The Vietnam Liberation War Collection New Info Dec 2010

A.Dr iWAN NOTES

1.Hallo Collectors from All Over The world,especially Vietnam War Postal History Collectors, there are some news from IMNAHA Stamps blog just sent to me and also my Vietnam war vintage books new finding,look illustration of Vietcong poster above.

2.Mr Andrew Crashow from IMNAHA thanks for the info,and send my honor to joe’s family and hope they will save joe collections and put in museum. We had lost one of the best Vietnam War Postal History Collectors in the world.

3,I will revise my e-books  Vietnam Liberation War with new info in January 2011, and please premium member who want to have this limited edition  revise e-book please subscribed premium member  via comment and asking to buy this e-book fast, as info in the blog only not comlete e book just for promotions.

 Merry Chrismast and Happy New Year 2011

from the blog founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

B.NEW INFO OF VIETNAM WAR COLLECTIONS

I. JOE CARTAFALSA JUST PASSED AWAY

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Joe Cartafalsa passed away on December 7th, 2010.

In August, 2000 I attended the APS Stampshow in Rhode Island. I had the good fortune of meeting Joe in front of his Vietnam Military Mail exhibit. I had started collecting this material a couple years earlier, but was finding it difficult to understand what I had. Joe spent a lot of time with me that day, walking me through his exhibit, identifying and commenting on the covers I had brought along, and introducing me to dealers at the show who carried Vietnam material.

Over the subsequent years, Joe continued to build my enthusiasm and knowledge in the military mail of Vietnam, and expanded my interest into revenues. We kept in touch via email and an occasional phone call, meeting up at NAPEX when his health allowed. We collaborated on a CD-ROM and talked about items we had found and articles we were writing. I caught up with him in Philadelphia one year to borrow books for an article I was writing, and of course to browse his stock.

Joe was a long-time member of the Society of Indo-china Philatelists, and a prolific contributor to philatelic publications, including three articles in the Congress Book.

Rest in peace, Joe. You will be missed. 

Posted by imnaha at 8:24 AM  

2.THE NEW FINDING VIETNAM WAR LITERATURE

Driving home from NAPEX, I stopped in Havre De Grace, Maryland for lunch and discovered a terrific bookstore, Washington Street Books & Music. They have one of the best selections of military history books I have found anywhere, not to mention games, role playing books, comics, music, dvds and an excellent selection of science fiction – all of which are right up my alley. I definitely recommend checking it out if you are in the area.
At the store I picked up a copy of a Vietnam Studies monograph I didn’t have, The War in the Northern Provinces. Turning it over, I saw the book, which is around 1/2″ thick, was sent through the mail as evidenced by the mailing label.
My Anthony Wawrukiewicz book on US postal rates isn’t handy, so perhaps someone can explain why the monograph qualified for 3rd class mail, which is typically used for advertising or “junk” mail.  Printed in the upper right corner of the label it clearly reads “Special Fourth Class Rate Books.”
In addition to a useful book I got a nifty piece of postal history, not to mention a new destination to visit each year.
3.Dr iWAN VIETNAM WAR LITERATURE NEW FINDING
I just found two new Vietnam War Literature and  I will put the new info at my web blog to make the article Vietnam Liberation War became more complete :
a. Eyewitness NAM  POTRAIT OF THE ENEMY, the other side of The War by David Chanoff and Doan Van Toi,New York 1986
b.No Place to Hide ,a novel of The Vietnam War by Gerry Carrol,he write in 1986 just before passed away in 1993.
 He aslo write another book about Vietnam War:
NORTH SAR  and GHOSTRIDER ONE, please who have the other two trilogy of Vietnam war book  PLEASE SEND INFORMATIONS THANKS.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

New Info of Vietnam Phillatelic trader,Travelling,numismatic,uniquecollections etc

My best friend Susantio from Juwana Middle Java Indonesia, aksed by his froind from Pulogebang Jakarta about the adrees of Vietnam phillatelic trader in Vietnam, there were two official trader there for the new phillatelic collections ,in Ho Chi minh City and Hanoi,I have visit that shop,but very difficult to communicate because they didnot speak English well. The Vintage Postal History very difficult to found,but I have met them(more info only for Premium Members).

PLEASE REGISTER AS PREMIUM MEMBARS VIA COMMENT FOR MORE INFORMATOIONS OF VIETNAM, STAMPS,PHILLATELIC COVER,WAR INFORMATION,ANCIENT BUILDING,TOURIST MAP, TOURISM SIGHT, COINS AND BANK NOTE OF VIETNAM ETC. ALL INFO WERE Dr IIWAN s. PRIVATE COLLECTIONS FOUND DURING HIS ADVENTURED AT VIETNAM FROM 2007 UNTIL 2009,

hanoi portable street resto

halongbay haipong 2 hours from hanoi

hoan kiem lake hanoi

danang city central vietnam

SOME INFO FOR Dr IWAN S FRIEND BELOW (this free samples)

look the info from my friend in FB :

Between Nguyen Duong and You
Iwan Suwandy September 5 at 4:44pm
one of my friend want to know the email address of Phillatelic adn numismatic tradeing shop in Hanoi and HoChi Mimnh city. Thank you for your information from your friend Iwan Suwandy.
Nguyen Duong September 5 at 7:17pm
Hi my friend!
In Ho Chi Minh city,you can go to Vietficilent shop (27 Nguyen Thi Dieu str. district 3 Ho Chi Minh city.I usually get stamps and banknotes from it!
In Hanoi you can go to Vietnam stamps company 14 Tran Hung Dao str.Hanoi Vietnam
Iwan Suwandy September 6 at 4:44am
thanks for your info,I have ever visit Hanoi and buoght something at Vietficilent shop at Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi. you can read my story at my web hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com search Vietna War,Vietnam Indochina, The Vietnaminh War,and The Vietnam Liberation War.the vietcong war etc.please you help me to translate some info in native Vietnam language.
MORE FREE VIETNAM INFO
SAIGON  HOCHIMINH CITY OLDSITE
SAIGON-DALAT-NATHRANG TOUR TO LOOK THIS ANCIENT BUILDING
Mekongdelta Ho Chi Minh City
hue oldanamkingdomcapital 7 hours from hanoi
MORE INFO READ IN THIS BLOG Dr IWAN S ADENTURE IN VIETNAM 2007 AND 2009.

 Iwansuwandy’s Blog | Just another WordPress.com site

The End,more info only for Premium members@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010.

THE VINTAGE CHOLON-SAIGON NEGATIVE PHOTO

 I.. THE POSITIVE VINTAGE VIETNAM PHOTOS INVERT FROM NEGATIVE PHOTO

(1)The Negative film and the label Cover of Chinese overseas Amateur photo Studio were found at Cholon during my last visit Ho Chi Minh city in 2009.
(2)  the digital technical photo from the original negative film

(3)The Postive photo AFTER  invert
Albert S. later because he stayed in Prabumulih South Sumatra, and I have send this negative photo to him and he will invert and made the picture to more good condition because almost 50 years ago,but the B-W negative film photo still in good condition as you see below (please wait a momment until Albert post the postive photo,he too busy with his work not done until now ,he told me to used the program in computer bu I didnot know.)PLEASE THE EXPERT PHOTOGRAPHER WILL TELL ME HHOW TO USED THE PROGRAM IN COMPUTER TO INVERT THIS NATGIVE TO POSITIVE PICTURE  VIA COMMENT ,THANK  fro Dr Iwan s.

II. THE COVER OF NEGATIVE FILM OF  CHOLON SAIGON VIETNAM .
The Vintage Amateur Travel Photo Studio Khan Cholon of the chinese overseas was found during my last Visit Ho Chi Ming city 2008 at Cholon the chinese are of Saigon, this vintage labe very rare because many broken during the Vienam Liberation war 1963-1975.

 

      

       
       

3. The Negative Digital Photo
This negative digital photo from the original Black and White vintage negatifive film photo inside the vintage Saigon Cholon Chinese overseas amateur travel photo studio cover ,consist the negative foto of the Vietnam Liberation war Chineseoverseas military with uniform and his fiance, and the Vintage Vietnam Zoo nagative photo ,Vietnam Tiger and elephant, other familial negativefoto. Our photographer Albert S. will invert this negative foto to positif photo.

  

      

           


 

           

Vintage Chinese Overseas of Vietnam Saigon Cholon Negative Picture found at Ho Chi Mint City 2009

 the end @ COPYRIGHT dr IWAN S 2010

UHI-PERANG VIETNAM TERHADAP DOMINASI TIONGKOK ABAD 15th AD

UHI-Uniquecollection Heritage Information . free e-book ,iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@ copyright Dr IWan s 2010 

______________________________________________________________________

PERANG  VIETNAM melawan  DOMMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK ABAD KE 15 AD

                                                               *ill 001

                                                   Disusun oleh Dr IWAN S

Berdasarkan koleksi pribadi dan informasi yang dipeoleh saat berkunjung ke Vietnam tahun 2007

                             PUBLIKASI PRIBADI UNTUK TEMAN KOLEKTOR

                                           JAKARTA  @hakcipta Dr Iwan S 2010

*ill oo1Le loi  pahlawan perang pertahanan vietnam terhadap dominasi kerajaan tiongkok abad 15

__________________________________________________________________________

KATA PENGANTAR.

PADA WAKTU PERTUALANGAN SAYA KE HANOI TAHUN 2007,  yang kemudian dilanjutkan ke Nanning China meliwati perbatasan yang sangat terkenal Longson dengan nama perbatasan Persahabatan, tempat ini sangat bersejarah pada saat perang pertahanan rakyat Vietnam terhadap dominasikerajaan Tiongkok dipimpim oleh Le Loi dan Nguyen Trai sehingga patung le loi *ill 002  dan nama mereka di DIPATRIKAN PADA SIMPANG DAN JALAN*ill 004 &005  DIMANA SAYA MENGINAP   di hotel Phi Vu*ill003 Ho Chi Minh City lihat peta hotel tersebut*ill 6.

*002       *003     *006                                   

 *004     *004        *005

berkat informasi dari pegawai Hotel , karena takut nyasar naik bus maka  saya berjalan kaki seorong diri bertualang mencari informasi terkait dengan perang yang sangat bersejarah ini,stelah hampir tiga jam  akhirnya saya menemukan sebuah toko buku antik, dan menemukan banyak literatur perang Vietnam termasuk buku tentang Nguyen Trai* dalam bahasa Inggris lihat illustrasi kulit buku tersebut .*ill007

                                                                     *

saya berusaha menterjemahkan dalam bahasa Indonesia agar Kolektor Bangsa Indon esia dapat memahami semangat Juang dan strategi dari pahlawan Vietnam Nguyen Trai sedemikian istimewa sehingga dapat dijadikan pedoman bagi gnerasi penerus, setelah membaca kisah ini  anda dapat memahami mengapa rakyat Vietnam mampu mempertahankan tanah airnya dari dominasi penjajah dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Prancis dan Amerika Serikat, mereka tetap bersatu menghadang segala tantangan dari luar negeri dan saat ini Vietnam dikatakan sebagai  Naga baru yang  ekonominya sangat berkembang dengan situasi politik dan ekonomi relatif  stabil setelah perang Pembebasan Vietnam terakhir dimenangi oleh rakyat Vietnam tahun 1975.

Tulisan ini masih banyak kekurangannya dan banyak kesalahan ejaan sehingga komentar dan saran perbaikan serta tambahan informasi masih diperlukan liwat komentar,terima kasih.

Terima Kasih kepada berbagai teman di Vietnam yang telah memberikan banyak info dan jugasesama turis yang ditemukan di Vietnam dari Negeri belanda,Israel, Tiongkok dll yang memberikan semangat kepada saya untuk merampungkan tulisan ini.

Tulisan ini tidak dibuat dalam e-book,hanya sebagai karya tulis biasa , kolektor dan teman-teman dapat membacanya dengan gratis, tetapi saya mohon hormatilah hak cipta sya dengan tidak memanfaatkan informasi ini tanpa izin penulis.

Jakarta,July 2010

penulis

Dr IWAN S

____________________________________________________________________________

BAB SATU :PROLOG PEMBERONTAKAN LONGSON

I. DOMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK PADA DINASTI TERAKHIR TRAN (1407-1427)

                          *ill oo2

*ill 002 keramik anamese awal masa dinasti Tran yang ditemui di Indonesia,koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN

1.PERANG KERAJAAN VIETNAM(TRAN) VS KERAJAAN CHAMPA(VIJAYA) 1044-1069

1) 1044

Setelah pertempuran  yang lama, Kerajaan Champa memindahkan ibukotanya ke selatan , Vijaya dan keluar dari Vietnam, lihat peta kerajaan champa *dan bekas bangunan kuno peninggalan kerajaan tersebut** dibawah ini

* **

  .
2)1061

Pada tahun ini Kerajaan Vietnam menyeran Vijaya dan Raja Champa dibunuh.

.2.INVASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK KE DUA (1057-1061)

1)1057
Invasi kerajaan Tiongkok kedua yang dimulai pada tahun in yang akhirnya  dapat diatasi oleh rakyat Vietnam  dalam perang selama empat tahun sampai  tahun 1061

2)1069
Pada tahun inikota  Vijaya ditaklukkan untuk kedua kalinya,  sehingga Raja Campa ,  Rudrayarman III melarikan diri ke Kamboja, tetapi dapat ditangkap dan dideportasi ke Dai Viet(nama kerajaan Vietnam saat ini)  dan raja Campa terpaksa  menyerahkan tiga provinsi  yang dicaploknya tahun 790 sebagai imbalan dirinya dibebaskan.

3) 1120
Pada tahun ini Kerajaan Campa berusaha dua kali untuk menduduki provinsi yang hilang, tetapi tidak berhasil.

.4) 1132
Upaya kedua  kerajaan Campa untuk merebut provinci yang hilang , tetapi pada saat yang sama Campa juga berperang dengan kerajaan Khmer yang menyebabkan kekuatan Campa berkurang sampai tidak berdaya sama sekali. sehingga tiga provinsi akhirnya terpaksa diserahkan kepada kerajaan Khmer. Kemenangan kerajaan Khmer ini menyebabkan berakhirnya dinasti Ly *dari Vietnam yang memang sudah menurun kekuatannya.

 *

5) PERTENGAHAN ABAD KE-12
Campa merdeka lagi, dan kerajaan tersebut ingin melebarkan kekuasaannya diperbatasan , mereka bergerak ke Vietnam ketika Kerajaan Khmer ditarik dari dari daerah tersebut pada pertengahan abak ke-12.Kendatipun demikian terhalang karena Kerajaan Mongol muncul di arena Vietnam dan Campa segera menarik pasukannya   untuk menghindari ancaman Mongol.

.6) Pasukan Kerajaan  Mongol  menyerang dan menduduki kota Hanoi tiga kali ( tahun 1257, 1284, dan 1287)  tetapi kerjasama tentara Vietnam dan ankatan laut Campa setiap kali tidak dapat diharapkan walaupun pasukan kerajaan Mongol akhirnya meninggalkan  negeri ini

.7) Seorang Jendral Vietnam bernama ,Tran Hung Dao*  yang mampu  mengalahkan pasukan kerajaan  Mongol ,sehingga sampai saat ini masih dianggap sebagai salah satu pahlawan besar Vietnam

*

8)1306
Segera sesudah pasukan Mongol Kublai Khan pergi, raja Campa berusaha membuat persahabatn tetap dengan melamar seorang prinses Vietnam untuk dinikahi oleh raja tersebut. Setelah negosiasi yang mebawa hasil pada tahun ini. Kerajaan Vietnam akan menerima lamaran perkawinan tersebut apabila provinsi Quang Tri dan Hue diserahkan kepada negara tersebut. Sangat mengejutkan, Raja Campa Jaya Sinhavarman III menerima persyaratan tersebut.tetapi kurang dari satu tahun  sesudah menikah Raja campa tersebut  meninggal  dunia dan pengantinya merebut kembali kedua provinsi yang telah diserahkan itu.(kerajaan Campa saat ini berada dibawah kekuasaan kerajaan Sriwijaya Palembang-penulis)

9) 1312
Pada tahun ini bagian Utara dari Kerajaan Vietnam menang lagi dan Raja Campa di penjarakan di Hanoi dan Kerajaan Campa memngirim persembahan kepada kerjaan Vietnam yang saat ini bernama Dai Viet.

