The Rare Phillatelic Thematic Collections(Koleksi Prangko thematik Langka)

The Rare  Phillatelic Thematic Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited edition in CD-ROM

special for Thematic Phillatelic Collectors

Jakarta 2011 @ copyrighr Dr Iwan 2011

INTRODUCTIONS

I started collecting stamps in 1955 at the age of ten years, first acquiring the stamp of the Italian priest in the form of cuttings Ganizaro old letters, based on this collection I started feeding a stamp collection that has a beautiful picture of Swiss design, especially the flora, fauna and natural scenery , then the collection develops after Pasto italy obtain a catalog of Italian who began collecting stamps is based on catalog prices were high that the Italian and swiss

KLIhatlah my profile with my teacher pack Sofyanto while in middle xekolah Upper Don Bosco Padang 1960-1963

Pengetahuna philatelic collection thematik me about the first time when I followed the practice of medicine at the Faculty of the University of Indonesia in 1970-1972 kedoktera

look at profile pictures always say that time that I use in each of my books as the beginning of nostalgia when given increased knowledge philatelic catalog Yvert and Tellier by my Uncle Drs Abdisa

look at my profile then

The biggest collection I have after I graduated and began the practice of medical education in Solok General West Sumatra, as it has funds to buy stamps at that time still relatively cheap, I memeproleh two major collections owned by collectors around the world in the old one album and a collection schauberk Switzerland .

Collection terseburt growing up as I went on to study a master S2 Hospital Administration 1989-1990 and continued during sya duty in West Kalimantan 1990-1994, and served in the Police Headquarters of the Republic of Indonesia 1994-2001

During the period of nearly fifty years I have read and my study of rare stamps thematik every night sebelu m tridur to understand her.

After retired  I start adventuring around asia for postal history and stamp collecting rare thematik, when my visit in 2008, when singah in Bangkok, say to find a book of stamps that acquiring thematik Large Gold medals in International competitions, because the book is very expensive at nearly U.S. $ 400 , – say the record just kind of say thematik breastfeeding use as the basis of electronic books CD-ROM.

Look at my profile before the war museum in Ho Chi Minh City

In 2010 I built a web blog for up to three

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

hhtp: / / http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

hhtp: / / http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

hhtp: / / http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

I have been showing a lot of my collection in Cybermuseum above.

I realize this is still a lot of paper ekurangannya, therefore, corrections and suggestions as well as additional information so I would expect

I thank the various parties who telang emndukungd memebrikan an encouragement to me to be able to menyelesiakan paper electronic book preformance CRF-ROM. May be useful for philatelists koletor thematik in developing the collection so the highest award DAPT Large Gold medal.

September 2010

Dr Iwan suwandy 

versi indonesia

saya mulai mengumpul prangko tahun 1955 pada usia sepuluh tahun, pertama kali memeroleh prangko dari pastor Italia Ganizaro berupa guntingan surat-surat lama, berdasarkan koleksi ini mulailah saya menyusu suatu koleksi prangko yang memiliki gambar yang indah terutama dari Swiss desain flora,fauna dan pemandangan alamnya, kemudian koleksi berkembang setelah memeperoleh katalogus dari Pasto italy mulailah mengumpulkan prangko Italia yang harganya tinggi berdasarkan katalogus Italia dan swiss tersebut

KLIhatlah profile saya dengan guru saya pak Sofyanto saat di xekolah menengah Atas Don Bosco di Padang 1960-1963

Pengetahuna saya tentang koleksi filateli  thematik pertama kali saat saya mengikuti praktek kedokteran di Fakultas kedoktera Universitas indonesia tahun 1970-1972

lihatlah foto profile say saat tersebut yang selalu saya pergunakan di setiap buku saya sebagai nostalgia mulainya peningkatan pengetahuan filateli saat diberikan katalogus Yvert and Tellier oleh Paman saya Drs Abdisa

lihatlah profile saya saat itu

Koleksi terbesar saya miliki setelah saya tamat pendidikan kedokteran dan mulai praktek Umum di Solok Sumatera barat,karena memiliki dana untuk membeli prangko yang saat itu masih relatif  murah harganya,saya memeproleh dua koleksi besar milik kolektor lama satu seluruh dunia dalam album schaubek dan satu koleksi Swiss.

KOleksi terseburt berkembang sampai saat saya melanjutkan studi S2 master Hospital Administration tahun 1989-1990 dan dilanjutkan saat sya bertugas di kalimatan Barat 1990-1994,dan bertugas di Markas Besar Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia 1994-2001 

Selama kurun waktu hampir lima puluh tahun saya membaca dan memepelajari prangko thematik yang langka setiap malam sebelu m tridur sampai memahami nya.

Setealh pensiun say mulai bertualang keliling asia untuk mengumpulkan postal history dan prangko thematik langka,saat kunjungan saya tahun 2008,saat singah di Bangkok,saya menemukan sebuah buku tentang prangko thematik yang memeroleh medali large Gold pada perlombaan International,karena buku sangat mahal hampir US $ 400,- say mencatat saja jenis thematik yang say jadikan dasar penyusuan buku elektronik CD-ROM ini.

Lihatlah profile saya didepan museum perang di Ho chi Minh City

Pada tahun 2010 saya membangun web blog sampai tiga

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Saya telah menampilkan banyak koleksi saya di Cybermuseum tersebut diatas.

Saya menyadari  karya tulis ini masih banyak ekurangannya,oleh karena itu koreksi dan saran serta tambahan informasi sangat saya harapkan

Saya mengucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telang emndukungd an memebrikan semangat kepada saya untuk dapat menyelesiakan karya tulis buku elektronik dalm CRF-ROM ini. Semoga ada manfaatnya bagi koletor filatelis thematik dalam mengembangkan koleksinya sehingga dapt memperoleh penghargaan tertinggi medali Large Gold.

Jakarta Agustus 2010

Dr Iwan suwandy

The Type of phillatelic Thematic Collections

(JENIS KOLEKSI FILATELIK THEMATIK)

Gold medal thematic phillatelic collection

A.Thema koleksi Filateli Pemenang Medali Emas pada Pameran Filateli Internatinal (?,2007)


a. The History Of A Mankind
b.The Discovery And Manifactures
c. The Society
d.The Nature
e.The Competition Sport

The  rare Phillatelic Thematic collection

(KOLEKSI THEMATIK YANG LANGKA)

I.The History Of A Mankind

1).Prehistory,

2).The Babarian and The Birth Of The Mankind

3)The Conquers of Countries,

4).The Birth Of Nation,

5).The War, Revolution and The Construction of Nation.

 

1) Prehistory (100 BC-4 ct AD)


a) Antiquity Prehistory,

b)Prehistoric Man ,

c)Ancient Egypt and Persian,

d)Greco-Roman World,

e)Ancient China.

2).The Barbarian to the birth of Modern Time(VI-XVI cth)

a)The Invader and Setter,

b)The Knight

c)The Silk Road

d)The Golden Age of Islam ,

e)The Renaissance and tha war of religion.

 
3)The Conquers of Countries and The new Wish(XVII-XVIII Cth)

a).The Ocean Discover,

the USA colombus exposition five dollar

b)The Spanish Conquer the new World,

c)The Colonies of North America and The Caribean,

d)The Indian and Pasific Ocean.

4) The Birth of Nation(XVII_XIX Cth)

a)The Birth of USA,

b)The Franch Revolution & Napoleon War ,

c)The Nation State of Europe,

d)The South America Independence ,

e)The Colonial Empire.with the lion king emblem
 

the british east africa colony lion king emblem

5)The War,Revolution and Construction of Nation(XIX-XXcth)

a) The War World I,

b) The Worlf War II,

c)The Soviet Revolution

 

d)The Comunisme,

e)The Rise of Islam,

f)The Construction of Euro,APEC,Arab,Africa and America,

g) The Regionaol War,Democratic Socialism and Humanright

 

b. The Discovery and Manifactures

1)The Transportation’s Discovery :

a)The Ship

the rare trinidad lady Mc Leod black stamp

b)The Train

the rare  peru train local lima first stamp.

c)The Bicycle and Motorbike,

d)The Aircraft,

e)The Nature Wrath.

 
2).The Discovery Inovation and Technology:

a)The Postal Invention and technology,

b)The Comunication Telephone , radio ,television ,

 

c)he Roads and Canals,

 

d)The bridge and Dams

 

the rare Sidney bridge 5 shilling  on postally cover.

e)The Medicine and Biology ,

f)The Conquers of Space,

g)The conques of Poles and Ocean.

 

3. The Society


a) The Jobs and Social life

b) The Education and Laisure,

c)The Environtmen ,Health and HumanRight ,

d)The Human Habitat,

e) The Believe and Costume ,

f) Festival and national Costume.

 

1) The Job and Social Life


a)Farming and Animal custodian ,

b)Fishing ,

c)military ,

d)public force ,

e)legal & prosecutor ,

f)family ,

g)industrial community(labor),

h)management administration ,

i) The entertainment.

 

2).The Education and Leisure:

a)Mother &Child,

b) Education &Teacher ,

c)Children’s Games and toys ,

d)Parlor games &Board games ,

e)Food &Drink,

f) Seaside & laguna.

 

3) The Einvirontmen, health and HumanRight


a)Preservation the environtment,

b) First aid & Medical care,

c) The battles against diseases ,

d) National health &safety company,

the rare new zealand first health fund stamps

e)the health status image of world.

4) The Human Habitat:


a)House & Village,

b)Desert,Rural,Urban and Town,

c) Monumen ,castle and palace.

d) Park,forest,and garden ,

e)Public building,

f) Major Cities and their monumen

5)The Believe and Costume:


a)World religius : Islam.budha.Hindu ,Christian ,

b)prophet ,

c)Place of praying: Pagoda,tample,cathedral,and mosque

d) Monk,missionaris,and rabi ,

e)Ritual of believe.

 

6) The Art work,Festival and Costume:


a) Art & culture ,

b) Jewelery ,

c)Work Art: Paint and sclupture ,

d) Literature.

 

b.The Nature


1)The Mineral,Fossil,and Prehistoric adnexa,

2)The Flora ,

3)The Fauna.

 

c.The Competitive Sport


1) The Land Sport ,

2) The Water Sport,

3) The Areal Sport.

1) The Land sport:

a)The Summer Olympic ,

b)atheletic ,

c)Gymnastic ,

d)soccer

e)Rugby,

f)Basketball ,

g) Lawn Tennis &Table Tennis ,

h)Baseball ,

i)Golf ,

 j) Polo,

k)Horse riding ,

l)Badminton.

 

2) The Water Sport:
a) Swimming,

b)sailing,

c)papan luncur
3)The areal Sport :
a)Bycicle , Motorbike and car rally ,

b)Combat sport ,

c) traditional sport

added new topic:

Scout

libyan scouts 1962 envelope with stamps

 

 

 

 

 

THE END @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy.2011

THE COMPLETE LIMITED TEN EDITION CR-ROM STILL IN PROCESSING,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED FROM NOW VIA COMMENT. 

 

 

 

 

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The Moamer Gadhafi Collections Part One:The Gadhafi and Lybia Postal and Numismatic History”

 

 

 

The Libyan POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS

LIBYA 2010 “41st Anniversary of 1st September Revolution”
 
Date of issue: 01.09.2010
Denomination 1000 dirhams
Size of stamp mm.40×50 – Perforation 11
Printed in minisheets with 12 stamps
Printing 4-colours offset with gold foil application
Designer: Eng. Mohamed M.Tarabolsi – Khaled M.Tabbakh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Souvenir-sheet including one stamp, denomination 1500 dirhams
Size of souvenir-sheet mm.135×100
Printing 4-colours offset with gold foil application and embossing
Designer: Eng. Mohamed M.Tarabolsi – Khaled M.Tabbakh

Word from Colonel Muammar Al Gadhafi: ‘FORMING PARTIES SPLITS SOCIETIES’ – see a Libyan stamp about that, issued in 1984!!! Also, 2 FDCs from Libya. Read from BBC: ‘Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi appears on state TV’.

Read from BBC: ‘Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi appears on state TV’.

In 1949, George Orwell wrote ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’.
In 1984, this stamp was issued by Libya:

 
 
 
Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi might not be completely wrong about that.
There could be “democratic” societies that are deeply split, nonetheless.
There could be autocratic societies that are united, for a while, especially if the dictator is “enlightened”, truly serving the interest of the nation, as needed.
Not possible, you think?
Read about Cincinnatus, Dictator of the Roman Empire, not corrupted by power
 
 Statue of Cincinnatus, Cincinnati, OH
“With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. His other hand holds the plow, as he resumes the life of a citizen and farmer.”
LIBYA 2010 “Al-Fateh Revolution Through 40 Years”
 
Date of issue: 23.08.2010
Forty self-adhesive stamps printed in sheet
Denomination 400 dirhams each stamp
Stamps size mm.33×46 – Sheet size mm.295×295
Printed 4-colors offset with gold and green foil application
Designer: Dr. Mohammed Moammar Al-Gathafi

LIBYA 2009 “Khadafi Leader of the African Union”

Single stamp
size mm.55×37, face-value 1000 dirhams
adhesive stamp with gold foil application and embossing
 
Minisheet with 12 stamps
size mm.200×230
 
Souvenir-sheet
size mm.130×85, with one stamp mm.55×37 face-value 2000 dirhams
adhesive souvenir-sheet with gold foil application and embossing
 
 
Postcard postal-stationery
with pre-printed stamp face-value 1500 dirhams

// Monday, August 17, 2009

LIBYA year 2008

2008, March 2 – “People’s Authority Declaration” (31st Anniversary) 2008, April 2 – “Tripoli International Fair” (37th Session) 2008, May 1st – “WWF World Wide Fund for Nature” (Rueppell’s Fox) 2008, May 25 – “The 4th Annual Exhibition for Communication and Information Technology” 2008, July 23 – “The 56th Anniversary of 23rd of July Revolution” (Gamel A. Nasser) 2008, July 27 – “Al Gathafi Mediterranean Project 6+6” 2008, August 3 – “10th Regular Session of Leaders and Heads of States of the CEN-SAD” 2008, August 18 – “Libyan Participation in Beijing Olympic Games 2008” 2008, September 1 – “1st September Revolution” (39th Anniversary) 2008, September 1 – ” 1st September Revolution ” (39th Anniversary) 2008, September 11 – “Libya Mobile Telephone Network” 2008, September 23 – “The Fourth International Waatasemu Women Competition for Memorizing the Holy Koran”
2008, September 26 – “Exhibition of the Holy Quran Book”

HOLOGRAMS STAMPS OF LIBYA

 
 
 
 
2001 “32nd Anniversary of September Revolution” minisheet with 16 stamps
 
 
2001 – detail of the minisheet
 
 

2001 – two souvenir-sheets

2001 – detail of one of the stamps inside the souvenir-sheets (with gold foil application)
 
 
2002 “33rd Anniversary of September Revolution” minisheet with 16 stamps
 
 
2002 – detail of the minisheet

2002 – two souvenir-sheets

 
 
2002 – detail of one of the stamps inside the souvenir-sheets (with gold foil application)
 
 
 
2003 “People’s Authoirity Declaration” minisheet with 6 stamps

 

 

2003 – detail of the minisheet

 
 
2004 “Khairi Nuri Khaled” minisheet with 4 stamps
 
2004 – detail of the minisheet

Libyan Stamps

international childrn's day
International Children Day 1968 Postal Stamp

libyan stamp shown the slogan: freedom, socialism & unity

The Libyan GPTC (General Posts and Telecommunications Company):

The Libyan GPTC was established in 1984 to operate and maintain the Libyan postal system, the internal wire and wireless telecommunication systems, and the international communication system.

screenshot of the Libyan GPTC

 

History of Postal Stamps in Libya:

By the nature of the profession the early Libyan post offices were built near foreign consulates and companies at the major seaports, where people are most likely to use the service. These offices continued to operate until the Italians established their first post office to guarantee contact between the various colonies.

Among the early overprints found on Italian stamps are “Tripoli di Barbaria” and “Libia“, and after the independence of 1951 “The United Kingdom of Libya“, “The Kingdom of Libya“, and “Libya“. Some of these stamps are included in this page for historical reasons and are no longer effective. Then after the September revolution of 1969 the overprint “The Libyan Arab Jamhuriyah” appeared at the top of the stamp, like the one shown below; followed by “The Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya“, then by “The Greate Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya“.

Please note that a number of the old postal stamps shown in this webpage are not valid any more and they are here merely for historical reasons. For example all the stamps carrying the name United Kingdom of Libya or the Kingdom of Libya are no longer valid.

our army is our protective shield
Our Army Our Protective Shield
Libyan Arab Jamhuriyah (L.A.R.)

green libya stamps
Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Postal Stamps

This group of stamps illustrates the various principles on which the green revolution and commemorates the tenth anniversary of the September revolution of 1969.

Above left: “partners not paid workers”.
Above right: “wealth is in the hands of people”.
Below right: “The Third World Theory” (as explained in Gaddafi’s Green Book).
Below left (top): “a house belongs to its dweller” (people with no homes were given houses).
Below left (bottom): “arms are in the hands of people”.

green book stamps Libya
Stamps commemorating Gaddafi’s Third World Theory as described in his Green Book.

Oil & Gas Stamps

 

Postal stamp commemorating the inauguration of the first petrol pipe line in libya, 25th of October 1961.The first line that kept wealth pumping into the heart of the Libyan economy. The two round pipes show the oil well at

 Zelten and the sea port of Marsa Brega

.Zuetina oil terminal

 

Zueitina Oil Terminal Postal Stamp.

The Libyan Boy Scouts in Stamps:

 

libyan scouts 1962 envelope with stampsAn envelope with postal stamps commemorating the Third Philia  For The Mediteranean Boy Scouts, held in Juddaiem between the 13th and the 20th of July 1962. The actual enevelop stamp shows that the letter was sent on the opening day, the 13th.

libyan scouts 1962 Third Philia

 

Libyan Boy Scouts’ Website
Three stamps commemorating the Third Philia of 1962.

10th anniversary of Libya's independence

Trajan Arch in Leptis Magna

 
Libya’s 10th anniversary Independence: 24 December 1961.
The Arch of Trajan in Leptis Magna
libya archaeology stamp
archaeology stamp: save the Nubian antiquitiesUnesco’s Save The Nubian Antiquities Postal Stamp.

cyrenaica stamp

 
flowers stamp
 
collection of Libyan stamps
A collection of Libyan stamps from 1960s and 1970s. These stamps are no longer in operation and are shown here for historical value.
 
 the stamp shows Ahmed Rafik AlmehdawiThe Libyan poet exiled by the Italians during the Italian occupation of Libya. He was born in 1898 and died in 1961.
 algerian burning library stamp, 1965
 The Burnt Algerian Library

 

A Libyan stamp commemorating the Algerian burnt library, 1965.On the 7th of June 1962 the OAS set fire to the University of Algiers’ library, destroying a total of 112500 books. In case you are wondering what sort of organisation is this OAS, it is a militant underground group opposed to the movement of the Algerian independence. As a result, the event triggered a series of commemorative postal stamps from various countries including Libya, where the event became a symbol of Algerian wars against oppression and for freedom and independence. The Libyan stamp is remarkably similar to the stamp issued by Yemen in the same year.

 
arab union stamplibyan stamps from the 1960s
 
 international meteorological dayThe International Meteorological Day, 23rd March 1965.
 
 maghreb satellite communications stamp
 
 
 tripoli internation fourth fair
4th Tripoli International Fair: 28th of February to 20th of March 1965.
The 7th Arab Boy Scouts Camp, 12th of August 1966, Juddaiem.birds from libya
Libyan Birds.
 
 
 birds from Libya
 world united against malaria postal stampThe World United Against Malaria Postal Stamp 

African-European Union Third Summit (29-30/11/2010)

muhammad gaddafi issues a stamp commemorating the African summit

Muhammad Gaddafi, the secretary of the general communication board, issues a new stamp commemorating the African-European Union Third Summit in Libya.  The image and the Arabic text are a screen shot from the the Libyan General Board of Communication

libyan stamps commemorating Berber shoes and boots
Libyan stamps commemorating Libyan traditional leather shows & boots.
 
 dinosaurs on Libyan stamps
Dinosaurs Libyan Stamps

The Scott Stamp Catalogue:

 The Scott catalogue of postage stamps lists all the stamps of the entire world. The catalogue began as a 21-page pamphlet of American and Foreign Postage Stamps, Issued from 1840 to Date, and was published in September 1868 by a New York stamp dealer John Walter Scott. The catalogue conatined both information as well as the prices of the stamps.

  • 1867 – first J.W. Scott & Co. Monthly Price List
  • 1868 – first bound and illustrated edition of the Descriptive Catalogue of American and Foreign Postage Stamps
  • 1888 – 46th Edition of the Scott catalogue assigns a number to each stamp listed.
  • As of 2006, and despite annual changes to save space, the catalog was more than 5,000 pages.

scott catalogue website screenshot

 Libyan Goddess stamp
The Libyan Goddess Stamps

BIRDS STAMPS OF LIBYA

1978 “75th Anniversary of the first Powered Flight”
 
1978 “75th Anniversary of the first Powered Flight”
 
1978 “75th Anniversary of the first Powered Flight”
 
 
1978 “Birds” airletter postal-stationery with pre-printed stamp 100dh.
 
1978 “Birds” airletter postal-stationery with pre-printed stamp 35dh.

 

WWF STAMPS OF LIBYA

 
2008 “Rueppell’s Fox – Vulpes rueppelli” minisheet
 
 
2008 set on special FDC First Day of Issue cover with special postmark

 

 

2008 final printing-proof in complete sheet

 

1997 “African Wildcat – Felis lybica” minisheet


 

1997 imperforated set on FDC First Day of Issue cover
 

 

1987 “Slender-horned Gazelle – Gazella leptoceros”


 

1987 FDC First Day of Issue cover

ECLIPSE STAMPS OF LIBYA

2
 
006 “The Total Eclipse at Great Jamahiriya 29.3.2006”

 

Special FDC First Day of Issue cover of the Libyan Posts.

Stamped and signed by the designer of the stamps

(Mr. Khaled Tabbakh, libyan artist)

FOSSILS STAMPS OF LIBYA

 
1996 “Fossils” maximum-card on postcard postal-stationery with pre-printed stamp
 
 
1996 “Fossils and Dinosaurs” (fossils: Mene rhombea, Mesodon macrocephalus, Eyron arctiformis)
 
 

1985 “Fossils” (frog, fish, mammal)1976 “Museum of Natural History” (Mastodon skull)

The Moamer Kadhafi numismatic Collections

Libya_IMG_1918, 1-Dinar Note with Muammar Qadhafi.jpg
//
Libya - One-Dinar Banknote, showing Muammar Qadhafi
Libya – One-Dinar Banknote, showing Muammar Qadhafi
Size: 2880×1896 / 3.9MB

The Moamer Gadhafi Collections Part Two:The Gadhafi Secreet Collections”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Icon  Cybermuseum)

The Moamer Gadhafi Collections

Part Two

The Gadhafi Secreet Colletions

 

The  rare M.Gaddafy or Kadhafi Collections.(Koleksi langka moamer kadhafi yang bertahan menghadapi serangan  NATO)******************************************************

BREAKING NEWS MOAMER  KHADAFI INFO NOW TODAY

1.Mei,6th.2011

Amnesty says Gaddafi’s attacks “may amount to war crimes”

06.05.2011 15:58
 
 
Amnesty says Gaddafi's attacks "may amount to war crimes"

Attacks by forces loyal to Libyan leader Moamer Gaddafi on the western city of Misurata may amount to war crimes, Amnesty International said Friday in a report.

The pressure group accuses Gaddafi forces of using heavy artillery, rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents, DPA reported.

“The scale of the relentless attacks that we have seen by Gaddafi forces to intimidate the residents of Misurata for more than two months is truly horrifying,” said senrior adviser Donatella Rovera, who is currently in Libya.

The London-based rights group singled out an incident in April, when it says government troops targeted civilians standing in a queue outside a bakery.

Libya’s third-largest city has seen some of the worst violence in the country and is experiencing an escalating humanitarian crisis. Rebels say at least 1,000 have been killed there.

Human rights groups say Gaddafi‘s forces have also been using cluster bombs to attack the port city.

Cluster bombs, which eject smaller bomblets, have been outlawed by more than 100 countries which have signed up to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which took effect in 2010. Libya is not a signatory to the convention.

Amnesty said the use of cluster munitions in residential areas amounts to a “flagrant violation of the international prohibition on indiscriminate attack.”

Gaddafi’s forces remain in control of the airport in Misurata, while its port remains a battleground for rebels and government loyalists, resulting in shortages of food and medical supplies in the city.

Amnesty’s report comes two days after the International Criminal Court’s chief prosecutor, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, said that he plans to seek arrest warrants against three unnamed Libyans in connection with the slaying of anti-government protesters.

Moreno-Ocampo is to present his case for crimes against humanity to the ICC’s pretrial chamber.

UN Security Council members and the United States say they supported the prosecutor’s request for arrest warrants

1a.Mei,11th.2011

 

Appeared in TV broadcasts Gaddafi Libya

 
 

These broadcasts proved he is still alive and well.Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, reportedly escaped the attack that killed his son early last May. In a television broadcast, Gaddafi looks safe and sound. He was holding talks with tribal elders supporters.Reporting from the pages of CNN, the Libyan state television broadcast footage on Wednesday night, May 11, 2011. Gaddafi seen wearing sunglasses and dark clothes. Meanwhile, tribal elders to wear a suit. This is Gaddafi’s first appearance since 30 April.”Our leaders met with Indigenous elders in Tripoli a few hours ago, this proves the persistence and perseverance Libya and its leader. Insha Allah, they will win,” said the announcer in the television broadcast.

2.Mei,12th 2011

mei 12, 2011

Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi’s makes TV appearance, Tripoli 11 May 2011

Americans and NATO out from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Libya ! Stop the NATO-collaborators !

3.Mei,16th 2011

 Indonesian Migrant Workers Repatriated from Libya

 
 
Reuters Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi waves from a car in the compound of Bab Al Azizia in Tripoli, after a meeting with a delegation of five African leaders seeking to mediate in Libyas conflict in this April 10, 2011 file photo. A war crimes prosecutor on May 16, 2011 sought an arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi, accusing him of killing protesters against his four-decade rule, as NATO stepped up strikes on Libyan forces. Picture taken April 10, 2011.
 

LONDON, KOMPAS.com– The Indonesian embassy in Tunis repatriated seven other migrant workers (TKWs) from Libya amidst the chaos there. Besides the seven Indonesian migrant workers, the Indonesian embassy in the Tunisian capital also repatriated another TKW Nani Suryani BT Aman Med (24) of Subang who works at the house of a hotelier in the resort city of Hammamet, embassy staff member M. Yazid said.

The eight TKWs were seen off by Embassy Councellor Sam Elihar Marentek, First Secretary Boy Dharmawan, Second Secretary Cut Dinawati Hidayat, BPKRT Mikin Sentono and Communication Officer Helmi Helwani at an embassy meeting in Tunis. Four of the 7 TKWs arrived in Tunis on May 7, and 3 others on May 10, while another one also from Tunisia entered the embassy on May 11.

The seven TKWs were Susi Rusmiati Ubad (28) and Latipah BT Endah Bahria (42) from Cianjur, Siti Fatimah BT Rahdi Rahmat (31) from Malang, Masiyah BT Rada Tolib (33) from Brebes, Tuti BT Namin Nian (31) from Bekasi and Eva Lusia BT Tajudin Asmadi (25) and Sariah BT Karsilah Sarah (26) from Indramayu.

While being employed in Libya and Tunisia, they had no shortcomings, and were even regarded as members of the families of their employers. This was experienced by Nani Suryani who worked for a hotelier in Hammamet.

Her employer and all members of her family had tears in their eyes when saying goodbye to her. Many of her counterparts also had the same sentimental experience, and their employers often telephoned them asking how they were.

M. Yazid said some of the ex-employers contacted the embassy expressing their appreciation for the TKWs’good and loyal services. But Eva Lusia, a mother of a child, escaped from her employer’s house at 1 am without a single penny, except a handbag of clothes.

 

4. Mei,2oth.2011

Gaddafi’s departure from Libya inevitable, Obama says

Mei 20, 2011   ·  

 
Gaddafi's departure from Libya

Muammar Gaddafi will inevitably leave power, U.S. President Barack Obama said, as NATO intensified its weeks-long bombing of government targets and said on Friday it had sunk eight Libyan warships.

Obama was speaking in an address on the Middle East where a series of uprisings this year governments in Tunisia and Egypt, and inspired a three-month-old revolt in Libya that aims to overthrow Gaddafi.

“Time is working against Gaddafi. He does not have control over his country. The opposition has organized a legitimate and credible Interim Council,” Obama said in Washington on Thursday.

“When Gaddafi inevitably leaves or is forced from power, decades of provocation will come to an end and the transition to a democratic Libya can proceed,” he said, defending his decision to take military action against the Libyan leader’s government.

His comments echoed NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen who said military and political pressure were weakening Gaddafi and would eventually topple him.

The Libyan leader remained defiant.

“Obama is still delusional,” Libyan government spokesman Mussa Ibrahim said. “He believes the lies that his own government and media spread around the world … It’s not Obama who decides whether Muammar Gaddafi leaves Libya or not. It’s the Libyan people.”

Acting under a U.N. mandate, NATO allies including France, Britain and the United States are conducting air strikes that aim to stop Gaddafi using military force against civilians.

NATO aircraft sank the eight warships in overnight attacks on the ports of Tripoli, Al Khums and Sirte, the alliance said in a statement.

“Given the escalating use of naval assets, NATO had no choice but to take decisive action to protect the civilian population of Libya and NATO forces at sea,” said Rear-Admiral Russell Harding, deputy commander of NATO’s Libyan mission.

Libyan officials took journalists to Tripoli port where a small ship spewed smoke and flames, and cast doubt on whether boats targeted by NATO had been involved in fighting.

Mohammad Ahmad Rashed, general manager of Tripoli’s port, said six boats had been hit by missiles.

The boats, five belonging to the coastguard and a larger naval vessel, had been undergoing maintenance since before the start of the fighting, he told reporters, adding that the port was still functional and capable of handling commercial traffic.

NATO bombs struck Tripoli, Gaddafi’s hometown of Sirte and Zlitan east of the capital, state TV said late on Thursday.

Rebels control eastern Libya and pockets in the west but the conflict has reached a stalemate as rebel attempts to advance on Gaddafi’s stronghold of Tripoli have stalled.

Western governments, under pressure from skeptical voters, are counting on Gaddafi’s administration to collapse.

“We have significantly degraded Gaddafi’s war machine. And now we see results, the opposition has gained ground,” Rasmussen told a news conference in the Slovak capital, Bratislava.

“I am confident that a combination of strong military pressure and increased political pressure and support for the opposition will eventually lead to the collapse of the regime.”

LIBYA TV SHOWS GADDAFI

Libyan state TV showed footage of Gaddafi meeting a Libyan politician in Tripoli. Government spokesman Ibrahim said the politician had been in a delegation that met Russian officials in Moscow this week to explore possibilities for a ceasefire.

The footage zoomed in on a TV screen in the room that showed Thursday’s date displayed in the corner. Gaddafi wore a brown robe with a hat and sunglasses.

Gaddafi was last seen on May 11 when state TV showed him meeting tribal leaders in Tripoli. NATO bombed his compound the next day, and a day later TV broadcast an audio clip in which he taunted NATO and said the alliance could not kill him.

The last few days have seen a flurry of diplomatic activity focusing on a possible ceasefire deal.

But Western powers are likely to stress their determination to keep the pressure on Gaddafi when heads of state from the Group of Eight industrialized nations meet on May 27-28.

In an attempt to raise pressure on Tripoli, the European Union is considering tightening sanctions by blacklisting some Libyan ports to prevent exports of oil and imports of fuel, a Western diplomatic source told Reuters.

4a.Mei,26th.2011

Keep NATO bombardment of Tripoli
  This is as reported JANA news agency and reported by Press TV on Friday (27/05/2011). In the attack, NATO fighter jets bombed the places that troops loyal to the Libyan leader Muammar

Friday, 27/05/2011 12:49 pm – http://www.detiknews.com

 

“khadafi hari ini 26 mei 2011” ditemukan dalam 1 dokumen detikNews

khadafiiiluar.jpg

NATO Terus Bombardir Tripoli

 Demikian seperti diberitakan kantor berita  JANA  dan dilansir  Press TV,  Jumat (27/5/2011).  Dalam serangan itu, jet-jet tempur NATO membombardir tempat-tempat pasukan yang setia pada pemimpin Libya Muammar

Jumat, 27/05/2011 12:49 WIB – www.detiknews.com
TYRANTS LEADING THE ARAB WORLD: COLONEL MUAMMAR GADDAFI AND BASHAR AL-ASSAD

May 26, 2011

BARCELONA Colonel Muammar Gaddafi should be tried for the Lockerbie Bombing that took place in Scotland. I hope that the African Union and Arab League will join forces in ensuring that this diabolic leader is tried for his crimes and brought to justice. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi must be brought to justice for the mayhem he is

5.Mei,30th.2011

South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma has arrived in Tripoli to attempt to broker a peace deal with the Libyan leader Colonel Gaddafi.

 

Jacob Zuma

Jacob Zuma arrives in Tripoli

 

It is expected that Mr Zuma will meet face to face with Col Gaddafi – who hasn’t been seen publicly for weeks and whose own officials admit is ‘on the move’ fearing Nato is trying to kill him.

The meeting may give some sense of whether or not Col Gaddafi accepts that the time for talk has arrived – and it could be a significant indicator as to the dictator’s thinking.

Publicly regime officials insist Col Gaddafi will not accept a deal which involves stepping aside, but privately some are starting to voice the view with me that he must step aside in order for the country to hold new elections.

The visit comes as state media reports 11 people have been killed in Zlitan in Nato-led air strikes.

 

Muammar Gaddafi appears on state TV

Col Gaddafi is trying to avoid death by Nato air strike

 

I was first here at the end of February and a meeting between Mr Zuma and Col Gaddafi then would have been unthinkable.

Mr Zuma and Gaddafi are old friends.

The South African is widely reported to have accepted financial assistance from Gaddafi during his serial trials for fraud and rape, but has never confirmed this himself.

Mr Zuma’s officials say he is visiting in his capacity as a member of the African Union High Level Panel for the Resolution of the Conflict in Libya.

South Africa is a member of the UN Security Council and despite voting for UN Resolution 1973 has criticised the bombing campaign.

 

Nato has unleashed a series of deadly airstrikes on the Libyan capital of Tripoli as it tries to oust leader Colonel Gaddafi.

Nato has started day raids against the regime in Tripoli

 

Mr Gaddafi has a circle of advisors but notoriously after nearly 42 years in power he is a political island.

There are several key factors which will make attempts to force Col Gaddafi out of the country more difficult.

He may see it as betraying the memory of his son Saif al-Arab and three grandchildren who were killed in a Nato air strike.

And it has to be remembered that the International Criminal Court is seeking arrest warrants for Col Gaddafi and his son Saif al-Islam.

 

British Apache helicopters are being deployed to Libya

British Apache helicopters are also trying to oust regime forces

 

Until now his son Saif al-Islam has continued to insist he and his father will “live in Libya and die in Libya”.

Government officials insist the regime can weather the continuing and increasing Nato air strikes.

Over the last week the military actions has intensified and there’ve been daytime bombings for the first time over the long weekend.

This may signal a change in strategy by Nato sending a message to the dictator that they will continue to strike at the heart of his regime whenever they want.

6.7.

B.LIBYA GUERILLAS INFO

Libia – Guerra Civil – Rebeldes
 
 
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A Libyan rebel arms a rocket launcher during an exchange of fire with pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

T-55

 

 

 

 

Fuerzas rebeldes sobre un BMP-1 en Shahat (24 feb. 2011)

A billobard against foreign interventi​on in Libya stands in Benghazi on March 11, 2011. AFP PHOTO / DAVE CLARK (Photo credit should read DAVE CLARK/AFP/​Getty Images)

General Abdel Fattah Yunis, commander of Libya’s rebel forces, holds a press conference at a hotel in Benghazi on March 13, 2011. Yunis, who resigned as interior minister soon after rebels rose up against Moamer Kadhafi in mid-Februa​ry, vowed to defend the next town of Ajdabiya. AFP PHOTO/GIAN​LUIGI GUERCIA (Photo credit should read GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AF​P/Getty Images)

 

BMP-1 en Shahat (24 feb. 2011)

T-55 en manos rebeldes. Nótese la antigua bandera libia

T-62. Nótese el evacuador de humo a mitad del cañón.

T-62

T-55

BMP-1 Las fotos muestran supuestame​nte a personas muertas durante las revueltas a manos de las fuerzas de seguridad del régimen.

BMP-1

Soldados rebeldes en Tobruk

Toyota Land Cruiser serie 70 en manos de soldados rebeldes

 

SA-2 en Tobruk

An anti-gover​nment protester wearing a military uniform holds up an RPG launcher that was brought back after it was stolen from a military unit as people bring back stolen weapons to a state security building taken over by anti-gover​nment protesters in Ben Ghazi February 23, 2011. People in Benghazi said earlier they now felt safe enough to start handing in weapons recovered after security forces lost control of the Libyan city. REUTERS/As​maa Waguih (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS)

BMP-1 en la base aérea de Benina (cerca de Bengasi)

MiG-23BN con sonda de repostaje en la base aérea de Labraq

Restos de un Mi-24

Mil Mi-24

 

 

 

 

Montaje ZPU-4 (4 ametrallad​oras KPV de 14,5mm.) y lanzacohet​es de 107mm. Tipo 63

ZPU-4 (14,5mm. x 4)

 

 

People walk inside a destroyed weapons dump near Benghazi March 5, 2011. An attack by Libyan military forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi on a weapons dump near Benghazi in rebel-cont​rolled eastern Libya killed 17 people on Friday, Al Jazeera television reported. There were no further details. REUTERS/Su​haib Salem (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST)

 

T-55 en majos rebeldes

 

 

ZU-23 (23mm. x2)

 

A Libyan army tank manned by soldiers opposed to leader Muammar Gaddafi is surrounded by protesters in the city of Zawiya February 27, 2011. Armed men opposed to the rule of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi were in control of the city of Zawiyah, 50 km (30 miles) west of the capital Tripoli, on Sunday. REUTERS/Ah​med Jadallah (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST MILITARY)

Boys climb on the tank of Libyan army defectors in the centre of the city of Zawiyah, 50 km (30 miles) west of the capital Tripoli, March 1, 2011. Libya could descend into civil war if Muammar Gaddafi refuses to quit, the United States said on Tuesday, its demand for his departure carrying fresh weight after news of Western military preparatio​ns. REUTERS/Ah​med Jadallah (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST MILITARY)

Rebelde sostiene un misil anticarro AT-3 “Sagger” (según denominaci​ón OTAN) en una base militar de Bengasi.

Un rebelde se lava los pies en una caja de munición con montajes ZPU-4 (14,5mm. x4) a su espalda en una base militar en Bengasi.

Rebeldes libios organizan munición para montajes antiaéreos en una base militar en Bengasi.

Un Toyota Land Cruiser serie 40 con un montaje ZPU-1 (14,5mm. x1) remolcando un montaje ZU-23 (23mm. x2).

Montaje antiaéreo ZU-23 (23mm. x2) en manos de rebeldes libios en Bengasi.

Rebeldes libios manejando un montaje ZU-23 (23mm. x2) en Zawiya.

Material militar libio en una base ahora en manos de los rebeldes en Bengasi. Se aprecian montajes antiaéreos ZU-23 (23mm. x2) y un lanzacohet​es múltiple de 107mm. Tipo 63.

 

Anti-gover​nment rebels listen to a lecture in a training and recruitmen​t center for the army in Benghazi, March 1, 2011. Libya’s eastern rebel army is urging young men eager to dash west and engage Muammar Gaddafi’s forces to wait so they can turn them into an effective fighting force. Hundreds from the eastern city of Benghazi are setting off each day across the desert to Libya’s capital, some carrying knives and assault rifles, residents told Reuters. REUTERS/As​maa Waguih (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS)

Libyan soldiers who joined the rebellion against Khadafi man an antiaircra​ft gun at an army barrack on February 28, 2011 in Benghazi where dozens of civilians registered for a civil defense training amid fears of an air raid from Tripoli. Libyan air force planes attacked ammunition depots in two separate locations south of opposition​-held second city Benghazi, witnesses said. AFP PHOTO / MARCO LONGARI (Photo credit should read MARCO LONGARI/AF​P/Getty Images)

Enlisted anti-gover​nment trainees learn how to operate an anti-aircr​aft gun at a training and recruitmen​t center for the army in Benghazi, March 1, 2011. Libya’s eastern rebel army is urging young men eager to dash west and engage Muammar Gaddafi’s forces to wait so they can turn them into an effective fighting force. Hundreds from the eastern city of Benghazi are setting off each day across the desert to Libya’s capital, some carrying knives and assault rifles, residents told Reuters. REUTERS/As​maa Waguih (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS MILITARY)

A Libyan opposition forces fighter manages a mobile antiaircra​ft position in the city of Ajdabiya, 160kms west of Benghazi, on March 1, 2011 as Libyan rebels said they have formed a military council in the eastern city of Benghazi in what could be a step towards creating a unified nationwide force against leader Moamer Kadhafi. AFP PHOTO / GIANLUIGI GUERCIA (Photo credit should read GIANLUIGI GUERCIA/AF​P/Getty Images)

Libyan anti-regim​e protesters show machinegun​s and ammunition confiscate​d from soldiers in Benghazi on February 25, 2011. Euphoria in Libya’s second city Benghazi gave way to growing concern that it remains vulnerable to a counter-at​tack by Moamer Kadhafi’s forces. AFP PHOTO/PATR​ICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Ge​tty Images)

Enlisted anti-gover​nment trainees learn how to operate weaponry at a training and recruitmen​t center for the army in Benghazi, March 1, 2011. Libya’s eastern rebel army is urging young men eager to dash west and engage Muammar Gaddafi’s forces to wait so they can turn them into an effective fighting force. Hundreds from the eastern city of Benghazi are setting off each day across the desert to Libya’s capital, some carrying knives and assault rifles, residents told Reuters. REUTERS/As​maa Waguih (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS MILITARY)

A Libyan civilian mans an anti aircraft gun at an army barrack on February 28, 2011 in Benghazi where dozens of civilians registered for a civil defense training amid fears of an air raid from Tripoli. Libyan air force planes attacked ammunition depots in two separate locations south of opposition​-held second city Benghazi, witnesses said. AFP PHOTO / MARCO LONGARI (Photo credit should read MARCO LONGARI/AF​P/Getty Images)

Rebels guard outside an army base in Benghazi March 1, 2011. REUTERS/Su​haib Salem (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST MILITARY)

Libyan anti-Kadha​fi protesters wave their old national flag as they stand atop an abandoned army tank in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi on February 28, 2011 as world powers ramped up the pressure on Kadhafi’s regime and the United States urged the internatio​nal community to work together on further steps to end bloodshed in Libya. AFP PHOTO/PATR​ICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Ge​tty Images)

A rebel holds a SAM 7 anti-aircr​aft missile as he takes stock of weapons and ammunition in a munitions storage hanger at a government military base which they have taken over in Ajdabia March 1, 2011. REUTERS/Go​ran Tomasevic (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST)

 

 

A rebel helps his colleague with a rocket propelled grenade outside their army base in Benghazi March 1, 2011. REUTERS/Su​haib Salem (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST MILITARY)

A Libyan soldier from forces that defected against Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi guards next to an anti-aircr​aft battery outside a military base in Benghazi, eastern Libya, Monday, Feb. 28, 2011. (AP Photo/Kevi​n Frayer)

 

Rebelde con un SA-7 cerca de Mars el-Brega el 2 de marzo de 2011.

Rebelde a 5km. de Ajdabiya el 2 de marzo de 2011. Lleva un Carl Gustav de 84mm.

Libyan rebel fighters stand ready with anti-aircr​aft weapons at a checkpoint on the outskirts of Ras Lanuf on March 6, 2011 which in spite of air strikes by the regime, the key oil pipeline hub was still in rebel hands, AFP correspond​ents reported, countering claims by a state-owne​d television that it had been recaptured​. AFP PHOTO / MARCO LONGARI (Photo credit should read MARCO LONGARI/AF​P/Getty Images)

ZPU-1 de 14,5mm. en la plataforma de una Toyota Hilux.

Cañón sin retroceso M40 de 106mm. en las afueras de Ras Lanuf el 4 de marzo.

Cañón sin retroceso M40 de 106mm.

 

ZPU-2 (14,5mm x 2)

 

ZPU-4 (14,5mm x4)

ZPU-1 (14,5mm. x1) sobre todeterrno​.

Estabiliza​dor vertical de Sujoi Su-24MK derribado por las fuerzas rebeldes.

Foto del mismo Su-24MK en el que se aprecia el numeral.

Sistema antiaéreo autopropul​sado ZSU-23-4 “Shilka” capturado en Az Zawiya por los rebeldes.

Toyota Land Cruiser serie 70 con cañón sin retroceso M40 de 106mm. cerca de Ras Lanuf. El rebelde a su lado duerme la siesta.

Strela 2M (SA-7B Grail según OTAN) en manos rebeldes. Al fondo un montaje ZPU-4 (14,5mm. x4).

Libyans pray in front of a weapon on the outskirts of the eastern city of Ajdabiya, Libya, Sunday, March 6, 2011. Libyan helicopter gunships fired on a rebel force advancing west toward the capital along the Mediterran​ean coastline Sunday and forces loyal to leader Moammar Gadhafi fought intense ground battles with the rival fighters.(​AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whi​tehill)

Rebeldes. Al fondo se ve un SA-7B.

A Libyan rebel poses near a tank captured from Libyan government forces, on the frontline near Sultan, south of Benghazi, Libya, Friday, March 18, 2011. The U.N. Security Council voted Thursday to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and authorize “all necessary measures” to protect civilians from attacks by Moammar Gadhafi’s forces, hours after the Libyan leader vowed to crush the rebellion with a final assault on the opposition capital of Benghazi. (AP Photo/Anja Niedringha​us)

Libyan anti-regim​e protesters show machinegun​s and ammunition confiscate​d from soldiers in Benghazi on February 25, 2011. Euphoria in Libya’s second city Benghazi gave way to growing concern that it remains vulnerable to a counter-at​tack by Moamer Kadhafi’s forces. AFP PHOTO/PATR​ICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Ge​tty Images)

This image taken from video shows rebels on the back of a vehicle in the area of Benina, a civilian and military airport, outside Benghazi in eastern Libya Thursday March 17, 2011. Libyan rebels shot down at least two bomber planes that attacked the airport in their main stronghold of Benghazi Thursday, according to residents who witnessed the rare success in the struggle against Moammar Gadhafi’s superior air power. (AP Photo/APTN​)

Defected Libyan soldiers and volunteers sit with weapons on the outskirts of the eastern town of Brega, Libya, Friday, March 4, 2011. Mutinous army units in pickup trucks armed with machine-gu​ns and rocket launchers deployed around the strategic oil installati​on at Brega Thursday, securing the site after the opposition repelled an attempt by loyalists of Moammar Gadhafi to retake the port in rebel-held east Libya. (AP Photo/Tara Todras-Whi​tehill)

Toyota Land Cruiser serie 70 con ametrallad​ora ZPU-1. En primer plano los tubos de un montaje ZPU-4.

Libyan rebels patrol the eastern coastal city of Benghazi on March 12, 2011, as Libyan rebels beat a further retreat under air strikes and shellfire from Moamer Kadhafi’s forces, even as an Arab League decision to back a no-fly zone boosted their uprising. AFP PHOTO/PATR​ICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Ge​tty Images)

Caravana de Toyota Land Crusier serie 70 rebeldes. Dos vehículos llevan lanzacohet​es de 107mm. Tipo 63.

A Libyan rebel flashes the victory sign as he arrives with his weapon to the frontline near Sultan, south of Benghazi, Libya, Friday, March 18, 2011. The U.N. Security Council voted Thursday to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and authorize “all necessary measures” to protect civilians from attacks by Moammar Gadhafi’s forces, hours after the Libyan leader vowed to crush the rebellion with a final assault on the opposition capital of Benghazi. (AP Photo/Anja Niedringha​us)

A rebel aims a rocket launcher in Brega March 3, 2011. REUTERS/Go​ran Tomasevic (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST MILITARY)

Rebel fighters opposing Libyan ruler Moamer Kadhafi organize themselves at Ras Lanuf before advancing westward into the north central town of Bin Jawad on March 05, 2011. The fighters took over the town of Bin Jawad without encounteri​ng any resistance from Khadafi forces. AFP PHOTO/ROBE​RTO SCHMIDT (Photo credit should read ROBERTO SCHMIDT/AF​P/Getty Images)

 

Toyota Land Cruiser pick up de la serie 70 con ametrallad​ora DShk de 12,7mm.

Un rebelde camino del frente con un RPG-7 y a su lado un pickup con montaje ZPU-1.

Rebeldes remunicion​ando un lanzacohet​es BM-21 “Grad” el 11 de marzo en Ras Lanuf.

RAS LANUF, LIBYA – MARCH 11: Libyan rebels battle government troops as smoke from a damaged oil facility darkens the frontline sky on March 11, 2011 in Ras Lanuf, Libya. Government troops loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi drove opposition forces out of the strategic oil town, forcing a frantic rebel retreat through the desert. (Photo by John Moore/Gett​y Images)

Libyan rebel fighters take cover as a bomb dropped by an airforce fighter jet explodes near a checkpoint on the outskirts of the oil town of Ras Lanuf on March 7, 2011. AFP PHOTO/MARC​O LONGARI (Photo credit should read MARCO LONGARI/AF​P/Getty Images)

Lanzacohet​es BM-21 “Grad” de 122mm.

 

Smoke billows from a burning oil refinery behind an abandoned rebel rocket position on a road leading to the flashpoint Libyan town of Ras Lanuf on March 12, 2011. Rebels said fighting had flared again in Ras Lanuf, after most of them were driven out by government forces in a fierce battle after holding it for a week. AFP PHOTO / MARCO LONGARI (Photo credit should read MARCO LONGARI/AF​P/Getty Images)

A rebel fighters fires an antiaircra​ft gun during an air strike in Ras Lanuf March 7, 2011. Libya’s army fought rebels for control of Ras Lanuf on Monday and a rebel official said Muammar Gaddafi could attack oilfields like a “wounded wolf” if the West did not stop him with air strikes. REUTERS/Go​ran Tomasevic (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST)

 

T-55

Dos T-55 rebeldes y un BM-21 “Grad”. Al menos 3 T-55 combatiero​n en el lado rebelde entre Ras Lanuf y Ajdabiya.

