The Vietnam Liberation War Collection New Info Dec 2010

A.Dr iWAN NOTES

1.Hallo Collectors from All Over The world,especially Vietnam War Postal History Collectors, there are some news from IMNAHA Stamps blog just sent to me and also my Vietnam war vintage books new finding,look illustration of Vietcong poster above.

2.Mr Andrew Crashow from IMNAHA thanks for the info,and send my honor to joe’s family and hope they will save joe collections and put in museum. We had lost one of the best Vietnam War Postal History Collectors in the world.

3,I will revise my e-books  Vietnam Liberation War with new info in January 2011, and please premium member who want to have this limited edition  revise e-book please subscribed premium member  via comment and asking to buy this e-book fast, as info in the blog only not comlete e book just for promotions.

 Merry Chrismast and Happy New Year 2011

from the blog founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

B.NEW INFO OF VIETNAM WAR COLLECTIONS

I. JOE CARTAFALSA JUST PASSED AWAY

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Joe Cartafalsa passed away on December 7th, 2010.

In August, 2000 I attended the APS Stampshow in Rhode Island. I had the good fortune of meeting Joe in front of his Vietnam Military Mail exhibit. I had started collecting this material a couple years earlier, but was finding it difficult to understand what I had. Joe spent a lot of time with me that day, walking me through his exhibit, identifying and commenting on the covers I had brought along, and introducing me to dealers at the show who carried Vietnam material.

Over the subsequent years, Joe continued to build my enthusiasm and knowledge in the military mail of Vietnam, and expanded my interest into revenues. We kept in touch via email and an occasional phone call, meeting up at NAPEX when his health allowed. We collaborated on a CD-ROM and talked about items we had found and articles we were writing. I caught up with him in Philadelphia one year to borrow books for an article I was writing, and of course to browse his stock.

Joe was a long-time member of the Society of Indo-china Philatelists, and a prolific contributor to philatelic publications, including three articles in the Congress Book.

Rest in peace, Joe. You will be missed. 

Posted by imnaha at 8:24 AM  

2.THE NEW FINDING VIETNAM WAR LITERATURE

Driving home from NAPEX, I stopped in Havre De Grace, Maryland for lunch and discovered a terrific bookstore, Washington Street Books & Music. They have one of the best selections of military history books I have found anywhere, not to mention games, role playing books, comics, music, dvds and an excellent selection of science fiction – all of which are right up my alley. I definitely recommend checking it out if you are in the area.
At the store I picked up a copy of a Vietnam Studies monograph I didn’t have, The War in the Northern Provinces. Turning it over, I saw the book, which is around 1/2″ thick, was sent through the mail as evidenced by the mailing label.
My Anthony Wawrukiewicz book on US postal rates isn’t handy, so perhaps someone can explain why the monograph qualified for 3rd class mail, which is typically used for advertising or “junk” mail.  Printed in the upper right corner of the label it clearly reads “Special Fourth Class Rate Books.”
In addition to a useful book I got a nifty piece of postal history, not to mention a new destination to visit each year.
3.Dr iWAN VIETNAM WAR LITERATURE NEW FINDING
I just found two new Vietnam War Literature and  I will put the new info at my web blog to make the article Vietnam Liberation War became more complete :
a. Eyewitness NAM  POTRAIT OF THE ENEMY, the other side of The War by David Chanoff and Doan Van Toi,New York 1986
b.No Place to Hide ,a novel of The Vietnam War by Gerry Carrol,he write in 1986 just before passed away in 1993.
 He aslo write another book about Vietnam War:
NORTH SAR  and GHOSTRIDER ONE, please who have the other two trilogy of Vietnam war book  PLEASE SEND INFORMATIONS THANKS.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

New Info of Vietnam Phillatelic trader,Travelling,numismatic,uniquecollections etc

My best friend Susantio from Juwana Middle Java Indonesia, aksed by his froind from Pulogebang Jakarta about the adrees of Vietnam phillatelic trader in Vietnam, there were two official trader there for the new phillatelic collections ,in Ho Chi minh City and Hanoi,I have visit that shop,but very difficult to communicate because they didnot speak English well. The Vintage Postal History very difficult to found,but I have met them(more info only for Premium Members).

PLEASE REGISTER AS PREMIUM MEMBARS VIA COMMENT FOR MORE INFORMATOIONS OF VIETNAM, STAMPS,PHILLATELIC COVER,WAR INFORMATION,ANCIENT BUILDING,TOURIST MAP, TOURISM SIGHT, COINS AND BANK NOTE OF VIETNAM ETC. ALL INFO WERE Dr IIWAN s. PRIVATE COLLECTIONS FOUND DURING HIS ADVENTURED AT VIETNAM FROM 2007 UNTIL 2009,

hanoi portable street resto

halongbay haipong 2 hours from hanoi

hoan kiem lake hanoi

danang city central vietnam

SOME INFO FOR Dr IWAN S FRIEND BELOW (this free samples)

look the info from my friend in FB :

Between Nguyen Duong and You
Iwan Suwandy September 5 at 4:44pm
one of my friend want to know the email address of Phillatelic adn numismatic tradeing shop in Hanoi and HoChi Mimnh city. Thank you for your information from your friend Iwan Suwandy.
Nguyen Duong September 5 at 7:17pm
Hi my friend!
In Ho Chi Minh city,you can go to Vietficilent shop (27 Nguyen Thi Dieu str. district 3 Ho Chi Minh city.I usually get stamps and banknotes from it!
In Hanoi you can go to Vietnam stamps company 14 Tran Hung Dao str.Hanoi Vietnam
Iwan Suwandy September 6 at 4:44am
thanks for your info,I have ever visit Hanoi and buoght something at Vietficilent shop at Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi. you can read my story at my web hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com search Vietna War,Vietnam Indochina, The Vietnaminh War,and The Vietnam Liberation War.the vietcong war etc.please you help me to translate some info in native Vietnam language.
MORE FREE VIETNAM INFO
SAIGON  HOCHIMINH CITY OLDSITE
SAIGON-DALAT-NATHRANG TOUR TO LOOK THIS ANCIENT BUILDING
Mekongdelta Ho Chi Minh City
hue oldanamkingdomcapital 7 hours from hanoi
MORE INFO READ IN THIS BLOG Dr IWAN S ADENTURE IN VIETNAM 2007 AND 2009.

 Iwansuwandy’s Blog | Just another WordPress.com site

The End,more info only for Premium members@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010.

THE VINTAGE CHOLON-SAIGON NEGATIVE PHOTO

 I.. THE POSITIVE VINTAGE VIETNAM PHOTOS INVERT FROM NEGATIVE PHOTO

(1)The Negative film and the label Cover of Chinese overseas Amateur photo Studio were found at Cholon during my last visit Ho Chi Minh city in 2009.
(2)  the digital technical photo from the original negative film

(3)The Postive photo AFTER  invert
Albert S. later because he stayed in Prabumulih South Sumatra, and I have send this negative photo to him and he will invert and made the picture to more good condition because almost 50 years ago,but the B-W negative film photo still in good condition as you see below (please wait a momment until Albert post the postive photo,he too busy with his work not done until now ,he told me to used the program in computer bu I didnot know.)PLEASE THE EXPERT PHOTOGRAPHER WILL TELL ME HHOW TO USED THE PROGRAM IN COMPUTER TO INVERT THIS NATGIVE TO POSITIVE PICTURE  VIA COMMENT ,THANK  fro Dr Iwan s.

II. THE COVER OF NEGATIVE FILM OF  CHOLON SAIGON VIETNAM .
The Vintage Amateur Travel Photo Studio Khan Cholon of the chinese overseas was found during my last Visit Ho Chi Ming city 2008 at Cholon the chinese are of Saigon, this vintage labe very rare because many broken during the Vienam Liberation war 1963-1975.