.10)1326
Pada tahun ini, setelah beberapa pemberontakan dan kerajaan Vietnam meminta pertolongan kepada Kerajaan Tiongkok, Kerajaan Campa memperoleh kemerdekaan lagi.

.11)1363.
Pada tahun ini kerajaan Campa berusaha merebut provinsi Hue tetapi gagal

.12) 1371
Kemudian dari tahun 1360 sampai 1390, Raja kerajaan Campa yang terkenal bernama Chu Bong Nga* 

ia  merencanakan beberapa kali pemberontakan yang meneror kerajaan Dai Viet sampai ke Hanoi dan seluruh provinsi tersebut berada di bawah kekuasan Kerajaan Campa.

.13) 1398
Segera setelah Raja Campa yang terkenal tersebut meninggal dunia tahun ini, pasukan Dai Viet menaklukan selurh provinsi sampai Da Nang . Ibukota dipindahkan dari hanoi ke Thanh Hoa agar Kaisar lebeh dekat denga daerah pertempuran.Kemudian terjadilah peningkatan  krisis didalam negeri Vietnam.

14) 1407
Seorang jendral bernama  Ho Qui Ly naik tahta, yang merupakan kaisar terakhir dinasty Tran dengan nama kaisar Tran Hung Dao*

   *
Ia adalah seorang reformis yang kaku tetapi ia meminta dukungan dari kerajaan Tiongkok dan pada tahun 1407  Tentara Kerajaan tiongkok menghilangkan bantuan dari me membangun kemabli kerajaan Tran, Penguasa Kerajaan tiongkok yang baru, Dinasti Ming, membuat negara Vietnam sebagai provinsi  kerajaan Tiongkok.tetapi tidak berhasil karena mereka memaksa pengunaan bahasa dan  pakaian Tiongkok sehingga segera timbul revolusi rakyat Vietnam.

.15 .1418

1).Le Loi dan  Nguyen Trai mencetuskan pemberontakan Lang Son yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Perang Pertahanan Rakyat Vietnam terhadapa dominasi Kerajaan Tiongkok ( invasi dari Dinasti Ming.) 

.2) Pada tahun in para pejuang Vientnam dipimpin oleh Le loi, seorang Tuan Tanah yang kaya dari Thanh Hoa dan pasukan gerilianya sangat sukses

16) 1428
Setelah Le Loi bergerilia selama sepuluh tahun sampai akhirnya pasukan kerajaan Ming meninggalkan Hanoi .(sejarah lengkap pemberontakan dapat dibaca pada bab berikutnya.)

Le Loi memproklamasikan dirinya sebagai Raja dan menganti namanya dengan   Le Thai To, dan membangun dinasti Le Kedua..
Setelah perang, Kerajaan Vietnam menirim utusan ke Tiongkok  unutk meminta maaf atas “Perilaku Yang tidak bertanggung jawab” dari para Gerilyawannya yang melecehkan Tiongkok , mereka juga telah mengirimkan permintaan maaf saat kemenanggan Vietnam  abd ke 10 dan ke 13), hal ini berhub unggan dengan ajaran Konfusius, menjaga Harmoni dan menjaga agar Kerajaan Tiongkok tidak kehilangan Muka, Kerajaan Tiongkok selalu  menerima ucapan maaf tersebut, malah juga  pada saat setelah merdeka.
.17) 1441
Pada tahun ini upaya penyerangan Kerajaan Campa mulai sekali  lagi.

,18) 1446
Pada tahun ini  ,setelah lima tahun perang, Kerajaan Vietnam menduduki  Vijaya tetapi tidak beberapa lama Kerajaan Campa bangkit lagi.

.19) 1460
Pada akhirnya kaisar Vietnam Le Thanh Tong (1460-97)  dapat mengakhir konflik dengan kerajaan Campa tersebut . Kaisar  Le Thanh Tong  menaklukan kerajaan Campa pada akhir tahun  dan  Tanah bekas kerajaan campa di Vietnam  dibagikan  kepada masyarakat yaitu pendukung dan tentara yang tidak memiliki tanah. Kerajaan Campa kemudian menjadi Sekte cabang agama Islam  dan bermukim didaerah antara Pantai Cam Ranh dan Saigon.,
(Pada tahun 1697 Saigon menjadi kota Kerajaan  Vietnam dan pada tahun  1720, rakyat   kerajaan Campa migrasi ke Kamboja dan Siam unutk menghindari hukuman kerajaan vietnam . Raja Campa terakhir meninggal tahu 1822 dan saat ini penduduk Campa tinggal 150.000, bebarapa orang Vietnam percaya bahwa permasalahan yang dihadapi Vietnam saat perang vietnam abad ke-20 adalah retribusi apa yang dilakukan nenek moyang mereka terhadap Campa, saat ini kerajaan Campa hanya tinggal kenangan saja berupa puing sisa bangunan yang illustrasi dapat dilihat sebelum ini dan beberapa patung peninggalan kerajaan tersebut yang ditemui *

  

_______________________________________________________________________

B INVASI KERAJAAN DINASTI MING KE VIENTAM PADA ABAD KE-15 MASEHI

1. PROLOG
Setelah Kerajaan Vietnam kecapaen oleh perperangan terhadap Kerajaan Campa, Kerajaan Vietnam mengalami perang lagi dengan Kerajaaan Tiongkok Dinasti Ming, yang menguasai Vietnam dan m ungkin adalah hal yang sangat mngenskan dlam sejarah Vietnam.
(1)Pasukan kerajan Tiongkok memaksa penduduk Vietnam bekerja ditambang Emas dan mineral lainnya, memotong Pohon yang langka dan menanam tanaman rempah, seluruhnya diekspor ke Tiongkok  dengan gaidng dan tanduk badak,mutiara dan batu mulia.

.(2)Secara drastis mereka menerapkan kultur ada Tiongkok, menghancurkan literatur bahasa Vietnam dan si sekolah dengan bahasa Tiongkok, menekat adat Vietnam dan hanya diizinkan hanya untuk menyembah Tuhan Tiongkok.

.(3)Mereka menetapkan pakain Tiongkok untuk wanita, melarang pria memotong rambut dan melangar hukum makan pinang kapur sirih, bangasa vietnam sama seperti gula-gula karet untuk dikunyah bangsa Tiongkok.

.(4)Mereka menbuat suatu administratif khususu, menerbitkan kartu identitas famili,s ebagian dikontrol mereka dan sebagian sebagai dasar pemungutan pajak. (sampai akhir perang pembebasan Vietnam tahun 1975  kartu identitas family dan kartu pungutan pajak teap ada di Vietna, terutama pada orang Tiongkok perantauan yang dapat menjadi suatu koleksi yang menarik-penulis)

2. PENDUDUKAN KERAJAAN MING

1)Pendudukan Ming memicu pemberontakan di prakarsai oleh Le Loi dan pembantunya, Penyair Nguyen Trai yang menyusun strategi dengan syairnya.

(DOKTRIN VIETMINH SAM DENGAN STARTEGY NGUYEN TRAI SEBAGAI DASAR AKSI MILITER PADA AKSI POLITIK DAN MORAL PERJUANGAN YAITU :”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” Lebih Baik Merebut Hati dari Benteng)

_________________________________________________________________________

II. PERANG PERTAHANAN NGUYEN TRAI -LE LOI TERHADPA DOMINASI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK DINASTI MING

A. PROLOG

1.1418

Pada tahun ini Le Loi memprolamirkan dirinya sebagai pangeran Ketenangan.( Pacification) dan ia mengibarkan  bendera Revolusi. Ia mengungsi ke Gunung bersama pengikutnya, teman-teman juga pejuang lokal, melatih mera taktik  gerilya yang dapat dimanfaatkan terhadap kaisas Tran Hung Dao  yang bergabung dengan tentara kerajaan tiongkok mongol.Pasukan kerajaan Tiongkok menjadi tidak aman akibat menyebarnya , mereka ahnya bertahan dikota dan hanya muncul pada siang hari, Batalion mereka yang besar berada di jalan besar dan pemberotak membuat anjungan pertahanan sepanjang jalan. strategi ini ditiru para perang Vietminh dan vietkong pada abad ke-20.

Secara berangsur-angsur setelah angkatan bersenjatanya seimbang, Le Loi menyerang pasukan kerajaan Tiongkok secara langsung,menyusun peleton gajah bersama kavaleri berkudanya.Penasehatnya,penyair Nguyen Trai* menyusun startegy dalam bentuk syair yang terkenal dengan “LEBIH BAIK MENAKLUKAN HATI DARI PADA BENTENG”

*

.

2. 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

3.1428
1)The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

B. VERSI PERTAMA PERANG LELOI DAN NGUYEN TRAI (Stenley Karnow version ,Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

1.The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

2.In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

3.1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

3. 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

4. 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

B. PERANG PERTAHANAN LE LOI DAN NGUYEN TRAI VERSI HANOI
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)*ill  kulit buku **illustrasi nguyentrai halaman dalam buku

*     **

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed* together with all members of his family.
*

Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Teman.mengapa saya harus kembali disini?

Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
Mengapa saya berjuang dalam kehidupan penuh debu?

What use are palaces and coaches ? apagunanya istana dan lapangannya ?

Water and vegetables are quite enough Air dan sauyan cukup tersedia

 Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals; tentu seoran manusia biasa dan bodoh tidaklah cukup;

But each is searching for what he disstres-Tetapi setiap orang mencari apa yang mengnyakitinya

Life lasts one hundred years at most.-Kehidupan kebanyakan akan berakhir pada seratus tahun.

And all of us turn again to dust and grass-Dan kita semuan berubah jadi abu dan rumput.

Friend , Listen to my mountain song.Teman , perhatikan laugu gunung saya.

Kendatipun ,selain menemukan konsilidasi dengan alam daan pemandangan saat masa kecil, Nguyen trai gagal menemukan ketenagan pikiran perdamaian dan menulis syair.(However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem)

My country, all I have to give you is my heart-Tanah airku,saya telah memberikan seluruh hatiku
Torments inside me have chased away all repose-menusuk kedalam kalbuku yang telah menghilangkan seluruh reaksiku,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.-Pada bantalku I tetap bangun sampai pagi hari

(10) Syair Nguyen Trai yang terbaik adalah “Prolami Kemenangan atas NGO”( The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”-dari  Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) dikatan (It was said) :
Untuk menjamin Perdamiai buat rakyat(To ensure peace for the people).  Layaknya suatu essensi Kemanusian dan perdamaian (Such is the essence of humanity and peace),

Untuk menghilangkan kekerasan(To eliminate violence), seperti terutama perilaku tentara kita (such is the primary aim of our soldiers)
Tanah Air kita Dai Viet-Vietnam perkasa (Our country Dai Viet)  sudah lama sejak masakeb ujaan  tuan Tanah yang lama(has long since beenLand of old culture),

Dengan sungai dan gunung miliknya, cara dan kostumnya berb eda dari bagian Utara (With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,Different from of the North)

Kaisar Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, membangun kemerdekaan kita dan berdiri sederajat deng kasiar Han, Tang ,sung, Yuan (The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan)

Kita tahu saat kejayaan dan waktu kemunduran ( We had know both days of greatness and times of decline),
tetapi kita tidak pernah kekurangan pahlawan(But never had lacked heroes)oleh karena itu mengapa kita mengikuti ambisi jahat Luu Chung(That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions)

(b)Dan mimpi Trieu Tie menaklukan dan menduduki Toa  dan Ham Tu(And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa and at ham Tu.) and membunuh O Ma di sungai Bach Dang(And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang)
Contoh peningalan eksploitasi ini (Proof remain of those exploits),
Pada saat mulanya kebijakan  yang membawa kekacauan akibat  provokasi  Ho menyulut kemarah(In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho Provoked anger and ressentmen.

(c)Kerajaan Ming mengambil keuntungan dengan memnimbulkan kesengaraan di Tanah air kita(The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.)
Dan para traitors menjual tanah air kita untuk uang dan kehormatan(And traitors sold the country for money and honours),
Rakyat dibakar dalam nyala api oleh bangsa barbar atau dikubur dalam  kuburan bencana( The people were burnt on the flames of barbarityOr buried in the tombs of disasters.)
Untuk memperoleh Nirwarna dan orang, para insvai mengunakan ribuan amesin perang(To decieved Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations);
Selama dua puluh tahun mereka membunuh dan menghancurkan (For twenty years they killed and oppressed.)
Kemanusian dan Keadilan dilenyapkan, Tanah diambil alih, kurs dan pajak menguras hutan dan ladang sampai kosong (Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty)

Penduudk dikirim ke mulut  hiu laut saat  menyelam mutiara(Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls),
Lainnya  menderita deman saat mendulang emas dari tanah,(Others into fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand),
Dimana-mana dipasang jaring dan perangkap oleh penduduk untuk menangkap  rusa(Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer),
Tanpa perlidungan terhadap tusukan tanaman maupun serangga( Neither plants nor insects were spared.)
Meninggalkan banyak janda dan yatim piatu (Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans).

(d)Rakyat kurus dan kelaparan,tetapi penghisap darah tidak pernah puas(The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied);
Dunia dipindahkan,kayu diukir,rumah dan istana dibangun(Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built);
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth)

Vietnam War 2.1 – Before the European Came

October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection 

I. 1. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR
“ BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME” 

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY 

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR 

LITERATURE 

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________ 

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE) 

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY) 

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC) 

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD) 

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD) 

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968) 

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE 

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009) 

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025) 

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407) 

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination 

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673 

b) China domination 

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544) 

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544) 

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427) 

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938) 

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago). 

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC) 

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty. 

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself. 

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD) 

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD) 

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC. 

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination) 

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”. 

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?) 

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence. 

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth) 

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth) 

a. PRA REBELLION 

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380) 

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti . 

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south. 

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) . 

(4) 104-86 BC 

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti. 

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth) 

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth) 

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams. 

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion . 

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination. 

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs. 

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report. 

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2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD. 

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD 

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD 

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination 

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide . 

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide. 

b) The Third Chinese domination 602-905. 

1) Though the Chinese conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted. 

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information 

3) Phung Hung (791-798) 

Not yet information 

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history. 

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”. 

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam 

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict. 

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times. 

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427) 

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413) 

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation. 

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom 

1)Trung Sister *40-43) 

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602) 

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938) 

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese. 

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa. 

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa. 

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400) 

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407) 

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788) 

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________ 

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD 

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China. 

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back. 

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China. 

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth) 

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD 

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty. 

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle. 

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth) 

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968 

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period. 

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China. 

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth) 

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty, 

________________________________
4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
_________________________________ 

(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies 

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
___________________________________
5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
___________________________________ 

(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam . 

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061. 

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061 

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom, 

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed. 

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline. 

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat. 

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country . 

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History. 

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province. 

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet. 

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence. 

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed. 

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule. 

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress. 

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately. 

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful, 

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent. 

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time , 

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it. 

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once . 

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth). 

__________________________________
6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
___________________________________ 

(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth). 

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack. 

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287. 

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113) 

_________________________________
THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

(1)1225 

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty. 

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007) 

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves) 

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty 

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded. 

(2) 1225 

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature. 

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa. 

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation. 

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops. 

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312. 

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 . 

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390, 

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections . 

______________________________ 

7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________ 

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene. 

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407, 

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth) 

.______________________________
The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________ 

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth) 

b) The Ming occupation 

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” 

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt. 

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong. 

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth) 

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth) 

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997) 

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman. 

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?” 

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth) 

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.” 

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope: 

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations 

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors, 

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth) 

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980) 

(a) Biography 

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai 

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi. 

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher. 

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan. 

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty. 

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi. 

(b) Basic History 

1)During Childhood 

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement. 

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education. 

2) During youth 

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought. 

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom. 

