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Cerita tentang Columbus pertama kali saya dengar saat belajar sejarah dunia di Don Bosco high School Padang tahun 1962, setelah itu saya berusaha mencari informasi tetapi tidak pernah sewcara lengkap,karena kesibukan sekolah dan kemudian berkerja yang snagt sibuk hanya sedikit informasi yang dapat ditemui,baru saat pension tahun 2001 saya punya banyak kesempatan meneruskan hobi sejarah saya menemui sebuah buku ensiklopedia tahun 1952 yang isinya sangat menarik karena dari ksiah tragis menimpa Columbus pada ekspidisi terakhir ia di tangkap, mengapa bisa terjadi seperti itu ? Hal ini perlu menjadi pelajaran bagi generasi penerus ,agar hal yang baik dari Columbus dapat dijadikan pedoman dan diteruskan tetapi hal yang jelek jangan diulang, belajarlah dari sejarah, maka kemudian secara serius saya kumpulkan seluruh informasi terkait Columbus dan akhirnya terjawablah tentang keberhasilan dan kegagalan Columbus.Untuk menambah informasi dalam pengantar ini saya kutip dari ensikopodia indesia tahun 1952 setelah menemukan informasi pertualangan Columbus, menjadi obsesi saya untuk mengetahui pertualangan selanjutnya yang menuju Lautan Pasific termasuk Indonesia, saya sudha mendengar tentang Magellan dan pernah melihat kuburan porrtugis di tepi panta kota padang dan juga membaca kisah pertulangan magellan ke Mluku dan filipina serta amerika selatan, nah saya mulai mengumpulkan informasi dan silahkan membaca kisahnya dibawah ini
Civilization: Hispanic: Portugal Era Exploration, Fieldof expoloration:Pacific ocean
Ferdinand Magellan organized the first voyage which successfully circumnaviated the globe, and in the process discovered the Straights of Magellan, the Philippines, and several other important geographical landmarks. His momentous expedition was considred a great success even though only 18 of over 200 crewmen returned alive, and Magellan himself was not one of them. He is credited with being the first person to circumnaviate the globe, however, since he was not killed until after reaching the Far East, and he had traveled extensively in the region on prior voyages.
In 1498 the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and established a trade route for the Portuguese to the Far East. Seven years after his return, Ferdinand Magellan joined another Portuguese expedition, led by Francisco Almeida to India. He participated in the Battle of Dui and spent years sailing the region for Portugal under both Almeida and Albuquerque. Eventually, however, Magellan fell out of favor with his superiors due to accusations of illegal trading. Magellan sought to defend himself from these charges, but to no avail. By 1514 he was back in Portugal without employment, and with powerful enemies at the Portuguese court.
In 1513, Balboa had discovered the Pacific Ocean. Magellan was a talented sailor with a broad knowledge of the Far East, and conceived of the idea of sailing to the far east by finding a passage through the new world. After presenting his idea first to the King of Portugal, he proceded to the Court of Charles V, where he gained a much more positive reception. Spain was especially eager to pursue the idea of a western route to the east in order to rival Portugal, which had already established itself in the region.
After several years of preparation, Magellan was provided with five ships and about 250 sailors for his voyage. They embarked from Seville, in August 1519 and by January 1520 reached Rio de la Plata, south of Brazil. At this point, Magellan had to proceed carefully. No passage around the Cape of South America was known at the time, and the waters were rocky and treacherous. One of the ships was lost on a scouting expedition, one returned to Spain, and a minor mutiny was averted. Finally, on November 28, three of the ships successfully negotiated the Straights of Magellan, and entered the Pacific Ocean.
