinggi   dan juga mengajar di sana.

Pada tahun 1936

 mengambil tempat pertemuan Ikatan  Dokter Indonesia (IDI)  di rumahnya yang ditujukan  untuk membangun Kesehatan Lokal , yang pada waktu itu tidak bekerja. 

Namun Beberapa tahun kemudian. pada tahun 1940,

Bendahara  dijabat Marie , setahun setelah suaminya memegang fungsi ini.

Marie meninggal pada tahun 1966.

Suaminya sudah almarhum pada tahun 1958. Tidak diketahui apakah pasangan memiliki anak.

 *Dr Iwan masih ingat pada tahun 1972 saat assisten bagian Paru-Paru dibawah bimbingan Prof Ilyas tiap hari melintasi rumah almarhum Dr Marie Yusuf yang lokasinya disebelah Pusat Pembrabtasan Penyakit TBC Paru d Bukittinggi, rumah itu dalam keadaan kosong tidak terpelihara, dan saat ini sudah tidak ada lagi sudah dibangun bangunan baru, hal ini akan diteliti lebih lanjut tentang sejarahnya pada saat mendatang-catatan dr Iwan)

 English version

Dr. Thomas worked as a midwife

Marie had her husband Mohamad Yusuf knows Medical School, he sat for a long time together in the classroom. In preparation for the transition from the medical department of the Medical School has both a duty to geometry. Her husband is from SMF (west coast of Sumatra).
Maybe he was not a Christian, because only ELS SMF late 1910s the only non-Christian native boys – and boys and girls further European.

He worked at the time of her marriage as an ophthalmic to Padang (Sumatra’s west coast). The wedding was in two specific things: the couple have two different religions as other ethnic groups, they are each located in different parts of Indonesia.

After her marriage, Marie established itself as a government doctor in Padang, but after 1931 it was not mentioned as such.
It seems a couple early thirties of the twentieth century in Weltevreden life.

In 1931
was declared bankrupt by the Mohammed Yusuf, he was personal physician in Weltevreden. It should be a dramatic event for the couple, Mohamad Struiswijk in prison.

 In 1932
joined by Marie joined the Board Persatoean-Minahasa [United Minahasa]. This moderate nationalist political party, founded in 1927, which granted federal lawsuit from Indonesia to ensure the identity and autonomy of Minahasa.

Although Marie married now Sumatra, his heart is still his homeland. President Persatoean Minahasa, Sam Queen Langie later in the House of Representatives (pseudo-parliament in the Dutch East Indies), so it may be the board in Batavia. It may seem like Aletta Jacobs Marie Dutch counterpart next doctor also became active in politics.

Council membership only lasted three years, I suspect that the couple went to Bukittinggi (formerly Fort de Kock) move. Maybe Marie as a midwife school founded and also taught there.

In 1936
 meeting took place in his house devoted to the local chapter of the Indonesian Doctors Association to build, which at that time did not work. A few years later, however.

In 1940,
Marie treasurer, one year after her husband holding the function.

Marie died in 1966. Her husband was deceased in 1958. It is not known whether the couple had children.

 

Original info

Marie heeft haar echtgenoot Mohamad Joesoef op de STOVIA leren kennen; ze zaten lange tijd bij elkaar in de klas. Bij de overgang van de voorbereidende naar de medische afdeling van de STOVIA hadden beide een taak voor meetkunde. Haar man was afkomstig uit Solok (Sumatra’s Westkust). Waarschijnlijk was hij geen Christen, want op de enige ELS in Solok zaten eind 1910 alleen niet-Christelijke Inlandse jongens – en verder Europese jongens en meisjes. Hij werkte op het moment van zijn huwelijk als oogheelkundige te Padang (Sumatra’s Westkust). Het huwelijk was in twee opzichten bijzonder: de beide partners hadden zowel een andere godsdienst als een andere etniciteit, ze waren elk afkomstig uit een ander deel van Indonesië. Na haar huwelijk vestigde Marie zich als gouvernementsarts te Padang, maar na 1931 werd zij niet meer als zodanig genoemd.

Het lijkt erop dat het echtpaar begin jaren dertig van de twintigste eeuw in Weltevreden woonde. In 1931 werd namelijk het faillissement uitgesproken over haar Mohamad Joesoef; hij was toen particulier geneesheer in Weltevreden. Dit moet een dramatische gebeurtenis zijn geweest voor het echtpaar; Mohamad werd gedetineerd in de gevangenis te Struiswijk. In 1932 trad Marie toe tot het bestuur van Persatoean-Minahasa [Verenigd Minahasa]. Deze gematigd nationalistische politieke partij, opgericht in 1927, was voorstander van een federaal Indonesia met garantie voor de identiteit en autonomie van de Minahasa. Ook al was Marie inmiddels met een Sumatraan getrouwd, haar hart klopte nog steeds voor haar geboortestreek. De voorzitter van Persatoean Minahasa, Sam Ratu Langie zat toen in de Volksraad (het pseudo-parlement in Nederlands Indië), dus waarschijnlijk vonden de bestuursvergaderingen in Batavia plaats. Even leek het alsof Marie net als haar Nederlandse evenknie Aletta Jacobs  naast het arts-zijn ook politiek actief werd. Het bestuurslidmaatschap duurde echter maar drie jaar; ik vermoed dat het echtpaar toen naar Bukittingi (het vroegere Fort de Kock) verhuisde. Waarschijnlijk heeft Marie daar een vroedvrouwenschool opgericht en heeft zij daar ook les gegeven. In 1936 vond in haar huis een vergadering plaats die tot doel had om een plaatselijke afdeling van de Vereeniging van Indonesische Geneeskundigen op te richten, hetgeen op dat moment niet lukte. Een paar jaar later echter wel. In 1940 was Marie penningmeester; het jaar daarop bekleedde haar man deze functie. Marie overleed in 1966. Haar man was al in 1958 overleden. Het is niet bekend of het echtpaar kinderen heeft gehad.

x

___________________

[i]  Dr. Aletta H. Jacobs, Reisbrieven uit Afrika en Azië, 2 delen, Almelo (1913), II, 425.
[ii]  De Waart, “Vijf-en-zeventig jaren medisch onderwijs te Weltevreden, 1851-1926”, 54.
[iii] Art 9fReglement 1902, Ind Stb 1902 nr 443.
[iv]  KV 1901, 82.

Read more

Info lebih lanjut

Marie Thomas, wanita Indonesia pertama yg lulus dari Sekolah Dokter Jawa (thn 1922) #sejarahIndonesia

Marie Thomas, wanita Indonesia pertama yg lulus dari Sekolah Dokter Jawa (thn 1922)

#sejarahIndonesia http://twitgoo.com/1yl69v

http://forum.viva.co.id/sejarah/103102-mengenal-beberapa-srikandi-indonesia.html

 

Dr. Anna Warouw
Anna Warouw Wanita Indonesia kedua yang menjadi dokter

Source: http://bode-talumewo.blogspot.com/2008/12/galeri-foto-para-wanita-minahasa.html

 

 Dr.Oen

DItulis pada 21 Januari 2011 oleh

:::dr.Oen Boen Ing :::

Oen Boen Ing (lahir 3 Maret 1903, meninggal di Solo, 30 Oktober 1982) adalah seorang dokter terkenal yang sosiawan di kota Solo. Ia juga dikenal sebagai Kanjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo.

Latar belakang
Oen Boen Ing dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga pedagang tembakau yang kaya-raya, cucu seorang sinshe Tionghoa yang juga suka menolong banyak orang. Karena pengaruh kakeknya itulah, ia kemudian dikenal sebagai dokter yang banyak membantu pasiennya, khususnya mereka yang tidak mampu membayar biaya dan ongkos membeli obat-obatan.

Karena itulah, sejak lulus sekolah menengah, Boen Ing sudah ingin mempelajari ilmu kedokteran Barat dan menjadi dokter. Namun keinginan ini ditentang keras oleh keluarganya, karena mereka tidak mau ia menjadi kaya dari penderitaan orang yang sakit. Meskipun demikian, ia tetap bertekad mewujudkan cita-citanya untuk menjadi dokter. Ia pun mendaftarkan diri di School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Arsten (STOVIA) di Batavia, dan lulus pada 193

Mulai mengabdi
Nama Oen Boen Ing tidak bisa dipisahkan dari keberadaan Rumah Sakit Panti Kosala yang dimulai sebagai sebuah poliklinik kecil yang bernama Tsi Sheng Yuan atau Jisheng Yuan pada 29 Januari 1933, di sebuah paviliun sederhana di Jl. Mesen 106, Solo. Nama poliklinik itu berarti Lembaga Penolong Kehidupan. Poliklinik ini didirikan oleh delapan orang pemuda Tionghoa yang tergabung dalam Hua Chiao Tsing Nien Hui (disingkat HCTNH), yang artinya Perhimpunan Pemuda Tionghoa. Mereka itu adalah Jap Kioe Ong, Tan Kiong Djien, The Tjhioe Tik, Sie Ngo Siang, Sie Boen Tik, Gan Kok Sien, Tan Tiauw An, dan Jap Tiang Liem.

Pada tahun 1935 Dr. Oen Boen Ing mulai terlibat dalam pelayanan klinik tersebut dan kemudian menjadi pemprakarsa berdirinya Yayasan Kesehatan Tsi Sheng Yuan, yang kemudian membentuk RS Panti Kosala. Hal ini terjadi sekitar tahun 1951, ketika Poliklinik Tsi Sheng Yuan dilepaskan dari HCTNH. Dr. Oen Boen Ing menganjurkan agar Tsi Sheng Yuan menjadi sebuah yayasan untuk menampung kegiatan poliklinik.

Rumah sakit yang didirikan oleh Yayasan Tsi Sheng Yuan ini biasa disebut sebagai Rumah Sakit Kandang Sapi, karena pada 1954 rumah sakit ini dipindahkan ke daerah Kandang Sapi/Mojosongo (sampai sekarang) dan menjadi rumah sakit lengkap. Pada masa Orde Baru, nama rumah sakit ini diubah menjadi RS Panti Kosala.

Ikut berrjuang
Sampai tahun 1942, poliklinik Tsi Sheng Yuan banyak membantu Chineesche Burger Organisatie (CBO) dan semasa pendudukan Jepang dikelola oleh Kakyo Sokai (Gabungan Organisasi-organisasi Tionghoa). Ketika perang kemerdekaan datang, poliklinik berubah fungsi menjadi rumah sakit darurat, menampung para pejuang dan pengungsi.

Menurut kesaksian Soelarso, Ketua Paguyuban Rumpun Eks Tentara Pelajar Detasemen II Brigade XVII, “…tanpa menghiraukan tembakan Belanda, Dr Oen keluar masuk wilayah TNI untuk mengobati para prajurit…”

Angka tiga punya makna penting
Sebagai dokter, Oen Boen Ing terkenal tidak membeda-bedakan pasiennya, apapun juga kelompok etnis, suku, agama, dan kelas sosialnya. Bahkan pasien dibiarkannya mengisi ataupun tidak mengisi kotak uang yang terletak di ruang praktiknya secara suka rela. “Tugas seorang dokter adalah menolong,” demikian semboyan kehidupan dan pelayanan Dr. Oen.

Selain itu, Dr. Oen selalu membuka praktiknya sejak pk. 3.00 dini hari. Konon ini dihubungkan dengan hari kelahirannya, 3 Maret 1903. “Maka semua karya saya sebaiknya dimulai dengan angka 3,” begitu katanya. Angka tiga memang menjadi ciri kehidupan Dr. Oen Boen Ing. Nomor telepon di rumahnya 3333. Bangunan pertama di Rumah Sakit Kandang Sapi yang didirikannya, dinamai Triganda, dan diresmikan pada 3 Maret 1963.

Ketika Dr. Oen meninggal dunia pada 1982, rakyat banyak sungguh merasakan kehilangan yang besar. Hal ini tampak dari kehadiran ribuan rakyat kecil kepadanya yang berdiri di tepi jalan untuk memberikan penghormatan mereka yang terakhir kepada orang yang telah berjasa memberikan kehidupan yang lebih sehat kepada mereka di tengah-tengah keberadaan mereka yang serba kekurangan.

Penghargaan
Karena jasa-jasanya dan pengabdiannya yang tanpa pamrih kepada masyarakat, Dr. Oen Boen Ing mendapatkan penghargaan Satya Lencana Bhakti Sosial dari pemerintah Republik Indonesia pada 30 Oktober 1979. Beliau juga dianugerahi gelar kebangsawanan oleh Sri Mangkunegoro VIII Solo, dengan nama Kanjeng Raden Toemenggoeng Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo. Pada 24 Januari 1993 Sri Mangkunegoro IX menaikkan gelarnya dari Kanjeng Raden Toemenggoeng menjadi Kanjeng Raden Mas Toemenggoeng Hario Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo.

untuk melihat infoemasi yang lengkap silahkan klik sumber info

 

In 2008 Dr Iwan had upload in his old web blog uniquecollections intro of Indonesian Healt History Collections look below

Vintage Yang seng Ie Hospital (now Husada Hospital Jakarta) photo from one year commemoration Yang seng ie Hospital –
this picture dedicated for Ms.Siswati Mkes my wife best friend and she world at this hopital now Husada Hospital , I ever travel with her , my Wife and DR Gemala Hatta during International IFRO Meeting at co Ex Building Seoul 2007.
This hospital now became one of the best Hospital at North Jakarta, in this collection put in DRiwancybermusuem  
I hope Husada Hospitalwill became our sponsered,please contact via comment 

 

Medical faculty University of Indonesia stmaped on Medicine Vintage Book. (Geneeskunde means Medicine/kedokteran) This is the first report of Medical faculty Indonesia University.(alumni pertama Fakultas kedoteran UI tempo doeloe mempergunakan buku literatiur ini)

 

Postal history cover with Batavia School of medicine stamped in dutch “Geneeskunde hooghe school” 1930 (this name after STOVIA and before MEDICAL FACULTY)

 

Postal History cover Indonesian Biggest hospital “CBZ-centrale Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis -Batavia -C” stamped, now RSCM-Rumah sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo , the bigest Teaching Hospital in Indonesia, until now everybody in jakarta stilcalled CBZ hospital although they don’t understand the meaning of Hospital and indonesia still called Hospital as Sicken House (Rumah sakit) translate from Dutch Ziekenhuis.

 

Unique Vintage TB-control photo(19390 a TB control nurse gave standing postion injection outdoor for clear light becasue indoor no lamp and the vintage camera without flash. (in Indonesia suntik gaya nunging diluar rumah)

 

DEI Miltary Hospital Padang postal card to inform the pasien to their Boss.(1937)

 

Rathkamp Aphotek(drug strore) machinal postal canceled on cover (Postal history)

 

vintage physician private practice Medical record (1942)

 

Native Indonesian Chineseoverseas physician private practise medical record pasien with diarrhea in 1942 at jakarta (during Japanese Occupation java)

 

Vintage photo Native indonesian physician during DEI School Health Care (Kesehatan sekolah) -1939

 

DEI (Dutch east Indie-Hindia Belanda) Higiene promotion (Healt promotive program) vintage photo-1939

 

Vintage Boedi Kemoelian Mother and Child Hospital at Jakarta pasien ID card for children weight and vaccination control during Dai Nippon occupation java 1943.

 

Postal history C7 Postal document for authentication the handsign used to recieved Money order,post packets and registered letters during DEI, belong to the first type Indonesian physician called “Indisce Arts”(Indonesian native doctor, from STOVIA -school tot Opleiding Indisce Art,only have liscenced for native village and variola disease, to be physician must added at Hollands eg Leiden University medical faculty and they became Medical Doctor (GH-Genneskunde)

 

Indonesian native Medical Doctor (dr) Postal History,special illustrated for his son Mr WD -senior phillatelist Jakarta, I have also mr Grandpa postal card pre WW II .

 

Vintage ten years (10 tahun)commemoration issued Indonesia Medical doctor organization(IDI 1950-1960)

For my callegeous in Medical and Health services ,Scholar and researches , especially for the specialist collector thematic Medicine and health after prepared almost five years at least the Health and Medical vintage informations were illustrated with naration . I hope the collections will be the historical fact of Indonesia Health from ancient until 20th century.

Health information consist vintage illustration of all type of People Health in Indonesia including Health services, health Promotion and Health rehabilitations will be put in “Indonesian Heath Information Collection”

Health Service e.g. School Health, Mother and Child health care, Health prevention against epidemic endemic & pandemic disease , Health sanitation, Health disaster  including Man made disaster (War), Narural disaster Tsunami  floaded eartquacked etc)

Medical Information : Hospital history, Medical Doctor history ( School/faculty), profile Medical doctor, organizations, Medical record etc.

Please all medical and health Collectors comment and suggestion in order to developed the Collection related the Health thematic need, please tell me what health or medical information you need like Coding of  the Disease (ICD-10 and vintage ICD history), Vintage photography of your Hospital etc.

Greatings to my ex student of APIKES -Indonesian Medical and helath record academy at Indonusa university, this site dedicated for you, please send me information where do you work now and your profile to put in this blog also for my medical collagaeu at Medical and Health Center of Indonesian National Police (PUSDOKKES POLRI)  and Senior Indonesia phillatelist Jakarta Mr WD ex Indonesian national Oil company (PERTAMINA) Sumatra Leader who have special South Pole Postal History, a postal card send by his father Dr Adman WD from Pajakoemboh to batavia(jakarta) in 1949, that time Mr WD live at Payakumbuh from DEI, Dian Nippon occupation and Nica , after RIS  ther moved to Jakarta.

 Always remember www uniquecollection .wordpress.com all in small character not big, click anytime you have need an indonesia Health and medical information, every i ge new information will put the illustration in this blog

1972

Dr Iwan suwandy dilantik menjadi dokter umum and three month as Pulmonolgist specialization with Prof Ilyas

‘lihat foto Dr Iwan (kiri) dengan mahasiwa kedokteran antara lain  Dr Warner Tobing(tengah), dr Ichwan Ichlas (kanan )ketika mereka cosschaap di bagian  paru-paru

Dan kemudian ikut  Sepawamil ABRI menjadi Perwira POLRI dan baru tahun 1990 melanjutkan S2 untuk memperoleh gelar

Master Of Hosptital Administration(MHA)

Dr Iwan menulis beberapa artikel kesehatan seperti

Anomali Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak Yang Dapat Bersifat Ganas Pada Jaringan Saraf Yang Merusak Postur Manusia)

Baca klik

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/05/31/anomali-medis-neurofibromatosiskelainan-tumor-jinak-bersifat-ganas-jaringan-saraf-yang-merusak-postur-manusia/

 

 

 

The Study report

Of

Diabetic Type 2

 

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

copyright@2012

This Study  dedicated

To my wife, sons and also my brother

Introductions

Seseorang dengan diabetes tipe 2 dapat menggunakan latihan untuk membantu mengendalikan kadar gula darah mereka dan memberikan energi otot mereka perlu untuk berfungsi sepanjang hari.


Dengan mempertahankan diet sehat dan olahraga yang cukup, seseorang dengan
diabetes tipe 2
NON Insulin dependend diabetes melittus (NIDDM)
  mungkin dapat menjaga gula darah mereka dalam rentang non-diabetes normal tanpa pengobatan.

 

Original info

 
A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to function throughout the day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetesNON Insulin Dependend diabetes melittus(NIDDM)

 may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

 Sehubungan dengan kenyataan tersebut diatas,perlu dilakukan studi kepustakaan terkait dengan kelainan diabetes type 2 ini karena banyak tulisan yang memberikan informasi keliru dan sering dimanfaatkan secara keliru oleh para pedagang obat dan malah juga oleh sejawat dokter nakal yang merugikan penderitanya

bERDASARKAN PENGALAMAN PRIBADI SELAMA HAMPIR 50 TAHUN DI KLINIS, BANYAK PASIEN DIABETES TYPE 2 TIDAK MENGERTI KELAIANAN YANG TERJADI PADA DIRINYA SEHINGGA MERASA SEPERTI PENDERITA DIABETES TYPE 1 YANG TERGANTUNG DENGAN iSNULIN KARENA PANCREASNYA RUSAK DAN TIDAK MENGHASILKAN INSULIN, MALAH MEREKA MEMINUM OBAT YANG MENGHABTA HATI MEMPRODUKSI GLUCOA SEHINGGA TIMBUL KERUSAKAN HATI.

SEHUBUNGAN DENGAN HAL T INI STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN INI DIHARAPKAN DAPAT BERMANFAAT BAGI PARA MANULA YANG UMUMNYA MEMILIKI RESIKO TINGGI

HASIL STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN

Diabetes tipe 2


Definisi


Diabetes tipe 2 adalah penyakit (kronis) seumur hidup di mana ada gula tingkat tinggi (glukosa) dalam darah. Diabetes tipe 2 adalah bentuk paling umum diabetes.

Alternatif Nama
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes – tipe 2;

tIMBULNYA (ONSET)

Diabetes  saat  dewasa

Penyebab, kejadian, dan faktor risiko
Diabetes disebabkan oleh masalah dalam cara tubuh Anda membuat atau menggunakan insulin. Insulin dibutuhkan untuk memindahkan gula darah (glukosa) ke dalam sel, di mana disimpan dan kemudian digunakan untuk energi.

 

Pathogenesis
Pada  diabetes tipe 2, lemak, hati, dan sel-sel otot tidak merespon dengan benar terhadap insulin.

Hal ini disebut resistensi insulin.

 Akibatnya, gula darah tidak masuk ke sel-sel ini untuk disimpan untuk energi.

Bila gula tidak dapat memasuki sel, gula tingkat tinggi membangun dalam darah. Hal ini disebut hiperglikemia.

Diabetes tipe 2 biasanya terjadi perlahan-lahan dari waktu ke waktu.

 

Kebanyakan orang dengan penyakit kelebihan berat badan ketika mereka didiagnosis. Peningkatan lemak membuat lebih sulit bagi tubuh Anda untuk menggunakan insulin cara yang benar.

Diabetes tipe 2 juga dapat mengembangkan pada orang yang tipis. Ini lebih umum pada orang tua.

Riwayat keluarga dan gen memainkan peran besar pada diabetes tipe 2. 

Kegiatan tingkat rendah, pola makan yang buruk, dan berat badan berlebih di sekitar pinggang meningkatkan risiko Anda.

Gejala


Sering kali, orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 tidak menunjukkan gejala pada awalnya. Mereka mungkin tidak memiliki gejala selama bertahun-tahun.


Gejala-gejala awal diabetes meliputi:

• Kandung kemih, ginjal, kulit, atau infeksi lain yang lebih sering atau menyembuhkan perlahan
• Kelelahan
• Kelaparan
• Meningkatnya rasa haus
• Peningkatan buang air kecil
Gejala pertama mungkin juga:
• kabur visi
• Disfungsi ereksi
• Nyeri atau mati rasa pada kaki atau tangan

Tanda dan tes
Dokter mungkin menduga bahwa Anda memiliki diabetes jika kadar
gula darah Anda lebih tinggi dari 200 mg / dL.

 

Untuk memastikan diagnosa, satu atau lebih dari tes berikut harus dilakukan.

 Tes darah Diabetes :
kadar glukosa darah puasa

diabetes didiagnosis jika lebih tinggi dari 126 mg / dL dua kali


 Uji Hemoglobin A1c
o Normal: Kurang dari 5,7%
o Pra-diabetes: 5,7% – 6,4%
o Diabetes: 6,5% atau lebih tinggi


• tes toleransi glukosa oral – diabetes didiagnosis jika kadar glukosa lebih tinggi dari 200 mg / dL setelah 2 jam


Skrining diabetes dianjurkan untuk:
• Kegemukan anak yang memiliki faktor risiko lain untuk diabetes, dimulai pada usia 10 dan diulang setiap 2 tahun
• Kegemukan dewasa (BMI lebih besar dari 25) yang memiliki faktor risiko lain
Dewasa di atas usia 45 setiap 3 tahun

Anda harus KONSULTASI  dokter (BILA ANDA BUKAN DOKTER) setiap 3 bulan. Pada kunjungan ini, Anda dapat mengharapkan dokter untuk:
• Periksa tekanan darah Anda
• Periksa kulit dan tulang pada kaki dan kaki
• Periksa apakah kaki menjadi mati rasa
• Periksa bagian belakang mata dengan alat khusus yang disebut terang ophthalmoscope
Tes berikut akan membantu Anda dan dokter Anda memantau diabetes Anda dan mencegah masalah:
• Apakah tekanan darah Anda diperiksa setidaknya setiap tahun (darah tujuan tekanan harus 130/80 mm / Hg atau lebih rendah).
• Memiliki hemoglobin A1c Anda uji (HbA1c) setiap 6 bulan jika diabetes Anda terkontrol dengan baik, jika tidak setiap 3 bulan.
Apakah kolesterol dan trigliserida diperiksa tahunan (mencapai tingkat LDL di bawah 70-100 mg / dL).
• Dapatkan tes tahunan untuk memastikan ginjal Anda bekerja dengan baik (mikroalbuminuria dan serum kreatinin).
• Kunjungi dokter mata Anda setidaknya sekali setahun, atau lebih sering jika Anda memiliki tanda-tanda penyakit mata diabetes.
• Lihat dokter gigi setiap 6 bulan untuk membersihkan gigi menyeluruh dan ujian. Pastikan dokter gigi dan ahli kesehatan tahu bahwa Anda memiliki diabetes.
Pengobatan

Tujuan pengobatan pada awalnya adalah untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tinggi. Jangka panjang Tujuan pengobatan adalah untuk mencegah masalah dari diabetes.

Pengobatan utama untuk diabetes tipe 2 adalah olahraga dan diet.

BELAJAR KETERAMPIL

Diet yang direkomendasikan oleh American Diabetes Association: Diet yang direkomendasikan oleh American Diabetes Association adalah semua tentang membuat pilihan makanan sehat.

 

Diet diabetes tipe 2:

Dengan lebih dari 14,6 juta orang Amerika menderita diabetes, telah menjadi masalah kesehatan utama di Amerika Serikat saat ini.Hal yang sama juga di indonesia baca artikel dibawah ini

PELATIHAN NASIONAL EDUKATOR DIABETES INDONESIA

Jakarta, 21 April 2012

Menteri Kesehatan, diwakili oleh Direktur Jenderal Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan (PP dan PL), Prof. dr. Tjandra Yoga Aditama, Sp.P(K), MARS, DTM&H, DTCE

 membuka secara resmi Pelatihan Nasional Edukator Diabetes Indonesia yang ke 10 yang diselenggarakan oleh Perhimpunan Edukator Diabetes Indonesia (PEDI) di Jakarta (20/4/12).

Kementerian Kesehatan  menyambut baik pelatihan ini, karena 4 hal, yang pertama Diabetes Mellitus (DM) merupakan masalah kesehatan penting di Indonesia, sebab DM merupakan penyebab kematian ke 6, prevalensi DM perkotaan 5,7%, dan prevalensi Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu 10,2%.

Diet Diabetes Tipe 2  perlu dibarengi dengan gaya hidup sehat dalam rangka untuk menempatkan cek pada diabetes tipe 2.

Diet diabetes Tipe 2  bersama dengan olahraga teratur, dapat membantu signifikan dalam mengendalikan gula darah Anda dan mengelola diabetes Anda.
Dengan mengurangi asupan kalori dan termasuk latihan rutin Anda, Anda dapat membuat tubuh Anda lebih sensitif terhadap insulin nya.

  Idealnya, Anda harus mengikuti rencana diet yang mengurangi asupan gula sederhana dan karbohidrat olahan.


  Diet kaya karbohidrat serat dan kompleks direkomendasikan untuk pasien diabetes tipe 2.
Karbohidrat kompleks yang ditemukan dalam buah-buahan, biji-bijian, dan sayuran dipecah sangat lambat akibat yang pelepasan glukosa dalam aliran darah diperlambat.

  Sebaliknya, karbohidrat sederhana dipecah dalam tidak ada waktu yang mengarah ke peningkatan pesat dalam tingkat gula darah.

Pasien diabetes tipe 2 dapat mencakup lebih sedikit lemak jenuh dalam makanan mereka.

 Rencana diet Diabetes type 2:

Sebuah rencana diet diabetes harus diikuti hanya setelah berkonsultasi seorang dokter ahli. Dokter Anda juga akan mempertimbangkan masalah kesehatan lainnya, jika ada, sebelum resep Anda rencana diet diabetes.