 

      

       
       

3. The Negative Digital Photo
This negative digital photo from the original Black and White vintage negatifive film photo inside the vintage Saigon Cholon Chinese overseas amateur travel photo studio cover ,consist the negative foto of the Vietnam Liberation war Chineseoverseas military with uniform and his fiance, and the Vintage Vietnam Zoo nagative photo ,Vietnam Tiger and elephant, other familial negativefoto. Our photographer Albert S. will invert this negative foto to positif photo.

  

      

           


 

           

Vintage Chinese Overseas of Vietnam Saigon Cholon Negative Picture found at Ho Chi Mint City 2009

 the end @ COPYRIGHT dr IWAN S 2010

UHI-PERANG VIETNAM TERHADAP DOMINASI TIONGKOK ABAD 15th AD

UHI-Uniquecollection Heritage Information . free e-book ,iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@ copyright Dr IWan s 2010 

______________________________________________________________________

PERANG  VIETNAM melawan  DOMMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK ABAD KE 15 AD

                                                               *ill 001

                                                   Disusun oleh Dr IWAN S

Berdasarkan koleksi pribadi dan informasi yang dipeoleh saat berkunjung ke Vietnam tahun 2007

                             PUBLIKASI PRIBADI UNTUK TEMAN KOLEKTOR

                                           JAKARTA  @hakcipta Dr Iwan S 2010

*ill oo1Le loi  pahlawan perang pertahanan vietnam terhadap dominasi kerajaan tiongkok abad 15

__________________________________________________________________________

KATA PENGANTAR.

PADA WAKTU PERTUALANGAN SAYA KE HANOI TAHUN 2007,  yang kemudian dilanjutkan ke Nanning China meliwati perbatasan yang sangat terkenal Longson dengan nama perbatasan Persahabatan, tempat ini sangat bersejarah pada saat perang pertahanan rakyat Vietnam terhadap dominasikerajaan Tiongkok dipimpim oleh Le Loi dan Nguyen Trai sehingga patung le loi *ill 002  dan nama mereka di DIPATRIKAN PADA SIMPANG DAN JALAN*ill 004 &005  DIMANA SAYA MENGINAP   di hotel Phi Vu*ill003 Ho Chi Minh City lihat peta hotel tersebut*ill 6.

*002       *003     *006                                   

 *004     *004        *005

berkat informasi dari pegawai Hotel , karena takut nyasar naik bus maka  saya berjalan kaki seorong diri bertualang mencari informasi terkait dengan perang yang sangat bersejarah ini,stelah hampir tiga jam  akhirnya saya menemukan sebuah toko buku antik, dan menemukan banyak literatur perang Vietnam termasuk buku tentang Nguyen Trai* dalam bahasa Inggris lihat illustrasi kulit buku tersebut .*ill007

                                                                     *

saya berusaha menterjemahkan dalam bahasa Indonesia agar Kolektor Bangsa Indon esia dapat memahami semangat Juang dan strategi dari pahlawan Vietnam Nguyen Trai sedemikian istimewa sehingga dapat dijadikan pedoman bagi gnerasi penerus, setelah membaca kisah ini  anda dapat memahami mengapa rakyat Vietnam mampu mempertahankan tanah airnya dari dominasi penjajah dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Prancis dan Amerika Serikat, mereka tetap bersatu menghadang segala tantangan dari luar negeri dan saat ini Vietnam dikatakan sebagai  Naga baru yang  ekonominya sangat berkembang dengan situasi politik dan ekonomi relatif  stabil setelah perang Pembebasan Vietnam terakhir dimenangi oleh rakyat Vietnam tahun 1975.

Tulisan ini masih banyak kekurangannya dan banyak kesalahan ejaan sehingga komentar dan saran perbaikan serta tambahan informasi masih diperlukan liwat komentar,terima kasih.

Terima Kasih kepada berbagai teman di Vietnam yang telah memberikan banyak info dan jugasesama turis yang ditemukan di Vietnam dari Negeri belanda,Israel, Tiongkok dll yang memberikan semangat kepada saya untuk merampungkan tulisan ini.

Tulisan ini tidak dibuat dalam e-book,hanya sebagai karya tulis biasa , kolektor dan teman-teman dapat membacanya dengan gratis, tetapi saya mohon hormatilah hak cipta sya dengan tidak memanfaatkan informasi ini tanpa izin penulis.

Jakarta,July 2010

penulis

Dr IWAN S

____________________________________________________________________________

BAB SATU :PROLOG PEMBERONTAKAN LONGSON

I. DOMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK PADA DINASTI TERAKHIR TRAN (1407-1427)

                          *ill oo2

*ill 002 keramik anamese awal masa dinasti Tran yang ditemui di Indonesia,koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN

1.PERANG KERAJAAN VIETNAM(TRAN) VS KERAJAAN CHAMPA(VIJAYA) 1044-1069

1) 1044

Setelah pertempuran  yang lama, Kerajaan Champa memindahkan ibukotanya ke selatan , Vijaya dan keluar dari Vietnam, lihat peta kerajaan champa *dan bekas bangunan kuno peninggalan kerajaan tersebut** dibawah ini

* **

  .
2)1061

Pada tahun ini Kerajaan Vietnam menyeran Vijaya dan Raja Champa dibunuh.

.2.INVASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK KE DUA (1057-1061)

1)1057
Invasi kerajaan Tiongkok kedua yang dimulai pada tahun in yang akhirnya  dapat diatasi oleh rakyat Vietnam  dalam perang selama empat tahun sampai  tahun 1061

2)1069
Pada tahun inikota  Vijaya ditaklukkan untuk kedua kalinya,  sehingga Raja Campa ,  Rudrayarman III melarikan diri ke Kamboja, tetapi dapat ditangkap dan dideportasi ke Dai Viet(nama kerajaan Vietnam saat ini)  dan raja Campa terpaksa  menyerahkan tiga provinsi  yang dicaploknya tahun 790 sebagai imbalan dirinya dibebaskan.

3) 1120
Pada tahun ini Kerajaan Campa berusaha dua kali untuk menduduki provinsi yang hilang, tetapi tidak berhasil.

.4) 1132
Upaya kedua  kerajaan Campa untuk merebut provinci yang hilang , tetapi pada saat yang sama Campa juga berperang dengan kerajaan Khmer yang menyebabkan kekuatan Campa berkurang sampai tidak berdaya sama sekali. sehingga tiga provinsi akhirnya terpaksa diserahkan kepada kerajaan Khmer. Kemenangan kerajaan Khmer ini menyebabkan berakhirnya dinasti Ly *dari Vietnam yang memang sudah menurun kekuatannya.

 *

5) PERTENGAHAN ABAD KE-12
Campa merdeka lagi, dan kerajaan tersebut ingin melebarkan kekuasaannya diperbatasan , mereka bergerak ke Vietnam ketika Kerajaan Khmer ditarik dari dari daerah tersebut pada pertengahan abak ke-12.Kendatipun demikian terhalang karena Kerajaan Mongol muncul di arena Vietnam dan Campa segera menarik pasukannya   untuk menghindari ancaman Mongol.

.6) Pasukan Kerajaan  Mongol  menyerang dan menduduki kota Hanoi tiga kali ( tahun 1257, 1284, dan 1287)  tetapi kerjasama tentara Vietnam dan ankatan laut Campa setiap kali tidak dapat diharapkan walaupun pasukan kerajaan Mongol akhirnya meninggalkan  negeri ini

.7) Seorang Jendral Vietnam bernama ,Tran Hung Dao*  yang mampu  mengalahkan pasukan kerajaan  Mongol ,sehingga sampai saat ini masih dianggap sebagai salah satu pahlawan besar Vietnam

*

8)1306
Segera sesudah pasukan Mongol Kublai Khan pergi, raja Campa berusaha membuat persahabatn tetap dengan melamar seorang prinses Vietnam untuk dinikahi oleh raja tersebut. Setelah negosiasi yang mebawa hasil pada tahun ini. Kerajaan Vietnam akan menerima lamaran perkawinan tersebut apabila provinsi Quang Tri dan Hue diserahkan kepada negara tersebut. Sangat mengejutkan, Raja Campa Jaya Sinhavarman III menerima persyaratan tersebut.tetapi kurang dari satu tahun  sesudah menikah Raja campa tersebut  meninggal  dunia dan pengantinya merebut kembali kedua provinsi yang telah diserahkan itu.(kerajaan Campa saat ini berada dibawah kekuasaan kerajaan Sriwijaya Palembang-penulis)

9) 1312
Pada tahun ini bagian Utara dari Kerajaan Vietnam menang lagi dan Raja Campa di penjarakan di Hanoi dan Kerajaan Campa memngirim persembahan kepada kerjaan Vietnam yang saat ini bernama Dai Viet.