It took only a little over three months to cross the Pacific, and the fleet reached Guam safely in March 1521. From there they proceded to the Philippines, which were unknown to Magellan, since his previous travels in the region had not taken him so far North. It occurred to Magellan to befriend the local king and claim the region for Spain, and so he agreed to aid a local chieftain in one of his battles. This turned into a very costly skirmish—the natives used poison arrows and Magellen and many of the other sailors were killed. The command of the expedition turned to Juan Elcano, who loaded up two of the remaining ships with spices and other valuables before attempting to return to Spain. The return journey was complicated by the fact that the Portuguese were dominant in the region, and were somewhat hostile to the Spanish venture. On of the ships was captured by the Portuguese, and the other was forced to dock at a Portuguese station before returning to Spain. Nevertheless, Juan Elcana piloted the Victoria back to Spain, a little less than the years after beginning the momentous jou
This Portuguese-born navigator was one of the great explorers of his era – the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean, he also played a crucial role in the first circumnavigation of the world.
Ferdinand Magellan was born in 1480 into a noble Portuguese family. His parents died when he was still a boy and he became a court page in Lisbon. In 1505, he enlisted in the fleet of the Portuguese viceroy to the Indies, and spent the following years involved in a series of Portuguese expeditions in India and Africa. In 1511, he was with the fleet that conquered Malacca (on the Malay Peninsula), thus gaining control of the most important trade routes in the region. He also explored the islands of present-day Indonesia as far east as the Moluccas (also known as the Spice Islands).
In 1512, Magellan returned to Lisbon, and the following year, he was wounded during an expedition to Morocco, which left him with a permanent limp. After a disagreement with the Portuguese king, in 1517 Magellan went to Spain to try and enlist the Spanish king’s support for an expedition to reach the Moluccas by sailing westwards. The Spanish wanted a share in the valuable spice trade from the Moluccas, but the Portuguese controlled the eastwards route round southern Africa. Magellan was successful and in September 1519 set out with a fleet of five vessels. In spite of a mutinous crew, rough weather, scurvy, a desperate lack of provisions and unknown waters, Magellan managed to cross the Atlantic and navigate through the straits at the southern point of South America which were later named after him.
Now with only three ships, Magellan sailed on into the Pacific with rapidly diminishing supplies, which led to many of the crew dying of starvation and scurvy. After around 14 weeks they reached an island, probably Guam, in the western Pacific. They then sailed on to the Philippines. On 27 April 1521, Magellan was killed there after becoming involved in a battle between two rival local chieftains.
One ship from the fleet eventually reached Spain in September 1522, having completed the first ever circumnavigation of the globe.
Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃w ðɨ mɐɣɐˈʎɐ̃jʃ]; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes, IPA: [ferˈnando ðe maɣaˈʎanes]; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who became known for having organised the expedition that resulted in the first circumnavigation of the Earth completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the “Spice Islands” (modern Maluku Islands in Indonesia).
Magellan’s expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named “peaceful sea” by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. (For background see Exploration of the Pacific.)
The Magellanic Penguin was named for him, as he was the first European to note it; other memorials are the Magellanic clouds, now known to be nearby dwarf galaxies; the twin lunar craters of Magelhaens and Magelhaens A; and the Martian crater of Magelhaens.
A True Hero of Exploration: The Adventures of Magellan
by T. A. Roth
The story of Magellan’s voyage around the world is one of almost uninterrupted adventure and peril.
His men faced harrowing hardships, storms, mutiny, disease, starvation, sunstroke, shipwreck, cowardice and desertion, treachery, savage warfare, and vicious national jealousies.
Yet at great cost they prevailed over all obstacles and after three year’s one of Magellan’s ships returned to Spain with only 18 of the 250 who set forth.
This book follows one of the greatest adventure stories of all time and accurately portrays the lives of the fascinating indigenous peoples the Spanish encountered in their voyages.
Magellan and his men plant the cross in the Philippines.
Almost every school child manages to learn the basic facts about world exploration. They know that Columbus discovered America, Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean, and Magellan was the first sailor to lead a crew of Europeans around the entire globe.
But what they often don’t know is that biographies of early explorers are some of the most exciting adventure stories in all of world history,
and that first hand accounts of the earliest explorers provide fascinating insights into the lives of the indigenous peoples the encountered in their travels.