3) During manhood 

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century. 

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China. 

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?” 

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life. 

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province. 

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism. 

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts. 

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers. 

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth) 

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two. 

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds. 

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled 

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth) 

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price. 

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam. 

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse. 

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader. 

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain. 

(1) 1417 

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta. 

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth) 

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests. 

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser. 

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth) 

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________ 

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions. 

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An. 

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung . 

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements. 

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy. 

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat. 

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace 

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth) 

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son. 

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters. 

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites. 

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu) 

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth) 

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________ 

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour. 

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below) 

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan 

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch : 

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ? 

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food. 

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo: 

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle 

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks. 

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier. 

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem : 

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero 

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem : 

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison : 

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame” 

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem : 

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song. 

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem 

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn. 

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428) 

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions 

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment. 

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans. 

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak. 

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes. 

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil. 

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies. 

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains. 

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned. 

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered. 

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest. 

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed. 

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth

UHI-PERANG VIETNAM KUNO SEBELUM MASEHI

 UHI-uniquecollection Heritage Info,FREE E-BOOK, iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@ copyright Dr IWAN S  2010

___________________________________________________________________________________

KATA PENGANTAR

II.DINASTI VIETNAM KUNO
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE)

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY)

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC)

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD)

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD)

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago).

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC)

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty.

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself.

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD)

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD)

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC.

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination)

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”.

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?)

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence.

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth)

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth)

a. PRA REBELLION

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380)

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti .

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south.

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) .

(4) 104-86 BC

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti.

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth)

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth)

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams.

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion .

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination.

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs.

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report.

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD.

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide .

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide.

the third china domination 602-905.

1) Though

b) The Third Chinese dose conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted.

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information

3) Phung Hung (791-798)

Not yet information

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history.

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”.

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict.

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times.

THE END@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010

UHI-THE ANCIENT VIETNAM RESISTANT WAR 691BC-15th CENTURY AD

UHI-Uniquecollection Heritage Info,free e-book,iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010

_____________________________________________________________________________

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR

LITERATURE

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE)

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY)

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC)

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD)

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD)

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968)

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009)

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025)

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400)

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407)

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673

b) China domination

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544)

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544)

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427)

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938)

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago).

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC)

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty.

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself.

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD)

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD)

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC.

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination)

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”.

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?)

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence.

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth)

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth)

a. PRA REBELLION

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380)

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti .

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south.

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) .

(4) 104-86 BC

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti.

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth)

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth)

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams.

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion .

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination.

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs.

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report.

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD.

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide .

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide.

the third china domination 602-905.

1) Though

b) The Third Chinese dose conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted.

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information

3) Phung Hung (791-798)

Not yet information

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history.

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”.

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict.

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times.

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427)

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413)

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation.

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom

1)Trung Sister *40-43)

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602)

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938)

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese.

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa.

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa.

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400)

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407)

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788)

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China.

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back.

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China.

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth)

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty.

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle.

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth)

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period.

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China.

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth)

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty,

________________________________
4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
_________________________________

(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
___________________________________
5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
___________________________________

(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam .

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061.

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom,

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed.

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline.

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat.

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country .

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History.

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province.

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet.

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence.

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed.

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule.

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress.

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately.

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful,

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent.

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time ,

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it.

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once .

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth).

__________________________________
6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
___________________________________

(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth).

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack.

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287.

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113)

_________________________________
THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400)

(1)1225

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty.

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007)

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves)

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded.

(2) 1225

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature.

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa.

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation.

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops.

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312.

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 .

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390,

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections .

______________________________

7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene.

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407,

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth)

.______________________________
The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth)

b) The Ming occupation

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel”

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt.

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong.

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth)

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth)

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997)

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman.

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?”

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth)

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.”

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope:

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors,

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth)

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980)

(a) Biography

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi.

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher.

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan.

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty.

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi.

(b) Basic History

1)During Childhood

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement.

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education.

2) During youth

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought.

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom.

3) During manhood

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century.

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China.

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?”

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life.

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province.

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism.

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts.

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers.

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth)

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two.

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds.

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth)

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price.

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam.

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse.

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader.

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain.

(1) 1417

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta.

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth)

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests.

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser.

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth)

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions.

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An.

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung .

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements.

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy.

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat.

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth)

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son.

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters.

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites.

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu)

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth)

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour.

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below)

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch :

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ?

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food.

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo:

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks.

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier.

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem :

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem :

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison :

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame”

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem :

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song.

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn.

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428)

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment.

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans.

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak.

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes.

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil.

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies.

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains.

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse.

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned.

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered.

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest.

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed.

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth)

Vietnam War 2.1 – Before the European Came

October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection 

I. 1. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR
“ BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME” 

1.1.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 

1.1.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONOLOGY 

1.1.3 ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR 

LITERATURE 

___________________________________
1.1 VIETNAM WAR BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME.
___________________________________________ 

1.1.1.THE ANCIENT DYNASTY
(INTERNET EXPLORATION BY GOGLE) 

A. BEFORE CHRIST (PRE HISTORY) 

a) Independent Kingdom
1)LAC LONG DUAN(3000 BC)
2) HO’NG BA’NG or HUNG VUOANG DYNASTY (2879-257BC)
3)THUC DYNASTY
*AN DUONG VUONG (258-207 BC)
4)TRIEU DYNASTY (207 -111 BC) 

b) China domination
1)FIRST CHINESE MILLENIUM (111 BC-939 CE)
a)FIRST CHINESE DOMINATION (207BC-39 AD)
*Ist PART OF CHINESE MILLENIUM(111 BC-39 AD) 

B. AFTER CHRIST (CE OR AD) 

a) EARLY AD YEARS OF Independent
1) TRUNG SISTERS(40-43 AD)
2) EARLY Ly’ DYNASTY (544-602)
*The 12 Lord Rebellion (966-968) 

b) 10-13 th CENTURY OF INDEPENDENCE 

* EARLY LE’ DYNASTY ( 981-1009)
@ LE HOANG ( (O981-1009) 

*LY’ DYNASTY(1009-1025)
@ LY CONG UAN (1009-1025) 

*TRA’N DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

6) very short time dynasty before Fourth Chinese dominations
* HO’ DYNASTY (1400-1407) 

5)Long Time dynasty after Fourth/last time Chinese (Ming) domination 

LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780)
*EARLY LE’ (1428-1788)
*RESTORED LE’1533-1788
# MAC DYNASTY 1527-1592
@ THE LE-MAC FIGHTING (1527-1592)
# SOUTHERN & NOTHERN DYNASTY
1533-1592
#TRINH-NGUYEN WAR 1627-1673 

b) China domination 

1) SECOND DOMINATION(43-544) 

*TRUNG NU VUONG (40-43)
*LADY TRIUE’S REBELLION (240)
*TRIEU THI THRINH (248)
* 1st LY DYNASTY
@ LY BAN (541-544) 

2)THIRD DOMINATION(602-905)
*MAI HAC DE’OR MAI THUC LOAN (722)
*PHUNG HUNG(791-798)
*NGO QUYEN(939-964)
*DINH BO LINH(968-980)
3)FOURTH DOMINATION (1407-1427)
* LATER TRA’N DYNASTY (1407-1413)
* LAM SON REBELLION(1418-1427) 

C) AUTONOMY (905-938)
*KHUC FAMILY(906-930)
*DUONG DINH NGE’(931-947)
*KIE’U CONG TIEN(937-938) 

2.1.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.)
__________________________________
A. ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR BC
___________________________________
a. 691 BC
The history of Vietnam begins around 691 BC ( 2700 years ago). 

b. The legend of Thuc – Hong Bang War(257 BC) 

1) Hong Bang Dynasty of Van lang Kingdom (258-257 BC)
The Hong Bang reign reigned by the 18th Hung Vuong Kings during 258 BC,.
The Kingdom nothern part of Vietnam ruled by The Thuc dynasty, king Thuc Vuong had asked the southern King Hung Vuong XVIII for his daughter’s hand in marriage.
When Thuc king’s request was refused, he became enraged and a feud developed between the two family dynasties.
One of King Thuc Vuong’s nephew ,Thuc Phan, profited from the degene-racy and debauchery of Hung Vuong XVIII to invade and conquer the Van Lang Kingdom in 257 BC, thus ending the Hong Bang Dynasty. 

2) Thuc Dynasty of Au Lac Kingdom (257-207 BC)
Thuc Phan assumed the name of An Duong Vuong, then ruled the combined kingdoms, The combined ofViet people . The country was then known as Au Lac.
An Duong Vuong protected his reign by constructing a spiral shaped chitadel, which was called Lao Thanh (the remaining ruins of Lao Thanh still exist in the village of Co Loa , Phu Yen province)
In the endeavor, the King was said to have recieved the divine help of the Gold Turtle who equipped the King with a supernatural cross bow which made him invicible.
This weapon derived its magic from an attached claw offered by the Gold Turtle himself. 

c)First Chinese Denominations(207BC-30 AD) 

(1) Trieu Dynasty (207 BC-30 AD) 

a)The legend of Trieu Da
To the north , the powerful Chinese King, Tan thuy Hoang, of the Tan Dynasty, who start building Van Truong Thanh (Great Wall).
Tan Thuy Hoang sent Trieu Da to extended the territories southern towards Viet Nam.
An Duong Vuong defeated Trieu Da’s army with his supernatural bow.
Trieu Da then adopted the customs of the Viets, married his son Trong Thuy to the princess My Chau ,daughter of King An Duong in year 2088 BC.
Trong Thuy made a false magic crossbow. He gave it to his wife to switch with one that King An Duong had.
After having the supernatural bow, Trong Thuycame back to the North.
Trieu Da sent his troop to conquer the Kingdom of Au Lac.
An Duong beheaded My Chau, his daughter, and drowned himslf in the sea before the invaders couldreach his citadel.
Trieu Da conquered and ruled Au Lac from 207 BC. 

b) The Chinese millenium in Vietnam
(the First Chinese Domination) 

1) 208 BC
Trieu Da, a Chinese General , conquers Au Lac in the nothern mountains of Vietnam, established a capital, and proclaims himself emperor of “ Nam Viet”. 

c)Han Dynasty in Vietnam (111 BC-?) 

1)111 BC
Successive dynasties based in China ruled Vietnam directly for most of the period from 111 BC until 938 when Vietnamregained its independence. 

2)1st century BC
Han dynasty expands incorporates Nam Viet into the Chinese empire as the province of Giao Chi (this name used by the chinese overseas in vietnam until the Portuguese came at the village Faifo near Touran, now Danang , in 18th century, and they called that area
Cochichina, because they also have the Cochine at India , must added China after Cochi in order to made different name , “Cochichina”, then by the French became “Cochin-chine”
( The Cochinchine in Indochine Francaice , later became the state of Vietnam or Etat du Vietnam,Etat du Vietnam Cuoc Gia, the Republic of Vietnam or Vietnam Cong Hoa different from the North area Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa ort The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and now became several province in The Socialist Republic of Vietnam .
All of the historical changes always first begun with the civil or military war with different name will be an interesting to study if we have the document, revenue and postal history collections as the Fact of that History.
If you read slowly with full concentration , all the historical fact collections will help us to understand what happen and how the Vietnam-ese strategic and tactics to win against the more powerfull foreign countries during the resistant , Independent and liberation war with “The People Power and Guerillas war” noone could win against them , please comment for the new information, correction and suggestion about the printing of this book with complete illustrations of the historical fact collections in full coloured, by the Indochine postal history association collaborated with the Vietnam Postal History club all over the world and Armed Force Postal History association, that is why I put the information in short type every weeks because very difficult to understand by the yunior postal historians -auth) 

2.1.3 THE FIRST VIETNAM REBELLION WAR AGAINST CHINA.207 BC,
(Compile by the author from antiquarian Books private collections found at Hanoi ,Than Pho Ho Chi Minh, and internet explorations by Gogle-auth) 

a. PRA REBELLION 

(1) 500 BC
The military experience of the Chinese was expressed in a notable military treatise, “The art of War by Sun Tzu.
The author was a career officer who probably rose to a senior rank, but composed of a number of maxims or precepts. It is worth remarking that, apart from its military value, The art of war is regarded as one of the great work of Chinese literature.
Sun Tzu’s tretise deals with the fundamentals of Strategy and command. (read completely at Montgomery’s a History of Warfare-page380) 

(2) 228 BC
The Chinese became a nation in arms and different part of the country became united into empire by emperor Shi Huang Ti . 

(3) 208 BC
(a)The recorded history , as registered in Chinese annals, begins only in this year, when Trieu Da, a turncoat Chinese General , conquered Au lac, a domain in the Nothern mountain of Vietnam populated by Viets, a people of Mongolian origin who migrated to south. 

(b)Trieu Da , defying the decadent Ch’in dynasty, constructed his capital near the present city of Canton and proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet, land of the South Viet , which reached as far as the present city of Danang (ex Tourane) . 

(4) 104-86 BC 

(a)The Han dynasty’s brilliant reign was Wu Ti. 

(b)The Dynamic Han dynasty, which expanded the Chinese empire across Asia from Turkestan to Korea, annexed Nam Viet as the Chinese province of Giao Chi.
(c) The Chinese integreted the territory in ways that resembled Rome’s contemporaneous approach to “Its dominion” .
(d)They created administrative districts under military govenors whose Civilian Chinese advisers imported Confucian bureucratic concepts that Underlined respect for authority.(I have found rare document history collections in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city during my visit in 2007, the document of handwritten chinese calligraphy in old paper with many paitings about Confusion phillosophy and traditional ceremony and praying, and a chinese calligraphy bring from china to cholon-chinese area at saigon during Cochin China Indochine Francaise (now HCM-city) – this document will discuss in special book “Chinese Overseas in Vietnam” with another Vietnam’s Hoa Kiao collections-auth) 

(e) They established school to spread the Chinese language, which be-camed the idiom of learned Viet-namese. ( I have found in Hanoi an antiquarian book”Cuc Thu Bach Vinh” 1769 about Vietnam in Chinese charactered and translated in vietnamese published by Nha Xuat Ban Khoa Hoc Xa Hoi -1978 after liberation war, the book will discuss later in another boo”Vietnam’s Chinese overseas collections” -auth) 

(f) They also introduced the plow and draft animals and, to exploit Vietnam for themselves, they built road, ports,canals, dikes and dams. 

(g) At First they ruled Vietnam lightly, co-opting its feudal chiefs rather subduing them. But China failed to assimilate the Vietnamese, who retained their ethnic singularity despite their receptivity to Chinese innovations. Indeed, China’s superior institution may have indirectly contributed to Vietnam’s cohesion . 

b.The Vietnamese Rebellion vs Chinese domination. 

(1) 207 BC
The Vietnamese rebelled against Chinese Troops because the situations of Labor levies , High Taxes and inte-ferance in their local affairs. 

(2) new information about the first rebellion against Chinese domination still need, please comment and report. 

___________________________________
2.2.ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AD. 

2.2.1. The Anciet vietnam Dynasty AD 

a.The Second Chinese Domination
40-544 AD 

a)Rebellion against Chinese Domination 

1)40 AD
Lady Trung Trac Sister Rebellion against China and became a queen of Vietnam from Hue to south China only for two years.
2) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed, in this year and the Trung sister commited suicide . 

3) 248 AD
Another women, Lady Trieu Au, the Vietnamese , launched a revolt against China in AD 248 but failed,and Homosuicide. 

b) The Third Chinese domination 602-905. 

1) Though the Chinese conquers referred to Vietnam as Annam,”The Peaceful South” , it was not peaceful. Resistant against China persisted. 

2) Mai Hac De’ (722)
Not yet information 

3) Phung Hung (791-798) 

Not yet information 

4) 938
Ngo Quyen rebellion at Bach Dang River and in this year Vietnam regained its independence.
Vietnam remained a tributary statew to its larger neighbor China for much of its history. 