.10)1326
Pada tahun ini, setelah beberapa pemberontakan dan kerajaan Vietnam meminta pertolongan kepada Kerajaan Tiongkok, Kerajaan Campa memperoleh kemerdekaan lagi.

.11)1363.
Pada tahun ini kerajaan Campa berusaha merebut provinsi Hue tetapi gagal

.12) 1371
Kemudian dari tahun 1360 sampai 1390, Raja kerajaan Campa yang terkenal bernama Chu Bong Nga* 

ia  merencanakan beberapa kali pemberontakan yang meneror kerajaan Dai Viet sampai ke Hanoi dan seluruh provinsi tersebut berada di bawah kekuasan Kerajaan Campa.

.13) 1398
Segera setelah Raja Campa yang terkenal tersebut meninggal dunia tahun ini, pasukan Dai Viet menaklukan selurh provinsi sampai Da Nang . Ibukota dipindahkan dari hanoi ke Thanh Hoa agar Kaisar lebeh dekat denga daerah pertempuran.Kemudian terjadilah peningkatan  krisis didalam negeri Vietnam.

14) 1407
Seorang jendral bernama  Ho Qui Ly naik tahta, yang merupakan kaisar terakhir dinasty Tran dengan nama kaisar Tran Hung Dao*

   *
Ia adalah seorang reformis yang kaku tetapi ia meminta dukungan dari kerajaan Tiongkok dan pada tahun 1407  Tentara Kerajaan tiongkok menghilangkan bantuan dari me membangun kemabli kerajaan Tran, Penguasa Kerajaan tiongkok yang baru, Dinasti Ming, membuat negara Vietnam sebagai provinsi  kerajaan Tiongkok.tetapi tidak berhasil karena mereka memaksa pengunaan bahasa dan  pakaian Tiongkok sehingga segera timbul revolusi rakyat Vietnam.

.15 .1418

1).Le Loi dan  Nguyen Trai mencetuskan pemberontakan Lang Son yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Perang Pertahanan Rakyat Vietnam terhadapa dominasi Kerajaan Tiongkok ( invasi dari Dinasti Ming.) 

.2) Pada tahun in para pejuang Vientnam dipimpin oleh Le loi, seorang Tuan Tanah yang kaya dari Thanh Hoa dan pasukan gerilianya sangat sukses

16) 1428
Setelah Le Loi bergerilia selama sepuluh tahun sampai akhirnya pasukan kerajaan Ming meninggalkan Hanoi .(sejarah lengkap pemberontakan dapat dibaca pada bab berikutnya.)

Le Loi memproklamasikan dirinya sebagai Raja dan menganti namanya dengan   Le Thai To, dan membangun dinasti Le Kedua..
Setelah perang, Kerajaan Vietnam menirim utusan ke Tiongkok  unutk meminta maaf atas “Perilaku Yang tidak bertanggung jawab” dari para Gerilyawannya yang melecehkan Tiongkok , mereka juga telah mengirimkan permintaan maaf saat kemenanggan Vietnam  abd ke 10 dan ke 13), hal ini berhub unggan dengan ajaran Konfusius, menjaga Harmoni dan menjaga agar Kerajaan Tiongkok tidak kehilangan Muka, Kerajaan Tiongkok selalu  menerima ucapan maaf tersebut, malah juga  pada saat setelah merdeka.
.17) 1441
Pada tahun ini upaya penyerangan Kerajaan Campa mulai sekali  lagi.

,18) 1446
Pada tahun ini  ,setelah lima tahun perang, Kerajaan Vietnam menduduki  Vijaya tetapi tidak beberapa lama Kerajaan Campa bangkit lagi.

.19) 1460
Pada akhirnya kaisar Vietnam Le Thanh Tong (1460-97)  dapat mengakhir konflik dengan kerajaan Campa tersebut . Kaisar  Le Thanh Tong  menaklukan kerajaan Campa pada akhir tahun  dan  Tanah bekas kerajaan campa di Vietnam  dibagikan  kepada masyarakat yaitu pendukung dan tentara yang tidak memiliki tanah. Kerajaan Campa kemudian menjadi Sekte cabang agama Islam  dan bermukim didaerah antara Pantai Cam Ranh dan Saigon.,
(Pada tahun 1697 Saigon menjadi kota Kerajaan  Vietnam dan pada tahun  1720, rakyat   kerajaan Campa migrasi ke Kamboja dan Siam unutk menghindari hukuman kerajaan vietnam . Raja Campa terakhir meninggal tahu 1822 dan saat ini penduduk Campa tinggal 150.000, bebarapa orang Vietnam percaya bahwa permasalahan yang dihadapi Vietnam saat perang vietnam abad ke-20 adalah retribusi apa yang dilakukan nenek moyang mereka terhadap Campa, saat ini kerajaan Campa hanya tinggal kenangan saja berupa puing sisa bangunan yang illustrasi dapat dilihat sebelum ini dan beberapa patung peninggalan kerajaan tersebut yang ditemui *

  

_______________________________________________________________________

B INVASI KERAJAAN DINASTI MING KE VIENTAM PADA ABAD KE-15 MASEHI

1. PROLOG
Setelah Kerajaan Vietnam kecapaen oleh perperangan terhadap Kerajaan Campa, Kerajaan Vietnam mengalami perang lagi dengan Kerajaaan Tiongkok Dinasti Ming, yang menguasai Vietnam dan m ungkin adalah hal yang sangat mngenskan dlam sejarah Vietnam.
(1)Pasukan kerajan Tiongkok memaksa penduduk Vietnam bekerja ditambang Emas dan mineral lainnya, memotong Pohon yang langka dan menanam tanaman rempah, seluruhnya diekspor ke Tiongkok  dengan gaidng dan tanduk badak,mutiara dan batu mulia.

.(2)Secara drastis mereka menerapkan kultur ada Tiongkok, menghancurkan literatur bahasa Vietnam dan si sekolah dengan bahasa Tiongkok, menekat adat Vietnam dan hanya diizinkan hanya untuk menyembah Tuhan Tiongkok.

.(3)Mereka menetapkan pakain Tiongkok untuk wanita, melarang pria memotong rambut dan melangar hukum makan pinang kapur sirih, bangasa vietnam sama seperti gula-gula karet untuk dikunyah bangsa Tiongkok.

.(4)Mereka menbuat suatu administratif khususu, menerbitkan kartu identitas famili,s ebagian dikontrol mereka dan sebagian sebagai dasar pemungutan pajak. (sampai akhir perang pembebasan Vietnam tahun 1975  kartu identitas family dan kartu pungutan pajak teap ada di Vietna, terutama pada orang Tiongkok perantauan yang dapat menjadi suatu koleksi yang menarik-penulis)

2. PENDUDUKAN KERAJAAN MING

1)Pendudukan Ming memicu pemberontakan di prakarsai oleh Le Loi dan pembantunya, Penyair Nguyen Trai yang menyusun strategi dengan syairnya.

