Kisah Tawanan Perang Dai Nippon Bagian Ketujuh(USA soldier in Dai Nippon Camp) 1942-1945

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

Prisoners of war exercising

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI iNDONESIA

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON BAGIAN KETUJUH 1942-1945

THE DAI NIPPON POW PART SEVEN 1942-1945

• Frazier, Glenn

Glenn D. Frazier

  Lahir: Fort Deposit, Alabama (1923)

– US Army, Perusahaan artileri 75

– Bataan Death March

– Osaka kamp POW # 1, Tanagawa kamp tawanan perang,
  Kobe kamp POW, POW Tsuruga kamp

————————————————– ——————————

Kesaksian Bataan Kematian korban Maret Glenn Frazier di dokumenter PBS, Perang, ditonton oleh hampir 40 juta orang Amerika. Baru-baru ini, ia menerbitkan sebuah memoar, Pengunjung Neraka, di mana ia menulis tentang kisah POW di rinci.

Berikut adalah beberapa kutipan dari bukunya dan wawancara terakhir kami.
 

————————————————– ——————————

Dekat Eksekusi di Osaka

Suatu hari saya sedang berbaris dengan tahanan lain melalui jalan-jalan Osaka, kembali bentuk yang bekerja hari itu. Itu dingin dan tangan saya menjadi kebas. Saya meletakkan tangan saya ke bernyawa kantong celana compang-camping saya. Saat aku memasuki gerbang kamp, ​​aku melihat seorang penjaga Jepang menunjuk jarinya pada saya, memanggil saya untuk perhatian penjaga lain. Kemudian, dalam formasi bersama dengan tawanan perang Amerika lainnya, aku melihat penjaga yang sama menunjuk ke arahku dan berjalan ke arah saya. Dia memerintahkan saya untuk mengikutinya. Aku benar-benar tidak berpikir banyak tentang ini pada awalnya.

Aku mengikuti penjaga ke kantor komandan kamp dengan juru berjalan di samping saya. Aku diperintahkan untuk datang ke perhatian dan tunduk pada besar, yang duduk di meja ini. Beberapa saat kemudian, penafsir datang kepada saya dan berkata, “Kau berbaris di jalan dengan tangan di dalam saku Anda, dan yang tidak diizinkan untuk tentara Jepang.”

Saya menjawab, “Aku bukan tentara Jepang aku menjadi tawanan perang.!” Setelah mendengar teriakan besar di Jepang untuk penerjemah, saya diberitahu dalam bahasa Inggris oleh penerjemah, “menerapkan aturan yang sama untuk semua POW!” “Saya tidak tahu itu,” jawabku. Dengan suara samar saya katakan penerjemah, “Mengapa mereka tidak memberitahu kami aturan mereka?” Pada diriku sendiri aku berpikir, jika saya tahu al aturan aku tidak akan melanggarnya.

Utama menjerit interpreter, yang menerjemahkan, “Anda adalah seorang tentara Amerika dan Anda tidak berbaris dengan tangan di saku!” Aku menjawab terus terang, “Biar saya tahu peraturan, dan aku akan patuh.” Penerjemah menerjemahkan jawaban saya untuk besar. Dengan pandangan terkejut di wajahnya utama melompat dari kursinya dan memukul tinjunya di atas meja. Aku tahu sekarang bahwa aku benar-benar memprovokasi dirinya. Dengan cara di mana ia berbicara dengan penerjemah, aku tahu dia tidak senang dengan sikap saya. Dia bangkit kembali dengan cepat dari tempat duduknya dan berjalan ke arahku, dan penjaga membuat saya membungkuk sekali lagi.

Penerjemah mengatakan, “Komandan tidak suka sikap Anda!” Pada titik itu, besar menarik pedang keluar dan melukai tenggorokanku. Aku merasakan darah mengalir di leherku.

“Tawanan dapat dijalankan karena tidak mematuhi perintah!” penerjemah terus. Yang bisa saya lakukan adalah berdiri diam dengan pikiran-pikiran teror berjalan melalui pikiran saya. Aku menatap mata penuh kebencian sang mayor. Saya tidak pernah mengambil mata saya darinya, tidak untuk sesaat.

Semua ini, hanya untuk berjalan dengan tangan di saku saya. Perasaan aneh datang padaku, dan tiba-tiba aku tahu ini adalah masalah yang sangat serius. Utama berteriak pada penjaga, “Bawa dia keluar aku tidak ingin darah di lantai saya!” Aku mulai berjalan keluar dari kantor, dengan titik senapan penjaga di belakang saya menekan punggungku.

Dia kemudian memerintahkan saya untuk berhenti. Aku datang untuk menghentikan lengkap, seperti yang diinstruksikan. Aku berdiri di sana menunggu di perhatian untuk perintah selanjutnya, ketika saya mulai memikirkan dan melihat diriku terkubur di dalam tanah Jepang. Pikiranku berpacu dan aku merasa ketakutan dekat, tapi entah kenapa aku merasa aku punya kesempatan berjuang.

Aku mendengar komandan dan juru keluar berdekatan dengan tempat saya berdiri. Ketika mereka berbicara kembali dan sebagainya dalam bahasa Jepang, yang bisa saya lakukan adalah diam. Saya kemudian diperintahkan oleh penjaga untuk membungkuk sekali lagi untuk utama.

“Yang utama adalah akan mengeksekusi Anda, sehingga semua orang akan tahu, bahwa peraturan melanggar tidak akan ditoleransi!” penerjemah mengumumkan. Utama berjalan di depan saya dan menarik pedangnya lagi dan meletakkannya untuk tenggorokanku. Mereka mengharapkan saya untuk meminta ampun. Penerjemah bertanya, “Apakah Anda memiliki sesuatu untuk dikatakan?”

“Kurasa,” kataku penerjemah, saat aku menatap mata sang mayor. Dan kemudian kata-kata ini datang kepada saya, dan sampai hari ini saya tidak tahu dari mana mereka berasal.

“Dia bisa membunuhku,” jawab saya, “tetapi ia tidak akan membunuh jiwaku, dan rohku akan mengajukan di dalam dirinya dan menghantui dia selama sisa hidupnya!” Saya diminta oleh penerjemah untuk mengulang apa yang telah saya mengucapkan. Perasaan menakutkan datang saya langsung, dan darah saya memerah di seluruh tubuh saya, membuat saya benar-benar terbakar dengan kengerian.

Kataku, masih menatap mata sang mayor, “Dia bisa membunuh saya, tetapi ia tidak akan membunuh semangat dan jiwa saya akan mengajukan dalam dagingnya untuk seluruh hidupnya Orang-orang Amerika! Datang dan setiap orang Jepang yang membunuh seorang Amerika tanpa alasan akan memiliki semangat mereka menghantui mereka selamanya! ”

Aku tidak mengerti pada awalnya apa yang saya benar-benar berkata. Saya siap untuk menghindari pedang jika besar yang dibuat pindah ke ayunan itu padaku. Aku melihat-Nya setiap gerakan, tidak pernah mengambil mata saya off dari dia. Tiba-tiba, ekspresi misterius muncul di wajah sang mayor. Kemudian, untuk takjub saya, tiga langkah besar yang dibuat kembali dan menurunkan pedangnya. Aku menatap ke langit dan berkata, “Terima kasih, Tuhan.” Ini adalah kali pertama saya melihat seorang tentara Jepang mundur dari eksekusi.

Utama kemudian memerintahkan penjaga untuk membawa saya ke lubang di bumi yang digunakan untuk kurungan tersendiri. Penjaga, dengan senjatanya mendorong ke punggungku, dorong saya ke lubang 5’x5’x5 ‘di tanah. Sebagai penjaga Jepang mengangkat penutup untuk lubang, aku tidak yakin bahwa cobaan ini selesai. Dia memberi isyarat bagi saya untuk turun dalam. Melihat ke kedalaman itu tempat yang gelap, aku mencoba untuk masuk saya mendarat kepala pertama, menghadap ke bawah, setelah didorong atau ditendang oleh penjaga. Wajah dan leherku yang sakit sekali saat aku menyeka air mata dari mataku.

Homecoming dan Mimpi buruk

Sungguh luar biasa berada di rumah, tetapi segala sesuatu yang telah terjadi padaku masih bergolak di dalam diriku. Rasanya seperti dua orang pulang. Salah satunya adalah anak saya telah dan keluarga saya lihat ketika memelukku dan berbicara kepada saya. Yang lainnya adalah orang aku telah menjadi, penuh kenangan dan perasaan bahwa saya tidak bisa menangani. Hal itu terjadi begitu cepat, dan aku tidak mampu mengatasi rasa takut, penderitaan, dan kebencian kemarahan dan murni bahwa aku telah dalam diriku. Ketika perang dengan Jepang berakhir pada tanggal 2 September 1945, saya adalah seorang tawanan perang Jepang di kamp kerja paksa di pantai barat Jepang sekitar 500 mil dengan kereta dari Tokyo.

Itu hanya beberapa minggu lalu. Sekarang aku harus mencoba untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan kehidupan yang selama empat tahun aku tidak pernah berpikir saya tidak akan pernah hidup kembali. Untuk keluarga saya dan teman-teman saya biasa tua Glenn Dowling Frazier, tentara itu pulang lagi. Tapi aku tahu aku tidak lagi orang itu. Pikiranku sering penuh, bukan kebebasan dan cinta yang mengelilingi saya, tapi dari Bataan Death March, zaman bahwa tubuh saya begitu parah dipukuli dan sakit yang aku takut aku tidak akan hidup malam lagi …

Kengerian perang itu dengan saya setiap hari dan malam untuk 29-30 tahun berikutnya. Pada kali, aku berharap aku tidak pernah pulang. Saya membayangkan betapa damai akan berbaring di tempat yang tenang dan menemukan kedamaian yang hanya datang dengan kematian …

Pada saat saya akan resor untuk minum untuk mencoba melupakan masalah saya. Ini menjadi mungkin untuk memberitahu siapa pun bahwa pengalaman saya dalam perang lebih dari 30 tahun yang lalu masih menghantui saya. Tubuh saya mengatakan bahwa sesuatu harus dilakukan untuk mengakhiri masalah saya, tetapi ketika pikiran memecahkan itu muncul dalam benak saya, saya menemukan itu begitu kuat tertanam dalam keyakinan saya bahwa tidak mungkin untuk melakukan sesuatu tentang hal itu. Aku mencapai ujung tali.

Pada suatu pagi, sekitar 2 pagi, aku terbangun dari tidur, dan sebelum aku benar-benar tahu apa yang terjadi, saya berlutut di tempat tidur saya berdoa kepada Tuhan. Rasanya seperti sebuah kekuatan tak terkendali yang bekerja dalam diriku, bahkan memberi saya kata-kata untuk mengatakan. Dalam doa itu, saya meminta Tuhan untuk membantu saya menyingkirkan kutukan yang mengendalikan saya.

Saya telah meminta pendeta saya pada waktu tentang cara-cara untuk mendapatkan bantuan dan memecahkan masalah saya, hanya untuk diberitahu bahwa saya harus mengampuni orang Jepang. Aku berkata, “Oh tidak, saya tidak bisa melakukan itu Mereka tidak pernah meminta maaf kepada kita semua, bagaimana saya bisa melakukan itu?.” Dan aku terus menderita.

Namun kekuatan dalam diri saya malam ini membawa air mata. Aku menangis mata saya keluar. Setiap pikiran yang melintasi benakku seperti suara dalam diriku berkata, “Anda harus memaafkan semua orang dan segala sesuatu yang telah menyakiti Anda Anda harus mengampuni Jepang dan memaafkan diri sendiri karena menyimpan kebencian ini begitu lama..”

 

ORIGINAL INFO:

Frazier, Glenn

Glenn D. Frazier

 
Born:  Fort Deposit, Alabama (1923)– US Army, 75th ordnance Company- Bataan Death March

– Osaka POW camp #1, Tanagawa POW camp,
  Kobe POW camp,  Tsuruga POW camp

 


Bataan Death March survivor Glenn Frazier’s testimony in the PBS documentary, The War, was watched by nearly 40 million Americans.  Recently, he published a memoir, Hell’s Guest, where he wrote about his POW story in detail.

Here are some excerpts from his book and our recent interview.
 


Near Execution in Osaka

One day I was marching with other prisoners through the streets of Osaka, returning form that day’s work. It was bitterly cold and my hands became numb. I placed my lifeless hands into the pockets of my ragged pants. As I entered the camp gates, I noticed a Japanese guard pointing his finger at me, calling me to the attention of another guard. Later, in formation along with the other American POWs, I noticed the same guard pointing at me and walking in my direction. He instructed me to follow him. I really didn’t think much about this at first.

I followed the guard into the camp commander’s office with the interpreter walking beside me. I was ordered to come to attention and bow to the major,  who was sitting at this desk. A few moments later, the interpreter came over to me and said, “You were marching down the road with your hands in your pockets, and that is not permitted for Japanese soldiers.”

I replied, “I’m not a Japanese soldier. I’m a prisoner of war!” After hearing the major shout in Japanese to the interpreter, I was told in English by the interpreter, “The same rules apply to all POWs!” “I didn’t know that,” I answered. In a faint voice I told the interpreter, “Why don’t they tell us their rules?” To myself I thought, if I knew al the rules I wouldn’t break them.

The major screamed at the interpreter, who translated; “You are an American soldier and you do not march with hands in pockets!” I responded bluntly, “Let me know the regulations, and I will obey.” The interpreter translated my answer for the major. With a shocked look on his face the major jumped out of his chair and whacked his clenched fist on top of the desk. I know now that I had really provoked him. By the manner in which he spoke to the translator, I could tell he wasn’t thrilled by my attitude. He arose again quickly from his seat and walked toward me, and the guard made me bow once more.

The interpreter said, “The commander does not like your attitudes!” At that point, the major pulled his sword out and nicked my throat. I felt the blood streaming down my neck.

“Prisoner can be executed for disobeying orders!” the interpreter continued. All I could do was stand still with thoughts of terror running through my mind. I stared into the major’s hateful eyes. I never took my eyes off him, not for a moment.

All of this, for just walking with my hands in my pockets. A strange feeling came over me, and I suddenly knew this was a very serious matter. The major yelled at the guard, “Take him outside! I do not want blood all over my floor!” I began walking out of the office, with the rifle point of the guard behind me pressing into my back.

He then ordered me to stop. I came to a complete halt, as instructed. I stood there waiting at attention for the next command, when I began thinking of and seeing myself buried in Japanese soil. My mind raced and I felt an imminent fear, but somehow I felt I had a fighting chance.

I heard the commander and interpreter coming out adjacent to where I was standing. As they were speaking back and forth in Japanese, all I could do was stand still. I was then ordered by the guard to bow one more time to the major.

“The major is going to execute you, so all of the men will know that breaking regulations won’t be tolerated!” the interpreter announced. The major walked in front of me and pulled his sword out again and put it to my throat. They expected me to beg for mercy. The interpreter asked, “Do you have anything to say?”

“I guess,” I told the interpreter, as I looked into the major’s eyes. And then these words came to me, and to this day I have no idea where they came from.

“He can kill me, ” I replied, “but he will not kill my spirit, and my spirit will lodge inside him and haunt him for the rest of his life!” I was asked by the translator to repeat what I had uttered. A terrifying feeling came over me instantly, and my blood flushed over my entire body, making me absolutely burn with horror.

I said, still staring into the major’s eyes, “He can kill me but he will not kill my spirit and my spirit will lodge in his flesh for his entire life! The Americans are coming and any Japanese who kills an American without just cause will have their spirit haunt them forever!”

I did not grasp at first what I had actually said. I was prepared to dodge the sword if the major made  a move to swing it at me. I watched his every move, never taking my eyes off of him. All of a sudden, a mysterious expression appeared on the major’s face. Then, to my amazement, the major made three steps back and lowered his sword. I gazed up to the sky and said, “Thank you , Lord.” This was the first time I had seen a Japanese soldier back off from an execution.

The major then ordered the guard to take me to the pit in the earth that was used for solitary confinement. The guard, with his weapon shoved into my back, thrust me towards the 5’x5’x5′ hole in the ground. As the Japanese guard lifted the cover to the hole, I wasn’t sure that this ordeal was finished. He motioned for me to get down inside. Looking down into the depths of that dark place, I tried to get in. I landed head first, face down, after being pushed or kicked by the guard. My face and neck were hurting badly as I wiped the tears  from my eyes.

This episode can be seen in the PBS documentary, “The War”

Homecoming and Nightmares 

It was great being home, but everything that had happened to me was still roiling around inside me. It was like two people came home. One of them was the boy I had been and the one my family saw when hugged me and talked to me. The other was the man I had become, full of memories and feelings that I could not deal with. Things had happened so fast, and I had not been able to overcome the fear, the suffering, and the rage and pure hatred that I had inside me. When the war with Japan ended on September 2, 1945, I was a Japanese prisoner of war in a slave labor camp on the western coast of Japan about 500 miles by train from Tokyo.

That was just a few weeks ago. Now I was supposed to try to adjust to a life that for four years I never thought I would never live again. To my family and friends I was plain old Glenn Dowling Frazier, the soldier that was home again. But I knew I was no longer that person. My thoughts were often full, not of the freedom and love that surrounded me, but of the Bataan Death March, of the times that my body was so badly beaten and sick that I feared I would not live another night…

The horrors of the war were with me every day and night for the next twenty-nine to thirty years. At times, I wished I had never come home. I imagined how peaceful it would be to lie down in a quiet place and find the peace that only comes with death…

At times I would resort to drinking to try to forget my problem. It became impossible to tell anyone that my experiences in a war over 30 years ago were still haunting me. My body was telling me that something had to be done to end my problem, but when thoughts of resolving it came into my mind, I found it so strongly embedded in my beliefs that it was impossible to do anything about it. I was reaching the end of the rope.

Early one morning, about 2 a.m., I awoke from sleep, and before I really knew what was happening, I was kneeling by my bed praying to God. It was like an uncontrollable force working inside me, even giving me the words to say. In that prayer, I asked God to help me shake the curse that was controlling me.

I had asked my preacher at times about ways to get help and solve my problem, only to be told that I must forgive the Japanese. I said, “Oh no, I can’t do that. They have never apologized to all of us, how can I do that?” And I continued to suffer.

