MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum
(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
(Driwan Natural History Cybermuseum)
The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum
(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah Alam semesta Indonesia )
The Rare Vintage Indonesian Dinosaurus Chlamydosaurus Kingi Picture(Dinosaurus Tokek),also name grilled Lizard .This is the very rare and high value of Chlamydasaurus kingi(Tokek)
Please honor my copyright, donnot copy without my permission,thanks
Frame One :
Dr iwan s Collection
Chlamydasaurus Kingii from google explorations:
The List Of Asia Dinosaurus
List of Asian dinosaurs
List of Asian dinosaurs
Name Period Diet Notes Abrosaurus Jurassic herbivore A Small sauropod that looked a lot like Camarasaurus. Achillobator Cretaceous carnivore — Adasaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Agilisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Airakoraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Albalophosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Alectrosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Alioramus Cretaceous carnivore — Altirhinus Cretaceous herbivore — Alxasaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Amtosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Based only on fragments of its skull. Amurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Anchiornis Jurassic carnivore Smallest known dinosaur that is not a bird. Anserimimus Cretaceous omnivore — Aralosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Archaeoceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Archaeornithoides Cretaceous carnivore — Archaeornithomimus Cretaceous omnivore — Arkharavia Cretaceous omnivore — Arstanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Asiaceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Asiamericana Cretaceous carnivore — Asiatosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Auroraceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Avimimus Cretaceous omnivore — Bactrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Bagaceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Bagaraatan Cretaceous carnivore — Bainoceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Bakesaurus Cretaceous (unknown) Uncertain, see article Balochisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Banji Cretaceous (unknown) — Baotianmansaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Barsboldia Cretaceous herbivore — Beipiaosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Beishanlong Cretaceous omnivore — Bellusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Bienosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Bissektipelta Cretaceous herbivore — Bolong Cretaceous herbivore — Borealosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Borogovia Cretaceous carnivore — Breviceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Brohisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Byronosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Caenagnathasia Cretaceous omnivore — Caudipteryx Cretaceous omnivore — Ceratonykus Cretaceous omnivore — Changchunsaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Changdusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Chaoyangsaurus Jurassic herbivore — Charonosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Chialingosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Chiayusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Chilantaisaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Chingkankousaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Chinshakiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Chuandongocoelurus Jurassic carnivore — Chuanjiesaurus Jurassic herbivore — Chungkingosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Citipati Cretaceous omnivore — Conchoraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Crichtonsaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Cryptovolans Cretaceous carnivore — Daanosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Dachongosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Damalasaurus Jurassic herbivore — Dashanpusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Datousaurus Jurassic herbivore — Daxiatitan Cretaceous herbivore — Deinocheirus Cretaceous carnivore — Dilong Cretaceous carnivore — Dilophosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Dongbeititan Cretaceous herbivore — Dongyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Elmisaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Enigmosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Eomamenchisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Epidendrosaurus Jurassic carnivore See article Epidexipteryx Jurassic carnivore — Equijubus Cretaceous herbivore — Erketu Cretaceous herbivore — Erliansaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Erlikosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Eshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Eugongbusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Euhelopus Cretaceous herbivore — Ferganasaurus Jurassic herbivore — Ferganocephale Jurassic herbivore — Fukuiraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Fukuisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Fukuititan Cretaceous herbivore — Fulengia Jurassic herbivore — Fusuisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Futabasaurus Cretaceous carnivore Name not published officially and later used for a plesiosaur Gadolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Gallimimus Cretaceous omnivore — Garudimimus Cretaceous omnivore — Gasosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Gigantoraptor Cretaceous omnivore — Gigantspinosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Gilmoreosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Gobiceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Gobisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Gobititan Cretaceous herbivore — Gongbusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Gongxianosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Goyocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore — Graciliceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Graciliraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Guanlong Jurassic carnivore — Gyposaurus Jurassic herbivore — Hanwulosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Haplocheirus Jurassic carnivore — Harpymimus Cretaceous herbivore — Heilongjiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Heishansaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Helioceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Hexinlusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Heyuannia Cretaceous carnivore — Hironosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Hisanohamasaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Homalocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore — Hongshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Huabeisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Huanghetitan Cretaceous herbivore — Huaxiagnathus Cretaceous carnivore — Huayangosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Hudiesaurus Jurassic herbivore — Hulsanpes Cretaceous carnivore — Incisivosaurus Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore — Ingenia Cretaceous (unknown) — Isanosaurus Triassic herbivore A very early dinosaur Itemirus Cretaceous carnivore — Jaxartosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Jeholosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Jiangjunosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Jiangshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Jinfengopteryx Jurassic/Cretaceous omnivore — Jingshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Jintasaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Jinzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Jiutaisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Kagasaurus Cretaceous (unknown) — Kaijiangosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Katsuyamasaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Kelmayisaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Kerberosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Khaan Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore — Khetranisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Kileskus Jurassic carnivore — Kinnareemimus Cretaceous omnivore — Klamelisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Kol Cretaceous carnivore — Koreanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Kulceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Kunmingosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Kuszholia Cretaceous (unknown) — Lamaceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Lancanjiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Lanzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Leshansaurus Jurassic carnivore — Levnesovia Cretaceous herbivore — Liaoceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Liaoningosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Smallest known ankylosaur Limusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Linheraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Luanchuanraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Lufengosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Lukousaurus Jurassic carnivore Possibly a crocodilian rather than a dinosaur Luoyanggia Cretaceous (unknown) — Machairasaurus Cretaceous omnivore — Magnirostris Cretaceous herbivore — Mahakala Cretaceous carnivore — Maleevus Cretaceous herbivore — Mamenchisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Mandschurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Marisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Megacervixosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Mei Cretaceous carnivore — Microceratus Cretaceous herbivore — Microdontosaurus (unknown) herbivore Dating dubious Microhadrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Micropachycephalosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Microraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Mifunesaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Minotaurasaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Mongolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Monkonosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Monolophosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Mononykus Cretaceous carnivore — Nanningosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Nanshiungosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Nanyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Neimongosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Nemegtomaia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore — Nemegtosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Ngexisaurus Jurassic carnivore — Nipponosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Nomingia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore — Nurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Olorotitan Cretaceous herbivore — Omeisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Opisthocoelicaudia Cretaceous herbivore — Oshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Otogosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Oviraptor Cretaceous omnivore — Pakisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Parvicursor Cretaceous (unknown) — Pedopenna Jurassic (unknown) — Peishansaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Penelopognathus Cretaceous herbivore — Phaedrolosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Phuwiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Pinacosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Platyceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Prenocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore — Probactrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Prodeinodon Cretaceous carnivore Dubious, see article Protarchaeopteryx Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore — Protoceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Protognathosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Psittacosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Pukyongosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Qiaowanlong Cretaceous herbivore — Qingxiusaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Qinlingosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Quaesitosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Raptorex Cretaceous carnivore — Rinchenia Cretaceous omnivore — Ruyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Sahaliyania Cretaceous herbivore — Saichania Cretaceous herbivore — Sanchusaurus Cretaceous herbivore May be synonymous with Gallimimus. Sangonghesaurus Jurassic/Cretaceous herbivore — Sanpasaurus Jurassic herbivore Dubious, see article Saurolophus Cretaceous herbivore — Sauroplites Cretaceous herbivore — Saurornithoides Cretaceous carnivore May be the same dinosaur as Troodon. Scansoriopteryx Jurassic/Cretaceous (unknown) — Segnosaurus Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore — Shamosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Shanag Cretaceous carnivore — Shantungosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Shanweiniao Cretaceous (unknown) — Shanxia Cretaceous herbivore — Shanyangosaurus Cretaceous (unknown) — Shaochilong Cretaceous carnivore — Shenzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Shidaisaurus Jurassic (unknown) — Shixinggia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore — Shuangmiaosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Shunosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Shuvuuia Cretaceous (unknown) — Siamosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Siamotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore — Siluosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Similicaudipteryx Cretaceous omnivore — Sinocalliopteryx Cretaceous carnivore — Sinoceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Sinocoelurus Jurassic carnivore — Sinopliosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Sinornithoides Cretaceous carnivore — Sinornithomimus Cretaceous herbivore — Sinornithosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Sinosauropteryx Cretaceous carnivore — Sinosaurus Triassic/Jurassic carnivore — Sinovenator Cretaceous carnivore — Sinraptor Jurassic carnivore — Sinusonasus Cretaceous carnivore — Sinotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore — Sonidosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — SPS 100/44 Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore — Stegosaurides Cretaceous herbivore — Sugiyamasaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Sulaimanisaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Suzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Szechuanoraptor Jurassic herbivore — Szechuanosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Talarurus Cretaceous herbivore — Tangvayosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Tanius Cretaceous herbivore — Tarbosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Tarchia Cretaceous herbivore — Tatisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Therizinosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Had huge claws Tianchisaurus Jurassic herbivore — Tianyulong Cretaceous herbivore — Tianyuraptor Cretaceous carnivore — Tianzhenosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Tienshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Titanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Tochisaurus Cretaceous omnivore — Tonganosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Tonouchisaurus Cretaceous (unknown) — Troodon Cretaceous carnivore Known from teeth discovered in Siberia. Also lived in North America Tsaagan Cretaceous carnivore — Tsagantegia Cretaceous herbivore — Tsintaosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Tsuchikurasaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Tugulusaurus Cretaceous (unknown) — Tuojiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Turanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore First ceratopsid found outside North America (though ceratopsians are known from elsewhere) Tylocephale Cretaceous herbivore — Udanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Ultrasaurus Cretaceous herbivore Dubious, see article Urbacodon Cretaceous carnivore — Velociraptor Cretaceous carnivore Feathered, about turkey-size Vitakridrinda Cretaceous carnivore — Wakinosaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Wannanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Wuerhosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Stegosaurid that survived until the Cretaceous Wulagasaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Xianshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Xiaosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Xinjiangovenator Cretaceous (unknown) — Xiongguanlong Cretaceous carnivore — Xixianykus Cretaceous (unknown) — Xixiasaurus Cretaceous carnivore — Xixiposaurus Jurassic omnivore — Xuanhanosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Xuanhuaceratops Jurassic herbivore — Yamaceratops Cretaceous herbivore — Yandangornis Cretaceous carnivore — Yandusaurus Jurassic herbivore — Yangchuanosaurus Jurassic carnivore — Yibinosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Yimenosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Yingshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore The only fossil specimen of this species has apparently been lost. Yinlong Jurassic herbivore — Yixianosaurus Cretaceous (unknown) — Yuanmousaurus Jurassic herbivore — Yunnanosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Yunxiansaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Zanabazar Cretaceous carnivore — Zhejiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Zhongornis Cretaceous (unknown) Seems intermediary between Archaeopteryx and birds Zhongyuansaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Zhuchengosaurus Cretaceous herbivore — Zigongosaurus Jurassic herbivore — Zizhongosaurus Jurassic herbivore —
The Clamydasaurus Kingii info (from Google expl)
|Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the American Museum of Natural History|
|Orders and suborders|
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (about 65 million years ago). The extinction of most dinosaur species occurred during the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. The fossil record indicates that birds evolved within theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period. Some of them survived the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, including the ancestors of all modern birds. Consequently, in modern classification systems, birds are considered a type of dinosaur—the only group of which that has survived to the present day.
Dinosaurs are a diverse and varied group of animals; birds, at over 9,000 species, are the most diverse group of vertebrate besides perciform fish. Paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains. Some dinosaurs are or were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Some have been bipedal, others quadrupedal, and others have been able to shift between these body postures. Many non-avian species developed elaborate skeletal modifications such as bony armor, horns or crests. Avian dinosaurs have been the planet’s dominant flying vertebrate since the extinction of the pterosaurs. Although generally known for the large size of some species, most dinosaurs were human-sized or even smaller. Most groups of dinosaurs are known to have built nests and laid eggs.
The term “dinosaur” was coined in 1842 by the English paleontologist Richard Owen, and derives from Greek δεινός (deinos) “terrible, powerful, wondrous” + σαῦρος (sauros) “lizard”.
The taxon Dinosauria was formally named in 1842 by Sir Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the “distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles” that were then being recognized in England and around the world.:103 The term is derived from the Greek words δεινός (deinos meaning “terrible”, “powerful”, or “wondrous”) and σαῦρος (sauros meaning “lizard” or “reptile”).:103 Though the taxonomic name has often been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs’ teeth, claws, and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it merely to evoke their size and majesty. In colloquial English “dinosaur” is sometimes used to describe an obsolete or unsuccessful thing or person, despite the dinosaurs’ 160 million year reign and the global abundance and diversity of their avian descendants: modern-day birds.
Under phylogenetic taxonomy, dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of “Triceratops, Neornithes [modern birds], their most recent common ancestor, and all descendants.” It has also been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the most recent common ancestor of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria. Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs, including theropods (mostly bipedal carnivores), sauropodomorphs (mostly large herbivorous quadrupeds with long necks and tails), ankylosaurians (armored herbivorous quadrupeds), stegosaurians (plated herbivorous quadrupeds), ceratopsians (herbivorous quadrupeds with horns and frills), and ornithopods (bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores including “duck-bills”). These definitions are written to correspond with scientific conceptions of dinosaurs that predate the modern use of phylogenetics. The continuity of meaning is intended to prevent confusion about what the term “dinosaur” means.
There is a wide consensus among paleontologists that birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs. Using the strict cladistical definition that all descendants of a single common ancestor must be included in a group for that group to be natural, birds would thus be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are theropods, which are saurischians, which are dinosaurs.
From the point of view of cladistics, birds are dinosaurs, but in ordinary speech the word “dinosaur” does not include birds. Additionally, referring to dinosaurs that are not birds as “non-avian dinosaurs” is cumbersome. For clarity, this article will use “dinosaur” as a synonym for “non-avian dinosaur”. The term “non-avian dinosaur” will be used for emphasis as needed.
Saurischian pelvis structure (left side)
Tyrannosaurus pelvis (showing saurischian structure – left side)
Ornithischian pelvis structure (left side)
Edmontosaurus pelvis (showing ornithischian structure – left side)
Scale diagram comparing the largest known dinosaurs in five major clades and a human
Comparative size of Giraffatitan
Comparative size of Eoraptor
A nesting ground of Maiasaura was discovered in 1978
Tyrannosaurus rex skull and upper vertebral column, Palais de la Découverte, Paris
The famous Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx lithographica
The Chicxulub Crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula; the impactor that formed this crater may have caused the dinosaur extinction.
to changing conditions
Lloyd et al. (2008) noted that, in the Mid Cretaceous, the flowering, angiosperm plants became a major part of terrestrial ecosystems, which had previously been dominated by gymnosperms such as conifers. Dinosaur coprolite–fossilized dung–indicate that, while some ate angiosperms, most herbivorous dinosaurs ate mainly gymnosperms. Statistical analysis by Lloyd et al. concluded that, contrary to earlier studies, dinosaurs did not diversify very much in the Late Cretaceous. Lloyd et al. suggested that dinosaurs’ failure to diversify as ecosystems were changing doomed them to extinction.
Possible Paleocene survivors
Non-avian dinosaur remains are occasionally found above the K–T boundary. In 2001, paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg-bone fossil in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs. The formation in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately 64.5 million years ago. If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provide evidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the Cenozoic Era. Other evidence includes the finding of dinosaur remains in the Hell Creek Formation up to 1.3 meters (51 in) above (40000 years later than) the K–T boundary. Similar reports have come from other parts of the world, including China. Many scientists, however, dismissed the supposed Paleocene dinosaurs as re-worked, i.e. washed out of their original locations and then re-buried in much later sediments. However, direct dating of the bones themselves has supported the later date, with U-Pb dating methods resulting in a precise age of 64.8 ± 0.9 million years ago. If correct, the presence of a handful of dinosaurs in the early Paleocene would not change the underlying facts of the extinction.
History of discovery
Dinosaur fossils have been known for millennia, although their true nature was not recognized. The Chinese, whose modern word for dinosaur is konglong (恐龍, or “terrible dragon”), considered them to be dragon bones and documented them as such. For example, Hua Yang Guo Zhi, a book written by Zhang Qu during the Western Jin Dynasty, reported the discovery of dragon bones at Wucheng in Sichuan Province. Villagers in central China have long unearthed fossilized “dragon bones” for use in traditional medicines, a practice that continues today. In Europe, dinosaur fossils were generally believed to be the remains of giants and other creatures killed by the Great Flood.
Scholarly descriptions of what would now be recognized as dinosaur bones first appeared in the late 17th century in England. Part of a bone, now known to have been the femur of a Megalosaurus, was recovered from a limestone quarry at Cornwell near Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England, in 1676. The fragment was sent to Robert Plot, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and first curator of the Ashmolean Museum, who published a description in his Natural History of Oxfordshire in 1677. He correctly identified the bone as the lower extremity of the femur of a large animal, and recognized that it was too large to belong to any known species. He therefore concluded it to be the thigh bone of a giant human similar to those mentioned in the Bible. In 1699, Edward Lhuyd, a friend of Sir Isaac Newton, was responsible for the first published scientific treatment of what would now be recognized as a dinosaur when he described and named a sauropod tooth, “Rutellum implicatum“, that had been found in Caswell, near Witney, Oxfordshire.
Between 1815 and 1824, the Rev William Buckland, a professor of geology at Oxford University, collected more fossilized bones of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific journal. The second dinosaur genus to be identified, Iguanodon, was discovered in 1822 by Mary Ann Mantell – the wife of English geologist Gideon Mantell. Gideon Mantell recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. He published his findings in 1825.
The study of these “great fossil lizards” soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term “dinosaur”. He recognized that the remains that had been found so far, Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, shared a number of distinctive features, and so decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group. With the backing of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the husband of Queen Victoria, Owen established the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits.
In 1858, the first known American dinosaur was discovered, in marl pits in the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey (although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been correctly discerned). The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii. It was an extremely important find: Hadrosaurus was one of the first nearly complete dinosaur skeletons found (the first was in 1834, in Maidstone, Kent, England), and it was clearly a bipedal creature. This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards. Foulke’s discoveries sparked a wave of dinosaur mania in the United States.
Othniel Charles Marsh, 19th century photograph
Edward Drinker Cope, 19th century photograph
Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars. The feud probably originated when Marsh publicly pointed out that Cope’s reconstruction of an Elasmosaurus skeleton was flawed: Cope had inadvertently placed the plesiosaur‘s head at what should have been the animal’s tail end. The fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in 1897 when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt. Marsh ‘won’ the contest primarily because he was better funded through a relationship with the US Geological Survey. Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair’s rough methods: for example, their diggers often used dynamite to unearth bones (a method modern paleontologists would find appalling). Despite their unrefined methods, the contributions of Cope and Marsh to paleontology were vast: Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, a total of 142 new species. Cope’s collection is now at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, while Marsh’s is on display at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.
After 1897, the search for dinosaur fossils extended to every continent, including Antarctica. The first Antarctic dinosaur to be discovered, the ankylosaurid Antarctopelta oliveroi, was found on Ross Island in 1986, although it was 1994 before an Antarctic species, the theropod Cryolophosaurus ellioti, was formally named and described in a scientific journal.
Current dinosaur “hot spots” include southern South America (especially Argentina) and China. China in particular has produced many exceptional feathered dinosaur specimens due to the unique geology of its dinosaur beds, as well as an ancient arid climate particularly conducive to fossilization.
The “dinosaur renaissance”
The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the 1970s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom‘s discovery of Deinonychus, an active predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded. Vertebrate paleontology has become a global science. Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South America, Madagascar, Antarctica, and most significantly China (the amazingly well-preserved feathered dinosaurs in China have further consolidated the link between dinosaurs and their conjectured living descendants, modern birds). The widespread application of cladistics, which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs. Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record.
By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size. As such, they have captured the popular imagination and become an enduring part of human culture. Entry of the word “dinosaur” into the common vernacular reflects the animals’ cultural importance: in English, “dinosaur” is commonly used to describe anything that is impractically large, slow-moving, obsolete, or bound for extinction.
Public enthusiasm for dinosaurs first developed in Victorian England, where in 1854, three decades after the first scientific descriptions of dinosaur remains, the famous dinosaur sculptures were unveiled in London‘s Crystal Palace Park. The Crystal Palace dinosaurs proved so popular that a strong market in smaller replicas soon developed. In subsequent decades, dinosaur exhibits opened at parks and museums around the world, ensuring that successive generations would be introduced to the animals in an immersive and exciting way. Dinosaurs’ enduring popularity, in its turn, has resulted in significant public funding for dinosaur science, and has frequently spurred new discoveries. In the United States, for example, the competition between museums for public attention led directly to the Bone Wars of the 1880s and 1890s, during which a pair of feuding paleontologists made enormous scientific contributions.
The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs has ensured their appearance in literature, film and other media. Beginning in 1852 with a passing mention in Charles Dickens’ Bleak House, dinosaurs have been featured in large numbers of fictional works. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s 1912 book The Lost World, the iconic 1933 film King Kong, 1954’s Godzilla and its many sequels, the best-selling 1990 novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton and its 1993 film adaptation are just a few notable examples of dinosaur appearances in fiction. Authors of general-interest non-fictional works about dinosaurs, including some prominent paleontologists, have often sought to use the animals as a way to educate readers about science in general. Dinosaurs are ubiquitous in advertising; numerous companies have referenced dinosaurs in printed or televised advertisements, either in order to sell their own products or in order to characterize their rivals as slow-moving, dim-witted or obsolete
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011