Rebels wave a Kingdom of Libya flag as they ride on top of a tank on the outskirts of Ajdabiyah, on the road leading to Brega, March 2, 2011. The flag which was used when Libya gained independen​ce from Italy in 1951, has been used as a symbol of resistance against Libya’s leader Muammar Gaddafi in the recent protests. REUTERS/Go​ran Tomasevic (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST MILITARY POLITICS IMAGES OF THE DAY)

RAS LANUF, LIBYA – MARCH 11: Libyan rebel tanks advance across the battlefiel​d towards government troops on March 11, 2011 in Ras Lanuf, Libya. Forces loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi drove opposition forces out of the strategic oil town, forcing a frantic rebel retreat through the desert. (Photo by John Moore/Gett​y Images)

T-55

T-55

BMP-1

BMP-1

Libyan rebels load a tank in Ajdabiya on March 14, 2011 as Libyan strongman Moamer Kadhafi’s forces shelled rebel positions on the doorstep of the key town which the revolution against his rule has vowed to defend at all costs. AFP PHOTO/PATR​ICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Ge​tty Images)

BMP-1

Libyan rebels guard the southern entrance of Tobruk on March 17, 2011. Libya warned it could target all Mediterran​ean air and sea traffic in the case of foreign military interventi​on, as world powers edged towards tough measures aimed at shutting down Moamer Kadhafi’s military machine. AFP PHOTO/PATR​ICK BAZ (Photo credit should read PATRICK BAZ/AFP/Ge​tty Images)

 

 

A rebel fighter wears a Barcelona soccer shirt at a petrol station on the road between Ajdabiyah and Brega, in Libya, March 30, 2011. REUTERS/An​drew Winning (LIBYA – Tags: CONFLICT MILITARY POLITICS)

Libyan rebels gather at the west gate of the eastern city of Ajdabiya on March 30, 2011. The first air strike in two days against Moamer Kadhafi’s forces in the east was carried out near Ajdabiya, where rebels are sheltering after having been routed from their frontlines​. AFP PHOTO / ARIS MESSINIS (Photo credit should read ARIS MESSINIS/A​FP/Getty Images)

A Libyan rebel prays by a rocket launcher during an exchange of fire with pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

Libyan rebels fire rocket launchers toward pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

A Libyan rebel arms a rocket launcher during an exchange of fire with pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

Libyan rebels fire rocket launchers toward pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

A Libyan rebel plugs his ears as rebels fire a rocket at troops loyal to Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi on the road between Ajdabiya and Brega, Libya, Thursday, March 31, 2011. An important Libyan oil town became a no man’s land Thursday as rebels to the east traded rocket and mortar fire with Gadhafi’s forces to the west. (AP Photo)

Libyan rebels fire rockets at troops loyal to Libyan leaderMoam​mar Gadhafi on the road between Ajdabiya and Brega, Libya, Thursday, March 31, 2011. An important Libyan oil town became a no man’s land Thursday as rebels to the east traded rocket and mortar fire with Gadhafi’s forces to the west. (AP Photo)

Libyan rebels fire rocket launchers toward pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

EDITOR’S NOTE: PICTURE TAKEN ON GUIDED GOVERNMENT TOUR A Libyan tank belonging to soldiers loyal to leader Muammar Gaddafi take position in the city of Misrata, 200 km (124 miles) east of the capital Tripoli March 28,2011. Gaddafi’s forces have gained control in part of Misrata although fighting continued in what the government said was the “liberated​” western Libyan city, rebels said. RUTERS/Ahm​ed Jadallah (LIBYA – Tags: CIVIL UNREST POLITICS)

Libyan rebels return from battle some 30 kilometers before the eastern town of Brega on March 31, 2011, as rebel fighters fought running street battles for the oil town, about 800 kilometres (500 miles) from the capital Tripoli, with forces loyal to Moamer Kadhafi driving around and shooting at people. AFP PHOTO / ARIS MESSINIS (Photo credit should read ARIS MESSINIS/A​FP/Getty Images)

Libyan rebels stand with a missile launcher in the eastern city of Ajdabiya on March 30, 2011. The first air strike in two days against Moamer Kadhafi’s forces in the east was carried out near Ajdabiya, where rebels are sheltering after having been routed from their frontlines​. AFP PHOTO / ARIS MESSINIS (Photo credit should read ARIS MESSINIS/A​FP/Getty Images)

Libyan rebels prepare tea at the west gate of the eastern city of Ajdabiya on March 30, 2011. The first air strike in two days against Moamer Kadhafi’s forces in the east was carried out near Ajdabiya, where rebels are sheltering after having been routed from their frontlines​. AFP PHOTO / ARIS MESSINIS (Photo credit should read ARIS MESSINIS/A​FP/Getty Images)

Libyan rebels armed vehicles retreating back east, drive through the outskirts of the town of al-Agila, Libya Wednesday, March 30, 2011. Moammar Gadhafi’s ground forces recaptured a strategic oil town Wednesday and were close to taking a second, making new inroads in beating back a rebel advance toward the capital Tripoli. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

A Libyan rebel walks with a rocket-pro​pelled grenade (RPG) as he takes position at the west gate of the eastern city of Ajdabiya on March 30, 2011. The first air strike in two days against Moamer Kadhafi’s forces in the east was carried out near Ajdabiya, where rebels are sheltering after having been routed from their frontlines​. AFP PHOTO / MAHMUD HAMS (Photo credit should read MAHMUD HAMS/AFP/G​etty Images)

Libyan rebels ride on a damaged pickup truck during clashes with troops loyal to Moammar Gadhafi on the road between Ajdabiya and Brega, Libya, Thursday, March 31, 2011. An important Libyan oil town became a no man’s land Thursday as rebels to the east traded rocket and mortar fire with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi’s forces to the west. (AP Photo)

 

 

Libyan rebels fire rocket launchers toward pro Gadhafi forces, along the front line outside the eastern town of Brega, Libya Thursday, March 31, 2011. Libya conceded Thursday that Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had resigned but claimed that it was a personal decision driven by health problems, not a sign that the embattled regime is cracking at the highest levels. (AP Photo/Nass​er Nasser)

A rebel fighter holds his gun as soldiers loyal to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi approach Ajdabiyah March 15, 2011. Gaddafi’s forces reached Ajdabiyah after storming through Ras Lanuf and Es Sider, reversing the advance of a rag-tag rebel army, which only a few weeks ago was confident of charging into the capital Tripoli and toppling Gaddafi. REUTERS/Go​ran Tomasevic (LIBYA – Tags: POLITICS CIVIL UNREST)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
Driwancybermuseum
 
 
Feb 22, 2011
photos: 151 – 13 MB
Public on the web
 
 
 
 
 
 
Driwancybermuseum
 
 

**************************************

Frame One :

The Women Bodyguard of Moamer Khadafi or Gaddhafi.

 

the end @ copyright  Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Moamer Gadhafi Collections Part Three :”The Falling of Lybian Tyrans”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book Exhibition

The Moamer Gadhafi Collections

Part Three

The Falling Of Lybian Tyrans

Moamer Gadhafi

Created By

 Iwan suwandy

Private Limited Edition for Computer Collectors.

 I.THE LAST GADHAFI CARICATURES COLLECTIONS

II. THE LAST GADHAFI PICTURES COLLECTIONS

III, THE LYBIAN REBEL WINS PICTURES COLECTIONS

IV.THE RARE  LAST GADHAFI COLLECTIONS

the complete illustrations exist ,but only for premium member , pleas subscribe via comment.

the end @ Copyright Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Computer Historic Collections(Koleksi sejarah Komputer)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book Exhibition

The Computer Historic Collections

(Koleksi Sejarah Komputer)

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy

Private Limited Edition for Computer Collectors.

English Version:

TABLE OF CONTENT

Introduction

The short history of Computer

Book One : THE HARDWARE HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

Part One: The Hardware Historic Collection Before the Modern computer Part Two: The Hardware Historic Collection Before Windows Exist

Book Two : THE SOFT WARE HISTPROIC COLLECTIONS

Part One : The SofteWare Historic colections Before Wordstar software     Part two: The Software Historic collections after  Wordstar software

I.INTRODUCTION.

Everybody used computer now, but not many understand the history of computer develomment and the collections related with the computer.

I have made a reasearch about that,and starting write ths guidance book for the computer histic collectors .

I know that this book  still not complete that is why all cumpters realted colloors will send comment and help to add the illustrations of this amizing collections.

Jakarta August 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

II.THE SHORT HISTORY OF COMPUTER

 

 
Computer
Acer Aspire 8920 Gemstone by Georgy.JPGColumbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility.jpgDell PowerEdge Servers.jpg 2010-01-26-technikkrempel-by-RalfR-05.jpgDelta-C personal computer.jpg Centcom20040818.jpg

A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem.

Conventionally a computer consists of some form of memory for data storage, at least one element that carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control element that can change the order of operations based on the information that is stored. Peripheral devices allow information to be entered from an external source, and allow the results of operations to be sent out.

A computer’s processing unit executes series of instructions that make it read, manipulate and then store data. Conditional instructions change the sequence of instructions as a function of the current state of the machine or its environment.

The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1]

Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as “computers”. However, the embedded computers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

History of computing

The first use of the word “computer” was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations.[3]

Limited-function early computers

The Jacquard loom, on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.

The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies—automated calculation and programmability—but no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] which descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical computer built by the Greeks around 80 BC.[7] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.[8] This is the essence of programmability.

Around the end of the tenth century, the French monk Gerbert d’Aurillac brought back from Spain the drawings of a machine invented by the Moors that answered Yes or No to the questions it was asked (binary arithmetic).[9] Again in the thirteenth century, the monks Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon built talking androids without any further development (Albertus Magnus complained that he had wasted forty years of his life when Thomas Aquinas, terrified by his machine, destroyed it).[10]

In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator,[11] a device that could perform all four arithmetic operations without relying on human intelligence.[12] The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways ; initially, it is in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators[13] that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage[14][15] and then developed,[16] leading to the development of mainframe computers in the 1960s, but also the microprocessor, which started the personal computer revolution, and which is now at the heart of all computer systems regardless of size or purpose,[17] was invented serendipitously by Intel[18] during the development of an electronic calculator, a direct descendant to the mechanical calculator.[19]

First general-purpose computers

In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing[20]

This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24,000 punched cards to create (1839). It was only produced to order. Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits ; it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine[21]

It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer, his analytical engine.[22] Limited finances and Babbage’s inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed ; nevertheless his son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engine’s computing unit (the mill) in 1888. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910.

In the late 1880s, Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine readable medium. Prior uses of machine readable media, above, had been for control, not data. “After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards …”[23] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator, and the keypunch machines. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith’s company, which later became the core of IBM. By the end of the 19th century a number of ideas and technologies, that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers, had begun to appear: Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve), punched cards and tape, and the teleprinter.

During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.

Alan Turing is widely regarded to be the father of modern computer science. In 1936 Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer.[24] Of his role in the creation of the modern computer, Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, states: “The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine”.[24]

The Zuse Z3, 1941, considered the world’s first working programmable, fully automatic computing machine.

The ENIAC, which became operational in 1946, is considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer.

EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored program (von Neumann) architecture.

Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging.

The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was among the first electronic digital binary computing devices. Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff, and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry,[25] the machine was not programmable, being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. The computer did employ parallel computation. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.

The inventor of the program-controlled computer was Konrad Zuse, who built the first working computer in 1941 and later in 1955 the first computer based on magnetic storage.[26]

George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. While working at Bell Labs in November 1937, Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the “Model K” (for “kitchen table”, on which he had assembled it), which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.[27]

A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as “the first digital electronic computer” is difficult.Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include.

  • Konrad Zuse‘s electromechanical “Z machines”. The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world’s first operational computer.[28]
  • The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937, completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench), since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements.
  • The secret British Colossus computers (1943),[29] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.
  • The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.[30]
  • The U.S. Army’s Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse‘s Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible architecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming.

Stored-program architecture

Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the “stored program architecture” or von Neumann architecture. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed in Great Britain. The first working prototype to be demonstrated was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or “Baby”) in 1948. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC), completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University, was the first practical, non-experimental implementation of the stored program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann’s paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years.

Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word “computer” is now defined. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, most still use the von Neumann architecture.

Beginning in the 1950s, Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers, devices that operated on a base three numbering system of −1, 0, and 1 rather than the conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. They designed the Setun, a functional ternary computer, at Moscow State University. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union, but supplanted by the more common binary architecture.

Semiconductors and microprocessors

Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s, but by the 1960s had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines, which were smaller, faster, cheaper to produce, required less power, and were more reliable. The first transistorised computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953.[31] In the 1970s, integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation of microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004, further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers. By the late 1970s, many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers, and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household[citation needed].

Modern smartphones are fully programmable computers in their own right, and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence[citation needed].

Programs

The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer, and it will carry process them. While some computers may have strange concepts “instructions” and “output” (see quantum computing), modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language.

In practical terms, a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions, as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write, and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors.

Stored program architecture

A 1970s punched card containing one line from a FORTRAN program. The card reads: “Z(1) = Y + W(1)” and is labelled “PROJ039” for identification purposes.

This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers.

In most cases, computer instructions are simple: add one number to another, move some data from one location to another, send a message to some external device, etc. These instructions are read from the computer’s memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. However, there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. These are called “jump” instructions (or branches). Furthermore, jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that “remembers” the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction.

Program execution might be likened to reading a book. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence, they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. Similarly, a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention.

Comparatively, a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1,000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time—with a near certainty of making a mistake. On the other hand, a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. For example:

      mov #0, sum     ; set sum to 0
      mov #1, num     ; set num to 1
loop: add num, sum    ; add num to sum
      add #1, num     ; add 1 to num
      cmp num, #1000  ; compare num to 1000
      ble loop        ; if num <= 1000, go back to 'loop'
      halt            ; end of program. stop running

Once told to run this program, the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second.[32]

Bugs

Main article: software bug

The actual first computer bug, a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer

Errors in computer programs are called “bugs“. Bugs may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle effects. But in some cases they may cause the program – or the entire system – to “hang“—become unresponsive to input such as mouse clicks or keystrokes, or to completely fail or “crash“. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an “exploit“—code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer’s proper execution. Bugs are usually not the fault of the computer. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program’s design.[33]

Rear Admiral Grace Hopper is credited for having first used the term ‘bugs’ in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947.[34]

Machine code

In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode, the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from—each with a unique numerical code. Since the computer’s memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer’s memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann, or stored program, architecture. In some cases, a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs, such as in CPU caches.

While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers,[35] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice, especially for complicated programs. Instead, each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember—a mnemonic such as ADD, SUB, MULT or JUMP. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer’s assembly language. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler. Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer. For instance, an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC.[36]

Higher-level languages and program design

Though considerably easier than in machine language, writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Therefore, most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). High level languages are usually “compiled” into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler.[37] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language, and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles.

The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult; the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge.

Function

A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are interconnected by busses, often made of groups of wires.

Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a “1”, and when off it represents a “0” (in positive logic representation). The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.

The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

Control unit

Main articles: CPU design and Control unit

Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system.

The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer’s various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer.[38] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance.

A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter, a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from.[39]

The control system’s function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU:

  1. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter.
  2. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems.
  3. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.
  4. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code.
  5. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.
  6. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation.
  7. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device.
  8. Jump back to step (1).

Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as “jumps” and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow).

It is noticeable that the sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program—and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer that runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.

Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

Main article: Arithmetic logic unit

The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.[40]

The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to adding and subtracting or might include multiplying or dividing, trigonometry functions (sine, cosine, etc.) and square roots. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers—albeit with limited precision. However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other (“is 64 greater than 65?”).

Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT. These can be useful both for creating complicated conditional statements and processing boolean logic.

Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs so that they can process several instructions at the same time.[41] Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often provide ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.

Memory

Main article: Computer data storage

Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory.

A computer’s memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered “address” and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to “put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357” or to “add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595”. The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software’s responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.

In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256); either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight). When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two’s complement notation. Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.

The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer’s speed.

Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is pre-loaded with data and software that never changes, so the CPU can only read from it. ROM is typically used to store the computer’s initial start-up instructions. In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer’s operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.[42]

In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer’s part.

Input/output (I/O)

Main article: Input/output

Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers.

I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world.[43] Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals.[44] On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices such as the display and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O.

Often, I/O devices are complex computers in their own right with their own CPU and memory. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics[citation needed]. Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.

Multitasking

Main article: Computer multitasking

While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. This is achieved by multitasking i.e. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn.[45]

One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. If several programs are running “at the same time”, then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second, causing a program switch each time. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed “time-sharing” since each program is allocated a “slice” of time in turn.[46]

Before the era of cheap computers, the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer.

Seemingly, multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly — in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. However, most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a “time slice” until the event it is waiting for has occurred. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run at the same time without unacceptable speed loss.

Multiprocessing

Main article: Multiprocessing

Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.

Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers. Multiprocessor and multi-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result.

Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers.[47] They often feature thousands of CPUs, customized high-speed interconnects, and specialized computing hardware. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called “embarrassingly parallel” tasks.

Networking and the Internet

Main articles: Computer networking and Internet

Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet.

Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military’s SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems like Sabre.[48]

In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET.[49] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.

In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. “Wireless” networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.

Misconceptions

A computer does not need to be electric, nor even have a processor, nor RAM, nor even hard disk. The minimal definition of a computer is anything that transforms information in a purposeful way.[citation needed] However the traditional definition of a computer is a device having memory, mass storage, processor (CPU), and Input & Output devices.[50] Anything less would be a simple processor.

Required technology

Computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. For example, a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer); this is an unintuitive and pedagogical example that a computer can be made out of almost anything. More realistically, modern computers are made out of transistors made of photolithographed semiconductors.

Historically, computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors.

There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology, such as optical computing, DNA computers, neural computers, and quantum computers. Some of these can easily tackle problems that modern computers cannot (such as how quantum computers can break some modern encryption algorithms by quantum factoring).

Computer architecture paradigms

Some different paradigms of how to build a computer from the ground-up:

RAM machines
These are the types of computers with a CPU, computer memory, etc., which understand basic instructions in a machine language. The concept evolved from the Turing machine.
Brains
Brains are massively parallel processors made of neurons, wired in intricate patterns, that communicate via electricity and neurotransmitter chemicals.
Programming languages
Such as the lambda calculus, or modern programming languages, are virtual computers built on top of other computers.
Cellular automata
For example, the game of Life can create “gliders” and “loops” and other constructs that transmit information; this paradigm can be applied to DNA computing, chemical computing, etc.
Groups and committees
The linking of multiple computers (brains) is itself a computer

Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms.

The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore any type of computer (netbook, supercomputer, cellular automaton, etc.) is able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.

Limited-function computers

Conversely, a computer which is limited in function (one that is not “Turing-complete“) cannot simulate arbitrary things. For example, simple four-function calculators cannot simulate a real computer without human intervention. As a more complicated example, without the ability to program a gaming console, it can never accomplish what a programmable calculator from the 1990s could (given enough time); the system as a whole is not Turing-complete, even though it contains a Turing-complete component (the microprocessor). Living organisms (the body, not the brain) are also limited-function computers designed to make copies of themselves; they cannot be reprogrammed without genetic engineering.

Virtual computers

A “computer” is commonly considered to be a physical device. However, one can create a computer program which describes how to run a different computer, i.e. “simulating a computer in a computer”. Not only is this a constructive proof of the Church-Turing thesis, but is also extremely common in all modern computers. For example, some programming languages use something called an interpreter, which is a simulated computer built on top of the basic computer; this allows programmers to write code (computer input) in a different language than the one understood by the base computer (the alternative is to use a compiler). Additionally, virtual machines are simulated computers which virtually replicate a physical computer in software, and are very commonly used by IT. Virtual machines are also a common technique used to create emulators, such game console emulators.

Further topics

Artificial intelligence

A computer will solve problems in exactly the way they are programmed to, without regard to efficiency nor alternative solutions nor possible shortcuts nor possible errors in the code. Computer programs which learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Hardware

The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.

History of computing hardware
First Generation (Mechanical/Electromechanical) Calculators Antikythera mechanism, Difference engine, Norden bombsight
Programmable Devices Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, Harvard Mark I, Z3
Second Generation (Vacuum Tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120
Programmable Devices Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22
Third Generation (Discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI Integrated circuits) Mainframes IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH
Minicomputer PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36
Fourth Generation (VLSI integrated circuits) Minicomputer VAX, IBM System i
4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004, Intel 4040
8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80
16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802
32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM architecture
64-bit microcomputer[51] Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64
Embedded computer Intel 8048, Intel 8051
Personal computer Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer
Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer
Other Hardware Topics
Peripheral device (Input/output) Input Mouse, Keyboard, Joystick, Image scanner, Webcam, Graphics tablet, Microphone
Output Monitor, Printer, Loudspeaker
Both Floppy disk drive, Hard disk drive, Optical disc drive, Teleprinter
Computer busses Short range RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB
Long range (Computer networking) Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

Software

Main article: Computer software

Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is sometimes called “firmware” to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.

Computer software
Operating system Unix and BSD UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems
GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions
Microsoft Windows Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7
DOS 86-DOS (QDOS), PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS
Mac OS Mac OS classic, Mac OS X
Embedded and real-time List of embedded operating systems
Experimental Amoeba, Oberon/Bluebottle, Plan 9 from Bell Labs
Library Multimedia DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL
Programming library C standard library, Standard Template Library
Data Protocol TCP/IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP
File format HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG
User interface Graphical user interface (WIMP) Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua
Text-based user interface Command-line interface, Text user interface
Application Office suite Word processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software
Internet Access Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging
Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management
Graphics Raster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing
Audio Digital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music
Software engineering Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management
Educational Edutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator
Games Strategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction
Misc Artificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager

Programming languages

Main article: Programming language

Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.

Programming languages
Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages, List of programming languages by category, Generational list of programming languages, List of programming languages, Non-English-based programming languages
Commonly used Assembly languages ARM, MIPS, x86
Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada, BASIC, C, C++, C#, COBOL, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal
Commonly used Scripting languages Bourne script, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl

Professions and organizations

As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.

Computer-related professions
Hardware-related Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Telecommunications engineering, Optical engineering, Nanoengineering
Software-related Computer science, Desktop publishing, Human–computer interaction, Information technology, Information systems, Computational science, Software engineering, Video game industry, Web design

The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature.

Organizations
Standards groups ANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C
Professional Societies ACM, AIS, IET, IFIP, BCS
Free/Open source software groups Free Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In 1946, ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. By comparison, a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W; nearly six thousand times less. “Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage”. University of Pennsylvania. http://www.upenn.edu/computing/provider/docs/hardware/powerusage.html. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  2. ^ Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. A modern “commoditymicroprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second, and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. “Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features”. Intel Corporation. http://www.intel.com/cd/channel/reseller/asmo-na/eng/products/mobile/processors/core2duo_m/feature/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  3. ^ computer, n.. Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989. http://dictionary.oed.com/. Retrieved 2009-04-10 
  4. ^ * Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471396710.  From 2700 to 2300 BC, Georges Ifrah, pp.11
  5. ^ Berkeley, Edmund (1949). Giant Brains, or Machines That Think. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 19.  Edmund Berkeley
  6. ^ According to advertising on Pickett’s N600 slide rule boxes.“Pickett Apollo Box Scans”. Copland.udel.edu. http://copland.udel.edu/~mm/sliderule/lem/. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  7. ^ “Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.C.”. The New York Times. 31 July 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/31/science/31computer.html?hp. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  8. ^ “Heron of Alexandria”. http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/HeronAlexandria2.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  9. ^ Felt, Dorr E. (1916). Mechanical arithmetic, or The history of the counting machine. Chicago: Washington Institute. pp. 8. http://www.archive.org/details/mechanicalarithm00feltrichDorr E. Felt
  10. ^ “Speaking machines”. The parlour review, Philadelphia 1 (3). January 20, 1838. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Xt4PAAAAYAAJ&pg=PT38&dq=the+parlour+review+january+1838&hl=en&ei=0yqzTN3kLMTHswa2wMjSDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved October 11, 2010. 
  11. ^ Felt, Dorr E. (1916). Mechanical arithmetic, or The history of the counting machine. Chicago: Washington Institute. pp. 10. http://www.archive.org/details/mechanicalarithm00feltrichDorr E. Felt
  12. ^ “Pascal and Leibnitz, in the seventeenth century, and Diderot at a later period, endeavored to construct a machine which might serve as a substitute for human intelligence in the combination of figures” The Gentleman’s magazine, Volume 202, p.100
  13. ^ Babbage’s Difference engine in 1823 and his Analytical engine in the mid 1830s
  14. ^ “It is reasonable to inquire, therefore, whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering. The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage. Babbage’s ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years, but we now realize that he understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers” Faster than thought, edited by B. V. Bowden, 1953, Pitman publishing corporation
  15. ^ “…Among this extraordinary galaxy of talent Charles Babbage appears to be one of the most remarkable of all. Most of his life he spent in an entirely unsuccessful attempt to make a machine which was regarded by his contemporaries as utterly preposterous, and his efforts were regarded as futile, time-consuming and absurd. In the last decade or so we have learnt how his ideas can be embodied in a modern digital computer. He understood more about the logic of these machines than anyone else in the world had learned until after the end of the last war” Foreword, Irascible Genius, Charles Babbage, inventor by Maboth Moseley, 1964, London, Hutchinson
  16. ^ In the proposal that Aiken gave IBM in 1937 while requesting funding for the Harvard Mark I we can read: “Few calculating machines have been designed strictly for application to scientific investigations, the notable exceptions being those of Charles Babbage and others who followed him….After abandoning the difference engine, Babbage devoted his energy to the design and construction of an analytical engine of far higher powers than the difference engine….Since the time of Babbage, the development of calculating machinery has continued at an increasing rate.” Howard Aiken, Proposed automatic calculating machine, reprinted in: The origins of Digital computers, Selected Papers, Edited by Brian Randell, 1973, ISBN 3-540-06169-X
  17. ^ “Parallel processors composed of these high-performance microprocessors are becoming the supercomputing technology of choice for scientific and engineering applications”, 1993, “Microprocessors: From Desktops to Supercomputers”. Science Magazine. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/261/5123/864.abstract. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  18. ^ Intel Museum – The 4004, Big deal then, Big deal now
  19. ^ Please read Sumlock ANITA calculator#History of ANITA calculators
  20. ^ From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience.com
  21. ^ See: Anthony Hyman, ed., Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989), page 298. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London, England. (Delve (2007), page 99.)
  22. ^ The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage’s difference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator.
  23. ^ “Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith”. Columbia.edu. http://www.columbia.edu/acis/history/hollerith.html. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  24. ^ a b “Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century”. Time Magazine. http://205.188.238.181/time/time100/scientist/profile/turing.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13. “The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine” 
  25. ^ “Atanasoff-Berry Computer”. http://energysciencenews.com/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=98&p=264#p264. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
  26. ^ “Spiegel: The inventor of the computer’s biography was published”. Spiegel.de. 2009-09-28. http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/gadgets/0,1518,651776,00.html. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  27. ^ “Inventor Profile: George R. Stibitz”. National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc.. http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/140.html
  28. ^ Rojas, R. (1998). “How to make Zuse’s Z3 a universal computer”. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. doi:10.1109/85.707574
  29. ^ B. Jack Copeland, ed., Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park’s Codebreaking Computers, Oxford University Press, 2006
  30. ^ “Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers”, October 1944, Popular Science. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=PyEDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA86&dq=motor+gun+boat&hl=en&ei=LxTqTMfGI4-bnwfEyNiWDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEIQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=motor%20gun%20boat&f=true. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  31. ^ Lavington 1998, p. 37
  32. ^ This program was written similarly to those for the PDP-11 minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. All the text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972)
  33. ^ It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. For instance, the Pentium FDIV bug caused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices.
  34. ^ Taylor, Alexander L., III (1984-04-16). “The Wizard Inside the Machine”. TIME. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,954266,00.html. Retrieved 2007-02-17. 
  35. ^ Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. Some minicomputers like the DEC PDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. However, this method was usually used only as part of the booting process. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some non-volatile memory.
  36. ^ However, there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. An x86-64 compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2 microprocessor can, as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486. This contrasts with very early commercial computers, which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers.
  37. ^ High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly, while running, by another program called an interpreter.
  38. ^ The control unit’s role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers, this is not always the case. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. For example, EDVAC, one of the earliest stored-program computers, used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there.
  39. ^ Instructions often occupy more than one memory address, so the program counters usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction.
  40. ^ David J. Eck (2000). The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. A K Peters, Ltd.. p. 54. ISBN 9781568811284
  41. ^ Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. CRC Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780824740672
  42. ^ Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out, making it less useful for heavy random access usage. (Verma & Mielke 1988)
  43. ^ Donald Eadie (1968). Introduction to the Basic Computer. Prentice-Hall. p. 12. 
  44. ^ Arpad Barna; Dan I. Porat (1976). Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. Wiley. p. 85. ISBN 9780471050513
  45. ^ Jerry Peek; Grace Todino, John Strang (2002). Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. O’Reilly. p. 130. ISBN 9780596002619
  46. ^ Gillian M. Davis (2002). Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. CRC Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780849309496
  47. ^ However, it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware; usually individual computers connected by networks. These so-called computer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers, there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. (TOP500 2006)
  48. ^ Agatha C. Hughes (2000). Systems, Experts, and Computers. MIT Press. p. 161. ISBN 9780262082853. “The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system…” 
  49. ^ “A Brief History of the Internet”. Internet Society. http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  50. ^ “What is a computer?”. Webopedia. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/computer.html. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  51. ^ Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.

References

iNDONESIAN VERSION :

DAFTAR ISI

Pengenalan

Sejarah singkat Komputer

Buku Satu: KOLEKSI HARDWARE YANG bersejarah

Bagian Satu: Koleksi Hardware bersejarah Sebelum Bagian komputer modern Dua: Koleksi Hardware Bersejarah Sebelum Windows Exist

Buku Dua: THE KOLEKSI WARE LEMBUT HISTPROIC

Bagian Satu: colections bersejarah softeware Sebelum Bagian software WordStar dua: Perangkat Lunak koleksi bersejarah setelah software WordStar

I. PENDAHULUAN.

Semua orang menggunakan komputer sekarang, tapi tidak banyak memahami sejarah develomment komputer dan koleksi yang berhubungan dengan komputer.

Saya telah membuat reasearch tentang itu, dan menulis buku panduan mulai THS untuk kolektor komputer histic.

Saya tahu bahwa buku ini masih belum lengkap itu sebabnya semua cumpters realted colloors akan mengirimkan komentar dan membantu untuk menambahkan ilustrasi ini koleksi amizing.

Jakarta Agustus 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

II.THE PENDEK SEJARAH KOMPUTER

 
Komputer

Sebuah komputer adalah mesin yang dirancang untuk diprogram secara berurutan dan secara otomatis melaksanakan urutan aritmatika atau operasi logika. Urutan tertentu operasi dapat diubah dengan mudah, yang memungkinkan komputer untuk memecahkan lebih dari satu jenis masalah.

Konvensional komputer terdiri dari beberapa bentuk memori untuk penyimpanan data, setidaknya satu elemen yang melakukan operasi aritmatika dan logika, dan elemen sequencing dan kontrol yang dapat mengubah urutan operasi berdasarkan informasi yang disimpan. Perangkat periferal memungkinkan informasi yang akan dimasukkan dari sumber eksternal, dan memungkinkan hasil operasi yang akan dikirim keluar.

Unit pengolahan Sebuah komputer menjalankan serangkaian instruksi yang membuatnya membaca, memanipulasi dan kemudian menyimpan data. Instruksi Bersyarat mengubah urutan instruksi sebagai fungsi dari keadaan saat ini mesin atau lingkungannya.

Komputer elektronik pertama dikembangkan pada pertengahan abad ke-20 (1940-1945). Awalnya, mereka ukuran ruangan besar, mengkonsumsi sebagai kekuatan sebanyak beberapa ratus komputer pribadi modern (PC) [1].

Komputer modern berdasarkan sirkuit terpadu jutaan hingga miliaran kali lebih mampu dari mesin awal, dan menempati sebagian kecil dari ruang [2] komputer sederhana yang cukup kecil untuk masuk ke dalam perangkat mobile, dan komputer mobile dapat diaktifkan oleh baterai kecil. . Komputer pribadi dalam berbagai bentuk mereka ikon Era Informasi dan apa yang kebanyakan orang pikir sebagai “komputer”. Namun, komputer tertanam ditemukan di banyak perangkat dari mp3 player untuk pesawat tempur dan dari mainan untuk robot industri yang paling banyak.

Isi
1 Sejarah komputasi
1,1 Terbatas-fungsi awal komputer
1.2 Pertama untuk keperluan umum komputer
1,3 Tersimpan-program arsitektur
1.4 Semikonduktor dan mikroprosesor
2 Program
2.1 Tersimpan program arsitektur
2.2 Bugs
2.3 Mesin Kode
Tinggi 2,4-tingkat bahasa dan desain program
3 Fungsi
3.1 Unit kontrol
3.2 Aritmatika / logika unit (ALU)
3.3 Memori
3.4 Input / output (I / O)
3,5 Multitasking
3.6 Multiprocessing
3.7 Jaringan dan Internet
Kesalahpahaman 4
4.1 Diperlukan teknologi
4.2 Arsitektur Komputer paradigma
4,3 Terbatas-fungsi komputer
4.4 Virtual komputer
5 lanjut topik
5.1 Buatan intelijen
5.2 Perangkat Keras
5.3 Perangkat Lunak
5.4 Bahasa pemrograman
5.5 Profesi dan organisasi
6 Lihat juga
7 Catatan
8 Referensi
9 Pranala luar
 

Sejarah komputasi
Artikel utama: Sejarah perangkat keras komputer
Penggunaan pertama dari “komputer” kata tercatat pada 1613, mengacu pada seseorang yang melakukan perhitungan, atau perhitungan, dan kata dilanjutkan dengan arti yang sama sampai pertengahan abad ke-20. Dari akhir abad ke-19 dan seterusnya, kata mulai mengambil makna yang lebih akrab, menggambarkan sebuah mesin yang melakukan perhitungan. [3]

Terbatas-fungsi awal komputer

Alat tenun Jacquard, dipamerkan di Museum Sains dan Industri di Manchester, Inggris, adalah salah satu perangkat diprogram pertama.

Sejarah komputer modern dimulai dengan dua perhitungan yang terpisah teknologi-otomatis dan programabilitas-tapi tidak ada perangkat tunggal dapat diidentifikasi sebagai komputer awal, sebagian karena aplikasi yang tidak konsisten dari istilah tersebut. Sebuah beberapa perangkat yang layak disebutkan meskipun, seperti beberapa alat bantu mekanis untuk komputasi, yang sangat sukses dan bertahan selama berabad-abad sampai munculnya kalkulator elektronik, seperti sempoa Sumeria, dirancang sekitar 2500 SM [4] yang keturunan memenangkan kompetisi kecepatan terhadap meja modern yang menghitung mesin di Jepang pada tahun 1946, [5] aturan slide, ditemukan pada 1620-an, yang dilakukan pada lima misi ruang angkasa Apollo, termasuk untuk bulan [6] dan bisa dibilang astrolabe dan mekanisme Antikythera, sebuah astronomi kuno komputer yang dibangun oleh orang Yunani sekitar 80 SM [7]. The Hero matematika Yunani dari Alexandria (c. 10-70 AD) membangun sebuah teater mekanis yang dilakukan sebuah drama yang berlangsung 10 menit dan dioperasikan oleh sebuah sistem yang kompleks dari tali dan drum yang mungkin dianggap sarana memutuskan bagian mana dari mekanisme dilakukan tindakan-tindakan dan ketika [8]. Ini adalah inti dari programabilitas.

Sekitar akhir abad kesepuluh, biarawan Perancis Gerbert d’Aurillac membawa kembali dari Spanyol gambar dari mesin ditemukan oleh bangsa Moor yang menjawab Ya atau Tidak untuk pertanyaan-pertanyaan itu ditanyakan (aritmatika biner) [9] Sekali lagi. Di abad ketiga belas, para biarawan Albertus Magnus dan Roger Bacon dibangun androids berbicara tanpa pengembangan lebih lanjut (Albertus Magnus mengeluh bahwa ia telah menyia-nyiakan empat puluh tahun hidupnya ketika Thomas Aquinas, ketakutan oleh mesin, hancur itu). [10]

Pada tahun 1642, Renaisans melihat penemuan kalkulator mekanik, [11] sebuah perangkat yang dapat melakukan semua operasi aritmatika empat tanpa bergantung pada kecerdasan manusia [12]. Kalkulator mekanik pada akar dari perkembangan komputer dalam dua cara terpisah , awalnya, di dalam mencoba untuk mengembangkan kalkulator lebih kuat dan lebih fleksibel [13] bahwa komputer pertama kali berteori oleh Charles Babbage [14] [15] dan kemudian dikembangkan, [16] yang mengarah ke pengembangan komputer mainframe di tahun 1960 , tetapi juga mikroprosesor, yang memulai revolusi komputer pribadi, dan yang sekarang di jantung dari semua sistem komputer terlepas dari ukuran atau tujuan, [17] ditemukan secara kebetulan oleh Intel [18] selama pengembangan kalkulator elektronik, keturunan langsung ke kalkulator mekanik [19].

Pertama komputer untuk keperluan umum
Pada tahun 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard membuat perbaikan untuk mesin tenun tekstil dengan memperkenalkan serangkaian kartu kertas meninju sebagai template yang memungkinkan alat tenun untuk pola-pola rumit menenun secara otomatis. The Jacquard tenun yang dihasilkan merupakan langkah penting dalam pengembangan komputer karena penggunaan kartu menekan untuk mendefinisikan pola tenunan dapat dilihat sebagai awal, meskipun terbatas, bentuk programabilitas.

Image Paling Terkenal dalam Sejarah Awal Computing [20]
Ini adalah potret Jacquard tenun sutera di atas alat tenun Jacquard dan diperlukan 24.000 kartu berlubang untuk membuat (1839). Itu hanya diproduksi untuk memesan. Charles Babbage yang dimiliki salah satu potret, terinspirasi dia dalam menggunakan kartu berlubang di mesin analitis [21]

Itu adalah perpaduan dari perhitungan otomatis dengan programabilitas yang dihasilkan komputer dikenali pertama. Pada 1837, Charles Babbage yang pertama untuk konsep dan desain komputer mekanik sepenuhnya diprogram, mesin analitis [22] Terbatas keuangan dan ketidakmampuan Babbage untuk menolak bermain-main dengan desain berarti bahwa perangkat ini tidak pernah selesai;. Namun putranya, Henry Babbage , menyelesaikan versi sederhana dari unit komputasi mesin analitis itu (pabrik) pada 1888. Dia memberikan demonstrasi yang sukses dari penggunaannya dalam tabel komputasi pada tahun 1906. Mesin ini diberikan kepada museum di South Kensington Sains pada tahun 1910.

Pada akhir 1880-an, Herman Hollerith menemukan rekaman data pada media mesin yang dapat dibaca. Sebelum menggunakan media mesin yang dapat dibaca, di atas, telah untuk kontrol, bukan data. “Setelah beberapa percobaan awal dengan kertas pita, ia menetap di kartu menekan …”[ 23] Untuk memproses kartu menekan dia menciptakan tabulator, dan mesin keypunch. Ketiga penemuannya dasar dari industri pengolahan informasi modern. Skala besar otomatis pengolahan data kartu punch dilakukan untuk Amerika Serikat 1890 Sensus oleh perusahaan Hollerith, yang kemudian menjadi inti dari IBM. Pada akhir abad ke-19 sejumlah ide dan teknologi, yang nantinya akan berguna dalam realisasi komputer praktis, mulai muncul: Boolean aljabar, tabung vakum (katup termionik), kartu menekan dan tape, dan teleprinter .

Selama paruh pertama abad ke-20, banyak kebutuhan komputasi ilmiah yang dipenuhi oleh komputer analog semakin canggih, yang menggunakan model mekanik atau listrik langsung masalah sebagai dasar untuk perhitungan. Namun, tidak diprogram dan umumnya tidak memiliki fleksibilitas dan keakuratan komputer digital modern.

Alan Turing adalah luas dianggap sebagai bapak ilmu komputer modern. Pada tahun 1936 Turing memberikan formalisasi berpengaruh konsep algoritma dan perhitungan dengan mesin Turing, menyediakan cetak biru untuk komputer digital elektronik. [24] Dari perannya dalam penciptaan komputer modern, majalah Time dalam penamaan Turing salah 100 orang paling berpengaruh dari abad ke-20, menyatakan: “Faktanya tetap bahwa setiap orang yang keran di keyboard, membuka spreadsheet atau program pengolah kata, bekerja pada inkarnasi dari mesin Turing” [24].

Para Zuse Z3, 1941, dianggap kerja pertama diprogram di dunia, mesin komputasi sepenuhnya otomatis.

ENIAC, yang mulai beroperasi pada tahun 1946, dianggap komputer tujuan umum pertama elektronik.

EDSAC adalah salah satu komputer pertama untuk melaksanakan program yang tersimpan (von Neumann) arsitektur.

Die dari mikroprosesor Intel 80486DX2 (ukuran sebenarnya: 12 × 6,75 mm) pada kemasannya.

Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) merupakan salah satu perangkat elektronik pertama biner komputasi digital. Diciptakan pada tahun 1937 oleh Iowa State College profesor fisika John Atanasoff, dan dibangun dengan bantuan dari mahasiswa pascasarjana Clifford Berry, [25] mesin tidak diprogram, yang dirancang hanya untuk memecahkan sistem persamaan linear. Komputer tidak menggunakan komputasi paralel. Sebuah putusan pengadilan 1973 dalam sengketa paten menemukan bahwa paten untuk ENIAC komputer 1946 berasal dari Atanasoff-Berry Computer.

Penemu program komputer yang dikendalikan adalah Konrad Zuse, yang membangun komputer kerja pertama pada 1941 dan kemudian pada tahun 1955 komputer pertama yang berbasis pada penyimpanan magnetik. [26]

George Stibitz diakui secara internasional sebagai seorang ayah dari komputer digital modern. Ketika bekerja di Bell Labs pada bulan November 1937, Stibitz menciptakan dan membangun sebuah kalkulator berbasis relay ia dijuluki “Model K” (untuk “meja dapur”, di mana ia telah berkumpul itu), yang merupakan pertama untuk menggunakan sirkuit biner untuk melakukan operasi aritmatika. Kemudian model menambahkan kecanggihan yang lebih besar termasuk aritmatika kompleks dan programabilitas. [27]

Sebuah suksesi perangkat komputasi terus lebih kuat dan fleksibel dibangun pada tahun 1930 dan 1940-an, secara bertahap menambahkan fitur utama yang terlihat pada komputer modern. Penggunaan digital elektronik (sebagian besar diciptakan oleh Claude Shannon pada 1937) dan programabilitas lebih fleksibel adalah langkah-langkah sangat penting, tetapi mendefinisikan satu titik di sepanjang jalan ini sebagai “komputer elektronik digital pertama” adalah difficult.Shannon 1940 prestasi terkenal termasuk.

Konrad Zuse elektromekanis “Z mesin”. Z3 (1941) adalah mesin kerja pertama menampilkan biner aritmatika, termasuk aritmatika floating point dan ukuran programabilitas. Pada tahun 1998 Z3 terbukti Turing lengkap harus, oleh karena itu menjadi komputer pertama operasional dunia. [28]
Non-programmable Atanasoff-Berry Computer (dimulai pada tahun 1937, selesai pada 1941) yang menggunakan tabung vakum berbasis perhitungan, bilangan biner, dan memori kapasitor regeneratif. Penggunaan memori regeneratif diperbolehkan untuk menjadi jauh lebih kompak daripada rekan-rekan (yang kira-kira ukuran meja besar atau meja kerja), karena hasil antara dapat disimpan dan kemudian dimasukkan kembali ke set yang sama elemen perhitungan.
Komputer Colossus rahasia Inggris (1943), [29] yang telah membatasi programabilitas tetapi menunjukkan bahwa perangkat menggunakan ribuan tabung bisa cukup diandalkan dan elektronik reprogrammable. Itu digunakan untuk memecahkan kode perang Jerman.
Harvard Mark I (1944), komputer skala besar elektromekanis dengan programabilitas terbatas. [30]
Tentara AS Laboratorium Penelitian balistik ENIAC (1946), yang digunakan aritmatika desimal dan kadang-kadang disebut komputer tujuan umum pertama elektronik (sejak Konrad Zuse Z3 tahun 1941 elektromagnet digunakan bukan elektronik). Awalnya, bagaimanapun, ENIAC memiliki arsitektur fleksibel yang pada dasarnya diperlukan rewiring untuk mengubah pemrograman.
Disimpan-program arsitektur
Beberapa pengembang dari ENIAC, yang mengakui flaws, datang dengan desain yang jauh lebih fleksibel dan elegan, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai “arsitektur program yang tersimpan” atau von Neumann arsitektur. Desain ini pertama kali secara resmi dijelaskan oleh John von Neumann dalam Draft kertas Pertama Laporan di EDVAC, didistribusikan pada tahun 1945. Sejumlah proyek untuk mengembangkan komputer berdasarkan arsitektur program yang disimpan dimulai sekitar waktu ini, yang pertama ini diselesaikan di Inggris. Bekerja prototipe pertama yang ditunjukkan adalah Manchester Kecil Mesin Eksperimental (SSEM atau “Bayi”) pada tahun 1948. Delay Elektronik Penyimpanan Otomatis Kalkulator (EDSAC), selesai tahun setelah SSEM di Cambridge University, praktis pertama, non-eksperimental pelaksanaan desain program disimpan dan dimanfaatkan dengan segera untuk pekerjaan penelitian di universitas. Tak lama kemudian, mesin awalnya digambarkan oleh von Neumann kertas-EDVAC-selesai tetapi tidak melihat penuh-waktu digunakan untuk dua tahun tambahan.

Hampir semua komputer modern mengimplementasikan beberapa bentuk dari arsitektur program yang disimpan, sehingga sifat tunggal dengan mana kata “komputer” sekarang didefinisikan. Sedangkan teknologi yang digunakan dalam komputer telah berubah secara dramatis sejak elektronik pertama, tujuan umum komputer dari tahun 1940-an, kebanyakan masih menggunakan arsitektur von Neumann.

Dimulai pada 1950-an, ilmuwan Soviet Sergei Sobolev dan Nikolay Brusentsov melakukan penelitian pada komputer terner, perangkat yang dioperasikan pada sistem tiga dasar penomoran -1, 0 dan 1 daripada sistem penomoran biner konvensional di mana kebanyakan komputer didasarkan. Mereka merancang Setun, komputer terner fungsional, di Moscow State University. Perangkat ini dimasukkan ke dalam produksi terbatas di Uni Soviet, tetapi digantikan oleh arsitektur biner lebih umum.

Semikonduktor dan mikroprosesor
Komputer yang menggunakan tabung vakum sebagai elemen elektronik mereka digunakan di seluruh tahun 1950-an, tetapi oleh 1960-an sebagian besar telah digantikan oleh transistor berbasis mesin, yang lebih kecil, lebih cepat, lebih murah untuk menghasilkan, lebih sedikit daya yang diperlukan, dan lebih handal. Komputer transistorised pertama didemonstrasikan di University of Manchester pada tahun 1953 [31] Pada 1970-an, teknologi sirkuit terpadu dan penciptaan berikutnya mikroprosesor, seperti Intel 4004, ukuran lebih menurun dan biaya dan meningkatkan kecepatan lebih lanjut dan kehandalan komputer. . Pada akhir 1970-an, banyak produk seperti perekam video yang terdapat komputer yang didedikasikan disebut mikrokontroler, dan mereka mulai muncul sebagai pengganti untuk kontrol mekanis di peralatan rumah tangga seperti mesin cuci. Tahun 1980-an menyaksikan komputer rumah dan komputer pribadi sekarang di mana-mana. Dengan evolusi Internet, komputer pribadi menjadi yang biasa seperti televisi dan telepon di rumah tangga [rujukan?].

Smartphone modern adalah komputer sepenuhnya diprogram di kanan mereka sendiri, dan seperti tahun 2009 mungkin menjadi bentuk paling umum dari komputer seperti dalam keberadaan [rujukan?].

Program
Fitur mendefinisikan komputer modern yang membedakan mereka dari semua mesin yang lain adalah bahwa mereka dapat diprogram. Itu adalah untuk mengatakan bahwa beberapa jenis instruksi (program) dapat diberikan ke komputer, dan itu akan membawa memproses mereka. Sementara beberapa komputer mungkin memiliki konsep yang aneh “petunjuk” dan “output” (lihat komputasi kuantum), komputer modern berdasarkan arsitektur von Neumann sering memiliki kode mesin dalam bentuk bahasa pemrograman imperatif.

Dalam istilah praktis, sebuah program komputer mungkin hanya beberapa instruksi atau memperpanjang untuk jutaan instruksi, seperti melakukan program untuk pengolah kata dan browser web misalnya. Sebuah komputer modern khas dapat mengeksekusi milyaran instruksi per detik (gigaflops) dan jarang membuat kesalahan selama bertahun-tahun operasi. Program komputer besar yang terdiri dari beberapa juta instruksi dapat mengambil tim tahun programmer untuk menulis, dan karena kompleksitas tugas hampir pasti mengandung kesalahan.

Stored program arsitektur
Artikel utama: Program Komputer dan pemrograman Komputer

Sebuah kartu yang mengandung tahun 1970 menekan satu baris dari program FORTRAN. Kartu ini berbunyi: “Z (1) = Y + W (1)” dan diberi label “PROJ039” untuk tujuan identifikasi.

Bagian ini berlaku untuk komputer RAM yang paling umum mesin berbasis.

Dalam kebanyakan kasus, instruksi komputer sederhana: tambahkan satu nomor ke yang lain, memindahkan beberapa data dari satu lokasi ke lokasi lain, mengirim pesan ke beberapa perangkat eksternal, dll instruksi dibaca dari memori komputer dan biasanya dilakukan (dijalankan) dalam urutan mereka diberikan. Namun, ada instruksi khusus biasanya untuk memberitahu komputer untuk melompat ke depan atau mundur ke beberapa tempat lain dalam program ini dan untuk melanjutkan mengeksekusi dari sana. Ini disebut “melompat” instruksi (atau cabang). Selanjutnya, instruksi melompat dapat dilakukan terjadi kondisional sehingga urutan yang berbeda instruksi dapat digunakan tergantung pada hasil dari beberapa perhitungan sebelumnya atau beberapa peristiwa eksternal. Banyak komputer secara langsung mendukung subrutin dengan menyediakan jenis lompatan itu “ingat” lokasi itu melompat dari dan lain instruksi untuk kembali ke instruksi instruksi berikut yang melompat.

Eksekusi program mungkin bisa disamakan dengan membaca buku. Sementara seseorang biasanya akan membaca setiap kata dan baris dalam urutan, mereka mungkin pada waktu melompat kembali ke tempat awal dalam teks atau melewatkan bagian yang tidak menarik. Demikian pula, komputer kadang-kadang dapat kembali dan ulangi petunjuk di beberapa bagian program berulang-ulang sampai beberapa kondisi internal terpenuhi. Ini disebut aliran kontrol dalam program dan itu adalah apa yang memungkinkan komputer untuk melakukan tugas-tugas berulang kali tanpa campur tangan manusia.

Relatif, orang yang menggunakan kalkulator saku dapat melakukan operasi aritmatika dasar seperti menambahkan dua angka dengan hanya menekan tombol saja. Tetapi untuk menambahkan bersama semua nomor dari 1 sampai 1.000 akan mengambil ribuan menekan tombol dan banyak waktu-dengan kepastian dekat membuat kesalahan. Di sisi lain, komputer dapat diprogram untuk melakukan hal ini hanya dengan instruksi sederhana. Sebagai contoh:

      mov # 0, sum; mengatur jumlah ke 0
      mov # 1, num; diatur num ke 1
loop: add num, sum; tambahkan num untuk jumlah
      menambahkan # 1, num; tambahkan 1 untuk num
      cmp num, # 1000; bandingkan num sampai 1000
      ble loop; jika num <= 1000, kembali ke ‘lingkaran’
      menghentikan, akhir program. berhenti runningOnce diperintahkan untuk menjalankan program ini, komputer akan melakukan tugas berulang Selain tanpa intervensi manusia lebih lanjut. Ini akan hampir tidak pernah membuat kesalahan dan PC modern dapat menyelesaikan tugas dalam waktu sekitar sepersejuta detik. [32]

Bugs
Artikel utama: bug perangkat lunak

Bug komputer yang sebenarnya pertama, ngengat ditemukan terperangkap di relay dari Harvard Mark II komputer

Kesalahan dalam program komputer yang disebut “bug”. Bug mungkin jinak dan tidak mempengaruhi kegunaan program, atau hanya memiliki efek halus. Namun dalam beberapa kasus mereka dapat menyebabkan program – atau seluruh sistem – untuk “menggantung”-menjadi tidak responsif terhadap input seperti mouse atau penekanan tombol klik, atau untuk benar-benar gagal atau “kecelakaan”. Bug Jika jinak kadang-kadang dimanfaatkan untuk niat jahat oleh pengguna yang tidak bermoral menulis sebuah “mengeksploitasi”-kode yang dirancang untuk mengambil keuntungan dari bug dan mengganggu pelaksanaan yang tepat komputer. Bug biasanya bukan kesalahan komputer. Karena komputer hanya menjalankan instruksi yang mereka diberikan, bug hampir selalu merupakan hasil dari kesalahan programmer atau pengawasan dibuat dalam desain program. [33]

Laksamana Grace Hopper dikreditkan karena pertama kali menggunakan istilah ‘bug’ dalam komputasi setelah ngengat mati ditemukan korslet relay dari Harvard Mark II komputer pada bulan September 1947. [34]

Kode mesin
Pada kebanyakan komputer, instruksi individu disimpan sebagai kode mesin dengan setiap instruksi yang diberikan nomor unik (kode operasi atau opcode untuk pendek). Perintah untuk menambahkan dua angka bersama akan memiliki satu opcode, perintah untuk melipatgandakan mereka akan memiliki opcode yang berbeda dan sebagainya. Komputer sederhana dapat melakukan salah satu dari segelintir instruksi yang berbeda; komputer yang lebih kompleks memiliki beberapa ratus untuk memilih dari-masing-masing dengan kode numerik yang unik. Karena memori komputer mampu menyimpan nomor, juga dapat menyimpan kode instruksi. Hal ini mengarah pada fakta penting bahwa seluruh program (yang hanya daftar instruksi) dapat direpresentasikan sebagai daftar nomor dan mereka sendiri dapat dimanipulasi di dalam komputer dengan cara yang sama sebagai data numerik. Konsep dasar dari program menyimpan dalam memori komputer bersama data mereka beroperasi pada adalah inti dari von Neumann, atau program yang tersimpan, arsitektur. Dalam beberapa kasus, komputer mungkin menyimpan beberapa atau semua program di memori yang disimpan terpisah dari data beroperasi pada. Ini disebut arsitektur Harvard setelah komputer Harvard Mark I. Modern von Neumann komputer menampilkan beberapa ciri dari arsitektur Harvard dalam desain mereka, seperti dalam cache CPU.

Meskipun dimungkinkan untuk menulis program komputer sebagai daftar panjang nomor (bahasa mesin) dan sementara teknik ini digunakan dengan komputer awal banyak, [35] hal ini sangat membosankan dan berpotensi rawan kesalahan untuk melakukannya dalam praktek, terutama untuk program yang rumit . Sebaliknya, setiap instruksi dasar dapat diberi nama pendek yang menunjukkan fungsi dan mudah diingat-sebuah mnemonic seperti ADD, SUB, MULT atau JUMP. Mnemonik ini secara kolektif dikenal sebagai bahasa perakitan komputer. Program konversi ditulis dalam bahasa assembly menjadi sesuatu yang komputer benar-benar dapat memahami (bahasa mesin) biasanya dilakukan oleh program komputer yang disebut assembler. Mesin perakitan bahasa dan bahasa yang mewakili mereka (secara kolektif disebut tingkat rendah bahasa pemrograman) cenderung unik untuk jenis tertentu dari komputer. Sebagai contoh, arsitektur ARM komputer (seperti dapat ditemukan dalam PDA atau videogame genggam) tidak dapat memahami bahasa mesin Intel Pentium atau AMD Athlon 64 komputer yang mungkin di PC [36].