(DOKTRIN VIETMINH SAM DENGAN STARTEGY NGUYEN TRAI SEBAGAI DASAR AKSI MILITER PADA AKSI POLITIK DAN MORAL PERJUANGAN YAITU :”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” Lebih Baik Merebut Hati dari Benteng)

_________________________________________________________________________

II. PERANG PERTAHANAN NGUYEN TRAI -LE LOI TERHADPA DOMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK DINASTI MING

A. PROLOG

1.1418

Pada tahun ini Le Loi memprolamirkan dirinya sebagai pangeran Ketenangan.( Pacification) dan ia mengibarkan  bendera Revolusi. Ia mengungsi ke Gunung bersama pengikutnya, teman-teman juga pejuang lokal, melatih mera taktik  gerilya yang dapat dimanfaatkan terhadap kaisas Tran Hung Dao  yang bergabung dengan tentara kerajaan tiongkok mongol.Pasukan kerajaan Tiongkok menjadi tidak aman akibat menyebarnya , mereka ahnya bertahan dikota dan hanya muncul pada siang hari, Batalion mereka yang besar berada di jalan besar dan pemberotak membuat anjungan pertahanan sepanjang jalan. strategi ini ditiru para perang Vietminh dan vietkong pada abad ke-20.

Secara berangsur-angsur setelah angkatan bersenjatanya seimbang, Le Loi menyerang pasukan kerajaan Tiongkok secara langsung,menyusun peleton gajah bersama kavaleri berkudanya.Penasehatnya,penyair Nguyen Trai* menyusun startegy dalam bentuk syair yang terkenal dengan “LEBIH BAIK MENAKLUKAN HATI DARI PADA BENTENG”

*

.

2. 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

3.1428
1)The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

B. VERSI PERTAMA PERANG LELOI DAN NGUYEN TRAI (Stenley Karnow version ,Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

1.The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

2.In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

3.1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

3. 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

4. 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

B. PERANG PERTAHANAN LE LOI DAN NGUYEN TRAI VERSI HANOI
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)*ill  kulit buku **illustrasi nguyentrai halaman dalam buku

*     **

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed* together with all members of his family.
*

Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Teman.mengapa saya harus kembali disini?

Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
Mengapa saya berjuang dalam kehidupan penuh debu?

What use are palaces and coaches ? apagunanya istana dan lapangannya ?

Water and vegetables are quite enough Air dan sauyan cukup tersedia

 Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals; tentu seoran manusia biasa dan bodoh tidaklah cukup;

But each is searching for what he disstres-Tetapi setiap orang mencari apa yang mengnyakitinya

Life lasts one hundred years at most.-Kehidupan kebanyakan akan berakhir pada seratus tahun.

And all of us turn again to dust and grass-Dan kita semuan berubah jadi abu dan rumput.

Friend , Listen to my mountain song.Teman , perhatikan laugu gunung saya.

Kendatipun ,selain menemukan konsilidasi dengan alam daan pemandangan saat masa kecil, Nguyen trai gagal menemukan ketenagan pikiran perdamaian dan menulis syair.(However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem)

My country, all I have to give you is my heart-Tanah airku,saya telah memberikan seluruh hatiku
Torments inside me have chased away all repose-menusuk kedalam kalbuku yang telah menghilangkan seluruh reaksiku,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.-Pada bantalku I tetap bangun sampai pagi hari

(10) Syair Nguyen Trai yang terbaik adalah “Prolami Kemenangan atas NGO”( The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”-dari  Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) dikatan (It was said) :
Untuk menjamin Perdamiai buat rakyat(To ensure peace for the people).  Layaknya suatu essensi Kemanusian dan perdamaian (Such is the essence of humanity and peace),

Untuk menghilangkan kekerasan(To eliminate violence), seperti terutama perilaku tentara kita (such is the primary aim of our soldiers)
Tanah Air kita Dai Viet-Vietnam perkasa (Our country Dai Viet)  sudah lama sejak masakeb ujaan  tuan Tanah yang lama(has long since beenLand of old culture),

Dengan sungai dan gunung miliknya, cara dan kostumnya berb eda dari bagian Utara (With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,Different from of the North)

Kaisar Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, membangun kemerdekaan kita dan berdiri sederajat deng kasiar Han, Tang ,sung, Yuan (The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan)

Kita tahu saat kejayaan dan waktu kemunduran ( We had know both days of greatness and times of decline),
tetapi kita tidak pernah kekurangan pahlawan(But never had lacked heroes)oleh karena itu mengapa kita mengikuti ambisi jahat Luu Chung(That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions)

(b)Dan mimpi Trieu Tie menaklukan dan menduduki Toa  dan Ham Tu(And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa and at ham Tu.) and membunuh O Ma di sungai Bach Dang(And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang)
Contoh peningalan eksploitasi ini (Proof remain of those exploits),
Pada saat mulanya kebijakan  yang membawa kekacauan akibat  provokasi  Ho menyulut kemarah(In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho Provoked anger and ressentmen.

(c)Kerajaan Ming mengambil keuntungan dengan memnimbulkan kesengaraan di Tanah air kita(The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.)
Dan para traitors menjual tanah air kita untuk uang dan kehormatan(And traitors sold the country for money and honours),
Rakyat dibakar dalam nyala api oleh bangsa barbar atau dikubur dalam  kuburan bencana( The people were burnt on the flames of barbarityOr buried in the tombs of disasters.)
Untuk memperoleh Nirwarna dan orang, para insvai mengunakan ribuan amesin perang(To decieved Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations);
Selama dua puluh tahun mereka membunuh dan menghancurkan (For twenty years they killed and oppressed.)
Kemanusian dan Keadilan dilenyapkan, Tanah diambil alih, kurs dan pajak menguras hutan dan ladang sampai kosong (Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty)

Penduudk dikirim ke mulut  hiu laut saat  menyelam mutiara(Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls),
Lainnya  menderita deman saat mendulang emas dari tanah,(Others into fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand),
Dimana-mana dipasang jaring dan perangkap oleh penduduk untuk menangkap  rusa(Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer),
Tanpa perlidungan terhadap tusukan tanaman maupun serangga( Neither plants nor insects were spared.)
Meninggalkan banyak janda dan yatim piatu (Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans).

(d)Rakyat kurus dan kelaparan,tetapi penghisap darah tidak pernah puas(The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied);
Dunia dipindahkan,kayu diukir,rumah dan istana dibangun(Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built);
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth)

Vietnam War 2.1 – Before the European Came

October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection 

I. 1. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR
“ BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME” 

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY 

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR 

LITERATURE 

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________ 

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE) 

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY) 

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC) 

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD) 

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD) 

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968) 

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE 

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009) 

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025) 

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407) 

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination 

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673 

b) China domination 

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544) 

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544) 

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427) 

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938) 

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago). 

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC) 

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty. 

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself. 

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD) 

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD) 

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC. 

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination) 

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”. 

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?) 

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence. 

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth) 

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth) 

a. PRA REBELLION 

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380) 

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti . 

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south. 

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) . 

(4) 104-86 BC 

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti. 

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth) 

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth) 

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams. 

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion . 

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination. 

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs. 

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report. 

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2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD. 

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD 

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD 

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination 

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide . 

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide. 

b) The Third Chinese domination 602-905. 

1) Though the Chinese conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted. 

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information 

3) Phung Hung (791-798) 

Not yet information 

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history. 

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”. 

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam 

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict. 

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times. 

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427) 

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413) 

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation. 

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom 

1)Trung Sister *40-43) 

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602) 

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938) 

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese. 

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa. 

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa. 

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400) 

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407) 

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788) 

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________ 

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD 

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China. 

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back. 

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China. 

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth) 

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD 

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty. 

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle. 

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth) 

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968 

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period. 

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China. 

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth) 

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty, 

________________________________
4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
_________________________________ 

(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies 

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
___________________________________
5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
___________________________________ 

(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam . 

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061. 

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061 

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom, 

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed. 

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline. 

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat. 

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country . 

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History. 

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province. 

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet. 

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence. 

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed. 

