Driwan CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM CONTINIU

THE CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM

PART

Ezekiel Prophesying.THREE

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Parable of the eagles and the vine - Ezek.17

Eagle
Parable of the eagles and the vine – Ezek.17.

The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows - Ezek.21.21

Arrows
The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows – Ezek.21.21.

 

Vision of the chambers of imagery - Ezek.8.7-12

Chamber
Vision of the chambers of imagery – Ezek.8.7-12.

 

 

 

 

The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols - Ezek.6.4,5

Idols
The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols – Ezek.6.4,5.

Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem - Ezek.9.1-7

Judgement
Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem – Ezek.9.1

-7.

 

 

 

Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem - Ezek.4.1

Siege
Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem – Ezek.4.1.

Vision of the temple - Ezek.40

Temple
Vision of the temple – Ezek.40.

 

 

Ezekiel`s vision - Ezk.1 & 10

Vision
Ezekiel`s vision – Ezk.1 & 10.

 

The vision of Ezekiel - from a 14th century illuminated Bible

 Ezekiel:

ezekiel-1.jpg (12405 bytes)

Time of the Vision, The Four Living Creatures, The Four
Wheels, The Firmament, The Appearance of a Man
Chapter 1
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-01.mp3

Ezekiel-2-10.jpg (141997 bytes)

Ezekiel Is Sent to Israel
Chapter 2
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-02.mp3

Ezekiel Is Instructed About His Ministry
Chapter 3
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-03.mp3

Ezek-4.jpg (83348 bytes)

Sign of the Tile, Sign of the Defiled Bread
Chapter 4
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-04.mp3

Sign of the Razor and the Hair, Explanation of the
Signs
Chapter 5
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-05.mp3

Destruction of High Places, Salvation of the remnant,
Desolation of the land
Chapter 6
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-06.mp3

Description of the Babylonian Conquest
Chapter 7
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-07.mp3
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-07b.mp3

Vision of the Glory of God, Image of Jealousy,
Painting on the Wall, Weeping for Tammuz, Sun Worship
Chapter 8
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-08.mp3

Call to the Six Men, , Command to Slay the Wicked,
Weeping of Ezekiel
Chapter 9
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-09.mp3

Departure of the Glory of God to the Threshold,
Vision of the Wheels and Cherubims
Chapter 10
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-10.mp3

Ezek-11.jpg (104760 bytes)

Vision of the Twenty-five Wicked Rulers, Promise
of the Restoration of the Remnant, Departure of the
Glory of God from the Mount of Olives
Chapter 11
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-11.mp3

Sign of Stuff (Baggage) for Removing, Sign of Trembling,
Chapter 12
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-12.mp3

Judgment upon False Prophets, Judgment upon False
Prophetesses
Chapter 13
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-13.mp3

Idolatry of the Elders, Judgment to Be Destroyed
Chapter 14
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-14.mp3

Parable of the Vine Tree
Chapter 15
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-15.mp3

God Has Mercy on Israel, Israel rejectsa God,
God Punishes Israel, God Remebers His Covenant
Chapter 16
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-16.mp3

Ezek-17.jpg (127236 bytes)

Parable of the Two Eagles
Chapter 17
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-17.mp3

Message of Personal Judgment for Personal Sin
Chapter 18
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-18.mp3

Lament for the Princes of Israel, Parable of the
Withered Vine
Chapter 19
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-19.mp3

In Egypt, Is the Wilderness, In Canaan, In Ezekiel’s
Time, Message of God’s Future Restoration of Israel,
Sign of the Forest Fire
Chapter 20
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-20.mp3

Sign of the Drawn Sword, Sign of the Double Stroke
of the Sword
Chapter 21
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-21.mp3

Ezek-22.jpg (99483 bytes)

Message of Judgment on Jerusalem
Chapter 22
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-22.mp3

Parable of Two Sisters
Chapter 23
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-23.mp3
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-23b.mp3

Parable of the Boiling Pot, Sign Through the Death
of Ezekiel’s Wife
Chapter 24
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-24.mp3

Judgment on Ammon, Judgement on Moab, Judgment on Edom,
Judgment on Philistia
Chapter 25
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-25.mp3

Ezek-26.jpg (109418 bytes)

Destruction of Tyrus
Chapter 26
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-26.mp3

Lament over Tyrus
Chapter 27
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-27.mp3

Fall of the Prince of Tyrus, Judgment on Zidon
Chapter 28
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-28.mp3

Egypt to the Desolate, Egypt to Be Taken by Babylon
Chapter 29
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-29.mp3

Egypt to Be Destroyed
Chapter 30
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-30.mp3

Egypt is Cut Down Like Assyria
Chapter 31
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-31.mp3

Egypt Is Lamented, Egypt in Sheol
Chapter 32
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-32.mp3

The Appointment of Ezekiel as Watchman
Chapter 33
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-33.mp3

The False Shepherds, The True Shepherd
Chapter 34
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-34.mp3

The Judgment of Edom
Chapter 35
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-35.mp3

Ezek-36.jpg (99100 bytes)

Judgment of the Nations, Israel Returns to the Lord
Chapter 36
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-36.mp3

A Vision of Dry Bones, Sign of the Two Sticks
Chapter 37
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-37.mp3

Ezek-38.jpg (132396 bytes)

Attack by Gog, Judgment of God
Chapter 38
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-38.mp3

Chapter 39
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-39.mp3

Vision of the Man with the Measuring Rod, The Outer
Court, The Inner Court, The Temple Porch
Chapter 40
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-40.mp3

The Temple Itself
Chapter 41
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-41.mp3

The Chamber in the Outer Court, The Place of Separation
Chapter 42
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-42.mp3

The Return of the Glory of God to the Temple, The
Altar of Burnt Offerings
Chapter 43
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-43.mp3

Duties of Temple Priests
Chapter 44
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-44.mp3

Land of the Temple Priests, Offerings of the Temple
Priests
Chapter 45
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-45.mp3

Chapter 46
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-46.mp3

Ezek-47.jpg (72799 bytes)

River from the Temple, Boundaries of the Land
Chapter 47
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-47.mp3

Divisions of the Land, Gates of the City, Names of
the City
Chapter 48
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-48.mp3

Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ezra
Nehemiah
Esther
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesastes
Song of Solomon
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation

 

Driwan CHUECH HISTORY MUSEUM CONTONIUE

THE CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM

PART

Ezekiel Prophesying.TWO

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Vision of the holy waters - Ezek.47

Waters
Vision of the holy waters – Ezek.47.

 

Tyre
The capture of Tyre – Ezek.27.

.

Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx

Nations
Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx.

.

Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him - Ezek.14.1

Elders
Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him – Ezek.14.1.

Ezekiel - a portrait by Guy Rowe

Ezekiel
Ezekiel – a portrait by Guy Rowe.

Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God - Ezek.24.15-18

Resign
Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God – Ezek.24.15-18.

Lioness and whelps - Ezek.19

Lioness
Lioness and whelps – Ezek.19.

Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt - Ezek.32

Egypt
Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt – Ezek.32.

Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones - Ezek.37

Bones
Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones – Ezek.37.

Driwan CHURCH HISTORY MUSUEM CONTINIU

THE CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM

PART

Ezekiel Prophesying. one

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

November 6th One Year Bible Readings

 

// Old Testament – I am fascinated by God’s words in Ezekiel chapter 14 verses 13 & 14 today: 

Son of man, suppose the people of a country were to sin against me, and I lifted my fist to crush them, cutting off their food supply and sending a famine to destroy both people and animals.

Even if Noah, Daniel, and Job were there, their righteousness would save no one but themselves, says the Sovereign Lord.” 

The first thing these verses tell us is that God’s judgment upon Jerusalem at this time was certain.  Even the righteousness of Noah, Daniel, and Job couldn’t change that – only these 3 men would have been saved. 

However, this got me thinking.  Is it possible that sometimes today we try to build up our own righteousness to ensure our own salvation and basically do nothing to try to build up others righteousness and help them toward their salvation?  Meaning, do we sometimes retreat into a “Christian bubble” and ignore the rest of “the world.”  Leave them to their own devices.  It just made me think when reading about Noah, Daniel, and Job that my hunch is that these 3 would not just chill out and relax in the glory and certitude of their own righteousness.  My hunch is that they would get out there on the streets and try to save others.  So, what about you and me?  Are we just cocooning in our own righteousness and salvation, or are we taking salvation to the streets?  Are we retreating from the battle for others’ salvation or are we engaged in it?  What say you?

Braveheart

Ezekiel chapter 14 verse 23 tells us today:  “When you meet them and see their behavior, you will agree that these things are not being done to Israel without cause, says the Sovereign LORD.”  I think sometimes we can read some select verses in the Old Testament out of context and think God is being harsh.  God here reminds us that he is not being harsh without cause.  And we’ll see more of the cause in chapter 16 today…  Below is an image of Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who visited him in chapter 14 verse 1:

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

Ezekiel chapter 15 is an interesting one for me today, where God basically calls Jerusalem a useless grape vine.  In reading this I am also reminded that Jesus in John 15 uses the grape vine analogy again saying “I am the vine and you are the branches.”  This tells me that Jesus redeems even useless grape vines!  🙂  However, using this Ezekiel analogy, are we growing in our lives like trees or like vines?  How thick are your roots?  How solid is your core?

Tree_ring

Ezekiel chapter 16 is a fascinating and sad look at the city of Jerusalem.  This is the first time I have really spent a little bit of time with this chapter.  The question I find for myself in reading this chapter is this: has God blessed us similarly in some ways that he blessed Jerusalem?  Have we, perhaps, in some ways used the blessings that God has given us in improper ways?   Verse 6 in this chapter stood out to me: “But I came by and saw you there, helplessly kicking about in your own blood. As you lay there, I said, `Live!'”  Bible commentaries suggest that this one word – Live! – is God’s basic desire for all humans.  How powerful is that realization?  How very beautiful…  Live!  Let us Live!Ezekiel Prophesying.

image

Ezekiel, the third of the great Hebrew prophets, was the son of the priest Buzi. (Ezekiel i, 3). He was probably born about 620 or 630 years before Christ, and was consequently a contemporary of Jeremiah and Daniel, to the latter of whom he alludes in chapters xiv, 14-20 and xxviii, 3.

When Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 B.C. (2 Kings xxiv, 8-16; Jeremiah xxix, 1-2; Ezekiel xvii, 12; xix, 9), Ezekiel was carried captive along with Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, king of Judah, and thousands of other Jewish prisoners, to Babylonia, or as he himself calls it, “the land of the Chaldeans.” (Ezekiel i, 3).

Here, along with his exiled fellow-countrymen, he lived on the banks of the river Chebar (Ezekiel i, 1-3), in a house of his own (viii, i). Here also he married, and here, too, his wife, “the desire of his eyes,” was taken from him “with a stroke” (Ezekiel xxiv, 15-18). His prophetic career extended over twenty-two years, from about 592 B.C. to about 570 B.C.

The book bearing his name is written in a mystical and symbolical style, and abounds with visions and difficult allegories which indicate on the part of the author the possession of a vivid and sublime imagination.

Ezekiel’s authorship of it has been questioned. The Talmud attributes it to the Great Synagogue, of which Ezekiel was not a member. It is divisible into two portions. The first (chapters i-xxiv) was written before, and the second (chapters xxv-xlviii) after, the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C, the eleventh year of the prophet’s captivity (Ezekiel xxvi, 1-2; XI, i). The present text is very imperfect, being corrupted by the interpolation of glosses and other additions by later hands.

Doré’s picture represents the prophet uttering his oracles to his fellow-exiles (“them of the captivity”), or to the “elders of Judah,” or “elders of Israel,” on one of the occasions to which he himself alludes (viii, I; xi, 25; xiv, I; xx, I).

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows - Ezek.21.21

Arrows
The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows – Ezek.21.21.

 

Vision of the chambers of imagery - Ezek.8.7-12

Chamber
Vision of the chambers of imagery – Ezek.8.7-12.

Parable of the eagles and the vine - Ezek.17

Eagle
Parable of the eagles and the vine – Ezek.17.

 

 

The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols - Ezek.6.4,5

Idols
The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols – Ezek.6.4,5.

Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem - Ezek.9.1-7

Judgement
Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem – Ezek.9.1-7.

 

 

 

Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem - Ezek.4.1

Siege
Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem – Ezek.4.1.

Vision of the temple - Ezek.40

Temple
Vision of the temple – Ezek.40.

 

Ezekiel`s vision - Ezk.1 & 10

Vision
Ezekiel`s vision – Ezk.1 & 10.

 

Ezekiel 14:12-16:41 ~ Hebrews 7:18-28 ~ Psalm 106:1-

12 ~ Proverbs 27:4-New International Version (NIV)

Jerusalem’s Judgment Inescapable

The vision of Ezekiel - from a 14th century illuminated Bible

Ezekiel
The vision of Ezekiel – from a 14th century illuminated Bible.

12 The word of the Lord came to me: 13

 “Son of man, if a country sins against me by being unfaithful and I stretch out my hand against it to cut off its food supply and send famine upon it and kill its people and their animals, 14 even if these three men—Noah, Daniel[a] and Job—were in it, they could save only themselves by their righteousness, declares the Sovereign Lord.

Vision of the holy waters - Ezek.47

Waters
Vision of the holy waters – Ezek.47.

15 “Or if I send wild beasts through that country and they leave it childless and it becomes desolate so that no one can pass through it because of the beasts, 16 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, even if these three men were in it, they could not save their own sons or daughters. They alone would be saved, but the land would be desolate.

The capture of Tyre - Ezek.27

Tyre
The capture of Tyre – Ezek.27.

17 “Or if I bring a sword against that country and say, ‘Let the sword pass throughout the land,’ and I kill its people and their animals, 18 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, even if these three men were in it, they could not save their own sons or daughters. They alone would be saved.

Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx

Nations
Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx.

19 “Or if I send a plague into that land and pour out my wrath on it through bloodshed, killing its people and their animals, 20 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, even if Noah, Daniel and Job were in it, they could save neither son nor daughter. They would save only themselves by their righteousness.

Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him - Ezek.14.1

Elders
Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him – Ezek.14.1.

21 “For this is what the Sovereign Lord says: How much worse will it be when I send against Jerusalem my four dreadful judgments—sword and famine and wild beasts and plague—to kill its men and their animals! 22 Yet there will be some survivors—sons and daughters who will be brought out of it. They will come to you, and when you see their conduct and their actions, you will be consoled regarding the disaster I have brought on Jerusalem—every disaster I have brought on it. 23 You will be consoled when you see their conduct and their actions, for you will know that I have done nothing in it without cause, declares the Sovereign Lord.”

Jerusalem as a Useless Vine

Ezekiel - a portrait by Guy Rowe

Ezekiel
Ezekiel – a portrait by Guy Rowe.

15 The word of the Lord came to me: 2

 “Son of man, how is the wood of a vine different from that of a branch from any of the trees in the forest? Is wood ever taken from it to make anything useful? Do they make pegs from it to hang things on? And after it is thrown on the fire as fuel and the fire burns both ends and chars the middle, is it then useful for anything? If it was not useful for anything when it was whole, how much less can it be made into something useful when the fire has burned it and it is charred?

Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God - Ezek.24.15-18

Resign
Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God – Ezek.24.15-18.

“Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: As I have given the wood of the vine among the trees of the forest as fuel for the fire, so will I treat the people living in Jerusalem. I will set my face against them. Although they have come out of the fire, the fire will yet consume them. And when I set my face against them, you will know that I am the Lord. I will make the land desolate because they have been unfaithful, declares the Sovereign Lord.”

Jerusalem as an Adulterous Wife

Lioness and whelps - Ezek.19

Lioness
Lioness and whelps – Ezek.19.

16 The word of the Lord came to me: 2

 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem with her detestable practices and say, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your ancestry and birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. On the day you were born your cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water to make you clean, nor were you rubbed with salt or wrapped in cloths. No one looked on you with pity or had compassion enough to do any of these things for you. Rather, you were thrown out into the open field, for on the day you were born you were despised.

“‘Then I passed by and saw you kicking about in your blood, and as you lay there in your blood I said to you, “Live!”[b] I made you grow like a plant of the field. You grew and developed and entered puberty. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, yet you were stark naked.

“‘Later I passed by, and when I looked at you and saw that you were old enough for love, I spread the corner of my garment over you and covered your naked body. I gave you my solemn oath and entered into a covenant with you, declares the Sovereign Lord, and you became mine.

Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt - Ezek.32

Egypt
Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt – Ezek.32.

“‘I bathed you with water and washed the blood from you and put ointments on you. 10 I clothed you with an embroidered dress and put sandals of fine leather on you. I dressed you in fine linen and covered you with costly garments. 11 I adorned you with jewelry: I put bracelets on your arms and a necklace around your neck, 12 and I put a ring on your nose, earrings on your ears and a beautiful crown on your head. 13 So you were adorned with gold and silver; your clothes were of fine linen and costly fabric and embroidered cloth. Your food was honey, olive oil and the finest flour. You became very beautiful and rose to be a queen. 14 And your fame spread among the nations on account of your beauty, because the splendor I had given you made your beauty perfect, declares the Sovereign Lord.

15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and used your fame to become a prostitute. You lavished your favors on anyone who passed by and your beauty became his. 16 You took some of your garments to make gaudy high places, where you carried on your prostitution. You went to him, and he possessed your beauty.[c] 17 You also took the fine jewelry I gave you, the jewelry made of my gold and silver, and you made for yourself male idols and engaged in prostitution with them. 18 And you took your embroidered clothes to put on them, and you offered my oil and incense before them. 19 Also the food I provided for you—the flour, olive oil and honey I gave you to eat—you offered as fragrant incense before them. That is what happened, declares the Sovereign Lord.

20 “‘And you took your sons and daughters whom you bore to me and sacrificed them as food to the idols. Was your prostitution not enough? 21 You slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 22 In all your detestable practices and your prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth, when you were naked and bare, kicking about in your blood.

23 “‘Woe! Woe to you, declares the Sovereign Lord. In addition to all your other wickedness, 24 you built a mound for yourself and made a lofty shrine in every public square. 25 At every street corner you built your lofty shrines and degraded your beauty, spreading your legs with increasing promiscuity to anyone who passed by. 26 You engaged in prostitution with the Egyptians, your neighbors with large genitals, and aroused my anger with your increasing promiscuity. 27 So I stretched out my hand against you and reduced your territory; I gave you over to the greed of your enemies, the daughters of the Philistines, who were shocked by your lewd conduct. 28 You engaged in prostitution with the Assyrians too, because you were insatiable; and even after that, you still were not satisfied. 29 Then you increased your promiscuity to include Babylonia,[d] a land of merchants, but even with this you were not satisfied.

30 “‘I am filled with fury against you,[e] declares the Sovereign Lord, when you do all these things, acting like a brazen prostitute! 31 When you built your mounds at every street corner and made your lofty shrines in every public square, you were unlike a prostitute, because you scorned payment.

32 “‘You adulterous wife! You prefer strangers to your own husband! 33 All prostitutes receive gifts, but you give gifts to all your lovers, bribing them to come to you from everywhere for your illicit favors. 34 So in your prostitution you are the opposite of others; no one runs after you for your favors. You are the very opposite, for you give payment and none is given to you.

Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones - Ezek.37

Bones
Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones – Ezek.37.

35 “‘Therefore, you prostitute, hear the word of the Lord! 36 This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Because you poured out your lust and exposed your naked body in your promiscuity with your lovers, and because of all your detestable idols, and because you gave them your children’s blood, 37 therefore I am going to gather all your lovers, with whom you found pleasure, those you loved as well as those you hated. I will gather them against you from all around and will strip you in front of them, and they will see you stark naked. 38 I will sentence you to the punishment of women who commit adultery and who shed blood; I will bring on you the blood vengeance of my wrath and jealous anger. 39 Then I will deliver you into the hands of your lovers, and they will tear down your mounds and destroy your lofty shrines. They will strip you of your clothes and take your fine jewelry and leave you stark naked. 40 They will bring a mob against you, who will stone you and hack you to pieces with their swords. 41 They will burn down your houses and inflict punishment on you in the sight of many women. I will put a stop to your prostitution, and you will no longer pay your lovers.

Footnotes:

  1. Ezekiel 14:14 Or Danel, a man of renown in ancient literature; also in verse 20
  2. Ezekiel 16:6 A few Hebrew manuscripts, Septuagint and Syriac; most Hebrew manuscripts repeat and as you lay there in your blood I said to you, “Live!”
  3. Ezekiel 16:16 The meaning of the Hebrew for this sentence is uncertain.
  4. Ezekiel 16:29 Or Chaldea
  5. Ezekiel 16:30 Or How feverish is your heart,

Driwan Church History Museum continue

Driwan CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM’

PART BEFORE CHRIST

arrticles relatated with Bc or BCE

CREATED bY

 drIwan suwandy,MHA

To BC or BCE?

The terms BC, Before Christ and AD, Anno Domini, remain in common usage but have been expunged from the secular language of officialdom and academia.

Bible: To BC or BCE?

Photo: ALAMY
 

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11:23AM BST 02 Sep 2011

Comments66 Comments

 

While they may not be the language of everyday life, the new terms BCE, Before Common Era and CE , Common Era (first invented in the sixth century AD) are now the rule in order to express politically correct sensitivity to non-Christians.

Earlier this year, the first print run of a four-volume Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization was pulped by its American academic publishers following an outcry that it was biased in favour of Christianity, evidenced by its use of BC and AD instead of BCE and CE.

But, whether it’s BC or BCE, both systems take the Gregorian calendar as their starting point .

As the Telegraph’s Christopher Booker noted: “The trouble with this politically-correct effort to spare offence to Muslims, Jews, atheists or other non-Christians from the use of a dating system tied to Jesus, is that it prompts any child to ask ‘So what is this Common Era based on?’, and brings up the very point it seeks to avoid.”

Controversy is raging in Australia over changing the national curriculum to reflect the new BCE orthodoxy. The change was made in Britain nine years ago, sparking a similar controversy and claims by Christians that the authorities were “imposing political correctness in schools to ensure children are cut off from the past, for fear of upsetting someone”.

Defending the change, the British Qualifications and Curriculum Authority argued: “It’s not a question of one way is wrong and one is right, more a question of which is most commonly used. CE/BCE is becoming an industry standard among historians. Pupils have to be able to recognise these terms when they come across them.”

So should we BC or BCE?

 

Drwan Church History Museum continiue

The Church Histor Musuem

PART CHIRST ERA

Ordination

created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 New Testament

Hebrews chapter 7 verse 27 teaches us today:

Jesus does not need to offer sacrifices every day like the other high priests. They did this for their own sins first and then for the sins of the people.”

I hadn’t really thought a lot about this before.  In the Old Testament the Levitical priests had to offer sacrifices first for their own sins – and then they would be clean / pure enough to offer sacrifices for others sins.  The good news of course in the New Testament and in this chapter is that we now have the perfectly clean and pure High Priest of Jesus Christ – who does not need to purify himself first!  He never sinned.  Will you take your sins to Jesus, your High Priest?

OrdinationPsalms – Psalm 106 is a repentive Psalm, likely written by a Levitical priest after returning to Jerusalem after its destruction.  Verse 2 stood out to me today – “Who can list the glorious miracles of the LORD? Who can ever praise him half enough?”  Can you list all of the glorious miracles of God?  Can anyone?  Are you praising God today?  Every day?

Via Dolorosa Of Jerusalem

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2014

Introduction

sumeber

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/via-dolorosa-of-jerusalem-jalan-kesengsaraan-jesus-kristus/

Bagi Yang belum pernah ke Jerusalem, khusus saya tampilkan kisah jalan kesengsaraan Jesus Kristus yang dikenal sebagai jalan dolorosa, Ikutilah kisah ini dengan khidtmat untuk merasakan bagaimana Sang Penebus berkorban untuk kita manusia

For Which had never been to Jerusalewm, my particular story show the sufferings of Jesus Christ, known as a dolorosa, khidtmat Take this story with a feel for how the Messiah’s sacrifice for us humans

Jerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (June 1900)
[Church of the Holy Sepulchre] in 1892

Yerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (Juni 1900)
[Gereja Makam Kudus] tahun 1902

Gereja tersebut  Sekarang

Gereja Makam Suci

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church Now

//  

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is known as the Church of the Resurrection to Eastern Orthodox Christians.

It is revered as the site of Golgotha or Calvary, the spot where Christ was crucified. It is also widely believed to be the site of his burial (sepulcher).

Gereja Makam Kudus terletak di kuartal Christian dari Kota Tua Yerusalem, dan dikenal sebagai Gereja Kebangkitan ke Timur Kristen Ortodoks.

Hal ini dihormati sebagai situs Golgota atau Kalvari, tempat di mana Kristus disalibkan. Hal ini juga diyakini sebagai tempat pemakaman-Nya (kubur).

Ini adalah suci dari situs Kristen, dan telah menjadi tujuan ziarah sejak abad keempat. Ini Apakah terletak kurang dari 2.000 meter dari

It is the holiest of Christian sites, and has been a pilgrimage destination since the fourth century. It Is located less than 2,000 feet from

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Israel Photo
Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) dengan Kubah Batu dan El Aqsa, Yerusalem

Kubah Batu dan Temple Mount, yang merupakan situs tersuci dalam agama Yahudi dan ketiga paling suci dalam Islam.

Seperti Golgota adalah akhir dari perjalanan terakhir Kristus,

Gereja Makam Kudus ditetapkan pada penghentian

Via Dolorosa,

rute dia berjalan dari ia divonis oleh Pontius Pilatus dan penjara untuk penyaliban dan penguburan.

.

the Dome of the Rock and Temple Mount, which are the holiest sites in Judaism and the third holiest in Islam.

As Golgotha is the end of Christ’s last journey,

the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is set at the termination of

the Via Dolorosa,

the route he walked from his condemnation by Pontius Pilate and imprisonment to his crucifixion and burial.

The Via Dolorosa begins at

the Lion’s Gate (the first Station of the Cross)

in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, and contains the 14 Stations of the Cross.

Via Dolorosa dimulai pada

singa Gate (Stasiun pertama dari Salib)

dalam kuartal Muslim di Kota Tua, dan berisi 14 Salib.

stasi 9 (stasiun 9)

Stasiun 10 sampai 14 Salib adalah semua dalam gereja.

Stations 10 to 14 of the Cross are all within the church.

Station 10 is where Jesus was stripped,

and is just outside the entrance to the church. Station 11 is just inside the entrance, marking the spot where he was nailed to the cross. The Rock of Golgotha marks the spot where he died.

Stasiun 10 adalah di mana Yesus dilucuti,

dan hanya di luar pintu masuk gereja. Stasiun 11 hanya di pintu masuk, menandai tempat di mana ia dipaku di salib. The Rock dari Golgota menandai tempat di mana ia meninggal.

Ini adalah Station 12,

This is Station 12,

and here is the church’s lovely Medici altar from Florence, Italy.

dan di sini indah gereja Medici altar dari Florence, Italia.

Stasiun 13

Station 13

is where he was taken down from the cross,

 

and is where there is a statue of Our Lady of Sorrows.

adalah di mana IA dibawa turun dari salib,

 

dan di mana ada patung Our Lady of Sorrows.

Stasiun 14

Station 14

is the tomb and place of resurrection, and is inside the chapel.

The actual Rock of the Calvary, around which the Church of the Resurrection was built, is here and visible under glass on either side of the main altar.

Most scholars believe in the historic accuracy of the geography involved in the location of this Christian site. It appears that early Christians held religious rites on this site beginning with the resurrection.

adalah makam dan tempat kebangkitan, dan di dalam kapel.

The Rock sebenarnya dari Kalvari, sekitar yang Gereja Kebangkitan dibangun, di sini dan terlihat di bawah kaca di kedua sisi altar utama.

Kebanyakan sarjana percaya pada akurasi bersejarah geografi yang terlibat dalam lokasi ini situs Kristen. Tampaknya orang-orang Kristen awal diadakan ritual keagamaan pada awal situs dengan kebangkitan.

Setelah kota ini diduduki oleh Romawi, Kaisar Hadrian membangun kuil Aphrodite di sini di 66 AD.

After the city was occupied by Romans, the Emperor Hadrian built a temple to Aphrodite here in 66 AD.

When Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 AD, he began construction on the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgotha was reputedly uncovered by the builders. His mother, St. Helena, is said to have found three crosses, one of which was supposedly the True Cross.

The church was almost completely destroyed in 1009, and it was subsequently partially rebuilt. It was this Church of the Resurrection where the knights of the First Crusade prayed.

Their leader, Godfrey of Bouillon, became the first Christian King of Jerusalem and “Defender of the Holy Sepulcher.”

The history of the church can be seen in the mixtures of various architecture, which is a mixture of Byzantine, medieval, Crusader, and modern elements. Additionally, the church is jointly administered by orthodox and apostolic Christians from Greece, Armenia, and Ethiopia—in addition to the Roman Catholic Church. Their artistic and architectural influences are also evident.

Ketika Konstantin menjadi Kristen pada tahun 312, ia mulai konstruksi pada Gereja Makam Kudus di 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgota konon ditemukan oleh para pembangun. Ibunya, St Helena, dikatakan telah menemukan tiga salib, salah satunya adalah seharusnya Salib Sejati.

Gereja hampir sepenuhnya hancur pada 1009, dan kemudian dibangun kembali sebagian. Inilah Gereja Kebangkitan di mana para ksatria Perang Salib Pertama berdoa.

Pemimpin mereka, Godfrey dari Bouillon, menjadi Kristen pertama Raja Yerusalem dan “Pembela Makam Kudus.”

Sejarah gereja dapat dilihat dalam campuran arsitektur berbagai, yang merupakan campuran dari elemen Byzantium, Abad Pertengahan, Tentara Salib, dan modern.

Selain itu, gereja secara bersama-sama dikelola oleh orang-orang Kristen ortodoks dan apostolik dari Yunani, Armenia, dan Ethiopia-di samping Gereja Katolik Roma. Pengaruh mereka artistik dan arsitektur juga jelas

look more pictures related with Via  dolorosa’

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet 

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet

Oh Jesus Kesengsaraanmu Tak terperikan

Terima Kasih PenderitaanMu telah

Menebus dosa umat Manusia

Hai Umat Manusia Sadarlah

Read More

The History Of Via Dolorosa

Via Dolorosa

 

 

 

 
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Il Spasimo, Jesus carrying the cross, by Raphael, 1516

The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem.ogv
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The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem

The Via Dolorosa (Latin,”Way of Grief” or “Way of Suffering”) is a street, in two parts, within the Old City of Jerusalem, held to be the path that Jesus walked, carrying his cross, on the way to his crucifixion. The winding route from the Antonia Fortress west to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — a distance of about 600 metres (2,000 feet) — is a celebrated place of Christian pilgrimage. The current route has been established since the 18th century, replacing various earlier versions.[1] It is today marked by nine Stations of the Cross; there have been fourteen stations since the late 15th century,[1] with the remaining five stations being inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

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[edit] History

 

The main roads – the cardines (north-south) and decumani (east-west) – in Aelia Capitolina. The Via Dolorosa is the northern decumanus

The Via Dolorosa is the modern remnant of one of the two main east-west routes (Decumanus Maximus) through Aelia Capitolina, as built by Hadrian. Standard Roman city design places the main east-west road through the middle of the city, but the presence of the Temple Mount in the middle of this position required Hadrian’s planners to add an extra east-west road at its north. In addition to the usual central north-south road (cardo), which in Jerusalem headed straight up the western hill, a second major north-south road was added down the line of the Tyropoeon Valley; these two cardines converge near the Damascus Gate, close to the Via Dolorosa. If the Via Dolorosa had continued west in a straight line across the two routes, it would have formed a triangular block too narrow to construct standard buildings; the decumanus (now the Via Dolorosa) west of the Cardo was constructed south of its eastern portion, creating the discontinuity in the road still present today.

The first reports of a pilgrimage route corresponding to the Biblical events dates from the Byzantine era; during that time, a Holy Thursday procession started from the top of the Mount of Olives, stopped in Gethsemane, entered the Old City at the Lions’ Gate, and followed approximately the current route to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre;[2] however, there were no actual stops during the route along the Via Dolorosa itself.[1] By the 8th century, however, the route went via the western hill instead; starting at Gethsemene, it continued to the alleged House of Caiaphas on Mount Zion, then to Hagia Sophia (viewed as the site of the Praetorium), and finally to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[1]

 

Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholics of Jerusalem split into two factions, one controlling the churches on the western hill, the other the churches on the eastern hill; they each supported the route which took pilgrims past the churches the faction in question controlled,[1] one arguing that the Roman Governor’s mansion (Praetorium) was on Mount Zion (where they had churches), the other that it was near the Antonia Fortress (where they had churches).

In fourteenth century, Pope Clement VI achieved some consistency in route with the Bull, “Nuper Carissimae,” establishing the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, and charging the friars with “the guidance, instruction, and care of Latin pilgrims as well as with the guardianship, maintenance, defense and rituals of the Catholic shrines of the Holy Land.”[3] Beginning around 1350, Franciscan friars conducted official tours of the Via Dolorosa, from the Holy Sepulchre to the House of Pilate—opposite the direction traveled by Christ in Bible.[4] The route was not reversed until c. 1517 when the Franciscans began to follow the events of Christ’s Passion chronologically-setting out from the House of Pilate and ending with the crucifixion at Golgotha.[5]

From the onset of Franciscan administration, the development of the Via Dolorosa was intimately linked to devotional practices in Europe. The Friars Minor were ardent proponents of devotional meditation as a means to access and understand the Passion. The hours and guides they produced, such as Meditaciones vite Christi (MVC), were widely circulated in Europe.

Necessarily, such devotional literature expanded on the terse accounts of the Via Dolorosa in the Bible; the period of time between Christ’s condemnation by Pilate and his resurrection receives no more than one or two lines in all four gospels. Throughout the fourteenth century, a number of events, marked by stations on the Via Dolorosa, emerged in devotional literature and on the physical site in Jerusalem.

The first stations to appear in pilgrimage accounts were the Encounter with Simon of Cyrene and the Daughters of Jerusalem. These were followed by a host of other, more or less ephemeral, stations, such as the House of Veronica, the House of Simon the Pharisee, the House of the Evil Rich Man Who Would Not Give Alms to the Poor, and the House of Herod.[6] In his book, The Stations of the Cross, Herbert Thurston notes: “…Whether we look to the sites which, according to the testimony of travelers, were held in honor in Jerusalem itself, or whether we look to the imitation pilgrimages which were carved in stone or set down in books for the devotion of the faithful at home, we must recognize that there was a complete want of any sort of uniformity in the enumeration of the Stations.”[7]

This negotiation of stations, between the European imagination and the physical site would continue for the next six centuries. Only in the 19th century was there general accord on the position of the first, fourth, fifth, and eighth stations. Ironically, archaeological discoveries in the 20th century now indicate that the early route of the Via Dolorosa on the Western hill was actually a more realistic path.[8]

The equation of the present Via Dolorosa with the biblical route is based on the assumption that the Praetorium was adjacent to the Antonia Fortress. However, like Philo, the late-first-century writer Josephus testifies that the Roman governors of Roman Judaea, who governed from Caesarea Maritima on the coast, stayed in Herod’s palace while they were in Jerusalem,[9] carried out their judgements on the pavement immediately outside it, and had those found guilty flogged there;[10] Josephus indicates that Herod’s palace is on the western hill,[11] and it has recently (2001) been rediscovered under a corner of the Jaffa Gate citadel. Furthermore, it is now confirmed by archaeology that prior to Hadrian‘s 2nd-century alterations (see Aelia Capitolina), the area adjacent to the Antonia Fortress was a large open-air pool of water.[8]

In 2009, Israeli archaeologist Shimon Gibson found the remains of a large paved courtyard south of the Jaffa Gate between two fortification walls with an outer gate and an inner one leading to a barracks. The courtyard contained a raised platform of around 2 square metres (22 sq ft). A survey of the ruins of the Praetorium, long thought to be the Roman barracks, indicated it was no more than a watchtower. These findings together “correspond perfectly” with the route as described in the Gospels and matched details found in other ancient writings.

The route traced by Gibson begins in a parking lot in the Armenian Quarter, then passes the Ottoman walls of the Old City next to the Tower of David near the Jaffa Gate before turning towards the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The new research also indicates the crucifixion site is around 20 metres (66 ft) from the traditionally accepted site.[12][13]

 

Shop on the Via Dolorosa near Eece Homo Arch, Jerusalem, 1891

[edit] Current traditional stations

 

Sign along Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

The traditional route starts just inside the Lions’ Gate (St. Stephen’s Gate), at the Umariya Elementary School, near the location of the former Antonia Fortress, and makes its way westward through the Old City to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The current enumeration is partly based on a circular devotional walk, organised by the Franciscans in the 14th century; their devotional route, heading east along the Via Dolorosa (the opposite direction to the usual westward pilgrimage), began and ended at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also passing through both Gethsemene and Mount Zion during its course.

Whereas the names of many roads in Jerusalem are translated into English, Hebrew, and Arabic for their signs, the name Via Dolorosa is used in all three languages.

[edit] Trial by Pilate: stations one and two

 

The Monastery of the Flagellation

The first and second stations commemorate the events of Jesus’ encounter with Pontius Pilate, the former in memorial of the biblical account of the trial and Jesus’ subsequent scourging,[14] and the latter in memorial of the Ecce Homo speech, attributed by the Gospel of John to Pilate.[15] On the site are three early 19th-century Roman Catholic churches, taking their names from these events; the Church of the Condemnation and Imposition of the Cross, Church of the Flagellation, and Church of Ecce Homo; a large area of Roman paving, beneath these structures, was traditionally regarded as the pavement (Greek: lithostratos) described by the Bible as the location of Pilate’s judgment of Jesus.[16]

However, as mentioned above, scholars are now fairly certain that Pilate carried out his judgements at Herod’s Palace at the southwest side of the city, rather than at this point in the city’s northeast corner.[8] Archaeological studies have confirmed that the Roman pavement, at these two traditional stations, was built by Hadrian as the flooring of the eastern of two Forums.[8] Prior to Hadrian’s changes, the area had been a large open-air pool of water, the Strouthion Pool mentioned by Josephus;[8] the pool still survives, under vaulting added by Hadrian so that the Forum could be built over it, and can be accessed from the portion of Roman paving under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion, and from the Western Wall Tunnel.

 

The Ecce Homo Arch. Originally triple-arched, it is now mostly hidden in the surrounding fabric.

Adjacent to the Church of Ecce Homo is an arch, running across the Via Dolorosa; this arch was originally the central arch of a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian as the main entrance to the aforementioned Forum.[8] When later building works narrowed the Via Dolorosa, the two arches on either side of the central arch became incorporated into a succession of buildings; on the northern side, the Church of Ecce Homo now preserves the north arch; on the southern side, in the 16th century the south arch.

The three northern churches were gradually built after the site was partially acquired in 1857 by Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne, a Jesuit who intended to use it as a base for proselytism against Judaism.[17] The most recent church of the three – the Church of the Flagellation – was built during the 1920s; above the high altar, under the central dome, is a mosaic on a golden ground showing The Crown of Thorns Pierced by Stars, and the church also contains modern stained-glass windows depicting Christ Scourged at the Pillar, Pilate Washing his Hands, and the Freeing of Barabbas. The Convent, which includes the Church of Ecce Homo, was the first part of the complex to be built, and contains the most extensive archaeological remains. Prior to Ratisbonne’s purchase, the site had lain in ruins for many centuries; the Crusaders had previously constructed a set of buildings here, but they were later abandoned[clarification needed].

 

[edit] The three Falls: stations three, seven, and nine

 

The exterior of the Polish Catholic Chapel at the third station

Although no such thing is recounted by the canonical Gospels, and no official Christian tenet makes these claims, popular tradition has it that Jesus stumbled three times during his walk along the route; this belief is currently manifested in the identification of the three stations at which these falls occurred. The tradition of the three falls appears to be a faded memory of an earlier belief in The Seven Falls;[18] these were not necessarily literal falls, but rather depictions of Jesus coincidentally being prostrate, or nearly so, during performance of some other activity. In the (then) famous late-15th-century depiction of the Seven Falls, by Adam Krafft, there is only one of the Falls that is actually on the subject of Jesus stumbling under the weight of the cross, the remaining Falls being either encounters with people on the journey, the crucifixion itself, or the removal of the dead body from the cross.

 

The ninth station, signified by the black disc on the wall. The alley is parallel to the Via Dolorosa, but some way to its south

The first fall is represented by the current third station, located at the west end of the eastern fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the 19th-century Polish Catholic Chapel; this chapel was constructed by the Armenian Catholics, who though ethnically Armenian, are actually based in Poland. The 1947–48 renovations, to the 19th-century chapel, were carried out with the aid of a large financial grant from the Polish army. The site was previously one of the city’s Turkish baths.

The second fall is represented by the current seventh station, located at a major crossroad junction, adjacent to a Franciscan chapel, built in 1875. In Hadrian’s era, this was the junction of the main cardo (north-south road), with the decumanus (east-west road) which became the Via Dolorosa; the remains of a tetrapylon, which marked this Roman junction, can be seen in the lower level of the Franciscan chapel. Prior to the 16th century, this location was the 8th and last station.[1]

The third fall is represented by the current ninth station, which is not actually located on the Via Dolorosa, instead being located at the entrance to the Ethiopian Orthodox Monastery and the Coptic Orthodox Monastery of Saint Anthony, which together form the roof structure of the subterranean Chapel of Saint Helena in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox churches split in 1959, and prior to that time the monastic buildings were considered a single Monastery. However, in the early 16th century, the third fall was located at the entrance courtyard to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and an engraved stone cross signifying this still remains in situ. Prior to the 15th century, the final station occurred before this point would even have been reached.[1]

[edit] The Encounters

 

The Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem – empty by night

Four stations commemorate encounters between Jesus and other people, in the city streets; one encounter is mentioned in all the Synoptic Gospels, one is mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke, and the remaining two encounters only exist in popular tradition.

[edit] With Mary, Jesus’ mother: fourth station

The New Testament makes no mention of a meeting between Jesus and his mother, during the walk to his crucifixion, but popular tradition introduces one. The fourth station, the location of a 19th-century Armenian Orthodox oratory, commemorates the events of this tradition; a lunette, over the entrance to the chapel, references these events by means of a bas-relief carved by the Polish artist Zieliensky. The oratory, named Our Lady of the Spasm, was built in 1881, but its crypt preserves some archaeological remains from former Byzantine buildings on the site, including a mosaic floor.

[edit] With Simon of Cyrene: fifth station

 

The exterior of the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, at the fifth station

The fifth station refers to the biblical episode in which Simon of Cyrene takes Jesus’ cross, and carries it for him.[19] Although this narrative is included in the three Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John does not mention Simon of Cyrene[20] but instead emphasizes the portion of the journey during which Jesus carried the cross himself.[21] The current traditional site for the station is located at the east end of the western fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, a Franciscan construction built in 1895. An inscription, in the architrave of one of the Chapel doors, references the Synoptic events.

Prior to the 15th century, this location was instead considered to be the House of the Poor Man, and honoured as the fifth station for that reason;[22] the name refers to the Lukan tale of Lazarus and Dives,[23] this Lazarus being a beggar, and Dives being the Latin word for [one who is] Rich. Adjacent to the alleged House of the Poor Man is an arch over the road; the house on the arch was thought to be the corresponding House of the Rich Man.[22] The houses in question, however, only date to the Middle Ages,[24] and the narrative of Lazarus and Dives is now widely held to be a parable.[25][26][27]

[edit] With Veronica: sixth station

A medieval Roman Catholic legend viewed a specific piece of cloth, known as the Veil of Veronica, as having been supernaturally imprinted with Jesus’ image, by physical contact with Jesus’ face. By metathesis of the Latin words vera icon (meaning true image) into Veronica,[28] it came to be said that the Veil of Veronica had gained its image when a Saint Veronica encountered Jesus, and wiped the sweat from his face with the cloth; no element of this legend is present in the bible, although the similar Image of Edessa is mentioned in The Epistles of Jesus Christ and Abgarus King of Edessa, a late piece of New Testament apocrypha. The Veil of Veronica relates to a pre-Crucifixion image, and is distinct from the post-Crucifixion Holy Face image, often related to the Shroud of Turin.

The current sixth station of the Via Dolorosa commemorates this legendary encounter between Jesus and Veronica. The location was identified as the site of the encounter in the 19th century; in 1883, Greek Roman Catholics purchased the 12th-century ruins at the location, and built the Church of the Holy Face and Saint Veronica on them, claiming that Veronica had encountered Jesus outside her own house, and that the house had formerly been positioned at this spot. The church includes some of the remains of the 12th-century buildings which had formerly been on the site, including arches from the Crusader-built Monastery of Saint Cosmas. The present building is administered by the Little Sisters of Jesus, and is not generally open to the public.

[edit] With Pious Women: eighth station

 

Pietro Lorenzetti‘s fresco of women following Jesus on Via Dolorosa, Assisi, 1320

The Eighth station commemorates an episode described by the Gospel of Luke, alone among the canonical gospels, in which Jesus encounters pious women on his journey, and is able to stop and give a sermon.[29] However, prior to the 15th century the final station in Jesus’ walk was believed to occur at a point earlier on the Via Dolorosa, before this location would have been reached. The present eighth station is adjacent to the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Saint Charalampus; it is marked by the word Nika (a Greek word meaning Victory) carved into the wall, and an embossed cross.

[edit] Modern re-enactments and processions

 

Reenacting the Stations of the Cross on Via Dolorosa

Each Friday, a Roman Catholic procession walks the Via Dolorosa route, starting out at the monastic complex by the first station; the procession is organized by the Franciscans of this monastery, who also lead the procession. Acted re-enactments also regularly take place on the route, ranging from amateur productions with, for example, soldiers wearing plastic helmets and vivid red polyester wraps, to more professional drama with historically accurate clothing and props.[30][31][32]

read more about Jesus

How did Jesus and the Hebrews become WHITE?

How did the Hebrews turn White? Of course they didn’t really; just in the imaginations, and then the histories of White people. Who for probably practical reasons, decided that Hebrews, and also the Blacks who originally lived in the Country’s that they took over, should all become White for posterity’s sake.

Seeing as how it only takes three generations to turn a Black person into a White person (and visa versa). No doubt there came a time when as Europe’s formerly bi-racial populations, became more homogeneously White, White people decided that they could no longer acknowledge that all that they knew and had, was derived from the minds and labors of Black people – even down to their religious beliefs. The logic no doubt being that Whites could not progress to their full potential, if they were always looking up to Blacks, as the personification of knowledge and wisdom. So a change had to be made, and at some point, by somebody, that change began.

Of course, we have no way of knowing when this process of Whitinizing Blacks began, or who did it, or where it was first done. But we do have some materials by which we can track the process, somewhat.

But first, let us go back to see what Hebrews REALLY looked like. The earliest authentic pictures of real Hebrews that we have, date back to before Christ. They are Assyrian relief’s showing Hebrews, and others that they conquered, in pictorial scenes detailing the battles fought, with associated text. These relief’s decorated Assyrian palaces, and were no doubt used to gloat over their conquest of the Hebrews and others. Here we are using pictures of: Assyrian King Shalmaneser IIIs “Black Obelisk” (858 B.C.). Assyrian king Tiglath-pilesar III’s relief’s of his conquest of a city near the Sea of Galilee (730 B.C.). Assyrian King Sennacherib’s relief’s of the conquest of the Judean City of Lachish (701 B.C.). The four pictures below, are from those Assyrian relief’s. (These relief’s are stored in the British Museum, London England).

It is worth mentioning, that the Hebrews were just as literate, and just as artistic as the other Black civilizations around them. The reason that we have to depend on outside sources for pictures of them, is because Whites destroyed all that the Hebrews ever created. Even down to the very religious writings that they claim to worship by. That fact is that ALL Hebrew writings, even the SEPTUAGINT {the original Bible}, which was only roughly Hebrew (it was made for the Greek King of Egypt, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) in 282-246 B.C.), has been destroyed. Everything except for the “Dead Sea Scrolls” which were found in 1947, in Qumran, a village situated about twenty miles east of Jerusalem. The Scrolls are under the joint custody of the Catholic Church and the Israelis. The translated contents of those Scrolls has never been made public, and probably never will be – no doubt the differences in teachings and facts would be irreconcilable.  (A few inconsequential snippets have been made public – the entire Scrolls is a huge work, which contains the entire old Testament plus many other works).

Why wasn’t the material in these pages destroyed? Because after it’s fall, Assyria came under the control of the Persian Empire, which was itself a Black Empire. It then came under the control of Greeks, who were at that time, seeking to merge with the Black Persians, not in denying that they were Black people. Then Assyria again came under Persian control, and then finally under the control of the original Black Arabs. So at the time when Whites were destroying vestiges of Black history, they had no access to the Assyrian artifacts.

But at those times when Whites did have control of an area, they seem to have been very through in destroying all vestiges of the former Black inhabitants; there is nothing left to suggest that Carthage was a Black city, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations are some of the oldest known, yet very little is left – next to nothing in the Indus valley. Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), was home to many great and famous civilizations, but very little has been found there. The Egyptian artifacts, of which there are many, were mostly recovered in modern times, when Whites rather than simply destroy, instead modify artifacts; sometimes just by breaking the noses off, in order to make them look like White people, and then proudly display them as proof of the White mans greatness.

The Khazars, a Turkish tribe who had established a Kingdom in the Caucasus region, and converted to Judaism in the 8th century A.D. Must have seen the doings of the Romans and Greeks, and seen it as an opportunity for them to take over the Hebrew identity, and thus control of the orthodox branch of the Hebrew religion – which indeed they did. They logically thinking that if Jesus can be White, why not then, the entire Hebrew nation – which was by then a diaspora anyway. The Islamist side-stepped the entire issue by forbidding imagery of any kind.

Let us proceed then, with our pictorial essay of how Jesus, and thus, the Hebrews TURNED WHITE!

Thanks to Religion Facts.com (Link)

The Alexamanos Graffito, dating from c.200 AD or earlier, is an interesting early parody of Christianity. This early graffito (wall-scratching; singular of graffiti) was discovered in 1857 in a guardroom on Palatine Hill near the Circus Maximus in Rome, and is now in the Palatine Antiquarian Museum. The drawing shows a man with an ass’s head being crucified, to which a youth is raising his hand as if in prayer. The text in Greek reads: ALE, XAMENOS, SEBETE, THEON. which means, “Alexamenos worships his god.” Before Christianity, the Hebrews had already been charged with worshipping an ass; this was probably the basis of this accusation being directed at Christianity.
This wall painting, depicting the Healing of the Paralytic, is the earliest known representation of Jesus, dating from about 235 AD. The painting was found in 1921 on the left-hand wall of the baptismal chamber of the house-church at Dura-Europos on the Euphrates River in modern Syria. It is now part of the Dura Europos collection at the Yale University Gallery of Fine Arts.
 
This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco. The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based on several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image. 
This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco. The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based in several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image.
This fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. The Catacombs of Domitilla date from the 2nd through 4th centuries. According to W.F. Volbach, “The extent to which the type of the apostolic group as been developed suggests a 4th-century origin” for this particular fresco.
Christ at the Second Coming, In the center of the apse mosaic is Christ standing on red clouds (representing the dawn), dressed in golden robes labeled with the monogram I. He holds the scroll of the Law in his left hand. The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is one of the ancient churches of Rome called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as deacons: the Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Giovanni Cheli. The basilica, devoted to the two Greek brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace. The Temple of Romulus was dedicated by Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus, who died in 309 and was rendered divine honours. It is possible that the temple was in origin the temple of “Iovis Stator” or the one dedicated to Penates, and that Maxentius restored it before the re-dedication.The ancient Roman fabric was Christianized and dedicated to Sancti Cosma et Damiano in 527, when Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, and his daughter Amalasuntha donated the library of the Forum of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) and a portion of the Temple of Romulus to Pope Felix IV. The pope united the two buildings to create a basilica devoted to two Greek brothers and saints, Cosmas and Damian, in contrast with the ancient pagan cult of the two brothers Castor and Pollux, who had been worshipped in the nearby Temple of Castor and Pollux. The apse was decorated with a Roman-Byzantine mosaic, representing a parousia, the Second Coming of Christ at the end of time. The bodies of Saints Mark and Marcellian were translated, perhaps in the ninth century, to this church, where they were rediscovered in 1583 during the reign of Pope Gregory XIII.

In 1632, Pope Urban VIII ordered the restoration of the basilica. The works, projected by Orazio Torriani and directed by Luigi Arrigucci, raised the floor level seven metres, bringing it equal with the Campo Vaccino, thus avoiding the infiltration of water. Also, a cloister was added. The old floor of the basilica is still visible in the lower church, which is actually the lower part of the first church. In 1947, the restorations of the Imperial Forums gave a new structure to the church. The old entrance, through the Temple of Romulus, was closed, and the temple restored to its original forms; with the Pantheon, the Temple of Romulus is the best preserved pagan temple in Rome. A new entrance was opened on the opposite side (on via dei Fori Imperiali), whose arch gives access to the cloister, and through this to the side of the basilica.

Jesus’ appearance from behind locked doors, by Duccio-di-Buoninsegna – 1308 A.D.
The Duccio-di-Buoninsegna above, which still has a “somewhat” Black looking Jesus, and some likewise “Black looking” Apostles, seems to mark the end of Black Jesus, and the beginnings of the total lie. No non-White depiction of Jesus is known to have been made after this time – by White people.
The last judgment by Pietro Cavallini – 1293 A.D. St Cecilia Trastevere, Rome.
Another fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. Probably from a later time than the first fresco.  Is this the beginning of the Whitinization of Black People? It may be that later artists felt that since this fresco didn’t cause the artist to immediately burn in Hell, it might be okay to paint Jesus as White.
Santa Costanza mosiac – Santa Costanza is a church in Rome, built under Emperor Constantine I and place of burial (mausoleum) of his daughters Constantina and Helena. Later, Constantina was venerated as saint, with the Italian name of Costanza, and the church was dedicated to her. The church was built under Constantine, probably by Constantinia, next to the cemetery of Sant’Agnese fuori le mura, where Saint Agnes, who allegedly had healed Constantina, was buried. After their deaths, Constantine’s daughters Constantina and Helena were buried here. Since Consantina was venerated as saint, the mausoleum was consecrated as a church in 1254 by Pope Alexander IV. After the church was restored in 1620 by Cardinal Fabrizio Veralli, Constantina’s magnificent porphyry sarcophagus was moved to the Vatican Museums. The Church was originally a mausoleum. 
Dead Christ – Giovanni Bellini, 1460 A.D. Museum Poldi Pezzoli, Milan
The Modern Jesus

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

 

Tacitus: History Book 5

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

But before the modern era of pathetic White racism, with it’s White fright of all things Black, and Black identity theft. Where Khazar Turks are the new Hebrews, and Osman Turks are the new Berbers, Egyptians, Arabs, and Middle-Easterners. Before every ancient Black figure encountered in a museum or book was explained away as a Nubian-Ethiopian, a Slave, or a servant: All people knew Hebrews to be Black people, and depicted them as Black people.

Click here for big blow-up of picture

The Black Popes

According to the Albinos and their pronouncements from the Liber Pontificalis, three popes-Pope St Victor I (c. 186-198), Pope St Miltiades (311-14), and Pope St Gelasius (492-496)-were Africans. The Liber Pontificalis is composed of a series of biographical entries, which record the dates and important facts for each pope. It is the oldest and most detailed chronicle dating from the Early Church. The Liber Pontificalis is dated from the sixth century. The record of names begins with St Peter. As the work progressed the entries became longer and more detailed. The Liber Pontificalis continued to be written until 1431. So then, is the Liber Pontificalis deception by word play, differentiating between African and Black? Which is actually okay, if people know what you are doing. But somehow I doubt the criminals in the Vatican would let on to that.

It is likely that all Popes prior to the fall of the Black Holy Roman Empire (circa 1658) were Black.

 

For histories and images of some of the first Christians: Click Here >>>

Selected historical quotes regarding the Hebrews

Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (155 A.D. to circa after 229), was a Roman consul and a noted historian writing in Greek.

Cassius Dio
Roman History
Book XXXVII

14 – 3: After the death of Mithridates all portions of his dominion except a few were subjugated. A few garrisons which at that time were still holding forts outside of Bosporus, did not immediately come to terms, not so much because they were minded to resist Pompey as because they were afraid that others might seize the money which they were guarding and lay the blame upon them; hence they waited, wishing to show everything to Pompey himself. When, then, the regions in that quarter had been subdued, and Phraates remained quiet, while Syria and Phoenicia had become tranquil, Pompey turned against Aretas. The latter was king of the Arabians, now subjects of the Romans, as far as the Red Sea. Previously he had done the greatest injury to Syria and had on this account become involved in a battle with the Romans who were defending it; he was defeated by them, but nevertheless continued the war at that time. Pompey accordingly marched against him and his neighbours, and, overcoming them without effort, left them in charge of a garrison.

Thence he proceeded against Syria Palaestina, because its inhabitants had ravaged Phoenicia. Their rulers were two brothers, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were quarrelling themselves, as it chanced, and were creating factions in the cities on account of the priesthood (for so they called their kingdom) of their god, whoever he is. Pompey immediately won over Hyrcanus without a battle, since the latter had no force worthy of note; and by shutting up Aristobulus in a certain place he compelled him to come to terms, and when he would surrender neither the money nor the garrison, he threw him into chains. After this he more easily overcame the rest, but had trouble in besieging Jerusalem. 16 Most of the city, to be sure, he took without any trouble, as he was received by the party of Hyrcanus; but the temple itself, which the other party had occupied, he captured only with difficulty. For it was on high ground and was fortified by a wall of its own, and if they had continued defending it on all days alike, he could not have got possession of it. As it was, they made an excavation of what are called the days of Saturn, and by doing no work at all on those days afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. The latter, on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs, made no serious attempts the rest of the time, but on those days, when they came round in succession, assaulted most vigorously. Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn, without making any defence, and all the wealth was plundered. The kingdom was given to Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus was carried away.

This was the course of events at that time in Palestine; for this is the name that has been given from of old to the whole country extending from Phoenicia to Egypt along the inner sea. They have also another name that they have acquired: the country has been named Judaea, and the people themselves Jews. I do not know how this title came to be given to them, but it applies also to all the rest of mankind, although of alien race, who affect their customs. This class exists even among the Romans, and though often repressed has increased to a very great extent and has won its way to the right of freedom in its observances. They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life, and especially by the fact that they do not honour any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself, but believing him to be unnamable and invisible, they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth. They built to him a temple that was extremely large and beautiful, except in so far as it was open and roofless, and likewise dedicated to him the day called the day of Saturn, on which, among many other most peculiar observances, they undertake no serious occupation.

Now as for him, who he is and why he has been so honoured, and how they got their superstitious awe of him, accounts have been given by many, and moreover these matters have naught to do with this history. The custom, however, of referring the days to the seven stars called planets was instituted by the Egyptians, but is now found among all mankind, though its adoption has been comparatively recent; at any rate the ancient Greeks never understood it, so far as I am aware. But since it is now quite the fashion with mankind generally and even with the Romans themselves, I wish to write briefly of it, telling how and in what way it has been so arranged. I have heard two explanations, which are not difficult of comprehension, it is true, though they involve certain theories. For if you apply the so-called “principle of the tetrachord” (which is believed to constitute the basis of music) to these stars, by which the whole universe of heaven is divided into regular intervals, in the order in which each of them revolves, and beginning at the outer orbit assigned to Saturn, then omitting the next two name the lord of the fourth, and after this passing over two others reach the seventh, and you then go back and repeat the process with the orbits and their presiding divinities in this same manner, assigning them to the several days, you will find all the days to be in a kind of musical connection with the arrangement of the heavens. This is one of the explanations given; the other is as follows. If you begin at the first hour to count the hours of the day and of the night, assigning the first to Saturn, the next to Jupiter, the third to Mars, the fourth to the Sun, the fifth to Venus, the sixth to Mercury, and the seventh to the Moon, according to the order of the cycles which the Egyptians observe, and if you repeat the process, you will find that the first hour of the following day comes to the Sun. And if you carry on the operation throughout the next twenty-four hours in the same manner as with the others, you will dedicate the first hour of the third day to the Moon, and if you proceed similarly through the rest, each day will receive its appropriate god. This, then, is the tradition.

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

Tacitus: History Book 5 [1]

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer is an aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers, ascribed to R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (80-118 C.E.), a disciple of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai and teacher of Rabbi Akiva. It comprises fifty four chapters. Some parts appear to be written as late as the 8th century CE, although there are older elements. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer comprises ethical guidelines, legends and folklore, as well as astronomical discussions related to the story of the Creation. Many ancient customs that are not found in other sources are described in this work.

The Pirke appears, according to Zunz, to be incomplete, and to be merely a fragment of a larger work. S. Sachs, on the other hand, thinks that it was compiled from two previous works by the same author, the relation of the two productions to each other being that of text and commentary, the text giving merely the story of the Bible, which was interrupted by the commentary in the form of the Aggadah, and the commentary being intended for reading during the ten days of penitence. Meir ha-Levi Horwitz thinks that the author developed those Bible stories which bore relation to the entire nation, dealing lightly with those that concerned only individuals.

Jost was the first to point out that in the 30th chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly alludes to the three stages of the Muslim conquest, that of Arabia, of Spain, and of Rome (830 C.E.), the names of Fatima and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael, leading to the conclusion that the book originated in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia Minor. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign the Messiah shall come, the work might be ascribed to the beginning of the 9th century, for about that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El-Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over the Islamic realm. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point to an even earlier date, approximately the same date might be inferred from the enumeration of the four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated in the Talmud and the Mekilta.

The author seems to have been a rabbi of the Land of Israel; this appears not only from the fact that some of the customs to which he refers (in ch. xiii. and xx.) are known only as customs of the Land of Israel, but also from the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are from the Land of Israel, the exceptions being Rav Mesharshia and Rav Shemaiah, who are from Babylonia. The work is ascribed to R. Eliezer (80-118 C.E.), although he was a tanna, while the book itself the Pirḳe Abot is quoted. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 3rd century C.E., like Shemaiah (ch. xxiii.), Ze’era (ch. xxi., xxix.), and Shila (ch. xlii., xliv.), are also quoted, indicating that the work was edited or additions were made to it after the time of R. Eliezar.

The work is divided into 54 chapters, which may be divided into seven groups.

Supposedly a 10th century Palestinian Jewish author gives
the word of Roman era Ribbi Eli`ezer Hyrkanus that
“[God] blessed Shem and his sons, black and beautiful,
giving them the habitable earth.”, his Pirqe, daf 28a.
This blackness was not as dark as Ham’s raven similied
black skin.
Amos 9: (King James Version)
7: Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

Isaiah 43: (King James Version)
3: For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

2 Kings 5 (King James Version)

1Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Syria, was a great man with his master, and honourable, because by him the LORD had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper.

2And the Syrians had gone out by companies, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited on Naaman’s wife.

3And she said unto her mistress, Would God my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! for he would recover him of his leprosy.

4And one went in, and told his lord, saying, Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel.

5And the king of Syria said, Go to, go, and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. And he departed, and took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of raiment.

6And he brought the letter to the king of Israel, saying, Now when this letter is come unto thee, behold, I have therewith sent Naaman my servant to thee, that thou mayest recover him of his leprosy.

7And it came to pass, when the king of Israel had read the letter, that he rent his clothes, and said, Am I God, to kill and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh a quarrel against me.

8And it was so, when Elisha the man of God had heard that the king of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying, Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me, and he shall know that there is a prophet in Israel.

9So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariot, and stood at the door of the house of Elisha.

10And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, Go and wash in Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt be clean.

11But Naaman was wroth, and went away, and said, Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me, and stand, and call on the name of the LORD his God, and strike his hand over the place, and recover the leper.

12Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them, and be clean? So he turned and went away in a rage.

13And his servants came near, and spake unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean?

14Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean.

15And he returned to the man of God, he and all his company, and came, and stood before him: and he said, Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel: now therefore, I pray thee, take a blessing of thy servant.

16But he said, As the LORD liveth, before whom I stand, I will receive none. And he urged him to take it; but he refused.

17And Naaman said, Shall there not then, I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules’ burden of earth? for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods, but unto the LORD.

18In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant, that when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing.

19And he said unto him, Go in peace. So he departed from him a little way.

20But Gehazi, the servant of Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian, in not receiving at his hands that which he brought: but, as the LORD liveth, I will run after him, and take somewhat of him.

21So Gehazi followed after Naaman. And when Naaman saw him running after him, he lighted down from the chariot to meet him, and said, Is all well?

22And he said, All is well. My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of garments.

23And Naaman said, Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments, and laid them upon two of his servants; and they bare them before him.

24And when he came to the tower, he took them from their hand, and bestowed them in the house: and he let the men go, and they departed.

25But he went in, and stood before his master. And Elisha said unto him, Whence comest thou, Gehazi? And he said, Thy servant went no whither.

26And he said unto him, Went not mine heart with thee, when the man turned again from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to receive money, and to receive garments, and oliveyards, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and maidservants?

27The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.

 

On differentiating between White people and Lepers.

Leviticus 13 (King James Version)

1And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying,

2When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests:

3And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean.

4If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days:

5And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more:

6And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be somewhat dark, and the plague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

7But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again.

8And if the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy.

9When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest;

10And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and there be quick raw flesh in the rising;

11It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up: for he is unclean.

12And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh;

13Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean.

14But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean.

15And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean: for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy.

16Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest;

17And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean.

18The flesh also, in which, even in the skin thereof, was a boil, and is healed,

19And in the place of the boil there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be shewed to the priest;

20And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white; the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil.

21But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

22And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague.

23But if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

24Or if there be any flesh, in the skin whereof there is a hot burning, and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white;

25Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin; it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

26But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the other skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

27And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

28And if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not in the skin, but it be somewhat dark; it is a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning.

29If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard;

30Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin; and there be in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall, even a leprosy upon the head or beard.

31And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, it be not in sight deeper than the skin, and that there is no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days:

32And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the scall spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin;

33He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more:

34And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

35But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing;

36Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he is unclean.

37But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and that there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

38If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, even white bright spots;

39Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white; it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin; he is clean.

40And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he is bald; yet is he clean.

41And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he is forehead bald: yet is he clean.

42And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore; it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead.

43Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh;

44He is a leprous man, he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague is in his head.

45And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.

46All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his habitation be.

47The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment, or a linen garment;

48Whether it be in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin;

49And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a plague of leprosy, and shall be shewed unto the priest:

50And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up it that hath the plague seven days:

51And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin; the plague is a fretting leprosy; it is unclean.

52He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire.

53And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin;

54Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more:

55And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, if the plague have not changed his colour, and the plague be not spread; it is unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire; it is fret inward, whether it be bare within or without.

56And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof:

57And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire.

58And the garment, either warp, or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin it be, which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean.

59This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen, either in the warp, or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean.