Bahasa tingkat tinggi dan desain program
Meskipun jauh lebih mudah daripada di bahasa mesin, menulis program yang panjang dalam bahasa assembly sering sulit dan juga rawan kesalahan. Oleh karena itu, program yang paling praktis ditulis dalam lebih abstrak tingkat tinggi bahasa pemrograman yang mampu mengekspresikan kebutuhan programmer lebih nyaman (dan dengan demikian membantu mengurangi kesalahan programmer). Bahasa tingkat tinggi biasanya “dikompilasi” ke dalam bahasa mesin (atau kadang-kadang ke dalam bahasa assembly dan kemudian ke bahasa mesin) yang lain menggunakan program komputer yang disebut kompilator [37]. Bahasa tingkat tinggi yang kurang terkait dengan kerja dari komputer target dari bahasa assembly , dan lebih terkait dengan bahasa dan struktur masalah (s) yang harus diselesaikan oleh program akhir. Oleh karena itu sering mungkin untuk menggunakan compiler yang berbeda untuk menerjemahkan program bahasa tingkat tinggi yang sama ke dalam bahasa mesin dari berbagai jenis komputer. Ini merupakan bagian dari sarana yang perangkat lunak seperti video game dapat dibuat tersedia untuk arsitektur komputer yang berbeda seperti komputer pribadi dan konsol permainan berbagai video.

Tugas mengembangkan sistem perangkat lunak besar menghadirkan tantangan intelektual yang signifikan. Memproduksi perangkat lunak dengan keandalan diterima tinggi dalam jadwal dan anggaran diprediksi secara historis telah sulit, disiplin akademik dan profesional rekayasa perangkat lunak berkonsentrasi secara khusus pada tantangan ini.

Fungsi
Artikel utama: unit pengolahan Tengah dan Mikroprosesor
Sebuah komputer tujuan umum memiliki empat komponen utama: Unit aritmatika logika (ALU), unit kontrol, memori, dan perangkat input dan output (secara kolektif dinamakan I / O). Bagian ini dihubungkan oleh bus, sering dibuat dari kelompok kabel.

Di dalam masing-masing bagian ribuan triliunan sirkuit listrik kecil yang dapat dimatikan atau dengan cara sebuah saklar elektronik. Sirkuit masing-masing mewakili sedikit (digit biner) informasi sehingga ketika sirkuit pada itu merupakan “1”, dan ketika dari itu merupakan “0” (dalam representasi logika positif). Rangkaian disusun dalam gerbang logika sehingga satu atau lebih dari sirkuit dapat mengontrol keadaan satu atau lebih dari sirkuit lainnya.

Unit kontrol, ALU, register, dan dasar I / O (dan sering perangkat keras lainnya terkait erat dengan) secara kolektif dikenal sebagai central processing unit (CPU). CPU terdiri dari awal komponen terpisah tetapi sejak pertengahan 1970-an CPU biasanya telah dibangun di satu sirkuit terpadu yang disebut microprocessor.

Unit kontrol
Artikel utama: CPU dan unit kontrol desain

Diagram menunjukkan bagaimana instruksi arsitektur MIPS tertentu akan diterjemahkan oleh sistem kontrol.

Unit kontrol (sering disebut sistem kontrol atau kontroler pusat) mengelola berbagai komponen komputer, membaca dan menafsirkan (decode) instruksi program, mentransformasikannya menjadi serangkaian sinyal kontrol yang mengaktifkan bagian-bagian lain dari komputer [38] Kontrol. sistem dalam komputer canggih dapat mengubah urutan dari beberapa instruksi sehingga untuk meningkatkan kinerja.

Sebuah komponen kunci umum untuk semua CPU adalah program counter, sel memori khusus (register) yang melacak lokasi yang di memori instruksi berikutnya yang akan dibaca dari [39].

Fungsi sistem kontrol adalah sebagai berikut-perhatikan bahwa ini adalah deskripsi sederhana, dan beberapa langkah-langkah ini dapat dilakukan secara bersamaan atau dalam urutan yang berbeda tergantung pada jenis CPU:

Baca kode untuk instruksi berikutnya dari sel ditunjukkan oleh program counter.
Decode kode numerik untuk instruksi ke dalam satu set perintah atau sinyal untuk setiap sistem lainnya.
Increment program counter sehingga menunjuk ke instruksi berikutnya.
Baca instruksi data apa pun yang memerlukan dari sel-sel dalam memori (atau mungkin dari perangkat input). Lokasi ini data yang dibutuhkan biasanya disimpan dalam kode instruksi.
Menyediakan data yang diperlukan ke ALU atau mendaftar.
Jika instruksi memerlukan ALU atau perangkat keras khusus untuk menyelesaikan, menginstruksikan perangkat keras untuk melakukan operasi yang diminta.
Tuliskan hasil dari ALU kembali ke lokasi memori atau ke sebuah register atau mungkin perangkat output.
Langsung kembali ke langkah (1).
Sejak program counter adalah (konseptual) hanya satu set sel memori, dapat diubah dengan perhitungan dilakukan di ALU. Menambahkan 100 untuk program counter akan menyebabkan instruksi berikutnya untuk dibaca dari tempat yang lebih bawah 100 lokasi program. Instruksi yang memodifikasi program counter yang sering dikenal sebagai “melompat” dan memungkinkan untuk loop (instruksi yang diulang-ulang oleh komputer) dan sering bersyarat eksekusi instruksi (baik contoh aliran kontrol).

Hal ini terlihat bahwa urutan operasi yang unit kontrol pergi melalui proses instruksi itu sendiri seperti sebuah komputer yang singkat program-dan memang, dalam beberapa desain CPU yang lebih kompleks, ada komputer lain belum lebih kecil disebut microsequencer yang berjalan microcode sebuah program yang menyebabkan semua peristiwa ini terjadi.

Aritmetika / logika unit (ALU)
Artikel utama: aritmatika logic unit
ALU mampu melakukan dua kelas operasi:. Aritmatika dan logika [40]

Set operasi aritmatika bahwa ALU tertentu mendukung mungkin terbatas untuk menambahkan dan mengurangkan atau mungkin termasuk mengalikan atau membagi, fungsi trigonometri (sinus, kosinus, dll) dan akar kuadrat. Beberapa hanya dapat beroperasi pada bilangan bulat (integer) sementara yang lain menggunakan floating point untuk mewakili angka-meskipun nyata dengan presisi terbatas. Namun, setiap komputer yang mampu melakukan operasi sederhana hanya dapat diprogram untuk memecah operasi yang lebih kompleks menjadi langkah-langkah sederhana yang dapat melakukan. Oleh karena itu, komputer dapat diprogram untuk melakukan operasi aritmatika-meskipun akan memakan lebih banyak waktu untuk melakukannya jika ALU-nya tidak langsung mendukung operasi. Sebuah ALU juga dapat membandingkan nomor dan kembali nilai kebenaran boolean (true atau false) tergantung pada apakah seseorang sama dengan, lebih besar dari atau kurang dari yang lain (“adalah 64 lebih besar dari 65?”).

Melibatkan operasi logika logika Boolean: AND, OR, XOR dan NOT. Ini dapat berguna baik untuk membuat pernyataan bersyarat yang rumit dan pengolahan logika boolean.

Superscalar komputer dapat berisi beberapa ALUS sehingga mereka dapat memproses beberapa instruksi pada saat yang sama [41]. Grafis prosesor dan komputer dengan SIMD dan fitur MIMD sering memberikan ALUS yang dapat melakukan aritmatika pada vektor dan matriks.

Memori
Artikel utama: Komputer penyimpanan data

Memori inti magnetik adalah memori komputer pilihan sepanjang tahun 1960, sampai digantikan oleh memori semikonduktor.

Sebuah memori komputer dapat dilihat sebagai daftar sel menjadi yang nomor dapat ditempatkan atau dibaca. Setiap sel memiliki “alamat” nomor dan dapat menyimpan satu nomor. Komputer dapat diinstruksikan untuk “menempatkan nomor 123 ke dalam sel nomor 1357” atau “menambahkan nomor yang ada di sel 1357 ke nomor yang ada di sel 2468 dan dimasukkan ke dalam sel jawabannya 1595”. Informasi yang tersimpan dalam memori dapat mewakili praktis apa pun. Huruf, angka, bahkan instruksi komputer dapat ditempatkan ke dalam memori dengan mudah sama. Karena CPU tidak membedakan antara berbagai jenis informasi, adalah tanggung jawab perangkat lunak untuk memberikan makna apa memori melihat sebagai apa-apa melainkan serangkaian angka.

Di hampir semua komputer modern, setiap sel memori diatur untuk menyimpan nomor biner dalam kelompok delapan bit (disebut byte). Setiap byte dapat mewakili 256 nomor yang berbeda (2 ^ 8 = 256); baik dari 0 sampai 255 atau -128 untuk 127. Untuk menyimpan nomor yang lebih besar, beberapa byte berturut-turut dapat digunakan (biasanya, dua, empat atau delapan). Ketika angka negatif diperlukan, mereka biasanya disimpan dalam notasi melengkapi dua itu. Pengaturan lain yang mungkin, tapi biasanya tidak terlihat di luar aplikasi khusus atau konteks historis. Sebuah komputer dapat menyimpan segala jenis informasi dalam memori jika dapat direpresentasikan secara numerik. Komputer modern memiliki miliaran atau bahkan triliunan byte memori.

CPU berisi satu set khusus dari sel memori yang disebut register yang dapat dibaca dan ditulis untuk jauh lebih cepat dari area memori utama. Ada biasanya antara dua dan seratus register tergantung pada jenis CPU. Register digunakan untuk item data yang paling sering dibutuhkan untuk menghindari harus mengakses memori utama setiap data waktu diperlukan. Sebagai data terus-menerus bekerja, mengurangi kebutuhan untuk mengakses memori utama (yang sering lambat dibandingkan dengan ALU dan unit kontrol) sangat meningkatkan kecepatan komputer.

Memori komputer utama datang dalam dua varietas utama: memori acak-akses memori atau RAM dan hanya-baca atau ROM. RAM dapat dibaca dan ditulis ke kapan saja perintah CPU, tetapi ROM pre-loaded dengan data dan perangkat lunak yang tidak pernah berubah, sehingga CPU hanya dapat membaca dari itu. ROM biasanya digunakan untuk menyimpan awal komputer start-up instruksi. Secara umum, isi RAM akan terhapus ketika daya ke komputer dimatikan, tetapi ROM mempertahankan data tanpa batas. Pada PC, ROM berisi program khusus yang disebut BIOS yang orchestrates loading sistem operasi komputer dari hard disk drive ke dalam RAM setiap kali komputer dihidupkan atau reset. Dalam komputer tertanam, yang sering tidak memiliki disk drive, semua software yang diperlukan dapat disimpan dalam ROM. Perangkat lunak yang tersimpan dalam ROM sering disebut firmware, karena notionally lebih seperti perangkat keras daripada perangkat lunak. Memori Flash mengaburkan perbedaan antara ROM dan RAM, karena mempertahankan data ketika dimatikan tetapi juga ditulis ulang. Hal ini biasanya jauh lebih lambat dibandingkan ROM dan RAM konvensional bagaimanapun, jadi penggunaannya dibatasi untuk aplikasi di mana kecepatan tinggi yang tidak perlu. [42]

Pada komputer yang lebih canggih mungkin ada satu atau lebih kenangan Cache RAM yang lebih lambat dibandingkan register tapi lebih cepat daripada memori utama. Umumnya komputer dengan semacam cache dirancang untuk memindahkan data sering dibutuhkan ke dalam cache secara otomatis, seringkali tanpa perlu untuk setiap intervensi pada bagian programmer.

Input / output (I / O)
Artikel utama: Input / output

Hard disk drive adalah perangkat penyimpanan yang umum digunakan dengan komputer.

I / O adalah sarana yang komputer pertukaran informasi dengan dunia luar [43] Perangkat yang memberikan input atau output ke komputer yang. Disebut peripheral [44] Pada komputer pribadi yang khas., Peripheral meliputi perangkat input seperti keyboard dan mouse, dan output perangkat seperti layar dan printer. Hard disk drive, floppy disk drive dan drive cakram optik berfungsi baik sebagai perangkat input dan output. Jaringan komputer adalah bentuk lain dari I / O.

Seringkali, I / O device yang rumit komputer di kanan mereka sendiri dengan CPU sendiri dan memori. Sebuah unit pengolahan grafis mungkin berisi lima puluh atau lebih komputer kecil yang melakukan perhitungan yang diperlukan untuk menampilkan grafis 3D [rujukan?]. Komputer desktop modern mengandung banyak komputer yang lebih kecil yang membantu CPU utama dalam melakukan I / O.

Multitasking
Artikel utama: Komputer multitasking
Sementara komputer dapat dipandang sebagai menjalankan satu program raksasa yang disimpan dalam memori utama, dalam beberapa sistem perlu untuk memberikan penampilan menjalankan beberapa program secara bersamaan. Hal ini dicapai dengan multitasking yaitu memiliki komputer beralih cepat antara menjalankan program masing-masing pada gilirannya. [45]

Salah satu cara dengan mana ini dilakukan adalah dengan sinyal khusus yang disebut interrupt yang periodik dapat menyebabkan komputer berhenti instruksi mengeksekusi tempat itu dan melakukan sesuatu yang lain sebagai gantinya. Dengan mengingat di mana ia mengeksekusi sebelum mengganggu, komputer dapat kembali ke tugas itu nanti. Jika beberapa program yang berjalan “pada waktu yang sama”, maka generator mengganggu mungkin menyebabkan beberapa ratus interupsi per detik, menyebabkan program berpindah setiap kali. Sejak komputer modern biasanya mengeksekusi beberapa instruksi perintah besarnya lebih cepat dari persepsi manusia, akan terlihat bahwa banyak program yang berjalan pada waktu yang sama meskipun hanya satu yang pernah eksekusi pada suatu instan. Metode multitasking kadang-kadang disebut “time-sharing” karena setiap program dialokasikan “slice” waktu pada gilirannya [46].

Sebelum era komputer murah, penggunaan utama untuk multitasking adalah untuk memungkinkan banyak orang untuk berbagi komputer yang sama.

Tampaknya, multitasking akan menyebabkan komputer yang beralih antara beberapa program untuk berjalan lebih lambat – dalam proporsi langsung dengan jumlah program yang sedang berjalan. Namun, kebanyakan program menghabiskan banyak waktu mereka menunggu input lambat / output perangkat untuk menyelesaikan tugas mereka. Jika sebuah program menunggu user untuk klik pada mouse atau tekan tombol pada keyboard, maka tidak akan mengambil “irisan waktu” sampai peristiwa itu adalah menunggu telah terjadi. Hal ini membebaskan waktu untuk program lain untuk menjalankan banyak program sehingga dapat dijalankan pada waktu yang sama tanpa kehilangan kecepatan tidak dapat diterima.

Multiprocessing
Artikel utama: Multiprocessing

Cray superkomputer didesain banyak yang digunakan multiprocessing berat.

Beberapa komputer dirancang untuk mendistribusikan karya mereka di beberapa CPU dalam konfigurasi multiprocessing, teknik digunakan hanya sekali dalam mesin besar dan kuat seperti superkomputer, komputer mainframe dan server. Multiprosesor dan multi-core (CPU ganda pada satu sirkuit terpadu) komputer pribadi dan laptop sekarang tersedia secara luas, dan sedang semakin digunakan dalam rendah-end pasar sebagai hasilnya.

Superkomputer khususnya sering memiliki arsitektur yang sangat unik yang berbeda secara signifikan dari arsitektur program yang disimpan dasar dan dari komputer tujuan umum [47] Mereka sering menampilkan ribuan CPU, disesuaikan kecepatan tinggi interkoneksi, dan perangkat keras komputasi khusus.. Desain tersebut cenderung hanya berguna untuk tugas-tugas khusus karena skala besar organisasi program yang dibutuhkan untuk berhasil memanfaatkan sebagian besar sumber daya yang tersedia sekaligus. Superkomputer biasanya melihat penggunaan dalam skala besar simulasi, rendering grafis, dan aplikasi kriptografi, serta dengan yang lain yang disebut “memalukan paralel” tugas.

Jaringan dan Internet
Artikel utama: jaringan Komputer dan Internet

Visualisasi dari bagian rute di Internet.

Komputer telah digunakan untuk mengkoordinasikan informasi antara beberapa lokasi sejak tahun 1950. Militer AS sistem SAGE adalah contoh skala besar pertama dari sistem tersebut, yang menyebabkan sejumlah tujuan khusus sistem komersial seperti Sabre [48].

Pada 1970-an, insinyur komputer di lembaga-lembaga penelitian di seluruh Amerika Serikat mulai untuk menghubungkan komputer mereka bersama-sama menggunakan teknologi telekomunikasi. Upaya ini didanai oleh ARPA (sekarang DARPA), dan jaringan komputer yang yang dihasilkan disebut ARPANET [49]. Teknologi yang membuat penyebaran Arpanet mungkin dan berevolusi.

Pada waktunya, jaringan tersebar di luar lembaga akademik dan militer dan menjadi dikenal sebagai Internet. Munculnya jaringan melibatkan redefinisi tentang sifat dan batas-batas komputer. Sistem operasi komputer dan aplikasi yang dimodifikasi untuk menyertakan kemampuan untuk menentukan dan mengakses sumber daya dari komputer lain di jaringan, seperti perangkat periferal, informasi yang tersimpan, dan sejenisnya, sebagai ekstensi dari sumber daya dari komputer pribadi. Awalnya fasilitas ini tersedia terutama untuk orang yang bekerja di lingkungan berteknologi tinggi, namun pada 1990-an penyebaran aplikasi seperti e-mail dan World Wide Web, dikombinasikan dengan pengembangan murah, teknologi jaringan cepat seperti Ethernet dan ADSL melihat jaringan komputer menjadi hampir di mana-mana. Bahkan, jumlah komputer yang jaringan tumbuh fenomenal. Sebuah proporsi yang sangat besar komputer pribadi secara rutin terhubung ke Internet untuk berkomunikasi dan menerima informasi. “Wireless” networking, sering memanfaatkan jaringan telepon seluler, berarti jaringan menjadi semakin di mana-mana bahkan di lingkungan komputasi mobile.

Kesalahpahaman
Sebuah komputer tidak perlu listrik, atau bahkan memiliki prosesor, atau RAM, atau bahkan hard disk. Definisi minimal sebuah komputer adalah segala sesuatu yang mengubah informasi dalam cara yang bermanfaat. [Rujukan?] Namun definisi tradisional dari sebuah komputer adalah perangkat yang memiliki memori, mass storage, prosesor (CPU), dan Input & perangkat output [50]. sesuatu yang kurang akan menjadi prosesor sederhana.

Diperlukan teknologi
Artikel utama: komputasi inkonvensional
Sistem komputasi sebagai fleksibel sebagai komputer pribadi dapat dibangun dari hampir apa saja. Sebagai contoh, sebuah komputer dapat terbuat dari bola bilyar (bola biliar komputer), ini adalah contoh unintuitive dan pedagogis bahwa komputer dapat dibuat dari hampir semua hal. Lebih realistis, komputer modern terbuat dari transistor terbuat dari semikonduktor photolithographed.

Secara historis, komputer berevolusi dari komputer mekanis dan akhirnya dari tabung vakum untuk transistor.

Ada penelitian aktif untuk membuat komputer dari banyak jenis baru yang menjanjikan teknologi, seperti komputer optik, komputer DNA, komputer saraf, dan komputer kuantum. Beberapa dapat dengan mudah mengatasi masalah yang modern, komputer tidak dapat (seperti bagaimana komputer kuantum dapat memecahkan beberapa algoritma enkripsi modern oleh anjak kuantum).

Arsitektur komputer paradigma
Beberapa paradigma yang berbeda tentang bagaimana membangun sebuah komputer dari atas tanah-:

RAM mesin
Ini adalah jenis komputer dengan CPU, memori komputer, dll, yang memahami instruksi dasar dalam bahasa mesin. Konsep berevolusi dari mesin Turing.
Otak
Otak secara besar-besaran prosesor paralel yang terbuat dari neuron, kabel dalam pola rumit, yang berkomunikasi melalui listrik dan bahan kimia neurotransmiter.
Bahasa pemrograman
Seperti kalkulus lambda, atau bahasa pemrograman modern, adalah komputer virtual yang dibangun di atas komputer lain.
Selular otomata
Misalnya, permainan Kehidupan dapat menciptakan “glider” dan “loop” dan konstruksi lain yang mengirimkan informasi; paradigma ini dapat diterapkan untuk komputasi DNA, kimia komputasi, dll
Kelompok dan komite-komite
Yang menghubungkan beberapa komputer (otak) itu sendiri komputer
Gerbang logika abstraksi umum yang dapat berlaku untuk sebagian besar paradigma di atas digital atau analog.

Kemampuan untuk menyimpan dan mengeksekusi daftar instruksi yang disebut program membuat komputer sangat serbaguna, membedakan mereka dari kalkulator. Tesis Gereja-Turing adalah pernyataan matematis dari fleksibilitas ini: komputer manapun dengan kemampuan minimum (yang Turing-lengkap), pada prinsipnya, mampu melakukan tugas yang sama bahwa setiap komputer lain dapat melakukan. Oleh karena itu semua jenis komputer (netbook, superkomputer, otomat seluler, dll) dapat melakukan tugas-tugas komputasi yang sama, diberikan waktu yang cukup dan kapasitas penyimpanan.

Terbatas-fungsi komputer
Sebaliknya, komputer yang terbatas dalam fungsi (yang tidak “Turing-lengkap”) tidak dapat mensimulasikan hal-hal yang sewenang-wenang. Misalnya, sederhana empat-fungsi kalkulator tidak dapat mensimulasikan sebuah komputer nyata tanpa campur tangan manusia. Sebagai contoh yang lebih rumit, tanpa kemampuan untuk program konsol game, ia tidak dapat mencapai apa kalkulator programmable dari tahun 1990-an bisa (diberikan cukup waktu); sistem secara keseluruhan tidak Turing-lengkap, meskipun mengandung Turing -lengkap komponen (mikroprosesor). Organisme hidup (tubuh, bukan otak) juga terbatas-fungsi komputer yang dirancang untuk membuat salinan dari diri mereka sendiri, mereka tidak dapat memprogram tanpa rekayasa genetika.

Virtual komputer
Sebuah “komputer” umumnya dianggap sebagai perangkat fisik. Namun, satu dapat membuat program komputer yang menjelaskan bagaimana cara menjalankan komputer yang berbeda, yaitu “simulasi komputer di komputer”. Tidak hanya ini bukti konstruktif tesis Gereja-Turing, tetapi juga sangat umum di semua komputer modern. Sebagai contoh, beberapa bahasa pemrograman menggunakan sesuatu yang disebut penerjemah, yang merupakan komputer simulasi yang dibangun di atas komputer dasar, hal ini memungkinkan programmer untuk menulis kode (masukan komputer) dalam bahasa yang berbeda dari yang dipahami oleh komputer dasar (alternatif adalah dengan menggunakan compiler). Selain itu, mesin virtual adalah komputer simulasi yang hampir mereplikasi komputer fisik dalam perangkat lunak, dan sangat umum digunakan oleh TI. Mesin virtual juga merupakan teknik yang umum digunakan untuk membuat emulator, emulator konsol game tersebut.

Selanjutnya topik
Istilah komputer
Kecerdasan buatan
Sebuah komputer akan memecahkan masalah dengan cara yang persis mereka diprogram untuk, tanpa memperhatikan efisiensi atau solusi alternatif atau cara pintas mungkin dan tidak kemungkinan kesalahan dalam kode. Program komputer yang belajar dan beradaptasi adalah bagian dari bidang yang muncul dari kecerdasan buatan dan mesin belajar.

Hardware
Istilah perangkat keras meliputi semua bagian-bagian dari komputer yang benda-benda nyata. Sirkuit, menampilkan, pasokan listrik, kabel, keyboard, printer dan tikus semua perangkat keras.

Sejarah perangkat keras komputasi Generasi Pertama (Mechanical / Electromechanical) Kalkulator mekanisme Antikythera, mesin Perbedaan, Norden bombsight
Programmable Devices Jacquard tenun, mesin Analytical, Harvard Mark I, Z3
Generasi Kedua (Tabung Vacuum) Kalkulator Atanasoff-Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120
Programmable Devices Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Kecil Mesin Eksperimental, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Merkurius, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22
Generasi Ketiga (transistor Diskrit dan SSI, MSI, LSI sirkuit Terpadu) Mainframe IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, IKATAN
Komputer mini PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36
Generasi Keempat (VLSI sirkuit terpadu) komputer mini VAX, IBM System i
4-bit mikro Intel 4004, Intel 4040
8-bit mikro Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80
16-bit Intel mikro 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802
32-bit Intel 80386 mikro, Pentium, Motorola 68000, arsitektur ARM
64-bit mikro [51] Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64
Tertanam komputer Intel 8048, Intel 8051
Komputer pribadi Desktop komputer, komputer Rumah, Laptop komputer, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), komputer portabel, Tablet PC, komputer dpt dipakai
Teoritis / eksperimental Quantum komputer, Kimia komputer, komputasi DNA, komputer optik, spintronics berbasis komputer
Topik Hardware lain perangkat Peripheral (input / output) Mouse Input, Keyboard, Joystick, scanner Gambar, Webcam, Graphics tablet, Mikrofon
Keluaran Monitor, Printer, Loudspeaker,
Kedua Floppy drive disk, Hard disk drive, disk drive optik, teleprinter
Komputer bus rentang pendek RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB
Panjang rentang (jaringan Komputer) Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

Perangkat Lunak
Artikel utama: Perangkat lunak komputer
Perangkat Lunak mengacu pada bagian-bagian komputer yang tidak memiliki bentuk materi, seperti program, data, protokol, dll Ketika perangkat lunak yang disimpan dalam perangkat keras yang tidak dapat dengan mudah dimodifikasi (seperti ROM BIOS di PC IBM kompatibel), maka kadang-kadang disebut “firmware” untuk menunjukkan bahwa jatuh ke area yang tidak pasti di suatu tempat antara perangkat keras dan perangkat lunak.

Perangkat lunak komputer sistem operasi Unix dan BSD UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, Daftar sistem operasi BSD
GNU / Linux Daftar distribusi Linux, Perbandingan distribusi Linux
Microsoft Windows Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7
DOS 86-DOS (QDOS), PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS
Mac OS Mac OS klasik, Mac OS X
Tertanam dan real-time Daftar sistem operasi tertanam
Eksperimental Amoeba, Oberon / lalat, Plan 9 dari Bell Labs
Perpustakaan Multimedia DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL
Pemrograman C library standar perpustakaan, Standard Template Library
Data Protokol TCP / IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP
Format file HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG
Graphical user interface antarmuka pengguna (pengecut) Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM, Aqua
Teks antarmuka pengguna berbasis antarmuka baris perintah, teks antarmuka pengguna
Aplikasi Office suite pengolahan Word, Desktop publishing, Program Presentasi, sistem manajemen database, Penjadwalan & manajemen Waktu, Lembar, perangkat lunak Akuntansi
Akses Internet Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging
Desain dan manufaktur komputer-aided design, Computer-aided manufaktur, manajemen Tanaman, manufaktur Robot, manajemen rantai suplai
Grafis raster editor grafis, editor grafis vektor, 3D modeler, Animasi editor, komputer grafis 3D, Video editing, pengolahan gambar
Audio editor audio digital, pemutaran Audio, Mencampur, sintesis Audio, musik Komputer
Rekayasa perangkat lunak Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, lingkungan pengembangan terintegrasi, analisis kinerja Software, Revisi kontrol, manajemen konfigurasi perangkat lunak
Pendidikan Edutainment, permainan Pendidikan, permainan Serius, simulator Penerbangan
Permainan Strategi, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulasi, Pertama-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, fiksi Interaktif
Misc Kecerdasan buatan, perangkat lunak antivirus, Malware scanner, Installer / Paket sistem manajemen, Manajer file

Bahasa pemrograman
Artikel utama: bahasa Pemrograman
Bahasa pemrograman menyediakan berbagai cara untuk menentukan program untuk komputer untuk menjalankan. Tidak seperti bahasa alam, bahasa pemrograman yang dirancang untuk mengizinkan ambiguitas dan tidak harus singkat. Mereka adalah murni ditulis bahasa dan sering sulit untuk membaca keras-keras. Mereka umumnya baik diterjemahkan ke dalam kode mesin oleh compiler atau assembler sebelum dijalankan, atau diterjemahkan secara langsung pada waktu dijalankan dengan interpreter. Kadang-kadang program dijalankan oleh suatu metode hybrid dari dua teknik. Ada ribuan bahasa pemrograman yang berbeda-beberapa dimaksudkan untuk tujuan umum, yang lain hanya berguna untuk aplikasi yang sangat khusus.

Bahasa pemrograman Daftar Timeline bahasa pemrograman bahasa pemrograman, bahasa pemrograman Daftar berdasarkan kategori, daftar Generasi bahasa pemrograman, bahasa pemrograman Daftar, Non-Inggris yang berbasis bahasa pemrograman
Umumnya digunakan Majelis bahasa ARM, MIPS, x86
Umumnya digunakan bahasa tingkat tinggi pemrograman Ada, BASIC, C, C + +, C #, COBOL, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal
Umumnya digunakan Scripting languages ​​Bourne script, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl

Profesi dan organisasi
Seperti penggunaan komputer telah menyebar ke seluruh masyarakat, ada peningkatan jumlah karier yang melibatkan komputer.

Komputer yang berhubungan dengan profesi terkait Hardware Electrical engineering, rekayasa Elektronik, teknik Komputer, teknik Telekomunikasi, rekayasa optik, Nanoengineering
Software terkait ilmu Komputer, Desktop publishing, Manusia-komputer interaksi, teknologi informasi, sistem informasi, ilmu pengetahuan Komputasi, Software engineering, industri video game, desain web

Kebutuhan komputer untuk bekerja sama dengan baik dan untuk dapat bertukar informasi telah melahirkan kebutuhan bagi banyak standar organisasi, klub dan masyarakat dari kedua sifat formal dan informal.

Organisasi Standar kelompok ANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C
Masyarakat Profesional ACM, AIS, IET, IFIP, BCS
Free / Open kelompok peranti lunak sumber Free Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation

 
 

The End @ Copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011.

The Sample Of Dr iwan CD-ROM:”The Indonesia Independence Revolution And War 1947″



Sukarno book sarinah 1947,with his comment and sign in 1949.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book Exhibition

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR

 part III 1947

Based On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

Rare Batavia Centrum Handstamped Postmark in 1947,on postally used small cover with  2 x Nica USAprinting stamp 2 cen(rate 4 cent),

in 1947 , there were several unique type of Nica Batavia post office handstamped CDS postmark,this one sample,other look at the chronolic collections.

Aceh revolution papermoney 1947

PS.THE ILLUSTRATION WILL INSTALL LATER,SPECIAL FOR PREMIUM MEMBER.

The Driwan’s Indonesia Independence Revolution And War  Cybermuseum

Showecase:

Indonesia Independence Revolution And War Collection part III in 1947

In 1947 several local Notrh(east) Sumatra  repoeblic indonesia  issued:

(a) Koela Leidong Membang Moeda Banknote

Koealoeh Leidong, Membang Moeda, 1947-1948

   

Koealoeh Leidong, Membang Moeda, Negara Republik Indonesia, 1947-1948

During the Dutch colonial rule in the Netherlands Indies, Membang Moeda was one of many large rubber plantations, occupying an area of 3.104 ha. It was owned by the Dutch “NV Rubber Cultuur-Mij. Amsterdam” and produced approximately 1.3 million kilo’s of rubber in 1938. Membang Moeda was situated about 50 km south of the city of Kisiran, in the administrative division Asahan, district of Laboehan Batoe, subdistrict Koealoeh Leidong, part of the Sumatra East Coast residency (Sumatera Timor). Membang Moeda was connected to the Deli railroad and had it’s own railway station. The Deli Railroad Company started in 1883 with building a railroad from Laboehan Deli to Belawan. Step by step the railroad was extended throughtout the residency and the last trajectory from Kisiran to Rantauprapat was finished in 1937, connecting Membang Moeda to the network.

(b)Local east Sumatra  Military banknote called Gun(Senapan )Money

(c) Local aceh revoluitionery papermoney 5 rupiah

Megawati was born in January 1947

1.January 1947

January_february electric billing from Djawatan Listrik dan Gas Palembang with dai nippon rev f-.15 without overprint

January,1st.1947

(1)the very rare handwritten overprint 311 Repin-donesia on Dai nippon sumatra definitif stamp 2sen ,pair two cent, Postally used money order fragment cds  tembilahan showa date 21.1.3(Jan,3rd,1947)

(2) The very rare official cover send by courier from walinegeri NRI(repoeblic Indonesia state) at  Kajai village ( near Taloe,Pasaman west sumatra) to  Military Tjamat  at Talamau village.

January,2rd.1947

The promotion label of Keng Po newspaper(now became Kompas newspaper) under the  redactie leader Injo Beng Goat ,starting issued 2 january 1947, this promotianal in Star weekly magazine 29 december 1946.

January ,6th.1947

The rare of complete   Pospakket evidence form(ontvangbewijs) with pen line overprint by repoeblic pos officie Koeningan (west Java) on DEI dancer stamp

January,10th.197

the repoeblik Indonesia National Police Pajakoemboeh(west sumatra) Travelling Pass (rare document)

January 11 1947.

 Waspada newspaper publishes first issue in Medan.

 Jan,13th.47

The Dutch Federaal Government ,NIT Negara Indonesia Timue(East Indonesia State) “Melantik”inagurated  their Cabinet.

Jan.17th.1947

The recieved of Garut Hospital Billing for medical operation Rp.50.- with java repoeblik Indonesia revenue limabelas sen(-,15) unperforated.

Jan.20th.1947

the express postal stationer annyversary  one years Indonesia Independence  day card added java definiti revolutioner stamp 40 seb ,sencered chope telah ditilik send from tjirebon 20.1.47 to Djakarta

Jan.21th.1947

(1)The Java electric billing  with revenue

(2)The only two off cover ,

(a)Typewritten overprint rep:indonesia on  dai nippon definitive sumatra stamp 20 cent.straigth two , cds  Bagansiapi-api showa date  21.1,3 or January,3rd.1947 (Riau) -the owner Ricardo,now in Deng Haag Phillatelic museum.

(b) the same stamps,single stamp on money order fragment,date  not clear ,bagansiapi-api. courtecy Dr iwan suwandy.

Jan.24th.1947

Dutch attack on December 30, 1946 is really crippling the power of our army. Regional army positions one by one fell into the hands of the Netherlands. In the Dutch attack overran Sikambing River, so it can break into any directions.the advanced of  struggle attracted the attention of the Commander in Medan Sumatra commandment. He considered that the struggle waged by the army People’s Regiment Field Area, is because the policy itself. Commandment decided to form a new command, led by Lt. Col. Sucipto. Handover of command took place on January 24, 1947 in Tanjung Morawa. Since then, the troops entered the Front TRI Medan Area, including assistance from Aceh who joined the Regiment of the Special Field Area.

Jan,25th.1947

The rare Sunrise book shop Batavia promotional on the back. send from Kelenteng Pekapuran 3 Batavia  to Surabaia.

at Back of cover  :

a) Happy New Year

(b) The spirit of the new year. Begeloralan seantaro (all) world where life is based abru atat: SAN MIN CHU I> Malay Language output () was published) Kwee Khe Soei “sunrise Bavia” 929, printed dias fine paper, compleet (complete) premises tables, 300 Pagina (page) large, disposable karrtun and National Chinese flag (Chinese Nationalist) and Partij price of 50 guilders.

Sun Yat Sen’s memoirs. AS PATRIOT Dr. Sun Yat Sen meritorious BEEN DOING GREAT WORK LIKE A BANGASA Chinese (CHINESE OVERSEAS) is that it was ERECTING Republic of China. Memoirs premises FULL IMAGE, PRICE 3 guilders. HOSTS NEED TO READ

(a) Selamat tahun Baru

(b) Semangat tahun baru. Begeloralan seantaro(segala) dunia bila dasarkan hidup abru atat :SAN MIN CHU I > Bahasa melayu keluaran ()diterbitkan) Kwee Khe Soei “sunrise Bavia”929, dicetak dias kertas halus , compleet(lengkap) denga tabel ,300 pagina(halaman) besar ,pakai karrtun dan bendera Tiongkok Nasional(Chinese Nationalist) dan partij harga 50 gulden.

RIWAYATNYA SUN YAT SEN .SEBAGAI PATRIOT dr SUN YAT SEN BERJASA TELAH  LAKUKAN PEKERJAAN BESAR BAGAI BANGASA tIONGHOA (CHINESE OVERSEAS)  IALAH TELAH MENDIRIKAN rEPUBLIK tIONGKOK. RIWAYATNYA LENGKAP DENGA GAMBAR ,HARGA 3 GULDEN.tUAN PERLU BACA.

jan.27th.1947

(a)the letter of Patih Sragen with officail Boepati sragen handsatmped.

(b) The rare Pen line  overprint on DEI Karbouw 1 cent stamps ,postally used on the “Tanda terima Pengiriman Pospakket”(Pospakket evidence  form)

 and the same stamps in unused mint stamps put on the back of Repoeblic Indonesia paper money chnaged form

.at this time due to many fake papermoney ,Repoeblic Indonesia government asking the people to cgange their money at post office, the original will given back  and the fake one  will stamped false(palsoe) and the owner will gave the recieved.

 

Jan.31th.1947

 the author of book “Soesana Politika Semendjak Indonesia Merdeka (Political Situation Since Indonesia Independence), Mr Moetijar, gave his book to west soematra delegation with his hand written in Indonesia;” Tandamata Perdjoangan kepada toean2 oetoesan dari Soematera Barat dari Pengarang” with his handsign Djakarta 31/1-1947, the owner of the book handsigned Dr.A.R.Oesman

( the father of my friend Dr Razes Osman ) Dr Rahim Oesma had done medical autopstion the Padang city Major  Bagindo Aschischan)

2.February 1947

February,1st ,1947

The electric and gas Indramajoe recieved with  Rep.Indonesia small  Fifteen sen. -.15 limabelas sen.

February,3th,47

indonesia journalist organisation iwi protest the PID instructions, they choosed to quit berhenti,

February,4th,1947

e. Rows SPECIAL POLICE TO FIELD AREA

(NETHERLANDS TO AGGRESSION – I)

1). On 4 February 1947 set out rows of Special Police Tapanuli residency led by MAS KADIRAN with 150 members to the FRONT FIELD AREA. Up in P. Mas Siantar Kadiran Sumatra facing the police chief based in KBP Siantar P. R. Solomon and met with Governor of Sumatra TM HASAN in the Front Rows of the Special Police Area Medan placed in Perbaungan and High Cliff, and at the forefront of Tanjung Morawa.

2). February 15, 1947 from Battle Field Area Headquarters held throughout the Defense enemy attacks in the city of Medan, in this general attack the Dutch began to exert all the power of Weapons

3) Weight, Tanks and Aircraft, and managed to break a general attack FIELD AREA of the fighters a lot and finally fell victim FIELD AREA FRONT forces retreated to the rear lines, as well as the ranks of the Residency Tapanuli SPECIAL POLICE survive in Marendal, Tg Morawa and Pakam and eventually returned to Perbaungan.

f. Rows SPECIAL POLICE BACK

TO THE PARENT UNIT in Sibolga

1). Government of Indonesia failed negotiation with the Dutch Government in Linggar teak, then the task sequence SPECIAL POLICE Residency Tapanuli to be a Security Police in the line of the status quo in Medan Area, but this task can not be implemented yet for security Tapanuli Command Council and the Police Chief Residency in Tapanuli to pull back to Tapanuli. Based on MAS KADIRAN order will then ordered his men are still at the forefront in the pull back and return to the Chief Constable of East Sumatra in P. Siantar to return to Sibolga.

2) Next in Sibolga MAS KADIRAN reports to the Regional Defense Council Tapanuli and Police Chief Residency in Tapanuli about the tasks during the Medan area, then MAS KADIRAN Konsulidasi ordered troops in this plan make MAS KADIRAN Armored Cars and few long-distance shooter Weapons (cannon).

g. LAYER STEEL MAKING CARS AND cannon

1) To accelerate the plan of Armored Cars MAS KADIRAN ask Some inmates in correctional institution who is an expert in the technique out and join the ranks of the Residency SPECIAL POLICE Tapanuli, in danger of capture of the former Japanese Army armored cars and the Dutch Army and aid in Car Repair Sibolga with hard work finally is completed Armored Cars and Armored Car generate 1 2 2.5 Ton 1.5 Ton Armored Cars and Armored Car 1 1 Ton.

2) Plan to add Next MAS KADIRAN Distance Sniper Weapons (cannon) for this MAS members KADIRAN ordered to sail to the Island Tower Poncane (Mursala) to take the former Japanese army cannon and Dutch troops, arriving on the Island Tower Poncane MAS KADIRAN ordered to examine guns after the select then traces the cannon brought to Sibolga for service.

h shootings DUTCH WAR SHIP

Torpedo IN BAY Sibolga

1) On Friday 28 April 1947 Dutch Warship Type torpedo JTI Anchoring 1.5 Miles from Labuhan Angin at Heading Sibolga information from ALRI in G. Ketapang. The situation became tense in the town of Sibolga Tapanuli Defense Council in Battleship berangkatkan headed to file a protest at the presence of Dutch Warships from the results of negotiations in the Dutch Ship Captain Ship delegation accept it and go back to the Army and Warships headed for Sabang.

February 5th.1947.

(a)Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam student organizatino is founded at Yogya.Sukarno and Hatta threatened  to resign if the Linggajati agreement is not ratified

(b)Between December 1946 and February 1947, the Dutch forces (KNIL) executed nearly 3000 people without trial.

(c) Postally used express postal stationer 1 year Indonesia independence card ,added 40 cent revolution java defintif tamp from Tjerebon cds 5.2.47 to  Djakarta (same cover with january.20th.1947

(d) The Repoeblic Indonesia’s Java Kedoe Residency  order (Koetipan Kepoetoesan Residen Kedoe) 5.2.1047 about the list of kedoe official employee , and hope the employee will : “mencurahkan segala fikiran,tenaga dan jiwa masing-masing  untuk keselamatan Negara Republic Indonesia. sign by resident secretary with  ORI overprint republic revenue -.50 (fifty cent.)

February,1st.1947

the Postally used cover from Padang to Bukittinggi with repoeblic Indonesia sumatra definitive stamps .

Februray,12th.1947

the postally used postcard from Pematangsiantar to Padang.with repoeblic indonesia soematra definitive stamps (rare used card)

feb,19th.1947

the white big repoeblic Indonedia independence anniversary postal stationer card 10 cent with legalized Madieon CDS without date,send from  Tjaroeban to Modjokerto, added definive repoblik indonesia java stamps 4o cent , with express stamped and sencore choped “TELAH DITILIK” .

Feb.21th.1947

(a)The very rare ,only one ever seen postally used stationer card  Dai Nippon karbouw 3 1/2 cent , with overprint sumatra type 13 A and the rarte change with hand written 100 sen , send from CDS Loeboek aloeng  rep.Indonesia 21.2.47 to Padang.

(b) The CTO Padang repoeblik Indonesia on Dai Nippon 31/2 cent karbouw postal stationer  with double overprin Repoeblic Indonesia 15 sen small and F 0,75 (new nominal) postal stationer

.

(c) the same CTO postmark above on  Cover with Sumatra definitive stamps. 2x 5 sen,2×15 sen,40 sen brown and 40 sen red.

(f)The Rare Batavia Postmark on postally used cover(unique home made cover with black and red line)

(g)the rare postally used cover with Dai Nippon Lampong stamps used during Reepoeblik without Republic overprint from Telokbetong to Palembang.

February,22th.1947

The Indonesian Independent anniversary Postal Stationer  card  legalized with postal CDS without date, sent express with add Java definivie republic Indonesia Stamp 40 sen ,from Madioen to modjokerto

Feb.28th.1947

The Repoeblic Indonesia Income tax(Pajak Penghasilan negeri) of Padang Panjang west sumatra.3.March 1947,still used the Dai Nippon sumatra form (T)

MARCH 1947

the picture of Djakarta repoeblik Indonesia post office Pasar baroe(now Filately museum and  PFI club office) chief Mr.Abdulrachman

March,1st,1947

the original letter from Tentara Reublik Indonesia with the official stamped TRI-Republic Indonesia Army  the chief Military police at Pajakoemboeh and with the extreme rare TRI official cover send by courier  (very rare document)

 

March,2rd,1947

(a)the very rare Postally used Dai Nippon karbouw postal sationer added  6 x Sumatra revolution definitif stamp 15 sewn and 2x 5 sen, postally used cover from Painan cds Painan 2.3.47 to Padang.( very difficult to find this common mint stamp used on cover,not many used-Dr Iwan note)

(b)March,2nd.1947

Tanjungjabung Kuala Tungkal Jambi  republic Independence fighting

JAMBI AND FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

A. Entering the waters of the Dutch Navy Kuala Tungkal

In Teak Linggar Agreement signed by the government of Indonesia and the Dutch government on March 2, 1947, the Dutch government expressed its recognition of the sovereignty of the government of Indonesia on the island of Java, Madura and Sumatra.

However, according to reports received, the Dutch navy frequent patrolling in the territorial waters of Kuala Tungkal (Regency Tanjung Jabung) and catch the ships passing in these waters. This means a violation of the Agreement Linggar teak. Therefore, it is in early April 1947 the Young Lieutenant Sub Ardjai of the Military Police Detachment Muara Sabak with Sergeant Major and Inspector of Police Marpi Laisa came Angkata Sea ships operating in the vicinity of Kuala Tungkal, Amsih village  marine waters is an area of ​​RI. Dutch navy on the ship were warned that they had entered the waters of Indonesia and asked to immediately leave the waters. Dutch Navy leaders stated that they were in international waters and directly hold Ardjai Lieutenant Young and his entourage on charges that threaten the security patrol extrimis Dutch navy. The accusation was denied by Lieutenant Young Ardjai by stating that they are the Army Official RI (TRI), as the evidence suggested that they were wearing military uniforms complete with rank and sign of unity Warrant Street. Rebuttal was ignored by the Dutch Navy and Lieutenant Young Ardjai with his friends remained in detention.

some moments later, came the residency Jambi Police Chief Police Commissioner Zainal Abidin with some staff of Police Inspector Adjunct Asmara Siagian, Sutarjo Police Commander, Police Agencies and mahyudi Diah Arifin Maelan Syahbandar Kuala Tungkal and Long Jakfar members of paramilitary troops escorted by a troop commander with heavily armed military led by Lieutenant Young M. Idris Saman Detachment Commander Sub PT Muara Sabak. In these forces helped Young Lieutenant and Lieutenant Young Nungcik Alcaff Jana’ib Ilyas.

To the head of the Dutch Navy who are in the ship,

the Chief of Police KeresidenanJambi protest and memperingatkan Dutch navy having entered the waters of Indonesia and the Dutch navy said the problem was to be discussed later with the head of the Royal Netherlands Army in Palembang. Police Chief Residency Ternnya jambi with his friends brought to Palembang as a prisoner on charges of provoking the Dutch warship.

In Palembang, all the prisoners brought to court and with the help of the Governor of South Sumatera Dr. Young. M. Isa all the captives were eventually in acquittal. At the time of journey from prisoner to the courtroom always get a warm welcome from the people of Palembang in the road moved at a show of hands as sympathetic to their cause.

MARCH,3rd.1947

THE RARE SMALL GREY COLOUR IREPOEBLIC iNDONESIA iNDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY POSTAL STATIONER 10 SEND WITH DJKARTA cds WITHOUT DATE LEGALIZED,SEND FROM DJAKARTA CDS 5.3.47 TO INDRAMAJOE WITH SENCORED CHOPPED TELAH DI TILIK IN SQUARED BOX.

March,4th.1947

The registered homemade cover from priaman cds 4.3.47 to kayoetanam cds 8.3.47 with 10 x Dai Nippon Yubin ovpt DEI port 40 cent type 871 violet (rate Rp.4,-) ,with brown black register pariaman label. this DN stamps still used without republic overprint.(the latest used DN stamp at  republican area)

march,5th.47

(a)The postally used card send from Kediri, with 2×1 cent ned.Indie karbouw  and repoblic 15 sen definitif java soerabaya anniversary nopember 1945 stamps.

(b) The Revenue of repoeblik Indonesia -.50 fifty sen used on PTT document”surat pengangkatan pegawai”

(c)the Netherland Indie official institute “menyita Muatan” Isbransten ‘s Ship”Martin Behrmann”

March,6th.1947

the rare money order recu(tanda pengiriman weselpos ) CDS repoeb lik indonesia Padang 6.3.47)

March,7th.1947

the latest used of repoeblic Indonesia Reveneue -,15 (fifteen cent) at  Jakarta.

March,10th,1947

 The Padang Postman Mr Soewil have made CTO Padang rep.Indonesia  cds on overprint Rep:Ind: on Dai nippon sumatra definitve stamps at the back of Rep.Indonesia 15 sen overprin dai nippon postal staioner karbouw 31/2 cent.(this one of a mr soewil only collections during repoebli Indonesia Postal history 1945-1948,courtecy dr Iwan,found at his house after many year  apssed away by his wife and son,then bought by Dr Iwan in 1980 for te first payment their new house because the old house must bring back to the owner,all the collection keep on the roof)

March,12th.1947

The earliest date used of Repoeblik Indonesia sumatra Revenue f1,-

March,13th.1947

The extreme rare only one ever exist, the padang psotman Soweil private note the date of found reoblik Indonesia sumatra stamps with circulaire date stamped  CDS Padang rep>indonesia 13.3.47 on complete document, the indepnednce fund tsamps  40 sen brown,15 sen dark blue and 5 sen light blue, with independence fund -blank type 40 sen brown,15 sen dark blu and 5 sen light blue,this  collection sold to dr Iwan in 1982 and still in his collections.

march,15th.47

Mr Supangkat,the secretari of Jakarta City , became the resident of Bogor.

March ,19th,1947

The certificate of redemption of a damaged motor tooling to Mr. Rahman Tanjung Morawa with good tools and the cost pairs (bill not yet paid) by the fighting battalions of the division’s chief financial officer Elephant Tentra Indonesian republic (kept by Mr. Rahman because of unpaid until after 1950 and was found in field 1985-notes Dr. Iwan)
original document:

Surat keterangan penukaran perkakas motor  yang rusak kepada bapak rahman tanjung morawa dengan perkakas yang baik serta ongkos pasang(bon belum dibayar) oleh  pejabat keuangan batalion pertempuran divisi Gajah Tentra repoeblik Indonesia(disimpan oleh bapak Rahman karena belum dibayar sampai sesudah tahun 1950 dan dietmukan di medan tahun 1985-catatan Dr Iwan)

March 25

(a)Netherlands government finally ratifies Linggajati agreement at the General Comision office at Rijswijk(now Istana Merdeka)

(b) In this day ,time 5.40 PM at Genral comision Djakarta   , the Linggarjati Agreement were sign by the member of Republik Indonesia delegation and Dutch delegeation member. Prime menister said:” stiil our heros  vs the Dutch’s son  with their gun and the murdered wapon , the look each other as the”ancaman”(threads)  that must be off(dilenyapkan)  as the enemy  which must be killed(dibunih), To found the loving seed(benih cinta)  one tother,not teh common work(bukan pekerjaan gampang), but must  with”ketelatenan”, patient(kesabaran) from the elader which guidence(menuntun)  the people to the “arah”direction of  pure love (cinta murni) as the part of human right  adn will be the based of Undang Undang Dasar Repoeblik Indonesia.

(c)Surat hitang pinjaman baterry  dan perbaikan kendaraan dari Komando tempur medan area (hutang ini tak pernah dilunaasi,tetap jadi bon,ditemukan Dr iwan di medan tahun 1986)

surat hutang ini ditulis dibelakang formulir surat keterangan Jalan resimen lasjkar Rakjat(PEOPLE LASJKAR ‘S REGIMENT )  “MEDAN AREA” LOOK ILLUSTRATION BELOW

Other unpaid billing from TNI Gajah and Mean Area Command setch belonging from the same “Bengkel Mobil Pak rahman Tanjong morawa,found at medan by Dr Iwan in 1985”

DOKUMEN ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF lAYSKAR RAKYAT KOMANDO TEMPUR MEDAN AREA:

Conflicts DIKALANGANPEJUANG ARISING NOT AND NOT EXPECTED TO CONTINUE WITHOUT THERE WILL BE THAT REFLECT THE COMPLETION OF INTEGRITY COMMAND AREA AROUND THE FRONT FIELD.