 

Original info

Type 2 diabetes diet: With more than 14.6 million Americans suffering from diabetes, it has become a major health concern in the United States today.

 

Type 2 diabetes diet needs to be coupled with a healthy lifestyle in order to put a check on type 2 diabetes.

 

Type 2 diabetes diet along with regular exercise, can be of significant help in controlling your blood sugar and managing your diabetes.

By reducing your calorie intake and including exercise in your routine, you can make your body more sensitive to its insulin.

 

 Ideally, you need to follow a diet plan that reduces your intake of simple sugars and refined carbohydrates.

 A diet rich in fiber and complex carbohydrates is recommended for type 2 diabetes patients.

Complex carbohydrates found in fruits, whole grains, and vegetables are broken down very slowly as a result of which the release of glucose in the bloodstream is slowed down.

 

 On the contrary, simple carbohydrates are broken down within no time leading to a rapid rise in the blood sugar levels.

 

Type 2 diabetic patients can include less saturated fat in their diet.

 

Diabetes diet plan: A diabetes diet plan should be followed only after consulting an expert physician. Your doctor will also take into account any other health problems, if any, before prescribing you a diabetes diet plan.

Diet meletakkan lebih menekankan pada buah-buahan, non – sayuran bertepung

(wortel, bayam, kacang hijau, brokoli),

 kacang kering, dan lentil.

Anda dapat memilih untuk makan makanan gandum bukan produk gandum olahan dan juga termasuk beras merah dalam diet Anda.

Diet yang disarankan oleh American Diabetes Association dapat membantu Anda mengelola diabetes Anda secara efektif asalkan Anda menonton ukuran porsi saat makan.

Bahkan makanan sehat, jika dimakan dalam jumlah besar, dapat meningkatkan berat badan Anda membuat manajemen diabetes lebih sulit.

Original info

Diet recommended by American Diabetes Association: The diet recommended by American Diabetes Association is all about making healthy food choices.

 

The diet lays more emphasis on fruits, non – starchy vegetables (carrots, spinach, green beans, broccoli), dried beans, and lentils.

 

You may choose to eat whole grain foods instead of processed grain products and also include brown rice in your diet.

 

The diet recommended by American Diabetes Association can help you manage your diabetes effectively provided that you watch the portion sizes while eating.

 

Even healthy foods, if eaten in large quantities, can increase your weight making diabetes management more difficult.

 

 

An Excellent Type 2 Diabetes Diet program

Rencana makan sehat Diabetes Tipe 2 adalah hanya untuk mereka yang memiliki tipe yang paling khas dari diabetes, tipe 2.

 

Hal ini terjadi ketika tubuh Anda tidak dapat mengembangkan insulin yang cukup, yang penting untuk membantu Anda menyerap glukosa dalam sel sampai kembali atau keperluan energi.

Apa yang menghentikan insulin dari fungsi ini seringkali dibangun lemak, itu sebabnya rencana diet mutlak diperlukan untuk membantu Anda mengendalikan penyakit dan kemudian menghentikannya dari semakin buruk.

Maka persis bagaimana seharusnya setiap orang memulai / nya nya 2 rencana diabetes makan agar benar-benar akan menghasilkan efek?

1. Mencatat segala macam hal yang terutama mengkonsumsi dan minum.

Tanpa diragukan lagi, kebenaran menyakitkan, tetapi banyak kali orang harus telah mengungkap semua dari mereka dan menghadapi mereka sehingga kami dapat melampaui semua masalah ini.

 

 Membuat daftar hanya apa yang Anda sering makan pasti akan membuat Anda menemukan bahwa kita satu-satunya yang dapat tetap mengontrol kesehatan kita sendiri dan kesehatan dan kita dapat melestarikan atau merusaknya. (Menyembuhkan diabetes tipe 2)

2. Temukan produk yang lebih sehat.
Sekarang ada tentu akan menjadi pengganti bahkan jika pada awalnya, mereka mungkin tampak tidak mudah untuk menemukan. Misalnya, sangat sangat mudah untuk hanya memindahkan dari roti normal untuk

roti gandum!

 

Apa yang perlu Anda lakukan adalah memiliki sedikit kesabaran pada eksplorasi tentang alternatif signifikan lebih sehat yang akan memberikan kesehatan yang lebih baik dalam jangka panjang.

3. Hilangkan Praktik Negatif resep diet diabetes
Gula pemanis soda bersama-sama dengan minuman dapat dengan mudah menyebabkan kondisi lebih buruk, jadi tinggal dengan

air dan teh sehat.

Ketika Anda minum soda terlalu banyak, hal ini dapat meningkatkan gula darah, yang tidak akan menstabilkan perkembangan insulin darah.

Demikian juga, daripada makan junk food serta makanan cepat saji, kenapa tidak mencoba

buah dan sayuran sebagai camilan?

 Anda juga bisa mencoba popcorn bebas lemak. Berkaitan dengan saus, Anda juga dapat mencoba mustard bukan mayones terlalu banyak.

Mencoba mengatakan pelayaran bon untuk produk makanan goreng hanya karena benar-benar diisi dengan lemak dan kalori.

Anda mungkin dapat mencoba

 memanggang, mengukus, panas sekali, atau panfrying menggunakan sedikit minyak zaitun sebagai pengganti.

 

Tak bisakah kau melihat bahwa ada begitu banyak pilihan?

Perlu diingat bahwa tidak ada diet mudah. Jika ingin melihat hasil yang baik, maka Anda benar-benar perlu melalui diet diabetes tipe 2 yang sulit.

 

Original info

Type 2 Diabetes Healthy eating plan is just for those who have the most typical type of diabetes, Type 2. This happens when your body cannot develop enough insulin, that is important to help you absorb glucose in the cells for back up or energy purposes. What stops insulin from functioning is oftentimes built up fat, that is why a diet plan is definitely needed to help you control the illness and then stop it from getting worse.

And so exactly how should everyone start up her / his 2 diabetes meal plan in order that it’ll really yield effects?

1. Take note of all kinds of things you mainly consume and drink.
Without a doubt, the truth hurts, but many times people have to have uncover all of them and face them so that we’re able to go beyond all these issues. Creating listing just what you frequently eat will definitely make you discover that we’re the only ones who can keep control of our own health and wellness and we can conserve it or wreck it. (cure for type 2 diabetes)

2. Discover more healthy products.
Now there will certainly be substitutes even if in the beginning, they might seem not easy to discover. For instance, it is very very easy to just move from normal bread to whole wheat bread! What you need to do is to have a little patience on exploring regarding significantly more healthy alternatives which will give you a better health in the long run.

3. Eliminate Negative Practices for the diabetes diet recipes
Sugar sweetened sodas together with drinks can easily cause the condition even worse, so stay with waters and healthful teas. When you drink too much soda, this could increase the blood sugar, which will not stabilize the blood insulin development.

Likewise, rather than of eating junk food as well as fast food, why not try fruits and vegetables as snacks? You could likewise try fat free popcorn. Relating to sauces, you can also try mustard instead of too much mayo.

Attempt saying bon voyage to fried food products simply because these are really stuffed with fats and calories. You possibly can try grilling, steaming, broiling, or panfrying using a bit of olive oil as a substitute. Cannot you see that there are so many choices?

Keep in mind that there is no effortless diet. If you’d like see the good results, then you really need to go through a difficult type 2 diabetes diet.

Resource: EzineArticles.Com

AN-KETERAMPILAN
Anda harus belajar keterampilan diabetes manajemen dasar. Mereka akan membantu mencegah masalah dan kebutuhan untuk perawatan medis. Keterampilan ini meliputi:
• Bagaimana menguji dan merekam glukosa darah Anda (Lihat: pemantauan glukosa darah)
• Apa yang harus makan dan kapan
• Bagaimana untuk mengambil obat, jika diperlukan
• Bagaimana mengenali dan mengobati gula darah rendah dan tinggi
• Bagaimana menangani hari sakit
• Dimana dapat membeli persediaan diabetes dan bagaimana menyimpannya
Ini mungkin membutuhkan beberapa bulan untuk mempelajari keterampilan dasar. Selalu terus belajar tentang diabetes, komplikasi, dan bagaimana mengontrol dan hidup dengan penyakit. Tetap up-to-date pada penelitian baru dan perawatan.

MENGELOLA GULA DARAH

Pengujian diri berarti bahwa Anda memeriksa gula darah Anda di rumah sendiri. Memeriksa kadar gula darah Anda di rumah dan menuliskan hasilnya akan memberitahu Anda seberapa baik Anda mengelola diabetes Anda.

Perangkat yang disebut glucometer bisa memberi Anda membaca gula darah yang tepat.

Ada berbagai jenis perangkat. Biasanya, Anda menusuk jari Anda dengan jarum kecil yang disebut lanset. Ini akan memberikan Anda setetes kecil darah. Anda menempatkan darah pada strip tes dan menempatkan strip ke dalam perangkat. Hasil yang diberikan dalam 30 – 45 detik.

Sebuah perawatan kesehatan atau pendidik diabetes akan membantu mengatur jadwal di rumah pengujian untuk Anda. Dokter akan membantu Anda menetapkan tujuan darah gula.
• Kebanyakan orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 hanya perlu memeriksa gula darah mereka sekali atau dua kali sehari.
• Jika kadar gula darah Anda berada di bawah kontrol, Anda mungkin hanya perlu memeriksa mereka beberapa kali seminggu.
• Anda dapat menguji diri sendiri ketika Anda bangun tidur, sebelum makan, dan sebelum tidur.
• Anda mungkin perlu menguji lebih sering ketika Anda sakit atau sedang stres.

Hasil tes dapat digunakan untuk mengubah makanan Anda, aktivitas, atau obat-obatan untuk menjaga kadar gula darah dalam kisaran yang tepat. Pengujian dapat mengidentifikasi kadar gula darah tinggi dan rendah sebelum Anda memiliki masalah serius.

Mencatat gula darah Anda untuk diri sendiri dan penyedia layanan kesehatan Anda. Ini akan membantu jika Anda mengalami kesulitan mengelola diabetes.

DIET DAN PENGENDALIAN BERAT
Bekerja sama dengan dokter, perawat, dan ahli diet untuk mengetahui berapa banyak lemak, protein, dan karbohidrat yang Anda butuhkan dalam diet Anda. Rencana makan Anda harus sesuai dengan gaya hidup sehari-hari dan kebiasaan, dan harus mencoba untuk memasukkan makanan yang Anda sukai.

 

Mengelola berat badan dan makan makanan yang seimbang adalah penting.

 

Beberapa orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 dapat berhenti memakai obat setelah kehilangan berat badan (meskipun mereka masih memiliki diabetes).
Lihat juga:
• Diabetes diet
• Ngemil bila Anda memiliki diabetes


Pasien sangat gemuk yang diabetes tidak dikelola dengan baik dengan diet dan obat-obatan dapat mempertimbangkan bariatrik (berat badan) operasi.
Lihat:
• operasi pintas lambung
• Laparoskopi gastric banding

KEGIATAN  FISIK REGULER
Olahraga teratur adalah penting bagi semua orang.
 

 Hal ini bahkan lebih penting Anda memiliki diabetes.

Latihan di mana jantung Anda berdetak lebih cepat dan Anda bernapas lebih cepat membantu menurunkan tingkat gula darah Anda tanpa pengobatan. Hal ini juga membakar kalori ekstra dan lemak sehingga Anda dapat mengelola berat badan Anda.

Olahraga dapat membantu kesehatan Anda dengan meningkatkan aliran darah dan tekanan darah. Olahraga juga meningkatkan tingkat energi tubuh, menurunkan ketegangan, dan meningkatkan kemampuan Anda untuk menangani stres.

Tanyakan pada dokter Anda sebelum memulai program latihan. Orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 harus mengambil langkah khusus sebelum, selama, dan setelah aktivitas fisik yang intensif atau berolahraga. Lihat juga: Diabetes dan olahraga

PENGOBATAN UNTUK MENGOBATI DIABETES
Jika diet dan olahraga tidak membantu menjaga gula darah pada tingkat normal atau mendekati normal, dokter mungkin meresepkan obat. Karena obat ini membantu menurunkan kadar gula darah dengan cara yang berbeda, dokter Anda mungkin telah mengambil lebih dari satu obat.


Beberapa jenis yang paling umum dari obat tercantum di bawah ini. Mereka diminum atau injeksi.
• Alpha-glukosidase inhibitor (seperti acarbose)
• Biguanides (Metformin)
• injeksi obat-obatan (termasuk exenatide, mitiglinide, pramlintide, sitagliptin saxagliptin, dan)
• meglitinides (termasuk repaglinide dan Nateglinide)
• Sulfonylureas (seperti glimepiride, glyburide, dan tolazamide)
• thiazolidinediones (seperti rosiglitazone dan pioglitazone). (Rosiglitazone dapat meningkatkan risiko gangguan jantung Bicarakan dengan dokter Anda..)

Obat ini dapat diberikan dengan insulin, atau insulin dapat digunakan sendiri. Anda mungkin perlu insulin jika Anda terus memiliki kontrol glukosa darah yang buruk. Ini harus disuntikkan di bawah kulit menggunakan jarum suntik insulin atau perangkat pena. Hal ini tidak dapat diambil melalui mulut. Lihat juga: Diabetes tipe 1

Tidak diketahui apakah obat hiperglikemia diminum aman untuk digunakan dalam kehamilan. Wanita yang memiliki diabetes tipe 2 dan hamil dapat beralih ke insulin selama kehamilan dan saat menyusui.

MENCEGAH KOMPLIKASI
Dokter mungkin meresepkan obat atau perawatan lain untuk mengurangi peluang Anda untuk mengembangkan penyakit mata, penyakit ginjal, dan kondisi lain yang lebih sering terjadi pada penderita diabetes.
Lihat juga:
• Diabetes – mencegah serangan jantung dan stroke
• Komplikasi jangka panjang diabetes

PERAWATAN KAKI
Orang dengan diabetes lebih mungkin untuk memiliki masalah kaki. Diabetes dapat merusak saraf, yang berarti Anda mungkin tidak merasa cedera pada kaki sampai Anda mendapatkan sakit besar atau infeksi. Diabetes juga dapat merusak pembuluh darah.
Diabetes juga menurunkan kemampuan tubuh untuk melawan infeksi.

Infeksi kecil dapat dengan cepat memburuk dan menyebabkan kematian kulit dan jaringan lain.

Untuk mencegah cedera pada kaki Anda, memeriksa dan merawat kaki Anda setiap hari. Lihat juga: Diabetes kaki
Dukungan Grup
Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat sumber diabetes.


Harapan (prognosis)

Setelah bertahun-tahun, diabetes dapat menyebabkan masalah serius dengan mata, ginjal, saraf, jantung, pembuluh darah, atau daerah lain dalam tubuh Anda.

Jika Anda memiliki diabetes, risiko serangan jantung adalah sama dengan seseorang yang sudah mengalami serangan jantung.

Baik wanita maupun pria dengan diabetes memiliki risiko. Anda mungkin tidak memiliki tanda-tanda normal dari serangan jantung.

Jika Anda mengontrol gula darah dan tekanan darah, Anda dapat mengurangi risiko kematian, stroke, gagal jantung, dan masalah diabetes lainnya.

Beberapa orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 tidak lagi membutuhkan obat jika mereka menurunkan berat badan dan menjadi lebih aktif.
 
Ketika mereka mencapai berat badan ideal mereka, insulin tubuh mereka dan diet yang sehat dapat mengendalikan kadar gula darah mereka.

 


Komplikasi
Setelah bertahun-tahun, diabetes dapat menyebabkan masalah serius:
• Anda bisa memiliki masalah mata, termasuk kesulitan untuk melihat (terutama pada malam hari), dan sensitivitas cahaya. Anda bisa menjadi buta.
• Kaki dan kulit dapat mengembangkan luka dan infeksi. Setelah lama, kaki atau kaki mungkin perlu dihapus. Infeksi juga dapat menyebabkan nyeri dan gatal-gatal di bagian lain dari tubuh.
• Diabetes dapat membuat lebih sulit untuk mengontrol tekanan darah dan kolesterol. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan serangan jantung, storke, dan masalah lainnya. Hal ini dapat menjadi lebih sulit untuk darah mengalir ke kaki dan kaki.
• Saraf dalam tubuh Anda dapat rusak, menyebabkan nyeri, kesemutan, dan hilangnya perasaan.
• Karena kerusakan saraf, Anda bisa memiliki masalah mencerna makanan yang Anda makan. Anda bisa merasakan kelemahan atau kesulitan pergi ke kamar mandi. Kerusakan saraf dapat membuat lebih sulit bagi pria untuk memiliki ereksi.
• gula darah tinggi dan masalah lainnya dapat menyebabkan kerusakan ginjal. Ginjal tidak dapat bekerja dengan baik, dan mereka bahkan dapat berfungsi lagi.
Infeksi pada kulit, saluran kelamin wanita, dan saluran kemih juga lebih umum.

Untuk mencegah masalah dari diabetes, kunjungi dokter anda atau pendidik diabetes setidaknya empat kali setahun. Bicara tentang masalah yang Anda mengalami.

 

Top of Form

Apa Hubungan antara Trigliserida dan Diabetes?

Trigliserida ini telah disebut sebagai “lemak jelek” tapi itu lebih merupakan respons emosional dari satu yang kukuh berakar pada fakta ilmiah.

Namun hubungannya dengan diabetes tidak bisa diabaikan.

Kolesterol telah diidentifikasi sebagai faktor risiko penyakit jantung. Ada iklan yang tak terhitung jumlahnya dan outlet informasi yang mengkonfirmasi masalah yang berhubungan dengan diet yang tidak terkontrol.

Demikian juga ada pil dan pilihan makanan yang dipromosikan sebagai bagian dari solusi.

Konsumen mendapatkan hasil yang bervariasi tergantung pada genetik dan tahap di mana kondisi ini ditangkap.

Program latihan juga direkomendasikan sebagai bagian dari proses hidup sehat.


Pertanyaannya tetap, apakah semua intervensi ini telah efektif atau apakah mereka hanya cara bagi instansi periklanan untuk membuat lebih banyak uang.


• Kumpulan lemak yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan: Dengan konsensus, trigliserida adalah bundel kecil lemak yang ditemukan dalam aliran darah. Mereka meningkat jumlahnya setelah kita mengkonsumsi makanan.

 

Tubuh akan memproduksi lemak-lemak dari makanan yang kita makan terutama jika mereka lemak di alam.

 

Diperkirakan bahwa 90% dari seluruh kandungan lemak non-daging tanpa lemak terdiri dari trigliserida.

 

Oleh karena itu kebiasaan belanja dari kelompok risiko harus mencerminkan bahaya.

 

REFRENCESBottom of Form

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 Core Papers 


Label: Dworkin-2003
Title: Advances in neuropathic pain – Diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations
Journal: ARCH NEUROL, 60 (11): 1524-1534 NOV 2003
Citations: 274
Authors: Dworkin, RH;Backonja, M;Rowbotham, MC;Allen, RR;Argoff, CR;Bennett, GJ;Bushnell, MC;Farrar, JT;Galer, BS;Haythornthwaite, JA;Hewitt, DJ;Loeser, JD;Max, MB;Saltarelli, M;Schmader, KE;Stein, C;Thompson, D;Turk, DC;Wallace, MS;Watkins, LR;Weinstein, SM
Addresses:
Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Dept Anesthesiol, 601 Elmwood Ave,Box 604, Rochester, NY 14642 USA
Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Dept Anesthesiol, Rochester, NY 14642 USA[Back to Map]     Label: Dworkin-2003
Title: Pregabalin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia – A randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Journal: NEUROLOGY, 60 (8): 1274-1283 APR 22 2003
Citations: 171
Authors: Dworkin, RH;Corbin, AE;Young, JP;Sharma, U;LaMoreaux, L;Bockbrader, H;Garofalo, EA;Poole, RM
Addresses:
Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, 601 Elmwood Ave,Box 604, Rochester, NY 14642 USA
Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Rochester, NY 14642 USA
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA[Back to Map]     Label: Ballantyne-2003
Title: Opioid therapy for chronic pain
Journal: N ENGL J MED, 349 (20): 1943-1953 NOV 13 2003
Citations: 162
Authors: Ballantyne, JC;Mao, JR
Addresses:
Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Anesthesia & Crit Care, Pain Ctr, 15 Parkman St,WACC 333, Boston, MA 02114 USA
Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Anesthesia & Crit Care, Pain Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA[Back to Map]     Label: Goldstein-2005
Title: Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy
Journal: PAIN, 116 (1-2): 109-118 JUL 2005
Citations: 144
Authors: Goldstein, DJ;Lu, YL;Detke, MJ;Lee, TC;Iyengar, S
Addresses:
Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA
McLean Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Belmont, MA 02178 USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA [Back to Map]     Label: Finnerup-2005
Title: Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: An evidence based proposal
Journal: PAIN, 118 (3): 289-305 DEC 5 2005
Citations: 143
Authors: Finnerup, NB;Otto, M;McQuay, HJ;Jensen, TS;Sindrup, SH
Addresses:
Aarhus Univ Hosp, Danish Pain Res Ctr, Dept Neurol, Aarhus Sygehus, Norrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
Aarhus Univ Hosp, Danish Pain Res Ctr, Dept Neurol, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus 8000, Denmark
Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Odense 5000, Denmark
Churchill Hosp, Pain Relief Unit, Oxford OX3 7LJ, England[Back to Map]     

Label: Gilron-2005
Title: Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain
Journal: N ENGL J MED, 352 (13): 1324-1334 MAR 31 2005
Citations: 142
Authors: Gilron, I;Bailey, JM;Tu, DS;Holden, RR;Weaver, DF;Houlden, RL
Addresses:
Queens Univ, Dept Anesthesiol, 76 Stuart St, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Queens Univ, Dept Anesthesiol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Queens Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Queens Univ, Dept Math & Stat, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Queens Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Queens Univ, Dept Psychol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Queens Univ, Dept Med, Div Endocrinol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada
Dalhousie Univ, Dept Med, Div Neurol, Halifax, NS, Canada
Dalhousie Univ, Dept Chem, Halifax, NS, Canada

[Back to Map]     

Label: Rosenstock-2004
Title: Pregabalin for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Journal: PAIN, 110 (3): 628-638 AUG 2004
Citations: 141
Authors: Rosenstock, J;Michael, TB;LaMoreaux, L;Sharma, U
Addresses:
Dallas Diabet & Endo Res Ctr, 7777 Forest Lane,C618, Dallas, TX 75230 USA
Dallas Diabet & Endo Res Ctr, Dallas, TX 75230 USA
Palm Beach Neurol Ctr, Palm Beach Gardens, FL USA
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Rowbotham-2003
Title: Oral opioid therapy for chronic peripheral and central neuropathic pain
Journal: N ENGL J MED, 348 (13): 1223-1232 MAR 27 2003
Citations: 127
Authors: Rowbotham, MC;Twilling, L;Davies, PS;Reisner, L;Taylor, K;Mohr, D
Addresses:
Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Med, Pain Clin, Res Ctr,Dept Neurol, 1701 Divisadero St,Ste 480, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA
Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Med, Pain Clin, Res Ctr,Dept Neurol, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA
Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Med, Dept Anesthesia, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA
Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Pharm, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Arnold-2004
Title: A double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder
Journal: ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 50 (9): 2974-2984 SEP 2004
Citations: 122
Authors: Arnold, LM;Lu, YL;Crofford, LJ;Wohlreich, M;Detke, MJ;Iyengar, S;Goldstein, DJ;Duloxetine Fibromyalgia Trial Grp
Addresses:
Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Med Arts Bldg,Suite 8200,222 Piedmont Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA
Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA
Eli Lilly & Co, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indianapolis, IN USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA
McLean Hosp, Belmont, MA 02178 USA
PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Kalso-2004
Title: Opioids in chronic non-cancer pain: systematic review of efficacy and safety
Journal: PAIN, 112 (3): 372-380 DEC 2004
Citations: 122
Authors: Kalso, E;Edwards, JE;Moore, RA;McQuay, HJ
Addresses:
Univ Helsinki, Pain Clin, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care Med, Cent Hosp, POB 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Finland
Univ Helsinki, Pain Clin, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care Med, Cent Hosp, FIN-00029 HUS, Finland
Univ Oxford, Oxford Radcliffe Hosp, Pain Res & Nuffield Dept Anaesthet, Oxford OX3 7LJ, England

[Back to Map]     

Label: Goldenberg-2004
Title: Management of fibromyalgia syndrome
Journal: JAMA-J AM MED ASSN, 292 (19): 2388-2395 NOV 17 2004
Citations: 119
Authors: Goldenberg, DL;Burckhardt, C;Crofford, L
Addresses:
Newton Wellesley Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, 2000 Washington St, Newton, MA 02462 USA
Newton Wellesley Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Newton, MA 02462 USA
Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA
Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Sch Nursing, Portland, OR USA
Univ Michigan, Sch Med, Dept Internal Med, Div Rheumatol, Ann Arbor, MI USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Lesser-2004
Title: Pregabalin relieves symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy – A randomized controlled trial
Journal: NEUROLOGY, 63 (11): 2104-2110 DEC 14 2004
Citations: 117
Authors: Lesser, H;Sharma, U;LaMoreaux, L;Poole, RM
Addresses:
1415 Portland Ave,Suite 480, Rochester, NY 14621 USA
Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Rochester, NY USA
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, New London, CT USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Crofford-2005
Title: Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome – Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Journal: ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 52 (4): 1264-1273 APR 2005
Citations: 110
Authors: Crofford, LJ;Rowbotham, MC;Mease, PJ;Russell, IJ;Dworkin, RH;Corbin, AE;Young, JP;LaMoreaux, LK;Martin, SA;Sharma, U;Pregabalin 1008-15 Study Grp
Addresses:
Kentucky Clin, Room J-503,740 S Limestone St, Lexington, KY 40539 USA
Kentucky Clin, Lexington, KY 40539 USA
Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA
Rheumatol Associates, Seattle, WA USA
Swedish Med Ctr, Seattle, WA USA
Univ Texas, Ctr Hlth Sci, San Antonio, TX USA
Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Rochester, NY USA
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Sabatowski-2004
Title: Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Journal: PAIN, 109 (1-2): 26-35 MAY 2004
Citations: 108
Authors: Sabatowski, R;Galvez, R;Cherry, DA;Jacquot, F;Vincent, E;Maisonobe, P;Versavel, M;1008-045 Study Grp
Addresses:
Univ Cologne, Anasthesiol Klin, Dept Anaesthesiol, D-50924 Cologne, Germany
Univ Cologne, Anasthesiol Klin, Dept Anaesthesiol, D-50924 Cologne, Germany
Univ Hosp Virgen Nieves, Pain Clin, Granada, Spain
Flinders Med Ctr, Bedford Pk, SA, Australia
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Fresnes, France

[Back to Map]     

Label: Goldstein-2004
Title: Duloxetine in the treatment of depression – A double-blind-placebo-controlled comparison with paroxetine
Journal: J CLIN PSYCHOPHARMACOL, 24 (4): 389-399 AUG 2004
Citations: 107
Authors: Goldstein, DJ;Lu, YL;Detke, MJ;Wiltse, C;Mallinckrodt, C;Demitrack, MA
Addresses:
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA
McLean Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Belmont, MA 02178 USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA
Neuronet Inc, Malvern, PA USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Freynhagen-2005
Title: Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens
Journal: PAIN, 115 (3): 254-263 JUN 2005
Citations: 97
Authors: Freynhagen, R;Strojek, K;Griesing, T;Whalen, E;Balkenohl, M
Addresses:
Univ Klinikum Dusseldorf, Anasthesiol Klin, Moorenstr 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Univ Klinikum Dusseldorf, Anasthesiol Klin, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
Dept Internal Dis Diabetol & Nephrol, Zabrze, Poland
Pfizer Inc, New York, NY USA
Pfizer Global Pharamceut, Freiburg, Germany

[Back to Map]     

Label: Detke-2004
Title: Duloxetine in the acute and long-term treatment of major depressive disorder: a placebo- and paroxetine-controlled trial
Journal: EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL, 14 (6): 457-470 DEC 2004
Citations: 89
Authors: Detke, MJ;Wiltse, CG;Mallinckrodt, CH;McNamara, RK;Demitrack, MA;Bitter, I
Addresses:
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA
McLean Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Belmont, MA 02178 USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02115 USA
Neuronet Inc, Malvern, PA USA
Semmelweis Univ Med, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, H-1085 Budapest, Hungary