Many of the most exhilarating adventures of exploration were undertaken by Spanish sea-farers but in spite of their enormous significance, histories written for English Speaking audiences often pass over their achievements too quickly.
Fortunately, Heritage History has an outstanding collection of the biographies of world explorers written for a general audience and based on original sources.
Instead of featuring these outstanding series, however, today we’re focusing just one hero—the story of Ferdinand Magellan.
The lives of all explorers are filled with peril and adventure, but the personality of the hero and the particulars of the calamities, trials, and difficulties that befall them are very different.
The character of the noble Magellan, for example, could not be more unlike that of the nefarious Pizarro. The one had a true missionary spirit and dealt as fairly with the natives as possible; while the other sought only personal gain through unrestrained violence.
To fully appreciate the audacity of Magellan’s voyage, it is important to remember the date at which it was undertaken.
Magellan’s story is both inspiring and a warning. Magellan was a great leader and an admirable gentlemen who undertook his courageous voyage with noble intentions and dignity of spirit. His combination of intelligence, patience, courage, and unshakeable resolve, allowed him to put down a mutiny and inspire his crew in almost impossible circumstances, and his life story is a refreshing contrast to those of other, more roguish heroes of exploration. But his faith and courage only serve to contrast his character with those of the majority of men he encountered. Duplicitous Moslem kings, treacherous tribal chiefs, cowardly crewmen, and jealous courtiers alike conspired to foil his efforts. The ultimate success of his voyage, in spite of all obstacles, is one of the greatest, and most fascinating, achievements in human history.
We recommend our collection of world exploration biographies primarily for middle school and high school students simply because most are told in a level of detail that is best appreciated by older students. They are, however, a feast of adventure stories for students of any age who are mature
Background: Spanish search for a westward route to Asia
Christopher Columbus‘ 1492–1503 voyages to the West had the goal of reaching the Indies and to establish direct commercial relations between Spain and the Asian kingdoms. The Spanish soon realized that the lands of the Americas were not a part of Asia, but a new continent. The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas reserved for Portugal the eastern routes that went around Africa, and Vasco da Gama and the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498.
Spain urgently needed to find a new commercial route to Asia. After the Junta de Toro conference of 1505, the Spanish Crown commissioned expeditions to discover a route to the west. Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 after crossing the Isthmus of Panama, and Juan Díaz de Solís died in Río de la Plata in 1516 while exploring South America in the service of Spain.(wiki)
Funding and preparation
In October 1517 in Seville, Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda, Factor of the Casa de Contratación. Following the arrival of his partner Rui Faleiro, and with the support of Aranda, they presented their project to the Spanish king, Charles I, future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Magellan’s project, if successful, would realize Columbus’ plan of a spice route by sailing west without damaging relations with the Portuguese. The idea was in tune with the times and had already been discussed after Balboa’s discovery of the Pacific. On 22 March 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July. He raised them to the rank of Commander of the Order of Santiago. The king granted them:
- Monopoly of the discovered route for a period of ten years.
- Their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found, with 5% of the resulting net gains.
- A fifth of the gains of the travel.
- The right to levy one thousand ducats on upcoming trips, paying only 5% on the remainder.
- Granting of an island for each one, apart from the six richest, from which they would receive a fifteenth.
The expedition was funded largely by the Spanish Crown, which provided ships carrying supplies for two years of travel. Expert cartographer Jorge Reinel and Diogo Ribeiro, a Portuguese who had started working for Charles V in 1518 as a cartographer at the Casa de Contratación, took part in the development of the maps to be used in the travel. Several problems arose during the preparation of the trip, including lack of money, the king of Portugal trying to stop them, Magellan and other Portuguese incurring suspicion from the Spanish, and the difficult nature of Faleiro. Finally, thanks to the tenacity of Magellan, the expedition was ready. Through the bishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca they obtained the participation of merchant Christopher de Haro, who provided a quarter of the funds and goods to barter.