5) 967
Dinh Bo Linh Rebellion and made new state “Dai Co Viet”. 

b) Chinese-Mongol Invation Vietnam 

1) 1255
Invations by the Chinese as well as three invation by the Mongol (Kublai Khan –Yuan dynasty-auth) between 1255 and 12 85.
Emperor Trin’h Nha’n Ta’ng later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflict. 

2) 1287
Sino-Vietnamese relation were recurrently turbulent. During the thirteenth century, the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam three times. 

c) Fourth Chinese domination(1407-1427) 

1)Later Tran dynasty (1407-1413) 

(1)1418
Le Loi and Nguyen Trai (Lam Son rebellion ) resistent war against Ming dynasty Invation. 

b.Vietnam Independent ‘s Kingdom 

1)Trung Sister *40-43) 

2) Early Ly dynasty (544-602) 

3) Autonomy (905-939)
* Khuc Family (906-930)
* Duong Dinh Nghe’(931-937)
* Kie’u Co’ng Tien (937-938) 

4)Ngo dynasty (966-968)
* The 12 Lord rebellion (966-968)
The emperor of NGO dynasty couldn’t subdue the dozen local armies chief and never recognation from Chinese. 

5) Dinh dynasty (968-980)
The emperor of Dinh dynasty more ephemera and defeated the warlord and pacified Chinese with tribute.
6) Early Le’ dynasty (980-1009)
The emperor of early Le’ dynasty, Le Hoan He was a very successful king.
He defeated a Chinese inavtion in 980 and after that attack Champa. 

7) Ly’ dynasty (1009-1225)
Ly’ dynasty defeated emperor of early Le dynasty in 1009 after he come back from attacked Champa. 

8)Tra’n dynasty (1225-1400) 

9) Ho’ dynasty (1400-1407) 

10) Later Le’ dynasty (1420-1780)
* Early Le’(1428-1788) 

__________________________________
2.2.2. Chronology of Ancient Vietnam Rebellion/Resistent war AD.
___________________________________ 

1)First Rebellion in 40 AD 

(a)Lady Trung Trac, avenging the murder of her dissident husband by a Chinese commander, let the first major Vietnamese insurrection against China. 

(b)She and her sister, Trung Nhi, mustered other restive nobles and their vassal, including another women, Phung Thi Chinh, who supposedly gave birth to a baby in the middle of the battle yet continued to fight with the infant strapped to her back. 

(c) They vanquished the Chinese in A.D. 40 and with the Trung sisters as Queen., set up an independent state that stretched from Hue into southern China. 

(d) 42 AD
The Chinese crushed in this year and the Trung sisters commited suicide- in aristocratic style- by throwing themselves into river.
( The Vietnamese still venerate them at temples in Hanoi, Sontay and elsewhere and the communistacclaim them as Pioneer nationalist. Madame Ngho Dinh Nhu, sister-in-law of South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem, erected a statue in Saigon in 1962 to commerate their patriotism- and also to promote herself as their reincar-nation, read more at chapter Saigon Regime -1955-1963 auth) 

2)The Second Rebellion in 248 AD 

a)Another women , Trieu Au, revolt against China in A.D. 248 , a generation after the collapse of Han Dynasty. 

b)She wearing golden armor and riding an elephant as she led a thousand men into battle. 

c)Gloriously defeated at the age of twenty-three, she committed suicide rather than suffer the shame of surrender.
( like the Trung sisters, she is remenbered by a temple, and by her words of defience :” I want to rail against the wind and the tide, kill the whales in the sea, sweep the whole country to save the people from slavery, and I refuse to be abused”
These femine exploits, doubtless inflates in popular legend, illustrate the unique status of women in Vietnam society.
In contrast to their counterparts elsewhere in Asia and even in Europe, emancipated only recently, they could traditionally inherit land , serve as trustees of ancestral cuts and share their husband’s property(Stenley Karnow)
(In Indonesia the same Lady’s emancipation hero in Aceh where the Tsunami tragedy, “Cut Nya Dinh”, I have ever seen her momunent and House at Bandar Acheh ex Kutaraja or the King city , this province very famaous due to Tsunami and GAM rebellion, now became autonom islamic province Aceh Darusalam -auth) 

_________________________________
3) The Warlods rebellions in 938 -968 

(a)Historian distinguish fifteen dynasties in Vietnamese history. Four were were the short lived independent government that revolt against Chinese rule before 939.
The next three also had very short careers, numbering in all eight kings over a seventy-year period. 

(b) The Ngo Dynasty (939-968)
The first of these, the NGO (939-968), was unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China. 

(c)The Dinh dynasty (968-979) was even more ephemeral, but it defeated thewarlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute. The new Emperor Dinh Bo Linh ascended the throne and called his state “Dai Co Viet” the Kingdom of watchfull hawk,
The son of an official, he organized the peasant army commanded by the urban intelectual.
His dynasty lasted only in one decade but he won the chinese recognation of the Vietnamese ‘s independent in exchange for regular payment tributes.
The tributes arrangement which was the typical chinese relations with the other state in South East Asia.
( the same with Indonesia state , but emperor srivijaya during Yuan Dynasty didn’t want to send the tribute and made the “tattoo” cross scar the Yuan Envoy Ming Tse, and the Emperor Kublai Khan send the army to punish the Kingdom os Singasari’s King , read at The Travelling’s Unique collections in this blog-auth) 

(d) The early Le Dynasty(979-1009)
This dynasty had a very successful king named Le Hoan He. He defeated a Chinese invasion in 981 and in the following year he attacked Champa, killed its King, sacked the Champ capital Indrapura and came home with an enormous amount of booty His successor. However , was dethroned by the first monarch of the Ly dynasty, 

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4) The two centuries stabled Ly dynnasty (1009-1225)
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(a) The Ly dynasty replaced the warlord with a Chinese-style civil service was stable enough to last over twocenturies 

(b)The Ly monarch called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam (The Pacified South) was used everywhere else. The country prospered and the goverment encouraged cultural process by vigorously promoting literature, art and Mahayana Buddhism .
But DaiViet growth was always threatened by external wars.
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5) The Vietnam-Champa war (1044-1069) and Second Chinese invation, four years war (1057-61)
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(a)Long feud with Champa was renewed the Champs moved the capital south to Vijaya to keep it out of Vietnam . 

(b) 1044
in this year the vietnamese sacked Vijaya and killed the Champ king again 1061. 

(c)1057
A 2nd Chinese invation was defeated at four years war from this years until 1061 

(d)1069
Vijaya was sacked a second time in this year . This time the Cham king, Rudrayarman III was chased into Cambodia, captured and deported to Dai Viet had surrender the three provices taken in 790 to regain his freedom, 

(e) 1120
The Champs made two attempts to recover the lost provinces but didn’t suceed. 

(f) 1132
The second Champs attempts to recover the lost province but another war with the Khmers at the same time reduced Champa to impotence.
Then Cambodian monarch pursued the same role in the Vietnamese-Cham scrap and the three disputed province ended up under Khmer.
The Khmer victories finished off the Ly Dynasty which was already in decline. 

(g) Mid 12th century
Champa was independent again, and wanted a rematch over the disputed border province.
They went to Vietnam by default when the Khmer withdrew from that area in the mid 12th century.
This time however, the feud barely got strated when the Mongol empire appeared on scene.
Vietnam and Champa quickly put aside their squabble to meet the Mongol threat. 

(h The Mongol attacked and took Hanoi three times ( in1257, 1284, and 1287) but the combination of vietnamese army and Cham navy infl icted unacceptable losses each time.
Eventually theMongols gave up and evacuated the country . 

(i) The Vietnamese general who defeated the Mongols Tran Hung Dao is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese History. 

(j)1306
Once Kublai Khan was gone, the king of Champa tried to make the new friendship permanent by asking for a Vietnamese princess in marriage. After negotiations that dragged on until 1306,
the Vietnamese said they would allow the marriage if Champa give up the provinces of Quang Tri and Hue. Suprisingly, the Cham king, Jaya Sinhavarman III, accepted.
But he died less than a year after the wedding, and his successor started a new war to take back the two province. 

(k) 1312
This Time the nothrern kingdom won again, by 1312 the Cham king was a prisoner in Hanoi, and Champa paid tribute to Dai Viet. 

(l)1326
In this year, after several rebellions and an appeal to China, Champa regained her independence. 

(m)1363.
The Champs tried to take back Hue in this year but failed. 

(n) 1371
Then came Chu Bong Nga (1360-90) Champ’s most outstanding king.
The series of well-planned raid she made against Dai Viet kept theVietnamese in a state of terror during the reign.
In this year, he even pillaged Hanoi. All the disputed territory came under Champa’s rule. 

(o) 1398
As soon as he was dead, however, the Vietnamese conquered every-thing as far as Da Nang and in this year.
The capital was moved from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa so that the king could be closer to the action.Then a crisis at home hail the Vietnamese progress. 

(p) 1407
A general named Ho Qui Ly usurped the throne.
He was a capable and bold reformer, but the suppoters of the Tran dynasty called in Chinese aid, and in 1407 a Chinese army removed the usurper instead of re-establishing Tran rule, China’s new rulers, The Ming dynasty, made the country a Chinese province,it didn’t work, the Chinese imposed their language and customs soseverely that the Vietnamese revolted almost immediately. 

(q) 1418
In this year the rebels found a capable leaders named Le Loi, a wealthy landowner from Thanh Hoa. His guerrilla campaign was succesful, 

(r) 1428
ten years after the Le Loi guerilla, the Chinese abandoned Hanoi.( Complete strory read another chapter Lang Som rebellion by Le Loi and Nguyen Trai-auth)
Le Loi proclaimed himself king, changed his name to Le Thai To, and founded the second Le dynasty.
After the war , the Vietnamese sent gift earing emissaries to China to apologized for the” irresponsible behavior” of their guerillas who had ambushed the Chinese ( they also sent embassies to apologized for Vietnamese victories in the 10th and 13th centuries).
This was in accord with the teachings of Confucius, preserving harmony and saving the Chinese from too much loss of face.
The Chinese always appreciated that thev Vietnamese, even when independent. 

(s) 1441
In this year, the feud with Champa started up one more time , 

(t) 1446
In this year , after five years war, the Vietnamese occupied Vijaya,but for long, for the Chams soon recovered it. 

(u) 1460
It was Le Thanh Tong (1460-97) Vietnam’s greatest king, who ended the conflict once . 

(v) 1471
Emperor Le Thanh Tong conquer-ing of Campa in this year. The Land was given to masses of landless soldiers and peasant.
The Champs coverted to the Shite branch of Islam and withdrew to the area between Cam Ranh Bay and Saigon, but they were never given a chance to establish their kingdom,
(By 1697 Saigon itself had become a Vietnamese city and In 1720 the remaining Chams migrated into Cambodia and Siam to escape Vietnamese persecution.
The last king of yhe Chams died in 1822, and there are only 150.000 Chams left to day. Some Vietnamese believe that the problems their country has suffered in the twentieth century are divine retribution for whattheir ancestors did to Champa-auth). 

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6) Kublai Khan Invaded Vietnam in 13th centuries.
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(a)The Mongol emperor invaded Vietnam tree times, pushing south to control the spice routes of the Indonesian Archipelago.(read Meng Chi affairs-auth). 

(b)The Vietnamese, commanded by the illustrious Tran Hung Dao, repulsed each offensive . Like outnumbered Vietnamese officers before and since, he relied on mobile method of warfare, abandoning the cities, avoiding frontal attacks, and harassing his enemies until, confused and exhausted, they were ripe for Final attack. 

(c)In the last great battle, which took place in the Red River valley in 1287. 

(d)The Vietnamese routed three hundred thousand Mongol troops.
In a victory poem, a Vietnamese general affirmed that “ this ancient land shall live forever”
(Seven centuries later, the Vietminh commander, General Vo Nguyen Giap, evoked Tran Hung Dao’s memory as he launched an operation against the French in the same area- S.Karnow,p-113) 

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THE TRAN DYNASTY (1225-1400) 

(1)1225 

(a)After many yeqrs in the civil state, it was replaced with the Tran dynasty.
The tran dynasty pursued the same policies that worked during the Ly dynasty. 

(b) Porcelein Village during Tran dynasty
According to the Bautrang and Giang Cao village’s descended records, during the Tran Dynasty , three Thai hoc sinh degree scholars ( an academic degree in the feudal education) were sent by the King to China as envoys.
These scholars were Hua Ving Kieu ( Bat Trang village) , Dao Tri Tien (Tho Ha Village) and Luu Phuong Tri ( Phu Lang village) .
On the way home , as three passed Thien Chu area , a big storm came. They were forced to stop to rest.
There they found the Kai Feng pottery plandt , thus, the scholar learned pottery production techni-ques.
When returned home, they educated their fellow villagers in ceramics.
Each scholar had a distinct syle, which led to the spesific styles of their villages.
Bat Trang produced white enamelled pottery, Phu Lang produced brown enamelled pottery, and Tho Ha produced brown enamelled that drips from the center.
One of Bat Trang pottery ‘s features is its white clay with Kaolin ( Hoa Vin Kieu from Bat Trang village knowed the Chinese secrete of the petunse or kaolin that made the strong porcelain, the finished products are decorated with simple or complex pattern
(I have found very rare blue-white big tea cup porcelain with the simple decoration near same with the rare Yuan dynasty tea cup .
Before someone told me that the chinese potters came to Vietnam , and the vietnamese learned from them ,this were the wrong information when I found the Heritage magazine july/August 2007 at the Vietnam air flight from Ho Chi Minh city to Saigon. the photo of that rare Tran dynasty cup, near same with an early blue-white Annamese cup on the internet’s auction , as the front cover of the subchapter Ancient Vietnam war before european came, I also have the Brown Jar with the ear like string and incised flower from Phu Lang village, this Jar very popular list the book of Annamese ancient Pottery, put in the Adan Malik Museum, and Rockefeller Museum, if someone preferred to looked at that unique and beautiful Jar , please aasked in the comment – auth)
Many new enamel materials and color have been invented and used profieciently by Bat Trang pottery makers. Unlike many other pottery center with development of the trade Bat Trang villagers has adopted favorably. It is not only a production center but also now a popular tourist destination that attracts hundreds of visitors a day. The products in Bat Trang diversified from simple bowls, dishes, cups, and pots to eleborated dragon styled lamps on sophisticated statues. Economically Bat Trang has grown to be the few rich handicraft village nationwide. (Pham Cao Quy & Ca’t Tuong ,Ceramic Travel, Heritage magazine,page 15-16, july/August .2007) 

(c)Many valuable documents and pictures of religious building under the Tran Dynasty were found and put in the museum.
This compartement introducing the striking development of the Dai Viet in 13th-14th centuries inmany fields ( economy, politics, culture , arts) .
It is in this period when the feudal state in Vietnam became a prosperous and powerful kingdom in the region.
( The information about Bat Trang early simple decoration Blue-white porcelains from the Ceremic travels by Pham Cao Quy and Ca’tr Tuo’ng was true, I will write nex time Ceramic Travel in Indonesia to found the situs where many foreign’s Ceramic artifact were found, the area near the Ceramic port like China city near Medan, Palembang during Sung-Ming and Qing dynasty era, Banten Lama near Bantam ancient port during last Ming dynasty era, Tuban,, Mojopahit east Java , Ketapang and Maya-Karimata island west Borneo at the Sung. late Yuan and early Ming dynasty era-auth)
Many Tran dynasty artifacts are preserved and exhibited of the Vietnam Museum of History. Including pictures and artifacts of famous historical sites Pho Minh Pagoda and Tower (Nam Dinh), Kiep Bac Temple (Hai Duong), Binh Son Tower (Vinh Phuc), Van Ban Bell (Hai Phong), Da Boi Shield (Thai Binh).
There are also exhibits to these victorious resistance wars against Yuan-Mongolian aggresors and the policies and socio-economic development, state apparatus consolidation, and the construction of dyke system.(source Baotanglichau vn)
In this museum also exhibit
(1) the Collection of folk and royal ceramics bearing characteristic styles of the Tran’s Dynasty especially brown-pattern ceramic articles.
These constitutes an original part of the Vietnamese ancient ceramics, with many beautiful and precious samples of various types bowls, plates, saucers, basin, jars, jugs etc. Richly decorated with decorative pattern ( dragon, birds, fish, lotus, flowers, bodhi leaves) 

(2)Terracota artifactural materials and ornament (paving tiles decorated with lotus or chrysanthenum, roof-tiles with dragon , phoenixes, bodhi leaves ). These the evidence of the continuance development under the Tran Dynasty.(Museum Vietnam History of Tran Dynasty 

(d) The Long established dynasty after the Mongolian invaded. 