[Back to Map]     

Label: Richter-2005
Title: Relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy with pregabalin: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Journal: J PAIN, 6 (4): 253-260 APR 2005
Citations: 83
Authors: Richter, RW;Portenoy, R;Sharma, U;Lamoreaux, L;Bockbrader, H;Knapp, LE
Addresses:
Beth Israel Med Ctr, Dept Pain Med & Palliat Care, 1st Ave 16th St, New York, NY 10003 USA
Beth Israel Med Ctr, Dept Pain Med & Palliat Care, New York, NY 10003 USA
St Johns Hosp, Dept Neurol, Tulsa, OK USA
Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Raskin-2005
Title: A double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain
Journal: PAIN MED, 6 (5): 346-356 SEP-OCT 2005
Citations: 78
Authors: Raskin, J;Pritchett, YL;Wang, FJ;D’Souza, DN;Waninger, AL;Iyengar, S;Wernicke, JF
Addresses:
Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, 3650 Danforth Ave, Toronto, ON MIN 2E8, Canada
Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, Toronto, ON MIN 2E8, Canada
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Eisenberg-2005
Title: Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin – Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Journal: JAMA-J AM MED ASSN, 293 (24): 3043-3052 JUN 22 2005
Citations: 75
Authors: Eisenberg, E;McNicol, ED;Carr, DB
Addresses:
Rambam Med Ctr, Pain Relief Unit, POB 9602, IL-31096 Haifa, Israel
Rambam Med Ctr, Pain Relief Unit, IL-31096 Haifa, Israel
Technion Israel Inst Technol, Haifa Pain Res Grp, Haifa, Israel
Tufts New England Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesia, Boston, MA USA
Tufts New England Med Ctr, Dept Pharm, Boston, MA USA
Tufts New England Med Ctr, Div Clin Care Res, Boston, MA USA
Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Arnold-2005
Title: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder
Journal: PAIN, 119 (1-3): 5-15 DEC 15 2005
Citations: 68
Authors: Arnold, LM;Rosen, A;Pritchett, YL;D’Souza, DN;Goldstein, DJ;Iyengar, S;Wernicke, JF
Addresses:
Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Womens Hlth Res Program, Dept Psychiat, 222 Piedmont Ave,Suite 8200, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA
Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Womens Hlth Res Program, Dept Psychiat, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA
Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN USA
Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA
PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Furlan-2006
Title: Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: a meta-analysis of effectiveness and side effects
Journal: CAN MED ASSN J, 174 (11): 1589-1594 MAY 23 2006
Citations: 63
Authors: Furlan, AD;Sandoval, JA;Mailis-Gagnon, A;Tunks, E
Addresses:
Toronto Western Hosp, Comprehens Pain Program, 399 Bathurst St,Rm 4F811, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
Toronto Western Hosp, Comprehens Pain Program, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
Univ Toronto, Ctr Study Pain, Toronto, ON, Canada
Univ Toronto, Inst Work & Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada
Toronto Western Hosp, Krembil Neurosci Ctr, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada
McMaster Univ, Chedoke Rehabil Ctr, Hamilton Hlth Sci Hosp, Hamilton, ON, Canada

[Back to Map]     

Label: Attal-2006
Title: EFNS guidelines on pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain
Journal: EUR J NEUROLOGY, 13 (11): 1153-1169 NOV 2006
Citations: 50
Authors: Attal, N;Cruccu, G;Haanpaa, M;Hansson, P;Jensen, TS;Nurmikko, T;Sampaio, C;Sindrup, S;Wiffen, P
Addresses:
Hop Ambroise Pare, Ctr Evaluat & Traitement Douleur, EFNS Panel Neuropath Pain, Boulogne, France
Hop Ambroise Pare, Ctr Evaluat & Traitement Douleur, EFNS Panel Neuropath Pain, Boulogne, France
Hop Ambroise Pare, Ctr Evaluat & Traitement Douleur, INSERM, U792, Boulogne, France
Univ Versailles St Quentin, Boulogne, France
Univ Versailles St Quentin, Boulogne, France
Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dept Neurol Sci, Rome, Italy
Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol, Pain Clin, Helsinki, Finland
Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Pain Clin, Helsinki, Finland
Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med, Stockholm, Sweden
Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Surg Sect Clin Pain Res, Stockholm, Sweden
Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Pain Ctr, Dept Neurosurg, Stockholm, Sweden
Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
Aarhus Univ Hosp, Danish Pain Res Ctr, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
Univ Liverpool, Pain Res Inst, Div Neurol Sci, Sch Clin Sci, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England
Univ Lisbon, Inst Farmacol & Terapeut Geral, Lisbon Sch Med, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal
Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark
Cochrane Pain & Palliat Care Review Grp, Oxford, England

[Back to Map]     

Label: Brannan-2005
Title: Duloxetine 60 mg once-daily in the treatment of painful physical symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder
Journal: J PSYCHIAT RES, 39 (1): 43-53 JAN 2005
Citations: 50
Authors: Brannan, SK;Mallinckrodt, CH;Brown, EB;Wohlreich, MM;Watkin, JG;Schatzberg, AF
Addresses:
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Cyberon, Houston, TX 77058 USA
Stanford Univ, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Martell-2007
Title: Systematic review: Opioid treatment for chronic back pain: Prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction
Journal: ANN INTERN MED, 146 (2): 116-127 JAN 16 2007
Citations: 46
Authors: Martell, BA;O’Connor, PG;Kerns, RD;Becker, WC;Morales, KH;Kosten, TR;Fiellin, DA
Addresses:
Yale Univ, Sch Med, 333 Cedar St,POB 208025, New Haven, CT 06520 USA
Yale Univ, Sch Med, New Haven, CT 06520 USA
VA Connecticut Hlth Care Syst, West Haven, CT USA
Univ Penn, Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Ballantyne-2007
Title: Opioid dependence and addiction during opioid treatment of chronic pain
Journal: PAIN, 129 (3): 235-255 JUN 2007
Citations: 32
Authors: Ballantyne, JC;LaForge, KS
Addresses:
Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Div Pain Med, Pain Ctr, 15 Parkman St,WACC 333, Boston, MA 02114 USA
Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Div Pain Med, Pain Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA
Univ Helsinki, Finnish Genome Ctr, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland

[Back to Map]     

Label: Ives-2006
Title: Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study
Journal: BMC HEALTH SERV RES, 6: art. no.-46 APR 4 2006
Citations: 29
Authors: Ives, TJ;Chelminski, PR;Hammett-Stabler, CA;Malone, RM;Perhac, JS;Potisek, NM;Shilliday, BB;DeWalt, DA;Pignone, MP
Addresses:
Univ N Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Gen Internal Med, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA
Univ N Carolina, Sch Pharm, Div Pharmacotherapy & Expt Therapeut, Chapel Hill, NC USA
Univ N Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Pathol & Lab Med, Chapel Hill, NC USA
Univ N Carolina Hlth Syst, Ctr Excellence Chron Illness Care, Chapel Hill, NC USA

[Back to Map]     

Label: Arnold-2007
Title: Gabapentin in the treatment of fibromyalgia – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial
Journal: ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 56 (4): 1336-1344 APR 2007
Citations: 28
Authors: Arnold, LM;Goldenberg, DL;Stanford, SB;Lalonde, JK;Sandhu, HS;Keck, PE;Welge, JA;Bishop, F;Stanford, KE;Hess, EV;Hudson, JI
Addresses:
Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Med Arts Bldg,222 Piedmont Ave,Suite 8200, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA
Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA
Newton Wellesley Hosp, Newton, MA USA
Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA
McLean Hosp, Belmont, MA 02178 USA
Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA

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Label: Vinik-2007
Title: Lamotrigine for treatment of pain associated with diabetic neuropathy: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies
Journal: PAIN, 128 (1-2): 169-179 MAR 2007
Citations: 28
Authors: Vinik, AI;Tuchman, M;Safirstein, B;Corder, C;Kirby, L;Wilks, K;Quessy, S;Blum, D;Grainger, J;White, J;Silver, M
Addresses:
Eastern Virginia Med Sch, Inst Diabet, 855 W Brandleton, Norfolk, VA 23510 USA
Eastern Virginia Med Sch, Inst Diabet, Norfolk, VA 23510 USA
Palm Beach Neurol Ctr, Palm Beach Gardens, FL USA
Baumel Eisner Neuromed Inst, Bay Harbor, FL USA
COR Clin Res, Oklahoma City, OK USA
Pivotal Res Ctr, Peoria, AZ USA
IMR, Towson, MD USA
GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA

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Label: Raskin-2007
Title: Efficacy of duloxetine on cognition, depression, and pain in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Journal: AMER J PSYCHIAT, 164 (6): 900-909 JUN 2007
Citations: 17
Authors: Raskin, J;Wiltse, CG;Siegal, A;Sheikh, J;Xu, J;Dinkel, JJ;Rotz, BT;Mohs, RC
Addresses:
Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, 3650 Danforth Ave, Toronto, ON M1N 2E8, Canada
Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, Toronto, ON M1N 2E8, Canada
Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA
Geriatr & Adult Psychiat LLC, Hamden, CT USA
Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA

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KEYWORDS: NEUROPATHIC PAIN TREATMENT; RANDOMIZED MULTICENTER TRIAL COMPARING DULOXETINE; DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIC PAIN; CENTRAL NEUROPATHIC PAIN; NEUROPATHIC PAIN EVALUATED.
[5770: (2002-2008_6) (CLI-NEU: ST Diabetes)]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


• Trigliserida tidak universal buruk:

Diet yang seimbang harus mengandung semua elemen yang relevan. Telah diperkirakan bahwa trigliserida memiliki proporsi 99% dari semua lemak yang tersimpan dalam tubuh manusia.

 

Anda mendapatkan sumber energi jangka panjang dari deposito ini lemak. Mereka benar-benar disimpan dalam lebih padat daripada protein dari otot atau bahkan pati.

 

 Insulin diperlukan untuk membentuk lemak. Antara makan dan semalam, trigliserida diubah menjadi energi.

 

Kadar insulin puasa dan rendah akan memicu reaksi ini. Sel-sel lemak memiliki kapasitas penyimpanan yang sangat tinggi dan ini dapat menyebabkan obesitas pada situasi tertentu.

 

 Jika Anda sedang menjalani puasa luas atau sama sekali tidak ada insulin dalam tubuh maka hati akan mengkonversi produk pemecahan lemak menjadi keton.


• komplikasi kesehatan dan manifestasi mereka:

 

 Hal ini sering terjadi rendahnya tingkat HDL atau kolesterol baik dikaitkan dengan tingkat tinggi trigliserida.

 

Ini kemudian didiagnosis sebagai dislipidemia diabetik. Ini adalah kombinasi dari faktor-faktor yang dapat menempatkan hidup pasien dalam bahaya.

 

Pasien dalam situasi ini akan memiliki kelompok kecil, padat dan akhirnya berbahaya dari LDL atau kolesterol berbahaya.

 

Format yang terakhir ini tidak diinginkan berdasarkan sifat aterogenik nya. Akhirnya orang tersebut akan mengembangkan

obesitas sentral.

Ini adalah salah satu fitur mendefinisikan sindrom metabolik.


• Sekitar 80% dari semua penderita diabetes tipe 2 akan memiliki kondisi ini. Akhirnya orang tersebut meninggal lebih cepat akibat penyakit jantung.
• Menetapkan tolok ukur untuk orang yang sehat: Sangat penting bahwa Anda memiliki beberapa tujuan pada seberapa banyak trigliserida yang Anda akan merekam pada skala standar. Ini merupakan indikator yang mendasari kondisi sehat. Oleh karena itu

 

Anda akan berada dalam posisi untuk menerapkan strategi pencegahan bila diperlukan untuk melakukannya.

 

 Tingkat normal trigliserida adalah 150 mg / dl. Angka batas adalah antara 150 dan 199.

 

 Tingginya adalah antara 200 dan 499 sedangkan apa pun lebih dari 500 adalah hal yang mendesak.

 

Keadaan puasa normal akan memiliki tingkat membaca antara 100 dan 150 mg / dl.

 

Setelah makan yang normal angkanya akan meningkat menjadi 300.

 

Pasien dengan diabetes tipe 2 akan mengalami peningkatan kadar di kedua saat baik  puasa dan maupun sesuah makan.

 

Sebelum tes lipid panel, Anda harus memiliki beberapa puasa semalam setidaknya selama 12 jam.

 

 Demikian juga tidak dianjurkan untuk mengambil alkohol minimal 24 jam sebelum tes.
• Mengelola tingkat trigliserida dalam tubuh Anda:

 

 Hal ini untuk keuntungan Anda bahwa Anda menjaga kadar zat ini relatif rendah.

 

 Pasien dengan diabetes tipe 2 memiliki faktor risiko tinggi dan perlu bekerja sedikit yang ekstra untuk memastikan bahwa tingkat mereka 150 mg / dl atau bahkan lebih rendah. Ini akan membantu mereka mengurangi kemungkinan terkena penyakit kardiovaskular.

 

Beberapa orang dalam kategori ini telah melakukan tingkat yang lebih dari 400. Setelah Anda mulai memukul tanda 1000 maka Anda akan menderita lesi kulit atau xanthomas, kehilangan memori, pankreas dan sakit perut. Intervensi diperlukan pada tahap ini untuk menyelamatkan hidup Anda.


• Respon klinis:

 

Kombinasi obat dan manajemen diet dapat memiliki hasil positif. Pertama-tama Anda harus bertujuan untuk pengendalian glukosa. Sebuah resep khas akan mencakup Statin seperti Zocor, Lipitor, Pravachol, Zetia, Crestor dan Vytorin.

 

 Obat-obat ini dimaksudkan untuk menurunkan kadar kolesterol Anda secara umum. Pasien diabetes tipe 2 mungkin memerlukan terapi kombinasi untuk mencapai tingkat yang aman dari trigliserida.

 

Anda juga harus memikirkan cara-cara menurunkan kadar LDL Anda. Kadang-kadang dokter akan merekomendasikan serangkaian fibrate seperti gemfibrozil Lopid, Trico fenofibrate dan asam nikotinat atau niasin. Hal ini juga dianjurkan untuk memasukkan minyak ikan dalam diet Anda.


Setelah menyadari bahaya yang dapat timbul dari trigliserida dalam kaitannya dengan diabetes, Anda harus datang dengan perubahan gaya hidup praktis yang akan membantu Anda menghindari fase berbahaya.

Dalam beberapa kasus Anda mungkin harus membatasi asupan lemak Anda sepenuhnya. Masalahnya adalah bahwa langkah ini dapat menyebabkan Anda mengambil karbohidrat bahkan lebih dan karena itu meningkatkan tingkat trigliserida dalam aliran darah Anda.

 Beberapa buku merekomendasikan lemak substitusi sehat seperti minyak zaitun dan lemak tak jenuh tunggal lainnya.
 

Tidak meningkatkan asupan produk tepung gula atau putih. Asupan Alkohol harus disimpan ke minimum.

Ambil minyak ikan seperti tuna, sarden, salmon, makarel dan ikan.

Mereka mengandung asam lemak omega-3 yang dikenal untuk mengurangi trigliserida.

 

 

Kelainan genetik seperti hipotiroidisme dapat menggabungkan dengan penyakit untuk memperburuk situasi.

Mengambil obat-obatan seperti steroid, pil KB dan Tamoxifen juga bisa menimbulkan masalah. Anda beresiko jika Anda menderita penyakit ginjal, gagal hati dan tekanan darah tinggi

The end @ copyright @ 2012

 

 

 

The Chinese Overseas Malaysia History collections from Chinese Language source

 

The Chimese Malaysia History collections

based On Info

From Chinese Langugae  sourche

Edited By

Dr Iwan suwandy,mHA

Special For Foreign Student Whon Study In Chinese Overseas Malaysia University

Copyright 2 2012

 This History were written dedicated to My frined

 Dr Francis Ngu and mr Chan Kee teck Kuching Serawak

may this info will support your political struggle

Archives:

《神仙•老虎•狗》——(一)

作者

Fairy • Tiger • dog “- (a)
FEB 14
Of the voice of justice


我在报界二十多年,学到了一个教训;不可尽信报纸所言。我国报章必需每年更换出版准证,业者为了生存,不得不抱着有限度的言论自由来经营,为了保证来年能继续出版,就得讨好政府,在“必要”时把一些真相“杀”掉。

不过,报界有更大的“黑手”,不是政府,而是财团。我们华人控制的财团,华商在马来西亚尤其是砂劳越,做生意的手段是有名的利害,往往为了达到赚钱的目的,可以不择手段,只要钱能到手就好,其他的什么礼仪廉耻都不重要。

有时,他们他们在赚钱的过程中“偶然”干了一些见不得光的事,怕记者抖出来,就很难在上流社会立足,所以就会设法把真相盖住,包括有贿赂、恐吓,各种软硬手段都出齐,只要能保住一张脸皮就好。

我生就是一幅牛脾气,很多朋友都认为不适合当记者,时常为了不买账而得罪了很多有头有脸的“社会毒瘤”。多年来我的这些“死对头”一直想把我撬走,包括在我的老板面前打毒针,威胁利诱。直到今年初才成功,这是后话,另会详述。

在砂州当记者,薪水薄得可耻。所以,大部份记者要靠兼职才能生存,我也不例外。第一个月上班就学人招徕广告赚些“干仙”糊口,第一个客户就跟我耍了一招太极拳中最厉害的推拿手,让我毫无招架的能力。

我还记得当时名字最常上报的生意人之中有一个是林启化,他是诗华日报董事长,也是当时有名的大公司林合春号东,我刚打算“骗吃”,第一个想到的对象自然非他莫属。

第一次去林氏办事处,心中紧张得要命,面对林氏,道了来意,他第一句话就问我有没有抽拥。我想,假如告诉他我有十五巴仙好赚,他可能不要登广告了。所以决定说个“白色的谎言”,就否认有“干仙”。生意人毕竟油条得很,他一听我没钱可赚,立刻“安慰”我;既然没有抽佣,那又何必把钱白白送给报社呢,对不对?等以后你有钱赚再说吧!

哇塞,厉害!以后好多年,我都赚不到林先生的钱。直到有一段时期,当林兄当了中华总商会长,而又时常闹绯闻之际,他通过第三者,一个共同的朋友郭孟峤来“暗示”林氏有意跟我套交情,叫我去找他拿广告。我去了,其后多年我的了不少甜头,直到林氏的大老婆觉得心疼而不再登广告为止。林太太时常坐镇公司,操很大的权势。

原来林兄犯了寡人之疾,平时除了杯中之物,还酷爱“酒”后面那个东西,郭孟峤是个执胯子弟,父亲留下了一爿小小的印务馆,平时没什么生意,不知如何攀上了林兄,称兄道弟起来,白天一起吃饭,晚上就上夜总会泡台湾歌星,一道留下风流抽糗史。

林氏原配貌若蛤蟆,据林氏告诉朋友,那是当年在外地遇车祸时受到当时做护士的黄端贞的悉心照料,为了报恩才娶回来,完全没有感情的,不算数。现在有了钱也有了地位,看到漂亮的台湾妞当然会心跳一百。

由于他肯花钱,林兄身边的傍友越来越多,绯闻着实不少。其实他在香港早有个二奶,还有儿女都早已长大,大老婆被瞒在鼓里多年,直到有一年林兄差一点心脏病发作,为了后事才抖出来。大娘刚发现时还闹自杀,不过命大死不了,林兄在香港这个二奶据说晚景相当凄凉,身后萧条,后来有的儿女还进了精神病院。

林兄的桃色新闻不断,连他自己的诗华日报都觉得不登都过不去。有一次林兄带了一个台湾婆到京城酒店开房,风流快活时突然不省人事,差点中了马上风。幸亏姣婆经验丰富,抱着林兄不放,又把银针在他肛门附近硬戣,才免得水长流,自此玩完。诗华日报在报导中还把男主角喻为“李小龙第二”。

诗华日报后来更刊登了一篇林家大老婆的访谈,文中含有甚多影射林兄的风流行径,他看了本就大动肝火,再加上傍友的怂恿,一怒之下卖掉诗华股份,辞去董事长的职位,不做“新闻从业员”了。

林兄诸多风流艳迹中,最为人津津乐道者,莫过于他的一套金蝉脱壳之计,话说有一次他告诉大老婆,说要上加帛镇“公干”,去了几天还未回家,黄氏心想老公这么努力做工好难得,别累坏了。就决定去加帛看老公。回家带了一锅鸡汤,天未亮就坐快艇去了,到了加帛店里,把主管叫来,一问之下,原来老公根本没来过!

黄氏回到诗巫总店,百思不得其解。后来还是软硬兼施之下,阿末才和盘托出,原来那天林兄坐了公司捷艇出门,到了公务局码头就下船,车夫用汽车又把他载回市区,直上京城酒店四楼,由那儿坐电梯更上一层楼,风流快活去了。林兄是很努力,不过却是在埋头苦干!

林兄很是狡猾。有一次他叫郭孟峤带一个操台湾口音的中年妇女,说是西马来的保险营业员,因为我“认识的人多”,希望能够带她去走走。大家看是我带来的,多多少少都应酬些少。我一直不知就里,以为只是替朋友做了另一件好事。岂料事过多年,有一天遇见林家大娘,没头没脑被她骂了一顿,说我帮她老公扯皮条!

原来那位“保险营业员”是嫁来大马的台湾妇女,与原来的老公离婚了被林兄搭上,借口卖保险,其实是来诗巫跟林兄幽会。

后来被林兄收藏在柔佛州新山,有一次我替福华银行拍摄三十周年纪念照,在新山分行还见到她在经理办事处等支票簿,而银行职员都叫她林太太。

《神仙•老虎•狗》——(二)待续…..

by:fb刘世久

 

发表在 神仙•老虎•狗

1条评论

Twenty years in the press, I learned a lesson; can not believe everything the newspapers said. Of newspapers must be replaced annually publishing permit the industry in order to survive, had to hold a limited freedom of speech to business, in order to ensure that will be able to continue to publish, you have to please the government, “necessary” truth “kill” off.


However, the press have more of the “black hands”, not the government, but the consortium. Our Chinese-controlled consortium, the Chinese businessmen in Malaysia, especially Sarawak, the means of doing business is well-known interest, often in order to achieve the purpose of making money, you can do anything, as long as the money can be hand like other liturgical sense of shame is not important.


Sometimes, they in the process of making money “accidental” did some shady things, afraid that the reporters ferreted out, it is difficult to gain a foothold in the high society, so will try to cover the truth, including bribery, intimidation, various hard and soft means a homogeneous, can keep a skinned like.


I was born a pigheadedness, many of my friends are not considered appropriate when a reporter often not buy it offended a lot of head and face “social cancer”. Over the years, my “rival” I was trying to pry away, including lethal playing in front of my boss, threats and inducements. Successful until earlier this year, this is something, and the other will be detailed.


When a reporter in Sarawak, salaries thin shameful. So, most reporters rely on part-time in order to survive, and I am no exception. The first month of work school attract advertising earn some the “dry cents” subsistence, first client told me playing a trick the Taijiquan most powerful massage hands, let me no ability to Parry.


I still remember the businessman was the name most frequently reported among LIN Qi-oriented, he is chairman of the See Hua Daily News, was also famous Riverside Spring, East, I’m just going to “cheat eat”, the first thought the object Nature must go to him.

First offices to Lim, the hearts of wrought, the face of the Lim said his intentions, his first words to ask me there is no pumping owned.

 

I think, if I told him 15 per cent pay any more, he may not want to advertise. So I decided to say a “white lie” denied “dry cents. Businessman after all fritters very him a no money to be made, immediately “comfort”; since there is no commission, then why should the money be handing the newspaper it right? Later you say it making money!

Wow, amazing! After many years, I have earned less than Lin’s money. Until there is a period of time, when the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Lin Xiong, yet often trouble in the scandal on the occasion, through a third party, to “imply” Lim intends Tao Jiaoqing with me and told me to find him a common friend Guo Meng Qiao Take advertising.

 

I go, followed by years of me a lot of sweetness, until Lin’s wife feel distressed, to advertisers. Mrs. Lin often sits Company, speaks very powerful.

The original Lin Xiong committed Guaren of the disease, usually in addition to the things of the cup also fond of “wine” that thing behind Guo Meng Qiao is executive hips children to father left a tiny Printing Museum, usually no business, I do not know how The climbed Lin Xiong, fraternizing up dinner during the day, night nightclub bubble Taiwanese singer, a left Merry pumping Qiu history.

Lin’s wife Maoruo toad, Lim told a friend, that is by the nurse did Huang Duanzhen taken care of the year in a car accident in the field, in order to repay have married back, not feelings, does not count. Now money has also been the position to see the beautiful Taiwan girl of course Heartbeat 100.

Friends of the Pong Lin Xiong around more and more, because he is willing to pay, and really a lot of scandal. In fact, he has already grown up in Hong Kong has long been a mistress, there are children the big wife was hiding in the drums for many years, until the year Lin Xiong almost heart attack, in order to take care of things shake out.

Aunt just found also an attempt at suicide, but was lucky not die, the Lin Xiong mistress in Hong Kong is said to evening scene quite bleak depression behind, and later, some children into a mental hospital.
The constantly, Lin Xiong Taosexinwen his See Hua Daily News do not think Gordon would go through. Once Lin Xiong with a Taiwan woman to the capital Jiudiankaifang, Merry merry suddenly unconscious almost immediately in the wind.

 

Thanks to the rich experience of Jiao woman, holding Lin Xiong and hold again silver needles near his anus hard lance before lest Flows, and since then comes to an end. See Hua Daily News also reported actor hailed as Bruce Lee “.

See Hua Daily News and later published an interview with the wife of a Lin family, contains much innuendo Lin Xiong Merry act, he saw this on flies into a rage, coupled with the near Friends of the instigation, huff sell Shi Hua shares, resigned from the posts of chairman of the board, not journalists.

Lin Xiong many Merry brilliant track in the most talked about than he withdraw its role of a measure, saying that once he told his wife, said to be on Kapit town “on business” went a few days has not been back to the home, Wong thought her husband so hard workmanship so rare, not tired. Decided to go to see her husband Kapit. Home with a pot of chicken soup, the day is not lit table speedboat to Kapit store, called the charge of a question under the original husband simply never been!

Huang returned to the the Sibu headquarters, baffled. Later or carrot and stick under Ahmad was a clean breast of the original day Lin Xiong sit company Jie boats go out to the official Bureau pier on disembark, the coachman again he set out by car back to the city, straight on the capital hotel fourth floor, sat elevator the next level, Merry merry. Lin Xiong is very hard, but it is hard at work!

Lin Xiong is very cunning.

 

 

 

 Once he called Guo Meng Qiao middle-aged woman with an operation in Taiwan accent, said Simma insurance salesperson, because I know many people “want to be able to take her to walk. I brought more or less entertaining existing. I have been unknowingly, thought it was just another good thing to do for a friend. Unexpectedly, the things over the years, and one day met the aunt of the Lin family, unthinking scolded by her meal, that I helped her husband pimp!

The original man “insurance salesperson is married to Malaysian women, divorce Lin Xiong catch the original husband, an excuse to sell insurance, in fact, is to Sibu with Lin Xiong tryst.

Later Lin Xiong collection in Johor Bahru, once my 30th anniversary photo shoot behalf Fuhua Bank branches in Johor Bahru to see her checkbook manager offices, bank staff called her Mrs. Lin.
Fairy • Tiger • dog – (b) To be continued …..
by: fb Liu long
Published in the fairy tiger • • dog

《神仙•老虎•狗》

前因后果

作者

The circumstances surrounding the fairy • Tiger • dog ”
FEB 12
Of the voice of justice

七十年代初期,我刚进入新闻界,一位前辈钟茂麟曾经以“骗吃”谑称记者。他说做这个行业就像苦哈哈,整天为三餐奔跑“骗一口饭吃”,一语道破个中苦乐。

他说,当有人要用到记者之际,它们总会千方百计讨好记者,出尽法宝让记者快乐,那时候的记者就有快乐似神仙的感觉。

或者,当时有钱有地位的人干了坏事被记者抓住把柄,怕得不得了,要跟记者“讲数”,这是刻的记者就像老虎那么凶!