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule. 

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress. 

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately. 

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful, 

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent. 

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time , 

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it. 

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once . 

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth). 

__________________________________
6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
___________________________________ 

(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth). 

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack. 

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287. 

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113) 

_________________________________
THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

(1)1225 

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty. 

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007) 

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves) 

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty 

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded. 

(2) 1225 

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature. 

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa. 

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation. 

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops. 

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312. 

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 . 

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390, 

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections . 

______________________________ 

7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________ 

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene. 

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407, 

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth) 

.______________________________
The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________ 

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth) 

b) The Ming occupation 

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” 

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt. 

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong. 

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth) 

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth) 

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997) 

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman. 

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?” 

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth) 

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.” 

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope: 

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations 

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors, 

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth) 

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980) 

(a) Biography 

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai 

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi. 

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher. 

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan. 

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty. 

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi. 

(b) Basic History 

1)During Childhood 

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement. 

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education. 

2) During youth 

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought. 

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom. 

3) During manhood 

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century. 

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China. 

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?” 

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life. 

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province. 

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism. 

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts. 

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers. 

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth) 

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two. 

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds. 

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled 

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth) 

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price. 

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam. 

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse. 

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader. 

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain. 

(1) 1417 

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta. 

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth) 

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests. 

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser. 

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth) 

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________ 

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions. 

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An. 

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung . 

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements. 

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy. 

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat. 

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace 

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth) 

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son. 

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters. 

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites. 

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu) 

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth) 

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________ 

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour. 

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below) 

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan 

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch : 

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ? 

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food. 

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo: 

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle 

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks. 

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier. 

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem : 

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero 

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem : 

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison : 

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame” 

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem : 

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song. 

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem 

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn. 

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428) 

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions 

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment. 

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans. 

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak. 

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes. 

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil. 

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies. 

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains. 

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned. 

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered. 

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest. 

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed. 

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth

UHI-PERANG VIETNAM KUNO SEBELUM MASEHI

 UHI-uniquecollection Heritage Info,FREE E-BOOK, iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@ copyright Dr IWAN S  2010

___________________________________________________________________________________

KATA PENGANTAR

II.DINASTI VIETNAM KUNO
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE)

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY)

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC)

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD)

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD)

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago).

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC)

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty.

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself.

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD)

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD)

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC.

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination)

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”.

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?)

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence.

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth)

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth)

a. PRA REBELLION

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380)

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti .

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south.

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) .

(4) 104-86 BC

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti.

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth)

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth)

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams.

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion .

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination.

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs.

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report.

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD.

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide .

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide.

the third china domination 602-905.

1) Though

b) The Third Chinese dose conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted.

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information

3) Phung Hung (791-798)

Not yet information

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history.

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”.

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict.

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times.

THE END@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010

UHI-THE ANCIENT VIETNAM RESISTANT WAR 691BC-15th CENTURY AD

UHI-Uniquecollection Heritage Info,free e-book,iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010

_____________________________________________________________________________

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR

LITERATURE

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE)

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY)

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC)

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD)

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD)

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968)

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009)

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025)

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400)

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407)

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673

b) China domination

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544)

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544)

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427)

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938)

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago).

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC)

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty.

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself.

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD)

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD)

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC.

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination)

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”.

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?)

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence.

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth)

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth)

a. PRA REBELLION

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380)

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti .

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south.

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) .

(4) 104-86 BC

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti.

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth)

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth)

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams.

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion .

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination.

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs.

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report.

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD.

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide .

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide.

the third china domination 602-905.

1) Though

b) The Third Chinese dose conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted.

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information

3) Phung Hung (791-798)

Not yet information

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history.

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”.

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict.

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times.

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427)

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413)

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation.

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom

1)Trung Sister *40-43)

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602)

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938)

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese.

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa.

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa.

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400)

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407)

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788)

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China.

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back.

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China.

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth)

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty.

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle.

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth)

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period.

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China.

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth)

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty,

________________________________
4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
_________________________________

(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
___________________________________
5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
___________________________________

(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam .

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061.

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom,

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed.

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline.

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat.

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country .

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History.

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province.

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet.

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence.

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed.

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule.

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress.

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately.

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful,

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent.

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time ,

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it.

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once .

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth).

__________________________________
6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
___________________________________

(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth).

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack.

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287.

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113)

_________________________________
THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400)

(1)1225

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty.

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007)

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves)

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded.

(2) 1225

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature.

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa.

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation.

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops.

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312.

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 .

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390,

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections .

______________________________

7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene.

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407,

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth)

.______________________________
The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth)

b) The Ming occupation

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel”

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt.

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth)

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song.

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment.

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans.

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth)

Vietnam War 2.1 – Before the European Came

October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection 

I. 1. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR
“ BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME” 

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY 

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR 

LITERATURE 

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________ 

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE) 

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY) 

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC) 

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD) 

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD) 

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968) 

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE 

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009) 

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025) 

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407) 

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination 

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673 

b) China domination 

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544) 

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544) 

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427) 

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938) 

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago). 

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC) 

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty. 

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself. 

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD) 

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD) 

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC. 

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination) 

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”. 

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?) 

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence. 

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth) 

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth) 

a. PRA REBELLION 

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380) 

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti . 

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south. 

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) . 

(4) 104-86 BC 

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti. 

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth) 

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth) 

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams. 

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion . 

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination. 

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs. 

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report. 

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD. 

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD 

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD 

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination 

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide . 

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide. 

b) The Third Chinese domination 602-905. 

1) Though the Chinese conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted. 

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information 

3) Phung Hung (791-798) 

Not yet information 

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history. 

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”. 

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam 

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict. 

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times. 

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427) 

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413) 

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation. 

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom 

1)Trung Sister *40-43) 

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602) 

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938) 

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese. 

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa. 

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa. 

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400) 

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407) 

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788) 

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________ 

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD 

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China. 

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back. 

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China. 

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth) 

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD 

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty. 

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle. 

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth) 

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968 

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period. 

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China. 

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth) 

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty, 

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4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
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(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies 

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
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5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
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(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam . 

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061. 

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061 

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom, 

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed. 

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline. 

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat. 

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country . 

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History. 

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province. 

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet. 

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence. 

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed. 

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule. 

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress. 

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately. 

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful, 

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent. 

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time , 

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it. 

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once . 

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth). 

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6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
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(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth). 

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack. 

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287. 

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113) 

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THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

(1)1225 

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty. 

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007) 

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves) 

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty 

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded. 

(2) 1225 

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature. 

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa. 

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation. 

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops. 

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312. 

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 . 

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390, 

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections . 

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7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________ 

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene. 

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407, 

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth) 

.______________________________
The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________ 

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth) 

b) The Ming occupation 

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” 

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt. 

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong. 

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth) 

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth) 

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997) 

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman. 

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?” 

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth) 

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.” 

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope: 

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations 

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors, 

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth) 

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980) 

(a) Biography 

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai 

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi. 

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher. 

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan. 

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty. 

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi. 

(b) Basic History 

1)During Childhood 

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement. 

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education. 

2) During youth 

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought. 

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom. 

3) During manhood 

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century. 

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China. 

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?” 

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life. 

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province. 

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism. 

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts. 

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers. 

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth) 

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two. 

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds. 

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled 

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth) 

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price. 

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam. 

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse. 

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader. 

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain. 

(1) 1417 

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta. 

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth) 

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests. 

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser. 

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth) 

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________ 

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions. 

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An. 

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung . 

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements. 

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy. 

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat. 