(2) 1225 

(a)The Tran,s dynasty which had effectively controlled the Vietnamese throne for many years, replaced the Ly dynasty by arranging a marriege between one of its nembers and the last Ly monarch, an eight-old princess.
Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400) the country prospered and flourished as the Tran rulers carried out extensive Land reform, improved public adnministration , and encourage the study of chinese literature. 

(b) The Tran however, are best remembered for their defense of the country agains the Mongols and the Cham by 1225, theMongolia controle most Nothern China and Manchuria and were eying southern China ,Vietnam and Champa. 

(3)1257 and 1284
The Mongol armies of Kublai Khan invaded Vietnam,sacking the capital Thang Long( rename Ha Noi in 1831) on each occasion, only to find that the Vietnamese under theleadership of General Tran Hung Dao drove shortage of supplies , the climate , and the Vietnamese strategy of harasment and scorchedearth tactic foliled the first two invation. 

(4)1287
The third Mongol invasion of 300.000 men and avast fleet was also defeated by the Vietnamese under the leadersih of Generan Tran Hung Dao.
Borrowing a tactic used by Ngo Quyen in 938 to defeat aninvading Chinese fleet, the Vietnamese drove iron-tipped stakes into the bed of the Bach Dang River ( located in northen Vietnam present-day Ha Bac, Hai Hung andQuang Ninh province) and then with a smallVietnamese flotilla, lured the Mongol fleet into the river just as the tide was starting to ebb. Trapped or impaled by iron-tipped stakes, as the entire Mongol fleet of 400 craft was sunk, capture or burned by Vietnamese fire arrows. The Mongolsarmy retreat to China, harassed enroute byTran Hung Dao’s troops. 

(5) 1312
The fourteen century was marked by wars with Champa, which Tran reduced to a feudatory state by 1312. 

(6) 1326
Champa freed itself again by 1326 . 

(7)1360
under the leadership of Champ hero Che Bong Nga, staged a series of attacks on Vietnam between 1360 and 1390, 

(8) 1371
Sacking Than Long in 1371 . The Vietnamese again gainedthe the upper hand following the death of CheBong Nga and resumed their southward advance at Champa’s expense. Despite their erlier success, the quality of Tran rulers had declined marked by the end of the fourteenth century, opening the way for explotation of the pheasantry by the feudal landlord class, which caused anumber of insurrections . 

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7) HO DYNASTY (1400- 1407 )
______________________________ 

a)1400
General Ho Quy-ly seized the throne and proclaimed himself the founder of the short –lived Ho dynasty(1400-1407).
He instituted a number of reforms that were the rental of excess land by the state to landless peasants, proclaimed printed in Vietnamese rather than Chinese, and free schools in provincial capitals. Threatened of by the reforms, some ofthe landowners appealed to China’s Ming dynasty (1368-1644) to intervene. 

b)1407
Using reinstatement of the Tran dynasty as an excuse, the Ming asserted Chinese control in 1407, 

c)1407-1427
Nguyen Trai rebellion against chinese Ming invasion( The complete history in The Ming Invation below ,source the Nguyen Trai book ,I have found in Hanoi book’s fleamarkets in 2007-auth) 

.______________________________
The Ming Invation Vietnam
in 15th Century.
____________________________________ 

a) Prologue
Exhausted by their campaigns against Champa, the Vietnamese again fell prey to China, now unified under the Ming dynasty, whose brief rule over Vietnam was probably the harshest in its history.
(1) Chinese gauleiters forced Vietnamese peasants to mine for gold and other ores, cut rare woods and grow spices, all to be exported to china along with elephent tusks, rhinoceros horns, pearls and precious stones.
(2)They drastically imposed Chinese culture, confiscated Vietnamese literature and compelled schools to teach in Chinese, suppressed Vietnam cults and permitted only the worship of Chinese gods.
(3)They decreed Chinese dress for Women, prohibited men from cutting their hair and even outlawed betel nut, the Vietnamese equivalent of chewing gum.
(4)They created an administrative grill, issuing Identity cards to families, partly to control them and partly to streamline tax collection
( Until the end of the Vietnam liberation war in 1975, the Identity card and land tax collections still keep by the Vietnamese, especially the chinese overseas, that is why we can made the exciting document , revenue fiscal , and postal history collections-auth) 

b) The Ming occupation 

(1)The Ming occupation inevitably provoked an issurrection . Vietnam’s savior this time ,Le Loi and his adviser, the poet Nguyen Trai , set the Vietnamese strategy in an assay
(Vietnam Communist Vietminh doctrine of insurgency similar with the Nguyen Trai strategy, Subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it sated:”Better to conquer heatrs than citadel” 

(2)1418
Le Loi proclaimed himself the prince of Pacification (in vietnamese “Annam”-auth), he raised the banner of revolt. 

(3) 1426
The Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on the Field at Tot Dong. 

(4) 1428
The Chinese recognized Vietnam’s independence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurrance.
Le loi established his capital at Hanoi, calling the city Dong Kinh – hence the name Tonkin, North Vietnam.
( We now understand the name of Vietnam ancient area, Tonkin from Dong Kinh (name by Le Loi), Annam from the pacified countries, and Cochinchina from Caochi the Han dynasty name vietnam, and the Portuguese name Cochi and added China to make the different with their area in India Cchine – that were historical name still use by French “Cochinchine” later rename , Etat du Vietnam quoc Gia, Vietnam Cong Hua (Republic of Vietnam), now became several province in united country Republic Socialist Vietnam-auth) 

c)There were two version of Le Loi and Nguyen Trai rebellion : Stanley Karnow version and Hanoi’s version, (the legend or fact, please comment-auth) 

(1)*Stenley Karnow version (Vietnam A History,page 115-116,1997) 

(a)The Myth of Le loi ,like the Arthurian legend of Excalibur,depicts him as a simple fisherman who one day cast his net into lake, only to bring up a magic sword that made him superhuman. 

(b)In reality , he was a wealthy Landowner from Thanh Hoa province who rebelled against Chinese after having served them.
“Every man on earth” he said “ ought to accomplish some great enterprise so that he leaves the sweet scent of his name to later generations. How,the, could he willingly be the slave of foreigners?” 

(c)1418
In this year , proclaiming himself the Prince of Pacification, le Loi raised the banner of revolt.
He withdrew to the muntains near his home and rallied relatives, friends, villagers and even local brigands to his cause, teaching them The Guerilla Tactics that had worked for Tran Hung Dao, who had vanquished the Mongols.
The Chinese became increasingly insecure as the insurrection spread. They clung to the towns, venturing out only by day, their big battalions sticking to the roads and they build fortified towers along main road (adopting during Vietminh war vs French in 20th century-auth) 

Gradually, as the balance of forces tilted his way, Le loi struck at the Chinese directly. Deplying platoons of elephants against their horse cavalary.
His adviser , the poet Nguyen Trai. Set down the Vietnamese strategy in an assay that show remarkable similarities to the twentieth-century Communist doctrine of insurgency. Subaordinate military action t the political and moral struggle, it stated “ Batter to conquer hearts than citadels.” 

(d) 1426
In this year, fighting in rain and musd, the Vietnamese finally ruted the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hanoi. In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Vietnam’s indepnedence and Le loi resumed the tributary tie to China as insurance.
He generously furnished the Chinese with five hundreds junks and thousands of horses to carry them home, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scal assault against Vietnam.
Nguyen Trai celebrated the victory with a poem of hope: 

Henceforth our country is safe
Our mountain and rivers begin life a fresh
Peace follows war as day follows night
We have purged our shame for a thousand centuries.
We have regained tranquillity for ten thusand generations 

Le Loi established his capital at Hanoi , calling the city Dong Kinh- hence the name Tonkin, nothern Vietnam. He distributed land to poor peasant and rewarded loyal nobles with big estates , and he set up agencies to construct dikes, dam, irrigtion systems and other projects desihned to incraese agricultural production, which had been cripple by year of war. But one of his sucessors, 

(e) 1460
Le Thanh Tong, who ascended to the throne in 1460 and ruled for thirty-eight years, lifted Vietnam into its golden age.
(The first version completely told us about le Loi, but a little about Nguyen Trai, it will be told in the second version in the book was written in commemrate Nguyen Trai, I found at Hanoi in 2007 visit, please comment after read it-auth) 

(2)Hanoi’s Version
(Nguyen Trai one of the greatest figures of vietnamese History and literature,published for the 600th anniversary of Nguyen Trai ,Red River production ,Hanoi,1980) 

(a) Biography 

*The Picture of Nguyen Trai 

*IDENTITY:
.Born at: Thang Long, the city of rising dragon,present day Hanoi. 

.Father: Nguyen Phi Khanh,title Ban Nhan ( one of three highest title award-ed at the three-yearly doctorate examination), but he couldnot become a mandarin because he came from the cammon people and had married the daughter of a member of the royal family in contravention of the regulations. He was compelled to return to his native village where he opened a school and became a teacher. 

.Grandfather: the great Minister Regent Tran Nguyen Dan. 

.Period : during the period of anarchy and unease which characterized the decline of the Tran dynasty. 

.Village : Nhi Khe, 20km south of
Hanoi. 

(b) Basic History 

1)During Childhood 

(1)When he was five years old Nguyen Trai followed his grandfather to Co Son (present day Chi Linh districh, Hai Hung province) where the old grandpa spent his retirement. 

(2)After the death of his tutor (grand-pa) five year later, Nguyen Trai returned to his native village, where his father was to give him and hisnthree brothers a solid classical education. 

2) During youth 

(1)During his childhood and youth he patiently built up his knowedge and matured his thought.
(2)He carefully studied the national literary heritage : General Tran Quoc Tuan’s military science (13th century), Tueh Tinh’s medicine (14th century), the Thien (Zen) theory of King Tran nhan Tong(13th century), Truong Han sieu’s and Chu Van An’s Confucian thought. 

(3)With the help of his father and grandfather he studied the classic and Chinese society from the Chou to the Sung dynasty. He compared the
traditions of his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom. 

3) During manhood 

(1)When Ho Quy Ly founded the Ho dynasty, Nguyen Trai was twenty years old. He sat for the first Mandarin examination held by the new King.
He recieved the title “That hoc Sinh (Doctor) and appointed “Ngu su dat chanh truong (Head of the supervision and censure office of the royal of court), while his father was invited to assume the functions of Thi Lang ( Vice-menister) and of Tu nghiep (Deputy Director) at the Royal Collage, the oldest Vietnamese university which dates back to the 11th century. 

(2)The Ho dynasty lasted only seven years. Without popular support it could not confront the Chinese feudalists who started attacking Vietnam in 1406.
The King , his family and a great number of his mandarin were arrested and taken off to China. 

(3)Nguyen Trai followed his father Nguyen Phi Khanh into exile. At the border, according tonlegend, his father told him , “ Son you are an able scholar. Do you utmost to wash to be a worthy son. What avenge me if you want to be aa worthy son. What is the good of followeing me and weeping like a little girl ?” 

(4)Nguyen Trai turned back. In the occupied capital, he was too well known to be able to escape the vigilant Chinese administration which vainly attempted to win him over by threats and corruption, for ten years he led a secluded frugal life. 

4)The Ming were resolved to turn Vietnam into a Chinese province. 

(a)Their rule was characterized by a policy of assimilation and cruel but refined meaasures of exaction.
(b)For two decades they tried to erase the national memory and practise pure obscuranstism. 

(c)The administration was entrusted to senior official from China. Low ranking officials were recruited among the local population. Close surveillance was assured by important garrisons linked by numerous realy-posts. 

(d)Chinese traditions and customs were imposed by force : Long Hair and for women short jackets and trousers. 

(e)“Once in Vietnam” said a dispatch from the Ming Emperor to the expeditionary corps commanded by Tchang Fou:
(*) “You must burn all books, all xylographic plates, all papers and document, including classical text-books for student.. burn the smallest sheet of paper bearing characters, burn everything except canonical books and plates for printing book of Buddhism and Taoism” The best Vietnamese works were the object of official autodate.
( Some of the Vietnamese calligraphy write in Chinese character still keep by vietnamese and Chineseoverseas in Vietnam at Haiphong and Cholon area, and some have translate to Vietnamese but many still in chinese caligraphy as vintage collections , I found that vintage original document at Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city , and I will write in the special book “The Unique’s Chineseoverseas collections in Vietnam”-auth) 

(**)All historical and artistic treasures were carried off to China. Education had to be given in Chinese and drastic limitations were imposed : each subprefecture could have only one student per year and each prefecture two. 

(***) By virtue of administrative decrees,the population had to build new temples for the cult of genii of mountains, rivers, wind and clouds. 

(*****) By the thousands, good artisans and able scholars were deported to China, among them Nguyen An, who was to build the Imperial city of Beijing.
Land Tax on private rice-field trebled 

( I found the Rice-field tax Vietnam’s village document in from 1920-1955 , the regulation stillused until Indochine, Vietnam Cong Hoa –auth) 

(******) The Chinese administration monopolized salt and sold it to gold traffickers who resold it to the population at an exorbitant price. 

(f) The cruelty of the Chinese proconsuls was t give rise to uprising from the year of their administration (1407) . In particular, two descendants of the ousted Tran dynasty succeesed in gathering forces in several provinces to build up resistance bases, win some battles and even threaten the capital. But they finally defeated by Ming Court which sent major reinforcements to Vietnam. 

(g)The uprisings didnot arouse much support from the population, as the Tran kings were too discredited for having led the country into economic and social impasse. 

(h) Meanwhile , Nguyen Trai , who was put under house arrest in the capital, was anxious to save his country.
However, he didnot join any of the various movements of struggle, as he doubted their motivation and the capacity of their leader. 

5)Nguyen Trai Jaoint le Loin in the Lam Son mountain. 

(1) 1417 

(a)At age of 37, Nguyen Trai decided to flee the capital to join le loi in the Lam Son mountains ( Thanh Hoa province) south of the Red River delta. 

(b)Le Loi five years younger than Nguyen Trai, was a landlord and local notable who had succeeded in rallying a thousand people under his banner of revolt.
(in 2007, I stay at Phi Vu hotel , located in the central of the Ho Chi Min City, corner between the Le Loi and Nguyen Trai road, and I also passed by electric golf car through the border between South China province Quanshi and North Vietnam province Thanh Hoa, I have seen the very strong and high mountan at the Lamson border , the called “Frienship border”, many native worker from vietnam or China walkingback home from Vietnam or quanshi at Sunday- I felt the historic ancient vietnam vs Ming war area and pray to get the fortune from Le Loi and Nguyen Trai- auth) 

(c) Living through a period of serious trouble, Nguyen trai armed himself with patience. He hid in the forest and mountains and cultivated the soil. His indignation was aroused by the tyranny of the aggresors.
He became absorbed in the study of Military theory and squandered his fortune on entertaining guests. 

(d) The forces of reistance finally rallied around Le Loi and Nguyen Trai became his chief adviser. 

c) The Nguyen Trai’s Strategy .
(Nguyen Trai ‘s principle)
The strategy to Defeat the Chinese invaders (Binh Ngo Sach) convcie-ved by Nguyen Trai strated started from the priciple of
“Winning people’s hearts” were Peace for the people and Eliminating violence
(the action read the poem-auth) 

___________________________________
d)The resistance (1417-1427) can be divided int three phase:
____________________________________ 

(a) The First Phase(1417-1423)
The first phase, mainly took place in the mountains of Thanh Hoa and was marked by guerilla warfare.
The Ming launched major operation against the rebels,often using as many as 100.000 men. Vietnamese fighter, take advantage of the rugged terrain and the supprt of the population, inflicted losses on the enemy.
However, they (Ming soldier) often found themselves in critical situations. Vienamese forces were encircled and reduce right down to only one hundred men.
Difficultties piled up but they have priciple against that situation as strategy and tactics abut Leaders and men relationship and Turning the Hpeless situatin into good one, read the poem strategy to win the people heart and tactic to change the situation.
In 1423, worn out by continual harassment and undecided battles, the Ming accepted the truce proposed by Le Li and Nguyen Trai. The truce enabled the rebel side to strengten its positions. 