可是,当记者要发恶之际,却遇到一个更恶更凶的对手,他不但可以在你的老板面前用恶势力把你压得透不过气来,一个不妙很可能还会带几个打手把你揍一顿,那时,做记者的只有像狗儿那么可怜了。

这本书的书名,其实就是记者的代号。

往后所记所述,就是我二十二年记者生涯里的见闻,我不想偏袒朋友,也不刻意丑化敌人,纯粹是要尽一点新闻工作者的本分,把那些报章不敢刊载的事实记载下来,以对历史的见证作个交代。

刘世久
一九九三年九月十三日子夜
捞园路本宅

《神仙•老虎•狗》序

礼、义、治人之大法;廉、耻、立人之大节。
蓋不廉则无所不取,不耻则无所不为。
人而如此,则祸败乱亡,亦无所不至。
人不可以无耻,无耻之耻,无耻矣。

“廉耻”乃为人之重要条件,居于社会领导地位之知识份子,尤应知耻。篇首几句乃采录自顾炎武之文章;作者眼看明室诸臣纷纷投降满清,只图当前功名富贵,不惜千秋名节,实由于不知耻之所致,心有所感,乃写出本编沉痛之文章,指出“廉耻”之重要,奉劝士大夫须“知耻”。

“神仙老虎狗”这本书甚多情节将是围绕着“廉耻”两个字,道出我华族群中人如何把“礼仪”抛弃,把廉耻丢开,而一味往钱堆里头躜的丑陋的一面。

我生长于道德沉沦,纳妾风盛之动乱时代,大家都以三妻四妾为荣,有钱人好色,尚可理解;邻家一个流动小贩,家中大小七八口三餐不继,却也去学人家养个小老婆,真是天下之大,无奇不有。读书人读了几年圣贤书,对风流涵义一知半解,尚以为下流就是风流的另一种写法;一些行将就木的“社会名流”在师爷劝说之下,只道老尚风流是寿症。女孩子家听信江湖看命佬谗言,认为只有嫁给有钱人作阿二才有“钱”途,一个没有受过几年教育的女记者一心以为嫁对了人,跟着一个小流氓出身的“有钱人”作第五六房小妾,却不想衰婆遇着空心老倌,不但把“老公”累垮,也断送了自己的前途。

作书人不想自命清高,但是放眼看去,能够处乱世而不改其操守之君子难找啦。

松柏后凋零于岁寒,鸡鸣不己于风雨

谨以此句献于那些尚有一念之贞的君子共勉之

……..待续

by:fb刘世久

 

发表在 神仙•老虎•狗

发表评论

 The early ’70s, I just go into journalism, a senior Zhongmao Lin once ridiculed reporters to “cheat eat. He said to do in this industry is like Ku Haha, run “cheat food to eat for meals throughout the day, gave away the joy.


He said that when people use to reporters on the occasion, they will always do everything possible to please the reporters, all possible ways to let reporters happy, when the journalists there feeling happy as an immortal.

Or was the money and rank did a bad thing by reporters to grasp the handle, scared incredible, keep reporters talk about the number of “carved reporters like Tiger fierceness!
However, when reporters evil, but encountered a more evil and more fierce opponents, he not only can be in front of your boss with evil overwhelming to a not good is likely to bring a few thugs to beat, then, do reporters only like dogs so pitiful.
The title of this book, in fact, is the reporter’s code. Subsequent written above, is twenty-two years I press career horizons, I do not want to favoritism friend, not deliberately vilify the enemy, is simply to do a little duty of journalists, those newspapers did not dare report the facts written down and explain to the witness of history.

《神仙•老虎•狗》作者生平简介

作者

Author Biography “fairy • Tiger • dog”
FEB 12
Of the voice of justice

各位朋友,网上首次出现神仙老虎狗这本禁书原文,这是处女首航,为了尊重已故原作者刘世久先生将不会修改或添加,把原汁原味的书呈现给大家。文章将会以每天流出一篇的方式,直至整本书完毕。故事中对人性贪婪地追逐名利金钱地位毫不保留的揭发,社会名流地方闻人国阵朋党的勾结一一呈现在各位的眼前。谢谢!
——————————————————————————–

《神仙•老虎•狗》作者生平简介

禁书《神仙•老虎•狗》揭发诗巫名人的丑闻秘辛,在其笔下的诗巫名人(当然都是有钱人)都是表面风光,一幅慈善家面貌,私生活却都不道德的一面。这其中真真假假不是外人所能掌握,不过无风不起浪,可能有某些事实的成份。作者因为书内文章被泄露并复印流传,结果为免是非而自我流亡海外。

作者是资深名记者刘世久,大家都称他为SK.那是他的英文名缩写。他也以Oscar Lau来做为与朋友的交往。 SK Lau刘世久,是诗巫教育界前辈刘贤任的长子。早年在下游丹章公集的中正学校受教育,老爸就是校长.中学则在公教中学受教。他受过中英教育,也曾负笈台湾,因此中英文都很棒。

离开学校后,他曾在当年诗巫邮政局二楼的“电讯部”工作。那个时期,人们与外地连系,都需要打电报,以英文字母数目,来计算费用。这就是“电讯部”的工作之一。他在“电讯部”工作之时,即开始投稿给在汶莱出版的英文「婆罗洲纪事报」(Borneo Bulletin)。每次领到稿费时,他便会很识趣的买一些食品回公司招待大家。

及后他在英文「砂拉越论坛报」(Sarawak Tribune)出任记者兼诗巫的广告招徕员。那个时期,他的收入最丰,本地记者没有一个可以望其项背。最风光时期,他可以每个月到新加坡”吃风”一趟。不必说那个时候,即使是现在,也没有多少打工一族能够如此轻松的每个月自费出门逍遥自在几天。

关于SK Lau的事迹很多.那年,他为了一本书而出国。出走前夕,深夜九点多约一名深交者见面,表示次日要离开了。那是1996年9月,也是最后一次与该名知己真人面对面,此后再没有见过面,直至他于2004年在北京离世。

离开诗巫那一天,他大清早乘坐最早班快艇,大约是清晨5点45分,由诗巫前往古晋。在古晋呆上好几天,然后才飞往新加坡。他来来去去新加坡和吉隆坡之间,才飞去美国。在美国西北部一位朋友的家,也住了一两个月,过后便飞到台湾,原本计划要在这个他比较熟悉的环境下生活。不过,后来改变主意,转赴北京,就此定居下来。

在这期间,他也经常会飞回吉隆坡,办点签证或做点事。在北京,他的优越英文水平,就是他的饭碗。他开始为翻译社工作。在这个国际大都会,翻译是一门大生意,许多中国人与外国人做生意,不会英文,极须会英文的人员负责写信,弄合约等等。中国政府也积极将其法律以英文书写,他的公司也曾经获得合约进行法律的翻译。在中国这个华文的世界,居然靠英文吃糊,说来难令人入信,偏偏就是如此。其实也不足为奇,英文是国际语言,国际上做生意,当然是英文最吃香了。

2004年漂泊在北京56岁的刘世久在北京自己租住的房子里悄然离世,直到十余天之后才被朋友发现。刘世久的朋友华先生怀着悲痛的心情向记者讲述了这件蹊跷事。 他和刘世久相识于新加坡,由于共同的摄影爱好使他们成为了很好的朋友。两人每隔两三天都要通一次电话,刘世久几乎每周都要到华先生的工作室做客。

2004年1月16日,我们通过一次电话,当时649(刘世久的外号)说自己改变了去香港过年的计划,要留在北京过年。想不到那竟是我们最后一次通话。”1月18日,华先生起程去江西,出发之前拨打刘世久家里的电话、手机都没人接听。从18日直到27日回到北京,华先生无数次拨打刘世久的手机都无人接听,直到后来手机里传出噪音,最后关机。

大年初七,刘世久的几个朋友来到酒仙桥他租住的房子,发现防盗门没有关,从门缝里可以看到房间里开着灯。附近邻居、居委会都说自从春节以后就没见过这个老人了,几个朋友当即报警。在找到房主之后,警方人员及刘世久的朋友于正月初八进入他的房间。华先生说:“我从客厅里看到649躺在卧室的床上,身上盖着被子,拖鞋放在床边,好像穿着毛衣。他的脸全是黑色的,好像已经腐烂。

据一直与刘世久保持邮件联系的马来西亚朋友说,他们的邮件联系中断于1月16日,而华先生与刘世久最后一次通话也是16日。据此推断,刘世久的遗体被发现时他已经去世十多天了。 华先生说,刘世久很早妻子就去世了,儿子也英年早逝,他来北京之后一直独居。刘世久与朋友们很合得来,出事之前没听说他有什么烦心事。他不抽烟、不喝酒,虽然有时闹牙疼、腿疼,但从未听说有什么致命的疾病。究竟是谋杀、仇杀或有其他原因?最后北京公安也查不出一个结果。刘世久无疾的离世更加让遗留下的这本书《神仙•老虎•狗》更增添了神秘感!

刘世久在北京离世后,家属将其移灵诗巫。

……..待续

by:fb刘世久 

 

从KFC被鲸吞事件,看巫统朋党打压华商的手段!

作者

Dear friends, online for the first time the banned original fairy tiger dog, this is the the virgin maiden voyage, in order to respect the the deceased original author, Mr. Liu Shijiu will not modify or add to the original book presented to you. The article will a daily outflow a way, until the completion of the entire book. Story of greed of human nature to chase fame and money position without reservation, came to light, the collusion of the socialite local celebrity in the Barisan Nasional cronies presented one by one in front of you for. Thank you!
—————————

 

Author Biography “fairy • Tiger • dog”
The banned “fairy the Tiger • • dog” came to light Sibu celebrity scandal secrets behind the pen Sibu celebrity (of course, are rich) are the surface scenery, a philanthropist outlook, private life is nothing but immoral. Which half-truths are not outsiders can get hold of, but no smoke without fire, there may be some facts constituent. Author because the book within the article was leaked copy spread, the results in order to avoid non-self-exile overseas.

The author is Senior Reporter Liu long, everyone called him that his English name abbreviation SK. Oscar Lau as the exchanges with friends. SK Lau Liu for a long time, is the eldest son of the Sibu educators predecessors Xian any. Early downstream Dan Zhang recognized set of Chiang Kai-shek school education, the father is the principal. Taught secondary school in the Catholic High School. He was educated in the British education, also headed for Taiwan, in English are great.

After leaving school, he worked in the same year Sibu Post Office on the second floor of the Telecommunications Ministry. That period, people with foreign ties, need to send a telegram to calculate the cost, the number of letters in English. This is the work of one of the “Office of the Telecommunications Ministry. Telecommunications Ministry “when he began Contributor to published in English in Brunei Borneo Chronicle (Borneo Bulletin). Each received royalties, he would be very good grace to buy some food back to the company to entertain everyone.

English “Sarawak Tribune” (Sarawak Tribune) and after he served as a reporter and Sibu advertising to attract members. That period, his income is the most abundant, no one can hold a candle to local reporters. The most beautiful period of time, he can every month to Singapore “eat wind trip. Needless to say at that time, and even now, not how many wage earners can so easily each month at their own expense to go unaffected few days.
SK Lau deeds. That year, he order a book and abroad. Eve of the exodus, the middle of the night more than nine to meet about a very good friend to leave the next day. It was in September 1996, also the last real face-to-face with the friend, and then not met, until he passed away in Beijing in 2004.
Leave Sibu day early in the morning to take the first class speedboat about early morning 5:45, Kuching, Sibu Go. Stay in Kuching for few days before flying to Singapore. Come and go between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, and flew to the United States. Also lived in the home of a friend in the northwestern United States, two months after they flew to Taiwan, the original plan to live in his more familiar environment. However, later change your mind and want to switch to Beijing this settled down.

During this period, he often flew back to Kuala Lumpur, do a visa or do something. In Beijing, his superior standard of English, is his livelihood. He began working for translation agencies.

 

In this cosmopolitan city, the translation is a big business, many Chinese and foreigners to do business, not English, English dire need personnel responsible for a letter, get contracts.

 

The Chinese government is also actively its law is written in English, his company has also been awarded a contract for legal translation. Rely on English in China, the Chinese world, actually eat paste, said to difficult people into the letter, but why is that. In fact, it is not surprising, English is an international language, international business, of course, is English the most popular.

2004 drifting quietly passed away in Beijing rental house in Beijing, the 56-year-old Liu for a long time, until ten days after being friends found. Liu long-standing friend Wah sadness to Xiqiao Shi told reporters about this. Liu for a long time and he met in Singapore, they became good friends due to common photography hobby. Two every twenty-three days must pass a phone, Liu long almost every week to Wah studio guest.

January 16, 2004, by a telephone, 649 (Liu long nickname) was changed to the New Year in Hong Kong plan to stay in Beijing, the Chinese New Year. Not think that was actually the last time we talk. January 18, Wah leave to Jiangxi, Liu long home phone, mobile phone call before departure no one answered. Returned to Beijing from the 18th until the 27th, Wah numerous phone call Liu long unanswered until later phone noise came last shutdown.

Year 7 Liu for a long time, several friends came Jiuxianqiao his rented house, and found that the anti-theft door is not closed, you can see through the crack, the room lights on.

 

The neighborhood, the neighborhood say have not seen since the Spring Festival after the old man, and a few friends immediately alarm. In the eighth day the first month, police officers, and Liu long friends find homeowners to enter his room. Wah said: “I see 649 lying on the bed of the bedroom from the living room, was covered by blankets, slippers on the bed, as if wearing a sweater, his face is all black, and seems to have rot.

According to Malaysian friends say has been with Liu a long time to keep contact, their contact interrupt January 16, Mr. Hua and Liu long last call on the 16th. Inferred that, Liu long the remains were found, he had died more than 10 days. Wah Liu for a long long time ago his wife died, his son also died young, and has lived alone after he came to Beijing. Liu long friends along quite well, and have not heard before the accident he had something on your mind.

 

He does not smoke, does not drink, although the sometimes trouble toothache, leg pain, but never heard of a fatal disease. Whether it is murder, vendetta, or are there other reasons? Finally, the Beijing

 

Public Security also can not find a result. The book Liu for a long time without disease death left behind, more immortal • Tiger • dog “and add more mystery!
Liu long passed away in Beijing, and the family will shift its spiritual Sibu.
…….. To be continued
by: fb Liu long
Published in the fairy tiger • • dog

KFC 的历史我懂,70年代第一个将它引进大马市场的是商人吕正义先生。

From KFC is devoured event, the means to suppress the Chinese businessmen to see UMNO cronies!
FEB 8
Of the voice of justice

 

第一间KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN快餐店,吉隆坡东姑阿都拉曼大街开设本地的第一间店铺。现在还在。记得当年的肯德基家乡鸡,是没有SELF SERVICE这回事的。你进去肯德基快餐店,是有WAITER来写单的。而且当年也不是简称KFC。

吕正义先生当年是炒原产品期货买卖的高手。当年经商环境也不像现在这么限制。当年吕正义先生100%控制肯德基家乡鸡股权。 80年代初期,传说他在炒棕油期货的时候得罪马哈迪,因为老马想通过棕油期货买卖,控制世界原棕油价格。

吕正义却看准契机,趁低买进趁高放,灵活运用手法将期货价格锁死,加上伦敦期货市场有许多更精明干练的玩家;老马想控制原棕油期货市场,却反而大败亏输,亏了国库20多亿!但是吕正义却赚进数以千万计的利润。这造成老马非常震怒和感觉丢脸,于是迁怒吕正义。

也有传说当年老马上台,培养土着朋党,有人看中肯德基这块肥肉。有人利用吕先生炒棕油期货得罪马哈迪的弱点,企图强迫他将肯德基股权出让给马来人。但是吕正义天生傲骨,最讨厌受到无理压迫;最后他选择宁愿退出大马商界,将肯德基股权统统卖给巴生商人林玉静!吕正义先生后来远走美国,90年代初期客死异乡,在美国病故。

林玉静后来当上大马中华总商会会长。原本以为有中华总商会会长和隆雪华人大会堂会长的头衔,巫统朋党至少会有顾忌,不敢动他的主意。谁知巫统朋党玩阴招!

80年代,巫统朋党知道马来人非常喜欢吃肯德基家乡鸡,肯德基的业务发展非常迅速,分店到处开,已经成了大马快餐连锁店第一品牌。巫统朋党利用宗教,向林玉静找碴!他们抨击肯德基家乡鸡不是HALAL的。他们指责肯德基家乡鸡屠宰鸡只的过程不符合HALAL条规,要马来人杯葛肯德基!

当年这件事确实让林玉静很困扰。加上当年老马强势推行新经济政策,不断强迫林老必须让马来人参股。为了申请HALAL准证,林老无法可施,只好忍痛让出部分股权,换取巫统朋党取消呼吁马来人杯葛肯德基的举动。林老自己也没有想到,让出部分股权之后,犹如引狼入室。虽然林老还拥有肯德基的控制性股权,但行政体系渐渐落入马来人手中。

80年代末期,林玉静掌控的隆雪华堂和中华总商会并不平静。当年华商在新经济政策下饱受冲击,对政府的行政举措怨声载道,而华商之间也出现分裂。林玉静受到了以颜清文为首的华商反对派竞争。林玉静让出肯德基家乡鸡股权的事,也造成了一些华商不满,认为他身为商会最高领导人,竟然带头向巫统朋党妥协,这是不对的。

林玉静后来因为华团纷争,加上他的上市公司《富产》在1997金融风暴中严重受创,负债累累,无奈之下将肯德基股权完全脱手给马来商家伊德里斯。从此卸下《鸡王》称号。

于是肯德基家乡鸡正式易主,名称也改为KFC,沿用至今。

by Danfeng Zhang

 

发表在 大马华商的故事

发表评论

 

KFC’s history I know, businessman Mr. Lv Zhengyi 1970s it introduced the Malaysian market.
First KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN fast food restaurant, Kuala Lumpur, Tunku Abdul Rahman Street, opened a local shop.

 

Still there. I remember when Kentucky Fried Chicken, SELF SERVICE. You go to KFC, the WAITER write single. And then is not referred to as the KFC.
Mr. Lv Zhengyi year master is the the fried original product futures trading. When the business environment is also unlike such restrictions. When Mr. Lv Zhengyi 100% control of Kentucky Fried chicken stock. The early 1980s, the legendary fried palm oil futures offend Mahathir, like palm oil futures trading, control the price of crude palm oil in the world because the old horse.

Lv Zhengyi has spotted an opportunity to bargain buying to take advantage of high-level, flexible use of the approach to the futures price locked, plus many more shrewd players in the futures market in London; nag want to control the CPO futures market, contrary defeat loss to lose the treasury more than 20 billion deficit! However Lv

 

Zhengyi has earned tens of millions of dollars of profit. This caused the old horse very furious and feel disgrace, so anger Lv Zhengyi.
Legend year old horse came to power, the culture of indigenous youth gangs, some fancy KFC piece of fat.

 

Some people take advantage of the weakness of Mr. Lu fried palm oil futures offend Mahathir, an attempt to force him to KFC equity to sell to the Malaysian. Lv Zhengyi born proud and most hate to be unreasonably oppression;

 

 Finally, he chose to withdraw from the Malaysian business community prefer KFC equity Klang businessman Lin Yujing all sold! Mr. Lv Zhengyi later flee the United States in the early 1990s Kesiyixiang, died of illness in the United States.

The Lin Yujing Later when the the Malaysian Chinese General Chamber of Commerce. Originally thought that the title of president of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce and the Long Snow Chinese Town Hall, and the UMNO cronies have scruples, at least not dare move his idea.

 

Who knows UMNO cronies play underhand!
1980s, UMNO cronies know Malaysian like to eat Kentucky Fried Chicken, KFC business is developing very rapidly, and there were branches, has become the first brand of the fast-food chain in Malaysia. UMNO cronies use of religion to Lin Yujing trouble for! They attacked the Kentucky Fried Chicken is not HALAL.

 

They accused Kentucky Fried Chicken slaughter chickens process does not comply with the the HALAL regulations to Malaysian boycott KFC!

When this thing really Lin Yujing very troubled. Plus year old horse strong implementation of the new economic policy, constantly forced Lin old must be Malaysian shares.

 

To apply for HALAL permit old forest can not be applied, reluctantly forced to give up a portion of the shares in exchange for UMNO cronies cancel called on the Malaysian boycott KFC move.

 

 The forest old had no idea, so that a part of the shares, as if asking for trouble. Old forest also has a controlling stake in KFC, but gradually fall into the hands of the Malaysian administrative system.

The late 1980s, Long Xuehua Tang Lin Yujing control of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce is not calm. When suffering from the impact of the new economic policy, Chinese businessmen the government administrative initiatives complaining, among Chinese businessmen also appears split.

 

The Lin Yujing by Yan Qingwen headed the Chinese businessmen opposition competition.

 

 

The Lin Yujing let out the equity interest in the things of the Kentucky Fried Chicken, also caused some Chinese businessmen dissatisfied that he, as the supreme leader of the Chamber of Commerce, even take the lead to compromise, it is not right to UMNO cronies.

Lin Yujing disputes later because the Chinese group, plus he’s listed companies “rich” serious injuries to the financial turmoil of 1997, heavily in debt, desperation KFC equity completely get rid of to Malay businesses Idris,. Since then remove the “Chicken King” title.

So Kentucky Fried Chicken officially changed hands, the name was changed to KFC, still in use.
by Danfeng Zhang
Chinese businessmen in Malaysia story

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》第四回:华裔民主,路在何方?

作者

Retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back: Chinese democracy go?
FEB 5
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好,我们又见面了。昨天说到,当英国殖民政府在1946年提出《马来亚同盟》概念的时候,遭到由翁嘉化领导的巫统大力反对。

英国建议的马来亚同盟,是战后英国所制定的一份协议书,以把马来亚各州(不包括新加坡)置于英国的直接统治下。

Good evening everyone, we met again. Speaking yesterday, when the British colonial government in 1946 proposed “Malaya alliance” concept was Wengjia of strong opposition from the leadership of UMNO.
British proposed the Malayan alliance, an agreement developed in post-war Britain, the Malayan states (excluding Singapore) placed under the direct rule of the British.

英国政府决定,一旦政局复元而临时性的军事统治过去后,马来亚同盟将成立,旨在创造一个更有效率的政府组织和促进马来亚不同种族的马来亚人民的团结。但是,马来社会鉴于未顾及各州苏丹地位,和认为不利于马来民族,乃群起反对。在著名的领袖拿督翁的领导下,马来民族统一机构(简称巫统UMNO)成立,以反对马来亚同盟,结果英国让步。

另一方面,华人对于长期在马来亚居留后,将因此获得合法地位及政治权利的条件,却表现得不热衷。这是因为长期以来他们未被英国接受为马来亚人及被视为外来人,他们还是不能确定本身的身份,因此并不重视这个问题。到底从1945年到1948年,华人的政治思潮是如何的呢?我们可以从历史上看到几方面的发展。

首先,有相当多的华人,仍然认为自己是中国人民的一份子,而那些对政治感到兴趣的,仍然十分关注中日战争之前就存在着的中国政治斗争。所谓战前,即廿世纪初期,海外华人分成保皇派和亲孙中山先生的革命派,孙中山先生革命成功后,海外华人都转向支持国民党。

国共分歧华侨分派

1927年以后,接掌国民党大权的蒋介石将枪口对准中国共产党,誓要剿灭中共。于是中共和国民党展开斗争,海外华人便部份的分成两派,一派支持蒋介石领导下的国民党,另一派较倾向毛泽东领导的中共,当然也存在着不涉及政治及中立者。1945年,日本战败投降后,国共两派的对立尤其明显,不但在舆论上,同时在社团中也趋向针锋相对。

换句话说,属于这一类的华人已把注意力集中在中国的政治,更甚于马来亚政治的变化,而这一群华人中,不少是领导份子或中坚份子,他们的活动也受到重视,对华人来说,具有一定的影响。当然,毫无疑义的,不论是倾左或倾右的华人,都一致欢呼日本于1945年8月10日接受波茨坦宣言,无条件投降,最明显的欢庆反映在1945年10月10日(双十节)的国民政府国庆日。

在新加坡,不同的政治思想和不同阶层华人社团,估计450单位参加庆祝,庞大的游行队伍约有8万人。一些华人社会袖及舆论界抓住这个机会,以号召华人大团结。报人胡愈之更建议成立《华侨民主同盟》,胡文虎也响应并认为,海外华人的团结有助排解国共纠纷,同时,代表东南亚华人的陈嘉庚(南洋华侨筹赈总会主席),也受到支持参加中国政治协商会议。

The British Government’s decision, once the political situation to recover and temporary military rule in the past, Malaya alliance will be established, aimed at creating a more efficient government organizations and promote the unity of the Malayan People of different races in Malaya. Malay community view, however, failed to take into account states Sudan, status, and that is not conducive to the ethnic Malay are rallied together to oppose.

 

 The famous leader Datuk Ong Tee under the leadership of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO UMNO), set up to oppose the Malayan alliance results concessions.

On the other hand, the Chinese conditions for long-term in Malaya residence, will therefore obtain legal status and political rights, but not act enthusiastic.

This is because a long time they were not the United Kingdom for the people of Malaya and is regarded as outsiders, they still can not determine their own identity, and therefore does not attach importance to this issue. In the end, from 1945 to 1948, the Chinese political thought about? We can see from the history of the aspects of development.

First of all, there are a considerable number of Chinese still consider themselves part of the Chinese people, and those who are interested in politics are still very concerned about the political struggle exist prior to the Sino-Japanese War.

 

The so-called pre-war, that is the beginning of the twentieth century, overseas Chinese into royalists and pro-revolutionaries of the Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yat-sen after the success of the revolution, the overseas Chinese are turning to support the KMT.

KMT-CPC differences Overseas distribution
Since 1927, took over the the KMT power of Chiang Kai-shek at gunpoint Communist Party of China, vowing to wipe out the Chinese Communists. So the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang fought overseas Chinese will be part of the split into two factions, one faction supporting Chiang Kai-shek, under the leadership of the Kuomintang, the other faction led by Mao Zedong’s Communist China tend, of course, there is apolitical and neutral.

 

After Japan surrendered in 1945, the two factions of the opposition KMT and CPC is particularly evident not only in the public opinion in both the societies also tend to tit-for-tat.

In other words, belonging to the Chinese has focused in China’s political, and even more in Malaya political changes, this group of Chinese, many leading intellectuals or the backbone of their activities has also been importance of the Chinese, has a certain impact.