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace 

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth) 

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son. 

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters. 

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites. 

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu) 

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth) 

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________ 

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour. 

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below) 

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan 

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch : 

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ? 

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food. 

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo: 

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle 

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks. 

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier. 

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem : 

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero 

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem : 

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison : 

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame” 

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem : 

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song. 

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem 

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn. 

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428) 

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions 

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment. 

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans. 

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak. 

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes. 

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil. 

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies. 

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains. 

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned. 

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered. 

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest. 

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed. 

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth) 

UHI-THE ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AFTER EUROPEAN CAME

UHI-Uniquecollection Heritage Info, free e-book, iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@copyright Dr  IWAN S 2010.

Vietnam War 2.2 – Ancient Vietnam

October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection 

1.2. ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAMES (BEFORE FRENCH) 1.2.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 1.2.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONONLOGY LITERATURE 1.2 ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAME (BEFORE FRENCH ) 1.2.1.THE VIETNAM DYNASTY BEFORE FRENCH CAME. 1)LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1407-1780) a).Early Le’ (1428-1778) @LE LOI (1428-1443) b)Restored Le’(1553-1788) *Mac Dynasty (1527 -1592) c.THE LE-MAC FIGHTING(1527-1592) d.Northern and Southren Dynasty (1533-1592) *Trinh-Nguyen War (1627-1673) (1)Northern Dynasty * Trinh Trang (2) Southern Dynasty * Vin Tho (1655-1661) * Thien Minh ( 1739-1766) 2). TAY SON DYNASTY.1788-1802) *Quang Trung ( 1788-1792) * Canh Thinh ( 1792-1801) 3) UNITED DAI VIET(1802-1885) ( Emperor of Dai Viet) a) Before French came * Gia Long (1802-1820) * Minh Mang(1820-1841) * Thieu Tri (1848-1847) * Tu Duc (1848-1883) b) After French came * Kien Phuc(1883-1884) * Ham Nghi (1884-1885) 1.2.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.) 1) LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780) (1)1428 Both Trinh and Nguyen families were descended from close friends and aides to the hero-Empero Le Loi who freed Vietnam from Chinese rule and strated the Le Dynasty in this year. (2)1450 By this year, the Muslims had occupied Spain and Portugal for seven centuries , and to Henry , a militant Catholic mystic, their destruction was a sacred duty. He fought them in Africa as a youth, but gradually shaped a geopolitical strategy that also offered commercial advantages; by opening sea lanes to Asia, he would contain Islam, promote Christainity in the East and futher trade. Accordingly, he perfected the Portuguese fleet and established Euro’s first maritime academy to train sailors scientifically.(ibid S.Karnow) (3)1454 Pope Nicholas V endorsed Henry’s enterprise with a bull granting Portugal the exclusive franchise in Asia to “ bring under submission …the pagans of the countries not yet inflicted with the plague of Islam and give them knowledge of the name of Christ (ibid.S.Karnow) ( Christian were too late because the Islam had gave the “ light” to off the “darkness’s wolrd To Asia countries especially Malay straits , Sumatra and Java with the teaching of reading’s , writting ‘s , hygienie’s and islamic only one god,s phillosiphy , everybodies fill the had came out from the darkness to the more lighted lifes, only at the very far island like Flores and Eastren Timor the Portugeus were succeeded – auth) (4) 1494 After Colombus had discovered America, the Portugeuse reconfirmed their Asian domain in a treaty with Spain that recognized Spain ‘s prerogative to exploit the Western Hemisphere , during the century a head, Portugal would explode out of Europe in a spectacular busrt of energy. (5) 1498 Vasco de Gama, the greatest Portuguese explorer, led an armada of four ships around the cape of Good Hope, landing on the westren coast of india. (6) 1503 Vasco de Gama’s pioneer journey to India, the portugeuse couldnot be stopped. They consolidated Goa as the capital of the Indian territories, then pushed eastward to capture Malacca, the gateway to the China Sea, fanning out from that pivotal Malayan port to assert their presence nearly everywhere in Asia. They journeyed to the distant Molucca island in quest of spices, secured commercial concessions in Burma and Siam , and even sailed to forbidding Japan. Bold Portugeuse were probably the earliest Europeans to gaze at Ankor , the fantastic ruins of the vast Cambodians local rulers as mercenaries.(Ibid Stanley Karnow) (7)1520 BY 1520 A SUCCESSION OF WEAK OR EVIL KINGS had brought the country into a state of civil war (Le Dynasty’s Civil war for as allies against the usurper Mac Bang Dong. In theory , they both (Tri & Nguyen families) were fighting reality, Emperor was a figureheadwith little or no power. (8) 1525 The prime in the period from this yeare onwards, was Nguyen Kim his daughter married the young head of the Trinh family Trinh Kiem . (9) 1530 Around this year , the rebels were forced into exile in Lan Xang ( now Laos) . (10)1535 The first European sailled to Vietnam to plant a durable settlement there was Antonio Da Faria, who in this year found a suitable site for a harbour at Faifo, a costal village fifteen miles south Tourane (now Danang). Da Faria, had hoped to make it a major Portuguese enclave, like Goa and Malacca, but Faifo never flourished. The Portuguese left a permanent souvenir of their presence there, the name of Cocchi-china. They labelled that area deriving of “Gauchi” from “Giao Chi” the Chinese characters for Vietnam, and adding “China” to distinguish it from “Cochin” , another of their colonies in India. Later , the French, to potray Vietnam as disunified, reffered only to the southed third of the country as “CochinChine” and called the center Annam ( Annam still same with vietnamese char. Means Pacified and Northern Tonkin derived from Dong Kinh an old chinese named of that area, dong mean North -auth) (11) 1545 When the rebels gathered new army and capture some southern province in this year. Nguyen Kiem was assasinated and his son-in-law, Trinh Kiem took control over the Royal army 13 years later. (12)1557 The Portuguese built a base at Macao , on the southern edge of China (remains until XXth centuried and then back to PRC authority as the autonomy area-auth) (13) 1558 Trinh Kiem, the son-in-law of nguyen Kien, took control over the Royal army. He gave the rulership over the southern most province of Quang Nam to Nguyen Huang to the son of Nguyen Kim and his wife’s brother. The ill-will between the two families dates from around this time. (14) 1559 For the next 55 years, Nguyen Huang ruled Quang Nam. He gradually asserted his control over the province and extended his control south into the remaining Champa lands. Periodically, he sent military forces north to help the Trinh in their long fight against the Mac Dynasty. (15)1570 In this year Trinh Kiem died and was succeeded by his second son Trinh Tu’ng. (16) 1572 Trinh Tung was a very vigorous leader and he captured Hanoi from the Mac King in this year. (17) 1592 The Mac king (Mac Mau Hiep) recaptured the Hanoi city in this year after control 20 years by Trinh Tung. In this year Tung, again captured Hanoi and executed theMc King in this year. (18) 1593 Nguyen Hoa’ng went personally to the court, he brought money and an army to help destroy the remaining Mac armies. Once the Mac were defeated, the Trinh became increasingly unhappy with the independence of Nguyen Hoang who ruled as an independent prince in the south . (19)1600 For reasons that are unclear in this year the old Nguyen ruler broke relations with the Trinh court and gave himself the title Vuong ( Prince or King). (20) 1603 Scarcely a century after their dramatic expansion, the Portuguese began to lose their graps in Asia, partly of their own avarice, corruption and msimanagement, and partrly because their fortunes were declining in Europe.