(b) The Second Phase(1423-142
The resumption of hostilities marked the second phase of the second phase of the resistence, which was characterized by the building of an important rear base.
The insurrectionary troops advanced southwards, occupied Nghe An province, and turn it into a new resistance base. Enthusiastically welcomednby the population they continued to spread their control northwards over the whole province of Thanh Hoa and to many province south of Nghe An. 

(c) The Third Phase (1427)
`(1)The third phase of the resistance was that of the nationwide liberation war which resulted in resounding victory.
(2) 1426
In order to forestall large-scale offensives, the Ming hurriedly sent 50.000 strong reinforcements commanded by Wan Tung . 

Meanwhile, 10.000 of le Loi ‘s men pushed towards the North in three thrusts to encircle the Red River delta and intercept the Chinese reinforcements. 

(3)The thanks to the enthusiastic at an accelerated pace population, entangled the enemy. 

(4)The occupying troops , forced onto the defensive, locked them-selves in their cidatels and posts.
The hundreds thousand holding the capital, including Wang Tung’s reinforcements, were stupefied by the debacle at Tot Dong, west of the city, where they lost 60.000 men (according to the Ming Anaals 20.000-30.000 men) .
The Chinese High Commandand resorted to delaying tactics : they proposed a truce and waited for reinforcements from China.
While Vietnamee fighters maintained the siege and pressed harder at every point, Nguyen Trai chosen to negotiate with the enemy.
He made use of this opportunity to undermine the enemy morale and in particular wrote a great numbers of letters to the Chinese official pointing out the futility of their resistance and the inevitability of teir defeat. He promised them an honourable retreat. 

(5) October,1427
A 100.000 strong Ming army under the command of General Liou Tcheng and another 50.000 strong led by Mou Tsing entered Vietnam through lam Son and the Red River valley respectively.
The first fell into an ambush at Chi Lang pass, Lam Son province, and lost 10.000 men,
General Liou Tcheng was killed during fighting. Pushing southwards, it suffered heavy casualities during brief engangements. Yan Ming , the commander, was killed and the menister Li Sing took his own life.
Stoppedin its advance at the Xuong Giang citadel, it was split into fragments while all its generals were captured.
The Mou Tsing reinforcxement retreated, victory followed victory for the Vietnam site.
Completely isolated in the capital, the Chinese general Wang Tung sued for peace 

(6)The National Liberation war lasted ten years. Le Loi and Nguyen Trai were able to defeat a more numurous and better equipped enemy. They exploited all the resources of “people war “ , combining political action with armed struggle.
The strategy with the consent of le Loi, he demobilized a large part of the army to free peasants for pro-duction.
(many other country used the same people power, but they never demobilized a large part of the army and many problem and rebellion after that ,like in Indonesia after Indonesia Independence War, many rebellion by the ex army whon didn’t accepted the new political situation ,-auth) 

(6)But the king looked with suspicion on the growing prestige of Nguyen Trai and other heroes of the resistance.
The brilliant general Tran Nguyen Han was suspected of treason and committed suicide by drowing and Nguyen Trai , his close companion was thrown into prison.
He finally proved innocent and realsed but continued to live in semi-disgrace, sharing his time betweencapital and his retreat at Con Son. 

(7)Nguyen Trai was restored to favour under Le Thai Ton, Le Loi’s successor, who was crowned at the age of eleven. But soon he ran up against the hostility of the decadent court and the sly manoeuvres of courtiers jealous of his competence and his moral authority. He retired once more to Co Son, aware that he was unable to redress matters. 

(8) While the old scholar was living at Con Son, his concubine Nguyen Thi Lo, herself a scholar, remained in the capital to take care of the women in the royal harem and assuming the functions of Professor od Rites. 

(9) 1442
She accompanied the young king Le Thai Ton and his retinue on a military manoeuverre at Chi Linh.
The Royal suited stopped off at nearby Con Son and on its return spent the night at the Garden of Lychees (Trai Vai), in Gia Luong district.Ha Bac province.
During night the king suddenly died of an attack of fever, Nguyen Trai’s enemies conspired against him and accused him of regicide.
According to the feudal custom, Nguyen Trai was executed together with all members of his family.
Only 22 years after his death did King Le Thanh Ton rehabilitate the great man.Through the generations the people have worshipped him. Outstanding figure of his century, man of action and poet. Nguyen Trai embodied the finest traditions and virtues of the Vietnamese nation :
Profound gumanism based on complete struggle for national independence, peace and the peple’s Happiness (Huu Ngoc and Vu Khieu) 

(In indonesia the independent hero aslo executed as the communism and the other put in jail until died, Hatta during the Death ceremonial said : Sjahril very sad because he was jailed by the goverment of country that have joined the struggle to independence, very different when he thown out to Ternate during colonial times, he alway happy because he feel like an hero for the Independence of his country.
Always the Hero didn’t like by hid native’s jelous friend, please comment-auth) 

_________________________________
c) Nguyen Trai’s Poem
_________________________________ 

(1)The poem about the picture landscape when he went with his grandpa at Con Son , as a symbol later in his life, aroused in him agreat love of natur :
..a spring sings day and night,
The mossy rocks are washed by the rain
Pine trees climb the hills,
Bamboo trees in the forest, over thousand of arces
Take on a green colour. 

(2) The poem when he studied the comparative between his own nation with those of the Middle Kingdom,the part of “Proclamatian of Victory over the Ngo”(the complete read below) 

Our country Dai Viet has long since been
Land of old culture
With us own rivers and mountain,ways and customs,
Different from those of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran built upour independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan 

Nguyen Trai continually wondered how a schlar could best serve his nation and his epoch : 

Have can we arm the country, build up its defence?
How can I make myself useful to the people ? 

(3) When Nguyen Trai for ten year had a secluded frugal life after comeback to vietnam in 1406 , leaving his father in the border , he write :
In a shack in the South of the city
With plenty of water and very little food. 

(4)During Ming Ocupation , Nguyen Trai write the poem in his –Procla-mation of Victory over the Ngo: 

(a) Rates and taxes drain forest and fiels empty,
Men were sent to shark –infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others into malaria-ridden jungle to sift gold from sand
Everywhere nets and traps were set for pheasants and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared,
Wretched was the fate of windows and orphans
The people were lean and hungry, but the blood-suckers were never satified;
Each had to be moved,wood carved,houses and palaces built;
Endless corvees caused the looms to stay idle 

(b) To record the oppresors’ crimes all the bamboos of the suthern muntain would not suffice;
it All the water of the Eastern Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could heaven condone such felonies!
The people’s anger had reached peaks. 

(5) Nguyen Trai write the poem about his principle of “Winning people’s hearts’ , as the started of strategy to defeat the chinese invader :
Peace for the people : that is the essence of hunamity and justice.
Eliminating vilence : that is the first task of our soldier. 

(6) During the difficulties at the first phase of the Vietnamese Resistance war against Ming soldier, Nguyen Trai write the strategy and tactics in poem : 

Leaders and men lived together like fathers and sons,sharing weal and woc.
Turning a hopeless situation into a good one: ansewring nine chances of dying with one chance of living, making each obstacle a spring-board for success ; making the best of everything: those are the virtue of a hero 

(7) At the news Mou Tsing’s reinforcement retreat, Nguyen van Trai write the poem : 

On our first onslaught, all the sharks were externated.
After the second assault , nt a single vulture remained
We were the hurricane which blew a way the dry leaves
And the stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(8) Nguyen Trai write a poem after the resistance war, when he was thrown into prison : 

High tide and low, for fifty years I have satled
“Disowning the springs and rocks of my native mountains
“What a farce ! The honours gained are win , but the misfortunes only too real
“Nany are those to be jealous of the only man who remains loyal, what shame” 

(9) Nguyen Trai restored, but the jealous of his competence and his moral authority he rited oncemre to Co Son. And write the poem : 

Friend, why shouldn’t I go back there ?
Why should I struggle in this life of dust ?
What use are palaces and coaches ?
Water and vegetables are quite enough
Of course, a wise man and a stupid one are not equals;
But each is searching fr what he drestres
Life lasts one hundred years at most
And all of us turn again to dust and grass
Friend , Listen to my mountain song. 

However, despite the consolation he found in nature and the Landscapes of his childhood, Nguyen Trai failed to find genuine peace of mind and write the poem 

My country, all I have to give you is my heart
Torments inside me have chased away all repose,
On my pillow I stay awake till dawn. 

(10) The Best of Nguyen Trai poem was “Prclamation of Victory Over The Ngo”
( Binh Ngo Dai Cao-1428) 

(a) It was said :
To ensure peace for the people. Such is the essence of humanity and peace,
To eliminate violence, such is the primary aim of our soldiers
Our country Dai Viet has lng since been
Land of old culture,
With its own rivers and mountains, ways and customs,
Different from of the North
The Trieu, Dinh, Ly, Tran, built up our independence
And stood as equals of the Han,Tang,Sung,Yuan
We had know both days of gretness and times of decline,
But never had lacked heroes
That was why we brought to naught Luu Chung’s ambitions 

(b)And Trieu Tiet’s dreams of conquest
Captured toa d at ham Tu.
And killed O Ma on the river Bach Dang
Proof remain of those exploits,
In the recent past the troublesome policy of the Ho
Provoked anger and reseentment. 

(c)The truculent Ming took advantage of it to bring distress upon our land.
And tratitors sold the country for money and honours,
The people were burnt on the flames of barbarity
Or buried in the tombs of disasters.
To decieve Heaven and men, the invaders resorted to a thousand machinations;
For twenty years they hilled and oppressed.
Humanity and justice were condemned, the land trampled,
Rates and taxes drain forests and fields empty
Men were sent to shark-infested seas to dive for pearls,
Others int fever-ridden jungle sift gold from sand,
Everywhre nets and traps were set for pheasant and deer,
Neither plants nor insects were spared.
Wretched was the fate of widows and orphans. 

(d)The people were lean and hungry, but the bloodsuckers were never satisfied;
Earth had to be moved, wood carved, houses and palaces built;
Endless corvee caused the looms to stay day idle.
To record the oppressor’s crimes all the bamboos of the Southern Mountains would not suffice ;
All the water of the Eastren Sea could not clean away the filth.
How could Heaven condone such felonics!
The people ‘s anger had reach the peak. 

(e)In our retreat on Mount Lam,
We brooded over the wrongs done to our land,
Swearing not tolive under the same vault of heaven as the oppresors,
For years we suffered in our heart and mind’
Tasting gall and lying on thorns.
We hardly touched our meals, devoting our time to studying strategies.
For a time we thought they would repent :
In fact they were only plotting more crimes. 

(f)One man’s obduracy created miseries for thousands;
Thisrsting for power and glory, he tutrned himself into a laughingstck.
And so that little tyran Tuyen Duc sent troops after troops,
And the cowards Moc Thanh and lieu Thang tried to put out the fire with oil. 

(g)In the 9th moon of the year of the Goat , Lieu Thang moved his army from Khau On ;
In the 10th moon, Moc Thanh came with his troops from Yunnan.
First we stopped them at key spot and crushed their vanguards.
Then we cut off their communications and supplies. 

(h) On the 18th, we defeat Lieu Thang at Chi Lang.
On the 20th, at Ma Yen he lst his life.
On the 25th, Count Luoong Minh died ;
On the 28th, Minister Ly Khanh comitted suicide;
Fired by our victories, we rushed foward;
Confused by their defeat, they turned on each other,
On all sides we besieged citadels,
Bent on annihilating them by the middle of the 10th moon.
Cracks troops and officers wdere selected for the task.
Drinking at rivers, our elephants dried the stream;
Whetted on rocks, our swords eroded moountains. 

(i)On our first onslaught, all the sharks were exterminated;
After the second assault , not a single vulture remained.
We were the hurricane which blew away the dry leavs.
And Stubborn ants which caused dykes to collapse. 

(j)On his knees, Thoi Tu gegged for mercy :
Tying his hands, Hoang Phue struck his flag.
Enemy corpses piled high on the rad t Lang Giang and Lam Son
At Xuong Giang and Binh Than ,their blod tinged the river with red.
Winds and clouds changed colour,
Sun and moon waned. 

(k)Conered at Le Hoa, the Yunnan troops went mad with panic;
Defeat at Can Tram, Moc Than’s soldiers trampled on each other in their fight.
The Lang cau stream was clogged with blood, the air filled with mans;
Corpses formed knolls in Dan Xa, amidst clotted grass.
The two relief armies were shattered before they could escape;
All garrisns took off their armour and surrendered. 

(l)Captured generals, tigers reduced to impotence implored pardon;
Generous victors, sensitive to the will of Heaven we granted them quater.
For Ma Ky and Phuong Chinh we provided five hundred junks;
Out at sea their faces were still green with fear.
To Vuong Thong and Ma Anh we gave several thousand horses;
Back in their country, their leg still shook with terror.
Fearing death,they asked’for peace;
We preserved our forces and let our people have a rest. 

(m)Such was our wisdom
From now on our land is safe
Rivers and mountains will see a new era’calm comes after the storm,
Light has driven away darkness
For ever we have cleansed ourselves of shame,
For ever we shall have peace
Both Heaven and our ancestors helped us in the battle
We took up arms,fought, and won.
All the four seas are now serene, great changes are forthcoming;
Let everybodyeverywhere be so informed. 

(Nguyen Trai heroic and historic poem from little boy until winning the resistance war very best to learned , very pitty at the years of his life he couldn’t rest in peace, I am very happy to found the very best book about Nguyen Trai after walked almost two hours to found the only one oldbook shop, but I found some antiquarian book there and I will used a sthe basic source of my book , I hope comment from collectors after read the last part of the poem, we will felt the Freedom of Human souls in their own free countries, let not occupations anymore , liberty !!! Liberty !!! Freedom !!! Freedom!!! All the birds will sung the Independence’s Songs together with us -auth) 

UHI-THE ANCIENT VIETNAM WAR AFTER EUROPEAN CAME

UHI-Uniquecollection Heritage Info, free e-book, iwansuwandy.wordpress.com@copyright Dr  IWAN S 2010.

Vietnam War 2.2 – Ancient Vietnam

October 18, 2009 by uniquecollection 

1.2. ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAMES (BEFORE FRENCH) 1.2.1 THE VIETNAM DYNASTY 1.2.2 HYSTORICAL CHRONONLOGY LITERATURE 1.2 ANCIENT VIETNAM AFTER EUROPEAN CAME (BEFORE FRENCH ) 1.2.1.THE VIETNAM DYNASTY BEFORE FRENCH CAME. 1)LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1407-1780) a).Early Le’ (1428-1778) @LE LOI (1428-1443) b)Restored Le’(1553-1788) *Mac Dynasty (1527 -1592) c.THE LE-MAC FIGHTING(1527-1592) d.Northern and Southren Dynasty (1533-1592) *Trinh-Nguyen War (1627-1673) (1)Northern Dynasty * Trinh Trang (2) Southern Dynasty * Vin Tho (1655-1661) * Thien Minh ( 1739-1766) 2). TAY SON DYNASTY.1788-1802) *Quang Trung ( 1788-1792) * Canh Thinh ( 1792-1801) 3) UNITED DAI VIET(1802-1885) ( Emperor of Dai Viet) a) Before French came * Gia Long (1802-1820) * Minh Mang(1820-1841) * Thieu Tri (1848-1847) * Tu Duc (1848-1883) b) After French came * Kien Phuc(1883-1884) * Ham Nghi (1884-1885) 1.2.2 HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY (Compiled from many source, Stenley Karno,1983. internet exploration internet by Google ,anti-quarian documents and books.) 1) LATER LE’ DYNASTY (1420-1780) (1)1428 Both Trinh and Nguyen families were descended from close friends and aides to the hero-Empero Le Loi who freed Vietnam from Chinese rule and strated the Le Dynasty in this year. (2)1450 By this year, the Muslims had occupied Spain and Portugal for seven centuries , and to Henry , a militant Catholic mystic, their destruction was a sacred duty. He fought them in Africa as a youth, but gradually shaped a geopolitical strategy that also offered commercial advantages; by opening sea lanes to Asia, he would contain Islam, promote Christainity in the East and futher trade. Accordingly, he perfected the Portuguese fleet and established Euro’s first maritime academy to train sailors scientifically.(ibid S.Karnow) (3)1454 Pope Nicholas V endorsed Henry’s enterprise with a bull granting Portugal the exclusive franchise in Asia to “ bring under submission …the pagans of the countries not yet inflicted with the plague of Islam and give them knowledge of the name of Christ (ibid.S.Karnow) ( Christian were too late because the Islam had gave the “ light” to off the “darkness’s wolrd To Asia countries especially Malay straits , Sumatra and Java with the teaching of reading’s , writting ‘s , hygienie’s and islamic only one god,s phillosiphy , everybodies fill the had came out from the darkness to the more lighted lifes, only at the very far island like Flores and Eastren Timor the Portugeus were succeeded – auth) (4) 1494 After Colombus had discovered America, the Portugeuse reconfirmed their Asian domain in a treaty with Spain that recognized Spain ‘s prerogative to exploit the Western Hemisphere , during the century a head, Portugal would explode out of Europe in a spectacular busrt of energy. (5) 1498 Vasco de Gama, the greatest Portuguese explorer, led an armada of four ships around the cape of Good Hope, landing on the westren coast of india. (6) 1503 Vasco de Gama’s pioneer journey to India, the portugeuse couldnot be stopped. They consolidated Goa as the capital of the Indian territories, then pushed eastward to capture Malacca, the gateway to the China Sea, fanning out from that pivotal Malayan port to assert their presence nearly everywhere in Asia. They journeyed to the distant Molucca island in quest of spices, secured commercial concessions in Burma and Siam , and even sailed to forbidding Japan. Bold Portugeuse were probably the earliest Europeans to gaze at Ankor , the fantastic ruins of the vast Cambodians local rulers as mercenaries.(Ibid Stanley Karnow) (7)1520 BY 1520 A SUCCESSION OF WEAK OR EVIL KINGS had brought the country into a state of civil war (Le Dynasty’s Civil war for as allies against the usurper Mac Bang Dong. In theory , they both (Tri & Nguyen families) were fighting reality, Emperor was a figureheadwith little or no power. (8) 1525 The prime in the period from this yeare onwards, was Nguyen Kim his daughter married the young head of the Trinh family Trinh Kiem . (9) 1530 Around this year , the rebels were forced into exile in Lan Xang ( now Laos) . (10)1535 The first European sailled to Vietnam to plant a durable settlement there was Antonio Da Faria, who in this year found a suitable site for a harbour at Faifo, a costal village fifteen miles south Tourane (now Danang). Da Faria, had hoped to make it a major Portuguese enclave, like Goa and Malacca, but Faifo never flourished. The Portuguese left a permanent souvenir of their presence there, the name of Cocchi-china. They labelled that area deriving of “Gauchi” from “Giao Chi” the Chinese characters for Vietnam, and adding “China” to distinguish it from “Cochin” , another of their colonies in India. Later , the French, to potray Vietnam as disunified, reffered only to the southed third of the country as “CochinChine” and called the center Annam ( Annam still same with vietnamese char. Means Pacified and Northern Tonkin derived from Dong Kinh an old chinese named of that area, dong mean North -auth) (11) 1545 When the rebels gathered new army and capture some southern province in this year. Nguyen Kiem was assasinated and his son-in-law, Trinh Kiem took control over the Royal army 13 years later. (12)1557 The Portuguese built a base at Macao , on the southern edge of China (remains until XXth centuried and then back to PRC authority as the autonomy area-auth) (13) 1558 Trinh Kiem, the son-in-law of nguyen Kien, took control over the Royal army. He gave the rulership over the southern most province of Quang Nam to Nguyen Huang to the son of Nguyen Kim and his wife’s brother. The ill-will between the two families dates from around this time. (14) 1559 For the next 55 years, Nguyen Huang ruled Quang Nam. He gradually asserted his control over the province and extended his control south into the remaining Champa lands. Periodically, he sent military forces north to help the Trinh in their long fight against the Mac Dynasty. (15)1570 In this year Trinh Kiem died and was succeeded by his second son Trinh Tu’ng. (16) 1572 Trinh Tung was a very vigorous leader and he captured Hanoi from the Mac King in this year. (17) 1592 The Mac king (Mac Mau Hiep) recaptured the Hanoi city in this year after control 20 years by Trinh Tung. In this year Tung, again captured Hanoi and executed theMc King in this year. (18) 1593 Nguyen Hoa’ng went personally to the court, he brought money and an army to help destroy the remaining Mac armies. Once the Mac were defeated, the Trinh became increasingly unhappy with the independence of Nguyen Hoang who ruled as an independent prince in the south . (19)1600 For reasons that are unclear in this year the old Nguyen ruler broke relations with the Trinh court and gave himself the title Vuong ( Prince or King). (20) 1603 Scarcely a century after their dramatic expansion, the Portuguese began to lose their graps in Asia, partly of their own avarice, corruption and msimanagement, and partrly because their fortunes were declining in Europe.(D) (21)1613 Nguyen Hoang finally died in this year and the new leader of the Nguyen, Nguyen Phuc Nguyen, continued his father’s policy ofdefiance. Nguyen Phuc Nguyen also initited friendly relations with the Europeans who were now sailing into the area. A foreign tradingpost was set up in Hoi An. (22) 1615 In this year the Nguyen were producing their own bronze cannons with the aid of Portuguese engineer. (23) 1620 In this year Nguyen Phuc officially refused to send taxes to the court in Hanoi. A formal demand was made to the Nguyen to submit to the authority of the court. (24) 1623 In this year Trinh Tung died and was succeeded by his son Trinh Trang. Now Trang made a formal demand for submission and again Nguyen Phuc Nguyen refused. The Tri- Nguyen War between North and South Vietnam (1627-1673) (1)1627 (a)Finally in this year open warfare broke out between the Trinh and Nguyen. (b)For four month A large Trinh army battled against the Nguyen army but unable to defeat them. The result of this war was that Vietnam had effectively been partitioned into Northen and Southern region, with the Trinh controlling most of the north and the Nguyen most of the south, the deviding line was the Gianh River in Quang Binh Province. This border was very close to the Seventient paralel ( in actually the Ben Hai River located just to the Swouth in Quang Tri Provinces, witch was imposed as the border between North Vietnam and South Vietnam during the Partition of Vietnam, (c)The Tri-Nguyen war begun and Vietnam was then torn by a civil war between regional factions, the TRINH in the North and the Nguyen in the south . European sold weapons to both sides- a risky business, sine supplying one camp antagogized the other. But they could not brutally subdue the Vietnamese as they had more passive Asians, like the Malays and Javanese. Whatever their own differences, all Vietnamese hate foreigners, and their sophisticated administrative structure, modeled on China’s, could effectively mobilize resistance against westren intruders. Besides, the Europeans were too preoccupied with fighting among themselves to mount campaigns of the kind that would have been requairred for conquest (ibid S,Karnow) (b) Rhodes , who born in the southern French town of Avignon, once a papal seat, he arrived in vietnam under Portuguese tutelage in 1627, when he was twenty –eight. At first he recoiled the language, which sounded to himlkike “twittering birds”, but within six months, he was fluent enough to preach in Vietnamese- and he later mastered Japanese, Chinese, Hindustani and Persian, And offcourse , he revolutionized the Vietnamese tounge with his streamlined alphabet. Impressed by his linguistic skill, the Jesuit hierarchy assigned Rhodes to Hanoi, where he wooed the nothern emperor Trinh Trang with such gift as an intricated clock and gilded volume on mathemetics. The delighted monarch allowed him to stayed .(D) (c) While the Trinh ruled over a much more popupous teritory. The Nguyen were able to take advantage of their geography was favorable yo them, as the flat placed of European weapons and hire European military expert and suitable for large organized armies is very narrow at the mountains nearly reach to the sea. After first assault, the Nguyen built north of Hue near city of Dong Ho’i. Nguyen defended these lines against numerous Trinh. History from this time was that the great military engineer was a Vienamese general who given the credit in Vietnam for succesfull desing of the Nguyen walls. Against the Walls the Trinh mustered an army of 10.000 men and 500 elephants, and 500 large ships. The initial attacks on the Nguyen wall was unsuccessful, because the Nguyen to get around the wall. 2) 1629 (1) 1629 After two years of the Rhodes allowed to stay at North Vietnam, according to his own careful records, he delivered six sermons a day and baptized 6.700 Vietnamese, including eighteen nobles. But the emperor and his counselors reacted against Christian subversion, their supicions kindled by the court concubines, who denounched the Christian injunction against polygamy to thewir position. 3) 1630 (1) Christian were banished from the North in 1630, Rhodes retreated South, only to discover that the rival Nguyen dysnasty had equally hostile. 3) 1633 In this year the Trinh tried an amphibious assault on the Nguyen to get around the Wll, The Trinh first won the battle of Nhat Le. 4)1635 Around this year, the Trinh copied the Nguyen andsought military aid from the Europeans. Trinh Trang hired ships for the Royal army. 5)1642 -1643 The Trinh army attacked the Nguyen wall. With the aid of army broke through the first wall but failed to break through the second at the sea, the Trinh, with their …and woekende Book were defeated by the Nguyen fleet with their Portuguese ships. 6) 1648 Trinh Trang staged yet another offensive in this year, but at the battle of Truong Duc, The Royal arny was back because the new Le’ king died around this time, perhapsas a result of defeat. This now left the door open for the offensive. 7) 1653 The Nguyen launched their own invasion of Vietnam in this year. The Nguyen Army attacked north Duang Binh Province was captured then Ha Thinh province tell to the Nguyen army in the following forces made attacks into Nghe An province. Under a new Trinh Lord, tha capable Tring Tac defeated it. The Nguyen were fatally weakened by a divission between their two top generals. 8)1655 (1)1655 Vin –tho ascended the throne, during his reign issued 1 phan cast coins “Vin Tho Thong Bao” (Uncommon coins during the Tri-Nguyen war-auth) 9)1656 The Nguyen army was driven back all the way to their originals walls. 10) 1660 Rhodes was death. 11) 1661 Trinh Trang tried to break the walls of the Nguyen , but like so many attacked before it failed to break through the wall. 12) 1664 (1) 1664 The Vatican finally accepted Rhodes program , though he died before it wentr into action . In this year, French religious leaders and their bussiness backers formed the society of Foreign leaders to advance Christianity in Asia. (b) by no coincidence, French business leaders and their religious backers created the East India Company to increase trade. Their similar aspirations were apparent in their cooperation. A commercial firm established in Rouen at the time paid transportation for missionaries to Vietnam in exchange for their services there as sales agents and bookkeepers. And Francois Pallu, afounder of Missionary association, pledge to give the East India Company “as many promoters…as there will be bishops, priests and believers in Vietnam” Observing this cozy relationship in Vietnam , an English competitor reported home that French had arrived “ but we cannot make out whether they are here to seek trade or to conduct religious propaganda”. Their objective , of course, was to do both, But they accomplihed little during most of the eighteenth century, since Vietnamese emperors continued to harass or restrict foreign’s mission-aries and merchants. Back in French, mprever, the idea of acquiring overseas teritoriesw enthralled neither the public nor government officials. Thet focysed on other concerbs, such as France ‘s domestic, economic and social problem s and its conflicts with England in Eurpre and America. But the imperial dream was kept alive by a handful of determined individuals and groups which in present-day Yargon, would be called vested interest. In Paris, they were constantly drafting blueprints for the conquest of Vietnam, while irrepressible adventures in Asia connected schemes that would prove to be fruitless, One was Pierre Poivre, The son of a prominent Lyons silk tycoon.( ibid S.Karnow) 13) 1672 Finally in this year , the Trinh army made a last effort to conquer the Nguyen, The attacking army was under the command of Trin Can, while the defending army was under the command of Nguyen Phuc Tan’s son Prince Mguyen Phuc Thuan. The attack like all the previous attack on the nguyen walls failed. This time the two sides agreed to a peace . With mediation supplied by government of the Kngxi emperor, the Trinhand the Nguyen finally agreed to end the fighting by making the Linh River the boeder between their land. Lthough the guyen nominally accept the Le’ king as the ruler of Vietnam, the rality was, the Nguyen ruled the south and the Trinh ruled the north, Thisdivision continued for next 100 years,The boerder between the Trinh and Nguyen was srongly guarded but peaceful. 14)1673 The Tri-Nguyen war was overed. _______________________________ After the Tri-Nguyen War, 1674- ______________________________ 1) 1676 Other European powers raced for Asia wealth. The Dutch took over the Spice Islands of Indonesia and the English would dominate India. In this year, the French Latecomers to scene establishe a station at Pondicherry, on the east coast of India south of Madras, but Europeans made little headway in Vietnam. 2) 1677-1738 Not yet information 3) 1739 Thien Minh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thien Minh Thong Bao” ( Very rare coins ,but this coins used very long 1739-1766, why??? may be there were War ??, please comment –auth) 4) 1740-1749 Not yet informations 5)1750 In the middle of eighteenth century , Poiver started out as a missionary in Vietnam, then switched to commerce and obtaineda license from the southern Nguyen rulers to open a trading post at Tourane (now Danang city).(D) When the operation collapsed for lack of enthusiasm in France, he blamed local Vietnamese Mandarin for swandling him and decided to punish them. 6)1751 no info 7) 1752 In this year Emperor Quang-Trung ascended the throne. Coin minted under Emperor Quang-Trung (1752-1792) to celebrate his glorious victory over the Qing (chinese) dynasty troops in the Lunar year of the Cock (ky-Dau) 1789. 8)1767 Not yet information 9)1768 in this year, Poivre teamed up with Charles Hector d’Estaing, ( an Aristocratic buccaneer whose in-direct descendent to Valery Giscard d’Estaing , became president of France in 1974-auth) Spoil for action, Hector d’Estaing had earlier been deterred by a storm from mounting an elobrate attack on the palace at Hue , the ancient imperial capital in central Vietnam. He and Poivre proposed to muster a con tigent of three thousand troops, seize Tourane and drive inland to invade the country The plan was carried out a century later, but at the time it fizzled and D’Estaing transferred his energies to the American War of Independence, in which he distinguished himself by blockading the English fleet outside New York Harbor. He died on the guillotine during the French revo-lution .(ibid S.Karnow) 1769-1771 Not yet informations 9) 1772 (1)1772 The Tayson insurrection, which erupted in 1772 against the Nguyen rulers………………….. 10) 1773-1786 Not yet information 11) 1787 In 1787, Monsignor Tierre Joseph Georges Pigneu de Behaine, bishop aof Adran, returned to France after two decades of extraordinary ad-ventures in a remote Asian Land, then know to Europe as Cochin-china. He dazzled the countiers at Versailles, the barouque palace of Louis XVI. His pious demeanor, flavored by a touch of oriental mysery, intriqued the ladies, and his infallible politeness even disarmed potential revals for royal favors. But he was upstaged by a child whom he had brought with him Nguyen Canh , the seven –year- old son of a pretender to the throne of Vietnam . The little prince dressed in red and gold brocade, an incongrous Hindu turban atop his head, the little prince exuded exotic charm. Queen Marie Antoinette bestowed her patronage on the boy by permitting him to play with the Dauphin-the heir apparent- and a court musician composed a hym to honor the “illustrious infant (look at His vintage pictures-auth)(D) Her personal hairdesser celebrated the visitors with a chic new coiffure, Le Chignon a’ la cochinoise , and a court poet acclaimed Pigneu as successor to the legendary mission-ary Saint Francis Xavier. Pigneau had a deeper purpose, he had come to France to lobby for an ambitious scheme the creation, under French auspices, of a Christian empire in Asia, he propelled France toward the conquest of Vietnam a hundred years later. Other Europeans had preceded Pigneu to South East Asia . Indeed , for a mixture of motives. Westren expansion in Asia had been gaining momentum since the fifteenth century. The riches of the East , real and fabled, tantalized Europe. Traveller like Marco Polo had returned with breathless tales of Burmese temples “Covered with gold a full finger thick” and Indian Shores whose “ Sands sparkled and glittere with a gems and precious ore” but no Asian treasure matched its pepper, nutmeg, clove and other spices essential to preserve food, especially in the warmer climates of Southern Europe. Unlike sils and jewels, which only the affluent could afford, spices were in universal demand, and they tield profits of a thousandfold or more on European Market. Importing them from Asia, though, was a dangerous business.Marchants braved storms , pirates and cruel competitors to transport their cargoes , and many perished in the effort, “Where wouldn’t they go for pepper!” wrote Joseph Conard in evocation of their memory “ For a bag of pepper they could cut each other’s throats without hesitation, and would forswear their souls…The bizarre obstinacy of that desire made them defy death in a thousand shapes : the unknown seas, the Loathsome… diseases; wounds, capicity, hunger, pestilence and despair. It made the,m great! By heaven! It made them heroic; and it made them pathetic,too, in their craving for trade with the inflexible death levying its toll on young and old.(D&P) 12)1788 Quan Trung issued 1 phan cast coins “ Quan Trung Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 13) 1789 The coin minted during Emperor Quan Trung in this year to celebrate his glorious victory over the Chinese Qing troops in the lunar year of the Cock (Ky-Dau) ( I have found this special coin in Ho Chi Minh city at my last visit July 2009, the tin coin with the Cock impress design, no one know about this , the first report by Nguyen Bao Tung, please comment because I never seen Tung collec-tion, auth) 14) 1790-1791 Not yet information 15)1792 Canh Tinh ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Canh Tinh Tong Bao” ( common coins-auth) 16) 1793-1801 Not yet information. __________________________________ 4) UNITED DAI VIET DYNASTY (1802-1885) ___________________________________ 1) 1802-1819 :Gia long reign (1) 1802 (a)Reunification decree or Hung-Quoc Khan-Niem by emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty that ruled Vietnam people from this year to 1945. (b) Gia Long ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Gia Long Thong Bao (common coin-auth) (2) 1803-1819 Not yet informations 2) 1820-1840: Minh Mang reign (1) 1820 Minh Mang ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coin “ Minh Mang Thong Bao”(common coin, the character Mang like the picture of “House”, in Bali Indonesia the traders called House’s Coins, rare in Indonesia but many in Vietnam-auth) (2)1833 A Coin minted under the Minh-Mang reign to commemorate the solemn inauguration of the Noon Gate or Ngo-Mon of the imperial Palace in Hue. (reported by Nguyen Bao Tung, if someone have this coin please show us- auth) (3) 1841 Minh-mang died in this year, and Vietnam policies toward Cambodia lost some of their momentum. Nibh-mang after all had been a firm believer in Vietnam’s civilizing mission. 3) 1841- Thieu Tri reign (1) 1841 Thieu Tri ascended the throne, during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Thieu Tri Thong Bao” ( common coins, many found in Indonesia –auth) (2) Minh-mang son Thieu-tri(1841-1848) was less committed to this. He began his reign looking for solution to the Cambodians problem, that would acceptable to the Vietnamese elite and to the Cambodian as well, if not necessarily to Siamese. Distance, distrust, and the ongoing momentum of the war, however, as well as the ambiguity of Vietnam long term objecttives in Cambodia, kept the fighting going until 1847. For several years, Siamese and Vietnamese troops, aided by rival Cambodian factions, fought each other and devasted the landscape in a ferocious pattern not to be duplicated until us, no rice was planted in much of the country, and the population reverting to seminomadism, survived to a large extend by eating leave and roots. It took yhr country several decade to regain its balance and momentum. (2)1846 Negotiation calculated to save face for two exhausted armies and for rhe rival monarchies in Hue and Bangkok lasted until until 1846, when Siam and Vietnam agreed to withdraw from Cambodian territory and to accept Duang as Cambodian’s King . The treaty heralded the resumption os Siamese influence at the Cambodian court and the end of Vietnam’s civilizing mission. (3)October 1848 Duang was crowned in Udong at this day on an astrologically suspicious day, in the presence of represen-tatives sent from Bangkok and Hue, but the Siamese, who took Cambodian’s regalia back with them to Bangkok, had clearly become the dominant force in Cambodia polities even though their army had left the country. Comunicated with the French court, transmitting a letter to Emperor Napoleon III that offered his homage in exchange for the emperor’s friendship. The present that accompanied the letter- four elephant tusks, two rhinoceros horns, and quantities of sugar and white paper- were lost en route, and Napoleon’s reply, if there ever was one, has also disappeared. (Three years later a French official named Montigny came to Cambodia to negotiate a full-scale commercial treaty , but Duang backed off, because he knew that Montigny had dis cussed the treaty with Siam court which disapproved of it, When a French missionary later urged Duong to accept France as an ally, the kind replied :” What do you want me to do ? I have two masters already, who always have an eye fixed on what I am doing. They are my neighbors, and France is far away” In 1860 when Duang died in this year, his elder son, Norodom, suc-ceeded him. Over the next few years, the new monarch still un-crowned .-auth) 4) 1848- Tu Duc reign (1)1848 Tu Duc ascended the throne , during his reign were issued 1 phan cast coins “ Tu Duc Thong Bao” ( common coins-auth)