 

 Of course, there can be no doubt, both tilting left or Chinese dumping right, are unanimous in cheering on August 10, 1945, Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration, unconditional surrender, the most obvious celebration reflected in the October 10, 1945 (double National Day of ten), the National Government.
Different political ideas and different sectors of Chinese Associations in Singapore, it is estimated that 450 units to participate in the celebration, with a huge parade of about 80,000. Some Chinese social sleeves and opinion to seize this opportunity to call for the great unity of the Chinese. Newspaper people Hu Yuzhi recommended the establishment of the Overseas Chinese Democratic League, Aw Boon Haw response and that the unity of overseas Chinese will help resolve the KMT-CPC disputes, at the same time, on behalf of the Southeast Asian Chinese Tan Kah Kee (Nanyang Chinese Collection Relief Association Chairman), also supported to participate in the Chinese Political Consultative Conference

但是,较后的局面显示,彼此不能合作。陈嘉庚早于1940年就认为国共难合作,态度趋向支持中共。因此,陈嘉庚除了呼吁不同姓氏的宗祠及乡团团结,以统一华文教育作为团结的起点外,并没有参加于1946年2月的新加坡华侨总会的成立大会。《新加坡华侨总会》的发起人包括胡文虎,李光前,陈六使,连瀛洲及林文庆。

与此同时,在吉隆坡召开的94个华团代表大会,也希望胡文虎及陈嘉庚,提出具体的团结计划。不过,在中国方面,国共的合作始终不能达成,尽管海外华人大声疾呼,并赞同中国政治协商会议的《民主化国家,国有化军队》的两大口号,但议案只是一纸空文,不能推行。

一个半月后(1946年3月中旬),国共内战在中国东北爆发,以后就一直打到1949年,国民党退居台湾为止,毛泽东于同年10月1日宣布中华人民共和国成立。

陈嘉庚早在1945年11月就指出,中国内战是不可避免的,因为中共和国民党无法妥协,唯有在战场决定胜负。他认为,与国民党政府谋和是极为困难的。

表面团结昙花一现

马来亚的华人团体,大多数主张和平解决斗争。当时的新加坡中华总商会会长连瀛洲及华文报的一般言论也多有此倾向。 《南洋商报》说,通过政治解决可以赢取大多数人民的支持,反之准备战争者最终将被人民唾弃。

但是,当国共内战于1946年不可避免爆发时,马来亚的华人又明显的分成两个斗争集团。战后初期左右派的团结局面只是昙花一现,没有产生任何效果,从1946年到1948年期间,华人社团支持国民党的比较多。

例如:雪兰莪中华大会堂在董事会紧急会议上,议决代表92个华人社团通电蒋介石,表示支持国民政府力促苏联退兵东北。在槟城,逾百间社团也作出相同的议决,接着马六甲、彭亨、森美兰及霹雳的华人团体尽皆响应。苏联军队于1946年4月6日起逐渐撤出东北,留下真空成为国共激烈争夺的场所。战争升级底下,马来亚华人社团中出现呼吁停战的要求,包括倾左的团体在内。

促成华人社团激烈争执的,是陈嘉庚于1946年9月7日,以南洋华侨筹赈总会主席名义,拍电美国总统杜鲁门、参众议院议长、马绍尔将军及司徒雷登博士(他们曾经协助调解国共斗争),对国民党政府展开攻击,指其无能和独裁,要求美国从中国撤军,停止军援国民政府。

这一来,触发了一场华人社会的大论战。 《中国报》,《南洋商报》及《星洲日报》等发表社论指责陈嘉庚《滥用名义》,并建议结束《南侨总会》,因为这个总会是在抗日战争时为援助伤兵及难民而设,现已过时。另一方面,反国民党的华文报则支持陈嘉庚,如《新加坡民主周刊》。

不单是这样,华人团体分成两个对立阵营,一方面是以商人为主的华团,主张讨伐陈嘉庚的立场。如吉打、柔佛、霹雳的中华总商会,雳霹及雪兰莪中华大会堂及约八十三个华团致电杜鲁门总统及蒋介石,强烈反对陈嘉庚的意见。随后马六甲、文冬、麻坡、森美兰及柔佛的华团介入支持蒋介石。

另一方面是以工人及文娱界为主的团体,则大力支持陈嘉庚的言论。在会馆中,除了新加坡福建会馆支持陈嘉庚外,其他会馆和商团都是反陈嘉庚的。陈本身也承认这一事实的存在。在当时,大部份较大规模的华人社团,如中华总商会,雪兰莪及霹雳中华大会堂、广东会馆、福建会馆及客属公会都反对陈嘉庚。其实,这也是因为大部份有关社团是由国民党份子所控制的。

自此而后,比较积极活动的华人,在政治思想上分庭抗礼,斗争不断升级,演至水火不容,甚至发生流血事件。1946年10月10日在实兆远庆祝双十节时,就爆发两派公开械斗事件,较后波及邦咯岛。不久,情势转向对陈嘉庚有利,1946年12月24日,北京大学一名女学生沈崇指说被两名美国军人凌辱,导致南洋华人情绪沸腾,全马各地妇女团体于1947年1月中在吉隆坡召开会议,议决向美国总统提出抗议。

不久之后,台湾发生严重暴乱,反对台湾省长陈仪的高压政策(他是在日本将台湾归还中国后,即被委为台湾省省长)。即是台湾本省人最悲痛的《二二八事件》。由于40年代陈仪曾任福建省省长,陈嘉庚于参观后认为是情况最恶劣的一省,乃将矛头指向陈仪,马新的华人社团也有响应,这包括福建会馆、南安会馆等。

加上国民政府对学生、报人及智识份子展开镇压,造成新加坡《南侨日报》(陈嘉庚所经营)展开猛烈抨击。陈嘉庚也在174个社团代表大会上,否定国共合作的可能性。接着有更多团体群起响应,尤其是左派团体。

左右两派斗争升级

1947年7月4日,国民党宣布全面对中共作战,再一次掀起马来亚华人中的左右派论争。在马来亚的国民党人,全力支持蒋介石的全国总动员谕令,他们也通过各地的中华总商会采取主动,支持国民政府。左派团体,包括中国民主同盟马来亚支会则加紧支持陈嘉庚,以进行反击。

1947年10月27日,中国国民党政府宣布中国民主同盟为非法组织,引致马来亚左派团体的抗议,而对蒋介石的政府进行更猛烈的攻击。 《南侨日报》的社论扮演着重要的角色。但马来亚亲国民党份子欢迎国民政府的宣布。

1948年3月29日,蒋介石在退守中偏安南京,但重新被选为总统,这再进一步刺激国民党份子展开活动,他们争取诸多华人社团支持,在雪兰莪中华大会堂的号召下,欢迎蒋介石的当选。除了在吉隆坡外,怡保、槟城、马六甲、柔佛、新山及其他城市的华人团体,也分别庆祝。

此举进一步的激怒左派团体,1948年5月4日,新加坡华人争取中国和平与民主同盟、中华民主同盟支会、华人职工会与新民主青年团等,在船员俱乐部召开华团大会,有119个社团超逾500名代表与席,指责当时的当政者背叛孙中山的三民主义,并宣称总统选举是非法的。两派间的不妥协和无止息的斗争,引起了英国政府的关注,不允许两派过于明显地在马来亚展开政治活动。

英殖民地政府的态度先是偏向国民党,因此造成与左派团体关系恶化,以至于中国民主同盟马来亚的支会,也在1949年5月被禁止,直到中共于1949年10月1日正式取得中国的政权后的翌年,英国加以承认,局面因而转向对国民党不利。

可以这么说,直到1948年杪前,马来亚亲国民党份子在政治斗争中仍占上风,一些主要团体如中华总商会、华人大会堂及大部份会馆多忠于国民党政府,大多数华文报也有此倾向,但是1949年开始,国民政府在马来亚所获得的支持越来越少,甚至一些国民党人转向支持中共。

综观上述,马来亚的华人,尤其是上层阶级及劳动阶级,都有明显的不同政治倾向,他们大部份的时候是关注中国政治的演变,虽然对本地的政治也有所关心,还是朝向中国政局为多,这是因为富时的华人政治意识,多以中国作为其关注的对象。

专业人士组民主党

However, compared to the situation after the show, not co-operate with each other. Tan Kah Kee difficult to believe that the KMT-CPC cooperation, the attitude tends to support the Communists in 1940. Addition to calling the different surnames ancestral hall and township group solidarity, Tan Kah Kee, unified Chinese education as a starting point for unity and not to participate in Singapore in February 1946 the inaugural meeting of the Overseas Chinese Association. The promoters of the Singapore Overseas Chinese Association “Aw Boon Haw, Lee Kong Chian Chen Sye, Lien Ying Chow and Lim Boon Keng.
At the same time, 94 Chinese Mission Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, hope Aw Boon Haw and Tan Kah Kee, proposed a specific plan of unity. However, in the case of China, the KMT-CPC cooperation can never be reached, to speak out on behalf of the overseas Chinese and the Chinese Political Consultative Conference and endorsed the slogan “democratization of the country, the nationalization of the army two, but the motion only on paper, could not be implemented.
A half months later (mid-March 1946), the Chinese civil war broke out in northeast China, after it has been hit in 1949, the KMT retreated to Taiwan, Mao Zedong declared the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1 of the same year.
Tan Kah Kee as early as November 1945, pointed out that China’s civil war is inevitable, because the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang can not compromise, the only way to decide the outcome on the battlefield. He believes that, with the the KMT government seeking and is extremely difficult.
Surface unity short-lived
The Malaya Chinese community, the majority favored a peaceful settlement to the struggle. General remarks of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce president Lien Ying Chow Chinese newspaper also many have this tendency. Nanyang Siang Pau said, can win the support of the majority of the people through a political settlement, contrary to prepare the war will eventually be deserted by the people.
However, when the inevitable outbreak of the Chinese Civil War in 1946, the Chinese in Malaya divided into two struggles Group. The unity faction about the early postwar period is just a flash in the pan, and did not have any effect, during the period from 1946 to 1948, the Chinese associations support the KMT more.
For example: Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, in an emergency meeting of the Board of Directors, resolved on behalf of 92 Chinese associations energized Chiang Kai-shek, expressed support for the National Government urged the Soviet Union to retreat northeast. Over 100 rooms Societies also make the same RESOLVED in Penang, Malacca, Pahang, Negri Sembilan and Perak Chinese community then depart response. Soviet troops gradually withdraw from the northeast on April 6, 1946, leaving a vacuum between the KMT and the CCP fierce competition for the spaces. The escalation of the war under the Malayan Chinese Associations called for a truce requirements, including tilting left groups.
Led to the Chinese Associations fierce dispute the Tan Kah Kee on September 7, 1946, the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia Collection Relief on behalf of the Chairman of the Federation, shoot electric U.S. President Harry Truman, reference the Speaker of the House of Representatives, General Marshall and Dr. Stuart (they used to help mediate the country struggle) of KMT government attack, refers to its incompetence and dictatorial, demanding that the U.S. withdraw its troops from China, stop military aid to the National Government.
This way, triggered a great debate of the Chinese community. “China Daily, Nanyang Siang Pau and Sin Chew Daily” published an editorial accused Tan Kah Kee “abuse of the name of”, and suggested that the end of Namchow always “, because this will always aid wounded soldiers in the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and refugee, is now obsolete. Anti-KMT Chinese newspaper, on the other hand, the support of Tan Kah Kee, the Singapore democracy Weekly.
Not only so, the Chinese community is divided into two opposing camps, on the one hand, a businessman based Chinese group advocated a crusade against the stance of Tan Kah Kee. Kedah, Johor, Perak Chinese Chamber of Commerce the Gimli Perak and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall and about eighty-three of Chinese group call President Truman and Chiang Kai-shek, is strongly opposed to the views of Tan Kah Kee. Followed by the Malacca, the Bentong, Muar, Negeri Sembilan and Johor Chinese group to intervene to support the Chiang Kai-shek.
On the other hand is based on workers and civic community based groups, strongly supported the remarks of Tan Kah Kee. In the clubhouse, in addition to the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan support of Tan Kah Kee Hall and the business group are anti-Kah Kee. Chen also admitted the existence of the fact. At the time, most of the large-scale Chinese associations, such as the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Selangor and Perak Chinese Assembly Hall, Hall of Guangdong, Fujian Hall and Hakka Association are opposed to the Tan Kah Kee. In fact, this is also because the majority of the organizations concerned by the elements of the KMT controlled.
Since then, the active Chinese rival political ideology, the escalating struggle speech to fire and ice, and even bloodshed. October 10, 1946 in Sitiawan celebrate the Double Ten Day, on the outbreak of the two factions public fight with weapons incident, and later spread to Pangkor Island. Soon, the situation turning of Tan Kah Kee, December 24, 1946, Peking University, a female student Shen Chong said two U.S. soldiers abuse, leading the Nanyang Chinese sentiment boiling throughout Malaysia women’s groups in mid-January 1947 Kuala Lumpur meeting, resolved to protest to the President of the United States.
Soon after, serious riots against Taiwan governor Chen Yi’s high-handed policy (he is in Japan after Taiwan was returned to China, he incurs appointed as governor of Taiwan Province). That is, the the Taiwan natives most grieving the “incident”. Since the 1940s, Chen Yi former governor of Fujian Province, Tan Kah Kee visit that is the worst Province, is directed against Chen Yi, Ma Chinese Associations response, including Fujian Hall, Southampton Hall.
Plus the National Government of the student newspaper and intellectual elements repression caused Singapore Namchow Daily “(Tan Kah Kee operated) fierce criticism. Tan Kah Kee also the 174 societies Congress to deny the possibility of the KMT-CPC cooperation. Then there are more groups rallied together to respond to, especially leftist groups.
Left and right factions struggle to upgrade
July 4, 1947, the KMT announced an across-the CCP combat, once again set off a the Malayan Chinese around the Debate. In the the Malayan KMT full support of Chiang Kai-shek’s National Story decree, they also all over the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce initiative to support the National Government. Leftist groups, including the China Democratic League Malaya Ward stepped up to support the Tan Kah Kee, to counterattack.
October 27, 1947, the Chinese Nationalist government announced that the China Democratic League, as an illegal organization, resulting in Malaya leftist groups protest violent attacks on the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Namchow Daily editorial plays an important role. Malaya pro-KMT activists welcomed the announcement of the National Government.
March 29, 1948, in Chiang Kai-shek retreated to sacrifice the long Nanjing, but re-elected President, further stimulate the KMT activists conducted its activities, they fight for many Chinese associations support to the call of the Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, welcomed the election of Chiang Kai-shek . Except in Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Penang, Malacca, Johor, Johor Bahru and other cities in the Chinese community, were also celebrating.
This further angered leftist groups, May 4, 1948, the Singapore Chinese fight for peace and Democratic League, China Democratic League clubs, the Chinese trade unions and the New Democratic Youth, the crew club convened Chinese Mission Conference, 119 societies were in excess of 500 delegates and seats, accusing those in power at the time betrayed Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles of the People, and declared that the presidential election is illegal. Factions struggle between compromise and no unruly, attracted the attention of the British Government, does not allow factions too obvious political activities commenced in Malaya.
The attitude of the British colonial government first bias Kuomintang, therefore resulting in the deterioration of relations with the leftist groups that ward of the China Democratic League of Malaya also banned in May 1949 until the Chinese Communist Party officially acquired on October 1, 1949 The following year, the British regime to be recognized, thus steering the KMT adverse situation.
So to speak, until 1948 seconds, Malaya pro-KMT elements still prevail in the political struggle, some of the major organizations such as the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Town Hall and the Hall of the majority of more loyal to the KMT government, most Chinese newspaper also This tendency, but in 1949, the support of the National Government in Malaya less and less, and even some Nationalists turned to support the Communists.
Looking at the above, the Chinese in Malaya, especially the upper class and the working class, has noticeably different political tendencies, their most concerned about China’s political evolution, local politics have also been concerned about, or toward China councils more, this is because the rich Chinese political awareness, and more as the object of their attention to China.
Group of Democratic Party of professionals

二战结束后,马来亚华人对当地的政治动态基本上是不明朗的。英国当局重新统治马来亚后,即解散抗日武装部队,以防后患,随着英政府对职工会进行严密管制,双方的关系日呈紧张。1948年6月,马共发动武装叛变,马来亚因此宣布进入紧急状态。紧急法令是7月15日生效,直到7月23日,马共及其附属团体被宣布为非法组织。

另一方面,战后初期的马来亚人民,不论力量多寡,都可以组成一个政治团体,展开政治斗争。马来民族主义份子的醒觉和巫统力量的加强是其中一个发展。那些具有左倾思想的专业人士或半专业人士,组成了非共的左派政党,这些人以非马来人占多数,他们包括律师、医生及教师和受过高等教育的知识份子。而明显的,他们之中多数是受英文教育者,包括了华人、印度人及欧亚混籍人。

这个政党命名为马来亚民主同盟(MALAYAN DEMOCRATIC UNION)简称MUD,党主席是菲立何亚琳(PHILIP HOALIM),最活跃和具有代表性人物是欧亚混籍律师约翰伊伯(JOHN EBER)。他在日治时期曾被拘留过,战后积极活动,公开抨击英国施政,以致英国当局对这个政党存有质疑态度,但仍然允许公务员参加。

由于英校教师参加者众,马来亚民主同盟遂主张实施统一的教育制度。在小学阶段,使用母语教育,而到了中学阶段,全部使用英语作为教学媒介,但马来文定为必修科,这种建议是要使马来亚的教育走向西方化。

马来亚民主同盟于1945年12月提出的政纲包括:

(一)成立一个自治的马来亚政府,参加英联邦。
(二)立法议员全部民选。
(三)凡满21岁的马来亚公民,不论种族、性别、宗教或财富,皆可参加投票。
(四)个人言论出版及集会获得完全的自由。
(五)基本的,中学的及技术教育的革新。
(六)推行社会安全计划,包括医药免费。
(七)改善人民的生活。
(八)马来亚人民的就业机会均等,消除任何的肤色限制。

马来亚民主同盟的成立是从英国工党,尤其是从工党左派份子中吸取政治灵感的。当时英工党在英国当政,使到马来亚的英殖民政府很感为难。民主党模仿英国工党的政策,要求平等权利及允许职工会积极参加政治。它看来已视本身是马来亚的未来(工党)。虽然马来亚民主同盟明显的不是一个共党组织,但它的左派姿态成为共党”统一阵线”渗透的目标。

民主同盟失败因素

After the end of World War II, the Malayan Chinese local political dynamics basically uncertain. British authorities re-ruled Malaya, that after the dissolution of the anti-Japanese armed forces, and to prevent future trouble with the British government to maintain tight control of trade unions, the ties between the two sides was nervous. In June 1948, Ma launched an armed rebellion, Malaya therefore declare an emergency. The emergency decree entered into force on July 15, until July 23, Malaysian, and its subsidiary bodies was declared an illegal organization.
On the other hand, the early post-war period, the Malayan People, regardless of the power of the amount, can form a political group, a political struggle. The strengthening of the elements in the wake of Malay nationalism and UMNO forces is one of development. Leftist ideology professionals or semi-professionals, composed of non-Communist left-wing political parties, these people are the majority of non-Malays, including lawyers, doctors and teachers, and highly educated intellectuals. Obvious among them the majority of the English-educated, including the Chinese, Indian and Eurasian mixed nationals.
This party named the Malayan Democratic Alliance (MALAYAN DEMOCRATIC UNION) referred to as the MUD Party Chairman Phillip He Yalin (PHILIP HOALIM), is the most active and representative figures the Eurasia mixed nationality the lawyer John Yibe (JOHN EBER). He has been detained during the Japanese occupation, postwar active, openly critical of the British policy, there is a questioning attitude that the British authorities on the political parties, but still allow civil servants to participate.
British school teachers participated in by many people, the Malayan Democratic Alliance then advocated the implementation of a unified education system. At the primary stage, the use of mother tongue education, and to the secondary level, all use English as the medium of instruction, but Malay Wending as a compulsory subject, this proposal is to make education in Malaya toward Westernization.
The Malayan Democratic Alliance’s platform in December 1945 include:
(A) the establishment of an autonomous Malayan government to participate in the Commonwealth.
(B) all elected legislators.
(C) Where the 21-year-old Malayan citizens, regardless of race, gender, religion or wealth, can vote.
(D) personal speech, publication and assembly completely free.
(E) the basic, secondary and technical education innovation.
(F) the implementation of social security schemes, including medicine free.
(G) to improve the lives of the people.
(Viii) the Malayan People of the Equal Employment Opportunity eliminate any color restrictions.
The establishment of the Democratic League of Malaya from the British Labour Party, in particular, is drawn from the Labour leftists political inspiration. British Labour Party was in power in the United Kingdom, so that the British colonial government in Malaya is a sense of things difficult. Democratic Party imitate the policy of the British Labour Party, to demand equal rights and to allow trade unions to actively participate in politics. It seems that sees itself as the future of Malaya (Labour Party). Although obvious Malayan Democratic Alliance of party organizations, but not a leftist attitude became the target of communist penetration of the “united front”.
Democratic League failure factors

马来亚民主同盟为证明它并不是一个种族性政党,邀请各政治集团于12月7日在新加坡的总部举行会议,以便对马来亚的未来宪法作出联合建议,有11个单位出席参加。

他们成立了泛马联合行动理事会(ALL-MALAYA COUNCIL OF JOINT ACTION /AMCJA)。三个急进的马来民族主义团体起先加入这个组织,不久之后却退出,另组阵线以反对巫统所支持的马来亚联合邦协定。

所谓马来亚联合邦协定,就是在1946年英国提出马来亚同盟草案被巫统大力反对之后,英国与巫统和各州苏丹谈商结果,同意以马来亚联合邦协定取代。这样一来,泛马联合行动理事会便成为非马来人的政治团体。

马来亚民主同盟的失败,是有几个因素造成的:

(一)英国不承认它是代表马来亚(包括新加坡)人民的唯一政党,也不同意把新加坡,包括在马来亚联合邦协定内,而是坚持与巫统及各州苏丹谈商,到近尾声时,同意成立工作委员会来聆听非马来人社会的意见,泛马联合行动理事会的抗议被忽视,乃杯葛提供意见,转而自行草拟一份宪法,建议即刻给马来亚(包括新加坡)独立的地位。

公民权应自动发给那些在马来亚出世,或其父亲已是马来亚公民的妇女。那些在10年内,有8年是居住在马来亚者而年满18岁可以成为归化公民,但此举不被英国重视和接受。

(二)虽然在反对马来亚联合邦协定上,这个理事会是一致的,但不同思想意识的集团却相互矛盾而导致分裂。例如对于所得税法令,马来亚民主同盟支持,但中华总商会表示强烈的反对。

(三)1948年,马共突然发动叛乱,马来亚民主同盟的西方化左派人士不能适应,对暴力感到厌恶。这样一来,泛马联合行动理事会已不能发生作用,加上较早时急进的马来民族主义份子的退出和巫统的不认同,它已经不能再声称是代表全岛各族人民的政党了。(题外话,这种情形和目前的马华非常相似。马华不断号称代表大马华人,可是大马华人普遍上并不认同。)

到了1948年6月25日,马来亚民主同盟党基于《公民权利被剥夺及混乱的政治情势》为理由,宣布它不能再有任何作用。以马来亚民主同盟党作为核心的泛马联合行动理事会的失败,标志着华人政治上的分歧。

虽然有一度马六甲的中华总商会会长敦陈祯禄及各州中华总商会加入理事会的努力,并且曾经于1947年10月20日号召罢市一天,以抗议马来亚联合邦协定的提出。不过,它最后还是无法成功取得代表马来亚华社的地位,而迅速在政坛上消失。但不久之后,敦陈祯禄转向另一力面发展,导致马华公会的组成。从此改写了马来亚华人政治的局面。

有关马华成立的经过和发展,最后爆发一系列党争;从一个满怀政治理想,政治力量庞大的华裔政党,到今天沦落为巫统的看门狗,应声虫。这些,都会在紧接着要开讲的《马华春秋》中,有详尽的阐述。

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》。走笔至此,已经全文播完。感谢大家的热烈支持。我们再会了!晚安!

by:Mask Man

 

发表在 馬來西亞的真實歷史, 追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史

发表评论

Malayan Democratic League to prove it is not a racist political party, invite political groups meeting in the headquarters in Singapore on December 7, in order to make a joint recommendation of Malaya Constitution, there are 11 units attended.
They set up a Joint Action Council FALMAC (ALL-MALAYA COUNCIL OF JOINT ACTION / AMCJA). Three radical Malay nationalist groups initially joined the organization shortly after they quit, another group Front to oppose UMNO supported by the Federation of Malaya Agreement.
The so-called Federation of Malaya Agreement, in 1946 the British Malayan alliance draft UMNO vigorously oppose UMNO and states Sudan on suppliers results agree replaced by the Federation of Malaya Agreement. As a result, the Joint Action Council FALMAC became non-Malaysian political groups.
The failure of the Democratic League of Malaya, is caused by several factors:
(A) The United Kingdom does not recognize that it is the only political party on behalf of the people of Malaya (including Singapore), do not agree with Singapore, including the Federation of Malaya Agreement, but adhere to talk with the UMNO and states Sudan providers to Toward the end, agreed to set up a working committee to listen to the views of the community of non-Malaysian Joint Action Council FALMAC protest was ignored, is the boycott to provide advice in favor of their own drafting a constitution recommends immediate to Malaya (including Singapore) independent status.
Citizenship should be automatically sent to the women who were born in Malaya, or his father have been citizens of Malaya. In 10 years, 8 years and 18 years of age can become naturalized citizens living in Malaya, but this is not the British attention and accept.
(B) against the Federation of Malaya Agreement, the Council is the same, but different ideology Group conflicting result of the split. For example, the Income Tax Act, Malaya democratic Democrats support, but expressed strong opposition from the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce.
(C) 1948, Ma sudden rebellion, the the Malayan Democratic Alliance Western leftists can not adapt, disgusted by the violence. As a result, the Joint Action Council FALMAC not play a role, plus the the earlier radical Malay nationalists exit and UMNO do not agree, it can no longer claim on behalf of the political party of the people of all ethnic groups in the entire island a. (By the way, this situation is very similar to the current MCA MCA constantly claims on behalf of the Malaysian Chinese, but the Malaysian Chinese were generally do not agree.)
June 25, 1948, the Malayan Democratic Alliance Party, on grounds based on civil rights deprivation and chaotic political situation “, announced that it no longer has any effect. The failure of the joint action FALMAC Council, as the core of the Democratic Alliance Party of Malaya marks the Chinese political differences.
Although once Malacca Chinese Chamber of Commerce president Tun Tan Cheng Lock, and state of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce to join the efforts of the Council, and have called for strike day on October 20, 1947, to protest against the Federation of Malaya Agreement proposed. However, it eventually can not be successful in obtaining representative of the status of the Malayan Chinese community, and quickly disappeared in the political arena. But shortly afterwards, Tun Tan Cheng Lock turned to another force surface development, led to the composition of the MCA. From rewriting the the Malayan Chinese political situation.
For MCA was established after the development of the last outbreak of a series of party struggles; reduced to UMNO watchdog, yes-men from a full political ideals, political forces large ethnic Chinese political party, to this day. These are to be followed by lecture “Ma Hua Chunqiu” in detail.
“Retrospective the Malayan Chinese sages struggle”. Write rapidly this point, it has been aired. Thank you for your warm support. We would again! Good night!
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》第三回:战后的马来亚华社四分五裂

作者

“Retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back: postwar Malayan Chinese community torn apart
FEB 3
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好!今天晚上,继续为大家支持开讲《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》。

今晚的第三回合,重点将是《中国国民党与中国共产党的内战,对海外华人社会思想带来的巨大冲击》。昨天晚上,我们说到,新马两地华社在20世纪初期,开始纷纷创立工商组织与商会组织。

在这个时期各州成立的中华总商会,虽然是清廷所赞成的,有倾向清廷的思想意识,但对殖民地政府也没有坏处,因此先后被允许成立起来,这类组织容纳各帮派代表,而在促进谅解及团结方面,有了多少的帮助。

成立最早的是槟城中华总商会(1903年),继之为关丹中华商会(1903年),雪兰莪中华总商会成立于1904年,新加坡中华总商会成立于1906年,以后各州各县都有商会之组织。

和其他地缘性和血缘性组织不同的,是中华总商会是当时越过方言藩篱的最主要的组织。地缘性组织,如广东会馆提倡广东方言,韩江公会与潮州会馆倡议潮州方言,客家公会使用的是客家方言,福建公会当然就是以福建方言为主。血缘性质的组织,如林氏宗祠,陈氏书院,辛柯蔡乡亲会,颜氏公会等等,则以本性宗族的语言为标准。

中华总商会的设立,打破了方言的隔阂,统一使用华文华语;对于团结华社各帮各派,起到了很大的作用。固然于1911年后,华人社会基本上还是保持帮派林立的现象,但辛亥革命运动,无疑已吹起了团结之风。这是至为重要的第一步,否则不会有今日的成果。

最重要的,是革命思潮带来了新的思想,冲击了旧社会和旧传统。 《利他主义》,《舍己为群》,《平等自由》的观念不断传开。女子学校受鼓励设立,女人允许加入社会活动,也参加孙中山革命。平等主义:男女平等及不分年龄,和爱国主义:利他主义及舍己为群,成为改变海外华人社会的主要思想力量。

南洋华社掀起思想改革浪潮

孙中山革命成功后,便将同盟会与另四个团体合并,1912年8月13日成立中国国民党。这个政党较后在马来亚获允许成立支部。由于英国当局认为国民党并非与英殖民政府对抗,因此不反对国民党在新马两地公开运作。 1912年12月18日,新加坡成立了中国国民党星洲联络支部。1923年,这个支部8个重要职员中,有七个为英籍侨生,包括一位早期抨击孙中山革命活动的林文庆博士。

国民党在马来亚继续合法活动,直到1925年其注册被吊消,理由是未根据社团法令提供所需的资料。虽然如此,国民党的活动未停止,而是继续秘密地存在。

 

Good evening, everyone! Tonight, we continue to support the lecture “retrospective the Malayan Chinese sages of the past history of struggle.