But the force within me this night brought the tears. I cried my eyes out. Every thought that passed through my mind was like a voice inside me saying, “You must forgive everyone and everything that has hurt you. You must forgive the Japanese and forgive yourself for harboring this hate for so long. ”

 
Galbraith, John
Halloran, Raymond “Haps”
Hatch, Claude
Heer, Robert
Henry, Andrew
Herold, Clement
Hill, Joe
Hionedes, Nicholas
Howard, Alexander
Kidd, John
Kwiecinski, Walter
Lay, Kermit
Magalong, Felix
Matthews, Norman
McKee, Clyde
Merrifield, Jack
Miller, Minos D.
Muldrow, James
Nesteby, Melvin H.
Olson, Kenneth M.
Payne, Herman E.
Pelkey, Raymond
Peters, Edgar
Porwoll, Kenneth J.
Potris, John
Rodriguez, Ralph
Russell, William L. “Herc”
Rutledge, Tillman
Sawyer, Francis
Small, George
Stewart, Glenn
Thomasian, Karnig
Towne, Charles
Vidra, Andrew

World War II Internees:
 
 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwaandy 2011

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Kisah tawanan perang Dai Nippon bagian keenam(USA Soldiers In Dai nIppon Camp)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

Prisoners of war exercising

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI iNDONESIA

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON BAGIAN KEENAM 1942-1945

THE DAI NIPPON POW PART Six 1942-1945

Perang Dunia II POW diadakan di Kamp-kamp Jepang:
• Anthony, Nolan

 
Nolan D. Anthony di 1941
 

Nama Belakang:
Anthony Pertama Nama awal Tengah:
Nolan Nick Name:
artileri
Jalan: 1113 Edgewood ST Kota & Negara: Ennis, TX E-Mail: xpow5087@webtv.net
Zip: 75119-6340 Telepon: 972-878-3457 Pasangan: Betty
Konflik: Jawa Pertahanan Layanan Cabang: Tentara Unit: Artileri Lapangan 131
Teater: Dimana Pasifik Ditangkap: Tanggal Jawa Ditangkap: 03/08/42
Kamp Dimiliki Dalam: JAWA BURMA SINGAPURA THAILAND Berapa Lama diinternir: 1256 hari
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal dibebaskan Dibebaskan: 08/15/45 Umur pada TANGKAP: 23
Medali Diterima: Purple Heart, Amerika Pertahanan, 1 Bronze Star, Kampanye Amerika, Pertahanan 1 Bintang Perunggu, Pasifik Kampanye dengan 3 Bintang Perunggu, Unit Badge Distinguished 2 Oak Leaf Cluster
Job Militer: Perusahaan prajurit pasukan artileri:
Pekerjaan setelah Perang: Pengemudi Truk

Bio: Nama saya Noland D. Anthony, saya lahir di komunitas Byrd, yang terletak di Timur Selatan Ellis County dekat Ennis, Texas. Orang tua saya Jay dan Willie (Alexander) Anthony. Saya tumbuh di pertanian orang tua saya dan tinggal hidup di luar ruangan sampai 17 Januari 1941. Pada usia lanjut dari 23 saya mendaftarkan diri dengan Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat pada 17 Januari 1941 di Dallas, Texas. Aku dilatih dengan Divisi ke-36 di Brownwood, Texas. Temanku RL (Swedia) E Eklund dan saya menawarkan diri untuk tugas luar negeri pada bulan November 1941, dan pergi dengan kereta api ke San Francisco, kemudian ke Honolulu, Hawaii dengan kapal. Kami sekitar pertengahan antara Honolulu dan Kepulauan Filipina ketika Jepang membom Pearl Harbor. Konvoi kami berpaling ke pulau-pulau Fiji dan dari sana ke Brisbane, Australia. Kami kemudian melanjutkan perjalanan ke Jawa, di mana kami diambil sebagai tawanan perang 8 Maret 1942 ketika Belanda menyerah pulau ke Jepang. Perhentian berikutnya adalah Singapura, kemudian ke Burma (dengan kapal budak) di mana kita membantu kami digunakan sebagai kerja paksa untuk membangun jalan kereta api Thailand Burma. Jembatan di atas sungai Kwai juga bagian dari pengalaman kita. Tak perlu dikatakan pengalaman meninggalkan banyak mati POW atau menderita kekurangan gizi dan penyakit lainnya dan perlakuan kasar yang guards.On Jepang saya Agustus 1945, (setelah 42 bulan) kita dibebaskan dan dibawa ke Bangkok, Thailand. Sana kami dijemput oleh Angkatan Udara AS dan diterbangkan ke Calcutta, India di mana aku diopname di Rumah Sakit Umum 142. Kemudian, saya diterbangkan ke New York Halloren Rumah Sakit Umum di Staten Island, dan akhirnya mencintai Lapangan, di Dallas, Texas, di mana saya dirawat di Rumah Sakit Umum Asheburn di McKinney, Texas. Pada 28 Mei, 1946 (setelah 9 bulan rawat inap) saya habis di Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Texas. Pada 28 September 1946, aku menikah sebelum perang kekasihku, Elizabeth Jarolimek (Ceko warisan), dari Ennis Texas. Kami punya dua anak, Durwood E. Anthony anak kami dan Nola Ann Skipper putri kami. Kami dikaruniai dua orang cucu, Bryan Anthony dan Patrick Anthony.I telah lama menjadi anggota “Batalyon Hilang”. Anggotanya termasuk personil dari batalyon 2, Artileri Lapangan 131, dan pelaut dan marinir dari USS Houston (CA30)

 
• Batchelor, William
  

William Batchelor

William Charles Batchelor Jr

 
 

Nama Belakang:
Batchelor Pertama Nama awal Tengah:
WILLIAM CHARLES Nick Name:
Labah-labah
Jalan: P.O. Kotak 9 Kota & Negara: LaConner, WA E-Mail:
Zip: 98257 Telepon: Pasangan:
Konflik: Perang Dunia II Cabang Layanan: Angkatan Laut Unit: USS Houston
Teater: Dimana Pasifik Ditangkap: Tanggal JAWA Ditangkap: 03 / / 1 / 42
Kamp Dimiliki In: “. Railroad Of Death” Penjara Serang, Changi, Sepeda Camp, Burma Berapa Lama diinternir: 2 yrs.
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal Terbebaskan: Meninggal Umur pada TANGKAP: 21
Medali Diterima: Prisoner of MEDALI PERANG, MEDALI HATI UNGU, PERANG DUNIA II VICTORY MEDALI, MEDALI PERTAHANAN FILIPINA, CITATION UNIT PRESIDEN, ASIATIC MEDALI PASIFIK KAMPANYE, AMERICAN MEDALI PERTAHANAN LAYANAN
Job Militer: Angkatan Laut, USS Houston Perusahaan: Meninggal di Kamp Penjara
Pekerjaan setelah Perang:

Bio: William Batchelor selamat banyak hal selama perang termasuk tenggelamnya USS Houston (CA 30) di mana 700 anggota awak meninggal. Dia ditangkap di Jawa, sementara ia bekerja ia dipukuli dan kelaparan oleh para penculiknya Jepang sampai ia meninggal pada usia 23 di Camp Kilo 80 di pegunungan Burma pada terkenal “Railroad Kematian.” Mr Batchelor adalah lulusan Akademi Militer Uni Fork. Dia dikebumikan di Pemakaman Nasional Arlington.

 
• Beachamp, Virgil

Last Name: Nama Beauchamp Menengah Pertama Awal: Virgil N. Nick Name:
Jalan: 3019 D JALAN Kota & Negara: GRAND JUNCTION, CO E-Mail:
Zip: 81504 Telepon: (970) 434-0858 Pasangan:
Konflik: Perang Dunia II Cabang Layanan: ARMY SIGNAL CORP Unit: SCOUT PERTAMA DI MEMERANGI
Teater: PACIFIC Dimana Ditangkap: LAPANGAN Hosp AITAPE NEW GUINEA Ditangkap Tanggal: April 1944
Kamp Dimiliki Dalam: Hosp LAPANGAN MANA AKU PASIEN Sebuah berhasil dikuasai JEPANG Berapa Lama diinternir: 89 HARI
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal Terbebaskan: Jul 1944 Umur pada TANGKAP:
Medali Diterima: HATI UNGU, CITATION PRESIDEN INDIVIDU, STAR BRONZE
Militer Pekerjaan: SIGNAL CORP Perusahaan:
Pekerjaan setelah Perang: perekrut MARINE, MISIONARIS ASING SAN ANDRES Pendidik

 
• Tubuh, Robert


Robert J. Tubuh

Nama Belakang:
TUBUH Pertama Nama Tengah awal:
ROBERT J Nick Name:
BOB
Jalan: 129 Nettles Blvd Kota & Negara: JENSEN PANTAI, FL E-Mail: sirhygene@aol.com
Zip: 34957 Telepon: (561) 229-3163 Pasangan: Sara –
Konflik: Layanan WW11 Cabang: TENTARA Unit: D 31 CO INF REG
Teater: Dimana Pasifik Ditangkap: Bataan, Luzon FILIPINA KEPULAUAN Ditangkap Tanggal: 04/09/42
Kamp Dimiliki Dalam: BILIBID, Cabanatuan, KAMP O’Donnell DAN KEMATIAN Bataan MARET Berapa Lama diinternir: 1028 hari
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal dibebaskan Dibebaskan: 01/31/45 Umur pada TANGKAP: 17
Medali Diterima: 2 perunggu STARS, 3 UNIT kutipan PRESIDEN, HATI UNGU, POW MEDALI, MEDALI PERILAKU BAIK, ASIATIC PASIFIK MEDALI, FILIPINA PERTAHANAN RIBBON, FILIPINA PERTAHANAN MEDALI DITERBITKAN OLEH GOV FILIPINA. FILIPINA KEBEBASAN MEDALI
Militer Pekerjaan: MESIN Gunner Perusahaan: DIV Hydramatic General Motors
Pekerjaan setelah Perang: ALAT MAKER

Bio:

Robert J. Tubuh

Aku lahir 26 Februari 1924 di Sarnia, Ontario, Kanada. Ayah membawa kami ke Amerika Serikat sekitar tiga tahun kemudian, dalam rangka mendukung keluarga muda, yang terdiri pada saat ini ibu saya dan dua anak. Adikku lahir dua tahun setelah aku.

Aku bersekolah di Detroit hingga Kerajaan Inggris memasuki perang melawan kekuatan Poros. Sepanjang hidupku aku telah membayangkan diri pergi ke perang dan pulang pahlawan perang ditutupi dengan medali. Jadi, ketika Kanada bergabung Inggris dalam perang, saya memutuskan bahwa saya akan berhenti sekolah dan kembali ke negara kelahiran saya. Aku berbohong tentang usia saya dan terdaftar di Resimen Kent, yang sedang diaktifkan sebagai Angkatan Tugas Kanada Aktif, agar bisa bergabung dalam perang melawan Jerman dan Italia.

Saya adalah anggota Resimen Kent selama sekitar satu tahun ketika ayah saya menulis surat kepada Komandan Kompi saya memberitahukan usia saya. Mereka segera habis saya karena di bawah umur. Aku kembali ke Detroit pada bulan Februari 1941 dan terdaftar di Angkatan Darat AS, Februari 21,1941. 1 adalah bertanya ke mana aku ingin pergi untuk melayani dua tahun saya Dinas Luar Negeri. Aku punya pilihan keluar dari beberapa bagian yang berbeda dari dunia bahwa Amerika Serikat, telah basis Angkatan Darat, Schofield Barracks di Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Panama, dan Manila di Filipina. Saya memilih Manila karena itu jauh dari
rumah.

Aku meninggalkan Detroit untuk Pulau Bidadari California, hari yang sama yang saya tamtama. Kereta kami meninggalkan Stasiun Union di Detroit untuk San Francisco pada 16:00 pada tanggal 21 Februari 1941. Kami menunggu sedikit lebih dari sebulan di Pulau Bidadari sebelum akhirnya dikirim keluar untuk Kepulauan Filipina pada 30 Maret 1941. Tujuh hari kemudian kami berlabuh di Honolulu, kami hanya di sana semalaman maka kita ditinggalkan di kaki terakhir dari perjalanan kami ke Filipina. Kami tiba di Manila April 22,1941. Beberapa dari kami dikirim ke Fort William McKinley, yang berjarak sekitar enam belas kilometer dari Manila untuk pelatihan dasar kita. Selama periode pelatihan dasar saya dilarikan ke rumah sakit untuk usus buntu darurat.

Ketika saya pulih saya dikirim ke Kamp John Hay di Baguio untuk cuti penyembuhan. Saya menghabiskan waktu enam minggu untuk memulihkan dan kemudian saya kembali bertugas dengan “‘M” Perusahaan Infanteri 31 ditempatkan di Estado Walikota terletak di Sungai Pasig di Manila.

Aku tidak kembali ke tugas lama sebelum aku dikirim kembali ke rumah sakit dengan infeksi telinga yang sangat buruk, kali ini ketika saya kembali bertugas saya dipindahkan dari Perusahaan “M” untuk Perusahaan “D”, yang ditempatkan di De Espana Cuartel dalam berdinding Kota Manila. Ketika Jepang membom Pearl Harbor kami dipindahkan dari tempat kami parkir tidak jauh dari Hotel Manila, setiap hari kita dikerahkan ke sebuah bangunan besar yang berbeda di mana kami mendirikan senapan mesin kami dalam posisi defensif. Ketika saya di Angkatan Darat Kanada kami telah diajarkan untuk tidak menembak senjata kami di target Anda tidak bisa memukul, karena semua yang Anda lakukan adalah memberikan posisi Anda pergi.

Kami tetap di taman sampai Malam Natal tahun 1941 dan kemudian kami dibawa ke Pelabuhan Manila di mana kami diperintahkan untuk memuat kapal dengan beberapa kotak besar dan peti yang teronggok di dermaga. Kami tidak tahu di mana kami akan pergi tapi kami tahu kemudian bahwa tujuan kami adalah benteng Pulau Corregidor di mulut Teluk Manila. Kami tetap pada Corregidor sampai di bom untuk pertama kalinya pada malam Tahun Baru 1942. Setelah hal-hal yang menetap turun setelah itu serangan udara raksasa kami dipindahkan ke Bataan. Kami bertemu Jepang dalam pertempuran beberapa kali tapi peralatan mereka jauh lebih unggul untuk kita dan pasukan Jepang dilatih jauh lebih baik daripada kami. Jadi pada tanggal 9 April 1942, garnisun Bataan adalah menyerah kepada pasukan Jepang yang unggul.

Saya terlibat m disebut Bataan Death Maret ke Camp O’Donnell, tapi untuk beberapa alasan aku beruntung dan telah dipindahkan dari O’Donnell ke penjara Bilibid di Manila. Maret Kematian adalah pengalaman yang paling mengerikan sebagian besar dari kita yang pernah dilihat. Saya tidak percaya dalam imajinasi terliar bahwa laki-laki bisa sama kejam penculik kami ternyata tapi aku tidak akan masuk ke bahwa karena sekarang itu merupakan bagian dari sejarah.

Aku tetap di Bilibid selama sekitar enam bulan dan kemudian saya dipindahkan ke Kamp Cabanatuan # 1. Ini juga merupakan pengalaman yang sangat sulit tapi saya tidak akan menghabiskan terlalu banyak waktu pada periode ini.

Aku tetap di Cabanatuan sampai 30 Januari 1945 ketika US Army Rangers dibebaskan kamp dan merilis 511 tahanan di kamp yang tersisa setelah sisa orang telah dikirim ke Jepang.

Saya merasa bahwa sejak Rangers melepaskan kita dari kamp bahwa mereka adalah pahlawan saya dan mungkin akan selalu menjadi orang terbesar yang pernah saya mendapat kehormatan pertemuan. Jika ada anggota unit Ranger yang dirilis kita dari kamp yang membaca ini, TERIMA KASIH SEKALI LAGI ‘. Saya merasa bahwa kalian menyelamatkan hidupku. Tentara 6 Rangers adalah pahlawan saya dari W.W. 2

 
 

 

original info:

World War II POWs held in Japanese Camps:

Nolan D. Anthony in 1941

Last Name: 
ANTHONY
First Name Middle Initial:
NOLAN
Nick Name:
artillery
Street:  1113 EDGEWOOD ST City & State: ENNIS, TX E-Mail:  xpow5087@webtv.net
Zip: 75119-6340 Phone:  972-878-3457 Spouse: Betty
Conflict: Java Defense Service Branch: Army Unit: 131st Field Artillery
Theater: Pacific Where Captured: Java Date Captured: 03/08/42
Camps Held In: JAVA BURMA SINGAPORE THAILAND How Long Interned: 1256 days
Liberated / repatriated: liberated Date Liberated: 08/15/45 Age at Capture: 23
Medals Received: Purple Heart, American Defense, 1 Bronze Star, American Campain, Defense 1 Bronze Star, Pacific Campaign with 3 Bronze Stars, Distinguished Unit Badge 2 Oak Leaf Clusters
Military Job: Cannoneer Company:
Occupation after War:  Truck Driver
Bio:My name is Noland D. Anthony; I was born in Byrd community, located in South Eastern Ellis County near Ennis, Texas. My parents were Jay and Willie (Alexander) Anthony. I grew up on my parents farm and lived an outdoor life until January 17th 1941. At the ripe old age of 23 I enlisted with the U.S. Army on January 17, 1941 in Dallas, Texas. I trained with this 36th Division in Brownwood, Texas. My buddy R.L. (Swede) E Eklund and I volunteered for overseas duty in November 1941, and went by train to San Francisco, then on to Honolulu, Hawaii by ship. We were about halfway between Honolulu and the Philippine Islands when the Japs bombed Pearl Harbor. Our convoy turned to the Fiji islands and from there on to Brisbane, Australia. We then traveled on to Java, where we were taken as POWs March 8, 1942 when the Dutch surrendered the island to the Japanese. The next stop was Singapore, then to Burma (by slave ship) where we helped we were used as forced labor to build the Burma Thailand railroad. The bridge over the river Kwai was also part of our experience. Needless to say the experience left many a POW dead or suffering from malnutrition and other diseases and the abusive treatment my the Japanese guards.On August 1945,(after 42 months) we were liberated and brought to Bangkok, Thailand. There we were picked up by U.S. Air Force and flown to Calcutta, India where I was hospitalized at the 142nd General Hospital. Later, I was flown to New York Halloren General Hospital on Staten Island, and finally to love Field, in Dallas, Texas, where I was hospitalized at Asheburn General Hospital in McKinney, Texas. On May 28, 1946, (after 9 months of hospitalization) I was discharged at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio Texas. On Sept. 28, 1946, I married my pre-war sweetheart, Elizabeth Jarolimek (Czech heritage), of Ennis Texas. We had two children, Durwood E.Anthony our son and Nola Ann Skipper our daughter. We were blessed with two grandchildren, Bryan Anthony and Patrick Anthony.I have long been a member of the “Lost Battalion”. Its members include personnel of the 2nd battalion, 131st Field Artillery, and sailors and marines from the USS Houston (CA30)
 
 

 

William Batchelor

William Charles Batchelor Jr.

 

Last Name:
BATCHELOR
First Name Middle Initial:
WILLIAM CHARLES
Nick Name:
Spider
Street:  P.O. Box 9 City & State: LaConner, WA E-Mail: 
Zip: 98257 Phone:  Spouse:
Conflict: WWII Service Branch:  Navy Unit:  USS Houston
Theater: Pacific Where Captured: JAVA Date Captured: 03//1/42
Camps Held In: Serang Jail, Changi, Bicycle Camp, Burma “Railroad Of Death.” How Long Interned:  2 yrs.
Liberated / repatriated: Date Liberated: Died Age at Capture: 21
Medals Received: PRISONER OF WAR MEDAL, PURPLE HEART MEDAL, WORLD WAR II VICTORY MEDAL, PHILIPPINE DEFENSE MEDAL, PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION, ASIATIC PACIFIC CAMPAIGN MEDAL, AMERICAN DEFENSE SERVICE MEDAL
Military Job: Navy, USS Houston Company: Died in Prison Camp
Occupation after War: 
Bio:William Batchelor survived many things during the war including the sinking of the USS Houston (CA 30) in which 700 crew members died. He was captured in Java, while he worked he was beaten and starved by his Japanese captors until he died at the age of 23 in the 80 Kilo Camp in the mountains of Burma on the infamous “Death Railroad.” Mr. Batchelor was a graduate of Fork Union Military Academy. He is interred at the Arlington National Cemetery.
 
Beachamp, Virgil

 
Last Name: BEAUCHAMP First Name Middle Initial: VIRGIL N. Nick Name:
Street:  3019 D ROAD City & State: GRAND JUNCTION, CO. E-Mail:
Zip: 81504 Phone:  (970) 434-0858 Spouse:
Conflict: WWII Service Branch: ARMY SIGNAL CORP Unit: FIRST SCOUT IN COMBAT
Theater: PACIFIC Where Captured: FIELD HOSP AITAPE NEW GUINEA Date Captured: APRIL 1944
Camps Held In: FIELD HOSP WHERE I WAS A PATIENT WAS OVERRUN BY THE JAPANESE How Long Interned: 89 DAYS
Liberated / repatriated: Date Liberated: JULY 1944 Age at Capture:
Medals Received: PURPLE HEART, INDIVIDUAL PRESIDENTIAL CITATION, BRONZE STAR
Military Job: SIGNAL CORP Company:
Occupation after War:  MARINE RECRUITER, FOREIGN MISSIONARY EDUCATOR SAN ANDRES
 
 

Robert J. Body

Last Name: 
BODY
First Name Middle Initial:
ROBERT J
Nick Name:
BOB
Street: 129 NETTLES BLVD City & State: JENSEN BEACH, FL E-Mail: sirhygene@aol.com
Zip: 34957 Phone:  (561) 229-3163 Spouse: Sara –
Conflict: WW11 Service Branch: ARMY Unit: CO D 31 INF REG
Theater: Pacific Where Captured: BATAAN, LUZON PHILIPPINE ISLANDS Date Captured: 04/09/42
Camps Held In: BILIBID, CABANATUAN, CAMP O’DONNELL AND THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH How Long Interned: 1028 days
Liberated / repatriated: liberated Date Liberated: 01/31/45 Age at Capture: 17
Medals Received: 2 BRONZE STARS, 3 PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATIONS, PURPLE HEART, POW MEDAL, GOOD CONDUCT MEDAL, ASIATIC PACIFIC MEDAL, PHILIPPINE DEFENSE RIBBON, PHILIPPINE DEFENSE MEDAL ISSUED BY THE PHILIPPINE GOV. PHILIPPINE FREEDOM MEDAL
Military Job: MACHINE GUNNER Company: HYDRAMATIC DIV OF GENERAL MOTORS
Occupation after War:  TOOL MAKER
Bio:Robert J. BodyI was born February 26, 1924 in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. My father brought us to the United States about three years later, in order to support his young family, which consisted by this time of my mother and two kids. My sister was born two years after I was.I attended school in Detroit until the British Empire entered the war against the Axis powers. All my life I had imagined myself going off to war and coming home a war hero covered with medals. So when Canada joined Britain in the war, I decided that I would quit school and return to the country of my birth. I lied about my age and enlisted in the Kent Regiment, which was being activated as a Canadian Active Duty Force, in order to be able to join in the war against Germany and Italy.I was a member of the Kent Regiment for about a year when my father wrote a letter to my Company Commander informing him of my age. They immediately discharged me because of underage. I returned to Detroit in February of 1941 and enlisted in the U.S. Army, February 21.1941. 1 was asked where I wanted to go to serve my two years of Foreign Service. I had my choice out of several different parts of the world that the U.S.A., had Army bases, Schofield Barracks in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Manila in the Philippines. I chose Manila because it was a long way from
home.I left Detroit for Angel Island California, the same day that I enlisted. Our train left Union Station in Detroit for San Francisco at 4:00 P.M. on February 21, 1941. We waited a little over a month at Angel Island before we finally shipped out for the Philippine Islands on March 30, 1941. Seven days later we were docked in Honolulu, we were only there overnight then we left on the final leg of our trip to the Philippines. We arrived in Manila April 22,1941. Some of us were sent to Fort William McKinley, which is about sixteen kilometers from Manila for our basic training. During my basic training period I was rushed to the hospital for an emergency appendectomy.

When I recovered I was sent to Camp John Hay at Baguio for a recuperation furlough. I spent six weeks recuperating and then I was returned to duty with “’M” Company 31st Infantry stationed at Estado Mayor located on the Pasig River in Manila.

I was not back to duty long before I was sent back to the hospital with a very bad ear infection, this time when I returned to duty I was transferred from “M” Company to “D” Company, stationed at Cuartel De Espana inside the Walled City of Manila. When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor we were moved from our quarters to a park not far from the Manila Hotel, each day we were deployed to a different large building where we set up our machine guns in a defensive position. When I was in the Canadian Army we had been taught never to fire our guns at targets you could not hit, because all you would do is give your positions away.

We remained in the park until Christmas Eve of 1941 and then we were taken to the Port of Manila where we were ordered to load a ship with some large boxes and crates that were piled on the dock. We did not know where we were going but we found out later that our destination was the island fortress of Corregidor in the mouth of Manila Bay. We remained on Corregidor until it was bombed for the first time on New Years Eve of 1942. After things settled down after that mammoth air raid we were moved to Bataan. We met the Japanese in combat several times but their equipment was much more superior to ours and the Japanese troops were trained much better than we were. So on April 9, 1942 the Bataan garrison was surrendered to the superior Japanese forces.

I was involved m the so-called Bataan Death March to Camp O’Donnell, but for some reason I got lucky and was moved from O’Donnell to Bilibid prison in Manila. The Death March was the most horrible experience most of us had ever seen. I did not believe in my wildest imagination that men could be as cruel as our captors turned out to be but I will not go into that because it is now part of history.

I remained in Bilibid for about six months and then I was moved to Cabanatuan Camp #1. This also was a very difficult experience but I will not spend too much time on this period.

I remained in Cabanatuan until January 30, 1945 when the U.S. Army Rangers liberated the camp and released the remaining 511 prisoners left in the camp after the rest of the guys had been sent to Japan.

I have felt that ever since the Rangers released us from that camp that they were my heroes and probably will always be the greatest people I have ever had the privilege of meeting. If any members of the Ranger unit that released us from that camp reads this, THANK YOU ONCE AGAIN’. I feel that you guys saved my life. The 6th Army Rangers were my hero’s of W.W. 2

 

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 Calvit, Kenneth

Kenneth Calvit

Kenneth L. Calvit, Baton Rouge Konvensi Nasional 1998

Nama Belakang:
First Name CALVIT Tengah awal:
KENNETH L. Nick Name:
Pengetahuan
Jalan: Kota & Negara: Baton Rouge, LA E-Mail:
Zip: 70809 Telepon: 504-927-2750 Pasangan:
Konflik: WW II Cabang Layanan: Army Air Corps Satuan: Bom 37
Teater: Dimana Pasifik Ditangkap: Pulau Cuyo Ditangkap Tanggal: 05/02/42
Kamp Dimiliki Dalam: Berapa Lama diinternir:
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal dibebaskan Dibebaskan: 44 Usia TANGKAP: 21
Medali Diterima: STAR BRONZE MEDALI, tawanan MEDALI PERANG, HATI UNGU, MEDALI KAMPANYE FILIPINA
Militer Pekerjaan: Swasta Perusahaan: Perusahaan Marmer Granit Acme &
Pekerjaan setelah Perang: Granit

• Duffy, George

George Duffy - Cadet
 

Wisuda Massachusetts Nautical SchoolGeorge W. Duffy, Baton Rouge Nat. Konvensi 1998At “The Boston Post”, Desember 1945

 Ship - American Leader

Pemimpin Amerika Motorship, pra-Perang Dunia II di Chesapeake Bay.

 

Nama Belakang:
Duffy Tengah Nama Pertama Awal:
GEORGE W Nick Name:
 
Jalan: 2 STERLING HILL LN UNIT 236 Kota & Negara: Exeter,
Zip: 03833 Telepon: 603.772.5191 Pasangan: MARGARET
Konflik: WW II Cabang Layanan: Unit Sipil: MS PEMIMPIN AMERIKA
Teater: Lainnya Dimana Ditangkap: 850 KILOMETER DARI BARAT Tanggal CAPE TOWN Ditangkap: 09/10/42
Kamp Dimiliki Dalam: Dua kapal angkatan laut Jerman: HSK MICHEL dan TSS Uckermark. Sepuluh kamp kerja paksa Jepang di Jawa, Singapura, dan Sumatera. Berapa Lama diinternir: 1119 hari
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal dibebaskan Dibebaskan: 10/03/45 Umur pada TANGKAP: 20 tahun, 4 bulan
Medali Diterima: Mariner Medal, Medali POW
Militer Pekerjaan: Jembatan Perhiasan Petugas Menjelajahi Perusahaan: Amerika Serikat Baris
Pekerjaan setelah Perang: Merchant Petugas Kelautan

 

Bio:

Segera setelah lulus dari sekolah George tinggi pada tahun 1939, dan sebagai hasil dari pemeriksaan yang kompetitif, ia diterima di Sekolah Nautical Massachusetts. Bersamaan pendaftaran datang di US Naval Reserve dengan pangkat Kadet, USNR, MMR Sekolah itu bertiang tiga kapal berlayar bernama Nantucket, yang dibangun sebagai USS RANGER pada tahun 1886. Seratus dua puluh kadet tinggal di papan selama dua tahun pendaftaran mereka. Musim dingin dihabiskan di Boston, musim panas di laut.

Pada September 1941 George lulus dan memperoleh posisi sebagai perwira 8-12 menonton sebuah kapal barang bernama PEMIMPIN AMERIKA. Setelah perjalanan panjang ke Timur Jauh (mereka di Manila pada 8 Desember 1941) dan kembali ke New York melalui Australia dan Kaledonia Baru, mereka kemudian dimuat kargo militer bagi Rusia (di Teluk Persia) dan (Inggris di India ). Pada tanggal 10 September 1942, pulang terikat, yang mendalam yang sarat dengan karet, lateks, dan kekayaan Timur Tengah, dalam posisi sekitar 850 mil barat Cape Town, PEMIMPIN AMERIKA diserang dan dihancurkan oleh kapal penjelajah Jerman MICHEL tambahan. Dua jam setelah tenggelam malam-waktu, MICHEL kembali ke tempat kejadian dan mengambil 47 dari 58 awak kami. Setelah 4 minggu sebagai tahanan, selama waktu sebuah kapal barang Inggris tenggelam, George dan yang lain dipindahkan ke kapal angkatan laut Jerman pengisian, Uckermark tersebut. Sayangnya, kapal ini pasti dari Eropa ke Jepang dengan cara Batavia (sekarang Jakarta), Jawa.

Ada, pada tanggal 6 November 1942, mereka diserahkan kepada Jepang. George tetap di Jawa dalam 3 kamp yang berbeda sampai akhir Juni 1944 ketika ia pergi ke Singapura dalam kelompok 1200 POW kapal sebuah kapal Jepang kecil, Maru CHUKKA. Dari sana mereka pindah ke Sumatera untuk pembangunan Baru yang disebut pakan Kereta Api. George bekerja dalam 6 kamp-kamp sepanjang 138 mil dari proyek ini yang diselesaikan pada tanggal 15 Agustus, 1945.Of 47 Pemimpin AMERICAN yang selamat, 13 hilang dalam Maru TAMAHOKO dekat Nagasaki pada tanggal 26 Juni 1944, 4 hilang dalam JUNYO Maru di Samudra Hindia pada tanggal 18 September 1944, dan dua meninggal di pakan Baru Kereta Api. Dengan demikian, dari 58 orang asli yang meninggalkan New York pada tanggal 26 April 1942, 28 pulang.

George tiba di Amerika Serikat pada tanggal 8 Oktober 1945, mengunjungi orang tuanya, saudara, dan teman-teman, dan pada awal Januari 1946 setelah kurang dari 90 hari penyembuhan ia kembali ke laut di laut pedagang. Akhirnya, ia berlisensi sebagai Master of Steam dan Kapal Motor, Tonase Setiap, Setelah Samudra, dan memerintahkan dua kapal sebelum “menelan jangkar”.

 
 
   
original info:

Calvit, Kenneth

Kenneth CalvitKenneth L. Calvit, Baton Rouge National Convention 1998 
Last Name:
CALVIT
First Name Middle Initial:
KENNETH L.
Nick Name:
Ken
Street:  City & State: BATON ROUGE, LA E-Mail: 
Zip: 70809 Phone:  504-927-2750 Spouse:
Conflict: WW II Service Branch: Army Air Corps Unit: 37th Bomb
Theater: Pacific Where Captured: Cuyo Island Date Captured: 05/02/42
Camps Held In: How Long Interned:
Liberated / repatriated: liberated Date Liberated: 44 Age at Capture: 21
Medals Received: BRONZE STAR MEDAL, PRISONER OF WAR MEDAL, PURPLE HEART, PHILIPPINE CAMPAIGN MEDAL
Military Job: Private Company: Acme Marble & Granite Company 
Occupation after War:  Granite
George Duffy - CadetGeorge Duffy - 1998George Duffy - 1945Graduation Massachusetts Nautical SchoolGeorge W. Duffy, Baton Rouge Nat. Convention 1998At “The Boston Post”, December 1945
Ship - American LeaderThe Motorship American Leader, pre- World War II in Chesapeake Bay. 
Last Name: 
DUFFY
First Name Middle Initial:
GEORGE W
Nick Name:
Street:  2 STERLING HILL LN UNIT 236 City & State: EXETER, NH E-Mail:  geowduffy@comcast.net
Zip: 03833 Phone: 603.772.5191 Spouse: MARGARET
Conflict: WW II Service Branch: Civilian Unit: M.S. AMERICAN LEADER
Theater: Other Where Captured: 850 MILES WEST OF CAPETOWN Date Captured: 09/10/42
Camps Held In: Two German naval vessels: HSK MICHEL and TSS UCKERMARK. Ten Japanese labor camps on Java, Singapore, and Sumatra. How Long Interned: 1119 days
Liberated / repatriated: liberated Date Liberated: 10/03/45 Age at Capture: 20 years, 4 months
Medals Received: Mariner’s Medal,POW Medal
Military Job: Navigating Bridge Watch Officer Company: United States Lines
Occupation after War:  Merchant Marine Officer
Bio:Immediately following George’s graduation from high school in 1939, and as the result of a competitive examination, he was admitted to the Massachusetts Nautical School. Concurrently came enlistment in the U. S. Naval Reserve with the rank of Cadet, U.S.N.R., M.M.R. The school was a three-masted sailing vessel named NANTUCKET, which was built as the U.S.S. RANGER in 1886. One hundred and twenty cadets lived on board during their two year enrollment. Winters were spent in Boston, summers at sea.

In September 1941 George was graduated and obtained a position as 8-12 watch officer in a freighter named AMERICAN LEADER. Following a long trip to the Far East (they were in Manila on December 8, 1941) and return to New York via Australia and New Caledonia, they then loaded military cargo for the Russians (in the Persian Gulf) and the British (in India). On September 10, 1942, homeward bound, deep-laden with rubber, latex, and riches of the Middle East, in a position about 850 miles west of Capetown, the AMERICAN LEADER was attacked and destroyed by the German auxiliary cruiser MICHEL. Two hours after the night-time sinking, the MICHEL returned to the scene and picked up 47 of our 58 man crew. Following 4 weeks as prisoners, during which time a British freighter was sunk, George and others were transferred to a German naval replenishment vessel, the UCKERMARK. Unfortunately, this ship was bound from Europe to Japan by way of Batavia (now Jakarta), Java.

There, on November 6, 1942, they were turned over to the Japanese. George remained on Java in 3 different camps until the end of June 1944 when he went to Singapore in a group of 1200 POWs aboard a small Japanese ship, the CHUKKA MARU. From there they were moved to Sumatra for the construction of the so-called Pakan Baru Railway. George labored in 6 camps along the 138 mile length of this project which was completed on August 15, 1945.Of the AMERICAN Leader’s 47 survivors, 13 were lost in the  TAMAHOKO MARU near Nagasaki on June 26, 1944, 4 were lost in the JUNYO MARU in the Indian Ocean on September 18, 1944, and two died on the Pakan Baru Railway. Thus, of the original 58 men who left New York on April 26, 1942, 28 came home.

George arrived in the United States on October 8, 1945, visited his parents, siblings, and friends, and in early January 1946 after less than 90 days recuperation he went back to sea in the merchant marine. Ultimately, he was licensed as Master of Steam and Motor Vessel, Any Tonnage, Upon Oceans, and commanded two vessels before “swallowing the anchor”.

the end@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

 

Kisah Tawanan Perang Dai Nippon bagian kelima(the story from Dai Nippon POW Camp) 1942-1945

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

Prisoners of war exercising

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI iNDONESIA

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON BAGIAN KELIMA 1942-1945

THE DAI NIPPON POW PART FIVE 1942-1945

EREVELD LEUWIGADJAH: Sebuah RESONANSI DARI tawanan perang
Photobucket
      

“Lampoe-lampoe Terang di Satoe stasioen. Kreta-api brenti.
Kita dapet prentah boeat toeroen
sesoeda berdesak-desakan doedoek 1 hari 1 malem sampe kaki kakoe.
Papan Bord berboenji: Cimahi. Lontjeng stasioen oendjoek djam 6 (Nippon) pagi. ”

Nio Joe Lan, “Dalem Tawanan Djepang”, 1946

Gerbang Masuk

Dari Monumen Makam

TENTANG MISI

Sebagai titik akhir, saya menyelesaikan perjalanan “Odyssey saya di Tujuh Pemakaman Perang Belanda di Jawa”. Perjalanan ke Ereveld Leuwigadjah dieksekusi pada Sabtu, Juni 13, 2009, didampingi oleh rekan-rekan saya Wibowo Wibisono (mempersiapkan izin sebelum OGS), Olive Bendon, dan Andipo Wiratama.

Ereveld Leuwigadjah terletak di Kerkhof Jl. Tjibogo 16, Cimahi. Saat itu sekitar 10 km barat Bandung, Jawa Barat. Ketika pendudukan Jepang di 1942-45, Cimahi adalah salah satu kamp interniran di Jawa. Sekitar 10 ribu tahanan perang di kamp interniran menderita Cimahi.

Para Leuwigadjah Ereveld ini terdiri saat ini lebih dari 5,200 kuburan dari korban pada periode 1942-48. Oleh karena itu, Ereveld Leuwigajah adalah yang paling ereveld dengan kuburan nomor dikelola oleh Oorlogsgravenstichting (Perang Graves Foundation).

PETA Cimahi 1941

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Courtesy of Dr Leo Niehorster
(Perang Dunia Angkatan Bersenjata – Orde Pertempuran dan Organisasi)

UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH

Frangky
Opzichter dari Ereveld Leuwigadjah
Dia bekerja di OGS sejak Oktober 2008

Saya akan mengungkapkan rasa terima kasih kepada Mr P. Steenmeijer sebagai Direktur Oorlogsgravenstichting (OGS) Indonesia dan Pak Frangky sebagai Opzichter dari Ereveld Leuwigadjah yang telah menyempatkan diizinkan kami untuk mengunjungi Leuwigadjah Ereveld. Tanpa izin terlebih dahulu dari mereka, perjalanan kita tidak akan tercapai.

LATAR BELAKANG SEJARAH

Sebelum Leuwigadjah Ereveled didirikan, lokasi saat ini telah digunakan untuk mengubur orang mati dari kamp tawanan di dekatnya (mantan IX dan Batalyon X KNIL) selama pendudukan Jepang 1942-45.

Namun, Ereveld Leuwigadjah tidak hanya untuk korban kamp interniran, namun banyak tentara Koninklijk Nederlands dari Indisch Leger (KNIL) dan Koninklijk Landmacht KL dikuburkan juga, yang meninggal pada tahun-tahun bergejolak setelah kapitulasi Jepang.

Peresmian Leuwigajah Ereveld berlangsung pada 20 Desember 1949 oleh Jenderal Mayor Alons P..

Mayor Jenderal P. Alons
Membuka Leuwigadjah Ereveld, 20 Desember 1949
Sumber: KITLV

Pada tahun 1960 ada penguburan bukan jenazah korban perang dari Muntok Ereveld (1960), Padang (1962), Tarakan (1964), Medan 1966), Palembang (1967), dan Balikpapan (1967).

Pada akhir bagian ini, ada bundaran kecil dengan tiang bendera

Mayor Jenderal P Alons (kiri) Daun Upacara tersebut
Sumber: KITLV

Tiang bendera, Situasi Hari

Karangan bunga-upacara peletakan oleh Wali Negara dari Pasoendan –
Raden Temenggoeng Djoewarsa, 20 Desember 1949
Sumber: KITLV

Dasar tiang bendera, Situasi Hari Hadir

Entrance Gate untuk Ereveld Cimahi (Leuwigadjah), 1949
Sumber: KITLV

Entrance Gate, Situasi Hari Hadir

Monumen

MEMORIAL MAKAM

Dari gerbang masuk, kita bertemu Memorial Tomb memiliki sisi panjang dalam huruf emas dengan kata-kata menggunakan motto Legergravendienst (Tentara Layanan Graves):

“HUN GEEST berat OVERWONNEN”
(Roh mereka Menghapus Mengatasi)

Di sisi lain menggunakan moto dari Oorlogsgravenstichting (Perang Graves Foundation):

“Zij OPDAT MET EERE MOGEN RUSTEN”
(Sehingga mereka dapat Istirahat)

Di bagian atas, ada ascending plak dengan teks:

“TER EERBIEDIGE NAGEDACHTENIS AAN DE Vele ONGENOEMDEN MATI EN HUN Leven OFFERDEN niet RUSTEN OP DE EREVELDEN”
(Dalam memori hormat kepada mereka yang tidak disebutkan tetapi mengorbankan hidup mereka dan tidak beristirahat di kuburan perang)

Teks yang sama namun dalam Bahasa Indonesia sudah terpasang di sisi monumen ini:

“UNTUK MENGENANG MEREKA YANG DENGAN Hormat TAK DISEBUT TELAH MENGORBANKAN DIRINYA TETAPI TIDAK DAN BERISTIRAHAT DI TAMAN-TAMAN KEHORMATAN”

JUNYO Maru plakat peringatan:
IN MEMORIAM DARI BENCANA KELAUTAN TERBESAR DI DUNIA II PERANG

Di balik tiang bendera dari Ereveld Leuwigadjah, ada pengadilan kecil dimana Plak Junyo Peringatan Maru didirikan. Monumen ini disumbangkan oleh Stichting Herdenking Junyo Maru (Junyo Maru Memorial Foundation), dalam memori korban di tahun 1942-1945 yang meninggal di laut di Asia Tenggara. Plak diresmikan pada 21 September 1984.

Junyo Maru dibangun pada tahun 1913 oleh Robert Duncan Co Glasgow.
Hal pengungsi 5.065 ton, adalah 405 kaki panjang, 53 kaki (16 m) lebar, dan 27,2 ft (8,3 m) yang mendalam. Mesin dinilai pada 475 hp (354 kW).

Courtesy of Hatmanto Sri Nugroho
Posisi tenggelamnya Junyo Maru sebagai 2 º 52 ‘S, 101 º 12’ E
Titik biru adalah sekitar lokasi tenggelamnya Junyo Maru.
Titik merah adalah tujuan dari Maru Junyo, Padang.

Kapal kargo Jepang Junyo Maru meninggalkan Tanjong Priok Harbor di Batavia pada 16 September 1944 dengan tujuan ke Padang.

Ada 6,500 orang di dalamnya terdiri dari:
2,300 Belanda, Inggris, Amerika dan Australia Tahanan Perang (POW)
4200 buruh budak Jawa.

Pada 18 September 1944, kapal Cargo Jepang Junyo Maru adalah torpedo di Samudra Hindia, dengan kapal selam Inggris HMS Tradewind. Komandan kapal selam tidak tahu apa yang Junyo Maru membawa. Dari 6500 penumpang, 5620 tewas, membuat

HMS Tradewind – Inggris

Hitungan terakhir korban dijemput oleh kapal Jepang sekitar 680 tawanan perang dan 200 buruh budak Jawa. Itu hanya 880 yang selamat, dengan kata lain sejumlah 5,620 telah tewas! Ini akan menjadi bencana maritim terbesar Perang Dunia II.

Para 880 pria hidup dipekerjakan (romusha) pada 220km Sumatera jalur kereta api antara Pekanbaru dan Muaro sampai 1945, keberuntungan dan kemalangan.

* * *

THE interniran KAMP Cimahi

CINA peranakan diinternir JUGA!

Cimahi kamp sebenarnya mantan Angkatan Darat Belanda dasar, terletak di dekat Bandung. Sekitar 10 ribu tawanan perang tinggal di Kamp Penahanan Cimahi. Lebih dari 510 dari mereka peranakan Cina dari kota-kota lain di Jawa (Surabaya, Malang, Semarang, Djepara, Magelang, Keboemen, Boendoeng, Boitenzorg, Batavia, Serang). Mereka ditahan pada bulan April 1942, dan pindah ke Serang (September 1943 – Februari 1944), dan akhirnya pindah ke Cimahi (Februari 1944 – Agustus 1945).

Menurut Nio Joe Lan sebagai sipil, dan diinternir orang, kondisi Camps Cimahi lebih baik dari kamp sebelumnya (terutama untuk Camp Cina), seperti Bukit Doeri (Batavia) dan Serang. Setidaknya, di Camp Cimahi mereka tidak sama tahanan di penjara karena mereka tinggal di sebuah ruangan, Camps berbeda Eropa lainnya.

Dalam Camp Cimahi, mereka menciptakan pembagian kerja: Medische Dienst (Layanan Dokter), Technisch Dienst (Technisch Layanan), Voedsel Dienst (Layanan Makanan), Financiën Dienst (Jasa Keuangan), Bevolking Dienst (layanan Masyarakat), Statistieken Dienst (layanan statistik untuk mengumpulkan harta dari orang mati).

Cimahi CAMP: TREINKAMPEMENT

Lokasi:
Kamp kereta api di distrik timur, utara jalur kereta api, di seberang kamp Baros-5. Ini pertama kali tawanan kamp di Cimahi.

Cimahi CAMP: IV DAN IX Batalyon

Nama lain: Cimahi Kamp 4; Bunsho II Kamp 4 (Japanse administratie)

Lokasi:
Perkemahan ini berada di utara kota Cimahi dibatasi oleh Kampementsweg, Stationsweg (kereta api), Gedong Delapan (pacuan kuda) dan Gedong Empat. Termasuk barak-barak Batalyon ke-4 dan 9. Itu dibuka untuk POW (kamp sipil) pada akhir Januari 1944.

Sumber: http://www.japaneseburgerkampen.nl

Cimahi IV dan IX Batalyon oleh CW Schuller 1944-45
Sumber: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

“Tempat tawanan Tionghoa ada blok VIII PADA jang terpetjah dalem 4 sectie. Blok-komandan Tionghoa bermoela ada Toean Lim Hwie Giap … digantiken Toean Thios Thiam Tjong (Semarang) … Sik Ien Liem (Bondowoso) di sectie saya, Siek Kiem Siong (Koedoes) di sectie II, Ang Jan Goan (Jakarta) di sectie III, murah Chiao Liong (Surabaya) di sectie IV ”

Komandan Camp:
Kapten Takagi (Maret-April 1944), Kapten Kasahara (April-Juli 1944), Kapten Takagi (Juli – Agustus 1945).

Pemantauan:
Militer Jepang, Korea, dan Heiho

Camp Pemimpin:
C.H.V. de Villeneuve (Februari 1944 – Mei 1945)
Richel (September 1944 – Februari 1945)
Heintz Stein (Maret 1944 – Agustus 1945

Cimahi CAMP: RUMAH SAKIT MILITER

Lokasi:
Rumah Sakit Militer di selatan pinggiran barat rel kereta api, itu menjabat sebagai tahanan rumah sakit kamp perang dan buruh sipil (laki-laki dan anak laki-laki yang lebih tua). Rumah sakit kamp terdiri dari beberapa paviliun dan dipagari dengan kawat berduri.

Pada Mei 1945 rumah sakit benar-benar dievakuasi, itu digunakan untuk pengobatan tentara Jepang. Pada 25 September 1945 rumah sakit dipindahkan ke pihak berwenang RAPWI Jepang untuk pengobatan mantan buruh dari kamp-kamp Jepang.

Komandan Camp:
Kapten Sakai (dokter)

Camp Pemimpin:
Dr MMG Woensdrecht

Cimahi CAMP: Baros 5
Nama lainnya:
Kamp terkemuka, Baros kamp, ​​Camp Bambu, Gundul-kepala kamp, ​​Batalyon 6, Depot Camp, Bunsho II Kamp 5 (Japanse administratie)

Sebuah peta kamp Baros dengan menunjukkan posisi dan fungsi dari setiap bangunan. Panggil teks atas kiri dan kanan: “Baros 19 October’43.”
Sumber: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

“Van een Interieur barak di Kamp het Baros” oleh Jan Kickhefer
Sumber: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Kamp-kamp menjadi lebih dan lebih penuh sesak dalam perjalanan perang. Lebar tempat tidur berkurang dari rata-rata 1,35 meter sampai 50 sentimeter. Cahaya atau udara segar memasuki barak pengap. Satu tempat tidur di rumah seseorang. Semuanya dilakukan di sini. Para tahanan makan, minum, tidur, membaca, menerima tamu-tamu mereka dan bermain-main di tempat mereka tidur. Beberapa barang mereka berdiri, menggantung atau berbaring di tempat tidur. Tidak ada privasi di sebuah rumah seperti ini.

Lokasi:
Perkemahan ini berada di timur kota Cimahi, langsung ke selatan garis. Kamp itu terletak di barak-barak barak darurat untuk iens milic pribumi. Pondok bambu, berjumlah sekitar 27 unit, memiliki lantai semen, paling tidak punya jendela, tapi selama panjang penuh strip udara terbuka tepat di bawah atap, di ujung sebuah pintu besar. Kamp itu kesan menakutkan: barak abu-abu di sekitar alun-alun besar, tidak ada pohon. Kamp tersebut dikelilingi oleh pagar bambu (maka nama itu Camp Bambu).

Komandan Camp:
Kunimoto (Mei – Agustus 1945)

Pemantauan:
Militer Jepang, Korea, Heiho

Camp Pemimpin:
J. Bos (untuk semua fungsi kamp)

Cimahi CAMP: Baros 6

Nama lainnya:
Jongenskamp Baros, Bunsho II Kamp 6 (Japanse administratie)

Lokasi:
Perkemahan ini terletak di selatan kota Cimahi, di kedua sisi Barosweg dan tahanan dan kamp wanita muda. Kamp terdiri dari dua bagian di kedua sisi Barosweg: untuk yang barat “Williamstraat” dan di timur “Baroskant” melalui dua gerbang dijaga.

Komandan Camp
Anak-anak Camp: Sagami (Juli – Desember 1944), Kunimoto (Januari – Mei 1945), Shimonya (Mei – Agustus 1945).

Pemantauan:
Japanse militairen, Koreanen, heiho itu (ongeveer 50)

Camp Pemimpin:
Perempuan Camp: Mw R. Minderman
Anak-anak Camp: G. A. Schotel

KETERANGAN

Pendudukan Jepang telah mengubah semua nilai-nilai, budaya, dan kehidupan baik Indonesia dan Eropa, terutama Belanda yang kehilangan mereka emporium. Sebagian besar orang Belanda interniran, bagaimanapun, ada sejumlah kecil peranakan Tionghoa juga di Camp Cimahi.

Bagi saya, Leuwigadjah Ereveld tidak berarti Pemakaman Perang hanya tetapi mencerminkan bencana dan kesengsaraan periode antara Belanda dan Indonesia saat pendudukan Jepang. Kami ingin untuk mencapai pelajaran dari masa lalu.

Anonim Perempuan Makam

REFERENSI

“Dalem Tawanan Jepang”
(Boelit Doeri – Serang – Cimahi)
Poenoetoeran Pengidoepan Interneeran PADA Djeman Pendoedoekan Djepang
Dengan Nio Joe Lan
Pertama Diterbitkan oleh LOTUS, 1946
Kedua Diterbitkan oleh Komunitas Bambu, 2009.

“Ereveld Leuwigajah”
Leaflet, Oorlogsgravenstichting

“Para Tenggelamnya Maru Junyo”

“Kenangan Pemuda saya dan Tahun Pendudukan Jepang
di Timur Belanda Mantan Hindia Selama Perang Dunia Kedua ”
Oleh Elizabeth van Kampe

Kampen op Java

original info

EREVELD LEUWIGADJAH: A RESONANCE FROM PRISONER OF WAR  
     

“Lampoe-lampoe terang di satoe stasioen. Kreta-api brenti.
Kita dapet prentah boeat toeroen
sesoeda doedoek berdesak-desakan 1 hari 1 malem sampe kaki kakoe.
Papan bord berboenji: Tjimahi. Lontjeng stasioen oendjoek djam 6 (Nippon) pagi.”

Nio Joe Lan, “Dalem Tawanan Djepang”, 1946

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Entrance Gate

Photobucket
From the Tomb Monument

ON MISSION

As a final point, I accomplished the journey of “My Odyssey in the Seven Dutch War Cemeteries in Java”. A Journey to Ereveld Leuwigadjah was executed on Saturday, 13th of June 2009, accompanied by my fellows Wibowo Wibisono (preparing the prior permission to OGS), Olive Bendon, and Andipo Wiratama.Ereveld Leuwigadjah is located on Kerkhof Jl. Tjibogo 16, Tjimahi. It was about 10 km west of Bandoeng, West Java. When Japanese occupation in 1942-45, Tjimahi was the one of internment camps in the Java. About 10 thousand prisoner of war suffered in Tjimahi internment camp.

The Ereveld Leuwigadjah is consisting currently more than 5.200 graves from casualties in the period 1942-48. Therefore, Ereveld Leuwigajah is the most ereveld with the number graves managed by the Oorlogsgravenstichting (War Graves Foundation).

MAP OF TJIMAHI 1941Photobucket
Courtesy of Dr. Leo Niehorster
(World War Armed Forces – Order of Battle and Organization)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Photobucket
Frangky
Opzichter of Ereveld Leuwigadjah
He works in OGS since October 2008

I would express my gratitude to Mr. P. Steenmeijer as the Director of Oorlogsgravenstichting (OGS) Indonesia and Pak Frangky as Opzichter of Ereveld Leuwigadjah who have kindly permitted us for visiting the Ereveld Leuwigadjah. Without prior permission from them, our journey would not be achieved.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Before Ereveled Leuwigadjah established, the present day location have been used for burying the dead from the nearby internment camps (former IX and X Battalion of the KNIL) during the Japanese occupation 1942-45.However, Ereveld Leuwigadjah was not only for internment camp casualties, but many soldiers of the Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (KNIL) and the Koninklijk Landmacht KL buried as well, who died in the turbulent years after the Japanese capitulation.

The inauguration of the Ereveld Leuwigajah took place on 20th of December 1949 by General Major P. Alons.

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General Major P. Alons
Opening the Ereveld Leuwigadjah, 20th of December 1949
Source: KITLVIn the 1960s there were reburial instead of the mortal remains of war casualties from the Ereveld Muntok (1960), Padang (1962), Tarakan (1964), Medan 1966), Palembang (1967), and Balikpapan (1967).

At the end of the passage, there is a small roundabout with the flagpolePhotobucket
Major General P Alons (left) Leaves the Ceremony
Source: KITLV

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Flagpole, Present Day Situation

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Wreath-laying ceremony by the Wali Negara of Pasoendan –
Raden Temenggoeng Djoewarsa, 20th of December 1949
Source: KITLV

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Base of Flagpole, Present Day Situation

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Entrance Gate to Ereveld Tjimahi (Leuwigadjah), 1949
Source: KITLV

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Entrance Gate, Present Day Situation

THE MONUMENTS

MEMORIAL TOMB

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From the entrance gate, we meet the Tomb Memorial has a long side in golden letters with the words using motto of the Legergravendienst (Army Graves Service):

“HUN GEEST HEFT OVERWONNEN”
(Their Spirit Removes Overcome)

On the other side using the motto of the Oorlogsgravenstichting (War Graves Foundation):

“OPDAT ZIJ MET EERE MOGEN RUSTEN”
(So That They May Rest)

At the top, there is ascending plaque with the text:

“TER EERBIEDIGE NAGEDACHTENIS AAN DE VELE ONGENOEMDEN DIE HUN LEVEN OFFERDEN EN NIET RUSTEN OP DE EREVELDEN”
(In respectful memory to those who did not mentioned but sacrificed their lives and not rest on the war graves)

The same text but in Bahasa Indonesia is mounted on the side of this monument:

“UNTUK MENGENANG DENGAN HORMAT MEREKA YANG TAK DISEBUT TETAPI TELAH MENGORBANKAN DIRINYA DAN TIDAK BERISTIRAHAT DI TAMAN-TAMAN KEHORMATAN”

JUNYO MARU COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE:
IN MEMORIAM OF THE LARGEST MARITIME DISASTER IN WORLD WAR II

Photobucket

Behind the flagpole of Ereveld Leuwigadjah, there is a small court where the Junyo Maru Commemorative Plaque established. This monument was donated by Stichting Herdenking Junyo Maru (Junyo Maru Memorial Foundation), in memory of casualties in the years 1942-1945 who died at sea in the South-East Asia. The plaque was inaugurated on 21th of September 1984.

Photobucket
Junyo Maru built in 1913 by Robert Duncan Co. Glasgow.
It displaced 5,065 tons, was 405 ft long, 53 ft (16 m) wide, and 27.2 ft (8.3 m) deep. The engines were rated at 475 hp (354 kW).

Photobucket
Courtesy of Hatmanto Sri Nugroho
The position of the sinking Junyo Maru as 2º 52′ S, 101º 12′ E
The blue point is aproximately location of the sinking Junyo Maru.
The red point is destination of the Junyo Maru, Padang.

The Japanese cargo ship Junyo Maru left Tanjong Priok Harbor in Batavia on the 16th of September 1944 with the destination to Padang.

There were 6.500 people on board consisted:
2.300 Dutch, British, American and Australian Prisoners of War (POWs)
4200 Javanese slave laborers.

On 18th of September 1944, the Japanese Cargo ship Junyo Maru was torpedoed in the Indian Ocean, by the British Submarine H.M.S. Tradewind. The submarine commander had not known what Junyo Maru was carrying. Of the 6500 passengers, 5620 perished, making

Photobucket
HMS Tradewind – British

Final count of survivors picked up by the Japanese boats was about 680 POWs and 200 Javanese slave laborers. That is only 880 were survived, in other words a number of 5.620 has perished! It will be the largest maritime disaster of World War II.

The 880 survival men were employed (romusha) on the 220km of Sumatra railway line between Pekanbaru and Muaro untill 1945, fortune and misfortune.

* * *

THE TJIMAHI INTERNMENT CAMPS

CHINESE PERANAKAN WAS ALSO INTERNED!

Tjimahi camp was actually a former Dutch Army base, situated near Bandoeng. About 10 thousands POWs lived in Tjimahi Internment Camps. More than 510 of them were Chinese Peranakan from other cities in Java (Soerabaja, Malang, Samarang, Djepara, Magelang, Keboemen, Boendoeng, Boitenzorg, Batavia, Serang). They were interned in April 1942, and moved to Serang (September 1943 – February 1944), and finally moved to Tjimahi (February 1944 – August 1945).According Nio Joe Lan as the civilian, and interned person, the condition of Tjimahi Camps were better than previous camps (especially for Chinese Camp), such as Boekit Doeri (Batavia) and Serang. At least, in Tjimahi Camp they were not alike prisoner in jail because they lived in a room, different other European Camps.

Within the Tjimahi Camp, they created the division of work: Medische Dienst (of Physician Service), Technisch Dienst (Technisch Service), Voedsel Dienst (Food Service), Financiën Dienst (Financial Service), Bevolking Dienst (Community service), Statistieken Dienst (statistical service for collecting property from the dead person).

TJIMAHI CAMP: TREINKAMPEMENT

Location:
The train camp was in the eastern district, north of the railway line, opposite the camp Baros-5. It was first POW camp in Tjimahi.

TJIMAHI CAMP: IV AND IX BATTALION

Other Name: Tjimahi Kamp 4; Bunsho II Kamp 4 (Japanse administratie)

Location:
This camp was in the northern city of Tjimahi bounded by Kampementsweg, Stationsweg (railway), Gedong Delapan (racetrack) and Gedong Empat. Included the barracks of the 4th and 9th Battalion. It was opened for POW (civilian camp) in late January 1944.Photobucket
Source: http://www.japaneseburgerkampen.nl

Photobucket
Tjimahi IV and IX Battalion by CW Schüller 1944 – 45
Source: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek
<div align=”justify
A map in pencil of the internment Tjimahi IV and IX. On the map include the barrack with their different functions, names of laborers and Roman numerals in the distribution of the camp. Block IX was the clinique unit, Block VII was the Chinese Camp. Nio Joe Lan told on his book “Dalem Tawanan Djepang” p.223:

“Tempat tawanan Tionghoa ada pada blok VIII jang terpetjah dalem 4 sectie. Blok-commandant Tionghoa bermoela ada toean Lim Hwie Giap…digantiken toean Thios Thiam Tjong (Semarang)…Liem Sik Ien (Bondowoso) di sectie I, Siek Kiem Siong (Koedoes) di sectie II, Ang Jan Goan (Djakarta) di sectie III, dan Chiao Liong (Soerabaja) di sectie IV”Camp Commander:
Capt. Takagi (March – April 1944), Capt. Kasahara (April – July 1944), Capt. Takagi (July – August 1945).

Monitoring:
Japanese Military, Korean, and Heiho

Camp Leader:
C.H.V. de Villeneuve (February 1944 – May 1945)
Richel (September 1944 – February 1945)
Heintz Stein (March 1944 – August 1945

TJIMAHI CAMP: MILITARY HOSPITAL

Location:
The Military Hospital was in the western suburb south of the railroad, it served as a prisoner of war camp hospital and civilian laborers (men and older boys). The camp hospital consisted of some pavilions and was fenced with barbed wire.In May 1945 the hospital was completely evacuated, it was used for treatment of Japanese soldiers. On 25th of September 1945 the hospital was transferred to the RAPWI Japanese authorities for the treatment of ex-laborers of the Japanese camps.

Camp Commander:
Capt. Sakai (doctor)

Camp Leader:
Dr MMG Woensdrecht

TJIMAHI CAMP: BAROS 5
Other names:
Prominent Kamp, Baros camp, Bamboo Camp, Bald-heads camp, 6th Battalion, Depot Camp, Bunsho II Kamp 5 (Japanse administratie)Photobucket
A map of the camp Baros with showing the position and function of each building. Top dial left and right text: “Baros. 19 October’43”
Source: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Photobucket
“Interieur van een barak in het kamp Baros” by Jan Kickhefer
Source: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

The camps became more and more overcrowded in the course of the war. The width of a sleeping place was reduced from an average of 1.35 metres to 50 centimetres. Little light or fresh air entered the stuffy barracks. One’s sleeping place was one’s home. Everything was done here. The inmates ate, drank, slept, read, received their guests and tinkered in their sleeping place. Their few belongings stood, hung or lay around the bed. There was no privacy in a dwelling like this.

Location:
This camp was in the eastern city of Tjimahi, directly south of the line. The camp was located in the barracks of the emergency barracks for indigenous milic iens. The bamboo huts, total about 27 units, had a cement floor, most had no windows, but over the full length of an open air strip directly beneath the roof, at the ends was a big door. The camp was a sinister impression: gray barracks around a large square, no tree. The camp was surrounded by a bamboo fence (hence the name was Bamboo Camp).Camp Commander:
Kunimoto (May – August 1945)

Monitoring:
Japan Military, Korean, Heiho

Camp Leader:
J.Bos (for all camp functions)

TJIMAHI CAMP: BAROS 6

Other name:
Jongenskamp Baros, Bunsho II Kamp 6 (Japanse administratie)Location:
This camp was located in the southern town of Tjimahi, on both sides of the Barosweg and prisoner and young woman camp. The camp consisted of two parts on either side of the Barosweg: to the west the “Williamstraat” and on the east the “Baroskant” through two guarded gates.

Camp Commander
Children Camp: Sagami (July – December 1944), Kunimoto (January – May 1945), Shimonya (May – August 1945).

Monitoring:
Japanse militairen, Koreanen, heiho’s (ongeveer 50)

Camp Leader:
Women Camp: Mw R.Minderman
Children Camp: G.A.Schotel

REMARKS

The Japanese occupation has changed all the values, culture, and life both of Indonesian and European, especially Dutch who lost their emporium. Most of internees were Dutch, however, there were small number of Chinese Peranakan also in the Tjimahi Camp.For me, the Ereveld Leuwigadjah does not mean the War Cemetery only but it reflects catastrophe and misery period between Netherlands and Indonesia when Japanese occupation. We should like to reach the lesson from the past.

Photobucket
Anonymous Female TombREFERENCES

“Dalem Tawanan Jepang”
(Boelit Doeri – Serang – Tjimahi)
Poenoetoeran Pengidoepan Interneeran Pada Djeman Pendoedoekan Djepang
By Nio Joe Lan
First Published by LOTUS, 1946
Second Published by Komunitas Bambu, 2009.

“Ereveld Leuwigajah”
Leaflet, Oorlogsgravenstichting

“The Sinking of the Junyo Maru”

“Memories of My Youth and the Years of the Japanese Occupation
in The Former Dutch East Indies During World War Two”
By Elizabeth van Kampe

Kampen op Java


Memorial Tomb
  

OGS Motto
  

Army Graves Service Motto
  

In Respectful Memory
  

The Passage
  

Flagpole
  

Junyo Maru Commemorate Palque
  

Children Cemetery
  

Anonymous Tomb
  

Anonymous Tomb
  

Mass Cemetery from Goeroen Lawas
  

Anonymous Tombs
  

Beautiful Landscape
  

Mass Cemetery from Karolanden-Medan
  

Montains View
  

Victory
  

Anonymous Tomb
  

Jewish Tomb
  

Mass Cemetery from Goeroen Lawas
  

Torch Handle
  

Mass Cemetery from Olo 27
  

OGS Annual Book
  

OGS
  

Entrance Gate
  

Catalogue of 7 Ereveld
  

Gate of Kerkhof Tjimahi
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Kamp Tjideng

Main Gate Tjideng
Kamp Tjideng adalah kamp penjara bagi perempuan dan anak-anak Eropa yang tinggal di apa yang kemudian Hindia Belanda. Saya mengunjungi untuk pertama kalinya pada tahun 2005 dan meskipun saya tidak memiliki pengalaman untuk memanggil saya sendiri, dalam hal kehidupan kamp, ​​emosi yang dihasilkan selama waktu saya di sana sangat kuat. Saya telah mendiskusikan kehidupan di Tjideng dengan ibu saya dan bibi, yang diinternir di tahun 1942, dan telah membaca beberapa account dari orang lain. Saya merasa saya memiliki beberapa pengetahuan tentang Tjideng dan apa yang terjadi di sana namun datang untuk mengatasi dengan realitas tanah di mana aku berjalan sulit. Semua Saya berasumsi, jauh di dalam saya, adalah bahwa muatan emosi saya merasa terakhir kali tidak akan diulang selama ini kunjungan kedua. Saya salah …
Sebelum invasi Jepang di Indonesia, Tjideng bersama Menteng, telah dikembangkan sebagai daerah pemukiman bagi Belanda yang lebih kaya. Thehouses besar-besar dibandingkan dengan daerah lain dan di Laan Trivelli rumah-rumah berisi 3 kamar tidur, ruang tamu yang besar, sebuah studi, dapur, beranda, dan taman depan dan belakang. Untuk satu keluarga rumah-rumah ini luas, dan nyaman, dan mereka mengumumkan kepada dunia status tertentu. Rumah-rumah di jalan-jalan lebih kecil.
Sulit untuk menggambarkan perasaan yang mulai banjir di saat aku dilacak rute saya di sekeliling kamp. Antisipasi, kecemasan, kesedihan, dan rasa syukur menenangkan. Bersyukur atas fakta bahwa saya dapat kembali ke tempat ini yang merupakan bagian dari warisan keluarga saya, dan sedih karena apa Tjideng mewakili kepada ibu saya dan banyak orang lain di seluruh dunia. Bersyukur bahwa begitu banyak orang (terutama keluarga saya) bisa datang melalui pengalaman ini, dan kesedihan yang begitu banyak orang tidak. Ibuku adalah orang yang paling positif saya tahu namun dia telah mengatakan berkali-kali tentang banyak situasi, “orang bisa begitu kejam” dan itu adalah kekejaman yang menggambarkan Tjideng namun itu adalah ketekunan dari roh yang saya percaya mendefinisikan dan kamp lainnya seperti itu.Saat aku berjalan di sekitar saya mencoba membayangkan seperti apa rasanya. Aku bisa merasakan panas, tapi aku hanya bisa membayangkan kelaparan dan penyakit. Lebih dari 10.000 wanita dan anak-anak berdesakan dalam area yang membawaku total 15 menit untuk berjalan-jalan. Rumah-rumah kecil di sisi jalan menjadi rumah bagi enam keluarga, Laan Trivelli menjadi rumah bagi Tenko, ketakutan, dan ocehan orang gila saat bulan purnama. Saya tidak tahu banyak tentang Sonei tapi aku tahu dia volatile dan di perintah dan aku tahu ini bukan kombinasi yang baik dalam kondisi apapun. Kebrutalan-Nya membuatnya mendapatkan eksekusi menyerah pos.

Dalam Tjideng tepat di Laan Trivelli sudut dan Musiweg adalah sebuah gereja. Pada tahun 2005 saya menghabiskan waktu di gereja ini memiliki kata untuk siapa mendengarkan, saya melakukannya lagi hari ini. Ibu nama saya Maria, nama gereja adalah Maria.

Kartupos tawanan perang dari penguhuni lain peter and lee Hehdee yang dikirim liwat palang merah Indonesia ke orang tuanya avail van Heehdee  di camp Malaya,mungkin Ibu nad a Maria pernah bertemu dengannya
the POW card sent from Tjideng women camp Lee van Hehdee to their father Afvail van Heehdee at Malay Camp,sent via Indonesia red cross Jakarta.
original info:

Kamp Tjideng was a prison camp for European women and children who lived in what was then the Dutch East Indies. I visited for the first time in 2005 and even though I have no experiences to call my own, in regard to camp life, the emotion that was generated during my time there was powerful. I have discussed life at Tjideng with my mother and aunts, who were interned in 1942, and have read several accounts from others. I feel I have some knowledge of Tjideng and what went on there however coming to grips with the reality of the ground upon which I walked was difficult. All I assumed, deep inside me, is that the charge of emotion I felt last time would not be repeated during this second visit. I was wrong…

Prior to the Japanese invasion of Indonesia, Tjideng along with Menteng, had been developed as residential areas for the more affluent Dutch. Thehouses were large in comparison to other areas and on Laan Trivelli the houses contained 3 bedrooms, a large living room, a study, a kitchen, a verandah, and a garden front and back. For a single family these houses were spacious, and comfortable, and they announced to the world a certain status. The houses on the side streets were smaller.

It’s difficult to describe the feelings that began to flood over me as I traced my route around the camps perimeter. Anticipation, anxiety, sadness, and a  calming sense of gratitude. Grateful for the fact that I can return to this place that is part of my family heritage, and sad because of what Tjideng represents to my mother and many others around the world. Grateful that so many people (especially my family) were able to come through this experience, and sorrow that so many others did not. My mother is the most positive person I know yet she has said many times about many situations, “people can be so cruel” and it is cruelty that describes Tjideng however it is perseverance of spirit that I believe defines it and many other camps just like it.

As I walked around I tried to imagine what it was like. I could feel the heat, but I could only imagine the hunger and illness. Over 10,000 women and children crammed into an area that took me a total of 15 minutes to walk around. The smaller houses on the side streets becoming home to six families, Laan Trivelli becoming home to tenko, fear, and the rantings of a madman during full moon. I don’t know a lot about Sonei but I know he was volatile and in command and I know this is not a good combination under any circumstances. His brutality earned him a post surrender execution.

In Tjideng right by the corner of Laan Trivelli and Musiweg is a church. In 2005 I spent time in this church having a word to whomever was listening, I did so again today. My mothers name is Maria, the name of the church is Maria.

 
Tjideng today
KamparwegTjideng today)
 

 

William Batchelor

William Charles Batchelor Jr

  

Nama Belakang:
Batchelor Pertama Nama awal Tengah:
WILLIAM CHARLES Nick Name:
labah-labah
Jalan: P.O. Kotak 9 Kota & Negara: LaConner, WA E-Mail:
Zip: 98257 Telepon: Pasangan:
Konflik: Perang Dunia II Cabang Layanan: Angkatan Laut Unit: USS Houston
Teater: Dimana Pasifik Ditangkap: Tanggal JAWA Ditangkap: 03 / / 1 / 42
Kamp Dimiliki In: “. Railroad Of Death” Penjara Serang, Changi, Sepeda Camp, Burma Berapa Lama diinternir: 2 yrs.
Dibebaskan / dipulangkan: Tanggal Terbebaskan: Meninggal Umur pada TANGKAP: 21
Medali Diterima: Prisoner of MEDALI PERANG, MEDALI HATI UNGU, PERANG DUNIA II VICTORY MEDALI, MEDALI PERTAHANAN FILIPINA, CITATION UNIT PRESIDEN, ASIATIC MEDALI PASIFIK KAMPANYE, AMERICAN MEDALI PERTAHANAN LAYANAN
Job Militer: Angkatan Laut, USS Houston Perusahaan: Meninggal di Kamp Penjara
Pekerjaan setelah Perang:

Bio:

William Batchelor selamat banyak hal selama perang termasuk tenggelamnya USS Houston (CA 30) di mana 700 anggota awak meninggal. Dia ditangkap di Jawa, sementara ia bekerja ia dipukuli dan kelaparan oleh para penculiknya Jepang sampai ia meninggal pada usia 23 di Camp Kilo 80 di pegunungan Burma pada terkenal “Railroad Kematian.” Mr Batchelor adalah lulusan Akademi Militer Uni Fork. Dia dikebumikan di Pemakaman Nasional Arlington.

 
 
 
 
 
original info

William Charles Batchelor Jr.

 

Last Name:
BATCHELOR
First Name Middle Initial:
WILLIAM CHARLES
Nick Name:
Spider
Street:  P.O. Box 9 City & State: LaConner, WA E-Mail: 
Zip: 98257 Phone:  Spouse:
Conflict: WWII Service Branch:  Navy Unit:  USS Houston
Theater: Pacific Where Captured: JAVA Date Captured: 03//1/42
Camps Held In: Serang Jail, Changi, Bicycle Camp, Burma “Railroad Of Death.” How Long Interned:  2 yrs.
Liberated / repatriated: Date Liberated: Died Age at Capture: 21
Medals Received: PRISONER OF WAR MEDAL, PURPLE HEART MEDAL, WORLD WAR II VICTORY MEDAL, PHILIPPINE DEFENSE MEDAL, PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION, ASIATIC PACIFIC CAMPAIGN MEDAL, AMERICAN DEFENSE SERVICE MEDAL
Military Job: Navy, USS Houston Company: Died in Prison Camp
Occupation after War: 
Bio:William Batchelor survived many things during the war including the sinking of the USS Houston (CA 30) in which 700 crew members died. He was captured in Java, while he worked he was beaten and starved by his Japanese captors until he died at the age of 23 in the 80 Kilo Camp in the mountains of Burma on the infamous “Death Railroad.” Mr. Batchelor was a graduate of Fork Union Military Academy. He is interred at the Arlington National Cemetery.

Tangerang
 Prison

A stitch a day… Embroidering in prison 1940-1945
 Ribuan perempuan Belanda dipenjarakan selama Perang Dunia Kedua: perempuan di Hindia Belanda, dan mereka yang ditahan yang merupakan anggota Perlawanan. Kondisi di penjara bervariasi, tapi setiap kali mereka dapat, wanita-wanita bordir.Mereka akan melakukan yang terbaik mereka untuk bisa menyulam. Mereka mencuri jarum dari penjaga, merobek patch dari lembaran atau pakaian, dan menarik benang keluar dari jilbab berwarna. Mereka bersulam bagi dirinya dan bagi satu sama lain. Ini adalah sesuatu untuk dinikmati, memberi mereka rasa aman dan membawa warna untuk abu-abu keberadaan mereka.Ini sangat tergantung pada kondisi penjara berapa banyak mereka bisa menyulam, atau apakah mereka bisa menjaga pekerjaan mereka. Ini harus diselundupkan keluar, atau mereka selesai setelah pembebasan. Bordir sedikit dilakukan oleh perempuan dipertahankan. Dalam Westerbork kamp transit di Drenthe ada beberapa tempat kerja yang digunakan logam dan kayu, yang digunakan untuk pekerjaan mereka sendiri, tetapi tekstil sangat sedikit yang tersedia.Sebagian besar bordir diawetkan dalam pameran ini adalah dengan perempuan yang berakhir di penjara atau di kamp konsentrasi karena bagian mereka dalam Perlawanan. Bordir oleh perempuan di kamp-kamp Jepang di Hindia Belanda juga ditampilkan.Mengirim gambar digital bordir Anda terinspirasi oleh pameran

 
 

Seaman, bankir dan ayah


Wally van Aula dibesarkan di sebuah keluarga Amsterdam bankir dan direksi. Tapi ia ingin sesuatu yang berbeda. Wally pergi ke laut. Ia menjadi pasangan ketiga pada perdagangan laut-pergi dengan NV Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd. Pada tahun 1929 ditemukan bahwa penglihatannya tidak cukup baik untuk bekerja di laut. Dia harus berhenti mengintip di cakrawala. Dia pergi ke New York dan menjadi seorang bankir setelah semua.

Saat kembali ke Belanda ia menikah Tilly den Tex, cinta dalam hidupnya. Mereka memiliki tiga anak. Pada Maret 1940 ia menjadi mitra dalam rumah perbankan Rab J. te Veltrup & Zoon. Ketika perang pecah keluarga muda tinggal di Zaandam. Hampir setiap hari Wally pergi ke bursa saham Amsterdam. Di sana ia melakukan kontak untuk karyanya sebagai bankir Perlawanan.

Menjalankan sebuah bank ilegal
NSF didirikan pada tahun 1943 ketika uang yang lebih banyak dibutuhkan untuk kelompok Perlawanan dan untuk mendukung ribuan orang bersembunyi dan korban lain dari pendudukan.

Untuk menjaga uang mengalir, Wally van Aula berpendapat bahwa di masa depan hanya jumlah besar setidaknya 25.000 gulden harus dipinjamkan. Ia berharap bahwa ini juga akan mengurangi risiko tertangkap. Untuk alasan ini, ia dan saudaranya Gijs merancang sistem untuk web yang rumit dari pinjaman ilegal. Semua pinjaman diberikan dalam kode.

Pada sisi pengeluaran juga, mana ada NSF paling pekerja, semuanya dicatat secara rinci. Aplikasi untuk bantuan diperiksa. Dan semua pembayaran yang terdaftar, sehingga setelah perang mereka bisa dipertanggungjawabkan.

Aliran uang di Steunfonds Nationaal
Dalam perjalanan perang lebih banyak uang yang dibutuhkan untuk mendanai perlawanan. Dengan Mei 1945 NSF – bank Perlawanan – telah didistribusikan lebih dari 83 juta gulden kepada kelompok-kelompok Perlawanan dan puluhan ribu yang membutuhkan bantuan.

Hampir tidak ada yang tahu di mana semua uang itu berasal. Pendapatan dan pengeluaran yang ketat terpisah, sehingga jika salah satu ditemukan yang lain tidak akan terancam. Hanya Wally van Aula tahu segala sesuatu tentang kedua sisi ‘bank’. Bersama dengan saudaranya Gijs ia berlari departemen pendapatan NSF, Instituut Disconto.

Tersebar tentang negara ada 23 NSF kabupaten, dengan bupati, kasir, administrator dan pegawai mengumpulkan. Mereka terutama berkaitan dengan pengeluaran. Semua mengatakan, sekitar 2000 pekerja diangkut koper penuh uang, membawa paket upah ke rumah, membantu kelompok-kelompok Perlawanan atau melakukan pembukuan.

Tokoh di NSF
Para Steunfonds Nationaal (NSF) didirikan pada tahun 1943 oleh Wally van Hall dan Iman van den Bosch. Mereka berdua bekerja untuk Zeemanspot, dana untuk membantu para istri pelaut dijalankan oleh Kapten Ibrahim Philippo Rotterdam. Sebagai Perlawanan tumbuh pada tahun 1943 dan orang-orang yang lebih membutuhkan bantuan, Wally van Hall dan Iman van van den Bosch memutuskan untuk memperpanjang bantuan mereka.

Tokoh terkemuka dalam NSF adalah: Wally van Hall, Iman van den Bosch dan AJ Gelderblom. Mereka mengadakan pertemuan mingguan di Utrecht. Gijs van Aula memainkan peran penting dalam latar belakang sebagai penasihat keuangan. Dia dan adiknya mengangkat puluhan juta untuk NSF.

Sebuah monumen untuk Wally
Wally van Hall ditangkap oleh Jerman pada tanggal 27 Januari 1945 Leidsegracht di Amsterdam. Pada awalnya mereka tidak menyadari siapa mereka telah tertangkap karena mereka sedang mencari Tuyl Van tertentu. Tapi Wally dikhianati sementara di penjara. Pada 12 Februari 1945 Wally van Hall dieksekusi oleh regu tembak pada Jan Gijzenkade di Haarlem.

Pada Maret 1945 koran Perlawanan Vrije Gedachten menerbitkan In Memoriam yang menggambarkan dia sebagai “salah satu pemimpin Perlawanan yang kewenangannya adalah tak tertandingi.”

Segera setelah Pembebasan Walraven van Hall dikuburkan kembali di pemakaman peringatan di Bloemendaal. Sekarang, 64 tahun setelah Pembebasan, sebuah monumen untuk dirinya telah didirikan di Amsterdam  

original info:

Tangerang
 Prison

 
A stitch a day… Embroidering in prison 1940-1945

 

Thousands of Dutch women were imprisoned during the Second World War: Jewish women, women in the Dutch East Indies, and those arrested who were members of the Resistance. Conditions in prison varied considerably, but whenever they could, these women embroidered.

They would do their utmost to be able to embroider. They stole needles from the guards, ripped off patches from sheets or clothing, and pulled thread out of coloured headscarves. They embroidered for themselves and for one another. It was something to enjoy, it gave them a sense of security and brought colour to their grey existence.

It depended very much upon prison conditions how much they could embroider, or whether they could keep their work. It had to be smuggled out, or else they finished it after the liberation. Little embroidery done by Jewish women was preserved. In the transit camp Westerbork in Drenthe there were several workplaces that used metal and wood, which was used for their own work, but very little textile was available.

Much of the preserved embroidery in this exhibition is by women who ended up in prison or in concentration camps because of their part in the Resistance. Embroidery by women in the Japanese camps in the Dutch East Indies is also shown.

Send a digital image of your embroidery inspired by the exhibition

 
 
 

 Wally van Hall 1906 – 1945

 The Dutch East Indies. On the blouse there is embroidery of camp scenes.
A stitch a day…Tangerang, 5-12-1944.
 
 

Seaman, banker and father
Wally van Hall grew up in an Amsterdam family of bankers and directors. But he wanted something different. Wally went to sea. He became third mate on the ocean-going trade with NV Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd. In 1929 it was found that his eyesight was not good enough for work at sea. He had to stop peering at the horizon. He went to New York and became a banker after all.

On returning to the Netherlands he married Tilly den Tex, the love of his life. They had three children. In March 1940 he became a partner in the banking house Wed. J. te Veltrup & Zoon. When war broke out the young family were living in Zaandam. Almost every day Wally went to the Amsterdam stock exchange. There he made contacts for his work as the banker of the Resistance.

Running an illegal bank
The NSF was set up in 1943 when ever more money was needed for Resistance groups and to support thousands of people in hiding and other victims of the Occupation.

To keep the money flowing, Wally van Hall argued that in future only large amounts of at least 25,000 guilders should be loaned. He hoped that this would also reduce the risk of being caught. For this reason he and his brother Gijs devised a system for the intricate web of illegal loans. All loans were administered in code.

On the expenditure side too, where there were the most NSF workers, everything was recorded in detail. Applications for assistance were checked. And all payments were registered, so that after the war they could be accounted for. 

The flow of money at the Nationaal Steunfonds
In the course of the war more and more money was needed to fund the Resistance. By May 1945 the NSF – the bank of the Resistance – had distributed over 83 million guilders to Resistance groups and many tens of thousands who needed help.

Hardly anyone knew where all that money came from. Income and expenditure were strictly separated, so that if one was discovered the other would not be endangered. Only Wally van Hall knew everything about both sides of ‘the bank’.  Together with his brother Gijs he ran the income department of the NSF, the Disconto Instituut.

Dispersed about the country there were 23 NSF districts, with district heads, cashiers, administrators and collecting clerks. They were mainly concerned with expenditure. All told, some 2000 workers transported suitcases full of money, brought wage packets to homes, helped Resistance groups or did the bookkeeping.

Leading figures in the NSF
The Nationaal Steunfonds (NSF) was founded in 1943 by Wally van Hall and Iman van den Bosch. They both worked for the Zeemanspot, a fund to help the wives of seamen run by Captain Abraham Philippo of Rotterdam. As the Resistance grew in 1943 and ever more people needed help, Wally van Hall and Iman van van den Bosch decided to extend their assistance.

The leading figures in the NSF were: Wally van Hall, Iman van den Bosch and A.J. Gelderblom. They held weekly meetings in Utrecht. Gijs van Hall played a vital role in the background as the financial adviser. He and his brother raised tens of millions for the NSF.

A monument to Wally
Wally van Hall was arrested by the Germans on 27 January 1945 on Leidsegracht in Amsterdam. At first they did not realise whom they had caught because they were looking for a certain Van Tuyl. But Wally was betrayed while in prison. On 12 February 1945 Wally van Hall was executed by firing squad on Jan Gijzenkade in Haarlem.

In March 1945 the Resistance newspaper Vrije Gedachten published an In Memoriam which described him as ‘one of the leaders of the Resistance whose authority was unchallenged.’

Soon after the Liberation Walraven van Hall was reburied at the memorial cemetery in Bloemendaal. Now, 64 years after the Liberation, a  monument to him has been erected on Frederiksplein in Amsterdam. Read more.

After the war
Immediately after the war the process of clearing up all the wartime financial transactions began. Loans to the NSF were repaid by the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the trick with the fake treasury bonds was set right.

After the war the NSF – now a foundation – still had 22 million guilders in cash. This money was used to make financial contributions to the building of the National Monument on the Dam in Amsterdam and to the founding of the  Netherlands Institute for War Documentation. In 1953 the NSF Foundation .

 
 

Sejarah

Batavia, Java, 24 September 1945. Australian ex-prisoners of war on the verandah of their sleeping quarters at Bicycle Camp, so named because of the large number of bicycles found there when first occupied by the prisoners. Conditions inside the building (an ex-Dutch barracks) were even more cramped. Photo by Lieutenant R Buchanan. Australian War Memorial Negative number 123669.
Sebuah pengalaman bedah unik dalam tahanan kamp perang Perang Dunia II

Kapten Les OS Poidevin, MID, MD, MS, FRCOG, AAMC 2 AIF
PADA 23 Februari 1942, kehidupan kami berubah. Mayor Roy Stevens, AAMC, dan aku, dengan semua pasien dan staf rumah sakit, duduk di tanah di depan penculik Jepang kami di Timor Timur, menatap barel tiga senapan mesin. Kami menunggu perintah untuk menembak. Saya berkomentar, “Ini adalah tanggal pada tahun 1909 perkawinan ibuku.” Roy menjawab, “Dan ini adalah hari ulang tahun istri saya.” Kami setiap pikiran itu adalah tanggal yang tepat untuk ditembak, tetapi mereka bertugas pada senapan mesin tiba-tiba dipanggil oleh seorang perwira Jepang. Satu penjaga kembali dan memberitahu kita, kita tidak akan ditembak sebagai Kaisar telah berubah pikiran. Urutan tentang pembunuhan tawanan perang (POW) harus diubah sebagai hasil dari 100 000 tentara Sekutu menyerah kepada Jepang di Singapura 8 hari sebelumnya.

Petugas Jepang mengatakan kepada kita bagaimana kita berperilaku terhadap Jepang, dan menunjukkan bagaimana membungkuk dengan benar. Dia memperingatkan kita untuk tidak mencoba melarikan diri, dan kemudian mengizinkan kami untuk kembali pasien kami ke rumah sakit. Kami pergi tentang pekerjaan kami dan segera kami akan bersatu dengan kawan-kawan kami ditangkap di Oesapa Besar.

Dan mulai kehidupan kita di penangkaran dan takut, dengan kekejaman penjaga kami.

1: Kejahatan dan hukuman di POW Camp, No 4 Batavia, 1943-1944
Kalimat Kejahatan
Kematian (ringkasan eksekusi dengan pemenggalan kepala atau penembakan) ■ Menolak Tentara Jepang
■ Konspirasi untuk menghasut
■ Luput lebih lama dari 7 hari
■ Membantu melarikan diri
■ Menginformasikan tentang gerakan pasukan Jepang
Berat penahanan, diet dikurangi hingga 100 hari Luput ■ di mana penyerahan terjadi dalam 7 hari
■ Kegagalan untuk melaporkan lolos direncanakan
■ tidak mematuhi perintah komandan kamp atau penjaga partai bekerja
■ Salah identitas
■ Pembakaran
Cahaya penahanan kurungan sampai 21 hari, kerja keras selama lebih dari 14 jam per hari, menegur ■ Kemalasan atau kurangnya tujuan ketika melakukan perintah komandan kamp
 
2: Kebangsaan dari 143 pasien bedah di St Vincentius Rumah Sakit, Batavia, 1944-1945
Kebangsaan Nomor (%)
Belanda
Inggris nasional
Australia
British Indian
Amerika 87
41
11
2
2

 (61%)
(29%)
(7%)
(1%)
(1%)
 
3: Spektrum operasi yang dilakukan di St Vincentius Rumah Sakit, Batavia, 1944-1945
Operasi Umum Nomor anestesi Kematian
Apendisektomi
Herniorrhaphy
Genitourinari *
Tumor usus
Penyimpanan yang
Radang dinding lambung
Kolesistektomi
Telinga, hidung, tenggorokan ops
Operasi tendon
Operasi tiroid
Obstruksi usus
Fistula in ano
Amputasi, ekstremitas atas
Kedokteran Mata (katarak, saluran air mata)
Subphrenic abses
Vitello saluran usus abses
Lutut operasi
Amputasi, ekstremitas bawah
Radikal mastektomi 51
19
14
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
3
2

1
1
1
1
1
 22
1
2
4
0
6
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

1
0
1
0
1 4
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
 
* Termasuk orkidektomi dilakukan dengan menggunakan kloroform.
 

Batavia, Jawa, 24 September 1945. Australia mantan tawanan perang di beranda tempat mereka tidur di Camp Sepeda, dinamakan demikian karena jumlah besar sepeda ditemukan di sana ketika pertama kali diduduki oleh para tahanan. Kondisi di dalam gedung (barak mantan-Belanda) bahkan lebih sempit. Foto oleh Letnan R Buchanan. Australia War Memorial nomor Negatif 123669.

Les Poidevin, 1941
Oesapa Besar, Timor
Ini harus dipahami bahwa saya tidak diangkat seorang ahli bedah oleh tentara Australia. Ketika saya meninggalkan praktek umum saya di Scone, New South Wales, bergabung dengan Imperial Angkatan Australia (AIF) pada bulan April 1941, saya berharap saya lebih lanjut akan rencana saya untuk menjadi seorang ahli bedah yang berkualitas di masa depan. Aku menerima janji di Lapangan Ambulans 2/12th, karena saya pikir ini akan memenuhi persyaratan saya lebih baik dari angkatan laut atau angkatan udara janji.

Pada bulan Desember 1941, saya dikirim ke Timor sebagai bagian dari “Sparrow Force”, kekuatan kurban 1500, untuk mencoba menghentikan Jepang dari menyerang Australia! Usaha saya sebagai orang bebas berhenti.

Namun, saya sekarang diberikan dengan kelimpahan operasi perbaikan. Ini adalah hasil dari luka yang diderita oleh pasukan kita mengikuti pola dan pemboman pemberondongan Nol yang telah melepaskan dipertahankan pada kekuatan kami untuk minggu sebelum pendaratan. Luka pecahan peluru adalah cedera yang paling umum; beberapa bagian dari anatomi lolos. Selain itu, pertempuran selama 5 hari telah menghasilkan banyak luka peluru. Dengan tidak adanya fasilitas x-ray, aku harus hanya mengandalkan pengamatan klinis.

Meskipun Stevens (spesialis telinga, hidung dan tenggorokan) dan dua lainnya Petugas Medis Penduduk (Brown dan Gilles) mendukung saya, mereka tidak memiliki kecenderungan bedah, sehingga kasus-kasus bedah tanggung jawab saya. Hal ini sangat menghibur saya, dan itu satu-satunya waktu saya senang sebagai tawanan perang, meskipun terlalu bekerja terlalu keras.

Stevens adalah seorang ahli anestesi yang baik, dan aku beruntung memiliki dua terlatih mantri kesehatan di Pat Bailey dan Bert Adams. Dalam waktu 2 bulan, kami telah mendirikan kamp wellappointed dan terorganisir di pantai di Oesapa Besar.

Jepang telah memungkinkan kunjungan kembali ke rumah sakit kami di Tjamplong untuk memulihkan beberapa instrumen, dressing dan kuantitas yang baik eter. Prajurit kami telah membangun sebuah gubuk kecil dari kayu kelapa dan daun, yang berfungsi sebagai ruang operasi.

Kami membuat tempat tidur rumah sakit tiang bambu dan goni. Ini ditempatkan di bangsal, masing-masing memegang sekitar 20 sampai 30 tempat tidur. Kami menyebut daerah ini rumah sakit kami. Kedua padres membantu untuk membangun sebuah kapel dan sebuah pemakaman kecil. Staf dapur melakukan yang terbaik mereka bisa dengan ransum nasi dan rumput-seperti sayuran, dan dimasak dengan air laut untuk menjaga keseimbangan garam kita.

Pada awalnya, tentara memusuhi petugas karena mereka menyerah, namun dalam beberapa bulan ini telah menetap dan moral kamp ditingkatkan. Bahkan penjaga Jepang duduk untuk menampar wajah daripada mereka sebelumnya penyiksaan. Mereka menyukai operasi menonton dan datang untuk memanggil saya “Dokter Potong” (potong berarti untuk memotong).

Kami meragukan hal ini utopia palsu bisa bertahan. Pada bulan Agustus 1942, sekitar 200 tawanan dibawa ke kamp-kamp yang lebih besar di Batavia, Jawa. Rancangan kedua diambil pada bulan September, dan sisanya dari kamp, ​​termasuk semua sakit kita, dipindahkan ke Batavia pada akhir September 1942.

Kita semua memulai Dai Ichi Maru akhir pada 23 September, dan berlayar ke Surabaya, di mana kita turun pada 1 Oktober. Kami telah mengalami tujuh manusiawi, hari kotor di dalam palka, di mana kebersihan adalah masalah terbesar kita.

Dari Surabaya, kami entrained ke Batavia, 200 mil ke barat. Kami kemudian dipaksa untuk berbaris ke kamp POW besar Inggris di Tandjong Priok dermaga. Kami bergantian untuk membawa orang sakit dengan tandu.

Tandjong Priok, Batavia, Jawa
Tandjong Priok kamp POW terutama untuk Inggris, dengan perwira senior banyak dan pelengkap dari sekitar 3000 laki-laki. Ini adalah sebuah kamp ketat disiplin (Kotak 1) dengan banyak memberi hormat. Petugas Medis adalah Letnan Kolonel Senior CW “Pete” Maisey, yang telah Asisten Direktur Pelayanan Medis Singapura. Dia tertarik mendengar dari pekerjaan saya di Timor.

Para penjaga Jepang kurang terlihat, karena ukuran kamp, ​​tetapi perwira Inggris membuat kami dalam rangka. Brown, Gilles dan aku diberi sebuah parade sakit setiap hari, tetapi kami harus beberapa obat untuk membuang.

Pada bulan kedua penjara kami di Tandjong Priok, Waran Petugas Billett, AIF, dipresentasikan pada parade sakit saya dengan tumor besar di lengan kirinya. Itu berdenyut, dan aku mengenalinya sebagai aneurisma arteri brakialis. Dia hanya melihat pembesaran banyak tumor karena ia telah pergi pada pihak bekerja. Dia ingat melalui dan melalui luka peluru di lengan kirinya selama pertempuran di Timor, 9 bulan sebelumnya.

Ketika saya menceritakan Maisey tentang hal ini, dia ingin mengirim Billett ke rumah sakit Jepang di Batavia. Saya baulked ini, mengingatkannya dari dua pasien sebelumnya yang ia dikirim ke rumah sakit Jepang. Ini seorang pria dengan usus buntu akut dan seorang pria dengan cedera kepala berkelanjutan ketika ia memukul batu sambil berenang. Tidak pernah terlihat lagi, dan mereka dianggap mati.

Saya mengatakan kepadanya bahwa aku tidak ingin Billett, yang merupakan Batalyon 2/40th Australia, untuk berbagi nasib itu. Saya menyadari bahwa apa pun fasilitas yang ada di Batavia, mereka tidak diterima oleh standar Australia. Maisey kemudian bertanya apakah saya siap untuk beroperasi pada Billett. Saya setuju, dan dia berjanji untuk memikirkannya. Dia berbicara dengan petugas medis lainnya di Inggris, yang tidak setuju untuk operasi saya, tetapi, setelah diskusi lebih lanjut, saya menerima izin. Saya menjelaskan di mana aku akan melakukannya dan langkah-langkah saya usulkan untuk operasi.

Pada sore hari tanggal 2 Desember 1942, saya telah Brown memberikan Billett anestesi eter, dan aku mulai Ligate aneurisma. Aku mendongak anatomi, khususnya arteri brakialis profunda: ini akan memberikan jaminan pasokan darah ke lengan setelah arteri brakialis utama ditutup. Beberapa penjaga Jepang yang menemani kami dari Timor menyaksikan operasi.

Billett pulih, melihat sisa perang di Thailand pada kereta api Burma, dan kembali ke rumah untuk Burnie, Tasmania, di mana ia meninggal pada tahun 2002. Pada tahun 1978, ketika saya mengunjunginya, ia menunjukkan bekas lukanya. Saya tidak berpikir ia menyadari drama Aku harus pergi melalui untuk mendapatkan izin untuk melakukan operasi itu. Saya belum pernah melakukan operasi lain vaskuler utama.

Mungkin keberhasilan operasi Billett yang meyakinkan petugas medis lainnya, meskipun, karena mereka orang Inggris, itu tidak mungkin. Tak satu pun dari mereka pernah berbicara kepada saya tentang hal itu.

Membangun layanan bedah
Maisey sekarang sekutu, jadi saya memutuskan untuk mengangkat isu merawat pasien bedah. Dia setuju untuk berbicara dengan dokter Jepang dan meminta izin untuk membangun dua rumah sakit di Batavia untuk pengobatan tawanan perang Sekutu. Saya menyarankan satu untuk pasien medis, karena ada banyak orang dengan penyakit tropis dan diare, dan satu untuk pasien bedah. Masih ada sekitar 10 000 tawanan perang Sekutu yang diselenggarakan di Jawa.

Maisey berhasil, dan pada bulan Januari 1943 Jepang menawarkan dua gereja tua: Mater Dolorosa dan St Vincentius. Keduanya memiliki wilayah yang luas akomodasi potensial, yang hanya apa yang kita inginkan. Pada bulan Juli, perubahan-perubahan yang diperlukan selesai, dan kami siap untuk pindah ke rumah sakit pada bulan Agustus 1943.

Sebuah tim medis untuk rumah sakit (Mater Dolorosa) didirikan dengan Belanda Dokter Smit menjadi perwira komandan (CO), dan tim bedah untuk rumah sakit (St Vincentius) dengan Maisey sebagai CO Jepang dinominasikan saya sebagai ahli bedah, dengan tiga petugas medis Inggris sebagai dukungan, termasuk penerbangan Letnan John Lillee, RAF, sebagai senior tiga. Ada juga dua ahli bedah Belanda. Lillee dan saya bekerja sama dengan sangat baik dan menjadi teman baik. Dia dari Irlandia dan bermain dadu poker seperti seorang profesional.

Maisey memastikan bahwa St Vincentius rumah sakit berjalan dengan sangat lancar. Dia ditunjuk mantri medis dan orang lain untuk bekerja di bengkel untuk membuat peralatan. Dia memilih seorang ahli kimia Belanda, Dr Zaandordijk, untuk menjalankan apotik, dan orang ini terbukti sangat membantu bagi saya.

St Vincentius memiliki halaman tengah yang besar dan blok wudhu besar. Mandi harian menggunakan ember wudhu merupakan suatu kemewahan.

Sejak awal, dua ahli bedah Belanda dan saya setuju bahwa kami akan memperlakukan warga negara kita sendiri (saya bertanggung jawab untuk berbahasa Inggris pasien: Australia, Inggris, Amerika, Inggris India). Hal ini menghilangkan setiap bahasa atau kesalahpahaman budaya. Ini bekerja sangat baik dalam praktek selama 18 bulan ke depan (Kotak 2).

Saya dialokasikan dua kamar: ruang operasi dengan lampu langit-langit listrik, dan ruang yang lebih kecil dengan keran dan cekungan besar. Itu primitif menurut standar kontemporer Australia, tapi kami mampu untuk menggosok dengan benar, bahkan dalam air dingin, dan menjaga pakaian kita untuk minimum. Untuk semua waktu yang kita beroperasi tanpa sarung tangan atau gaun.

Setiap pasien mengaku memerlukan operasi, jadi saya punya berbagai kondisi untuk mengobati (Kotak 3). Saya beruntung memiliki dua volume operasi perut Rodney Maingot, tanpa yang saya akan berbahaya! Ini buku yang sangat komprehensif dan diilustrasikan dengan baik, dan membentuk dasar dari pemahaman saya. Karena kita kurang memiliki fasilitas radiologi, ketajaman klinis andalan diagnosis, meskipun ada layanan x-ray berkualitas peduli di Batavia.

Lillee suka membantu di operasi bedah, dan kami melakukan semua prosedur bersama-sama.

Anaesthesia
Memberikan anestesi yang memadai adalah masalah. Untungnya, orang Jepang sangat liberal dengan kristal novocaine dan, meskipun saya tidak pernah tahu mengapa, permintaan saya untuk lebih selalu diberikan.

Dalam praktek umum saya di Scone, saya sering terpaksa menggunakan anestesi tulang belakang ketika pasangan saya, Walter Pye, tidak tersedia. Aku merasa lega ketika kimiawan Belanda kami mampu menghasilkan larutan 2% dari novocaine dari kristal; dosis biasa untuk anestesi tulang belakang adalah 2 ml.

Spinal anestesi yang efektif untuk operasi dari tungkai bawah pada perut bagian atas. Operasi untuk ulkus lambung pecah (keluhan yang sangat umum dalam POW pada diet beras) dapat dilakukan dengan membiarkan kenaikan novocaine berat di kanal tulang belakang, menonton dengan hati-hati bahwa itu tidak terlalu tinggi. Operasi di bawah kandung empedu biasanya dicapai dengan mudah di bawah anestesi tulang belakang.

Meskipun anestesi spinal cocok kebanyakan pasien, ada kesempatan ketika anestesi umum diperlukan. Salah satu kasus pertama yang meyakinkan saya ini adalah bahwa seorang laki-laki tua yang mengaku dengan pendarahan lambung. Maisey dan saya setuju bahwa saya akan harus beroperasi, tapi, saat aku menjelajahi perut untuk pembuluh darah, ia mengeluh sakit. Untungnya, saya cepat menemukan penyebab pendarahan dan diikat, dan ia sembuh.

Saya mengulangi permintaan saya untuk eter, tetapi dokter Jepang hanya tersenyum. Aku tidak pernah mendapatkan eter apapun dari Jepang.

Teman saya ahli kimia Belanda ditawarkan untuk memproduksi eter. Sebelumnya ia telah menepati janjinya untuk membuat sabun, jadi saya yakin dia bisa melakukan apa yang ditawarkan.

“Ambilkan dua bahan, asam sulfat dan alkohol, dan Aku akan menyaring mereka sampai aku eter.”

Kami mengadakan pertemuan untuk membahas bagaimana kita bisa suplai bahan ini. Kami tahu baterai Motorcar mengandung asam sulfat, dan ini dapat dengan mudah dihilangkan dengan pipet kaca. Proyek ini dialokasikan kepada pihak kerja yang ditugaskan ke pabrik Ford.

Ini mengejutkan kebanyakan dari kita tahu kekacauan sersan telah membuat anggur sake dari beras untuk beberapa bulan. Layanan mereka meminta untuk memasok produk ilegal mereka untuk kimia kami, yang menyatakan itu memuaskan. Dia mulai menyaring dan 2 minggu kemudian ia mengunjungi mess kami membawa bersamanya sebuah botol kecil: “Bau itu.” Ini benar-benar eter. Kami semua mengucapkan selamat dan menyuruhnya pergi untuk membuat jumlah useable.

Sebanyak 8,4 liter kamp-diproduksi eter digunakan dalam 42 operasi. Dalam empat operasi lebih lanjut, volume eter tidak ditentukan.

Bedah tantangan di St Vincentius
Sebagian besar kasus yang mudah dan ada beberapa kematian bedah (Kotak 4). Tapi kadang-kadang beberapa masalah yang tidak biasa datang.

Pada awal 1944, Lillee dan saya pergi ke dermaga untuk membongkar sekitar 150 tawanan perang yang telah diangkut dalam kondisi sempit dalam memegang sebuah kapal kargo Jepang bocor. Mereka telah membangun sebuah lapangan terbang untuk Jepang di Haroekoe. Kami menemukan kebanyakan dari mereka duduk di posisi tertekuk atau berbaring di sisi mereka, semua dalam kondisi kotor. Beberapa sudah seperti ini selama beberapa minggu. Memang, kami harus menentukan apakah ada yang hidup atau mati. Kami membawa mereka yang masih hidup untuk menunggu truk dan menempatkan mereka di bangsal Lillee untuk bersih-bersih dan penilaian.

Beberapa hari kemudian, Lillee meminta saya untuk melihat beberapa dari orang-orang, beberapa di antaranya telah kontraktur tetap paha belakang mereka dan yang lain dari mereka tendo-achilles. Dia telah meminta fisioterapis untuk melihat apa yang bisa dilakukannya, tanpa banyak keberuntungan, dan bertanya-tanya apakah aku bisa membantu.

Aku belum pernah melihat sesuatu seperti ini sebelumnya, jadi saya berkonsultasi apa buku-buku saya, hanya untuk menemukan bahwa kondisi telah sedikit menyebutkan kecuali untuk saran seperti latihan peregangan dan sejenisnya. Saya menemukan kontraktur, terutama semi-tendinosus dan semi-membranosus sangat ulet, dan tendo Achilles-kontraktur terlalu kuat untuk mendapatkan peregangan. Aku memberikan banyak memikirkan apa yang harus dilakukan.

Aku tahu bagaimana memperpanjang sepotong kayu, tetapi saya ingat dari Grammar School Sydney yang Livy telah menunjukkan bahwa cara untuk menonaktifkan lawan adalah untuk memotong paha belakang nya! Maklum, aku agak takut.

Aku memutuskan untuk pergi diam-diam menggunakan “langkah” teknik di bawah tulang belakang anestesi. Saya membuat “langkah” saya sayatan dan memungkinkan tendon untuk memperpanjang, dan kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam jahitan sutra parasut untuk mencegah gerakan lebih lanjut.

Perawatan pasca-operasi adalah penting, karena semakin besar usaha, semakin cepat pemulihan.

Saya menemukan tiga paha belakang mudah untuk menangani, tetapi meskipun mereka dapat dengan mudah diperpanjang, sendi lutut tetap enggan untuk memperpanjang. Saya menyadari ligamen internal harus menderita dan juga akan membutuhkan peregangan, yang saya temukan adalah jawabannya. Oleh karena itu, saya diterapkan ekstensi konstan. Saya menemukan bahwa ambulasi dini membantu, sebagai gerakan berjalan sangat dibantu pemulihan.

Satu pasien, Buchan, telah cacat lutut dan pergelangan kaki, tetapi dengan beberapa operasi dan banyak pasca-operasi manipulasi dan perpanjangan langkah-langkah, hampir kembali normal dengan Natal 1944.

Setelah perang, ia terus berhubungan dengan saya selama beberapa tahun dan menjelaskan bagaimana ia bermain sepak bola dengan beberapa keberhasilan.

Sebagian besar pasien Lillee itu telah sembuh atau sangat ditingkatkan dengan Natal 1944.

4: kematian Bedah di St Vincentius Rumah Sakit, Batavia, 1943-1945
Kondisi Bedah anestesi Komentar
Radang usus buntu
Radang usus buntu
Lampiran abses
Lambung karsinoid
Perforasi apendiks, peritonitis
Perforated ulkus duodenum
Obstruksi usus kecil apendisektomi
Apendisektomi
Ekstraperitoneal drainase
Gastroenterostomy
Apendisektomi
Perbaikan / oversew ulkus duodenum
Pengurangan hernia di foramen Eter Winslow (225 ml)
Eter (210 ml)
Lokal
Eter (380 ml)
Eter (370 ml)
Eter (175 ml)
Umum Meninggal 5 hari setelah operasi, peritonitis
Meninggal 24 jam setelah operasi, peritonitis
Meninggal setelah operasi, sepsis retroperitoneal
Meninggal 10 hari setelah operasi
Meninggal 3 hari setelah operasi, sepsis
Meninggal 3 hari setelah operasi

Penutupan rumah sakit
Awal tahun 1945, Maisey mengisyaratkan bahwa ada beberapa kabar burung bahwa dua rumah sakit akan ditutup segera dan kita semua akan kembali ke Camp Sepeda.

Tampaknya bagi kita bahwa Jepang mengundurkan diri untuk mengalahkan, dan berencana untuk menghilangkan semua tawanan perang. Perang sejarawan akhirnya dikonfirmasi rencana penghapusan Jepang.

Pada April 1945, rumah sakit ditutup dan kami dipindahkan ke kamp lain, di mana kami menunggu nasib kami.

Pada tanggal 6 Agustus, bom atom pertama dijatuhkan di Hiroshima, dan ini dijamin aman kami rilis.

Refleksi
Hidup sebagai tahanan perang sangat keras, fisik dan mental, tapi harus bertahan jika ada akan masa depan. Sekarang saya menganggapnya telah pengalaman pendidikan yang besar.

Secara medis, itu ekstra sulit, berhadapan dengan tubuh yang sangat lemah.

Pada tahap tidak melakukan penculik kami memberikan kami dengan persyaratan medis penting. Kami mengandalkan cipta kita sendiri untuk memecahkan masalah kita, sedemikian rupa sehingga, pada akhir semua itu, saya menyadari bahwa ada masalah di masa depan pernah bisa terlalu sulit.Pikiran  saya manfaat yang baik untuk sisa hidup saya  adalah bekerja

original info:

History

A unique surgical experience in a WWII prisoner of war camp

  • Captain Les O S Poidevin, MID, MD, MS, FRCOG, AAMC 2nd AIF

ON 23 FEBRUARY 1942, our lives changed. Major Roy Stevens, AAMC, and I, with all our patients and hospital staff, sat on the ground in front of our Japanese captors in East Timor, staring at the barrels of three machine guns. We were waiting for the order to fire. I remarked, “This was the date in 1909 of my mother’s marriage.” Roy replied, “And this is my wife’s birthday.” We each thought it was an appropriate date to be shot, but those manning the machine guns were suddenly summoned by a Japanese officer. One guard returned and informed us we would not be shot as the Emperor had changed his mind. The order concerning the killing of prisoners of war (POWs) had to be changed as a result of 100 000 Allied troops surrendering to the Japanese in Singapore 8 days previously.

The Japanese officer told us how we were to behave towards the Japanese, and demonstrated how to bow properly. He warned us not to attempt to escape, and then allowed us to return our patients to the hospital. We were to go about our work and shortly we would be united with our captured comrades at Oesapa Besar.

And so began our life of captivity and fear, with the cruelty of our guards.

1: Crime and punishment at POW Camp No. 4, Batavia, 1943–1944

Sentence Crime
Death (summary execution by decapitation or shooting) ■ Resisting Japanese Army
■ Conspiracy to incite
■ Escape longer than 7 days
■ Aiding escape
■ Informing about Japanese troop movements
Heavy incarceration, reduced diet for up to 100 days ■ Escape where surrender occurs within 7 days
■ Failure to report planned escapes
■ Disobeying orders of camp commandant or guards of working parties
■ False identities
■ Arson
Light incarceration confinement for up to 21 days, hard labour for more than 14 hours per day, reprimand ■ Laziness or lack of purpose when undertaking orders of camp commandant

2: Nationality of 143 surgical patients at St Vincentius Hospital, Batavia, 1944–1945

Nationality
Number
(%)
Dutch
British national
Australian
British Indian
American
87
41
11
2
2
(61%)
(29%)
(7%)
(1%)
(1%)

3: Spectrum of surgery performed at St Vincentius Hospital, Batavia, 1944–1945

Operation
Number
General anaesthetic
Deaths
Appendicectomy
Herniorrhaphy
Genitourinary *
Bowel tumours
Sequestrations
Peptic ulcer
Cholecystectomy
Ear, nose, throat ops
Tendon operations
Thyroid surgery
Bowel obstruction
Fistula in ano
Amputations, upper limb
Ophthalmic (cataract, tear duct)
Subphrenic abscess
Vitello intestinal duct abscess
Knee operations
Amputations, lower limb
Radical mastectomy

51
19
14
9
8
7
6
5
4
4
3
3
3
2

1
1
1
1
1

22
1
2
4
0
6
6
1
0
0
1
0
0
01
0
1
0
1

4
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

* Included orchidectomy performed using chloroform.
Batavia, Java, 24 September 1945. Australian ex-prisoners of war on the verandah of their sleeping quarters at Bicycle Camp, so named because of the large number of bicycles found there when first occupied by the prisoners. Conditions inside the building (an ex-Dutch barracks) were even more cramped. Photo by Lieutenant R Buchanan. Australian War Memorial Negative number 123669.
Batavia, Java, 24 September 1945. Australian ex-prisoners of war on the verandah of their sleeping quarters at Bicycle Camp, so named because of the large number of bicycles found there when first occupied by the prisoners. Conditions inside the building (an ex-Dutch barracks) were even more cramped. Photo by Lieutenant R Buchanan. Australian War Memorial Negative number 123669.
Les Poidevin, 1941
Les Poidevin, 1941

Oesapa Besar, Timor

It must be understood that I was not appointed a surgeon by the Australian army. When I left my general practice in Scone, New South Wales, to join the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in April 1941, I had hoped I would further my plans to become a qualified surgeon in the future. I accepted an appointment in the 2/12th Field Ambulance, as I thought this would meet my requirements better than a navy or an air force appointment.

In December 1941, I was sent to Timor as part of “Sparrow Force”, a sacrificial force of 1500, to attempt to stop the Japanese from invading Australia! My efforts as a free man ceased.

However, I was now provided with an abundance of repair surgery. This was the result of injuries sustained by our troops following the pattern bombing and the Zero strafing that had been unleashed on our undefended force for weeks before the landing. Shrapnel wounds were the most prevalent injuries; few parts of the anatomy escaped. In addition, the fighting for 5 days had produced many bullet wounds. With no x-ray facilities, I had to rely solely on clinical observations.

Although Stevens (an ear, nose and throat specialist) and two other Resident Medical Officers (Brown and Gilles) supported me, they had no surgical inclinations, so the surgical cases were my responsibility. This greatly consoled me, and it was the only time I was happy as a POW, albeit grossly overworked.

Stevens was a good anaesthetist, and I was fortunate to have two well-trained medical orderlies in Pat Bailey and Bert Adams. Within 2 months, we had established a wellappointed and organised camp on the beach at Oesapa Besar.

The Japanese had allowed a return visit to our hospital at Tjamplong to recover some instruments, dressings and a good quantity of ether. Our soldiers had built a small hut of coconut timber and leaves, which served as an operating room.

We made hospital beds of bamboo poles and hessian. These were placed in several wards, each holding about 20 to 30 beds. We called this our hospital area. Our two padres helped to build a chapel and a small cemetery. The kitchen staff did the best they could with the rice ration and the grass-like vegetables, and cooked with seawater to keep our salt balance.

At first, the soldiers were hostile towards the officers because of their surrender, but within months this had settled and camp morale improved. Even the Japanese guards settled down to slapping faces rather than their earlier tortures. They liked watching operations and came to calling me “The Potong doctor” (potong means to cut).

We doubted this false utopia could last. In August 1942, about 200 POWs were taken to larger camps in Batavia, Java. A second draft was taken in September, and the remainder of the camp, including all our sick, was moved to Batavia in late September 1942.

We all embarked on the Dai Ichi Maru late on 23 September, and sailed for Surabaya, where we disembarked on 1 October. We had endured seven inhuman, filthy days in the hold, where hygiene was our greatest problem.

From Surabaya, we entrained to Batavia, 200 miles to the west. We then were forced to march to a large British POW camp on the docks of Tandjong Priok. We took turns to carry the sick on stretchers.

Tandjong Priok, Batavia, Java

Tandjong Priok camp was primarily for British POWs, with many senior officers and a complement of about 3000 men. It was a strictly disciplined camp (Box 1) with much saluting. The Senior Medical Officer was Lieutenant Colonel CW “Pete” Maisey, who had been Assistant Director of Medical Services Singapore. He was interested to hear of my work in Timor.

The Japanese guards were less visible, because of the size of the camp, but the British officers kept us in order. Brown, Gilles and I were given a daily sick parade, but we had few drugs to dispense.

In the second month of our imprisonment at Tandjong Priok, Warrant Officer Billett, AIF, presented at my sick parade with a large tumour on his left arm. It was pulsating, and I recognised it as a brachial artery aneurysm. He had only noticed much enlargement of the tumour since he had been going out on work parties. He remembered a through and through bullet wound on his left arm during the fighting on Timor, 9 months previously.

When I told Maisey about this, he wanted to send Billett to the Japanese hospital in Batavia. I baulked at this, reminding him of two previous patients that he had sent to the Japanese hospital. These were a man with acute appendicitis and a man with a head injury sustained when he hit a rock while swimming. Neither was ever seen again, and they were presumed dead.

I told him that I did not want Billett, who was an Australian of 2/40th Battalion, to share that fate. I realised that whatever facilities existed in Batavia, they were not acceptable by Australian standards. Maisey then asked whether I was prepared to operate on Billett. I agreed, and he promised to think it over. He talked to the other British medical officers, who did not agree to my operating, but, after further discussion, I received permission. I explained where I would do it and the steps I proposed for the operation.

On the afternoon of 2 December 1942, I had Brown give Billett an ether anaesthetic, and I proceeded to ligate the aneurysm. I had looked up the anatomy, especially of the profunda brachial artery: this would provide a collateral blood supply to the arm after the main brachial artery was closed off. Some Japanese guards who had accompanied us from Timor watched the operation.

Billett recovered, saw the rest of the war in Thailand on the Burma railway, and returned home to Burnie, Tasmania, where he died in 2002. In 1978, when I visited him, he showed me his scar. I don’t think he realised the drama I had to go through to get permission to do that operation. I have never done another major vascular operation.

Perhaps the success of Billett’s operation reassured the other medical officers, although, as they were English, it was not likely. None of them ever spoke to me about it.

Establishing a surgical service

Maisey now was an ally, so I decided to raise the issue of treating surgical patients. He agreed to talk to the Japanese doctor and ask permission to establish two hospitals in Batavia for treatment of Allied POWs. I suggested one for medical patients, as there were many people with tropical and diarrhoeal diseases, and one for surgical patients. There were still about 10 000 Allied POWs held in Java.

Maisey was successful, and in January 1943 the Japanese offered two old churches: Mater Dolorosa and St Vincentius. Both had extensive potential accommodation areas, which was just what we wanted. By July, the necessary alterations were completed, and we prepared to move into the hospitals in August 1943.

A team for the medical hospital (Mater Dolorosa) was established with a Dutch Doctor Smit to be commanding officer (CO), and a team for the surgical hospital (St Vincentius) with Maisey as CO. The Japanese nominated me as the surgeon, with three British medical officers as support, including Flight Lieutenant John Lillee, RAF, as the senior of the three. There were also two Dutch surgeons. Lillee and I cooperated very well and became great friends. He was from Ireland and played poker dice like a professional.

Maisey ensured that St Vincentius hospital ran very smoothly. He appointed medical orderlies and others to work in a workshop for making equipment. He selected a Dutch chemist, Dr Zaandordijk, to run the dispensary, and this man proved to be a great help to me.

St Vincentius had a large central courtyard and a large ablution block. A daily bath using ablution buckets was a luxury.

From the outset, the two Dutch surgeons and I agreed that we would treat our own nationals (I was responsible for the English-speaking patients: Australian, English, American, British Indian). This eliminated any language or cultural misunderstandings. This worked very well in practice over the next 18 months (Box 2).

I was allocated two rooms: an operating theatre with a ceiling electric light, and a smaller room with a tap and large basins. It was primitive by contemporary Australian standards, but we were able to scrub up properly, even in cold water, and keep our dress to a minimum. For all that time we operated without gloves or gowns.

Every patient admitted required surgery, so I had a wide range of conditions to treat (Box 3). I was fortunate in possessing the two volumes of Rodney Maingot’s Abdominal operations, without which I would have been dangerous! These textbooks were extremely comprehensive and well illustrated, and formed the basis of my understanding. Because we lacked any radiological facility, clinical acumen was the mainstay of diagnosis, although there was an x-ray service of indifferent quality in Batavia.

Lillee liked assisting at surgical operations, and so we did all the procedures together.

Anaesthesia

Providing adequate anaesthesia was a problem. Luckily, the Japanese were very liberal with Novocaine crystals and, although I never found out why, my requests for more were always granted.

In my general practice in Scone, I had often resorted to using spinal anaesthetic when my partner, Walter Pye, was not available. I was relieved when our Dutch chemist was able to produce a 2% solution of Novocaine from these crystals; the usual dose for a spinal anaesthetic was 2 mL.

Spinal anaesthesia was effective for surgery from the lower limbs to the upper abdomen. Operations for ruptured gastric ulcers (a very common complaint in POWs on rice diets) could be done by letting the heavy Novocaine rise in the spinal canal, watching carefully that it did not get too high. Operations below the gall bladder were usually accomplished easily under spinal anaesthetic.

Although spinal anaesthesia suited most patients, there were occasions when general anaesthesia was necessary. One of the first cases that convinced me of this was that of an older man who was admitted with a gastric haemorrhage. Maisey and I agreed that I would have to operate, but, as I explored the abdomen for the bleeding vessel, he complained of pain. Fortunately, I speedily found the cause of his bleeding and ligated it, and he recovered.

I repeated my request for ether, but the Japanese doctor just smiled. I never did get any ether from the Japanese.

My friend the Dutch chemist offered to manufacture ether. Earlier he had kept his promise to make soap, so I was confident he could do what he offered.

“Get me two ingredients, sulfuric acid and alcohol, and I will distil them until I have ether.”

We had a meeting to discuss how we might supply these ingredients. We knew motorcar batteries contained sulfuric acid, and this could easily be removed with a glass pipette. This job was allocated to the work party who were assigned to the Ford factory.

It surprised most of us to know the sergeant’s mess had been making sake wine from rice for some months. Their services were enlisted to supply their illicit product to our chemist, who declared it satisfactory. He began to distil it and 2 weeks later he visited our mess bringing with him a small bottle: “Smell it.” It was definitely ether. We all congratulated him and sent him away to make useable quantities.

A total of 8.4 litres of camp-manufactured ether was used in 42 operations. In a further four operations, the volume of ether was not specified.

Surgical challenges at St Vincentius

Most cases were straightforward and there were few surgical deaths (Box 4). But occasionally some unusual problems came along.

In early 1944, Lillee and I went to the docks to unload about 150 POWs who had been transported in cramped conditions in the hold of a leaking Japanese cargo vessel. They had been constructing an aerodrome for the Japanese at Haroekoe. We found most of them sitting in flexed positions or lying on their sides, all in filthy conditions. Some had been like this for several weeks. Indeed, we had to establish whether some were dead or alive. We carried those who were alive to waiting trucks and put them in Lillee’s ward for clean-up and assessment.

A few days later, Lillee asked me to look at a few of these men, some of whom had fixed contractures of their hamstrings and others of their tendo-Achilles. He had asked the physiotherapist to see what he could do, without much luck, and wondered whether I could help.

I had never seen anything like this before, so I consulted what books I had, only to discover that the conditions had little mention except for suggestions such as stretching exercises and the like. I found the contractures, especially of the semi-tendinosus and semi-membranosus very tenacious, and the tendo-Achilles contractures were too strong to get any stretching. I gave much thought about what to do.

I knew how to lengthen a piece of wood, but I recalled from Sydney Grammar School that Livy had pointed out that the way to disable your opponent was to cut his hamstrings! Understandably, I was a bit frightened.

I decided to go quietly using a “step” technique under spinal anaesthesia. I made my “step” incisions and allowed the tendon to lengthen, and then put in parachute silk sutures to prevent any further movement.

Post-operative care was important, as the greater the effort, the quicker the recovery.

I found the three hamstrings easy to handle, but although they could be easily lengthened, the knee joint remained reluctant to extend. I realized the internal ligaments must have suffered and would also need stretching, which I found was the answer. Therefore, I applied constant extension. I found that early ambulation helped, as the movements of walking very much assisted the recovery.

One patient, Buchan, had knee and ankle disabilities, but with several operations and much post-operative manipulation and extension measures, was almost back to normal by Christmas 1944.

After the war, he kept in touch with me for a few years and explained how he was playing soccer with some success.

Most of Lillee’s patients had been cured or greatly improved by Christmas 1944.

4: Surgical deaths at St Vincentius Hospital, Batavia, 1943–1945

Condition Surgery Anaesthetic Comments
Appendicitis
Appendicitis
Appendix abscess
Gastric carcinoid
Perforated appendix, peritonitis
Perforated duodenal ulcer
Small bowel obstruction
Appendicectomy
Appendicectomy
Extraperitoneal drainage
Gastroenterostomy
Appendicectomy
Repair/oversew duodenal ulcer
Reduction of hernia in foramen of Winslow
Ether (225 mL)
Ether (210 mL)
Local
Ether (380 mL)
Ether (370 mL)
Ether (175 mL)
General
Died 5 days after surgery, peritonitis
Died 24 hours after surgery, peritonitis
Died after surgery, retroperitoneal sepsis
Died 10 days after surgery
Died 3 days after surgery, sepsis
Died 3 days after surgery

Closure of the hospitals

Early in 1945, Maisey hinted that there were some rumblings that the two hospitals would be closed shortly and we would all be returned to Bicycle Camp.

It seemed to us that the Japanese were resigned to defeat, and were planning to eliminate all POWs. War historians eventually confirmed this Japanese elimination plan.

By April 1945, the hospitals closed and we were moved to other camps, where we awaited our fate.

On 6 August, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, and this guaranteed our safe release.

Reflections

Life as a prisoner of war was very hard, physically and mentally, but it had to be endured if there were to be a future. I now consider it to have been a great educational experience.

Medically, it was extra difficult, dealing with extremely debilitated bodies.

At no stage did our captors provide us with essential medical requirements. We relied on our own inventiveness to solve our problems, to such an extent that, at the end of it all, I realised that no problem in the future could ever be too difficult.

That thought stood me in good stead for the rest of my working life.

the end @ copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

Koleksi Gambar Tawanan Perang Dai Nippon Di Jawa(Dai Nippon POW at java ‘s Picture Collections )1942-1945

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

Prisoners of war exercising

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI iNDONESIA

k0leksi gambar TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON 1942-1945

THE DAI NIPPON POW Pictures  1942-1945 

Camps in Java

PROVINCE
 CITY
 CAMP
 
West Java
 Serang
 Prison

 

 

 
 

 

William Batchelor

William Charles Batchelor Jr.

 

Last Name:
BATCHELOR
First Name Middle Initial:
WILLIAM CHARLES
Nick Name:
Spider
Street:  P.O. Box 9 City & State: LaConner, WA E-Mail: 
Zip: 98257 Phone:  Spouse:
Conflict: WWII Service Branch:  Navy Unit:  USS Houston
Theater: Pacific Where Captured: JAVA Date Captured: 03//1/42
Camps Held In: Serang Jail, Changi, Bicycle Camp, Burma “Railroad Of Death.” How Long Interned:  2 yrs.
Liberated / repatriated: Date Liberated: Died Age at Capture: 21
Medals Received: PRISONER OF WAR MEDAL, PURPLE HEART MEDAL, WORLD WAR II VICTORY MEDAL, PHILIPPINE DEFENSE MEDAL, PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION, ASIATIC PACIFIC CAMPAIGN MEDAL, AMERICAN DEFENSE SERVICE MEDAL
Military Job: Navy, USS Houston Company: Died in Prison Camp
Occupation after War: 
Bio:William Batchelor survived many things during the war including the sinking of the USS Houston (CA 30) in which 700 crew members died. He was captured in Java, while he worked he was beaten and starved by his Japanese captors until he died at the age of 23 in the 80 Kilo Camp in the mountains of Burma on the infamous “Death Railroad.” Mr. Batchelor was a graduate of Fork Union Military Academy. He is interred at the Arlington National Cemetery.

 

 
 
 Tangerang
 Prison

 
 

Thousands of Dutch women were imprisoned during the Second World War: women embroidered.

They would do their utmost to be able to embroider. They stole needles from the guards, ripped off patches from sheets or clothing, and pulled thread out of coloured headscarves. They embroidered for themselves and for one another. It was something to enjoy, it gave them a sense of security and brought colour to their grey existence.

It depended very much upon prison conditions how much they could embroider, or whether they could keep their work. It had to be smuggled out, or else they finished it after the liberation. Little embroidery done by Jewish women was preserved. In the transit camp Westerbork in Drenthe there were several workplaces that used metal and wood, which was used for their own work, but very little textile was available.

Much of the preserved embroidery in this exhibition is by women who ended up in prison or in concentration camps because of their part in the Resistance. Embroidery by women in the Japanese camps in the Dutch East Indies is also shown.

 
 
 

 Wally van Hall 1906 – 1945

 The Dutch East Indies. On the blouse there is embroidery of camp scenes.
A stitch a day…Tangerang, 5-12-1944.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

.

 
 
  
 
 
 
  
 Tanahtinggi
 
 
 Batavia
 ADEK
 
 
  
 Bukit Doeri
 
 
  
 Glodok
 
 
  
 Grogol
 
 
  
 Halimoen
 
 
  
 Kampong Makassar
 
 
  
 Kramat
 
 
  
 Mater Dolorosa
 
 
  
 St. Vincent
 
 
  
 Ostrich District
 
 
  
 Tjideng

Kamp Tjideng

Main Gate Tjideng

Kamp Tjideng was a prison camp for European women and children who lived in what was then the Dutch East Indies. I visited for the first time in 2005 and even though I have no experiences to call my own, in regard to camp life, the emotion that was generated during my time there was powerful. I have discussed life at Tjideng with my mother and aunts, who were interned in 1942, and have read several accounts from others. I feel I have some knowledge of Tjideng and what went on there however coming to grips with the reality of the ground upon which I walked was difficult. All I assumed, deep inside me, is that the charge of emotion I felt last time would not be repeated during this second visit. I was wrong.

 

 
 
  
 Tjipinang
 

Batavia no.4 
Batavia, Java, 24 September 1945. Australian ex-prisoners of war on the verandah of their sleeping quarters at Bicycle Camp, so named because of the large number of bicycles found there when first occupied by the prisoners. Conditions inside the building (an ex-Dutch barracks) were even more cramped. Photo by Lieutenant R Buchanan. Australian War Memorial Negative number 123669. 
 Buitenzorg
 Kedoengbadak
 
 
  
 Kedoeng Halang
 
 
  
 Kelapanoenggal
 
 
  
 Kota Paris
 
 
  
 Pledang-Prison
 
 
  
 Sempoer
 
 
  
 Ursuline Convent
 
 
 Sukabumi
 Juliana School
 
 
  
 police school 
 
 Tjimahi
THE TJIMAHI INTERNMENT CAMPS

CHINESE PERANAKAN WAS ALSO INTERNED!

Tjimahi camp was actually a former Dutch Army base, situated near Bandoeng. About 10 thousands POWs lived in Tjimahi Internment Camps. More than 510 of them were Chinese Peranakan from other cities in Java (Soerabaja, Malang, Samarang, Djepara, Magelang, Keboemen, Boendoeng, Boitenzorg, Batavia, Serang). They were interned in April 1942, and moved to Serang (September 1943 – February 1944), and finally moved to Tjimahi (February 1944 – August 1945).

According Nio Joe Lan as the civilian, and interned person, the condition of Tjimahi Camps were better than previous camps (especially for Chinese Camp), such as Boekit Doeri (Batavia) and Serang. At least, in Tjimahi Camp they were not alike prisoner in jail because they lived in a room, different other European Camps.

Within the Tjimahi Camp, they created the division of work: Medische Dienst (of Physician Service), Technisch Dienst (Technisch Service), Voedsel Dienst (Food Service), Financiën Dienst (Financial Service), Bevolking Dienst (Community service), Statistieken Dienst (statistical service for collecting property from the dead person).

TJIMAHI CAMP: TREINKAMPEMENT

Location:
The train camp was in the eastern district, north of the railway line, opposite the camp Baros-5. It was first POW camp in Tjimahi.

TJIMAHI CAMP: IV AND IX BATTALION

Other Name: Tjimahi Kamp 4; Bunsho II Kamp 4 (Japanse administratie)

Location:
This camp was in the northern city of Tjimahi bounded by Kampementsweg, Stationsweg (railway), Gedong Delapan (racetrack) and Gedong Empat. Included the barracks of the 4th and 9th Battalion. It was opened for POW (civilian camp) in late January 1944.

Photobucket
Source: http://www.japaneseburgerkampen.nl

Photobucket
Tjimahi IV and IX Battalion by CW Schüller 1944 – 45
Source: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek
<div align="justify
A map in pencil of the internment Tjimahi IV and IX. On the map include the barrack with their different functions, names of laborers and Roman numerals in the distribution of the camp. Block IX was the clinique unit, Block VII was the Chinese Camp. Nio Joe Lan told on his book “Dalem Tawanan Djepang” p.223:

“Tempat tawanan Tionghoa ada pada blok VIII jang terpetjah dalem 4 sectie. Blok-commandant Tionghoa bermoela ada toean Lim Hwie Giap…digantiken toean Thios Thiam Tjong (Semarang)…Liem Sik Ien (Bondowoso) di sectie I, Siek Kiem Siong (Koedoes) di sectie II, Ang Jan Goan (Djakarta) di sectie III, dan Chiao Liong (Soerabaja) di sectie IV”

Camp Commander:
Capt. Takagi (March – April 1944), Capt. Kasahara (April – July 1944), Capt. Takagi (July – August 1945).

Monitoring:
Japanese Military, Korean, and Heiho

Camp Leader:
C.H.V. de Villeneuve (February 1944 – May 1945)
Richel (September 1944 – February 1945)
Heintz Stein (March 1944 – August 1945

TJIMAHI CAMP: MILITARY HOSPITAL

Location:
The Military Hospital was in the western suburb south of the railroad, it served as a prisoner of war camp hospital and civilian laborers (men and older boys). The camp hospital consisted of some pavilions and was fenced with barbed wire.

In May 1945 the hospital was completely evacuated, it was used for treatment of Japanese soldiers. On 25th of September 1945 the hospital was transferred to the RAPWI Japanese authorities for the treatment of ex-laborers of the Japanese camps.

Camp Commander:
Capt. Sakai (doctor)

Camp Leader:
Dr MMG Woensdrecht

TJIMAHI CAMP: BAROS 5
Other names:
Prominent Kamp, Baros camp, Bamboo Camp, Bald-heads camp, 6th Battalion, Depot Camp, Bunsho II Kamp 5 (Japanse administratie)

Photobucket
A map of the camp Baros with showing the position and function of each building. Top dial left and right text: “Baros. 19 October’43”
Source: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Photobucket
“Interieur van een barak in het kamp Baros” by Jan Kickhefer
Source: GVNL – Koninklijke Bibliotheek

The camps became more and more overcrowded in the course of the war. The width of a sleeping place was reduced from an average of 1.35 metres to 50 centimetres. Little light or fresh air entered the stuffy barracks. One’s sleeping place was one’s home. Everything was done here. The inmates ate, drank, slept, read, received their guests and tinkered in their sleeping place. Their few belongings stood, hung or lay around the bed. There was no privacy in a dwelling like this.

Location:
This camp was in the eastern city of Tjimahi, directly south of the line. The camp was located in the barracks of the emergency barracks for indigenous milic iens. The bamboo huts, total about 27 units, had a cement floor, most had no windows, but over the full length of an open air strip directly beneath the roof, at the ends was a big door. The camp was a sinister impression: gray barracks around a large square, no tree. The camp was surrounded by a bamboo fence (hence the name was Bamboo Camp).

Camp Commander:
Kunimoto (May – August 1945)

Monitoring:
Japan Military, Korean, Heiho

Camp Leader:
J.Bos (for all camp functions)

TJIMAHI CAMP: BAROS 6

Other name:
Jongenskamp Baros, Bunsho II Kamp 6 (Japanse administratie)

Location:
This camp was located in the southern town of Tjimahi, on both sides of the Barosweg and prisoner and young woman camp. The camp consisted of two parts on either side of the Barosweg: to the west the “Williamstraat” and on the east the “Baroskant” through two guarded gates.

Camp Commander
Children Camp: Sagami (July – December 1944), Kunimoto (January – May 1945), Shimonya (May – August 1945).

Monitoring:
Japanse militairen, Koreanen, heiho’s (ongeveer 50)

Camp Leader:
Women Camp: Mw R.Minderman
Children Camp: G.A.Schotel

 4th and 9th Battalion
 
 
  
 Baros 5

Photobucket
 
 
  
 Baros 6
 
 
  
 Goenoeng Haloe
 
 
  
 Military Hospital
 
 
  
 Padalarang
 
 
  
 Pasir Benteng
 
 
  
 Train Encampment
 
 
 Bandung
 15th Battalion
 
 
  
 Bangka
 
 
  
 Bantjeui
 
 
  
 Bloemenkamp
 
 
  
 Dick High
 
 
  
 Kares
 
 
  
 Lengkong
 
 
  
 LOG
 
 
  
 Palace Hotel
 
 
  
 Pasar Andir
 
 
  
 Rama
 
 
  
 Sukkah Miskin
 
 
  
 Stella Maris
 
 
  
 Tjiboenoet
 
 
  
 Tjihapit
 
 
  
 Tjitaroemplein
 
 
  
 Zeelandia
 
 
 Tjitjalengka
 Railroad Camp
 
 
 Cheribon
 Prison
 
 
  
  
 
Central Java
 Tegal
 Prison
 
 
  
 Todanstraat
 
 
 Pekalongan
 Garam godown
 
 
  
 High school
 
 
  
 New Prison
 
 
  
 Old Prison
 
 
 Purwokerto
 Broederschool
 
 
  
 Chinese House
 
 
  
 Prison
 
 
 Semarang
 Bangkong
 
 
  
 Boeloe-Prison
 
 
  
 Broederschool
 
 
  
 Djatingaleh
 
 
  
 Gedangan
 
 
  
 Halmaheira
 
 
  
 Karangpanas
 
 
  
 Lampersari
 
 
  
 Sompok Lama
 
 
 Kedoengdjati
 Kalitjeret
 
 
 Ambarawa
 Ambarawa 6
 
 
  
 Ambarawa 7
 
 
  
 Ambarawa 8
 
 
  
 Ambarawa 9
 
 
  
 Bandoengan
 
 
  
 Banjoebiroe 10
 
 
  
 Banjoebiroe 11
 
 
  
 Banjoebiroe 12
 
 
  
 Soemowono
 
 
  
 Tangsi Perlindoengan
 
 
 Salatiga
 Djoen NL
 
 
 Moentilan
 Moentilan
 
 
 Yogyakarta
 Prison
 
 
  
 Vredeburg
 
 
 Surakarta
 Healthcare / Boemikamp
 
 
 Pati
 Pakis Tajoe
 
 
  
  
 
East Java
 Ngawi
 Fort van den Bosch
 
 
 Madiun
 Redjosari
 
 
 Kediri
 Galoehan
 
 
  
 Prison
 
 
  
 Kawarasan
 
 
  
 Sentono Pande
 
 
 Surabaya
 Boeboetan-Prison
 
 
  
 Darmowijk
 
 
  
 Werfstraat-Prison
 
 
 Batoe
 Sanatorium
 
 
 Malang
 The District
 
 
  
 LOG
 
 
  
 Lowokwaroe-Prison
 
 
  
 Marine Camp
 
 
 Dampit
 Soember Gesing
 
 
 Bondowoso
 Houses
 
 
  
 Lower School
 
 
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 Kesilir
 

               Java Index

                       West Java Central Java East Java

the end (copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2011