Leaders fight back streets soon realized haryus compromise for the continuation of the struggle which can not be done alone. An irregular command will not be possible to bring victory. In this case the Government and the command of Army of the Republic of Indonesia agrees to form a paramilitary unit Komado komado to unite people in Medan area, menginggat had enough strength that the People’s paramilitary troops surrounded the city medan.Diperkirakan keeeeeekuatan paramilitary troops already there are people not yet included one regiment-battalion Battalion Tentra Republic Indonesia (Army Pemerntah). tealh As previously described the cause is competition diklaangan parties including the ranks of struggle is a matter of supplies and perbelanjaaan, ka after the formation of a regular regiment of course bring consequences to perbekalan problem also (Caatan Dr. Iwan, ternyat command field area formed create a letter that was never paid huatng-these facts, see the bill that kept the original owner and later found in Medan, maybe the owner has died and the family does not mngerti historical value the debt bill.)

So for that purpose, all supplies were borne by the board of Defense of East Sumatra, located in High Cliff. Untu memimpoin Kasykar People commando regiment was entrusted to Captain Commando NIP Xarim.Untuk meudahkan voering hereinafter Medan front dining area is divided into four sectors: Western Sector held by Kaptem ABd.Hamid, East sector held Yacub Lubis, sectorutara olh Barani Xelatan Pohan and sector by Ibrahim Yahya (Yahya Aceh) Pasuka special Andalas Pesindo north by Aladdin Sitompul. Another found an empty form of Refinery Army, Bat.III.Res.I Dipisi Gadjah II Soematera Kaban Ginger (in the back letter hutangdevisi Elephant II).

2) Combat Command FIELD AREA Tanjung Morawa

British military operations intensified executed and forced the governor’s office moved into the mayor’s office. Headquarters Division II TKR was transferred again to the Siantar. Similarly, Laskar-paramilitary youth moved his base of each out of the city of Medan to consolidate. Paramilitary troops still fighting in the absence of unity of command, and coordination. Gradually they realized this weakness after several losses.
Top perakasa Regional Defense Council, then invited the commanders of the army to negotiate on the Cliff High for 2 days on 8-10 August 1946 to discuss the problem of the struggle. Finally they agreed to form the People’s Warriors Field Regiment Command Area (KRLMA). The consequence of the formation of this command, Laskar-army liberated from their respective parent organizations. Nip selected as captain Karim Marzuki Lubis as Commander and Chief of Staff. Command Headquarters located in Two Rivers. KRLMA consists of five battalions and a special company with a division of territory and responsibility for sure.
At the initiative of the leadership of the Division of Elephant and KRIRMA on October 10, 1941 approved to hold a joint attack. Targets to be seized in the East is the Kampung Medan Sukarame, River collar. On the west is the Padang Bulan Medan, Petisah, Jalan Pringgan, whereas in the south is the city of Medan Matsum that will be his target. determined movement plan, troops will move along the path Medan-Belawan.
Hari “H” is determined date October 27, 1946 at 20:00, the first target Meda east and south of Medan. Exactly on the day of “H”, A Regiment Battalion Warriors of the people under Bahar move to occupy the village of Three Markets Sukarame, while Battalion B Matsum to the city and occupied the Court Street and Main Street. In Medan west Battalion 2nd Regiment of the people and army troops moved to occupy the road Ilyas Malik Pringgan, China and Road Binjei cemetery.
It is worth noting, that some time ago, the British had to give up some powers to the Dutch. At the time some British troops preparing to be withdrawn and replaced by Dutch troops, our forces attacked them. Movements Regiment battalions Medan Area People’s army apparently wafted by the English / Dutch. Medan area south bombarded by mortar fire. Our troops returned fire and managed to mengehentikannya.
Meanwhile, the British attacked the southern field. Close combat raged in the city. On the next day Matsum eastern city was attacked again. British troops are located at Jalan Ismailiah successfully repelled.

While the battle took place, out of order on 3 November 1946 gencetan gun held to the withdrawal of British troops and the truce was made, used to negotiate determine the demarcation line. British occupation was officially handed over to the Netherlands on November 15 1946.Tiga days after the British left the city of Medan, the Dutch began to violate the truce. Brayan on the island on 21 November, the Dutch seized the property of the population, and the next day to make the issue again with the Dutch outposts fired on the troops in station Mabar Laskar, also Padang Bulan ditembaki.Pihak Laskar retaliate. Colonel Schalten shot while crossing in front of the army post. Holland responded with a massive assault on the corners of the city. Dutch Air Force bombing, while at the front south of Medan on Court Street we got heavy pressure, but troop movements in the Netherlands can Sukarame dihentikan.Pada dated December 1, 1946 our troops began firing mortars into the base target Air Polonia and the Dead River. The next day the Dutch attacked the back area behind the city. Kampung Besar, Mabar, Deli Tua, Pancur Bricks and Padang Bulan pinned down and in bombs. Of course the goal is to cut logistical support to troops in the city. But even so, the higher the morale of our troops are achieved thanks to the victory.
Because the feeling of urgency, the Netherlands asked the Chairman of RI to be stopped on the pretext of shooting to ensure the demarcation line that limits the powers of each. With the new demarcation, the troops who won places in the city, had withdrawn mundur.Selagi we will hold a consolidation in Two Rivers, Tanjung Morawa, Binjai and Tembung, they were attacked by the Dutch. The battle went all night. Dutch attack on December 30, 1946 is really crippling the power of our army. Regional army positions one by one fell into the hands of the Netherlands. In the Dutch attack overran Sikambing River, so it can break into any arah.Perkembangan struggle attracted the attention of the Commander in Medan Sumatra commandment. He considered that the struggle waged by the army People’s Regiment Field Area, is because the policy itself. Commandment decided to form a new command, led by Lt. Col. Sucipto. Handover of command took place on January 24, 1947 in Tanjung Morawa. Since then, the troops entered the Front TRI Medan Area, including assistance from Aceh who joined the Regiment of the Special Field Area.
Within 3 weeks of Field Command Area (KMA) held a consolidated, organized plan new attacks against the city of Medan. Its power is about 5 battalions to the division of the appropriate target. Hari “H” is determined February 15, 1947 and at “j” is 06.00. Unfortunately due to communication error of this attack was not done simultaneously, but nevertheless managed to make a general attack Dutch scrambling all night. Lacking heavy weapons, the way the battle is not changed. dawn our troops to retreat to Mariendal. General attack February 15, 1947 This is the last major attack launched by pejoang-pejoang in Medan Area.

Until the eve of the Dutch Military Aggression to I, where RI in Medan Area troops amounted to a riel at 7 battalion and remained in its original position which divides the Front Area of ​​sectors Medan, Medan is the east, south of Medan, Medan Medan west and north. And so did divide Medan on 4 the same sector, and thus they are directly confronted with kita.Pada troops during the Dutch Military Aggression to the I, the Dutch launched an offensive against the forces of Indonesia to all sectors. Resistance to the Dutch almost a week, and after that the troops withdrew from Medan RI Area.
Conclusion: The battle in Medan Area is the most fierce resistance and long in East Sumatra, which lasted nearly two years. In this event is to motivate young people and fighters who do not want occupation, accompanied by a tenacious attitude and never give up. But even so no matter how strong the motivation, without based on cooperation and good coordination, each activity can fail. History has proved how bitter this state. (The author is pejoang ’45 and former prisoners)

LOGAM affair,

These events were related to feelings of dissatisfaction among the public preformance which is limited to those from northern Tapanuli, with accusations that the Government had tirikan their children, he said all officials are from Aceh, no one from North Tapanuli. To menunnukkan dissatisfaction, they MADE  a demonstration, which nearly caused a shedding of BLOOD .Syyukur situations can be mastered.  SM.Amin, REsiden Aceh T.Muhammad Daudsyah dan Residen Tapanuli Dr F.L.tobing .However the situation remains critical that the Government felt to remain vigilant and find it necessary to issue an edict warning addressed to the people to split the incident so as not terjad9i, this edict was signed by Governor Young S. M. Amin, Muhammad T. Daudsyah Aceh Resident and Resident Tapanuli Dr F.L.Tobing. However the situation remains critical that the Government felt to remain vigilant and find it necessary to issue an edict warning addressed to the people to split the incident so as not terjad9i, this edict was signed by Governor Young S. M. Amin, Muhammad T. Daudsyah Aceh Resident and Resident Tapanuli Dr FLTobing.

The leader of this affair led by Mr Logam, had arrested at Pematang Siantar Jail. nbut one day there was a demostration which consist of Battaks peoples in the front of gubervernour  sumatera Office which guarded by  the official and Police which came from aceh.the demontrations sent their “Utusan” to meet with Gouvenour Sumatra,which located at the second floor, after their tals about what their wanted, as fast as built one small”panitia”  to accepted the demonstration envoy, the small panitia consist Gubernur Muda Sumatera Utara (SM Amin),Mr Abdul Abbas(staff Gouvernur Sumatra), and zmr Laut siregar(Staf Gubernur sumatra), the small Panitia meet the Demontran utusan, the demostran asking Mr Logam free from jail arrested.Gubevernour sumatera asking Let.Colonel Bachtiar, the chief of Militer Police Detasme at Pematang siantart whic he arrested Mr Logam, after get the information from Let.Col. Bachtiar, Gouvernour Sumatra release from jail arrested.

MARSUSE Affair

The second challenge faced was from the “Lasjkar Marsuse” pane under the leadership of the East. Lasjkar Marsuse This is a combination of several lasjkar a united and demanded an official recognition by the Government as well as a number of funds each month pernelanjaan Rp.120.000.000, -, a jumalh no small sehingga demand was rejected, consequently Pane East with several bodyguards then came to the young governor sumatra north and try to earn money by persuasion-persuasion. This persuasion did not work either, so get out the threat with the words = words: “WHEN VICE PRESIDENT ARRIVES IN LATER Siantar” (vice president is being awaited his arrival from the United Kingdom) “I will do my get it from him and WHERE NOT SUCCEED, THEN AN OCCUR FLOOD BLOOD “. But what happens is a bloodbath as a result of invasion of the Netherlands towards the republic, invasion, known as “Politioneel Actie”.

ORINGINAL INFO:

(1)PERTENTANGAN YANG TIMBUL DIKALANGAN PEJUANG TIDAK BOLEH DAN TIDAK DIHARAPKAN AKAN BERJALAN TERUS TANPA ADA PENYELESAIAN YANG MENCERMINKAN KEUTUHAN KOMANDO DI SELURUH FRONT MEDAN AREA .

Para pemimpim perjuangan harus segera sadar kembali kejalan kompromi untuk kelanjutan perjuangan yang tidak mungkin dilakukan sendiri-sendiri. Suatu komando yang tidak teratur tidak akan mungkin membawa kemenangan. Dalam hal ini Pemerintah dan komando Tentara Republik Indonesia sependapat untuk membentuk komado guna menyatukan Komado Lasykar Rakyat di Medan area, menginggat sudah cukup banyak kekuatan Lasykar Rakyat yang mengepung kota medan.Diperkirakan keeeeeekuatan Lasykar rakyat sudah ada satu resimen belum lagi termasuk Batalion-batalion Tentra Republik Indonesia(Tentara Pemerntah).Sebagaimana yang tealh diuraikan sebelumnya  penyebab adalah persaingan diklaangan partai termasuk barisan perjuangannya adalah masalah perbekalan dan perbelanjaaan, ka setelah terbentuknya suatu resimen yang teratur tentu membawa konsekwensi kepadsa masalah perbekaln juga(Caatan Dr Iwan, ternyat komando medan area yang dibentuk membuat surat huatng yang tidak pernah dibayar-ini fakta,lihat bonnya yang asli disimpan pemilik dan kemudian  ditemukan di Medan,mungkin pemiliknya sudah meninggal dunia dan keluarga tidak mngerti nilai sejarah bon hutang tersebut.)

Maka untuk keperluan tersebut ,seluruh perbekalan ditanggung oleh dewan Pertahanan Sumatera Timur yang berkedudukan di Tebing Tinggi. Untu memimpin komando resimen Kasykar Rakyat ini dipercayakan kepada Kapten NIP Xarim.Untuk meudahkan Komando voering selajutnya makan front Medan area dibagi dalam empat sector: Sector Barat dipegang oleh Kaptem ABd.Hamid, sector Timur dipegang Yacub Lubis, sectorutara olh Barani POhan dan sector Xelatan oleh Yahya Ibrahim(Yahya Aceh) Pasuka istimewa Pesindo Andalas utara oleh Aladin sitompul. Formulir kosong lain yang ditemui dari Kilang Tentara ,Bat.III.Res.I Dipisi Gadjah II Soematera Kaban Jahe(in the back surat hutangdevisi Gajah II) .look the form below.

also found the 5 liter  cylinder .bonds which never paid,

Komando Medan area bonds of  one car batteriy

Another bon from kompani II batalion 1 Dipisi Panah(arrow)  Tanjung Morawa

Bon GPPI tanjomg Morawa  4500 F.

(2)KOMANDO TEMPUR MEDAN AREA TANJUNG MORAWA

Operasi-operasi militer Inggris semakin intensif dilaksanakan dan kantor gubernur terpaksa dipindahkan ke kantor walikota. Markas Divisi II TKR dipindahkan pula ke Pematang Siantar. Demikian pula Laskar-laskar Pemuda memindahkan markasnya masing-masing ke luar kota Medan untuk mengadakan konsolidasi. Pasukan laskar masih bertempur tanpa adanya kesatuan komando, maupun koordinasi. Lambat laun mereka menyadari kelemahan ini setelah beberapa kali menderita kerugian.
Atas perakasa Dewan Pertahanan Daerah, maka diundang para komandan laskar untuk berunding di Tebing Tinggi selama 2 hari pada tanggal 8-10 Agustus 1946 untuk membahas masalah perjuangan. Akhirnya mereka sepakat membentuk Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area (KRLMA). Konsekuensinya dari pembentukan komando ini, Laskar-laskar dibebaskan dari organisasi induknya masing-masing. Kapten Nip Karim dipilih sebagai Komandan dan Marzuki Lubis sebagai Kepala Staf. Markas Komando berada di Two Rivers. KRLMA terdiri dari 5 batalyon dan 1 kompi istimewa dengan pembagian wilayah dan tanggung jawab pasti.
Atas prakarsa pimpinan Divisi Gajah dan KRIRMA pada 10 Oktober 1941 disetujui untuk mengadakan serangan bersama. Sasaran yang akan direbut di Medan Timur adalah Kampung Sukarame, Sungai Kerah. Di Medan barat ialah Padang Bulan, Petisah, Jalan Pringgan, sedangkan di Medan selatan adalah kota Matsum yang akan jadi sasarannya. rencana gerakan ditentukan, pasukan akan bergerak sepanjang jalan Medan-Belawan.
Hari “H” ditentukan tgl 27 Oktober 1946 pada jam 20.00, sasaran pertama Meda timur dan Medan selatan. Tepat pada hari “H”, Batalyon A Resimen Laskar rakyat di bawah Bahar bergerak menduduki Pasar Tiga bagian Kampung Sukarame, sedangkan Batalyon B menuju ke kota Matsum dan menduduki Jalan Mahkamah dan Jalan Utama. Di Medan barat Batalyon 2 Resimen lasykar rakyat dan pasukan Ilyas Malik bergerak menduduki jalan Pringgan, kuburan China dan Jalan Binjei.
Patut diketahui, bahwa beberapa waktu yang lalu, pihak Inggris telah menyerahkan sebagian kekuasaannya kepada Belanda. Pada saat sebagian pasukan Inggris bersiap-siap untuk ditarik dan digantikan oleh pasukan Belanda, pasukan kita menyerang mereka. Gerakan-gerakan batalyon-batalyon Resimen Lasykar Rakyat Medan Area rupanya tercium oleh pihak Inggris/Belanda. Daerah Medan selatan dihujani dengan tembakan mortir. Pasukan kita membalas tembakan dan berhasil mengehentikannya.
Sementara itu Inggris menyerang seluruh Medan selatan. Pertempuran jarak dekat berkobar di dalam kota. Pada keesokan harinya kota Matsum bagian timur diserang kembali. Pasukan Inggris yang berada di Jalan Ismailiah berhasil dipukul mundur.Sementara pertempuran berlangsung, keluar perintah pada 3 November 1946 gencetan senjata diadakan dalam rangka penarikan pasukan Inggris dan pada gencatan senjata itu dilakukan, digunakan untuk berunding menentukan garis demarkasi. Pendudukan Inggris secara resmi diserahkan kepada Belanda pada tanggal 15 November 1946.Tiga hari setelah Inggris meninggalkan kota Medan, Belanda mulai melanggar gencatan senjata. Di pulau Brayan pada tanggal 21 November, Belanda merampas harta benda penduduk, dan pada hari berikutnya Belanda membuat persoalan lagi dengan menembaki pos-pos pasukan Laskar di Stasiun Mabar, juga Padang Bulan ditembaki.Pihak Laskar membalas. Kolonel Schalten ditembak ketika meliwati di depan pos Lasykar. Belanda membalas dengan serangan besar-besaran di pelosok kota. Angkatan Udara Belanda melakukan pengeboman, sementara itu di front Medan selatan di Jalan Mahkamah kita mendapat tekanan berat, tapi di Sukarame gerakan pasukan Belanda dapat dihentikan.Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1946 pasukan kita mulai menembakkan mortir ke sasaran pangkalan Udara Polonia dan Sungai Mati. Keesokan harinya Belanda menyerang kembali daerah belakang kota. Kampung Besar, Mabar, Deli Tua, Pancur Bata dan Padang Bulan ditembaki dan di bom. Tentu tujuannya adalah memotong bantuan logistik bagi pasukan yang berada di kota. Tapi walaupun demikian, moral pasukan kita makin tinggi berkat kemenangan yang dicapai.
Karena merasa terdesak, Belanda meminta kepada Pimpinan RI agar tembak menembak dihentikan dengan dalih untuk memastikan garis demarkasi yang membatasi wilayah kekuasaan masing-masing. Dengan adanya demarkasi baru, pasukan-pasukan yang berhasil merebut tempat-tempat di dalam kota, terpaksa ditarik mundur.Selagi kita akan mengadakan konsolidasi di Two Rivers, Tanjung Morawa, Binjai dan Tembung, mereka diserang oleh Belanda. Pertempuran berjalan sepanjang malam. Serangan Belanda pada tanggal 30 Desember 1946 ini benar-benar melumpuhkan kekuatan laskar kita. Daerah kedudukan laskar satu demi satu jatuh ke tangan Belanda. Dalam serangan Belanda berhasil menguasai Sungai Sikambing, sehingga dapat menerobos ke segala arah.Perkembangan perjuangan di Medan menarik perhatian Panglima Komandemen Sumatera. Ia menilai bahwa perjuangan yang dilakukan oleh Resimen Lasykar Rakyat Medan Area, ialah karena kebijakan sendiri. lihatlah illustrasi  para pejuang dari lasjkar medan area Tanjongmorawa  dibawah ini:
 
 
Komandemen memutuskan membentuk komando baru, yang dipimpin oleh Letkol Sucipto. Serah terima komando dilakukan pada tanggal 24 Januari 1947 di Tanjung Morawa. Sejak itu pasukan-pasukan TRI memasuki Front Medan Area, termasuk bantuan dari Aceh yang bergabung dalam Resimen Istimewa Medan Area.
Dalam waktu 3 minggu Komando Medan Area (KMA) mengadakan konsolidasi, disusun rencana serangan baru terhadap kota Medan. Kekuatannya sekitar 5 batalyon dengan pembagian sasaran yang tepat. Hari “H” ditentukan 15 Februari 1947 dan jam “j” adalah pukul 06.00. Sayang karena kesalahan komunikasi serangan ini tidak dilakukan secara serentak, tapi walaupun demikian serangan umum ini berhasil membuat Belanda kalang kabut sepanjang malam. Karena tidak memiliki senjata berat, jalannya pertempuran tidak berobah. menjelang subuh pasukan kita mundur ke Mariendal. Serangan umum 15 Februari 1947 ini adalah serangan besar terakhir yang dilancarkan oleh pejoang-pejoang di Medan Area.Sampai menjelang Agresi Militer ke I Belanda, yang mana pasukan RI di Medan Area berjumlah yang riel sebesar 7 batalyon dan tetap pada kedudukan semula yang membagi Front Medan Area atas beberapa sektor, ialah Medan timur, Medan selatan, Medan barat dan Medan utara. Dan begitu pula membagi Medan atas 4 sektor yang sama, dan dengan demikian mereka langsung berhadapan dengan pasukan kita.Pada saat terjadi Agresi Militer Belanda ke I, Belanda melancarkan serangannya terhadap pasukan RI ke semua sektor. Perlawanan terhadap Belanda hampir 1 minggu, dan setelah itu pasukan-pasukan RI mengundurkan diri dari Medan Area.
Kesimpulan:Pertempuran di Medan Area merupakan perlawanan yang paling sengit dan panjang di Sumatera Timur, yang berlangsung hampir 2 tahun. Dalam peristiwa ini ialah motivasi rakyat dan Pemuda Pejuang yang tidak mau dijajah dengan disertai sikap ulet dan pantang menyerah. Tapi walaupun demikian bagaimana pun kuatnya motivasi, tanpa dilandasi kerjasama dan koordinasi yang baik, maka setiap kegiatan dapat mengalami kegagalan. Sejarah telah membuktikan betapa pahitnya keadaan ini. (Penulis adalah pejoang ’45 dan mantan tawanan)

(d) Naskah Lingarjati agreement

March,27th.1947

the extreme rare,only one exist in the world, the Repoblic Indonesia overprint Dai Nippon revenue F 5,-(new roepiah) and old f.75,- for legalized the document”Soerat talak”Islamic Divorce “by the chief of repoblic poostoffice boekittinggi official stamped.and the other rare F 2.50 revenue (not clear document)

              

my sister

After recieved this letter, drop first talak from brother to sister and who hear this will the witness …etc(islamic divorce or talak)

original document in Indonesia

 Adinda

 seterima surat ini maka jatuh talak kakanda kepada adinda  dan siapa yang mendengar itulah yang menjadi saksi  dan seterusnya.(hand written with pencil)

March,29th.1947

The State Contrubutie tax(Ijoeran negara),paid at Padang Panjang post office CDS 20,4.47.

march,30th.1947

The NICA USAprinting postalstationer landscape 3 1/2 cent send from Djakarta  to semarang.

4.April

April,2nd.1947

240 people from America arrived at Tanjong Priok and went to the inner place(meneruskan perjalanan kedaerah pedalaman)

April,5th.1947

The Malang Post magazine no 11 info

(a) cover

(b)Penjara di Zaman Repoeblik

Pada hari sabtu,22 maret 1947 setelah minta izin dari tuan R.P. Bahroedin, pemimpin Pejara Daderah Malang, wartawan kitanbersama fotograaf Malang POst melangkah pintu yang meisahkan ribuan orang hukuman dari dunia luar.Kepala keamanan penjara tuan soentro menyambut kita dengan ramah-tamah. Kesan pertama yang kita dapat dari dalam penjara adalah suasana tenang dan tentram serta merasa seperti masuk dlam satu pusat  pemberi pekerjaaan yang walaupun ada sedikit primitif(sederhana) tapi cukup berguan untuk orang yang dipenjarakan, Kemudian kita melihat rumah sakit yang diatur begitu resik,hingga tidak perlu malu dengan rumah sakit biasa, tetapi persediaan obatnya masih kurang. Seblum seorang hukuman baru dapat dicampurkan dengan orang hubuman lain, mereka dimasukkan dalm blok orang baru atau karantina seperti  pulau Onrust, orang baru ditilik kesehatannya oleh doketr penjara Dr Drajat, apabila kesehatannya tidak membahhayakan barulah orang baru itu dicampurkan dengan orang hukuman lain, dalam ruamh sakit diberikan perawatan baik malah ada yang diberei minum susu sehingga mereka merasa kerasan disnan. Dari rumah sakit kita mnuju ke bermacam pekerjaaaan , seperti tempat memintal,menenum,mengayam tikar,bengkel besi,pembikinan barang dari kulit. Yang tidak bekerja disini,bekerja  cocok tanam. buah-buahan dan sayuran.kita melihat kelas buta huruf ,dimana kebetulan gurunya sedang mengajar sejumlah anak umur 16 tahun kebawah. Orang dewasa juga diajar surat menyurat. Akhirnya kita sampai kedapur, bagan penting karewna masyarakat sudah memasrahkan orang yang berdosa sehingga mereka jangan kekurangan makan dn menderita busung lapar, mereka dihukum perbuatannya dan tidak boleh menghukum jiwanya,  DSelain itu juga kita melihat penjara wanita,mereka juga  dapat bantal empuk dan pakaian perempuan penjara,sarung dan bajukurung biru yang s Semua serba baik,mereka tidak tidur diatas beton tetapi diatas ranjang dan sifat pe njara seperti rumah sekolah. (Perlu dibaca oleh pemimpin penjara masa kini untuk dijadikan contoh)

April,17th-47

Bon pinjaman uang untuk pembelian busi mobil harga F.300 dari Wakil Kepala  Djabatan perhubungan komado Medan are (Markas Pertempoeran Komando Medan Area ) di Tanjungmorawa(rare original leasing bonds )

April 24 th.1947

Dutch create state of Pasundan in western Java.

April,28th.1947

The unpaid Bonds of The Battle ‘s command Medan Area Tanjongmorawa

April ,29th.1947

(a)The rare Repoeblic Indonesia Income Tax Paid at Padang Panjang West sumatra Postal office with CDS 29.7.1947

(b) The earliest used of ORI overprint repoblik Indonesia revenue  -.15 lima belas sen (fifteen cent) for buying bond(andeel) Menara Kudus(cigaret factory)

Look the andeel (bonds) of nv oepii below.

May 1947

In early Mei 1947, S.M.Amin was pointed as the Young Guvernour(Gubernur Muda) North Sumatra, by telegram from Vice president Moh,Hatta via Resident Aceh T.Chik Myhamaad Daudsyah.,before he was the chief executive of DPR Aceh , at last Mei he went to Pematang siantar where the capital of Sumatra Province ,in order to meet the Govermur Sumatra Tewuku Mohammads Hassan where he was inagurated , before the capital at Medan but  moving because the Dutch pressuded. Several days working, S.M.Amin must solved the LOGAM (metal) and Marsuse affairs.

original informations:

LOGAM affair,

Peristiwa ini terjadi berkaitan dengan perasaan tidak puas dalm kalangan masyarakat yang terbatas pada mereka yang berasal dari  Tapanuli utara, dengan tuduhan bahwa  Pemerintah meng anak tirikan  mereka, katanya seluruh pejabat berasal dari Aceh,tidak ada yang berasal dari tapanuli utara. Untuk menu nnukkan rasa tidak puas, mereka mengakan suatu demonstrasi , yang hampir menimbulkan suatu pertumpahan darah.Syyukur situasi dapat dikuasai . Namum keadaan tetap dirasa gawat sehingga Pemerintah tetap waspada dan merasa perlu dikeluarkan sebuah Maklumat  Peringatan yang ditujukan kepada rakyat  agar kejadian perpecahan agar tidak terjad9i,maklumat ini ditanda tangani oleh Gubernur Muda S>M>Amin, REsiden Aceh T.Muhammad Daudsyah dan Residen Tapanuli Dr F.L.Tobing.

MARSUSE AFFAIR

Tantangan kedua yang dihadapi adalah dari pihak “Lasjkar Marsuse” dibawah pimpinan Timur pane. Lasjkar Marsuse ini adalah gabungan beberapa lasjkar yang bersatu dan menuntut suatu pengakuan resmi oleh Pemerintah serta  dana pernelanjaan setiap bulan sejumlah Rp.120.000.000,-,suatu jumalh yang tidak sedikit seh8ingga tuntutan itu ditolak, akibatnya Timur Pane dengan beberapa pengawalnya kemudian mendatangi gubernur muda sumatra  utara dan berusaha memperoleh uang tersebut dengan bujukan-bujukan. Bujukan ini juga tidak berhasil ,sehingga keluar ancaman dengan kata=kata:”BILAMANA WAKIL PRESIDEN NANTI TIBA DI PEMATANG SIANTAR” (wakil presiden memang  sedang ditunggu kedatangannya dari Bukittinggi)”AKAN SAYA USAHAKAN MEMPEROLEHNYA DARI BELIAU DAN BILAMANA TIDAK BERHASIL,MAKA AN TERJADI BANJIR DARAH”. Tetapi yang terjadi adalah banjir darah sebagai akibat serbuan belanda kearah daerah republik, serbuan yang dikenal dengan sebutan “Politioneel Actie”.

In May 1947, a ship named KM Trade. Bali arrested by the Dutch in the waters of Kuala Tungkal and Sea village to jambi. In addition to commodities such as rice, on the ship there is also a passenger:

1. Captain M. Thaib RH (Company Commander Kuala Tungkal)

2. Sergeant Major Cedet / Kadir Naning (Adjutant) and several bodyguards

3. National Outcome Inspector Helper. Asmara Siagian II (police officer)

4. Teacher David (Head of Religious Bureau Kuala Tungkal)

5. H. Abdullah Aziz (Kuala Tungkal Religious Judge)

6. H. Mohd. Thaib (Office of Civil Religion Kuala Tungkal)

7. Gumri Abdullah (religious teacher) and several other civilians.

KM. Bali with all its passengers were taken to Tanjung Pinang (Riau), while the rice in the waste into the sea.

Captain M. Thaib RH and Letda R. Umar and his men captured in Tanjung Pinang, other civilian passengers were freed. Captain M. Thaib RH and his men were released after the handover of sovereignty of Indonesia.

May,5t,1947

President Soekarno order as the higest Command Indonesian Army, in as fast Indonesian amred forces (TRI-tentara repoeblik Indonesia)  and the Lasjkar joined in in one organization TNI(tentara Nasional Indonesia _ Indonesia National Army)

May,6th,1947

(a)The rare emergency overprint  prangko on dai Nippon revenue at palembang, postally used cover send fro Palembang  cds 6.5.47

(b) The original letter of badan pemeriksaan Military Police Division Banteng I Sumatera

May,8th.1947

THe overprint repoeblik Indonesia -from java on Ned Indie karbouw 2 cent stamp(5x) postally used from Tjiawi to Djkarta.

May,9th.1947

The very rare used Palembang emergency overprint Repoeblik Indonesia on Dai Nippon revenue  stamps used on cover from Palembang(black and white illustration,recoloured)

May,10th.1947

The Document of repoeblic Indonesia soerakarta  Justice Court ,about the  “Ahliwaris”

MAY,10th,1947

 On May 10, 1947 Battleship Dutch then looked at the tip of the island Poncan Tower and soon anchorage, 1.5 Miles from the Port of Sibolga, with berlabuhnya Dutch war ships, Sibolga standby entire force deployed to keep things that are not desirable , Unity Tapanuli security delivered protest filed by the Company Commander of Navy Oswald Siahaan to Warship Netherlands, but incidents of the negotiators Oswald Siahaan with Dutch ship shootout.

3) With the incident then the chairman of the Defense Council Tapanuli Dutch Warships ordered to immediately leave the port if no action will be taken. The whole combat ready troops firing when the Dutch ship did not go, because the Dutch did not leave the Ship Defense Council ordered to shoot a Dutch ship, resulting in the crossfire between the forces of Indonesia by the Dutch Warship for 6 hours, Dutch Warship finally shoot blindly Ship The Dutch left the Gulf War Sibolga

4) With the blind blindly Dutch war ship then fired Sibolga MAS KADIRAN mepercepat ordered and mobilized for the completion of the manufacture of cannon, unfortunately while testing the cannon, one of the members of Barisan SPECIAL POLICE Residency Tapanuli named “LUNCIUS Simanjuntak” dead less than a month the death Luncius Simanjuntak cannon shooter Distance MAS KADIRAN completed with the name calling Meriam Meriam “LUNCIUS” in order to commemorate the name of one of the members who died while testing the cannon. Finally, experts in these techniques can resolve the 3 pieces of cannon, a cannon shooter distance size of 8 inches, one anti-aircraft cannon and a cannon Anti Tank Cal. 3.8 inch.

i. SPECIAL POLICE FORCES row Tapanuli INTO CAR Brigade residency residency Tapanuli

(MBK Tapanuli)

1) In accordance with the provisions of the Branch Bureau of Police for the Sumatra and Tapanuli Command Chief Residency at the melting renamed “POLICE CAR residency Tapanuli Brigade” Brigade POLICE CAR’s name is based on the letter of Command Chief of Police No. Young. : 126 / 78 / 91 November 14, 1946. concerning the establishment of Mobile Brigade in each of the residency of the formation of the Brigade Police Cars are meant to uniform name, rank structure, the task of working procedures of the police forces that are at the Residency in Indonesia where the name of a wide Variety of Police, there PATRIOT POLICE, POLICE EXEMPLARY, SPECIAL POLICE Barisan , POLICE FAST MOTION. etc.

2) The main purpose of the establishment of Mobile Brigade is composed Forces – the small army as the core of a strong police firepower with high mobility, in each residency in the form of Mobile Brigade residency (MBK) and led by a TK-POLICE INSPECTOR I / II as for the strength of 100 people or more, with space covering the entire residency, Administration, Organization and under the leadership Tactical Police Chief Residency.

3). In addition to the residency of Mobile Brigade (MBK), the Center / Bureau held Reservists are called Mobile Brigade LARGE (MBB), led by the Bureau MBB A POLICE COMMISSIONER receiving command and directly responsible to the Head of State Police. Reservists / MBB-strength 100 s / d 600 Armament Members who complete it.

May 11 th.1947.


Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak governed the “Daerah Istimewa Kalimantan Barat” in cooperation with the Dutch (corresponding to today’s Kalimantan Barat province). He was arrested in 1950 for involvement in a plot against the Indonesian government.

Dutch create state of West Kalimantan with Sultan of Pontianak at head; Sjahrir protests


Dutch vehicle in flames after a guerilla ambush at Puncak, April 1947

May,11th,1947

Radio Station at delangoe picture during “diresmikan” President soekarno

May ,15th.1947

Used local soematra repoblik Indonesia bea meterai (revenue) f.15,- type WSR 2.(rare nominal)(if the speciaolist collector want to know the different of type WSR 1 and WSR 2 ,please subscribed as the block premium member-Dr Iwan Not, different design of repoeblik Indonesia bea meterai)

May,18th.1947

the rare Palembang republic overprint PTT NRI on Dai Nippon stamp used on complete document

May,22th.1947

The official letter from Bandung ,cds Bandoeng BKT 1 22.3.47 to  Batavia centrum. arrived CDS  Batavia C 10.at the back of cover.

May,23th.1947

The used local Sumatra repoblik Indonesia revenue f 1,-(small f) in may,23th 1947, theearliest  12/3.47. two different colour,type WSR 2.

May,24th,1947

The recieved of building cionstruction from palembang with  Overprint Palembang PTT NRI in round ball Dai Nippon revenue

May,29th.1947

The latest used of Local  sumatra repoeblik Indonesia revenue f.150  in May.29th,1947, the earliest Sepetember,16th.1946,type WSR 1

May,30th.1947

The tranportation(pengankutan)  of  last  350  APWI_allied Prisoner  War Indonesia (rombongan tahanan perang) from Republic area arrived at Jakarta.

6.June

The picture of Genral sudirman,and othe TNI leader , during “dilantik”inaugurated  by Presiden sukarno at president nRI  Palace Jogya.

(a)In June 1947, Lieutenant Young A. Page Yatub and Sergeant Tambunan arrested by the Dutch Navy in the waters between Kuala Tungkal Sea and the village, they served to bring fighters from Kuala Tungkal incorporated in Lasyakar commander to be sent to the Front Estuary Rupit / Lubuk Linggau.

Dutch complain that Indonesia is stopping shipments of rice to Dutch-controlled areas.Egypt and Syria recognize the Republic of Indonesia.

Menistery Moh.Roem, Mr Amir Sjarifuddin,Hemangku Buwono and Mr A.Madjid arrive at Jakarta due to Prime Menistry St Sjahrir invitation because the situation became worst(suasana semakin Genting)

June ,3th.`1947

(a)Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (Indonesian Army) is renamed Tentara Nasional Indonesia or TNI.as the unity of TRI and Lajkar Rakyat  Indonesia.

(b) The used local sumatra repoeblik Indonesia revenue  f.25,-, earliest date June,3th.1947, and the latest November.13th.1947( the revenue became up in june from  f 15,-)

June,5th.1947

The rare document of Aceh Railway (Kereta Api) office

June,9th.1947

The Unpaid bond Billing  of Komando tempur Medan Area Tanjoengmorawa (east sumatra)

June,16th.1947

the rare document of the chief of Loerah amapaloe west sumatra repoeblic village(Waminegeri pemerintah repoeblik Indonesia) official stamped . the document about “harta Poesaka”

June,17th,1947

the rare Medeka newspaper card send  express mail from Djakrta to jogyakarta,with 2x 15 sen and 1×40 sen java repoeblic Indonesia definitive stamps.

June ,18th.1947

The very rare postally used emergency stamps overprint prangko on dai nippon revenue  f0,50 and f 2,- cds Palembang 18.6.47 to Painan west sumatra.

and the complete series of the stamp above in mint (unused) condition.

june,22th.1947

The Ned Indie Briefkaart kartoepos karbouw 3 1/2 cent send from  Gouw Ho machine fabric Pejagalan 2 CDS Batavia 26.6.47 first type to Semarang

The Poster of Bale Poestaka Batvia Centrum the Lampoeng Book by K.R.A.A. Probonegoro.(rare Nica poster)

(c)the rare bookstore cover with Dr sunyatsen san min chu I book promotion

June 26

(a)Dutch forces mobilize for an invasion of Madura, and eventually Java. William Foote, a USA diplomat, intervenes and offers to mediate between Dutch and Indonesians. The invasion is postponed.

(b) The rare Komando Tempoer Medan area Billing Bond which never pain,sign at Kabanjahe 26.7.1947.

June 27

(a)president’s announcement No.6 YEAR 1947

Berhubung with the urgency of the situation at the present time, the President of the Indonesian republic, on 06/27/1947, government  completely took power for a while,

Yogyakarta, 03:30 hours

dated 26.7.1947

President of the Indonesian republic

Soekarno

at the same time, General Spoor, the DEI chief command, issuing orders dag (Day Order):

1, Day of week begins with the transfer 26/06/1947 all vehicles by the Dutch Military. 2. Sunday afternoon began with the consolidation of all forces that will participate in aksi.3.Senin 30/06/1947 at 3:30 am (AM) beginning with affeideningsactie vanuit aanvalpunten (attack points) 4.senen 06.00 (AM) morning begins with a general attack across the front. 5.Didaerah which has been occupied by Dutch troops have conducted large-besaran.6.Seluruh pengankapan houses of any nation must also digeledah.7.Perintah is valid if the Saturday date of 06/28/1947 at 14:00 (PM) tidka revoked.

With the leaking of the above order of the day, the Great Commander General Sudirmasn menegeluarkan command as follows:

1.Angkatan the Republic of Indonesia and all the people should remain firm, vigilant, alert and ready (not careless) .2. If the Dutch army at one place has started to conduct the attacks on the Indonesian side should be held as well as possible resistance, no (not necessary) to wait for another command from the helm of the republic Indonesia.3.Gerakan Prerang Force general on the whole of Indonesia to maintain a State run by orders from the helm of the army of the Republic of large-scale battles Indonesia.4.Jika ynag didajului actual (executed) by dutch army, then the resistance simultaneously (total) that best

original Info:

 MAKLUMAT PRESIDEN RI  NO.6 TAHUN 1947

bBerhubung dengan gentingnya keadaan pada waktu sekarang,maka Presiden repoeblik Indonesia,pada tanggal 27.6.1947 ,mengambil kekuasaan Pemerintah sepenuhnya untuk sementara waktu,

Yogyakarta,jam 03.30

tanggal 26.7.1947

Presiden Repoeblik Indonesia

Soekarno

 at the same time,General Spoor ,the DEI chief command , mengeluarkan dag order(Day Order):

1, Hari minggu 26.6.1947 dimulai dengan pengoperan semua kendaraan oleh Militer Belanda. 2. Minggu sore dimulai dengan konsolidasi seluruh pasukan yang akan ikut dalam aksi.3.Senin 30.6.1947 jam 03.30 pagi(AM) dimulai dengan affeideningsactie vanuit aanvalpunten(titik serangan) 4.senen jam 06.00(AM) pagi dimulai dengan serangan umum diseluruh front.5.Didaerah yang telah diduduki oleh tentara belanda harus diadakan pengankapan besar-besaran.6.Seluruh rumah dari bangsa apapun juga harus digeledah.7.Perintah ini berlaku jika pada hari sabtu tanggal 28.6.1947 jam 14.00(PM) tidka dicabut.

Dengan bocornya perintah harian diatas, maka Panglima Besar Jendral Sudirman  menegeluarkan perintah sebagai berikut:

1.Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia dan rakyat seluruhnya harus tetap tegas,awas,waspada dan siap sedia(jangan lengah).2.Jika disalah satu tempat tentara Belanda telah mulai mengadakan serangan maka dari pihak Indonesia harus segera mengadakan perlawanan sebaik-baiknya,tidak usah(tidak perlu)  menunggu Komando lagi dari pucuk pimpinan Angkatan Prerang republik Indonesia.3.Gerakan umum mengenai seluruh Indonesia untuk mempertahankan Negara dijalankan dengan perintah dari pucuk pimpinan angkatan perang Republik Indonesia.4.Jika pertempuran besar-besaran ynag sesungguhnya didajului(dijalankan) oleh tentara belanda,maka perlawanan serentak(total) yang sebaik-baiknya

(b)Amir Sjarifuddin and the “Left Wing” withdraw support of Sjahrir. Sjahrir leaves the government and becomes Indonesia’s representative at the United Nations. Amir Sjarifuddin becomes Prime Minister


Dutch soldiers in Batavia, 1947. By the start of the first Dutch “police action”, there were 92,000 Dutch forces in Indonesia.

June,29th.1947

the unpaid bonds for medan areacommand  headquater ‘s car (TRI 26) reapiar  by Mr Abdoekl Rahman Tandjong Morawa left. this bod sign by Letnasn A.rahman with medan area official choped,

also look the picture of Medan area headquaters  after burn during politional action

June,30th.1947

The rare Repoeblic Indonesia Special Card with pen line overprint on dancer 2 cent with Repoeblic Java definitive 3 cent, postally used send from Djakarta.

7.July

(1) the month of July 1947, Vice President Mohammad Hatta arrived in Siantar in the review of the Sumatran, after several ahari he was disana.Gubernur sumatra received the news of a private intelligence, that the Dutch army had occupied the city of high cliffs and continue toward the town of siantara, being The TNI and Police beriat no nothing. This is important news as soon submitted to the vice president M. Hatta. meanwhile sma news from the TNI and police followed, so that immediate action should be taken to save the Vice President who happened to be in Sumatra Siantar.Gubernur Pematang instructed to his car, Chrysler’s 7-seat (white elephant) immediately covered with leaves so that the color white no longer visible from the ship flying the Dutch. After consultation with the Vice-President Hatta, Governor sumatra plan to bring him to Brastagi, through Kananjahe and so on through Sidikalang to Bukittinggi. For that SM Amin ordered his driver to fill a full tank for the trip jauh.SEmentara Car gurbenur Sumatra past noon ready wrapped and covered with leaves. Since that time is the Fast, then paced a little food for Iftar are already prepared, had taken Similarly, the car used Sumatra.Anak Vice President and governors of Sumatra Governor and Wife and all goods are in his house had been left in Siantar, cukuk no time anymore to take care of it, handed it to God SWT.Rombongan just waiting for the arrival of Governor Mr Young. SM.Amin, so that can go together, but setalh how long to wait, he never dtang, his car was not returned from filling the fuel (BBM). Apparently accomplice in Siantar NICA has begun to play a role. Therefore it was already two o’clock in the afternoon (PM) then took the decision to Sumatra Guernur bernagkat to Brastagi, Mr. SM Amin was able to catch up later. Head with rush to Brastagi need to done in order  to prevent the Vice President was arrested by Dutch troops, it turns out later that the Dutch troops entered the town of siantar approximately 45 minutes after Vice President Moh.Hatta entourage departed, the group survived until the Brastagi afternoon.

look the illustration of vice presiden Moh Hatta  during departed to balige from pematang siantara and  from there to Tapanoeli and Bukittingi

Governor Young SM Amin who still lives in Siantar the Dutch army entered the city, asked to come to the office to the Netherlands to be examined

original info(ibid. Mr teuku Mohammad hassan,1986)

Dalam bulan July 1947, wakil Presiden Mohammad hatta tiba di pematang siantar dalam peninjauan ke sumatera, sesudah beberapa ahari beliau berada disana.Gubernur sumatra menerima berita dari seorang intel pribadi, bahwa tentara Belanda sudah menduduki kota Tebing tinggi dan terus menuju kota Pematang siantar,sedang dari pihak TNI dan Polisi belum ada berita apa-apa. berita penting ini segera disampaikan kepada wakil Presiden M.Hatta. sementara itu berita yang sma dari TNI dan Polisi menyusul,sehingga segera perlu diambil tindakan untuk menyelamatkan Wakil Presiden yang kebetulan berada di Pematang Siantar.Gubernur Sumatera menginstruksikan supaya mobilnya,Chrysler 7-seat(Gajah Putih) segera ditutup dengan daun-daun agar warna putihnya tidak kelihatan lagi dari kapal terbang Belanda. Sesudah bermusyawarah dengan Wakil Presiden Hatta,Gubernur sumatra merencanakan untuk membawa beliau ke Brastagi,melalui Kananjahe dan seterusnya melalui Sidikalang ke Bukittinggi. Untuk itu S.M Amin menyuruh supirnya untuk mengisi bensin penuh untuk perjalanan jauh.SEmentara Mobil gurbenur Sumatera lewat tengah hari siap dibalut dan ditutup dengan daun-daunan .Berhubung waktu itu adalah bulan Puasa,maka serba sedikit makanan untuk berbuka puasa yang sudah disiapkan,terpaksa dibawa pula dengan mobil yang digunakan Wakil Presiden dan gubernur Sumatra.Anak dan Isteri Gubernur Sumatra dan seluruh barang-barang yang ada dirumahnya terpaksa ditinggal di siantar,tidak cukuk waktu lagi untuk mengurusnya,diserahkan saja kepada Allah SWT.Rombongan hanya menunggu kedatangan Gubernur Muda Mr.SM.Amin,supaya dapat berangkat bersama, tetapi setalh menunggu berapa lama, ia tak kunjung datang,ternyata mobilnya belum kembali dari mengisi bahan bakar(BBM). Rupanya kaki tangan NICA di siantar sudah mulai memainkan peranannya,. Oleh karena waktu sudah menunjukkan jam dua siang(PM) maka Guernur Sumatra mengambil keputusan untuk bernagkat ke Brastagi,sedang Mr SM Amin bisa menyusul kemudian. Berangkat dengan bvuru-buru ke Brastagi perlu duilakukan untuk mencehag Wakil Presiden ditangkap oleh tentara Belanda,ternyata kemudian bahwa tentara belanda masuk kota Pematang siantar kira-kira 45 menit setlah rombongan Wakil Presiden Moh.Hatta berangkat,rombongan selamat sampai di Brastagi sore hari. Gubernur Muda SM AMIn yang masih tinggal di Pematang siantar waktu tentara Belanda masuk kota,diminta datang kekantor belanda untuk diperiksa.

(2)The July 1947, HUa Ning Tsing Nien Hui bewij van Lichmaatschap tevens contributiekaat(Chinese overseas Contrubution Card)

July,1st.1947

the very rare Dai Nippon Java 5 sen used with added  repoeblik Indonesia 17.8.45 anniversary bull stamps,cds Poerwokerto  sedn to Kebumen central java.

July,2nd.1947

The unpaid Gasoline(bensin) five liter to Bengkel Rahman  from medan area command tanjong morawa.sign with official stamped.which never paid until the owner died.J

July,3rd,1947

the rare Medreka News paper in fo today:

HATTA KAMPUNG VISITING PAGE

Bukittinggi, 1 July 1947.Kemarinrombongan Moh.Hatta vice president accompanied by rombonga Gurbernur Sumatra that now exists in New York City went to Loeboek aloeng 30 miles of desert. On the ground the vice president, Mr. Soerjo former governor of East Java and host Soepardo a speech in a rally which was held on that day. on his way home, the group stopped at the school who headed the INS kayoe Plant Moh lord, Syafei. Today Vice President headed back home and tomorrow he will go on to a new feed to Riau.

ORDER OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL KANINET

At 23:15 hours jogia 2-6.47 date night, President telang issued orders to Mr. Amir Sjarifuddin, Dr. AK Gani and Drs Setiadjid to form a Cabinet that is responsible and the national character. The formation of this cabinet must have been completed and has diserakan to the President on July 3 before 12 noon.

80% OF THE FIXED REPOEBLIKEIN NIT

 Mr. Noor Tadjuddin former chairman of the State of East Indonesia’s parliament is now in solo explain bahma intent after his arrival in Java is no longer served as chairman of the parliament will see the NIT is the political situation here, especially pemb icaraan will also hold the leaders of the republic of Indonesia’s independence struggle Indonesia. He also explained that the position of cabinet Nadjamoedin would soon collapse if it is not getting any help from the dutch again. In general, people in the NIT really Repoeblikein, at least 80 percent among people who love republic, feeling too happy and willing to “adanya tantangan” Sjahrir to the Dutch prime minister to hold a plebiscite. regarding the status of Papua, mr Tadhuddin explained that according to information obtained from the van Mook, Papua has not been able to actually enter the NIT and will still be subject to the people of Papua, but later of course, also enter part of the union Indonesa Negra.

Permit DIRECTLY TO CHINA TO gwan Mr Tan Po

According to the announcement of the Ministry of State Urusanan Peranakkan begun on 17 July 1947, permission to go to Jakarta for the Chinese to inland areas on the way back to China, no longer maintained by lkementerian abroad through the medium of the interior ministry but by the Ministry of State for Peranakan (Mr Tan Po Gwan)

ADVERTISING SEREKAT theatrical ARTISTS

demonstrates:

“Shadows Fadjar Time”

Celebrating Artists Congress.

With the leading artist of the theater yanr: Sofiah, Sukarno, Oedjang, Moestadjab, Goddess Reni, Ismail and others

original info;

HATTA MENGUNJUNGI KAMPUNG HALAMAN

Bukittinggi,1 juli 1947.Kemarinrombongan Wakil presiden Moh.Hatta diiringi oleh rombonga Gurbernur Sumatra yang sekarang ada di bukittinggi berangkat ke Loeboek aloeng 30 km dari padang. Ditempat itu wakil Presiden  ,Tuan soerjo bekas gubernur Jawa Timur dan tuan Soepardo mengadakan pidato dalam rapat raksasa yang dilangsungkan pada hari itu. dalam perjalanannya pulang ,rombongan singgah di sekolah INS kayoe Tanam yang dikepalai tuan Moh,Syafei. hari ini Wakil Presiden menuju kampung halaman beliau dan besok akan meneruskan perjalanan ke Pakan baru menuju Riau.

PERINTAH PRESIDEN PEMBENTUKAN KANINET NASIONAL

Di jogia tanggal 2-6.47 jam 23.15 malam, Presiden telang mengeluarkan perintah kepada Mr Amir Sjarifuddin, Dr A.K. Gani dan Drs Setiadjid untuk membentuk Kabinet yang bertanggung jawab dan bersifat nasional. Pembentukan kabinet ini harus telah selesai dan telah diserakan kepada Presiden pada tanggal 3 Juli sebelum jam 12 siang.

80 %  RAKYAT NIT TETAP REPOEBLIKEIN

 Mr Tadjuddin noor bekas ketua parlemen Negara Indonesia Timur yang kini berada di solo menerangkan bahma maksud kedatangannya di jawa sesudah tidak lagi menjabat ketua parlemen NIT ialah akan melihat situasi politik disini,terutama juga akan mengadakan pemb icaraan dengan pemimpin repoeblik Indonesia tentang hal yang mengenai perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Ia juga menerangkan bahwa kedudukan kabinet Nadjamoedin akan segera runtuh jika sudah tidak mendapat bantuan dari belanda lagi. Dalam umumnya rakyat di NIT sungguh-sungguh Repoeblikein, paling sedikit 80 persen diantara rakyat yang mencinta Repoeblik, mera juga merasa senang dan bersedia dengan adanyatantanga perdana Menteri Sjahrir kepada belanda untuk mengadakan plebisit. mengenai status Papua, mr Tadhuddin menerangkan,bahwa menurut keterangan yang didapat dari van Mook, sesungguhnya Papua belum dapat masuk bagian nIT dan masih akan diadakan peninjauan kepada rakyat papua, tetapi kelak sudah barang tentu masuk juga bagian dari Negra Indonesa serikat.

PERMIT KE TIONGKOK LANGSUNG KEPADA Mr Tan Po gwan

Menurut pengumuman Kementerian negara Urusanan Peranakkan muali tanggal 17 juli 1947 , izin pergi ke jakarta bagi orang tionghoa untuk didaerah pedalaman dalam perjalanan pulang ke Tiongkok ,tidak lagi diurus oleh lkementerian luar negeri dengan perantaraan kementerian dalam negeri tetapi oleh Kementerian Negara Urusan Peranakan(Mr Tan Po Gwan)

IKLAN SEREKAT ARTIS SANDIWARA

mempertunjukan :

“Bayangan Waktu Fadjar”

Merayakan kongres Artis.

Dengan artis dari sandiwara yanr terkemuka : Sofiah,Soekarno, Oedjang,Moestadjab,Dewi Reni,Ismail dan lain-lain.