 

Tonight’s third round, the focus will be on the Chinese Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China’s civil war, the huge impact overseas Chinese social ideology. Last night, we said, Singapore and Malaysia, the Chinese community in the early 20th century, begun the creation of business organizations and trade associations.
 States established during this period of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Qing court the favor of the tendency Manchu ideology does not hurt, but the colonial government, has been allowed to set up such organizations to accommodate various gangs represent, and how much help to promote understanding and unity.
The oldest is the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce (1903), followed by Selangor Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1904 as the the Kuantan Chinese Chamber of Commerce (1903), the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1906, after state counties have Chamber of Commerce of the organization.
And other geopolitical and tribal organizations, is the most important organization of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, then crossed the dialect barriers. Geopolitical organization, such as Canton Center promotes the dialect of Guangdong Hanjiang Gong will Chiu Chow Association initiative Chaozhou dialect the Hakka Association Hakka dialect, Fujian Association of course, is mainly in Fujian dialect. Kinship nature of the organization, such as Lin Ancestral Hall, Chen Clan Academy, Xinke the Cai folks will, Yan’s Association, by the nature of the clan’s language as a standard.
The establishment of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, to break the barriers of dialect, unified Chinese Chinese; gang factions for unity of the Chinese community has played a big role. Of course, after 1911, the Chinese community is basically to keep gangs everywhere, but Revolution movement undoubtedly has blown the unity of the wind. This is to an important first step, otherwise they would not have today’s results.
The most important is the The revolutionary thoughts brought new ideas, and the impact of the old society and old traditions. “Altruism,” gave himself for the group, the concept of “equal freedom” continue to spread. Girls’ schools be encouraged to set up, a woman is allowed to join social activities, and also to participate in the Sun Yat-sen revolution. Egalitarianism: equality of the sexes and regardless of age, and patriotism: altruism and gave himself for the group, change the strength of the main ideas of the overseas Chinese community.
The Nanyang Chinese community set off a wave of thought reform
After the success of the revolutionary Sun Yat-sen, put United League merged with the other four groups, established on August 13, 1912, the Chinese Nationalist Party. Later this party is permitted to set up branch in Malaya. British authorities believe that the KMT is not against the British colonial government, the opposition Kuomintang operate openly in Singapore and Malaysia. December 18, 1912, Singapore set up a the Sin Chew contact branch of the Chinese Kuomintang. In 1923, 8 of this branch staff, seven for British overseas Chinese students, including an early attack Dr. Lin Wenqing Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary activities.
KMT in Malaya to continue the legitimate activities of its registered until 1925 been disqualified on the grounds that the required information is not provided under the Societies Act. Nevertheless, the KMT’s activities did not stop, but continued to exist in secret.

另一方面,袁世凯在辛亥革命成功后,抓住北方军权,又掌握尚未全面灭亡的清廷大权,孙中山为顾全大局,只要实行共和,即可退位,以致1913年袁世凯篡夺大权,就任大总统,旋后又想复辟帝制,于翌年下令解散中国国民党。

在日本和外来势力的支持下,袁世凯逐步地趋向做皇帝的美梦,当然他是在丧失主权下,换取日本的支持。原想准备于1916年登基为《中华帝国皇帝》,没料到各地军政反叛,在气怒之下,这个被万民所咒的大野心家,终于1916年6月6日死了。

际此时期,中国已陷入军阀割据局面,孙中山眼见革命果实行将化为泡影,又起而讨伐,于1924年,在广州成立南方政府,加强海外华人的联系,以寻求支持结束中国的分裂局面。

翌年,孙中山先生不幸病逝,统一中国的大业未能完成。这期间的中国,处在四分五裂的状态中,外国势力因此有机可乘。

The other hand, in the success of the Revolution, Yuan Shikai seize the northern military power, but also master the demise of the Qing government power are not yet fully, Sun Yat-sen for the overall situation, as long as a republican, to abdicate, so that Yuan Shikai usurp power in 1913, assuming the presidency.supination want the restoration of the monarchy, and ordered the dissolution of the Chinese Nationalist Party in the following year.
The support of the Japanese and foreign forces, Yuan Shikai gradually tend to do the emperor’s dream, of course, he is in the loss of sovereignty in exchange for the support of the Japan. Originally wanted to prepare the Chinese Emperor accession to the throne in 1916, did not expect over the military and political rebellion, anger under air, The Curse of the people careerist, and finally died on June 6, 1916 a.
Occasion of this period, China has been plunged into warlordism situation, Sun Yat-sen seeing the fruits of the revolution about to naught, erection and crusade, was established in 1924 in Guangzhou, the southern government to strengthen the ties of overseas Chinese to seek support for the end of China’s separatist situation.
The following year, Dr. Sun Yat-sen died, unfortunately, unified China’s great cause of failure to complete. This period, China, in fragmented state foreign forces therefore take advantage of the.

1927年,蒋介石取得国民党的控制权,从此就和1921年成立的中国共产党展开了长时期的斗争。话说回来,在1919年5月4日,当时中国爆发一场具有深远影响的文化运动,大大地改变了华人的思想。那就是历史上有名的《五四运动》。

五四运动发生在第一次世界大战后,是在中国最脆弱和最危难的关头下,掀起的新思想运动,向封建制度和旧礼教展开无情的揭露和抨击,从而唤起人们的政治意识。为了达到这个目的,白话文被提倡,新文学运动也应运而生了。同样的,马来亚的华人社会也起了变化。马华新文学思想,是接受了中国五四文化运动的影响,具有反帝反封建的精神,在马新地区,包括沙巴和砂拉越发展起来的华文白话文学。

1919年10月初,新加坡新国民日报创刊,其副刊《新国民杂志》及另一些版位如《时评栏》、《新闻版》等,出现了一定数量、具有新思想新精神的白话文章,这是马华新文学史的开端。

In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek made ​​KMT control over ever since and established in 1921, the Chinese Communist Party launched a prolonged struggle. Having said that, May 4, 1919, when the outbreak of a far-reaching impact on the cultural movement to change the thinking of the Chinese. That is the history of the famous “May Fourth Movement

毫无争议的,五四运动对马来亚华人思潮的启迪具有很大的作用,马新华文报刊杂志的蓬勃出现,话剧运动的推广,对整个华社的思想,起了一种革命性的变化。

特别是对知识份子而言,思潮的激荡加速了他们对政治的热心和更加关心华人社会的问题及切身的利益,文化和教育的兴盛自不在话下。在新文学运动浪潮鼓动之下,陈嘉庚于1923年创办《南洋商报》,胡文虎胡文豹兄弟的《星洲日报》于1929年创刊,《现代日报》创刊于1936年,《星槟日报》创刊于1939年,就是在新文化运动催促下的产物。

反日本运动成为华社主流

在政治方面,1919年马新华人社会也展开反日运动。五四运动的反日余波,很快就冲击到马新的华族社会,引起了共鸣。工人学生群起骚动、捣毁日货、洗劫日人工厂,秩序大乱。接着槟岛也发生骚乱,吉隆坡亦有小规模的示威运动。

由此看来,马来亚华人的政治思潮除了被灌输倾向中国,以从清廷中拯救出来外,更带有反抗侵略的行动,尤其对日本军国主义的横行更是义愤填膺,继而转入反帝国主义的时代。

这个时候,英国殖民势力也是介入中国的其中一个(香港就是英国的殖民地),因此对马来亚华人政治的醒觉和矛头指向外国侵略者感到不安,于是采取行动取缔。但迄至国民党于1926、27年北阀胜利后,英国政府又改变态度;对新马两地华人的改革思潮采取默许的立场。

Fourth Movement occurred after World War I, is the most vulnerable and the most perilous moment in China, setting off new ideas movement ruthlessly exposed and criticized the feudal system and the old Confucianism expand, so as to arouse the political consciousness of the people. In order to achieve this objective, the vernacular is to promote new literary movement came into being. Similarly, the Chinese community in Malaya also began to change. MCA new literary thinking, is to accept the influence of China’s May Fourth cultural movement, anti-imperialist and anti-feudal spirit, the new areas in Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak Chinese vernacular literature developed.
In early October 1919, Singapore’s new national daily newspaper founded and its supplement “the new national magazine, and some version bit like” Commentary bar “,” news “, there has been a certain amount, the vernacular articles with new ideas and new spirit, which the beginning of MCA’s new literary history

There is no dispute that the May Fourth Movement, the inspiration of the Malayan Chinese thought has a big role, Ma Xinhua Wen newspapers and magazines vigorous promotion of the sport of drama, from the thinking of the Chinese community, a revolutionarychanges

Especially the intellectuals thought Agitation accelerated to mention their political zeal and more concerned with the problems of the Chinese community and personal interests, culture and education flourished since. Tan Kah Kee in 1923, under the instigation of the new wave of literary movement founded Nanyang Siang Pau, the brothers Aw Boon Haw Hu Wen leopard “Sin Chew Daily” was founded in 1929, the Modern Daily News was first published in 1936, was first published in The Star Penang Daily in 1939, under the urging of the New Culture Movement product.
Anti-Japanese movement has become the mainstream of the Chinese community
In political terms, the the 1919 Ma Xinhua person society to expand the anti-Japanese movement. The aftermath of the May Fourth Movement, the anti-Japanese, and soon the impact to the the horse new ethnic society, struck a chord. Workers the students rallied unrest, smashed Japanese products, ransacked the Japanese factory, order and chaos. Followed by the Penang Island riots, Kuala Lumpur, also small-scale demonstrations.
Seen in this light, addition to instill tendency to rescue from the Qing court, the the Malayan Chinese political thought with action against aggression, especially the rampage of Japanese militarism indignation, and then transferred to the anti-the era of imperialism.
This time, the British colonial forces are also involved in China’s one (Hong Kong is a British colony), the point of the Malayan Chinese political awakening and spearhead foreign invaders uneasy, so to take action against. But till to the KMT in 1926,27 North valve after the victory, the British government to change its attitude; take acquiesced in the position of the reform of Chinese thought of the two new horse

但是,当年由于华人也受到中国共产党的影响,左倾思想已出现,这可从英国殖民政府搜获反英及反帝国主义的文件得到证实。

1927年,蒋介石的清党和中共的分裂,也波及马新华人社会。左派团体和国民党的斗争时有所闻。但在大局来说,抗日仍然是一个主流,因为日本军国主义者已逐步的占领中国的领土,且企图称霸整个亚洲。

1928年的《三五济南惨案》,1931年的《九一八事变》及翌年《一二八事变》,直到1937年的《七七芦沟桥事变》,在在使到中国和亚洲处在日本军国主义的阴影下,臭名昭著的《大东亚共荣圈》,就是日本帝国主义炮制出来的霸权毒瘤。

这样一来,抗日救亡运动成了马来亚华人的主流思潮,激起了空前的群众运动,1937年的反日运动是由华族巨商陈嘉庚所领导(陈嘉庚是南洋商报创办人),中下层人士热烈反应,其中尤以下层的劳动工人,出钱出力,不惜一切牺牲来完成历史任务。

而文化及教育界人士也口诛笔伐,筹款义捐。连接而来的是大规模的抵制日货。更为重要的是,这次运动突破了马华社会传统的帮派观念,大家同仇敌忾,组织了全马筹赈总会,共策进行。抗战的宣传工具──文学,也出现了一个波澜壮阔的局面。鼓吹救亡,鼓舞士气,惩戒汉奸,抵制日货,筹款赈济伤兵难民,组织华工赴华服务等等,成了许多作品的热门题材。

However, when due to the Chinese by the Chinese Communist Party, the leftist ideology appears, which can be confirmed from the British colonial government seized the anti-British and anti-imperialist file.
In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek’s clear the party and the Chinese Communist Party’s split, also spread to Ma Xinhua human society. Leftist groups and the Kuomintang struggle from time to time. But in the big picture, the anti-Japanese is still the mainstream the Japanese militarists gradual occupation of the territory of China, and the attempt to dominate the whole of Asia.
1928 “3 by 5 the Jinan Massacre”, “September 18 Incident” in 1931 and the following year the “Incident” until 1937 “July Marco Polo Bridge Incident”, in in so that China and Asia in under the shadow of Japanese militarism, the infamous “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” is cooked up by the Japanese imperialist hegemony tumor.
As a result, the anti-Japanese movement has become the mainstream thought of the Malayan Chinese, sparking an unprecedented mass movement, the anti-Japanese movement in 1937 led by the ethnic Chinese business magnates Tan Kah Kee (Tan Kah Kee Nanyang Siang Pau founder), in the lower people enthusiastic reaction, particularly among the lower labor, money and efforts, whatever the cost to complete the historic task.
The culture and the education sector is also vocal opposition, the fundraising Yijuan. Connection from a large-scale boycott of Japanese goods. More importantly, this movement break through the the gang concept of the MCA social tradition, all against the common enemy, organizations throughout Malaysia Collection Relief Association, co-policy conduct. Propaganda tool of resistance the ─ ─ literature, there have been a magnificent situation. Preached salvation, boost morale, discipline traitor boycott of Japanese goods, fundraising Relief wounded refugees, organizations laborers to go to China to service, has become a popular theme in many of the works.

从马新富商陈嘉庚的历史,可以看出他的政治思潮的变化以及在第二次世界大战前,华人思潮的其中一个倾向。当然陈嘉庚并不代表全体华人的思潮,因为土生华侨就和他的思想有一段距离,即使是南来的华人也不尽然与他具有同样的想法。

富商陈嘉庚办报兴学

海外华侨展开反日运动时期,若解读马新富商陈嘉庚的一生历史,几乎可以说明,当时一部份华人的政治思潮演变。王赓武教授把海外华人划分成三个集团:

甲集团,他们主要关心中国政治和中国对外政策;

乙集团,他们主要关心社区政治;

丙集团,他们已进入非华人的权力金字塔,而不管是否由土著、殖民地宗主国或是民族主义者掌权。

陈嘉庚是属于甲集团,但又带有乙集团的影子。他于1890年(17岁)南来新加坡,他的父亲陈纪柏已先在新加坡开基立业。 1910年,他拥有资产45万元。1909年,他认识了孙中山,1910年剪去辫子,加入中国同盟会,断绝与清廷的关系,是为他从政之开始。辛亥革命爆发后,陈嘉庚负责筹款救济闽省同胞及维持治安。 1913年在家乡兴办集美小学;1912年又创办厦门大学。

1928年3月5日,日本军国主义派兵占领济南,惨杀外交官蔡公时及民众,是为历史上的《三五济南惨案》。消息传至新加坡,陈氏召集各界成立山东惨祸筹赈会,汇去130万元,并号召华人反对日本侵略,展开抵制日货运动。他在所创办的《南洋商报》广为宣传。

1931年《九一八事变》,日本帝国主义侵占东北三省,陈嘉庚在新加坡召开侨民大会,通电国际联盟(联合国前身)及美国总统,敦请履行条约,维护世界和平,否则大战即将到来。由于世界经济不景气随之而来。美国陷入经济大萧条,冲击全世界的经济同时笼罩在经济萧条的阴影之下。陈嘉庚的经济蒙受严重损失和打击,终在1934年将陈嘉庚股份有限公司收盘。

1937年,《七七卢沟桥事变》爆发,中国对日本展开全面抗战。 1938年10月10日,陈嘉庚成立南洋华侨筹赈祖国难民总会(简称南侨总会),他出任主席,接着被选为马来亚各区华侨筹赈通讯主任。

From Maxin Fu Tan Kah Kee history, you can see the change of his political thought, and before the Second World War, the Chinese thought one tendency. Course Tan Kah Kee does not mean that all Chinese thought, because native Overseas Chinese and his ideas for some distance, even south to the Chinese is not always the case and he has the same idea.
Wealthy businessman Tan Kah Kee running a newspaper Schooling
Overseas Chinese to expand the period of anti-Japanese movement to interpret the Maxin Fu Tan Kah Kee life history can explain almost was a part of the Chinese political thought evolved. Professor Wang Gengwu overseas Chinese were divided into three groups:
A Group, they are mainly concerned about Chinese politics and foreign policy;
B Group, they are mainly concerned about community politics;
Group C, they have access to non-Chinese power pyramid, regardless of whether indigenous, colonial sovereign state or nationalists in power.
Tan Kah Kee is part of the A Group, but with Group B’s shadow. In 1890 (17 years), he came to Singapore in the south, his father Chen Jibo open base in Singapore and the Founding. In 1910, he owned the assets of 450,000 yuan. In 1909, he met Sun Yat-sen in 1910 cut off the braids to join the Chinese Alliance to sever relations with the Qing court, for his political start. Revolution broke out, the Tan Kah Kee responsible for fundraising relief compatriots in Fujian Province, and to maintain law and order. Jimei Primary School in his hometown to set up in 1913; Xiamen University, founded in 1912.
March 5, 1928, the Japanese militarists to send troops occupied Jinan, massacre diplomats Cai time and people, as the history of “3 by 5 Jinan Massacre. The news spread to Singapore, Chan engaging established Shandong horrible disaster chips Relief Commission, to remit 130 million, and called on the Chinese against the Japanese aggression, expand the boycott of Japanese goods. He founded the “Nanyang Siang Pau” widely publicized.
1931 “Mukden Incident, the Japanese imperialists invaded and occupied the three provinces in Northeast China, Tan Kah Kee nationals Assembly held in Singapore, energized the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) and the President of the United States urges the to fulfill treaty, safeguarding world peace, or the upcoming war. Due to the world economic downturn attendant. The United States into the Great Depression, the impact of the world economy at the same time shrouded in the shadow of recession. Tan Kah Kee’s economy suffered severe losses and combat, and finally closing in 1934, Tan Kah Kee Corporation.
In 1937, the outbreak of the Seven Marco Polo Bridge Incident “, Japan, China initiated a comprehensive Anti-Japanese War. October 10, 1938, Tan Kah Kee the Nanyang Chinese Collection Relief motherland refugee Association (referred to as Namchow always), he served as President, then was elected the Malaya district Huaqiao Collection Relief Communications Director.

根据记载,当时筹款总数每年达到1亿6000余万元,但由于当时国民党非常腐败,许多捐款落入当时国民党一些高官的袋子。

陈嘉庚坚持抗日,反对妥协,因此对当时国民党副总裁汪精卫之主张对日和谈提出驳斥和反对。不客气地形容汪精卫是《秦桧卖国求荣》。

汪精卫主和失败后,为了躲避蒋介石追杀而逃往越南。随后接受日本招安献议,担任日本在东北扶助的,逊帝溥仪成立的《伪满洲国》丞相。

陈嘉庚转向支持中国共产党

1940年,陈嘉庚率领南侨总会慰劳团,回中国慰劳抗日军。过后他对国民党政府感到失望,乃倾向支持中共。

1942年,日本蝗军侵略南洋,马新沦陷时,陈嘉庚避难爪哇,1945年8月,日本军国主义投降,10月6日陈嘉庚自爪哇回到新加坡。

1946年,他用南侨总会长名义,拍电报给美国总统杜鲁门,要求停止干预中国内政,不再援蒋,以使内战终止。

这一年,他在新加坡又办了《南侨日报》,对国民党政府展开抨击。 1949年5月5日他从新加坡回国观光。较后在中国定居,1961年逝世。陈嘉庚在抗日战争时期是南洋华社的领袖,但他坦承筹款数目不是十分理想,虽然也不叫人失望。他说,除了资本家及侨生多不认捐外,其他如认过一次特别捐后,都不肯再认常月捐,故逐月成绩仅有此数(逾200万元)。

他认为,若资本家及中等商行,肯将其逐月入息,捐出十分之二、三,则全马义捐可增许多倍。至于每月有此200多万元,大半有赖货物捐及各游艺会所收集。而英属北婆罗洲(即今沙巴),华人虽有8万余人,劳动界占大部份,抗战后诸埠亦多成立筹赈会,但认常月捐仅古晋、诗巫数万元。

陈嘉庚的历史,在战后以来的一段时期,被人利用为指华人忠于中国的例子,但香港中文大学讲师郑赤琰博士在一篇论文中这样说:《不错,一些华侨和陈嘉庚在50年代以前,将大部份财产移回中国,但这是在马来亚独立前的事,也较中共于1949年建立政权为早。 》

无可否认的,在辛亥革命后至抗日的年代,侨生社会鲜少介入这类的政治活动,除了极少数领袖如林文庆等人外,绝大部份置身度外,因为他们忠于英殖民政府。但是,郑赤琰博士说,战后以来,峇峇(Baba)在新马政治中扮演了重要的角色。

英国殖民政府对于华人的抗日运动先是有所担心的,怕局面会失去控制,危及其统治地位和经济利益。最显著的是已被国民党及左派团体的斗争所困扰,迄至七七抗战开始,内部的斗争才缓和,而矛头一致向外。有人形容这是马来亚华人首次表现出团结的大好形势。

马来亚共产党的崛起

较后于1939年,英国宣布对德国希特勒作战,而希特勒又是与日本军国主义者狼狈为奸,造成英国改变对华人的态度。配合着反抗侵略行动。马新的华人也曾几次举行援英募款运动,慰劳英军及救助世界任何地方受难的英国人。因此英国政府深受感动,允许华人公开抗日,抵制日货,且于1941年日本南侵时,英人谋使华人政党共同站在同一个战线上。

According to historical records, the fundraising total number annually to reach 100 million more than 6000 million, many donations falling into the Kuomintang some senior officials of the bag at that time, but then Kuomintang very corrupt.
Tan Kah Kee persist in the War of Resistance against the compromise, the then the Kuomintang vice president Wang Jingwei’s advocate Negotiations refute and oppose. Bluntly describe Wang Ching-wei Qin Hui traitorous glory.
After the failure of the primary and Wang Jingwei, and fled to Vietnam to escape Chiang Kai-shek to kill. Then accepted the amnesty offer meeting as Japan to assist in the Northeast, Johnson Emperor Pu Yi, established the puppet state of Manchukuo, “the prime minister.
Tan Kah Kee turned to support the Communist Party of China
In 1940, Tan Kah Kee led Namchow always reward group back to China to reward anti-Japanese Army. After he disappointed with the Kuomintang government was inclined to support the Chinese Communist Party.
The the 1942 locust military aggression the Nanyang, horse new fall, Tan Kah Kee refuge Java, in August 1945, the surrender of Japanese militarism, October 6 Tan Kah Kee Java back to Singapore.
In 1946, he used the name of Namchow the president, sent a telegram to U.S. President Harry Truman to stop interfering in China’s internal affairs, no longer aid to Chiang, in order to make the Civil War terminate.
This year, he was in Singapore, and also do Namchow Daily expand criticized the KMT government. May 5, 1949, he returned from Singapore sightseeing. Later settled in China, and his death in 1961. Tan Kah Kee the Nanyang Chinese community leaders in the Anti-Japanese War, but he admits that fundraising number is not very good, though not disappointing. He says capitalists and overseas Chinese students do not take pledges recognize a special donation refused recognition often months tax, it month by month scores only this number (over 200 million).
He believes that the capitalists and medium businesses, and would be willing to month to month income, donated two tenths, three, the full horse Yijuan can increase many times. As for the over 200 million per month, more than half depends goods to donate, and recreation clubs collection. British North Borneo (now Sabah), although the 80,000 people of Chinese labor sector accounted for the majority of all ports after the War of Resistance Against Japan Relief Commission resembles the establishment of chips, but recognition often monthly donation only Kuching, Sibu, tens of thousands of dollars .
The history of Tan Kah Kee, in the period since the war, to be used as refers to Hua Renzhong example in China, Hong Kong Chinese University lecturer Dr. Zheng Chiyan paper said: “Yes, some overseas Chinese Tan Kah Kee in 1950s large part of the property to move back to China, but this is the pre-independence Malaya thing compared to the Chinese Communists in 1949, establishment of the regime is earlier. ‘
Undeniably, to the anti-Japanese era after the Revolution of 1911, overseas Chinese society rarely involved in such political activities, in addition to a handful of leaders such as Lim Boon Keng et al, opting out of the vast majority of, because they are loyal to the British colonial government. . However, the Dr. Zheng Chiyan said, since the war, Baba (Baba) play an important role in the politics of the new horse.
The British colonial government have to worry about the Chinese anti-Japanese movement first, afraid the situation will be a loss of control, endangering its dominance and economic interests. The most significant has been plagued by the KMT and the struggle of the leftist groups, Up to seventy-seven war began, the internal struggle before easing, while the spearhead consistent outward. Some people describe this excellent situation for the Malayan Chinese for the first time to show solidarity.
The rise of the Communist Party of Malaya
Than after 1939, Britain declared war Germany Hitler, and Hitler and the Japanese militarists working hand in glove, causing the British to change on the attitude of the Chinese. Combined with the action against aggression. Ma Chinese also aid the British several times held fundraising campaign, to reward British troops and rescue anywhere in the world suffering British. Therefore, the British Government was deeply moved, allowing the Chinese public anti-Japanese boycott of Japanese goods, and when the southward invasion of Japan in 1941, the British to seek the Chinese political parties to stand on the same front.


1941年,华侨动员委员会,在陈嘉庚主持下成立,动员委员会获得国民党及共产党的赞成,及得到殖民政府汤姆斯总督的祝福。该会在许多方面参加抗日军的工作,直到1942年2月15日,新加坡沦陷为止。

1940年国民党与中共,在重庆成立一项合作协定,促成了马来亚的马共与英国合作抗日。但是在战后,马共因为反对殖民统治,并曾公开活动,于1948年发动叛乱,退出法律范围,因此在英国殖民政府颁布紧急法令下,成为非法团体。从辛亥革命、抗日战争直至日本投降,马来亚的华人政治思潮是从低潮走向高潮,然后又有所分裂,国民党派和左派的斗争即为一例。

不过,新的政治思潮已在战后出现,盖过了以前的潮流,那就是不分种族的爱国意识和民族主义的抬头,纷纷要求国家独立,标志着战后以来,政治思想的再一次大转变。从战前的历史变迁看来,马来亚的华人在政治上是有所分歧的,即使是华社本身,也因方言互异,帮派林立,一直到今天。

至于思想上的落后与迷信的一面,则未因五四运动全面消除。相反的,人民之间仍然存在,甚至因各种的变相怂恿,封建的思想有大行其道之虞,对华人的政治醒觉无疑是一股阻力。不过,总的来说,战后的马来亚华人,已从倾向中国政治转向效忠于马来亚。这种政治思潮,标志着华人思想的转变,是值得重视的转捩点,也是一个新的起点。

战后三种思想演变

日本于1945年8月投降,正式结束了第二次世界大战。西方的希特勒及墨索里尼失败于前,日本军国主义者崩溃于后,整个世界出现了新的形势。

In 1941, the Overseas Chinese Mobilization Committee was established in the Tan Kah Kee, under the auspices of the Mobilization Committee in favor of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and to get the blessings of the colonial government Toms Governor. This in many ways to participate in the work of the Anti-Japanese Army until February 15, 1942, the fall of Singapore so far.
Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1940, was established in Chongqing a cooperation agreement contributed to the total co-operation with the British anti-Japanese Malaya horse. But in war, horses against colonial rule, and has publicly activities rebellion in 1948, exit the scope of the law, and therefore become illegal groups in the British colonial government issued an emergency decree. From the Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan until Japan’s surrender, the Malayan Chinese political thought from the low tide toward a climax, and then divided KMT camp and leftist struggle is an example.
However, the new political thought in the post-war overshadowed the previous trend, that is, non-racial sense of patriotism and the rise of nationalism, have asked the country’s independence marked the post-war years, the political thought again changes. It seems from the historical changes of the pre-war Malaya Chinese divided politically, even the Chinese community, due to dialect differences gangs everywhere, until today.
As for the ideological backwardness and superstition side, not because of the May Fourth Movement, the total elimination. Instead, between the people still exist, even feudal ideas have become very popular in danger due to various disguised instigation, Chinese political awareness is undoubtedly a resistance. Overall, however, the post-war Malayan Chinese, from the tendency of Chinese Political allegiance to Malaya. This kind of political thought, marks the transformation of Chinese thought, is noteworthy turning point and a new starting point.
The evolution of the post-war three thoughts
Japan surrendered in August 1945, the official end of the Second World War. Hitler and Mussolini Western failure in the former, after the collapse of the Japanese militarists in the entire world to the new situation.