(D) (21)1613 Nguyen Hoang finally died in this year and the new leader of the Nguyen, Nguyen Phuc Nguyen, continued his father’s policy ofdefiance. Nguyen Phuc Nguyen also initited friendly relations with the Europeans who were now sailing into the area. A foreign tradingpost was set up in Hoi An. (22) 1615 In this year the Nguyen were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineer. (23) 1620 In this year Nguyen Phuc officially refused to send taxes to the court in Hanoi. A formal demand was made to the Nguyen to submit to the authority of the court. (24) 1623 In this year Trinh Tung died and was succeeded by his son Trinh Trang. Now Trang made a formal demand for submission and again Nguyen Phuc Nguyen refused. The Tri- Nguyen War between North and South Vietnam (1627-1673) (1)1627 (a)Finally in this year open warfare broke out between the Trinh and Nguyen. (b)For four month A large Trinh army battled against the Nguyen army but unable to defeat them. The result of this war was that Vietnam had effectively been partitioned into Northen and Southern region, with the Trinh controlling most of the north and the Nguyen most of the south, the deviding line was the Gianh River in Quang Binh Province. This border was very close to the Seventient paralel ( in actually the Ben Hai River located just to the Swouth in Quang Tri Provinces, witch was imposed as the border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Partition of Vietnam, (c)The Tri-Nguyen war begun and Vietnam was then torn by a civil war between regional factions, the TRINH in the North and the Nguyen in the south . European sold weapons to both sides- a risky business, sine supplying one camp antagogized the other. But they could not brutally subdue the Vietnamese as they had more passive Asians, like the Malays and Javanese. Whatever their own differences, all Vietnamese hate foreigners, and their sophisticated administrative structure, modeled on China’s, could effectively mobilize resistance against westren intruders. Besides, the Europeans were too preoccupied with fighting among themselves to mount campaigns of the kind that would have been requairred for conquest (ibid S,Karnow) (b) Rhodes , who born in the southern French town of Avignon, once a papal seat, he arrived in vietnam under Portuguese tutelage in 1627, when he was twenty –eight. At first he recoiled the language, which sounded to himlkike “twittering birds”, but within six months, he was fluent enough to preach in Vietnamese- and he later mastered Japanese, Chinese, Hindustani and Persian, And offcourse , he revolutionized the Vietnamese tounge with his streamlined alphabet. Impressed by his linguistic skill, the Jesuit hierarchy assigned Rhodes to Hanoi, where he wooed the nothern emperor Trinh Trang with such gift as an intricated clock and gilded volume on mathemetics. The delighted monarch allowed him to stayed .(D) (c) While the Trinh ruled over a much more popupous teritory. The Nguyen were able to take advantage of their geography was favorable yo them, as the flat placed of European weapons and hire European military expert and suitable for large organized armies is very narrow at the mountains nearly reach to the sea. After first assault, the Nguyen built north of Hue near city of Dong Ho’i. Nguyen defended these lines against numerous Trinh. History from this time was that the great military engineer was a Vienamese general who given the credit in Vietnam for succesfull desing of the Nguyen walls. Against the Walls the Trinh mustered an army of 10.000 men and 500 elephants, and 500 large ships. The initial attacks on the Nguyen wall was unsuccessful, because the Nguyen to get around the wall. 2) 1629 (1) 1629 After two years of the Rhodes allowed to stay at North Vietnam, according to his own careful records, he delivered six sermons a day and baptized 6.700 Vietnamese, including eighteen nobles. But the emperor and his counselors reacted against Christian subversion, their supicions kindled by the court concubines, who denounched the Christian injunction against polygamy to thewir position. 3) 1630 (1) Christian were banished from the North in 1630, Rhodes retreated South, only to discover that the rival Nguyen dysnasty had equally hostile. 3) 1633 In this year the Trinh tried an amphibious assault on the Nguyen to get around the Wll, The Trinh first won the battle of Nhat Le. 4)1635 Around this year, the Trinh copied the Nguyen andsought military aid from the Europeans. Trinh Trang hired ships for the Royal army. 5)1642 -1643 The Trinh army attacked the Nguyen wall. With the aid of army broke through the first wall but failed to break through the second at the sea, the Trinh, with their …and woekende Book were defeated by the Nguyen fleet with their Portuguese ships. 6) 1648 Trinh Trang staged yet another offensive in this year, but at the battle of Truong Duc, The Royal arny was back because the new Le’ king died around this time, perhapsas a result of defeat. This now left the door open for the offensive. 7) 1653 The Nguyen launched their own invasion of Vietnam in this year. The Nguyen Army attacked north Duang Binh Province was captured then Ha Thinh province tell to the Nguyen army in the following forces made attacks into Nghe An province. Under a new Trinh Lord, tha capable Tring Tac defeated it. The Nguyen were fatally weakened by a divission between their two top generals. 8)1655 (1)1655 Vin –tho ascended the throne, during his reign issued 1 phan cast coins “Vin Tho Thong Bao” (Uncommon coins during the Tri-Nguyen war-auth) 9)1656 The Nguyen army was driven back all the way to their originals walls. 10) 1660 Rhodes was death. 11) 1661 Trinh Trang tried to break the walls of the Nguyen , but like so many attacked before it failed to break through the wall. 12) 1664 (1) 1664 The Vatican finally accepted Rhodes program , though he died before it wentr into action . In this year, French religious leaders and their bussiness backers formed the society of Foreign leaders to advance Christianity in Asia. (b) by no coincidence, French business leaders and their religious backers created the East India Company to increase trade. Their similar aspirations were apparent in their cooperation. A commercial firm established in Rouen at the time paid transportation for missionaries to Vietnam in exchange for their services there as sales agents and bookkeepers. And Francois Pallu, afounder of Missionary association, pledge to give the East India Company “as many promoters…as there will be bishops, priests and believers in Vietnam” Observing this cozy relationship in Vietnam , an English competitor reported home that French had arrived “ but we cannot make out whether they are here to seek trade or to conduct religious propaganda”. Their objective , of course, was to do both, But they accomplihed little during most of the eighteenth century, since Vietnamese emperors continued to harass or restrict foreign’s mission-aries and merchants. Back in French, mprever, the idea of acquiring overseas teritoriesw enthralled neither the public nor government officials. Thet focysed on other concerbs, such as France ‘s domestic, economic and social problem s and its conflicts with England in Eurpre and America. But the imperial dream was kept alive by a handful of determined individuals and groups which in present-day Yargon, would be called vested interest. In Paris, they were constantly drafting blueprints for the conquest of Vietnam, while irrepressible adventures in Asia connected schemes that would prove to be fruitless, One was Pierre Poivre, The son of a prominent Lyons silk tycoon.( ibid S.Karnow) 13) 1672 Finally in this year , the Trinh army made a last effort to conquer the Nguyen, The attacking army was under the command of Trin Can, while the defending army was under the command of Nguyen Phuc Tan’s son Prince Mguyen Phuc Thuan. The attack like all the previous attack on the nguyen walls failed. This time the two sides agreed to a peace . With mediation supplied by government of the Kngxi emperor, the Trinhand the Nguyen finally agreed to end the fighting by making the Linh River the boeder between their land. Lthough the guyen nominally accept the Le’ king as the ruler of Vietnam, the rality was, the Nguyen ruled the south and the Trinh ruled the north, Thisdivision continued for next 100 years,The boerder between the Trinh and Nguyen was srongly guarded but peaceful. 14)1673 The Tri-Nguyen war was overed. _______________________________ After the Tri-Nguyen War, 1674- ______________________________ 1) 1676 Other European powers raced for Asia wealth. The Dutch took over the Spice Islands of Indonesia and the English would dominate India. In this year, the French Latecomers to scene establishe a station at Pondicherry, on the east coast of India south of Madras, but Europeans made little headway in Vietnam. 