The fleet provided by King Charles V included five ships: the flagship Trinidad (110 tons, crew 55), under Magellan’s command; San Antonio (120 tons; crew 60) commanded by Juan de Cartagena; Concepcion (90 tons, crew 45) commanded by Gaspar de Quesada; Santiago (75 tons, crew 32) commanded by Juan Serrano; and Victoria (85 tons, crew 43), commanded by Luis Mendoza. (The last ship was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, where Magellan took an oath of allegiance to Charles V.) Trinidad was a caravel, and all others rated as carracks (Spanish carraca or nao; Portuguese nau).
The crew of about 270 included men from several nations: including Portugal, Spain, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Greece, England and France. Spanish authorities were wary of Magellan, so that they almost prevented him from sailing, switching his mostly Portuguese crew to mostly men of Spain. It included about 40 Portuguese, among them Magellan’s brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, João Serrão, a relative of Francisco Serrão, Estêvão Gomes and Magellan’s indentured servant Enrique of Malacca. Faleiro, who had planned to accompany the voyage, withdrew prior to boarding. Juan Sebastián Elcano, a Spanish merchant ship captain settled at Seville, embarked seeking the king’s pardon for previous misdeeds, and Antonio Pigafetta, a Venetian scholar and traveller, asked to be on the voyage, accepting the title of “supernumerary” and a modest salary. He became a strict assistant of Magellan and kept an accurate journal. The only other sailor to report the voyage would be Francisco Albo, who kept a formal logbook. Juan de Cartageña was named Inspector General of the expedition, responsible for its financial and trading operations.
Departure and crossing of the Atlantic
On 10 August 1519, the five ships under Magellan’s command left Seville and descended the Guadalquivir River to Sanlúcar de Barrameda, at the mouth of the river. There they remained more than five weeks. Finally they set sail on 20 September.
King Manuel I ordered a Portuguese naval detachment to pursue Magellan, but the explorer evaded them. After stopping at the Canary Islands, Magellan arrived at Cape Verde, where he set course for Cape St. Augustine in Brazil. On 27 November the expedition crossed the equator; on 6 December the crew sighted South America.
As Brazil was Portuguese territory, Magellan avoided it and on 13 December anchored near present-day Rio de Janeiro. There the crew was resupplied, but bad conditions caused them to delay. Afterwards, they continued to sail south along South America’s east coast, looking for the strait that Magellan believed would lead to the Spice Islands. The fleet reached Río de la Plata on 10 January 1520.
For overwintering, Magellan established a temporary settlement called Puerto San Julian on March 30, 1520. On Easter (April 1 and 2), a mutiny broke out involving three of the five ship captains. Magellan took quick and decisive action. Luis de Mendoza, the captain of Victoria, was killed by a party sent by Magellan, and the ship was recovered. After Concepcion’s anchor cable had been secretly cut by his forces, the ship drifted towards the well-armed Trinidad, and Concepcion’s captain de Quesada and his inner circle surrendered. Juan de Cartagena, the head of the mutineers on the San Antonio, subsequently gave up. Antonio Pigafetta reported that Gaspar Quesada, the captain of Concepcion, and other mutineers were executed, while Juan de Cartagena, the captain of San Antonio, and a priest named Padre Sanchez de la Reina were marooned on the coast. Most of the men, including Juan Sebastián Elcano, were needed and forgiven. Reportedly those killed were drawn and quartered and impaled on the coast; years later, their bones were found by Sir Francis Drake. A replica of the Victoria can be visited in Puerto San Julian(wiki)
Reconstruction Historical Fact Of
Magellan voyage began in 1519,
only six years after
Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
At that time, neither
Cortez nor Pizarro had yet made their fame as conquistadors and Spanish settlements in the New World were still few.
The full mineral wealth of the Spanish possessions in America was not yet realized and discovering a western trade route to the Far East was foremost in men’s minds.
Absolutely nothing was known of the Pacific Ocean at the time; there were no provisioning stations outside the Caribbean and the men who embarked on the trip were as stalwart as those who first sailed the unknown seas with Columbus.
Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 280 men.
Only one ship, and eighteen men returned from the voyage.
Magellan’s voyage was accompanied by perils of all kinds, from mutiny, to starvation, to tribal warfare.
Like Columbus he had to deal with the jealousy of Royal courts at home as well as tribal wars and rivalries among the natives.
Also like Columbus, Magellan sincerely believed that part of his mission was to spread Christianity among the natives, but on this front, his initial success was undone by treachery and superstition.
Even when his struggling fleet, after enormous sufferings, made its way to a trading port in the Spice Islands, the remaining crew had to deal with perfidious Moslem and Portuguese traders who sought to prevent their return to Spain.
Although the afflictions of nature; including storms, temperature extremes, disease, and starvation took a heavy toll on the crew, the losses due to human deceit and aggression were even more devastating.
El Nino may have helped Magellan cross the Pacific
El Nino may have helped Magellan cross the Pacific
By RANDOLPH E. SCHMID, AP Science Writer
Fri May 16, 5:23 PM ET
WASHINGTON – The El Nino phenomenon that has puzzled climate scientists in recent decades may have assisted the first trip around the world nearly 500 years ago.
Explorer Ferdinand Magellan encountered fair weather on Nov. 28, 1520, after days of battle through the rough waters south of South America. From there his passage across the Pacific Ocean may have been eased by the calming effects of El Nino, researchers speculate in a new study.
When an El Nino occurs, the waters of the Equatorial Pacific become warmer than normal, creating rising air that changes wind and weather patterns. The effects can be worldwide, including drought in the western Pacific and more rain in Peru and the west coast of South America.
Tree ring data indicate that an El Nino was occurring in 1519 and 1520 and may even have begun in 1518.
After passing through the strait later named for him, Magellan sailed north along the South American coast and then turned northwest, crossing the equator and eventually arriving at the Philippines, where he was killed in a battle with natives.
Magellan was seeking the so-called spice islands, now part of Indonesia, and his course took him north of that goal.
But the route may have been dictated by mild conditions and favorable winds during an El Nino, anthropologists Scott M. Fitzpatrick of North Carolina State University and Richard Callaghan of the University of Calgary, Canada, propose in a new study of his trip.
Their research is summarized in Friday’s edition of the journal Science and is scheduled to be published in full in the August edition of the Journal of Pacific History.
They were studying early exploration trips and were struck by the fact that Magellan sailed unusually far north, Fitzpatrick explained in a telephone interview.
“We had not considered El Nino until afterward, when we were trying to account for why the winds were so calm when he came into the Pacific,” he said. “We knew it was unusual.”
The researchers used a computer to model wind and weather conditions across the Pacific during an El Nino and then compared that to Magellan’s route.
Magellan’s journals show that many of the crew had died or were sick with scurvey, so he may simply have chosen to sail with the existing winds and currents, reducing the number of crew needed to operate his ships, Fitzgerald said.
“It could have been an adept maneuver,” the researchers wrote, allowing him to move west along the past of least resistance.
In his writings, Magellan said he chose the northerly route because of reports of a famine in the spice islands. This also could be accurate, Callaghan and Fitzpatrick say, as El Nino conditions often result in drought in that region.
Magellan had received correspondence from a friend in the spice islands before setting out and so may have known about a famine there, Fitzgerald said. But that cannot be determined for certain, because the correspondence was destroyed in the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755.
While the actual reasons for Magellan’s choice of route remain uncertain, El Nino conditions “may have been largely responsible for structuring the route and extent of what many consider the world’s greatest voyage,” the researchers wrote.
The trip, in fact, may be the earliest record of an El Nino, Fitzpatrick said.
Sir Francis Drake encountered mild conditions in the Strait of Magellan when he sailed through in 1578, but he then faced months of Pacific storms that scattered his ships, sinking one. Captain James Cook seems also to have benefited from El Nino conditions centered on 1769 during his Pacific exploration.
El Niño May Have Been Factor In Magellan’s Pacific Voyage
A new paper by North Carolina State University archaeologist Dr. Scott Fitzpatrick shows that Ferdinand Magellan’s historic circumnavigation of the globe was likely influenced in large part by unusual weather conditions — including what we now know as El Niño — which eased his passage across the Pacific Ocean, but ultimately led him over a thousand miles from his intended destination.
(May 16, 2008)
— A new paper by North Carolina State University archaeologist Dr. Scott Fitzpatrick shows that Ferdinand Magellan’s historic circumnavigation of the globe was likely influenced in large part by unusual weather conditions — including what we now know as El Niño — which eased his passage across the Pacific Ocean, but ultimately led him over a thousand miles from his intended destination.
Magellan set out from Spain in 1519 with hopes of claiming the wealth of the Spice Islands, or Moluccas, for the Spanish. Two years later the explorer claimed the first European contact with a Pacific island culture when he landed on Guam — 1,500 miles north of the Spice Islands. How did he make it that far? And how did he miss the Spice Islands by that much?
The paper, co-authored by Fitzpatrick and University of Calgary researcher Dr. Richard Callaghan, uses computer modeling and historical data to determine the role oceanographic conditions may have played in Magellan’s smooth voyage after rounding the notorious Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America and in his decision to sail far north of the Spice Islands — which Magellan knew lay along the equator.
The paper concludes that unusually benign weather conditions, likely associated with an El Niño event, allowed Magellan to sail north and may have persuaded him to continue in that direction to avoid starvation — making Magellan’s voyage not only the first to circumnavigate the globe, but apparently the earliest historical record of an El Niño event.
Specifically, the paper finds that Magellan likely sailed around Cape Horn and directly into the tail end of an El Niño event, resulting in much smoother sailing than would normally have been the case and allowing him to easily sail to the north along the coast of Chile. Fitzpatrick and Callaghan also hypothesize that, after leaving the Chilean coast, Magellan may have chosen to continue on his northerly route in order to take advantage of prevailing winds and currents that had them moving at a good speed and allowed him to rest his sailors, who were by then suffering from scurvy and other maladies.
Magellan claimed that he sailed far to the north of the Spice Islands due to concerns that the islands had no food, and Fitzpatrick and Callaghan found some evidence to support this hypothesis. Their paper notes that the Pacific region appears to have been experiencing an El Niño event in 1519 and 1520 — during the bulk of Magellan’s voyage — and that an El Niño is often associated with drought and accompanying famines in the area.
Fitzpatrick is an assistant professor of anthropology in NC State’s Department of Sociology and Anthropology, and is founder and co-editor of the Journal of Island & Coastal Archaeology. This researche will also be published in the Journal of Pacific History in August.
|Born to a noble family in Portugal.|
|Traveled with Francisco de Almeida to the far East.|
|Participated in the Battle of Diu|
|Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean.|
|Accused of trading illegally with the Moors and relieved for service for Portugal.|
|Presented plan to sail beyond the New World to reach East Asia to the King of Portugal, but was rejected.|
|Gained audience with Charles 5 of Spain and presented his plan with some success.|
|Five ships and a crew of over 250 men were commisioned for the journey.|
|Reached Rio de la Plata in South America in January, 1520.|
|Passed the Magellan Straights in November, 1520.|
|Reached the Island of Guam in March, with over 150 crewmen still alive.|
|Death of Magellan in the Philippines in April, after being shot with poison arrows.|
|Remainder of Magellan’s crew reach the Spice Islands in November.|
|The Victoria, under command of Juan Elcano rounds the Cape of Good Hope in May.|
|The Victoria returns safely to Spain, on September 6.|