 

一边是美国军力的膨胀,迅速地跃居西方集团盟主的地位,领导资本主义世界。另一边是以苏联为首的集团,在东欧建立共产体系,也使到亚洲一些地区成为共产国家,如中国、北越及北韩(朝鲜)等。

但是,处在这两个夹缝中的其他国家人民,民族主义的思潮强烈地表露出来。这种思潮反映在争取国家的独立和自主方面,人民纷纷要求摆脱殖民地的统治。有些国家很快在战后即得独立,如印尼、印度等,而有些国家延至五十年代或六十、七十年代才实现独立的愿望。

第二次世界大战后,由于民族主义思潮的风起云涌,居住在东南亚的华人,处在极为微妙的地位,他们在理论上,需要或归属于居住地区或倾向中国之间作一抉择。但是,由于政治意识的分歧及一些华人采取保留的态度,造成了社团领袖或华人领袖,在政治方面所扮演的角色是不尽相同的。

前面说过,如果从历史的情况来分析的话,有的学者认为,战后华人的政治态度一般上可以分成三个集团。

甲集团主要关心中国政治和中国的对外政策;

乙集团主要关心社区政治;

丙集团已进入了非华人的权力政治金字塔,而不管是否由于土著、殖民地宗主国或是民族主义者掌权。

不过,王赓武教授认为,自1945年以来,甲集团的狂热已消退,许多人转变成为乙集团, 形成华人社区的统一与团结。飘浮不定的丙集团华人数目在增加,并努力向居留地认同。可是,这种情况在马来亚乃至后来的马来西亚并不明显,换句话说,这种分析的科学性是有斟酌的余地。

因为战后以来,马来亚的华人就不曾出现过团结与统一的局面,而是继续在政治上存在着分化,甚至是相互斗争的。王赓武教授在另一篇论文《马来亚的华人政治》里,将马来亚的华人分成三个政治体:

甲集团与中国的政治保持联系,经常与中国的命运认同;

乙集团包括大多数精明而讲求实际的华人,保持低调或作间接的政治联系; 丙集团是属于那些少部份的摇摆不定的人,因为他们难于确定自己的身份,但一般上倾向于某种程度的对马来亚的效忠。这种说法,比前一种说法较为明朗,但未涉及思想上划分他们的歧异。马来亚的华人在战后所受到的政治冲击,基本上可以分成下列三类:

(一)倾向中国,但是属于国民党份子或是具有右派的思想。

(二)倾向中国,但思想左倾。

(三)土生华人, 受英文教育,思想倾向西方,尤其视英国为其效忠对象,他们被称为《峇峇》。

新马华人处在分裂状态

无可否认的,第二次世界大战的惨痛教训,唤醒了东南亚的人民,普遍对政治的醒觉和重视,民族主义的浪潮排山倒海而来。但是,马来亚政治发展算是比较缓慢的,以致不需经过流血斗争即能迫使英国让步,当然这也是英国的深谋远虑──在政治上让步换取经济的既得利益。

同时,毋容讳言的,马来人的民族主义思潮表现得比较强烈,进而结成一股政治力量,于1946年反对英国提出的马来亚同盟(MALAYAN UNION),促使英国必须拟定另一种政治结构──马来亚联合邦,以确保马来人的政治地位。

马来亚联合邦协定于1948年2月1日生效,标志着马来人在政治上扮演积极角色的开始。而马来亚的华人,战后初期,仍未培养起马来亚的意识,倾向中国的,不论是左派或右派,热衷于相互的斗争,尤甚于关心如何争取独立以成为新兴国家的主人之一。不关心政治的,仍然抱着只管经济利益的态度,同时也担心当地的左派运动波及而受累,宁可置身度外。

土生的华人峇峇,对英国有深厚的感情,继续迷恋于英国的殖民地统治而受到庇护,甚至过于洋化的峇峇视英伦为其祖国,因此对于独立运动是拿不定主意,而不加以重视。基本上,华人就是处在一个分裂的状态中。就拿1946年英国建议的马来亚同盟来说:它是战后英国所制定的一份协议书,以把马来亚各州(不包括新加坡)置于英国的直接统治下。

英国政府决定,一旦政局复元而临时性的军事统治过去后,马来亚同盟将成立,旨在创造一个更有效率的政府组织和促进马来亚不同种族的马来亚人民的团结。但是,马来社会鉴于未顾及各州苏丹地位,和认为不利于马来民族,乃群起反对。在著名的领袖拿督翁的领导下,马来民族统一机构(简称巫统UMNO)成立,以反对马来亚同盟,结果英国让步。

另一方面,非马来人对于长期在马来亚居留后,将因此获得合法地位及政治权利的条件,却表现得不热衷。可能他们仍然对日治时代余悸未消,长期以来他们未被英国接受为马来亚人及被视为外来人,他们还是不能确定本身的身份,因此并不重视这个问题。

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史第三回》就讲到这里,明晚同样时间,继续为大家主讲最终回;我们明晚再见。

by:Mask Man

 

发表在 馬來西亞的真實歷史, 追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史

发表评论

In 1941, the Overseas Chinese Mobilization Committee was established in the Tan Kah Kee, under the auspices of the Mobilization Committee in favor of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and to get the blessings of the colonial government Toms Governor. This in many ways to participate in the work of the Anti-Japanese Army until February 15, 1942, the fall of Singapore so far.
Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1940, was established in Chongqing a cooperation agreement contributed to the total co-operation with the British anti-Japanese Malaya horse. But in war, horses against colonial rule, and has publicly activities rebellion in 1948, exit the scope of the law, and therefore become illegal groups in the British colonial government issued an emergency decree. From the Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan until Japan’s surrender, the Malayan Chinese political thought from the low tide toward a climax, and then divided KMT camp and leftist struggle is an example.
However, the new political thought in the post-war overshadowed the previous trend, that is, non-racial sense of patriotism and the rise of nationalism, have asked the country’s independence marked the post-war years, the political thought again changes. It seems from the historical changes of the pre-war Malaya Chinese divided politically, even the Chinese community, due to dialect differences gangs everywhere, until today.
As for the ideological backwardness and superstition side, not because of the May Fourth Movement, the total elimination. Instead, between the people still exist, even feudal ideas have become very popular in danger due to various disguised instigation, Chinese political awareness is undoubtedly a resistance. Overall, however, the post-war Malayan Chinese, from the tendency of Chinese Political allegiance to Malaya. This kind of political thought, marks the transformation of Chinese thought, is noteworthy turning point and a new starting point.
The evolution of the post-war three thoughts
Japan surrendered in August 1945, the official end of the Second World War. Hitler and Mussolini Western failure in the former, after the collapse of the Japanese militarists in the entire world to the new situation.

 One side is the expansion of U.S. military power, quickly leapt to the chief and the status of the Western Group, the leaders of the capitalist world. The other side in the group headed by the Soviet Union, and the establishment of the communist system in Eastern Europe, but also so that some parts of Asia became communist countries, such as China, North Vietnam and North Korea (DPRK).
However, in these two caught between the people of other countries, nationalist thought strongly show it. This trend is reflected in the fight for national independence and autonomy, people have asked to get rid of the colonial rule. Some countries soon after the war that was independent, such as Indonesia, India, and some countries until the fifties or sixty, the desire for independence in the seventies.
After World War II, due to the surging nationalist thought, the Chinese living in Southeast Asia, in a very delicate position, in theory, they need to or vested in the district of residence or inclination to make a choice between China. However, due to the political awareness of the differences and some Chinese adopt a reserved attitude, causing the community leaders or the Chinese leaders, the political aspects of the role played by the different.
As mentioned above, the history analysis, and some scholars believe that the postwar Chinese political attitude generally can be divided into three groups.
A Group is principally concerned about Chinese politics and foreign policy;
Group B mainly concerned about community politics;
Group C has entered the power of non-Chinese political pyramid, regardless of whether the indigenous, colonial sovereign state or nationalists in power.
However, Professor Wang Gengwu Since 1945, the Group A frenzy has subsided, many people transformed into the B Group, the formation of the unity and solidarity of the Chinese community. C Group, the fleeting nature of Chinese number increased, and efforts to agree to the residence. However, this case is not obvious in Malaya and, later, Malaysia, in other words, this scientific analysis is room for discretion.
Because since the war, the Chinese in Malaya never encountered the situation of solidarity and unity, but continue to exist in the political differentiation, and even fight against each other. Professor Wang Gengwu In another paper Malaya Chinese political, divided into three political body of the Chinese in Malaya:
A Group to keep in touch with China’s political, often with the fate of China’s identity;
Group B including the most astute and pragmatic Chinese, to keep a low profile or indirect political ties; C Group is a small portion wavering, because they are difficult to determine their own identity, but generally tend somehow The degree of allegiance to Malaya. This argument, a clearer picture than the previous way of saying, but did not involve the ideological divide their discrepancy. The Malayan Chinese suffered in the post-war political impact, basically can be divided into the following three categories:
(A) the tendency, but belong to the KMT activists or rightist thinking.
(B) the tendency to China, but leftist ideology.
(C) Peranakan, the English-educated, ideological orientation West, especially according to the United Kingdom for their loyalty, they were known as “Baba”.
The new horse Chinese in divided
Undeniably, the painful lessons of the Second World War, has awakened the people of Southeast Asia, widespread political awareness and attention, the wave of nationalism avalanche. Malayan political development, however, is relatively slow, so do not need to go through a bloody struggle that forced the British concession Of course, this is also the British foresight ─ ─ political concessions in exchange for economic vested interests.
Needless to say, the Malaysian nationalist thought was relatively strong, and thus to form a political force, in 1946 against the British proposed the Malayan Union (MALAYAN UNION), prompted the UK must develop alternative political structures-the Federation of Malaya, in order to ensure that the the Malaysian political status.
The Federation of Malaya Agreement came into effect on February 1, 1948, marks the start of the Malaysian assume an active role in the political. Chinese in Malaya, the early postwar period, yet cultivating awareness of Malaya tendency in China, whether leftist or rightist interested in each other’s struggles, especially in concerned about how to fight for independence in order to become the master of the emerging countries one. Do not care about politics, still holding the attitude of just economic benefits, also worried about local leftist movement spread and involvement, rather aloof.
Native Chinese Babas, British deep feelings continue to be obsessed with asylum by the British colonial rule, and even too westernized Baba, as England their motherland, for the independence movement is undecided, rather than attach importance . Basically, the Chinese is in a divided state. Take the 1946 British proposed the Malayan alliance: it is an agreement developed in post-war Britain, the Malaya states (excluding Singapore) placed under the direct rule of the British.
The British Government’s decision, once the political situation to recover and temporary military rule in the past, Malaya alliance will be established, aimed at creating a more efficient government organizations and promote the unity of the Malayan People of different races in Malaya. Malay community view, however, failed to take into account states Sudan, status, and that is not conducive to the ethnic Malay are rallied together to oppose. The famous leader Datuk Ong Tee under the leadership of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO UMNO), set up to oppose the Malayan alliance results concessions.
On the other hand, non-Malaysian conditions for long-term in Malaya residence, will therefore obtain legal status and political rights, but not act enthusiastic. They are still probably the sentimental to the Japanese colonial era, for a long time they were not accepted for the people of Malaya and is regarded as outsiders, they still can not determine their own identity, and therefore does not attach importance to this issue.
The retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back “stop here, tomorrow night the same time, we continue to Speaker final back; tomorrow we Goodbye.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

《追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史》第二回:风起云涌的革命思潮时代

作者

Retrospective Malayan-Chinese sages struggle back to the second: the turbulent era of revolutionary thoughts
FEB 2
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好!很高兴又一次跟大家见面。

昨天说到,十九世纪末期,马来亚华裔社会受到满清皇朝光绪皇帝的感召,纷纷出资兴学。第一间的正规华校,当推建立于1904年(光绪卅年)的槟城中华学校,接着雪州有尊孔学校,霹州有育才学校之设,此风一开,全马各地纷纷兴学办校,教育风气至为蓬勃。

当时华人办学,并没有得到英殖民政府的资助,完全是在自力更生的情形下,传播华文教育。直到1920年,英殖民政府实施一项法令,要求对学校及教员进行登记和统制,并对华校实施津贴制度,虽然这只限海峡殖民地及马来联邦,而马来属邦不包括在内,不过华人还是不断发展华校。

据巴素博士统计,1938年,单在海峡殖民地与马来联邦的华校生逾9万名,英校生有2万7000余名。换句话说,读华校的人数远超过英校的数目。同样的情形,也反映在华文报业的兴起。

Good evening, everyone!I am pleased once again to meet with you.
Speaking yesterday, the late nineteenth century, Malaya, the ethnic Chinese community inspired by the Qing Dynasty Emperor Guangxu, have funded up schools. The first formal school, when the push was established in 1904 (Guangxu thirty years), Penang Chinese School, followed by Selangor respect holes schools, the Perak State the Yucai School of set, this wind one open, everywhere throughout Malaysia Schooling running schools, education atmosphere to flourish.
Chinese schools, and funded by the British colonial government did not, in the case of self-reliance, the dissemination of Chinese education. Until 1920, the British colonial government implemented a decree requiring the registration and control of schools and teachers, and China school implementation of the system of allowances Although this limited the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, while the Malay States, including However, the Chinese, or the continuous development of Chinese schools.
According to the Basu Dr. statistical, in 1938, a single Chinese-educated in the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, more than 90,000, and 27,000 more than British students. In other words, the number of people reading Chinese schools far more than the number of English schools. The same situation is also reflected in the rise of the Chinese Press.

虽然马来亚的第一份华文报,是1815年8月5日在马六甲创刊的《察世俗每月统计传》,是由教会主办,富宗教色彩,前后刊行六年半;但真正具有规模和有启迪作用的,是1880年在新加坡开办的《叻报》。

它是一份形式较多样化的华文报,创办人是薛有礼,一位新加坡土生土长的华人。他受过英文教育,但对中华文化酷爱。新加坡报人陈蒙鹤女士在《新加坡早期的华文报,1880年至1912年》的英文专书中,曾经分析《叻报》创办的动机,她认为《叻报》不是为利,而是为推广中华文化,改进华人社会风气,且具有爱国意识。

《叻报》内容包括新闻、社论、通讯及广告。新闻有本坡新闻、外埠新闻及国际新闻,前后刊行51年,第一任主笔叶季允,乃被礼聘从中国南来主持笔政,达41年之久。

But the real scale Malaya a Chinese newspaper, founded in Malacca on August 5, 1815 Depiction monthly statistics Biography “is sponsored by the church, the rich religious overtones, before and after the issue by the six and a half;and revealing, opened in Singapore in 1880, was “smart reported.
It is a more diversified forms of Chinese newspaper, founder Xueyou Li, a Singapore native Chinese. He received an English education, but the passion for Chinese culture. Singapore reported that people Miss Chen Menghe the English designed book in Singapore’s early Chinese newspaper, 1880-1912 “, used to analyze the motives of the founder of” smart “, she thinks smart reported” not for profit, but to promote Chinese culture, improvement of Chinese social atmosphere, and has a patriotic consciousness.
Smart newspaper content including news, editorials, communications and advertising. News news of the slope to other towns news and international news, before and after the issue by 51 years the first writer Ye Jiyun is polishers from South China to preside over the writing important, up to 41 years

学校和报纸俱是传播智识和文化的所在,对于政治思想的灌输,也是至为重要的工具。因此,从早期的华校和华报性质看来,清廷所要宣扬的是一套维护帝制的封建思想,对于儒家学说的重视,不遗余力,目的是要鼓起华人对清廷的效忠和跟随保守的政治潮流。

华人社团取代私会党

必须提起的是华人社团,在促进民族意识和保护会员方面所扮演的角色。一般认为,华人社团的组织是伴随华人南移的产物,虽然它很早就存在,但因早期私会党的势力庞大,支派很多,以致成为华人社会的〈保护者〉,社团的重要性也就相对减低了。

直到英殖民政府在1890年对付私会党组织后,公开注册的社团便如雨后春笋而起,取代私会党的作用。当然,这不是说社团较私会党发源迟,而是其功能在较后期才表规出来。

Schools and newspapers club where the dissemination of intellectual and cultural, for the inculcation of political thought, but also to an important tool. Therefore, it seems from the early nature of Chinese schools and Chinese newspaper, the Qing court to be propagated is a maintenance monarchy feudal thinking, For Confucianism attention, spare no effort to muster allegiance and follow conservative Chinese Manchu political trends.
Chinese associations to replace the Secret Societies
Must be brought by a Chinese community’s role in promoting the national consciousness and protection of Member. Is generally believed that the Chinese community organization is accompanied by Chinese southward, although it is very early, but large forces of the early secret societies, many of the tribe that it has become <protectors> Chinese society, the importance of the association relatively lower.
Until the British colonial government in 1890 to deal with the private party organizations, public associations registered mushroomed into the sky, to replace the role of the Secret Societies. Of course, this does not mean that societies than private party originated late, but its function only in the longer term regulation out

马六甲的青云亭是华人最古老的结合组织,槟城的广福宫,建于1800年。就是最早期的华人社团。

初期,庙宇与地缘性存有混合为一体的迹象。 1801年,槟城嘉应会馆的前身〈仁和公司〉成立,建筑为庙宇,槟城的广汀会馆前身为〈广东公司〉,成立于1801年。马六甲的应和会馆成立时,初称〈梅州众记公司〉,1825年改称为〈应和公司〉,嗣后始再改为〈应和书馆〉。

较早时期成立的会馆,多与私会党组织脱离不了关系。同乡团体,从故乡带来家族制度以及一切风俗习惯,会党亦是其中之一。所谓的会党,是指来自同一个乡下的村民所成立的组织,负责照顾所有乡党的福利和生活。会党对党员来说,是有绝对的义务,无条件扶助的团体。当权者认为,可以利用为支配的工具;农民和劳动者认为,是结合同人再好没有的组织,革命家亦认为它是具有重要意义的。

在马来亚槟城的福建公司,和海山党大伯公会,就是这样的会党组织;广汀会馆,宁阳会馆和义兴党,亦有不能分离的联系。若以县会馆而论,新加坡宁阳会馆的创办人,在义兴党的洪家祠中安有牌位。无疑的同乡团体具有封建性格。同时孙中山在华侨中,能够组织同盟会,原因就是可以动员私会党,所以会馆事业,是有利维持封建社会的秩序。

除了地缘性的同乡会,血缘性的宗祠外,亦有一种被认为是代表工商业和职工组织的业缘性团体,如建造行、兴和打金行、鲁班行等。华社研究学者认为,英殖民地政府鼓励带有商业性质的代表性组织,包括同乡会和宗祠在内,一个有名望的人,可以一身兼数职,而成为一方领袖。

当英国发现私会党的组织已尾大不掉,且渗入一些早期的会馆(前称公司)时,乃改弦易辙,通过扶持会馆、宗祠和商团来取代会党(私会党)的地位。廿世纪初叶,华团应运大量而生,这也是其中的原因之一。英国人也希望有名望的温和派华人领袖,特别重视受英文教育的侨领,来领导社团,直接归属英国统治,而又能协助政府推行政策。

华社团体百花齐放

就拿槟城来说,嘉庆5年(1800年)建立了广福宫(广东及福建人合作)后,又于光绪12年(1886年)在毗邻,挂起了市政府招牌的平章会馆,商业与社团结合的机能,发挥的淋漓尽致。从教育、报业及华团三方面的发展来看,马来亚华社对封建制度的维护表露无遗。尊孔学校及孔教会的中华学校,即旨在推行以孔子为代表的儒家学说,华文报宣扬封建文化也有其功效;华团拜祭神位,除削减私会党力量外,亦在于巩固封建体系。

虽然这些发展和所传播的政治意识,不全然与英国政治思潮相符合,但并未危及英国的统治地位和经济利益,因此英殖民政府也就任由华人的政治思潮自行发展。不过,英国人认为,通过法律的控制,对于华人的政治意识的控制是有效的,更何况当时,华人并无驱赶英国人的观念,只是侧重在经济发展和谋生,在政治上不很关注中国的政局变化。但是,上层的华社份子则以取得满清皇廷赐封的官衔为荣耀。

 

 

Malacca Cheng Hoon Teng is the most ancient Chinese combination of organizations, Penang Kwong Fuk Palace, built in 1800. Most of the early Chinese societies.
The mixed early temples and geopolitical there as one of the signs. 1801, Penang the Jiaying Hall’s predecessor <Renhe company> set up the construction of the temple, Penang wide Ting Hall, formerly known as <Guangdong company, established in 1801. Malacca the should and Hall of established early <Meizhou public record company> 1825 reform known as the <and> subsequent beginning and then changed to <and library.
Earlier period established associations, inseparable from the multi-party organizations and the private will. Fellow groups from hometown family system and all customs, will be one party. The so-called secret societies, the organization set up by the villagers from the same country, responsible for looking after the welfare and lives of all Xiangdang. Will be the party of the party members who have an absolute obligation to unconditionally help groups. Those in power think, can be used as a tool of domination; farmers and laborers that the combination colleagues no matter how good organization, revolutionaries also think it is important.
Malaya Penang Fujian, and seamounts Party uncle Association, this will party organizations; wide Ting Hall, Ningyang the Hall and Yising Party, also can not be separated from contact. Terms of the terms of the County Hall, the founder of Singapore the Ningyang Hall’s, in Hung Yising Party Ancestral Hall Zhong’an tablets. Undoubtedly groups of fellow feudal character. The Sun Yat-sen in the Chinese ability to organize League, the reason is that we can mobilize the Secret Societies, Hall career is conducive to maintaining the order of the feudal society.
In addition to the geopolitical Association of consanguinity ancestral halls, also a karmic groups on behalf of the industry, commerce and trade union organizations, such as the construction of the line,, Hing and goldsmith line, Luban line. Chinese community scholars believe that the British colonial government encouraged with a representative of the commercial nature of organizations, including Associations and ancestral hall, a prestigious, can be one of several roles, and become party leader.
When the British Secret Societies, organizations have been far too cumbersome, and to penetrate some early Hall (formerly the company) is to change course, and will support Hall, the ancestral hall and business group to replace the party (Secret Societies) status. Ye, the Chinese group in the early twentieth century to be shipped a large number of born, this is also one of the causes. The British renowned the moderates Chinese leaders, in particular the emphasis on the English-educated community leaders, to lead societies, directly attributable to British rule, but also to assist the Government in the implementation of the policy.
Chinese community groups flourishing
Take Penang, Jiaqing five years (1800) to establish the Kwong Fuk Palace (Guangdong and Fujian cooperation), Guangxu 12 years (1886) in the adjacent suspend the municipal government the signs of Pingzhang Hall combine the functions of the business and the community, to play the most. From the perspective of the development of the three aspects of education, the press and the Chinese group, Malayan Chinese community is the maintenance of the feudal system revealed. Respect hole schools and the hole church schools, that is designed to promote Confucianism represented by Confucius, the Chinese newspaper publicized feudal culture and its efficacy; Chinese group to pay respects to the tablets, in addition to reduce the power of the secret societies, is to consolidate the feudal system.
Although the development and spread of political consciousness, not entirely consistent with the British political thought, but did not endanger the dominance and economic interests of the United Kingdom, the British colonial government will let Chinese political thought itself. However, the British think is valid through the control of the law, for the control of the political consciousness of the Chinese, not to mention the time, the Chinese had no concept of driving away the British, just focus in economic development and to make a living, not very concerned about the Chinese political the political situation changes. However, the upper of the Chinese community activists the one that gets the official title for the glory of the Manchu Huangting encomienda

第一位获得清廷赐封官衔的华侨,是新加坡的章芳琳,时为1869年,所得的官衔为道官,以褒奖他慷慨献捐福建省的防务基金。

之前,海外华人得不到清廷《皇恩》之赐,是因为满清政府对海外臣民,采取敌视态度的一种表现。满清当局一向把海外华人看成罪犯或中国文化的背弃者。认为他们私自逃离国家到海外谋生,是一种被祖叛国的行为。但是到了19世纪末,清朝政府对华侨政策,发生重大的变化。 1893年,清廷颁布的一项通令,对华侨撤消传统的限制和惩罚,并献议保护那些回返祖国的华人。

通过捐款而授予官职是另一种拢络的手法,以使侨民忠于满清帝国。这是因为清廷在后期的经济出现危机,不得不借助海外华人的经济力量。演变到后来,授官之举成为清朝确保华侨效忠的一种手段,后来被利用做为一种政治武器,以对抗保皇党和革命党在新加坡、马来亚华族社会的影响力。

两种政治思想斗争

从历史发展看来,在20世纪之前的新马华侨政治潮流是不显著的,一般上是低调的。他们摆脱了清朝统治下的民不聊生的困境后,投身怒海,移居到马来亚,目的是为了谋生,而不是从事政治活动。只是在被动的情况下,他们依附着领袖及首领的政治意识,不过从未正式的集体表明政治态度。

Get a the Qing court encomienda rank the overseas Chinese, Zhang Fang Lin, Singapore for 1869, when the official title of the proceeds for the Road officials to compliment his generous offer to donate to the defense fund of Fujian Province.
Before, the overseas Chinese are not the Qing court’s infinite royal thanks Manchu government to take a hostile attitude towards a performance overseas subjects. The Manchu authorities has always been the overseas Chinese as criminals or desertion of Chinese culture. That they secretly fled the country to overseas to make a living, a progenitor of treason behavior. But by the end of the 19th century, the Qing government, the Overseas Chinese policy, significant changes occurred. In 1893, the Qing government promulgated a general order of the Overseas Chinese to undo traditional restrictions and punishment and offer advice to protect those who return the Chinese motherland.
Through donations and grant office is another a Longluo tactics to make nationals loyal to the Manchu empire. This is because the Qing court in the latter part of the economic crisis, had to resort to overseas Chinese economic power. Evolved later granted official move into the Qing Dynasty as a means to ensure that overseas Chinese allegiance later used as a political weapon to counter the influence of the royalists and the Revolutionary Party in Singapore, Malaya, ethnic Chinese community.
Two political ideological struggle
From the historical development in the 20th century, before the new horse Overseas Chinese political trend is not significant, generally low-key. After they got rid of the plight of the destitute people under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, to join the high seas, emigrated to Malaya, in order to earn a living, rather than engaging in political activities. Just in the case of passive, they rely on the political consciousness of the leaders and chiefs, but never officially collectively demonstrate political attitudes.

基本上,从甲必丹之设立,到土生华人社会的形成,到私会党的蓬勃,吸纳新客成为党员,到被英殖民政府封官收买,到最后被清廷封官收买,及后便在上层社会展开两种政治思潮的斗争。第一种思潮,是效忠清廷,协助腐败的满清政府致力巩固江山,取缔反抗清廷的份子;第二种思潮,则是追随孙中山先生的革命思想,出钱出力支持推翻满清政权。

这种斗争一直延续到20世纪,而掀起了一场波澜壮阔的运动,并且在一定程度上,激发整个华人社会的政治醒觉,纷纷加入了政治斗争。先是改良派的康有为到来争取华人,继之是孙中山先生的革命运动,接着便是抗日的斗争,随后是国共斗争的冲击,转入五十年代,民族主义兴起,华人政治思潮有了一个巨大和划时代的转变。

Basically, from the the Kapitan establishment to the formation of the Peranakan community, to the private party’s boom to attract new customers to become party members, to buy the official seal of the British colonial government, to buy last Qing court official seal, and afterwill commence in the upper classes of society the struggle between two political thought. First thought, allegiance to the Qing court assist corrupt Manchu government is committed to consolidate the country, ban against Manchu activists; second thought, is to follow Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary ideas, money and efforts to support the overthrow of the Manchu regime .
This struggle has been extended to the 20th century, and set off a surging movement to stimulate the political consciousness of the whole Chinese society, and to some extent, have joined the political struggle. First reformists Kang Youwei come to fight the Chinese, followed by Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement, followed by the anti-Japanese struggle, followed by the impact of the country struggle into the fifties and the rise of nationalism, the Chinese political thought have a huge and epoch-making changes

清朝统治下的中国,是一个丧权辱国的时代,在鸦片战争(1839年至1842年是第一次鸦片战争,1856年至1860年是第二次鸦片战争)前后,改良主义的思想即已在中国兴起。

尤其到了中日甲午战争阶段(1894年至1895年),由于清朝一再对外来霸权主义让步,促使一批知识份子提出改良主义学说,其中以康有为及梁启超为代表人物,推出了维新运动,但是遭到了当权派的反击。以谭嗣同为首的《四君子》被慈禧太后下令拘捕斩首。

戊戌政变的失败,迫使康有为及梁启超向外逃亡。他们的思想是保皇的,与光绪皇帝有密切联系,所痛恨的是慈禧太后为首的当权派。

China under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, an era of national betrayal and humiliation in the Opium War (1839-1842 First Opium War, the Second Opium War in 1856 to 1860) before and after the reformist ideas already in Chinarise.
Especially to the Sino-Japanese War phase (1894-1895), the Qing Dynasty the repeated foreign hegemonism concessions, prompting a group of intellectuals of the reformist doctrine, which representatives of Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, the introduction of the reform movement, but was to kleptocrats counterattack. Tan Sitong led by the “four gentlemen” Empress Dowager Cixi ordered the arrest of the beheading.
The failure of the coup d’etat, forcing Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao fled out. Their thoughts royalist, in close contact with the Emperor Guangxu, hated by the Empress Dowager Cixi, led by those in power.