July,4th.1947

The rare legalized documen by the PTT chief Bukittingi with repoeblik Indonesia revenue 3 x f.25.

July,5th.1947

The rare Malang Post magazine no.17 cover with information.”Boemi Hangus”

July, 5th.1947

The rare No.17 Malang Post magazine cover with information. “Boemi Scorched”

original info

scorched Earth

one tactic (tactic) the war’s most feared enemy of political aladah “Scorched Earth”. with musnahnya vital to maintain a building area occupied, then the enemy wins despite losing his standing in hahekatnya easily overthrown by the defeated parties. But thiswar  tactic  can creates a feeling of disappointment on the part of his property destroyed, if destruction is not based on calculations of the sacred. For example the houses burned down after the house in the stretcher out by the burner, while the owner was almost not able to bring nothing but the clothes stick to hid body ,in everything there is a human who uses every opportunity to gain advantage for themselves (in the Java language support Aji While his name). slogan of the sacred, even the religion that is light has a higher purpose is often reversed for keu ntungan a class of people who put aside any feelings of justice and humanity .. dpat origin enrich themselves for the loss of others, people willingly sacrifice everything, even his soul , but the generosity of the people must not be wasted with the fraudulent guise for “Nusa and Nation”. if you want to let us all out with an all-out and do the people who so roedin (poor destitute), and the leaders so rich with goods serobotan (earth lift). Therefore in doing politics “Scorched Earth” from any nation, should use wisdom and sense of social justice which is not only good in words alone, but in practice it is also good.

DJAKARTA at night

PANTJORAN-PASARPAGI

Chinese and Indonesian Bankers are open “His bank office ‘(money changer) and the court Pantjoran diemperan each with a stack of paper money is green, yellow, red, black from various countries, nations and prices. Throughout the (entire) day scalper money (doeit (this hanging (sitting) behind the small table waiting for people from the countryside to exchange money for ORI with NICA money or exchange money sebaliknya.Orang own Betawi NICA with white money (ORI) for spending on land-Abang or markets, where money White still has value as in the hinterland, eg the post office, the electric tram and crate fire listrik.Bankir pantjoran memeprmaikan kuur money, there is a misnomer because the People’s Bank, is the government of the Republic sendiripu n bandwagon ORI values ​​dropping like according to a news SOERA Oemoem rtanggal 9 June 1948, Kour (value) ORI, each Rp.100, – set by the bank people just f 33 .- more sedikit.Sedangkan Mr. Dasad declared the most meritorious devalued the ORI is some loss of the nationalist government of the Republic sendiri.untung a blessing so, if not accused of kai-hand NICA.

Prinsen PARK

Jkarta residents and also people who dtang from elsewhere to satisfy his sights on a movie theater and Prinsen Park (now candra Naya) that seemed to open a night market continues to be liberally menerus.Penerangan (excess) once, here people can play tambola ( prodded the ball) is served by nona nona “japanese heritage”. In addition to satisfy the eyes, ears satisfy also the voice of Miss Irah, champion (champion) Djali-Muguet Djali of the famous orchestra. For people who love to play, can also select “Miss Noni” or “Miss Tjitjih”. Prinsen Park is an international park of Indonesia without a cap, can dance with the ladies sweet, to have gout (Isakit waist) can be recurrent because nyangking ( hug) sweet lady, slim and get got in djoebin (floor tiles) are shiny.

NORBEK AND GANG Hauber

Noorwijk called brother betawi Norbek to date into the army plesiran belanda.Disini half-hidden. ads a restaurant and dance halls, where Dutch troops were spree Spree until 10 pm through the following day because they are like sheep being led up the truck back to tangsinya. Although children are allowed spree barracks, there is a place for them is telarang Hauber Gang which became a nest “koetilanak” (moll-alias WTS), here the frequent fights and disease and gonorrhea aka lion king (gonoroe aias GO)

MORNING MARKET

Actual picture Pantjoran described no longer exist due to start on 25 May 1947 following haberdashery merchants Bankiet (money changer) has been moved to the morning market is located adjacent to Pantjoran. In the morning there was no tontona market, there is no prostitution, tetapimyang there are dozens of food stalls.

WEDDING ADVERTISING

May the Grace of God God’s grace borne along on:

BOENG Tomo (Soetomo)

with

P I. SOELISTINA

Marriage Held Thursday yng Paing June 19, 1947 in Malang

The Family Post unfortunate.

original info

BUMI HANGUS

salah satu siasat(taktik) perang yang paling ditakuti musuh aladah politik “Bumi Hangus”. dengan musnanya suatu bangunan vital untuk mempertahankan daerah yang diduduki musuh, maka musuh meskipun menang pada hahekatnya kalah karena kedudukannya mudah digulingkan oleh fihak yang dikalahkan. Tetapi siasat perang ini dpat menimbulkan rasa kecewa pada pihak yang miliknya dimusnahkan, bila pemusnahan  itu tidak berdasarkan atas perhitungan yang suci. Umpamanya rumah penduduk dibakar habis sesudah isi rumah di usung keluar oleh si pembakar,sedangkan pemilik barang itu hampir tidak dapat membawa apa-apa selain pakaian yang menempel pada badannya.Dalam segala hal memang ada manusia yang mengunakan segala kesempatan  untuk mendapat keuntungan bagi diri sendiri(dalam bahsa jawa Aji Mumpung namanya). sembojan yang suci,bahkan agama yang sudah terang mempunyai tujuan yang tinggi seringkali diputar balik untuk keu ntungan segolongan orang yang menyampingkan segala perasaan adil dan kemanusiaan..asal dpat memperkaya diri sendiri buat kerugian pihak lain, rakyat suka rela mengorbankan segala apa,bahkan jiwanyanya, tetapi kemuliaan hati rakyat janganlah disia-siakan  dengan perbuatan curang yang berkedok untuk”Nusa dan Bangsa”.kalau mau habis-habisan marilah kita bersama habis-habisan dan janganlah rakyat yang jadi roedin(miskin melarat),dan para pemimpin jadi kaya dengan barang serobotan(bumi angkat). Oleh karena itu dalam menjalankan politik “bumi Hangus” dari bangsa apa saja,hendaklah digunakan kebijaksanaan dan perasaan keadilan sosial yang bukan hanya bagus dalam kata-kata saja,tetapi juga bagus dalam mempraktekannya.

DJAKARTA DIWAKTU MALAM

PANTJORAN-PASARPAGI

Bankers Tionghoa dan indonesia yang membuka”kantor Banknya'(money changer)  diemperan dan pelataran Pantjoran masing-masing dengan tumpukan uang kertas hijau,kuning,merah,hitam dari bermacam-macam negara, bangsa dan harga. Sepanjang(seantero) hari tukang catut uang (doeit( ini nongkrong(duduk) dibelakang meja kecil menunggu orang dari pedalaman untuk menukar uang ORI dengan uang NICA atau sebaliknya.Orang Betawi sendiri tukar uang NICA dengan uang putih(ORI) untuk belanja di tanah-Abang atau pasar-pasar,dimana uang putih masih tetap mempunyai nilai seperti di pedalaman,umpamanya dikantor pos, dalam tram listrik dan kerat api listrik.Bankir pantjoran memeprmaikan kuur uang , ada keliru karena Bank Rakyat, ialah Pemerintah Repoeblik sendiripu n ikut-ikutan menjatuhkan nilai ORI seperti menurut berita SOERA OEMOEM tanggal 9 juni 1948, kour(nilai) ORI, tiap Rp.100,- ditetapkan oleh bank rakyat hanya f 33.- lebih sedikit.Sedangkan Tuan Dasad menyatakan  yang paling berjasa menjatuhkan nilai ORI adalah beberapa badan pemerintah repoeblik sendiri.untung satu nasionalis yang berkat begitu,kalau tidak bisa dituduh kai-tangan NICA.

PRINSEN PARK

Penduduk jakarta dan juga orang yang datang dari lain tempat bisa memuaskan pemandangan matanya di gedung bioskop dan  prinsen Park(sekarang candra Naya) yang seolah-olah buka pasar malam terus menerus.Penerangan diatur secara royal(berlebihan) sekali, disini orang bisa main tambola (bola sodok) dilayani oleh nona nona “warisan jepang” .Selain puaskan mata ,juga puaskan telingga dengan suaranya Miss Irah,kampiun(juara) Djali-djali dari Muguet Orkes yang terkenal. Buat orang yang suka sandiwara ,juga bisa pilih “Miss Noni” atau “Miss Tjitjih”.Prinsen Park adalah park international orang Indonesia tanpa Peci,bisa dansa dengan nona-nona manis, sampai yang punya encok(Isakit pinggang)  bisa kumat karena nyangking(memeluk) nona manis yang langsing dan get got di djoebin (lantai tegel) yang mengkilap.

NORBEK DAN GANG HAUBER

Noorwijk disebut abang betawi Norbek sampai saat ini menjadi tempat plesiran tentara belanda.Disini setengah tersembunyi. ads sebuah restaurant dan tempat dansa,dimana tentara Belanda ber foya-foya sampai jam 10 malam karena liwat jam tersebut  mereka seperti domba digiring naik truk pulang ke tangsinya. Meskipun anak-anak tangsi ini boleh plesir, ada suatu tempat yang telarang buat mereka yaitu Gang Hauber yang menjadi sarang “koetilanak”(wanita pelacur-alias WTS),disini sering terjadi perkelahian dan sarang penyakit raja singa alias kencing nanah(gonoroe aias GO)

PASAR PAGI

Sebenarnya gambaran Pantjoran yang diceritakan sudah tidak ada lagi karena mulai tanggal 25 mei 1947 pedagang barang kelontong berikut Bankiet (money changer) sudah pindah ke Pasar pagi yang letaknya berdekatan dengan Pantjoran. Di pasar Pagi tidak ada tontona,juga tidak ada pelacuran, tetapimyang ada berpuluh-puluh warung makan.

IKLAN PERNIKAHAN

Semoga Rahmat  kurnia Tuhan Allah senatiasa beserta kepada:

BOENG TOMO (Soetomo)

dengan

P I. SOELISTINA

Yang Pernikahannya Dilangsungkan hari kamis Paing 19 Juni 1947 di Malang

Para Keluarga malang Post.

July.6th.47

The repoeblik Indonesia Padang pandjang west sumatra Income tax document(kartjis Padjak Penghasilan negeri) 1946 was pain in

July,6th.1947

The Repoeblik Indonesia Income tax used Dai nippon Kartjis Padjak T form, paid at Padang Panjang in this day

July,7th.1947

The rare TRI-Republibc Indonesia Army picture postcard used send from Mataram (the name of Indonesian south java sector army )to BlitarJuly 8TH.1947

Sjarifuddin government makes conciliatory offer to Dutch: Republic of Indonesia will stop seeking international recognition; Netherlands officials can take government positions in the Republic.

July,8th.1947

the rare Repoeblic Indonesia Aceh are railway ‘s chief with the officila stamped “Kerata api NRI” .lettre asking to Justice court Lhoseumawe about train condecteur justice case at Lhokseumawe.

July,17th,1947

The rare Machine overprint on japanese occupation revenue  F1, and F2. (3x) ,postally used on cover cds tandjongradja 14.7,47  to talangkar,cover return to sender.

July 20th.1947.

The intersting and historic note of mr Soewil the Padang Postman,on Dai nippon karbouw 3 1/2 cenrt with double overprint repoblik Indonesia 15 sen and F0,50,

1. 20/7/1947  Walikota padang ditembak(the Padang city major was shooted, and his body haveautopsion by Dr.A.rahim Oesman,the Dutch trops said that  he was killed by extrimies(now his name becaome the name of road in Padang),

2.21/7-1947. Kantor pos padang diduduki belanda(Padang post office occupied by Dutch)

3.17 agustus 1947.at Padang post office ,japanese and dutch stamps had overprint Rep:Indonesia (dikantor pos padang frc2Japan dan belanda di Tjap Rep.Indonesia)

Another rare soematra repoblic card,unused with Bigger type overprin repoeblik Indonesia 15 sen type, found at sawahlunto, at the back pencil written from”Kilang Tebu Rakyat I.W. Tigo Bagai. written in Indonesia :

DIHARAPKAN UNTUK MENTJAPAI KEAMANAN

DIMINTAK KEPADA JANG BERWADJIB SUPAJA KESALAHAN TUAN I.SEDJATI JANG MENDJUAL GULA PASIR SUPAJA MENDJADI PERHATIAN KALAU URANG LAIN DISELIDIKI BETULKAH DIA NICA APA TIDAK,SUDAH SEPANTASNJA DIA DITAHAN DALM KAMAR KEINSJAFAN UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI DJIWANJA KARENA OTOMATIS PEKERDJAANNJA TELAH MENJAMAI NICA JG MERUSAKKAN EKONOMI RAKYJAT.SEKIRANJA DIBIARKAN MUNGKIN MUNGKIN KEMAUANJA TERGANGGU”(THIS WAS THE BLACMAIL LETTER ,IN iNDONESIAN CALLED SURAT KALENG)

HOW INTERSTING HISTORIC AND POSTAL HISTORY  (COLLECTIONS.COURTECY Dr Iwan).

(the historic collections,courtecy dr Iwan suwandy).

Illustration of Kol.A.H. Nasoetion during actie politioneel pertama july 1947

illustrationKasman Singodimejo

,wongsonegoro,

Illustration of Mr Moh roem  at Tebing Tinggi east sumatra near politional action 1 july 1947

illustration of  Mr.Maria Ulfah Santoso , social menistry  also at tebing tinggi

illustration of the national heros from medan Are commad tanjongmorawa near Medan:Abdul manaf lubis,Selamat Ketaren,Ahmad syamsir and Moh.Yakub Lubis (read the storu of Medan area)

west sumatra police hero Police Commisaris johnny anwar cs picture in 1947

 

DUTCH POLITIONEEL ACTION I

first Dutch “police action”: Dutch troops occupy West Java, East Java, Madura, Semarang, Medan, Palembang, Padang, bomb many cities.

July,21th.1947

(a)The Republic indonesia’menistry who stayed at Jakarta, Vice Prime Menistry Dr A.K. Gani protest the Dutch  action(tindakaan yang tidak senonoh , and the Dutch “menusir” the Republic Indonesia Leader at Jakarta ,included the Major(Walikota) Suewirjo.

(b)On July,21th.1947

On this day, Dutch aeroplane”Mustang”  boombing Binjei with the land army attack with tank ,also Infantry soldiers with many trucks which made all the medan area sector were attack. At the afternoon Pancur Batu occupied by Dutch.

(c) July,21th.1947

The position of Chief of Police City of Padang Challenging encounter resistance to Dutch rule with his minions can last up to the launch by the Dutch Military Aggression I (21-7-1947). Military action Holland around Padang I was preceded by the arrest of officials of the Republic of Indonesia (civil servants and police), including Police Commissioner Johny Anwar II. Since the start of the Dutch Military Aggression I launched, civil servants and police officers WHO left the Republicans in the city of Padang and moved to areas outside the city of Indonesia. Official hours of date

July,22th.1947

Action by the Dutch invasion began on 22 July 1947 with simultaneous in all fronts, both in east and south, and west and north, seranggan done secra massive and orderly, so that for several time, the defense can be penetrated Indonesian republic. Pancur important place like stone, Binjei, Stabat fall into the hands Netherlands. with disappointment it must be admitted, that the Indonesian republic defense organization in this area has not quite perfect, this is already an estimated two or three days before the Dutch invaded. Front relationships with other fronts less than perfect, cooperation among lasjkar, Soldiers and members of the Government is not satisfactory. Gained the impression, every front act ats will and their own way both in lasjkar as well as by the army. Unity of command is long before the invasion of the Netherlands has been designed and the ideals of the people there. For the umpteenth time, it turns out, that victory will not be obtained because there is no unity among those responsible, is also undeniable, that preformance maintain Timoer Sumatra Regional republic, there have been actions that can not be held responsible, as practiced by some members Lasjkar People who participate in regional memeprtahankan Indonesian republic. Instructions issued regarding the implementation of Scorched Earth is not obeyed, the streets are important for transportation, as well as the bridges are not destroyed. In contrast, other objects that must be maintained properly destroyed instead finished. this led to the Dutch Army can be easily launched its attack quickly to pedalaman.Sedangkan can be expected, that their attacks will not be able to make progress. if the instructions on the scorched earth policy carried out by sempurna.Pemusnahan occurring, especially in shops and goods belonging Chinese, while the instruction on scorched earth and the soul requires to mepertahankan’s residents, both native and asing.Pemusnahan nation without the right reasons, such as property tionghoa population is detrimental to foreign countries in view of (SMAmin, My Life Journey ten windhu, PT Crescent Star .Jakarta, 1987)

original info:

Aksi penyerbuan oleh  Belanda dimulai pada 22 juli 1947 dengan serentak diseluruh front, baik di timur dan selatan, maupun di barat dan utara, seranggan dilakukan secra besar-besaran dan teratur, sehingga dalam bebrapa waktu saja ,pertahanan repoeblik Indonesia  dapat ditembus. tempat yang penting seperti Pancur batu,Binjei,Stabat jatuh ketangan Belanda. dengan kecewa  harus diakui,bahwa organisasi pertahanan repoeblik Indonesia di area ini  belum cukup sempurna, hal ini sudah diperkirakan dua atau tiga hari sebelum Belanda menyerbu. Hubungan satu Front dengan front lainnya kurang sempurna, kerjasama antar lasjkar ,Tentara dan anggota  Pemerintah tidak memuaskan . Diperoleh kesan,tiap front bertindak atas kemauan dan caranya sendiri-sendiri baik di lasjkar maupun oleh tentara. Persatuan komando yang lama sebelum penyerbuan  Belanda telah dirancang  dan menjadi cita-cita rakyat tidak ada. Untuk kesekian kalinya ternyata, bahwa  kemenangan tidak akan diperoleh karena persatuan tidak terdapat diantara mereka yang bertanggung jawab, Tidak pula dapat disangkal, bahwa dalm mempertahankan Daerah Repoeblik Sumatera Timoer, telah terjadi tindakan-tindakan yang tidak dapat dipertanggung jawabkan,seperti yang dilakukan oleh beberapa anggota Lasjkar Rakyat yang ikut serta dalam memeprtahankan daerah Repoeblik Indonesia. Instruksi yang dikeluarkan mengenai pelaksanaan Bumi Hangus tidak dipatuhi, jalan-jalan yang penting bagi perhubungan, demikian juga jembatan-jembatan tidak dimusnahkan. Sebaliknya,obyek-obyek lain yang harus dipelihara dengan baik malah habis dimusnahkan . hal ini menyebabkan Tentara Belanda dapat dengan mudah melancarkan serangannya dengan cepat ke pedalaman.Sedangkan dapat diperkirakan, bahwa serangan mereka itu tidak akan dapat memperoleh kemajuan .apabila instruksi mengenai bumi hangus dilaksanakan dengan sempurna.Pemusnahan yang terjadi, terutama pada Toko-toko dan Barang milik orang Tionghoa, sedangkan instruksi mengenai bumi hangus mewajibkan untuk mepertahankan jiwa dan milik penduduk,baik asli maupun bangsa asing.Pemusnahan tanpa alasan yang benar,seperti harta milik penduduk tionghoa ini merugikan Negara dalam pandangan luar negeri(S.M.Amin,Perjalanan Hidupku sepuluh windu, PT Bulan Bintang<Jakarta,1987)

 

July,23th.1947

the original document of Ketua dewan Pertahanan Daerah aceh  T.T.Moh.Faoedsjah ,for salina G.siahaan, about”PENDJELASAN TENTANG PERATORAN DEWAN PERTAHANAN NEGARA NO.19″ (The state Pertahanan Board Regulation no 19,this collection found at beureun from Dr iwan’s friend at Blang Bladeh.)

July 24th.1947

20,000 march in anti-war demonstration in Amsterdam.

July,27th.1947

(a) The rare and historic Markas Pertempoeran Komado Medan are travel Pass from  Tandjong,morawa to tebing Tinggi for Mr Bachroem driver of Medan area Head quater to pick the belongins to Tebing tinggi with note:diminta kepada segala badan2 Pemerintah serta segenap lapisan dan golongan Rakjat Indonesi ,soepaja diberi bantoean sepenoeh2nja dimana perloe dan perdjalannja jangan dihalangi”(asking help from the govewumment and people)

(b)On July,27th.1947 o6.00 in the morning(AM) with the landing ship tank ,the Dutch army  from Palembang landing at Pantai cermin to attack Medan Area from behind.The Indonesian Navy armed forced at Pantai cermin and Tanjung Beringin lead by Leutenan G.Z.Marpaung cannot suncced to counter the Dutch attack and fle with other another army and “Membumi Hangus” Perbaungan city, and after conquer Medan Area, the Dutch armed forces attack Tebng Tinggi and Pematang siantar.

. Dutch Military action I (the first Indonesia War of Independence )at Kuala Tungkal jambi

On July 27, 1947 the Dutch launched Military Action First, many big cities in Java and Sumatra, is attacked and occupied. Unlike other cities in jambi not directly repetition on a large scale attack, but the Dutch further enhance its economic blockade and psychological warfare that had begun before the First Military Action. Thus, only Jambi in Sumatra and Aceh are not attacked the Dutch in the first military action.

Dutch did not attack Jambi massively since it is estimated that Edinburgh has a full arsenal imported from abroad, because at that time had mamur jambi, the results of barternya trade with Singapore has heavy weapons such as cannons Anti Air Craft (AAC), Machine Gun 12 , 7 in addition to senajata-light weapons.

Jambi communicated waters with the outside world such as Kuala Enok, Kuala Tungkal, Sea Village guarded by Dutch warships. Merchant ships passing through the inspection, which brought goods seized and persons arrested suspected

July 29th.1947.

(a)Indonesian forces launch bombing raids on Semarang, Ambarawa and Salatiga with three surviving planes. The Dutch had previously claimed to have destroyed the entire Air Force

(b)On Wednesday July 29, 1947, a week after the attack by the Dutch started, received official news of his fall the hands of the Dutch town of High Cliff. This news received at the inn Vice President Moh.hatta in Siantar, when he had arrived there preformance framework of its journey around the entire Sumatra.  this bad info, as was first calculated, received by the vice president when he was with Governor Young at the  North Sumatra hotel , and other high official, with calm  he decide to do immediate evacuation immediately. Vice President with the Governor of Sumatra Mr. Mohammad Hasan Justin can get out of town Siantar safely, as well as a number of other authorities, such as Dr. Sunaryo, only vehicles were targeted shot from above so that the fire, lucky fate, Dr. Sunaryo can save himself. SM.AMIN cannot out from Kota Pematang siantar, when the his every day belongings(pada saat barang-barang keperluan sehari-hari ) put in the car which bring other goverment official(sedang dimuat ke dalam mobil yang akan mengangkutnya beserta beberapa petugas pemerintah), some aeroplane flying on the city(beberapa pesawat terbang menderu-deru diatas kota Pematang siantar),  Yung Governor  S. M. AMIN no longer be able to rid themselves out of the city Siantar, when the goods of daily needs are being loaded into cars which will transport it along with several officers pemerimntah, several airplanes roaring city at upper  Siantar the Young Governor S. M. AMIN no longer be able to rid themselves out of the city Siantar, when the goods of daily needs are being loaded into cars which will transport it along with several officers pemerimntah, several airplanes roaring city diats Siantar . The shot returned from below, so there was a shootout with the exclamation, reply back that lasted nearly an hour lamanya.Maksud to leave the city can not be implemented. along with the atmosphere of a shootout with the aircraft, the sound of the Dutch tanks entered the town and shortly thereafter, the residence of the Governor of Sumatra, where the governor was Young SM Amin, has been besieged by the Dutch army, and they ordered the Governor Young SM Amin was taken to a place to examined. Tinfakan first conducted by the leader of the Dutch army against the population Siantar adalh mengiring each population of men who had grown a certain place for inspection. This examination is conducted in a manner that is not penganiayaaan, sec; laipun as kekecualiaan, some residents experiencing a treatment not wjar. Long-haired young man suffered a bad fate, they had to listen carefully to boil the words of criticism, ridicule and contempt poured upon them by the examiner of the Dutch army consisting of Indonesia, Ambon and Indonesia-jawa.After each Inspected examined, each of which has allowed to go home .

original info:

Pada hari rabu tanggal 29 Juli 1947, seminggu setelah penyerangan oleh belanda dimulai, diterima berita resmi tentang jatuh nya kota Tebing Tinggi ketangan Belanda. berita ini  diterima di tempat penginapan Wakil Presiden Moh.hatta di Pematang Siantar, saat beliau telah tiba disana dalm rangka perjalannya mengelilingi seluruh sumatra. Kabr buruk ini, seperti yang sudah terlebih dahulu diperhitungkan, diterima oleh wakil Presiden saat beliau berada dipenginapan bersama Gubernur Muda Sumatra Utara, dan beberapapembesar lainnya, dengan tena ng beliau memutuskan  agar segera dilakukan pengungsian saat itu juga. Wakil Presiden bersama Gubernur Sumatra Mr Teuku Mohammad Hasan dapat keluar dari kota pematang siantar dengan selamat, demikian juga dengan sejumlah pembesar lain,seperti dr Sunaryo, hanya kendaraannya menjadi sasaran tembakan dari atas sehingga terbakar, mujur nasibnya ,dr sunaryo dapat menyelamatkan dirinya. Gubernur Muda S>M>AMIn tidak dapat lagi menyingkirkan diri keluar dari Kota Pematang siantar, pada saat barang-barang keperluan sehari-hari sedang dimuat ke dalam mobil yang akan mengangkutnya beserta beberapa petugas pemerimntah, beberapa pesawat terbang menderu-deru diats kota Pematang siantar. Tembakannya dibalas dari bawah, sehingga terjadilah tembak-menembak dengan seru,balas membalas yang berlangsung hampir satu jam lamanya.Maksud untuk meninggalkan kota tidak dapat dilaksanakan . seiring dengan suasana tembak-menembak dengan pesawat udara, terdengar suara tank Belanda memasuki kota dan tidak lama kemudian, rumah kediaman Gubernur Sumatra, dimana Gubernur Muda SM Amin berada,telah dikepung oleh tentara Belanda, dan mereka memerintahkan Gubernur Muda SM AMin dibawa kesuatu tempat untuk diperiksa. Tinfakan pertama yang dilakukan oleh pemimpin Tentara Belanda terhadap penduduk Pematang Siantar adalah mengiring setiap penduduk laki-laki yang sudah dewasa ketempat tertentu untuk diperiksa. Pemeriksaan ini dilakukan dengan cara yang tidak bersifat penganiayaaan , sekalipun sebagai kekecualiaan, beberapa penduduk mengalamai perlakuan tidak wjar. Pemuda yang berambut gondrong mengalami nasib buruk, mereka terpaksa mendengar dengan hati mendidih kata-kata kecaman,ejekan dan hinaan yang ditumpahkan atas mereka oleh pemeriksa dari tentara belanda yang terdiri dari Indonesia-ambon dan Indonesia-jawa.Selesai diperiksa, masing-masing yang telah diperiksa diijinkan pulang ke rumah masing-masing.

July 30th.1947

(a)Young students blow up a bridge at Bumiayu, preventing Dutch forces from taking Purwokerto.USA and Britain are unhappy with the “police action”; India, Australia, and the Soviet Union support the Republic of Indonesia in the UN. Refugees pour into Central Java. Australia boycotts Dutch shipping.

A Dutch vehicle fords a stream on Java, after the bridge has been blown up by Indonesian forces.


Republik Indonesia 100 Rupiah note, 1947.

(b) On July 30, 1947, the Netherlands held a meeting with the republican party (represented by the Governor of North Sumatra Young SM AMIN), while istansi Sumatra Governor has managed to rid himself, aided by the head of the Bureau and other t8inggi employees, while the Netherlands comes from Recomba Dr. JU. vd Velde, Gerritsen Resident, Chief Resident Nevis Forch and assisetn Schuyf.

At the end of the meeting, the Netherlands announced that Republican officials are not forbidden to continue working as usual. several days, after this meeting, for a small proportion of the republic pegaewai masik entering their workplace, as usual, they are apparently still has confidence in carrying out duties in the interest of DAPT Nusa and the nation. however, gradually kepervcayaan and this work will disappear. Dutch announcement then, that the Government of the republic no longer exists in the areas they had occupied and Republican officials are given the opportunity to choose one of two that work continues as the Dutch East Indies government employees or stopped. this is addressed by Republican officials ZKorps very satisfactory, with beebrapa unless they chose to stop in its entirety. Semangat people in general are also satisfactory, they still voted Republican and still be anti Belanda.Mereka NICA rejected payment with money and some are fighting a war with weapons outside the city. beturut few nights in a row since the army occupied the city belands Siantar, still ongoing eruption sound cannons and rifles pounding, a sign bahw arakyat in cooperation with the Army of the Republic, still menus nukkan loyalty to the republic.

In the beginning of the occupation of the Netherlands, for some time, the Regional Government of the Republic can still be acting independently of government actions. mas in this short period, the agency responsible still can take the following actions tindkan-greetings order to run pemerinrtahan:

(A) Establish an agency under the name “People’s advocates and agency officials” in order to provide cash assistance to every person who should be helped. Fonds this agency is that the money can still be saved from penyitaaan Belanda.Badan 9ini began granting aid to the civil servants who were expelled from the house he lived and juaga temapt to those who want to evacuate. (B) Printing and spread throughout the city, radio broadcasts from the Yogya considered essential for the maintenance of morale pendudk city. By Usha, the residents stay up to date and the settlement of disputes between the Dutch Republic. Also the President’s speech broadcast over radio Yogja, the vice president’s speech broadcast on radio Bukittinggi and speeches from some other republican authorities, greatly enhance the spirit of the people (until now I have not found this printed matter, notes Dr. Iwan) (c) send the to the village of Java Land some strategists to examine the validity of the report is received about the murder and mayhem on a large upper Lasjkar besran by the King family oarng siamlungun and Chinese as well as issuing leaflets to every resident memperingatan didnot  until disturbed security and tranquility of the population of Indonesia, other nations also sepertu people tionghoa, Arabia and India should also be maintained. (d) Taking action in the override of chaos as a result of the Dutch Republic to eliminate money and money from suggested  circulated Nippon papermoney  with hidden and lighting provided in the community to menolakj NICA money and keep money memepergunakan republic and Nippon money. (e) Establish and maintain good relations with the army and Lasjkar surviving outside kota.Bantuan delivered to those who persist in jambi Bah, approximately 13 miles from Siantar. To them also delivered pamphlets menegani state area, pidarto president and vice president as well as other pamphlets that are considered they needed to know.

original info:

Pada tanggal 30 Juli 1947 ,pihak Belanda mengadakan pertemuan dengan pihak republik (diwakili Gubernur Muda sumatra Utara SM AMIN), sedangkan istansi  Gubernur Sumatera telah berhasil menyingkirkan diri,dibantu oleh kepala Jawatan dan pegawai t8inggi lainnya, sedangkan dari pihak belanda hadir Recomba Dr JU.v.d. Velde ,Residen Gerritsen,Kepala Nevis Forch dan assisetn Resident Schuyf.

Pada akhir pertemuan, Belanda  memberitahukan bahwa pegawai Republik tidak dilarang bekerja terus seperti biasa. beberapa hari lamanya ,sesudah pertemuan ini,pegaewai republik untuk sebagain kecil masik memasuki tempat kerja mereka sebagaimana biasa, mereka ini rupanya masih mempunyai kepercayaan dapat melaksanakan tugas demi kepentingan Nusa dan bangsa. akan tetapi, lambat laun kepervcayaan dan kemauan kerja ini menghilang. Pengumuman Belanda kemudian, bahwa Pemerintah republik tidak ada lagi di daerah yang mereka duduki dan pegawai Republik diberikan kesempatan memilih salah satu dari dua yaitu bekerja terus sebagai pegawai pemerintah hindia belanda atau berhenti. hal ini ditanggapi oleh ZKorps pegawai Republik dengan sangat memuaskan, dengan beebrapa kecuali,mereka dalam keseluruhannya memilih berhenti. Sremangat rakyat pada umumnya juga memuaskan, mereka tetap memilih Republik dan tetap bersikap anti Belanda.Mereka menolak pembayaran dengan uang NICA dan ada juga yang melakukan perlawanan dengan senjata diluar kota. beberapa malam beturut-turut sejak tentara belands menduduki kota Pematang siantar, masih terus menerus kedengaran letusan meriam dan dentuman senapan, suatu tanda bahw arakyat dalam kerja sama dengan Tentara Republik, masih tetap menu nukkan kesetiaan terhadap republik.

Dalam permulaan pendudukan Belanda, beberapa saat lamanya, Pemerintah Daerah Republik masih dapat bertindak bebas melakukan tindakan-tindakan pemerintah. dalam mas yang singkat ini, instansi yang bertanggung jawab masih dapt mengambil tindkan-tindakan berikut salam rangka menjalankan pemerinrtahan :

(a) Membentuk suatu Badan dengan nama”Badan Penyokong Rakyat dan Pegawai” dalam rangka memberikan bantuan uang kepada setiap orang yang patut dibantu. Fonds badan ini adalah uang yang masih dapat diselamatkan dari penyitaaan Belanda.Badan 9ini memeberikan bantuan kepada pegawai negeri yang diusir dari rumah temapt tinggalnya dan juaga pada mereka yang ingin mengungsi.(b) Mencetak dan menyebar diseluruh kota, siaran-siaran radio dari Yogja yang dianggap penting demi pemeliharaan semangat pendudk kota. Dengan usha ini, penduduk tetap mengetahui perkembangan penyelesaian pertikaian antara Republik dan belanda. JUga pidato Presiden yang disiarkan melalui radio Yogja,pidato wakil Presiden yang disiarkan radio Bukittinggi dan pidato dari beberapa pembesar republik lainnya, sangat mempertinggi semangat penduduk(sampai sekarang saya  belum menemukan barang cetakan ini-note Dr iwan)

(c) Mengirmkan ke kampung Tanah Jawa beberapa penyiasat untuk memeriksa benar tidaknya bunyi laporan yang diterima tentang pembunuhan dan penganiayaan secara besar-besran oleh Lasjkar atas keluarga Raja siamlungun dan oarng Tionghoa serta mengeluarkan surat selebaran yang memperingatan setiap penduduk supaya janagn sampai terganggu keamanan dan ketentraman penduduk Indonesia ,juga bangsa lain sepertu orang tionghoa,Arab dan India juga harus dipelihara.(d) Mengambil Tindakan dalam mengatsi kekacauan sebagai akibat dari  pihak belanda untuk melenyapkan uang Republik dan uang Nippon dari peredzaran.Anjuran dan penerangan secra sembunyi diberikan pada masyarakat agar menolakj uang NICA dan tetap memepergunakan uang republik dan uang Nippon.(e) Mengadakan dan memelihara hubungan baik dengan tentara dan Lasjkar yang masih bertahan di luar kota.Bantuan yang disampaikan pada mereka yang bertahan di Bah jambi,kurang lebih 13 km dari pematang siantar. Kepada mereka juga disampaikan surat selebaran menegani keadaan daerah,pidarto presiden dan wakil presiden serta lain-lain surat selebaran yang dianggap perlu mereka ketahui.(ibid SM Amin,1978)

August 1947

In August 1947, at the height of the operation more Warship Netherlands, the Dutch ship approaching Kuala seuah Betara (Regency Tanjung Jabung), the ships are being chased by a Navy patrol boat commanded by Lieutenant Nuri I Duna (Sea) M. Sanusi as a commander with seven of his men armed with unflinching spirit of “Merdeka OR DIE”, they immediately attacked the Dutch ship and there was gunfire. Since the force is not balanced, then the ship Ship Nuri I badly damaged, two members of ALRI fall, one of them Corporal (Marine) who is buried in Dabo Remove Singkep. Nuri I ship with the whole crew was dragged to Tanjung Pinang and Lieutenant Duan (Sea) M. Sanusi who suffered severe injuries and his men captured the Dutch navy.

Meanwhile, in the plains jambi, to drop the probable community and troops, a Dutch fighter “Mustang” circling above the city of Edinburgh and shooting at the Red Paal, then fly down the Batang Hari river toward the island Uluan Weasel and a resident becomes death toll at the time. A ship hull “Kho Tek Seng” which berjhenti in Lubuk Ruso shot, the ship was carrying supplies such as oil for purposes that are Uluan troops under the command of Captain A. Chatib escorted by PT led by Lieutenant Young Ardjai. As a result of the shooting, Captain A. Chatib, Sergeant Ahmad Yunus and an officer also died at that time.

August 1st.1947

UN Security Council calls for cease-fire in Indonesia.

August 4Ceasefire agreed to by Dutch and Sukarno, but is ignored in the field. Dutch declare “Van Mook line” at the edge of their military advances in Java and Sumatra.Daud Beureu’eh is military governor of Aceh for the Republic

August,5th.1945

the block three local sumatra repoblik Indonesia  f.25,0 revenue, date  5.8.47 and latest 15.11,47.

August,6th,1947

(a)The Young gouvenur North sumatra,SM Amin was cuptere by the Dutch Military Police and bring to medan with Mr T>M> Hnafiah, and he stayed at Medan Major  House Mr Jusuf.

(b)On 6 August 1947, when Governor of North sumtera Young SM Amin was in Jalan Simarito 61, Mandailing villages, dikes Siantar, during visiting his mother who was elderly and dealing with him, being in severalconsidering a matter, suddenly the roar sounded  arrived a few tanks, tank was then stopped in front of the house. several members of the Dutch Military Police entered the tank and turn drai perkaranagn house, climbed the house and ordered him to join them. His mother panicked state, for he can placate it. He parted with his mother and by the Dutch Military Police he was taken to Hotel Siantar. Here SM AMIN Schuyf examined by the Assistant Resident, and at the end of the examination she stated, DAPT does not endorse any of the SM Amin tindkan done since Siantar occupied Holland, and he said so, “Sir will be taken to Medan. Areas that have been occupied by the Dutch. Pemrintah Republic no longer exists “. also present in this examination Mr.T. M Hanafi, a lawyer who was appointed with SM Amin to Hotel siantar.kemudian together with A. Mutalib Moro (deputy Attorney General), SM Amin transported to Medan with a fairly stringent safeguards. Arriving at the field, SM Amin is allowed to stay at home Mr.Muhammad Joseph (Republican Mayor in Medan), Muralib transported Moro continues to Belawan, Diman he ditahn along with members of the army repoeblik.AM Amin was arrested on the field since 6 August smapi 15 September 1947, approximately 40 days lamanya.selama 40 days, the mayor of a ride home Mr. Mohammad Yusuf.

original Info:(ibid SM Amin,1978)

Pada tanggal 6 agustus 1947, sewaktu Gubernur Muda suamtera Utara SM Amin berada di Jalan Simarito 61,kampung Mandailing,pematang Siantar, dlam mengunjungi Ibunya yang telah lanjut usia dan berhadapan dengan beliau, sedang dalam mempertimbangkan bebrapa soal, tiba tiba kedengaran deru beberapa tank ,tank itu kemudian berhenti di depan rumah. beberapa anggota Polisi Militer Belanda turn drai tank dan memasuki perkaranagn rumah,menaiki rumah dan memerintahkan ia untuk ikut mereka. Keadaan Ibunya menjadi panik, untuk ia dapat menentramkannya. Ia berpisah dengan ibunya dan oleh Polisi Militer Belanda ia dibawa ke Hotel siantar. Disini SM AMIn diperiksa oleh Assisten resident Schuyf, dan pada akhir pemeriksaan ia menyatakan, tidak dapt menyetujui segala tindakan yang SM Amin lakukan sejak Pematang siantar dikuasai Belanda, dan katanya seterusnya:” Tuan akan dibawa ke Medan. Didaerah yang telah diduduki oleh belanda. pemrintah Republik tidak ada lagi”. hadir juga dalam pemeriksaan ini Mr.T>M Hanafiah,pengacara yang diangkat bersama SM Amin ke Hotel siantar.kemudian bersama dengan A.Mutalib Moro(wakil Jaksa Agung), SM Amin diangkut ke Medan dengan penjagaan yang cukup ketat. Setibanya di medan,SM Amin diijinkan menginap di rumah Mr.Muhammad Yusuf(Walikota Republik di Medan),Muralib Moro diangkut terus ke Belawan,diman ia ditahn bersama dengan angota tentara repoeblik.AM Amin ditahan di medan sejak 6 agustus smapi 15 september 1947,lebih kurang 40 hari lamanya.selama 40 hari ,menumpang dirumah walikota Mr Muhammad Yusuf.

August,13th.1947

St.Sjahrir and Haji Agus salim arrived at Lake Succes  airportduring join the United Nation Meeting in this day and the picture of them with unidentified person.(four photos)

August,16th.1947

The document of Indonesian Military Judge(Jaksa  militer TRI)  from bukit tinggi with rare official stamped TRI.

August,17th.1947

Repoeblik Indoenesia (West sumatra Military) issued the Postal stationer for  anniversary two years Indonesia Independence with design army,tank and aeroplane, in postally used.(very rare postal history,only one ever seen in used condition..

August,21th.1947

The rare document of Inspectur police Boekittinggi  with official stamped “kepala Polisi Boekittinggi Pemerintah Repoeblik Indonesia

August,27th.1947

The Republic Indonesia government recieve the “keputusan Dewan Keamanan PBB”(united Nation security Council), and asked to report the trully of  Indonesian Situation.

August,31th.1947

The ORI overprint Repoeblik Indonesia revenue on complete document

September 1947

September In early 1947, there was a demonstration, led by some people , The Chinese leader, giving the impression, bahw at which time they feel unhappy about people of Indonesia. Anti-republican demonstrations, they took pictures and drawings of what they see themselves sembotyan called “The brutality that has been done by soldiers and lasjkar several sites around the eastern Sumatran Bekanda pad when entering the republic” gamabr and slogans paraded along the streets, seditious. becoming a matter of surprise, dutch allow such demonstrations, it is different if the Netherlands is the Actor inteltual of this demonstration, domonstrasi Gratitude does not lead to things that are not cool, not cause worst situation between Indonesia and the Chinese people in the city of Medan because this domostrasi inciting nature and this action only by a group of people tionghoa sja, some Chinese people who contacted BC Amin explained that “the Chinese nation never approve of this demonstration”

original info(ibid SM Amin,1978)

Pada permulaan bulan sepetmber 1947, terjadi suatu demonstrasi ,dipimpin oleh beberapa pemimpin Orang Tionghoa, memberi kesan,bahw pada saat itu mereka merasa tidak senang terhadap orang Indonesia. Demonstrasi bersifat anti republik, mereka membawa gambar gambar dan sembotyan mengenai apa yang mereka namakan” Kekejaman yang telah dilakukan oleh tentara dan lasjkar diberbagai tempat di sumatera timur pad saat Bekanda memasuki daerah republik” Gambar dan slogan diarak sepanjang jalan,bersifat menghasut. mejadi suatu hal yang mengherankan,belanda mengijinkan demonstrasi yang demikian, lain halnya jika Belanda yang menjadi Aktor inteltual dari demostrasi ini, Syukur domonstrasi ini tidak mengakibatkan hal yang tidak dinginkan, tidak menimbulkan kekruhan diantara orang Indonesia dan orang tionghoa di kota Medan oleh karena domostrasi ini sifatnya menghasut dan tindakan ini hanya oleh sekelompok orang tionghoa sja, beberapa orang tionghoa yang menghubungi SM Amin menerangkan bahwa”Bangsa tionghoa sekali-kali tidak menyetujui demonstrasi ini”

Sept.2nd.1947
the Republic Indonesia Poluce departemen travelling permit letter,contrasign by markas pertahan kota jogyakarta, Pemerintah Kementerian Jogyakarta, to give permission to the member of subsektor II(MPK danurdjan).

Diperbolehkan berjalan terus untuk menjalankan kewajibnannya diwaktu ada tanda bahaya (PBO) dan diwaktu malam ,and diberi hak mengadakan control dalam subsector II tsb.

Sept.3rd.1947

The State contribution tax(Ijoeran Negara)  of Agam west sumatra ,was paid in this day F.33.- with Wedana Limapoeloeh Koto Sepetmber,22th.1947

September,15th.1947

 Medan dutch tried diligently made preparations for the establishment of the State of East Sumatra, regardless of the Republic of Indonesia. The Netherlands has got a eprsetujuan and help from some prominent people who berasla from eastern Sumatra, eastern Sumatra Negra Movement held a march through the city of Medan, Perbaungan, and embankment Siantar. This parade went to Vice-dutch, Dr. Van de Velde, and with the intercession they filed a eprmohonan to the Dutch, so please menidirkan an independent state of East Sumatra, the Indonesian republic. Dutch apparently not willing to immediately, without first studying this matter carefully. Until now, BC Amin left the city of Medan On 15th September 1947, the country’s eastern Sumatra beklum also formed, probably the Dutch brackish hesitate to meet the demand, see the attitude of sultans in Eastern suamtera who remain passive, the names of the Sultan whose role and determine the masyarakatpun not called.

On September ,15th,1947, Mr SM Amin departure to Penang in order to went to Aceh

In late August 1947, the Dutch republic announced that employees who are not willing to work with dutch sma, are welcome to leave the area occupied Netherlands. On the basis of the provisions of this martial nda, SM Amin, Mr.A.Siddik, Ir Sitompul painstakingly memeproleh of the Dutch permission to go to Malacca, and Mr. and ir asiddik Singapura.dengan Sitompul to help friends and Suheili Abubakar, the purchase of tickets and the cost of the journey, on 15 September 1947. SM Amin went to Penang with the intention to continue the trip to Aceh. In the Ship SM Amin had the opportunity to meet with Barhen of “Chinese Democratic Lieague” the really significant stuff pro-republic and expelled by the Dutch from the field after detained in Siantar. On the next day SM Amin arrived in penang penang.di obtained satisfactory relationships with some really significant stuff republic, merchants who came from Aceh., They provide the support needed another advance of Yaw Hiong Liong (Straits Steamship agents) and his son Ci Ki Kew (chairman of the Chinese in Langsa vereeneging Handels), Kho Hok Khiat (merchant in Lho Seumawe), T Manyak (from Permai shop in penang), ananda Tahir Kar8im Lubis (Child BC kaka amen, Zubaidah who lived there) and Salim aharahap. He, his name on the arrest of five days.

On 21 September 1947

SM Amin departed from Penang with the Tung Song belongs to the Straits Steamship, this boat yachting under the British flag to Uleleu through Sabang, this journey of two days and two nights until at Sabang on 23 September 1947, the ship arrived in sab ang and anchor about two miles from land. when police boarded the ship and mjulai conduct examination of passenger and SM Amin was known to the ship, with a magnifying bealnda necessarily in Sabang issued a travel ban to Uelele ship, before the trip permit is obtained from the Dutch Authorities in Sabang. Two days after his two nights waiting for this permit, yet xit juuga, so Patience agent Lionh Jr. Ship Company. Murray and captain of the ship had run out, they down  lifeboat and headed to the mainland with the intention of seeing Sabang , and at Sepetmebr,25th.1947 Mr SM Amin arrived Ulee Lheuw at afternoon and several days went to Kutaraja.(the full story read the book by SM Amin 1978).This information had proeef that the postally uesd cover send fromaceh to Penang with repoeblic  Indonesa with  aceh overpint stamps wer the original cover,some were the Ricardo colections,now shoed at den Haag phillately museum Netherland)

 

0riginal info(ibid SM AMIN,1978)

 di Medan belanda berusaha dengan giat mengadakan persiapan bagi pembentukan Negara Sumatera Timur , terlepas dari Republik Indonesia. Belanda telah mendapat suatu eprsetujuan dan bantuan dari beberapa orang terkemuka yang berasla dari Sumatera timur, Gerakan Negra Sumatera timur ini mengadakan suatu pawai melalui kota Medan,Perbaungan, dan pematang Siantar. Pawai ini mendatangi Wakil belanda,Dr. Van de velde, dan dengan perantaraannya mereka mengajukan suatu eprmohonan kepada pihak Belanda,supaya berkenan menidirkan suatu negara Sumatera Timur yang terlepas dari republik Indonesia. rupanya Belanda tidak bersedia dengan segera,tanpa mempelajari terlebih dahulu soal ini dengan teliti. Sampai saat SM Amin meninggalkan kota Medan Tanggal 15 september 1947, Negara Sumatera timur itu belum juga terbentuk, mungkin pihak belanda masin segan-segan memenuhi permintaan tersebut,melihat sikap Sultan-sultan di suamtera Timur yang tetap bersikap pasif ,nama-nama Sultan yang berperan dan menentukan dalam masyarakatpun tidak ada disebut.

Pada akhir Agustus 1947,Belanda mengumumkan bahwa pegawai republik yang tidak bersedia bekerja sma dengan belanda,dipersilahkan meninggalkan daerah yang diduduki belanda. Atas dasar ketetapan bela nda ini, SM Amin,Mr.A.Siddik,Ir Sitompul dengan susah payah memeproleh dari belanda ijin untuk berangkat ke Malaka, dan Mr asiddik dan ir sitompul ke Singapura.dengan bantuan kawan-kawan Abubakar dan Suheili,pembelian tiket dan biaya perjalan, pada tanggal 15 september 1947. SM Amin berangkat menuju Penang dengan maksud meneruskan perjalanan ke Aceh. Di Kapal SM Amin memperoleh kesempatan berkenalan dengan Barhen dari “Chinese Democratic League” yang snagat pro republic dan diusir oleh belanda dari medan sesudah ditahan di pematang siantar. Pada keesokan harinya SM Amin tiba di penang.di penang diperoleh hubungan yang snagat memuaskan dengan beberapa orang republik,saudagar-saudagar yang berasal dari Aceh., mereka memberikan bantuan yang diperlukan anatar lain Liong Yaw Hiong(agen straits steamship ) beserta anaknya Ci Ki Kew(ketua handels vereeneging Tionghoa di langsa),Kho Hok Khiat(saudagar di Lho Seumawe),T Manyak(dari toko Permai di penang), ananda Tahir Kar8im Lubis(Anak kaka SM amin,Zubaidah yang menetap di sana) dan Salim aharahap. la,manya di penang lima hari.

Pada tanggal 21 september 1947 SM Amin bertolak dari Penang dengan kapal Tung Song kepunyaan Straits Steamship, kapal ini belayar dibawah bendera Inggris menuju Uleleu melalui sabang, perjalanan ini dua hari dua malam sampai di sabang pada tanggal 23 september 1947, kapal sampai di sab ang dan membuang jangkar kira-kira dua kilometer dari darat. sewaktu polisi menaiki kapal dan mjulai melakukan pemeriksaan atas penumpang dan diketahui SM Amin berada di kapal, dengan serta merta pembesar bealnda di sabang mengeluarkan larangan perjalanan kapal ke Uelele, sebelum diperoleh ijin perjalan dari Pembesar belanda di sabang. Setlah Dua hari dua malam menunggu ijin ini,  belum keluar juga, sehingga Kesabaran agen Perusahan Kapal Lionh Jr. dan kapten Kapal Murray telah habis, mereka menurunka  sekoci dan menuju ke daratan sabang dengan maksud menemui(cerita lengkap baca buku karangan SM Amin 1978)

September,26th.1947

Residen Of Batavia(federal state resident at Jakarta), forbidden the megazine and newspaper at jakarta to put in the Indonesia Army (TNI) informations.

10.October

President soekarno inaugurate the new memeber of Kabinet from Masjumi Party,and also take photo  together after the ceremony

Dutch military tries to consolidate control of areas within the “Van Mook line”. Dutch take control of all of Madura.United Nations “Good Offices Commission” is organized, with the goal of finding a settlement in Indonesia. Australia, Belgium, and the United States take part.

October,3th.1947

The postally used small cover from Batavia(rare postmark) cds 3.10.47 to soerabaia

October,4th.1940

The rare batavia postmark type handstamped on postally used chines overseas Medical,dental and aphothecer organization Batavia centrum circulair letter cover.

October,8th.1947

Tanda Bukti Penerimaan kantor Pos Indramajoe  (Postal ‘s fact of Sending food) pengiriman kerupuk ,with  Ned.Indie 2 cent and Repoeblik Indonesia definitive Java 3 sen stamps(rare collections)

October,10th.1947

(a)The rare document from  Taloe(Pasaman west sumatra,remeber the song orang Taloe oslan husein,the populer song) , with the official stamped “Kepala Polisi taloe pemerintah Repoeblik indonesia”(the  taloe’s chief of Police )

(b) Postal used homevard postcad with  15 cent repoeblik Indonesia ddefinif stamp,CDS Toeban 10.10.47 to Yohyakarta with sencored Telah ditilik ,

the same  leter with  2x 5 sen stampsto yogjakarta with sencored telah ditilik .

 and the used Dai nippon money order with Reppoeblik Indonesia java definitf stamps(mint),

The unused Kartoepos Amal 10 sen  berlakoe sampai akhir 1947.

October,20th.1947

The Ned,indie letter sheet postal stationer karbou 7 1/2 cent send from manado to Batavia-central. the letter information:

Koja Manado,20 Oktober 1947,

Zus, Broer (brother) en Kinderen (son).

At the time of writing usrat, then nyamanlah all of us here. Please also exist applies to all of you. That Pakket we’ve received correctly, we say many thanks for Zus and B Roer (Sister and Brother) got the shipment, especially for Ade and Boeti already working on it. We’ve heard of us had a sister, mother, and Naomi, that they had a cruise on Broer dirumah.Berikut Zus and they’ve talked about and Broer zus had their reception at which they would not have time to respond. Also we’ve heard from them, that there is no liquor Tjap Tikoes (Sopi), sedangkankamu love and together we are trying to send by mail gin stamp tikoes pakket.Semua were five bottles (Vier flesh) and divided in two pakket , because  pakket post should not be more than 5 kg, Bergubung with applicable regulations (uitoveer Ordinance) which sterke dronken (liquor) verbodden zij (forbidden) to be sent from here (voor de uitvoor), we were just saying it sent obart . We hope that pakket was not damaged until the middle of the road and you correctly, because the packaging is strong enough (ERG is het verpakken lastig). no longer know the central office pospakket, if they do send it on. Just for this first. bvanyak respect from us all en veel zontjes (lots of kisses) for Adi, Boeti and Robby from Anis (A look at Koja Tondano Manado)

original letter:

Zus, Broer(kakak) en kinderen(putra).

Pada waktu menulis usrat,maka nyamanlah kami semua disini. Harap juga itu ada berlaku pada kamu semua. Itu Pakket kami sudah terima dengan betul,kami ucapkan banyak terima kasih atas Zus dan B roer(Sister and Brother) punya kiriman, terutama untuk Ade dan Boeti yang sudah mengusahakannya. Kami sudah dengar dari kami punya adik, Ibu dan Naomi, bahwa mereka sudah pesiar pada Zus  dan Broer dirumah.Berikut mereka sudah bicarakan tentang zus dan broer punya penerimaaan pada mereka, yang mana mereka tidak sempat membalasnya. Juga kami sudah dengar dari mereka,bahwa disana tidak ada minuman keras Tjap Tikoes(Sopi) ,sedangkankamu suka sekali dan bersama ini kami ada coba kirim sopi cap tikoes melalui pos pakket.Semua itu ada lima botol(vier flesh) dan dibagi pada dua pakket,menginggat pos pakket tidak boleh lebih dari 5 kg,Bergubung dengan peraturan yang berlaku(uitoveer ordonantie) yang mana sterke dronken(minuman keras)  verbodden zij(dilarang)  untuk dikirim dari sini(voor de uitvoor), kami cuma bilang yang dikirim obart saja. kami harap bahwa pakket itu tidak rusak  ditengah jalan dan sampai pada kamu dengan betul, sebab pembungkusnya cukup kuat(het verpakken is erg lastig). tidak tahu lagi si pusat kantor pospakket , jika mereka buat kirim terus. Sekadar ini dahulu. hormat bvanyak dari kami semua en veel zontjes(banyak cium) untuk Adi,Boeti dan Robby dari Anis (J mandang KOja Tondano Manado)

October.22th.47

The Populer Shop Pasar Baroe 93 batavia centrum promotuion card Projector Keystone  send to Semarang with NICa USA printing stamps 5 cent.

October,24th,1947

(a)Haji agus salim arrived at Jogya from visiti the UNO meeting, and he and Presiden soekarno  and unidentified persons (two photos)

(b) President Soekarno and Repoeblic Menistry islamic  Idul Adha prayed at Alon-alon Djokja

October,29th.1947

The Good Office Commision(from UNO?) arrived at Jakarta

October,30th.1947

The postally used homemade card from Repoblic indonesia area CDS Toeban on Java definitive repoeblic stamps 15 sen. and other card from Toeban to the same address with 2×5 sen java repoeblic definitive stamps(date not clear)

The Java repoblic Indonesia definitive stamps on Dai Nippon Money order but not send,the stamp still mint unsued on that Money order

October,31th.1947

The rare document Of  repoeblic Indonesia State ‘s Police Taloe(Polisi PAM) ,Pasaman west sumatra(remember the song Urang Taloe,sung by Oslan Husein, the famous minagkabau singer)

November

the picture  Hemangkubuwono and other Repobic Indonesian leader Sembahyang- idul adha praying at  Alon-alon Yogjakarta(photo)

November,8th.1947

on this day ,two years  anniversary of  Masjoemi party  at Yogja

November,13th.1911

on this day Prof.Graham  from KTN at Yogja and guided by Haji Agus salim for meet presiden sukarno ( three photos)

Court Du Bois from KTN visit Bung Hatta

Sjafruddin Prawiranegara visir the opening of Sugar Factory “Padokan” ( five photos)

November,17th.1947

The Vice prime menistery RI Wondo Amiseno joined teh anniversary of International student day at Kepatihan Yogjakarta,look the antique lamp there (two photos)

Nopember,21th.1947

Republic Indonesia and The Dutch fereaal government , didnot have “mufakat”agreement  where to get the meeeting, that is why the  American Renville Ship which landed berlabuh at Java sea, were prepared for the meeeting.

November,22th.1947

(a)The first used on complete  document(legalized  use the gourvernment House at biaro stereet bukittinggi), local sumatra  repoeblik Indonesia Rp.75.-, legalized  and sign by the chief of Bukittinggi postal office,Mr  T.Sahib with rare oval official   KANTOR POS BOEKITTTINGGI” WITHOUT REPOEBLIK INDONESIA

(b)The Advententie number of newpaper send from Batavia centrum to Surabaia via airmail,PER LUCHPOST STAMPED.

12.December

The KTN meeting between Repoeblic delegation and Dutch delegation atYogja

 and after the meet Haji Agus salim interview by foreign journalist(who is she? please who know tell me via comment)

December,1st.1947

The Surabaya Jurnalisticgraduate  course “ijazah”

Ijazah kursus Djoenalistik Indonesia Soerabia

December,3th.1947

The Old Karbauw type Ned Indie 3 1/2 cent Postal statione card send from Batavia centrum to Tjilere Kilometer 43,5 Pengalengan Bandung, with the letter handwritten :

Request brother, please do not be discouraged her, I am going to endeavor again to meet demand in-law’s. About our brothers and Hoesein CASH whether she? Now there is also a send vegetables from Budi, 2 times a week to Senen Market for trading, the market, often also datang.Oey Lay Emen May each week send BOOL 5 tons. If the law had come once to tjobalah Pasar Senen so we talked to set our steps. lot to be asked after so long no see, hope everything is in a state of good health to you later. Bistok, Sitoemorang and families that others may survive. Reverend send tabe (respect) many-banyak.on  7 / 11 1947 the then Lord encouraging in our homes because of one boy who came (born) in a state so his mother . we healthy .thank you  say many of his grace. Please come pray that this child for God’s good behavior and all of us. Horas Be Macklon, Kernolog street 16 Batavia centrum (Central Jakarta).

original letter

Permintaan saudara ,harap jangan ber kecil hati , saya akan ber ikhtiar lagi memenuhi permintaan ipar itu. Tentang saudara kita KAS dan Hoesein apakah kabarnya ? Sekarang ada juga yang kirim sayur dari Budi, 2 kali seminggu ke Pasar Senen untuk diperdagangkan,dipasar tersebut, Emen sering juga datang.Oey Lay May setiap minggu kirim BOOL 5 ton. Kalau ipar sempat tjobalah datang sekali ke Pasar Senen supaya kita berbincang mengatur langkah kita. banyak sekali yang akan ditanyakan sesudah begitu lama tak bertemu,harap semuanya dalam keadaan sehat-sehat saja sampai ketemu lagi. Bistok,Sitoemorang dan keluarga yang lain-lain semoga selamat. Pendeta kirim tabe(hormat) banyak-banyak.Pada rtanggal 7/11 1947 yang lalu Tuhan mengembirakan di rumah kita karena satu anak lelaki yang datang(lahir) dalam keadaan sebat begitu juga ibunya.Kita ucapkan banyak terim akasih atas rahmatNYA. Harap ikut mendoakan supaya anak ini baik tingkah lakunya bagi Tuhan dan kita semua. Horas Be Macklon,Jalan Kernolog 16 Batavia centrum(jakarta Pusat).

December,5th.1947

the used block four local sumatra revenue f,25, the rate became up from F.75 to f.100,0 this info means devaluation i  Indonesia. othe date 20.12.47. (other collection look in 1948)

December,7th.1947

 The Renville Meeting on the ship (four photos)

the meeting between  RI goevernment with  consulair commission member at yogja (one photo)

December 8th.1947

(a)Dutch and Indonesian representatives meet on board the U.S.S. Renville, a U.S. Navy transport stationed in the Philippines, which was moved Jakarta harbor for the talks.

(b) The rare postally used cover  send by registered airmail from Canada 8.12.47 to Semarang Dutch East Indie . with  semarang account sencored and at the back arrival CDS Semarang 13.12.47, and with Bonne sante cinderella to affix the cover.

The Tobacco tax  Indonesia 1.70 Rp on Lilitary blend tobacco box  An justijn Tabak My Amsterdam Batavia(rare tobacco label collection)

December,9th.1947

The Letter of Repoeblik Indonesia”Balai Harta Peninggalan” soerakarta witn official stamped

December 25 th.1947

Dutch create state of East Sumatra.

the end Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

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Thw Sample Of Dr iwan CD-ROM:”Indonesia Independence revolution and War 1949

 


Cas_Oorthuys_Indonesia_1949a

    • Protest slogan for independenc 1949

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book Exhibition

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION & WAR

 part V 1949

Base On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collections

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

PS.THE ILLUSTRATION WILL INSTALL LATER,SPECIAL FOR PREMIUM MEMBER.

The Driwan’s Indonesia Independence Revolution And War  Cybermuseum

Showecase:

 

Indonesia Independence Revolution And War Collection part V in 1949

A.PROLOG

1. Markas Komando Djawa 1948-1949

k

Abdul Haris Nasution Kol.TNI beliefs (the last of the Five-Star General) that the soldiers who do not have the support of the people must be defeated.
In the Revolution of Independence I (1946-1948), when leading Siliwangi Division, Pak Nas pulled the second lesson. People supporting the TNI. From this was born the idea of guerrilla warfare as a form of people’s war. Method of warfare is freely developed after Pak Nas became Commander of Java in the Revolution of Independence II (1948-1949).

original info in Indonesian language:

Keyakinan Kol.TNI Abdul Haris Nasution (terakhir Jendral besar Bintang Lima)  bahwa tentara yang tidak mendapat dukungan rakyat pasti kalah.
Dalam Revolusi Kemerdekaan I (1946-1948), ketika memimpin Divisi Siliwangi, Pak Nas menarik pelajaran kedua. Rakyat mendukung TNI. Dari sini lahir gagasannya tentang perang gerilya sebagai bentuk perang rakyat. Metode perang ini dengan leluasa dikembangkannya setelah Pak Nas menjadi Panglima Komando Jawa dalam masa Revolusi Kemerdekaan II (1948-1949).

look the cover of vintage book “Markas Komando Djawa “(Java Command Headquaters)

2.The Indonesian east sumatra  National Police(POLRI) 1949

 
MAS KADIRAN

Mobile Brigade residency Tapanuli IN militarization
 

1) Based on the assessment board of the Regional Defence Forces Tapanuli Mobile Brigade in Militerisasikan be KERESIDNENAN Tapanuli IV Battalion Regiment Brigade XI Tapanuli I TRI and MAS KADIRAN became Battalion Commander IV-I TRI Brigade Regiment with the rank XI MAJOR TRI (Army of the Republic of Indonesia) by the number of troops as much as 380 people complete with weapons including Heavy Weapons (cannon) and the Panzer Wagon Lezonik with Ammunition and Weapons and ammunition reserves.

2) With the Militerisasikan MBK Tapanuli be YON IV MEN I TRI Brig XI under the Tactical Commander Brigade Regiment I Tapanuli XI MAJOR Panggabean and Technical MARADEN under Chief Residency Tapanuli.

k. MBK / YON IV MEN – I Brig XI Tapanuli IN muster to Parapat

1) Dutch aggression in East Sumatra expanding cities in Sumatra in the East was controlled by the Dutch and the Dutch would extend their area by going to the area Parapat. Based on the Regional Defense Command Council Tapanuli and MEN-I Commander Brig IV MAJOR Tapanuli MARADEN Panggabean order Yon IV Force Brig XI MEN-I leave for Parapat Dutch troops to hold its speed of movement. Based on the MAS command KADIRAN with troops depart to Parapat.

2) On arrival in Parapat KADIRAN MAS Coordination with the Force held the Third Regiment under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Tapanuli Siahaan Jansen and the coordination is in agree that MAS KADIRAN as BATTLE COMMANDERS in Parapat to stem the movement of the Dutch troops. Forces MBK / YON – IV MEN – MEN I and members – aided III Society makes Defense Barricades arranged in a big way from AEK Nauli to Parapat and conduct reconnaissance and Pos-Pos Defense in Relay from AEK Nauli to Parapat

3) On day 15 in Parapat obtained news from investigators that the Dutch troops were 15 km from Aek Nauli, the troops under the command MAS KADIRAN ready to fight by way of ambush and destruction in Aek Nauli, at 03.00.Wib all Troops ready in Aek Nauli and at 05.00.Wib pass-Battle fierce battle in a big way Aek Nauli – Parapat.

4) At 10.00.Wib appear 2 Aircraft by firing on the Dutch Defense – defense and an important place in Parapat, the emergence of two Dutch-owned Aircraft Defense Forces opened fire on a split MAS KADIRAN resulting Blind Defense Forces become fragmented and MAS KADIRAN ordered his troops to retreat to Parapat. In this battle forces suffered many losses KADIRAN MAS.

5) Within 21 days Forces MBK / YON IV MEN – I Tapanuli KADIRAN MAS leader, top PerintahDewan Defense and Commander of the Regiment – I IX Brigade Troops Tapanuli to MBK Tapanuli / YON IV MEN – I Brig XI returned to the Parent Unit in Sibolga and Parapat Area Commander in the hand over to the MAJOR LEBERTY terimakan Malau in Parapat.

l. ESTABLISHMENT OF MOBILE Brigade – I SUMATRA AND MOBILE Brigade Tapanuli SOUTH

1) Based on the warrant of the Branch Bureau of the Republic of Indonesia National Police Mobile Brigade was formed for the Great Sumatra – Sumatra (Aceh and East Sumatra – Tapanuli) and designated as Pimpinanya POLICE INSPECTOR CLASS – I SUMATRA Humala Silalahi with the position and is headquartered in the School of Agriculture Sibarani Video Boti and by the Command Chief of Police Residency Tapanuli in the form of Mobile Brigade Tapanuli SOUTH and designate as chairman POLICE INSPECTOR Ibn based in Padang Sidempuan.

m. BATTLE MBB – I SUMATRA TO Legion PENGGEMPUR

1) When Using MAJOR GENERAL Suparto in Tarutung to Briefings on the Residency in Tapanuli Forces which was attended by COLONEL Siahaan Jansen, MARADEN Panggabean MAJOR, MAJOR MAJOR Bejo and MAS KADIRAN. at the hearing that there was fighting between troops MBB-Sumatra with Legion forces on the track Penggempur Boti, COLONEL Siahaan Jansen as a responsible regional security in Toba asked MAJOR MARADEN Panggabean and MAS KADIRAN and MAJOR Bejo for review to the Field.

2) Arriving at the song Boti into four commanders met Humala Silalahi MBB-I Chief of Sumatra, from the explanation POLICE INSPECTOR Humala Silalahi that legions PENGGEMPUR successfully disarmed troops Armament-Sumatra MBB, MBB troops heard this – I do Assault precedes Sumatra. Hearing this explanation then COLONEL Siahaan Jansen as Regiment Commander – Brigade III – XI Tapanuli, ask MARADEN Panggabean MAJOR, MAJOR MAJOR MAS KADIRAN Bejo and to take precautions.

3) With the approval of the 3 Commander, then on Apply Tapanuli troops to secure the area, then there was fighting in Sibolga, Tarutung, songs Boti, Porsea, until the Border Labuhan Batu, OLD MOUNTAIN, CITY LONG LINGGA Pinang. Finally, with the Wisdom of the Government of Indonesia Tapanuli, Chairman-chairman and Chairman of the Peoples Party in Tarutung, then there was peace in Pangaribuan to stop the fighting by both sides because Indonesia only harm and benefit the nation the Netherlands, with the result that the talks are not mutually agree to end strike each of the forces in drag to the parent Its units, troops MBB Tapanuli in Drag to Padang Sidempuan.

n. BROTHERS IN WAR Tapanuli

1) Some months duration Tapanuli area free of distractions Battle of the armed movement, but movement of the Dutch troops who are in Parapat not cease to infiltration by Divide and Conquer between the People by the People, the Army Forces, all the more so where the Force Commander has been no readiness so often drawn to the pitting, especially after the gathering of forces-forces of East Sumatra in Tapanuli, so that the number of troops in Tapanuli the friction between troops is very possible.

1) So that was happening in Tapanuli of the strongest forces of East Sumatra was at loggerheads in Tapanuli, one party is in force Unity Bull Lead by the MAJOR L. Malau and one more party-B Forces Brigade and the Brigade Leaders MAJOR Bejo-A led by Saragih ROS Two troops of the East Sumatra in Tapanuli berselih understand, so that the combined strength of weapons including XI Brigade became broken and each brings their way individual and eventually attack the Dormitory BATALIYON Brigade – XI in Padang Sidempuan. In this case his Battalion Commander Dies

2) With the crisis MAS KADIRAN MBK Chief Commissioner KLS I Tapanuli and M. Nurdin To Police Resident Resident Tapanuli in calling facing Tapanuli Dr. F.L. TOBING in the talks that Chief MBK Tapanuli MAS KADIRAN firmly take the road side with brigade-B in South Tapanuli and MAS KADIRAN appealed to Chief Resident Tapanuli Dr.FLTOBING to bring his troops into the field Sidempuan to avoid clashes between the Brigade – A and brigades – B.

3) The battle between the forces and Bull Brigade – B occurs which began STEM Toru, Pandaan and arrived in Sibolga, after many casualties the two armies finally entered into negotiations in Sibolga which was attended by Dr. VICE PRESIDENT. Mohd. HATTA. Completed negotiations then Brigade – B led MAJOR Bejo, supported by MAS KADIRAN back to South Tapanuli Bull Forces Leadership and L. Tapanuli Malau to North and Central Tapanuli be submitted to the brigade and Army XI Tapanuli Navy Indonesia

Weigh SOVEREIGNTY AND RECEIVED BY DUTCH POLICE

IN residency Tapanuli

1) Under the command of Police Chief of North Sumatra, in order to prepare troops MAS KADIRAN MBB-I-Aceh, North Sumatra Police to handover the Netherlands to the Indonesian police, with the news of the Joint Officer CAPTAIN IBRAHIM HAJI, on the appointed day the North Sumatra Police chief Mr Darwin Karim and Mas Kadiran with 2 Company MBB-I-Aceh, North Sumatra and 1 Battalion – B Mursalin Tello leaders went to Padang Sidempuan to weigh thank the Dutch police, from Padang Sidempuan continued to Sibolga and Tarutung, Weigh accept walk safely, orderly and smooth .

2) While the time to wait for orders received in the weigh in East Sumatra, North Sumatra Police chief Adjunct Senior Commissioner then DARWIN KARIM live in Sibolga with Staff-staff to take care of everything for Police Police stations have received throughout the South Tapanuli, Mas Kadiran ordered Company – C towards Sibolga Go to Company D and P. Sidempuan, Staff Member MBB-I-Aceh, North Sumatra in order to join the Mas Kadiran Sibolga. While Company A and B remain in Balige to wait for the next command into the East Sumatra to Weigh received by the Dutch Police.

V. Weigh THANK THE POLICE

DUTCH IN EASTERN SUMATRA

By Order Police chief Comr for Sumatra Mr. Commandments UMAR SAID and North Sumatra Police Chief to enter into eastern Sumatra to conduct weigh thank the Dutch National Police, on the day that has been set by two men of Mas Kadiran in Balige. Hanafi Commander and went to Sumatra, West Sumatra MBB East Regional division of MBB-Sumatra-Aceh leader Mas Kadiran do weigh receive in P, Siantar, high cliffs danMedansedangkan MBB-II Sunar do weigh received in Tanjung Balai and Rantau Prapat.

 

original info in Indonesia language:

  MOBILE BRIGADE KERESIDENAN TAPANULI DI MILITERISASI

 

1) Berdasarkan Ketetapan dewan Pertahanan Daerah Tapanuli Pasukan MOBILE BRIGADE KERESIDNENAN TAPANULI di Militerisasikan menjadi BATALYON IV RESIMEN I TRI BRIGADE XI TAPANULI dan MAS KADIRAN menjadi KOMANDAN BATALYON IV RESIMEN-I TRI BRIGADE XI dengan Pangkat MAYOR TRI (Tentara Republik Indonesia ) dengan jumlah Pasukan sebanyak 380 orang lengkap dengan senjatanya termasuk Senjata Berat (Meriam) dan Panser Wagon Lezonik dengan Amunisi serta Cadangan Senjata dan Amunisi. 

2) Dengan di Militerisasikan MBK Tapanuli menjadi YON IV MEN I TRI BRIG XI secara Taktis di bawah Komandan Resimen I BRIGADE XI Tapanuli MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN dan Tehnis di bawah Kepala Polisi Keresidenan Tapanuli. 

k. MBK / YON IV MEN – I BRIG XI TAPANULI DI KERAHKAN KE PARAPAT

1) Agresi Belanda di Sumatera Timur semakin luas Kota –kota di Sumatera Timur sudah di kuasai oleh Belanda dan Belanda akan meluaskan daerahnya dengan menuju daerah PARAPAT. Berdasarkan Perintah Dewan Pertahanan Daerah Tapanuli dan Komandan MEN-I BRIG IV TAPANULI MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN agar Pasukan Yon IV MEN-I BRIG XI berangkat menuju Parapat menahan gerak lajunya Pasukan Belanda. Berdasarkan perintah tersebut MAS KADIRAN dengan Pasukannya berangkat ke Parapat.

2) Setibanya di Parapat MAS KADIRAN mengadakan Koordinasi dengan Pasukan RESIMEN III TAPANULI dibawah Komando LETKOL JANSEN SIAHAAN dan dalam Koordinasi ini di sepakati bahwa MAS KADIRAN sebagai KOMANDAN PERTEMPURAN di Parapat guna membendung gerak Pasukan Belanda. Pasukan MBK / YON – IV MEN – I dan Anggota MEN – III dibantu Masyarakat membuat Pertahanan Barikade di jalan besar yang disusun dari AEK NAULI sampai PARAPAT dan mengadakan Pos-Pos pengintaian dan Pertahanan secara Estafet dari AEK NAULI sampai PARAPAT

3) Pada hari ke 15 di Parapat didapat berita dari penyelidik bahwa Pasukan Belanda sudah berada 15 Km dari Aek Nauli, maka Pasukan yang berada di bawah Komando MAS KADIRAN siap untuk melawan dengan cara Penghadangan dan Penghancuran di Aek Nauli, pada pukul 03.00.Wib seluruh Pasukan sudah siap di Aek Nauli dan pada pukul 05.00.Wib terjadilah Pertempuran –Pertempuran yang sengit di jalan besar Aek Nauli – Parapat.

4) Pukul 10.00.Wib muncul 2 Pesawat Terbang Belanda dengan menembaki Pertahanan – pertahanan dan tempat penting di Parapat, munculnya 2 Pesawat Terbang milik Belanda menembaki Pertahanan Pasukan MAS KADIRAN secara membagi Buta sehingga mengakibatkan Pertahanan Pasukan menjadi terpecah dan MAS KADIRAN memerintahkan Pasukannya untuk mundur ke Parapat. Dalam Pertempuran ini Pasukan MAS KADIRAN mengalami banyak kerugian.

5) Dalam waktu 21 hari lamanya Pasukan MBK / YON IV MEN – I Tapanuli Pimpinan MAS KADIRAN, atas PerintahDewan Pertahanan dan Komandan Resimen – I BRIGADE IX Tapanuli agar Pasukan MBK Tapanuli / YON IV MEN – I BRIG XI kembali ke Induk Satuan di Sibolga dan Komandan Parapat Area di serah terimakan kepada MAYOR LEBERTY MALAU di Parapat.

l. PEMBENTUKAN MOBILE BRIGADE BESAR – I SUMATERA DAN MOBILE BRIGADE KABUPATEN TAPANULI SELATAN 

1) Berdasarkan Surat Perintah dari Cabang Jawatan Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia untuk Sumatera dibentuk Mobile Brigade Besar – I Sumatera (Aceh-Sumatera Timur – Tapanuli ) dan ditunjuk sebagai Pimpinanya INSPEKTUR POLISI KELAS – I SUMATERA HUMALA SILALAHI dengan kedudukan dan bermarkas di Sekolah Pertanian Sibarani Lagu Boti dan berdasarkan Perintah Kepala Kepolisian Keresidenan Tapanuli di bentuk MOBILE BRIGADE KABUPATEN TAPANULI SELATAN dan di tunjuk sebagai pimpinannya INSPEKTUR POLISI IBNU berkedudukan di Padang Sidempuan. 

m. PERTEMPURAN MBB – I SUMATERA DENGAN LEGIUN PENGGEMPUR

1) Pada Saat MAYOR JENDERAL SUPARTO berada di Tarutung untuk melakukan Brifing terhadap Pasukan Keresidenan di Tapanuli yang di hadiri oleh KOLONEL JANSEN SIAHAAN, MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN, MAYOR BEJO dan MAYOR MAS KADIRAN. di dengar bahwa terjadi Pertempuran antara Pasukan MBB-I Sumatera dengan Pasukan Legiun Penggempur di LAGU BOTI, KOLONEL JANSEN SIAHAAN selaku penanggung jawab Kemananan di Daerah Toba meminta kepada MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN dan MAS KADIRAN serta MAYOR BEJO untuk meninjau ke Lapangan. 

2) Sesampainya di Lagu Boti ke 4 Komandan ini menemui HUMALA SILALAHI Kepala MBB- I Sumatera, dari penjelasan INSPEKTUR POLISI HUMALA SILALAHI bahwa LEGIUN PENGGEMPUR berhasil melucuti Persenjataan Pasukan MBB- I Sumatera, mendengar hal ini Pasukan MBB – I Sumatera mendahului melakukan Penyerangan. Mendengar penjelasan ini maka KOLONEL JANSEN SIAHAAN sebagai KOMANDAN RESIMEN – III BRIGADE – XI TAPANULI, meminta kepada MAYOR MARADEN PANGGABEAN, MAYOR BEJO dan MAYOR MAS KADIRAN untuk mengambil tindakan pengamanan.

3) Dengan adanya persetujuan dari ke 3 Komandan, maka di kerahkanlah Pasukan untuk mengamankan daerah Tapanuli, maka terjadilah pertempuran di SIBOLGA, TARUTUNG, LAGU BOTI, PORSEA, sampai dengan ke Perbatasan LABUHAN BATU, GUNUNG TUA, LINGGA PANJANG KOTA PINANG. Akhirnya dengan Kebijaksanaan Pemerintah RI Tapanuli, Ketua-ketua partai dan Ketua Adat di Tarutung, maka terjadilah Perdamaian di PANGARIBUAN untuk menghentikan Pertempuran oleh kedua pihak karena hanya merugikan Bangsa Indonesia dan menguntungkan pihak Belanda saja, dengan hasil Perundingan itu di sepakati untuk tidak saling menyerang akhirnya masing-masing Pasukan di tarik ke induk Satuannya, pasukan MBB Tapanuli di Tarik ke Padang Sidempuan. 

n. PERANG SAUDARA DI TAPANULI 

1) Beberapa Bulan lamanya daerah Tapanuli bebas dari gangguan gerakan Pertempuran bersenjata, tetapi gerakan tentara Belanda yang berada di Parapat tidak henti-hentinya melakukan Infiltrasi dengan Politik Adu Domba antara Rakyat dengan Rakyat, Pasukan dengan Pasukan, terlebih–lebih dimana Komandan Pasukan belum ada kesiapan sehingga sering terpancing untuk di adu domba, apalagi setelah berkumpulnya Pasukan-Pasukan dari Sumatera Timur di Tapanuli, sehingga dengan banyaknya Pasukan di Tapanuli maka gesekan-gesekan antar Pasukan sangat mungkin terjadi.

1) Demikian yang terjadi di Tapanuli dari Pasukan yang terkuat dari Sumatera Timur tersebut berselisih paham di tapanuli, satu pihak pasukan Kesatuan Banteng yang di Pimpin oleh MAYOR L. MALAU dan satu pihak lagi Pasukan BRIGADE-B Pimpinan MAYOR BEJO dan BRIGADE-A yang di pimpin oleh SARAGIH ROS Dua Pasukan dari Sumatera Timur tersebut berselih paham di Tapanuli, sehingga gabungan Kekuatan Senjata yang termasuk BRIGADE XI menjadi pecah dan masing-masing membawa jalannya masing-masing dan akhirnya terjadi Penyerangan ke Asrama BATALIYON BRIGADE – XI di Padang Sidempuan. Dalam hal ini Komandan Batalyon nya Meninggal Dunia

2) Dengan adanya krisis tersebut MAS KADIRAN Kepala MBK Tapanuli dan KOMPOL KLS I M. NURDIN Kepada Polisi Residen Tapanuli di panggil menghadap Residen Tapanuli Dr. F.L. TOBING dalam pembicaraan itu Kepala MBK Tapanuli MAS KADIRAN dengan tegas mengambil jalan memihak BRIGADE-B di Tapanuli Selatan dan MAS KADIRAN memohon kepada Kepala Residen Tapanuli Dr.F.L.TOBING untuk membawa Pasukannya ke Padang Sidempuan untuk mengindari Bentrokan antara BRIGADE – A dan BRIGADE – B.

3) Pertempuran antara Pasukan Banteng dan Brigade – B terjadi dimana mulai BATANG TORU, PANDAAN dan sampai di SIBOLGA, setelah banyak memakan korban akhirnya kedua pasukan mengadakan Perundingan di Sibolga yang di hadiri oleh WAKIL PRESIDEN Dr. MOHD. HATTA. Selesai perundingan maka BRIGADE – B di pimpin MAYOR BEJO yang di dukung oleh MAS KADIRAN kembali ke Tapanuli Selatan dan Pasukan Banteng Pimpinan L. MALAU ke Tapanuli Utara dan Tapanuli Tengah di serahkan kepada BRIGADE XI TAPANULI dan Pasukan Angkatan Laut Indonesia

KEDAULATAN DAN TIMBANG TERIMA DENGAN KEPOLISIAN BELANDA

DI KERESIDENAN TAPANULI

1) Berdasarkan Perintah Kepala Kepolisian Sumatera Utara, MAS KADIRAN agar mempersiapkan Pasukan MBB-I Sumut-Aceh untuk serah terima Kepolisian Belanda kepada Kepolisian Indonesia, dengan adanya berita dari Joint Officer KAPTEN IBRAHIM HAJI, pada hari yang sudah ditentukan maka kepala Kepolisian Sumut Bapak Darwin Karim dan Mas Kadiran dengan 2 Kompi MBB-I Sumut-Aceh dan 1 Batalyon – B pimpinan MURSALIN TELLO berangkat ke Padang Sidempuan untuk timbang terima dengan Kepolisian Belanda, dari Padang Sidempuan dilanjutkan ke Sibolga dan Tarutung, Timbang terima berjalan dengan aman, tertib dan lancar.

2) Sementara waktu untuk menunggu perintah dalam timbang terima di Sumatera Timur, maka Kepala Kepolisian Sumut AKBP DARWIN KARIM tinggal di Sibolga bersama Staf-stafnya untuk mengurus segala sesuatu untuk Kepolisian timbang terima Kepolisian diseluruh Tapanuli Selatan, Mas Kadiran memerintahkan Kompi – C untuk menuju Sibolga dan Kompi D Menuju ke P.Sidempuan, Anggota Staf MBB-I Sumut-Aceh agar menuju Sibolga bergabung dengan Mas Kadiran. Sedangkan Kompi A dan B tetap tinggal di Balige untuk menunggu Perintah selanjutnya masuk ke Sumatera Timur untuk Timbang terima dengan Kepolisian Belanda.

V. TIMBANG TERIMA DENGAN KEPOLISIAN

BELANDA DI SUMATERA TIMUR

Atas Perintah Kepala Kepolisian untuk Sumatera Bapak KOMBES POL UMAR SAID dan Perintah Kepala Kepolisian Sumatera Utara agar masuk kedalam Sumatera Timur untuk mengadakan timbang terima dengan Kepolisian Belanda, pada hari yang sudah di tentukan Mas Kadiran dengan dua Kompi yang berada di Balige. dan Hanafi Komandan MBB Sumbar berangkat ke Sumatera Timur dengan pembagian Daerah MBB-I Sumatera-Aceh Pimpinan Mas Kadiran melakukan timbang terima di P,Siantar, Tebing tinggi danMedansedangkan MBB-II Sunar melakukan timbang terima di Tanjung Balai dan Rantau Prapat.

B.CHRONOLOGY HISTORIC COLLECTION 1949

JANUARY 1949

 1.January

Julius Kardinal information(1978)

at the early January 1949(Pada permulaan bulan januari 1949,)

Bantul regency capital city, 6 km from Ganjuran, Army occupied the Netherlands. makinmencekam atmosphere bai population. At lunch time there was a sudden often datanganya Dutch soldiers, all panicked, ran to evacuate, although most are not true and at night came the attacks of the Parties to the TNI. One morning I received a report from the hospital kitchen that supplies of fuel wood is almost gone. At about 9:00 I was with a young man riding a bike into the village behind the hospital to look for firewood. Apparently the village was deserted, the people already displaced. Fortunately, the intended father’s family home and tend to have quite a lot of firewood supply and willing to help. unfinished pembuicaraan how far the transportation of the eruption sounded, followed by the hiss and the two eruptions in place. Soon there was an eruption of the other majors, the same hiss and ended with two eruptions as well. We both immediately ride a bike to the hospital to attend disana.Seluruh residents Hospitals and orphanages as well as the nurses had to hide under the table trying to seek shelter where dabn thought safe. The atmosphere of panic, fear, all suspect that will eventually hit. Praying and surrender to God. Apparently the former mill complex and Hospital in mortars from two places, thank goodness no one hit the building, so there were no casualties in the complex. Mortar fire lasted approximately setngah hours.

Once convinced that the bombing had stopped, held talks with the five young men in my room. There is still a couple of cloth napkins and a red ink, they immediately make the flag of the Red Cross, seeking gaklah and they are ready to go out to look for victims who need help. New sja out of the hospital, they ran back to my room to meet them head nurse, Captain-ranking commander with about 50 of his men, there was talk among other things: “Father, here are some members of the TNI?.” No “.” Father knows that all around there TNI soldiers, beraapoa their numbers. “” Do not know if the number of Catholic norang I know “.” necessarily “” In this complex there are soldiers who were hiding and no gun?. “No” ” may be searched? “Yes, but you along with me and the chief nurse and lived outside the fruit ank”. Begin a search Kareena arrival of the Captain and how scary. ” It’s certainly the army “.” Instead of, patients’ chief nurse replied. “Later, if it has been cured of menenbak again”. “SEalama in rumag ill be tangunggan me.” “I will take it”. ” not possible, as long so be patient. ”

in these circumstances occur a search throughout the complex, opening each door and entered the room followed by a thumbs gun and questions set geramdiajukan. A search is completed quickly enough and no less thorough. Done a search there is an interview with the captain led pasukan.Di bebrapa factory environment they found a grenade that was not working anymore, but can pose a hazard, then it will d9ibawa to amrkas them for the sake of the security. The captain then asked the youth workers who are dikamar sya, I imagine they would have objected. after a long talk, decided bahewa they’ll come, they ettapi no later than 17:00 hours should’ve come back here. Belumkembali If at that time, I will come kemarkas them. After that they went, the youth participate bebrapa carrying grenades and landmijn, after they left, a sense of relief filled the whole complex, all felt very tired during the bnayak who did not receive food, I myself also experienced a sma. but strangely I feel so sleepy and continue bed rest. Approximately 1500 hrs knock at the door, finally forced to pound because I did not hear him in bed “what else” I thought. It turns out that TNI members ready to come now with straw and kerosene, they heard the news that all the occupants sick dikompleks ruamh dibaw aoleh Dutch soldiers, they are ready for the scorching earth Hospitals and complexity. I spoke with the leaders and take her to see the whole complex so intent membuni scorching canceled and they returned to markasnya.Baru they disappeared, there appeared youth “carrier” and landmijn grenade with the atmosphere of joy and experiences, they shared cigarettes and bread ynag given as a receipt love by the captain. Thus ended the first operation of the army beland, seasudah was still many times suddenly come small patrols, but not exceptional shock until they leave the special area Jogyakarta

original info

 ibu kota Kabupaten Bantul,  6 km dari Ganjuran, diduduki Tentara Belanda. suasana makinmencekam bai penduduk. Pada waktu siang sering mendadak terdengar  datanganya tentara Belanda, semua panik,lari mengungsi,meskipun kebanyakan tidak benar dan pada waktu malam terdengar serangan dari Pihak TNI. Pada suatu pagi saya mendapat laporan dari dapur Rumah sakit bahwa persediaan kayu bakar sudah hampir habis. Kira-kira jam 09.00 saya dengan seorang pemuda naik sepeda masuk desa dibelakang Rumah sakit untuk mencari kayu bakar. Ternyata desa itu sepi, orang-orang sudah mengungsi. Untunglah ayah keluarga yang dituju ada dirumah dan mempunyai persediaan kayu bakar cukup banyak dan rela membantu. belum selesai pembuicaraan bagaimana cara pengangkutannya terdengar letusan dari jauh,diikuti dengan  desisan dan 2 letusan di tempat. Sebentar lagi dari lain jurusan terdengar letusan,desisan yang sama dan berakhir dengan 2 kali letusan juga. Kami berdua segera naik sepeda ke Rumah sakit untuk hadir disana.Seluruh penghuni Rumah sakit dan Panti Asuhan serta para perawat sudah bersembunyi di bawah meja dabn mencoba mencari perlindungan dimana dikira aman. Suasana panik,takut, semua menduga bahwa akhirnya akan kena. Bedoa dan menyerahkan diri kepada Tuhan. Ternyata bekas pabrik dan kompleks Rumah Sakit di mortir dari dua tempat,syukurlah bangunan tidak ada yang kena,sehingga tidak ada korban didalam kompleks. Tembakan mortir berlangsung kira-kira setngah jam.

Sesudah yakin bahwa pengeboman sudah berhenti, diadakan perundingan dengan 5 orang pemuda yang ada di kamar saya. Masih ada berberapa kain serbet makan dan ada tinta merah,dengan segera mereka membuat bendera Palang Merah,mencari gaklah dan mereka siap keluar guna mencari korban yang perlu ditolong. Baru sja keluar dari rumah sakit, mereka lari kembali ke kamar saya dengan suster kepala menemui mereka, komandannya berpangkat Kapten dengan kira-kira 50 orang anak buahnya, terjadi pembicaraan antara lain:”pastor ,disini ada beberapa orang anggota TNI ?.”Tidak ada”.”Pastor tahu bahwa di sekitar ada tentara TNI, beraapoa jumlah mereka”.”Tidak tahu, kalau jumlah norang katolik saya tahu”.”tentu” “Di kompleks ini ada tentara yang bersembunyi dan ada senjatanya?.”Tidak ada””Boleh digeledah ?”Boleh,tetapi bersama dengan saya  dan suster Kepala dan ank buah tinggal diluar”. Mulailah pengeledahan kareena kedatangan Kapten tersebut dan caranya menakutkan.” Ini tentu tentara”.”BUkan,pasien” jawab suster Kepala.”Nanti jika sudah sembuh tentu menenbak lagi”.”SEalama di rumag sakit menjadi tangunggan saya”.”ini akan saya bawa”.” tidak mungkin,selama jadi pasien”.

dalam suasana semacam ini terjadi pengeledahan seluruh kompleks,setiap membuka pintu dan masuk kamar diikuti dengan acungan pistol dan pertanyaaan yang geramdiajukan. Pengeledahan cukup cepat selesai dan tidak kurang teliti. Selesai pengeledahan masih ada wawancara dengan kapten pimpin  pasukan.Di lingkungan pabrik mereka menemukan bebrapa granat  yang sudah tidak bekerja lagi, tetapi dapat menimbulkan bahaya, maka akan d9ibawa ke amrkas mereka demi keamana. maka Kapten minta tenaga pemuda yang ada dikamar sya, sudah saya bayangkan mereka akan keberatan. sesudah agak lama bicara,diputuskan bahewa mereka akan ikut, ettapi mereka selambat-lambatnya jam 17.00 harus udah kembali disini. JIka pada waktu itu belumkembali, saya akan datang kemarkas mereka. Setelah itu mereka pergi, bebrapa pemuda ikut membawa granat dan landmijn, sesudah mereka pergi ,rasa lega memenuhi seluruh kompleks, semua merasa telah sangat lelah karena siang bnayak yang tidak memperoleh makanan,saya sendiri  pun mengalami yang sma. tetapi anehnya saya merasa mengantuk sekali dan terus istirahat tidur. Kira-kira jam 15.00 pintu diketuk,akhirnya terpaksa dipukul-pukul karena saya dalam tidur tak mendengarnya”ada apa lagi” pikir saya. Ternyata yang datang sekarang anggota TNI siap dengan jerami dan minyak tanah,mereka mendengar kabar bahwa semua penghuni dikompleks ruamh sakit dibaw aoleh tentara belanda, mereka siap untuk membumi hanguskan Rumah sakit dan kompleksnya. Saya berbicara dengan pemimpinnya dan mengantarnya melihat seluruh kompleks sehingga maksud membuni hanguskan dibatalkan dan mereka kembali ke markasnya.Baru saja mereka menghilang,muncullah pemuda “pembawa”granat dan landmijn dengan suasana gembira serta menceritakan pengalaman, mereka membagikan sigaret dan roti ynag diberikan sebagai tanda terima kasih oleh Kapten tersebut. Demikianlah berakhir operasi pertama dari tentara beland, seasudah itu masih berkali-kali secara mendadak datang patroli kecil ,tetapi tidak menimbulkan kejutan luar biasa sampai mereka meninggalkan daerah istimewa Jogyakarta.

January,1st.1949

PTT Djakarta salary book with handsign of the chief of ptt office Djakarta.

January,4th.1949

Postallyused lettersheet stationer  10 sen send from batavia centrum to Buitenzorg(bogor)

January 5th.1949

Dutch accept UN call for ceasefire in SumatraSultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya refuses Dutch offer to head new Javanese state, resigns as head of Yogya government, and gives help to Republic guerilla fighters.

January,6th.1949

the information from Warna warta Djawa tengah newswpaper :

(A) the Word Series Rau Juliana

My goal is to fulfill my mother’s ability. Who really really hope that the Government of Indonesia is formed within a few weeks to come nini.Pemilihan which will be held selekans free as possible.

On 6 January the lalau, Series Queen Juliana said to Indonesia that looks like this:

My mother has been able to establish an independent and sovereign Indonesia, the Netherlands and Indonesia entered the union on the basis of sovereign kemaunan respectively, merdekan and on the same basis.

in February 1948 kesangupan oitu tealh repeated again, a sign that it truly became Queen of ability.

My goal since the throne is the ability memenjuhi my mother, to give to people in Indonesia: peace, happiness and prosperity in a sovereign self-government.

My goal really is to the federal government in recent weeks Indonesia was formed; government that will run the obligations on the basis of responsibility and democracy. XSelekas possible if it has been able, to be held the election, thus establishment of United States of Indonesia will soon be achieved.

(B) GENERAL SUDIRMAN NOT captive

General sudirman now being seriously ill and is being maintained well but not captured by the army commander of the TNI Belanda.Kolonel Hidajat in Sumatra, on 28 December 1948 tealh take over (over) Pimpina total republican army.

(C) FACTS MR ASAAT

Before military action, Mr Asaat once said that the situation in the republic is beyond miserable than in the war. Denagn these words then one can draw the conclusion that if a held state military movements in that region in more baik.Seorang other princes, saying that the food supply in the republic’s only up to a month Maret.Sesudah famine will arise which hebat.dari words This is also one can draw conclusions that this second military movement led to improvements to the area not only brings tersebut.tentara tegush security and long, but brought the lightness in sehar-day life, also by providing food, clothing and medicine.

(D) some federal pemrintah Indonesia propaganda illustration in this newspaper: Hours gadang Bukittingi committee, Abdul Kadir Wijoyo Atmojo Jakarta, trucks mengangukt nakanan, and Indonesian youth in Practice.

 
 

 (a)Sabda Seri Rau Juliana

Tujuanku ialah memenuhi kesanggupan Ibuku. Harapanku yang sungguh sungguh ialah supaya Pemerintah Indonesia dibentuk dalam beberapa minggu yang datang nini.Pemilihan yang bebas akan diadakan selekans mungkin.

Pada tanggal 6 januari yang lalau, Seri Ratu Juliana bersabda untuk Indonesia yang isinya seperti berikut :

Ibuku telah sanggup mendirikan Indonesia yang merdeka dan berdaulat ,mengadakan perserikatan Indonesia Nederland dan berdaulat  atas dasar kemaunan masing-masing ,merdekan dan atas dasar yang sama.

dalam bulan Februari 1948 kesangupan oitu tealh diulangi lagi, tanda bahwa memang sungguh-sungguh menjadi kesanggupan Ratu.

Tujuanku sejak naik tahta ialah memenjuhi kesanggupan ibuku, untuk memberi kepada bangsa di Indonesia : ketentraman,Kebahagiaan  dan kemakmuran dalam pemerintahan sendiri yang berdaulat.

Tujuanku yang sungguh-sungguh ialah supaya pemerintahan federal Indonesia dalam beberapa minggu ini dibentuk; pemerintahan yang akan menjalankan kewajiban atas dasar tanggung jawab dan demokrasi. XSelekas mungkin jika telah dapat, akan diadakan pemilihan, dengan begitu pembentukan Negara Indonesia Serikat akan lekas tercapai.

(b) JENDRAL SUDIRMAN TIDAK DITAWAN

Jendral sudirman sekarang sedang menderita sakit keras dan sedang dipelihara baik-baik tetapi tidak ditawan oleh tentara Belanda.Kolonel Hidajat Komanda  TNI di sumatra, pada tanggal 28 desember 1948 tealh mengambil oper(alih) Pimpina tentara republik Seluruhnya.

(c) KETERANGAN mR aSAAT

Sebelum aksi militer, Mr Asaat pernah mengatakan bahwa keadaan di republik adalah melebihi sengsaranya daripada dalam perang. Denagn kata-kata ini maka orang dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa jika diadakan gerakan militer keadaan didaerah tersebut lebih baik.Seorang pembesar lainnya,mengatakan ,bahwa persedian makanan di republik hanya sampai bulan Maret.Sesudah itu akan timbul bahaya kelaparan yang hebat.dari kata-kata ini juga orang dapat menarik kesimpulan vbahwa gerakan militer yang kedua ini membawa perbaikan kepada daerah tersebut.tentara tidak hanya membawa keamanan yang tegush dan lama, tetapi mebawa keringanan dalam kehidupan sehar-hari,juga dengan memberikan bahan makanan,pakaian dan obat-obatan.

(d) beberapa illustrasi propaganda pemrintah federal Indonesia dalam surat kabar ini : Jam gadang Bukittingi, komite abdul kadir Wijoyo atmojo Jakarta,truk mengangukt nakanan ,dan pemuda Indonesia di Latih.

January,9th.1949

Tanda terima Pengiriman (Ontvangbewij or Recieved) Pospakket from batavia with overprint Indonesia stamps and wilhelmina stamps.

January,12th.1949

The chief OF PTT NRI Mas Suharto were kidnapped and arrest by Dutch Nica

The chief OF PTT NRI Mas Suharto were kidnapped and arrest by Dutch Nica soldier, and after that he never found (until this day his graved never found)

 

January,19th.1949

The rare postally used cover from malang to Medan(Negara Sumatra Timur) East Sumattera State ,the part of Indonesia federal state.

UN Security Council demands release of the Republican government, and independence for Indonesia by July 1, 1950.

There was significant guerilla activity against the Dutch during this period, led by Nasution and Sudirman. At the height of Dutch activity in the 1940s, there were around 150,000 Dutch forces in Indonesia

January,29th.1949

(a)The invitation to join the ceremony of tranferred the power from Dutch Federal Government to Wali Negara South Sumatra in february,1st 1949 , send from the chief of 7 oeloe village Palembang.

 

January,21th.1949

On January 21, 1949, with the city of Kuala Tungkal occupied by the Dutch public figures, scholars, intellectuals fled to the outskirts, which are located opposite the Kuala Tungkal. they dated January 25, 1949 meeting which consisted of various tribes to collect kekauatan to counterattack. Above consensus together, they form the Front pengurunya Wilderness with the following composition:

Chairman: H. Shamsuddin (cum treasurer)

Vice Chairman: A. Sanusi (Teacher Trenches fires)

Members: 1. H. Hanafiah (Head of Good Dyke)

2. Kadir (Sacred Head Dyke)

3. Imran (Head Dyke Mangrove)

4. Zuhri (Head Dyke Palembang)

5. Durasit (Head Parit Sungai Rawai)

6. Abdullah (head of the Trench fires)

Part Penggempur: Abdul Congratulations

Help By: 1. Zaidun

2. H. Saman Mangku (Market Kuala Tungkal)

3. H. Hanafiah (Head of Good Dyke)

Front Jungle forming a line called “Barisan Bally Red ‘.

The purpose of establishing the Barisan / Lasyakar Red Bally is to demolish the Dutch who occupied Kuala Tungkal. Therefore, should be chosen who will lead the Barisan Merah Bally, especially when invaded / attacked the Dutch position.

Then elected Abdul Samad called then moved at the term “Commander” (more popularly known as “Commander Adul”). It was also agreed when the Dutch attacked the Red Bally must together with the TNI and the tactics are under military command

On January 21, 1949 at 11:30 pm, beberpa Dutch ships attacked Kuala Tungkal with cannon and mortar firing. One of them was shot targets Great Mosque (Jami ‘) Kuala Tungkal, when the Islamic manaumat was getting ready to perform Friday prayers.

As a result of the attack, not last Friday prayers. When he feels safe, Dutch troops landed, still firing heavy weapons to protect his troops who were conducting pendarata.

TNI troops led by Lieutenant Young A. Fattah held resistance, backing toward the Trenches Gompong. Two soldiers and a young fighter named teacher of English R. Happy autumn shot dutch at the moment will blow up the Landman who had previously installed near the Post Office.

Kuala Tungkal Kewedanaan government led by the district officer with the Chief of Police Regional Noerdin Mahyuddin Harahap IPI, Head Tungkal Ilir Masdar Kewedanaan Government and its staff in Kuala Tungkal under a hail of bullets and mortar cannon backwards towards the village of Parit Gompong Pembengis through except for some sub-district officials, among others, Masdar, the Police , Information and others, Wedana Noerdin, Police Chief Mahyuddin Harahap and others continued the journey to the village of Parit Deli Betara Left Tungkal Ilir district.

Pembengis is a small village situated 7 (seven) Km from Kuala Tungkal, filled with refugees of various groups, in addition to government officials and military forces.

After the Dutch troops landed in Kuala Tungkal, the Dutch continued to advance to the araha pembengis with intent to break the resistance of military forces. At 17.00 pm in the Trenches Gompong intercepted by military forces led by Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR, resulting in a shoot for 15 (fifteen) minutes. Holland then retreat to Kuala Tungkal to suffer casualties beberpa people were killed and wounded

January,23th.1949

On January 23, 1949, after retiring from Kuala Tungkal, a squad of military forces under the command of Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR, 1023 Sector Commander assigned to patrol the Dutch Army stalking position. In the Trenches Gompong they met with the Dutch Army, causing a battle that resulted in some Dutch soldiers killed and wounded.

On January 23, 1949 night, the people of Seberang Tungkal trench Congratulations, arson military dormitory in the way of the Old Kuala Tungkal Prosperity. The force is led by Abdul Samad (Adul)

Jaunry,25th.1949

With Kuala Tungkal occupied by the Dutch, then the community leaders in the Trenches Congratulations Kuala Tungkal Tungkal III on January 25, 1949 have formed the Front, headed by H. Woods Shamsuddin prince Tungkal III.

Front board Rimba are those who’ve studied the practice Bally Red is the practice based on the teachings of Islam yangmeyakini that if the deeds carried out as specified, it is concerned will be able to avoid the bullets fired at him.

The formation of this Front, received rave reviews from the public because it fits with their belief that the war against the Dutch colonialists, when autumn meant masti martyr for fighting for the interests of defending the nation, state and religion as taught by the scholars at that time

FEBRUARY 1949

(1)February,3th.1949

Tanda terima Pengiriman Ontvangbewijs(Recive notes) Pospakket with overprint Indonesia  1 gld and wilhelmina 10 cent  stamps

(1a)February  7 th.1949

Resolution is introduced in United States Senate to stop all Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands. Resolution is defeated on March 8.

 Feb.5th.1949

Ontvangbewijs-Recieve pospakket sent from  batavia to tangerang withj overprin indonesia stamp 3×40 cent and Wilhelmina 10 cent  stamps

FEB,7th.1949

Dated February 7, 1949 by 9 (nine) of fruit boats, led by Abdul Samad who fondly known as Commander Adul. 41 people who all have learned the practice before the Dutch occupation of the Red Bally Kuala Tungkal, armed with machetes, knives, kris, spears and other sharp weapons, departing from ditches Welcome to Kuala Tungkal. Divided into four troops, each led by:

1. Abdul Smaad

2. H. warrant

3. H. Nafiah

4. Zainuddin

Bally Red Front army commander Tungkal Area H. Saman (Saman Commander)

Bally Red Commander with some leaders of the Barisan troops Bally Red (BSM).

Keris weapon Commander Haji Saman

Some equipment / weapon of war in the traditional red sash paramilitary troops against Military Aggression Belnda in Kuala Tungkal 1949

At 24.00 pm, they subjugate the Dutch defense simultaneously and suddenly, the Netherlands did not expect / suspect before. Pertempurang happen until 09.00 am in the morning. Since the attacks carried out tiba-tiba/mendadak, many Dutch soldiers who became casualties, of whom there were soldiers at the rank of Captain. Bally Barisan Merah 2 (two) people died of Arup bin Wahid and A. Rachman and two taken prisoner.

With the success of this first attack, then add to the efficacy of public confidence Bally Red deeds, so the more expressed their desire to fight the Dutch atta

.

Feb.8th and 9th 1949, Tanda Penerimaan Ontvangbewijs(Recieve) of Sending Pospakket with Wilhemina stamps.

February,11th.1949

On February 11, 1949 following an attack on the Dutch carried out jointly by the troops led by A. Fattah Leside and Barisan Merah Bally total 430 people led by Commander H. Abdul Hamid.

The battle took place in the Trench III Tungkal V. Rows of Red Bally fought bravely armed with machetes, saber, dagger and spear. In a battle going one on one duel. 45 (forty five) Bally Barisan Merah including Commander H. Abdul Hamid fall near the former plant padai Cang Kui Thurs. An Armed Forces and Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside wounded. In the Netherlands too many victims whose numbers were falling dapoat not known with certainty.

 Attack From the Trenches Bakau and death of Commander Adul

The first boat was placed at the front of the boat penglima Adul with Sergeant Major Murad CPM Alwi and two members of the CPM is Corporal Corporal Badari and Muhammad as well as 7 (seven) members of the Red Bally among others Abdullah. Sergeant Major CPM Buimin Hasan along with several members of the CPM and the Barisan Bally Red are on the boat finished third.

Once the troops are in the midst of the sea, met with a Dutch warship. Adul Commander and his friends immediately fired a shot aimed at the Dutch Army who were on board.

At once the shooting is intense from both sides. Commander Adul jumped into the water and swam towards the Dutch ship boarded the ship in order to invade the Dutch Army was on the ship. At the time of holding on to anchor the ship, Commander Adul kept mowed by machine-gun fire by the Dutch Army so that the handle apart and sinks do not arise again, the chief Adul fall in place.

Bally Red army commander Tungkal Area Abdusshamad Front (Commander Adul) (Photo May 1937 when he was in Johore Malaysia)

Belada soldiers continued firing machine gun that resulted in several broken or overturned boat, including boat which was Sergeant Major CPM. A. Murad Alwi. A member of Barisan Merah Bally who participated in the boat was shot and killed at that time also.

In a hail of bullets that the Dutch Army, Sergeant Major Murad Alwi trying to reach the coast of Ulu Kuala Tungkal Ladder King, by floating in water, breathe only through your nose, which sought to remain above the water surface. After a successful landing in trouble susuah Ladder King Ulu, Murad Alwi realized that his left hand got a bullet fired through the Netherlands.

From Ladder King Ulu, Murad Alwi headed Trenches Gompong where he met his friends who then took him to Beramitam and continues to the Gulf Nilau to get help and treatment.

In this battle, as many as 30 (thirty) members of the Barisan Bally Red and two CPM of Badari and Corporal Corporal Mohammed died, while 15 others were wounded, including Sergeant Major CPM. A. Murad Alwi. Sergeant Major CPM. Hasan Buimin with members of troops who are in a boat can save themselves and landed on the beach.

 Kuala Tungkal Dutch ship was attacked by Bally Red Army and Armed Forces by using boats and weapons swords and others. (Painting)

February,15th.1949

For the continuation of the struggle, it is necessary fundraiser / food in a more coordinated. Then on 15 February 1949 in Pembengis kulatungkal Jambi,set improvement board “Front Jungle”, namely:

Chairman: H. Shamsuddin (cum treasurer)

Vice Chairman: A. Sanusi (Teacher)

Penggempur Head: H. Saman (Head of Good Dyke)

Members: 1. Amri (Teacher)

2. H. Zakaria (Imam Mosque)

3. Alan (Member DPW)

4. Tarli (Member DPW)

Kitchen: People Pembengis

Supplies: Dharma Bhakti People

Information: Bureau of Information which consists of Hasan. AR, and Rusli Asrie Rashid Rashid.

Documentation: Head Masdar

With Wilderness Front refinement, then the preparations the resistance could be done better and planned, many donations from the community such as rice, coconuts, vegetables, chicken, fish, sugar, coffee, cigarettes and others were taken by boat or on foot. Not infrequently they come from enrolling to fight against the Dutch.

Special task lighting is to arouse the fighting spirit of the people, through leaflets that are made simple contents of the broadcast quoted ALL INDIA RADIO, BBC broadcasts to the Far East whose content is beneficial struggle.

Tools such as radio-Accu, stencils and typewriter obtained from people who voluntarily provide for the struggle. Accu radio donated by H. Dahlan was a businessman from Kuala Tungkal.

After beberpa times Pembengis were attacked by the Netherlands because it is situated not far from Kuala Tungkal about 7 (seven) Km, then felt insecure as the headquarters of the Front Rimba, Rimba therefore Front deployed administrators control every aspect of the place.

February ,23th.1949

The Jambi,Tanjung Jabung Kuala Tungkal Raid

 This raid occurred on February 23,  1949, the people who will engage in battle or red barret Bally had gathered in the village Pembengis Pembengis and has prepared the soup kitchen. People who become Barisan Merah Pria is dating from every Kepenghuluan (villages now) and each has brought a red cloth the size of 4 cm width and a length of 1 Meter stengah with traditional weapons according to the tribes in question, such as kris, spears , kampilan, sundang, machetes, cauliflower and others. Furthermore, the people will participate in conducting the raid, their names are recorded, which address, from which the village, noting the age and their families. Bally Red cloth should be worn at the time of invasion by forces including military forces, because in addition to the identification of members of the invading forces, is also the foundation of faith by deeds Bally Red every battle. Once everything has been prepared, then combined forces to leave the village it started moving toward the Trenches Gompong Pembengis, because this is the place Trenches Gompong final preparations, because of distance to the city of Kuala Tungkal only about an hour. In the Trenches Gompong is set on the division of groups, an explanation of the intended target, battle tactics, determine the special officers and the invasion of the Dutch defense strategies.

D. Formation of groups, leadership groups and target groups Invasion

1. After arriving in the Trenches Gompong, jumalah who will joined in the attack from the people amounted to 370 people and the Armed Forces of Indonesia as many as 30 people so that altogether 400 people. The first preparation, the examination of traditional weapons, like a dagger, the dagger, machete cauliflower, sundang, kampilan and others by a pawing weapon named Sahibar, which determined which ones should be brought guns invading and should not be taken. So all that will be joined in the attack did not kerkecuali TNI tested by eating pepper (sahang), where if that takes sahang or it was not spicy pepper, then they should not be invaded. Finally after all have provisions above, then the people of the 370 people who will fight terebut iktu allowed to go only 270 people with a military people plus 30 people, then who will conduct raids into the city of Kuala Tungkal only 300 people. To create the spirit and courage in this battle, given a drink of water that has been dijampi by the commander of the Red Bally H. Saman.

2. After finishing these studies, then arranged small groups of this number 300 men into 3 groups, all of which were assembled in three large groups, each of these three groups determined direction. Indonesian Armed Forces to be around groups of 10 people who directly amenjadi raid leader and as Vice drawn from the ranks of the people of Bally Red.

3. After the talks held between the Commander H. Saman Bally Red Army as the Commander and his staff leadership with the leadership battle Tungkal Front Area of ​​the National Army of Indonesia represented by Deputy Commander Cadet Sergeant Major Battle. AD. Madhan. AR and its commanders Sector are: Cadet Sergeant Major Anwarsyah Navy, as Commander Sergeant Major Sector II CPM Buimin Hasan, as the Commander Sector Commander III and Pol. Zulkarnain Idris as the Commander of Sector IV. From the results perebukan or negotiations have been able to set up leaders of the major groups III and at the same time also determine the target raid assault tactics and how to go back Kepangkalan Gompong Trenches.

4. From the results of these negotiations has been able to set the leadership of the propagators of the three groups and the division of the raid targets as well as offensive tactics are as follows:

a. Group I was led by Commander H. Saman and assigned as Deputy Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR targeting kepertahanan assault Dutch army in the office of Post (PO. Diamond Queen is now) and the defense of the Dutch Army at home right now Chief of Police. Movement of the attack was carried out after the group II and III attacked and burned the houses in the way the Port of Customs on the road in the Trenches I Ulu Palembang. The road taken by the group I was way students now, after moving from Simpang Gompong trench.

b. The task of the TNI led by Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR in group I was once seen fires in the Port of Ilir road as well as fires in the Trenches I and have a shootout, then the troops on the group I carry out attacks on Dutch soldiers in the post of Defence Police and the Post Office house with gunfire Kijanju Japanese machine guns and other weapons fire and threw hand grenades Japanese-made machine gun in place of the post office. Meanwhile troops pasuskan sling-led by the commander of the Red H. Saman began to move into town with cries of “Yes-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram” and stormed kepertahanan dutch army.

5. Group II, chaired by the Sector Commander III CPM Buimin Sergeant Hasan and Commander Sector Commander Pol IV. Zulkarnain Idris, the Deputy of the Barisan Bally Red H. Sayamsuddin and M. Sanusi who has the task of moving towards the Port road, through the Fishermen’s circuitry, veering through the bridge through the back way towards the goal of the Great mesji houses would be burned. While the military led by Sergeant Major yasng CPM stand on the back of the Grand Mosque, in order to protect the troops who served the Red Bally burned houses in the way of the Port has been burned. Zulkarnain Idris Force Commander at the Crossroads Commander survive and if the houses had been burned in the street Seaport, then this forces the defense menghantan Dutch Army in Simpang Empat at home Rivai. Pamuncak ST. Fire houses in the street and the harbor is a commando attack on the burning of houses by the Group III conducted the attack from the Trenches I.

6. Group III was led by Cadet Sergeant Major AL. Arwansyah assisted by Sergeant Corporal Syamsik of AL and AL and Barisan Sakiban Bally Red headed by Head of Masdar. Task Group III, the main thing is to burn the houses in the area of ​​Palembang on the road and the road near the cemetery and destroy tanks of water available in each house. While the military to protect them dar those shots. Motion carried on the road if the Port has seen fire and had a shootout with the Dutch Army. Thus, the Dutch Army was besieged by seranagan of Ilir and ulu.

E. The course of the Battle

1. Arriving at the Simpang Parit Gompong, each group dispersed into three majors with a unanimous determination to uphold all the decisions and plan their invasion.

In the middle of the pitch-dark night around 2 move all groups to their respective targets:

a. Group I to the way students are now heading to the Dutch defense in the post office is now PO. Diamond Queen and the current police chief’s house.

b. Group II is now moving towards the road on the edge of Fisherman sungat Dyke II, then entered the bridge the road continues to the back of the Great Mosque, and the houses of the Port road.

c. Group III moves forward towards the path of Sriwijaya, langusng to the cemetery road continues to divide the two directions of the road and as well as towards Palembang umah police chief.

2. At 3:15 minutes midnight, the group II who holds the key to the raid, had managed to set fire to houses in the Port road, which is a sign for the group III started his movement set fire to houses in the cemetery road and the road Palembang at 4 pajar fire has been coloring the sky red both of Ilir Pelaguhan road or from Parit Ulu I have been shooting, the bullets like fireflies in the night, flying toward its target, a voice shouts Barisan Merah Bally called “YA-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram”, reverberated and echoed in pajar sidikini. They advanced without shaking to the Dutch Army kepertahanan with traditional weapons hump machetes, spears, swords, dagger, dagger and others. “Esa lost two fairly, never come into force retroactively dubalang, Fisabilillah their determination, martyrdom purpose”.

3. Among the Dutch army had panic attacks from Ilir and from Ulu, also accompanied by a thunderous shouts of Barisan Merah Pria then at that time also held a group I suddenly shots kepertahanan Dutch Army Post Office (PO. Queen of Diamonds) now and Police in the house (street Nusa Indah) now, accompanied dnegan throwing hand grenades made in Japan, along with Bally’s Red Army, led by Commander H. Saman with cries of “Yes-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram” by firing a pistol in his left hand and right hand on the knob war kepertahanan Army invaded the Netherlands, followed by a red sash around the troops. From all directions from either side Ilir, as well as from the Middle gemuruhlah next Ulu and voice calls greatness “YA-ZALJALALI-WAL – Ikram” interspersed with shots of firearms, pasukana Dutch Army in the Post Office and Police Chief of home defense, began to leave defense they retreated towards the waterfront near the Ferry port now, while firing blindly, but the Barisan Merah Bally continues to pursue even if among them there are ayng shot the Dutch army. TNI troops, army come forward with ways to shoot a moving target, especially the Dutch troops are retreating, because given the bullets are extremely limited, and also members of these forces teleh use traditional weapons, like a dagger or a sword that has been revoked dibabkan bullets in their weapons have been depleted.

4. The morning sun has its light emitting dar UPUK east coincided with that bang-bang kancu martyrs and gun fire from the Dutch navy patrol boat in the river Pengabuan have caused explosions in downtown Kuala Tungkal both of Ilir, in Ulu and back-street Students, who as if to block the withdrawal of troops raid this way. The shooting mortars and cannon kancu of this ship did not stop approximately 3 hours.

5. The sky looked overcast, clouds covered the sky as if this vast and bi glimpsed through the clouds of sunlight that is about 5 feet high from the east UPUK. However ldakan-mortar explosion are still visible around the arena battles of the trenches I still shots karabon one-one that conducted by Cpl AL Sakiban target is not clear what is fired. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR signaling the Saman H. commander who at that time was behind the cliff path along with a few special men who accompanied him, in addition to the right at the intersection of four BNI now, while Cadet Sergeant Madhan. BRI AR are present in which the sign is to regularly retreat back to base. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR along with the soldiers I usman and Asnawi and Ilyas, who turns invisible warrior I finally know this (Ilyas) were killed at the time throwing grenades at the Post Defense Army Chief of Police of the Netherlands at home now. Commander H. Saman, along with some of his men saw Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR and two of his men began moving back toward the Dutch Army Defense Pos that have been abandoned, then the commander of H. Saman-even moving backwards calmly standing on foot despite mortar explosions still there. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR digundikan Dutch defense until after the Post Office, seen one automatic weapon Owen Holland-gun and one gun is the result of that battle.

6. At the time rewind back to this base, look fabric is used as stretchers to carry the members of Barisan Bally Red wounded from the street and road Sriwijaya Students, and other friends who are killed can not be brought back.

F. Cover

1. So … a little story of The War of Independence History of Struggle of the Republic of Indonesia in the District of Tanjung Jabung in general, kecamata Tungkal Ilir particular that really happen that we serve in Attractions Flashback. About the invasion of the Netherlands Army in defense of Kuala Tungkal, for combinations of the Indonesian national army and the people of the Barisan Bally Red line to the defense of the Dutch Army in the city of Kuala Tungkal, which is the power of “single” is a potent and powerful, which may eventually repulsed Army troops Holland has a complete and modern weaponry and as one of the allied forces who took part won World War II past.

2. The raid on Thursday night and Friday on February 23, 1949 but we can repel the Dutch troops, get 2 pieces of LE and an Owen gun-gun, then on the ranks of the TNI and the people of Red Bally, many of which fall as a nation and as kusuma martyrs, who numbered as many as 68 people

 

(5)February,26th.1949

The rare Federal State postal stationer smelt 2 sen type one G 95 with “Van Den”(type two  ,common with ven de) send from Padang to Padang Panjang(all west sumatra area  under federal state,except some village still under PDRI state.(this card send by my friend Wirako’s father,Dir MHI Ang Ie Siang)

Feb.23th.1949

23 February,1949

Basis battle acttacked move to  Pembengis village

Moved to Pembengis base invasion

After several raids from the sea which resulted in many casualties, then the elders of both the TNI and the Red Bally decided to divert the attack from the mainland. Location was chosen as the center / base to prepare the troops is Pembengis located approximately seven (7) km from Kuala Tungkal.

To support / coordinate the implementation of the attack through the Front Wilderness that has been enhanced to take care of receiving assistance from the public for purposes perjungan such as rice, coconuts, vegetables, fish, sugar, coffee, bread, cigarettes and others, in addition to registering and selecting those that expressed a desire to contribute to fight and fight against the Dutch Army,

For purposes, Forest Front, get a radio-aid batteries from H. Dahlan an entrepreneur that can be used to obtain useful information to better establish the continuation of the struggle. Information obtained by officers who are members of the Bureau of Information Wilderness Front transmitted to the public, among others, BBC Radio broadcast from the Far East for the benefit of struggle.

With the death of Commander and Commander H. Adul Abdul Hamid, the head of the Barisan Merah Bally replaced by Commander H. Saman, who had always accompanied the Commander Adul in raids against the Dutch Army.

In the final preparations to Kuala Tungkal invasion, have signed up to the board at Forest Front Pembengis number 1000 (one thousand) people to participate in fighting the Dutch attack, after selection by an assessment team received as many as 441 (four hundred and forty-one), the rest is prepared as a backup .

After all the preparations done, including practice teaching / practice Bally Red Direct Commander H. Saman, then on February 23, 1949 number of 441 (four hundred and forty-one) consisting of members of Bally Red line, the TNI, Police, Civilian Employee, Village Administrator and Village clergy, led by Pangluma H. Saman attacked the Dutch position in Kuala Tungkal. This attack meruapakan the greatest number of troops and the best preparation than with attacks carried out previously.

In Force attack was contained, among others:

1. Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR (representing the Sector Commander Tungkal 1023 Front Area) A. Fattah Leside being treated wounds, with 3 (three) members of the TNI, namely, Syamsik Sergeant, Corporal (L) and Cpl Sakiban Sahring CPM.

2. H. Shamsuddin (Chairman of the Front Wilderness / prince Tungkal III)

3. M. Sanusi (Vice-Chairman of the Front Wilderness)

4. Masdar Event (Head Tungkal Ilir)

5. Police Commander Zulkarnaen Idris, Bustami and others

Troops are divided into 21 (twenty one) group dipimpini by a Chairman and Vice-direct group led by Commander H. Saman. Departure done from Pembengis (Old Mosque) and before arriving in Kuala Tungkal stopped some time at the Masjid Parit Gompong while carrying out the practice Bally Red as final preparations prior to the raid.

Before dawn, troops stormed Kuala Tungkal, through the checkpoints Netherlands. Occurs single combat with unequal weapons. Bally Red troops set fire to houses in the neighborhood used as a residence / dormitory Dutch Army, without heeding shots Dutch engine, so a lot of Dutch soldiers out of fear and panic ran up to their war ships anchored at the jetty Kuala Tungkal.

After raged almost as long as 3 (three) hours, the Barisan Merah Bally resigned return to Pembengis leaving the victim sebayak 30 (thirty) people died as a hero. In the Netherlands also fell victims to death and many serious injuries and minor.

Since the attacks, the Dutch Army to make the barriers of barbed wire fence around their camp, so that military and Red Bally will not strike again. But in reality, the TNI and the Red Bally never stop the attack. Dutch soldiers who were patrolling out of camp is always blocked and intercepted by the TNI and the Barisan Merah Bally.

February,24th.1949

Tanda Penerimaaan _Ontvangbewij,(The recieved) of sending Pospakket from Toko Kie Batavia to Ambon with overprint Indonesia stamp 40 cent.

3.March

March 1

(1)Guerillas retake Yogya for six hours under Suharto. (Later, this event would be called the “serangan umum” or “public offensive”.)

(2) the very rare change of adressstationer 2  sen dancer stationer, send from Hollandia Ned New guinea (mnow west papua) to Tanjung Pandan Billiton (very rare city postmark of West Papua and Billiton island Sumatra)

March,4th.1949

(1)Ontvangbewijs (Recieved of sending) Pospakket cds Batavia centrum 4.3.49 with overprint Indonesia stamps 2×40 send and 2x1gld

(2)The chinese overseas Medical doctor,dentist and Apotheecers organization letter send to Dr Thung Batavia,with nica -USA stamp 1 and 2 cent.

March,7th.1949

The Money Order(Poswessel)  recieved CDS SALAM 7.3.49(The city near Magelang and mountain)

March,8th.1949

On March 8, 1949, again the combined military forces Kuala Tungkal Jambi and Bally Red with strength of 150 people (one hundred and fifty) people led by Commander H. Saman attacked the Dutch position in Kuala Tungkal. In this raid, 68 (sixty eight) Barisan Merah Bally fall, and in the Netherlands is expected to fall a victim who directly witnessed by the survivors back to base.

Panglima Camak Dari Sungai Undan (Riau)

Commander Camak From River Undan (Riau)

On March 8, 1949 Dutch Army troops landed in the village bay beehive, a member of Bally Red happened to be in the Gulf market beehive named H. Baslan saw Dutch troops landed, H. Bally Red line Baslan members armed with machetes hump. H. Baslan were fired upon with automatic weapons by the Dutch Army and the fall of the scene. H. Baslan semapt injured left arm of a Dutch Army (original Dutch)

March,9th.1949

Ontvangbewijs (Recieved of sending) Pospakket cds Batavia centrum 9.3.49 with  6×50 sen ,2×40 sen overprint Indonesia and 1 gld overprint indonesia(rate  4.8 gulden).

March,16th.1949

On March 16, 1949, Commander Camak Barisan leaders of the Red River Bally Undan (Riau) led the 250 (two hundred and fifty) troops march stormed Kuala Tungkal Bally. Participated in this raid 25 (twenty five) troops led by Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR.

Troops dispatched from the Old Mosque Pembengis. In this raid, Commander Camak under a hail of bullets fired by the Dutch invaded with his army, jumped over the barbed wire directly invaded the Netherlands in the camp. Semantara troops kept firing to protect them. Because the unbalanced force which forces the Red Bally only use sharp weapons such as machetes, swords, dagger, dagger, spear and the like. While the Netherlands using modern senajata automatic machine guns and other like-lai, Bally Red Army withdrew back to Pembengis. In battle, the commander Camak with 36 (thirty six) members of Barisan Merah Bally fall.

J. Sector Headquarters 1023 always moving

After several times attacked by military forces along the Barisan Merah Bally, based in Pembengis, the Dutch Army increased patrols to Pembengis and surrounding both by sea using BO patrol boat equipped with heavy weapons as well as by land from the Trenches Gompong so pembengis not safe anymore .

1023 Tungkal Area Sector Commander Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Laside with staff.
Standing in front from left to right: Sergeant Major Moerad Alwie, Madhan Cadet Sergeant Major AR, A. Young Lieutenant Fattah Laside and Sakiban. Squatting in front of Major Buimin Hasan.

For further struggle interests of the loading and preparation struggle berpinda-moved from place to place (mobile). Sector Commander Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside first move its headquarters to the Trenches Trench VII, then to the Mangrove, River Gebar and last base of the spines / Punggur River.

Strategy and tactics of the struggle then continue to use the strategy and tactics of war grilya (hita-and-run). In order for the strategy and tactics are run more efficiently and effectively, therefore 1023/Tungkal Sector structure Sector Area or Area Tungkal enhanced by including the following:

Sector Commander / Battle:
Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside accompanied by Lieutenant (N) Makky Perdana Kusuma.

Vice Commander:
Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR.

Sub-Sector Commander Betara River / Ditch Deli:
Sergeant Major (L) T. Anwar Shah.

Pengabuan River Sub-Sector Commander:
Sergeant Major CPM A. Murad Alwi.

In addition there are several Unity Unity Tempur Tempur ie, each led by Sergeant Major CPM Buimin Hasan, Idris Zulkarnaian Police Commander, Sergeant Major (L) Sanusi and Sakiban moving from place to place (mobile). For the Dutch guerrilla attack. Until the announcement of the Cease Fire Ipenghentian shootout / ceasefire). Pengahadangan against Dutch troops continue to be made of them in Punggur River, Gulf of beehive, paar serindit River, Market Nilau Bay, River and other Gebar

 

March,17th.1949

The Diensbriefkaaart(Official Postcard),free stamp of Landsdrukkereij Batavai(Official printing) send from batavia to Semarang.

March,19th.1949

The Chan’s Book Store promotional cover send from  CDS Batavia centrum to Probolinggo with dancer 3 cent stamp.

March,24th.1949

the rare federal state postal stationer smelt 5 sen type one G 95 with van den,send  from Padang to Padang Panjang(this card send from my friend wirako’s father to my father in law- the family historic collections)

 

March 31 U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson privately tells Dutch that their Marshall Plan aid is still in jeopardy

4.April


Sjarifudin Prawiranegara headed the emergency PDRI government while Sukarno, Hatta, and the rest of the regular Republican government were being held by the Dutch. He would be involved in Indonesian politics for many years to come, as part of the rebel PRRI government in 1958, and yet again as a signer of the “Petition of 50” criticizing the government in 1980.

April,2nd.1949

The postally used cover CDS Bandoeng ,the capital city Pasundan State of Indonesia Federaal

April 6th.1949.

91)United States Senate passes resolution to stop Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands, but only if the UN Security Council votes sanctions against the Netherlands.

(2) The picuters of Malioboro road corner, during the PTT repaired the phone cables.

April,12th.1949

 the battle on the River Gebar in April 1949, dutch temtara patrol intercepted by navy troops led by Sergeant Major (L) T. Anwar Shah was accompanied by Lieutenant (N) Makky Perdanan Kusuma. After fighting a long time since losing in the number and types of weapons, troops backed by the victim’s 3 (three) people were slightly injured among them Lieutenant (N) Makky Perdanan dip aha Kusuma shot left.

April 12, 1949, Dutch soldiers using heavily armed BO ship docked in Bay Village Market NIlau, by landing troops by fully armed. Seeing the Dutch army landed, the troops march Bally Red spread around the Gulf Market Nilau, see the Dutch soldiers who were walking hand in hand towards the mainland, a member of the Barisan Bally named Aban Red Army invaded the Netherlands alone, have not had time to get to the Dutch Army troops, Aban has Automatic weapons were fired upon by the Dutch Army and Aban died the scene.

K. KL soldiers. Netherlands In the Capture

In early April 1949 after the headquarters moved to the Base of Sector 1023 Duri, a Dutch war ship approached the shore Jetty spines. Earlier the Dutch Army had been frequently patrolling the base of spines around the coast because that area 1023/Tungkal Sector headquarters are in this place.

The warship filled with native Dutch soldiers called Koningkelijke Leger (KL). Before arriving in Kuala Jetty Duri, the ship ran aground in the middle of the ocean because the water was receding. With a lifeboat 3 (three) persons to kuala Jetty Dutch soldiers with the intention of investigating the situation spines, but not biased to land because of low tide.

A Dutch Navy who were captured by the army of the republic of Indonesia (TRI)

being interrogated by Lieutenant Young A. Haddy D. Head III.

One of them by using a fishing boat that was passing by tried to reach land Jetty Kuala spines where there are houses and a Post Customs (Customs). Before samapi on the mainland, a boat accidentally overturned by the owner, then by the population residing in Kuala Jetty Duri Dutch Army is busy-busy arrested and taken to River Punggur, of whom helped Adnan Hasibuan a Customs Officer on duty at Jetty Kuala Duri .

Looking at these events, two Dutch soldiers who were on the boat right back to the ship. River Punggur Dutch soldiers were taken to the Sector Commander 1023 A. Fattah Leside was examined by Lieutenant Young A. Hadi Chief of Bureau III? Intel’s Northern Front, which happened to be in the village in order to help their duties in a combat situation Tungkal Front Area.

In the afternoon a patrol boat equipped with a BO Dutch heavy and light weapons opened fire towards the Jetty Kuala Sungai Punggur spines and without a definite direction (blindly). Dutch soldiers went ashore and then continue shooting. Apsukan TNI withdrew kepedalaman while shooting a reply to slow down the Dutch Army. In the event thirty (30) residents were arrested by the Dutch and taken to the Kuala Tungkal.

Lieutenant Young A. Haddy D. Head III Intel TNI

April,13th.1949

the rare Indonesia federal state letter sheet(Postblad-warkatpos) postal stationer queen wilhelmina  10 cent send from Pasundan state capital ,Bandung to Batavia(Jakarta)

April 16th.1949.

Tan Malaka is captured and executed by a TNI commander after a Dutch contingent attacks the town where he was staying.the latest information the tomb of Tan Malaka was found,the bone is DNA test and cofirmed.

April 22th.1949.

 Dutch announce that they will return the Republican government to Yogya if the guerilla war stops.

April,23th.1949

Free of Revenue,Acte van overleiden(Deth Certificate) od Batavia for European people  (Rosalia Julia Lapre.)

5.Mei

(1)Sukarno and Hatta remain in custody on Bangka.

(2) Sadar _Ontwaken magazine,Mei 1949-The chinese overseas magazined lead by Thio In Lok ,every one month. intersting info about Pao An Tui.

In the unconscious has been described by colleagues Soegardo about PAT (Pao’s tui) which summarily describes that PAT is only logical that there is, for defending the rights of the Chinese nation has. Among the many questions surrounding the establishment of PAT, it is our attention, that all fees that amount is not small shouldered by the Chinese community itself, so that by the time the organization has never sounded kesahnya complaints about financially, could be the water as the Chinese community and the PAT as a fish . But the situation at that time was really sad karewna kwmungkinan PAT dissolution exists, financial kiarena not suffice. If PAT is dissolved, menunjukn that Chinese society is still too weak in the union to mengalang an organization to defend human rights. No one has objected the PAT in Indonesia, which defended the rights of Chinese people as no other person able to membelanya.Tidak there was a broad outlook will Indonesiapun with this prizip meolak. (Parent Iwan spoke about how the leadership of Dr. Poh An Tui city Padang, Chinese dilingkungankampung maintain and defend the legendary Chinese moans of other tribes, such as Tanah Kongsi burning efforts by spraying petrol dikalikecil, Dr. Iwan still remember the night-maolam told n = mengunsi home Ntjek Ko Lai because he wanted dibakar. Small-time record of dr iwan

Didalam sadar pernah diuaraikan oleh rekan Soegardo tentang PAT(Pao an tui) yang ringkasnya melukiskan bahwa sudah sewajarnya PAT itu ada, untuk membela hak-has azasi dari bangsa Tionghoa. Diantara banyak soal sekitar pendirian PAT ,adalah sangat menarik perhatian kita,bahwa segala biaya yang jumlahnya tidak sedikit dipikul oleh masyarakat Tionghoa sendiri,sehingga pada waktu organisasi itu tidak pernah kedengaran keluh-kesahnya soal finasial ,bisa merupakan air sebagai masyarakat Tionghoa dan PAT sebagai ikannya.Tetapi keadaan pada waktu itu sungguh menyedihkan karewna kwmungkinan dibubarkannya PAT itu ada, kiarena keuangan tidak mencukupkan. Jika PAT dibubarkan ,menunjukn bahwa masyarakat Tionghoa masih terlampau lemah dalam persatuannya untuk mengalang suatu organisasi guna membela hak azasi. Tak ada seorangpun yang keberatan adanya PAT di Indonesia ini,yang membela hak azasi bangsa Tionghoa karena tidak ada lain orang yang mampu membelanya.Tidak ada seorang Indonesiapun dengan pandangan luas akan meolak prizip ini.(Orang Tua Dr Iwan bercerita bagaimana pimpinan Poh An Tui kota Padang,dilingkungankampung Tionghoa menjaga dan membela kaum Tionghoa daris erangan suku lain,seperti upaya membakar Tanah Kongsi dengan menyiramkan bensi dikalikecil, Dr iwan Masih ingat malam-maolam disuruh mengungsi ke rumah Ntjek Ko Lai karena katanya Kali Kecil mau dibakar.-catatan dr iwan)

MAY,5TH.1949

MAY, 5TH. 1949

 THE BATTLE AT FORT HURABA

1) On May 5, 1949 at around 04.00.Wib Dutch Army from Pijor koling held siege attack of four majors, assisted by 2 members of Mobile Brigade road Bookmarks Tapanuli named MAKALEO and Syamsul Bahri, the Dutch attack was captured FORT HURABA, Troops MBK Tapanuli in Fort Huraba Tolang and retreated to his native troops led brigade-B CAPTAIN ROBINSON Hutapea back to Kampung Tolang

2) Arriving in the village of MAS Tolang KADIRAN collect all the existing forces and ordered the attack on replies to the Dutch troops who have occupied FORT HURABA, Battle happen again with the help of troops firing mortars KADIRAN MAS can be expelled from FORT HURABA and at 16.30.Wib FORT HURABA can the reclaim and Dutch troops retreated into the field of battle FORT Sidempuan HURABA losses in the troops led by MAS members MBK KADIRAN 10 people were killed, 12 people from the Forces Brigade – B were killed and losses Weapons.

3) After the Dutch troops retreated from FORT HURABA Dutch troops never again attack the FORT HURABA, only MAS KADIRAN never received a letter from the Dutch in Padang Sidempuan Army to surrender and give up when the going gets Position, but the letter was returned by the MAS KADIRAN delivered by a woman trader named MARIAM the contents of the letter reads “WE DO NOT WANT TO MEYERAH ..!!! PLEASE COME TO FORT HURABA IF TRUE MASTER – MASTER want to colonize. WE THANK-BEANS BEANS WITH OUR ”

4) With the CEACH FIRE in September 1949 the MAS KADIRAN A commander of the Battle Command Battle Fortress Fortress Huraba submit to Aiptu USMAN Huraba Danki – A MBK Tapanuli and Mas Kadiran Penyabungan left to take care of everything in case of delivery of the purposes of sovereignty and Weigh received by Dutch Army.

r. PUTTING POLICE CHIEF POSITION NORTH SUMATRA

Penyabungan city is the capital of South Tapanuli, after the city of Padang Sidempuan in the Dutch Army controlled, as the Civil Administration / Regent is KING LUBIS lord, is the king Oloan police chief and commander of troops is a MAJOR Bejo. For the Chief Constable of North Sumatra occurred Kepakuman because at Sibolga and Dutch troops occupied Sidempuan P. DARWIN’S FATHER KARIM Kapala as North Sumatra Police went to Paya Kumbu, then proposed by MAS KARIM DARWIN’S FATHER KADIRAN to lead the police in North Sumatra.

s. POLICE TRAINING IN FIRST CHRISTMAS

With the CEACH FIRE / truce, and no longer Dutch attacks as head of the MAS KADIRAN MBK Tapanuli DARWIN’S FATHER KARIM propose to add members to MBK Tapanuli and practice it, the proposal to be approved later KADIRAN MAS Mas Kadiran choose Youth-Youth of the Guerrilla Merapi 60 people and of the Brigade – B led MAJOR Bejo as many as 50 people. The next 110 Youth Education gets sent keNataluntuk Police and other exercises and as Chief of Police Education and Training. North Sumatra Police chief Adjunct Senior Commissioner DARWIN KARIM lift Iptu Ibn as Chief of Police Education and Training at Christmas.

t. Mobile Brigade residency Tapanuli

ASKED TO BE ORGANIC army

MAS KADIRAN summoned FATHER SAID UMAR Sumatra Police chief in Bonjol, Mr. Umar Said asks you about the status of the Mas Kadiran Tapanuli MBK “WHAT IS ORGANIC Mobile Brigade SIGN IN OR REMAIN IN POLICE Army ‘Mas Kadiran then replied” IF WE ARE STILL IN NEED WORKERS IN POLICE THEN WE WILL CONTINUE TO BE A MEMBER OF POLICE BECAUSE WE ARE STRIVING FOR INDEPENDENCE OF THE POLICE IS “thus Sumatra Police chief Mr Umar Said That set MBK Tapanuli remain in the Police and the rank was raised to MAS KADIRAN KLS POLICE COMMISSIONER-II with Position COMMANDERS BIG CAR Brigade – I SUMUT – ACEH, after inauguration the next day please Mas Kadiran Prayer Restu to Mr. Said Omar to return to Penyabungan and when he got in Penyabungan reports to the Chief Constable of North Sumatra Mr. Darwin Karim.

May 7th.1949.

“Roem-Royem” agreement: Dutch agree to restore the Republic of Indonesia government, to hold talks according to the UN Security Council resolution of January 28, and to work towards a settlement based on the Renville agreement.

Based on Aneta information Jakarta said the Republic Radio “Voice of Sumatra” the PDRI government  about Van Royen-Roem Agreement. The PDRI goverenment accept the Roem-Royen agreement on  such codition(atas syarat-syarat) :

a) Pasoekan Republik harus diperkenankan tetap menduduki posisi yang ada ditempatnya sekarang.

b)Tentara Belanda haruslah dengan perlahan-lahan ditarik mundur dari posisinya sekarang ini.

c)Pengembalian Pemrintahan Republik ke Djokja haruslah dengan tidak bersyarat(tanpa syarat)

d)Souvereinieteit (Kedaulatan)Republik atas Jawa,Sumatra,madura serta pulau-pulau sekitarnya,harus diakui oleh Belanda menurut perjanjian Linggarjati.

May,16th.1949.

The Postally Used Lettersheet postblad warkatpos ,from Batavia(Jakarta) to Semarang.with Wilhelmina stamps 10 sen.

May,25th.1949

General Spoor, commander of the Dutch in Indonesia, resigns. He dies of a heart attack on May 25.

May,31th.1949.

(1)On May,31th.1949,

Panittia status Tapanoeli telah mengadakan suatu rapat di Taroetoeng yang dihadiri oleh lebih kurang 200 orang yang mewakili seluruh masyarakat demikian”Aneka”. Diantara para hadirin juga terdapat beberapa orang terkemuka yang berhaluan Republik. Setelah diadakan suatu perdebatan yang panjang lebar,maka rapat mengambil suatu resolusi ,dimana disetujui status ketatanegaraan untuk tapanuli. Dalam suatu rapat di Balige,yang dihadiri oleh lebih kurang 700 orang, telah disetujui tujuan panitia status Tapanoeli. Pembentukan suatu Dewan Perwakilan Tapanoeli telah diperbincangkan dengan teliti,bahkan telah disertai dengan perayaan,demikian Aneta. Selanuutjnya juga di Sibolga telah diadakan rapat untuk memperbincangkan hal ini.Untuk pekerjaaan pembangunan kembali telah dibentuk suatu panitia yang diberinama “Pembangunan Bersama Saerah Tapanoeli”

(2) Postally used Posttas stationer card 5 sen send from bogor to Jatinegara,Prison  Bukit duri, a letter to the custodian at Bukit Duri prison with their officias stamped:” de factory Gevangenen kamp meester cornelis(very rare and only one ever seen-Dr Iwan note)

the letter :

Bogor 01/31/49

greetings and Happy

Thank God we say to the Divine Presence, this is blown over the first of our mouths, I arrived home safely.

Mas (elder brother) was ketir scenery and atmosphere, very different from what dahulu.Apa-aspired to in the fumble prisoners will all but I am not surprised.

While this is in addition to working on something, just stay home writing maaaf. Bogor air (air) was dinggin once.

  Sofyan bung in Bogor is still working. What are the kurasai. only then can I be glad when there is no longer prisoners in Bukit Duri. Mas all these signs of suhardja letter, tell the brothers. Sorry for the other brothers

Bogor 31/1.49

salam dan Bahagia

Alhamdulilah kami ucapkan kepada hadirat Ilahi, atas inilah yang terhembus pertama-tama dari mulut kami,dengan selamat saya tiba dirumah.

Mas(elder brother) memang ketir pemandangan dan suasana ,amatlah berbeda dengan dahulu.Apa-apa yang dicita-citakan dalam tawanan meleset semua akan tetapi saya tidak heran.

Sementara ini selain mengerjakan sesuatu,hanya tinggal dirumah menulis maaaf. Bogor udaranya (hawa) terasa dinggin sekali.

 bung Sofyan ada di Bogor masih  bekerja. Sedang apa yang kurasai. saya barulah dapat bersenang hati bila tak ada tawanan lagi di Bukit Duri. Mas semua inilah tanda surat dari suhardja,katakan kepada saudara-saudara. Kasihan pada saudara-saudara yang lain. 

6.June

June,7th,1949

the rare change of adress dancer 2 cen added overprint Indonesia federaal stampF 1.-,postally used via airmail from Malili(rare area) to Semarang ,

June,10th.1949

(1)Postally used circulair letter from the chineseoversees  Medical Doctor,Dental health and aphothekeer organiztions ,alaydrus street ,Central jacarta to the member with federal usa printing stamps 1 and 2 cent.

(2)Menurut keterangan Sultan Djokja ,pada hari ini lebih kurang seratus orang pembesar Republik dan orang partikelir beserta keluarga,oleh Belanda telah diangkut dari Magelang ke Djokja. Sebagai alasan orang-orang itu dianggap berbahaya untuk keamanan dan ketertiban  umum serta mereka mendapat pangilan pemerintah Repoeblik,sedangkan hal tersebut ternyata tidak benar.Hal ini telah dilaporkan kepada ketua delegasi Republik,supaya dengan perantaraan PBB diajukan protes.

Keterangan Sultan yang kedua ,mengenai soal pelemparan granat tangan dihalaman tempat kediaman Iboe Soekarno.Sultan menerangkan ,bahwa difihak orang Belanda ingin memperlihatkan kepada dunia ketridak sanggupan pemerintah republik untuk mempertahankan keamana dan ketertiban,jika telah dikembalikan ke Djokja dan bahwa kejadian itu dibesar-besarkan. Kabar yang mengatakan bersumber dari pihak Republik,bahwa granat tangan itu dilempar oleh pihak FDR dan bukanlah oleh PKI,menurut Sultan pihak resmi Republik sama sekali tidak tahu dan sampai sekarang rtidak ada bukti bahwa orang Indonesia yang telah melemparkanya. Akhirnyaditerangkan oleh Sultan bahwa sampai pada waktu Pemerintak Republik dikembalikan,maka tentara Belanda bertanggung Jawab atas keamanan penduduk di Djokja.

Sultan Jogja menerangkan dalam konperensi pers di Djokja sekembalinya dari kunjungan ke Jakarta dan Bangka ,bahwa kunjungan tersebut memberikan kepuasan. Mungkin dalam minggu ini akan diumumkan, kapan berlangsungnya penyerahan kekuasaan di Djokja oleh Belanda kepada republik.Kembalinya Presiden Soekarno dan Drs Moh Hatta beserta pemimpin rfepubli lainnya, sangat bisa terjadi dua atau tiga hari steelah terjadi penyerahan kedaulatan tersebut,hal ini juga tergantung kepada  keresidenan Djokja.

KETERANG Dr SOEKIMAN, Ketua Masjumi dr Soekimanpun telah memberi satu uraian yang panjang lebar tentang kunjungan Hatta ke Aceh. dikatakannya rombongan Hatta sangat menyesal karena sudah tidak dapat bertemu muka dengan Mr Sjafroeddin,akan tetapi ini tidaklah mengakibatkan hal yang tidak enak. Dr Soekiman menegaskan bahwa seluruh Aceh ada menyokong kesepakatan  van Royen-Roem.Sebelumnya Hatta datang di Aceh,pihak PNI sangat menentang persetujuan itu, akan tetapi pendirian ini telah berubah setelah Mr Ali Sastroamidjojo memberikan keterangan selengkapnya.  Dr Soekiman menceritakan juga, bahwa pada waktu sebelumnya rombongan pemimpin republik datang, lapangan terbang Longah di Aceh telah ditembaki dengan sanpan mesin dan dibom dari udara oleh pasukan Belanda.Tapi pihak militer belanda yang berkuasa menyangkal dengan keras keterangan tersbut diatas.

Pembantu Mimbar Oemoem di Djokja memberikan informasi dari Dr Halim,seorang anggota Badan Pekerja KNI(Komite nasional Indoensia), ia menerangkan bahwa setelah Pemerintah Republik nanti kembali ke Djokja, pada pokoknya ia setuju sekali dengan adanya kabinet parlementer , karena lebih demokratis dari kabinet Presidentiel. Tetapi menilik suasana pada waktu ini, justru dalam waktu peralihan ,figur-figur seperti Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta yang tidak terikat dalam salah satu patai atau golongan , masih diperlukan untuk dapat mengatasi segala pertentangan partai dan golongan sekalipun mereka itu  sebagai manusia juga tidak luput dari kesalahan dan kekurangan. Dr Halim setuju sekali bila diadakan resuffle kabinet buat menganti beberapa orang yang dipandang kurang kuat.

INTERVIEW WITH THE RESULTS dr.j.h. van Royen by BMDiah leader Merdeka newspaper published in the Daily Panarangan:

a. Apabilakah conceivably pemrintah Republican masters to come back? The answer: The Return of the Republic to Djokja is preceded by two terms: the evacuation of civilians and the achievement of a formula to hold a “Cease fuire order” which is being discussed by the two sub-commission for it, and I hope by the end of this week reached a command to stop fighting . Then with the Dutch troops will be withdrawn segrara mundur.Ini at least take a week and I beraharap at the end of this week reached a command to stop fighting.

b. The Conference will be held Bilakan bunda.Jawabannya table: Selaks as possible, I hope that after the Republic back and aprlemennya approve the agreement was made, it will be taken as a date destination July 15 to hold a Round table conference.

c.Bagaimanakah may hold an agency representative to welcome kedaulatn.Jika right for freedom and limited state of mind this people? only in Dutch-controlled area for those who want to follow the lead of the Netherlands while the class of the republic can not speak? he replied: I think the will of the people and independence of thought has already been firmly expressed desire for independence that would not indicate that there is a real will of the people? not the greatness of the popularity of President soekarno it as fact will of the people? However, regarding the matter of election of some form of state or constitutional legendary esuatu Indomnesia area had to be done together under international supervision. If the Dutch troops had withdrawn from the areas occupied by itself for both parties, for the followers of the Republic there is no reason to say that they are oppressed to express their opinions and for those who think differently should be gaining independence cukup.Pemilihan so this should be done under international supervision. In this case the limits of something where the sound was to be done pemunggutan also in harmony with a healthy mind. Self-determination sendir it properly recognized, but also in this great little area must ditemntukan first, for example by a constituent assembly.

d) if the master trust in the current Republican leaders opposed to host negotiations? answer: I sunguh put their trust in them. in connection with this question, the chairman of the Dutch delegation was advancing petanyaan replies: “Are People Indonesia will put their trust in them, also Kapau transfer of sovereignty has been done, we Jawan: Stay at least to their confidence in the Indonesian People depend on their results in the fight for independence by way talks with the host delegation led (headed), also with the wisdom of his leadership in running the master Lovink ini.Apabila approvals done in the land can be implemented with the help of masters and kepercayaabn Indonesia into larger nation against the Dutch government’s intention, then their position will be stronger and higher also harhat and their degrees in the eyes of the people, the more the days after the transfer of sovereignty.

FACTS ABOUT MR Roem RETURNS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF DJOKJA.Dalam a question and answer between the editor in chief harin Indonesia Merdeka with delegation chairman Mr.Moh.Roem, he stated that the Government return to Djokja Rrepublik within the next week is not yet possible, but can be expected to occur in this June as well. As is known by the sound of a communique slah United Nations Commission for Indonesia, the return of republican government may hope will happen daslam mid-June and the day that the Sultan of Yogyakarta ditentukan.Saat not been able to take over the government leadership seluruj Jogja around the 20th of June.

To the question whether the delay in the return of government to Djokja RFepublik caused difficulties djumpai about cease fire, Mr. Roem replied, delayed because of problems of refugees and the withdrawal of Dutch troops.

(Source of info: Panarangan Newspaper, Padang, 16 june 19 549)

 
 

HASIL WAWANCARA DENGAN dr.j.h. van Royen oleh  B.M.Diah pemimpin surat kabar Merdeka yang dimuat dalam harian Panarangan:

a. Apabilakah menurut pikiran tuan pemrintah Republik Dapat kembali? Jawabannya: Kembalinya Republik ke Djokja adalah didahului oleh dua syarat: evakuasi orang sipil dan kedua tercapainya suatu formula untuk mengadakan “Cease fuire order” yang sedang dibicarakan oleh kedua sub-komisi untuk itu,dan saya berharap pada akhir minggu ini tercapai bentuk perintah menghentikan pertempuran. Kemudian dengan segrara pasukan belanda akan ditarik mundur.Ini sekurang-kurangnya memakan waktu satu minggu dan saya beraharap pada akhir minggu ini tercapai bentuk perintah menghentikan pertempuran.

b. Bilakan akan diadakan Konperensi meja bunda.Jawabannya : Selaks-lekasnya,saya harap sesudah Republik kembali dan aprlemennya menyetujui persetujuan yang dibuat, maka akan diambil sebagai tanggal tujuan 15 Juli untuk mengadakan konperensi meja Bundar.

c.Bagaimanakah mungkin mengadakan suatu badan yang representatif untuk menyambut kedaulatan.Jika hak kemerdekaan dan menyatakan pikiran rakyat itu terbatas?hanya pada daerah yang dikuasai Belanda bagi mereka yang mau mengikuti pimpinan Belanda sedangkan golongan republik tidak dapat bersuara?jawabnya : Menurut hemat saya kehendak rakyat itu dan kemerdekaan menyatakan pikiran itu sudah tegas bukankah  keinginan untuk kemerdekaan itu menunjukkan bahwa ada kehendak rakyat yang nyata? bukankah kebesaran popularitas Presiden soekarno itu sebagai kenyataan kehendak rakyat? Akan tetapi mengenai soal pemilihan sesuatu bentuk negara atau ketatanegaraan daris esuatu daerah Indomnesia memang harus dilakukan bersama dibawah pengawasan Internasional. Apabila tentara belanda sudah ditarik dari daerah yang diduduki dengan sendirinya bagi kedua belah pihak,bagi pengikut Republik tidak ada alasan mengatakan bahwa mereka ditindas untuk menyatakan pendapatnya dan bagi mereka yang berpikiran  lain haruslah mendapat kemerdekaan cukup.Pemilihan demikian ini harus dilakukan dibawah pengawasan Internasional. Dalam hal ini batas-batas sesuatu tempat dimana dilakukan pemunggutan suara itu haruslah pula selaras dengan pikiran yang sehat. Hak menentukan nasib sendir itu benar diakui,tetapi juga dalam hal ini besar kecil daerah itu harus ditemntukan lebih dahulu,umpamanya oleh konstituante.

d) apakah tuan menaruh kepercayaan pada pemimpin Republik yang sekarang lawan tuan berunding?jawabannya: Saya sunguh menaruh kepercayaan kepada mereka. berhubung dengan pertanyaan ini,ketua delegasi belanda itu memajukan petanyaan balasan:”Apakah Rakyat Indonesia akan menaruh kepercayaan kepada mereka,juga kapau penyerahan kedaulatan  sudah dilakukan, jawan kita : Tetap tidaknya kepercayaan Rakyat Indonesia kepada mereka tergantung kepada hasil mereka dalam memperjuangkan kemerdekaan dengan jalan berunding dengan delegasi yang tuan pimpin(ketuai),Juga dengan kebijaksanaan tuan Lovink dalam menjalankan pimpinannya dinegeri ini.Apabila persetujuan yang diperbuat dapat dilaksanakan dengan penuh bantuan tuan-tuan dan kepercayaabn bangsa Indonesia menjadi lebih besar terhadap maksud pemerintah Belanda,maka kedudukan mereka akan lebih kuat  dan lebih tinggi pula harhat dan derajat mereka dimata rakyat,lebih-lebih dimasa sesudah penyerahan kedaulatan.

KETERANGAN MR ROEM TENTANG PENGEMBALIAN PEMERINTAHAN REPUBLIK KE DJOKJA.Dalam suatu tanya jawab antara pemimpin redaksi harin Merdekan denga ketua delegasi Indonesia Mr.Moh.Roem, beliau menyatakan bahwa pengembalian Pemerintah Rrepublik ke Djokja  dalam minggu depan ini belum mungkin , tapi bisa diharap akan terjadi dalam bulan Juni ini juga. Seperti diketahui menurut bunyi slah satu komunike Komisi PBB untuk Indonesia,pengembalian pemerintahan republik dapat diharap akan terjadi dalam pertengahan bulan Juni dan harinya tidak ditentukan.Saat itu Sultan Jogja sudah dapat mengambil alih pimpinan pemerintahan seluruj Jogja sekitar tanggal 20 juni.

Atas pertanyaan apakah tertundanya pengembalian pemerintahan Republik ke Djokja disebabkan kesukaran yang djumpai soal cease fire, Mr Roem menjawab, tertunda karena adanya soal pengungsi dan penarikan tentara Belanda.

(sumber info: Panarangan Newspaper,Padang,16 june 19549)

June,13th.1949

Mr.Mohammad Roem visit “Sekolah RakyaT”(people school” at Dukuh (two photo)

June,14th.1949

Mr van Maarseveen had pointed as the Dutch menistry of oversees area(menteri usrusa n saerah seberang lautan) , and the menistry will visit Indonesia in order the get the general situation, and Mr van Schaik as the Dutch menistry of internal affair(menteri dalam Negeri)

June,16th.1949

(1)The Postal used letetr from Chinese oversead Medical doctor,Dentish and Aphother organization with NICA USA stamps 2 sen dan 1 sen.

(2)The Federal state PTT official letter to Mr Soewil first Class officer PTT Padang from the Chief of PTTT 4th area (Sumatra) C.den Haan about mr Soewil moving to Laboehan Bilik Est sumatra.

(3)PANARAGAN NEWS PAPER from PADANG

Information from Panarangan newspaper from Padang West Sumatra Wensday,June,15th.1949.,:

(1)Round Table Conference at Den Haag May be Agust 1st 1949.

(2)The PDRI(Pemrintah Daroerat Rep8ublik Indonesia) accept the Roem-Royen Agreement with condition(dengan syatat)

(3) Dutch must “Mengakui Kedaulatan” the sovereign of Republic Indonesia State (NRI) on Java,sumatra,Madura and the island around it

(4)The Federalis of Sumatra want to meet Mr Sjafroeddin: Warta Indonesia newspaper had recievd informations that the Sumatra Federalis leaders want to meet the leader of PDRI(Pemerintah Daroerat Repoeblik Indonesia) ,Mr Sjafroeddin Prawiranegara.The Main speking about the status of Aceh and Nias to the Sumatra Federal state and the  status of Sumatra in relationship commjunication with another area in Indonesia.

.

June,19th,1949

(1) The very rare Est Sumatra Stae(Negara sumatra Timur) Merriage act(Surat Kawin Negraa Sumatra Timur Bahagian agama ,with the emblem of NST.)

(2)June, 11th.1949
Postally used cover from cds batavia centrum to Jogja, with 10 cent wilh  wilhelmina stamp.the included love letter:

My thoughts.

At a time when dusk blind chickens, mountains visible in the sky golden yellow, signifying the king’s almost night and day.

There was no view except from the sky that surround the house hatiku.Dibelakang porters and field, faint eye could see that look just tegals verdant. The city that became the center of my life. The first time I began to see the natural beauty authorized.

… City of Jakarta, a city that permai.Hati Nica-flirt seduce the news Lien family circumstances disini.Kebetulan dik at that time I was playing around at home like Ni and we were sitting diserambi muka.Sekonyang suddenly there came a letter carrying postbode addressed to Ms. Ni and saw the letter before I can know that the letter from Dik Lien. After we settle for words and we chatted to go home, feeling that it received a letter from a friend or sis comes home famili.After  stepped into the room really was a letter located on the table. Whose letter from hell?

I know the last new letter from you and the inner I  understand. with news and discussion of the letter was as if a fortune alighted dibadanku, well, apparently dik Lien wrote kemari.Aku count (say) many thanks for your kindness that the brothers want to waste the time to write letters and will not forget us family here, hopefully saj onwards. Have younger brother received a letter from dik Seger, they all have in Semarang open. Hanyas my family who still live in Yogyakarta, the same mother and my sister is in salatiga, only the father who still  living in mobile jogya.We  always thinking about it why they can not go back as soon as possible bersama.Mungkin dik Lien had received a letter from Supartinah salatiga. Perhaps they were still there long, since waiting for the arrival of the father of Jogya.Kami herein have not been to school only temporarily akat take privatlessen pending in August is coming up and we had to comply with the Federal government, because there was no school here, but not why the sister Republic of study and participate remember in my soul like a son of Indonesia. Lien dik certainly not going to open the school.Wah kasiahan deh if  remember the  kid in Yogyakarta patiently educating school, It will soon be restored, by itself you can study  with tenang as usual.

seringkah (always) dik Lien met with Sud. He was still with you. Does he always tells me its after my peaving .How  close to him to convey greetings.

Well so enough news from me, worship me for RAMA (father ), tante (aunt ) and Mukarta Mbak, Mas Slamet and thank you …… unforgetable my nationality salut for you , MERDEKA!

 

June,21th.1949

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Het uitrollen van rubbersheets in een rubberfabriek te Naga Timbool TMnr 60014061.jpg

the rare postcard from Onderneming(Plantation) Dolok Oeloe  Deli-Batavia Rubber Maatshapij(Factory) with  Ned Indie 5 cent stamps CDS Pematang Sianatar 21.6.49.

(b) The photo of presdient Soekarno and  VIce Presiden Hatta  press conference with American jourlanist at Bangka Island  which they were “Diasingkan” (four photos)

June 24th.1949.

Dutch troops begin evacuating Yogya

June,27th,1949

June, 27th, 1949

 Delivery of truce negotiations and Sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia

On June 27, 1949 Principles of Agreement “Rum Royen” announced the contents of which include the peghentian tenbak firing from both sides. On August 1, 1949 signed the joint agreement “Termination Shoot Shoot” from both sides. Implementation is disseminated through radio announcements, the overall wire TNI in the archipelago. Meanwhile, from the dutch H. Y. Lovink act as Deputy Supreme Crown of the Netherlands in Jakarta, delivered throughout the Netherlands Army. Cessation of gunfire followed and supervised by UNCI and after poko agreement is implemented then continue the Round Table Conference in The Hague.

At Edinburgh on August 3, 1949 announced the termination shootout by the power of the Dutch military, with emphasis on instruction / command termination Shoot Shoot it in the form of pamphlets that circulated from the airplane because the position of the TNI in the pockets of guerrillas.

This leaflet was signed by the Military Governor of South Sumatra Dr. A. K. Gani, which reads as follows: “THE ORDER OF SUPREME COMMANDER TTKD TNI. AUTHORITY GIVEN KON.SUM.KOL. Hidayat, THEN SOUTH SUMATRA TO ALL ORDERS AND UNITY TNI AGENCY OF THE ARMED STRUGGLE OF SHOOTS AND SHOOT STOPPING HOSTILITY AND REMAIN place EACH DATED 03 AUGUST 1949 FROM 24.00 HOURS. INDONESIA TIME COMMAND TTK HBS Dr. A.K. Gani “.

The original wire is directly delivered by the Military Governor of South Sumatra to the Government Resident of the Emergency Civil Affairs Sub Commander Territorial Edinburgh and Edinburgh.

As a continuation of the wire termination shootout by the Military Governor of South Sumatra was issued on the instruction-instruction as follows:

1. Notice to the commander-the commander of Force (Battalion, Company, Section) regarding the determination of the TNI hangout for each unit of concentration.

2. To be held talks between Vice TBA Introduction of Van Schendel and Lieutenant Colonel A. G. W. Navis with the Local Joint Committee consisting of Colonel Abunjani, Regent M. Kamil and major Brori Mansyur.

Fire Ceas order not to breach the ceasefire by each of the warring parties and based on the results of the meeting Estuary Tembesi October 27, 1949 between Indonesia and the Netherlands under the coordination UNCI / Three Nations Commission agreed that all troops should leave and empty pockets . To that end, representatives of the Local Joint Committee TNI Major Brori Mansyur and from the Dutch Lieutenant Wolterbeck use the facility held a meeting Dutch BO Motor / meetings with the leaders of the Front Tungkal Area, which was attended, among others, Lieutenant Young A. Fattah Leside, Cadet Sergeant Major Madhan. AR, Hasan Buimin Sergeant Major, Sergeant Major Sergeant Arwansyah Syamsi with bodyguards, in the first week of November 1949 in the Trenches Deli (Tungkal Ilir) deliver instruction and manage technical implementation of TNI forces evacuations in place of concentration Merlung Battalion joined the staff of Gatot Kaca and co- colleagues from the Front Sengeti Area. While waiting for the next settlement, supply and logistical aid sent periodically to the Tungkal Ulu by the Dutch facility administered by the Joint Committee staff.

Evacuation is obvious disappointment for the troops Tungkal Area, let alone the countryside except the city of Kuala Tungkal, merupaka intact areas of the Republic of Indonesia by people who Republikien, but by realizing greater importance in the struggle. There is no other alternative, but to follow evacuation instructions, with a heavy heart and tears during a farewell to the people who like fish and water unite in the struggle for Sports and grief of this beloved Republic of Indonesia.

 Perundingan Genjatan Senjata dan Penyerahan Kedaulatan Republik Indonesia

Pada tanggal 27 Juni 1949 Pokok-pokok Persetujuan “Rum Royen” diumumkan yang isinya antara lain mengenai peghentian tenbak menembak dari kedua belah pihak. Pada tanggal 1 Agustus 1949 ditanda tangani persetujuan bersama “Penghentian Tembak Menembak” dari kedua belah pihak. Pengumuman pelaksanaannya disebarkan melalui radio, kawat keseluruhan jajaran TNI di Nusantara. Sedangkan dari pihak belanda H. Y. Lovink bertindak sebagai Wakil Tertinggi Mahkota Belanda di Jakarta, menyampaikan keseluruh Tentara Belanda. Penghentian tembak menembak ini diikuti dan diawasi oleh UNCI dan setelah poko persetujuan ini dilaksanakan barulah dilanjutkan Konferensi Meja Bundar di Den Haag.

Di Jambi pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1949 diumumkan penghentian tembak menembak oleh KUasa Militer Belanda, dengan memperbanyak intruksi/Perintah Penghentian Tembak Menembak itu dalam bentuk surat selebaran yang disebarkan dari pesawat udara karena kedudukan TNI berada di kantong-kantong gerilya.

Selebaran ini ditandatangani oleh Gubernur Militer Sumatera Selatan Dr. A. K. Gani, yang berbunyi sebagai berikut: “ATAS PERINTAH PANGLIMA TERTINGGI TNI TTKD. KUASA DIBERIKAN KON.SUM.KOL. HIDAYAT, MAKA SUMATERA SELATAN MEMERINTAHKAN KEPADA SEMUA KESATUAN TNI SERTA BADAN PERJUANGAN RAKYAT YANG BERSENJATA MENGHENTIKAN TEMBAK MENEMBAK DAN PERMUSUHAN SERTA TETAP DITEMPAT MASING-MASING MULAI TANGGAL 03 AGUSTUS 1949 JAM 24.00. WAKTU INDONESIA TTK PERINTAH HBS Dr. A.K. GANI”.

Asli kawat ini langsung disampaikan oleh Gubernur Militer Sumatera Selatan kepada Pemerintah Sipil Darurat Residen RI Jambi dan Komandan Sub Teritorial Jambi.

Sebagai kelanjutan dari kawat penghentian tembak menembak oleh Gubernur Militer Sumatera Selatan tersebut dikeluarkan pada intruksi-intruksi sebagai berikut:

1. Pemberitahuan kepada Komanda-komandan Pasukan (Batalyon, Kompi, Seksi) TNI tentang penentuan tempat berkumpul masing-masing kesatuan konsentrasi.

2. Supaya diadakan Perundingan Pendahuluan antara Wakil TBA yang terdiri dari Van Schendel dan Letnan Kolonel A. G. W. Navis dengan Local Joint Commitee yang terdiri dari Kolonel Abunjani, Bupati M. Kamil dan mayor Brori Mansyur.

Ceas Fire agar jangan sampai terjadi pelanggaran gencatan senjata tersebut oleh masing-masing pihak yang berperang dan berdasarkan hasil rapat Muara Tembesi 27 Oktober 1949 antara RI dan Belanda di bawah koordinasi UNCI/Komisi Tiga Negara disetujui bahwa semua pasukan TNI harus meninggalkan dan mengosongkan kantong-kantong. Untuk itu, utusan Local Joint Committee dari TNI Mayor Brori Mansyur dan dari pihak Belanda Letnan Satu Wolterbeck mempergunakan fasilitas Motor BO Belanda mengadakan rapat/pertemuan dengan Pimpinan Front Tungkal Area yang dihadiri antara lain Letnan Muda A. Fattah Leside, Sersan mayor Kadet Madhan. AR, Sersan Mayor Buimin Hasan, Sersan Mayor Arwansyah dengan pengawal Sersan Dua Syamsi, pada minggu pertama November 1949 di Parit Deli (Tungkal Ilir) menyampaikan intruksi dan mengatur tekhnis Pelaksanaan Evakuasi Pasukan TNI ketempat konsentrasi di Merlung bergabung dengan staf Batalyon Gatot Kaca dan rekan-rekan dari Front Sengeti Area. Selama menunggu penyelesaian selanjutnya, bantuan suplay dan logistik dikirim secara periodic ke Tungkal Ulu oleh fasilitas Belanda yang diatur oleh petugas Joint Committee.

Evakuasi tersebut jelas menimbulkan kekecewaan bagi pasukan Tungkal Area, apalagi daerah pedalaman kecuali kota Kuala Tungkal, utuh merupaka daerah Republik Indonesia dengan rakyatnya yang Republikien, tetapi dengan menyadari kepentingan yang lebih besar dalam perjuangan. Tidak ada alternatif lain, selain mematuhi intruksi evakuasi tersebut, dengan berat hati dan tetesan air mata sewaktu terjadi perpisahan dengan rakyat yang manunggal seperti ikan dan air dalam sukan maupun dukanya perjuangan menegakkan Republik Indonesia tercinta ini.

June 29

 Indonesian troops enter Yogya.from south sector lead by Let.col soeharto(later presiden Indonesia) and north Sector lead by Col.Djatikusumo, look the picture of them with Sri Paku Alam.

June,30th.1949.

The Postally used private Banjarmasin “Depot Masa “book store  cover,send from cds Banjarmasin to Bing Sin ‘s Book store Surabaya-simpang..

7.July

The photo of high dutch commisaris nigh  Lovink ‘sreception in june 1949,the chiel of Repoeblik Indonesia delegation Mr.Moh Roem “hadir’ (two photos)

July 1

Jawa Pos (Djawa Post) newspaper publishes first issue in Surabaya.

July,3rd.1949

the picture of Sultan Yogja with the leader of military grilya at Kepatihan

July,4th.1949

(1)the rare official free stamps cover from cds Djambi 4.7.50 to Batavia(very arre cover from Djambi because in 1949 until July under PDRI state,and after PDRI gave the autority to NRI Jogya,Djambi became federal state until the soeverinity to RIS december.27th.1949(only five month under federal state)

(2) The Batavia’s Chinese overseas Medical doctor,dentist and aphothekeer organization circulair letter with smelt 3 sen stamp  to the member Dr Tung sin Nio (the first lady doctor from Medical Faculty of Indonesia University)

July,5th.1849

(a)Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, the leader of PDRI cs ready back to  Yogya “dijemput” by Dr Leimena and Moh Natsir and before depature Moh.Natsir speaking(pidato) ,also Sjafruddin Prawiranegara and other realted pictures(five  photos )

(b) the meeting between  Dutch delegation and Indonesian delegation  supervied by United Nation at Yogja on this day.

July 6th,1949

(a) President Soekarno arrived at Yogja this day, also another menistry Ali sastroatmidjojo,Haji Agus salim.(two photosZ)

(b)Republican government returns to Yogya. Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX receives Sukarno and Hatta at the Kraton.

July,7th.1949

(a)Sjafruddin Prawiranegara arrive at Kemyoan airport from suamtra(six photos)

(b) Sjafruddin Prawiranegara arrived at Yogja( five photos)

 and  meeting with president soekarno(three photos)

July,8th.1949

(1)Tanggal 8 juli 1949,didesa Krejo Kecamatan Ponjong, daerah Gunung Kendeng, saya(Rosihan anwar) dan Letkol Soeharto(kelak jadi presiden) bertemu presiden Soekarno  dan Wakil Presiden Hatta  untuk meratakan jalan kearah dimulainya KMB(konperensi meja Bundar)  di den Haag(napak tilas KMB,kompas,28 januari 2010)

(2)Panglima Besar General sudirman arrived at Yogja freom gureilla  area, “disambut” welcome by the chief of PDRI Syafruddin prawiranegraa (two photos)

 

Let.col.Suharto(later presiden RI) behind General sudirman.

(3) Postally used Book store “Kamadjoean” Semarang’s private cover, send from Semarang to Surabia. 

July,12th.1949

Postally used  Postal stationer  briefkaart_Kartoepos stationer 5 sen, send from stairgt Stamped TEMANGGOENG  to Semarang (rare post mark).

July ,13th.1949

(a)Power is transferred back from the emergency PDRI government under Prawiranegara to the Republican government in Yogya under Sukarno.Dutch-created states hold conference, support joining the Republic.

(b) After transferred of Power fro PDRI, begin the first NRI Cabinet meeting(bersidang) at Yogjakarta.( one photo)

(c) The Dutch delegation  lead by DR. Van Royen arrived at Maguwo airtport Yogja, welcome by the Indonesian delegiati n leader Mr.Moh Roem(two photoa)

and at night for the distinguist guest ,presiden Soekarno made the reception(one photos)

8.August

Republic troops retake Surakarta.

August,4th.1949

The Rare  food distribution zegel label , for used in the Ombilin coal mine store Sawahloento West Sumatra.

August 7th.1949

Darul Islam movement formally breaks with the Republic of Indonesia.

August,9th.1949

The rare Money Order (binnenlanden Postwissel) send from pontianak in city with smelt 121/2 sen stamps.

August 11

Ceasefire on Java.

August 12th 1949

Postally used federal state postal stationer smelt 2 sen send from Pajakumbuh with federal postal Satmped CDS Republik Indonesia stamped which the  rep Indonesia clean off(dibersihkan) to Van Dorp book store Batavia centrum(jakarta pusat)(This special  card send from Mr W.D my senior  phillatelist friend’s farther Dr Adnan  W.D, the medical doctor in Payakumbuh where my father and grandfather live during Dai Nippon Occupation,my sister Elina born there in 1947-Dr iwan Notes)

August 15

a)Ceasefire on Sumatra.Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya coordinates handovers from Dutch to Republic.Dutch begin releasing 12,000 prisoners.

b) in this day Rosihan anwar,senior reporter, by Skymaster airoplane depature from Jakarta and arriev schipol airport in august 17th 1949.

c)postally used cover from batavia centrum with ovpt Indonesia stamps to semarang

August,17th,1949.

In this day the Indonesia KMB delegation arrive schipol airpot and staright to Kurhaus. Prime menister Moh Hatta made anniversary of Indonesia Independece Proclamation reseption, at the reseption Rosihan anwar seen Sultan hamid from pomntianak, Anak Agung Gde Agung ZPrime menister of NIT(negara Indonesia Timur) they were the BFO leader,also Dutch employeed.

August,19th.1949

the official free stamps cover from Resident Ommelanden batavia Meestercornelis(jatinegara) to Batavia centrum(Jakarta pusat),rare postally used cover from jambi,because  Jambi still fight with Dutch army until june 1949.

August 23 th.1949

1)Round Table conference begins in the Hague. Hatta head delegation for the Republic of Indonesia, Sultan of Pontianak heads delegation from the Dutch-created states.

2)Postal Used cover send from Bangkalan CDS 23.8.49 to Sorabaia CDS  24.8.49 (rare cover send during KMB Round Table conference.)

3) Special Post Mark Ronde Tafel conference s’gravenhage 1949 send from s’grafeluke zaal 23.8.49 to Althier.

4)Bagaimana jalannya KMB? Tiga delegasi yang berunding Belanda,Republik Indonesia,Golongan Federal yang dihimpun dalam Bijzonder Fedral Overleg(BFO) .Dalam praktik Republik dan BFO menyatu bila menghadapi Belanda, beberapa Komisi dibentuk :Komisi politik :  disana Bung Hatta domina, Ekonomi ,disana DR Sumitro Djojohadikusumo menyangkal kebenaran angka-angka utang yang diajukan Belanda, Komisi Pertahanan,dimana Republik diwakili oleh DR J.Leimena dan Kolonel TB Simatupang serta Komisi Kebudayaan dima Mr ali Sastroamijoyo berperan.

Hasil KMB, Belanda tidak bersedia menyerahkan Papua (Irian) Barat  kepada Republik Indonesia Seikat.Penyelesaiaannya ditangguhkan untuk masas satu tahun , RIS harus mengoper hutang Belanda yang telah dibuatnya dalm memrangi NRI 4.100 Juta Gulden,sedangkan menurut hitungan Sumitro justru Belanda yang berutang kepada Indonesia 500 juta gulden.di bidang pertahanan  Belanda mau membikin tentara KNIL sebagai intisari tentara RIS, ini ditolak dengan tegas oleh Leimena dan TB Simatupang akhirnya Belanda setuju TNI kekuatan pokok tentara RIS.Belanda tetap tidak mau mengakui proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 oleh Sukarno-Hatta, Belanda hanya mengakui penyerahan kedaulatan tanggal 27 Desember 1949 sebagai bermulanya negara merdeka berdaulat berbentuk Federal yaitu RIS.

August,20th.1949

The Advocate cover send registered  from  Pontianak  to same  city Potianak with wilhelmina stamp,overprint indonesia and smelt numeric stamp rate 35 sen . this time Pontianak as the Dewan Kalimantan Barat State,lead by Sultan Hamid II.

 

9.September

Sept.5th.1949

September,5th,1949

September, 5th, 1949

On the 5th of September 1949 talks held in Bangko diruangan Regents Office, the delegation of the Local Joint Committee escorted the heavily armed military section with a red and white flag.

Negotiations went lancer with the results as follows:

1. The concentration of military forces

a. Troops belonging to the battalion “Gatot Kaca” gathered at the Port Merlung and Trade, as a liaison officer Lieutenant Junior ditnjuk A. Hadi

b. Troops belonging to the Battalion “Cindur Mato” gathered in Rantau Ikil and Land Grows, as Liaison Officer was appointed Second Lieutenant M. Nawawi.

c. Troops belonging to the Battalion “Gajah Mada” gathered at the Bangko as Liaison Officer was appointed Lieutenant Suhaimi.

2. Pemberitahun

a. Notification to the concentration and position in the cease-fire Battalion Commander Sub territory handed over to Edinburgh via couriers.

b. All will be summoned to the Battalion Commander Tembesi Estuary and will be given instructions by Major Brori Mansyur Local Joint Committee as Members of Indonesia Jambi area.

c. Prior to October 10, 1949, the Dutch Army had to be withdrawn from towns outside the city of Edinburgh, and was replaced by TNI troops.

d. Dutch assistance was sought in the transfer of members of the TNI from the pockets of concentration Guerrilla place.

e. Wasted Ayang troops will occupy the Muara Tebo.

f. Forces BT, BB, CPM Team, Police Squad’s time to move to the Air samapai thunder where Dutch troops will leave the Muara Bungo so that these forces immediately occupied the Muara Bungo.

g. Regarding Troops Battalion Gatot Kaca, Major Brori Mansyur held the first talks between the envoys battalion Gatot Kaca Captain (N) Soerjono with leaders of the Dutch Army Detachment, Kuala Tungkal tensions. Major Brori Mansyur accompanied by Major Z. Rivai directly intervened to negotiate with Chief of Staff Captain Wolterbeck Regiment in the Trenches Deli Dutch Kuala Tungkal.

After a full explanation is given, then the TNI in Kuala Tungkal willing to concentrate on Tungkal Ulu, namely TNI CPM Squad led by Sergeant Major A. Murad Alwi, Navy forces under the command of Sergeant Major T. Arwansyah, while the police led by Inspector Mahyuddin remain in Kuala Tungkal

September,8th,1949

Departemen van Gezonheid(Health) roundschrijfen(round letter) about the International certificate of Pooken(cacar or variolla) vaccinatie(vactination). send to all health office in Indonesia federal state send b y the secratary of Healt department Dr G.Sieburg:

1.Inspectuer v.gezonheid Oost-java Suarbaya, Batavia,Semarang,Padang and sabang.

2.Residentie artsen(Medical doctor) banjarmasin,Samarinda,pontianak,Pangkalpinang,and tanjungpinang.

3.Menistry of Healt Negara te Pasoendan(Pasundan state)(the menistry was my friend father Dr Kornel singawinata,look his picture in December ,27th.1949).

3.Health and Social departemen of Negara Sumatera Selatan.Palembang.(Osut sumatra State)

4. Menistry of heakt Negara Indonesia Timur NIT(east Indonesia State) at Makasssar.

5. menistry of Healt Negara sumatra timur(East sumatra State) at Medan

6, the chief of Health departement at batavia

7.Directir of Pasteur Insttitue at bandung

8. The Seaport Medical doctor at Tandjoeng Priok,Soerabaja,Semarang,Makasa,belawan.

with the variolla certicate form.

10.October

October,20th.1949

The postally used cover from Amboina to Batavia with building stamps

Connecting to 1949 recognition by Dutch, the reactions in the field was not always easy for the new Republic of Indonesia. One of them was insurgency from  some ex-Dutch formed army, KNIL (Koninklijk Nederland-Indisch Leger, The Dutch East Indies Army). Many KNIL members were from Eastern people from Sulawesi and Moluccas that generally had closer relationships with Dutch because their more privileges in economy, politics and education during the Dutch colonialism due to their faith, mixed blood and became closely similar habits. Knowing that the new formed Republic of Indonesia would reduce their status than they had before, the insurgency begun by some ex-KNIL members and eastern politician leaders. That ex-KNIL and eastern politician leaders rebel became serious threat to central government in Jakarta with the movement called RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan; Republic of the South Moluccas).

During the eradicating of the RMS immunity, Lieu. Col. Slamet Riyadi and Colonel Alexander Evert Kawilarang who in the front line commanding the troops were inspired and amazed by effectiveness and combat ability (especially in men’s sniping) of ex-KNIL members that also helped by KST (Korps Speciale Troepen) during insurgency. They then inspired to build a similar force for Indonesia. However, at that time, neither of the Indonesian commandants had any experience or skill in special operations. (However, Lieutenant Colonel Slamet Riyadi would not see his dream realized due to his death in a battle against the troops of the RMS).

Not long after, with the use of military intelligence, Colonel Kawilarang located and met with Captain Major Rokus Bernardus Visser – a former member of the Dutch Special Forces who had remained in independent Indonesia, settled in West Java, married an Indonesian woman, and was known locally as Mohamad Idjon Djanbi. He was the first recruit for the Indonesian special forces, as well as its first commandant. He later re-positioned to become Major after his request to be at least one rank higher than any his trainee. Due to him, the unit adopted a Red Beret similar to that of the Dutch Special Forces, which is still in use by the present Kopassus.

Ambon 1950

Col. A. E. Kawilarang, Lieu. Col. Slamet Riyadi and staffs arrived in Ambon, 1950

Brig. Gen Slamet Riyadi Col. A.E. Kawilarang 1_4d06e516bb4d542b35ae28b87fabfb6b

Brig. Gen. Slamet Riyadi & Col. Kawilarang & Maj. M. Idjon Djanbi

October,22th.1949

(1) the Death certifiacte of chinese oversead ,who pass away in poor (dalam keadaan miskin) n the Krangan evacuation cap semarang, legaluized by pengurus pengungsi Tionghoa semarang(Semarang tionghoa refuugee administrator)

11.November

November 2

The Hague Agreement is the result of the Round Table Conference: “Republik Indonesia Serikat” is supposed to have the crown of the Netherlands as a symbolic head, Sukarno as President, and Hatta as Vice-President. It consists of 15 Dutch-created states plus the original Republic. Sovereigny is to be transferred by December 30. Dutch investments are protected, and the new government is responsible for the billion-dollar Netherlands Indies government debt. The Dutch keep Irian Jaya.

Nov.29th,1949

The rare posatlly used change of adress 2 sen dacer stationer card send from Palembang to malang,one stamp (1 sen) off.

12.December 1949

December,13th.1949

The unique letter sheet(postblad warkatpos) postal stationer smelt 10 sen send from  Bukittinggi to Mr Soewil the chief of Emma Haven Post Office(Teluk Bayur), with interesting letter :

Tanggal 7 desember 1949, kota bukittingi sudah dipulihkan pada Republiken(orang republik) . Drang-barang saya yang ditinggalkan di pedalaman sudah dijemput kembali  oleh isteri saya diantaranya prangko simpanan saya yang dikumpulkan tahun 1942 dan seterusnya sudah distempel(dicap). Karena saudara ada di Emma Haven(pelabuhan Teluk Bayur ) , apakah ada orang Euro yang menanyakan(membeli) prangko tersebut, sekiranya ada (mungkin) ada yang senang (menyukakannya) boleh saya kirimkan pada saudara, hasilnya 1/3 buat saudara  dan 2/3 buat saya, atau ka;lau mungkin tukarkan dengan kain untuk pantalon(celana) jadi juga. Maklumlah dari prangko yang sudah dioverdruk(cetak tindih) bermacam-macam selama pendudukan Jepang dari 1 c sampai 1,2, dan 5 gulden. Prangko pendudukan jepang  yang dibikin(dibuat)  indonesia , prangko Jepang yang dipakai di Indonesia,serta prangko republik 1c,2c,21/2c,3c,5c,10c,15c,30c,40c,50c,rp.1,rp.2.rp.3,50(sukarno)  seluruhnya belum dicap(distempel). Selain itu prangko tersebut diatas ada 100 buah prangko yang berasal dari euro lama yaitu Bayern,belgia,Bosnia-Germany-Findland-Franch,Swiss,Nederland dan Russia bermacam-macam rupa(bentuk) dan belum pernah dicap(stempel) dan adapula yang sudah dicap. Berilah kabar (kepada) saya dengan lekas(cepat0 ,supaya lekas pulah dikirimkan. Demikianlah supaya saudara maklum,salam saya Djamoen.

PS. hal ini jangan diberi tahukan hendaknya (kepada) kawan-kawan(teman) kita, malu kita !!!!

english translate:

On 7 December 1949, the city has been restored bukittingi the Republicans (the republic). Drang my things left in the interior has been picked up again by my wife whom I collected stamps deposits in 1942 and beyond has been stamped (branded). Because you are in Emma Haven (Bay harbor Bayur), is there anyone who asks Euro (bought) such stamps, if there is (probably) there is a happy (menyukakannya) May I send it to brothers, the result is 1 / 3 for the brothers and 2 / 3 for me, or ka; lau may change with the cloth for trousers (pants) so well. It’s known from stamps that have been dioverdruk (print overlapping) vary during the Japanese occupation from 1 c to 1.2, and 5 guilders. Japanese occupation stamps are made ​​(made) Indonesian, Japanese stamps used in Indonesia, as well as stamps of the republic 1c, 2c, 21/2c, 3c, 5c, 10c, 15c, 30c, 40c, 50c, Rp.1, Rp.2. Rp.3, 50 (Sukarno) has not been entirely stamped (stamped). Besides the above there are 100 postage stamps fruit that comes from the old euro namely Bavaria, Belgium, Bosnia-Germany-Findland-Franch, Switzerland, Netherlands, Russia and many kinds of creatures (form) and have not been stamped (stamp) and those that are already stamped. Give the news (to) me with a quick (cepat0 so quickly pulah sent. So that you understand, my greetings Djamoen.

PS. This should not be announcing should (to) my friends (friends) we, ashamed of us!!

 

December,17th.1949

The rare postally used change of adress 2 cwnt dancer stationer card add smelt 1 sen stamps (rare 3 sen) send from  from surabaya in city.

December 19th.1949

Universitas Gadjah Mada founded at Yogya.

December 27th.1949

Dutch formally transfer sovereignty to “Republik Indonesia Serikat” (Republic of United States of Indonesia).

December 28

Sukarno is returned to Jakarta.

1. 27 Desember 1949

1)Upacara Serah terima tanggung jawab Pemerintah dari Pemerintah Belanda diwakili Dr HJ Lovink  kepada Indonesia diwakili  oleh Menteri Pertahanan Hemangkubuwono,Menteri Negara Mr Roem,Menteri Dalam Negeri Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung dan Menteri Sosial Mr Kosasih Purwanegera dan  Pemerintah Belanda mengakui Kedaulatan  RI.

Ceremonial handover of responsibility from the Government of the Netherlands Government was represented Dr. HJ Lovink to Indonesia was represented by Minister of Defense Hemangkubuwono, Minister of State Mr. Roem, Minister of the Interior Ideas Anak Agung Gde Agung and Social Services Minister Mr Kosasih Purwanegera and the Dutch Government recognizes sovereignty of Indonesia

(1) foto penandatanganan protokol serah terima tanggung jawab pemerintahan yang mewakili Republik Indonesia serikat Sultan Hemangku Buwono IX (Menteri Pertahanan) dan disebealh kirinya peguasa Belanda AHJ Lovink di Istana Merdeka(sebelumnya istana Rijswijk)

photo signing protocol handover of responsibility of government representing the Republic of Indonesia union Hemangku Lane IX Sultan (Defense Minister) and his left Dutch Crown representing  AHJ Lovink at Merdeka Palace (formerly the palace Rijswijk

(2) foto pidato Wakil Tinggi Mahkota Belanda Dr H.J.Lovink setelah penanda tanganan serah terima  pemerintahan dan pengakuan kedaulan RI di Istana Merdeka.

High Representative’s speech photos Dutch Crown Dr HJLovink after the signing of the handover of government and recognition kedaulan RI at Merdeka Palace

(3)Setelah penandatanganan serah terima dari Pemerinath Belanda kepad RI dan pengakuan kedaulatan RI, dilangsungkan upacara penurunan bendera Belanda merah putih biru dan penaikan bendera Republik Indonesia serikat Merah Putih dihalaman Istana Merdeka Jakarta .

After the signing of the handover of the Dutch goverment to  RI and recognition of the sovereignty of Indonesia, held a ceremony decline Dutch flag red white and blue union flag-raising Red and White Republic of Indonesia Istana Merdeka Jakarta yard

(a) foto penurunan bendera belanda(Dutch Flag decline picture)

(b) foto penaikan bendera RI(RI flag raising pictures)

(c) Penghormatan upacara penurunan dan penaikan bendera oleh Sultan Hemangku Buwono IX

Respect for flag-raising ceremony and a decrease by Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX

(d)Penghormatan bendera pada upacara penurunan dan penaikan bendera oleh ispektur upacara  oleh Kapten AD Poniman (pernah menjadi Panglima Siliwangi dan terakhir Jendral,Menteri Pertahan dan keamanan RI, saya pernah main tennis dengan beliau saat ia menjadi panglima Komando Daerah Militer 17 agustus  Sumatera barat tahun 1959- Catatan Dr Iwan ),pasukan tiga peleton dengan komandannya Letnan G.H. Mantik.

Respect for the flag on the flag-raising ceremony and a decrease by ispektur ceremony by Captain AD Poniman (last-General, Minister defend  and security of RI, I never played tennis with him when he became commander of the Military Regional Command West Sumatra August 17, 1959 – Note Dr. Iwan), with three army peleton ,chief letnan GH Mantik.

(e) Foto Rakyat Jakarta yang menyaksikan upacara penurunan dan penaikan bendera

Photo of Jakarta People who witnessed the decline and the flag-raising ceremony

2) Sampul Peringatan  Pengakuan kedaulatan Republik Indonesia Serikat (Republik Indonesia sovereign State) dengan  mengunakan sampul stasioner hinda belanda  ratu Wilhelmina  12 1/2 sen dengan cetak tindih  sepuluh sen, stempel pos CDS batavia  21.12.49

Warning cover of recognition of Indonesian sovereignty States (the Republic of Indonesia sovereign STAE) by using the cover of Dutch queen Wilhelmina stationary hinda 12 1 / 2 cents to ten cents a print overlap, CDS postmark batavia 21:12:49

3) Sampul peringatan pengakuan kedaulatan   RIS 27 Dec 1949 dengan prangko seri bangunan 45 sen dan 50 sen  dengan stempel pos 27.12.49 dikirim kepada Mr Clyde J.Sarzin USA(mungkin  sampul ini CTO, ditemukan oleh Dr iwan Suwandy  di Bangkok tahun 1994). New Information related to Mr Clyde J .Sarzin from my friend Mr Hartkamp ,please read below:

.
Mr. Clyde J. Sarzin (21-05-1915 / 23-11-1987) was a well known stamp dealer!
 
 

 
 
 

Maybe you find it interesting to know that the cover underneath is certainly CTO.
Mr. Clyde J. Sarzin (21-05-1915 / 23-11-1987) was a well known stamp dealer!
 
 

 
 
 
An other answer:
 

 
 
The cancelation on this cover is only partly visible.
 
The complete text:
 
VERMELD OP UW
POSTSTUKKEN
NAAM en ADRES
AFZENDER
 
This cancellation is used in ‘s-Gravenhage in the years 1947 to 1951. In Holland a lot of firms changed their names and crossed out the name of Netherlands Indie after 27-12-1949.
Because the written information on this card concerns the payment of a contribution for the subscription of the New Year I suppose that this cancellation is of the beginning of 1950. After a while the firms changed the imprints of their printed matter, so it is not likely that the cancelation is of beginning of 1951.
 

The cover of the recognition of sovereignty warning RIS Dec. 27, 1949 with 45 cents postage stamp series buildings and 50 cents with a postmark 27/12/49 sent to Mr. Clyde J. Sarzin USA (maybe the cover is CTO, invented by Dr. Iwan Suwandy in Bangkok in 1994)

4)Kementerian Penerangan mengumumkan,bahwa sejak penyerahan kedaulatan,maka Ibukota RIS ialah Djakarta( ejaan baru Jakarta).

Ministry of Information announced that since the handover of sovereignty, the capital city of  RIS is Djakarta (new spelling Jakarta

5) Pada hari ini juga dilaksanakan beberapa serah terima aset negara,sayang informasinya belum ditemukan. Hanya ada satu foto dari keluarga besar almarhum Osman Singawinata, berupa foto serah terima aset kesehatan dari pihak Belanda kepada pihak Indonesia diwakili oleh Let.Kol. TNI AU Dr Kornel Singawinata,ayah alm Oesman Singawinata, ex menteri kesehatan negara Federal Pasundan disaksikan oleh Bung Karno . Terima kasih atas perkenannya untuk menampilkan gambar yang bersejarah ini kepada isteri bapak Oesman Singawinata(Bu Retno),Disamping itu juga ada foto KOrnel Singawinata dengan Sultan Hemangkubuwono IX.

On this day also held several handover of state assets, unfortunately the information has not been found. There is only one photo of a large family of the late Osman Singawinata, a picture of health asset handover of the Dutch to the Indonesian side was represented by Dr. Kornel Singawinata, Osman Singawinata late father, former state health minister of the Federal Pasundan witnessed by Bung Karno. Thank you for your good pleasure to display these historic images to the wife of in memoriam Mr. Oesman Singawinata( Mrs Retno), beside that also the picture of Kornel singawinata with Sultan Hemangkubuwono IX

6)Undang Undang Darurat N0.1 Tahun 1949  ditetapkan di Jogjakarta pada tanggal 27 Desember 1949  tentang akan diumumkannya undang-undang federal melalui Radio  dan penyiaran dalam surat kabar harian,ditanda tanganni oleh Presiden Repulbik Indonesia serikat sukarno, Menteri Pertahanan Hemangku Buwono  IX dan Acting Menteri Kehakiman Muhammad Rum .

N0.1 Emergency Act 1949 set out in Jogjakarta on 27 December 1949 concerning the publication of legislation going through the federal Radio and broadcasting in a daily newspaper, signed by President tanganni union Repulbik Indonesia Sukarno, Defense Minister Hemangku Buwono IX and Acting Minister of Justice Muhammad Rum.

2.December.20th, 1949

Menurut informasi yang belum dapat dibuktikan, di Kantor Pos Pusat Jogyakarta di jual prangko cetak wina muali dari tanggal 15 Desember 1949, dan dinyatakan  dapat digunakan sampai tanggal 1 agustus 1950, dan prangko cetak Wina UPU juga dijual  kantor pos Jogyakarta  mulai 1 december 1949 sampai  1 Maret 1950 dan dinyatakan berlaku sampai 1 juli 1950. (sampai saat ini belum pernah ditemukan prangko in9i digunakan diatas sampul dengan stempel pos yang asli, banyak koleksi CTO yang plasu beredar, baca artikel misteri prangko cetak wina di web blog ini hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com dan juga di blog lain hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com)

Prangko cetak wina edisi pertama dengan ejaan lama Repoeblik,dipesan oleh PTT NRI yang waktu itu dipimpin oleh Mas Suharto, prangko ini tak sempat dipergunakan karena Class kedua 8-20 Desember 1948, january 1949 Mas Suharto dijemput tentara NICA yang kemudian hilang dan jazadnya tidak diketemukan, lihat foto profil  almarhum  dan foto keluarga.

Prangko cetak wina dengan ejaan baru Republik dipesan oleh pimpinan PTT NRI 1949-1951 R.Soekardan,juga mngalama hal yang sama ,prangko di terima 12 Desember 1949 ,sebelum penyerahan kedaulan dari Belanda dan NRI jadi bagian dari RIS  sehingga perako republik Indonesia certak wina dari percetakan USA juga tak daat diedarkan, bersamaan dengan cetak tindih RIS diatas seluruh prangko Indonesia, yang mulai diedarkan April 1950 ternyata cetak wina terlambat lagi sehingga tak sempat diedarkan terburu  RIS diganti dengan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia, demikianlah nasih prangko cetak wina yang cukup tragis itu,lihatlah fot profil R.Soekardan dibawah ini :

According to information that has not been proven, at the Central Post Office on the sale of stamps printed Jogyakarta Vienna halted from December 15, 1949, and could otherwise be used until the 1st of August 1950, and print prango Vienna UPU also sold at post offices Jogyakarta from 1 december 1949 to 1 March 1950 and declared valid until 1 July 1950. more info from my friend Mr Hartkamp

Dear Mr Suwandy,
 
How ever I have seen hundreds of canceled envelopes  (more as thousand) and thousands of cancelled Vienna printing stamps, I have never seen a real cancellation before 13 December 1949.
 
After this date I have several envelopes and stamps with are officially used, mostly CTO, but sometimes it seems to be officially used.
 
I have a document (Surat pernjataan) of the P.T.T. witch proves that on 13 Desember these Vienna printings are received at the head office of Jogjakarta.
 
Underneath a part of the text of this document.
 
I do not know what the ‘PR’ and the ‘t.l.n.’ means in: No. 3 / PR / t.l.n. , do you know?
 
 
No. 3 / Pr / t.l.n. Surat pernjataan.——————–( Proces verbal ).-  1.      Pada hari ini tanggal 13 Desember 1949, oleh kami jang bertan-da tangan dibawah ini, Moedjiman komis dan Sahoewin klerk, jang ditundjukoleh dd. (dienstdoende) Kepala Seksi Urusan Uang Anak Seksi IV dalam R VI hoofdstuk VI ma-
sih disebut: Beheerder der Post & Zegelwaarden dari Djawatan P.T.T. (Pos, Telegrap dan
Telepon) Republik Indonesia di Jogjakarta, untuk menerima dan membuka 3 (tiga) bungkusan bersegel dalam keadaan baik dengan perantaraan Sekretariaat kantor Kementeriean Luar Negeri Jogjakarta. Alamat jang tertempel pada salah satu bungkusan ditudjukan pada: “ Republic of Indonesia Office 30 Raffles. PlaceSinggapore / Malayu ” dan alamat jang tertulis dengan potolot merah: “ Stamp    ToRepublic of Indonesia Jogjakarta ”. Setelah bungkusan² tsb. (tersebut) kami buka terdapat 17 ( tudju belas ) buah paket semua tertutup rapih dengan lim pelekat.
Isinja kami periksa dan hitung dihadapan Tuan R. (Raden) Soehardjo Komis dan selaku saksi, jang ikut bertanda tangan dibawah ini, terdapat, bahwa isi² itu————— terdiri dari perangko² tjetakan: “ Staatsdruckerei WienIII di New York dan E.A. Wright Banknote Company of Philadelhia U.S.A. sbb. (sebagai berikat):

(until now has never been found in9i stamps used on the cover with the postmark of the original, many of which plasu outstanding collection CTO, read articles Vienna mystery print stamps on this blog website hhtp: / / http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com and also on the blog other hhtp: / / http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com)

3.December ,24th.1949

Presiden RIS Bung Karno tiba di jakarta dari Jogya

RIS President Sukarno arrived in Jakarta from Yogyakarta

(a)  foto prsedien RIS Bung Karno dan isteri Bu Fatmawati  serta  putranya Guntur  di lapangan terbang  Maguwo Jogya (saat ini Adisucipto) saat akan berangkat ke Jakarta  diantar oleh president NRI Mr Asaat (dibelakang) dan  Letkol Suharto (terakhir presiden Ri,almarhum)  sebagai komandan  WK IIII Jogyakarta.

photograph prsedien RIS Bu Bung Karno and Fatmawati wife and son at the airport Maguwo Guntur Yogyakarta (currently Adisucipto) when leaving for Jakarta escorted by Mr. Asaat NRI president (behind) and Lt. Col. Suharto (the last president of the Ri, deceased) as iiii WK commander of Yogyakarta.

(b) Foto presiden RIS Bung Karno kembali tiba di Jakarta ,didepan lapangan terbang Kemayoran(saat ini kompleks Pekan Raya Jakarta)

Photo of Bung Karno RIS president arrived back in Jakarta, Kemayoran airport in front of (the current complex Jakarta Fair)

(c) Foto Perpisahan wakil Presiden Moh Hatta dengan Rakyat Djokja,Mr Asaad sedang mengucapkan selamat jalan kepada beliau.

the picture of farawel party with Djogja people with vice presiden RIS Moh.Hatta, Mr Asaad say goodbey to him.

4.December,23th.1949

The RIS PTT Bukittinggi announcement about the Telephone fee tarief,with legalizied  the chief of Telefon office Republic Indonesia(RI)

4a.December,29th.1949

1)Sampul postal history yang dikirim dari Tanjung Pandan Belitung CDS 29.12.1949 ke Padang  ,mengunakan prangko ratu Wihelmina 10 sen dan 17 1/2 sen dan cetak tindih Indonesia  pada prangko  Wilhelmina 15 sen, (koleksi ini sangat langka karena merupakan pemakaian terakhir prangko Hindia Belanda setelah pengakuan Kedaulatan RI saat RIS, siapa yang menemukan pemakaian prangko sejenis setelah tanggal ini harap berkenan memberikan informasi liwat comment,terima kasih dari Dr Iwan suwandy)

The cover postal history sent from Tanjung Pandan Belitung CDS 29.12.1949 to Padang, using stamps queen Wihelmina 10 cents and 17 1 / 2 cents, and print on overlapping Indonesia Wilhelmina stamps 15 cents, (this collection is very rare because it is the last use of the Dutch East Indies stamps after the recognition of sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia as RIS, who discovered the use of similar stamps after  this date please deign to give information through the following comment, thank you from Dr. Iwan suwandy)

2) Post Telegraaf en Telefoodienst (PTT) advies van betaligen bewijs ,post rekening van de pandhuis dienst ,ter uitbetaling door het kantoor der posterijen te Tarutung 2000 gld in cijfers , aan de beheerder van het panduis te Tarutung , 29 December.otherside voor de comntrol van ommestaande hantekening postastamped Taroetone CDS 29.12.50, recived CDS Siboga 12.7.1951

Tanda Penerimaaan Pos Telegraph dan Telefoodienst (PTT) , pasca bayar dengan layanan pegadaian untuk pembayaran oleh kantor Kantor Pos pada tahun 2000 GLD Tarutung dalam angka, manajer dari Jawatan Pengadaian untuk Tarutung, 29 December. pada lembaran dibaliknya berupa kontrol  dari contah tanda tangan dengan stempel pos  Taroetoeng 29.12.50 CDS, CDS diterima  Siboga 1951/07/12(Hal ini karena terputusnya hubungan antara Tarutung  ke Sibolga akibat dihadang oleh pasukan Mayor Bedjo dari tentara NRI, mayor B edjo yang buta huruf ini sangat legendarais dan dijadikan tema film Indonesia Nagabonar -catatan Dr Iwan )

Postal Telegraph and Telefoodienst (PTT) betaligenbewijs advice, postal service on behalf of the pawnshop, for payment by the office of the Post Office in 2000 gld Tarutung in figures, the manager of the panduis to Tarutung, 29 December.otherside for comntrol of handsigned ,postastamped Taroetoeng   29.12.50 CDS, CDS recived Siboga 12/07/1951(very late amost one years because the transportation by road from Tarutung to Sibolga were broken due to Mayor Bedjo ,NRI local Tapanuli Army stop and cutting the line,the legend Mayor Bedjo cuoldnnot read and writting, he beacame the base of the Film Story, Nagabonar-Dr Iwan Note)

Perjuangan Kuala Tungkal Jambi

Sesudah tanggal 29 Desember 1949 dengan berhasilnya KMB dan sekaligus penyerahan Kedaulatan Republik Indonesia, pasukan Front Tungkal Area yang dipimpin oleh Letnan Muda A. Fattah Leside mendarat di Kota Kuala Tungkal mengambil alih tanggungjawab terhadap Koata Kuala Tungkal yang ditinggalkan Belanda. Dalam suatu upacara penaikan bendera merah putih di Lapangan Sepak Bola yang saat ini menjadi Terminal Kota. Bertindak selaku Inspektur Upacara Act. Kolonel Abunjani KOmandan STD/Garuda Putih Anggota Joint Committee yang sengaja dating dari Jambi. Selesai upacara diadakan do’a syukuran dan makan bersama yang diselenggarakan oleh Kepala Warga India di Kuala Tungkal Muhiddin.

Pemboman bekas markas pertahanan Tentara RI Bataliyon Gatot Kaca pimpinan Mayor Z. Riva’i oleh Belanda di Merlung. (LUKISAN)

Demikianlah riwayat perjuaangan ini dibuat untuk dapat diketahui oleh generasi penerus yang akan meneruskan perjuangan bangsa. Sengaja riwayat perjuangan Barisan Selempang Merah dan TNI-AD, TNI-AL, dan TNI-AU, serta rakyat dan POLRI ini dibuat untuk kenang-kenangan bagi yang tinggal, kalau nanti para pelaku perjuangan sudah tidak ada lagi di bumi persada ini.

Riwayat perjuangan ini disadur dari catatan Sdr. Madhan. AR (mantan Wkl. Komandan Pertempuran Sektor 1023 Front Tungkal Area), catatan Patih Masdar selaku Camat Tungkal Ilir dan dari beberapa para pejuang yang masih hidup.

5.December,31th.1949

1)Hari ini adalah hari terakhir pengumpulan pasukan Tentara Nasional Indonesia Divisi Siliwangi ( Jawa Barat) berdasarkan surat perintah  Divisi Siliwangi no 162/49  tanggal  10.12.1949 ,ditanda tangani oleh staf  kwartier Panglima  Divisi IV Siliwangi Kolonel  Sadikin, lihat fotkopi surat tersebut dibawah ini:

Today is the last day of the collection of the Indonesian National Army troops Siliwangi Division (West Java) based on a warrant Siliwangi Division No. 162/49 dated 10.12.1949, signed by the staff of Commander of Division IV kwartier Siliwangi Colonel Sadikin, fotkopi see the letter below

 foto tentara nasional Indonesia diatas truk saat kembali ke Ibukota RI Jakarta serta foto Tentara Nasional Indonesia setelah tiba di Ibukota Jakarta.

Indonesia photo above the national army trucks returning to the capital of Indonesia Jakarta and the Indonesian National Army photo after arriving in the capital Jakart

2)Postal used  home made postcard send from Malang to RVD selling and art division  at Jakarta with smelt numeric diffinitive  stamps 2 and 3 sen without RIS overprint , CDS Malang 31.12.49,the letter asking free magazine”Natura” in Indonesian Language.

3) Official free stamp homemade cover sent from  Semarang CDS 31.12.49 to Djogja cds 9.1.50, handwritten back(kembali) return to sender with note soedah pindah roemah ke Jakarta(have house moved to Jakarta)

5.The Unique Postal History From Dutch in 1949(date not clear)

Kartu Pos dari KIVTLV(Koninklijk Instituut Voor De Taal Land en Volkunde Den Haag ) yang telah mencoret Van Ned. Indie (dari Hindia Belanda)  sehingga mereka sudah mengakui kedaulatann RI dan Hindia Belanda sudah berakhir , dikirimkan kepada L.Ch.Damais Amsterdam untuk membayar kontribusi F.15.- sebagai anggota institue tersebut.(Kartu Pos ini sangat bersejarah karena badan yang terhormat ini dari newgeri Belanda telah mengakui kedaulatan Republik Indonesia,sayang tanggal pengirman tidak jelas karena  karena distempel sistem roller. Apabila kolektor memiliki koleksi sejenis harap memberikan informasi liwat komentar,terima kasih dari Dr Iwan Suwandy)

Postcards from KIVTLV (Koninklijk Instituut Voor De Taal Land en Volkunde Hague) which has been crossed out Ned Van. Indie (from the Dutch East Indies), so they had to admit kedaulatan Affairs and the Dutch East Indies was over, sent to Amsterdam to pay a contribution L.Ch.Damais F.15 .- as a member of the Institute. (Postcards of this very historic because this honorable body of  Netherlands State has recognized the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia, unfortunately the sender  date is not clear because as stamped roller system. If the collector has a similar collection please provide the information through the following comments, thanks from Dr. Iwan Suwandy)My Friend Mr Hartkamp send an informations related to the postal history above:

The cancelation on this cover is only partly visible.
 
The complete text:
 
VERMELD OP UW
POSTSTUKKEN
NAAM en ADRES
AFZENDER
 
This cancellation is used in ‘s-Gravenhage in the years 1947 to 1951. In Holland a lot of firms changed their names and crossed out the name of Netherlands Indie after 27-12-1949.
Because the written information on this card concerns the payment of a contribution for the subscription of the New Year I suppose that this cancellation is of the beginning of 1950. After a while the firms changed the imprints of their printed matter, so it is not likely that the cancelation is of beginning of 1951.

the end @ copyright Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

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