Driwannaturalhistory Cybermuseum Exhibiton:”The Rare River’s Fish in the world”( ikan langka didunia)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

 

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The   Rare Fish

A.The rare river’s fish in the world

1. Chinese Paddlefish.


2. Alligator Gar.


3. Bagarius Yarreli (River Yeti).

4. Mekong Giant Catfish.

5. Arapaima (Pirarucu).


6. Giant Stingray

.
7. Freshwater Sawfish.


8. White Sturgeon.


9. Giant Carp.

10. Dog Eating Catfish.

B.The Rare River Fish Like Dog Eating Fish  at the  Ganga River India

The adventures man had report that he have just found the rare and bigest fish at Ganga River North India

,  kidnapp by fishing nails and bring to the beach of the river after he fought until came into the river

very difficult to take the fish from the river

at least the fish had kidnapp and biring to the beach of river

he inspectied the fish from  the body

,the skin

then the mouth

please compare with The Dog Eating Fish

, the diferrence  were the sharp teeth

and look how bigger that fish

and they had took balance scales 164 kg

after that they bring back the rare fish back to the water in the river.

who know the name of the fish please tell me via comment thanks very much-Dr Iwan. (picture were taken by digital camare from  video at discovery TV channel ).

C.The Rare Indonesian Fish

1.The Rare Indonesian Fish which threats off

2.Sea Fish

a.Napoleon Fish

Napoleon fish is the emperor of tropical coral reefs and is battling for survival. Often illegally fished it is sold for high prices to Chinese buyers who prize its delicate flesh.

The latest attempt at smuggling this giant of the seas with a curious bump on its head occurred last month. 36 of the fish known also as the humphead wrasse were seized at Manado airport on Indonesia’s Sulawesi island.

They had been destined for the steaming restaurants of Hong Kong where one kilogram of the rare fish fetches 80 to 130 dollars.

Yvonne Sadovy from the World Conservation Union warns that one of the challenges facing the species is that it does not reproduce as readily as species such as sardines or anchovies, AFP reported.

The fish which can weigh up to 200 kilograms and exceed two meters does not reach sexual maturity until it is nearly five years old. But fishermen aim to capture young prey which have not yet had a chance to procreate.

“They are potentially threatened if nothing is done” warns Sadovy an expert on the fish from the University of Hong Kong.

Greenpeace noted in 2004 that the fish was in dramatic decline along Indonesia’s coral reefs while another conservation group, Telapak, estimated that its number had dwindled to just three to four per square kilometre.

Under pressure from ecologists, the species was registered in 2004, effective in 2005 under appendix 2 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora which allows its controlled marketing.

Strict quotas now govern the capture of the humphead wrasse found in the Indo-Pacific zone off the east coasts of Africa and New Caledonia, through the Red Sea, the south of Japan and Australia’s Great Barrier Reef.

b.Dugong

c.Chromilepticus(kerapu Tikus)

 

BUDIDAYA IKAN KERAPU.
Salah satu jenis ikan yang mempunyai potensi untuk dibudidayakan adalah jenis ikan kerapu tikus (Cromileptes altivalis) karena memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi dengan harga Rp.100.000,- – Rp.150.000,- per kilogram bagi ikan kerapu tikus hidup berukuran di atas 300 gram di tingkat pedagang pengumpul. 

c.Tiger Fish

d.Coelecanth

 

A rare coelacanth was netted off Sulawesi

A report from Indonesia says fishermen have caught a rare coelacanth in waters off Sulawesi island.

The Antara news agency says the fish, about one metre long, was caught in nets off the North Sulawesi capital of Manado on Saturday (local time) and died a few hours later.

Coelacanths are among the world’s oldest fish species. Their fossil records date back more than 360 million years and suggest the animal has changed little in that time.

They reached peak abundance about 240 million years ago, but were thought to have died out around the time that dinosaurs became extinct – until a coelacanth was caught off the Commoro islands in South Africa in 1938.

A few have since been caught in waters along the eastern African coastline, and several have been captured north of Manado.

Coelacanths, closely related to lungfishes, usually live at depths of between 200 and 1,000 metres. They can grow up to two metres in length and weigh as much as 91 kilograms.

But the fish, sometimes referred to as a “living fossil,” otherwise remains an enigma for scientists, and it is not known why Saturday’s find was caught in nets so close to the surface

3.River Fish

Arowana red

Red River Fish

Giant King Beta

 

We are very pleased to announce the availability of the Giant King Betta. These fish, of approximately 2” in size (5.5-6.0cm), are being captive bred in Indonesia and should be available from our stores within the next 2-3 weeks. They are available in a variety of colours, being of a good size and quality. We would recommend they are best kept at temperatures between 24-26°C and a pH range of 6.8 to 7.5. They are currently feeding on live and frozen Cyclops but will take dried foods readily once established

the end @ Copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

Advertisements

Driwan Naturalhistory cybermuseum Exhibition:”the rare Indonesia Anima Pictures 1971(fotografi hewan langka Inndonesia)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Rare Vintage Rare Indonesian animal  Pictures in 1971

1. The Animal Art photograhy 1971 compare with 1926,many cannot exist anymore.

Babi Rusa

one horn rhinocorus

 landak

 komodo

Varanus komodoensis1.jpg

bulls

 kuskus

rare borneo monkey

bird

 

Elephant

Procina brujni(Landak Papua)

Orang Hutan

2. The Animal’s hunting Art Photography black panther in 1926, never found anymore in 1971 and now.

 

bull

 forest goat

capricornis sumatra

crocodile

 

Frame Three :

The Rare Indonesian  Animal History

1. Comodo

Komodo dragon

Komodo dragon [1]
Varanus komodoensis1.jpg
Conservation status
Status iucn3.1 VU.svg
Vulnerable (IUCN)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Scleroglossa
Family: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus
Species: V. komodoensis
Binomial name
Varanus komodoensis
Ouwens, 1912
Komodo dragon distribution

Komodo dragon distribution

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is a species of lizard that lives in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rincah, Flores, Gili Motang, and Gili Dasami.[2] It is the largest living kind of lizard. They grow to an average length of 2–3 meters (approximately 6.5–10 ft) and weigh around 70kg (154 pounds).[3] Komodo dragon bites can be very dangerous, and they sometimes attack people.

Western scientists first saw Komodo dragons in 1910. They are very popular animals in zoos because they are very big and look scary. The lizards are in some danger. There are very few Komodo dragons still alive on their home islands. Indonesian law does not allow hunting these lizards. Komodo National Park was made to help protect Komodo dragons.

The Komodo dragon has other names. It can also be called the Komodo Monitor or the Komodo Island Monitor by some scientists, but this is not very common.[1] The people who live in Komodo Island call them ora, buaja durat (land crocodile) or biawak raksasa (giant monitor).[3][4]

Contents

[hide]

[change] Description

Closeup of a Komodo dragon’s skin.

The Komodo dragon is cold-blooded. It has a tail as long as its body. It has about 60 sharp teeth that can grow up to 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) long. It also has a long, yellow, forked tongue.[3] Its saliva is red because its gums almost completely cover its teeth. When they eat, their teeth cut their gums and make them bleed.[5] This creates a good environment for the dangerous bacteria that live in its mouth.[6]

[change] Size

People used to think they were very big because there are no other large, meat-eating animals on the islands where they live. Therefore they did not have to compete with other similar animals for the same food and places to live. People also thought they were big because of their low metabolic rate.[7][8]

However, recent researchers have suggested a new idea. They say the Komodo is the last one of a larger group of lizards called varanids. These different types of lizards once lived across Indonesia and Australia but most of them died out after contact with modern humans. These varanids were all the best hunters in their habitats.[9] These lizards dominate the areas where they live because they are so big.[10]

[change] Senses

The Komodo dragon’s earholes are easy to see, but Komodo dragons are not very good at hearing.[3][11] It is able to see as far away as 300 meters (985 feet), but it is thought to have poor night vision. The Komodo dragon is able to see in color, but has trouble seeing objects that do not move.[12]

A Komodo dragon resting in the sun at Disney’s Animal Kingdom. The ear holes are large.

The Komodo dragon uses its tongue to taste and smell like many other reptiles. They have a special part of the body called the Jacobson’s organ for smelling.[6] With the help of a good wind, they can smell dead animals from 4–9.5 kilometres (2.5–6 mi) away.[5][12] The Komodo dragon’s nostrils are not very useful for smelling, because it does not have a diaphragm.[5][13] It only has a few taste buds in the back of its throat.[6] Its scales have special connections to nerves that give the lizard a sense of touch. The scales around its ears, lips, chin, and bottoms of the feet may have three or more of these connections.[5]

[change] Saliva

Komodo dragons have dangerous bacteria in their saliva. Scientists have identified 57 of them.[14] One of the most dangerous bacteria in Komodo dragon saliva appears to be a kind of Pasteurella multocida.[15] These bacteria cause disease in the blood of their victim. If a bite does not kill an animal and it escapes, it will usually die within a week from infection. The Komodo dragon seems to never get sick from its own bacteria. So, researchers have been looking for the lizard’s antibacterial. This maybe used as medicine for humans.[16]

[change] Reproduction

Mating begins between May and August, and the eggs are laid in September. Dragons leave about twenty eggs in empty nests left by birds called megapodes.[17] The eggs develop for seven to eight months. The eggs open and the baby lizards come out in April, when there are many insects to eat. Young Komodo dragons live in trees, where they are safe from adult Komodo dragons and other animals that might eat them.[18] They take around three to five years to mature and may live as long as fifty years. Female Komodo dragons can have babies in a special way without a male lizard.[19]

[change] Habitat

Close-up of a Komodo dragon’s foot and tail.

The Komodo dragon likes hot and dry places and lives in dry open grassland, savanna, and tropical forest on lower land. It is most active in the day because it is cold-blooded, although it is sometimes active at night. Komodo dragons live alone. They come together only to breed and eat. They can run up to 20 kilometers per hour (12.4 mph), dive up to 4.5 metres (15 ft) at top speed for short periods of time. When they are young, they climb trees with their strong claws.[20] As the Komodo dragon grows bigger, its claws are used mostly as weapons, because it is too big to climb trees well.[5]

The Komodo dragon digs holes for protection with its powerful legs and claws. These holes can be from 1–3 metres (3–10 ft) wide.[21] Because it is very big and sleeps in holes, it is able to keep itself warm through the night.[22] The Komodo dragon usually hunts in the afternoon, but stays in the shade during the hottest part of the day.[23] Komodo dragons have special resting places on ridges that catch cool sea breezes.[24]

[change] Food

Komodo dragons on Rinca

Komodo dragons are carnivores, which means that they eat meat. Although they eat mostly dead animals[25] they will also catch live animals as prey. When prey goes by a Komodo dragon, it will suddenly charge at the animal and bite or claw the belly or the throat.[5] To catch animals that are up high and out of reach, the Komodo dragon may stand on its back legs and use its tail as a support.[26]

Komodo dragons do not chew their food. They eat by biting and pulling off large chunks of flesh and swallowing them whole. They can swallow smaller prey, up to the size of a goat, whole. This is because they have flexible jaws and skulls, and their stomachs can expand.[24] Komodo dragons make much saliva to help the food move easily, but swallowing still takes a long time (15–20 minutes to swallow a goat). Komodo dragons may try to swallow faster by running and pushing the dead animal in its mouth very hard against a tree. Sometimes a lizard hits the tree so hard that it gets knocked out.[24] Dragons breath using a small tube under the tongue that connects to the lungs. This allows it to continue breathing even while swallowing large things.[5] Komodo dragons can eat up to 80 percent of its body weight in one meal.[27] After swallowing its food, it drags itself to a sunny place to speed up digestion so the food does not rot and poison the dragon. Large dragons can survive on as little as 12 meals a year.[5] After digestion, the Komodo dragon vomits the horns, hair, and teeth of the animal it ate. This vomit is covered in a smelly mucus. After vomiting, it rubs its face in the dirt or on bushes to get rid of the mucus. This suggests that komodo dragons dislike the smell, just like humans do.[5]

Young Komodo dragon on Rinca eating a dead water buffalo

The largest animals usually eat first, while the smaller ones eat later. Dragons of equal size may wrestle each other. Losers usually run away, although sometimes they are chased and eaten by the winners.[5]

The Komodo dragon’s diet includes invertebrates, other reptiles (including smaller Komodo dragons), birds, bird eggs, small mammals, monkeys, wild boars, goats, deer, horses, and water buffalo. Young Komodo dragons will eat insects, eggs, geckoes, and small mammals.[7] Komodo dragons may eat people and, they can even dig up bodies from their graves to eat them.[26] Therefore, people on Komodo Island moved their graves from sandy to clay ground and piled rocks on top to stop the lizards from digging up dead bodies.[24]

Because the Komodo dragon does not have a diaphragm, it cannot suck water when drinking. It cannot lap water with its tongue either. Instead, it drinks by taking a mouthful of water, lifting its head, and letting the water run down its throat.[5]

 Evolutionary history

Recent fossils from Queensland suggests that the Komodo dragon evolved in Australia before spreading to Indonesia.[9][28] Its body size remained stable on Flores, ever since the islands were isolated by rising sea levels, about 900,000 years ago.[9] The sea level dropped very low during the last ice age and uncovered wide areas of continental shelf. The Komodo dragon spread into these areas. They became isolated on the islands where they live today when sea levels rose again.[3][9] They moved into what is now the Indonesian island group. They spread as far east as the island of Timor.

Komodo dragons and people

 In zoos

Komodo dragons have been popular in zoos for a long time. However, there are few of them in zoos because they may become sick and do not have babies easily.[4] As of May 2009, there are 13 European, 2 African, 35 North American, 1 Singaporean, and 2 Australian institutions that keep Komodo dragons.[29]

A Komodo dragon was shown in a zoo for the first time in 1934 at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park. But, it lived for only two years. People continued to try to keep Komodo dragons in zoos, but the lives of these creatures was very short. The average life of a dragon in a zoo was five years in the National Zoological Park. Walter Auffenberg studied the dragons in zoos and eventually helped zoos to keep dragons more successfully[2]

Many dragons in zoos may become tamer than wild lizards within a short period of time in a zoo. Many zoo keepers have brought the animals out of their cages to meet visitors without any problems.[30][31] Dragons can also recognize individual humans.[32] However, even dragons that seem tame may surprise people and become aggressive. This can often happen when a stranger enters the animal’s home.

Komodo dragons at Toronto Zoo. Komodo dragons in captivity often grow fat, especially in their tails, due to regular feeding.

Research with captive Komodo dragons has shown that they play. One dragon would push a shovel left and seemed attracted to the sound of it moving across rocks. A young female dragon at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. would grab and shake things like statues, drink cans, plastic rings, and blankets. She would also put her head in boxes, shoes, and other objects. She did not make a mistake and think these objects were food; she would only swallow them if they were covered in rat blood.[10]

Danger to humans

Komodo dragons do not attack human very often. However, they do sometimes hurt or kill people.

In June 2001, a Komodo dragon seriously hurt Phil Bronstein—executive editor of the San Francisco Chronicle. Bronstein had entered the dragon’s cage at the Los Angeles Zoo after being invited in by its keeper. The zoo keeper had told him to take off his white shoes, which could have excited the Komodo dragon. Bronstein was bitten on his bare foot.[33][34] Although he escaped, he needed surgery to repair his foot.[35]

On June 4, 2007, a Komodo dragon attacked an eight-year-old boy on Komodo Island. The boy later died because he lost too much blood. This was the first time that people know a dragon had killed a human in 33 years.[36] Local people blamed the attack on environmentalists. People from outside the island had stopped local people from killing goats and leaving them for the dragons. The Komodo dragons no longer found the food they needed, so they came into places where humans lived in search of food. Many natives of Komodo Island believe that Komodo dragons are actually the reincarnation of relatives and should be treated with respect.[37][38]

On March 24, 2009, two Komodo dragons attacked and killed fisherman Muhamad Anwar on Komodo Island. They attacked Anwar after he fell out of a sugar-apple tree. He was bleeding badly from bites on his hands, body, legs, and neck. He was taken to a clinic on the nearby island of Flores, but doctors said he was dead when he arrived.[39]

 Protecting Komodo dragons

50 Rupiah coin from Indonesia showing komodo

There are very few Komodo dragons, and they may not survive. The lizards are on the IUCN Red List of animals in danger.[40] Not many Komodo dragons still live on their home islands.

  • Komodo (1,700)
  • Rincah (1,300)
  • Gili Motang (100)
  • Gili Dasami (100)
  • Flores (ca. 2,000),[2]
  • Padar (None–Extinct).

However, there may now be only 350 females having babies in the wild.[4] The Komodo National Park was founded in 1980 to protect Komodo dragon on its home islands.[41]

Many things have reduced the number of dragons, including: volcanoes, earthquakes, loss of good places to live, fire,[5][42] not enough animals to eat, tourism, and illegal hunting.

Buying or selling Komodo dragons or their skins is illegal as part of an international law called CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species).[13][43]

Driwan Natural History Cybermuseum Exhibition:”The Indonesian Famous Animal in 1926″ (Binatang Langka Indonesia Tahun 1926)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Rare Vintage Indonesian Famous Animal Pictures in 1926.

1. The Animal Art photograhy

one horn rhinocorus

 landak

 komodo

bulls

 kuskus

rare borneo monkey

bird

 

Elephant

Procina brujni(Landak Papua)

Orang Hutan

 

2. The Animal’s hunting Art Photography black panther

 

bull

 forest goat

capricornis sumatra

crocodile

 

Frame Three :

The Indonesian Protected Animal By Law

1) The List

PERATURAN PEMERINTAH REPUBLIK INDONESIA

NOMOR 7 TAHUN 1999
TANGGAL 27 JANUARI 1999
Jenis-jenis Tumbuhan dan Satwa yang Dilindungi
No. Nama Ilmiah Nama Indonesia
SATWA
I. MAMALIA (Menyusui)
1 Anoa depressicornis Anoa dataran
rendah, Kerbau pendek
2 Anoa quarlesi Anoa pegunungan
3 Arctictis binturong Binturung
4 Arctonyx collaris Pulusan
5 Babyrousa babyrussa Babirusa


6 Balaenoptera musculus Paus biru
7 Balaenoptera physalus Paus bersirip
8 Bos sondaicus Banteng
9 Capricornis sumatrensis Kambing Sumatera
10 Cervus kuhli; Axis kuhli Rusa Bawean
11 Cervus spp. Menjangan, Rusa sambar
(semua jenis dari genus Cervus)
12 Cetacea Paus
(semua jenis dari famili Cetacea)
13 Cuon alpinus Ajag
14 Cynocephalus variegatus Kubung,
Tando, Walangkekes
15 Cynogale bennetti Musang air
16 Cynopithecus niger Monyet hitam Sulawesi
17 Dendrolagus spp. Kanguru pohon
(semua jenis dari genus Dendrolagus)
18 Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Badak Sumatera
19 Dolphinidae Lumba-lumba air laut
(semua jenis dari famili Dolphinidae)
20 Dugong dugon Duyung
21 Elephas indicus Gajah
22 Felis badia Kucing merah
23 Felis bengalensis Kucing
hutan, Meong congkok
24 Felis marmorota Kuwuk
25 Felis planiceps Kucing dampak
26 Felis temmincki Kucing emas
27 Felis viverrinus Kucing bakau
28 Helarctos malayanus Beruang madu
29 Hylobatidae Owa, Kera tak berbuntut (semua jenis dari famili Hylobatidae)
30 Hystrix brachyura Landak
31 Iomys horsfieldi Bajing terbang ekor merah
32 Lariscus hosei Bajing tanah bergaris
33 Lariscus insignis Bajing tanah, Tupai tanah
34 Lutra lutra Lutra
35 Lutra sumatrana Lutra Sumatera
36 Macaca brunnescens Monyet Sulawesi
37 Macaca maura Monyet Sulawesi
38 Macaca pagensis Bokoi, Beruk Mentawai
39 Macaca tonkeana Monyet jambul
40 Macrogalidea musschenbroeki Musang Sulawesi
41 Manis javanica Trenggiling, Peusing
42 Megaptera novaeangliae Paus bongkok
43 Muntiacus muntjak Kidang, Muncak
44 Mydaus javanensis Sigung
45 Nasalis larvatus Kahau, Bekantan
46 Neofelis nebulusa Harimau dahan
47 Nesolagus netscheri Kelinci Sumatera
48 Nycticebus coucang Malu-malu
49 Orcaella brevirostris Lumba-lumba air tawar, Pesut
50 Panthera pardus Macan kumbang, Macan tutul
51 Panthera tigris sondaica Harimau Jawa
52 Panthera tigris sumatrae Harimau Sumatera
53 Petaurista elegans Cukbo, Bajing terbang
54 Phalanger spp. Kuskus (semua jenis dari genus Phalanger)
55 Pongo pygmaeus Orang utan, Mawas
56 Presbitys frontata Lutung dahi putih
57 Presbitys rubicunda Lutung merah, Kelasi
58 Presbitys aygula Surili
59 Presbitys potenziani Joja, Lutung Mentawai
60 Presbitys thomasi Rungka
61 Prionodon linsang Musang congkok
62 Prochidna bruijni Landak Irian, Landak semut
63 Ratufa bicolor Jelarang
64 Rhinoceros sondaicus Badak Jawa
65 Simias concolor Simpei Mentawai
66 Tapirus indicus Tapir, Cipan, Tenuk
67 Tarsius spp. Binatang hantu, Singapuar (semua jenis dari genus Tarsius)
68 Thylogale spp. Kanguru tanah (semua jenis dari genus Thylogale)
69 Tragulus spp. Kancil, Pelanduk, Napu (semua jenis dari genus Tragulus)
70 Ziphiidae Lumba-lumba air laut (semua jenis dari famili Ziphiidae)

 2) 

 3)Tiger

Tiger
A Bengal Tiger (P. tigris tigris) in India’s Ranthambhore National Park.
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. tigris
Binomial name
Panthera tigris
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Subspecies
P. t. tigris
P. t. corbetti
P. t. jacksoni
P. t. sumatrae
P. t. altaica
P. t. amoyensis
P. t. virgata
P. t. balica
P. t. sondaica
Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green).[2]
Synonyms
Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758[3]
Tigris striatus Severtzov, 1858Tigris regalis Gray, 1867

The tiger (Panthera tigris), a member of the Felidae family, is the largest of the four “big cats” in the genus Panthera.[4] The tiger is native to much of eastern and southern Asia, and is an apex predator and an obligate carnivore. The larger tiger subspecies are comparable in size to the biggest extinct felids,[5][6] reaching up to 3.3 metres (11 ft) in total length, weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 pounds), and having canines up to 4 inches long,[7] Aside from their great bulk and power, their most recognisable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlays near-white to reddish-orange fur, with lighter underparts. The most numerous tiger subspecies is the Bengal tiger, while the largest is the Siberian tiger.

Tigers have a lifespan of 10–15 years in the wild, but can live longer than 20 years in captivity.[8] They are highly adaptable and range from the Siberian taiga to open grasslands and tropical mangrove swamps.

They are territorial and generally solitary animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey demands. This, coupled with the fact that they are indigenous to some of the more densely populated places on earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans. Three of the nine subspecies of modern tiger have gone extinct, and the remaining six are classified as endangered, some critically so. The primary direct causes are habitat destruction, fragmentation, and hunting.

Historically, tigers have existed from Mesopotamia and the Caucasus throughout most of South and East Asia. Today, the range of the species is radically reduced. All surviving species are under formal protection, yet poaching, habitat destruction, and inbreeding depression continue to threaten the tigers.

Tigers are among the most recognisable and popular of the world’s charismatic megafauna. They have featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore, and continue to be depicted in modern films and literature. Tigers appear on many flags and coats of arms, as mascots for sporting teams, and as the national animal of several Asian nations, including India

the end @ copyright Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

Driwan Narural History Cybermuseum show:”The rare vintage Indonesian Dinosaurus Chlamydosaurus Kingi (Gamabar antik Dinosaurus Tokek)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Rare Vintage Indonesian Dinosaurus Chlamydosaurus Kingi Picture(Dinosaurus Tokek),also name grilled Lizard .This is the very rare and high value of  Chlamydasaurus kingi(Tokek)

Please honor my copyright, donnot copy without my permission,thanks

Frame One :

Dr iwan s Collection

Chlamydasaurus Kingii from google explorations:

Frame Two:

The List Of Asia Dinosaurus

List of Asian dinosaurs

This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been found in Asia other than India, which was a different continent for much of the Mesozoic Era, the time period when the dinosaurs lived. More dinosaurs have been found in Asia than any other continent so far.

Contents

//

List of Asian dinosaurs

Name↓ Period↓ Diet[1]↓ Notes↓
Abrosaurus Jurassic herbivore A Small sauropod that looked a lot like Camarasaurus.
Achillobator Cretaceous carnivore
Adasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Agilisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Airakoraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Albalophosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Alectrosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Alioramus Cretaceous carnivore
Altirhinus Cretaceous herbivore
Alxasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Amtosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Based only on fragments of its skull.
Amurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Anchiornis Jurassic carnivore Smallest known dinosaur that is not a bird.
Anserimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Aralosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Archaeoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Archaeornithoides Cretaceous carnivore
Archaeornithomimus Cretaceous omnivore
Arkharavia Cretaceous omnivore
Arstanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Asiaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Asiamericana Cretaceous carnivore
Asiatosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Auroraceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Avimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Bactrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Bagaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Bagaraatan Cretaceous carnivore
Bainoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Bakesaurus Cretaceous (unknown) Uncertain, see article
Balochisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Banji Cretaceous (unknown)
Baotianmansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Barsboldia Cretaceous herbivore
Beipiaosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Beishanlong Cretaceous omnivore
Bellusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Bienosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Bissektipelta Cretaceous herbivore
Bolong Cretaceous herbivore
Borealosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Borogovia Cretaceous carnivore
Breviceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Brohisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Byronosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Caenagnathasia Cretaceous omnivore
Caudipteryx Cretaceous omnivore
Ceratonykus Cretaceous omnivore
Changchunsaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Changdusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chaoyangsaurus Jurassic herbivore
Charonosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Chialingosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chiayusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chilantaisaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Chingkankousaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Chinshakiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chuandongocoelurus Jurassic carnivore
Chuanjiesaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chungkingosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Citipati Cretaceous omnivore
Conchoraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Crichtonsaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Cryptovolans Cretaceous carnivore
Daanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Dachongosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Damalasaurus Jurassic herbivore
Dashanpusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Datousaurus Jurassic herbivore
Daxiatitan Cretaceous herbivore
Deinocheirus Cretaceous carnivore
Dilong Cretaceous carnivore
Dilophosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Dongbeititan Cretaceous herbivore
Dongyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Elmisaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Enigmosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Eomamenchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Epidendrosaurus Jurassic carnivore See article
Epidexipteryx Jurassic carnivore
Equijubus Cretaceous herbivore
Erketu Cretaceous herbivore
Erliansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Erlikosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Eshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Eugongbusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Euhelopus Cretaceous herbivore
Ferganasaurus Jurassic herbivore
Ferganocephale Jurassic herbivore
Fukuiraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Fukuisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Fukuititan Cretaceous herbivore
Fulengia Jurassic herbivore
Fusuisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Futabasaurus Cretaceous carnivore Name not published officially and later used for a plesiosaur
Gadolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Gallimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Garudimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Gasosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Gigantoraptor Cretaceous omnivore
Gigantspinosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Gilmoreosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Gobiceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Gobisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Gobititan Cretaceous herbivore
Gongbusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Gongxianosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Goyocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Graciliceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Graciliraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Guanlong Jurassic carnivore
Gyposaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hanwulosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Haplocheirus Jurassic carnivore
Harpymimus Cretaceous herbivore
Heilongjiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Heishansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Helioceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Hexinlusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Heyuannia Cretaceous carnivore
Hironosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Hisanohamasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Homalocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Hongshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Huabeisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Huanghetitan Cretaceous herbivore
Huaxiagnathus Cretaceous carnivore
Huayangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hudiesaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hulsanpes Cretaceous carnivore
Incisivosaurus Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Ingenia Cretaceous (unknown)
Isanosaurus Triassic herbivore A very early dinosaur
Itemirus Cretaceous carnivore
Jaxartosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jeholosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jiangjunosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Jiangshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jinfengopteryx Jurassic/Cretaceous omnivore
Jingshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Jintasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jinzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jiutaisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Kagasaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Kaijiangosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Katsuyamasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Kelmayisaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Kerberosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Khaan Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Khetranisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Kileskus Jurassic carnivore
Kinnareemimus Cretaceous omnivore
Klamelisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Kol Cretaceous carnivore
Koreanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Kulceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Kunmingosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Kuszholia Cretaceous (unknown)
Lamaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Lancanjiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Lanzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Leshansaurus Jurassic carnivore
Levnesovia Cretaceous herbivore
Liaoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Liaoningosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Smallest known ankylosaur
Limusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Linheraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Luanchuanraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Lufengosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Lukousaurus Jurassic carnivore Possibly a crocodilian rather than a dinosaur
Luoyanggia Cretaceous (unknown)
Machairasaurus Cretaceous omnivore
Magnirostris Cretaceous herbivore
Mahakala Cretaceous carnivore
Maleevus Cretaceous herbivore
Mamenchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Mandschurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Marisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Megacervixosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Mei Cretaceous carnivore
Microceratus Cretaceous herbivore
Microdontosaurus (unknown) herbivore Dating dubious
Microhadrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Micropachycephalosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Microraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Mifunesaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Minotaurasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Mongolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Monkonosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Monolophosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Mononykus Cretaceous carnivore
Nanningosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nanshiungosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Nanyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Neimongosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nemegtomaia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Nemegtosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Ngexisaurus Jurassic carnivore
Nipponosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nomingia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Nurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Olorotitan Cretaceous herbivore
Omeisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Opisthocoelicaudia Cretaceous herbivore
Oshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Otogosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Oviraptor Cretaceous omnivore
Pakisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Parvicursor Cretaceous (unknown)
Pedopenna Jurassic (unknown)
Peishansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Penelopognathus Cretaceous herbivore
Phaedrolosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Phuwiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Pinacosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Platyceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Prenocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Probactrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Prodeinodon Cretaceous carnivore Dubious, see article
Protarchaeopteryx Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Protoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Protognathosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Psittacosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Pukyongosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Qiaowanlong Cretaceous herbivore
Qingxiusaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Qinlingosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Quaesitosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Raptorex Cretaceous carnivore
Rinchenia Cretaceous omnivore
Ruyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sahaliyania Cretaceous herbivore
Saichania Cretaceous herbivore
Sanchusaurus Cretaceous herbivore May be synonymous with Gallimimus.
Sangonghesaurus Jurassic/Cretaceous herbivore
Sanpasaurus Jurassic herbivore Dubious, see article
Saurolophus Cretaceous herbivore
Sauroplites Cretaceous herbivore
Saurornithoides Cretaceous carnivore May be the same dinosaur as Troodon.
Scansoriopteryx Jurassic/Cretaceous (unknown)
Segnosaurus Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Shamosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shanag Cretaceous carnivore
Shantungosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shanweiniao Cretaceous (unknown)
Shanxia Cretaceous herbivore
Shanyangosaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Shaochilong Cretaceous carnivore
Shenzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shidaisaurus Jurassic (unknown)
Shixinggia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Shuangmiaosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shunosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Shuvuuia Cretaceous (unknown)
Siamosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Siamotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore
Siluosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Similicaudipteryx Cretaceous omnivore
Sinocalliopteryx Cretaceous carnivore
Sinoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Sinocoelurus Jurassic carnivore
Sinopliosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Sinornithoides Cretaceous carnivore
Sinornithomimus Cretaceous herbivore
Sinornithosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Sinosauropteryx Cretaceous carnivore
Sinosaurus Triassic/Jurassic carnivore
Sinovenator Cretaceous carnivore
Sinraptor Jurassic carnivore
Sinusonasus Cretaceous carnivore
Sinotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore
Sonidosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
SPS 100/44 Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Stegosaurides Cretaceous herbivore
Sugiyamasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sulaimanisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Suzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Szechuanoraptor Jurassic herbivore
Szechuanosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Talarurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tangvayosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tanius Cretaceous herbivore
Tarbosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Tarchia Cretaceous herbivore
Tatisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Therizinosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Had huge claws
Tianchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Tianyulong Cretaceous herbivore
Tianyuraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Tianzhenosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tienshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Titanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tochisaurus Cretaceous omnivore
Tonganosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Tonouchisaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Troodon Cretaceous carnivore Known from teeth discovered in Siberia. Also lived in North America
Tsaagan Cretaceous carnivore
Tsagantegia Cretaceous herbivore
Tsintaosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tsuchikurasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Tugulusaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Tuojiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Turanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore First ceratopsid found outside North America (though ceratopsians are known from elsewhere)
Tylocephale Cretaceous herbivore
Udanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Ultrasaurus Cretaceous herbivore Dubious, see article
Urbacodon Cretaceous carnivore
Velociraptor Cretaceous carnivore Feathered, about turkey-size
Vitakridrinda Cretaceous carnivore
Wakinosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Wannanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Wuerhosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Stegosaurid that survived until the Cretaceous
Wulagasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Xianshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Xiaosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Xinjiangovenator Cretaceous (unknown)
Xiongguanlong Cretaceous carnivore
Xixianykus Cretaceous (unknown)
Xixiasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Xixiposaurus Jurassic omnivore
Xuanhanosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Xuanhuaceratops Jurassic herbivore
Yamaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Yandangornis Cretaceous carnivore
Yandusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yangchuanosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Yibinosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yimenosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yingshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore The only fossil specimen of this species has apparently been lost.
Yinlong Jurassic herbivore
Yixianosaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Yuanmousaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yunnanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yunxiansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zanabazar Cretaceous carnivore
Zhejiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zhongornis Cretaceous (unknown) Seems intermediary between Archaeopteryx and birds
Zhongyuansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zhuchengosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zigongosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Zizhongosaurus Jurassic herbivore

Frame three:

The  Clamydasaurus Kingii info (from Google expl) 

Frilled lizard

Chlamydosaurus kingii 

 

 
Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the American Museum of Natural History
 
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
(unranked): Ornithodira
(unranked): Dinosauromorpha
(unranked): Dinosauriformes
Superorder: Dinosauria
Owen, 1842
Orders and suborders
 

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (about 65 million years ago). The extinction of most dinosaur species occurred during the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. The fossil record indicates that birds evolved within theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period. Some of them survived the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, including the ancestors of all modern birds. Consequently, in modern classification systems, birds are considered a type of dinosaur—the only group of which that has survived to the present day.[1][2]

Dinosaurs are a diverse and varied group of animals; birds, at over 9,000 species, are the most diverse group of vertebrate besides perciform fish.[3] Paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera[4] and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.[5] Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains.[6] Some dinosaurs are or were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Some have been bipedal, others quadrupedal, and others have been able to shift between these body postures. Many non-avian species developed elaborate skeletal modifications such as bony armor, horns or crests. Avian dinosaurs have been the planet’s dominant flying vertebrate since the extinction of the pterosaurs. Although generally known for the large size of some species, most dinosaurs were human-sized or even smaller. Most groups of dinosaurs are known to have built nests and laid eggs.

The term “dinosaur” was coined in 1842 by the English paleontologist Richard Owen, and derives from Greek δεινός (deinos) “terrible, powerful, wondrous” + σαῦρος (sauros) “lizard”.

 

The taxon Dinosauria was formally named in 1842 by Sir Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the “distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles” that were then being recognized in England and around the world.[8]:103 The term is derived from the Greek words δεινός (deinos meaning “terrible”, “powerful”, or “wondrous”) and σαῦρος (sauros meaning “lizard” or “reptile”).[8]:103[9] Though the taxonomic name has often been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs’ teeth, claws, and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it merely to evoke their size and majesty.[10] In colloquial English “dinosaur” is sometimes used to describe an obsolete or unsuccessful thing or person,[11] despite the dinosaurs’ 160 million year reign and the global abundance and diversity of their avian descendants: modern-day birds.

Modern definition

Under phylogenetic taxonomy, dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of “Triceratops, Neornithes [modern birds], their most recent common ancestor, and all descendants.”[12] It has also been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the most recent common ancestor of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria.[13] Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs, including theropods (mostly bipedal carnivores), sauropodomorphs (mostly large herbivorous quadrupeds with long necks and tails), ankylosaurians (armored herbivorous quadrupeds), stegosaurians (plated herbivorous quadrupeds), ceratopsians (herbivorous quadrupeds with horns and frills), and ornithopods (bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores including “duck-bills”). These definitions are written to correspond with scientific conceptions of dinosaurs that predate the modern use of phylogenetics. The continuity of meaning is intended to prevent confusion about what the term “dinosaur” means.

There is a wide consensus among paleontologists that birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs. Using the strict cladistical definition that all descendants of a single common ancestor must be included in a group for that group to be natural, birds would thus be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are theropods, which are saurischians, which are dinosaurs.[14]

From the point of view of cladistics, birds are dinosaurs, but in ordinary speech the word “dinosaur” does not include birds. Additionally, referring to dinosaurs that are not birds as “non-avian dinosaurs” is cumbersome. For clarity, this article will use “dinosaur” as a synonym for “non-avian dinosaur”. The term “non-avian dinosaur” will be used for emphasis as needed.

General description

Stegosaurus skeleton, Field Museum, Chicago

20]

.[12]

Edmontonia was an armored dinosaur of the group Ankylosauria

Marasuchus, a dinosaur-like ornithodiran

.[12]

Full skeleton of an early carnivorous dinosaur, displayed in a glass case in a museum

The early forms Herrerasaurus (large), Eoraptor (small) and a Plateosaurus skull

 

, “.)

.

Several macronarian Sauropods: from left to right Camarasaurus, Brachiosaurus, Giraffatitan, and Euhelopus

” (early relatives of sauropods; small to quite large; some possibly omnivorous; bipeds and quadrupeds)

  •  

Scale diagram comparing the largest known dinosaurs in five major clades and a human

.

Comparative size of Giraffatitan

.

Comparative size of Eoraptor

i

A nesting ground of Maiasaura was discovered in 1978

.[67]

Artist’s rendering of two Centrosaurus, herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous fauna of North America

 

Tyrannosaurus rex skull and upper vertebral column, Palais de la Découverte, Paris

.

Eubrontes, a dinosaur footprint in the Lower Jurassic Moenave Formation at the St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, southwestern Utah

 

The famous Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx lithographica

Pneumatopores on the left ilium of Aerosteon riocoloradensis

 

The Chicxulub Crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula; the impactor that formed this crater may have caused the dinosaur extinction.

to changing conditions

Lloyd et al. (2008) noted that, in the Mid Cretaceous, the flowering, angiosperm plants became a major part of terrestrial ecosystems, which had previously been dominated by gymnosperms such as conifers. Dinosaur coprolite–fossilized dung–indicate that, while some ate angiosperms, most herbivorous dinosaurs ate mainly gymnosperms. Statistical analysis by Lloyd et al. concluded that, contrary to earlier studies, dinosaurs did not diversify very much in the Late Cretaceous. Lloyd et al. suggested that dinosaurs’ failure to diversify as ecosystems were changing doomed them to extinction.[37]

Possible Paleocene survivors

Main article: Paleocene dinosaurs

Non-avian dinosaur remains are occasionally found above the K–T boundary. In 2001, paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg-bone fossil in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs. The formation in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately 64.5 million years ago. If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provide evidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the Cenozoic Era.[130] Other evidence includes the finding of dinosaur remains in the Hell Creek Formation up to 1.3 meters (51 in) above (40000 years later than) the K–T boundary. Similar reports have come from other parts of the world, including China.[131] Many scientists, however, dismissed the supposed Paleocene dinosaurs as re-worked, i.e. washed out of their original locations and then re-buried in much later sediments.[132][133] However, direct dating of the bones themselves has supported the later date, with U-Pb dating methods resulting in a precise age of 64.8 ± 0.9 million years ago.[134] If correct, the presence of a handful of dinosaurs in the early Paleocene would not change the underlying facts of the extinction.[132]

History of discovery

Dinosaur fossils have been known for millennia, although their true nature was not recognized. The Chinese, whose modern word for dinosaur is konglong (恐龍, or “terrible dragon”), considered them to be dragon bones and documented them as such. For example, Hua Yang Guo Zhi, a book written by Zhang Qu during the Western Jin Dynasty, reported the discovery of dragon bones at Wucheng in Sichuan Province.[135] Villagers in central China have long unearthed fossilized “dragon bones” for use in traditional medicines, a practice that continues today.[136] In Europe, dinosaur fossils were generally believed to be the remains of giants and other creatures killed by the Great Flood.

Scholarly descriptions of what would now be recognized as dinosaur bones first appeared in the late 17th century in England. Part of a bone, now known to have been the femur of a Megalosaurus,[137] was recovered from a limestone quarry at Cornwell near Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England, in 1676. The fragment was sent to Robert Plot, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and first curator of the Ashmolean Museum, who published a description in his Natural History of Oxfordshire in 1677. He correctly identified the bone as the lower extremity of the femur of a large animal, and recognized that it was too large to belong to any known species. He therefore concluded it to be the thigh bone of a giant human similar to those mentioned in the Bible. In 1699, Edward Lhuyd, a friend of Sir Isaac Newton, was responsible for the first published scientific treatment of what would now be recognized as a dinosaur when he described and named a sauropod tooth, “Rutellum implicatum“,[138][139] that had been found in Caswell, near Witney, Oxfordshire.[140]

Between 1815 and 1824, the Rev William Buckland, a professor of geology at Oxford University, collected more fossilized bones of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific journal.[137][141] The second dinosaur genus to be identified, Iguanodon, was discovered in 1822 by Mary Ann Mantell – the wife of English geologist Gideon Mantell. Gideon Mantell recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. He published his findings in 1825.[142][143]

The study of these “great fossil lizards” soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term “dinosaur”. He recognized that the remains that had been found so far, Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, shared a number of distinctive features, and so decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group. With the backing of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the husband of Queen Victoria, Owen established the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits.

In 1858, the first known American dinosaur was discovered, in marl pits in the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey (although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been correctly discerned). The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii. It was an extremely important find: Hadrosaurus was one of the first nearly complete dinosaur skeletons found (the first was in 1834, in Maidstone, Kent, England), and it was clearly a bipedal creature. This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards. Foulke’s discoveries sparked a wave of dinosaur mania in the United States.

Othniel Charles Marsh, 19th century photograph

Edward Drinker Cope, 19th century photograph

Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars. The feud probably originated when Marsh publicly pointed out that Cope’s reconstruction of an Elasmosaurus skeleton was flawed: Cope had inadvertently placed the plesiosaur‘s head at what should have been the animal’s tail end. The fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in 1897 when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt. Marsh ‘won’ the contest primarily because he was better funded through a relationship with the US Geological Survey. Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair’s rough methods: for example, their diggers often used dynamite to unearth bones (a method modern paleontologists would find appalling). Despite their unrefined methods, the contributions of Cope and Marsh to paleontology were vast: Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, a total of 142 new species. Cope’s collection is now at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, while Marsh’s is on display at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.[144]

After 1897, the search for dinosaur fossils extended to every continent, including Antarctica. The first Antarctic dinosaur to be discovered, the ankylosaurid Antarctopelta oliveroi, was found on Ross Island in 1986, although it was 1994 before an Antarctic species, the theropod Cryolophosaurus ellioti, was formally named and described in a scientific journal.

Current dinosaur “hot spots” include southern South America (especially Argentina) and China. China in particular has produced many exceptional feathered dinosaur specimens due to the unique geology of its dinosaur beds, as well as an ancient arid climate particularly conducive to fossilization.

The “dinosaur renaissance”

Main article: Dinosaur renaissance

The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the 1970s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom‘s discovery of Deinonychus, an active predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded. Vertebrate paleontology has become a global science. Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South America, Madagascar, Antarctica, and most significantly China (the amazingly well-preserved feathered dinosaurs in China have further consolidated the link between dinosaurs and their conjectured living descendants, modern birds). The widespread application of cladistics, which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs. Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record.

Cultural depictions

By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size. As such, they have captured the popular imagination and become an enduring part of human culture. Entry of the word “dinosaur” into the common vernacular reflects the animals’ cultural importance: in English, “dinosaur” is commonly used to describe anything that is impractically large, slow-moving, obsolete, or bound for extinction.[7]

Public enthusiasm for dinosaurs first developed in Victorian England, where in 1854, three decades after the first scientific descriptions of dinosaur remains, the famous dinosaur sculptures were unveiled in London‘s Crystal Palace Park. The Crystal Palace dinosaurs proved so popular that a strong market in smaller replicas soon developed. In subsequent decades, dinosaur exhibits opened at parks and museums around the world, ensuring that successive generations would be introduced to the animals in an immersive and exciting way.[145] Dinosaurs’ enduring popularity, in its turn, has resulted in significant public funding for dinosaur science, and has frequently spurred new discoveries. In the United States, for example, the competition between museums for public attention led directly to the Bone Wars of the 1880s and 1890s, during which a pair of feuding paleontologists made enormous scientific contributions.[146]

The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs has ensured their appearance in literature, film and other media. Beginning in 1852 with a passing mention in Charles Dickens’ Bleak House,[147] dinosaurs have been featured in large numbers of fictional works. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s 1912 book The Lost World, the iconic 1933 film King Kong, 1954’s Godzilla and its many sequels, the best-selling 1990 novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton and its 1993 film adaptation are just a few notable examples of dinosaur appearances in fiction. Authors of general-interest non-fictional works about dinosaurs, including some prominent paleontologists, have often sought to use the animals as a way to educate readers about science in general. Dinosaurs are ubiquitous in advertising; numerous companies have referenced dinosaurs in printed or televised advertisements, either in order to sell their own products or in order to characterize their rivals as slow-moving, dim-witted or obsolete

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Driwan Natural History Cybermuseum:”The Rare Vintage Malaria Mosquitos Anopheles Picture Collection”(Gambar Antik langka nyamuk malaria anopheles)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 Please Enter

                    

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Rare Vintage Indonesian malaria Mosquitos Anopheles Picture

(please honor my copyright, donnot copy without my permission,thanks)

Frame One : Dr iwan s Collection

 Frame Two:

The Malaria Mosquitos Anopheles Historic Collections

Anopheles

Anopheles

Life

Anopheles
Anopheles stephensi
Scientific classification [ e ]
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Culicidae
Tribe: Anophelini
Genus: Anopheles
Species
For a full description, see section Systematics and the main article: Taxonomy of Anopheles
Some important species are:

Anopheles range map

Anopheles, pronounced /əˈnɒfɨliːz/,[1] is a genus of mosquito. There are approximately 460 recognized species: while over 100 can transmit human malaria, only 30–40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which cause malaria in humans in endemic areas. Anopheles gambiae is one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the most dangerous malaria parasite species – Plasmodium falciparum.

The name comes from the Greek αν, an, meaning not, and όφελος, ópheles, meaning profit, and translates to useless.[1]

Some species of Anopheles also can serve as the vectors for canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis, the Filariidae Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and viruses such as one that causes O’nyong’nyong fever. There is an association of brain tumor incidence and malaria, suggesting that the Anopheles might transmit a virus or other agent that could cause a brain tumor.[2]

Mosquitoes in other genera (Aedes, Culex) can also serve as vectors of disease agents.

 Evolution

The culicine and Anopheles clades diverged around 150 million years ago.[3] The Old and New World Anopheles species subsequently diverged aroud 95 million years ago.[3] The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged 80 to 36 million years ago. A molecular study of several genes in seven species has provided additional support for an expansion of this genus during the Cretaceous period.[4]

The Anopheles genome (230–284 Mb) is comparable in size to that of Drosophila but considerably smaller than those found in other culicine genomes (528 Mb–1.9 Gb). Like most culicine species, the genome is diploid with six chromosomes.

The only known fossils of this genus are those of Anopheles (?Nyssorhynchus) dominicanus Zavortink & Poinar contained in Dominican amber from the Late Eocene (40.4 to 33.9 million years ago) and Anopheles rottensis Statz contained in German amber from the Late Oligocene (28.4 to 23 million years ago).

Systematics

Main article: Taxonomy of Anopheles

The genus Anopheles belongs to a subfamily Anophelinae with three genera: Anopheles Meigen (nearly worldwide distribution), Bironella Theobald (Australia only) and Chagasia Cruz (Neotropics). Bironella appears to be the sister taxon to the Anopheles with Chagasia forming the outgroup in this subfamily.

The classification of this genus began in 1901 with Theobald. Despite the passage of time the taxonomy remains incompletely settled. Classification into species is based on morphological characteristics – wing spots, head anatomy, larval and pupal anatomy, chromosome structure – and more recently on DNA sequences.

The genus itself has been subdivided into seven subgenera based primarily on the number and positions of specialized setae on the gonocoxites of the male genitalia. The system of subgenera originated with the work of Christophers who in 1915 described three subgenera: Anopheles (widely distributed), Myzomyia (later renamed Cellia) (Old World) and Nyssorhynchus (Neotropical). Nyssorhynchus was first described as Lavernia by Theobald. Edwards in 1932 added the subgenus Stethomyia (Neotropical distribution). Kerteszia was also described by Edwards in 1932 but then recognised as a subgrouping of Nyssorhynchus. It was elevated to subgenus status by Komp in 1937 and it is also found in the Neotropics. Two additional subgenera have since been recognised: Baimaia (Southeast Asia only) by Harbach et al. in 2005 and Lophopodomyia (Neotropical) by Antunes in 1937.

Within the genus Anopheles there are two main groupings: one formed by the Cellia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by Kerteszia, Lophopodomyia and Nyssorhynchus. Subgenus Stethomyia is an outlier with respect to these two taxa. Within the second group Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus appear to be sister taxa.

The number of species currently recognised within the subgenera is given here in parentheses: Anopheles (206 species), Baimaia (1), Cellia (216), Kerteszia (12), Lophopodomyia (6), Nyssorhynchus (34) and Stethomyia (5).

Taxonomic units between subgenus and species are not currently recognised as official zoological names. In practice a number of taxonomic levels have been introduced. The larger subgenera (Anopheles, Cellia and Nyssorhynchus) have been subdivided into sections and series which in turn have been divided into groups and subgroups. Below subgroup but above species level is the species complex. Taxonomic levels above species complex can be distinguished on morphological grounds. Species within a species complex are either morphologically identical or extremely similar and can only be reliably separated by microscopic examination of the chromosomes or DNA sequencing. The classification continues to be revised.

Subgenus Nyssorhynchus has been divided in three sections: Albimanus (19 species), Argyritarsis (11 species) and Myzorhynchella (4 species). The Argyritarsis section has been sub divided into Albitarsis and Argyritarsis groups.

The Anopheles Group was divided by Edwards into four series: Anopheles (worldwide), Myzorhynchus (Palearctic, Oriental, Australasian and Afrotropical), Cycloleppteron (Neotropical) and Lophoscelomyia (Oriental); and two groups, Arribalzagia (Neotropical) and Christya (Afrotropical). Reid and Knight (1961) modified this classification and consequently subdivided the subgenus Anopheles into two sections, Angusticorn and Laticorn and six series. The Arribalzagia and Christya Groups were considered to be series. The Laticorn Section includes the Arribalzagia (24 species), Christya and Myzorhynchus Series. The Angusticorn Section includes members of the Anopheles, Cycloleppteron and Lophoscelomyia Series.

All species known to carry human malaria lie within either the Myzorhynchus or the Anopheles Series.

 Life stages

Like all mosquitoes, anophelines go through four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and imago. The first three stages are aquatic and last 5–14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature. The adult stage is when the female Anopheles mosquito acts as malaria vector. The adult females can live up to a month (or more in captivity) but most probably do not live more than 1–2 weeks in nature.

Eggs

Adult females lay 50–200 eggs per oviposition. The eggs are quite small (~0.5 × 0.2 mm). Eggs are laid singly and directly on water. They are unique in that they have floats on either side. Eggs are not resistant to drying and hatch within 2–3 days, although hatching may take up to 2–3 weeks in colder climates.

 Larvae

Anopheles larva from southern Germany, about 8 mm long

Mosquito larvae have a well-developed head with mouth brushes used for feeding, a large thorax and a nine segmented abdomen. They have no legs. In contrast to other mosquitoes, Anopheles larvae lack a respiratory siphon and for this reason position themselves so that their body is parallel to the surface of the water.

Larvae breathe through spiracles located on the 8th abdominal segment and therefore must come to the surface frequently. The larvae spend most of their time feeding on algae, bacteria, and other microorganisms in the surface microlayer. They dive below the surface only when disturbed. Larvae swim either by jerky movements of the entire body or through propulsion with the mouth brushes.

Larvae develop through 4 stages, or instars, after which they metamorphose into pupae. At the end of each instar, the larvae molt, shedding their exoskeleton, or skin, to allow for further growth. 1st stage larvae are ~1 mm in length; 4th stage larvae are normally 5–8 mm in length.

The process from egg laying to emergence of the adult is temperature dependent, with a minimum time of 7 days.

The larvae occur in a wide range of habitats but most species prefer clean, unpolluted water. Larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes have been found in fresh- or salt-water marshes, mangrove swamps, rice fields, grassy ditches, the edges of streams and rivers, and small, temporary rain pools. Many species prefer habitats with vegetation. Others prefer habitats that have none. Some breed in open, sun-lit pools while others are found only in shaded breeding sites in forests. A few species breed in tree holes or the leaf axils of some plants.

Pupae

The pupa is comma-shaped when viewed from the side. The head and thorax are merged into a cephalothorax with the abdomen curving around underneath. As with the larvae, pupae must come to the surface frequently to breathe, which they do through a pair of respiratory trumpets on the cephalothorax. After a few days as a pupa, the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax splits and the adult mosquito emerges.

Adults

The duration from egg to adult varies considerably among species and is strongly influenced by ambient temperature. Mosquitoes can develop from egg to adult in as little as 5 days but usually take 10–14 days in tropical conditions.

Like all mosquitoes, adult Anopheles have slender bodies with 3 sections: head, thorax and abdomen.

The head is specialized for acquiring sensory information and for feeding. The head contains the eyes and a pair of long, many-segmented antennae. The antennae are important for detecting host odors as well as odors of breeding sites where females lay eggs. The head also has an elongated, forward-projecting proboscis used for feeding, and two sensory palps.

The thorax is specialized for locomotion. Three pairs of legs and a pair of wings are attached to the thorax.

The abdomen is specialized for food digestion and egg development. This segmented body part expands considerably when a female takes a blood meal. The blood is digested over time serving as a source of protein for the production of eggs, which gradually fill the abdomen.

Anopheles mosquitoes can be distinguished from other mosquitoes by the palps, which are as long as the proboscis, and by the presence of discrete blocks of black and white scales on the wings. Adult Anopheles can also be identified by their typical resting position: males and females rest with their abdomens sticking up in the air rather than parallel to the surface on which they are resting.

Adult mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after emerging from the pupal stage. In most species, the males form large swarms, usually around dusk, and the females fly into the swarms to mate.

Males live for about a week, feeding on nectar and other sources of sugar. Females will also feed on sugar sources for energy but usually require a blood meal for the development of eggs. After obtaining a full blood meal, the female will rest for a few days while the blood is digested and eggs are developed. This process depends on the temperature but usually takes 2–3 days in tropical conditions. Once the eggs are fully developed, the female lays them and resumes host seeking.

The cycle repeats itself until the female dies. While females can live longer than a month in captivity, most do not live longer than 1–2 weeks in nature. Their lifespan depends on temperature, humidity, and also their ability to successfully obtain a blood meal while avoiding host defenses.

Habitat

Although malaria is nowadays limited to tropical areas, most notoriously regions of sub-Saharan Africa, many Anopheles species live in colder latitudes (see this map from the CDC). Indeed, malaria outbreaks have, in the past, occurred in colder climates, for example during the construction of the Rideau Canal in Canada during the 1820s.[5] Since then, the Plasmodium parasite (not the Anopheles mosquito) has been eliminated from first world countries.

The CDC warns, however, that “Anopheles that can transmit malaria are found not only in malaria-endemic areas, but also in areas where malaria has been eliminated. The latter areas are thus constantly at risk of re-introduction of the disease.”

 Susceptibility to become a vector of disease

Some species are poor vectors of malaria, as the parasites do not develop well (or at all) within them. There is also variation within species. In the laboratory, it has been possible to select for strains of A. gambiae that are refractory to infection by malaria parasites. These refractory strains have an immune response that encapsulates and kills the parasites after they have invaded the mosquito’s stomach wall. Scientists are studying the genetic mechanism for this response. It is hoped that some day, genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to malaria can replace wild mosquitoes, thereby limiting or eliminating malaria transmission.

 Malaria transmission and control

Understanding the biology and behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes can help understand how malaria is transmitted and can aid in designing appropriate control strategies. Factors that affect a mosquito’s ability to transmit malaria include its innate susceptibility to Plasmodium, its host choice and its longevity. Factors that should be taken into consideration when designing a control program include the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides and the preferred feeding and resting location of adult mosquitoes.

On December 21, 2007, a study published in PLoS Pathogens found that the hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from Cucumaria echinata, a sea cucumber found in the Bay of Bengal, impaired the development of the malaria parasite when produced by transgenic A. stephensi.[6] This could potentially be used one day to control malaria by spreading genetically modified mosquitoes refractory to the parasites, although there are numerous scientific and ethical issues to be overcome before such a control strategy could be implemented.

 Preferred sources for blood meals

One important behavioral factor is the degree to which an Anopheles species prefers to feed on humans (anthropophily) or animals such as cattle (zoophily). Anthropophilic Anopheles are more likely to transmit the malaria parasites from one person to another. Most Anopheles mosquitoes are not exclusively anthropophilic or zoophilic. However, the primary malaria vectors in Africa, A. gambiae and A. funestus, are strongly anthropophilic and, consequently, are two of the most efficient malaria vectors in the world.

Once ingested by a mosquito, malaria parasites must undergo development within the mosquito before they are infectious to humans. The time required for development in the mosquito (the extrinsic incubation period) ranges from 10–21 days, depending on the parasite species and the temperature. If a mosquito does not survive longer than the extrinsic incubation period, then she will not be able to transmit any malaria parasites.

It is not possible to measure directly the life span of mosquitoes in nature. But indirect estimates of daily survivorship have been made for several Anopheles species. Estimates of daily survivorship of A. gambiae in Tanzania ranged from 0.77 to 0.84, meaning that at the end of one day between 77% and 84% will have survived.[7]

Assuming this survivorship is constant through the adult life of a mosquito, less than 10% of female A. gambiae would survive longer than a 14-day extrinsic incubation period. If daily survivorship increased to 0.9, over 20% of mosquitoes would survive longer than a 14-day extrinsic incubation period. Control measures that rely on insecticides (e.g. indoor residual spraying) may actually impact malaria transmission more through their effect on adult longevity than through their effect on the population of adult mosquitoes.

Patterns of feeding and resting

Most Anopheles mosquitoes are crepuscular (active at dusk or dawn) or nocturnal (active at night). Some Anopheles mosquitoes feed indoors (endophagic) while others feed outdoors (exophagic). After feeding, some blood mosquitoes prefer to rest indoors (endophilic) while others prefer to rest outdoors (exophilic), though this can differ regionally based on local vector ecotype, and vector chromosomal makeup, as well as housing type and local microclimatic conditions. Biting by nocturnal, endophagic Anopheles mosquitoes can be markedly reduced through the use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) or through improved housing construction to prevent mosquito entry (e.g. window screens). Endophilic mosquitoes are readily controlled by indoor spraying of residual insecticides. In contrast, exophagic/exophilic vectors are best controlled through source reduction (destruction of the breeding sites).

 Insecticide resistance

Insecticide-based control measures (e.g. indoor spraying with insecticides, ITNs) are the principal way to kill mosquitoes that bite indoors. However, after prolonged exposure to an insecticide over several generations, mosquitoes, like other insects, may develop resistance, a capacity to survive contact with an insecticide. Since mosquitoes can have many generations per year, high levels of resistance can arise very quickly. Resistance of mosquitoes to some insecticides has been documented with just within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. There are over 125 mosquito species with documented resistance to one or more insecticides. The development of resistance to insecticides used for indoor residual spraying was a major impediment during the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign. Judicious use of insecticides for mosquito control can limit the development and spread of resistance. However, use of insecticides in agriculture has often been implicated as contributing to resistance in mosquito populations. It is possible to detect developing resistance in mosquitoes and control programs are well advised to conduct surveillance for this potential problem.

Eradication

With substantial numbers of malaria cases affecting people around the globe, in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where millions of children are killed by this infectious disease, eradication is back on the global health agenda.[8]

Although malaria has existed since old times, its eradication was possible in Europe, North America, the Caribbean and parts of Asia and southern Central America during the first regional elimination campaigns in the late 1940s. However, the same results were not achieved in sub-Saharan Africa.[8]

Even though the World Health Organization adopted a formal policy on the control and eradication of the malaria parasite since 1955,[9] it was recently, after the Gates Malaria Forum in October 2007, that key organizations started the debate on the pros and cons of redefining eradication as a goal to control malaria.

Clearly, the cost of preventing malaria is much less than treating the disease, in the long run. However, eradication of mosquito is not an easy task. For effective prevention of malaria, some conditions should be met such as conducive conditions in the country, data collection about the disease, targeted technical approach to the problem, very active and committed leadership, government’s total support, monetary free hand, community involvement, skilled technicians from different fields as well as an adequate implementation.[10]

There is a wide range of strategies to achieve malaria eradication that start from simple steps to complicated strategies which may not be possible to enforce with the current tools.

Although mosquito control is an important component of malaria control strategy, elimination of malaria in an area does not require the elimination of all Anopheles mosquitoes. For instance, in North America and Europe, although the vector Anopheles mosquitoes are still present, the parasite has been eliminated. There are also some socioeconomic improvements (e.g., houses with screened windows, air conditioning) that once combined with vector reduction efforts and effective treatment lead to the elimination of malaria without the complete elimination of the vectors. Some important measures in mosquito control to be followed are: discourage egg laying, prevent development of eggs into larvae and adults, kill the adult mosquitoes, do not allow adult mosquitoes into places of human dwelling, prevent mosquitoes from biting human beings and deny blood meal.[11]

Research in this sense continues, and a study has suggested that sterile mosquitoes might be the answer to malaria elimination. This research suggests that using the sterile insect technique (SIT), in which sexually sterile male insects are released to wipe out a pest population, could be a solution to the problem of malaria in Africa. This technique brings hope, as female mosquitoes only mate once during their lifetimes, and in doing so with sterile male mosquitoes, the insect population would decrease.[12] This is another option to be considered by local and international authorities that may be combined with other methods and tools to achieve malaria eradication in sub-Saharan Africa.

Parasites

A number of parasites of this genus are known to exist including microsporidia of the genera Amblyospora, Crepidulospora, Senoma and Parathelohania.[13]

Microsporida infecting the aquatic stages of insects, a group that includes mosquitoes and black flies, and copepods appear to form a distinct clade from those infecting terrestrial insects and fish. There are two distinct life cycles in this group: in the first type the parasite is transmitted by the oral route and is relatively non species specific. In the second, while again the oral route is the usual route of infection, the parasite is ingested within an already infected intermediate host. Infection of the insect larval form is frequently tissue specific, and commonly involves the fat body. Vertical (transovarial) transmission is also known to occur.

Few phylogenetic studies of these parasites have been done, and their the relationship to their mosquito hosts is still being determined. One study suggested Parathelohania is an early diverging genus within this group.[14]

The parasite Wolbachia has been studied for use as a control agent.[15]

 

References

  1. ^ a b Anopheles at dictionary.com.
  2. ^ Steven Lehrer (2010). Anopheles mosquito transmission of brain tumor” (PDF). Medical Hypotheses 74 (1): 167–168. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.07.005. PMID 19656635. http://www.stevenlehrer.com/images/medhypinpress09.pdf
  3. ^ a b Eric Calvo, Van M Pham, Osvaldo Marinotti, John F. Andersen & José M. C. Ribeiro (2009). “The salivary gland transcriptome of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi reveals accelerated evolution of genes relevant to hematophagy”. BMC Genomics 10 (1): 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-57. PMID 19178717. PMC 2644710. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/57/abstract
  4. ^ Jyotsana Dixit, Hemlata Srivastava, Meenu Sharma, Manoj K. Das, O.P. Singh, K. Raghavendra, Nutan Nanda, Aditya P. Dash, D. N. Saksena & Aparup Das (2010). “Phylogenetic inference of Indian malaria vectors from multilocus DNA sequences”. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 10 (6): 755–763. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2010.04.008. PMID 20435167
  5. ^ William N. T. Wylie (1983). “Poverty, Distress, and Disease: Labour and the Construction of the Rideau Canal, 1826-32”. Labour/Le Travail (Athabasca University Press) 11: 7–29. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25140199
  6. ^ Shigeto Yoshida, Yohei Shimada , Daisuke Kondoh, Yoshiaki Kouzuma, Anil K. Ghosh, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena & Robert E. Sinden (2007). “Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development”. PLoS Pathogens 3 (12): e192. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030192. PMID 18159942. PMC 2151087. http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.0030192
  7. ^ J. D. Charlwood, T. Smith, P. F. Billingsley, W. Takken, E. O. K. Lyimo & J. H. E. T. Meuwissen (1997). “Survival And infection probabilities of anthropophagic anophelines from an area of high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in humans”. Bulletin of Entomological Research 87 (5): 445–453. doi:10.1017/S0007485300041304
  8. ^ a b Marcel Tanner & Don de Savigny (2008). “Malaria eradication back on the table”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 86 (2): 82–83. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.050633. http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/2/07-050633/en/
  9. ^ “Malaria Eradication”. http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/Malaria.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  10. ^ “Mosquito Eradication”. http://www.malariasymptoms.org/malaria-preventing.html. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  11. ^ “Mosquito Control”. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080501074333/http://www.malariasite.com/MALARIA/mosquito_control.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  12. ^ “Are sterile mosquitoes the answer to malaria elimination?”. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/11/16/are.sterile.mosquitoes.answer.malaria.elimination. Retrieved 2010-05-04. 
  13. ^ A. V. Simakova & T. F. Pankova (2008). “Ecology and epizootology of microsporidia in malarial mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the south of western Siberia” (in Russian). Parazitologiia 42 (2): 139–150. PMID 18664069
  14. ^ Michael D. Baker, Charles R. Vossbrinck, James J. Becnel & Theodore G. Andreadis (1998). “Phylogeny of Amblyospora (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae) and related genera based on small subunit ribosomal DNA data: a possible example of host parasite cospeciation” (PDF). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 71 (3): 199–206. doi:10.1006/jipa.1997.4725. PMID 9538024. http://www.ct.gov/caes/LIB/caes/documents/biographies/BakerJIP98.pdf
  15. ^ http://news.discovery.com/animals/mosquito-parasite-disease-fighting.html

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Indonesian North celebes bird (natural history serial exhibition)

 

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

                     Please Enter

                    

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Indonesian North celebes  Bird

 

 
 
 
 
  Macrocephalon maleo
  Maleo fowl
Maleo
 Coturnix chinensis,
Blue-breasted  Quail, Puyuh Batu
Megapodius cumingii, Philippine Megapode, 
Gosong Pilipina
Gallus gallus,
Red junglefowl,
Ayam hutan merah
Turnix-suscitator,
Barred Buttonquail,
Gemak Loreng
Dendrocopos temminckii, Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker, 
Caladi Sulawesi
Mulleripicus fulvus,
Ashy Woodpecker, 
Pelatuk Kelabu-Sulawesi
Penelopides exarhatus, Sulawesi Hornbill,  Kangkareng Sulawesi
Aceros cassidix,
Sulawesi Hornbill , Rangkong Sulawesi
Coracias temminckii,
Purple-winged Roller,  Tionglampu Sulawesi
Eurystomus orientalis , Dollarbird ,
Tiong lampu Biasa
Alcedo atthis,
Common Kingfisher
Rajaudang Erasia
Ceyx-fallax,
Sulawesi Kingfisher
Udangmerah Sulawesi
Alcedo-meninting, 
Blue-eared Kingfisher,
Rajaudang Meninting
Cittura cyanotis,
 Lilac Kingfisher,  Rajaudang Pipi-ungu
Pelargopsis-melanorhyncha, Black-billed Kingfisher,
Pekaka Bua-bua
Halcyon-coromanda,
Ruddy Kingfisher,
Cekakak Merah
Todirhamphus chloris, 
Collared Kingfisher,   Cekakak Sungai
Todiramphus sanctus, Sacred Kingfisher,
Cekakak Australia
Actenoides-monachus, Green-backed Kingfisher,
Cekakakhutan Tunggir-hijau
Actenoides princeps, Scaly-breasted Kingfisher,  Cekakakhutan Dada-sisik Meropogon-forsteni,
Purplepbearded Bee-eater, Celebes Bee-eater,
Cirik-cirik Sulawesi
Merops philippinus ,
 Blue-tailed Bee-eater ,
Kirik-kirik laut
Merops ornatus,
Rainbow Bee-eater,  Kirikkirik Australia
Cuculus sparverioides, Large Hawk-cuckoo,  Kangkok Besar Cacomantis merulinus, Plaintive Cuckoo,
Wiwik Kelabu
Cacomantis-sepulcralis, Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Wiwik Uncuing  Eudynamys scolopacea, Koel,
Tuwuk, Tuwur asia
Scythrops novaehollandiae, Channel-billed Cuckoo,  Karakalo Australia Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus, Yellow-billed Malkoha Centropus bengalensis , Lesser Coucal ,
Bubut Alang-alang
Trichoglossus ornatus, Ornate Lorikeet, 
Perkici Dora
Trichoglossus flavoviridis, Citrine Lorikeet, 
Perkici Kuning-hijau
Prioniturus flavicans,
Yellow-breasted Racket-tail, 
Kringkring Dada-kuning
Prioniturus platurus, Golden-mantled Racket-tail, 
Kringkring Bukit
Trichoglossus flavoviridis, Citrine Lorikeet, 
Perkici Kuning-hijau
Tanygnathus sumatranus, Blue-backed Parrot,  Betetkelapa Punggung-biru Loriculus stigmatus,
Great Hanging Parrot,  Serindit Sulawesi
 Collocalia esculenta,
White-bellied Swiftlet,
Walet Sapi
Hemiprocne-longipennis,
Grey-rumped Treeswift,
Tepekong Jambul
Apus pacificus,
Fork-tailed Swift,
Kapinis Laut
Tyto rosenbergii,
Sulawesi Masked Owl,  Serak Sulawesi
Otus-manadensis,
Sulawesi Scops Owl,
Celepuk Sulawesi
 
Ninox-scutulata-scutulata, Brown Hawk Owl,
Pungguk Coklat
Ninox-ochracea,
Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl,
Pungguk Oker
Ninox-punctulata,
Speckled Hawk-owl,
Pungguk Tutul
Ninox-ios,
Cinnabar Hawk Owl
Eurostopodus diabolicus, Diabolical Nightjar, Taktarau Iblis
Streptopelia-chinensis, Spotted Dove,
Spotted Turtle Dove
Macropygia amboinensis, Brown Cuckoo Dove, 
Uncal Ambon
Turacoena-manadensis, White-faced Cuckoo-dove,
Merpatihitam Sulawesi
Chalcophaps-indica, Emerald Dove,
Delimukan Zamrud
Chalcophaps stephani, Stephan’s Emerald Dove,  Delimukan Timur Treron vernans, 
Pink-necked green Pigeon, Punai Gading
Treron griseicauda,
Grey-cheeked Green Pigeon,
Punai Penganten
Ptilinopus superbus, Superb Fruit Dove, 
Walik Raja
Ptilinopus-melanospila,  Black-naped Fruit-dove,
Walik Kembang
Ducula forsteni,
White-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Pergam Tutu
Ducula aenea,
Green Imperial Pigeon ,
Pergam Hijau
Ducula bicolor,
Pied Imperial Pigeon,  Pergam Laut
Ducula luctuosa,
White Imperial Pigeon, Pergam Putih
Gallirallus torquatus, Barred Rail, 
Mandarpadi Zebra
Gallirallus philippensis, Buff-banded Rail,  Mandarpadi Kalung-kuning Amaurornis phoenicurus, White-breasted Waterhen, Kareo Padi
Porzana cinerea,
White-browed Crake,
Tikusan Alis-putih
Numenius phaeopus ,
Whimbrel,
Gajahan Penggala
Tringa totanus ,
Common Redshank,
Trinil Kaki-merah
Phalaropus-lobatus,
Red-necked Phalarope,  Kakirumbai Kecil
Charadrius-dubius,
Little Ringed Plover,  Cerek Kalung-kecil
Sterna bergii,
Swift Tern, 
Daralaut Jambul
Anous stolidus,
Brown Noddy,  Camarangguk Coklat
Pandion-haliaetus,
Osprey,
Elang Tiram
 Aviceda jerdoni,
Jerdon’s Baza,
Baza Jerdon
Haliastur indus ,
Brahminy kite ,
Elang bondol
Haliaeetus-leucogaster, White-bellied Fish Eagle,
Elanglaut Perut-putih
Ichthyophaga-humilis, Lesser Fish Eagle,
Elangikan Kecil
Spilornis rufipectus, Sulawesi Serpent Eagle,  Elangular Sulawesi Accipiter nanus,
Dwarf Sparrowhawk,  Elangalap Kecil
Accipiter rhodogaster, Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk,
Elang-alap dada-merah
Ictinaetus malayensis, Black Eagle, 
Elang Hitam
Hieraaetus kienerii,
Rufous-bellied Eagle,  Elang Perut-karat
Accipiter soloensis,
Chinese Goshawk,
Elang alap china
Falco-moluccensis,
Spotted Kestrel,
Alap-alap Sapi
Falco-peregrinus, Peregrine Falcon,
Alap-alap Kawah
Falco-severus,
Oriental Hobby,
Alap-alap Macan
Accipiter griseiceps, Sulawesi Goshawk, Elangalap Kepala-kelabu Circus assimilis,
Spotted Harrier,  Elangrawa Tutul
Gorsachius goisagi, Japanese Night Heron,  Kowak Jepang
Ixobrychus-cinnamomeus, Cinnamon Bittern,  Bambangan Merah
Sula-leucogaster,
Brown Booby,
Angsa-batu coklat
Sula-sula,
Red-footed Booby,  Angsabatu Kakimerah
Phalacrocorax melanoleucos, 
Little Pied Cormorant
Ixobrychus-cinnamomeus, Cinnamon Bittern,  Bambangan Merah
Ixobrychus flavicollis, Black Bittern, 
Bambangan Hitam
Nycticorax-nycticorax, Black-crowned night heron, Kowakmalam Abu Egretta sacra ,
Eastern Reef Egret
Kuntul Karang
Ardea-sumatrana,
Great-billed Heron, 
Cangak Laut
Ardea purpurea,
Purple Heron,
Bangau, Cangak Merah
 Egretta garzetta nigripes, Little Egret,
Kuntul Kecil
Ardeola speciosa ,
Javan Pond Heron,
Kokokan,
Blekok Sawah
Butorides striatus ,
Striated Heron,
Kokokan Laut
Fregata-ariel,
Lesser Frigatebird,
Least Frigatebird
Fregata-ariel,
Lesser Frigatebird,
Least Frigatebird
Pitta sordida,
Hooded Pitta, 
Paok Hijau
Pitta erythrogaster,
Red-bellied Pitta, 
Paok Mopo
Pitta moluccensis,
Blue-winged Pitta, 
Paok Hujan
Corvus enca,  
Slender-billed Crow , Burung gagak
Myzomela chloroptera, Sulawesi Myzomela Eurostopodus macrotis, Great Eared-Nightjar
Artamus leucorhynchu,
White-breasted Wood-Swallow,
 Kekep,Burung Buah
Artamus monachus,
Ivory-backed Woodswallow,  Kekep Sulawesi
Oriolus chinensis ,  
Black-naped Oriole, Kepudang kuduk hitam
Gymnocrex rosenbergii, lue-faced Rail, 
Mandar Mukabiru
Dicrurus-hottentottus,
Hair-crested Drongo,
 Srigunting Jambul-rambut
Lanius cristatus,
Brown Shrike, 
Bentet Coklat
Hypothymis-azurea,
Black-naped Monarch,
Kehicap Ranting
Coracina morio,
Sulawesi Cicadabird,  Kepudangsungu Sulawesi
Pachycephala sulfuriventer, Sulphur-vented Whistler,  Kancilan Perut-kuning Gerygone sulphurea, Golden-bellied Geryone,  Remetuk Laut Culicicapa helianthea, Citrine Canary-Flycatcher,  Sikatan Matari Hirundo rustica ,
Barn Swallow ,
Layang-layang api
Hirundo tahitica,
Pacific Swallow ,
Layanglayang Batu
Aplonis panayensis,
Asian Glossy Starling, Perling Kumbang
Streptocitta albicollis, White-necked Myna,  Blibong Pendeta Cisticola exilis,
Golden-headed Cisticola, 
Cici Merah
Pycnonotus-aurigaster, Sooty-headed Bulbul,
Cucak Kutilang
Cisticola exilis,
Golden-headed Cisticola, 
Cici Merah
Zosterops chloris,   Mangrove White-eye, Kacamata laut Orthotomus-cuculatus, Mountain Tailorbird,
Cinenen Gunung
Scissirostrum dubium, Grosbeak Starling, 
Jalak Tunggir-merah
Enodes erythrophris, Fiery-browed Myna , Jalak Alis-sapi Zosterops atrifrons, Black-crowned White-eye,  Kacamata Dahi-hitam Trichastoma celebense, Sulawesi Babbler,  Pelanduk Sulawesi
Monticola solitarius,
Blue Rock Thrush, 
Muraibatu Arung
Dicaeum-celebicum,
Grey-sided Flowerpecker,  Cabai Panggul-kelabu
Anthreptes malacensis, Plain-throated Sunbird , Burung-madu Kelapa  Nectarinia jugularis, 
Olive-backed Sunbird,
Burung Madu Sriganti
Aethopyga-siparaja, Crimson Sunbird,
Burungmadu Sepah-raja
Motacilla-cinerea,
Grey Wagtail,
Kicuit Batu
Zoothera erythronota ,
Red-backed Thrush, 
Anis Punggung-merah
Turdus-obscurus, Eyebrowed Thrush,
Anis Kuning
Anthus gustavi,
Pechora Pipit, 
Apung Petchora
Lonchura molucca,
Black-faced Munia, 
Bondol Taruk
Lonchura-punctulata,
Scaly-breasted Munia,
Bondol Peking
Basilornis celebensis, Short-crested Myna,  Rajaperling Sulawesi

The Indonesian’s Birds (natural history serieal exhibition)

 

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

                     Please Enter

                    

              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Indonesian’s Bird

 
 
 
Cacatua galerita,
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, Kakatua putih besar
  Cacatua moluccensis, Salmon-crested cockatoo, Kakatua Seram Cacatua-sanguinea,
Little Corella,
Kakatua Rawa
Cacatua citrinocristata, Yellow-crested cockatoo ,
Kakatua cempaka
Cacatua alba,
White Cockatoo,
 Kakatua Putih
Cacatua goffiniana,
 Tanimbar Corella,
Kakatua Tanimbar
Cacomantis castaneiventris,
Chestnut-breasted Cuckoo,  Wiwik Dada-coklat
Cacomantis heinrichi,
Moluccan Cuckoo,
 Wiwik Maluku
Cacomantis flabelliformis,
Fan-tailed Cuckoo, 
Wiwik Kipas
Cacomantis merulinus, Plaintive Cuckoo,
Wiwik Kelabu
Cacomantis-sepulcralis, Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Wiwik Uncuing Cacomantis sonneratii, Banded Bay Cuckoo. 
Wiwik Lurik
Cacomantis variolosus, Brush Cuckoo ,
Wiwik Rimba
Cairina scutulata,
White-winged Wood-Duck, Bebek hutan
Calidris-alba,
Sanderling, 
Kedidi Putih
Calidris-acuminata,
Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, Kedidi Ekor-panjang
Calidris-canutus,
Red Knot,
Kedidi Merah
Calidris-ferruginea,
Curlew Sandpiper,
Kedidi Golgol
Calidris ruficollis ,
Red-necked Stint
Kedidi Leher-merah
Calidris-subminuta,
Long-toed Stint,
Kedidi Jari-panjang
Calidris-tenuirostris,
 Great Knot,
Kedidi Besar
Calidris temminckii,
Temminck’s Stint ,
Kedidi Temminck
Caliechthrus leucolophus,
White-crowned Koel,  Kedasi Topi-putih
Caloenas nicobarica, Nicobar Pigeon,
Punai Emas
Caloperdix oculea, Ferruginous Partridge , Puyuh Tarun-tarun Calorhamphus fuliginosus, Brown Barbet,
Takur Ampis
Calyptomena hosii,
Hose’s Broadbill,  Madihijau Perut-biru
 Calyptomena viridis , Green Broadbill ,
Madi-hijau Kecil
Calyptomena whiteheadi,
Whitehead’s Broadbill,  Madihijau Whitehead
Campochaera sloetii,
Golden Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Emas
Caprimulgus indicus,
Grey Nightjar,
 Cabak Kelabu
Caprimulgus manillensis,
 Philippine Nightjar,
Cabak Filipina
Caprimulgus affinis , Savanna Nightjar ,
Cabak Kota
Caprimulgus macrurus,
Large-tailed Nightjar, 
Cabak Maling
 Carpococcyx viridis, Sumatran Ground Cuckoo, Tokhtor Sumatra Casuarius-casuarius-sclaterii,
cassowary,
Kasuari Gelambir-ganda
Caprimulgus concretus,
 Bonaparte’s Nightjar,
 Cabak Kolong
Caprimulgus pulchellus,
Salvadori’s Nightjar,
 Cabak Gunung
Cataponera turdoides,
Sulawesi Thrush,
 Anis Sulawesi
Centropus phasianinus,
Pheasant Coucal,
Bubut Ayam
 Celeus brachyurus,
Rufous Woodpecker , Pelatuk Kijang
Centropus bengalensis , Lesser Coucal ,
Bubut Alang-alang
Centropus rectunguis, Short-toed Coucal,
But but Hutan
Centropus sinensis , Greater Coucal ,
Bubut Besar
Cettia vulcania,
Sunda Bush Warbler, Ceret Gunung
Ceyx erithaca,
Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher,  Udang Api
Ceyx-fallax,
Sulawesi Kingfisher
Udangmerah Sulawesi
Ceyx-rufidorsus,
Black-backed Kingfisher
Chalcophaps-indica, Emerald Dove,
Delimukan Zamrud
Chalcophaps stephani, Stephan’s Emerald Dove,  Delimukan Timur Chalcopsitta-sintillata, Yellow-streaked Lory,
Nuri Aru
 
Chalcopsitta duivenbodei,
Brown Lory,
 Nuri Coklat
Charadrius-alexandrinus, Kentish Plover, 
Cerek Tilil
Charmosyna toxopei,
Blue-fronted Lorikeet,  Perkici Buru
Charmosyna rubronotata,
Red-fronted Lorikeet , Perkici Kepala-merah
Charmosyna multistriata,
Striated Lorikeet,
 Perkici Garis
Charmosyna wilhelminae,
Pygmy Lorikeet,
 Perkici Kerdil
Charmosyna pulchella,
Fairy Lorikeet,
 Perkici Punggung-hitam
Charmosyna josefinae,
Josephine’s Lorikeet,   Perkici Josephina
Charmosyna papou,
Papuan Lorikeet,
 Perkici Papua
Charadrius-dubius,
Little Ringed Plover,  Cerek Kalung-kecil
Charadrius leschenaultii, Greater Sand Plover,  Cerek pasir Besar Charadrius mongolus,
Lesser Sand Plover,
Cerekpasir Mongolia
Charadrius peronii , Malaysian Plover ,
Cerek melayu
Charadrius ruficapillus, Red-capped Plover, 
Cerek Topi-merah
Charadrius-veredus, Oriental Plover, 
Cerek Asia
Charmosyna placentis,
Red-flanked Lorikeet,  Perkici Dagu-merah
Chlamydera-cerviniventris, Fawn-breasted Bowerbird,
Namdur Coklat
Chlamydera lauterbachi,
Yellow-breasted Bowerbird ,
Namdur Dada-kuning
Chlamydochaera jefferyi,
Fruithunter,
 Tawau Dada-hitam
Charadrius-placidus,
Long-billed Plover, 
Cerek Paruh-panjang
Chlidonias hybridus, Whiskered Tern, 
Daralaut Kumis
Chlidonias-leucoptera, White-winged Tern,
Daralaut Sayap-putih
Chloropsis aurifrons,  Golden-fronted Leaf bird, Murai  Chloropsis cochinchinensis , Blue-winged Leafbird, Murai Daun Bunga Chloropsis cyanopogon, Lesser Green Leafbird,  Cicadaun Kecil
Chloropsis sonnerati, Greater Green Leafbird,  Cicadaun Besar Chlorocharis emiliae, Mountain Blackeye, 
Opior Mata-hitam
Chloropsis venusta,
Blue-masked Leafbird,  Cicadaun Sumatera
Chrysococcyx-basalis, Horsfield’s Bronze Cuckoo,  Kedasi Australia
Chrysocolaptes-lucidus, Greater Goldenback,  Pelatuk Tunggir-emas Chrysococcyx minutillus, Little Bronze Cuckoo,  Kedasi Laut Chrysococcyx russatus, Gould’s Bronze Cuckoo,  Kedasi Gould Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus,
Violet Cuckoo, 
Kedasi Ungu
Chrysococcyx osculans,
Black-eared Cuckoo,
 Kedasi Telinga-hitam
Chrysococcyx maculatus,
Asian Emerald Cuckoo,  Kedasi Zamrud
Chrysococcyx lucidus,
Shining Bronze Cuckoo , Kedasi Emas
Chrysococcyx meyeri,
White-eared Bronze Cuckoo ,
Kedasi Telinga-putih
Chrysococcyx rufomerus,
Green-cheeked Bronze Cuckoo,
 Kedasi Pipi-hijau
Cicinnurus magnificus, Magnificent Bird-of-paradise, 
Cendrawasih Belah-rotan
Cicinnurus-regius-rex,
King Bird of Paradise,
Cendrawasih Raja
  Ciconia episcopus storm, Wooly-necked stork ,
Sandang lawe,Bangau Hitam
Cicinnurus respublica,
Wilson’s Bird-of-paradise,
 Cendrawasih Botak
Ciconia stormi,
Storm’s Stork,
Bangau Storm
Cinnyris jugularis,
Olive-backed Sunbird,
Burungmadu Sriganti
Cinnyris solaris,
 Flame-breasted Sunbird, 
Burungmadu Matari
   Cissa thalassina,
Short-tailed Green Magpie,
Ekek Geling
Cissa chinensis,
Green Magpie,
Panca Warna
Cisticola juncidis,
Zitting Cisticola,
Cici Padi
Cisticola exilis,
Golden-headed Cisticola, 
Cici Merah
Circaetus-gallicus,
Short-toed Snake Eagle,  Elangular Jari-pendek
Circus approximans,
Swamp Harrier, 
Elangrawa Coklat
Circus assimilis,
Spotted Harrier,  Elangrawa Tutul
Circus aeruginosus, Western Marsh Harrier,  Elangrawa Katak
Circus spilonotus,
Eastern Marsh Harrier,  Elangrawa Timur
Cittura cyanotis,
 Lilac Kingfisher,  Rajaudang Pipi-ungu
Clamator-coromandus, Chestnut-winged Cuckoo,  Bubut pacar Jambul Clytoceyx rex,
Shovel-billed Kingfisher,  Rajaudang Paruh-sekop
Clytomyias insignis,
Orange-crowned Fairywren,
 Cikrakperi Topi-merah
Cnemophilus macgregorii,
Antenna Satinbird,
 Cendrawasih Jambul
Cochoa azurea,
Javan Cochoa,
Ciung-mungkal Jawa
Colluricincla harmonica,
 Grey Shrikethrush,  Anisbentet Kelabu
 Collocalia esculenta, White-bellied Swiftlet, Walet Sapi Collocalia fuciphaga, Edible-nest Swiftlet, Walet Sarang-putih Columba argentina,
Silvery Pigeon,
Merpati-hutan Perak
Columba-livia,
Common Pigeon, 
Merpati Batu
Columba vitiensis,
Metallic Pigeon,  Merpatihutan Metalik
Copsychus malabaricus, White-rumped Shama, Murai Batu Copsychus saularis , Oriental Magpie Robin , Murai kampong Copsychus stricklandii,
White-crowned Shama,  Kucica Kalimantan
Coracina dohertyi,
Sumba Cicadabird,
Kepudangsungu Sumba
Coracina fimbriata,
Lesser Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Kecil
Coracina javensis,
Javan Cuckoo-shrike,
Kepudangsungu Jawa
Coracina larvata,
Sunda Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Gunung
Coracina morio,
Sulawesi Cicadabird,  Kepudangsungu Sulawesi
Coracina leucopygia,
White-rumped Cuckooshrike, Kepudangsungu Tunggir-putih
Coracina parvula,
 Halmahera Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Halmahera
Coracina papuensis,
White-bellied Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Kartula
Coracina personata, Wallacean Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Topeng Coracina striata,
Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Sumatera
Coracina tenuirostris, Common Cicadabird,  Kepudangsungu Miniak Coracias temminckii, Purple-winged Roller,  Tionglampu Sulawesi
Coracina temminckii,
Caerulean Cuckooshrike,  Kepudangsungu Biru
Corydon sumatranus,
Dusky Broadbill, 
Madi Kelam
Corvus enca,  
Slender-billed Crow , Burung gagak
Corvus macrorhynchos, Large-billed Crow,
Gagak Kampung
Corvus splendens,
House Crow,
 Gagak Rumah
Corvus unicolor,
Banggai Crow,
 Gagak Banggai
Corvus orru,
Torresian Crow,
 Gagak Orru
 Coturnix chinensis,
Blue-breasted  Quail,
Puyuh Batu
Coturnix ypsilophora, Brown Quail, 
Puyuh Coklat
Cracticus-mentalis,
Black-backed Butcherbird,
Jagal Leher-putih
Cracticus cassicus,
 Hooded Butcherbird,  Jagal Papua
 Crocias albonotatus, Spotted Crocias,
Cica Matahari
Crypsirina-temia,
Racket-tailed Treepie,  Tangkar Centrong
Cuculus-fugax,
Malaysian Hawk-Cuckoo,  Kangkok Melayu
Cuculus canorus,
Common Cuckoo ,
Kangkok Erasia
Cuculus horsfieldi ,
Horsfield’s cuckoo ,
Kangkok Horsfield
Cuculus lepidus,
Sunda Cuckoo,
 Kangkok Sunda
Cuculus micropterus,
Indian Cuckoo, 
Kangkok India
Cuculus nisicolor,
Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo ,
Kangkok Hodgson
Cuculus pallidus,
Pallid Cuckoo,
 Kangkok Pucat
 Cuculus saturatus,
Oriental Cuckoo,
Kangkok Ranting
Cuculus sparverioides, Large Hawk-cuckoo,  Kangkok Besar Cuculus vagans,
Moustached Hawk-Cuckoo,  Kangkok Kumis
Culicicapa ceylonensis, Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher,
Sikatan Kepala-abu
Culicicapa helianthea, Citrine Canary-Flycatcher,  Sikatan Matari Cyanoptila cyanomelana, Blue-and-white Flycatcher,  Sikatan Biru-putih Cyornis banyumas,
Hill Blue Flycatcher,  Sikatan Cacing
Cyornis hoevelli,
Blue-fronted Blue Flycatcher,
 Sikatan Dahi-biru
Cyornis hyacinthinus,
Timor Blue Flycatcher Sikatan Bakung
Cyornis rufigastra, Mangrove Blue Flycatcher,  Sikatan Bakau Cyornis sanfordi,
Matinan Blue Flycatcher , Sikatan Matinan
Cyornis superbus,
Bornean Blue Flycatcher,  Sikatan Kalimantan
Cyornis-tickelliae, Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher,  Sikatan Ranting Cyornis turcosus,
Malaysian Blue Flycatcher,  Sikatan Melayu
Cyornis unicolor,
Pale Blue Flycatcher,  Sikatan Biru-muda
Cygnus atratus,
 Black Swan,
 Soang Hitam
   
Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos,
Black-and-red Broadbill, 
Sempurhujan Sungai
Cypsiurus balasiensis,
Asian Palm Swift,
Waletpalem Asia
   

the end @ copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2011t