他们谴责慈禧太后30年来的反动统治,不仅是中国人民的公敌,且是《大清十一代之罪人》,而《欲医中国之病,唯有将此恶政府除去,而另立一好政府(指光绪皇帝复辟)则下来俱妥矣》。

康有为及梁启超是属于《保皇派》的代表人物,不主张推翻帝制,到海外宣扬思想时,也促请华人支持光绪皇帝,对抗慈禧太后的顽固派。

康有为逃难的时候曾经到过马来亚,怡保的旅游景点霹雳洞,也有留下他的墨宝。不久之后,以孙中山先生为首的中国革命派也来到马新等地宣扬革命,以推翻满清政权,另立国民政府。

这两种对立的思想,在马来亚的华人社会中引起了一定程度的冲击,但在争取华人关心中国的政治前途方面,却是没有多大的差别。保皇份子曾先后在新加坡创办了《天南新报)(1898-1905年)与《南洋总汇报)(1905-1946年),他们也在槟榔屿创办了《槟城新报》(1895-1936年)。

康有为在另一方面也宣扬办学,鼓励华人筹组孔庙与社团等。孔教会乃先后在马星各地成立。有人指出,今日南洋各地,尤其是马来亚,有许多的华文学校,是由康有为在当时奠立基础的。

They condemned the Empress Dowager Cixi reactionary rule of the past 30 years, not only is the enemy of the people of China, and the Qing 10th generation of sinners “, and” For doctors of the disease in China, only the removal of this evil government, raise him up a goodthe government (Guangxu emperor restoration) down all properly carry on.
Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao royalists representative, does not advocate the overthrow of the monarchy, to overseas aired thinking, also urged the Chinese Emperor Guangxu against the Empress Dowager Cixi of the diehards.
Kang Youwei fled have visited attractions in Malaya, Ipoh, Perak hole, leaving his masterpieces. Soon after, the revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-sen came to horse new to their revolution to overthrow the Manchu regime, a separate National Government.
Two opposing ideas in the Chinese community in Malaya caused a certain degree of impact, but towards the Chinese are concerned about China’s political future, but it is not much of a difference. Royalist activists has “day Southern New) (1898-1905), was founded in Singapore with the Nanyang Allgemeine Zeitung) (1905-1946), they are also Penang founder of Penang, Hong Kong Daily News” (1895-1936 ).
Kang Youwei also publicize the school, on the other hand, to encourage the Chinese to the formation of the Confucius Temple and Societies. Holes church is successively set up around the horse Stars. It was pointed out that, today all over Southeast Asia, especially Malaya, many Chinese schools, by Kang Youwei then lay the foundation

在当时的上层华人社会,分成两种不同的看法,其一是海峡华人峇峇的亲英国思想,对中国政局不表关心。比如由峇峇薛有礼创办的《叻报》,即向康有为泼冷水。

其二是与中国有关系的,尤其是获得清廷赐封官衔的上层份子,他们宁可支持保皇运动,也不支持孙中山的革命运动。因此,保皇党初时在南洋社会占了优势。

例如英籍华人领袖林文庆就极力诋毁孙中山的革命,称他是《魔王》。

孙中山结合海外私会党势力

尽管如此,孙中山并不气馁,他在极为艰辛的不利条件下,组织他的革命团体。私会党的组织就成为他的结合对象之一。孙中山也是三合会的会员,他在中国、檀香山与海外其他地方都与三合会的支会联络。

后来,在1894年,孙中山自行成立的《兴中会》,也是依据传统的秘密会社的方式而行,会员同样用血宣誓,也同样传用秘密信号与言语。孙中山在革命运动中,曾利用私会党的协助。他于1903年在檀香山毅然加入致公堂,并被推举为《洪棍》,在洪门组织,称元帅为洪棍。

At the upper Chinese society is divided into two different views, one Straits Chinese Babas pro-British thinking, not table concerned about the political situation of China. Such as founded by Baba Xueyou Li, “smart”, namely Kang Youwei pour cold water.
The second is the relationship with China, especially the upper elements of the Qing court encomienda rank, they would rather support the royalist movement, does not support the Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement. Thus, royalists early in Nanyang social accounted advantage.
Such as the the British Chinese leader Lim Boon Keng strongly discredit the Sun Yat-sen’s revolution, said he was “the devil”.
Sun Yat-sen combined overseas Secret Societies forces
Nevertheless, Sun Yat-sen was not discouraged, he organized his revolutionary groups in extremely hard under adverse conditions. Secret Societies, the organization became his combination of one of the objects. Sun Yat-sen also triad members, his contact with Triad ward in China, Honolulu and elsewhere overseas.
Later, in 1894, Sun Yat-sen established by “Revive China Society”, is based on the traditional way of secret societies and the line, the member of the same blood oath is also borne by secret signals and speech. Sun Yat-sen, the revolutionary movement, have been used with the assistance of the Secret Societies. In Honolulu in 1903, decided to join the Zhi Gong Tang, and was elected to “Hung stick”, in the freemason organization, said Marshal Hung stick.


孙中山的《兴中会》,总会设在中国,分会散设各地,痛斥满清腐败无能,要求振兴中国。到了1905年,演化成同盟会,发出宣言表明:《驱除鞑虏,恢复中华,创立民国,平均地权》。同盟会于1906年在新加坡设立,随后在吉隆坡、槟城,森美兰、马六甲及瓜拉比劳纷纷设立分会,但在怡保计划不得逞,因为遭受保皇党份子的激烈反对。

保皇党与革命党的政治斗争,亦可从同盟会创办的报纸打对台戏窥见一斑。同盟会在新加坡设立《图南日报》(1904-1905年)与《中兴日报》(1907-1910年),也在槟城设立《光华日报》(1909年─迄今)。从历史资料显示,目前仍然是槟州最主要的报章《光华日报》,就是在孙中山先生的《同盟会》支持下创立的。

Sun Yat-sen’s Revive China Society “, always in China, club casual setting around, denouncing the Manchu corrupt and incompetent, and the revitalization of China. By 1905, evolved into the United League, issued a declaration that: “expel the Manchus and restore China to the creation of the Republic, the average land ownership. United League set up in Singapore in 1906, and then have to set up branch in Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Negri Sembilan, Malacca and melon Labi Lao, but the plan does not succeed in Ipoh, suffered because of the fierce opposition of the royalist activists.
Royalists and political struggle of the Revolutionary Party, a rival show to get a glimpse of the founder of the newspaper can also be downloaded from the United League. United League “Figure” (1904-1905) of the Southern Daily the “ZTE Daily” (1907-1910), established in Singapore, Kwong Wah Yit Poh (1909 ─ present) also set up in Penang. From historical data, is still the most important newspapers in Penang Kwong Wah Yit Poh, is founded by Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s “United League support.


除了通过报纸之外,革命党人也通过演讲和一些社团从事活动,最著名的便是槟城的《阅书报社》(于1908年11月在社团法令下登记)。

尽管保皇党在马新的政治活动,曾在初期占上风,且得到上层份子的拥护,但同盟会则借助秘密会社的力量和中等阶级的支持,展开了一场针锋相对的尖锐化斗争;渐渐的后来居上。直到1908年慈禧太后和光绪皇帝于同月内死去后,保皇党已失去一个《挟天子之名》的号召力,而且清廷日益腐化,眼见大势已去,一些上层份子也掉转方向,支持孙中山了。

根据史料显示,华人群众并未全力介入保皇党及同盟会的活动,这是由于他们并不十分了解这些的政治斗争。而且,这两派的人多数周旋在中上层社会,尤以孙中山的身份更为特殊,他备受英国殖民政府的监视,不能自由活动,以致需要通过其他团体及报章来宣扬它的理想。

辛亥革命为海外华社带来激荡

1911年,中国辛亥革命成功,推翻满清帝制,建立中华民国政府,这个历史转变给海外华人社会的政治醒觉,带来巨大的震荡。究竟同盟会有多大的政治力量呢?根据一位革命党领袖邓慕韩统计,1908年在东南亚有3000名同盟会的会员,大部份来自马来亚、新加坡两地。当年新马一带的华裔总人口约为60万人。

日本的历史观察家估计,从1909年到1910年,在新隆槟三地约有2500名会员。如果此说无误,则其成员只占当时马新华人十五岁以上人口的0.3到0.5巴仙。但是,在孙中山先生于1911年12月29日在南京就任临时大总统后,许多中立派及保皇派份子转而支持孙中山先生,形势为之一转。尤其是在武昌起义后(导致清廷的灭亡),槟城有5000人剪掉辫子,怡保也有2000人返回中国参加孙中山的革命。

在捐款方面,槟城有6000到8000元,怡保有4000到5000元,吉隆坡有4000到5000元及其他市镇也响应,总计3万元到4万1000元不等。参加同盟会的人也增加至占当时华人15岁人口的4.4巴仙至5.9巴仙。总的来说,马来西亚华人政治思潮虽然已有所改变和较为积极,但上层社会仍有分歧,有人拒绝支持孙中山,吉隆坡的矿商陆佑及姚东生即为两个明显的例子。

The addition through newspapers, revolutionaries engaged in activities through lectures and some societies, the most famous is the Penang read books newspaper “(registered under the Societies Act in November 1908).
Gradually come from behind despite royalist new political activities in Malaysia, in the early upper hand, and the upper support of the criminals, but the United League With the power of the secret societies, and middle-class support, launched a tit-for-tat sharp struggle; . Until the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu died in the same month in 1908, the royalists had lost a “relying on the name of the Son of Heaven,” the appeal, and the Qing government increasingly corrupt, seeing the hopeless situation, some activists also turned the direction of the upper, support for Sun Yat-sen had.
According to historical data show that the Chinese masses did not fully involved the activities of the royalists and the United League, because they do not fully understand these political struggles. Moreover, the majority of the people of the two factions in the middle and upper social deal, especially the identity of Dr. Sun Yat-sen is more special, he is much of the British colonial government surveillance, can not be freedom of movement, so by other groups and newspapers to promote its ideals.
1911 Revolution for the overseas Chinese community agitation
In 1911, the success of the Chinese Revolution, the overthrow of the Manchu monarchy and the establishment of the government of the Republic of China, this historic change to the political awareness of the overseas Chinese community, huge shock. Exactly how much political forces United League? In Southeast Asia in 1908, according to a Revolutionary Party leader Deng Mu Han 3000 United League members, most from Malaya, Singapore. When new horse in the vicinity of a total population of approximately 600,000 people of Chinese descent.
The Japanese history observers estimated that, from 1909 to 1910, some 2,500 members in the new Long Penang. If this is correct, only then Ma Xinhua over the age of 15, 0.3 to 0.5% of the population of its members. Became provisional president Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing on December 29, 1911, however, a number of centrist and royalist elements in favor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the situation for one turn. Especially after the Wuchang Uprising (leading to the demise of the Qing), 5000 cut off the braids in Penang, Ipoh, there are 2,000 people to return to China to participate in the Sun Yat-sen’s revolution.
In donations, Penang 6000-8000 yuan 4000-5000 yuan in Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, also responds to 4000-5000 yuan and other towns, ranging from 30,000 yuan to 41,000 yuan in total. The people participating in the United League is also increased to 4.4 per cent to 5.9 per cent share of the then 15-year-old population of the Chinese. Overall, the Malaysian Chinese political thought has changed and a more positive differences remain, but the upper classes of society, some people refused to support two obvious examples of Sun Yat-sen, Loke Yew, Kuala Lumpur miners and Yao Dongsheng is.

他们不介入革命是有一些因素的,譬如不愿卷入任何与现存政权对立的活动,同时他们是在英国的保护下,得以成为巨富,他们因此与英国的关系较为良好,而对中国的效忠缺乏热忱。不过,也有富商转变他们的思想立场,如霹雳的矿商胡子春。他本是保皇派的人物,较后赞扬孙中山的革命是中国的先锋队。胡子春是霹雳华教中坚份子胡万铎的祖父。

正由于孙中山在为理想奔波时所遭受到的挫折,乃转而向中下层人民,以争取他们的支持。特别是受过教育的中层阶级,在阅读孙中山的言论及报纸的鼓吹文章后,华社思潮起了急速的变化,对满清的暴政起恶感,对外国的侵略产生抗拒心理,他们甚至本身也成为宣传家。

据知,在此时期,霹雳有2000名华工返回中国,那些尚在矿地的矿工,也合捐了1万元。这说明了孙中山的政治宣传已打进马来亚华人的中下层社会。除了工人以外,低层的人物包括私会党员、小贩、三轮车夫,乃至妓女及乞丐也捐款给革命运动。

They do not intervene in the revolution there are some factors, such as do not want to become involved in any confrontation with the existing regime activities, at the same time they are under the protection of the British, able to become wealthy, they are therefore relatively good relations with the United Kingdom to Chinaallegiance to a lack of enthusiasm. However, there are wealthy businessmen to change their ideological stance, as the Thunderbolt miner Hu Zichun. He royalists figure, later praised Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary vanguard of China. Hu Zaichun is the the Perak Chinese teach backbone of Hu Wan Tudor’s grandfather.
Precisely because of the setbacks suffered by the Sun Yat-sen is ideal to run around, is turned to the people of the middle and lower classes, in order to win their support. Especially the educated middle class, read after Sun Yat-sen’s advocacy speech and newspaper article from the Chinese community thought the rapid changes in the ill-feeling from the Manchu tyranny produce resistance to foreign aggression, they even itself become publicity house.
Far as I know, in this period, Perak 2000 Chinese laborers to return to China, and those still in the mine to the miners, together donated $ 1 million. This shows that the Sun Yat-sen’s political propaganda has reached the the Malayan Chinese middle and lower social. In addition to workers, the low-level figures, including the private will of party members, hawkers, rickshaw drivers, and even prostitutes and beggars contributions to the revolutionary movement.

尽管现代一些学者提到辛亥革命时,认为对整个马来亚和新加坡华人社会的冲击并不是很大,也不是澈底;但他们并没有否定对20世纪初,华人的闭塞,保守与冥顽思想起了很大的冲击。

王赓武教授在其论文《1900-1911年海峡殖民地华人保皇党份子及革命党份子》中指出:《介于1900年与1911年间,最主要的不是经济与社会的变迁,而是海峡殖民地华人,倾向中国的思想与态度的转变。 》

民族主义思潮风起云涌

二十世纪初期,根据颜清湟博士形容,在这个时期马、新华人介入中国的革命活动是史无前例的,虽然革命活动主要在于拯救中国,但对海外华人确有深远的影响。这种影响可以分成三类:海外华人民族主义思潮的兴起;海外华人团结力量的增长及新思想的涌现。

其一,由于民族主义的思想鼓吹,遂使到数以千计的海外华青,回到中国参加推翻清朝,甚至牺牲生命,并有许多捐款支持孙中山的革命。从1911年启开的民族主义思潮,成为马新华人与中国维系关系的主要指导源泉。同时,这种思潮也带着反对外来势力的意念,一直发展下去。

其二,在孙中山先生展开革命之前,海外华人是不团结的,也有帮派的斗争。不团结阻碍了革命思想的传播,帮派斗争影响华人社会的经济成长,并阻止了不同方言集团的合作。

Although modern scholars mentioned in the Revolution, that the impact on the entire Chinese community in Malaya and Singapore is not great, nor is it thoroughly; but they do not negate the effect of the early 20th century, the Chinese occlusion, conservative and stubborn ideologya great impact.
Professor Wang Gengwu pointed out in his essay “1900-1911 Straits Settlements Chinese royalist elements Revolutionary Party elements”: “between 1900 and 1911, the most important is not economic and social changes, but the Chinese of the Straits Settlements, the tendency China’s ideological change of attitude. ‘
Nationalism Thought surging
The early twentieth century, according to Dr. Yen Ching Huangzhong describe the horse in this period, the new Chinese intervention revolutionary activities in China is unprecedented, revolutionary activities mainly to save China, but does have a profound impact on the overseas Chinese. This influence can be divided into three categories: The Rise of the overseas Chinese nationalism; growth of overseas Chinese solidarity and the emergence of new ideas.
First, the nationalist ideology preaches, occasioned to the thousands of Overseas Chinese Youth, returned to China to participate in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, and even their lives, and many contributions in support of the revolution of Sun Yat-sen. Ma Xinhua maintaining relationships with China from 1911 Kai nationalist thought, the main source of guidance. In the same time, this trend took against the idea of foreign forces, has been to develop.
Second, before the revolution of Sun Yat-sen expand overseas Chinese is not united, gang struggle. Unity to hinder the spread of revolutionary ideas, gang wars affect the economic growth of the Chinese community, and to stop the cooperation of different dialects Group.

当孙中山先生于1906年,在吉隆坡主持同盟会支会成立仪式时发出警告说:本地华人的不团结,最终将导致整个华人社会的崩溃。

他于是通过同盟会,展开各种宣传运动。如阅书报社、夜校、戏剧表演,使到不同力量的集团,为孙中山的革命而在一起工作,他们学习相互了解,相互合作以解决共同的难题。通过不间断的联系,华人的团结精神和国民意识乃被加强和发展起来。

1909年在霹雳打巴成立的《集群社》,就是灌输团结思想的组织。另一项最主要的发展,便是在学校传播华语,逐渐打破用方言教学。当然保皇派在这方面也有其贡献,它使到华人有了共同的媒介语。

我们也注意到,在这个时期各州成立的中华总商会(最初为华人商务局)。虽然这些组织是清廷所赞成的,有倾向清廷的思想意识,但对殖民地政府也没有坏处,因此先后被允许成立起来,这类组织容纳各帮派代表,而在促进谅解及团结方面,有了多少的帮助。

今天晚上的《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史第二回》就讲到这里。明天晚上,同样的时间,我们再见。祝各位晚安。

by:Mask Man

 

《追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史》第一

When Sun Yat-sen in 1906, in Kuala Lumpur, presided over the inaugural ceremony of the United League clubs warned: local Chinese are not united, will eventually lead to the collapse of the whole Chinese society.
He League, expand the various publicity campaigns. Such as reading books newspaper, evening, theater performances, so that a different strength of the Group, Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary work together, they learn to understand each other, cooperate with each other to solve common problems. Uninterrupted contact the spirit of unity and national consciousness of the Chinese is to be strengthened and developed.
Thunderbolt Pakistan established cluster community in 1909, is to instill ideological and organizational unity. Another major development is the spread of Chinese in schools to gradually break the dialect teaching. Course royalists in this regard also has its own contribution to it so that the Chinese have a common media language.
We also note that the states set up during this period of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (originally Chinese Business Bureau). While these organizations are in favor of the Qing court, have a tendency to imperial ideology, but no harm has been allowed to set up such organizations to accommodate various gangs represent the colonial government in promoting understanding and unity how much help.
Tonight retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back “to stop here. Tomorrow night, the same time, we will meet. I wish you good night.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

回:峇峇的诞生与私会党的崛起

作者

 

Retrospective Malayan-Chinese sages struggle back: Baba’s birth and the rise of Secret Societies
FEB 1
Of the voice of justice

自从20世纪70年代开始,巫统推行新经济政策,并且成为国阵内一党独大的政党以来,大马华社经常成为少数巫统极端分子出言不逊,任意欺压的对象。到了80年代马哈迪掌政的时代,这种现象尤其严重,一直到今天,我们仍然不时听到和看到一些极端巫统分子发表《华人寄居论》,《滚回中国论》;甚至还有马来学者公认侮辱华裔。说我们的祖先当年南来,男人是当龟公,女人是当妓女云云。

即使华社群起抗议声讨,但是在当政者巫统的庇护,和马华不敢开口理论之下,这些发表侮辱华人言论的政客学者都不会受到对付。久而久之,许多年轻一辈的马来人,都认为华人确实是马来西亚独立后才从中国来到这里生活的《寄居者》。这片土地的真正而且为一的主人,就是马来人。连马哈迪也会跟着起哄,利用《Tanah Melayu》的字眼来证明,这里原本是马来人的地方。

更加可恶的是,居然还有类似邱嘉金之类数典忘祖之徒附和马哈迪,否定了华人先辈开拓这片土地的历史功绩。有鉴于此,半年前我就决定收集大马华人史料,立志还原大马华人先辈在这片土地开荒的血泪史。籍此给与那些不学无术的巫统政客和无耻的学者一个强而有力的反击。这里有四个论点,需要先跟大家说明。

Since UMNO implementation of the new economic policy, since the 1970s, and become a one-party dominant political parties in the Barisan Nasional, Malaysia’s Chinese community often become minority UMNO extremists insulted the any oppressing object. 80 the ‘Mahathir Di Zhangzheng era, this phenomenon is especially serious, until today, we still hear from time to time and see some extreme UMNO molecular published “Chinese sojourn’,” go back to China ‘; even Malay scholars recognized insult to the ethnic Chinese. That our ancestors then south, a man is when the turtles public, the woman as a prostitute so.
Even from the Chinese community protest to denounce, but in the refuge of those in power in UMNO and MCA afraid to speak under, politicians and scholars published insult Chinese speech are not subject to deal with. Over time, many of the younger generation of Malaysian, Chinese indeed sojourners from China after the independence of Malaysia came here to live. Real but also as a master of the land, is a Malaysian. Even Mahathir also followed the booing, the use of the words “Tanah Melayu” to prove where the original is a Malaysian place.
More appalling is that actually there Qiu Jia Jin class have forgotten progenitor of the believers to go along with Mahathir denied Chinese ancestors to explore the historical merits of this piece of land. In view of this, six months ago, I decided to collect the Malaysian Chinese historical materials, determined to restore the wasteland tragic history of the Malaysian Chinese fathers brought forth on this piece of land. Whereby a strong counterattack to give those ignoramuses Umno politicians and shameless scholars. There are four arguments need to be explained to begin with.

 

第一:华人早在1千200年前,就已经来到这片土地,华人先辈来到马来半岛的历史,比马来人更久远。这可从考古学者在吉兰丹,登嘉楼和柔佛州发现的唐代陶瓦古物得以证明(可惜这些出土文物的鉴定结果都被当政者刻意掩盖了)

第二:马来民族也不是这片土地的原本主人。马来人事实上都是印尼亚齐一带移民到马来半岛的后裔。仅有大约600年的历史。

The first: the Chinese as early as 1,200 years ago, it has come to this land, Chinese ancestors came to the history of the Malay Peninsula, more distant than the Malaysian. This can be found by archaeologists in Kelantan, Terengganu and Johor Tang Dynasty terra cotta Antiquities evidenced (Unfortunately, these archaeological finds identification results are those in power deliberately covered up)
Second: Malay nationalism is not the original owners of this land. The Malaysian In fact all the descendants of immigrants to the Malay Peninsula in Indonesia’s Aceh area. Only about 600 years old.

第三:这片土地的真正主人,是原住民Orang Asli。他们才是从有文字记载以来就一直生活在这片土地的真正主人。就像瑙鲁族之于纽西兰,红印第安人之于美国。

第四:从从三佛齐、赤土、狼牙修、盘盘、屈都昆等半岛古国的历史记载及出土文物证明马来半岛古国都是奉行印度文化,证明印度人移居到马来半岛的时间也比马来人更早。

因此,我们大马华裔公民绝对可以很有尊严的告诉全世界,我们也是这片土地的原住民,是这片土地的土著。和其他所有民族一样,拥有平等的地位。那些说我们华人是外来寄居者的人,其实等同于在讲他们自己!

Third: the true masters of this land, the aboriginal Orang Asli. Since they are the ones from the written records have been living in the real masters of this land. Like Nauru family in New Zealand, Red Indians in the United States.
Fourth: are pursued from the Malay Peninsula from Srivijaya, terracotta, Spike repair, trays and trays, Qu Dukun Peninsula ancient historical records and archaeological finds prove ancient Indian culture, prove that Indians migrated to the Malay Peninsula The time is earlier than the Malaysian.
Therefore, our Malaysian-Chinese citizens can definitely tell the world of the very dignity, we are the indigenous people of this land, this land’s indigenous. Like all other nations, have equal status. Those who say that we Chinese foreign sojourners, in fact, equivalent to speak their own!

因此,我们大马华裔公民绝对可以很有尊严的告诉全世界,我们也是这片土地的原住民,是这片土地的土著。和其他所有民族一样,拥有平等的地位。那些说我们华人是外来寄居者的人,其实等同于在讲他们自己!

在开始之前,请容许我很简单的问一问各位朋友,尤其是年轻一辈的朋友,这些有趣的问题:

你或许知道吉隆坡有不少以华人名字命名的街道,像陆佑路(Jalan Loke You),陈秀莲路(Jalan Chan Shau Lin),叶观胜路(Jalan Yap Kuan Seng)等等,当然全马还有许多大小城镇的街道,都有华裔先贤的名字。你们知道这些先贤的背景吗?你们听说过他们的事迹吗?知道他们为了这片土地的开拓和发展,贡献了什么力量?相信大家的答案都是模糊的。

现在,就让我为大家细说从头,马来西亚华侨苦拼数百年的血泪史。给大家一个比较清楚的历史轮廓;还原大马华裔先贤辛苦奋斗的真相。这些历史真相,保证100%真实,而且,肯定是大家在国民中学历史课本上看不到,读不到,也找不到的。因为,国阵政府多年来都在努力抹杀华裔先贤开拓这片土地的功劳!

华人最早期的峇峇社会

马来西亚华人先贤的奋斗历程和政治思潮的演变,是必须从历史事件去追溯的。由于华人帮派林立,思想繁杂,要全面的剖释思潮的发展是极其困离的。鉴于资料有限,因此我只能尽量从历史片断去概述,挂一漏万及主观上的错误,在所难免;尚请大家见谅。

Therefore, our Malaysian-Chinese citizens can definitely tell the world of the very dignity, we are the indigenous people of this land, this land’s indigenous. Like all other nations, have equal status. Those who say that we Chinese foreign sojourners, in fact, equivalent to speak their own!
Before you begin, please allow me to ask you friends very simple, in particular, is a friend of the younger generation, the interesting question:
You probably know that many streets named after a Chinese name in Kuala Lumpur, Loke Yew Road (Jalan Loke, You), Chen Hsiu-lien Road (Jalan Chan of Shau Lin), the Ye Guansheng Road (Jalan Yap Kuan Seng) and so on, of course, the whole horse many towns and cities the streets, there are ethnic Chinese sages name. Do you know the background of these sages? Have you heard of their deeds? To know in order to explore and develop the land, they contributed what forces? I believe that everyone’s answer is vague.
Now, let me as we elaborate scratch, Malaysian Chinese bitter fight to the tragic history of centuries. Give a clear historical outline; restore the Truth Malaysian ethnic Chinese sages hard struggle. These historical truth, to guarantee 100% true, and certainly is not read, can not find the point of view in a junior high school history textbooks. BN government over the years in efforts to obliterate ethnic Chinese sages to develop this piece of land credit!
Chinese earliest Babas society

华人移居东南亚,包括马来西亚,是很早的事。例如历史学家姚丹在他的著作《马来亚华侨史纲要》一书中指出,在唐代末叶以迄五代,华人流寓苏门答腊岛者已多,散居马来半岛者,亦为数不少。他们习惯称呼自己为《唐人》,就是一种口传的证据。

不过,《马来亚华侨史》的作者维特巴素博士则认为,十四世纪马六甲王朝成立后,华人的移居比较规模化,而在1511年葡萄牙占领马六甲后,华人才存有永久居留的意念。但是,截至十七世纪,华人在马六甲的人口不过三、四百名。 (注:荷兰人于1641年打败葡萄牙,占领马六甲。)

延至十八世纪中叶,居住在马来亚的华人总数只是数千人。他们多是商人和矿工。在这初期的迁居移殖阶段,他们亦有与马来妇女、暹罗、马达(BATAK)和巴里(BALI)妇女通婚。在有文字记载的马来半岛历史上,首次诞生第二代的华人子弟。

这些早期留居在马六甲的华人,终于组成一个《峇峇》(BABA)社会,较后这类的社会也在槟城和新加坡顺序建立起来。在马