Driwan CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM CONTINIU

THE CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM

PART

Ezekiel Prophesying.THREE

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Parable of the eagles and the vine - Ezek.17

Eagle
Parable of the eagles and the vine – Ezek.17.

The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows - Ezek.21.21

Arrows
The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows – Ezek.21.21.

 

Vision of the chambers of imagery - Ezek.8.7-12

Chamber
Vision of the chambers of imagery – Ezek.8.7-12.

 

 

 

 

The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols - Ezek.6.4,5

Idols
The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols – Ezek.6.4,5.

Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem - Ezek.9.1-7

Judgement
Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem – Ezek.9.1

-7.

 

 

 

Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem - Ezek.4.1

Siege
Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem – Ezek.4.1.

Vision of the temple - Ezek.40

Temple
Vision of the temple – Ezek.40.

 

 

Ezekiel`s vision - Ezk.1 & 10

Vision
Ezekiel`s vision – Ezk.1 & 10.

 

The vision of Ezekiel - from a 14th century illuminated Bible

 Ezekiel:

ezekiel-1.jpg (12405 bytes)

Time of the Vision, The Four Living Creatures, The Four
Wheels, The Firmament, The Appearance of a Man
Chapter 1
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-01.mp3

Ezekiel-2-10.jpg (141997 bytes)

Ezekiel Is Sent to Israel
Chapter 2
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-02.mp3

Ezekiel Is Instructed About His Ministry
Chapter 3
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-03.mp3

Ezek-4.jpg (83348 bytes)

Sign of the Tile, Sign of the Defiled Bread
Chapter 4
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-04.mp3

Sign of the Razor and the Hair, Explanation of the
Signs
Chapter 5
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-05.mp3

Destruction of High Places, Salvation of the remnant,
Desolation of the land
Chapter 6
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-06.mp3

Description of the Babylonian Conquest
Chapter 7
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-07.mp3
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-07b.mp3

Vision of the Glory of God, Image of Jealousy,
Painting on the Wall, Weeping for Tammuz, Sun Worship
Chapter 8
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-08.mp3

Call to the Six Men, , Command to Slay the Wicked,
Weeping of Ezekiel
Chapter 9
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-09.mp3

Departure of the Glory of God to the Threshold,
Vision of the Wheels and Cherubims
Chapter 10
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-10.mp3

Ezek-11.jpg (104760 bytes)

Vision of the Twenty-five Wicked Rulers, Promise
of the Restoration of the Remnant, Departure of the
Glory of God from the Mount of Olives
Chapter 11
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-11.mp3

Sign of Stuff (Baggage) for Removing, Sign of Trembling,
Chapter 12
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-12.mp3

Judgment upon False Prophets, Judgment upon False
Prophetesses
Chapter 13
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-13.mp3

Idolatry of the Elders, Judgment to Be Destroyed
Chapter 14
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-14.mp3

Parable of the Vine Tree
Chapter 15
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-15.mp3

God Has Mercy on Israel, Israel rejectsa God,
God Punishes Israel, God Remebers His Covenant
Chapter 16
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-16.mp3

Ezek-17.jpg (127236 bytes)

Parable of the Two Eagles
Chapter 17
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-17.mp3

Message of Personal Judgment for Personal Sin
Chapter 18
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-18.mp3

Lament for the Princes of Israel, Parable of the
Withered Vine
Chapter 19
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-19.mp3

In Egypt, Is the Wilderness, In Canaan, In Ezekiel’s
Time, Message of God’s Future Restoration of Israel,
Sign of the Forest Fire
Chapter 20
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-20.mp3

Sign of the Drawn Sword, Sign of the Double Stroke
of the Sword
Chapter 21
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-21.mp3

Ezek-22.jpg (99483 bytes)

Message of Judgment on Jerusalem
Chapter 22
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-22.mp3

Parable of Two Sisters
Chapter 23
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-23.mp3
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-23b.mp3

Parable of the Boiling Pot, Sign Through the Death
of Ezekiel’s Wife
Chapter 24
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-24.mp3

Judgment on Ammon, Judgement on Moab, Judgment on Edom,
Judgment on Philistia
Chapter 25
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-25.mp3

Ezek-26.jpg (109418 bytes)

Destruction of Tyrus
Chapter 26
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-26.mp3

Lament over Tyrus
Chapter 27
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-27.mp3

Fall of the Prince of Tyrus, Judgment on Zidon
Chapter 28
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-28.mp3

Egypt to the Desolate, Egypt to Be Taken by Babylon
Chapter 29
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-29.mp3

Egypt to Be Destroyed
Chapter 30
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-30.mp3

Egypt is Cut Down Like Assyria
Chapter 31
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-31.mp3

Egypt Is Lamented, Egypt in Sheol
Chapter 32
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-32.mp3

The Appointment of Ezekiel as Watchman
Chapter 33
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-33.mp3

The False Shepherds, The True Shepherd
Chapter 34
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-34.mp3

The Judgment of Edom
Chapter 35
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-35.mp3

Ezek-36.jpg (99100 bytes)

Judgment of the Nations, Israel Returns to the Lord
Chapter 36
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-36.mp3

A Vision of Dry Bones, Sign of the Two Sticks
Chapter 37
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-37.mp3

Ezek-38.jpg (132396 bytes)

Attack by Gog, Judgment of God
Chapter 38
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-38.mp3

Chapter 39
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-39.mp3

Vision of the Man with the Measuring Rod, The Outer
Court, The Inner Court, The Temple Porch
Chapter 40
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-40.mp3

The Temple Itself
Chapter 41
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-41.mp3

The Chamber in the Outer Court, The Place of Separation
Chapter 42
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-42.mp3

The Return of the Glory of God to the Temple, The
Altar of Burnt Offerings
Chapter 43
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-43.mp3

Duties of Temple Priests
Chapter 44
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-44.mp3

Land of the Temple Priests, Offerings of the Temple
Priests
Chapter 45
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-45.mp3

Chapter 46
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-46.mp3

Ezek-47.jpg (72799 bytes)

River from the Temple, Boundaries of the Land
Chapter 47
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-47.mp3

Divisions of the Land, Gates of the City, Names of
the City
Chapter 48
http://www.ordination.org/Bible_Study/Ezek-48.mp3

Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ezra
Nehemiah
Esther
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesastes
Song of Solomon
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation

 

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Driwan CHUECH HISTORY MUSEUM CONTONIUE

THE CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM

PART

Ezekiel Prophesying.TWO

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Vision of the holy waters - Ezek.47

Waters
Vision of the holy waters – Ezek.47.

 

Tyre
The capture of Tyre – Ezek.27.

.

Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx

Nations
Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx.

.

Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him - Ezek.14.1

Elders
Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him – Ezek.14.1.

Ezekiel - a portrait by Guy Rowe

Ezekiel
Ezekiel – a portrait by Guy Rowe.

Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God - Ezek.24.15-18

Resign
Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God – Ezek.24.15-18.

Lioness and whelps - Ezek.19

Lioness
Lioness and whelps – Ezek.19.

Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt - Ezek.32

Egypt
Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt – Ezek.32.

Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones - Ezek.37

Bones
Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones – Ezek.37.

Driwan CHURCH HISTORY MUSUEM CONTINIU

THE CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM

PART

Ezekiel Prophesying. one

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

November 6th One Year Bible Readings

 

// Old Testament – I am fascinated by God’s words in Ezekiel chapter 14 verses 13 & 14 today: 

Son of man, suppose the people of a country were to sin against me, and I lifted my fist to crush them, cutting off their food supply and sending a famine to destroy both people and animals.

Even if Noah, Daniel, and Job were there, their righteousness would save no one but themselves, says the Sovereign Lord.” 

The first thing these verses tell us is that God’s judgment upon Jerusalem at this time was certain.  Even the righteousness of Noah, Daniel, and Job couldn’t change that – only these 3 men would have been saved. 

However, this got me thinking.  Is it possible that sometimes today we try to build up our own righteousness to ensure our own salvation and basically do nothing to try to build up others righteousness and help them toward their salvation?  Meaning, do we sometimes retreat into a “Christian bubble” and ignore the rest of “the world.”  Leave them to their own devices.  It just made me think when reading about Noah, Daniel, and Job that my hunch is that these 3 would not just chill out and relax in the glory and certitude of their own righteousness.  My hunch is that they would get out there on the streets and try to save others.  So, what about you and me?  Are we just cocooning in our own righteousness and salvation, or are we taking salvation to the streets?  Are we retreating from the battle for others’ salvation or are we engaged in it?  What say you?

Braveheart

Ezekiel chapter 14 verse 23 tells us today:  “When you meet them and see their behavior, you will agree that these things are not being done to Israel without cause, says the Sovereign LORD.”  I think sometimes we can read some select verses in the Old Testament out of context and think God is being harsh.  God here reminds us that he is not being harsh without cause.  And we’ll see more of the cause in chapter 16 today…  Below is an image of Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who visited him in chapter 14 verse 1:

Ezekiel20prophesying20to20the20elders20w

Ezekiel chapter 15 is an interesting one for me today, where God basically calls Jerusalem a useless grape vine.  In reading this I am also reminded that Jesus in John 15 uses the grape vine analogy again saying “I am the vine and you are the branches.”  This tells me that Jesus redeems even useless grape vines!  🙂  However, using this Ezekiel analogy, are we growing in our lives like trees or like vines?  How thick are your roots?  How solid is your core?

Tree_ring

Ezekiel chapter 16 is a fascinating and sad look at the city of Jerusalem.  This is the first time I have really spent a little bit of time with this chapter.  The question I find for myself in reading this chapter is this: has God blessed us similarly in some ways that he blessed Jerusalem?  Have we, perhaps, in some ways used the blessings that God has given us in improper ways?   Verse 6 in this chapter stood out to me: “But I came by and saw you there, helplessly kicking about in your own blood. As you lay there, I said, `Live!'”  Bible commentaries suggest that this one word – Live! – is God’s basic desire for all humans.  How powerful is that realization?  How very beautiful…  Live!  Let us Live!Ezekiel Prophesying.

image

Ezekiel, the third of the great Hebrew prophets, was the son of the priest Buzi. (Ezekiel i, 3). He was probably born about 620 or 630 years before Christ, and was consequently a contemporary of Jeremiah and Daniel, to the latter of whom he alludes in chapters xiv, 14-20 and xxviii, 3.

When Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar in 597 B.C. (2 Kings xxiv, 8-16; Jeremiah xxix, 1-2; Ezekiel xvii, 12; xix, 9), Ezekiel was carried captive along with Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, king of Judah, and thousands of other Jewish prisoners, to Babylonia, or as he himself calls it, “the land of the Chaldeans.” (Ezekiel i, 3).

Here, along with his exiled fellow-countrymen, he lived on the banks of the river Chebar (Ezekiel i, 1-3), in a house of his own (viii, i). Here also he married, and here, too, his wife, “the desire of his eyes,” was taken from him “with a stroke” (Ezekiel xxiv, 15-18). His prophetic career extended over twenty-two years, from about 592 B.C. to about 570 B.C.

The book bearing his name is written in a mystical and symbolical style, and abounds with visions and difficult allegories which indicate on the part of the author the possession of a vivid and sublime imagination.

Ezekiel’s authorship of it has been questioned. The Talmud attributes it to the Great Synagogue, of which Ezekiel was not a member. It is divisible into two portions. The first (chapters i-xxiv) was written before, and the second (chapters xxv-xlviii) after, the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C, the eleventh year of the prophet’s captivity (Ezekiel xxvi, 1-2; XI, i). The present text is very imperfect, being corrupted by the interpolation of glosses and other additions by later hands.

Doré’s picture represents the prophet uttering his oracles to his fellow-exiles (“them of the captivity”), or to the “elders of Judah,” or “elders of Israel,” on one of the occasions to which he himself alludes (viii, I; xi, 25; xiv, I; xx, I).

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows - Ezek.21.21

Arrows
The king of Babylon resorting to divination by arrows – Ezek.21.21.

 

Vision of the chambers of imagery - Ezek.8.7-12

Chamber
Vision of the chambers of imagery – Ezek.8.7-12.

Parable of the eagles and the vine - Ezek.17

Eagle
Parable of the eagles and the vine – Ezek.17.

 

 

The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols - Ezek.6.4,5

Idols
The destruction of the idolatrous Israelites before their idols – Ezek.6.4,5.

Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem - Ezek.9.1-7

Judgement
Vision of judgment upon Jerusalem – Ezek.9.1-7.

 

 

 

Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem - Ezek.4.1

Siege
Ezekiel portraying the siege of Jerusalem – Ezek.4.1.

Vision of the temple - Ezek.40

Temple
Vision of the temple – Ezek.40.

 

Ezekiel`s vision - Ezk.1 & 10

Vision
Ezekiel`s vision – Ezk.1 & 10.

 

Ezekiel 14:12-16:41 ~ Hebrews 7:18-28 ~ Psalm 106:1-

12 ~ Proverbs 27:4-New International Version (NIV)

Jerusalem’s Judgment Inescapable

The vision of Ezekiel - from a 14th century illuminated Bible

Ezekiel
The vision of Ezekiel – from a 14th century illuminated Bible.

12 The word of the Lord came to me: 13

 “Son of man, if a country sins against me by being unfaithful and I stretch out my hand against it to cut off its food supply and send famine upon it and kill its people and their animals, 14 even if these three men—Noah, Daniel[a] and Job—were in it, they could save only themselves by their righteousness, declares the Sovereign Lord.

Vision of the holy waters - Ezek.47

Waters
Vision of the holy waters – Ezek.47.

15 “Or if I send wild beasts through that country and they leave it childless and it becomes desolate so that no one can pass through it because of the beasts, 16 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, even if these three men were in it, they could not save their own sons or daughters. They alone would be saved, but the land would be desolate.

The capture of Tyre - Ezek.27

Tyre
The capture of Tyre – Ezek.27.

17 “Or if I bring a sword against that country and say, ‘Let the sword pass throughout the land,’ and I kill its people and their animals, 18 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, even if these three men were in it, they could not save their own sons or daughters. They alone would be saved.

Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx

Nations
Types of the principal nations mentioned in Ezekiel xxx.

19 “Or if I send a plague into that land and pour out my wrath on it through bloodshed, killing its people and their animals, 20 as surely as I live, declares the Sovereign Lord, even if Noah, Daniel and Job were in it, they could save neither son nor daughter. They would save only themselves by their righteousness.

Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him - Ezek.14.1

Elders
Ezekiel prophesying to the elders who had visited him – Ezek.14.1.

21 “For this is what the Sovereign Lord says: How much worse will it be when I send against Jerusalem my four dreadful judgments—sword and famine and wild beasts and plague—to kill its men and their animals! 22 Yet there will be some survivors—sons and daughters who will be brought out of it. They will come to you, and when you see their conduct and their actions, you will be consoled regarding the disaster I have brought on Jerusalem—every disaster I have brought on it. 23 You will be consoled when you see their conduct and their actions, for you will know that I have done nothing in it without cause, declares the Sovereign Lord.”

Jerusalem as a Useless Vine

Ezekiel - a portrait by Guy Rowe

Ezekiel
Ezekiel – a portrait by Guy Rowe.

15 The word of the Lord came to me: 2

 “Son of man, how is the wood of a vine different from that of a branch from any of the trees in the forest? Is wood ever taken from it to make anything useful? Do they make pegs from it to hang things on? And after it is thrown on the fire as fuel and the fire burns both ends and chars the middle, is it then useful for anything? If it was not useful for anything when it was whole, how much less can it be made into something useful when the fire has burned it and it is charred?

Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God - Ezek.24.15-18

Resign
Ezekiel showing resignation to the dispensation of God – Ezek.24.15-18.

“Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: As I have given the wood of the vine among the trees of the forest as fuel for the fire, so will I treat the people living in Jerusalem. I will set my face against them. Although they have come out of the fire, the fire will yet consume them. And when I set my face against them, you will know that I am the Lord. I will make the land desolate because they have been unfaithful, declares the Sovereign Lord.”

Jerusalem as an Adulterous Wife

Lioness and whelps - Ezek.19

Lioness
Lioness and whelps – Ezek.19.

16 The word of the Lord came to me: 2

 “Son of man, confront Jerusalem with her detestable practices and say, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says to Jerusalem: Your ancestry and birth were in the land of the Canaanites; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. On the day you were born your cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water to make you clean, nor were you rubbed with salt or wrapped in cloths. No one looked on you with pity or had compassion enough to do any of these things for you. Rather, you were thrown out into the open field, for on the day you were born you were despised.

“‘Then I passed by and saw you kicking about in your blood, and as you lay there in your blood I said to you, “Live!”[b] I made you grow like a plant of the field. You grew and developed and entered puberty. Your breasts had formed and your hair had grown, yet you were stark naked.

“‘Later I passed by, and when I looked at you and saw that you were old enough for love, I spread the corner of my garment over you and covered your naked body. I gave you my solemn oath and entered into a covenant with you, declares the Sovereign Lord, and you became mine.

Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt - Ezek.32

Egypt
Sepulchral monuments and mummy pits of ancient Egypt – Ezek.32.

“‘I bathed you with water and washed the blood from you and put ointments on you. 10 I clothed you with an embroidered dress and put sandals of fine leather on you. I dressed you in fine linen and covered you with costly garments. 11 I adorned you with jewelry: I put bracelets on your arms and a necklace around your neck, 12 and I put a ring on your nose, earrings on your ears and a beautiful crown on your head. 13 So you were adorned with gold and silver; your clothes were of fine linen and costly fabric and embroidered cloth. Your food was honey, olive oil and the finest flour. You became very beautiful and rose to be a queen. 14 And your fame spread among the nations on account of your beauty, because the splendor I had given you made your beauty perfect, declares the Sovereign Lord.

15 “‘But you trusted in your beauty and used your fame to become a prostitute. You lavished your favors on anyone who passed by and your beauty became his. 16 You took some of your garments to make gaudy high places, where you carried on your prostitution. You went to him, and he possessed your beauty.[c] 17 You also took the fine jewelry I gave you, the jewelry made of my gold and silver, and you made for yourself male idols and engaged in prostitution with them. 18 And you took your embroidered clothes to put on them, and you offered my oil and incense before them. 19 Also the food I provided for you—the flour, olive oil and honey I gave you to eat—you offered as fragrant incense before them. That is what happened, declares the Sovereign Lord.

20 “‘And you took your sons and daughters whom you bore to me and sacrificed them as food to the idols. Was your prostitution not enough? 21 You slaughtered my children and sacrificed them to the idols. 22 In all your detestable practices and your prostitution you did not remember the days of your youth, when you were naked and bare, kicking about in your blood.

23 “‘Woe! Woe to you, declares the Sovereign Lord. In addition to all your other wickedness, 24 you built a mound for yourself and made a lofty shrine in every public square. 25 At every street corner you built your lofty shrines and degraded your beauty, spreading your legs with increasing promiscuity to anyone who passed by. 26 You engaged in prostitution with the Egyptians, your neighbors with large genitals, and aroused my anger with your increasing promiscuity. 27 So I stretched out my hand against you and reduced your territory; I gave you over to the greed of your enemies, the daughters of the Philistines, who were shocked by your lewd conduct. 28 You engaged in prostitution with the Assyrians too, because you were insatiable; and even after that, you still were not satisfied. 29 Then you increased your promiscuity to include Babylonia,[d] a land of merchants, but even with this you were not satisfied.

30 “‘I am filled with fury against you,[e] declares the Sovereign Lord, when you do all these things, acting like a brazen prostitute! 31 When you built your mounds at every street corner and made your lofty shrines in every public square, you were unlike a prostitute, because you scorned payment.

32 “‘You adulterous wife! You prefer strangers to your own husband! 33 All prostitutes receive gifts, but you give gifts to all your lovers, bribing them to come to you from everywhere for your illicit favors. 34 So in your prostitution you are the opposite of others; no one runs after you for your favors. You are the very opposite, for you give payment and none is given to you.

Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones - Ezek.37

Bones
Ezekiel`s vision of the Valley of Dry Bones – Ezek.37.

35 “‘Therefore, you prostitute, hear the word of the Lord! 36 This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Because you poured out your lust and exposed your naked body in your promiscuity with your lovers, and because of all your detestable idols, and because you gave them your children’s blood, 37 therefore I am going to gather all your lovers, with whom you found pleasure, those you loved as well as those you hated. I will gather them against you from all around and will strip you in front of them, and they will see you stark naked. 38 I will sentence you to the punishment of women who commit adultery and who shed blood; I will bring on you the blood vengeance of my wrath and jealous anger. 39 Then I will deliver you into the hands of your lovers, and they will tear down your mounds and destroy your lofty shrines. They will strip you of your clothes and take your fine jewelry and leave you stark naked. 40 They will bring a mob against you, who will stone you and hack you to pieces with their swords. 41 They will burn down your houses and inflict punishment on you in the sight of many women. I will put a stop to your prostitution, and you will no longer pay your lovers.

Footnotes:

  1. Ezekiel 14:14 Or Danel, a man of renown in ancient literature; also in verse 20
  2. Ezekiel 16:6 A few Hebrew manuscripts, Septuagint and Syriac; most Hebrew manuscripts repeat and as you lay there in your blood I said to you, “Live!”
  3. Ezekiel 16:16 The meaning of the Hebrew for this sentence is uncertain.
  4. Ezekiel 16:29 Or Chaldea
  5. Ezekiel 16:30 Or How feverish is your heart,

Driwan Church History Museum continue

Driwan CHURCH HISTORY MUSEUM’

PART BEFORE CHRIST

arrticles relatated with Bc or BCE

CREATED bY

 drIwan suwandy,MHA

To BC or BCE?

The terms BC, Before Christ and AD, Anno Domini, remain in common usage but have been expunged from the secular language of officialdom and academia.

Bible: To BC or BCE?

Photo: ALAMY
 

<!– remove the whitespace added by escenic before end of tag –>

 

11:23AM BST 02 Sep 2011

Comments66 Comments

 

While they may not be the language of everyday life, the new terms BCE, Before Common Era and CE , Common Era (first invented in the sixth century AD) are now the rule in order to express politically correct sensitivity to non-Christians.

Earlier this year, the first print run of a four-volume Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization was pulped by its American academic publishers following an outcry that it was biased in favour of Christianity, evidenced by its use of BC and AD instead of BCE and CE.

But, whether it’s BC or BCE, both systems take the Gregorian calendar as their starting point .

As the Telegraph’s Christopher Booker noted: “The trouble with this politically-correct effort to spare offence to Muslims, Jews, atheists or other non-Christians from the use of a dating system tied to Jesus, is that it prompts any child to ask ‘So what is this Common Era based on?’, and brings up the very point it seeks to avoid.”

Controversy is raging in Australia over changing the national curriculum to reflect the new BCE orthodoxy. The change was made in Britain nine years ago, sparking a similar controversy and claims by Christians that the authorities were “imposing political correctness in schools to ensure children are cut off from the past, for fear of upsetting someone”.

Defending the change, the British Qualifications and Curriculum Authority argued: “It’s not a question of one way is wrong and one is right, more a question of which is most commonly used. CE/BCE is becoming an industry standard among historians. Pupils have to be able to recognise these terms when they come across them.”

So should we BC or BCE?

 

Drwan Church History Museum continiue

The Church Histor Musuem

PART CHIRST ERA

Ordination

created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 New Testament

Hebrews chapter 7 verse 27 teaches us today:

Jesus does not need to offer sacrifices every day like the other high priests. They did this for their own sins first and then for the sins of the people.”

I hadn’t really thought a lot about this before.  In the Old Testament the Levitical priests had to offer sacrifices first for their own sins – and then they would be clean / pure enough to offer sacrifices for others sins.  The good news of course in the New Testament and in this chapter is that we now have the perfectly clean and pure High Priest of Jesus Christ – who does not need to purify himself first!  He never sinned.  Will you take your sins to Jesus, your High Priest?

OrdinationPsalms – Psalm 106 is a repentive Psalm, likely written by a Levitical priest after returning to Jerusalem after its destruction.  Verse 2 stood out to me today – “Who can list the glorious miracles of the LORD? Who can ever praise him half enough?”  Can you list all of the glorious miracles of God?  Can anyone?  Are you praising God today?  Every day?

Via Dolorosa Of Jerusalem

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2014

Introduction

sumeber

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/via-dolorosa-of-jerusalem-jalan-kesengsaraan-jesus-kristus/

Bagi Yang belum pernah ke Jerusalem, khusus saya tampilkan kisah jalan kesengsaraan Jesus Kristus yang dikenal sebagai jalan dolorosa, Ikutilah kisah ini dengan khidtmat untuk merasakan bagaimana Sang Penebus berkorban untuk kita manusia

For Which had never been to Jerusalewm, my particular story show the sufferings of Jesus Christ, known as a dolorosa, khidtmat Take this story with a feel for how the Messiah’s sacrifice for us humans

Jerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (June 1900)
[Church of the Holy Sepulchre] in 1892

Yerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (Juni 1900)
[Gereja Makam Kudus] tahun 1902

Gereja tersebut  Sekarang

Gereja Makam Suci

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church Now

//  

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is known as the Church of the Resurrection to Eastern Orthodox Christians.

It is revered as the site of Golgotha or Calvary, the spot where Christ was crucified. It is also widely believed to be the site of his burial (sepulcher).

Gereja Makam Kudus terletak di kuartal Christian dari Kota Tua Yerusalem, dan dikenal sebagai Gereja Kebangkitan ke Timur Kristen Ortodoks.

Hal ini dihormati sebagai situs Golgota atau Kalvari, tempat di mana Kristus disalibkan. Hal ini juga diyakini sebagai tempat pemakaman-Nya (kubur).

Ini adalah suci dari situs Kristen, dan telah menjadi tujuan ziarah sejak abad keempat. Ini Apakah terletak kurang dari 2.000 meter dari

It is the holiest of Christian sites, and has been a pilgrimage destination since the fourth century. It Is located less than 2,000 feet from

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Israel Photo
Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) dengan Kubah Batu dan El Aqsa, Yerusalem

Kubah Batu dan Temple Mount, yang merupakan situs tersuci dalam agama Yahudi dan ketiga paling suci dalam Islam.

Seperti Golgota adalah akhir dari perjalanan terakhir Kristus,

Gereja Makam Kudus ditetapkan pada penghentian

Via Dolorosa,

rute dia berjalan dari ia divonis oleh Pontius Pilatus dan penjara untuk penyaliban dan penguburan.

.

the Dome of the Rock and Temple Mount, which are the holiest sites in Judaism and the third holiest in Islam.

As Golgotha is the end of Christ’s last journey,

the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is set at the termination of

the Via Dolorosa,

the route he walked from his condemnation by Pontius Pilate and imprisonment to his crucifixion and burial.

The Via Dolorosa begins at

the Lion’s Gate (the first Station of the Cross)

in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, and contains the 14 Stations of the Cross.

Via Dolorosa dimulai pada

singa Gate (Stasiun pertama dari Salib)

dalam kuartal Muslim di Kota Tua, dan berisi 14 Salib.

stasi 9 (stasiun 9)

Stasiun 10 sampai 14 Salib adalah semua dalam gereja.

Stations 10 to 14 of the Cross are all within the church.

Station 10 is where Jesus was stripped,

and is just outside the entrance to the church. Station 11 is just inside the entrance, marking the spot where he was nailed to the cross. The Rock of Golgotha marks the spot where he died.

Stasiun 10 adalah di mana Yesus dilucuti,

dan hanya di luar pintu masuk gereja. Stasiun 11 hanya di pintu masuk, menandai tempat di mana ia dipaku di salib. The Rock dari Golgota menandai tempat di mana ia meninggal.

Ini adalah Station 12,

This is Station 12,

and here is the church’s lovely Medici altar from Florence, Italy.

dan di sini indah gereja Medici altar dari Florence, Italia.

Stasiun 13

Station 13

is where he was taken down from the cross,

 

and is where there is a statue of Our Lady of Sorrows.

adalah di mana IA dibawa turun dari salib,

 

dan di mana ada patung Our Lady of Sorrows.

Stasiun 14

Station 14

is the tomb and place of resurrection, and is inside the chapel.

The actual Rock of the Calvary, around which the Church of the Resurrection was built, is here and visible under glass on either side of the main altar.

Most scholars believe in the historic accuracy of the geography involved in the location of this Christian site. It appears that early Christians held religious rites on this site beginning with the resurrection.

adalah makam dan tempat kebangkitan, dan di dalam kapel.

The Rock sebenarnya dari Kalvari, sekitar yang Gereja Kebangkitan dibangun, di sini dan terlihat di bawah kaca di kedua sisi altar utama.

Kebanyakan sarjana percaya pada akurasi bersejarah geografi yang terlibat dalam lokasi ini situs Kristen. Tampaknya orang-orang Kristen awal diadakan ritual keagamaan pada awal situs dengan kebangkitan.

Setelah kota ini diduduki oleh Romawi, Kaisar Hadrian membangun kuil Aphrodite di sini di 66 AD.

After the city was occupied by Romans, the Emperor Hadrian built a temple to Aphrodite here in 66 AD.

When Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 AD, he began construction on the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgotha was reputedly uncovered by the builders. His mother, St. Helena, is said to have found three crosses, one of which was supposedly the True Cross.

The church was almost completely destroyed in 1009, and it was subsequently partially rebuilt. It was this Church of the Resurrection where the knights of the First Crusade prayed.

Their leader, Godfrey of Bouillon, became the first Christian King of Jerusalem and “Defender of the Holy Sepulcher.”

The history of the church can be seen in the mixtures of various architecture, which is a mixture of Byzantine, medieval, Crusader, and modern elements. Additionally, the church is jointly administered by orthodox and apostolic Christians from Greece, Armenia, and Ethiopia—in addition to the Roman Catholic Church. Their artistic and architectural influences are also evident.

Ketika Konstantin menjadi Kristen pada tahun 312, ia mulai konstruksi pada Gereja Makam Kudus di 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgota konon ditemukan oleh para pembangun. Ibunya, St Helena, dikatakan telah menemukan tiga salib, salah satunya adalah seharusnya Salib Sejati.

Gereja hampir sepenuhnya hancur pada 1009, dan kemudian dibangun kembali sebagian. Inilah Gereja Kebangkitan di mana para ksatria Perang Salib Pertama berdoa.

Pemimpin mereka, Godfrey dari Bouillon, menjadi Kristen pertama Raja Yerusalem dan “Pembela Makam Kudus.”

Sejarah gereja dapat dilihat dalam campuran arsitektur berbagai, yang merupakan campuran dari elemen Byzantium, Abad Pertengahan, Tentara Salib, dan modern.

Selain itu, gereja secara bersama-sama dikelola oleh orang-orang Kristen ortodoks dan apostolik dari Yunani, Armenia, dan Ethiopia-di samping Gereja Katolik Roma. Pengaruh mereka artistik dan arsitektur juga jelas

look more pictures related with Via  dolorosa’

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet 

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet

Oh Jesus Kesengsaraanmu Tak terperikan

Terima Kasih PenderitaanMu telah

Menebus dosa umat Manusia

Hai Umat Manusia Sadarlah

Read More

The History Of Via Dolorosa

Via Dolorosa

 

 

 

 
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Il Spasimo, Jesus carrying the cross, by Raphael, 1516

The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem.ogv
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The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem

The Via Dolorosa (Latin,”Way of Grief” or “Way of Suffering”) is a street, in two parts, within the Old City of Jerusalem, held to be the path that Jesus walked, carrying his cross, on the way to his crucifixion. The winding route from the Antonia Fortress west to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — a distance of about 600 metres (2,000 feet) — is a celebrated place of Christian pilgrimage. The current route has been established since the 18th century, replacing various earlier versions.[1] It is today marked by nine Stations of the Cross; there have been fourteen stations since the late 15th century,[1] with the remaining five stations being inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

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[edit] History

 

The main roads – the cardines (north-south) and decumani (east-west) – in Aelia Capitolina. The Via Dolorosa is the northern decumanus

The Via Dolorosa is the modern remnant of one of the two main east-west routes (Decumanus Maximus) through Aelia Capitolina, as built by Hadrian. Standard Roman city design places the main east-west road through the middle of the city, but the presence of the Temple Mount in the middle of this position required Hadrian’s planners to add an extra east-west road at its north. In addition to the usual central north-south road (cardo), which in Jerusalem headed straight up the western hill, a second major north-south road was added down the line of the Tyropoeon Valley; these two cardines converge near the Damascus Gate, close to the Via Dolorosa. If the Via Dolorosa had continued west in a straight line across the two routes, it would have formed a triangular block too narrow to construct standard buildings; the decumanus (now the Via Dolorosa) west of the Cardo was constructed south of its eastern portion, creating the discontinuity in the road still present today.

The first reports of a pilgrimage route corresponding to the Biblical events dates from the Byzantine era; during that time, a Holy Thursday procession started from the top of the Mount of Olives, stopped in Gethsemane, entered the Old City at the Lions’ Gate, and followed approximately the current route to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre;[2] however, there were no actual stops during the route along the Via Dolorosa itself.[1] By the 8th century, however, the route went via the western hill instead; starting at Gethsemene, it continued to the alleged House of Caiaphas on Mount Zion, then to Hagia Sophia (viewed as the site of the Praetorium), and finally to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[1]

 

Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholics of Jerusalem split into two factions, one controlling the churches on the western hill, the other the churches on the eastern hill; they each supported the route which took pilgrims past the churches the faction in question controlled,[1] one arguing that the Roman Governor’s mansion (Praetorium) was on Mount Zion (where they had churches), the other that it was near the Antonia Fortress (where they had churches).

In fourteenth century, Pope Clement VI achieved some consistency in route with the Bull, “Nuper Carissimae,” establishing the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, and charging the friars with “the guidance, instruction, and care of Latin pilgrims as well as with the guardianship, maintenance, defense and rituals of the Catholic shrines of the Holy Land.”[3] Beginning around 1350, Franciscan friars conducted official tours of the Via Dolorosa, from the Holy Sepulchre to the House of Pilate—opposite the direction traveled by Christ in Bible.[4] The route was not reversed until c. 1517 when the Franciscans began to follow the events of Christ’s Passion chronologically-setting out from the House of Pilate and ending with the crucifixion at Golgotha.[5]

From the onset of Franciscan administration, the development of the Via Dolorosa was intimately linked to devotional practices in Europe. The Friars Minor were ardent proponents of devotional meditation as a means to access and understand the Passion. The hours and guides they produced, such as Meditaciones vite Christi (MVC), were widely circulated in Europe.

Necessarily, such devotional literature expanded on the terse accounts of the Via Dolorosa in the Bible; the period of time between Christ’s condemnation by Pilate and his resurrection receives no more than one or two lines in all four gospels. Throughout the fourteenth century, a number of events, marked by stations on the Via Dolorosa, emerged in devotional literature and on the physical site in Jerusalem.

The first stations to appear in pilgrimage accounts were the Encounter with Simon of Cyrene and the Daughters of Jerusalem. These were followed by a host of other, more or less ephemeral, stations, such as the House of Veronica, the House of Simon the Pharisee, the House of the Evil Rich Man Who Would Not Give Alms to the Poor, and the House of Herod.[6] In his book, The Stations of the Cross, Herbert Thurston notes: “…Whether we look to the sites which, according to the testimony of travelers, were held in honor in Jerusalem itself, or whether we look to the imitation pilgrimages which were carved in stone or set down in books for the devotion of the faithful at home, we must recognize that there was a complete want of any sort of uniformity in the enumeration of the Stations.”[7]

This negotiation of stations, between the European imagination and the physical site would continue for the next six centuries. Only in the 19th century was there general accord on the position of the first, fourth, fifth, and eighth stations. Ironically, archaeological discoveries in the 20th century now indicate that the early route of the Via Dolorosa on the Western hill was actually a more realistic path.[8]

The equation of the present Via Dolorosa with the biblical route is based on the assumption that the Praetorium was adjacent to the Antonia Fortress. However, like Philo, the late-first-century writer Josephus testifies that the Roman governors of Roman Judaea, who governed from Caesarea Maritima on the coast, stayed in Herod’s palace while they were in Jerusalem,[9] carried out their judgements on the pavement immediately outside it, and had those found guilty flogged there;[10] Josephus indicates that Herod’s palace is on the western hill,[11] and it has recently (2001) been rediscovered under a corner of the Jaffa Gate citadel. Furthermore, it is now confirmed by archaeology that prior to Hadrian‘s 2nd-century alterations (see Aelia Capitolina), the area adjacent to the Antonia Fortress was a large open-air pool of water.[8]

In 2009, Israeli archaeologist Shimon Gibson found the remains of a large paved courtyard south of the Jaffa Gate between two fortification walls with an outer gate and an inner one leading to a barracks. The courtyard contained a raised platform of around 2 square metres (22 sq ft). A survey of the ruins of the Praetorium, long thought to be the Roman barracks, indicated it was no more than a watchtower. These findings together “correspond perfectly” with the route as described in the Gospels and matched details found in other ancient writings.

The route traced by Gibson begins in a parking lot in the Armenian Quarter, then passes the Ottoman walls of the Old City next to the Tower of David near the Jaffa Gate before turning towards the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The new research also indicates the crucifixion site is around 20 metres (66 ft) from the traditionally accepted site.[12][13]

 

Shop on the Via Dolorosa near Eece Homo Arch, Jerusalem, 1891

[edit] Current traditional stations

 

Sign along Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

The traditional route starts just inside the Lions’ Gate (St. Stephen’s Gate), at the Umariya Elementary School, near the location of the former Antonia Fortress, and makes its way westward through the Old City to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The current enumeration is partly based on a circular devotional walk, organised by the Franciscans in the 14th century; their devotional route, heading east along the Via Dolorosa (the opposite direction to the usual westward pilgrimage), began and ended at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also passing through both Gethsemene and Mount Zion during its course.

Whereas the names of many roads in Jerusalem are translated into English, Hebrew, and Arabic for their signs, the name Via Dolorosa is used in all three languages.

[edit] Trial by Pilate: stations one and two

 

The Monastery of the Flagellation

The first and second stations commemorate the events of Jesus’ encounter with Pontius Pilate, the former in memorial of the biblical account of the trial and Jesus’ subsequent scourging,[14] and the latter in memorial of the Ecce Homo speech, attributed by the Gospel of John to Pilate.[15] On the site are three early 19th-century Roman Catholic churches, taking their names from these events; the Church of the Condemnation and Imposition of the Cross, Church of the Flagellation, and Church of Ecce Homo; a large area of Roman paving, beneath these structures, was traditionally regarded as the pavement (Greek: lithostratos) described by the Bible as the location of Pilate’s judgment of Jesus.[16]

However, as mentioned above, scholars are now fairly certain that Pilate carried out his judgements at Herod’s Palace at the southwest side of the city, rather than at this point in the city’s northeast corner.[8] Archaeological studies have confirmed that the Roman pavement, at these two traditional stations, was built by Hadrian as the flooring of the eastern of two Forums.[8] Prior to Hadrian’s changes, the area had been a large open-air pool of water, the Strouthion Pool mentioned by Josephus;[8] the pool still survives, under vaulting added by Hadrian so that the Forum could be built over it, and can be accessed from the portion of Roman paving under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion, and from the Western Wall Tunnel.

 

The Ecce Homo Arch. Originally triple-arched, it is now mostly hidden in the surrounding fabric.

Adjacent to the Church of Ecce Homo is an arch, running across the Via Dolorosa; this arch was originally the central arch of a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian as the main entrance to the aforementioned Forum.[8] When later building works narrowed the Via Dolorosa, the two arches on either side of the central arch became incorporated into a succession of buildings; on the northern side, the Church of Ecce Homo now preserves the north arch; on the southern side, in the 16th century the south arch.

The three northern churches were gradually built after the site was partially acquired in 1857 by Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne, a Jesuit who intended to use it as a base for proselytism against Judaism.[17] The most recent church of the three – the Church of the Flagellation – was built during the 1920s; above the high altar, under the central dome, is a mosaic on a golden ground showing The Crown of Thorns Pierced by Stars, and the church also contains modern stained-glass windows depicting Christ Scourged at the Pillar, Pilate Washing his Hands, and the Freeing of Barabbas. The Convent, which includes the Church of Ecce Homo, was the first part of the complex to be built, and contains the most extensive archaeological remains. Prior to Ratisbonne’s purchase, the site had lain in ruins for many centuries; the Crusaders had previously constructed a set of buildings here, but they were later abandoned[clarification needed].

 

[edit] The three Falls: stations three, seven, and nine

 

The exterior of the Polish Catholic Chapel at the third station

Although no such thing is recounted by the canonical Gospels, and no official Christian tenet makes these claims, popular tradition has it that Jesus stumbled three times during his walk along the route; this belief is currently manifested in the identification of the three stations at which these falls occurred. The tradition of the three falls appears to be a faded memory of an earlier belief in The Seven Falls;[18] these were not necessarily literal falls, but rather depictions of Jesus coincidentally being prostrate, or nearly so, during performance of some other activity. In the (then) famous late-15th-century depiction of the Seven Falls, by Adam Krafft, there is only one of the Falls that is actually on the subject of Jesus stumbling under the weight of the cross, the remaining Falls being either encounters with people on the journey, the crucifixion itself, or the removal of the dead body from the cross.

 

The ninth station, signified by the black disc on the wall. The alley is parallel to the Via Dolorosa, but some way to its south

The first fall is represented by the current third station, located at the west end of the eastern fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the 19th-century Polish Catholic Chapel; this chapel was constructed by the Armenian Catholics, who though ethnically Armenian, are actually based in Poland. The 1947–48 renovations, to the 19th-century chapel, were carried out with the aid of a large financial grant from the Polish army. The site was previously one of the city’s Turkish baths.

The second fall is represented by the current seventh station, located at a major crossroad junction, adjacent to a Franciscan chapel, built in 1875. In Hadrian’s era, this was the junction of the main cardo (north-south road), with the decumanus (east-west road) which became the Via Dolorosa; the remains of a tetrapylon, which marked this Roman junction, can be seen in the lower level of the Franciscan chapel. Prior to the 16th century, this location was the 8th and last station.[1]

The third fall is represented by the current ninth station, which is not actually located on the Via Dolorosa, instead being located at the entrance to the Ethiopian Orthodox Monastery and the Coptic Orthodox Monastery of Saint Anthony, which together form the roof structure of the subterranean Chapel of Saint Helena in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox churches split in 1959, and prior to that time the monastic buildings were considered a single Monastery. However, in the early 16th century, the third fall was located at the entrance courtyard to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and an engraved stone cross signifying this still remains in situ. Prior to the 15th century, the final station occurred before this point would even have been reached.[1]

[edit] The Encounters

 

The Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem – empty by night

Four stations commemorate encounters between Jesus and other people, in the city streets; one encounter is mentioned in all the Synoptic Gospels, one is mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke, and the remaining two encounters only exist in popular tradition.

[edit] With Mary, Jesus’ mother: fourth station

The New Testament makes no mention of a meeting between Jesus and his mother, during the walk to his crucifixion, but popular tradition introduces one. The fourth station, the location of a 19th-century Armenian Orthodox oratory, commemorates the events of this tradition; a lunette, over the entrance to the chapel, references these events by means of a bas-relief carved by the Polish artist Zieliensky. The oratory, named Our Lady of the Spasm, was built in 1881, but its crypt preserves some archaeological remains from former Byzantine buildings on the site, including a mosaic floor.

[edit] With Simon of Cyrene: fifth station

 

The exterior of the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, at the fifth station

The fifth station refers to the biblical episode in which Simon of Cyrene takes Jesus’ cross, and carries it for him.[19] Although this narrative is included in the three Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John does not mention Simon of Cyrene[20] but instead emphasizes the portion of the journey during which Jesus carried the cross himself.[21] The current traditional site for the station is located at the east end of the western fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, a Franciscan construction built in 1895. An inscription, in the architrave of one of the Chapel doors, references the Synoptic events.

Prior to the 15th century, this location was instead considered to be the House of the Poor Man, and honoured as the fifth station for that reason;[22] the name refers to the Lukan tale of Lazarus and Dives,[23] this Lazarus being a beggar, and Dives being the Latin word for [one who is] Rich. Adjacent to the alleged House of the Poor Man is an arch over the road; the house on the arch was thought to be the corresponding House of the Rich Man.[22] The houses in question, however, only date to the Middle Ages,[24] and the narrative of Lazarus and Dives is now widely held to be a parable.[25][26][27]

[edit] With Veronica: sixth station

A medieval Roman Catholic legend viewed a specific piece of cloth, known as the Veil of Veronica, as having been supernaturally imprinted with Jesus’ image, by physical contact with Jesus’ face. By metathesis of the Latin words vera icon (meaning true image) into Veronica,[28] it came to be said that the Veil of Veronica had gained its image when a Saint Veronica encountered Jesus, and wiped the sweat from his face with the cloth; no element of this legend is present in the bible, although the similar Image of Edessa is mentioned in The Epistles of Jesus Christ and Abgarus King of Edessa, a late piece of New Testament apocrypha. The Veil of Veronica relates to a pre-Crucifixion image, and is distinct from the post-Crucifixion Holy Face image, often related to the Shroud of Turin.

The current sixth station of the Via Dolorosa commemorates this legendary encounter between Jesus and Veronica. The location was identified as the site of the encounter in the 19th century; in 1883, Greek Roman Catholics purchased the 12th-century ruins at the location, and built the Church of the Holy Face and Saint Veronica on them, claiming that Veronica had encountered Jesus outside her own house, and that the house had formerly been positioned at this spot. The church includes some of the remains of the 12th-century buildings which had formerly been on the site, including arches from the Crusader-built Monastery of Saint Cosmas. The present building is administered by the Little Sisters of Jesus, and is not generally open to the public.

[edit] With Pious Women: eighth station

 

Pietro Lorenzetti‘s fresco of women following Jesus on Via Dolorosa, Assisi, 1320

The Eighth station commemorates an episode described by the Gospel of Luke, alone among the canonical gospels, in which Jesus encounters pious women on his journey, and is able to stop and give a sermon.[29] However, prior to the 15th century the final station in Jesus’ walk was believed to occur at a point earlier on the Via Dolorosa, before this location would have been reached. The present eighth station is adjacent to the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Saint Charalampus; it is marked by the word Nika (a Greek word meaning Victory) carved into the wall, and an embossed cross.

[edit] Modern re-enactments and processions

 

Reenacting the Stations of the Cross on Via Dolorosa

Each Friday, a Roman Catholic procession walks the Via Dolorosa route, starting out at the monastic complex by the first station; the procession is organized by the Franciscans of this monastery, who also lead the procession. Acted re-enactments also regularly take place on the route, ranging from amateur productions with, for example, soldiers wearing plastic helmets and vivid red polyester wraps, to more professional drama with historically accurate clothing and props.[30][31][32]

read more about Jesus

How did Jesus and the Hebrews become WHITE?

How did the Hebrews turn White? Of course they didn’t really; just in the imaginations, and then the histories of White people. Who for probably practical reasons, decided that Hebrews, and also the Blacks who originally lived in the Country’s that they took over, should all become White for posterity’s sake.

Seeing as how it only takes three generations to turn a Black person into a White person (and visa versa). No doubt there came a time when as Europe’s formerly bi-racial populations, became more homogeneously White, White people decided that they could no longer acknowledge that all that they knew and had, was derived from the minds and labors of Black people – even down to their religious beliefs. The logic no doubt being that Whites could not progress to their full potential, if they were always looking up to Blacks, as the personification of knowledge and wisdom. So a change had to be made, and at some point, by somebody, that change began.

Of course, we have no way of knowing when this process of Whitinizing Blacks began, or who did it, or where it was first done. But we do have some materials by which we can track the process, somewhat.

But first, let us go back to see what Hebrews REALLY looked like. The earliest authentic pictures of real Hebrews that we have, date back to before Christ. They are Assyrian relief’s showing Hebrews, and others that they conquered, in pictorial scenes detailing the battles fought, with associated text. These relief’s decorated Assyrian palaces, and were no doubt used to gloat over their conquest of the Hebrews and others. Here we are using pictures of: Assyrian King Shalmaneser IIIs “Black Obelisk” (858 B.C.). Assyrian king Tiglath-pilesar III’s relief’s of his conquest of a city near the Sea of Galilee (730 B.C.). Assyrian King Sennacherib’s relief’s of the conquest of the Judean City of Lachish (701 B.C.). The four pictures below, are from those Assyrian relief’s. (These relief’s are stored in the British Museum, London England).

It is worth mentioning, that the Hebrews were just as literate, and just as artistic as the other Black civilizations around them. The reason that we have to depend on outside sources for pictures of them, is because Whites destroyed all that the Hebrews ever created. Even down to the very religious writings that they claim to worship by. That fact is that ALL Hebrew writings, even the SEPTUAGINT {the original Bible}, which was only roughly Hebrew (it was made for the Greek King of Egypt, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) in 282-246 B.C.), has been destroyed. Everything except for the “Dead Sea Scrolls” which were found in 1947, in Qumran, a village situated about twenty miles east of Jerusalem. The Scrolls are under the joint custody of the Catholic Church and the Israelis. The translated contents of those Scrolls has never been made public, and probably never will be – no doubt the differences in teachings and facts would be irreconcilable.  (A few inconsequential snippets have been made public – the entire Scrolls is a huge work, which contains the entire old Testament plus many other works).

Why wasn’t the material in these pages destroyed? Because after it’s fall, Assyria came under the control of the Persian Empire, which was itself a Black Empire. It then came under the control of Greeks, who were at that time, seeking to merge with the Black Persians, not in denying that they were Black people. Then Assyria again came under Persian control, and then finally under the control of the original Black Arabs. So at the time when Whites were destroying vestiges of Black history, they had no access to the Assyrian artifacts.

But at those times when Whites did have control of an area, they seem to have been very through in destroying all vestiges of the former Black inhabitants; there is nothing left to suggest that Carthage was a Black city, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations are some of the oldest known, yet very little is left – next to nothing in the Indus valley. Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), was home to many great and famous civilizations, but very little has been found there. The Egyptian artifacts, of which there are many, were mostly recovered in modern times, when Whites rather than simply destroy, instead modify artifacts; sometimes just by breaking the noses off, in order to make them look like White people, and then proudly display them as proof of the White mans greatness.

The Khazars, a Turkish tribe who had established a Kingdom in the Caucasus region, and converted to Judaism in the 8th century A.D. Must have seen the doings of the Romans and Greeks, and seen it as an opportunity for them to take over the Hebrew identity, and thus control of the orthodox branch of the Hebrew religion – which indeed they did. They logically thinking that if Jesus can be White, why not then, the entire Hebrew nation – which was by then a diaspora anyway. The Islamist side-stepped the entire issue by forbidding imagery of any kind.

Let us proceed then, with our pictorial essay of how Jesus, and thus, the Hebrews TURNED WHITE!

Thanks to Religion Facts.com (Link)

The Alexamanos Graffito, dating from c.200 AD or earlier, is an interesting early parody of Christianity. This early graffito (wall-scratching; singular of graffiti) was discovered in 1857 in a guardroom on Palatine Hill near the Circus Maximus in Rome, and is now in the Palatine Antiquarian Museum. The drawing shows a man with an ass’s head being crucified, to which a youth is raising his hand as if in prayer. The text in Greek reads: ALE, XAMENOS, SEBETE, THEON. which means, “Alexamenos worships his god.” Before Christianity, the Hebrews had already been charged with worshipping an ass; this was probably the basis of this accusation being directed at Christianity.
This wall painting, depicting the Healing of the Paralytic, is the earliest known representation of Jesus, dating from about 235 AD. The painting was found in 1921 on the left-hand wall of the baptismal chamber of the house-church at Dura-Europos on the Euphrates River in modern Syria. It is now part of the Dura Europos collection at the Yale University Gallery of Fine Arts.
 
This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco. The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based on several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image. 
This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco. The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based in several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image.
This fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. The Catacombs of Domitilla date from the 2nd through 4th centuries. According to W.F. Volbach, “The extent to which the type of the apostolic group as been developed suggests a 4th-century origin” for this particular fresco.
Christ at the Second Coming, In the center of the apse mosaic is Christ standing on red clouds (representing the dawn), dressed in golden robes labeled with the monogram I. He holds the scroll of the Law in his left hand. The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is one of the ancient churches of Rome called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as deacons: the Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Giovanni Cheli. The basilica, devoted to the two Greek brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace. The Temple of Romulus was dedicated by Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus, who died in 309 and was rendered divine honours. It is possible that the temple was in origin the temple of “Iovis Stator” or the one dedicated to Penates, and that Maxentius restored it before the re-dedication.The ancient Roman fabric was Christianized and dedicated to Sancti Cosma et Damiano in 527, when Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, and his daughter Amalasuntha donated the library of the Forum of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) and a portion of the Temple of Romulus to Pope Felix IV. The pope united the two buildings to create a basilica devoted to two Greek brothers and saints, Cosmas and Damian, in contrast with the ancient pagan cult of the two brothers Castor and Pollux, who had been worshipped in the nearby Temple of Castor and Pollux. The apse was decorated with a Roman-Byzantine mosaic, representing a parousia, the Second Coming of Christ at the end of time. The bodies of Saints Mark and Marcellian were translated, perhaps in the ninth century, to this church, where they were rediscovered in 1583 during the reign of Pope Gregory XIII.

In 1632, Pope Urban VIII ordered the restoration of the basilica. The works, projected by Orazio Torriani and directed by Luigi Arrigucci, raised the floor level seven metres, bringing it equal with the Campo Vaccino, thus avoiding the infiltration of water. Also, a cloister was added. The old floor of the basilica is still visible in the lower church, which is actually the lower part of the first church. In 1947, the restorations of the Imperial Forums gave a new structure to the church. The old entrance, through the Temple of Romulus, was closed, and the temple restored to its original forms; with the Pantheon, the Temple of Romulus is the best preserved pagan temple in Rome. A new entrance was opened on the opposite side (on via dei Fori Imperiali), whose arch gives access to the cloister, and through this to the side of the basilica.

Jesus’ appearance from behind locked doors, by Duccio-di-Buoninsegna – 1308 A.D.
The Duccio-di-Buoninsegna above, which still has a “somewhat” Black looking Jesus, and some likewise “Black looking” Apostles, seems to mark the end of Black Jesus, and the beginnings of the total lie. No non-White depiction of Jesus is known to have been made after this time – by White people.
The last judgment by Pietro Cavallini – 1293 A.D. St Cecilia Trastevere, Rome.
Another fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. Probably from a later time than the first fresco.  Is this the beginning of the Whitinization of Black People? It may be that later artists felt that since this fresco didn’t cause the artist to immediately burn in Hell, it might be okay to paint Jesus as White.
Santa Costanza mosiac – Santa Costanza is a church in Rome, built under Emperor Constantine I and place of burial (mausoleum) of his daughters Constantina and Helena. Later, Constantina was venerated as saint, with the Italian name of Costanza, and the church was dedicated to her. The church was built under Constantine, probably by Constantinia, next to the cemetery of Sant’Agnese fuori le mura, where Saint Agnes, who allegedly had healed Constantina, was buried. After their deaths, Constantine’s daughters Constantina and Helena were buried here. Since Consantina was venerated as saint, the mausoleum was consecrated as a church in 1254 by Pope Alexander IV. After the church was restored in 1620 by Cardinal Fabrizio Veralli, Constantina’s magnificent porphyry sarcophagus was moved to the Vatican Museums. The Church was originally a mausoleum. 
Dead Christ – Giovanni Bellini, 1460 A.D. Museum Poldi Pezzoli, Milan
The Modern Jesus

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

 

Tacitus: History Book 5

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

But before the modern era of pathetic White racism, with it’s White fright of all things Black, and Black identity theft. Where Khazar Turks are the new Hebrews, and Osman Turks are the new Berbers, Egyptians, Arabs, and Middle-Easterners. Before every ancient Black figure encountered in a museum or book was explained away as a Nubian-Ethiopian, a Slave, or a servant: All people knew Hebrews to be Black people, and depicted them as Black people.

Click here for big blow-up of picture

The Black Popes

According to the Albinos and their pronouncements from the Liber Pontificalis, three popes-Pope St Victor I (c. 186-198), Pope St Miltiades (311-14), and Pope St Gelasius (492-496)-were Africans. The Liber Pontificalis is composed of a series of biographical entries, which record the dates and important facts for each pope. It is the oldest and most detailed chronicle dating from the Early Church. The Liber Pontificalis is dated from the sixth century. The record of names begins with St Peter. As the work progressed the entries became longer and more detailed. The Liber Pontificalis continued to be written until 1431. So then, is the Liber Pontificalis deception by word play, differentiating between African and Black? Which is actually okay, if people know what you are doing. But somehow I doubt the criminals in the Vatican would let on to that.

It is likely that all Popes prior to the fall of the Black Holy Roman Empire (circa 1658) were Black.

 

For histories and images of some of the first Christians: Click Here >>>

Selected historical quotes regarding the Hebrews

Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (155 A.D. to circa after 229), was a Roman consul and a noted historian writing in Greek.

Cassius Dio
Roman History
Book XXXVII

14 – 3: After the death of Mithridates all portions of his dominion except a few were subjugated. A few garrisons which at that time were still holding forts outside of Bosporus, did not immediately come to terms, not so much because they were minded to resist Pompey as because they were afraid that others might seize the money which they were guarding and lay the blame upon them; hence they waited, wishing to show everything to Pompey himself. When, then, the regions in that quarter had been subdued, and Phraates remained quiet, while Syria and Phoenicia had become tranquil, Pompey turned against Aretas. The latter was king of the Arabians, now subjects of the Romans, as far as the Red Sea. Previously he had done the greatest injury to Syria and had on this account become involved in a battle with the Romans who were defending it; he was defeated by them, but nevertheless continued the war at that time. Pompey accordingly marched against him and his neighbours, and, overcoming them without effort, left them in charge of a garrison.

Thence he proceeded against Syria Palaestina, because its inhabitants had ravaged Phoenicia. Their rulers were two brothers, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were quarrelling themselves, as it chanced, and were creating factions in the cities on account of the priesthood (for so they called their kingdom) of their god, whoever he is. Pompey immediately won over Hyrcanus without a battle, since the latter had no force worthy of note; and by shutting up Aristobulus in a certain place he compelled him to come to terms, and when he would surrender neither the money nor the garrison, he threw him into chains. After this he more easily overcame the rest, but had trouble in besieging Jerusalem. 16 Most of the city, to be sure, he took without any trouble, as he was received by the party of Hyrcanus; but the temple itself, which the other party had occupied, he captured only with difficulty. For it was on high ground and was fortified by a wall of its own, and if they had continued defending it on all days alike, he could not have got possession of it. As it was, they made an excavation of what are called the days of Saturn, and by doing no work at all on those days afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. The latter, on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs, made no serious attempts the rest of the time, but on those days, when they came round in succession, assaulted most vigorously. Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn, without making any defence, and all the wealth was plundered. The kingdom was given to Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus was carried away.

This was the course of events at that time in Palestine; for this is the name that has been given from of old to the whole country extending from Phoenicia to Egypt along the inner sea. They have also another name that they have acquired: the country has been named Judaea, and the people themselves Jews. I do not know how this title came to be given to them, but it applies also to all the rest of mankind, although of alien race, who affect their customs. This class exists even among the Romans, and though often repressed has increased to a very great extent and has won its way to the right of freedom in its observances. They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life, and especially by the fact that they do not honour any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself, but believing him to be unnamable and invisible, they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth. They built to him a temple that was extremely large and beautiful, except in so far as it was open and roofless, and likewise dedicated to him the day called the day of Saturn, on which, among many other most peculiar observances, they undertake no serious occupation.

Now as for him, who he is and why he has been so honoured, and how they got their superstitious awe of him, accounts have been given by many, and moreover these matters have naught to do with this history. The custom, however, of referring the days to the seven stars called planets was instituted by the Egyptians, but is now found among all mankind, though its adoption has been comparatively recent; at any rate the ancient Greeks never understood it, so far as I am aware. But since it is now quite the fashion with mankind generally and even with the Romans themselves, I wish to write briefly of it, telling how and in what way it has been so arranged. I have heard two explanations, which are not difficult of comprehension, it is true, though they involve certain theories. For if you apply the so-called “principle of the tetrachord” (which is believed to constitute the basis of music) to these stars, by which the whole universe of heaven is divided into regular intervals, in the order in which each of them revolves, and beginning at the outer orbit assigned to Saturn, then omitting the next two name the lord of the fourth, and after this passing over two others reach the seventh, and you then go back and repeat the process with the orbits and their presiding divinities in this same manner, assigning them to the several days, you will find all the days to be in a kind of musical connection with the arrangement of the heavens. This is one of the explanations given; the other is as follows. If you begin at the first hour to count the hours of the day and of the night, assigning the first to Saturn, the next to Jupiter, the third to Mars, the fourth to the Sun, the fifth to Venus, the sixth to Mercury, and the seventh to the Moon, according to the order of the cycles which the Egyptians observe, and if you repeat the process, you will find that the first hour of the following day comes to the Sun. And if you carry on the operation throughout the next twenty-four hours in the same manner as with the others, you will dedicate the first hour of the third day to the Moon, and if you proceed similarly through the rest, each day will receive its appropriate god. This, then, is the tradition.

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

Tacitus: History Book 5 [1]

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer is an aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers, ascribed to R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (80-118 C.E.), a disciple of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai and teacher of Rabbi Akiva. It comprises fifty four chapters. Some parts appear to be written as late as the 8th century CE, although there are older elements. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer comprises ethical guidelines, legends and folklore, as well as astronomical discussions related to the story of the Creation. Many ancient customs that are not found in other sources are described in this work.

The Pirke appears, according to Zunz, to be incomplete, and to be merely a fragment of a larger work. S. Sachs, on the other hand, thinks that it was compiled from two previous works by the same author, the relation of the two productions to each other being that of text and commentary, the text giving merely the story of the Bible, which was interrupted by the commentary in the form of the Aggadah, and the commentary being intended for reading during the ten days of penitence. Meir ha-Levi Horwitz thinks that the author developed those Bible stories which bore relation to the entire nation, dealing lightly with those that concerned only individuals.

Jost was the first to point out that in the 30th chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly alludes to the three stages of the Muslim conquest, that of Arabia, of Spain, and of Rome (830 C.E.), the names of Fatima and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael, leading to the conclusion that the book originated in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia Minor. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign the Messiah shall come, the work might be ascribed to the beginning of the 9th century, for about that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El-Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over the Islamic realm. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point to an even earlier date, approximately the same date might be inferred from the enumeration of the four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated in the Talmud and the Mekilta.

The author seems to have been a rabbi of the Land of Israel; this appears not only from the fact that some of the customs to which he refers (in ch. xiii. and xx.) are known only as customs of the Land of Israel, but also from the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are from the Land of Israel, the exceptions being Rav Mesharshia and Rav Shemaiah, who are from Babylonia. The work is ascribed to R. Eliezer (80-118 C.E.), although he was a tanna, while the book itself the Pirḳe Abot is quoted. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 3rd century C.E., like Shemaiah (ch. xxiii.), Ze’era (ch. xxi., xxix.), and Shila (ch. xlii., xliv.), are also quoted, indicating that the work was edited or additions were made to it after the time of R. Eliezar.

The work is divided into 54 chapters, which may be divided into seven groups.

Supposedly a 10th century Palestinian Jewish author gives
the word of Roman era Ribbi Eli`ezer Hyrkanus that
“[God] blessed Shem and his sons, black and beautiful,
giving them the habitable earth.”, his Pirqe, daf 28a.
This blackness was not as dark as Ham’s raven similied
black skin.
Amos 9: (King James Version)
7: Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

Isaiah 43: (King James Version)
3: For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

2 Kings 5 (King James Version)

1Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Syria, was a great man with his master, and honourable, because by him the LORD had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper.

2And the Syrians had gone out by companies, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited on Naaman’s wife.

3And she said unto her mistress, Would God my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! for he would recover him of his leprosy.

4And one went in, and told his lord, saying, Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel.

5And the king of Syria said, Go to, go, and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. And he departed, and took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of raiment.

6And he brought the letter to the king of Israel, saying, Now when this letter is come unto thee, behold, I have therewith sent Naaman my servant to thee, that thou mayest recover him of his leprosy.

7And it came to pass, when the king of Israel had read the letter, that he rent his clothes, and said, Am I God, to kill and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh a quarrel against me.

8And it was so, when Elisha the man of God had heard that the king of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying, Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me, and he shall know that there is a prophet in Israel.

9So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariot, and stood at the door of the house of Elisha.

10And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, Go and wash in Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt be clean.

11But Naaman was wroth, and went away, and said, Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me, and stand, and call on the name of the LORD his God, and strike his hand over the place, and recover the leper.

12Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them, and be clean? So he turned and went away in a rage.

13And his servants came near, and spake unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean?

14Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean.

15And he returned to the man of God, he and all his company, and came, and stood before him: and he said, Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel: now therefore, I pray thee, take a blessing of thy servant.

16But he said, As the LORD liveth, before whom I stand, I will receive none. And he urged him to take it; but he refused.

17And Naaman said, Shall there not then, I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules’ burden of earth? for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods, but unto the LORD.

18In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant, that when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing.

19And he said unto him, Go in peace. So he departed from him a little way.

20But Gehazi, the servant of Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian, in not receiving at his hands that which he brought: but, as the LORD liveth, I will run after him, and take somewhat of him.

21So Gehazi followed after Naaman. And when Naaman saw him running after him, he lighted down from the chariot to meet him, and said, Is all well?

22And he said, All is well. My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of garments.

23And Naaman said, Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments, and laid them upon two of his servants; and they bare them before him.

24And when he came to the tower, he took them from their hand, and bestowed them in the house: and he let the men go, and they departed.

25But he went in, and stood before his master. And Elisha said unto him, Whence comest thou, Gehazi? And he said, Thy servant went no whither.

26And he said unto him, Went not mine heart with thee, when the man turned again from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to receive money, and to receive garments, and oliveyards, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and maidservants?

27The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.

 

On differentiating between White people and Lepers.

Leviticus 13 (King James Version)

1And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying,

2When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests:

3And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean.

4If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days:

5And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more:

6And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be somewhat dark, and the plague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

7But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again.

8And if the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy.

9When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest;

10And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and there be quick raw flesh in the rising;

11It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up: for he is unclean.

12And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh;

13Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean.

14But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean.

15And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean: for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy.

16Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest;

17And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean.

18The flesh also, in which, even in the skin thereof, was a boil, and is healed,

19And in the place of the boil there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be shewed to the priest;

20And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white; the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil.

21But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

22And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague.

23But if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

24Or if there be any flesh, in the skin whereof there is a hot burning, and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white;

25Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin; it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

26But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the other skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

27And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

28And if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not in the skin, but it be somewhat dark; it is a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning.

29If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard;

30Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin; and there be in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall, even a leprosy upon the head or beard.

31And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, it be not in sight deeper than the skin, and that there is no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days:

32And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the scall spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin;

33He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more:

34And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

35But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing;

36Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he is unclean.

37But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and that there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

38If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, even white bright spots;

39Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white; it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin; he is clean.

40And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he is bald; yet is he clean.

41And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he is forehead bald: yet is he clean.

42And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore; it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead.

43Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh;

44He is a leprous man, he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague is in his head.

45And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.

46All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his habitation be.

47The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment, or a linen garment;

48Whether it be in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin;

49And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a plague of leprosy, and shall be shewed unto the priest:

50And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up it that hath the plague seven days:

51And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin; the plague is a fretting leprosy; it is unclean.

52He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire.

53And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin;

54Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more:

55And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, if the plague have not changed his colour, and the plague be not spread; it is unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire; it is fret inward, whether it be bare within or without.

56And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof:

57And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire.

58And the garment, either warp, or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin it be, which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean.

59This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen, either in the warp, or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean.

References

 
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 37
  2. ^ Oxford Archaeological Guide: The Holy Land (paperback, 4th edition, 1998), pages 34–36
  3. ^ Wharton, Annabel Jane. Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. p. 109.
  4. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.34.
  5. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.55.
  6. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p. 21.
  7. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.50.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  9. ^ Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, page 87, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  10. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 2:14:8
  11. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 5:2
  12. ^ Study shines light on final steps of Christ The Courier-Mail April 11, 2009
  13. ^ Archaeologist: Jesus took a different path 4VF News April 10, 2009
  14. ^ John 19:1–3
  15. ^ John 19.5
  16. ^ John 19:13
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Ratisbonne Brothers, Volume 13, pp.1570–1571, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry on Way of the Cross
  19. ^ Mark 15:21
  20. ^ John 19:17
  21. ^ Simon of Cyrene – Bible Study
  22. ^ a b Dave Winter, Israel handbook, page 126
  23. ^ Luke 16:19–31
  24. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry for Dives
  25. ^ The IVP Bible Background Commentary
  26. ^ N. T. Wright, Luke for Everyone
  27. ^ Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus
  28. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Veronica
  29. ^ Luke 23:27–31
  30. ^ Jerusalem of the heavens: the Eternal City in bird’s eye view by Yehuda Salomon, Mosheh Milner 1993 ISBN 965-474-000-1 page 187
  31. ^ Frommer’s Jerusalem Day by Day by Buzzy Gordon 2010 ISBN 0-470-67636-1 page 12
  32. ^ Frommer’s Israel by Robert Ullian 2010 ISBN 0-470-61820-5 page 179

The end @ copyright 2014

Driwan Church History Museum (continue)

DRIwAN CHURCH HISTORY  MUSEUM

PERT INTRODUCTIONS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2014

INTRODUCTIONS

Since little KId in 1950 ,every morning

I vist the church at the front my house in Padang City west sumatra, i met all the early fransican padfua italian ftaher who owrk here after the fly from cumminist china, like father mario bgiani, ganizarooro,capra, laurenzi,spinabelli, morini,  etc, but (I didnot became priest because related to the unmeried problem, my friend became priest Romo Sandharma SH.

I have write the history of indonesian church , and also other articles related with church, I have just foun many best book relatated with the church History also another histporical artifact, and i have promisise when prayin to Madona Maria which given me mercgy to built this museum dedicated to her,majesty

Please click below to look my articles before

The histyory ofIndonesian Rome Catholic Church

I will built the museum related basic with the church bibble or alkibatb book from the old testament,during Jesus era, the 12 Jesus pupilm adna after that until 1075.

   
B.C. (Before Christ)Visitors watch a presentation that introduces the Bible with its Old and New Testaments, then pass to another room where they put on monks outfits, to discover the different kinds of papers used long ago including the papyrus, then to translate a verse from the Bible from the Hieroglyphs into Arabic and write it down on a papyrus paper as a souvenir.

A.D. (After Christ)

In a Roman Coliseum, a 3-D exciting movie will take the visitors in time to experience what happened with the Early Church through the eyes of the Centurion. At the end of the movie, visitors will be imprisoned and the door of the prison won’t open before the children answer some questions on the screen about the movie contents.

Back to the Future

After experiencing how the Bible came to us through early writing, visitors will have to go back in time into the first printing press (Gutenberg), and experience the difficulties of printing on a 90-years-old printing press. Then back to the future, to the new technologies where the Bible can be reached through various technologies, visitors will read a story from the Bible and play some computer games.

I hope all the christian will happy and get spirit and mercy when read  and look this musuem

Jakatta 1st December 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 Koleksi Historis Gereja katolik Indonesia 1800-1942

(THE INDONESIA CATHOLIC CHURCH HISTORIC COLLECTIONS)

FRAME ONE : INTRODUCTIONS(PENDAHULUAN)

I. DASAR PEMIKIRAN(BACKGROUND)

1.In May,8th,1807 was the moment of earliest histrotic of the beginning of Catholic Churh hirachy in Batavia (now Jakarta) and also the first point of Catholic church Hirarchy in Dutch east indie because at this date the Dutch east Indie ‘s Perfectur Apostholic had begun officially was the first Perfectur apostilk P.J.Nielsen,Pr. The young Church were developed until age 200 years .and the Keuskupan agung Jakarta have serveing actively the Catholic pupil at Jakarta,Bekasi and tangerang. 25 years ago the new bigger Yakobus church had built at Kelapa gading Jakarta Utara, and now have renovation to be the very amizing church in Jakarta utara.

Tanggal 8 Mei 1807 merupakan momentum awal bersejarah dimulainya hierarki Gereja Katolik di Jakarta (Batavia kala itu) bahkan titik mula hierarki Gereja Katolik di Hindia Belanda dimana pada tanggal tersebut telah diresmikan berdirinya Prefektur Apostolik Hindia Belanda dengan Prefektur Apostolik Pertama yaitu P. J. Nellisen, Pr. Gereja belia ini terus-menerus bertumbuh dan berkembang secara dinamis hingga kini telah mencapai usia 200 tahun, usia yang matang bagi gereja untuk berkarya nyata di masyarakatnya dalam wilayah yurisdiksinya dan hal inilah yang menjadi tantangan bagi umat Katolik di Keuskupan Agung Jakarta untuk terlibat aktif melayani dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat di Jakarta, Tangerang dan Bekasi.Dua puluh lima tahun yang lalu didirikan sebuah gereja yang indah menarik di Kelapa Gading Jakarta.

2.Dr Iwan Suwandy want to make an active participations to add the christian catholic informations in order to add their knowledge related with their church.

Dr Iwan suwandy ingin ikut secara nyata berpartisipasi aktif dalam usaha peningkatan pengetahuan informasi para umat Katolik yang tekait dengan gereja mereka.

3. When the age of Indonesian Catholic Church became 200 years and the Kelapa gading ‘s yakobus church 25 years ,this time was the best moment for the catholic church and dr iwan suwandy to reseach about the history of church development as the basic info for the next development.

Ketika usia Gereja Katolik di Keuskupan Agung Jakarta dan jakarta telah mencapai usia 200 tahun ,lihat surat gembala uskup agung Jakarta terkait perayaan dua abad Gereja Katolik Indonesia dibawah ini:

dan gereja St Yakobus kepalpa gading 25 tahun silahkan melihat label peringatan dibawah ini :

, tentunya merupakan momentum yang tepat agar Geraja katolik Indonesia dan Dr iwan melakukan penelitian sejarah Gereja Katolik sebagai informasi awal untk perkembangan dimasa mendatang.

4, After collecting informations since 20 years ,starting in 1990, I starting to analysing and made exhibition my best collections of indonesia catholic Church ‘s history. some information I found from google exploration, This the first complete info from all of Indonesian province in cybermuseum, bacause this time the history from each church only.

Setelah mengumpulkan informasi sejak 20 tahun yang lalu,mulai tahun 1990.saya menemukan koleksi yang terkait dengan gereja katolik indonesia seperti Buku peringatan gereja katolik Indonesia dalam bahasa belanda dengan pengantar dari Paus Pius IX tanggal 28 Pebruari 1926 ,lihat illustrasinya dibawah ini

buku ini yang menjadi sumber inormasi yang sangat berguna anatar lain berisi sejarah dan peta misi katolik dIndonesia silahkan lihat illustrasinya dibawah ini :

dalam peta ini terlihat Indonesia dibagi dalam enam wilayah apostolik dan sembilan perfektur.berdasarkan area ini akan disajikan koleski illustrasi dan info sejarahnya.

selain itu saya menemukan patung maria antik di Bukitinggi tahun 1984 dari toko antik teman saya ,lihat fotonya .

Seluruh info tersebut diatas ditambah dari eksplorasi google cukup menarik untuk di analisa dan ditampilkan dalam pameran koleksi historis gereja katolik Indonesia, . Pameran ini adalah informasi lengkap dari seluruh provinisi yang pertama kali dilakukan di museum dunia maya, karena saat ini hanya ada pameran dari masing-masing gereja saja dan tidak lengkap.

4. I hope all the Catholic members in Indonesia and all over the world will accepting the best informations to add their knowledge about the history of Catholic church in Indonesia.The infowill write in English language whic can read by all christian catholic memebers all over the world

5. Thanks very much for indformations from all the priest had add in the internet which I add with my own collections in this exhituion

6. I know this informations were not complete and need more corrections and added info, please comment and suggestion to make this article more best performance.

Jakarta january 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy

FRAME TWO:

*ill

*ill peninggalan gereja portugis di Bitaoni Timor.

agama Katolik merupakan agama yang pertama kali muncul dan berkembang sangat pesat terutama di kawasan eropa. Dengan memakai pusat di vatikan, misionaris misionaris disebar bersama dengan melalui armada armada kapal penjelajah. Misi gold,glory, and gospel yang mengikutsertakan agama sebagai misi utama penjelajah eropa turut serta menjadi faktor penyebar agama Katolik.
Agama katolik diyakini pertama kali dibawa oleh penjelajah Portugis yang mendarat di Maluku utara. Tokoh misionaris yang paling berperan dalam penyebaran agama katolik di daerah ini adalah Fransiskus Xaverius (seorang Santo yang disebut kehidupannya sangat mirip dengan gaya hidup Yesus)di antara 1546-1547 terutama di Ambon,Saparua dan Ternate.

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BEFORE 19TH CENTURY (voc era)

Kemenangan VOC atas Spanyol dan Portugis di Indonesia menyebabkan terhentinya penyebaran agama Kristen Roma Katolik, karena bangsa Spanyol dan Portugis menganut agama Kriosten Roma Katolik sedangkan Belanda menganut agama Protestan. Belanda mengusir mereka dan melarang penyebaran agama Katolik, kemudian menjadikan Protestan sebagai gantinya. Tujuan orang-orang Belanda itu ingin melenyapkan agama Katolik, baik di negeri Belanda sendiri maupun di daerah jajahannya (Embuiru dalam Bakry, 1979). Meski kondisinya demikian, tetap masih ada pengikut Katolik dan mereka memiliki imam Katolik yang secara diam-diam saling tolong menolong.

GEREJA KATOLIK ABAD KE XIX.

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN 19TH CENTURY

Barulah ketika Raja Lodewijk naik takhta yang memeluk agama Katolik berkuasa, Penyebaran Agama Katolik kembali berkembang pesat. Pada tanggal 8 Mei 1807 pimpinan Gereja Katolik di Roma mendapat persetujuan Raja Louis Napoleon untuk mendirikan Prefektur Apostolik Hindia Belanda di Batavia (sejalan dengan sejarahnya Katedral Jakarta)

namun ada anggapan bahwa berkembangnya agama Katolik di Maluku buka merupakan yang pertama kali. Adalah suatu daerah di pantai barat Sumatra di pelabuhan tertua di Indonesia yaitu Barus (dahulu pancur). Berita tersebut dapat dibaca dalam sejarah kuno karangan seorang ahli sejarah Shaykh Abu Salih al-Armini yang menulis buku “Daftar berita-berita tentang Gereja-gereja dan pertapaan dari provinsi Mesir dan tanah-tanah di luarnya”. yang memuat berita tentang 707 gereja dan 181 pertapaan Serani yang tersebar di Mesir, Nubia, Abbessinia, Afrika Barat, Spanyol, Arabia, India dan Indonesia.
Dengan terus dilakukan penyelidikan berita dari Abu Salih al-Armini kita dapat mengambil kesimpulan kota Barus yang dahulu disebut Pancur dan saat ini terletak di dalam Keuskupan Sibolga di Sumatera Utara adalah tempat kediaman umat Katolik tertua di Indonesia. Di Barus juga telah berdiri sebuah Gereja dengan nama Gereja Bunda Perawan Murni Maria

hingga saat ini keberadaan agama katolik cukup besar dengan penganut sekitar 3,6 % dari populasi penduduk Indonesia .Jika dalam suatu negeri terdapat misi Katolik, maka segala usaha misi diatur langsung oleh pusat misi di Roma yang bernama Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Komisi untuk menyiarkan Iman). Langkah yang ditempuh pertama kali ketika mereka memasuki daerah baru adalah mendirikan prefektur-Apostolis, dipimpin oleh seorang Padri yang disebut Prefek-Apostolis. Apabila usaha misi telah berkembang dengan baik, maka Prefektur tersebut ditetapkan menjadi vikariat-Apostolis. Pada tahun 1826 organisasi tersebut pernah berlaku di Indonesia ketika Paus menetapkan Prefektur-Apostolis pertama di sana. Persengkataan antara pemerintah Belanda dengan gereja Roma Katolik berakhir pada tahun 1847, ketika gereja Roma Katolik diakui berdaulat. Setelah itu, Kristen Katolik dan Protestan semakin berkembang di Indonesia (Bakry, 1979)

pada tahun 1810-1820, didirikan gereja kathedral pertama di Bayavia(Jakarta) Indonesia yang sampai saat masih ada, lihat gambar lama (vintage picture) gereja tersebut tahun 1880:

sejarah singkat gereja kathedral Jakarta

Gereja Katedral Jakarta
Gereja Katedral Jakarta

Letak Jakarta, Indonesia
Afiliasi agama Katolik Roma
Tahun diresmikan 21 April 1901

Deskripsi arsitektur
Arsitek Antonius Dijkmans
Jenis arsitektur Gereja
Gaya arsitektur Neo-Gothic
Tahun selesai 21 April 1901
Spesifikasi
Puncak 2

Gereja Katedral Jakarta (nama resmi: Santa Maria Pelindung Diangkat Ke Surga, De Kerk van Onze Lieve Vrouwe ten Hemelopneming) adalah sebuah gereja di Jakarta. Gedung gereja ini diresmikan pada 1901 dan dibangun dengan arsitektur neo-gotik dari Eropa, yakni arsitektur yang sangat lazim digunakan untuk membangun gedung gereja beberapa abad yang lalu.

Gereja yang sekarang ini dirancang dan dimulai oleh Pastor Antonius Dijkmans dan peletakan batu pertamanya dilakukan oleh Provicaris Carolus Wenneker. Pekerjaan ini kemudian dilanjutkan oleh Cuypers-Hulswit ketika Dijkmans tidak bisa melanjutkannya, dan kemudian diresmikan dan diberkati pada 21 April 1901 oleh Mgr. Edmundus Sybradus Luypen, SJ, Vikaris Apostolik Jakarta.

Katedral yang kita kenal sekarang sesungguhnya bukanlah gedung gereja yang asli di tempat itu, karena Katedral yang asli diresmikan pada Februari 1810, namun pada 27 Juli 1826 gedung Gereja itu terbakar bersama 180 rumah penduduk di sekitarnya. Lalu pada tanggal 31 Mei 1890 dalam cuaca yang cerah, Gereja itu pun sempat roboh.

PS KOLEKSI LENGKAP LIHAT DI Driwancybermuseum blog,SILAHKAN KLIK hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com.

Selesai @ hak cipta dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Chinese Kapitan history collections

The First Photo of Qing Authorities Taken in World Expo, St Louis Expo 1904

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO A

DUTCH EAST INDIE 19th CENTURY

 

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjong A Fie

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

 

Kapitan Cina deli  medan (leutenant rank) in 1880

Dr Med Supit’s Grand grandpa

Kapitan cina Deli Medan

Name unidentified  marga Tan

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese.[disputed]

The standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China.[disputed] Chinese sources, however, are useful external sources of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries such as Fa Hien, a Buddhist monk who passed the region in the fifth century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty.

Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Islamic evangelists in Java (Wali Songo, or the Nine Ambassadors) were of Chinese ancestry. At least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants: Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang (son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga, and Sunan Gunungjati.[5] <This shouldn’t actually be ironic since those Islamic evangelists are actually Hui Chinese, a Chinese ethnic group who are Muslim. In contrast, most of the present Chinese Indonesians are mainly not Hui Chinese. Rather, they are mostly Han Chinese, another Chinese ethnic group which is the majority ethnic group in mainland China, coming from Fujian, Guangdong, etc.> One theory suggests that Chinese traders were among the first to bring Islam to Indonesia, including those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He, or Sam Po Kong, in the fifteenth century. Zheng He himself was a Muslim from the Hui minority ethnic group in China. Other theories based on documented accounts of Indian Gujarati traders and merchants, long familiar with Java, suggest they introduced Sufism there and the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

Since the voyages of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the region as an attractive trading partner.

 

Due to Coolaberation between Driwancybermuseum and Zheng He Museum Penang, I have made a special reasearche about the Famous  Chinese overseas In Malaya during British Colony  and Indonesia during Dutch East Indie

 

Kapitein der Chinezen te Soerabaja 1880

 

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan in 1883

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, 1888-11-23

 

 

 

Oei Tan Nio, echtgenote van de kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 27-jarige leeftijd

After work Hard and spend much time and loan, The research were finish and this info will show in Zheng He Museum Penang lead by Robert Yeap.

I also found some informations related to that famous man.like kapitan Cina in stratits settlement penang,Malacca,Singapore ,Kuching Sarawak  and also from federated Malayan like Kuala Lumpur etc,also from Indonesia(Dutch East Indie that time) like Deli medan,tanjung balai ashan ,padang city, Batavia(Jakarta),surabyaa .

 

 

Kapitan cina rembang 1885

Due to many realted informations,this book will be divided by two part,part one Malaya area and part two Indonesia (Dutch East Indie Area)

 

I have a very best information from web blog Chinese overseas in British Colony and Kapitan cina Batavia, but some of informations cannot read all because qere protacted with the PDF and other computer technology which made only by very high technology a part of information can read, but I think enough and good informations were extist,this some of the info below

 

Kapitan cina medan Tjong A Fie 1906

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan

The Chinese Consulate

The formation of Chinese consulate in Singapore in 1877 , an Penang in 1890, also in Padang West Sumatra and Payakumbuh West Sumatra (years still not known) respectively was primanly to serve as communicate between the Chinese Gouvernment  and the Chinese overseas . Apart from that it was also the Chinese tentative to gain support and loyality from her wealthy  Overseas member.

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan 1910

 

The office of the Vice-consult functions in various aspects and capacities .The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya and Duitcg East Indie For istance

 

1893

 

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

The Penang Brand engaged with the Chinese Affairs in Penang <Perak,Sealngor, Kedah and Perlis.Whereass the Singapore branch comcerned in the areas such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan , Kelantan and Trengannu

 

The prime role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interest however in the ealy 1900’s other Chinese organizations  such as the Chinese Advisory board (1890) ,Chinese chamber of Commerce Po Leung Kok(1886) as well as other Chinese clan association had surged in all mayor owns in British Malaya thus the importance of the Vice consult had apparentely ceased.

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje 1867

In 1891 ,the vice consult of Singapore was promote to the rank of Consult gereal in south East asia and in 1933 the chinedse consult was established in Kuala lumpur and the Chinese Affairs in the Federataed of Malaya.

 

 

Kapitan Cina Langkat  Tjoeng Njan Khin with government in Binjei

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

 Kapitan*mayor rank) cina Aceh Lie A sie

Op de rug gezien v.l.n.r.: majoor K. van der Maaten, sultan Mohammad Dawot Sjah, Toeankoe Ibrahim (zoon van de sultan) en assistent-resident W.J.F. Vermeulen; V.l.n.r. tegenover majoor K. van der Maaten: luitenant-generaal J.B. van Heutsz (gedeeltelijk), assistent-resident A.C. Veenhuizen, luitenant-kolonel G.C.E. van Daalen (gedeeltelijk), onbekend, controleur C. Schultz, Toeankoe Pangeran Oesén, Toeankoe Machmoet, onbekend, majoor titulair der Chinezen Lie A Sie

 

The same situation same in Dutch East Indie(Indonesia now) but the rank different,there were Mayor Cina, Kapitan Cina and Leutenant Cina depend on the demography and geography of dutch east indie from government, Residentie,subresidentie(Assisten-resident area) and more small area.

In Padang there were two Chinese vice-consut at Pariaman name Lir Ma Say, he ever send money to Dutch east ndie government to help the Krakato eruption victim in 19th century but later closed because move to Padang city there were vicde consut Gho Goan Tee and Lie Ma say became the first Mayor Cina, and then Gho Goa tee,then Ang Eng Lay, then Lie Oen Kiong,then the son of Gho Goan Tee(Gho sun Tong) his brother Gho Sun hin merried my Aunt Kang Kim Lian they lived at Singapore. My grandgrandpa Chua Chay Hiok(Tjoa Tjay Hiok) became the vice Consult in Payakumbuh west Sumatra upland ,later my uncle TJOa seng Lian became the Kapitan cina at Payakumbuh he ever send money to help republic of China during sun Yat sen(Kuomintang) to build the railways ,

At Batavia(now Jakarta) the first Kapitan was So ban Kong,he strated from Bantam ,then moved to Batavia during VOC first built this city in 16th century, then the Khouw faili were the next kapitan cina Batavia. I was found the best book about a dutch man travelling in ndonesia in late 19th century,in that rare book I found the pictures of the first kaiptan cina Padang city profile Lie Ma say, and other 19th century book about tarvellin in Java also I found the profil of Surabaya kapitan Cina.

In  The 1941 Dutch East Indie Almanac book  were list all the kapitan cina from all part of Indonesia,and from the Book of Dutch and colony ‘s employe 1939, I found the kapitan cina and famous Chinese overseas in Dutch East indie complete with profile picture and short life histories .

INDONESIAN PERANAKANS: TIONGHUA CINA PERANAKAN INDONESIA

 

Indonesian traditions and beliefs have exerted a strong influence over those ethnic Chinese migrants who have resided in the country for generations.

Most came to Indonesia during the 12th & 15th centuries thereby making Peranakan settlement & history in Indonesia older than that of Malaya’s.

The long-resident Peranakan, or Straits Chinese, who have settled mostly in Java and other outer islands such as the Riau islands, West Kalimantan and Sumatra, are the earliest examples of assimilation in Indonesian society.

The Peranakans are descendents of Chinese merchants, males who came unaccompanied to the East Indies for the lucrative spice trade.

Many of these immigrants married the local Indonesian women and their descendents are today known as the Peranakan, meaning local born. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia was just as similar and identical to that of Singapore and Malaysian Peranakan Culture in more ways than one.

 

Photo above:

Old Photos of Indonesian Peranakans & an old Peranakan book in Dutch (right).

 

After the late 19th century, the invention of the steamship facilitated the flow of Chinese migrants to Indonesia, who this time came accompanied by their wives and families.

Unlike the Peranakans, these Pure Chinese, or Totoks as they were known, had Chinese families and retained the use of the Chinese language, dress and customs.

They kept their mainland Chinese culture for generations and saw to the establishment of Chinese schools, newspapers and most eminently, Chinese business networks.

Historians today have largely attributed the prosperous economic activity among the Chinese as the reason for the Dutch colonial policy that segregated the Totoks and Peranakans from the rest of the Indonesian community.

This led to no small measure of misunderstanding and jealousy among the two groups.

The Peranakan Chinese population in Indonesia numbers at 6 million people out of a total Chinese population of 9 million while the Totok or Pure Chinese Community numbers at around 3 million or so.

Making them the largest Peranakan Chinese community in the entire world. Singapore and Malaysia however only have a miniscule 500,000 Peranakan Chinese each.

This explains why the overwhelming majority Indonesian Chinese only converse to each other in local Indonesian dialects and Bahasa Indonesia and not in Mandarin.

The Dutch imposed a policy of seperation that gave powers and trading priveleges to the Peranakan & Totok Communities.

As a result they were known as Chukongs or Kapitan Cina and controlled vast areas of land, plantation, coal and gold mines, diamond & tin mines and the like. Therefore the wealth and prestige of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia was similar to that of those in the Straits Settements

Dr Med Supit’s Grand grandpa

Kapitan cina Deli Medan

Name unidentified

 

 

Chinese Kapitan Deli Medan House in 1878

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

The kapitan cina deli in 1878

(Tan-grandgrandpa DR Med Supit ?)

Provenance Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

Chinese Kapitan Deli Medan

Provenance DrIwan suwandy,MHA

 

Chinese Kapitan Deli Medan in 1878

Provenance Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

This the sample of Dr Iwan CD-ROM

“Kapitan Cina History Collections

The complete Cd exist to get it

Please contact

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

hallo all kapitan cina fa,ily in Indonesia and Malaysia please contact me at email above to help me for more info and pictures of Kapitan Cina

 

Orang Tionghoa Pejabat Hindia Belanda tahun 1941(sumber Reegering Almanac 1941)

Batavia

Afdelling Financiele ,Schatkistambtenaar de klasse K.T.Liem

 Dienst Der Oost-Aziatische Zaken

Hooftranslateur voor de Japansche S.Cho(Tsang Tsui Shih) sejak 1 januari 1939

Regenstschap Kediri

Hoofdcommies : Tan tek beng ,10 mei 1940

Major,Kapitein , Letnan der Chinesen

Regenstschap Batavia

Chineesche Raad

Voorsitter Khouw Kim An (Majoor de Chinesen 3 februari 1937)

Sekretaris Tan Boen Sing,11 April 1922,

 Leden

Lie Tjian Tjoen 17 Agustus 1029(kapitein de chinesen)                                                                                         Lie Boen Sin,27 sept 1929(lieutenant)

Niet ambtelijke Leden

Ong Kek Tjiaoe,21 april 1931                                                                                                                           Dr Tjiong Boen Kie, 9 maret 1940

 

 

Gouvernment Sumatra

Residentie Atjeh

Afdeelling Noordkust van Atjeh (Sigli)

Onderafdeelling Sigli

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjong Tjhi Tjhaij, 31 des. 1926

Onderafdeelling Lho’Seumawe

Luitenant der Chineezen Tan Joe Sin, 19 oct.1922

Onderafdeelling Bireuen

Luitenant der Chineezen Wong Tjiauw ,26 sept 1913

Afdeelling Oostdkust van Atjeh met Alaslanden Gajoloeas en Serbodjadi (Langsa)

Onderafdeelling Idi

Luitenant der Chineezen Chioe Sim Aann, 20 Jan 1918

Onderafdeelling Langsa

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjoeng Ted Joeng, 21 Maret 1918

Onderafdeelling Tamiang(Koealasimpang)

Luitenant der Chineezen Moe Tin Siong

 

 

 

 

Residentie Oostkust van Sumatra

Afdeelling Deli en Serdang (Medan)

Onderafdeelling Beneden Deli(Medan)

Major  der Chineezen Khoe Tjin Tek

Luitenant der Chineezen medan Oei han Tiong                                                                                                      Luitenant der Chineezen Laboeandeli : Hsu Hua Chang                                                                                             Luitenant der Chineezen Belawan : Oey Chin Kiat.

Dear Dr. Iwan,

I read your blog on history of Padang , Sumatra and enjoyed the nostalgia…

Perhaps with luck, u may know something of other historical TiongHua communities in Sumatra- am interested to know more about Khoo Cheow Teong who was a active trader from Tanjong Balai, Asahan( east coast, North Sumatra ) in 1900s.

He had two sons; Khoo Sian Wei and Sian Ewe, the former stayed back in Asahan whilst the father and second son, Sian Ewe lived a active biz n social life in Penang. I am a descendant but have no contact or knowledge of their family or biz in Asahan. Now am trying to catchup and wonder if you can kindly share what u may know or refer me to sources ( clan associations? Newspaper reports? Museum? Archives? English, Jawi or Dutch language?? Etc)  and people who may know the Khoo family.

 

Thanks for yr help, rgds robertY

 

Sent from my iPad

Afdeelling Simaeloengoen en De Karolanden(Pematangsiantar)

Onderafdeelling Simaeloengoen (Pematangsiantar)

Luitenant der Chineezen :  Ang Cheng

 

 

Residentie Tapanoeli

Afdeelling Sibolga

Luitenant der Chineezen : Lim Hoh Eng

Afdeelling Nias Goenoeng Sitoli

Onderafdeelling Nias en omligende eilanden(Goenoeng Sitoli)

Luitenant der Chineezen :    Lim Eng The

Onderafdeelling Batoe-eilande(Poelau Tello)

Luitenant der Chineezen :     Go Tiauw Hie, 16 juni 1932

Residentie Riouw en Onderhooringheden

Onderafdeelling Selat Pandjang

Luitenant der Chineezen : Kan Tjong Ho ,1 oct 1934

Onderafdeelling Bagan Siapi-api

Luitenant der Chineezen : LOe Tjin Poh

Afdelling Tandjoengpinang

Kapiten de chineesen te Tandjong Pinang : Oei Pit Ship,8 Sept .1930                                                                  Luitenant der chineesen voor Zuid Bintan : Tan Foo Kong,18 Okt.1915                                                            Luitenant der Chineesen voor  Noord-Bintan : Tan Swie Kie,19 juli 1916                                                       Luitenant der Chineesen te Pl,Boeloeh : Tan Joe She,1 aug 1930

Onderafdelling Karimoen (Tandjoengbalai)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                Tandjoengbalai Oei Kim Hoe,29 Maret 1935                                                                                                          Tandjoeng batoe Wong Seap Par, 27 April 1929

 

Onderafdelling Linga(Dao Singkep)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                          Penoeba : Lie Eng Goan,20 dec 1938                                                                                                               Dabo(singkep): Tjoa meng Koei, 15 Sept.1938

Onderafdelling Poelau Toedjoeh(Terempa)

Luitenant der Chinesen terempa : Tjioe Tiong Thin ,Feb 1938

Afdelling Inderagiri (Rengat)

Luitenant der Chineesen Go Koen Sia ,16 jan.1936

(Dr iwan pernah kerumah nya tahun 1985, dan bertemu putranya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi almarhum seperti lukisan Tiongkok,dan medali yang diperolehnya dari gubernur jendral dan juga ada postal history masa revolusi berupa dokumen dengan metera pendudukan jepang)

 

Onderafdelling Inderagirische Benelanden (Tembilahan)

Luitenant der Chineesen tembilahan Lauw Tio Sia,1 jan.1936

 Residentie west Sumatra 1941

Kapten etnis Tionghoa Padang :

 

 Liem Tjhoen Goan (sejak  1 April 1937)                

 Letnan etnis Tionghoa Pariaman:

 Ghan Ho Ie (sejak  19 sept.1906)              

Letnan etnis  Tionghoa Bukittinggi(Fort de Kock) dan Padang Panjang   :

Tjoa sin Soe (sejak 4 Maret 1929)                                                                                                      Letnan etnisTionghoa Payakumbuh :

Tjoa Seng Lian (sejak 18 maret 1939),                                                                                                                   putranya Tjoa Tjoan Soei menikah dengan adik mertua Dr iwan Oei Tiong Hien, Oei Soei                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heng dan putranya Ien.

Residentie Palembang

Onderafdeling Hoofplaats Palembang  en Banjoeasinstreken(Palembang)

Kapiten der Chineesen Kwee Gan Keng, 9 Jan.1934

Residentie Bangka en Billiton

(hofdplaats Pangkalpinang)

Onderafdelling Midden-Bangka(Pangkalpinang)

Kapitein der Chinesen  Bong Joeng Kin ,24 dec 1932 Luitenant der Chinesen Se Siong Men, 24 Dec 1932

Afdelling Biliton(Tandjoengpandan)

Kapitein titulair de chineesen :Phong Jong Fong, 25 Maret 1938

Lampong tandjong karang telok betong

Lieutenant der chinesen Pho Tjit Sin

 

 

 

Residentie Westerafdeelling van Borneo(hoofdplaats Pontianak)

Afdeeling Pontianak

Onderafdeelling Pontianak

Kapitein der chineezen Kwee Eng Hoe

Onderafdeelling Singkawang

Kapitein der Chineezen te

 Singkawang :  Theng Soen Teng                                                                                                                  Pemangkat : Lie Kian Nam                                                                                                                              Montrado : Eo Djong Khim

Onderafdeelling Bengkajang

Kapitein der Chineezen Lim A Lak

Onderafdeelling Sambas

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjen Fai Tjong

Onderafdeelling Mempawah

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjang Fen Sen

 

Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdelling van Borneo

Afdelling Bandjarmasin

Kapitein der chineesen  Tjoe Tay An , 5 April 1918

Onderafdellig Martapoera

Kapitein titulair der Chinesen Oey Tay Poen, 24 Agustus 1923

 

Afdelling Samarinda

Luitenant der Chineesen  voor  de onderafdelling Koetai en Boven Mahakam (standplaats Samarinda) : Ngo Keng Tjoen, 6 sept 1918

Onderafdelling Oost-Koetai

Luitenant der Chineesen te Sanga-sanga Dalam : Tan Keng Ban (voor het onderdistrict sanga-sanga) 21 maret 1928

Onderafdelling Balikpapan

Luitenant der Chineesen Voor het onderdistrict Balikpapan : Wong Thay Hin, 28 Agustus 1933

Afdeelling Boeloengan BN Beroe(Tarakan)

Onderafdeeling Beraoe(Tandjoeng Redeb)

Luitenant der Chineezen  Lim Kim Fen, 3 Juli 1940

Residentie Manado

Berau

Conniezeen redacteur : E.K.Njo,12 sept 1935

Afdeelling Dongala

Luitenant der Chineezen  Tjoa Tiong Hean, 30 Jan 1930

Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden

Onderafdeelling Koepang

Kapitein der chineezen  Lie San Njan, 15 feb 1925

Hoof de Chineezen Tjioe Tek Giok,29 april 1925- Tjioe Soen Seng(Babaoe Koepang)-Tjong Soei Tap(Tjamplong Koepang), Tjoeng KIe Seng(Naiklioe-Koepang).

Onderafdeelling Roti(Baa)

Hoof de Chineezen Djong Kiet Hien,29 Agustus 1940

 

Onderafdeelling Zuid-midden Timor(Soe)

Hoof de Chineezen Ta A Hin(Niki-niki), Tan Kion Tjeang(Kapan), Sea I Hoat(SoE)

Onderafdeelling Nord-midden Timor(Kofannanoe)

Hoof de Chineezen Tan Foe Djoen

Onderafdeelling Beloe(Atamboea)

Hoof de Chineezen Laij Ko Hie(atamboea)

Afdeelling Alor ( Kalabahi)

Hoof de Chineezen Ong Gwan Tjin alias Ong Kie Seng,27 April 1938

Onderafdeelling Ende

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Siang tek, 12 Juni 1939

Onderafdeelling Maoemere(maoemere)

Hoof de Chineezen  Ong Ka Tjao, 12 Juni 1929

Onderafdeelling Mangarai (Roeteng)

Hoof de Chineezen  Pius The Kie Teng, 14 Maret 1938

Afdeelling Soembawa en Soemba(Raba)

Onderafdeelling Bima(Raba)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Koan, 28 Nov  1936

Onderafdeelling Soembawa(soembawabesar)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Moe alias Oei Hok Goei(soembawa besar),

Wong Jat Hwa(Taliwang)

 

 

Onderafdeelling Oost Soemba (Waingapoe)

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Thiauw La,15 Juni 1938

Gouvernment Soerakarta

Afdeelling Soerakarta

Kapitein  der Chineezen soerakarta  Ing Siang Tan

Luitent der chineezen sragen Liem Poo Djong

( Sumber regeering alamanac 1941)

Saya sudah bertemu dengan keluarga kapitan cina asaha Rovert Yeap sekarang ia di Penang, dan juga teman dari kapitan Tionghoa Lampung  dan Tanjunag Pinang,keluarga kapitan tionghoa itu masih hidup anak-anaknya malah ada yang tinggal di kelapa Gading Jakarta , malah seorang Dokter spesialis mata  Jakarta adalah cicit kapitan tionghoa Deli Medandan kota  lampung

Informasi anda akan membuat buku Kapitan cina ini jadi lebih lengkap,sebelumnya saya ucapkan terima kasih

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2013