2) 1677-1738 Not yet information 3) 1739 Thien Minh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thien Minh Thong Bao” ( Very rare coins ,but this coins used very long 1739-1766, why??? may be there were War ??, please comment –auth) 4) 1740-1749 Not yet informations 5)1750 In the middle of eighteenth century , Poiver started out as a missionary in Vietnam, then switched to commerce and obtaineda license from the southern Nguyen rulers to open a trading post at Tourane (now Danang city).(D) When the operation collapsed for lack of enthusiasm in France, he blamed local Vietnamese Mandarin for swandling him and decided to punish them. 6)1751 no info 7) 1752 In this year Emperor Quang-Trung ascended the throne. Coin minted under Emperor Quang-Trung (1752-1792) to celebrate his glorious victory over the Qing (chinese) dynasty troops in the Lunar year of the Cock (ky-Dau) 1789. 8)1767 Not yet information 9)1768 in this year, Poivre teamed up with Charles Hector d’Estaing, ( an Aristocratic buccaneer whose in-direct descendent to Valery Giscard d’Estaing , became president of France in 1974-auth) Spoil for action, Hector d’Estaing had earlier been deterred by a storm from mounting an elobrate attack on the palace at Hue , the ancient imperial capital in central Vietnam. He and Poivre proposed to muster a con tigent of three thousand troops, seize Tourane and drive inland to invade the country The plan was carried out a century later, but at the time it fizzled and D’Estaing transferred his energies to the American War of Independence, in which he distinguished himself by blockading the English fleet outside New York Harbor. He died on the guillotine during the French revo-lution .(ibid S.Karnow) 1769-1771 Not yet informations 9) 1772 (1)1772 The Tayson insurrection, which erupted in 1772 against the Nguyen rulers………………….. 10) 1773-1786 Not yet information 11) 1787 In 1787, Monsignor Tierre Joseph Georges Pigneu de Behaine, bishop aof Adran, returned to France after two decades of extraordinary ad-ventures in a remote Asian Land, then know to Europe as Cochin-china. He dazzled the countiers at Versailles, the barouque palace of Louis XVI. His pious demeanor, flavored by a touch of oriental mysery, intriqued the ladies, and his infallible politeness even disarmed potential revals for royal favors. But he was upstaged by a child whom he had brought with him Nguyen Canh , the seven –year- old son of a pretender to the throne of Vietnam . The little prince dressed in red and gold brocade, an incongrous Hindu turban atop his head, the little prince exuded exotic charm. Queen Marie Antoinette bestowed her patronage on the boy by permitting him to play with the Dauphin-the heir apparent- and a court musician composed a hym to honor the “illustrious infant (look at His vintage pictures-auth)(D) Her personal hairdesser celebrated the visitors with a chic new coiffure, Le Chignon a’ la cochinoise , and a court poet acclaimed Pigneu as successor to the legendary mission-ary Saint Francis Xavier. Pigneau had a deeper purpose, he had come to France to lobby for an ambitious scheme the creation, under French auspices, of a Christian empire in Asia, he propelled France toward the conquest of Vietnam a hundred years later. Other Europeans had preceded Pigneu to South East Asia . Indeed , for a mixture of motives. Westren expansion in Asia had been gaining momentum since the fifteenth century. The riches of the East , real and fabled, tantalized Europe. Traveller like Marco Polo had returned with breathless tales of Burmese temples “Covered with gold a full finger thick” and Indian Shores whose “ Sands sparkled and glittere with a gems and precious ore” but no Asian treasure matched its pepper, nutmeg, clove and other spices essential to preserve food, especially in the warmer climates of Southern Europe. Unlike sils and jewels, which only the affluent could afford, spices were in universal demand, and they tield profits of a thousandfold or more on European Market. Importing them from Asia, though, was a dangerous business.Marchants braved storms , pirates and cruel competitors to transport their cargoes , and many perished in the effort, “Where wouldn’t they go for pepper!” wrote Joseph Conard in evocation of their memory “ For a bag of pepper they could cut each other’s throats without hesitation, and would forswear their souls…The bizarre obstinacy of that desire made them defy death in a thousand shapes : the unknown seas, the Loathsome… diseases; wounds, capicity, hunger, pestilence and despair. It made the,m great! By heaven! It made them heroic; and it made them pathetic,too, in their craving for trade with the inflexible death levying its toll on young and old.(D&P) 12)1788 Quan Trung issued 1 phan cast coins “ Quan Trung Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 13) 1789 The coin minted during Emperor Quan Trung in this year to celebrate his glorious victory over the Chinese Qing troops in the lunar year of the Cock (Ky-Dau) ( I have found this special coin in Ho Chi Minh city at my last visit July 2009, the tin coin with the Cock impress design, no one know about this , the first report by Nguyen Bao Tung, please comment because I never seen Tung collec-tion, auth) 14) 1790-1791 Not yet information 15)1792 Canh Tinh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Canh Tinh Tong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 16) 1793-1801 Not yet information. __________________________________ 4) UNITED DAI VIET DYNASTY (1802-1885) ___________________________________ 1) 1802-1819 :Gia long reign (1) 1802 (a)Reunification decree or Hung-Quoc Khan-Niem by emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty that ruled Vietnam people from this year to 1945. (b) Gia Long ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Gia Long Thong Bao (common coin-auth) (2) 1803-1819 Not yet informations 2) 1820-1840: Minh Mang reign (1) 1820 Minh Mang ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Minh Mang Thong Bao”(common coin, the character Mang like the picture of “House”, in Bali Indonesia the traders called House’s Coins, rare in Indonesia but many in Vietnam-auth) (2)1833 A Coin minted under the Minh-Mang reign to commemorate the solemn inauguration of the Noon Gate or Ngo-Mon of the imperial Palace in Hue. (reported by Nguyen Bao Tung, if someone have this coin please show us- auth) (3) 1841 Minh-mang died in this year, and Vietnam policies toward Cambodia lost some of their momentum. Nibh-mang after all had been a firm believer in Vietnam’s civilizing mission. 3) 1841- Thieu Tri reign (1) 1841 Thieu Tri ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thieu Tri Thong Bao” ( common coins, many found in Indonesia –auth) (2) Minh-mang son Thieu-tri(1841-1848) was less committed to this. He began his reign looking for solution to the Cambodians problem, that would acceptable to the Vietnamese elite and to the Cambodian as well, if not necessarily to Siamese. Distance, distrust, and the ongoing momentum of the war, however, as well as the ambiguity of Vietnam long term objecttives in Cambodia, kept the fighting going until 1847. For several years, Siamese and Vietnamese troops, aided by rival Cambodian factions, fought each other and devasted the landscape in a ferocious pattern not to be duplicated until us, no rice was planted in much of the country, and the population reverting to seminomadism, survived to a large extend by eating leave and roots. It took yhr country several decade to regain its balance and momentum. (2)1846 Negotiation calculated to save face for two exhausted armies and for rhe rival monarchies in Hue and Bangkok lasted until until 1846, when Siam and Vietnam agreed to withdraw from Cambodian territory and to accept Duang as Cambodian’s King . The treaty heralded the resumption os Siamese influence at the Cambodian court and the end of Vietnam’s civilizing mission. (3)October 1848 Duang was crowned in Udong at this day on an astrologically suspicious day, in the presence of represen-tatives sent from Bangkok and Hue, but the Siamese, who took Cambodian’s regalia back with them to Bangkok, had clearly become the dominant force in Cambodia polities even though their army had left the country. Comunicated with the French court, transmitting a letter to Emperor Napoleon III that offered his homage in exchange for the emperor’s friendship. The present that accompanied the letter- four elephant tusks, two rhinoceros horns, and quantities of sugar and white paper- were lost en route, and Napoleon’s reply, if there ever was one, has also disappeared. (Three years later a French official named Montigny came to Cambodia to negotiate a full-scale commercial treaty , but Duang backed off, because he knew that Montigny had dis cussed the treaty with Siam court which disapproved of it, When a French missionary later urged Duong to accept France as an ally, the kind replied :” What do you want me to do ? I have two masters already, who always have an eye fixed on what I am doing. They are my neighbors, and France is far away” In 1860 when Duang died in this year, his elder son, Norodom, suc-ceeded him. Over the next few years, the new monarch still un-crowned .-auth) 4) 1848- Tu Duc reign (1)1848 Tu Duc ascended the throne , during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Tu Duc Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth)