Koleksi Uang Kertas Indonesia (Javasche Bank) Pertama abad ke-19

KOLEKSI  UANG KERTAS JAVASCHE BANK ABD KE -19

TERBITAN

De Javasche Bank 1864-1895


 
Januari 1864 – April 1895, dicetak oleh Yoh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sumber: Rob Huisman

 Pada tahun 1863, De Javasche Bank, didirikan pada tahun 1828, merupakan bank sirkulasi di Hindia Belanda. Satu akan berharap untuk menjadi lembaga yang mapan kolonial, namun sebaliknya adalah benar. Penelitian di arsip Yoh printer. Enschede en Zonen di Haarlem Museum di Enschede, Belanda, menunjukkan gambaran yang sama sekali berbeda. Dewan dan khususnya Presiden De Javasche Bank secara langsung terlibat secara detail dalam segala hal operasional terkait dengan desain dan memesan uang kertas mereka

Bagian 4, Januari 1864 – April 1895, dicetak oleh Yoh. Enschede en Zn.

Pada tahun 1863,

De Javasche Bank, didirikan pada tahun 1828, merupakan bank sirkulasi di Hindia Belanda.
Satu akan berharap untuk menjadi lembaga yang mapan kolonial, namun sebaliknya adalah benar.
Penelitian di arsip Yoh printer. Enschede en Zonen di Haarlem Museum di Enschede,
Belanda, menunjukkan gambaran yang sama sekali berbeda. Dewan dan khususnya Presiden De
Javasche Bank secara langsung terlibat dalam rinci dalam segala hal operasional terkait dengan desain dan
memesan uang kertas mereka.

Membaca melalui semua korespondensi cermat disimpan dan diatur antara Javasche Bank
dan perusahaan percetakan di tanah air, seseorang dapat merasakan suasana modern
kewirausahaan start-up perusahaan. Presiden (CEO) E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) dan
penggantinya Wiggers van Kerchem, menulis surat kepada Yoh. Enschede en Zn. (Kemudian disebut “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) secara teratur untuk memesan uang kertas baru, mengomentari kualitas dan pelaksanaan
perintah, mengeluh tentang keterlambatan pengiriman, dan sering menggarisbawahi kebutuhan mendesak untuk persediaan baru untuk
mereka terpencil wilayah.

Paling mencolok adalah bahwa mereka sering menyebutkan bahwa biaya adalah membatasi maksimal
penting. Surat-surat yang ditulis dengan kaligrafi yang indah dan menggunakan cara-cara sopan dan politik yang benar
mengeluh, mendesak, komentar dan mengkritik. Kata-kata seperti “khawatir”, “kecewa”, “mengusulkan” dan
“Suka” yang digunakan secara teratur dan sering saran dan proposal yang diajukan dengan pernyataan menyelesaikan
seperti:

 “Namun kita bergantung pada keahlian anda dalam hal ini dan percaya Anda akan membuat keputusan yang tepat”.
E. Francis (ia menandatangani surat-suratnya dengan M. Francis), Presiden ketiga dari Javasche Bank, dimulai sebagai sebuah
pegawai di 1815 dan meniti karier dalam layanan pemerintah untuk akhirnya menjadi sipil atas
tersedia untuk Komisaris Jenderal hamba. Dari 1848 hingga 1850 Francis adalah Inspektur Keuangan
dan pada 1851 ia diberhentikan dengan hormat dari layanan pemerintah. Selanjutnya, Francis diangkat
kepada Presiden dari Javasche Bank berdasarkan keputusan tanggal 4 Maret 1851. Pada awal tahun enam puluhan abad ke-19,
De Javasche Bank mulai menyiapkan emisi baru lengkap uang kertas Hindia Belanda. Dalam
kerjasama dengan Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank adalah menunjuk ke arah Belanda
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (sekarang dikenal sebagai Yoh. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Keamanan)) untuk memiliki
uang kertas baru yang dirancang dan diproduksi. Francis pribadi terlibat dalam proses dan
berkomunikasi dengan printer secara teratur. Sayangnya Fransiskus tidak tinggal di kantor untuk melihat
hasil usahanya. Atas permintaan sendiri Francis diberhentikan dengan hormat per 1 Juli 1863
Keputusan per 20 April 1863. Pada tahun 1864 Fransiskus menerbitkan buku “De regerings-beginselen van
Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, mengungkapkan nya
ketidakpuasan dengan penerapan sistem ekonomi baru di Hindia Belanda dan
mengusulkan penyelidikan oleh komite independen. Pada tahun 1869 Fransiskus diterbitkan permintaan ke
Parlemen Belanda tentang hak terkenal nya untuk pembayaran pensiun menjadi pegawai negeri sipil pensiunan
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Tanggapan ini proposal dan permintaan tidak ditemukan, mengarah ke
percaya bahwa Francis diabaikan oleh pembentukan dan harus berjuang untuk itu percaya dan pensiun
membayar pada hari-hari tuanya.
Dalam surat dari Francis tanggal 31 Januari 1863, dengan pengelolaan Nederlandsche Bank, yang
penerimaan catatan bukti telah dikonfirmasi dan bukti-bukti telah disetujui. Dalam surat yang sama Francis
mengangkat beberapa komentar bahwa ia ingin ke alamat:
– Ukuran catatan: DJB lebih memilih perbedaan dalam ukuran untuk menjadi antara catatan dari 100 dan 50
gulden. Ini berarti bahwa catatan dari 1000,, 500 300, 200 dan 100 akan menjadi besar dan catatan
dari 50, 25 dan 10 akan ukuran kecil. DJB disebutkan bahwa jika De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) berpikir
yang membagi harus antara 25 dan 10 gulden, DJB juga akan setuju.
– Karakter nilai di sudut catatan harus lebih besar.
– Singa pada 10 catatan gulden memiliki ekspresi, terkejut hampir ketakutan. DJB akan seperti
singa untuk memiliki ekspresi yang lebih santai melambangkan kekuatan.

__________________________________________________________________________
– DJB lebih suka bahwa tanda tangan ditempatkan di bawah kata-kata “Sekretaris” dan “Presiden” dan permintaan
kata-kata yang akan dicetak di bawah tanggal setinggi mungkin.
– DJB lebih suka bahwa tanggal dicetak pada printer bukan itu yang diterapkan di (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB setelah kedatangan. Dalam kasus printer mencetak tanggal, Fransiskus menunjukkan memilih kencan tidak menjadi
Kristen hari libur atau Minggu dan sekitar 6 bulan setelah tanggal keberangkatan diharapkan dari
uang kertas.
– DJB menyatakan bahwa mereka menghitung 6 bulan untuk durasi perjalanan dan menerapkan angka dan
tanda tangan untuk jumlah uang kertas yang diperlukan untuk pertukaran uang kertas yang beredar saat ini.
Pada awal pengiriman DJB tahun 1870-an permintaan untuk dikirim melalui Terusan Suez baru dibuka, mengurangi
waktu tempuh dengan lebih dari 50%.

Presiden keempat De Javasche Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, mengambil kantor pada 1 Juli
1863 dan melanjutkan proses pemesanan isu-isu baru uang kertas.
Selama periode Januari 1864 – April 1895, nomor seri dan tanda tangan di bagian depan dan
tanda kontra di sebaliknya dicetak secara lokal oleh Javasche Bank di Hindia Belanda pada
selesai catatan yang dikirim dari printer di Belanda. Para Javasche Bank juga
memesan peralatan penomoran dan tanda tangan prangko dari printer dan beberapa perangko tanda tangan kosong
dalam kasus penandatangan akan berubah, memungkinkan mereka untuk mengukir tanda tangan baru di prangko
lokal sendiri. Bersama dengan urutan pertama 1864 uang kertas baru, Javasche Bank
memerintahkan montir untuk menemani mesin penomoran dan mengurus mengambil mesin menjadi
produksi. Willem Hooij dikontrak oleh Yoh. Enschede en Zonen untuk bepergian ke Batavia dalam
Hindia Belanda dan menginstal mesin. Dalam sebuah surat dari Hooij ke Yoh. Enschede en Zonen tanggal
12 Agustus 1864, ia menulis tentang Presiden sabar dari Javasche Bank yang membuat
kesulitan karena Hooij tidak mendapatkan mesin yang diinstal dalam satu hari. Wiggers van Kerchem
mengundang printer lokal berkenalan dan bersama-sama mereka meremehkan Hooij.
161a – dari koleksi pribadi, dengan Contra Mark dicetak di pojok kanan bawah sebaliknya.
Semua uang kertas yang dikeluarkan oleh De Javasche Bank di Hindia Belanda selama periode 1864 sampai 1931
dan dicetak oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen, membawa tanda kontra, dicetak di sudut kanan bawah atau
pusat lebih rendah sebaliknya. Sebuah kode yang dicetak hitam di cap elips dengan bentuk segitiga
mengarah keluar dan memiliki hingga 5 nomor. Negara lebih rendah catatan denominasi dikeluarkan selama ini
periode tidak memiliki tanda ini.

Kolektor yang akrab dengan Hindia Belanda uang kertas dari
periode ini mungkin akan menyadari bahwa ada hubungan antara tanggal penerbitan dan kontra
tanda. Meskipun terlihat seperti tanggal kemudian semakin tinggi angkanya, dalam kenyataannya hal ini tidak selalu
kasus.
Dalam rangka untuk mengetahui aplikasi yang tepat dari tanda kontra, saya mengumpulkan informasi tentang lebih
dari 150 catatan mulai 1864-1931. Ketika mengatur dan mengorganisir semua informasi yang relevan
seperti tanggal, nomor serial dan kontra, saya mengamati hal berikut:
– Salah satu tanda yang unik kontra selalu terhubung dengan hanya satu tanggal khusus masalah
– Salah satu tanggal tertentu terjadi masalah dengan kode keamanan yang berbeda, namun kode keamanan yang dekat
bersama-sama
– Ketika catatan lebih dari masalah yang sama terjadi dengan tanggal yang sama dan kode keamanan, catatan memiliki
kombinasi karakter yang sama dalam nomor seri
– Ketika tanggal terjadi dengan lebih dari satu kontra menandai setiap tanda kontra yang unik terjadi dengan berbagai
kombinasi karakter dalam nomor seri dari masalah tertentu atau tanda kontra terhubung ke
denominasi lain yang dikeluarkan
– Banyak yang melewatkan tanggal, ada kesenjangan banyak hari atau minggu antara satu dan yang kontra berikutnya tanda
– Catatan dengan denominasi yang berbeda diterbitkan pada tanggal yang sama dengan tanda yang berbeda kontra
– Tampaknya satu rentang nomor urut digunakan untuk tanda kontra yang mencakup semua catatan yang dikeluarkan
dari seluruh periode
– Ada beberapa pengecualian di mana nanti tanggal rendah memiliki nomor kontra tanda
– Tidak ada kombinasi karakter yang berbeda nomor seri dari sebuah denominasi tertentu dengan
sama kontra tanda.
– Perubahan dari 4 sampai 5 angka terjadi dalam perjalanan tahun 1918
– Catatan CONTOH sering memiliki tanda menyimpang kontra yang tidak cocok kenaikan sekuensial yang biasa
kontra tanda dan tanggal.
Jelas Bank dikelola Belanda akan menyimpan catatan rinci tentang kode keamanan dan
tanggal dan nomor seri dari semua uang kertas yang dikeluarkan. Tidak diketahui apakah catatan ini De Javasche
Bank masih ada di arsip di suatu tempat hari ini, meskipun ada rumor bahwa catatan ini masih
hadir dalam arsip Bank Indonesia di Jakarta.
Berdasarkan “Catatan oleh PJ Soetens, mantan konservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), arsip
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, Belanda “, saya menyimpulkan bahwa De Javasche Bank digunakan tanda kontra
nomor untuk mengidentifikasi batch terpisah uang kertas yang belum selesai yang diangkut antara
berbagai departemen, di mana mereka dicetak dengan nomor seri dan tanda tangan, dan akhirnya
disimpan di lemari besi kasir sebelum sirkulasi
Arsip dari Enschede Museum mengandung banyak perintah asli, catatan produksi,
pengiriman informasi dan juga surat-surat dari Batavia di mana Javasche Bank menegaskan penerimaan
pengiriman. Penulis membuat ikhtisar dari semua data ini dan mampu menetapkan jumlah yang tepat dari
menerbitkan wesel untuk setiap tanggal penerbitan. Jumlah catatan yang dikeluarkan disebutkan dalam ikhtisar di bawah ini
harus dianggap sebagai minimum. Ada bukti kuat bahwa angka-angka benar-benar dikeluarkan.
Meskipun ada kemungkinan bahwa lebih banyak catatan diterbitkan, kesempatan – sementara tidak ada yang berbeda
catatan rinci menyebutkan mereka – sangat kecil.
Berikut ini adalah ikhtisar dari uang kertas yang berbeda dan varietas mereka yang tercetak di Johan
Enschede en Zonen di Haarlem, Belanda yang akan dikeluarkan oleh De Javasche Bank di Batavia,
Hindia Belanda. Meskipun ada rumor tentang tanggal lain dari masalah dan kombinasi tanda tangan,
Ikhtisar di bawah ini hanya berisi daftar uang kertas mereka dan varietas yang penulis memiliki bukti yang cukup bahwa
mereka benar-benar ada.
Katalog Lelang Jawa (7), Kuki (15) dan Mevius (16) menyebutkan Van Duyn sebagai penandatangan, namun
tidak ada orang dengan nama ini adalah bagian dari dewan DJB selama periode tersebut. Tampaknya tanda tangan
dari H.P.J. van den Berg (Sekretaris dari 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) telah keliru seperti yang terlihat seperti
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, saudara dari Presiden masa lalu dari Javasche Bank NP van den Berg,
diangkat sebagai penerus Presiden Groeneveld yang pada tanggal 17 Januari 1899, namun meninggal pada 9 Februari 1899
di Nice, sebelum benar-benar memulai jabatan barunya.
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5 Gulden

160 – 1 Oktober 1866
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 100,000
Watermark: “Javasche Bank” dan dua kali angka “5” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks pada sebaliknya dalam 4 bahasa dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. tidak dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 1 karakter, 4 angka (misalnya, R xxxx), tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem
(Presiden), Diepenheim (Sekretaris), tidak ada tanda kontra di sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka (misalnya, IB xxxx), tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem
(Presiden), Diepenheim (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di pojok kanan bawah di sebaliknya
c. dikeluarkan, seperti b, tetapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
d. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
e. belum selesai, seperti d, tapi dengan perforasi spesimen
f. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), pada berbagai jenis kertas dan kadang-kadang hanya
dicetak pada bagian depan
160a – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2053 27 / 3)
160c – Gedenkboek van de Javasche Bank
160d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2057 27 / 7)

161 – 5 April 1895
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: tidak diketahui
Watermark: “Javasche Bank” dan dua kali angka “5” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya diperbarui dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, IV 0xxxx atau KY 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: Groenenveld (Presiden), H.P.J. van den Berg (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di kanan bawah
sudut di sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
c. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan perforasi “NIETIG BT”
d. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
e. belum selesai, seperti d, tapi dengan mencetak di spesimen
f. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), pada berbagai jenis kertas dan kadang-kadang hanya
dicetak pada bagian depan
161a – dari koleksi pribadi
161d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2063 27/13)

10 Gulden

163 – 1 Februari 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 350.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden),
Hoeven (Sekretaris), “Uitgevoerd bij Yoh Enschede EN ZONEN, te Haarlem..” dicetak di bawah
kanan bawah teks pidana di balik, kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
c. belum selesai, seperti b, tetapi dengan perforasi spesimen
d. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
163d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2083 27/33)

164 – 1 Februari 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 150.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh
(Sekretaris), “Uitgevoerd bij Yoh Enschede EN ZONEN, te Haarlem..” dicetak di bawah hak
pidana bawah teks pada sebaliknya, kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

165 – 1 Februari 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 230,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya diperbarui dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, PC 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya
b. diterbitkan. seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan perforasi “NIETIG BT”
166 – 1 Februari 1879
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 709,375
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, TX 0xxxx, tanda tangan:
N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya

167 – 1 Februari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 406,620
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, XK 0xxxx, XL 0xxxx
atau XM 0xxxx, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah pada
terbalik
b. dikeluarkan, seperti a. namun dibatalkan oleh perforasi “NIETIG BT”
c. dikeluarkan, seperti a. tetapi dengan mencetak di “CONTOH” diagonal pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya

25 Gulden

168-1 Agustus 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 120.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka (nomor pertama selalu 0), tanda tangan: Wiggers van
Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
c. belum selesai, seperti b, tetapi dengan perforasi spesimen
d. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
e. bukti, seperti d, tapi hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
f. bukti, seperti e, dengan kesalahan watermark “JAV. BANK” di pusat yang lebih rendah dan dua kali angka “200”
di sebelah kiri dan kanan
168d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2089 27/39)

169-1 Agustus 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 33,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka (nomor pertama selalu 0), tanda tangan: Mees
(Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya
170 – 1 Maret 1876
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 24.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya diperbarui dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di bawah
pusat di sebaliknya

171 – 1 Maret 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 70.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah
di sebaliknya

172 – 1 Maret 1879
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 263,963
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di bawah
pusat di sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tapi dengan tanda air baru

173 – 1 Maret 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 150.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah pada
terbalik
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
173b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2091 27/41)
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50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
Ditarik awal 1872 karena pemalsuan beredar
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 40.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “50” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, misalnya, CB xxxx, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem
(Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti a. tapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
c. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai), dengan spesimen perforasi
d. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
e. bukti, seperti d, tapi hanya pada bagian depan dicetak
f. pemalsuan, pemalsuan kontemporer ditemukan di sebuah rumah judi China di 1871
174b – Gedenkboek van de Javasche Bank
__________________________________________________________________________
174d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2099 27/49)
__________________________________________________________________________
174e – dari koleksi pribadi
174f – Pemalsuan nomor, Serial CB 7305, kontra 84 tanda di sebaliknya, koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2100 27/50)
175 – 15 Oktober 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 43,319
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di bawah
pusat di sebaliknya
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
__________________________________________________________________________

175b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2153 28/26)

176 – 15 Februari 1876

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 56,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, SD 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti a. tapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
176b – Gedenkboek van de Javasche Bank

177 – 15 Februari 1879

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 65,192
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, SG 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah pada
terbalik
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), di atas kertas watermark, hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
177c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2160 28/33)
178 – 15 Februari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 31,382
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, SG 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kode administrasi), di atas kertas dengan tanda air, hanya dicetak
pada bagian depan
__________________________________________________________________________

100 Gulden

179 – 1 Maret 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 60.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden),
Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kode administrasi), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
d. bukti, seperti c, tapi tanpa teks hukum di sebaliknya
179d – dari koleksi pribadi
__________________________________________________________________________

179c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2112 27/62)
180 – 1 Maret 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 10.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

181 – 1 Maret 1874
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

182 – 1 Februari 1876
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 9,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

183 – 1 Februari 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 30.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
184 – 1 Juli 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 30.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
__________________________________________________________________________

185-15 January1879

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 81,240 (yang 11,866 dengan air baru dan nomor baru)
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dengan air baru dan nomor baru, dikirim oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen di
6 Mei 1886
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
185c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2105 27/55)
186 – 15 Januari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 50,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
__________________________________________________________________________
200 Gulden

 

187 – 1 Januari 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
187c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2127 27/77)
__________________________________________________________________________
188 – 1 Januari 1872

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 2.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

189 – 1 Januari 1874

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
190 – 15 Januari 1876
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 6.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
191 – 15 Januari 1879
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 23,367 (3,367 yang memiliki watermark baru)
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dengan air baru, pengiriman diterima di De Javasche Bank pada 25 Januari 1885
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
191c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2124 27/74)
192 – 15 Januari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 25.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
__________________________________________________________________________

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 6.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kode administrasi), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
193c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2134 28 / 7)
__________________________________________________________________________

194 – 2 Mei 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 1.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
195 – 2 Mei 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 2.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
196 – 2 Mei 1874
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 6,148
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. bukti, (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
196b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2132 28 / 5)

500 Gulden


197 – 1 Juni 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 15.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “500” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 2.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “500” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
199 – 1 Juni 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “500” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
199b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2141 28/14)
200 – 1884
Diketahui yang tanggal dicetak di catatan
Jumlah catatan dikirim: 10,640
Dikirimkan oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen pada 13 Oktober 1884
201 – 1889
Diketahui yang tanggal dicetak di catatan
Jumlah catatan dikirim: 3.000
Dikirimkan oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen pada 21 November 1889
202 – 1890
Diketahui yang tanggal dicetak di catatan
Jumlah catatan dikirim: 8,560
Dikirimkan oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen pada 30 Januari 1890

1000 Gulden

 
 

203 – 1 Juli 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 14,998
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “1000” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden),
Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. tidak digunakan (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai) dengan perforasi spesimen
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
203c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2148 28/21)
204 – 1 Juli 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “1000” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh
(Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
205 – 1 Juli 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 14,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “1000” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, misalnya, HC xxxx, Signatures: NP van den Berg
(Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, namun dibatalkan oleh prangko “VERNIETIGD” pada bagian depan

__________________________________________________________________________

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The Funeral ceremony of Kim Yong Il

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />

 
KIM YONG IL FUNERAL CEREMONY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2 days ago
 
  at the Kumsusan Memorial Palace in Pyongyang
 

 

 a glass coffin a memorial palace in Pyongyang

 
 

Kim Jong-il dies aged 69: December 19 as it happened

World leaders call for reform after Kim Jong-il, the leader of North Korea, dies of a heart attack on a train in Pyongyang.

North koreans cry and scream in a display of mourning for their leader Kim Jong II

 
 
North Koreans cry and scream in a display of mourning for their leader Kim Jong-
 
REUTERS
North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has died, Pyongyang announced.
 

A nation in tears:

SEOUL, South Korea – North Korea announced the death of supreme leader Kim Jong Il and urged its people to rally behind his young son and heir-apparent Monday, while the world watched warily for signs of instability in a nation pursuing nuclear weapons.

South Korea, anxious about the untested, 20-something Kim Jong Un after his father’s 17-year rule, put its military on high alert against the North’s 1.2 million-strong armed forces. President Barack Obama agreed by phone with South Korean President Lee Myung-bak to closely monitor developments.

People on the streets of the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, wailed in grief, some kneeling on the ground or bowing repeatedly as they learned the news that their “dear general” had died of heart failure Saturday at age 69 while carrying out official duties on a train trip.

North Koreans mourn the death of Kim Jong Il… as West fears show of strength from nuclear state’s new leader

  • Kim Jong Il died on a train on Saturday morning of heart attack
  • Came into power in 1994, succeeding his father, Kim Il Sung
  • Third son, Kim Jong Un, unveiled as successor in September 2010
  • His uncle Jang Song Thaek expected to rule behind the scenes as he trains on the job
  • South Korean and Japanese militaries on ‘high alert’
  • North Korea today test-fires short-range missile on eastern coast
  • Fears of behind-the-scenes power struggle which could destabilise region
  • Funeral planned for December 28 in capital of Pyongyang
Kim Jong Il, N. Korea's 'Dear Leader' Dictator, Dead

Kim Jong Il, N. Korea’s ‘Dear Leader’ Dictator, Dead

Dec. 19 (Bloomberg) — Kim Jong Il, the second-generation North Korean dictator who defied global condemnation to build nuclear weapons while his people starved, has died, state media reported. A government statement called on North Koreans to “loyally follow” his son, Kim Jong Un. Rishaad Salamat reports on Bloomberg Television’s “Asia Edge.” (Source: Bloomberg) (/Bloomberg) Correction: Clarification:

DECEMBER,17th.2011

North Korean leader Kim Jong Il is dead, according to state television from Pyongyang. There are currently no independent reports confirming his death.

“Our great leader Comrade Kim Jong-il passed away at 8:30 a.m. on Dec. 17,” Korean Central TV reported.

North Korea’s state-run television announced Kim died on Saturday of “physical and mental overwork,” the BBC reported. The AFP said his death was from a heart attack. He reportedly died while traveling.

The world’s only inherited communist ruler, Kim was reported to have been battling health issues that left him further isolated from the outside world.

OLDER INFO

August ,24th.2011

Kim jong il is dead 2011

North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-Il peers out of a car window after a meeting with Russian officials on August 24, 2011.

KIM JONG IL IN 2008

North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has been dead for years and replaced by a number of look-alikes, a Japanese academic claims.

One of Kim Jong Il’s doubles in 2008 (left) and the real Kim in 2003
AND IN 2004 THE REAL KIM JONG IL

and the information in 2009

Dead body of North Korea’s Kim Jong-Il turns 67

 

PYONGYANG — Droves of jubilant North Koreans took to the streets nationwide today to celebrate the 67th birthday of North Korean dictator and Great Leader Kim Jong-Il’s dead body.

“We are overjoyed to see the magnificence of our Dear Leader,” emaciated peasant Gwok Shi-Mon said. “He may not be as sprightly as he once was, but his strength and wisdom still show through that glass, coffin-like box in which he sleeps every night.”

Although North Korea denies that Kim, who apparently died last year, is dead, South Korean and U.S. sources said the Kim Jong-Il encased in glass in the rotunda of the reclusive country’s capitol building is indeed the leader’s dead, embalmed body.

“He’s not been seen in public in months,” South Korean Gen. Kai Vi-Tam said from Seoul. “The footage the state-run news agency plays of him is the same every time. It’s of Kim drinking a can of Tab while standing on a balcony waving to an adoring throng of people. At one point Kim picks up a copy of Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’ album, and then kills a low-level soldier for accidentally scratching the record while putting the needle on it so the crowd could dance to ‘Beat it’”

Even though Kim lay motionless as hundreds of thousands of North Koreans filed past him, laying crudely wrapped birthday presents in front of the glass box as they passed, His people said they took great comfort in knowing the Dear Leader is close by.

“I could tell the Great Leader was thinking about me as I placed a festively wrapped package of my last pack of cigarettes by his feet,” steel worker Xi Hun-Don said. “I would yank out my own eyeballs with an ax should the Dear Leader deem my cigarettes worthy enough to smoke. That would be a birthday present to me

North Korea expert Professor Toshimitsu Shigemura, a professor of international relations, says Kim died of diabetes in 2003 and has been substituted by up to four body doubles ever since.

Driven by a fear of assassination, Kim allegedly trained his doppelgangers — one of whom underwent plastic surgery — to attend public appearances.

“Scholars don’t trust my reasoning but intelligence people see the possibility that it will turn out to be accurate,” Fox News reported Professor Shigemura as saying.

“I have identified and pinned down every source.”

Kim, 66, has not appeared in public for three weeks amid rumours he is seriously unwell and look Kim in 2004

While Seoul intelligence officials have said they believe he has diabetes and heart problems, they do not think he is near death.

But Professor Shigemura, from Tokyo’s respected Waseda University, believes that Kim actually died sometime during a 42-day absence from public in September 2003.

He claims that whenever anyone is granted a face-to-face meeting with today’s Kim, a senior official is always by his side “like a puppet master”.

Professor Shigemura’s claims, outlined in his book The True Character of Kim Jong-il, have been disputed by North Korean officials.

November 10 2008

Pyongyang, North Korea – With reports of a severe illness having debilitated the North Korean leader, the spin machine in the isolated nation has been working in overdrive. From constant denials to apparently doctored photographs, the government has been doing everything it can to show the world that the ‘Dear Leader’ is alive and well. Now, Kim has appeared on national television to prove he is alive and well, and made a shocking change in the political and social climate of the entire country.kim jong-il hip hop master

“We have long been an isolated country, we have long been at odds with our neighbours and the rest of the world but that all changes today,” said Kim in a speech. “I have taken time in isolation and come to the conclusion that the best way for the Korean people to move forward is through music. North Korea will eschew communism and become a hip-hop nation effective immediately. Bling will be issued to every resident starting tomorrow.”

While few details have been released on how the new government will be organized, one immediate change will be the national anthem. Replacing the decades old anthem will be Afrika Bambaataa’s ‘Looking for the Perfect Beat’ (here) and will play in all government offices and schools starting Monday. A redesign of the flag is also on tap, as well as a top down renovation of the schooling system.

“Children will be taught the way of Hip-Hop. Not only the grand history, but also the culture,” continued Kim. “Children must be taught the path, and through the path they will find freedom. It will take a nation of millions to hold us back from our destiny.”

Kim, long an admirer of western culture, has been rumoured to be a lifelong hip-hop fan which in part stemmed from his love of Basketball. In 2000 Former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright presented the leader with a basketball signed by Michael Jordan at the conclusion of a summit between the US and North Korea. He also reportedly uses pure silver chopsticks and has a massive fleet of Mercedes Benz S500’s at his disposal, putting him in line with the upper end of American hip-hop culture.

“From what I’ve heard he’s an old school guy. Grandmaster Flash, Bambaataa, Fab Five Freddy, those kinds of guys, apparently though he’s always got Wu-Tang Clan playing on his iPod. Supposedly his guilty pleasure is Lil Wayne and he shuts it off every time someone walks into the room,” said Scrape TV North Korean analyst Lee Joo-Chan. “That’s great and all but I don’t see how you can translate your hobby and musical taste into a political system. George Bush made a diligent effort in turning the US into a nation of country bumpkins but failed. It’s an interesting experiment but one that may be doomed to failure.”

Many are looking to Kim to implement the changes much like his father, Kim Il-sung, did when the North was driven into communism. While the younger Kim has been looked at as more of an eccentric rather than formidable leader, some believe that he may still have some of the drive and smarts that his father had.wu tang north korea logo

“He is a little funny in the head, everyone knows that, but he’s got the same blood coursing through his veins and that may serve him well in the transition,” continued Lee. “But we need to see details. In a nation where millions of people are starving do they really need to be putting money into breakdancing lessons? Military service or turntable lessons? I don’t see how hip-hop culture lends itself to Socialism so it’s going to be a hard time getting people to see their country in a new way. More power to him, but it’s going to be tough. Word.”

September 9 2008

Pyongyang, North Korea –Rumours are abound that Kim Jong-il, notorious dictator of South Korea has either died, fallen severely ill, or even passed away years ago and has been replaced by lookalikes ever since. His failure to appear at ceremonies marking the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of North Korea has caused even more of a stir in the intelligence community.

kim jong-il smilingTalk that Kim had died many years ago started to surface in August after an article published in the Japanese newspaper Shukan Gendai. Circumstantial evidence seemed to back up the claim, though no hard evidence was presented. The latest talk of a possible stroke would seem to put a damper on the theory, but would likely result in the same outcome.

“If Kim did in fact die five years ago and was replaced by lookalikes, it would hardly be surprising,” said Scrape TV North Korean analyst Lee Joo-Chan. “If that is untrue and he has just recently become ill or died, it’s likely the regime would implement this procedure in order to cover it up. Whether the original story spawned the idea or vice-versa is an intellectual debate. I have little doubt that they would cover up his death whenever it happens. I wouldn’t be surprised if he’s around in one form or another for many years to come.”

North Korea is of course extremely closed and isolated from the rest of the world, so uncovering reliable information concerning any goings-on in the country is extremely difficult. That process is even more complicated when it comes to information about the “Dear Leader” whose face is plastered across the country and is revered in some ways close to a God.   

“Kim is more than a leader, he has positioned himself as the life blood of the people and it would be incumbent on the government to maintain his existence whether it was fact or not. Kim has thrived on misinformation for many years and this would be no different,” continued Lee. “I think the more interesting talk would be how many people in the country could emulate him. The bouffant hairdo is hard to come by these days and even in North Korea I can’t imagine a whole lot of people lining up to double for a pudgy delusional midget. Of course they may not have a choice.”kim jong-il puppet

The other option of course would be using stock footage of the dictator for public appearances and limit meetings with foreign dignitaries. There is at least one instance of footage being used in place of a live appearance, wherein footage from the movie ‘Team America: World Police’ was accidently broadcast across the country. That film features a literal puppet of Kim. The footage was quickly pulled and seems to have had no ill effects on the leader’s reputation.

“Kim is a very unique person to say the least, and I think it would be very difficult to replace him,” concluded Lee. “Of course with the way North Korea is run, fooling the people wouldn’t be an issue. I hope the South Park guys kept their puppets, they may come in handy again.”   

Neither Matt Stone, Trey Parker, nor the North Korean government had any comment

 

The Highest Value and Rarest Chinese Red In Glazed Porcelain Vase

 

 

 

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

 

 

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

 

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

 

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

 

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

 

      THE FOUNDER

 

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

 

                     

 

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

                    

 

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

Showroom :

The rarest Red In Glazed Ming Vase

 

 

 

New world record for Ming vase
(China Daily)
Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.Ming Vase 

 

Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.

 

The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

 

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

 

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

 

Dr Iwan note

 

I have found in Indonesia near same copper red vase but in broken condition one only top and the other which have restoration.

 

 

 

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

 

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

The Crimean Baltic collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

THE CRIMEAN BALTIC COLLECTIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDONESIAN VERSION

Sudak Yevgeny telah menyarankan agar saya pergi ke Gua Marmer, tapi aku lebih tertarik pada warisan Genoa Crimea dan hubungan sejarah dengan Jalan Sutra. Jadi, Sudak harus tempat untuk pergi sebelum mengambil kereta malam ke Odessa.
Sudak Yevgeny telah menyarankan agar saya pergi ke Gua Marmer, tapi aku lebih tertarik pada warisan Genoa Crimea dan hubungan sejarah dengan Jalan Sutra. Jadi, Sudak harus tempat untuk pergi sebelum mengambil kereta malam ke Odessa.

 Trident, simbol nasional Ukraina. Pertama kali muncul sebagai simbol dari Prince Vladimir (Volodymir) dari Kyiv.

Kami melaju ke arah timur melintasi dataran datar Krimea pusat. Patch rumput, ladang gandum dan rawa sesekali. Kami juga melewati sebuah kota bernama Bilohirsk, atau “Gunung Putih” – satu bisa melihat tebing yang tajam putih vertikal naik dari dataran. Beberapa desa Tatar baru berdiri di dekatnya, dengan bidang yang subur mereka sayuran, dinding baru dicat dan atap terkonjugasi mengkilap. Banyak Tatar, bagaimanapun, tetap di trailer dan gubuk-gubuk, menunggu selesainya rumah yang lebih permanen. Tatar telah dipaksa untuk pindah ke tanah-tanah kosong, karena rumah nenek moyang mereka sekarang diduduki oleh pendatang baru. Aku bertanya-tanya apakah ini adalah hal yang baik. Akibatnya, mereka sedang ghettoised dan hidup terpisah dari kelompok etnis lain dari Crimea. Hal ini juga dapat menempatkan mereka di jalur tabrakan dengan orang lain, khususnya Rusia setempat.

 Sudak mengesankan dinding.

Kami mencapai Sudak setelah dua jam mengemudi terus menerus. Cincin abad ke 14 mengesankan dinding cokelat tinggi dan menara berdiri di atas tebing pantai yang menghadap kota kuno ini. Ini pernah menjadi salah satu pelabuhan yang paling penting Genoa perdagangan, dan salah satu titik terminal dari Jalan Sutra. Kekayaan Timur, dilakukan di dataran dan gurun dari Eurasia, melewati Sudak dalam perjalanan ke Genoa dan Barat. Marco Polo ayah dan paman dilaporkan berhenti di sini dalam perjalanan mereka ke Cina. Namun sejarah kota tanggal untuk periode sebelumnya jauh sebelum itu. Sudak mulai keberadaannya sebagai kota Yunani, dan kemudian menaklukkan, dipecat dan dibangun kembali oleh setiap penjajah itu Crimea – Scythians, Khazar, Mongol, Genoa, Venesia, Turki Ottoman / Tatar, dan Rusia.

  Perangko menampilkan artefak Scythian.

Neal Ascherson, dalam “Laut Hitam” disebutkan tentang mengunjungi sebuah makam kuno Khazar digali antara yayasan Bizantium di sini. Para Khazar adalah suku nomaden kuno Turki yang masuk Yudaisme pada abad ke 8, banyak dari mereka menetap di Crimea dan dataran Ukraina, dan diperdagangkan hasil pertanian dari tanah hitam yang kaya untuk kerajinan emas meriah dari semua jenis yang pengrajin Yunani terkenal karena – perhiasan dan perhiasan, minum kapal dengan ukiran yang rumit mereka. Mengingat populasi yang tumbuh cepat dari Yunani kecil negara-kota, itu tidak lama sebelum mereka menjadi sangat tergantung pada gandum koloni yang jauh di pantai Laut Hitam dan Sisilia. Di sisi lain, banyak Khazar tinggal di dekat atau dalam kota-kota Yunani, memperoleh rasa untuk gaya hidup kosmopolitan yang lebih canggih yang mereka tawarkan. Khazar Ascherson makam yang dikunjungi tidak biasa, karena tidak hanya itu penguburan Turki dilakukan dengan ritual Yahudi di sebuah kota Kristen Yunani Ortodoks, tetapi itu juga berisi kerangka dari sebuah pengorbanan manusia. Menurut Ascherson, “korban – berotak oleh pukulan kapak – dilemparkan ke kubur untuk berbaring di samping penghuninya Khazar nya” dalam tradisi suku nomaden sejati.

Sudak menurun setelah penangkapan Ottoman Konstantinopel dan akhirnya dari Sudak sendiri. Dari pelabuhan perdagangan internasional, menjadi pusat administrasi provinsi pertanian yang resmi catatan berkaitan dengan sengketa lahan pertanian lokal daripada internasional geopolitik. Perannya semakin diencerkan ketika perdagangan budak menguntungkan dipindahkan ke Kaffa dekatnya, sekarang dikenal sebagai Feodosia.

 Lama kartu pos Crimea

Sudak saat ini sebuah resor pantai mengantuk, tentu tidak menyenangkan seperti Yalta. Beberapa penyamak kulit matahari berbaring di pantai, dan beberapa menyenangkan-pencari adalah air-ski di perairan yang tenang. Atas desakan Yevgeny, aku bergabung dengan wisatawan di Novy Svet, atau “New World”, sebuah resor bahkan mengantuk beberapa mil jauhnya. Kami berjalan sepanjang jalan sempit di tepi air gunung laut menempel, dan menemukan diri kita dalam sebuah gua besar yang pernah aula partai konglomerat lokal. Tsar, anggota bangsawan, okabe industrialisasi akhir abad ke-19 Rusia, taipan minyak Baku, chic modis Tinggi Masyarakat St Petersburg semua berjuang untuk menghadiri pesta-pesta legendaris pernah diadakan di sini. Satu masih bisa melihat sisa-sisa dari barel anggur besar dan gudang di gua ini partai. Bagaimana sebotol vintage Sauvignon Blanc Massandra?

“Sudah waktunya untuk kembali ke Simferopol,” kata Yevgeny. Tidak akan ada cukup waktu untuk mengunjungi Feodosia dekatnya, di mana Turki dan Tatar pernah lari pasar budak terbesar di kawasan Laut Hitam. Kaffa, seperti yang kemudian dikenal, sering disebut oleh orang Rusia sebagai “vampir yang minum darah Rus”.
 

Ke Odessa

Kami memiliki sup borshch lezat di rumah Yevgeny dan kemudian aku berpamitan kepada keluarga yang ramah Yevgeny. Vera bahkan menyiapkan sebuah tas kecil dengan permen, coklat, kue dan apel untuk subsisten dasar di kereta api. Aku naik kereta api tidak lama sebelum waktu keberangkatan, saat saya berhenti dan diperiksa oleh polisi. Paspor? Da. OVIR? Da. Dan aku pergi, setelah berpamitan dengan Yevgeny.

Kereta berangkat tepat waktu pada pukul 5:05, dan untuk melakukan perjalanan di Crimea menjadi “Ukraina yang tepat daratan”. Ini adalah “lahan kosong” sekali dari Novorossiya, di mana perang tanpa ampun antara Tatar dan Cossack mengosongkan tanah penduduk. Ada padang rumput yang luas pernah mendominasi cakrawala – lanskap tak berujung datar dengan apa-apa kecuali padang rumput dan Starfield bunga, yang monoton yang, menurut Anna Reid dalam perbatasan, kadang-kadang dipecahkan oleh pohon-pohon willow yang tersebar dan gundukan pemakaman prajurit nomaden kuno. Wisatawan pernah disebut lautan rumput bukan untuk alasan lain. Sungguh sayang bahwa saya hanya menyusuri sepanjang tepi selatan laut ini, yang dalam hal apapun, sebagian besar telah digantikan di masa Stalinis oleh besar pertanian kolektif tidak produktif dan tanah kosong industri sama-sama bangkrut.

Saya berbagi 4-orang kelas saya kabin tidur 2 (UAH 30 atau US $ 7) dengan pasangan muda asmara yang menghabiskan separuh waktu dalam pelukan masing-masing, dan yang tidak diragukan lagi telah pergi lebih lanjut dengan kasih sayang mereka jika tidak untuk kehadiran saya .. . Ketika saya bertanya apakah mereka tahu bahasa Inggris “Vi Gava ritye pa-angliski?”, Nyet adalah jawabannya. Tentu saja, akan Anda repot-repot untuk berbicara dengan seorang asing mencari membosankan ketika ada kesenangan duniawi lebih menyenangkan?

Itu hanya ketika saya terlihat mencoba menguraikan bagan rel jadwal yang saya diminta, dalam bahasa Inggris, apakah saya membutuhkan bantuan apapun. Jadi mereka tahu bahasa Inggris setelah semua.

“Da, sedikit,” jawab chap. Banyak orang dalam CIS sebenarnya belajar bahasa Inggris di sekolah tetapi kurangnya kesempatan untuk berlatih itu berarti bahwa mereka kurang percaya diri untuk berbicara bahasa bahkan jika seperti kesempatan muncul.

 Stamp memperingati Paskah, festival tradisional paling penting di Ukraina.

Anton dan Anatashia sedang dalam perjalanan mereka kembali ke Odessa setelah liburan Yalta. Anton adalah dari Balti Moldova (diucapkan “Belt”) dan sekarang bekerja sebagai montir di Odessa. Anatashia adalah Ukraina, rumah-tumbuh Odessan, sekarang di sekolah pelatihan polisi. Mengingat begitu-jauh saya pengalaman negatif dengan polisi Ukraina, saya tidak bisa membantu tetapi bertanya-tanya berapa lama akan mengambil gadis, manis cantik untuk berubah menjadi jenis jahat, birokrat korup saya telah bertemu dalam perjalanan ini.

Kami memiliki percakapan yang menarik tentang kehidupan di Odessa, Krimea indah, pertempuran yang tidak pernah berakhir antara Moldova dan anggur Krimea (yang tentu saja Anton melawan Anatashia diadu), dan identitas membingungkan menjadi Moldovan atau Rumania. Sebelum lama, kami berbagi buah-buahan dan tidbits, dan Anton bahkan mengajari saya bagaimana untuk mengaktifkan Rusia, atau lebih tepatnya, untuk secara politis benar, toilet kereta tekan Ukraina, yang begitu berbeda dari keran lain saya telah melihat di tempat lain. Tidak ada bagi Anda untuk menghidupkan, tapi metalpiece pressable sedikit di belakang nozzle. Apa pengenalan tradisi Samovar besar kereta CIS – Saudara-saudara, diri-layanan teh waktu!

 
 
 

 Trident, simbol nasional Ukraina. Pertama kali muncul sebagai simbol dari Prince Vladimir (Volodymir) dari Kyiv.

Kami melaju ke arah timur melintasi dataran datar Krimea pusat. Patch rumput, ladang gandum dan rawa sesekali. Kami juga melewati sebuah kota bernama Bilohirsk, atau “Gunung Putih” – satu bisa melihat tebing yang tajam putih vertikal naik dari dataran. Beberapa desa Tatar baru berdiri di dekatnya, dengan bidang yang subur mereka sayuran, dinding baru dicat dan atap terkonjugasi mengkilap. Banyak Tatar, bagaimanapun, tetap di trailer dan gubuk-gubuk, menunggu selesainya rumah yang lebih permanen. Tatar telah dipaksa untuk pindah ke tanah-tanah kosong, karena rumah nenek moyang mereka sekarang diduduki oleh pendatang baru. Aku bertanya-tanya apakah ini adalah hal yang baik. Akibatnya, mereka sedang ghettoised dan hidup terpisah dari kelompok etnis lain dari Crimea. Hal ini juga dapat menempatkan mereka di jalur tabrakan dengan orang lain, khususnya Rusia setempat.

 Dinding Sudak yang mengesankan .

Kami mencapai Sudak setelah dua jam mengemudi terus menerus. Cincin abad ke 14 mengesankan dinding cokelat tinggi dan menara berdiri di atas tebing pantai yang menghadap kota kuno ini. Ini pernah menjadi salah satu pelabuhan yang paling penting Genoa perdagangan, dan salah satu titik terminal dari Jalan Sutra. Kekayaan Timur, dilakukan di dataran dan gurun dari Eurasia, melewati Sudak dalam perjalanan ke Genoa dan Barat. Marco Polo ayah dan paman dilaporkan berhenti di sini dalam perjalanan mereka ke Cina. Namun sejarah kota tanggal untuk periode sebelumnya jauh sebelum itu. Sudak mulai keberadaannya sebagai kota Yunani, dan kemudian menaklukkan, dipecat dan dibangun kembali oleh setiap penjajah itu Crimea – Scythians, Khazar, Mongol, Genoa, Venesia, Turki Ottoman / Tatar, dan Rusia.

  Perangko menampilkan artefak Scythian.

Neal Ascherson, dalam “Laut Hitam” disebutkan tentang mengunjungi sebuah makam kuno Khazar digali antara yayasan Bizantium di sini. Para Khazar adalah suku nomaden kuno Turki yang masuk Yudaisme pada abad ke 8, banyak dari mereka menetap di Crimea dan dataran Ukraina, dan diperdagangkan hasil pertanian dari tanah hitam yang kaya untuk kerajinan emas meriah dari semua jenis yang pengrajin Yunani terkenal karena – perhiasan dan perhiasan, minum kapal dengan ukiran yang rumit mereka. Mengingat populasi yang tumbuh cepat dari Yunani kecil negara-kota, itu tidak lama sebelum mereka menjadi sangat tergantung pada gandum koloni yang jauh di pantai Laut Hitam dan Sisilia. Di sisi lain, banyak Khazar tinggal di dekat atau dalam kota-kota Yunani, memperoleh rasa untuk gaya hidup kosmopolitan yang lebih canggih yang mereka tawarkan. Khazar Ascherson makam yang dikunjungi tidak biasa, karena tidak hanya itu penguburan Turki dilakukan dengan ritual Yahudi di sebuah kota Kristen Yunani Ortodoks, tetapi itu juga berisi kerangka dari sebuah pengorbanan manusia. Menurut Ascherson, “korban – berotak oleh pukulan kapak – dilemparkan ke kubur untuk berbaring di samping penghuninya Khazar nya” dalam tradisi suku nomaden sejati.

Sudak menurun setelah penangkapan Ottoman Konstantinopel dan akhirnya dari Sudak sendiri. Dari pelabuhan perdagangan internasional, menjadi pusat administrasi provinsi pertanian yang resmi catatan berkaitan dengan sengketa lahan pertanian lokal daripada internasional geopolitik. Perannya semakin diencerkan ketika perdagangan budak menguntungkan dipindahkan ke Kaffa dekatnya, sekarang dikenal sebagai Feodosia.

 

 Lama kartu pos Crimea

Sudak saat ini sebuah resor pantai mengantuk, tentu tidak menyenangkan seperti Yalta. Beberapa penyamak kulit matahari berbaring di pantai, dan beberapa menyenangkan-pencari adalah air-ski di perairan yang tenang. Atas desakan Yevgeny, aku bergabung dengan wisatawan di Novy Svet, atau “New World”, sebuah resor bahkan mengantuk beberapa mil jauhnya. Kami berjalan sepanjang jalan sempit di tepi air gunung laut menempel, dan menemukan diri kita dalam sebuah gua besar yang pernah aula partai konglomerat lokal. Tsar, anggota bangsawan, okabe industrialisasi akhir abad ke-19 Rusia, taipan minyak Baku, chic modis Tinggi Masyarakat St Petersburg semua berjuang untuk menghadiri pesta-pesta legendaris pernah diadakan di sini. Satu masih bisa melihat sisa-sisa dari barel anggur besar dan gudang di gua ini partai. Bagaimana sebotol vintage Sauvignon Blanc Massandra?

“Sudah waktunya untuk kembali ke Simferopol,” kata Yevgeny. Tidak akan ada cukup waktu untuk mengunjungi Feodosia dekatnya, di mana Turki dan Tatar pernah lari pasar budak terbesar di kawasan Laut Hitam. Kaffa, seperti yang kemudian dikenal, sering disebut oleh orang Rusia sebagai “vampir yang minum darah Rus”.
 

Ke Odessa

Kami memiliki sup borshch lezat di rumah Yevgeny dan kemudian aku berpamitan kepada keluarga yang ramah Yevgeny. Vera bahkan menyiapkan sebuah tas kecil dengan permen, coklat, kue dan apel untuk subsisten dasar di kereta api. Aku naik kereta api tidak lama sebelum waktu keberangkatan, saat saya berhenti dan diperiksa oleh polisi. Paspor? Da. OVIR? Da. Dan aku pergi, setelah berpamitan dengan Yevgeny.

Kereta berangkat tepat waktu pada pukul 5:05, dan untuk melakukan perjalanan di Crimea menjadi “Ukraina yang tepat daratan”. Ini adalah “lahan kosong” sekali dari Novorossiya, di mana perang tanpa ampun antara Tatar dan Cossack mengosongkan tanah penduduk. Ada padang rumput yang luas pernah mendominasi cakrawala – lanskap tak berujung datar dengan apa-apa kecuali padang rumput dan Starfield bunga, yang monoton yang, menurut Anna Reid dalam perbatasan, kadang-kadang dipecahkan oleh pohon-pohon willow yang tersebar dan gundukan pemakaman prajurit nomaden kuno. Wisatawan pernah disebut lautan rumput bukan untuk alasan lain. Sungguh sayang bahwa saya hanya menyusuri sepanjang tepi selatan laut ini, yang dalam hal apapun, sebagian besar telah digantikan di masa Stalinis oleh besar pertanian kolektif tidak produktif dan tanah kosong industri sama-sama bangkrut.

Saya berbagi 4-orang kelas saya kabin tidur 2 (UAH 30 atau US $ 7) dengan pasangan muda asmara yang menghabiskan separuh waktu dalam pelukan masing-masing, dan yang tidak diragukan lagi telah pergi lebih lanjut dengan kasih sayang mereka jika tidak untuk kehadiran saya .. . Ketika saya bertanya apakah mereka tahu bahasa Inggris “Vi Gava ritye pa-angliski?”, Nyet adalah jawabannya. Tentu saja, akan Anda repot-repot untuk berbicara dengan seorang asing mencari membosankan ketika ada kesenangan duniawi lebih menyenangkan?

Itu hanya ketika saya terlihat mencoba menguraikan bagan rel jadwal yang saya diminta, dalam bahasa Inggris, apakah saya membutuhkan bantuan apapun. Jadi mereka tahu bahasa Inggris setelah semua.

“Da, sedikit,” jawab chap. Banyak orang dalam CIS sebenarnya belajar bahasa Inggris di sekolah tetapi kurangnya kesempatan untuk berlatih itu berarti bahwa mereka kurang percaya diri untuk berbicara bahasa bahkan jika seperti kesempatan muncul.

 Prangko  memperingati Paskah, festival tradisional paling penting di Ukraina.

Anton dan Anatashia sedang dalam perjalanan mereka kembali ke Odessa setelah liburan Yalta. Anton adalah dari Balti Moldova (diucapkan “Belt”) dan sekarang bekerja sebagai montir di Odessa. Anatashia adalah Ukraina, rumah-tumbuh Odessan, sekarang di sekolah pelatihan polisi. Mengingat begitu-jauh saya pengalaman negatif dengan polisi Ukraina, saya tidak bisa membantu tetapi bertanya-tanya berapa lama akan mengambil gadis, manis cantik untuk berubah menjadi jenis jahat, birokrat korup saya telah bertemu dalam perjalanan ini.


Kami memiliki percakapan yang menarik tentang kehidupan di Odessa, Krimea indah, pertempuran yang tidak pernah berakhir antara Moldova dan anggur Krimea (yang tentu saja Anton melawan Anatashia diadu), dan identitas membingungkan menjadi Moldovan atau Rumania. Sebelum lama, kami berbagi buah-buahan dan tidbits, dan Anton bahkan mengajari saya bagaimana untuk mengaktifkan Rusia, atau lebih tepatnya, untuk secara politis benar, toilet kereta tekan Ukraina, yang begitu berbeda dari keran lain saya telah melihat di tempat lain. Tidak ada bagi Anda untuk menghidupkan, tapi metalpiece pressable sedikit di belakang nozzle. Apa pengenalan tradisi Samovar besar kereta CIS – Saudara-saudara, WAKTU layanan teh MANDIRI !

 
 
 

ENGLISH VERSION

SUDAK   Yevgeny had suggested that I go to Marble Cave, but I was more attracted to the Genoese heritage of Crimea and the historic links with the Silk Road.  So, Sudak had to be the place to go before taking the evening train to Odessa.

The Trident, Ukraine’s national symbol. 

First appeared as the symbol of Prince Vladimir (Volodymir) of Kyiv.

We sped eastwards across the flat central Crimean plains.  Grassy patches, wheat fields and occasional bogs.  We also passed a town called Bilohirsk, or “White Mountain” – one could see the sharp vertical white cliffs rising up from the plains.  Some new Tatar villages stood nearby, with their lush vegetable fields, freshly painted walls and shiny conjugated roofs.  Many Tatars, however, remain in trailers and shacks, awaiting the completion of more permanent homes.  The Tatars have been forced to move into these unoccupied lands, since their ancestral houses are now occupied by the new comers.  I wonder if this is a good thing.  In effect, they are being ghettoised and live apart from the other ethnic groups of Crimea.  This may well put them on collision course with others, especially the local Russians.

Sudak’s impressive walls.

We reached Sudak after two hours of continuous driving.  An impressive 14th century ring of tall brown walls and towers stood on a seaside cliff overlooking this ancient town.  This was once one of Genoa’s most important trading ports, and one of the terminal points of the Silk Road.  The wealth of the East, carried across the plains and deserts of Eurasia, passes through Sudak on its way to Genoa and the West.  Marco Polo’s father and uncle reportedly stopped here on their way to China.  But the city’s history dated to a much earlier period before that.  Sudak started its existence as a Greek city, and was subsequently conquered, sacked and rebuilt by each of Crimea’s invaders – Scythians, Khazars, Mongols, Genoese, Venetians, Ottoman Turks/Tatars, and Russians.

  Stamps showing Scythian artifacts.

Neal Ascherson, in “Black Sea” mentioned about visiting an ancient Khazar tomb dug among Byzantine foundations here.  The Khazars were an ancient Turkic nomadic tribe who converted to Judaism in the 8th century AD, many of whom settled in Crimea and the Ukrainian plains, and traded the agricultural produce of the rich black soil for exuberant golden crafts of all kinds that the Greek craftsmen were famous for – adornments and jewelry, drinking vessels with their intricate carvings.  Given the fast-growing population of the small Greek city-states, it wasn’t long before they became highly dependent on the wheat of faraway colonies on the Black Sea coast and Sicily.  On the other hand, many Khazars lived near or within the Greek cities, acquiring a taste for the more sophisticated cosmopolitan lifestyle they offered.  The Khazar tomb Ascherson visited was unusual, for not only was it a Turkic burial performed with Jewish ritual in a Greek Orthodox Christian city, but that it also contained the skeleton of a human sacrifice.  According to Ascherson, “the victim – brained by an axe blow – was thrown into the tomb to lie beside its Khazar occupant” in true nomadic tribal traditions.

Sudak declined after the Ottoman capture of Constantinople and eventually of Sudak itself.  From an international trading port, it became a provincial agricultural administrative centre whose official records pertain to local farmland disputes rather than international geopolitics.  Its role was further diluted when the profitable slave trade was moved to nearby Kaffa, now known as Feodosia.

Old postcard of Crimea

Sudak is today a sleepy seaside resort, certainly none as exciting as Yalta.  A few sun-tanners lie on the beach, and some fun-seekers were water-skiing on its calm waters.  At Yevgeny’s urging, I joined holidaymakers at Novy Svet, or “New World”, an even sleepier resort a few miles away.  We walked along a narrow path on the water edge of a sea-clinging mountain, and found ourselves in a huge cave which was once the party hall of a local tycoon.  The Tsar, members of the nobility, the nouveau riche of Russia’s late 19th century industrialisation, the oil tycoons of Baku, the fashionable chic of High Society St Petersburg all fought to attend the legendary parties once held here.  One can still see remnants of the huge wine barrels and cellars in this party cave.  What about a bottle of vintage Massandra Sauvignon Blanc ?

“It was time to return to Simferopol,” Yevgeny said.  There wouldn’t be enough time to visit nearby Feodosia, where the Turks and Tatars once ran the largest slave market in the Black Sea region.  Kaffa, as it was then known, was frequently referred to by the Russians as “the vampire that drinks the blood of Rus”.
 

To Odessa

We had tasty borshch soup at Yevgeny’s home and then I bid farewell to Yevgeny’s hospitable family.  Vera even prepared a little bag with sweets, chocolates, cookies and apples for basic subsistence on the train.  I boarded the train not long before departure time, as I was stopped and examined by the police.  Passport ?  Da.  OVIR ?  Da. And off I went, after saying farewell to Yevgeny.

The train departed on time at 5:05pm, and was to travel across Crimea into “mainland Ukraine proper”.  This was the once “empty land” of Novorossiya, where the merciless wars between the Tatars and the Cossacks emptied the land of inhabitants.  There the wide steppes once dominated the horizon – flat endless landscape with nothing but prairie grass and starfield of flowers, the monotony of which, according to Anna Reid in Borderland, was occasionally broken by scattered willow trees and burial mounds of ancient nomadic warriors.  Travellers once called it the ocean of grass not for any other reason. It was a pity that I merely skirted along the southern edges of this ocean, which in any case, had been largely replaced in Stalinist times by massive unproductive collective farms and equally bankrupt industrial wasteland.

I shared my 4-person 2nd class sleeper cabin (UAH 30 or US$7) with an amorous young couple who spent half the time in each other’s arms, and who would no doubt have gone further with their affections if not for my presence…  When I asked them whether they knew English “Vi gava ritye pa-angliski ?”, Nyet was the reply.  Certainly, would you have bothered to speak to a boring looking foreigner when there were more enjoyable carnal pleasures ?

It was only when I was seen trying to decipher the rail schedule chart that I was asked, in English, whether I needed any assistance.  So they do know English after all.

“Da, a little,” the chap answered.  Many people in the CIS have actually studied English in schools but the lack of opportunity to practice it meant that they lack the confidence to speak the language even if such an opportunity arises.

Stamp commemorating the Easter, traditional the most important festival in Ukraine.

Anton and Anatashia were on their way back to Odessa after a Yalta holiday.  Anton is a Moldovan from Balti (pronounced “Belts”) and is now working as a mechanic in Odessa.  Anatashia is Ukrainian, a home-grown Odessan, now in police training school.  Given my so-far negative experiences with the Ukrainian police, I can’t help but wondered how long it would take this sweet, pretty girl to turn into the kind of nasty, corrupt bureaucrat I have bumped into on this trip.

We had an interesting conversation about life in Odessa, wonderful Crimea, the never-ending battle between Moldovan and Crimean wines (which of course pitted Anton against Anatashia), and the confusing identity of being Moldovan or Romanian.  Before long, we were sharing fruits and tidbits, and Anton even taught me how to turn on the Russian, or rather, to be politically correct, the Ukrainian train toilet tap, which is so different from any other taps I have seen elsewhere.  Nothing for you to turn on, but a little pressable metalpiece behind the nozzle.  What an introduction to the great samovar tradition of CIS trains – Gentlemen, it’s self-service tea-time !

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

Sikhs In Singapore’s Historic Collections(Koleksi Sejarah Suku Sikhs Di Singapura)

 1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUMMUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA                     

Events in Anglo-Sikh History

Pre 1800:
Guru Arjun Dev’s Martyrdom 1606     Massacre of Sikhs in Dehli 1716
1800-1900:
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1806
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1809
Tripartite Treaty 1838
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1840
Anglo-Afghan Wars 1941
Hardinges proclamation 1845
First Anglo-Sikh War 1845-46
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1846
Anglo-Sikh Treaty Dec 1846
First Sikh Battalion – 1846
  Second Anglo-Sikh War 1848-49
Annexation of Punjab 1849

Sikhs in Singapore 1850
The Indian Mutiny – 1857
Namdhari Movement 1857
Singh Sabha Movement 1870
Kirpan Morcha 1878
Electrification of GT 1897
Battle of Saraghari 1897
Sikh Regiments 1859-1914
1900-2000:
Sikh Journalism
Ghadr Movement 1912
Komagata Maru 1914

Jallianwalla Bagh 1919
Constitutional Reform 1919
Babbar Akali Movement 1920’s
Akali Movement 1920’s
Guru Ka Bhag Morcha 1921
Morcha Chabian 1921
Sikh Forces in Iraq – 1922
Nankana Sahib Massacre 1921
Panja Sahib Massacre 1922
Pheru Morcha 1922
Sikh Gurdwara Act 1925
Communal Award 1932
  Shahid Ganj Agitation 1935
Sikh Contribution to Freedom
Transfer of Power 1947
Partition Of The Punjab – 1947
Punjabi Suba – 1966
The Turban Case 1976
Amritsar Massacre 1978
Kanpur Massacre 1978
Operation Bluestar 1984
Assasination of Indira Gandhi
Dehli Massacre 1984
Sikhs in Birmingham – 1991
Sikh Asylum Seekers 1996
Vaisakhi 99 Celebrations 1999
Queens Visit to Harimandir 2002 

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

03070035

Sikhs in Singapore
Historic Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUMMUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA                          WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM                 SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Sikh Regiments Of The British India Army – Part I

Vintage Pictures Of  The British Army India : Part I

From the archives

1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893

1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893

Note that English Officers in the Sikh Regiments wore turbans.

The respect and affection that the English had for the Sikhs is well recorded. There is no historical evidence of the English entering Sikh places of worship and desecrating them.

15th Punjab Regiment

15th Punjab Regiment

5th Battalion The Sikh Regiment

5th Battalion The Sikh Regiment

SINGAPORE SIKHS HISTORIC COLLECTIONS(KOLEKSI SEJARAH SUKU SIKHS  DI SINGAPORE)

VERSI SATU: Awal Imigran Sikh terutama polisi

Awal Sikh Imigran

prolog:
Siapa Sikh pertama di Singapura? Jawabannya adalah tidak mudah datang. Tidak ada catatan ada yang dengan jelas menyatakan yang merupakan Sikh pertama yang mendarat di sini.

1.1849

 Banyak Sikh tua masih hidup dalam cerita-cerita Singapura mengingat satu Maharaj Singh, seorang tahanan politik diasingkan ke Singapura oleh Inggris setelah Perang Kedua di Sikh Sikh 1849.A kelahiran mulia, ia menolak untuk mengakui kekalahan ke Inggris dan membentuk gerilya band dengan pengikutnya.

2.1850

Sayangnya untuk Maharaj Singh, dia tertangkap dan dipenjara sebelum ia benar-benar bisa mengatur dirinya sendiri. Tetapi popularitasnya di kalangan Sikh, bahkan setelah dia dipenjara, adalah sedemikian rupa sehingga Inggris memutuskan itu dalam kepentingan mereka sendiri untuk him.He pengasingan dikirim ke Singapura dengan hamba laki-laki, tiba di sini kira pada 1850-an. Dia ditempatkan di Penjara Jalan Outram tua dan oleh semua account adalah orang yang religius, menghabiskan waktu yang lama dalam doa dan meditasi. Tales diturunkan dari mulut ke mulut berbicara tentang dirinya yang memiliki kekuatan spiritual dan keajaiban bekerja. Tidak ada catatan ketika ia meninggal, tetapi diketahui bahwa setelah kematiannya, ia dikremasi di luar Penjara Jalan Outram. Sikh pada masa itu, percaya ia adalah suci, dibangun sebuah makam di tempat di mana ia dikremasi.

Ketika pemerintah ingin memperluas penjara, makam patah dan dibangun kembali di tempat sekitar satu mil jauhnya. Dalam tahun kemudian, Singapore General Hospital (SGH) dibangun di dekat lokasi makam. Itu tidak terganggu dan tetap dalam apa yang menjadi halaman rumah sakit. Pada tahun 1965, pemerintah meminta orang-orang Sikh untuk menghapus makam karena mereka ingin memperluas rumah sakit. Jadi sekali lagi, makam itu putus. Kali ini setelah beberapa doa, lima batu semua yang tersisa dari makam tua, dihapus dan ditempatkan di tempat peristirahatan baru di halaman depan Kuil Jalan Silat dekatnya.

Beberapa orang menyebutnya candi ini sebagai Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Mengapa Baba Karam Singh dan tidak Maharaj Singh? Ada beberapa kontroversi mengenai siapa yang makam di Outram Road dan alasan selanjutnya SGH benar-benar milik. Titik-satunya konsensus adalah bahwa itu milik orang suci. Ada orang yang percaya itu adalah Maharaj Singh. Kemudian lagi ada orang yang mengatakan itu adalah bahwa Baba Karam Singh, yang dikatakan memiliki beberapa kekuatan spiritual juga. Yang pasti adalah bahwa mereka yang mempertahankan makam dan kemudian membuatnya menjadi sebuah tempat suci macam, percaya Baba Karam Singh dan nama telah datang untuk tinggal. Mungkin ada tahanan politik lainnya diasingkan ke Singapura juga, tapi tidak ada yang dikenal dari mereka.

Gelombang pertama Sikh mendarat di Singapura datang dalam bentuk sepahi (polisi) direkrut di India untuk membantu menjaga perdamaian dan meletakkan perang geng Cina.

Fighter INDIA

 
Bhai Maharaj Singh adalah salah satu orang pertama Punjab untuk meluncurkan gerakan kemerdekaan di Punjab setelah Inggris mengambil alih Punjab. Ia mengorganisir perlawanan terhadap imperialisme Inggris setelah kekalahan Tentara Sikh, diasingkan sebagai Negara priosoner, meninggal tanggal 5 Juli 1856 di Penjara Singapura.
Bhai Maharaj SINGH JI
Kemartiran HARI – 5 JULY 1856

Dia mengatakan pada tahun 1849: “Akan ada lagi Perang Nasional”.

“Bhai Mahararaj Singh, seorang Sikh kesucian imam terkenal, dan pengaruh besar, orang pertama yang mengangkat standar pemberontakan melampaui batas-batas Multan pada tahun 1848, dan satu-satunya pemimpin dari catatan yang tidak meletakkan senjata untuk Sir Walter Gilbert di Rawalpindi. ” kata Henry Lawrence, Residen Lahore

Rencana Bhai Maharaj Singh tindakan melawan Inggris unggul dibingkai di hutan Lembah Chumb:

1. Untuk menyelamatkan Dalip Singh Maharajah dari Lahore Fort.
2. Untuk mengatur Front Persatuan dari semua kekuatan anti-Inggris.
3. Diselenggarakan gangguan oleh serangan subversi dan kejutan pada kas Inggris dan penampungan.

Dia ditampilkan jenderal militer yang luar biasa dan pengetahuan peperangan taktis. Apa yang berkelanjutan baginya adalah warisan yang kaya rohaninya.

Maharaj Singh memimpin kampanye anti-Inggris sebagai masalah kewajiban agama terhadap umat-Nya. Setelah Perang Anglo-Sikh Pertama ia pindah tentang Doab Jalandhar, sebuah wilayah Inggris dan membangkitkan orang melawan Inggris. Ia menghubungi Dewan Mool Raj, yang Nazim Multan untuk menaikkan bendera pemberontakan terhadap pemerintahan Inggris di Lahore Kerajaan. Dia pergi ke Hazara mana Sardar Singh Chattar Attariwala sedang mempersiapkan untuk memberontak. Kehadiran Maharaj Singh ada memberikan dorongan untuk penyebab pemberontakan. Para Bhai memicu, pemberontakan panjang tahun, hampir nasional di niat. Ia berusaha untuk memperpanjang ke seluruh India Utara dengan melibatkan di dalamnya Maharaja Bikaner. Dost Muhammad, Amir Afghanistan dan Maharaja Gulab Singh dari Jammu dan Kashmir tapi tidak bisa mencapai keberhasilan yang diinginkan. Lalu datanglah Perang Anglo-Sikh Kedua yang mengakibatkan pencaplokan Punjab oleh Inggris pada 29 Maret 1849.
Aneksasi Punjab oleh Inggris melambat aktivitas para pejuang kemerdekaan di provinsi untuk sejumlah alasan. Pemerintah Inggris Dalip Singh dihapus Maharaj luar Punjab ke Missouri di yang namanya para pejuang kemerdekaan telah terjadi antara 1846-1849. Kedua, Rani Jindan melarikan diri ke Nepal dan tidak bisa secara efektif membimbing gerakan. Terakhir, para pemimpin Punjab yang telah berperang melawan Inggris dalam Perang Sikh Kedua diasingkan atau dimasukkan ke dalam penjara di United Provinces.

Maharaj Singh, namun tidak mengizinkan gerakan kebebasan untuk mati. Dia dihubungkan sebuah rencana baru untuk melanjutkan perjuangan. Dia melarikan diri dari Rawalpindi ke Jammu dan dari kulit keluar dikirim utusan rahasia untuk menghubungi, khususnya, habis prajurit Angkatan Darat Khalsa, yang Jagirdars dan kepala yang telah dirampas perkebunan mereka pensiun oleh pemerintah Inggris dan juga pemegang agama perkebunan, khususnya Gosains di perbukitan Kangra, yang bisa membantunya membiayai perjuangan kemerdekaan.

Maharaj Singh meminta bantuan dari Dost Muhammad, Amir Kabul, dalam perjuangan untuk kemerdekaan Punjab dari kekuasaan asing. Dia menulis kepada Amir dan saudaranya Sultan Muhammad Khan untuk dukungan, tetapi mereka menolak untuk membuat dia membantu apapun. Bhai Maharaj Singh berencana untuk membuat jenis serangan gerilya di distrik-distrik militer Inggris dipilih Hoshiarpur, Hajipur dan mungkin Jalandhar. Anak buahnya menjarah kas pemerintah di Bajwara.

Contoh Maharaj Singh membangkitkan orang-orang yang tidak puas. Para kepala Attariwala, Dewan Hakim Rai dan Sardars Majithia itu diaduk untuk bertindak meskipun gerakan mereka dibatasi ke desa mereka oleh perintah dari pemerintah Inggris. Faquirs dan Brahmana yang telah membantu dalam membawa pesan dari Rani Jindan dan kepala lainnya selama periode pra-aneksasi mulai mengunjungi tempat-tempat mantan pemberontak, kepala pada satu dalih untuk yang lain. Intelijen Inggris melaporkan bahwa orang-orang ini menyediakan link antara Bhai Maharaj Singh dan pemimpin-pemimpin yang siap untuk memberontak melawan Inggris dalam konser dengan Bhai Sahib.

Sahib Bhai diperoleh bantuan yang cukup besar dari sejumlah besar orang berpengaruh di distrik Hoshiarpur. Pada November 1849, ia menyelesaikan semua pengaturan untuk menyerang penampungan di Doab Jalandhar. Dalam jemaat terbuka di Syam Chaurasi, sebuah desa di distrik Hoshiarpur dia menyatakan Posh 20 (3 Januari 1850) selanjutnya sebagai tanggal keberuntungan untuk umum meningkat. Para Bhai membuat dirinya terlalu mencolok dan harus membayar harga untuk itu. Pada tanggal 29 Desember 1849, Vinsittat, Komisaris Wakil Jalandhar menangkapnya bersama dengan 21 pengikutnya tak bersenjata dekat Adampur. Vansttart Komisaris Wakil Jalandhar yang menangkap dia, menulis: “Guru adalah tidak manusia biasa Dia adalah penduduk asli apa yang Yesus adalah yang paling bersemangat orang Kristen mukjizat-Nya dilihat oleh puluhan ribu, dan lebih implisit diyakini dari.. yang bekerja oleh para nabi kuno. ”

Bahkan lebih murah hati adalah Mcleod, Komisaris Doab, yang menulis: “.. dia tetap pada umumnya, tapi sedikit lebih lama … penghinaan lebih dari sebuah karakter yang mengkhawatirkan akan diupayakan … yang hasilnya, akan … mungkin mustahil untuk meramalkan. ”

Kabar penangkapan Maharaj Singh dan penahanannya di Penjara Sipil Jalandhar menyebar seperti api. Sejumlah besar orang Hindu, Muslim dan Sikh kota berkumpul di luar penjara membuat pemerintah khawatir kalau-kalau orang mungkin mencoba untuk mendapatkan Bhai Sahib dirilis. Jaksa Distrik langsung mendapat Maharaj Singh dan terdekat muridnya Kharak Singh dipindahkan ke tahanan penguasa militer.

Ditemukan terlalu berisiko untuk menempatkan Bhai Maharaj Singh diadili di India dan dia dideportasi ke Singapura. Dia tiba pada “Shah Muhmed”, pada tanggal 9 Juli 1850, bersama dengan seorang murid, Kharak Singh, dan pindah ke Penjara Outram. Ia disimpan dalam kurungan tersendiri dalam sel 14 oleh 15 kaki, yang, karena sampai Walling dari jendela, telah “lanjut diberikan gelap, perahu dan benar-benar tidak sehat” (Makalah Konsultasi Rahasia, 28 Februari 1851, # 52-57 ). Dia praktis buta dalam waktu tiga tahun, menderita kanker di lidahnya, dan telah bengkak dan nyeri rematik di kakinya dan pergelangan kaki. The Surgeon Sipil, Singapura, direkomendasikan bahwa Bhai Maharaj Singh diperbolehkan sesekali berjalan kaki di tempat terbuka, tapi ini ditolak oleh Pemerintah Inggris di India. Hasilnya adalah bahwa kesehatannya terus memburuk, dan sekitar dua bulan sebelum kematiannya, leher dan lidahnya menjadi bengkak sehingga menjadi sangat sulit baginya untuk menelan.

Bhai Maharaj Singh meninggal pada 5 Juli 1856. Dia dikremasi di sebidang tanah di luar penjara, mungkin dengan Khurruck Singh, yang juga meninggal di penjara nanti.

Bhai Maharaj SINGH MEMORIAL SINGAPURA

1870

Batch pertama juga dari Patiala, Ludhiana dan Ferozepur dibawa ke Singapura pada akhir 1870 dan membentuk Kontingen Polisi Sikh pertama ditempatkan di Garis Sepoy kemudian dikenal sebagai Hill Pearl menghadap Chinatown

1873

Pada tahun 1873, Kapten Speedy direkrut 110 Sikh dari distrik Patiala, Ludhiana Punjab dan Ferozepur untuk layanan di Perak (di Malaysia). Band ini dikenal sebagai Polisi Bersenjata Perak. Keberhasilan ini direkrut awal mendorong Inggris untuk merekrut Sikh lebih dan 1888, di bawah satu Kapten Walker, kelompok itu tumbuh dan kemudian dikenal sebagai Perak 1 Sikh. Dengan 1896, gaya nomor 900 dan berganti nama menjadi negara bagian Melayu Guides dengan Walker sebagai Kolonel pertama mereka.

Sementara itu, keberhasilan Sikh sebagai polisi atau sepahi di Malaya memimpin Inggris untuk mendatangkan beberapa ke Singapura. . Sikh polisi juga direkrut oleh Perusahaan Tanjong Pagar Dock untuk membentuk Angkatan Kepolisian Tanjong Pagar Dock.

1885

Sementara gelombang pertama Sikh datang terutama sebagai polisi, pada tahun 1885 Sikh lebih dari kabupaten lain di Punjab yaitu, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar dan Lahore adalah membuat cara mereka sendiri ke Singapura untuk mencari kekayaan mereka. Sebagian besar Sikh tidak bisa masuk ke Kepolisian sebagai direkrut sebelumnya dibatasi entri selanjutnya kepada kerabat atau orang kabupaten sesama. Dengan demikian, para migran ini kemudian menjadi penjaga, polisi polisi tambahan, pengusaha waktu kecil atau pergi ke peternakan sapi perah. Kisah satu Hari Singh Choney dari Gurdaspur distrik adalah khas dari para migran awal. Hari Singh datang ke Singapura pada 1885. Dia melakukan perjalanan seperti banyak orang lain di dek, memasak makanan sendiri. Dia mendarat di Singapura di Tanjong Pagar dan dibantu oleh beberapa polisi yang bertugas Sikh yang memberinya akomodasi sementara. Satu Sunder Singh, seorang polisi polisi, membantunya menemukan pekerjaan berpatroli di dasar Botanic Gardens. Seperti banyak Sikh di Singapura kemudian, Hari Singh memimpin hidup sangat hemat, pemulangan sebagian besar tabungannya dan membantu untuk membawa keluar kerabat lainnya. Beberapa tahun setelah kedatangannya, Hari Singh dibawa keluar adiknya Jaimall Singh dan menemukannya pekerjaan sebagai polisi Polisi tambahan. Tugas ini APC pada masa itu untuk menjaga toko-toko opium Pemerintah menjalankan yang kemudian hukum di Singapura.

Banyak dari awal Sikh datang sebagai bujangan. Mereka kemudian kembali ke India dengan uang, menikah dan membawa keluarga mereka kembali. Hari Singh tidak berbeda, kecuali dalam kasus ia harus kembali agak tiba-tiba sebagai kakaknya Bhagat Singh meninggal mendadak meninggalkan seorang anak muda. Hari Singh menikah di India dan mengadopsi anak Bhagat Singh, Achar Singh.

VERSION ONE:Early Sikhs Immigrants mainly a policeman

Early Sikh Immigrants

prologue:
Who was Singapore’s first Sikh? The answer is not readily forthcoming. No records exist which clearly state who was the first Sikh to land here. 

1.1849

 Many of the older Sikhs still alive in Singapore recall tales of one Maharaj Singh, a political prisoner exiled to Singapore by the British after the Second Sikh War in 1849.A Sikh of noble birth, he refused to concede defeat to the British and formed a guerilla band with his followers. 

2.1850  

Unfortunately for maharaj Singh , he was caught and imprisoned before he could really organise himself. But his popularity among the Sikhs, even after he was jailed, was such that the British decided it was in their own interests to exile him.He was sent to Singapore with a manservant, arriving here sometime in the 1850’s. He was housed in the old Outram Road Jail and by all accounts was a religious person, spending long periods of time in prayer and meditation. Tales passed down by word of mouth speak of him possessing spiritual powers and of working miracles. There is no record of when he died, but it is known that after his death, he was cremated outside Outram Road Jail. Sikhs of that period, believing he was a saint, built a tomb on the spot where he was cremated.

When the authorities wanted to expand the prison, his tomb was broken up and rebuilt on a spot about a mile away. In later years, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) was built near the site of the tomb. It was not disturbed and remained in what became the hospital grounds. In 1965, the government asked the Sikhs to remove the tomb as they wished to expand the hospital. So once again, the tomb was broken up. This time after some prayers, five stones all that remained of the old tomb, were removed and placed in a new resting place in the forecourt of the Silat Road Temple nearby.

Some people call this temple as Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Why Baba Karam Singh and not Maharaj Singh? There is some controversy over who the tomb at Outram Road and subsequently SGH grounds really belonged to. The only point of consensus is that it belonged to a saintly person. There are those who believe it is Maharaj Singh’s. Then again there are those who say it was that of Baba Karam Singh, who was said to possess some spiritual powers too. What is certain is that those who maintained the tomb and later made it into a shrine of sorts, believed it was Baba Karam Singh and the name has come to stay. There may have been other political prisoners exiled to Singapore too, but nothing is known of them.

The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) recruited in India to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars.

Fighter of INDIA

 
Bhai Maharaj Singh was one of the first people of Punjab to launch a freedom movement in Punjab after the British took over Punjab. He organised resistance to British imperialism after the defeat of the Sikh Army, was exiled as State priosoner, died on 5th July, 1856 in Singapore Jail.

BHAI MAHARAJ SINGH JI
MARTYRDOM DAY – 5 JULY 1856

He said in 1849: “There will be another National War”.

“Bhai Mahararaj Singh, a Sikh priest of reputed sanctity, and of great influence, the first man who raised the standards of rebellion beyond the confines of Multan in 1848, and the only leader of note who did not lay down his arms to Sir Walter Gilberts at Rawalpindi.” said Henry Lawrence, Resident of Lahore

Bhai Maharaj Singh’s plan of action against the superior British was framed in the jungles of the Chumb Valley:

1. To rescue Maharajah Dalip Singh from Lahore Fort.
2. To organize a United Front of all anti-British forces.
3. Organized disruption by subversion and surprise attacks on British treasuries and cantonments.

He displayed superb military generalship and knowledge of tactical warfare. What sustained him was his rich spiritual heritage.

Maharaj Singh led the anti British campaign as a matter of religious duty towards his people. After the First Anglo-Sikh War he moved about the Jalandhar Doab, a British territory and aroused the people against the British. He contacted Dewan Mool Raj, the Nazim of Multan to raise a banner of revolt against the British administration of Lahore Kingdom. He went to Hazara where Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was preparing to rebel. Maharaj Singh’s presence there gave a boost to the cause of rebellion. The Bhai ignited, a year long revolt, almost national in intention. He sought to extend it all over northern India by involving in it the Maharaja of Bikaner. Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan and Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir but could not achieve desired success. Then came the Second Anglo-Sikh War which resulted in the annexation of the Punjab by the British on March 29, 1849.

The annexation of the Punjab by the British slackened the activities of the freedom fighters in the province for a number of reasons. The British Government removed Maharaj Dalip Singh outside Punjab to Missouri in whose name the freedom fighters had fought between 1846-49. Secondly, Rani Jindan escaped to Nepal and could not effectively guide the movement. Lastly, the chiefs of the Punjab who had fought the British in the Second Sikh War were exiled or were put in the prison in the United Provinces.

Maharaj Singh, however did not allow the freedom movement to die out. He chalked out a fresh plan to continue the struggle. He escaped from Rawalpindi to Jammu and from his hide out sent secret emissaries to contact, in particular, the discharged soldiers of the Khalsa Army, the Jagirdars and chiefs who had been dispossessed of their estates of pension by the British authorities and also the holders of religious estates, particularly the Gosains in the Kangra hills, who could help him finance the freedom struggle.

Maharaj Singh sought help from Dost Mohammad, The Amir of Kabul, in Punjab’s struggle for freedom from foreign rule. He wrote to the Amir and his brother Sultan Muhammad Khan for support; but they refused to render him any help. Bhai Maharaj Singh planned to make guerilla type of attacks on the selected British cantonments of Hoshiarpur, Hajipur and possibly Jalandhar. His men looted the government treasury at Bajwara.

Maharaj Singh’s example aroused the disgruntled people. The Attariwala chiefs, Dewan Hakim Rai and the Majithia Sardars were stirred to action though their movements were restricted to their villages by the orders of the British authorities. Faquirs and Brahmans who had helped in carrying message of Rani Jindan and other chiefs during the pre-annexation period started visiting places of ex-rebels, chiefs on one pretext to the other. The British intelligence reported that these people were providing links between Bhai Maharaj Singh and the chiefs who were prepared to rebel against the British in concert with Bhai Sahib.

The Bhai Sahib obtained substantial help from a large number of influential people in the Hoshiarpur district. In November 1849, he completed all arrangements for attacking cantonments in the Jalandhar Doab. In an open congregation at Sham Chaurasi, a village in the Hoshiarpur district he declared the 20th Posh (3rd January, 1850) next as the auspicious date for the general rising. The Bhai was making himself too conspicuous and had to pay the price for it. On December 29, 1849, Vinsittat, the Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar arrested him along with his 21 unarmed followers near Adampur. Vansttart the Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar who arrested him, wrote: “The Guru is no ordinary man. He is to the natives what Jesus was to the most zealous of Christians. His miracles were seen by tens of thousands, and are more implicitly believed than those worked by the ancient prophets.”

Even more generous was Mcleod, Commissioner of the Doab, who wrote: “.. had he remained at large, but a little longer … more outrages of an alarming character would have been attempted … the result of which,… would perhaps be impossible to foretell.”

The news of Maharaj Singh’s arrest and his detention in the Jalandhar Civil Jail spread like a wildfire. A large number of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of the town gathered outside the jail making the authorities apprehensive lest the people might attempt to get Bhai Sahib released. The District Magistrate immediately got Maharaj Singh and his closest disciple Kharak Singh transferred to the custody of the military authorities.

It was found too risky to put Bhai Maharaj Singh on trial in India and he was deported to Singapore. He arrived on the “Muhmed Shah”, on 9th July 1850, together with a disciple, Kharak Singh, and moved to Outram Jail. He was kept in solitary confinement in a cell 14 by 15 feet, which, because of the walling up of the windows, had been “further rendered dark, dinghy and absolutely unhealthy” (Secret Consultation Papers, 28th Feb 1851, #52-57). He was practically blind within three years, developed cancer on his tongue, and had rheumatic swellings and pains in his feet and ankles. The Civil Surgeon, Singapore, recommended that Bhai Maharaj Singh be allowed an occasional walk in the open, but this was turned down by the British Government of India. The result was that his health continued to deteriorate, and about two months before his death, his neck and tongue became so swollen that it became very difficult for him to swallow.

Bhai Maharaj Singh died on 5th July 1856. He was cremated on a plot of land outside the prison, presumably by Khurruck Singh, who also died in prison later.

BHAI MAHARAJ SINGH MEMORIAL SINGAPORE

1870

The first batch also from Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur was brought to Singapore in the late 1870s and formed the first Sikh Police Contingent stationed at Sepoy Lines later known as Pearl’s Hill overlooking Chinatown

1873

In 1873, Captain Speedy recruited 110 Sikhs from the Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab for service in Perak (in Malaysia). This band was known as the Perak Armed Police. The success of these early recruits prompted the British to recruit more Sikhs and by 1888, under one Captain Walker, the group had grown and came to be known as the 1st Perak Sikhs. By 1896, the force numbered 900 and was renamed the Malay States Guides with Walker as their first Colonel.

Meanwhile, the success of the Sikhs as policemen or sepoys in Malaya led the British to bring some down to Singapore. . Sikh policemen were also recruited by the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company to form the Tanjong Pagar Dock Police Force.

1885

While the first wave of Sikhs came mainly as policemen, by 1885 more Sikhs from other districts in Punjab namely, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar and Lahore were making their own way down to Singapore to seek their fortunes. Most of these Sikhs could not enter the Police Force as the earlier recruits restricted subsequent entry to their relatives or fellow district folks. As such, these later migrants became watchmen, additional police constables, small time businessmen or went into dairy farming. The story of one Hari Singh Choney from Gurdaspur district is typical of these early migrants. Hari Singh came to Singapore in 1885. He travelled like many others on deck, cooking his own meals. He landed in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar and was helped by some Sikh policemen on duty who gave him temporary accommodation. One Sunder Singh, a police constable, helped him find a job patrolling the grounds of the Botanic Gardens. Like many of the Sikhs in Singapore then, Hari Singh led a very frugal life, repatriating most of his savings and helping to bring out other relatives. A couple of years after his arrival, Hari Singh brought out his younger brother Jaimall Singh and found him a job as an Additional Police Constable. The job of these APCs in those days was to guard the Government run opium shops which were then legal in Singapore.

Many of these early Sikhs came as bachelors. They later returned to India with some money, married and brought their families back. Hari Singh was no different, except in his case he had to return rather suddenly as his elder brother Bhagat Singh died suddenly leaving behind a young son. Hari Singh got married in India and adopted Bhagat Singh’s son, Achar Singh.

1900

03070035

Singapura. Polisi Sikh
Kartupos – “Singapura Polisi Sikh..” c1900

Hari Singh kembali ke Singapura setelah 1900 dan mendapat pekerjaan sebagai penjaga dengan Lim Hoe Chiang dari Tanjong Pagar. Ia diberi tempat tinggal di pabrik, di persimpangan Wallich Street dan Peck Seah Street. Sebelah pabrik itu sepotong terbuka tanah di mana Hari Singh memutuskan untuk membangun sebuah gudang kayu dan menjaga beberapa ekor sapi perah. Dia mulai dengan tiga ekor sapi dan mulai apa yang akhirnya menjadi bisnis penuh waktu. Anak angkatnya, Achar Singh, mulai sekolah tapi itu beberapa waktu sebelum keluarga tumbuh.

1920

Pada tahun 1920, pertama dari empat Hari Singh putra lahir. Lalu datanglah si kembar Bassan Singh dan Singh Wassawa diikuti oleh termuda, Inder Singh. Anak-anak punya banyak teman-teman Sikh sebagai oleh kemudian banyak Sikh lain telah bermigrasi ke Singapura. Satu Sewa Singh Sedukay, yang desa dekat dengan Hari Singh di India yang menetap di Wallich Street dan membangun sebuah gudang kayu di samping Hari Singh dan memulai bisnis sendiri ternak. Sewa Singh Sedukay anak tertua, Dewan Singh Randhawa sampai 1980-an berlari koran hanya Punjabi Mingguan di Singapura.

Seperti semua migran Sikh lainnya, Hari Singh menempatkan banyak penekanan pada pendidikan. Dia memastikan anak-anaknya diperoleh baik bahasa Inggris dan Punjabi pendidikan. Achar Singh bergabung dengan Kantor Percetakan Pemerintah di Johor Bahru sebagai bukti pembaca. Sewa Singh bergabung dengan Departemen Kedokteran seperti yang dilakukan Bassan Singh. Inder Singh kemudian pindah ke Inggris dan menjadi penambang batu bara. Wasswa Singh meninggal dalam usia remaja. Setelah menghabiskan hampir seluruh masa dewasanya di Singapura, Hari Singh seperti sezamannya, tidak ingin mengakhiri hari-harinya di Singapura. Dia kembali ke India pada tahun 1952 dan meninggal di sana segera setelah. Keturunannya sekarang generasi keempat Sikh di Singapura, yang duduk nyaman kelas menengah Singapura, yang sementara mereka masih menjaga hubungan dengan desa mereka di Punjab, tidak memiliki niat untuk kembali ke sana.

Para Sikh awal baik penjaga, polisi atau susu petani. Para pedagang atau pengusaha dalam masyarakat muncul banyak nanti setelah Perang Dunia Kedua dan didirikan sendiri di High Street, berurusan dengan terutama tekstil. Seperti yang dinyatakan sebelumnya, Sikh awal penekanan banyak dalam pendidikan dan tidak mengherankan, anak-anak mereka baik menjadi pegawai negeri atau profesional melalui kerja keras dan belajar.

1920

Kuil Sikh di Singapura
Agama merupakan bagian integral dari kehidupan sehari-hari Sikh. Ketika batch pertama dari Sikh dibawa ke Singapura oleh Perusahaan India Timur sebagai polisi, sebuah kuil dibangun untuk mereka di Barak Bukit Pearl. Demikian pula, Perusahaan Tanjong Pagar Dock dibangun sebuah kuil untuk Polisi di Anson Road. Pada tahun 1920, seorang pedagang Sindhi menyumbangkan rumahnya di Queen Street untuk sebuah kuil Sikh dan menamakannya “Wada Gurdwara”, yang berarti “Kuil Besar”. Komite manajemen terdiri dari wakil-wakil terpilih dari Sikh Majha, Malwa dan Doaba. Tiga candi yang mewakili daerah-daerah – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Sabha dan Khalsa Dharmak Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – dikirim tiga anggota masing-masing untuk komite manajemen dan satu anggota masing-masing untuk Komite (Makanan) Langar.

1925

Pada tahun 1925, Sikh Majha membuka sebuah kuil di sebuah rumah berlantai dua di Queen Street dekat persimpangan Bras Basah Road. Dua tahun kemudian, ada kesalahpahaman atas imam, Giani Partap Singh, karena ia membayar mas kawin untuk menikah. Santa Singh Sedukay dan Ganesa Singh Malli dibuka lagi kuil di Cecil Street dengan Partap Singh Giani sebagai imam. Jadi selama waktu yang singkat, ada dua Singh Sabhas di Singapura. Dua tahun kemudian, kedua faksi diselesaikan perbedaan mereka dan semua Sikh Mahja pindah kembali ke tempat Queen Street. Pada tahun 1931, Sabha pindah ke kuil baru di 90 Jalan Wilkie. Pada tahun 1980, Sabha pindah ke gedung baru di Jalan 92 Wilkie berdekatan yang dibangun pada tahun 1931. Gedung tua diubah menjadi Ghar Janjh dan untuk akomodasi. Ada rencana untuk museum juga.

Para Sikh Malwa mulai sebuah kuil di Jalan Chandy belakang Gedung Cathay hadir sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Sikh Majha mulai Sri Guru Singh Sabha. Dari Jalan Chandy, yang Khalsa Dharmak Sabha pindah ke gedung ini pada 18 Jalan Niven.

Para Sikh Doaba telah kuil mereka di Kirk Teras. Pemerintah memperoleh tanah mereka untuk pembangunan perkotaan dan mereka telah sejak pindah ke Lorong 19 Geyland.

Dulu ada yang lain Kuil Sikh di sebuah gedung bertingkat ganda di Kerbau Road. Ini telah ada sejak sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua.

Ada juga Kuil Sikh lain yang dibangun untuk kenyamanan Sikh yang tinggal di dekatnya. Salah satu candi tersebut adalah Jalan Gurdwara Kayu. Ada juga satu di Naval Base untuk Sikh bekerja di pangkalan. Lain adalah di Sembawang Jalan bagi mereka yang tinggal dan bekerja di luar daerah basis. Hari ini, sebuah kuil baru ada di Yishun disebut Yishun Gurdwara. Ini merupakan hasil penggabungan dari Kayu Jalan dan Gurdwaras Sembawang, mengikuti perkembangan perumahan di utara Singapura. Ketika Pemerintah Inggris memutuskan untuk meningkatkan dan memperluas daerah Dewan Harbour, itu perlu untuk menghancurkan Barak Polisi Dock mana candi ini terletak. Ini ditawarkan tanah Kontingen Sikh di Jalan Silat untuk bait suci dan juga memberikan bantuan moneter. Dua polisi dari Kontingen Sikh dinominasikan untuk mengumpulkan dana untuk membangun candi ini. Salah satunya adalah Wasawa Singh, ayah dari Bakshis Singh, seorang pensiunan kepala sekolah. Dana dikumpulkan dari masyarakat Sikh di Singapura, Malaya dan Pulau Christmas dan Silat Jalan Sikh Temple menjadi kenyataan. Pengelolaan kuil itu diserahkan kepada polisi Sikh di bawah pimpinan seorang petugas Kontingen Sikh. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kontingen Sikh dibubarkan dan Kuil Jalan Silat diserahkan ke Komite Sentral Kuil Sikh. Bait suci adalah hari ini bagian dari Kuil Sikh Tengah.

Ketika India dan Pakistan mencapai kemerdekaan, pengusaha Sikh banyak orang yang tercerabut dari rumah mereka datang ke Singapura dan secara bertahap jumlah ini tumbuh. Pada awalnya, ini digunakan untuk berdoa Sikh di Kuil Sikh Tengah di Queen Street. Kemudian, mereka mulai bergerak memegang sebuah kuil doa di rumah-rumah anggota mereka dengan rotasi. Mereka segera memutuskan untuk memiliki bait suci mereka sendiri dan dalam waktu membeli sebuah gedung di Jalan Wilkinson mana mereka telah berubah menjadi sebuah kuil yang indah. Keanggotaan terbatas pada para pendiri asli. Keanggotaan asosiasi ini terbuka untuk semua tetapi ini tidak memiliki anggota mengatakan dalam menjalankan kuil.

Baru Tengah Sikh Temple bangunan selesai pada tahun 1986 dan dibangun dengan biaya $ 6 juta. Ini memiliki ruang doa ber-AC dan kedap suara. Ada parkir bawah tanah, fasilitas dapur modern, akomodasi bagi para imam, ruang untuk pertemuan, dan perpustakaan.

Sikh Awal Imam dan Ragis
Para imam pertama dari kalangan polisi Sikh atau sepahi. Dua dari mereka Bhai Bhai Wasawa Singh dan Amar Singh. Di antara para imam awal di Singapura Narain Singh Bhai Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, dijuluki Bhai Pawa karena ia sangat pendek, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh dan Singh Bhai Ganda.

1920

Pada 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, ada sekelompok Shabad (himne) penyanyi dari desa Mallian. Mereka lima nomor, semua saudara dan sepupu dan semua lebih dari enam meter. Mereka mengenakan malmal (jenis yang sangat tipis dari kain katun) kameez atau kemeja seperti yang dipakai oleh Pahelwans (pegulat), dan kalung emas. Mereka sebagian besar pasir Halle dey Shabads, (dinyanyikan seperti Kawalis dengan beat cepat). Anak-anak menemukan beat yang cepat dengan Dholak (drum), Shaney (simbal kecil), Chimta dan Khartale (instrumen musik India) yang sangat menawan

1930.

Barulah pada tahun 1930-an yang Sikh di Singapura memiliki kesempatan untuk mendengarkan jenis lain dari penyanyi profesional dari India ketika Janki Bai dan Kalka Bai Calcutta menghabiskan waktu sebulan di Singapura dan memberikan pertunjukan setiap malam di Serangoon Road. Ada juga konser diberikan oleh para profesional. Di antara musisi terkenal dan berbakat dan penyanyi adalah Dr Chotta Singh, Guru Sawan, Ustad Noor Md Khan, Veer Chand dan Master Muhammad.

Ada juga banyak berbakat Tabla (drum) pemain termasuk Sardar Khan, Ustad Muhammad dan Krishna Deo Tiwari. Seorang mahasiswa Gwalior, Krishan Deo juga eksponen brilian Mirdhang tersebut. Dia memberikan sejumlah pertunjukan solo di Teater Victoria dan antara Masyarakat India Utara ia biasanya disebut Mirdhangi. Sangat sedikit orang yang tahu nama yang sebenarnya.

Saat ini, banyak Kirtan dilakukan di candi ini baik oleh imam atau oleh Ragis profesional (musisi) yang datang pada tur. Akibatnya, sangat sedikit melakukan Kirtan Singapura Sikh di kuil-kuil sekarang. Seva Singh dan keluarganya digunakan untuk menjadi salah satu pengecualian. Putra sulungnya, Terlochan Singh adalah Sitarist dari Willayat Khna Gharana dan penyanyi klasik dicapai. Satwant Singh dan Surinderjeet Singh dicapai Tabla (drum) pemain. Dengan mereka seperti Sikh Singapura kebanyakan, Kirtan hanya hobi.

pada 1930 di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura. Ia belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah dia. Kemudian Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India

Almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik di tahun 1930-an di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura.

1931

Pada tahun 1931 kegiatan Olahraga, sekelompok anak muda Sikh berkumpul dan membentuk Asosiasi Khalsa. Yang termasuk kelompok ini Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa dan Teja Singh. Clubhouse pertama di padang (lapangan) pada akhir St.Georges Road. Ini adalah sebuah pondok kayu. Pada hari-hari, para anggota merasa sulit bahkan untuk membayar gaji pengurus.

Sebagai Sikh lebih dan lebih bergabung asosiasi, hal dimeriahkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, asosiasi pindah ke Jalan Bahagia mana klub yang tepat dibangun. Ada bidang yang bagus untuk game dan untuk pameran tahunan menyenangkan, Mela Punjabi. Beberapa tahun kemudian, pemerintah menawarkan sebuah situs di Tessensohn Jalan dengan kompensasi untuk bangunan tua. Sebuah komite dibentuk bangunan dengan Keadilan Choor Singh sebagai ketua. Clubhouse baru tidak pernah bisa dibangun tanpa upaya tak kenal lelah dari komite yang terdiri dari Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta dan Tharam Singh.

Anak laki-laki kami selalu dilakukan dengan baik dalam olahraga, memenangkan kejuaraan liga dan kompetisi knockout di kali banyak hoki. Dalam kriket, kami biasa kurang baik. Selain Sekolah kemudian Punjabi bertempat di klub, Tae Kwon Do dan Karate pelajaran juga dilakukan di sana. Klub ini masih digunakan untuk pernikahan dan pesta makan malam.

Komunitas Sikh selalu mengambil bagian aktif dalam semua Perayaan Hari Nasional dengan mengirimkan kontingen peserta pawai untuk Parade di bawah bendera Singapore Khalsa Asosiasi. Dalam salah satu Kompetisi Lampung Hari Nasional, kami memenangkan Hadiah Terbaik Lampung Budaya dan kami diberikan Piala Perak. Untuk upaya ini menang, kita harus berterima kasih Satwant Bath Singh, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Candler, Terlochan Harbans Singh dan Singh untuk kerja keras mereka. Para Penari Bhangra di masa lalu pawai digunakan untuk menjadi hit besar dengan penonton. Pada suatu hari yang basah keterangan di The Straits Times dengan gambar para penari membaca: “Tarian kegembiraan di jalan-jalan Singapura”.

1934

Setelah kembali pada tahun 1934, ia mengambil pekerjaan lamanya sebagai imam Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia membantu semua orang yang datang kepadanya dan tidak pernah berubah siapa pun menjauh. Selama pendudukan Jepang, dia mulai berdandan dengan chaddar (sepotong kain putih) dan segera orang mulai menangani dia sebagai Sant Sohan Singh. Dia memegang Granthi Samelans (Konferensi Para Imam) untuk semua imam Sikh di Malaya dan Singapura di mana topik-topik kepentingan bersama dibahas. Setelah kematiannya, ada lebih seperti konferensi berlangsung. Pada tahun 1921, Dewan Khalsa Bhai Malaya dipekerjakan Singh Pall, Bhai Badan Singh dan Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musisi) untuk melakukan parchaar (mengkhotbahkan agama) di Malaya. Singapura Sikh mampu mendengarkan mereka kadang-kadang ketika mereka diundang ke Singapura. Bhai Bhai Pall Singh dan Badan Singh baik siswa dari Jowalla Bhai terkenal Singh dari Baba Bakala. Sangat menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan melodi klasik mereka. Iringan pada drum dengan Bahadur Singh menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan. Anak Bhai Singh Pall yang tumbuh dan bergabung dengan kelompok ayah mereka. Sohan Singh Josh, anak sulung adalah Tabla dicapai (drum) player. Bhai Badan Singh hidup sampai usia lanjut. Dia dikenang oleh banyak siswa di seluruh negeri.

Almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik

.1937

Mr Singh Bhag belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah dia. Kemudian Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India.

1940

Tahun 1940 Sikh Misionaris Socierty, kelompok Sikh membentuk sebuah asosiasi untuk menyebarkan iman Sikh dan menyebutnya Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. Pria di balik langkah itu Bhag Singh, seorang guru sekolah. Yang lain dalam kelompok itu Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Gulzar Singh Hitashi dan. Kantor terdaftar dari Masyarakat berada di 175 Queen Street. Komite Masyarakat kemudian berhasil mendapatkan Giani Phuman Singh, seorang Sikh yang terpelajar dari India untuk bergabung. Selama tahun-tahun berikutnya, kelompok pemuda pekerja berbuat banyak untuk menyebarkan agama Sikh. Traktat dalam bahasa Tamil, Melayu, Cina dan Inggris itu dibagikan gratis sehingga masyarakat lain akan datang untuk mengetahui Sikh dan iman mereka lebih baik. Giani Phuman Singh perjalanan seluruh Malaya dan memberikan ceramah di kuil-kuil.

Sikh Missionary Society juga meluncurkan Dana Beasiswa untuk siswa miskin Sikh untuk mengejar pendidikan mereka di universitas. Membantu Moneter juga diberikan kepada anak-anak untuk studi sekunder mereka sekolah. Para penerima pertama Gorboux Singh, yang menjadi kepala sekolah, Harbans Singh, yang menjadi seorang pengacara dan Nachatar Singh.

Kekuatan pendorong di belakang masyarakat itu Bhag Singh. Kematiannya pada tahun 1960 adalah kehilangan besar Sikh di Singapura dan Malaya. Komite bahwa alat selama menjalankan Masyarakat tidak bisa melanjutkan seperti sebelumnya dan sekarang masyarakat hanya nama dalam buku-buku dari Registrar of Societies.

Pada tahun 1940 kami telah Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Kartar Singh Giani Khandawalla dan Hazara Singh Bhai. Imam-imam belajar menjalani kehidupan mereka berkhotbah dan dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat. Selama waktu luang mereka, mereka memberikan pelajaran gratis Gurmukhi kepada anak-anak. Beberapa dari mereka juga bisa melakukan Kirtan dengan iringan tabla dan harmonium.

Nama lain yang terkenal adalah Sant Sohan Singh dari Malaka. Ia lahir di India pada tahun 1902 dan datang ke Malaya pada tahun 1926. Dia tinggal di Kuil Sikh Seremban untuk waktu yang singkat dan pada 1926 diangkat imam di Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia adalah seorang Pathi Akhand sangat baik dan segera setiap orang mulai memanggilnya Sohan Singh Giani. Hubungannya dengan tiga imam sangat terpelajar, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Pasir Gulab Singh dan Singh Giani Chanan Gurne, membuatnya sadar bahwa dia tidak memiliki banyak pengetahuan sejauh tulisan suci yang bersangkutan. Jadi pada tahun 1932, ia pergi cuti ke India dan bergabung College Gurmat di Damdama Sahib dan di sana ia belajar di bawah Kartar Singh Dakha, seorang sarjana Sikh sangat terkenal. Ia memperoleh gelar dalam Giani dan juga diberikan gelar “Maha Kawya Kawi Giani” (belajar penyair besar intelektual) untuk puisiny

 THE 20th CENTURY

1900

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Singapore. Sikh Policeman
Postcard – “Singapore. Sikh Policeman.” c1900

Hari Singh returned to Singapore after 1900 and got a job as a watchman with Lim Hoe Chiang of Tanjong Pagar. He was given a place to stay at the factory, at the junction of Wallich Street and Peck Seah Street. Next to the factory was an open piece of ground where Hari Singh decided to build a wooden shed and keep some dairy cows. He started with three cows and began what was eventually to become a full-time business. His adopted son, Achar Singh, started schooling but it was some time before the family grew.

1915-1918 during WW I

1920

In 1920, the first of Hari Singh’s four sons was born. Then came the twins Bassan Singh and Wassawa Singh followed by the youngest, Inder Singh. The boys had plenty of Sikh friends as by then a lot of other Sikhs had migrated to Singapore. One Sewa Singh Sedukay, whose village is close to Hari Singh’s in India settled in Wallich Street and built a wooden shed next to Hari Singh’s and started his own cattle business. Sewa Singh Sedukay’s eldest son, Dewan Singh Randhawa till the 1980s ran the only Punjabi Weekly newspaper in Singapore.

Like all other Sikh migrants, Hari Singh put a lot of emphasis on education. He made sure his children acquired both English and Punjabi education. Achar Singh joined the Government Printing Office in Johor Bahru as a proof reader. Sewa Singh joined the Medical Department as did Bassan Singh. Inder Singh later migrated to England and became a coal miner. Wasswa Singh died in his teens. After spending virtually his whole adult life in Singapore, Hari Singh like his contemporaries, did not wish to end his days in Singapore. He returned to India in 1952 and died there soon after. His descendants now fourth generation Sikhs in Singapore, are comfortably settled middle class Singaporeans, who while they still maintain links with their village in Punjab, have no intentions to return there.

The early Sikhs were either watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers. The traders or businessmen in the community came much later after the Second World War and established themselves in High Street, dealing in mainly textiles. As stated earlier, the early Sikhs placed much emphasis in education and not surprisingly, their children either became civil servants or professionals through hard work and study.

1920

Sikh Temples in Singapore
Religion is an integral part of the daily life of a Sikh. When the first batch of Sikhs was brought to Singapore by the East India Company as policemen, a temple was built for them at Pearl’s Hill Barracks. Similarly, the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company built a temple for the Police in Anson Road. In 1920, a Sindhi merchant donated his house in Queen Street for a temple and the Sikhs named it “Wada Gurdwara”, meaning “The Big Temple”. The management committee consisted of elected representatives of the Majha, Malwa and Doaba Sikhs. The three temples representing these areas – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Khalsa Dharmak Sabha and Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – sent three members each for the management committee and one member each for the Langar (Food) Committee.

1925

In 1925, the Majha Sikhs opened a temple in a double storey house in Queen Street near the junction of Bras Basah Road. Two years later, there was a misunderstanding over the priest, Giani Partap Singh, because he paid a dowry to get married. Santa Singh Sedukay and Ganesa Singh Malli opened another temple in Cecil Street with Giani Partap Singh as priest. So during this short period, there were two Singh Sabhas in Singapore. Two years later, both factions settled their differences and all the Mahja Sikhs moved back to the Queen Street premises. In 1931, the Sabha moved to its new temple at 90 Wilkie Road. In 1980, the Sabha moved to a new building at 92 Wilkie Road adjacent to the one built in 1931. The old building was converted into a Janjh Ghar and for accomodation. There are plans for a museum as well.

The Malwa Sikhs started a temple in Chandy Road behind the present Cathay Building about the same time as the Majha Sikhs started the Sri Guru Singh Sabha. From Chandy Road, the Khalsa Dharmak Sabha moved to its present building at 18 Niven Road.

The Doaba Sikhs had their temple at Kirk Terrace. The government acquired their land for urban development and they have since moved to Lorong 19 Geyland.

There used to be another Sikh Temple in a double storey building in Kerbau Road. This had been in existence since before the Second World War.

There were also other Sikh Temples built for the convenience of Sikhs living in nearby. One such temple was the Jalan Kayu Gurdwara. There was also one in the Naval Base for Sikhs working in the base. Another was in Sembawang Road for those living and working outside the base area. Today, a new temple exists in Yishun called Yishun Gurdwara. This is the result of the merger of the Jalan Kayu and Sembawang Gurdwaras, following the residential developments in the north of Singapore. When the British Government decided to improve and extend the Harbour Board area, it was necessary to demolish the Dock Police Barracks where the temple was situated. It offered the Sikh Contingent land in Silat Road for the temple and also gave monetary aid. Two policemen from the Sikh Contingent were nominated to collect funds for the building of this temple. One of them was Wasawa Singh, father of Bakshis Singh, a retired school principal. Funds were collected from the Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple.

When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple.

The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground car park, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.

The Early Sikh Priests and Ragis
The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.

1920

In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type of cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sand mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating

1930. 

It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed.

There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name.

Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.

in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore.

1931

In 1931 Sport activities , a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.

As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Road with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh.

Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

The Sikh Community has always taken an active part in all the National Day Celebrations by sending a contingent of marchers to the Parade under the banner of the Singapore Khalsa Association. In one of the National Day Float Competitions, we won the Best Cultural Float Prize and we were awarded the Silver Cup. For this winning effort, we have to thank Satwant Singh Bath, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Dler, Terlochan Singh and Harbans Singh for their hard work. The Bhangra Dancers in the march past used to be a great hit with the spectators. On one wet day the caption in The Straits Times with a picture of the dancers read : “The dance of joy in the streets of Singapore”.

1934

On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music

.1937

Mr Bhag Singh studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India.

1940

In 1940 the Sikh Missionary Socierty , a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

In the 1940s we had Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment.

Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of “Kawi Kawya Maha Giani” (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry.

During Dai Nippon Occupation 1942-1945

. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

 .
In 1940 the Sikh Missionary Socierty , a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

1950

In early 1950 the Sikh Partinidh Sabda, at a meeting held at the Queen Street Sikh Temple, the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was formed. Its function was to run the Khalsa English School in Niven Road and the Khalsa Punjab School in Wilkie Road.

The Khalsa English School was very necessary at this time because there was a shortage of schools in Singapore and many of our Sikh children could not find places in government and government aided schools. Classes were from primary to secondary levels. When there were sufficient schools in Singapore to absorb all the children, the Khalsa English School was closed. The Khalsa Punjabi School at the Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Wilkie Road was transferred to the Singapore Khalsa Association and the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was dissolved.

The Sikh Newspapers and the Press
The first Sikh newspaper was started in Malaya in 1936 and was called the Pardesi Khalsa Sewak. In 1965, there was a change of ownership and the name was changes to Malayan Samachar. Dewan Singh Randhawa, who resigned from the Singapore Police Force in 1946, started the first Punjabi paper in Singapore in 1951. He called it the Navjiwan (New Life). It was printed in Gurmukhi script and the paper had to struggle even though it was the only Punjabi paper in Southeast Asia. Advertisments, printing of wedding cards and commercial printing kept the paper going. In the late seventies and early eighties, things brightened up. The paper brought in the latest in off-set printing. It by now had subscribers not only in Singapore, but in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Australia.

Two other Sikhs have gone into the printing business and do only commercial printing. They are Kartar Singh, a retired police officer who owns Ford Printers and Gurpal Singh who owns Magh Printers. Incidentally, Gurpal Singh learned the printing business as a teenager at Navjiwan.

After Independence, the Congress leaders of India forgot their promises given to Sikh people. These very Congress lead adopted every conceivable postureand shrank from no stratagem to keep Sikhs permanently under their political heel, first, by refusing to form a Punjabi speaking state in which the Sikhs might acquire political effectiveness, and second, by not giving Sikhs and Punjab a special status in the Constitution Act of India.

In 1954, when Master Tara Singh reminded Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru of the solemn undertaking given to Sikhs many times on behalf of the majority community that after Independence Sikhs will be given an autonomous state, he coolly replied, “the circumstances have now changed “

After eighteen years of agitation and suffering, creation of a Punjabi speaking state was announced. But the commission which demarcated the boundaries on the impugned and tainted 1961 census left some of the Punjabi speaking areas out of Punjab state and gave them over to Haryana which was created out of residuary areas. The commission even allocated Chandigarh to Haryana. The problem of getting Punjabi speaking areas and Chandigarh restored to the Punjab became a major issue. Many fasts and counter fasts were kept by Sikhs and Hindus on this issue. Sardar Darshan Singh Pheruman courted martyrdom by fasting unto death on October 27, 1969. He died on 74th day of his fast, renewing the Sikh tradition of sacrifice and martyrdom. On January 26, 1970 Sant Fateh Singh, President of Shiromani Akali Dal went on fast declaring that if demand for restoring Chandigarh to Punjab is not met, he would burn himself alive On February 1, 1970 the Government announced its decision to hand over Chandigarh to Punjab, in lieu of areas of Fazilka and Abohar Tehsil to Haryana.

 

Due to the split in the Sikh leadership which started showing on the surface in 1960 onwards two factions in the Akal Dal were created: one led by Master Tara Singh and the other by Sant Fateh Singh. The result of these divisions among the Sikhs was that Akali Dal was never able to form a pure Sikh Government in Punjab. In 1967 Akali Dal formed the first non-Congress Government in Punjab with the support of Jan Sangh and the Communist party. After that Akali Dal formed the non-Congress Government twice, but both the times it was with the help of Jan Sangh or Janata Party. It speaks poorly of the Sikh ieadership and politics that even in a state in which they have majority they could not form a government, run purely by their political wing, Akali Dal.On October 16, 1973 the Akali Dal, when it was not in power, passed “The Anandpur Sahib Resolution.” The major provisions this resolution were;
regional autonomy for punjab,
return of Chandigarh to Punjab,
special status for Sikhs in the Indian union,
a supreme court review of Punjab river waters,
return of the Punjabi speaking areas to Punjab,
return of the administration of the Punjab Electric Board as well as the three thermal headworks to Punjab,
provision of a fare share of electricity to Punjab,
and some minor religious demands.

 

During the 1970’s and till the 1980’S the Akali Dal and Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee leaders has been centering around the following leaders: Prakash Singh Badal, Gurcharn Singh Tohra, Jagdev Singh Talwandi, Sujit Singh Barnala, Balwant Singh and Harchand Singh Longowal. But these leaders did not do much to get the Anandpur Sahib Resolution implemented in Punjab. Even when Akalis formed their Government supported by Janata Party in 1977 in Punjab, they did nothing outstanding to ensure that the provisions of Anandpur Sahib Resolution were implementedThey went out of their way to discourage and crush the anti-Nirankari movement started by Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and the Babbar Khalsa as a result of April 13, 1978 incident, in which thirteen devout Amritdhari Gursikhs were shot dead by the Nirankaris in Amritsar.Particularly, the behaviour of Jiwan Singh Umranangal and P.S.Badal, who were keen to win over Hindus even if it meant harming the interests of Sikhs, was most deplorable. By the time Congress (I) Government came into power again in 1980, the gap between the Akali leaders and Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had widenedWith a view to win over Hindu majority of North India and Punjab, Mrs. Indira Gandhi mischievously exploited the anti-Nirankari movement in Punjab to create communal antagonism between Sikhs and Hindus in 1980. State terrorism against devout Amritdhari Sikhs was started in Punjab through her stooge Chief Minister of Punjab, Darbara Singh, during 1982. As a reaction to the Police terrorism on Sikhs, the devout Sikhs started taking revenge on Police and officials who ordered persecution of Sikhs in 1982-83.

 

In August 1982 the ‘Dharam Yudh’ agitation was started under the dictatorship of Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, to whom all Akali Dal members of Legislative Assembly and Parliament had submitted the resignation. In October 1983, the Centre Government imposed President’s Rule Punjab.From October 1983 to June 1984, is a story of political manipulations and mischievous designs on the part of Indira Gandhi to destroy the Sikh faith and exterminate the Sikh people with a view to win over Hindu votes in India.Indira Gandhi throughout negotiations between Akali Dal and Centre never let the negotiations reach finalization or settlement because she had an ulterior motive. She let the Punjab crisis drag on in order to rally the state’s Hindus behind her and in order unify the Hindu majority of North Indian states, all of whom were concerned about the growing shrillness of the Sikh agitation. The Hindu psyche had been poisoned so much against the Sikhs through communication media and mischievous political manipulations that they wanted the Delhi Government to deal more forcefully with Sikhs. By stone-walling the Sikhs, Gandhi was consolidating her position with the Hindu majority , particularly of North India, whose support she considered necessary to win in national elections that were to be held January 1985.Sant Jarnail Singh Ji, Khalsa, Bhindranwale was one man who had the political foresight and vision and who knew that Indira Gandhi was not finalizing the negotiation because she wanted to derive the politcal advantage out of it. He also knew that all the Akali Dal leaders stood fast supported the Sikh masses of Punjab, could not damage the Sikhs. On contrary, if the Akali Dal leader show split, and entered into underhand negotiations with her, she will not only outmaneuver them, but also defeat the efforts jointly put in by all Sikhs in Dharam Yudh agitation for acceptance of Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

 

It was the saddest thing for the Sikhs to happen: Almost all the Akali leaders betrayed the Sikhs and Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale for their selfish ends and had secret meetings with representatives of Mrs.Indira Gandhi. They reached a secret understanding with her; they would not stand in her way if she used armed forces to attack Golden Temple complex and destroy Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his associates. All that they wanted in return were minister and chiefminister positions for themselves.As a result of such underhand negotiations and understanding, Mrs. Gandhi gathered the courage for launching of Operation Bluestar. The Sikhs know very well the details of desecration and destruction caused to Golden Temple complex, as also the massacre of thousands of innocent Sikh pilgrims in Golden Temple. But strangely enough H.S.Longowal and G.S.Tohra were safely escorted to the Government Guest houses! The developments, after they were released from their sanctuaries, clearly show as to what sort of loyalty these leaders had to the Sikh Panth. After playing their political gimmicks, they were again back in their saddles of President Akali Dal and President SGPC. They shamelessly built their palaces of power positions on the graveyards of tens of thousands of innocent Sikhs and on rubbles of the Akal Takhat and other historic shrines. Tens thousands of Sikhs were massacred burnt alive all over India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi, because there was no Sikh leader like Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, whom the Hidhu leaders feared.Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale was a Sikh leader, whom the Delhi rulers feared. For they knew that the Sikh masses were behind him and he could not be bought on any cost; He was a selfless servant of the Khalsa, for, he had transcended all earthly temptations which enslave the mortal beings. He was an example of the true Khalsa, who lived for Truth and died fighting for Truth.

 

A RECORD OF BETRAYAL1. [1950] The Indian Consitution was adopted. The Sikh leaders did not endorse it because all promises and assurances previously made were ignored.2. [1954] When jawaharlal Nehru was reminded of past promises, he answered, “The circumstances have now changed”3. [1956] Indian States were reorganized on language basis. Only Punjab is left out4. [1966] After a prolonged struggle and peaceful agitation, a Punjabi speaking state was created by divding Punjab further into three states.5. [1975] Indira Gandhi was found guilty of election fraud by the Indian courts. She suspended the constitution to stay in office. The Sikhs spearheaded a non violent protest against this blow to democracy. 50,000 Sikhs went to jail. Indira Gandhi never forgot that the Sikhs had opposed her one person rule.6. [1981-1984] More than 250 Sikhs were butchered by Indian security forces in fake encounters. More than 250,000 were arrested during this period while peacefully demanding state autonomy for Punjab and the rest of the state in India and their just share of Punjab waters as envisaged by international riparian laws.7. [1984] Indira Gandhi’s response to the Sikhs was uniquely senseless. From June 5-7 a full scale army attack was launched on the Golden Temple and 40 other temples, killing thousands of innocent Sikhs – men, women and children. Many of the dead have never been accounted for.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

SHIKS IN SINGAPORE VERSION TWO 


 

 

second version:

Sikhism in Singapore 

There are some 15,000 Sikhs in Singapore. The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) in 1873 brought by the British to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars. The early Sikhs were employed as watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers.

It was only after the Second World War that they established themselves as traders or businessmen in the community in High Street, mainly dealing in textiles. Today there are about 15,000 Sikhs in Singapore.

Contents

 

Early Sikh Immigrants

Who was Singapore’s first Sikh? The answer is not readily forthcoming. No records exist which clearly state who was the first Sikh to land here. But many of the older Sikhs still alive in Singapore recall tales of one Maharaj Singh, a political prisoner exiled to Singapore by the British after the Second Sikh War in 1849.

A Sikh of noble birth, he refused to concede defeat to the British and formed a guerilla band with his followers. Unfortunately for him, he was caught and imprisoned before he could really organise himself. But his popularity among the Sikhs, even after he was jailed, was such that the British decided it was in their own interests to exile him.

He was sent to Singapore with a manservant, arriving here sometime in the 1850’s. He was housed in the old Outram Road Jail and by all accounts was a religious person, spending long periods of time in prayer and meditation. Tales passed down by word of mouth speak of him possessing spiritual powers and of working miracles. There is no record of when he died, but it is known that after his death, he was cremated outside Outram Road Jail. Sikhs of that period, believing he was a saint, built a tomb on the spot where he was cremated.

When the authorities wanted to expand the prison, his tomb was broken up and rebuilt on a spot about a mile away. In later years, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) was built near the site of the tomb. It was not disturbed and remained in what became the hospital grounds. In 1965, the government asked the Sikhs to remove the tomb as they wished to expand the hospital. So once again, the tomb was broken up. This time after some prayers, five stones all that remained of the old tomb, were removed and placed in a new resting place in the forecourt of the Silat Road Temple nearby.

Some people call this temple as Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Why Baba Karam Singh and not Maharaj Singh? There is some controversy over who the tomb at Outram Road and subsequently SGH grounds really belonged to. The only point of consensus is that it belonged to a saintly person. There are those who believe it is Maharaj Singh’s. Then again there are those who say it was that of Baba Karam Singh, who was said to possess some spiritual powers too. What is certain is that those who maintained the tomb and later made it into a shrine of sorts, believed it was Baba Karam Singh and the name has come to stay. There may have been other political prisoners exiled to Singapore too, but nothing is known of them.

The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) recruited in India to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars. In 1873, Captain Speedy recruited 110 Sikhs from the Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab for service in Perak (in Malaysia). This band was known as the Perak Armed Police. The success of these early recruits prompted the British to recruit more Sikhs and by 1888, under one Captain Walker, the group had grown and came to be known as the 1st Perak Sikhs. By 1896, the force numbered 900 and was renamed the Malay States Guides with Walker as their first Colonel.

Meanwhile, the success of the Sikhs as policemen or sepoys in Malaya led the British to bring some down to Singapore. The first batch also from Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur was brought to Singapore in the late 1870s and formed the first Sikh Police Contingent stationed at Sepoy Lines later known as Pearl’s Hill overlooking Chinatown. Sikh policemen were also recruited by the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company to form the Tanjong Pagar Dock Police Force.

While the first wave of Sikhs came mainly as policemen, by 1885 more Sikhs from other districts in Punjab namely, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar and Lahore were making their own way down to Singapore to seek their fortunes. Most of these Sikhs could not enter the Police Force as the earlier recruits restricted subsequent entry to their relatives or fellow district folks. As such, these later migrants became watchmen, additional police constables, small time businessmen or went into dairy farming. The story of one Hari Singh Choney from Gurdaspur district is typical of these early migrants. Hari Singh came to Singapore in 1885. He travelled like many others on deck, cooking his own meals. He landed in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar and was helped by some Sikh policemen on duty who gave him temporary accommodation. One Sunder Singh, a police constable, helped him find a job patrolling the grounds of the Botanic Gardens. Like many of the Sikhs in Singapore then, Hari Singh led a very frugal life, repatriating most of his savings and helping to bring out other relatives. A couple of years after his arrival, Hari Singh brought out his younger brother Jaimall Singh and found him a job as an Additional Police Constable. The job of these APCs in those days was to guard the Government run opium shops which were then legal in Singapore.

Many of these early Sikhs came as bachelors. They later returned to India with some money, married and brought their families back. Hari Singh was no different, except in his case he had to return rather suddenly as his elder brother Bhagat Singh died suddenly leaving behind a young son. Hari Singh got married in India and adopted Bhagat Singh’s son, Achar Singh.

Hari Singh returned to Singapore after 1900 and got a job as a watchman with Lim Hoe Chiang of Tanjong Pagar. He was given a place to stay at the factory, at the junction of Wallich Street and Peck Seah Street. Next to the factory was an open piece of ground where Hari Singh decided to build a wooden shed and keep some dairy cows. He started with three cows and began what was eventually to become a full-time business. His adopted son, Achar Singh, started schooling but it was some time before the family grew. In 1920, the first of Hari Singh’s four sons was born. Then came the twins Bassan Singh and Wassawa Singh followed by the youngest, Inder Singh. The boys had plenty of Sikh friends as by then a lot of other Sikhs had migrated to Singapore. One Sewa Singh Sedukay, whose village is close to Hari Singh’s in India settled in Wallich Street and built a wooden shed next to Hari Singh’s and started his own cattle business. Sewa Singh Sedukay’s eldest son, Dewan Singh Randhawa till the 1980s ran the only Punjabi Weekly newspaper in Singapore.

Like all other Sikh migrants, Hari Singh put a lot of emphasis on education. He made sure his children acquired both English and Punjabi education. Achar Singh joined the Government Printing Office in Johor Bahru as a proof reader. Sewa Singh joined the Medical Department as did Bassan Singh. Inder Singh later migrated to England and became a coal miner. Wasswa Singh died in his teens. After spending virtually his whole adult life in Singapore, Hari Singh like his contemporaries, did not wish to end his days in Singapore. He returned to India in 1952 and died there soon after. His descendants now fourth generation Sikhs in Singapore, are comfortably settled middle class Singaporeans, who while they still maintain links with their village in Punjab, have no intentions to return there.

The early Sikhs were either watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers. The traders or businessmen in the community came much later after the Second World War and established themselves in High Street, dealing in mainly textiles. As stated earlier, the early Sikhs placed much emphasis in education and not surprisingly, their children either became civil servants or professionals through hard work and study.

Sikh Temples in Singapore

Religion is an integral part of the daily life of a Sikh. When the first batch of Sikhs was brought to Singapore by the East India Company as policemen, a temple was built for them at Pearl’s Hill Barracks. Similarly, the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company built a temple for the Police in Anson Road. In 1920, a Sindhi merchant donated his house in Queen Street for a temple and the Sikhs named it Wada Gurdwara, meaning The Big Temple. The management committee consisted of elected representatives of the Majha, Malwa and Doaba Sikhs. The three temples representing these areas – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Khalsa Dharmak Sabha and Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – sent three members each for the management committee and one member each for the Langar (Food) Committee.

In 1925, the Majha Sikhs opened a temple in a double storey house in Queen Street near the junction of Bras Basah Road. Two years later, there was a misunderstanding over the priest, Giani Partap Singh, because he paid a dowry to get married. Santa Singh Sedukay and Ganesa Singh Malli opened another temple in Cecil Street with Giani Partap Singh as priest. So during this short period, there were two Singh Sabhas in Singapore. Two years later, both factions settled their differences and all the Mahja Sikhs moved back to the Queen Street premises. In 1931, the Sabha moved to its new temple at 90 Wilkie Road. In 1980, the Sabha moved to a new building at 92 Wilkie Road adjacent to the one built in 1931. The old building was converted into a Janjh Ghar and for accomodation. There are plans for a museum as well.

The Malwa Sikhs started a temple in Chandy Road behind the present Cathay Building about the same time as the Majha Sikhs started the Sri Guru Singh Sabha. From Chandy Road, the Khalsa Dharmak Sabha moved to its present building at 18 Niven Road.

The Doaba Sikhs had their temple at Kirk Terrace. The government acquired their land for urban development and they have since moved to Lorong 19 Geyland.

There used to be another Sikh Temple in a double storey building in Kerbau Road. This had been in existence since before the Second World War.

There were also other Sikh Temples built for the convenience of Sikhs living in nearby. One such temple was the Jalan Kayu Gurdwara. There was also one in the Naval Base for Sikhs working in the base. Another was in Sembawang Road for those living and working outside the base area. Today, a new temple exists in Yishun called Yishun Gurdwara. This is the result of the merger of the Jalan Kayu and Sembawang Gurdwaras, following the residential developments in the north of Singapore. When the British Government decided to improve and extend the Harbour Board area, it was necessary to demolish the Dock Police Barracks where the temple was situated. It offered the Sikh Contingent land in Silat Road for the temple and also gave monetary aid. Two policemen from the Sikh Contingent were nominated to collect funds for the building of this temple. One of them was Wasawa Singh, father of Bakshis Singh, a retired school principal. Funds were collected from the Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple.

When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple.

The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground car park, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.

The Early Sikh Priests and Ragis

The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.

In the 1940s we had Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment.

Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh Pandit, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of Kawi Kawya Maha Giani (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry.

On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India.

In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type of cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sand mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating.

It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed.

There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name.

Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.

Sports and Other Activities

In 1931, a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.

As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Road with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh.

Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

The Sikh Community has always taken an active part in all the National Day Celebrations by sending a contingent of marchers to the Parade under the banner of the Singapore Khalsa Association. In one of the National Day Float Competitions, we won the Best Cultural Float Prize and we were awarded the Silver Cup. For this winning effort, we have to thank Satwant Singh Bath, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Dler, Terlochan Singh and Harbans Singh for their hard work. The Bhangra Dancers in the march past used to be a great hit with the spectators. On one wet day the caption in The Straits Times with a picture of the dancers read : The dance of joy in the streets of Singapore.

The Sikh Missionary Society

In 1940, a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

The Sikh Partinidh Sabha

In early 1950, at a meeting held at the Queen Street Sikh Temple, the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was formed. Its function was to run the Khalsa English School in Niven Road and the Khalsa Punjab School in Wilkie Road.

The Khalsa English School was very necessary at this time because there was a shortage of schools in Singapore and many of our Sikh children could not find places in government and government aided schools. Classes were from primary to secondary levels. When there were sufficient schools in Singapore to absorb all the children, the Khalsa English School was closed. The Khalsa Punjabi School at the Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Wilkie Road was transferred to the Singapore Khalsa Association and the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was dissolved.

The Sikh Newspapers and the Press

The first Sikh newspaper was started in Malaya in 1936 and was called the Pardesi Khalsa Sewak. In 1965, there was a change of ownership and the name was changes to Malayan Samachar. Dewan Singh Randhawa, who resigned from the Singapore Police Force in 1946, started the first Punjabi paper in Singapore in 1951. He called it the Navjiwan (New Life). It was printed in Gurmukhi script and the paper had to struggle even though it was the only Punjabi paper in Southeast Asia. Advertisments, printing of wedding cards and commercial printing kept the paper going. In the late seventies and early eighties, things brightened up. The paper brought in the latest in off-set printing. It by now had subscribers not only in Singapore, but in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Australia.

Two other Sikhs have gone into the printing business and do only commercial printing. They are Kartar Singh, a retired police officer who owns Ford Printers and Gurpal Singh who owns Magh Printers. Incidentally, Gurpal Singh learned the printing business as a teenager at Navjiwan

Version three

 Komunitas Sikh di Singapura, Malaya dan Pulau Christmas dan Silat Jalan Sikh Temple menjadi kenyataan. Pengelolaan kuil itu diserahkan kepada polisi Sikh di bawah pimpinan seorang petugas Kontingen Sikh. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kontingen Sikh dibubarkan dan Kuil Jalan Silat diserahkan ke Komite Sentral Kuil Sikh. Bait suci adalah hari ini bagian dari Kuil Sikh Tengah. Ketika India dan Pakistan mencapai kemerdekaan, pengusaha Sikh banyak orang yang tercerabut dari rumah mereka datang ke Singapura dan secara bertahap jumlah ini tumbuh. Pada awalnya, ini digunakan untuk berdoa Sikh di Kuil Sikh Tengah di Queen Street. Kemudian, mereka mulai bergerak memegang sebuah kuil doa di rumah-rumah anggota mereka dengan rotasi. Mereka segera memutuskan untuk memiliki bait suci mereka sendiri dan dalam waktu membeli sebuah gedung di Jalan Wilkinson mana mereka telah berubah menjadi sebuah kuil yang indah. Keanggotaan terbatas pada para pendiri asli. Keanggotaan asosiasi ini terbuka untuk semua tetapi ini tidak memiliki anggota mengatakan dalam menjalankan kuil. Baru Tengah Sikh Temple bangunan selesai pada tahun 1986 dan dibangun dengan biaya $ 6 juta. Ini memiliki ruang doa ber-AC dan kedap suara. Ada parkir bawah tanah, fasilitas dapur modern, akomodasi bagi para imam, ruang untuk pertemuan, dan imam pertama library.The berasal dari kalangan polisi Sikh atau sepahi. Dua dari mereka Bhai Bhai Wasawa Singh dan Amar Singh. Di antara para imam awal di Singapura Narain Singh Bhai Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, dijuluki Bhai Pawa karena ia sangat pendek, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Bhai Inder Singh dan Ganda Singh.In tahun 1940 kami telah Bhai Sebagai sa Bandal Singh, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Kartar Singh Giani Khandawalla dan Hazara Singh Bhai. Imam-imam belajar menjalani kehidupan mereka berkhotbah dan dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat. Selama waktu luang mereka, mereka memberikan pelajaran gratis Gurmukhi kepada anak-anak. Beberapa dari mereka juga bisa melakukan Kirtan dengan iringan tabla dan harmonium. Nama lain yang terkenal adalah Sant Sohan Singh dari Malaka. Ia lahir di India pada tahun 1902 dan datang ke Malaya pada tahun 1926. Dia tinggal di Kuil Sikh Seremban untuk waktu yang singkat dan pada 1926 diangkat imam di Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia adalah seorang Pathi Akhand sangat baik dan segera setiap orang mulai memanggilnya Sohan Singh Giani. Hubungannya dengan tiga imam sangat terpelajar, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Pasir Gulab Singh dan Singh Giani Chanan Gurne, membuatnya sadar bahwa dia tidak memiliki banyak pengetahuan sejauh tulisan suci yang bersangkutan. Jadi pada tahun 1932, ia pergi cuti ke India dan bergabung College Gurmat di Damdama Sahib dan di sana ia belajar di bawah Kartar Singh Dakha, seorang sarjana Sikh sangat terkenal. Ia memperoleh gelar dalam Giani dan juga diberikan gelar “Maha Kawya Kawi Giani” (belajar penyair besar intelektual) untuk puisinya. Setelah kembali pada tahun 1934, ia mengambil pekerjaan lamanya sebagai imam Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia membantu semua orang yang datang kepadanya dan tidak pernah berubah siapa pun menjauh. Selama pendudukan Jepang, dia mulai berdandan dengan chaddar (sepotong kain putih) dan segera orang mulai menangani dia sebagai Sant Sohan Singh. Dia memegang Granthi Samelans (Konferensi Para Imam) untuk semua imam Sikh di Malaya dan Singapura di mana topik-topik kepentingan bersama dibahas. Setelah kematiannya, ada lebih seperti konferensi berlangsung. Pada tahun 1921, Dewan Khalsa Bhai Malaya dipekerjakan Singh Pall, Bhai Badan Singh dan Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musisi) untuk melakukan parchaar (mengkhotbahkan agama) di Malaya. Singapura Sikh mampu mendengarkan mereka kadang-kadang ketika mereka diundang ke Singapura. Bhai Bhai Pall Singh dan Badan Singh baik siswa dari Jowalla Bhai terkenal Singh dari Baba Bakala. Sangat menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan melodi klasik mereka. Iringan pada drum dengan Bahadur Singh menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan. Anak Bhai Singh Pall yang tumbuh dan bergabung dengan kelompok ayah mereka. Sohan Singh Josh, anak sulung adalah Tabla dicapai (drum) player. Bhai Badan Singh hidup sampai usia lanjut. Dia dikenang oleh banyak siswa di seluruh negeri ini almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik di tahun 1930-an di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura. Ia belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah him.Later Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India. Pada 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, ada sekelompok Shabad (himne) penyanyi dari desa Mallian. Mereka lima nomor, semua saudara dan sepupu dan semua lebih dari enam meter. Mereka mengenakan malmal (jenis yang sangat tipis dari kain katun) kameez atau kemeja seperti yang dipakai oleh Pahelwans (pegulat), dan kalung emas. Mereka menyanyikan sebagian besar Halle dey Shabads, (dinyanyikan seperti Kawalis dengan beat cepat). Anak-anak menemukan beat yang cepat dengan Dholak (drum), Shaney (simbal kecil), Chimta dan Khartale (instrumen musik India) yang sangat menawan. Barulah pada tahun 1930-an yang Sikh di Singapura memiliki kesempatan untuk mendengarkan jenis lain dari penyanyi profesional dari India ketika Janki Bai dan Kalka Bai Calcutta menghabiskan waktu sebulan di Singapura dan memberikan pertunjukan setiap malam di Serangoon Road. Ada juga konser diberikan oleh para profesional. Di antara musisi terkenal dan berbakat dan penyanyi adalah Dr Chotta Singh, Guru Sawan, Ustad Noor Md Khan, Veer Chand dan Master Muhammad. Ada juga banyak berbakat Tabla (drum) pemain termasuk Sardar Khan, Ustad Muhammad dan Krishna Deo Tiwari. Seorang mahasiswa Gwalior, Krishan Deo juga eksponen brilian Mirdhang tersebut. Dia memberikan sejumlah pertunjukan solo di Teater Victoria dan antara Masyarakat India Utara ia biasanya disebut Mirdhangi. Sangat sedikit orang yang tahu nama yang sebenarnya. Saat ini, banyak Kirtan dilakukan di candi ini baik oleh imam atau oleh Ragis profesional (musisi) yang datang pada tur. Akibatnya, sangat sedikit melakukan Kirtan Singapura Sikh di kuil-kuil sekarang. Seva Singh dan keluarganya digunakan untuk menjadi salah satu pengecualian. Putra sulungnya, Terlochan Singh adalah Sitarist dari Willayat Khna Gharana dan penyanyi klasik dicapai. Satwant Singh dan Surinderjeet Singh dicapai Tabla (drum) pemain. Dengan mereka seperti Sikh Singapura kebanyakan, Kirtan hanya hobby.In 1931, sekelompok anak muda Sikh berkumpul dan membentuk Asosiasi Khalsa. Yang termasuk kelompok ini Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa dan Teja Singh. Clubhouse pertama di padang (lapangan) pada akhir St.Georges Road. Ini adalah sebuah pondok kayu. Pada hari-hari, para anggota merasa sulit bahkan untuk membayar gaji caretaker.As Sikh lebih dan lebih bergabung asosiasi, hal dimeriahkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, asosiasi pindah ke Jalan Bahagia mana klub yang tepat dibangun. Ada bidang yang bagus untuk game dan untuk pameran tahunan menyenangkan, Mela Punjabi. Beberapa tahun kemudian, pemerintah menawarkan sebuah situs di Tessensohn Roadn dengan kompensasi untuk bangunan tua. Sebuah komite dibentuk bangunan dengan Keadilan Choor Singh sebagai ketua. Clubhouse baru tidak pernah bisa dibangun tanpa upaya tak kenal lelah dari komite yang terdiri dari Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta dan Tharam Singh. Anak laki-laki kami selalu dilakukan dengan baik dalam olahraga, memenangkan kejuaraan liga dan kompetisi knockout di kali banyak hoki. Dalam kriket, kami biasa kurang baik. Selain Sekolah kemudian Punjabi bertempat di klub, Tae Kwon Do dan Karate pelajaran juga dilakukan di sana. Klub ini masih digunakan untuk pernikahan dan pesta makan malam.

 
 

Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple. When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple. The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground carpark, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.In the 1940s we had Bhai As sa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment. Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of “Kawi Kawya Maha Giani” (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry. On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him.Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India. In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type o f cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sang mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating. It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed. There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name. Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.In 1931, a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa,Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Roadn with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh. Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

 

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Premium Info:”THE MYAMAR UNDER BRITISH BURMA COLLECTIONS”

CREATED BY Dr IWAN S FROM HIS PRIVATE COLLECTIONS

                     *ill C-001
                             ill -002

premium  PRIVATE ISSUED  E-BOOK FORpremium members  COLLECTORS

        JAKARTA @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010 

*ill C-001 .Postally used India Queen Victoria stamps used in Burma during British rule Burma  CDS Moulmen     23 sep 1896. and *ill C-002 same era cds RANGOON (now Yangoon,old capital) March .25. 01

__________________________________________________________________________

PREFACE

When I bought the whole world collections in old schaubek album 1972,also many used satmps from all over the world including India were keep in an emveloped in a box.

After join the international postal history collections auctions name The Cover King in 1978-1980, the first time I understand the postal history of Est India company postal history, all the countries under east India Company(EIC) with the centre at Madras, used the India Stamps with their own countries as the province of EIC post mark like in Burma , Rangoon. Molmein etc. alsostraits Settlement, Aden (now Yemen),, tibet,nepal and bhutan aslo as the province of EIC with their own postmark. Due to this informations I have hunting the EIC province or India Used Abroad post mark.

I hope this info will help many Burma and othe ex EIC countries to arranged their postal history collections, I know this e-book still many wrong info and not complete, that is why I am very happy to recieved correction,suggestion and more info, thankyou for your comment.

I want to thank you to Ads Google for sp9onsorship at my old blog uniquecollection.wwordpress.com, and I still give this article as  free info, the complete info still can read at the old blog uniquecollection.wordpress.com.

I have add many new information, and edit the profile of article as best as I can.

Jakarta August,2010

Dr Iwan S

PS Hallo Ads Google please put your Ads Google here.Are the ads google in this article in my old blog original from you or fake promotion, if fake I will cut that promotion.I have contack Google Ads,the ads were illegal, i am sorry this article became premium.More info only for premium member and I stop to edit the imnformations and illustrations. I hope the collectors becareful to fake ads of googles.

________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER ONE :THE ILLUSTRATION OF BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

I.ANCIENT BURMA COLLECTIONS 

1.ANCIENT BURMA FIGURINES 

 

2.ANCIENT BURMA JAR FOUND IN INDONESIA 


2. ANCIENT BURMA TEMPLE 


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II. BRITISH RULE BURMA
During this time Burma was the province ogf British C0lony India, that is why British India stamps*ill BRB 001 ,oo2 and oo3  and British India revenue used at Burma.*ill BRB-003 and 004

*ill BRB 001

ill BRB-002

The revenue sheet collections were during King Edward*ill BRB 004 and king George*ill BRB 005, please the native Burma help me to translate the ccument because were writing in native language.


ill BRB -004 tghe head of revenue sheet King Edward
*ill BRB-004 document below the head of revenue seet
__________________________________________________________________
the documen below the head of revenue sheet
the document inside the revenue sheet
* ill BRB 005 King Geogre Brirtih India Revenue sheet used in Burma. 10.3.1934  
_____________________________________________________________

The Bristh India stamps used in Burma, was found only from three city, Rangoon, Moulmen and Mutiyana from Queen Victoria until King George.
(Mutiyana in Burma , Nepal other country ? please comment, during this time als used in anther country like Tibet,Nepal,Bhutan, and Aden, the cllectors wh have this stamps please share with us via comment) 

(1) REVENUE SHEET HISTORY 

HALLO COLLECTORS CAN YOU ARRANGE THIS PAZZLE OF BRITISH BURMA REVENUE SHEET BELOW,AND AFTER YOU DONE LOOK THE RIGHT ONE ABOVE, ONLY FOR JOKE AND PLAYING IN ORDER TO PREVENT THE COPY OF COPYRIGHRT WITHOUT PERMISSIONS.



(2) POSTAL HISTORY BRITISH RULE BURMA POSTAL HISTORY 

 British India Stamps used at EIC province Burma ,

(a) BIQV stamps cds Molmein 26 SEP 86(1986)* ill BRB -001

(b) British India Queen Victoria (BIQV)Stamps cds Rangoon 4.5.01*ill BRB -002

(c) BIK Edward cds Mutiyana 14 jan 08(1908) * ill BRB -003

(d) BIKGeorge cds Rangoon 3 jan 36(1936).rangoon 6 jan 1937 * ill BRB-004

*ill BRB 001 and 002

______________________________________________________


*ill BRB 003

____________________________________

*ill BRB 004

____________________________________________________________________

III. BRITSH COLONY BURMA COLLECTIONS
(1) British Colony Burma flag 

_________________________________________________________

(2) Vintage Military Picture 


______________________________________________

(3) Vintage Native Picture 


______________________________________________________________

2. BRITISH COLONY BURMA POSTAL HISTORY
(1) Dr iwan S.collections 

_________________________________________________

(2) Mr Konrad collections 


__________________________________________________________

(b) Union of Burma postally used Cover 

new info the collections of Mr Konrad

_________________________________________________________________

Dai Nippon occupation burma posatl history

THE DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION BURMA
1.Dai Nippon Occupation Burma Postal History







2.THE RARE DN BURMA POW CAMP CARD
(1) DUTCH SOLDIER AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp.
Look at two very rare collections :
(1) Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.
 

Moulmein POW Camp 

 

Moulmein POW Card 

<img src=”http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/p4160453.jpg?w=225″ alt=”” title=”P4160452” width=”225″ height=”300″ class=”aligncenter size-medium wp-image-7368″ />
 

POW card caption 

 

 

Health info 

 

Mr Romeijn handsigned 
Front of POW card 



 

[/caption 

(2) DAI NIPPON DUTCH POW MOULMEIN BURMA WIFE DAI NIPPON JAVA ID AT SURABAIA INDONESIA. 

 

DaiNipponBurmaPOW wife ID 

Dai Nippon POW Card 

Ex POW Burma collections 

The POW at Moulmein Camp 

(3)THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI FILM POSTER 

The Movies Poster 1957 

(4) THE PICTURE OF THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI WERE MANY DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW WORK TO BUILD THAT BRIDGE
this famous bridge later became at theme of the very popular film with the famous song theme the Elephent Walk and also look at the picture of the POW camp.. 

The Bridge Of River Kwai 


 

The bridge of river Kwai stamps

(5) DAI NIPPON BURMA POSTAL HISTORY 1943
AND 1944 

Dai Nippon Burma 1943 


Dai Nippon Burma 1944 

THE UNION OF BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS 

1. GENERAL BA MAW THE FIRST MYANMAR PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE PICTURE 


 

Ba Maw 

 

(2) THE MYANMAR HEROS AUNG SAN PICTURE 

 

Aung San 

3. THE POSTAL HISTORY UNION OF BURMA
Union of Burma in native language overprint the British colony Burma stamps, revenue sheet and definif stamps. 

 

UoBurma Rev.Sheet 1960 

 

4.THE SECOND UNION OF BURMA (NOW MYANMAR)PRIME MENISTRYPROFILE PICTURE U NU. 

U Nu 
UOB flag 

UnionOfBurma stamps 


5. THE THIRD PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE PICTURE SAW MUANG 

Saw Muang 

6. THE FOURTH PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE NE WIN 

Gen. Ne Win 

7. THE DAUGHTER OFAUNG SAN,SYUU KYI, VINTAGE PROFILE PICTURE 

Vintage A.S.Syuu Kyi 

 

Postal Used Union of Myanmar 

 

II. THE CHROLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS OF BURMA 

THE BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS
UCM-uniquecollection.wrdpress.com CyberMuseum
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 

A.The Ancient Burma
Burma was a Buddhist Mnarchy in the Middle age
1.1st century BC
The Pyu arrived in Burma
2.6th Century AD
The Mon Kingdom of Dvaravati
3. 9th Century AD
The Bamr(Burman) people migrated from the China-Tibet brder region into the valley of Ayeyarwady.
4. Small Kingdom in Burma between 11th -14th century AD
(1) The Kingdom of Pagan (1044-1287)
(2) The Shan state at Arakan (1287-1539)
(3) The kingdom of Ava (1364-1555)
5. The Kingdomof Toungod(1531-1752)
6. The Konbuang Dinasty (1752-1885) 

B. British In Burma
1. 1824
Britain Through three wars gained lower Burma 1n this year.
2.1884
(1)In this year Upper Burma also gained by Britain and administered them as part of India .
(2) During Burma as the province of India with capital Rangoon, the British Colony India Stamps were used in Burma :
(a) 19th century
l the Queen Victoria stamps of British colony India were used with CDS Rangoon and Moulmein . (look at the Map where that famous city situated)
(b)20th century
The King Edward and The King George stamps of British Colony India were used in Burma , CDS Rangoon and Mutiyana ( Burma or other countries city ? please India collectors comment)
(this collections found at Padang west sumatra and Jakarta) 

3. 1936,
The second University student strike in this year was triggered by the expulsin of Aung San ,leader of RUSU(Ragn University Student Union) 

4.1937
(1)The British separated Burma from India and Granted the British Colony Burma and Burma became a self-governing under the British Commenwealth. and Ba Maw was pointed to be the first prime Menistry. 

(2) the British Colony Burma stamps issued in this year, overprint Burma on British colony India King Edward Stamps (look at the illustration.) 

5.1938
In this year ‘The 1300 year Revlution’(named by the Burmese calender year) led by the Buddish Monk, a wafe of strike and protest that started frm the oil fields of central Burma. In Rangoon Student protest were charged by the British mounted Police Wielding Baton and killing a Rangon University student called Aung Kyaw in Mandalay and Plice shoot int a crowded of protester. 

6.1939
(1)Aung San cofounded the PRP(People Revolutionary Party) and he als instrumental in founding the Freedm Clc by forginf aan Alliance of the Dobama(Plitically active monk), and Ba Maw Poor Man Party.
After the Dobama organization called for a National uprising, an arrest warrant was issue formany of the organization leader including Aung san , he escaped to China.
(2) Ba Maw succeeded by Prime menistry U Saw until 1940.
(3) The British Colony Burma issued the Burma King George Stamps.(look at the illustration)
(4) The king Edward and King George of The British colony India revenue sheet without verprint still used in Rangoon Burma in 1939 and 1940.
(5) The rare postally homemade cover send from Malacca (straits settlement with King Edward stamps to Rangoon Burma, and then used as document with native Burma language handswritten document (Please the native Burma collectors help to translate)
(All the Burma cover and revenue sheet were found at Kunming South China in 2007-including the Dai Nippon revenue sheet ) 

C. Burma During Pacific War (WW II) 

1.1942
(1)January 1942
(a)Prime Menister U Saw was arrest by British Burma Government for communicated with Dai Nippon Milutary Administration in South East Asia and Aung San announced the formation of BIa-Burma Independent Army in order to anticipation of the Dai Nippon invasin of Burma in this year.
(b) In 1942 te Dai Nippon had win large territoriest in Asia in small cost. also in Burma they had strategic , The Dai Nippon Military administration had promise eventual ‘Independence’ to Burma only if this country became co-operative satellite states. Japanese attamps to win over the mass of Burmese people same with ther Asia people to support the war against against their frmer colonial masters was almost totally a failure. The great majrity of he ordinary people did not see the conflict as their war. 

(2) Simultaneous with the invation of Malaya, another Dai Nippon Army crossed from Thailand in to Burma and by the end of April 1942 hade driven the weak British Forces into India and
Burma was overrun by Dai Nippon Military Administration. 

(3)September 1942
The first Prisoner Of War (POW) arrived at THanbyuzayat (65 kmm from Moulmein), via Molemein . (known as The Dai Nippon Burma Moulmein POW Camp) and established as a POW base camp.
From this POW camp the Prisoner sent to Nong Platuh ,359 km suth of Thanbyuzwat , where the build the famous bridge across the Mae Kong river from Nong Platuh Burma to Tamarakan Thailand because in 1957 , made the film base on the original story The Bridge on The River Kwai (the rename of the Mae kong River in 1960)
The Bridge on the Rver Tamarakan was the Train Crossing wooden bridge which spanned the mae Kong River (rename Kwai Yai River in 1960), the building of the bridge begun in October 1942 using prisoner of War labour .
Please look the collections related with this Moulmen POW Camp and the Bridge on the river Kwai (Moulmen POW card from te Dutch Soldier to his wife in Surania via Batavia Indonesia, and the Dai Nippon ID card of His wife issued by The Dai Nippon Surabaia -Shi.) 

(4)The Rare Dai Nippon Burma Collections 1942
(a)The rare Burma Revenue sheet collections with the Burma emblem two Swords used in Burma with the native Burma language handwritten (please native Burma collectors to translate this rare dcument)
(b)The Postally used cover with Dai Nippon Native Burma Bird emblem overprint the king George of British Colony Burma CDS special comemorative stamped in japanese kaji character date 8.12.2602(1942). send from Japanese Special Service Post Burma to Mr Thanan Clark office of BDOM Military camp Rangoon Burma( I think this original CTO-phillatelic cretions covers)
Also look at the off cover of the same stamps collections.
(The very rare Prison of War from Moulmen Camp Burma card was send by the Dutch Soldier to his Wife via his family at Batavia (Jakarta) and the Dai Nippon Soerabaia -Shi ID card of his wife (the complete infrmation read below, and look at illustrations of that very rare cllections) 

2. 1943 

(1)Feb.1943
The Bride of River kwai was completed and operational by early February 1943.
(2) Dai Nippon Military Postal Office issued Engraved printing Dai Nippon Burma definitif stamps (look the illustrations) 

(3)In this year,when the Japanese declared, in theory ‘Independent’ , the BDA was renamed BNA-Burma National Army, the Ba Maw declared head of State, and his Cabinet included Aung San as War Menister. 

3. 1944
(1)Aung San began negtiation with Thakin (communist leader) and Bi Swe(Socialist leader) for the Formatin of the AFO-anti Frascis Peple Freedm Leaguae.
Thakin and Tin Swe made contact with the exile Colonial Government in Simla India. There were infrmal contact between AFO and the Allies between 1944 and 1945. 

4. 1945
(1) March,27th 1945
In this day, BNA rose up in a countryside rebellion against the Dai Nippon Army (this day celebrated as The Resistance Day). then Aung San and other subsequence began negtiation with the commender in Chief British allied forces Lord Munbatten and officially join the Allies as PDF-Patriotic Burmese Forces.
(2) June 1945
Both the wooden and the adjescent steel bridge of River Kwai were subjected to numerous air raids between Jan and June 1945. POW labour was used to repaired the woden bridge in each occassion.Tamarakan is 50 km north of Nong Platuh, 5km north of Kanchanabuty, and 359 km south of THanbyuzwat were the Dai Nippon Moulmein POW camp was located.
Total grave at the Thanbyuzayat or moulmein Camp 3771, 15o8 British including 27 unknwn grave, 1335 Australian and 621 Dutch.May be one of the grave was the Dutch soldier who sent the Moulmei PW card to his wife,who knows I never vist this area (I have a tobacco metal box with the incised of the Moulmen camp,may be the owner as the POW labour in the bridge of River Kwai, I didnot installed the illustrations because I am afraid smeone will made repro, the rare box was found in Jakarta in 1995 , this one of the POW who still alive back to Indonesia and after he died his tobacco box was threw ut by his familily because they didnot understand the meaning f incised info on tha box the date and year he insiced from batavia,singapore and Moulmein POW – and back to Batavia, may be one day I will made an exhibitions of this rae collection together with the pOW Card and the DN ID card -dr Iwan S.) 

(3)July 1945
British Troops were fighting in Burma and the Japanese were fanatically resisting the advance of Americans on the Island approached to their homeland. The war was expected to last many mre monts,unitil the atmic bomb in August 1945 reveald its awesome power and unexpectedly ended the fighting 

(I have found The very rare collection of Dai Nippon Military administrations Collections related with the Dai nippon military administration java indonesia in 1943. This collection belong of The Native Indonesian who stayed at Surabaya (found at Jakarta) consist two very rare collections :
(a) The Imperial Japanese Army Prisorner of War at Camp War Prisoner Camp at Moulmein Burma postcard send by military courier without stamps, from the Dutch POW Romeyn M(AX) nationality Nederlander,rank Landstorm Soldaat to his wife Mevr.(MRS) E.F.C Romeyn adress P/A Fam L.Linn Salimba 15 B Batavia Centrum Java, Mrs Romey live at Soerabaja-look her Dai nippon ID card.
(b) Dai Nippon yellow ID Card of Mrs EFC Romeyn with handstamped revenue F 80.- (for women, for Man F100.-)
The Form in Japanese and Indonesian Language.
(b1)The front side :
(aa) Name: Nj.Romeyn-Berrety,Emma Frederike Clementine ( I think she was Java Indonesia-Euro race
(bb) Adress: Kaliboetoeh 183, Serabaja Shi (city)
(cc) status : have merried with four children
(b2) The Backside in Japanese and Indonesian language with Dai Nippon Official red double circle stamped Pendaftaran Rakjat Soerabaia-Shi. 

Caption : PERHATIAN
Orang jang terseboet diatas dinjatakan, bahwa telah bersoempah kesetiaan pada tentara Nippon, serta soedah masoek daftar penduduk bangsa asing
1.Soerat Keterangan ini haroes senatiasa dibawa, oentoek memboektikan, bahwa ia telah bersoempah kesetiaan pada tentara Nippon,serta soedah masoek daftar pendoedoek bangsa asing.
2.Soerat keterangan ini soepaja dijaga djangan sampai kotor atau hilang, sebab serat keterangan adalah perloe boeat psir ataupoen partikelir.
3.Djikalau ada perbahan apa-apa tentang hal jang tertoelisn disoerat keterangan ite haroes dengan segera memberi tahe tentang perobahan ite kepada kantor jang memberi soerat keterangan itoe.
4.Momer,tanggal dan tempat keterangan ite haroes ditjatat agar moedah dioeresnja kalau serat keterangan hares diberikan lagi atau lain-lain.
5.Djikalau soerat keterangan itoe hilang haroes segera memberi tahoe hal itoe kepada kantor jang doelooe memberikan soerat keterangan terseboet dan minta soerat keterangan baroe dengan membajar ongkos jang soedah ditetapkan.) 

D. Burma After the WW II 

1. 1947
(1)January,27th 1947
The negotiation for Burmese Independent which were concluded succeesfully in Londn as the Aung San-Atlee Agreement.
(2) April 1947
The popularity of The AFPFL now dominated by Aung San and the Socialist was eventually confirmed when it won overhelm Victory in the April 1947 constituent Assembly Election.
(3) July,9th.1947
U Saw , a conservative pre war prime Menister of Burma,engineer the ASSASINATION OF AUNG SAN and several members f his cabinet this day (later this day commenorative as the Martyr Days) 

2.1948
(1)In January,4th.1948 Union of Burma became Independent outside the Commnwealth by treaty and a member of the UN in this year.
The constitution which went into effect in 1948 created a parliamentary democracy
(2)No sooner after had independence come to Burma,than internal disruption threatened to plunge the country into chaos, The British had left behind a demcratic constitution modelled on Westminster, which proved unsuitable for a country so under-develped and so disorganised. At the time of Independence, Burma was led by U Nu,an oustanding plitician who manage to maintain constitrutional democracy intact fr ten years until 1958.
(3) Union Of Burma Postal ffice in this year issue the Overprint Union of Burma in native language on British Colony Burma stamps
(look at the stamps illustratin, only overprint on King Goerge British colony Burma 2 rupee Stamps,( I have the highest value 10 rupee but I keep on the bank deposit box afraid will broken if made the picture.) 

21957
In this year the film :The bridge n The River Kwai was produced by the film directr David Lean, and this film have seven academy award including the best Actr Alec Guiness, best Picture, Best Director, Best Screenply, and Best Cinematography.(lok at the poster of that film) 

3.1958
Union of Burma provided for nationalization of certain industries and in this year political crisis, Gen. Ne Win tookover the Government from Premier U Nu. 

3.1960
Election were held in this year and the union party headed by U NU won a large majority, he again became premier in April 1960. 

4.1962
(1)Political and economic problems continiu and the government was again taken over by Gen. Ne Win.
(2) March,2nd.1962
Gen.Ne Win set up a revolutionary Council with himself as chief of state. 

5. 1972
Gen. Ne Win setting aside the constitution in this year and he became premier. The Ne Win government pursued a socialistic program and Nationalized nearlly all f Industry and trade which had been controlled by Indian and China minorities. It continued a neutralist foreign policy and isolated the nation from most freign policy. 

6.1974
On January,4th,1974 a new constiturion aimed making Burma a Socialist Republic under one party rule, was adptred, Ne Win continuede as premier. 

7.1975
Recurrent problems facing the governmentvhave been the need to stimulate production,rebellions staged by Chinese-backed Communist frces and pressures from groups seeking greater autonomy for local ethnic groups. Communist guerillas ecame more active after the communist victories in Indochina in 1975. 

8. 1987
The patient peple of Burma, who a suffered for twenty-five years from the Burmese road to socialism, began to give vent to their frustrations in largely studen led riots in Rangoon in September 1987. 

9. 1988
The seventy year old General Ne Win decided to mve to the sidelines and resigned in this year amid signs of military disaffection. Reform were promised, it looked as if Burma would more out of her-self imposed isolation and darkness. But just a month later, in September 1988, the military took over and general Saw Maung emerged at the head of a junta. The restoration of law and order marked the beginnings of a repression against students and dissidents, brutal even by Burmese standards. 

10.1989
(1)In this year the name of Burma was changed to Myanmar, a transliteration of the English’Burma’ into Burmese.
(2) In this year , placed under house arrest the most likely leaders of any oppsition, including Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of Aung San (who played a crucial role at the birth of the Burmese independence) and wife of an English Lectrured at Oxford. Syuu Kyi had returned in her native land to lead a new party,the Natinal League for Democracy. It was her criticim of Ne Win and her call for justice and democracy that led to her arrest. 

11. 1990
But to the chagrin of the junta, which had fielded its own front party , the National Unity party, the National League dor democracy gained aclear and outright victory at 1990 election.winning a huge majority in the Assembly. The military junta had no intention of bowing to this verdict. 

12. 1991
In this year, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under arrest, and the military declared that they would release her only if she leaves the country and her adherence in her principles she was awarded the Noble Peace Price in this year. (still until now during the junta leader Tan Swee, she still under house arrest, why ? I donnot understand.look at Ta Swee and Suu Kyi. vintage photo 1989) 

THE END @copyright Dr iwan S.2010

THE HISTORY OF TAMASEK ISLAND AND RAFFLES

I.TAMASEK ISLAND AND   RAFFLES(SOUTH EAST ASIA CYCLOPAEDIA,1896)

I.Raffles,Sir Thomas Stamford.

1.He was one of the most remarkable of the many distinguished men who have risen from the rank of the East India Company ‘s Civil Service .
He was the founder of Singapore , and one of the best and most astute of the governors of smaller eastren British dependencies.
He was born at sea near Jamaica , on the 5th of July 1781. From his infancy he was accustomed to an adventurous life.
His father , Benjamin Raffles , was one of the oldest captain in the trade of the seas out of the port of London.
Placed at an early age at a school in Hammersmith , at fourteen he was placed as an extra clerk in the East India House, but he did not abondon learning.
His leisure hours were never idle and when in 1805 the Court of Directors resolved on consilidating the establishment at Penang , he was named Assistant-Secretary and towards the close of that year he arrived in the Indian Archipelago.

2.Whilst the whole E.Archipelago was under British domination, he was Governor-General , and resided near Batavia(now Jakarta) from 1811 to 1816 , and from 1818 to 1924 he was Governor of the british possesion s of Sumatra.
During his visit to London , before coming to Sumatra , he founded the Zoology Society , and was its first President , and he began the zoological garden.
When he sailed from Bencoolen , the ship took fire about 50 miles from land, and all his official and private documents , all the living and mounted animals of Sumatra were destroyed .
Lady Raffles , his widow , wrote a memoir of her husband. She was the second wife of Sir Stamford , to whom she was merried in 1817. Her maiden name was Sophia Hull . She survived her husband 22 years and died on the 12th of December 1858, age 72, at Highwood, near London,Middlesex, an estate purchased by Sir Stampford swhortly after his return to England in 1824.

II. TAMASEK  OR SINGAPORE ISLAND
1.At the southern , extremity vof the Malay pennisula , i s eperated from the continent by a narrow straits , in some places less than a mile width .
The History of the Colony trails back into the mists of time. Six thousand years before christ , the ancetors of the Australian aborigines passed through on their island-hoppingg migration to new homes. Since Singapore has felt the influence of The Indian, the malay, the Javanese , the British and the Chinese.
Singapore was first settled in AD 1160 by Sri Sara Bawana , and from an inscription , now destroyed, on a sandstone rock on a narrow point to the left of the entrance of the Singapore river, it would appear that Raja Suran of Andan Nagara, after conquering the state of Johor with his Kling troops , proceeded to TAMASEK about ad 1201, returned to Kling, and left this stone monument.

2.The island consist of a number of low hills and ridges , with narrow and rather swampy flats intervening.
The name Singapore in not a malay one,it comes from twoSanskrit words word “Singa Pura”, meaning Liuon City and recallsthe time before the advent of Islam when Indian influence was prodominant. The malay called it “Tumasik”, Sea Town, because of its mangrove swamps and it proximity to the sea. References to Tumasik are found in ancient Javanese and Chinese chronicles.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Singapore served the headquaters of a powerful Malay Buddhist princedom, which was overthrown about 1377 by the Majapahit of Java’s Hindu Empire. The Javanese invaders put the inhabitants to the sword and, legend says”Blood flowed like water in full blood and the plain of Singapore is red to this day.

3.This is a reference to the Red laterite soilfound on the Island. Legend also has it that the blood-thirsty Javanese laid a curse on the Island making the soil unfruitful. Even to this day , according to the Malays, it is impossible to grow rice here.
Singapore fell into obscurity after the Javanese invasion. The fleeing Malays, led by the Island’s Sulatan, Iskandar Shah, made their way northwards to Malacca whe re a new Sultanete was founded and flourishes as a malay world market for a hundred years.
During this period Indian and Arab misionaries used Malacca as headquaters to spread the religion of Islam to the neighbouring islands.
As the years passed Singapore became a base for pirates vying with one another for control of the surrounding seas.The Island remained desolate until British establihed a settlement early in the nineteenth century.

4.Nothing has survived of the old Singapore with the exception of its name and the tomb, on fort Canning Hill, reputedly of the last ruler of the island,Iskandar shah. This Malay shrine, shaded by a huge tree, is worrth a visit. Visitors must remove their shoes before enteringt the holy place.
In several places the sea-face is elevated, but the greater portion of the circumference is fringed by a pretty deep belt of mangrove forest.
Bukit Timah is a granite hill about 530 feet high , but the rest of the Island is composed of sedimentery rocks, amongst which sandstone occupies a prominent place.

5.Gouverment Hill is about 160 feet high. The Bukit Timah is in the center of the island.
During the administration of Sir stampford Raffles , on the 6th February 1819 , for a sum of 60.000 dollars , and a yearly stipend of 24.000 dollars for for life , the Sultan of Johor made over the Island of Singapore to British , and it was finally ceded by treaty on 2nd August 1824 to the British by the Sultan.
The Island is 25 miles in length , and about athird of this distance in the breadth, has an area of 206 squares miles (1.430.000 acres) and a population at the census 3d April 1882 of 139.208.
In Singapore free port, the only charges are the Straight light dues, which are 1 anna or 21/2 cent per registered ton on merchant vessels .All national ships are free of this also.

8.the hisrtory of singapore

1)In March 1824 the Anglo-Dutch treaty was concluded in London. By its term the Dutch ceded to Britain all enclaves in In dia and on the malay Pennisula ( Malacca and any claims Singapore included) . The British ceded to the Dutch Bencoolen anTd any other sttlemets on Sumatra, together with all claims to any enclave south of Straits of Singapore .
Both powers agreed to allow the other to trade in its ports and to join together in suppresing priracy. Now that the British had finally acquired Malacca it was of little consequence beeing overshadowed by Singapore.
Adminsitration of the Johore Sultanate had now split in three . Firstly, thereevwas the titular Sultan,Husein (follow by Ali), who resided at Singapore and then at Malacca but had no real authority. Secondly, Johore itself was now ruled by the Temneggong . Thirdly , there was Pahang, which was now ruled by the Bendahara.

2)In 1826 Singapore and Malacca were transfered from the Bengal Presidency to the Penang Presidency
And this reformed Malay administration was renamed “The Presidency of the Straits Settlements”
But , in 1830, this new Presidency was abolished and Straits Settlements was reduced to a residency to Bengal. The headquaters of the Straits Residency was transferred from Penang to Singapore in 1832.
The British , with their bases at Singapore,Penang and Malacca pursued aPolicy of intervening as little as possible in the affairs of the Malay states.
In 1821, Kedah had been invaded by the Siamse and revaged. Then Siam, whose forces were led by their vassal, Raja of Ligor, demanded that the Govenor of Penang give up to him the Kedah Sultan who taken refuge. This request was refused and the Siamese remained in occupation of Kedah and continued to be treat the Penang’s food supply.
A diplomatic mission to Bangkok in 1822 brought a little result. In 1825 agreement was reached between the raja of Ligor , a Siamese vassal, and the british to the effect that the Siamese would not intervene in Perak and Selangor, while the british agreed not to intervene in Kedah.
Siam also agreed not to intervene Trenganu and Kelantan. Siamese non- intervantion in Perak was only esta blished de facto by a British Treaty of Protection with Perak in 1826.

3)In 1824 the Siamese permitted the Sultan of Kedah to return to his realm as their vassal. Some year later, asuccession dispute at Pahang was to lead for Siamse intervention on the east soast in 1862 to 1853.
In 1867 supervision of the Straits Settlements was tranfered frommIndia Office to the Colonial Office. The first Colonial Office Governor, Sir Harry Ord(1867-1873), maintained the existing official policy of non intervention in the Malay States, but problems were mounting, particulary with the escalating influx of Chinese to the tin mines; notably, larust in Perak, Kualalumpru and Klang in Selangor, Sungei Ujong in Negri Sembilan.
The chinese organised themselves into societies ( Hong) that were often mutually hostile. With the increasing power of the Chinese section in the populatrion anarchy prvailed in several Malay states.
The Ango-Dutch Sumatra Treaty of 1871 left the Dutch free to inaugurate (1873) a war to conquer the Atcheh Sultanete which had been a roost for piracy during several decades, In exchange, the treaty gave to britain former dutch possesion on the gold Coast of West Africa.
The year 187e marked the end to Britain’s policy of non-intervantion.
A British Resident was established at Perak in January 1874, and another at Selangor the following month.
ThenSungei Ujong,most important member of the Negri Sembilan Confederation lying behind Malacca, recieved its Resident in April 1874.
Trouble ensued at Perak (1875-1877) , against enforsement of Residency committments, but matter progressed smoothly in the other twostates, and from 1877 Perak was also peaceful , In 1888 Pahang joined the numbere of Protected States and in 1895 the other states of Negri Sembilan Confederacy came under British Protection.

4)In July 1896, the British Protected States- Perak, Selangor , Pahang and negrri Sembilan were gathered into United administration as the Federated Malay States and Sir Frank Swertenham was appointed as the First Council Govenor.

III.Sir Stamford Raffles(Singapore tourist Board,1974)
On January 29,1819, a far-sighted Englishman, Thomas Stampford Raffles landed on Singapore. Raffles was then Lieutenant-Govenor of Bencoolen in Sumatra,a dying British possesion in the Malay Archiphelago.
He had asked and been permitted by the Govenor-General of India,Lord Hasting , to look for a new tradiing station where the British could compete with Dutch for the trade of the east Indies.
Raffles had taken the trouble to study Malay while Assistant-Secretary to the Presidency of Penang and he had been attracted to Singapore by what he had read about the Island in Malay manuscript. He immediately recognised its strategic as well as comercial possibilities.
He grew up with four sisters, a lad of promise, energitic, studious and imaginative. His father came of a good but poor family and there wat not enough money to give the son more than two years of schooling. So Raffles, at age 14,joined the East India Company (EIC) as a temporary clerk.
At the Company’s office he saw many of important men of the day, traders,soldiers, and adventures, he heard the names of far-away places and became aware of the importance of silk, tea and spices and the value of foreign languages.
With grim determination, this astonishing youth studied late into the night after the day’s work in the office, teaching himself French, latin, and German.He also showed a keen interest in Natural history,literature and science.
Young Raffles did not care for games, even if he had the time for them which he had not. He was fond of animals , both tame and wild, and disliked the sport of shooting.
He said in later life :”I have never seen a horse race and never fired a gun.
His superiors soon noticed his remarkable abilities and unusual capacity for work. He was promoted to yunior clerk at 19. This made him study even harder at home, he took up Greek and hebrew, and spent no less than eight hours everyday, outside his work, reading and writing in pursuit of knowledge.
When 23, he met the widow of an asistant surgeon in the East India Company’s Madras establisment, Mrs Olivia Fancourt. He fell in love and they were married. She was ten years his senior but the nmarriage proved very happy.
Raffles was convinced that England’s future was in foreign Lands and he asked to be sent East.
Penang had just been made a presidency by the East India Company and Raffles accompanied the new Governor, the Hon.Philip Dundas, as assistant secretary.
The extraordinary young man proceed to learn Malay on the voyage and by the time his ship reached Penang nearly six month later he could speak, read and write the language fairly well.
In 1807 he was promoted to full secretary and two years later was given the rank of senior merchant. Raffles attracted responbility, tasks piled on him, and because of his increasing proficiency in Malay he was also given the chore of translating important document.
But he drove himself too hard and finally his health failed, he fell seriusly ill. By a strage twist of fate he went to Malacca to recuperate.
The East India Company was about to give up Malacca. During his short convalescent stay there Raffles produced a clear and statemanlike report demostrating that this decision was wrong. The conclussions this able and long report were so convincing that the Company reversed its decision and Malacca wasretained. The University of Calcutta honoured Raffles for his Malay translations and for a scholary paper about the malay nation. Lord Minto, then Governor-General of India, impressed by Raffles’s work, call him to Calcutta.
A firm friendship sprang between the two men and Raffles , who had developed territorial ambitions while in the East , suggested that he be allowes’To create such a interset regarding Java as should lead to it annexatin to our Eastren Empire “ Lord Minto did not object.
In 1805 the East India Company raised Penang to the rank of Fourth(4th) Indian Presidency. But, by time Raffles arrived in 1805 it was apperent that Penang lay too far from the Straits to reppace Malacca.
In Europe, Napoleon had invaded the Netherland and the French had taken over reponbility for the Nederlands East Indies. Raffles assumed that the Dutch would not support their French conuerors in case the English attacked the Indies.
Raffles was sent to Malacca to prepare for invasion of java which took place on Aug.6 th 1811. Java surrendered as he had expected .
When raffles ,acting on behalf of Lord Minto, organized the Java expedition in 1810 , it was from Malacca that expedition set out.
When Malacca and the other Dutch enclaves were returned to the Nederland in 1818 the British search-ed for an alternative entreport in the straits, Raffles was instructed to open negotiation with the The Sultan of Johore.
Raffles landed on Singapore island in January 1919. The Local ruler, Dato Temengong, was as vassalmof Johore. The sucessin tothe throne of Johore was then dispute, so Raffles settled one of the disputant , Hussein, in Singapore, declared him the rightful Sultan of Johore and negotiated with him for cession of Singapore to Britain.

1.1.2 Singapore’s Travelling
1) Rambles in Straits(Kinloch,1852)
The passage from Penang to Singapore is ussually performed in about forty hours. The entrance to the new harbour is through an exceedingly narrow channel; but as there is at all times an abundance of water in it, a steamer can pass through at any time.
The only vessels that avail themselves of this channel are the Oriental Company’s steamers that play between Calcutta and China.
` By adopting this route, these vessels save, we understand , about sicteen miles of steaming . Singapore does not look well from the roads.
The best view of the town and the surrounding country is to be had from the summit of the Gouvenor Hill; from this point, there is an extensive panoramic view, which comprises the whole charge wit moisture, aqnd the hill is frequently enveloped in mist and fog.
There are several bungalows on the mountains, partly furnished, which visitors may manage to secure by giving timely notice; a residence there, however, is not unattended with incovenience, isasmuch as supplies of every kind must be brought up daily from the town, a distance of about eight miles.
It hab been thought thet a good hotel on the Penang Hill might be found to answer; but we think it doubtful wheter it would meet with sufficient suppot to make it remunerative, or that visitors would be willing to pay at such a high rate as could alone gift to a speculation of the kind, the remotest chance of success. There is no reason, however, why there should mot be a hotel in the town. At present, there is no pace of the kind, where a gentlemen could venture to shew himself, much less a lady.
There are several Hotel at singapore , the best of which is the London Hotel, kept by Mr Du Trouquoy, a native of Jersey. The hotel consist of two upper roomed buildings, one of which is styled the Family Hotel.
Between the Esplanade and the Beach is an Enclosed space , whitin all the beauty and fashion of the place promenade daily, and enjoy the cool sea breeze.
The usual kind of carriage is use at Singapore is a kind of office jaun, here called a palki. The Syce runs at the pony’s head, and neither he nor the animal he guides make anything of a matter of ten miles right and end.
There are no places of public resort or amusement Singapore ;neither there any society.
The merchants, who form by far the largest section of community, seem to look upon money making as the chief end and object of their lives, and their topics of conversation raely extend to nay other subject than nutmegs or the last price current.
The Indian visitor will very soon get tired of Singapore, for, setting aside the want of society and the absence of public amusement, the climate too hot, and too depressing , to render a residence in this island agreeable beyond a period of a few weeks.
Housekiping at Singapore is expensive and troublesome, and we would adcise the Indian visitor, whether merried or unmerried, to take rooms at the hotel, rather than attempt to keep house for himself.
Before taking leave Singapore, however, we must not omit to mention that the visitor has one resource of recreation, for which he is indebted to Resident Society. We refer to the public library and reading room. This institution is well provided with book sof every class and kind, and as both the English and the Indian newspapers are regularly taken in , there is no difficulty in keeping oneself “au corant” with European and Eastren politics.

2) A Singapore Streetscene by
Schlegel (Schmetz JDE , Inter-national archives of Ethno-graphy ,Leiden,Trap,vol I, 1888,page 16)
The Island of Singapore is celebrated in Malayan history as having been the first place of settlement , of the early Malay Colonist from Sumatra , the orig9in of the empire of Malacca,with several interesting eras in the history of the last it has been intimately connected.
In February 1819 part of the Island was ceded to the East-India Company (EIC) by the Sultan of Johore, upon the instagtion od Sir Stamford Raffles, who saw at once the importance of this place as a counterpoise against the port of Rhio of which the Dutch had taken possesion in order thereby the supremacy over the entire kingdom of Johore.
He had, however , to encounter many difficulties , even from the part of the British government , and it was only the 2nd August 1824 that “The Island of Singapore , together with the adjacent seas, straits and islets, to extent of ten geographical miles from the coast of Singapore , were given up in full sovereignity and pro-pertry to the East-India Company , their heirs and successors , for ever”
In other to attract the trade to the place , Singapore was immediately declared to be a free port and with this adventage , added to its favourable geographical position, Singapore grew and propered , and became in a few years an important town and staples place.
In pitturesque poin of view, Singapore is perhaps one of the loveliest places in the Indian Archipelago.
The entire circumference of the Island is one splendid panorama , where the magnificient tropical forrest tree covering the hills run down to the very edge of the sea , dip their leaves into the water, and spread their fragrant forest perfumes over a distance of a mile from shore.
In former times Singapore was approached by the old straits of singha-pura , (Lion-temple), that lies between Singapore and the mainland of Johore; but about a century ago, it was abandoned for the new channel, which flows past the present harbour of Singapore.
This harbour is formed of an extensive bay on the southern coast of the island, about equidistant from its extremities. When approaching the town from the westren entrance , through New Harbour , the scenery is splendid , and not easy surpassed by any other scenery of the world.
Even in approaching the harbour at night time , the scenery is fantastical and magical, The many lights in the town and on the shore, the lanterns hoisted in the masts of the ships anchored in the bay, the fantastical forms of the numerous Chinese Junk , the little gay pleasure-steamers plying the smooth waters of the bay and pouring gay strains of music into the calm night air , impart to the whole scenery a fairy aspect , which is not easily forgotten and craetes a most wonderful illusion.
A little of this illusion is lost when the traveller descends on shore; for how well built the public buildings and European bungalows may be, they all have a reddish , dirty aspect owing to the red clay which forms the soil of the island, and which is as disagreablen when it is dry, and flies about in red, dusty clouds, as when it has been raining, and makes the roads resemble a veritable re-mud-sea, but the small unpleasantnes occasioned by the nuisance is speedily forgotten by the interesting aspect of the overcrowded streets and the motley population swarming in them.
In passing through the rather narrowbstreet leading from the landingplace to commercial-square, a constant stream of Cnises, Malays, Klings, Parsees and Mussel-mennis met wit; each nationality wearing its own, mostly very pitturesquebor quaint dress, showing every variety of colour and cut.
But it is especially along the so called Boatquay running from the battery along the shores of the Singapore river, that the greatest bustle is found. From the river’s entrance to the iron firdie bridge, name afthe the late Lord Elgin, a long range of god owns extend, forming a complete cresent.
Those nearer of the entrance are occupied by Europeans, but all the Godowns further up are the property of Chinese, who form, as is well known, the majority of the population in Singapore.
This crecent of buildings is termed Boatquay from the fact of nearly the entire frontage opposite them being taken up with the loading and discharging of cargo-boats.
It is here that about three fourths of the entire shipping bussiness of the island is effected, and from morning till night huge cases, caks, and bales, as well as machinery and ironworks are landed; whilst the boats , after having discharged their cargo , are immediately filled up again with bales of gambiers, bundles of rattans, bag or cases of sago, and tapioca,pepper and spices, to be exported to all port of the world.
It was, therefore , a very ingenious idea of Mr W.A.P Pickering of Singapore , to exhibit in the Colonial and Indian exhebition at London in 1886, a model of paper and which model he kindly presented, together with other models exhibited, to the ethnographical Museum in Leyden; after the close of the London Museum. It seem worth the while to give a fuller description of this model than only a bare notice in the Catalogue of the collection, and , at the request of the able editor of the”Internationales arciv fur Ethnographie” , Mr J.D.E Schmeltz, I took this gratifying task upon me.
As we have said above, the Chinese form the Majority of the population inSingapore,being about ten to one of the tradingt population. Consequently, the style of the buildings in Singapore is a sorth of compomise between Westren and Chinese style. The walls are bulit of bricks, platered over with White stucco, and the roofs are covered with tiles, very often Chinese ones. The windows are not glazed, but are shut by Venerians, geneally painted green, in order to ward off the glare of the tropical sun. Abowe this windows the chaste designs of flowers or birds in porcelein . The ridged of the roofs, as also the eaves , are frequently similary ornamented.
Underneath, the whole lenght of the street consist of a series of valuated arcades, reminding one vividly of the “Arcade dela rue Rivoli” in Paris or those in Basel, whe re the ground flour is equally occupied by shopkeepers, whilst the first and next stories are inhabited by private individuals.
The streetmodel presentee by Mr Pickering consist of two buildings, consisting each of three houses. At many be seen in the engraving, these houses are built in the mixed style we have spoken of above. But before passing to the detailed description of these houses, itwill be well to cast a view upon the street itself, wherein the Chinese artist has combined to bring together nearly every variety of scene found in this part of the town. We have to mention firdt the general representative of aur cab and hackneycoach amed in Singapoe a Palanquin , though it be mounted on wheels and drawn by a horse instead of being borne on the shoulders of men.
In the case represented in the model, it would have been perhaps luckier for the occupant if the latter mode of conveyance had been made use of; for the old , rickety palanquin has come to grief (look at the engraved illustrations in the Pictures talks), one of the forewheels being broken in twain, whilst the other has run loose of its axle,to great terror of the chinese lady occupying the Vehicle, and who is looking out , umbrella in hand, how to get out of her disagreable position. Behind the palanquin , a native Policeman or Peon, as he called in Singapore , is remostrating with the Telinga-(ear) driver , whose number he is probably noting down for an eventual invitation to appear before the policecourt.
Quite unconcerned for the mishap encountered by the unlucky palanquin, are two Chinese carrying between them a pig in a basket ; an ingenous method of conveying this the most stubborns of the quadru-pleses, which would well deserved in Europe.
Whenever in China a pig has to be transpported, a wide basket open on e one side is put before the head of the pig; a sudden jerk at its tail induces the animal to jump foward into the basket, which is forthwith lifted from the grown and carried off.
The cruel way in which pigs are driven at home is thereby dispensed with, whilst a good deal of precious time is spared.
We have no remarks to offer upon the Chinese lady walking leisurely along the street if, at least, she has not been shopping st the silkmercer.s behind her.
What the artist has intended to represent by the two folloowing figures is not quite clear. Zthe first holds in his right hand a brass shovel, and his left armed extended st fulled length , and seems to be intent uppon piercing it with a rodhe holds in his right hand.
From the opposite side of the road a Chinese boatman, carrying the mast and sail of his boat upon his shoulders, is stepping past a native graascatrrier who is bringing two piculs of fodder for the horses of his master.
If, in the first vehicle, the palanquin , the inamate came to grief by fault of the driver of this conveyance, not so much can be said for the young Chinese debauchee lying in-toxicated with Samshoo or Opium
, his fan having escaped from his enervated hand , is a sailcloth hammock carried upon a pole by two native.
The youngman is too far gone to be sensible of the Charms of a nice Canton girl carrying in the wellknown fashion her handkerchief and fan; although she would be willing enough to grant her favours to him for a small retribution.
Near to this Chinese graduate in love, as the canton Chinese bath it, we see a handcart laden with boxes and other wares, drawn by a native; whilst next to him a heavier waggon, drawn by two buffaloes and loaded with sundry cases, boxes, and bales, plods its slowly progress through the heavy mud under the guidance of the “Seis” or Telinga-driver.
An Englishman dressed in White jacket and pants, the white pithhat on his head, over which he holds , besides, a white umbrella, stands looking on , waiting for a gap whereby to pass on his way.
Since opening of Japan for the world trade many Japanese householdarticles have been profusely introduced everywhere, and among other the japanese Jinrikisha (the man’s strength cart), since about 1872, this Chart has been imitated by Europeans in the form of a small gig, constructedbto carry one or two persons, drawn by a coolie in shafth and sometimes pushed by another from behind. It is now largely used in Shanghai ,Hongkong, Samoy and Singapore (Ricksow?) and we have seen a model of it drawn by a sturdy Chinese coolie.
Turning again to the frontbpart of the model to the left, we see a Chinaman leisurely walking, came in hand and smoking a cigarette; whilst near to him a venerable Chinese patriach, with his pipe and tobaccopouch in his left, fanning himself all the while with a white fan in his right, is leading his hopeful son to school.
An itinerant barber, carrying upon a pole his requisitesnfor shaving , comesnext, following a Chinese fowl dealer, carrying two baskets well stocked with geese and fowl.
A little further on we see a poor old Chinaman and a Kling or Telinga, a native from Madras or Coromma-ndelcoast , half naked, having only a white piece of calico thrown over his head and part of his body , and recognizable at his religious white, yellow or red patch in the middle of his forehead.The occupations sought by these people are numerous.
They are traders, shopkeeper, cooks, boatmen, common labourer, palanquindrivers and washermen; the two last occupations being almost entirely monopoliseh by them As a rule, they rather insolent, in appearance often very black and very ugly, and , therefore disliked by the European community in Singapore.
Before him walks a Chinese hairdresser , having some falose tresses of silk pending on a pole, wherewith he will repair, invisble to the eye, the deficient ones of his compatriots. Next to him a native is carrying a huge wooden chest, whilst before him a Chinese seller of eatables is pacing along the road , offering for three dollar-cents a substansial meal of three or four dishes from his ambulant restoration.
The street scane is closed by a chinese lady walking with her son and a Chinese gentleman strolling leisurely with fan and stick.

3)a Letter from Singapore (William Farquhar, 1819)
“ Here I am busy forming a new colony.I have no doubt from the natural advantages the settlement posses that it will one day become a place of the first importance to the east.
We have already got up a very respectable Chinese town containing some thousands of in habitams. Raffles could not have a more eligible situation or one more to my liking.
The climate is extremely healthy as
far as we are yet able to judge. The soil excellent, water of the purest kind and a most convinient and commodious harbour for shipping.
(The three page autograph letter written and signed by William Farquhar(1771-1839)nto Major De Havilland in great enthusiagm od the new Settlement. He was appointed the first Resident and Commandant of Singapore in 1819, immediatly after at the persuasion of Sir Stamford Raffles the Island was cede by the Sultan of Johor to the East India Company. Farquhar remained there until 1823. In his most enthusiastic letter he describes the natural assets of his new post., and most central for trade. While obviously much concerned about his promotion propects, and having a strong wish to revisit his family at home. Farquhar expresses his been in the success of Settlement, also remarking upon the extreme jealousy of the Dutch at the new British acquisition.Christie’s Auction Singapore,1994

the end @COPYRIGHT dR iWAN S 2010.