References

 
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 37
  2. ^ Oxford Archaeological Guide: The Holy Land (paperback, 4th edition, 1998), pages 34–36
  3. ^ Wharton, Annabel Jane. Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. p. 109.
  4. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.34.
  5. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.55.
  6. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p. 21.
  7. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.50.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  9. ^ Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, page 87, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  10. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 2:14:8
  11. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 5:2
  12. ^ Study shines light on final steps of Christ The Courier-Mail April 11, 2009
  13. ^ Archaeologist: Jesus took a different path 4VF News April 10, 2009
  14. ^ John 19:1–3
  15. ^ John 19.5
  16. ^ John 19:13
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Ratisbonne Brothers, Volume 13, pp.1570–1571, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry on Way of the Cross
  19. ^ Mark 15:21
  20. ^ John 19:17
  21. ^ Simon of Cyrene – Bible Study
  22. ^ a b Dave Winter, Israel handbook, page 126
  23. ^ Luke 16:19–31
  24. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry for Dives
  25. ^ The IVP Bible Background Commentary
  26. ^ N. T. Wright, Luke for Everyone
  27. ^ Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus
  28. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Veronica
  29. ^ Luke 23:27–31
  30. ^ Jerusalem of the heavens: the Eternal City in bird’s eye view by Yehuda Salomon, Mosheh Milner 1993 ISBN 965-474-000-1 page 187
  31. ^ Frommer’s Jerusalem Day by Day by Buzzy Gordon 2010 ISBN 0-470-67636-1 page 12
  32. ^ Frommer’s Israel by Robert Ullian 2010 ISBN 0-470-61820-5 page 179

The end @ copyright 2014

Driwan Church History Museum (continue)

DRIwAN CHURCH HISTORY  MUSEUM

PERT INTRODUCTIONS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2014

INTRODUCTIONS

Since little KId in 1950 ,every morning

I vist the church at the front my house in Padang City west sumatra, i met all the early fransican padfua italian ftaher who owrk here after the fly from cumminist china, like father mario bgiani, ganizarooro,capra, laurenzi,spinabelli, morini,  etc, but (I didnot became priest because related to the unmeried problem, my friend became priest Romo Sandharma SH.

I have write the history of indonesian church , and also other articles related with church, I have just foun many best book relatated with the church History also another histporical artifact, and i have promisise when prayin to Madona Maria which given me mercgy to built this museum dedicated to her,majesty

Please click below to look my articles before

The histyory ofIndonesian Rome Catholic Church

I will built the museum related basic with the church bibble or alkibatb book from the old testament,during Jesus era, the 12 Jesus pupilm adna after that until 1075.

   
B.C. (Before Christ)Visitors watch a presentation that introduces the Bible with its Old and New Testaments, then pass to another room where they put on monks outfits, to discover the different kinds of papers used long ago including the papyrus, then to translate a verse from the Bible from the Hieroglyphs into Arabic and write it down on a papyrus paper as a souvenir.

A.D. (After Christ)

In a Roman Coliseum, a 3-D exciting movie will take the visitors in time to experience what happened with the Early Church through the eyes of the Centurion. At the end of the movie, visitors will be imprisoned and the door of the prison won’t open before the children answer some questions on the screen about the movie contents.

Back to the Future

After experiencing how the Bible came to us through early writing, visitors will have to go back in time into the first printing press (Gutenberg), and experience the difficulties of printing on a 90-years-old printing press. Then back to the future, to the new technologies where the Bible can be reached through various technologies, visitors will read a story from the Bible and play some computer games.

I hope all the christian will happy and get spirit and mercy when read  and look this musuem

Jakatta 1st December 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 Koleksi Historis Gereja katolik Indonesia 1800-1942

(THE INDONESIA CATHOLIC CHURCH HISTORIC COLLECTIONS)

FRAME ONE : INTRODUCTIONS(PENDAHULUAN)

I. DASAR PEMIKIRAN(BACKGROUND)

1.In May,8th,1807 was the moment of earliest histrotic of the beginning of Catholic Churh hirachy in Batavia (now Jakarta) and also the first point of Catholic church Hirarchy in Dutch east indie because at this date the Dutch east Indie ‘s Perfectur Apostholic had begun officially was the first Perfectur apostilk P.J.Nielsen,Pr. The young Church were developed until age 200 years .and the Keuskupan agung Jakarta have serveing actively the Catholic pupil at Jakarta,Bekasi and tangerang. 25 years ago the new bigger Yakobus church had built at Kelapa gading Jakarta Utara, and now have renovation to be the very amizing church in Jakarta utara.

Tanggal 8 Mei 1807 merupakan momentum awal bersejarah dimulainya hierarki Gereja Katolik di Jakarta (Batavia kala itu) bahkan titik mula hierarki Gereja Katolik di Hindia Belanda dimana pada tanggal tersebut telah diresmikan berdirinya Prefektur Apostolik Hindia Belanda dengan Prefektur Apostolik Pertama yaitu P. J. Nellisen, Pr. Gereja belia ini terus-menerus bertumbuh dan berkembang secara dinamis hingga kini telah mencapai usia 200 tahun, usia yang matang bagi gereja untuk berkarya nyata di masyarakatnya dalam wilayah yurisdiksinya dan hal inilah yang menjadi tantangan bagi umat Katolik di Keuskupan Agung Jakarta untuk terlibat aktif melayani dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat di Jakarta, Tangerang dan Bekasi.Dua puluh lima tahun yang lalu didirikan sebuah gereja yang indah menarik di Kelapa Gading Jakarta.

2.Dr Iwan Suwandy want to make an active participations to add the christian catholic informations in order to add their knowledge related with their church.

Dr Iwan suwandy ingin ikut secara nyata berpartisipasi aktif dalam usaha peningkatan pengetahuan informasi para umat Katolik yang tekait dengan gereja mereka.

3. When the age of Indonesian Catholic Church became 200 years and the Kelapa gading ‘s yakobus church 25 years ,this time was the best moment for the catholic church and dr iwan suwandy to reseach about the history of church development as the basic info for the next development.

Ketika usia Gereja Katolik di Keuskupan Agung Jakarta dan jakarta telah mencapai usia 200 tahun ,lihat surat gembala uskup agung Jakarta terkait perayaan dua abad Gereja Katolik Indonesia dibawah ini:

dan gereja St Yakobus kepalpa gading 25 tahun silahkan melihat label peringatan dibawah ini :

, tentunya merupakan momentum yang tepat agar Geraja katolik Indonesia dan Dr iwan melakukan penelitian sejarah Gereja Katolik sebagai informasi awal untk perkembangan dimasa mendatang.

4, After collecting informations since 20 years ,starting in 1990, I starting to analysing and made exhibition my best collections of indonesia catholic Church ‘s history. some information I found from google exploration, This the first complete info from all of Indonesian province in cybermuseum, bacause this time the history from each church only.

Setelah mengumpulkan informasi sejak 20 tahun yang lalu,mulai tahun 1990.saya menemukan koleksi yang terkait dengan gereja katolik indonesia seperti Buku peringatan gereja katolik Indonesia dalam bahasa belanda dengan pengantar dari Paus Pius IX tanggal 28 Pebruari 1926 ,lihat illustrasinya dibawah ini

buku ini yang menjadi sumber inormasi yang sangat berguna anatar lain berisi sejarah dan peta misi katolik dIndonesia silahkan lihat illustrasinya dibawah ini :

dalam peta ini terlihat Indonesia dibagi dalam enam wilayah apostolik dan sembilan perfektur.berdasarkan area ini akan disajikan koleski illustrasi dan info sejarahnya.

selain itu saya menemukan patung maria antik di Bukitinggi tahun 1984 dari toko antik teman saya ,lihat fotonya .

Seluruh info tersebut diatas ditambah dari eksplorasi google cukup menarik untuk di analisa dan ditampilkan dalam pameran koleksi historis gereja katolik Indonesia, . Pameran ini adalah informasi lengkap dari seluruh provinisi yang pertama kali dilakukan di museum dunia maya, karena saat ini hanya ada pameran dari masing-masing gereja saja dan tidak lengkap.

4. I hope all the Catholic members in Indonesia and all over the world will accepting the best informations to add their knowledge about the history of Catholic church in Indonesia.The infowill write in English language whic can read by all christian catholic memebers all over the world

5. Thanks very much for indformations from all the priest had add in the internet which I add with my own collections in this exhituion

6. I know this informations were not complete and need more corrections and added info, please comment and suggestion to make this article more best performance.

Jakarta january 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy

FRAME TWO:

*ill

*ill peninggalan gereja portugis di Bitaoni Timor.

agama Katolik merupakan agama yang pertama kali muncul dan berkembang sangat pesat terutama di kawasan eropa. Dengan memakai pusat di vatikan, misionaris misionaris disebar bersama dengan melalui armada armada kapal penjelajah. Misi gold,glory, and gospel yang mengikutsertakan agama sebagai misi utama penjelajah eropa turut serta menjadi faktor penyebar agama Katolik.
Agama katolik diyakini pertama kali dibawa oleh penjelajah Portugis yang mendarat di Maluku utara. Tokoh misionaris yang paling berperan dalam penyebaran agama katolik di daerah ini adalah Fransiskus Xaverius (seorang Santo yang disebut kehidupannya sangat mirip dengan gaya hidup Yesus)di antara 1546-1547 terutama di Ambon,Saparua dan Ternate.

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BEFORE 19TH CENTURY (voc era)

Kemenangan VOC atas Spanyol dan Portugis di Indonesia menyebabkan terhentinya penyebaran agama Kristen Roma Katolik, karena bangsa Spanyol dan Portugis menganut agama Kriosten Roma Katolik sedangkan Belanda menganut agama Protestan. Belanda mengusir mereka dan melarang penyebaran agama Katolik, kemudian menjadikan Protestan sebagai gantinya. Tujuan orang-orang Belanda itu ingin melenyapkan agama Katolik, baik di negeri Belanda sendiri maupun di daerah jajahannya (Embuiru dalam Bakry, 1979). Meski kondisinya demikian, tetap masih ada pengikut Katolik dan mereka memiliki imam Katolik yang secara diam-diam saling tolong menolong.

GEREJA KATOLIK ABAD KE XIX.

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN 19TH CENTURY

Barulah ketika Raja Lodewijk naik takhta yang memeluk agama Katolik berkuasa, Penyebaran Agama Katolik kembali berkembang pesat. Pada tanggal 8 Mei 1807 pimpinan Gereja Katolik di Roma mendapat persetujuan Raja Louis Napoleon untuk mendirikan Prefektur Apostolik Hindia Belanda di Batavia (sejalan dengan sejarahnya Katedral Jakarta)

namun ada anggapan bahwa berkembangnya agama Katolik di Maluku buka merupakan yang pertama kali. Adalah suatu daerah di pantai barat Sumatra di pelabuhan tertua di Indonesia yaitu Barus (dahulu pancur). Berita tersebut dapat dibaca dalam sejarah kuno karangan seorang ahli sejarah Shaykh Abu Salih al-Armini yang menulis buku “Daftar berita-berita tentang Gereja-gereja dan pertapaan dari provinsi Mesir dan tanah-tanah di luarnya”. yang memuat berita tentang 707 gereja dan 181 pertapaan Serani yang tersebar di Mesir, Nubia, Abbessinia, Afrika Barat, Spanyol, Arabia, India dan Indonesia.
Dengan terus dilakukan penyelidikan berita dari Abu Salih al-Armini kita dapat mengambil kesimpulan kota Barus yang dahulu disebut Pancur dan saat ini terletak di dalam Keuskupan Sibolga di Sumatera Utara adalah tempat kediaman umat Katolik tertua di Indonesia. Di Barus juga telah berdiri sebuah Gereja dengan nama Gereja Bunda Perawan Murni Maria

hingga saat ini keberadaan agama katolik cukup besar dengan penganut sekitar 3,6 % dari populasi penduduk Indonesia .Jika dalam suatu negeri terdapat misi Katolik, maka segala usaha misi diatur langsung oleh pusat misi di Roma yang bernama Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Komisi untuk menyiarkan Iman). Langkah yang ditempuh pertama kali ketika mereka memasuki daerah baru adalah mendirikan prefektur-Apostolis, dipimpin oleh seorang Padri yang disebut Prefek-Apostolis. Apabila usaha misi telah berkembang dengan baik, maka Prefektur tersebut ditetapkan menjadi vikariat-Apostolis. Pada tahun 1826 organisasi tersebut pernah berlaku di Indonesia ketika Paus menetapkan Prefektur-Apostolis pertama di sana. Persengkataan antara pemerintah Belanda dengan gereja Roma Katolik berakhir pada tahun 1847, ketika gereja Roma Katolik diakui berdaulat. Setelah itu, Kristen Katolik dan Protestan semakin berkembang di Indonesia (Bakry, 1979)

pada tahun 1810-1820, didirikan gereja kathedral pertama di Bayavia(Jakarta) Indonesia yang sampai saat masih ada, lihat gambar lama (vintage picture) gereja tersebut tahun 1880:

sejarah singkat gereja kathedral Jakarta

Gereja Katedral Jakarta
Gereja Katedral Jakarta

Letak Jakarta, Indonesia
Afiliasi agama Katolik Roma
Tahun diresmikan 21 April 1901

Deskripsi arsitektur
Arsitek Antonius Dijkmans
Jenis arsitektur Gereja
Gaya arsitektur Neo-Gothic
Tahun selesai 21 April 1901
Spesifikasi
Puncak 2

Gereja Katedral Jakarta (nama resmi: Santa Maria Pelindung Diangkat Ke Surga, De Kerk van Onze Lieve Vrouwe ten Hemelopneming) adalah sebuah gereja di Jakarta. Gedung gereja ini diresmikan pada 1901 dan dibangun dengan arsitektur neo-gotik dari Eropa, yakni arsitektur yang sangat lazim digunakan untuk membangun gedung gereja beberapa abad yang lalu.

Gereja yang sekarang ini dirancang dan dimulai oleh Pastor Antonius Dijkmans dan peletakan batu pertamanya dilakukan oleh Provicaris Carolus Wenneker. Pekerjaan ini kemudian dilanjutkan oleh Cuypers-Hulswit ketika Dijkmans tidak bisa melanjutkannya, dan kemudian diresmikan dan diberkati pada 21 April 1901 oleh Mgr. Edmundus Sybradus Luypen, SJ, Vikaris Apostolik Jakarta.

Katedral yang kita kenal sekarang sesungguhnya bukanlah gedung gereja yang asli di tempat itu, karena Katedral yang asli diresmikan pada Februari 1810, namun pada 27 Juli 1826 gedung Gereja itu terbakar bersama 180 rumah penduduk di sekitarnya. Lalu pada tanggal 31 Mei 1890 dalam cuaca yang cerah, Gereja itu pun sempat roboh.

PS KOLEKSI LENGKAP LIHAT DI Driwancybermuseum blog,SILAHKAN KLIK hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com.

Selesai @ hak cipta dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Chinese Kapitan history collections

The First Photo of Qing Authorities Taken in World Expo, St Louis Expo 1904

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO A

DUTCH EAST INDIE 19th CENTURY

 

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjong A Fie

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

 

Kapitan Cina deli  medan (leutenant rank) in 1880

Dr Med Supit’s Grand grandpa

Kapitan cina Deli Medan

Name unidentified  marga Tan

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese.[disputed]

The standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China.[disputed] Chinese sources, however, are useful external sources of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries such as Fa Hien, a Buddhist monk who passed the region in the fifth century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty.

Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Islamic evangelists in Java (Wali Songo, or the Nine Ambassadors) were of Chinese ancestry. At least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants: Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang (son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga, and Sunan Gunungjati.[5] <This shouldn’t actually be ironic since those Islamic evangelists are actually Hui Chinese, a Chinese ethnic group who are Muslim. In contrast, most of the present Chinese Indonesians are mainly not Hui Chinese. Rather, they are mostly Han Chinese, another Chinese ethnic group which is the majority ethnic group in mainland China, coming from Fujian, Guangdong, etc.> One theory suggests that Chinese traders were among the first to bring Islam to Indonesia, including those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He, or Sam Po Kong, in the fifteenth century. Zheng He himself was a Muslim from the Hui minority ethnic group in China. Other theories based on documented accounts of Indian Gujarati traders and merchants, long familiar with Java, suggest they introduced Sufism there and the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

Since the voyages of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the region as an attractive trading partner.

 

Due to Coolaberation between Driwancybermuseum and Zheng He Museum Penang, I have made a special reasearche about the Famous  Chinese overseas In Malaya during British Colony  and Indonesia during Dutch East Indie

 

Kapitein der Chinezen te Soerabaja 1880

 

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan in 1883

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, 1888-11-23

 

 

 

Oei Tan Nio, echtgenote van de kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 27-jarige leeftijd

After work Hard and spend much time and loan, The research were finish and this info will show in Zheng He Museum Penang lead by Robert Yeap.

I also found some informations related to that famous man.like kapitan Cina in stratits settlement penang,Malacca,Singapore ,Kuching Sarawak  and also from federated Malayan like Kuala Lumpur etc,also from Indonesia(Dutch East Indie that time) like Deli medan,tanjung balai ashan ,padang city, Batavia(Jakarta),surabyaa .

 

 

Kapitan cina rembang 1885

Due to many realted informations,this book will be divided by two part,part one Malaya area and part two Indonesia (Dutch East Indie Area)

 

I have a very best information from web blog Chinese overseas in British Colony and Kapitan cina Batavia, but some of informations cannot read all because qere protacted with the PDF and other computer technology which made only by very high technology a part of information can read, but I think enough and good informations were extist,this some of the info below

 

Kapitan cina medan Tjong A Fie 1906

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan

The Chinese Consulate

The formation of Chinese consulate in Singapore in 1877 , an Penang in 1890, also in Padang West Sumatra and Payakumbuh West Sumatra (years still not known) respectively was primanly to serve as communicate between the Chinese Gouvernment  and the Chinese overseas . Apart from that it was also the Chinese tentative to gain support and loyality from her wealthy  Overseas member.

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan 1910

 

The office of the Vice-consult functions in various aspects and capacities .The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya and Duitcg East Indie For istance

 

1893

 

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

The Penang Brand engaged with the Chinese Affairs in Penang <Perak,Sealngor, Kedah and Perlis.Whereass the Singapore branch comcerned in the areas such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan , Kelantan and Trengannu

 

The prime role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interest however in the ealy 1900’s other Chinese organizations  such as the Chinese Advisory board (1890) ,Chinese chamber of Commerce Po Leung Kok(1886) as well as other Chinese clan association had surged in all mayor owns in British Malaya thus the importance of the Vice consult had apparentely ceased.

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje 1867

In 1891 ,the vice consult of Singapore was promote to the rank of Consult gereal in south East asia and in 1933 the chinedse consult was established in Kuala lumpur and the Chinese Affairs in the Federataed of Malaya.

 

 

Kapitan Cina Langkat  Tjoeng Njan Khin with government in Binjei

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

 Kapitan*mayor rank) cina Aceh Lie A sie

Op de rug gezien v.l.n.r.: majoor K. van der Maaten, sultan Mohammad Dawot Sjah, Toeankoe Ibrahim (zoon van de sultan) en assistent-resident W.J.F. Vermeulen; V.l.n.r. tegenover majoor K. van der Maaten: luitenant-generaal J.B. van Heutsz (gedeeltelijk), assistent-resident A.C. Veenhuizen, luitenant-kolonel G.C.E. van Daalen (gedeeltelijk), onbekend, controleur C. Schultz, Toeankoe Pangeran Oesén, Toeankoe Machmoet, onbekend, majoor titulair der Chinezen Lie A Sie

 

The same situation same in Dutch East Indie(Indonesia now) but the rank different,there were Mayor Cina, Kapitan Cina and Leutenant Cina depend on the demography and geography of dutch east indie from government, Residentie,subresidentie(Assisten-resident area) and more small area.

In Padang there were two Chinese vice-consut at Pariaman name Lir Ma Say, he ever send money to Dutch east ndie government to help the Krakato eruption victim in 19th century but later closed because move to Padang city there were vicde consut Gho Goan Tee and Lie Ma say became the first Mayor Cina, and then Gho Goa tee,then Ang Eng Lay, then Lie Oen Kiong,then the son of Gho Goan Tee(Gho sun Tong) his brother Gho Sun hin merried my Aunt Kang Kim Lian they lived at Singapore. My grandgrandpa Chua Chay Hiok(Tjoa Tjay Hiok) became the vice Consult in Payakumbuh west Sumatra upland ,later my uncle TJOa seng Lian became the Kapitan cina at Payakumbuh he ever send money to help republic of China during sun Yat sen(Kuomintang) to build the railways ,

At Batavia(now Jakarta) the first Kapitan was So ban Kong,he strated from Bantam ,then moved to Batavia during VOC first built this city in 16th century, then the Khouw faili were the next kapitan cina Batavia. I was found the best book about a dutch man travelling in ndonesia in late 19th century,in that rare book I found the pictures of the first kaiptan cina Padang city profile Lie Ma say, and other 19th century book about tarvellin in Java also I found the profil of Surabaya kapitan Cina.

In  The 1941 Dutch East Indie Almanac book  were list all the kapitan cina from all part of Indonesia,and from the Book of Dutch and colony ‘s employe 1939, I found the kapitan cina and famous Chinese overseas in Dutch East indie complete with profile picture and short life histories .

INDONESIAN PERANAKANS: TIONGHUA CINA PERANAKAN INDONESIA

 

Indonesian traditions and beliefs have exerted a strong influence over those ethnic Chinese migrants who have resided in the country for generations.

Most came to Indonesia during the 12th & 15th centuries thereby making Peranakan settlement & history in Indonesia older than that of Malaya’s.

The long-resident Peranakan, or Straits Chinese, who have settled mostly in Java and other outer islands such as the Riau islands, West Kalimantan and Sumatra, are the earliest examples of assimilation in Indonesian society.

The Peranakans are descendents of Chinese merchants, males who came unaccompanied to the East Indies for the lucrative spice trade.

Many of these immigrants married the local Indonesian women and their descendents are today known as the Peranakan, meaning local born. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia was just as similar and identical to that of Singapore and Malaysian Peranakan Culture in more ways than one.

 

Photo above:

Old Photos of Indonesian Peranakans & an old Peranakan book in Dutch (right).

 

After the late 19th century, the invention of the steamship facilitated the flow of Chinese migrants to Indonesia, who this time came accompanied by their wives and families.

Unlike the Peranakans, these Pure Chinese, or Totoks as they were known, had Chinese families and retained the use of the Chinese language, dress and customs.

They kept their mainland Chinese culture for generations and saw to the establishment of Chinese schools, newspapers and most eminently, Chinese business networks.

Historians today have largely attributed the prosperous economic activity among the Chinese as the reason for the Dutch colonial policy that segregated the Totoks and Peranakans from the rest of the Indonesian community.

This led to no small measure of misunderstanding and jealousy among the two groups.

The Peranakan Chinese population in Indonesia numbers at 6 million people out of a total Chinese population of 9 million while the Totok or Pure Chinese Community numbers at around 3 million or so.

Making them the largest Peranakan Chinese community in the entire world. Singapore and Malaysia however only have a miniscule 500,000 Peranakan Chinese each.

This explains why the overwhelming majority Indonesian Chinese only converse to each other in local Indonesian dialects and Bahasa Indonesia and not in Mandarin.

The Dutch imposed a policy of seperation that gave powers and trading priveleges to the Peranakan & Totok Communities.

As a result they were known as Chukongs or Kapitan Cina and controlled vast areas of land, plantation, coal and gold mines, diamond & tin mines and the like. Therefore the wealth and prestige of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia was similar to that of those in the Straits Settements

Dr Med Supit’s Grand grandpa

Kapitan cina Deli Medan

Name unidentified

 

 

Chinese Kapitan Deli Medan House in 1878

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

The kapitan cina deli in 1878

(Tan-grandgrandpa DR Med Supit ?)

Provenance Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

Chinese Kapitan Deli Medan

Provenance DrIwan suwandy,MHA

 

Chinese Kapitan Deli Medan in 1878

Provenance Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

This the sample of Dr Iwan CD-ROM

“Kapitan Cina History Collections

The complete Cd exist to get it

Please contact

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

hallo all kapitan cina fa,ily in Indonesia and Malaysia please contact me at email above to help me for more info and pictures of Kapitan Cina

 

Orang Tionghoa Pejabat Hindia Belanda tahun 1941(sumber Reegering Almanac 1941)

Batavia

Afdelling Financiele ,Schatkistambtenaar de klasse K.T.Liem

 Dienst Der Oost-Aziatische Zaken

Hooftranslateur voor de Japansche S.Cho(Tsang Tsui Shih) sejak 1 januari 1939

Regenstschap Kediri

Hoofdcommies : Tan tek beng ,10 mei 1940

Major,Kapitein , Letnan der Chinesen

Regenstschap Batavia

Chineesche Raad

Voorsitter Khouw Kim An (Majoor de Chinesen 3 februari 1937)

Sekretaris Tan Boen Sing,11 April 1922,

 Leden

Lie Tjian Tjoen 17 Agustus 1029(kapitein de chinesen)                                                                                         Lie Boen Sin,27 sept 1929(lieutenant)

Niet ambtelijke Leden

Ong Kek Tjiaoe,21 april 1931                                                                                                                           Dr Tjiong Boen Kie, 9 maret 1940

 

 

Gouvernment Sumatra

Residentie Atjeh

Afdeelling Noordkust van Atjeh (Sigli)

Onderafdeelling Sigli

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjong Tjhi Tjhaij, 31 des. 1926

Onderafdeelling Lho’Seumawe

Luitenant der Chineezen Tan Joe Sin, 19 oct.1922

Onderafdeelling Bireuen

Luitenant der Chineezen Wong Tjiauw ,26 sept 1913

Afdeelling Oostdkust van Atjeh met Alaslanden Gajoloeas en Serbodjadi (Langsa)

Onderafdeelling Idi

Luitenant der Chineezen Chioe Sim Aann, 20 Jan 1918

Onderafdeelling Langsa

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjoeng Ted Joeng, 21 Maret 1918

Onderafdeelling Tamiang(Koealasimpang)

Luitenant der Chineezen Moe Tin Siong

 

 

 

 

Residentie Oostkust van Sumatra

Afdeelling Deli en Serdang (Medan)

Onderafdeelling Beneden Deli(Medan)

Major  der Chineezen Khoe Tjin Tek

Luitenant der Chineezen medan Oei han Tiong                                                                                                      Luitenant der Chineezen Laboeandeli : Hsu Hua Chang                                                                                             Luitenant der Chineezen Belawan : Oey Chin Kiat.

Dear Dr. Iwan,

I read your blog on history of Padang , Sumatra and enjoyed the nostalgia…

Perhaps with luck, u may know something of other historical TiongHua communities in Sumatra- am interested to know more about Khoo Cheow Teong who was a active trader from Tanjong Balai, Asahan( east coast, North Sumatra ) in 1900s.

He had two sons; Khoo Sian Wei and Sian Ewe, the former stayed back in Asahan whilst the father and second son, Sian Ewe lived a active biz n social life in Penang. I am a descendant but have no contact or knowledge of their family or biz in Asahan. Now am trying to catchup and wonder if you can kindly share what u may know or refer me to sources ( clan associations? Newspaper reports? Museum? Archives? English, Jawi or Dutch language?? Etc)  and people who may know the Khoo family.

 

Thanks for yr help, rgds robertY

 

Sent from my iPad

Afdeelling Simaeloengoen en De Karolanden(Pematangsiantar)

Onderafdeelling Simaeloengoen (Pematangsiantar)

Luitenant der Chineezen :  Ang Cheng

 

 

Residentie Tapanoeli

Afdeelling Sibolga

Luitenant der Chineezen : Lim Hoh Eng

Afdeelling Nias Goenoeng Sitoli

Onderafdeelling Nias en omligende eilanden(Goenoeng Sitoli)

Luitenant der Chineezen :    Lim Eng The

Onderafdeelling Batoe-eilande(Poelau Tello)

Luitenant der Chineezen :     Go Tiauw Hie, 16 juni 1932

Residentie Riouw en Onderhooringheden

Onderafdeelling Selat Pandjang

Luitenant der Chineezen : Kan Tjong Ho ,1 oct 1934

Onderafdeelling Bagan Siapi-api

Luitenant der Chineezen : LOe Tjin Poh

Afdelling Tandjoengpinang

Kapiten de chineesen te Tandjong Pinang : Oei Pit Ship,8 Sept .1930                                                                  Luitenant der chineesen voor Zuid Bintan : Tan Foo Kong,18 Okt.1915                                                            Luitenant der Chineesen voor  Noord-Bintan : Tan Swie Kie,19 juli 1916                                                       Luitenant der Chineesen te Pl,Boeloeh : Tan Joe She,1 aug 1930

Onderafdelling Karimoen (Tandjoengbalai)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                Tandjoengbalai Oei Kim Hoe,29 Maret 1935                                                                                                          Tandjoeng batoe Wong Seap Par, 27 April 1929

 

Onderafdelling Linga(Dao Singkep)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                          Penoeba : Lie Eng Goan,20 dec 1938                                                                                                               Dabo(singkep): Tjoa meng Koei, 15 Sept.1938

Onderafdelling Poelau Toedjoeh(Terempa)

Luitenant der Chinesen terempa : Tjioe Tiong Thin ,Feb 1938

Afdelling Inderagiri (Rengat)

Luitenant der Chineesen Go Koen Sia ,16 jan.1936

(Dr iwan pernah kerumah nya tahun 1985, dan bertemu putranya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi almarhum seperti lukisan Tiongkok,dan medali yang diperolehnya dari gubernur jendral dan juga ada postal history masa revolusi berupa dokumen dengan metera pendudukan jepang)

 

Onderafdelling Inderagirische Benelanden (Tembilahan)

Luitenant der Chineesen tembilahan Lauw Tio Sia,1 jan.1936

 Residentie west Sumatra 1941

Kapten etnis Tionghoa Padang :

 

 Liem Tjhoen Goan (sejak  1 April 1937)                

 Letnan etnis Tionghoa Pariaman:

 Ghan Ho Ie (sejak  19 sept.1906)              

Letnan etnis  Tionghoa Bukittinggi(Fort de Kock) dan Padang Panjang   :

Tjoa sin Soe (sejak 4 Maret 1929)                                                                                                      Letnan etnisTionghoa Payakumbuh :

Tjoa Seng Lian (sejak 18 maret 1939),                                                                                                                   putranya Tjoa Tjoan Soei menikah dengan adik mertua Dr iwan Oei Tiong Hien, Oei Soei                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heng dan putranya Ien.

Residentie Palembang

Onderafdeling Hoofplaats Palembang  en Banjoeasinstreken(Palembang)

Kapiten der Chineesen Kwee Gan Keng, 9 Jan.1934

Residentie Bangka en Billiton

(hofdplaats Pangkalpinang)

Onderafdelling Midden-Bangka(Pangkalpinang)

Kapitein der Chinesen  Bong Joeng Kin ,24 dec 1932 Luitenant der Chinesen Se Siong Men, 24 Dec 1932

Afdelling Biliton(Tandjoengpandan)

Kapitein titulair de chineesen :Phong Jong Fong, 25 Maret 1938

Lampong tandjong karang telok betong

Lieutenant der chinesen Pho Tjit Sin

 

 

 

Residentie Westerafdeelling van Borneo(hoofdplaats Pontianak)

Afdeeling Pontianak

Onderafdeelling Pontianak

Kapitein der chineezen Kwee Eng Hoe

Onderafdeelling Singkawang

Kapitein der Chineezen te

 Singkawang :  Theng Soen Teng                                                                                                                  Pemangkat : Lie Kian Nam                                                                                                                              Montrado : Eo Djong Khim

Onderafdeelling Bengkajang

Kapitein der Chineezen Lim A Lak

Onderafdeelling Sambas

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjen Fai Tjong

Onderafdeelling Mempawah

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjang Fen Sen

 

Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdelling van Borneo

Afdelling Bandjarmasin

Kapitein der chineesen  Tjoe Tay An , 5 April 1918

Onderafdellig Martapoera

Kapitein titulair der Chinesen Oey Tay Poen, 24 Agustus 1923

 

Afdelling Samarinda

Luitenant der Chineesen  voor  de onderafdelling Koetai en Boven Mahakam (standplaats Samarinda) : Ngo Keng Tjoen, 6 sept 1918

Onderafdelling Oost-Koetai

Luitenant der Chineesen te Sanga-sanga Dalam : Tan Keng Ban (voor het onderdistrict sanga-sanga) 21 maret 1928

Onderafdelling Balikpapan

Luitenant der Chineesen Voor het onderdistrict Balikpapan : Wong Thay Hin, 28 Agustus 1933

Afdeelling Boeloengan BN Beroe(Tarakan)

Onderafdeeling Beraoe(Tandjoeng Redeb)

Luitenant der Chineezen  Lim Kim Fen, 3 Juli 1940

Residentie Manado

Berau

Conniezeen redacteur : E.K.Njo,12 sept 1935

Afdeelling Dongala

Luitenant der Chineezen  Tjoa Tiong Hean, 30 Jan 1930

Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden

Onderafdeelling Koepang

Kapitein der chineezen  Lie San Njan, 15 feb 1925

Hoof de Chineezen Tjioe Tek Giok,29 april 1925- Tjioe Soen Seng(Babaoe Koepang)-Tjong Soei Tap(Tjamplong Koepang), Tjoeng KIe Seng(Naiklioe-Koepang).

Onderafdeelling Roti(Baa)

Hoof de Chineezen Djong Kiet Hien,29 Agustus 1940

 

Onderafdeelling Zuid-midden Timor(Soe)

Hoof de Chineezen Ta A Hin(Niki-niki), Tan Kion Tjeang(Kapan), Sea I Hoat(SoE)

Onderafdeelling Nord-midden Timor(Kofannanoe)

Hoof de Chineezen Tan Foe Djoen

Onderafdeelling Beloe(Atamboea)

Hoof de Chineezen Laij Ko Hie(atamboea)

Afdeelling Alor ( Kalabahi)

Hoof de Chineezen Ong Gwan Tjin alias Ong Kie Seng,27 April 1938

Onderafdeelling Ende

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Siang tek, 12 Juni 1939

Onderafdeelling Maoemere(maoemere)

Hoof de Chineezen  Ong Ka Tjao, 12 Juni 1929

Onderafdeelling Mangarai (Roeteng)

Hoof de Chineezen  Pius The Kie Teng, 14 Maret 1938

Afdeelling Soembawa en Soemba(Raba)

Onderafdeelling Bima(Raba)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Koan, 28 Nov  1936

Onderafdeelling Soembawa(soembawabesar)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Moe alias Oei Hok Goei(soembawa besar),

Wong Jat Hwa(Taliwang)

 

 

Onderafdeelling Oost Soemba (Waingapoe)

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Thiauw La,15 Juni 1938

Gouvernment Soerakarta

Afdeelling Soerakarta

Kapitein  der Chineezen soerakarta  Ing Siang Tan

Luitent der chineezen sragen Liem Poo Djong

( Sumber regeering alamanac 1941)

Saya sudah bertemu dengan keluarga kapitan cina asaha Rovert Yeap sekarang ia di Penang, dan juga teman dari kapitan Tionghoa Lampung  dan Tanjunag Pinang,keluarga kapitan tionghoa itu masih hidup anak-anaknya malah ada yang tinggal di kelapa Gading Jakarta , malah seorang Dokter spesialis mata  Jakarta adalah cicit kapitan tionghoa Deli Medandan kota  lampung

Informasi anda akan membuat buku Kapitan cina ini jadi lebih lengkap,sebelumnya saya ucapkan terima kasih

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2013

 

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE

THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CDROM EXIST

  


The second and third CEF surharge on British India stamp were issued

 

British Military PO 1904 KEVII opt C.E.F

 

1904 Postage Due opt

1904
Dr Sun with London Supporters in 1904 (photo).

After organizing the Tung meng Hui in Tokyo, dr Sun toured England,belgium,France and germany in the revolutionary cause.

 

In this year The Qing Imperial Post issued London print coilling dragon surcharge with Postage due and also issue london print 1st blue Postage Due stamp

 

June 1904

Chungking Lunar Date postmark on besect JPC stamp b 2 c with Chngking local stamp destination au.6.1904.

 

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong”

After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904.

“Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

 

1905

(5)1905
(a) Returning to Japan in July of 1905, Dr sun was welcomed by Chinese student. He brought revolutinary organizations together in the Tung meng Hui.
(b)On July.20th.1905, student from 17 Chinese province studying in Japan organized the Tung Meng Hui (Society of Revolutionary Alliance).
Dr Sun addressed the Tokyo meeting on the importance of democratic revolution in China.
In the manifesto issued by the Tung meng hui revolutionaries occured the first mention of the Republic of China as the name for entity to succed the Qing Dynasty. These ideas were precursors of Dr Sun’s three principles of the People (Nationalism,Democracy and Social Welfare) , which provided the guidelines for estabilsment and development of the Republic of China(ROC).
(c)The Qing Imperial Post issued the 1st Express stamps.

 

The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

 

1906

(6)1906
In April 1906, the Changsa Post Office have permission for bisect LCP 2 cent cancelled Changsa Bilingual postmark 10 april 06(1906)

 

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

 

(7)1907
(a)Chiang Kai-shek went to Japan in 1907 to continue his military studies.
(b) Shanglai Local postmark nov 19 o7 on green Shanghai postal stationar card 3rd issue ic.

1908

May 1908


. Shanghai postal stationer postcard 1 c , not clear post mark arrival Canton Bilingual date postmark21.5. 08

november,5th.1908


 Transit Shnaghai Chine cds postmark 5.11-08
(b)In November,14th .1908 the emperor Guangxu was died, and the forensic reported the caused by Acute Arsenic pisoning.


In November ,15th,1908

Cixi having installed Puyi as the new emperor of he qing Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

1908 (15 Nov)

 

PPC Egypt Alexandria to China, franked with Pyramid, tied by Alexandria cds, via Suez, Shanghai, Tangku with transit cds, bottom with Chang Lang Cheng postal agency arrival cds.

During early periods, vessels sailing from England to China had to go around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, and used to take as long as four to six months to get there. Since the completion of the construction of the Suez Canal and its opening in October of 1869, this Sino-England mail route via Suez cut transit time to 40 or 60 days

In November , 16th 1908

Empress dowager Cixi died in the hallof graceful Bird at the middle sea of Zhong nan hoi , her death came only one day after the death of the Guangzu emperor.

 

(c)The Belgian Post Office in China issued surcharge Chine of belgia stamp with their wn postmark

1908
Belgian Post Office in China issued surxharge Chine on Belgian stamps.

 

 

 

 

1909
The fourth CEF surharge on British India stamps were isssued

1909


Temple of Heaven stamp issued by Hsuan Tung

used with Chungking biligual date(BLD) postmsark 25 Nov 1909. and Chungking transit postmark 24 nov 9 and Hankow destination postmark 1 dec 09.

 

1909

 

Temple of Heaven stamp

(1909) Temple of Heaven – Hsuan Tung First Year Commemorative

The first and only Commemorative issue – Special Commemoration Stamps – September 8 1909 Designer and engraver unknown. Printed by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), in two colors and unwatermarked.

 

 

 

there is a controversy on who actually designed and engraved the “Temple of Heaven”. Americans Lorenzo J. Hatch & William Grant have been credited by some for the work, but again it is debated by some.

 

In 1908,

the Imperial Chinese government sent a representative, Chen Chin Tao, to the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany to investigate stamp production styles and to determine which method was least susceptible to counterfeiting.

 

The Chinese government decided that United States’ manufacturing technique was most suitable for its purposes.

The Imperial government asked two Americans, Lorenzo J. Hatch and William A. Grant, to establish a Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Hatch was a renowned artist and engraver whose experience included more than 15 years at the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

 

Hatch had also spent a number of years working at both the Western Banknote Company of Chicago and the International Bank Note Company. After overcoming some initial reluctance, Lorenzo Hatch signed a six-year contract with the Chinese government.

William A. Grant, an engraver and designer, was an expert in creating the lettering, script, vignettes, geometrical lathe work, scrolls and cycloid twirls that filled bank note and stamp backgrounds.

 

A particularly skilled engraver, Grant specialized in detail engraving which helped make bank notes and stamps difficult to counterfeit. Grant was in charge of the engraving room at the American Bank Note Company when he agreed to accompany Hatch to China.

Hatch and Grant established the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1909.

 

They were responsible for the design and production of all the early Chinese Republic issues. The production of the first stamps of the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing was very much a collaborative effort.

 

While Lorenzo Hatch was primarily responsible for the design of the stamp and prepared most of the vignettes, William Grant applied his special skills to reducing the frame and scrollwork, as well doing the lettering and much of the actual engraving.

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set “Temple of Heaven” issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver “Index 1” on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

 

French Indo-Chine 1908

 

Canton surcharge

This set alone costs 233 €, according to my Yvert

 

From left to right, they dipict: a Cambodian, an Annam (Central Vietnam at that time), a Muong (mountainous region of north Vietnam), a Laotian, and a Tonkin (currently northern Vietnam), all in traditional costumes.

Were they not overprinted – valid only in Indochina, the cost is 149 €, with the last 10 Fr stamp alone worth 100 €.

 

 

Compare these two:

 

 

1909

July .15th, 1909,

the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.

China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

 

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

 

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

 

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

 

 

1909,

 

1909 4th Express Delivery stamp

 

…. 3rd section

 

 

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

November,19th.1909

 

Off cover used Temple of Heaven stamps CDS BLD Bilingual Date  Teng Yue 9.Nov.1909(Dr Iwan collections)

1910

1910 (Apr 10)

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500

April,11th.1910

Peking Bilingual Date(BLD) postmark 11 Apr 10 on Temple of Heaven stamp 1 c and 4 cent.

 

In June of 1910

Chiang was initatited into the Tung meng hui and met Dr sun Yat-sen.

 

1910’s Cigarette advertising postcard, f.w CIP opt. “ROC” 1c. Tied by rare postal agent cancel.

1911
The Chinese General post office was formed

 

 

Due to the differences in currency between Tibet and other parts of China, especially the popularity of Indian Rupee in Tibetan commercial market, the I.P.O. finally decided to issue a set of postage stamps in Rupee values and restricted for use in Tibet. A set of 11 values of the CIP coiling dragon stamps were overprinted with Chinese. Issued in March 1911
1911 Cover …. sent Tibet locally, franked Coil Dragon opt Tibet 1/2c & 1c pair, tied by Yatung large dollar cancel, plus double ring arrival cancel

 

Tibet 1911 Coil Dragon otp

feb 4 1911

 

Postal Postage Paid statistical department inspectorate general stationer cover send with shanghai lunar dater postmark

March 27 1911

 

Postally used cover from Kucheng lunar postmark to Tiebet lunar postmark transit Tihua (urumtsi), Transit Peking lunar postmark and peking belingual postmark

 


On March 29,1911,

some of 170 revolutionaries attacked the Kwangtung-Kwangsi Governor’s office in Canton under command of Huang Hsing. they were determined to prevail or die. Although it failed because of lack of reinfrcemetns, the uprising roused the people against the Qing manchu.

 

(cThe March 29

uprising at canton was the 10th under Dr Sun yat-sen’s direct leadership.Although traumatic, it sent out shock waves that rocked qing manchu rule. the do-or-die spirit of these revolutionaries is enshrined in Chinese history.

The remains of 72 martyrs were entobed at Yellow Flower mound in Canton, this site became a shrine of the national Revolution. Eight-six revolutionaries are known to have been killed in the incident and they may have been more,this day later became the martyr Day and the next year as Youth day.

 

Shanghai Postal Commissioner postmark Apr 18 1911.


In September,1911.

the Wuchang revolutinaries rise up and overthrew the Qing dynasty.

 

 

October.10th,1911


The Tung Meng Hui provided leadership for eight uprisings against Qing Dynasty at Huangkang Chaochow ,Huichow,Chinlien,Chennankuan,Shangsu in Chienlien, Hokow in Yunnan,Yellow Flower Mound in Canton and Wuchang.

The last of these on Octber 10.1911

led the dwnfall of the Qing Dymasty and the birth of the ROC. The shot fired at Wuchnag brought an immediate response from Tung meng Hui members in Shanghai under the leadership of Chen Chi-mei. The successive victories of the revolutionaries quickly convinced the Qing Mancus that they could not loner prevail. and the downfall of the Qing dynasty came quickly.

 

In October 13 , 1911.

Chiang leading more than a hundred do-or-die commandos who attacked government office at hangchow and capture the Manchu Governor. Chiang had returned to Shanghai and joined Chen Chi-mai for nanking-Shnaghai-hanchow area. He then hurried to Hangcxhow to head the successful revolutionary attack of October 13.

 

Chinese General Post office were opened, with special postmark another administration pstmarklike registered, revenue etc.

 

 

 

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

 

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

 

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

 

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

 

November,21th.1911

 

1911 (21 Nov) Cover Macau to Hong Kong,

 

 

franked Macau bisect stamp, tied by Macau cds, reverse with Lappa customs transit cds, Hong Kong arrival cancel

 

 

 

December 6th.1911 ,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

 

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

 

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

 

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

 

When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

 

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

Surcharges, 3p – 1r (Scott 1-10. Chan T1-10), a scarce group short only the rare 2r on $2, o.g., F.-V.F Realized HK$ 6,500

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

 

 

Surcharges, 1r on $1 and 2r on $2 key values (Scott 10-11. Chan T10-11), o.g., both trace of hinge mark, clean smooth gum, choice examples, scarce this nice, Very Fine Realized HK$ 22,000

1912

1912 Coil Dragon Waterlow overprint “CHMK”

 

 

 

The revolution of 1911 resulted in overprints on the imperial stamps in 1912; at Foochow to indicate that the post office was effectively a neutral area available to both sides, and at Nanking and Shanghai reading “Republic of China”. An additional set of overprints were produced by Waterlow and Sons in London, and postmasters throughout the country made their own unofficial overprints using the same characters(126)

(6) 1912
The Republic of China (Koumintang) exsitance had already been firmly established .

(12) 1912
The founding Father Dr Sun Yat-sen leaves Shanghai station the morning of the Newyear’s day ,1912 for his Nanking swearing-in as the Republic of China’s provisional President.
Please collectors be patien, this informations still in prcess, the illustration will install one by on

 

Tibet, 1912, Local Issue,

 

1/6t – 1t, five values (Scott 1-5. Chan TL1-TL5), mint, without gum, huge to wide margins all around, good colors, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

 

Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

 

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

1912

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000

January,1st.1912

On January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President.

 

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time.

 

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan’s demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan.

 

February,5th.1912

 

 

1912 (5 FEB) Coil Dragon 3c opt “Provisional Neutrality”. On piece with “Foochow” cancel.

 

 

1912 Anhwei Hochow Local black opt

Coil Dragon 2c in block of 4. tied by Hochow cancel

 

On March. 10th,1912

 

in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

 

A poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen.

The republic that Sun Yat-sen and his associates envisaged evolved slowly.

 

Although there were many political parties each vying for supremacy in the legislature, the revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai began to outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial.

 

May 1912

 

1912 (22 May)

 

 

Registered cover Swatow to Germany, franked Coil Dragon opt “CHMK” stamps x8, total postage 47c, tied by Swatow cds,

 

 

 

with German arrival cds

 

In August 1912,

 

the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded by Song Jiaoren, one of Sun’s associates

.

It was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tong menghui.

 

 

December 1912

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

 

Yuan Shih-kai should request a set of stamps featuring Sun Yat-sen with the inscription “In Commemoration of the Revolution” at the end of 1912.

 

Sun Yat-sen would lead a “second revolution” against Yuan Shih-kai within the year.

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

December,14th 1912

Commemoration the Revolution 1st Design Specimen Set

 

The first new designs of the Republic were two commemorative sets of 12 each,

the first set depicting Sun Yat-sen

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

and

second Yuan Shikai, both issued on 14 December, 1912

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution 2nd Design Set

 

 

 

1st Design and 1st Commemorative of the new republic, President Yuan Shih-Kai December 14th 1912

 

2nd Design of the New Republic Dr. Sun Yat-sen December 14th 1912

The first issues of the new Chinese Republic ran into a few problems. The original design for the first commemorative issue of 1912 displayed a map of China bearing the inscription, “The Republic of China” in English and Chinese. After the design had been approved, the stamps printed and made ready for distribution, President Yuan Shih-kai ordered the stamps destroyed. The original issue depicting the map was burned, but some stamps survived the fire. Three partially burned stamps of the original map issue were part of Grant’s collection and are now in the US National Postal museum.

In their place, President Yuan Shih-kai demanded the creation of a commemorative design baring his portrait and the legend, “In Commemoration of the Republic.” The president also requested a second stamp design. That issue featured a portrait of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with the inscription, “In Commemoration of the Revolution.” Dr. Sun Yat-sen, considered the leader of the first Chinese Revolution, and the provisional President of China, had voluntarily yielded the office to his successor, Yuan Shih-kai.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

China Postage Dues 1912

“Provisional Neutrality” Overprints
Chan D17-D22

 

 

1913

In the national elections held in February 1913

 

for the new bicameral parliament, Song Jiao-ren campaigned against the Yuan Sin-kai administration, whose representation at the time was largely by the Republican Party, led by Liang Qichao.

 

Song Jiao-ren was an able campaigner and the Kuomintang won a majority of seats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China Postage Due 1913 complete set of eight

Overprinted “Specimen” in red

London Printing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1913

1913 (24 Dec)

 

Yuan Shih-Kai colour postal card Jiansu to Shanghai

 

 

 

1914
The Republic of China Postal system formally became a party to the International Postal Convension(UPU)

 

 

British Military PO 1914-22 C.E.F. opt on KGV

 

 

 

 

1915

 

China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post 1915

1921

 

Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.

 

Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.

 

 

 

 

The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

 

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 

1923

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang 

    1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang) 

    Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang. 

    Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China 

    Despite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles. 

    5-8 May 1926 

    With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months. 

    The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army. 

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4]. 

    From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong Press 

    Tan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5]. 

    In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]


Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

 

 

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

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Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

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Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

(8)1917
Italia Post Office in China issued surharge Pechino and Tientsin on Italia stamps.

(9) 1919
US Post office in China issue surchaged Shanghai China stamps

Something a little different. For some time after Outer Mongolia was established, China refused to recognise it, and required Chinese stamps on mail coming across the border. This example was sent from Ulan Bator to Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in Inner Mongolia:

 

 

 

 

1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

The end @ Copyright 2012

Look the another related

Dr Iwan Cd-ROM

The Dai Nippon War In China

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS(CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE,THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CDROM EXIST

 

Tong Bingxue’s Collection

 

 The Original Photo of Jade Tower (翠玉宝塔) in Paris Expo 1937

 

A Panorama of China pavillion in Panama Expo 1915

 

The original stereo photo of China industry model in 1904

 

 

The Exterior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1889

 

The Estampe Featuring A Chinese Writer in Expo 1878 

 

The Interior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1878

 

The Estampe of a Night Show in Chinese Theatre in Paris Expo 1867

 

 

 

 

·         Route de la Reine Le Jour de l’An chinois, à Hong Kong, Chine 1902

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 13:12

 

 

Route de la Reine Le Jour de l’An chinois, à Hong Kong, Chine 1902 Carlton H. Graves

 

L’image a été trouvée dans la Bibliothèque américaine de collecte des Congrès, sous le numéro reproduction LC-USZ62-118528.Un aspect agréable au rythme trépidant de Hong Kong, même à l’époque.

La photographie a été de la moitié droite d’une impression Stereoview.

En outre, il est noté que émulsions de film noir et blanc en ces jours ont été incapables de d’enregistrement de l’extrémité rouge du spectre des couleurs.Par conséquent, certains des panneaux sur les bâtiments à gauche, avaient probablement leurs lettres en rouge, qui a finalement été rendus en noir dans l’image finale, ce qui les rend très difficiles à discerner.En outre, les avoirs CH Grave image de l’Asie ont tous été pensé pour avoir été créé par George Hebert Ponting, le cinéaste célèbre de Scott “Terra Nova” expédition en Antarctique.Ponting au moment voyageait à travers l’Asie et a travaillé sous la rubrique «à louer» des arrangements.Ainsi, un nombre énorme de photos d’époque très bien connu de la Chine, les droits d’auteur à l’époque par divers éditeurs, ont été effectivement créés par Ponting.

 

 

 

 

·         La CITE INTERDITE en 1901

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 12:12

 

 

 

De la Société Hawley C. White et résidant maintenant dans la Bibliothèque du Congrès américain, une image qui fait le pont entre deux cultures, qui ont toutes deux sombré dans l’histoire il ya longtemps (la monarchie chinoise et la dynastie Qing sont tous les deux allés près d’un siècle). Société Hawley C. White ‘s a été l’une des compagnies les plus prolifiques d’image stéréoscopique jamais. Son catalogue aurait recensé plus de 13000 images assorties du monde entier, couvrant la fin des années 1800 grâce à 1915. Par ailleurs, il était capable de produire en masse ses photos par son invention d’un procédé automatisé de chambre noire dans laquelle les négatifs ont été placés sur papier photographique, bien exposé, et ensuite chimiquement développés, tout cela automatiquement par la machine.

 

 

La porte sud de la ville impériale, considérée comme la porte de cérémonie pour la Chine, était resté depuis l’époque Ming.Sous Qing règle, il avait été rebaptisé La Porte des Qing Grande , et également porté son titre public dans une exposition rare de chinois et mandchous texte.Après la chute de la dynastie Qing cependant, la porte a été rebaptisé une fois de plus, d’être appelée la Porte de Chine .Malheureusement, la porte historique lui-même n’est pas tombée aux mains des conquérants, mais à la planification urbaine.Il a été démoli en 1954 afin d’élargir la place Tiananmen, et qui deviendra plus tard le site du mausolée de Mao après sa mort en 1976.

De nombreux bâtiments historiques à Beijing, avaient leur double chinois – signes Manchu remplacés par les chinois après la chute de la dynastie Qing, même si certains peuvent encore avoir à la fois et peut être trouvés si on est assez de persévérance.

Malheureusement aussi, la langue mandchoue est aujourd’hui  s’ éteint de plus en plus, les derniers locuteurs natifs meurent.Cela pose des problèmes uniques pour des Qing historiens comme il n’y a plus personne qui comprend nativement le texte écrit Manchu.

 

 

 

·         Petites filles chinoises kidnappées, pour le travail… en 1904 Fuzhou, Fujian Sheng

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 01:39

 

 

 

L’image a été trouvée dans la collection Edward Bangs Drew tenue à la Bibliothèque de Harvard-Yenching de l’Université Harvard.Les informations qui accompagnent, a déclaré:

“Filles kidnappées, Foochow, trouvé caché dans une poubelle par l’inspecteur des douanes. Ces filles auraient été vendues comme esclaves. Caractères chinois sur le mont, à gauche de l’image.” L’info a également déclaré que la scène  s’est déroulée à Fuzhou, Fujian Sheng, Chine.

Cependant, ces caractères chinois imprimés sur le support de raconter une histoire légèrement différente:

“Kidnapped enfants de sexe masculin et féminin, totalisant 41, qui se tiendra en foyer d’accueil, Lam Hing Lan Compagnie, remis de navires dans les mers ouvertes. Douanes détention de 23 ravisseurs.”

Si l’on examine la photo de près, il devient assez évident que plusieurs des enfants sont en effet, les garçons (par leurs vêtements et coiffures).Seulement 27 des 41 enfants victimes censées apparaître sur l’image.

La vente d’enfants pour  une vie de servitude n’était pas rare en Chine, comme les esclaves étaient détenues par plusieurs familles riches.Les familles pauvres souvent considérées avec un fatalisme c’est bénin comme un enfant vendu en esclavage était encore mieux qu’un enfant affamé à mort. Cependant, quelques personnes peu scrupuleuses ont enlevé des enfants de leur voisin pour alimenter cette économie triste.

L’enlèvement et la vente d’enfants (et même les adultes) continue d’être une activité lucrative en Chine, à ce jour comme dans de nombreux pays..

 

 

 

·         TOMBEAU des MING 1900

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:47

 

 

 

Stèle du Pavillon, SacredWay, Tombeaux des Ming, Pékin, Chine 1900

Le titre original n’est pas connu.Toutefois, l’image est reconnue comme étant celle de la stèle ShenGong ShengDe (inscrit comprimé) Pavillon, qui est une partie intégrante de la Voie Sacrée (alias Spirit Way) de Tombeaux des Ming juste à l’extérieur de Beijing République populaire de Chine.L’image semble avoir été prise C1900, et l’attribution n’est pas connu [RESTAURER].J’ai retouché sur les taches et les défauts évidents, a égalisé le ton du ciel, le contraste et ajuster le ton.

Les Tombeaux des Ming n’ont pas toujours été une attraction très populaire.Pour des centaines d’années, ils ont essentiellement assis avec peu d’intérêt par la population en général.À ce jour, seule l’une des 13 tombes connues a été fouillé (et même qui a été une catastrophe).Sauf pour une Occidentaux passant quelques-uns qui ont pris des photos de la Disney-esque sur les animaux en pierre de taille, l’ensemble du complexe a été largement et généralement ignorée.Si cela n’était pas assez, pendant milieu du 20e siècle, des bouleversements au sein du PRC causé celui connu a ouvert la nécropole souterraine (celle de l’empereur Zhu Yijun Wanli 朱翊 aka) pour être saccagés et presque détruit par l’extrémisme politique.Selon une notation de wiki:

“Dingling (chinois: 定陵; pinyin: Ding Ling, littéralement« Tombeau de stabilité »), l’une des tombes sur le site des tombes Ming, est le tombeau de l’empereur Wanli Il est le seul des Tombes Ming. d’avoir été fouillé. Il reste également la seule tombe impériale ont été fouillés depuis la fondation de la République populaire de Chine, une situation qui est presque une conséquence directe sur le sort qui a frappé Dingling et de son contenu après la fouille.

L’excavation de Dingling a commencé en 1956, après qu’un groupe de savants éminents dirigé par Guo Moruo et Wu Han a commencé à revendiquer la fouille de Changling, le tombeau de l’empereur Yongle, la plus grande et la plus ancienne des Tombes Ming.Bien qu’il ait gagné l’approbation de Premier ministre Zhou Enlai, ce plan a été refusée par les archéologues en raison de l’importance et le profil public de Changling.Au lieu de cela, Dingling, la troisième plus grande Tombeaux des Ming a été choisi comme site d’essai en vue de l’excavation de Changling.Excavation achevée en 1957, et un musée a été créé en 1959.

Les fouilles ont révélé une tombe intacte, avec des milliers d’articles de soie, textiles, bois et porcelaine, et les corps de l’empereur Wanli et ses deux impératrices.Cependant, il n’y avait ni la technologie ni les ressources nécessaires pour conserver adéquatement les artefacts excavé.Après plusieurs expériences désastreuses, la grande quantité de soie et autres textiles étaient simplement entassés dans une salle de stockage qui a fui l’eau et du vent.En conséquence, la plupart des artefacts survivent aujourd’hui sont gravement détériorées, et les répliques sont plutôt exposées dans le musée.Par ailleurs, l’élan politique derrière l’excavation a créé une pression à achever rapidement les travaux d’excavation.La hâte signifiait que la documentation de la fouille était pauvre.Un problème sévère dès frappé le projet, quand une série de mouvements politiques de masse a balayé le pays.Cette escalade dans la Révolution culturelle en 1966.Pour les dix prochaines années, tous les travaux archéologiques a été arrêté.Wu Han, l’un des principaux défenseurs du projet, est devenu la première cible majeure de la Révolution culturelle, et a été dénoncé, et mourut en prison en 1969.Fervent Gardes rouges ont pris d’assaut le musée Dingling, et traîné les restes de l’empereur Wanli et impératrices de la face de la tombe, où ils ont été à titre posthume “dénoncé” et brûlés.Beaucoup d’autres artefacts ont aussi été détruits.

Il a fallu attendre 1979, après la mort de Mao Zedong et la fin de la Révolution culturelle, que les travaux archéologiques repris pour de bon et d’un rapport de fouilles a finalement été préparés par les archéologues qui avaient survécu à la tourmente.Les leçons tirées de l’excavation Ding Ling a conduit à une nouvelle politique de la République populaire de Chine le gouvernement de ne pas fouiller tout site historique, sauf à des fins de sauvetage.En particulier, aucune proposition d’ouvrir un tombeau impérial a été approuvé depuis Dingling, même lorsque l’entrée a été accidentellement révélé, comme ce fut le cas du mausolée Qianling.Le plan original, à utiliser Dingling comme site d’essai pour l’excavation de Changling, a été abandonné. “

Le ShenGong ShengDe Stèle Pavillon (alias le Pavillon Tablet) est la troisième structure que l’on rencontre en entrant dans le tombeau des Ming complexes (le premier étant la pierre commémorative Archway, et la seconde étant la Porte Dahong).Au-delà se trouve la longue promenade avec les célèbres statues d’animaux en pierre et ofiicials Ming.Il est également connu comme le Pavillon des Mérites Stèle divine et de la Vertu Sacrée de Changling.Le pavillon a été achevée en 1435 lors de la 10e année et le dernier règne des Ming empereur Zhu Zhanji 朱瞻基 (1425-1435 statué).Il était à l’origine de la construction bois, mais après un effondrement du toit de la structure a été remplacé par un autre de pierre, réalisée pendant la 52e année de l’empereur Qing Hongli (aka Qianlong) règne, en 1787 (exclu 1735-1796).Le pavillon abrite une stèle de 50 tonnes, avec une inscription composée par l’empereur Zhu Ming Gāochì (aka Renzong, gouverné de 1424 à 1425).Le texte du grand succès, mérites et vertus de son prédécesseur, Empereur Ming Zhu Di 朱棣 Laudes (Yongle aka, gouverné de 1402 à 1424), qui a été enterré dans le tombeau Changling.Le dos et les côtés de la stèle porte également des poèmes de Qing empereurs Hongli et Yóngyǎn (alias Jiaqing, gouverné de 1796 à 1820).Quatre HuaBiaos marbre blanc (c’est à dire les piliers d’ornement) à l’extérieur forment un quadrilatère, le pavillon est situé au milieu des quatre piliers, en ligne directe avec les sept kilomètres long chemin connu sous le nom de la Voie Sacrée ou Esprit.

Heureusement, les gens en Chine et c’est ont réveillé à la valeur de la préservation de son histoire, et les lieux culturels comme les tombes ont été préservés de la décomposition d’autres. Il ya peu d’empressement à ouvrir toutes les autres scellés voûtes souterraines jusqu’au gouvernement de la RPC est assuré que le contenu, une fois retiré, peut être pleinement protégés. Dans un sens, je regrette que je ne serai pas là pour le voir. Mais d’autre part, mes enfants, ou leurs enfants, et en effet, le peuple chinois dans son ensemble, aurait l’avantage d’une culture récupérés qui permettraient de mieux résister aux rigueurs du temps. C’est probablement le meilleur résultat que tout historien peut souhaiter.

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1901 canton

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:20

 

 

 

 

·         CHINATOWN 1909 SAN FRANCISCO

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:17

 

 

 

 

·         Marchand, chanteuse Chine 1901

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:16

 

 

 

 

·         Chanteuses chinoises 1901

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:14

 

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1907

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hankow, 1897 P.P.C. “Pour Prendre Congé” overprint issue complete (Chan LH26-30), full o.g., fresh mint, F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1895, 20¢ blue on buff, Type III (Scott J13. Chan LHD13), used, full margins, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,500.

 

 

 

 

China was not a U.P.U. member in the Ch’ing (Qing) Dynasty. When the Imperial Post Office started operation in 1897,

mail exchange with foreign countries had to rely on so called “Guest Posts” – alien postal organizations set up and operated in China by Western Powers.

In general, each of the foreign offices handled certain area of the world, and the I.P.O. also had preference for transmission. For instense, mail originated from Wenchow and north sent to Shanghai and forwarded to F.P.O., B.P.O. and I.J.P.O. Mail originated from Foochow and south sent through Hong Kong via H.K.P.O.

There were some exception, for example, mail for U.S. originated from Foochow sent to Shanghai I.J.P.O. instead of Hong Kong(126)

 

 

 

Japan print

 

London print

 

The Qing Postmark History

 

Pa kua Tientsin

 

Pa Kua Shanghai

 

Pa Kua Wuhu

 

Dollar date Wuhu

 

Dollar Date Canton

 

Dollar Date Amoy

 

Dollar Date Tientsin

 

Dollar Date Peking

 

Dollar Date Chinkiang

 

Dollar Date Kiukiang

 

Dollar Date Ichang

 

Shanghai official

 

Shanghai Local post

 

S.Custom airmail matter

 

Custom Shanghai

 

Peking 1901

 

BL Chefoo 1901

 

Local Yunnanfu

 

Local Kuling

 

Local Nanchang

 

Local Ningpo

 

BL Kiukiang

 

Local Kaomi

 

Local Kucheng 1911

 

Local Tibet

 

Chnagsitian Tumbstone

 

Japan CPO Shanghai 1897

 

DaiNippon military CPO

 

British PO Shanghai

 

Russian PO

 

Russian CPO

 

French CPO 1897

 

French PO Langson 1902

 

German CPO 1900

 

HS Foochow 1904

 

Local Changsa 1904

 

Bisect 1906

 

Qing Card DD1897

 

Qing Card 1900

 

Qing Card 1907

 

Qing Card 1910

 

Stationer card 1911

 

Postal Commisioner 1911

 

Lunar Date 1911

 

BLD Chungking 1909

 

BLD Peking 1910

 

BLDP Bilingual Date postmark

 

Belgian China P.O.

 

Local Postmark 1894

 

 

1897

January,1st.1897

The Imperial Post Office was planned to inaugurate on January 1st, 1897, and changing the currency used for postage unit from Candarin of Silver to Silver Dollar.

 

Due to some delay on schedule, the Imperial Post Office officially opened

 

on February 20th.1897

 

Initially, Customs issues were overprinted with the new currency until new stamps were issued later that year.

After the Customs Post transformed into Imperial Post, all the Local Post offices closed in 1897 except Shanghai LPO that was absorbed by the I.P.O. The rest of the postal setups still operated until later times.(126)


October 1897

 

The first regular issue – ICP Coiling Dragon – October 1 1897

Since the English inscription on this issue is Imperial Chinese Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue

According to The History of Chinese Postage Stamps Volume II (published December 2004), archives of Imperial Post Office verified that this set of definitives was designed by R. A. de Villard and engraved and printed in Japan by retired Italian artist and master engraver Edoardo Chiossone as a private contractor, and the process employed was typographic not lithographic as its old name suggested.


 

Used One cemt Coilling Dragon brown  postmark  Pa-Kua Beijing

(Dr Iwan collection)

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post, 50¢ blue green, color error (Scott 94b. Chan 100b), clean o.g., scarce shade,very well centered, VF, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), with 8 additional shades, o.g., overall fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), $2, $5 appear to be no gum, others with large part o.g., vivid bright colors throughout, good to well centered, F.-V.F. setRealized HK$ 18,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (May 27) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing blue “Customs 27 May 97 Chungking” handstamp, with Japan 5s Koban tied by Shanghai 11 Jun 97 IJPO cds from China inland Mission corner card with “Hankow” crossed out and replaced by “Chungking”. Reverse shows brown Shanghai large dollar chop date 7 Jun97, Yokohama 17 Jun transit Vancouver JU 30 transit and Philadelphia Jul 7 receiver. Scarce combination of markings, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 8,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 19) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, a lovely cover, with front showing bold, black “Chungking 19 Jun 97 Customes” handstamp, and 5s Japanese Koban, tied by “Shanghai 8 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows a wonderful array of clear markings including brown Shanghai 7 Jul large dollar chop, Yokohama 12 Jul transit, S.F. transit and Philadelphia Aug 9 receiver. Excellent usage, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 13,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jul 5) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, showing on front a lovely strike in black of “Chungking 5 Jul 97 Customs” oval dater along with vertical pair of 5s Japanese Koban which is cancelled “Shanghai 23 July 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse offers a wonderful range of marking including a brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 29 Jul transit and Philadelphia Aug 17 receiver. Atrractive and F-VF, a choice coverRealized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 9) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing nice strike of “Chungking 9 Jun 97 Customs” oval handstamp, along with 5s Japanese Koban, which is cancelled by “Shanghai 21 Jun 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows lovely, brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 26 Jun transit, Tacoma, Wash. Jul 16 transit and Philadelphia July 21 receiver. Lovely usage, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 15,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (July 11) cover front from Chinkiang to North Carolina, franked by 5s Japanese Victory issue, tied by clean, “Shanghai 19 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Front shows at lower left a choice strike in brown of Chinkiang small Customs chop and missionary corner card. Very scarce combination, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

(10) 1898

(a)The Local provisional courier stamps from Wei Hai Wei Leased Area were Issued.

(b) German Post office in China issued surgharge China on German stamps.

(c) British Postoffice in China Issued postmark A 11-shanghai used on Hongkong stamps ( also issued postmark from another area like cds shanghai and other area)

.

CIP Coiling Dragon – January 1898

Since the English inscription on this issue is Chinese Imperial Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue.

Designed by R. A. de Villard. Engraved by Rapkin and his son (dragon), A. B. Hill (carp) and Joseph (wild goose) of Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), with and without watermark.

 

 

 
   

 

 

 

 

1898

 

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Apr 18) cover from Shanghai to Wellington, New Zealand, 10¢ rate with large 10 surcharge, franked with “Large Ten” Chinese character surcharge 10¢ on 30¢ QV (Scott 69a, Yang 54b), postmarked Shanghai cds, Ap/18/98, manuscript “Via Hong Kong Sorres Straits” and reverse Hong Kong “D” Ap/22/98 cds transit and Wellington/NZ 26 My 98 cds receiver alongside, “Large Ten” surcharge is rare, used on commercial cover possibly unique, rough opening, not affecting the attractiveness of this rare coverRealized HK$ 4,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Jan 4) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, with front showing Chungking 4 Jan 98 large dollar chop along with two 5s Japanese Kobans, which are tied by “Shanghai 22 Jan IJPO” cds. Reverse shows black Shanghai 22 Jan 98 large dollar chop, Yokohama 27 Jan transit and SF Feb 18 1898 Paid All transit andvery light and indistinct Philadelphia receiver. This cover when compared with the other, surrounding covers from thsi missionary correspondence, shows the transition from the Chungking oval to the large dollar dater. F-VF, a lovely item. Realized HK$ 20,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1898, Chinese Imperial Post, 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢, Waterlow & Sons trial color proof in maroon (Scott 104-106 vars. Chan 110-112 vars.), block of 9, overprinted” Specimen” and security punched, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 20,000

1898 (5 Oct)


 


1st Imperial Postal card Peking to Hungary.

Re-direct to Bosnia …. franked with Coil Dragon 1/2 x6.

Tied by Peking large dollar chop, via British PO in China.

Franked with Hong Kong QV 2c x2.

Tied by Shanghai cds.

 

 

 

 

(11) 1899

(a)The Local provisional courier LKT at Wei Hai wei were issued

(b) The first Russia Imperial Post office in China issued the KHTAH(Kitai) surchaged on Russia stamps were issued.

 

1899

 

Chinese imperial picture postcard sent from Tsung base Kiatsou  9n februaty,26th.1899

 

 

In mid-1899

 

a standard circular cancellation was introduced, having the town name in Chinese above and English below.

 

 

Underneath, the date is expressed in the Western calendar.

 

 

 

Early 20th Century

 

 

Puyi

 

Aixinjueluo Puyi (né à Pékin le 7 février 1906 et mort dans la même ville le 17 octobre 1967), connu sous le nom de Puyi (chinois traditionnel : 溥儀, chinois simplifié : , pinyin : Pǔyí), également orthographié Pou-yi ou P’ou-yi mais appelé également de son nom de règne Xuāntǒng, est le douzième et dernier empereur (末代皇帝) issu de la dynastie Qing, la dernière qui régna sur l’Empire chinois. Il est le fils de Zaifeng deuxième prince de Chun, deuxième fils de Yixuan premier prince de Chun, lui-même septième fils de l’empereur Daoguang. Il est né dans la trente-deuxième année du règne de l’empereur Guangxu.

 

Le dernier empereur (1908-1912)

Guangxu étant toujours sans enfant à 30 ans, sa tante Cixi, l’impératrice douairière de Chine et détentrice réelle du pouvoir, nomme par décret Puyi pour assurer sa succession. L’enfant a alors 2 ans et 10 mois.

Au lendemain de cette nomination, Guangxu décède, et, le surlendemain, c’est Cixi elle-même qui rend l’âme.

L’intronisation officielle de Puyi se déroule le 2 décembre 1908, son père assurant la régence.

À l’époque, la Chine connaît de nombreux désordres, et depuis longtemps la dynastie mandchoue est contestée (révolte des Taipings au siècle précédent, révolte des Boxers de 1899 à 1901, mouvements insurrectionnels du Guangdong et du Guangxi entre 1905 et 1911).

Le général Yuan Shikai, nommé pour mater les mouvements de révolte, et notamment le soulèvement de Wuchang du 10 octobre 1911, se retourne contre le pouvoir en place et pousse le jeune empereur à abdiquer le 12 février 1912, mettant fin à la dynastie Qing et à la période féodale.

 

Prisonnier dans la Cité interdite (1912-1924)

Malgré la proclamation de la République de Chine le 1er janvier 1912, donc quelques jours avant sa destitution de jure et selon les huit “Articles veillant au traitement favorable de l’Empereur après son abdication”, arrangement conclus entre la maison impériale Qing et le gouvernement républicain, il reçoit de ce dernier l’autorisation de conserver son titre et de demeurer – et même de fait est obligé de vivre – dans la Cité interdite. Lui et sa famille garderont l’usage de la « cour intérieure » (partie nord de la cité), tandis que la « cour extérieure » (partie sud) revenait aux autorités républicaines. En outre, il bénéficie d’une liste civile conséquente.

 

En 1917, un général conservateur partisan des Qing, le général Zhang Xun, profitant du désaccord du Président de la République et de son Premier ministre quant aux puissances à soutenir dans le conflit européen de la Grande Guerre, envoie ses troupes à Pékin, soit près de 5 000 hommes. Le 1er juillet 1917, il rétablit Puyi dans sa fonction d’empereur, ce qui suscite une réaction unanime des républicains et des seigneurs de guerre. Le 13 juillet suivant, Duan Qirui, le Premier ministre démis, pousse Puyi à abdiquer de nouveau.

 

Dès 1919, Puyi reçoit une éducation occidentale de son précepteur, un Écossais diplômé d’Oxford, Reginald Johnston (en), officier du bureau colonial britannique parlant le mandarin et féru d’histoire ainsi que de poésie chinoise. Johnston n’est pas vraiment un enseignant, mais exerce une grande influence sur Puyi. Sous sa conduite, ce dernier s’intéresse à tout ce qui vient d’Occident. Grâce à lui, il apprend l’anglais dès l’âge de 13 ans, au point de demander à Johnston de l’aider à lui trouver un nom anglais. Parmi la liste des noms de souverains britanniques que lui procure Johnston, Puyi choisit celui de Henry. C’est encouragé par l’éducation de Reginald Johnston que Puyi coupe sa natte, symbole du pouvoir mandchou (voir article sur les Taipings qui coupèrent leur natte en signe de protestation contre le pouvoir en place).


  

Le prince mondain (1924-1932)

En 1924, dans la tourmente qui entoure le renversement du Président de la République Cao Kun, les accords passés sont annulés. Puyi est expulsé de la Cité interdite, enceinte dont il n’était pas sorti depuis 15 ans, par les troupes de Feng Yuxiang. Il retourne dans le palais paternel.

Il tente, par le truchement de Reginald Johnston, de s’expatrier en Angleterre. Mais, pour ne pas froisser la Chine, les Britanniques lui refusent tout visa. Il se tourne alors vers l’Empire du Japon qui, en 1925, accepte de l’accueillir dans l’enclave de Tianjin. Il y mène une vie mondaine dans les milieux occidentaux des concessions.

 

 

Empereur du Mandchoukouo (1932-1945)

Les Japonais convoitent les richesses de la Mandchourie (fer et charbon, notamment), et à ce titre préservent Puyi, en qualité de représentant de la dynastie mandchoue qui avait encore ses fidèles.

En 1931, le Japon fait la conquête de ce territoire, et crée un état fantoche sous le nom de « Grand État mandchou (ou Mandchoukouo) de Chine ». Malgré les protestations du Guomindang auprès de la Société des Nations, et les déclarations de cette dernière qui considérait que le Mandchoukouo faisait partie intégrale de la Chine, les Japonais placent Puyi à sa tête en 1932, mais sans lui donner de pouvoirs réels.

 

 

Le Japon, soucieux de jeter des bases durables sur le sol chinois, met alors en place un vaste plan d’émigration vers le Mandchoukouo de populations japonaises et coréennes – la Corée ayant été annexée par le Japon en 1910 – le but étant de faire venir un million de personnes en 20 ans. Cet afflux de migrants se fait aux dépens des populations locales qui se voient dépossédées de leurs terres.

Fort occupé à combattre l’influence grandissante du Parti communiste chinois de Mao Tsé-toung, le Guomindang finit par signer un cessez-le-feu avec les Japonais en 1931.

En 1932, la Société des Nations module ses positions quant au problème mandchou en déclarant, que « […] le nouvel état créé est un protectorat plutôt qu’un véritable état indépendant », même si elle préconise l’adoption d’un plan d’intervention internationale pour la Mandchourie ; de ce fait, le Japon quitte la SDN le 27 mars 1933.

Puyi veut regagner son titre d’empereur ; c’est une quasi obsession. Aussi, en octobre 1933, quand le Japon en quête d’une image moins conquérante et d’une certaine légitimité lui fait la proposition de reprendre son titre impérial, il accepte, malgré les innombrables victimes de guerre chinoises et la spoliation des terres au bénéfice des immigrants nippons et coréens.

Le 1er mars 1934, Puyi, sous le nom de « Kangdle », est sacré Empereur pour la troisième fois.

Puyi espère que cette intronisation n’est qu’une étape, et qu’une victoire du Japon en fera de nouveau l’Empereur de toute la Chine.

 

Toutefois, les exactions japonaises dans le pays, ainsi que l’influence de celle qui sera sa deuxième concubine, Tan Yuling, une Chinoise d’origine mandchoue, amène Puyi à s’affirmer devant ses « amis » japonais et à s’opposer à eux. Aussi, pour resserrer les liens entre l’Empereur et ses alliés, un mariage est-il célébré en 1938 entre l’un des frères de Puyi, Pujie, et la princesse Hiro Saga, parente de l’Empereur Hirohito. Au cas où Puyi viendrait à disparaître sans descendance, Pujie porterait le titre impérial. Mieux encore, un enfant mâle issu de ce mariage, donc de sang mêlé chinois et nippon, ferait un Empereur idéal pour le Mandchoukouo. Pujie et Hiro Saga ont bien un enfant, mais c’est une fille. Quant à Tan Yuling, elle décède en 1942, à l’âge de 22 ans. Puyi, qui lui portait une réelle affection, aura toujours un doute sur la cause de ce décès puisqu’elle était soignée par un médecin japonais.

 

Puyi et Hiroito

Le Guomindang s’alliant au Parti communiste chinois contre l’envahisseur nippon, Puyi n’a d’autre solution que continuer à appuyer les Japonais. Son sort est lié au leur, et à l’issue de la guerre, non pas celle qui oppose simplement deux pays d’Asie, mais celle qui embrase le monde entier.

 

Le 17 août 1945, deux jours après la capitulation du Japon, Puyi abdique pour la troisième fois.

Afin d’assurer sa sécurité, les Japonais l’invitent à s’envoler pour le Japon. L’avion atterrit à Shenyang et Puyi est arrêté par les Soviétiques. Très probablement a-t-il été livré aux Russes par ses protecteurs, bien que ce point n’ait jamais pu être élucidé.

 

Prisonnier des Soviétiques (1945-1950)

Le 19 août 1945, Puyi se retrouve en résidence surveillée à Tchita, dans le sud de la Sibérie, puis à Khabarovsk.

En août 1946, il est entendu comme témoin au Tribunal militaire international de Tokyo, dont le but est de juger les criminels de guerre en Asie. De témoin à accusé la distance est mince, mais Puyi sait se préserver. À l’issue de son audition, qui dure sept jours, le Guomindang demande son extradition vers la Chine, ce que refuse l’Union Soviétique qui soutient le Parti Communiste Chinois.

En Chine, le conflit qui oppose les nationalistes aux communistes tourne à l’avantage de ces derniers. Pressentant le pire, et craignant pour sa vie s’il devait retourner dans son pays, Puyi demande à Staline à rester définitivement en Union Soviétique, mais sa lettre demeure sans réponse.

La République populaire de Chine est proclamée à Pékin le 1er octobre 1949 par Mao Tsé-toung. Quelques mois plus tard, au début de 1950, Mao en voyage en URSS demande l’extradition vers la Chine de Puyi et des autres dignitaires mandchous exilés avec lui. Staline accepte.

 

La rééducation (1950-1959)

Puyi est transféré dans le « camp de rééducation pour criminels de guerre » de Fushun, sous le matricule 981. La guerre de Corée éclate en septembre 1950. Quelques mois après, et du fait de la proximité de Fushun avec la frontière sino-coréenne, Puyi est transféré dans un autre camp à l’intérieur du pays où il reste deux ans. En 1954, quelques mois après la fin du conflit coréen (27 juillet 1953), il retourne au camp de Fushun.

Une enquête est diligentée sur place en vue d’un procès éventuel. Accablé par les confessions de ses amis et de sa famille, Puyi est reconnu coupable de nombreux crimes contre le peuple chinois et le PCC, au premier chef figurant la conspiration avec le Japon.

Puyi rédige alors une confession dans laquelle il fait amende honorable, ce qui lui vaudra la clémence du « Grand Timonier » qui optera pour sa « rééducation » plutôt que pour son exécution.

Un peu plus tard, en septembre 1959, Mao Tsé-toung décrète l’amnistie de certains criminels de guerre, dont Puyi.

 

Un Chinois comme les autres (1959-1967)

Commence alors une nouvelle vie pour l’ancien empereur. Ainsi, pour le nouvel an de l’année 1960, Zhou Enlai le convoque et, comme le raconte le demi-frère cadet de Puyi, Puren, dans le film “Puyi. The Last Emperor of China” (cf infra), le premier ministre lui suggère d’écrire le livre de sa vie. Il lui trouve également un travail de jardinier au Jardin botanique de Pékin.

 

 

Quelque temps plus tard, c’est Mao Tsé-toung lui-même qui le reçoit, et qui lui conseille également de rédiger son histoire. De plus, il lui préconise de se remarier.

Ces conseils sont suivis. En avril 1962, Puyi épouse une infirmière, Li Shuxian, et la confession de Fushun sert de base au livre qui sort en 1964, sous le titre “La première moitié de ma vie”. Cet ouvrage est traduit dans de nombreuses langues. En France, il est édité par Flammarion sous le titre “J’étais empereur de Chine”. Il faudra attendre 2007 pour que paraisse la version intégrale, la précédente ayant été expurgée de 160 000 mots[réf. nécessaire].

Il devient ensuite bibliothécaire au sein de la Conférence consultative politique du peuple chinois, avec un salaire de 100 yuans par mois, avant de devenir lui-même membre de cette institution en 1964, et ce jusqu’à sa mort.

La Révolution culturelle vient troubler cette quiétude : ses revenus sont réduits, son mobilier en partie confisqué. Mais il évite l’humiliation publique comme la pratiquaient couramment les gardes rouges.

Peu après, ses médecins diagnostiquent un cancer des reins et de la vessie.

 

 

Puyi et Wan Rong, vers 1920.

 

Famille

    • L’Empereur a eu deux épouses :
      • Sa première épouse est Wan Rong (婉容) (1906 – 1946). Ils se marient en 1922, et elle porte le titre d’Impératrice. Capturée par les communistes, elle meurt empoisonnée à la prison de Yanji en 1946.
      • Sa seconde épouse est Li Shuxian (李淑賢) (1925 – 1997). Ils se marient en 1962.
    • Il a eu aussi trois concubines:
      • Sa première concubine est Wen Xiu (淑妃) (1909–1953), qui devient concubine impériale en 1922 jusqu’en 1931, date de son divorce.
      • Sa deuxième concubine est Tan Yuling (谭玉龄) (1920 – 1942), morte dans des conditions non élucidées.
      • Sa troisième concubine est Li Yuqin (李玉琴) (1928-2001) qui n’a que quinze ans à l’époque du mariage en 1943. Elle divorce en 1958.

 

Puyi s’est éteint sans laisser de descendance.

    • Il a eu aussi plusieurs frères dont deux ont joué un rôle dans l’histoire de la Chine :
      • Pujie (1907–1994)
      • Puren (1918 – ) (qui prendra plus tard le nom de Jin Youzhi).

 

 

 

Mariage de PUYI en 1922

 

 

 

 

1900

(1)1900

(a)The first CEF Chine Expedition Force sucharge on British India stamps were Issued.

(b) The Japanese Post Office in China issued surchage China in kanji character on Japan stamps.

2.20th Century

(1) 1900

January 1900

 

1900 (19 Jan) The China Gazette Newspaper Hankow to Switzerland, franked Coil Dragon 2c x2, tied by Hankow cds, via Shanghai franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by PO in Shanghai cds.

 

(a)postally used cover send from Tumbstone postmark changsitien post office on LCP stamp to destination shanghai bilingual date postmark jan.6.1900.

 

(b)In 1900, Cheng shih-liang led another uprising at Huichow. Dr Sun instructed Shih Chien-ju and Teng Yin-nan to provide supportive revolutionary activity in Canton. The uprising at Huichow failed. Shih Chien-ju then decided to assasinate Governur Te Shou. He dug a tunnel t the governr’s ffice from a house nearby and planted explosives. But Te Shou was not killed and Shih Chien-ju was arrest and put to death.

 

1900s Russian Railway Post card

 

(c)Joint Force of the eight great powers entering Beijing in August.1900 during the Boxer incident.
The Boxer uprising broke out in the nothern china ,perhaps fearing futher foreign intervention,Cixi threw in her supprt to then anti foteihn bands.The chinese military was unable to preventing the Allied army from marching on Beijing and seizing the forbidden city.
The Chinese military was under equipped and under funded partly because Cixi had earlier consumed precious funds to build a stone Boat of Purity in the old Summer palace.
The British Expeditionary Force Postal in Beijing issued their stamps surcharge C.E.F on india stamps with their own postmark.

 

 

 

 

 

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Latest News”.

 

(d) The Japan Imperial Post Office in china issued the surcharge China in kanji char on Japan stamps with their own postmark.

 

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Selling Fisches”.

 

 

Look at the front cover of the  postcard

Inside

 


1900s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Crossing the River”.

(e) London coil dragon stamp 2 cent(2x) used Peking Postmark jul.1-1900 , RH Rober Hart postal used Cover.thirteen Hart covers reprt by Sam Chiu (2001), 11 cover recorded by Li Zha-ning, So few Hert cover this day.Hart had ordered hislatter papers and papers printed with initial R.H. (lok at illustration)

 

(f) Postally used cover with Wuchow Bilingual date postmark July14,1900.

 

(g) German post office in china postmark Tsingtau Kiaurshow cds Mar.24.1900 on bloch four china surcharga on german stamp 10 Pf.

October,29th.1900

 

1900 (29 Oct) PPC Shanghai to Germany, franked with Coil Dragon 1/2c, 1c & 2c (2), tied by Shanghai cds, additional franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by French PO in Shanghai cds, boxed No. 8 postal agency cancel under the French stamp

November 1900

 

1900 (3 Nov) Imperial 1st postal card sent to Germany, tied by Germany Military Exposition cancel, boxed blue cachet & Bromberg arrival cds

 

(2)1901

February,1901

 

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

 

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction

( 126,Back O’Bourke,)

Feb 21 1901

 

Peking oval Bilingual Postmark Feb 21 1901 on JCP stamp 2 c and 10 c.

British Post Office Shanghai CDS feb. 21,1901

 

German PO in China 1901 Reichspost opt “China” set

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1901, BRA 5¢ on Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon ½¢ chocolate, green surcharge (Scott 98 var. Chan BRA 1), with usual BRA postmark in blue; odd toning spots, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 700

April,20th.1901

 

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction.

 

June,9th.1901

Why China and Indochina be on this piece:


fragmen cover  with Indochina stamp and china stamps CDS Lung chow 9 jun 1901 and Langson(the border between Vietnam(north) and China south(Kiangshi) 1 jun 1901
If possible, please tell me where Lung Chow is?


‘Longzhou (龙州县; pinyin: LóngzhÅ
u Xiàn) is a county in the Guangxi province of China, near the border with Vietnam (location: 22 21′ N., 106 45′ E.). It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city Chongzuo.

Longzhou lies in a circular valley at the junction of the Xunjiang and Guijiang rivers.’

So this piece may have travelled across the border.

And by the bye, ‘Langson’ looks awfully like a Vietnamese version of the Chinese name. Perhaps a twin town: one on either side of the border?

 

Lạng SÆ¡n (Langson, è«’å±±) has nothing to do with Lung Chow/Longzhou (龍州 / 龙州). I’ve just checked, and Longzhou borders Vietnam’s province of Cao Bằng, not Lạng SÆ¡n.

My guess is that this must be a philatelic item. In 1901, Longzhou and Langson were under the same control of the French in Hanoi, travel from one place to another was therefore fairly easy.


There is something not right about these stamps and postmarks. The placement of one of the Chinese stamps (postmarked 8 June) overlaps the French Indochina stamp (postmarked 1 June). This makes sense. But the 1 June postmark overlaps onto the Chinese stamp postmarked 8 June.

This could only happen if both the Chinese and French Indochinese stamps were already on the cover when the French Indochinese stamp was postmarked. A week later the Chinese stamps were postmarked. Sounds like a philatelic usage to me

the Chinese cancel is 9 June, and the Vietnamese one 10 days later, 19 June.


In that case both the Chinese and French Indochina stamps would still have to have been on the cover before the Chinese stamp was postmarked 9 June because the Chinese stamp overlaps the French Indochina stamp. The French Indochina stamp was then postmarked 19 June with the postmark overlapping onto the China stamp.

An interesting problem.


 

July,16th.1901

 

Chefoo bilingual date post mark 16 jul 01 on LCP stamp.

 

August,16th.1901

 

Imperial 2nd postal card reply portion 1901 (16 Aug) Nanking to Germany, additional franked with Coil Dragon 5c x5, tied by Nanking cds, bottom with German ship cancel & arrival cds

 

Chinese Empire, 1901 (Nov 28) registered combination cover from Chunkiang? to Yokohama, Japan, a neat standard size envelope, franked with pair of 10¢ green coiling Dragon tied by bisected light cds with 10s Kiku Blue offices in China vertical pair alongside tied by dark blue Shanghai IJPO 16 Dec 01 dater. IJPO Shanghai registration label applied with straight Registered handstamp in purple. Large red “R” handstamp in Red alongside, docket 4198 in blue, red wax seals over flap on reverse. A clean neat colorful cover, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,000

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1901 (April 21) picture post card from Chefoo to Italy, franked on front by 4¢ Coiling Dragon tied by Chefoo 4/21 cds, while address side bears pair of 2¢ hong Kong Victoria’s tied by Shanghai Ap 26 01 British PO transit, Shanghai 25 April Chinese PO transit and Roma Jun 28 receiver. neat and Very Fine, nice usageRealized HK$ 1,800

German Offices in China, 1901 (Feb. 2)

 

 

oversized cover from Tsingtau to Germany, franked with 30 pf pair overprinted straight “China” issue, tied with Tseingtau standard German Offices cds alongside bearing small surcharge ½¢ on 3ca Dowager, Coiling Dragon issue ½¢, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢. 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢ lightly postmarked oval “Kiaochow” cancels, due to light cancellations all the stamps further cancelled by blue crayon diagonal strokes, also registered handstamp being crossed out, on reverse oval transit in black and German receiver alongside, a colorful cover with two punched holes on left edge of envelope NOT affecting stamps, a Fine cover. Realized HK$ 1,300

1902

(3)1902
Postally use cover with Franch Indochina Lang Son Tonkin CDS 10 SEp 02 on LCP 2 cent to arrival Hanoi Tonkin CDS on French Indochina stamps

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1902 (Dec 18) First Issue post card usage from Chungking to Philadelphia, 1¢ card uprated by 1¢ and 2¢ Coiling Dragons, all tied by Choice strikes of Kweiyang double-margin tombstone chops. Front additionally shows Chungking 18 Dec 02 cds, Shanghai bilingual 3 Jan 03 cds along with French PO Shang-Hai 3 JANU 03 cds, Nagasaki 6 Jan transit, Yokohama 8 Jan transit and Phila Jan 31 1903 arrivial. A spectacular card with wonderful eye-appeal, F-VF, a beauty! Realized HK$ 15,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 1901, ½¢, 1¢ and 2¢ in ultramarine, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 110, 111, 112 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, unpunched (quite unusual), overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 5,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in blue green, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 116 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at bottom left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, pristine, Very Fine and choiceRealized HK$ 4,500

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in orange brown, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 115 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at top right, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine, scarceRealized HK$ 3,800

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Jumping Carp, 30¢ and 50¢ in violet, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 117, 118, 119 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at lower left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine and choice. Realized HK$ 2,400

 

 

 

 

1902-03 Flying Geese $1

 

 

Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way.

1902 onwards,

a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy.

[ 转自

 

 

 

 

German Offices in China, 1902 (Oct. 2)

 

postcard from Tongku to Germany, German black & white photo postcard, on front franked with 5pf green with straight “China” overprint tied by Tongku/Deutsche post cds 2 Oct/02 with bilingual Tongku bisected postmark and Lwickau/German receiver 10/11/02 alongside on picture side, bearing ICP Coiling Dragon ½¢ brown pair, large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue and 2¢ red Coiling Dragon, tied by bilingual bisected Tongku cds 2/Oct/02. 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue with surcharge shifted to the right, Very Fine, Royal Philatelic Society photo certificate.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

1903

January,10th.1903

 

1903 (10 Jan) post card Shanghai to Cuba, additional franked Coil Dragon 4c, tied by Shanghai cds, alongside with Shanghai French PO cancel, via USA San Francisco transit, with Cuba arrival cds

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1903 & 1906 uprated 1¢ postal card usages to Philadelphia, two 1¢ cards, comprised of Oct 1903 card, uprated by 1¢ & 2¢ marginal coiling Dragons tied by Shanghai cdss to Philadelphia, plus a lovely 1906 1¢ uprated card with lunar cancels and tombstone branch marking to US as well. Interesting pair, F-VFRealized HK$ 7,000

October 1903

Bisect stamps

October,22th.1903

 

A stamp cut into two parts, each part paying postage to the amount of half the face value of the complete stamp. This practice has been authorized to overcome a temporary shortage of certain denominations. The most famous bisect is the Foochow Bisect, popularly called 颶風票 – hurricane stamp or 颱風票 – typhoon stamp by collectors.

On October 22, 1903, because of the shortage of 1 cent stamps, the postmaster of Foochow ordered that the 2 cents red coiling dragon stamps to be bisected diagonally into two halves. Each half stamp was used as 1 cent and handstamped with a specially made boxed “Postage 1 Cent Paid” rubber stamp. This bisect was used from 22 to 24, three days only.

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS(CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE, THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CD-ROM EXIST

 

 

China Pavillion in the First World Expo Ever in London in 1851

 

The Estampe of Sir. Xi Sheng (希生) (the third one from the right)  from Guangdong, London Expo 1851

 

1862

China (French Post Offices)

This refers to general issues for all French and Indo-Chinese offices in China. Various stamps of France or Indo-China were either overprinted or inscribed CHINE. Several offices had individual issues. Prior to 1894, stamps of France were used.

The offices were at Shanghai (opened November 1862), Tientsin (16 March 1889), Chefoo (November 1898), Hankow (1898), Peking (December 1900), Amoy (January 1902), Foochow (1902) and Ningpo (1902). All closed on 31 December 1922

1863

 

Im 1863
The first local Shanghai Port stamps large dragon were issued.

Marvh 1863

 

Foochow, 1863 (March)

cover from US Consulate in Foochow to NJ, forwarded to London, 24¢ Victoria tied on front by B62 killer on cover to Dover, NJ, then onto London. Front shows red london PAID dated 19 May and British Pkt 39 marking dated May 2(?). Reverse shows Hong Kong MR 31 63 cds and lovely, bold red “Consulate USA Foo Chow Foo” and fancy Eagle design handstamp. Slight reduction at left, F-VF, nice usage.
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,000.

 

 

In 1866,

the handling of mails of foreign envoys was reassigned to the Customs. Inspector General of Customs Robert Hart accepted to undertake the duty and set up the “Customs Postal Department” to handle mail delivery. Initially the Customs postal service handled only official documents and private letters for its staff and family members. Since 1866, it began to accept and distribute legation mail pouches. From 1867, it began to accept mail articles from foreign residents to be transmitted by Tientsin-Shanghai steamers. And in 1868, the Tientsin Customs began to accept closed mail from the Tientsin community to be transmitted to Shanghai. (126)

 

1875

In 1875, the Qing government ordered Li to the creation of the Northern Navy, allocated four million taels of silver a year for the training of officers and men, the purchase of warships. In 1881, the Qing government has chosen to build a naval base in Port Arthur and Weihai. December 17, 1888, the Northern Navy was officially inaugurated. Since then, modern China officially has a sixth in the world at the time called Asia’s first naval fleet. The picture shows the custom-made 1880 the Qing government to the German ironclads, the “set” because of heavy tonnage, heavy caliber guns, armor thickness, once known as Asia’s first ship in

 

Northern sailors and more recruitment from coastal Shandong Province, joined the army to accept the strict Western training must learn, in a six month period based on the ship operational knowledge and English. Major warship captain and senior officers of almost all specialized Chuanzheng graduation, students practice and more than once to foreign Naval Academy, the late Qing Dynasty China walk in the forefront of the modernization of the crowd. However, for this reason, the Northern Navy became a stubborn conservative moment of envy, as the target. The picture shows the drilling in Weihai Liugong Island Northern sailors

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

这支效法西方海军,以蒸汽化舰船作为主要装备的舰队,在服装制度上,也一改中国上千年以来延续的号衣样式,开始向近代化方向过渡。尽管当时北洋海军服装的样式仍然是中式,但是服装的颜色搭配、袖口的军衔标识等设计理念,都已开始和欧洲接轨。图为一名北洋海军军官接收军舰期间在欧洲拍摄的一幅照片。

This to follow the example of Western naval steam of the ship as the fleet of major equipment, clothing system, changed the style of the continuation of the “livery” in China since thousands of years, began the transition to the modern direction. Even though the style of the Northern Navy clothing is still Chinese, but the colors of the clothing, cuff rank logo design concepts have begun and European standards. The picture shows a Northern naval officer to receive warships in Europe during the shooting of a photo.

 

Shanghai large dragon

 

Shanghai double dragon

 

 

1877

 

Shanghai, 1877, Small Dragon, 1ca on 3ca and 1ca on 6ca, blue surcharge (Scott 79-80. Chan 65-66), without gum, lovely, nicely centered pair, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.

 

3)1878
The first Large dragon stamps were issued , three types with sane design, green 1 candarin, Red 3 Candarins and yellow 5 Candarins.

 

Large dragon stamp

On March 9, 1878,

Robert Hart entrusted Gustav Detring, then Commissioner of Customs – Tientsin to inaugurate Customs trial-run postal service following example of the Europeans. The beginning of China’s modern post was marked with the opening of the Customs Postal Service for public mailing

on March 23, 1878,

at Peking, Tientsin, Newchwang, Chinkiang and Shanghai with Tientsin Customs as the centre. It was officially named the Customs Post Office later

 

1878

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3), all with o.g., very clean and fresh, sharp rich deep colors, outstanding set, scarce this fine, Very FineRealized HK$ 20,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3); 5 ca couple of short perfs on right side, deep rich colors, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 10,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 1 ca green (Scott 1. Chan 1), with thin gum residue; fresh, slightly wrinkled, otherwise FineRealized HK$ 5,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca green and 3ca brown red, 2 each (Scott 1-2. Chan 1-2), shades, all without gum or small gum residue; small odd tonings on 3ca values, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), used, the former with Customs cds, plus a fake 3ca on card like paper, with trimmed margins all around, fake cancel, 3 itemsRealized HK$ 6,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), both with part seal cancel, deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 5ca orange (Scott 3. Chan 3), used with foreign cancel “Sydney/Australia” and other foreign cancels, three different types; stamp has diagonal crease, most unusual and scarceRealized HK$ 4,000

From 1878

when the Customs Post set up to 1896 when the Imperial Post was established, modern Post of China had experienced many vicissitudes. The number of post offices increased from the original 5 to 24 offices, covered almost all places there were customs houses. A new modern postal system finally held its ground, and laid down foundation for the development of China’s first national postal service – the Imperial Chinese Post.

 

in January 11, 1880.

The Customs Post Office decided to print postage stamps to simplify the postal charge and account settlement. In July 1878, China’s first issue – Customs Large Dragon stamps was released. After Large Dragon, the Customs Post Office issued Small Dragon (1885) and Empress Dowager’s Birthday Commemorative / (1894) stamps.

 

 

1883

 

Chinese Empire, 1883, Large Dragon on thick paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca yellow (Scott 8, 9. Chan 11-12), rough perfs, 3ca with weak inking resulting in hollow “3” and weak frameline, 5ca intensive deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

(4) 1885
The First Small Dragon stamps were issued ,three type with same design, green 1 candarine, Brown violet 3 candarins, and red 5 candarins.

1885

 

Small dragon

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1885-1888, Small Dragons mint group, including rough perfs and perforation varieties (Scott 10//15, Chan 13//21) comprised 1 ca (x6), 3 ca (x3), 5 ca, total 10 examples, some without gum, shades, overall fresh & clean, a nice group, o.g. or without gum, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000.

Chinese Imperial Local Port Stamps

 

Hankow 2 c

 

Hankow 30 c

 

 

 

 

 

Hankow 30 c

 

Foochow port stamp

 

Chinkiang port stamp

 

Kwekiang port stamp

 

Amoy Port Stamp

 

Wuhu Port Stamp

 

Ichang Port stamp

 

Nanking Post Stamp

 

Local Wei Hai Wei stamp

 

Wei Hai We LKT courier stamp

 

China British India stamp

 

China Britishpostmark A11

 

British A11 Shanghai

 

BritishCDS Wei Hai Wei

 

China Russia Postoffice stamp

 

China French Pstoffice stamp

 

China USA postoffice stamp

 

China Japan postoffice stamp

 

China Germanpostoffice stamps

 

China Italia Postoffice stamp

 

China Belgia Post Office stamp

 

Local Amoy Port Stamp 1896

 

Large dragon 1878

1886

 

Shanghai, 1886, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS 117a, 117ci), a lovely mint pair of these eye-catching varieties, o.g., Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

 

Shanghai, 1886-88, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS117a & ci), two lovely used examples showing surcharge inverted and reading from top left to bottom right varieties, Very Fine, scarce pair, each unpriced used.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.

1888

 

 

 

 

Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888

 

Empress Xi Ci Stamp

 

 

 

 

 

CHINESE IMPERIAL POSTAL SEALED

 

Chinese Empire, 1888, Small Dragon, 1ca bright green, perf 11½ (Scott 13. Chan 19), margin block of 4, o.g., very lightly hinged at top, never hinged at bottom, beautiful front & back, a choice block, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,600

 

 

1890

the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise.

 

In 1892,

Robert Hart suggested to Tsungli Yamen to establish a national post office again,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shanghai Local Post Card

1893

 

Shanghai, 1893, Double Dragons, 5¢ carmine pink, left half with inverted surcharge (Chan LS141a), with watermarked paper, Type I with Shanghai double circle postmark in blue, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

1894

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca value color proof on very thin cigarette paper (Scott 16 var.), without gum as issued, complete margins all around, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca orange red, imperf horizontally (Scott 16 var.), vertical pair, used with complete Shanghai seal chop in dark blue; some overall aged toning, stamp Very Fine, rare item. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing, mint group (Scott 16-20,22. Chan 22-26, 28), comprising 1ca(3), 2ca(3), 3ca(3), 4 ca(2), 5ca and 9ca, most with o.g., 12 values, a clean group, generally F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing (Scott 16-18, 20-24. Chan 22-24, 26-30), group of 11 values, comprised 1ca, 2ca, 3ca (2), 5ca, 6ca, 9ca (2), 12ca, 24 ca(2), majority very fine, odd faults on couple of values as expected, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 4,500. Realized HK$ 9,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing,1ca-24ca complete (Scott 16-26. Chan 22-33), neat cancels, very clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 10,000

 

 

 

 

To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894,

the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive

 

The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou.

The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.

 

Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.

 

Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

(5) 1890
The Local Port shinaghai stamps double dragon were issued.

(6) 1893
The Local port stamps were issued from several port : Chefoo, Hankou(Hankow) and Chongqing(Chungqing),

(7) 1894

(a)The Local port stamps were issued from several port :Fuzhou(Foochow) , Zhenjiang(Chinkiang), Wuhu, Yichang(Ichang) and Tianjin(Tientsin).

(b) The French Post Office in Chine issued Chine surharge France stamps .(many types surcharge at many area also issued ,like Mongtse ,Yunnan Fu,Hoi-Hao , Canton,Pac Hoi,Tchong King and Kuong Tcheuo)

(8) 1895
The Local port stamps were issued from Amoy(xianmen) .

and later in 1895

made a 4 chapter, 44 articles of Postal Guide for the modern postal service. In 1896 Robert Hart succeeded in founding the Imperial Post Office and appointed the Inspector General of Posts. Money came from Customs Funds. The innumerable rules, regulations and problems that had to be overcome were legion. He paid attention to every possible matter from opening a new department to the design of a postage stamp.

 

1895

 

Amoy, 1895, First Issue, 2¢ blue, Type 1 (Scott 3. Chan LA3), block of 4, o.g., fresh mint, Very Fine, scarce block.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

 

 

 

 

Chefoo, 1895 (20 July) US – Chefoo combination piece, franked by 5¢ US Grant issue (Scott 270) tied to piece along with Chefoo 1¢ Pagoda by “Chefoo 20 JUL 95 Local Post” cds and 5¢ Grant additionally cancelled by duplex “1” and partial “Postal Agency Jul 31 Shanghai;” nice combination, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,000.

 

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, Overprinted on ½¢ wide spaced (Scott J9, var. Chan LCHD8 & 8di), horizontal 4 stamps used on piece, second stamp showing “U” in “”DUE”” inserted by hand variety, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, 15¢ carmine, black over red overprint, both inverted (Scott J12cd. Chan LCHO24b), horizontal pair, o.g.; fresh, bright pair which is sensibly reinforced, right stamp tiny, pinpoint thin speck, otherwise F.-V.F., striking variety, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,500.

 

 

Hankow, Postage Dues, 1895, Type III complete (Chan LHD11-13), o.g.; 10¢ carmine with shallow thin spot, otherwise F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000. Realized HK$ 7,500

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall

 

  • ·              战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.

 

 

 

 

W. B. Thornhill, Shanghai, 1895 first edition published by Stanley Gibbons, with notes and publishers’ prices, Extremely Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200. Realized HK$ 2,600

 

 

(9) 1896

(a) The Local Port stamps were issued from Nanjing(Nanking)

(b) The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving official recognation to the “European” postals system (knowns as Foreign uniform in China ) and bringing to an end the old I cHan and Minchu Postal service .
This postal system was for many years operated by the Chinese Maritime Custom.

1896

 

Chinkiang, Official, 1896, 15¢ carmine, inverted overprint variety (Scott O8a. Chan LCHO8var), o.g., never hinged, pristine mint, F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 + var. Chan LHD6 + 6a), a lovely vertical strip of 3, top stamp showing large top of left character variety, fresh, Very Fine, scarce multiple.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,600.

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 var. Chan LHD6a), an attractive example, showing large top of left character variety, used, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,400.

1897

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure ½¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 3ca orange, wide spacing, imperf horizontally (Scott 47c. Chan 56eii), vertical strip of 3, o.g., lightly hinged, fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 34,000 – 40,000.

May,5th.1897

 


Off Cover Used surcharge Cixi birthday 1 cent block four CDS custom Hankow Mai 3 1897

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 2nd Printing, 4ca pale rose (Scott 19n. Chan 25S), o.g., fresh and F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,400 – 3,000.

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 1¢ on Empress Dowager 1st Printing 1ca vermilion, wide spacing (Scott 39. Chan 48), o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing, mint group (Scott 47//55, 73-74. Chan 56//64, 82-83), plus re-engraved set, comprised ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢, 8¢, 10¢ and 30¢, re-engraved ½¢ missing corner and 2¢(2), total 14 values, majority clean and fresh overall condition, o.g., F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 6,000 – 7,000. Realized HK$ 11,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, mint group (Scott 28//36), comprising ½¢(4), including pair shifted perfs, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 8¢(2) one with “8” shifted to right, 10¢ on 6¢, 10¢ on 9¢ and 10¢ on 12¢, o.g. on all values, one 8¢ bottom straight edge, clean group, 13 values, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000. Realized HK$ 9,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing (Scott 47-51, 53-55), 8 values without 8¢ on 6ca, but with extra values, comprising ½¢(2), 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢ on 9ca(2), 10¢/12ca and 30¢/24ca, total 11 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Narrow Spacing, mint & used group (Scott 65//71, 73. Chan 74-79, 83), comprised mint ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢, 4¢, 10¢ and used ½¢, 1¢(3), 2¢(2), 10¢ on 9ca, 10¢ on 12ca, minor varieties noted, plus ½¢ on 3ca, total 17 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,500

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, used selection (Scott 28//36), comprised of ½¢(3), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢(4) including pair, 8¢(3), 10¢ on 6ca, 10¢ on 9ca used on piece, 10¢ on 12ca with nearly complete “Tangku” cds in blue, overall F-VF, some faults expected, 18 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,800 – 3,500. Realized HK$ 7,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 30¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 24ca dark red, 2mm spacing (Scott 55a. Chan 64d), o.g., F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000

 

Surcharge Revenue

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), o.g., small hinge remnant, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,400

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., hinge remnant; perfs trimmed close at top, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78), block of 4, part o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 26,000

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), 3 examples, one mint and two used copies, the former has small gum thinned spot, used fine, all with surcharges shifted to the right, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), used, fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,200

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), o.g., clean, exceptionally well centered, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), surcharge slightly shifted to left; small thin top left corner, Fair exampleRealized HK$ 6,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), used, well centered, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), neat large part Customs postmark, good color and centering, Very FineRealized HK$ 19,000

good value as shown by the large surcharge type

 

1897 Red Revenue 4c small type surcharge $US16,000

1897 Red Revenue 4c large type surcharge $US150

 

 

 

 

Please do NOT ask members in general threads like this if items shown are for sale.
Many members show items of interest which they value greatly as part of their collection, not becuase they want to sell them. It is not appropriate to ask that question here and may cause embarrassment to members.

The separate Sales Forum is used by members specifically to list the items they wish to sell, so keep checking there if there is anything anyone is selling that you may wish to buy.
Also, if you are looking for a specific stamp or stamps, you can always start a thread in the Wanted Forum, giving details of what you want and how much you are willing to pay. (Gavin)

Dr Iwan notes, I have ever seen the small overprint from Mr Untung Rahardjo in Jkarata, and I didinot know that the smallest low price, I am lucky I didsinot buy the small overprint from him because I asked him almost 1000 US dollar,be careful to buy this stamps,you must learn the inforemations in this CD-ROM)


 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), o.g., hinge remnant, clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 11,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), has o.g. but used example, neat part Shanghai Dollar chop cancel, good color and superb centering, exceptional beauty, Very FineRealized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 86), regummed, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 38,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 14, surcharge shifted downward, o.g., good color, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 40,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), used, clean, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 7, used with complete strike of Swatow Pakua cancel, good color and centering, Extremely FineRealized HK$ 22,000