The Vietnam Liberation War 1963-1975 Limited e-Book

Hallo collectors all over the world I have just issued my limited private producing e- book
please register your name from now until August 1st 2010 via comment, it is an auctions, the 100 collectors with the highest bidder starting from US$5. will be the winner , and the  e-book  will  send to your e-mail  adress  and my editor will contact you, lounching August 1st 2010, send straight to you via e-mail after the administration proc edure is OK.

PLEASE READ AND LOOK THE ILLUSTRATION SAMPLE OF THAT E-BOOK BELOW AND REGISTERED YOUR NAME AS FAST AS YOU CAN, YOUR NAME WILL LIST THERE AND MY EDITOR WILL CONTACK YOU,tHANKS AND GRETING FROM THE WRITER AND BLOG FOUNDER dR IWAN S (IWANSUWANDY)

_____________________________________________________________________________

                                                      THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK

                                            THE VIETNAM LIBERATION WAR

                                                                  1963-1975

                                 Base on private  document ,Revenue and Postal history collections

                                                

                                                        CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

__________________________________________________________________________

                                            THE VIETNAM WAR 1963-1975            

                                                                CREATED BY

                                                                  Dr IWAN S.

                                                  Limited edition 100 expls

                                       Private Publication Special for Collectors

                                                         Jakarta 2010                                                                                            

                                            @copyright Dr Iwan S ,2010

                                         

 

                                  ______________________________________________________________________

VIETNAM WAR 1963-1975

Edisi Terbatas 100 eksp

Publikasi Pribadi Khusus untuk Kolektor postal Histori

Penulis : Dr Iwan S

Editor  : Anton J.S.

Penyunting : Lily W.

Photographer : Albert SDO & INDRA SANUSI

NAMA PEMILIK: Dr Iwan S

NO. PERCOBAAN 001

@Copyright Dr Iwan S 2010

 

 

 

 

 __________________________________________________________________________

                    

                                                    PREFACE-PENGANTAR

The Vietnam Liberation War to liberated South Vietnam 1963-1975, have written by many international  writters, but based and illustrated with the factual private document,revenue and posta history collections and from Indonesia never done.Indonesian collectors not many have Vietnam war postal history collections, also in Vietnam because after the war finish everybodies afraid to collect due to the Vietcong nationalist will catch them and put in the special camp as the collaborator US Army with their AVRN.all document and collections realted to the war were through out and burned.

  SituationSituasi Perang Pembebasan Vietnam Selatan 1963-1975,sudah banyak ditulis oleh  luar negeri, tetapi yang berdasarkan informasi factual dari koleksi dokumen and benda pos pribadi belum banyak yang ditulis oleh pengarang dari Indonesia dengan mengunakan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Ingris, hal ini karena tidak banyak bangsa Indonesia yang memiliki dokumen-dokumen and benda pos tersebut ,umunya di Vietnam habis dibakar atau musnah saat mengungsi ,dan paling akhir rusah akibat banjir. Umumnya saat tersebut akibat situasi politis saat perang pembebasan Vietnam Selatan  1963-1975 pada umumnya rakyat Vietnam sangat takut menyimpan arsip pribadi terkait perang tersebut  yang dapat menjadi bukti mereka terlibat sebagai kolaburator tentara Amerika Serikatndan pasukan Republik Vietnam Selatan  dan para  pejuang pembebasan Vietnam Selatan akan menuduh mereka mata-mata Amerika Serikat  dengan akibat yang  merugikan sipemilik.

One of a AVRN Military postal history have found by the writers during visit Ho Chi Minh city (before Saigon) have gave the motivation to write the special book for Indonesian,Vietnam and USA postal history collectors and another collectors from all over the world. Please look that cover illustration below.

                                                

Salah satu koleksi pos militer yang ditemui oleh penulis saat kunjungan kedua tahun 2008 di Ho Chi Minh city memberikan motivasi untuk menulis suatu buku khusus untuk kolektor phillatelis di Indonesia,Vietnam dan Amerika Serikat serta laiNYA.After the Vietnam Liberation War finish in 1975, many stamp and postal history collectors Collected     the collection as the factual fact of history, one of the USA collectors have illustrated his AVRN military Postal History and the picture of the sender Lee Ming Dao, in internet IMNAHA Mr Andrew Cresshow.let look one of his collection have sent to me below.

                                           

                                            

Sesudah perang  Pembebasan Vietnam Selatan berakhir ditahun 1975 , mulailah banyak kolektor prangko dan benda-benda pos yang terkait sejarah mengumplkan kolesi yang merupakan data faktual, salah seorang kolektor yang koleksinya ditampilakn dalam situs IMNAHA Andrew Cresshow  menampilkan koleksi pos milter Vietnam selatan  yang disingkat dengan AVRN.lihat salah satu koleksinya yang dikirimkan pada penulis:

In 1974, I have met with the Indonesian National Police officer which told me that his friend also from National Police province Riouw Sumatra that time just on duty as the UN peace Force at Saigon (ICCS) and he gave me a ICCS Postal History which send by his friend, base on this first postal history I starting collect another special Vietnam War collections. Please look theillustration below.

                                                

Penulis tahun 1974 pernah bertemu dengan  seorang teman di Kepolisian yang menceritakan bahwah seorang Mayor Polisi dari Riauw saat ini bertugas dalam pasukan pengaman PBB di Vietnam Selatan (ICCS),dan ia memberikan penulis sebuah sampul dengan prangko Vietnam yang dikirim oleh temannya tersebut, berdasarkan koleksi pertama tersebut mulailah saya mengumpulkan koleksi postal histori Perang Vietnam .

 In 2007 and 2008 I visit Saigon (now Ho chi Minh City), with the helping of some antique dealer there which  from etnic Chineseoverseas from Chinese area Cholon, they seeking for me old document and postal history from the garbage document trader (lapak in Indonesia language), and I found the complete and interesting collections,and also from older Jakarta collectors I found several Vietnam War Collections may be from The Indonesia National Army who on duty in ICCS UN peace corps,look at the antique trader with his vietnam war collections below.

                                                         

Pada  tahun 2007 dan 2008 penulis mengunjungi Saigon (saat ini kota Ho chi Minh) ,berkat bantuan dari beberapa pedagang koleksi antik yang berasal dari Cholon bagian kota yang dihuni oleh kaum perantau Cina yang mencarikan dokumen dan koleksi dari Lapak kertas bekas disana sehingga terkumpullah suatu koleksi yang sangat lengkap dan menarik selain prangko dan meterai juga ditemui uang kertas militer Amerika Serikat yang khus diedarkan di Vietnam selatan lihat illustrasi dibawah ini.

                                                  

 Selain itu di Jakarta dari kolektor tua juga di temui beberapa tambahan koleksi yang mungkin dulu berasal dari pasukan Indonesia yang bertugas sebaagai pasukan PBB ICCS, antara lain sebuah plakat penghargaan ICCS.lihat illustrasi dibawah ini:.

In 2009 I am starting to write a simple story and add in my internet blog with the same name with historic chronolic,many comment and asked me to edit this simple story with more interesting style and illustrated with more professional photography.. Tahun 2009 penulis memulai suatu tulisan sederhana sebagai pecobaan, di tampilkan dalam suatu blog internet dengan nama yang sama dengan penampilan kronologis historis, banyak tanggapan dan saran agar penulis mengedit dan menyusun tulisan yang lebih sederhan dengan gaya ,cerita yang lebih menarik dilengkapi illustrasi koleksi yang tehnik fotografi yang canggih.

The professional writing starting in June 2010 with more professional proposal help by the professional team editor,layout and photography, as the firs issue in Private productions limited 100 expl in CR-Rom.

Penulisan dimulai bulan Juni 2010 dengan rencana yang lebih matang dibantu oleh suatu tim editor,layout dan,photography ,sebagai penerbitan pertama secara pribadi akan di terbitkan edisi terbatas  100 eksemplar dalam CR-ROM

I know that this book have many lack of inromation and written technologically , that ias why I need more comment and corrections to made this book more complete and more best performance in the future.

Penulis menyadari buku ini masih banyak kekurangan dan kekeliruan sehingga diharapkan koreksi ,saran dan tambahan informasi agar dapat disempurnakan.

Thanks very much to all my friends for their comment that made this book created as the proposal on time, and will lauching on the63th Vietnam Indepedence day August 15th 2010, I am sorry I cannot listed the name of my friends here.without then this book cannot write in good and interesting, also takns very much to my collectors who visit my internet Blog site unqiecollections.wordpress.com and the new site iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.

Penulis mengucapkan terima kasih kepada teman-teman yang telah memberikan komentar dan saran sehingga penerbitan buku ini dapat terlaksana sesuai rencana, akan di luncurkan saat hari kemerdekaan Vietnam ke 63 ,15 Agustus  2010, karena berbagai hal nama-nama teman-teman tersebut belum dpat di sebut satu-persatu, tanpa mereka karya tulis ini tidak mungkin dapatDitulis dengan baik dan menarik. Juga terima kasih kepada para kolektor setia dari blog saya di Internet.

Jakarta Juni 2010

The writer/Penulis

Dr Iwan S

the end of promotional @copyright DR IWAN S 2010

The Vietnam Liberation War 1963-1969

AVRN vs Vietcong 1963-1969 Escalation war @copyright Dr iwan S 2010

f). The  crisis escalation 1963 

(Monk burn himself , Student protest and Diem assasination )

________________________________

1) January 1963

(1)Vietcong units defeat South Vietnamese at the battle of Ap Bac .(D)

 

2) February no info

 

3) March 1963

 

     (1) March, 6th.1963

     The very rare Do Than Saigon THE’ CU’-TRI  (election?) card  with  stamped red squared box D.V.16 – cross and  D.V. 19.  signed by Cap tai Saigon , print 16.9.1964 , change with red ink written 6.3.1963. signe by Quan-Truang Quan 8 , Cao Ming Chung with red double circle official stamped of TOA KAHN CHAN QUAN THAY-VIETNAM CONG HUA  D0-THAN SAIGON.

( Why the date of the’ cu’ Tri change from 1964 to 1963, may be the worst situation in 1963 and what the meaning of Stamped D.V. 16 and 19. may be military  areal code,please comment-auth)

 

 

                        VIET NAM CONG HOA

                             DO THENH SAIGON

                                                                                                  __________

                                         THE CU – TRI           : D.V. 19 :

                       So 0735593                             

          Ho te’n       LAM VAN HUE’

       Ngay va noi sinh  1928 Cho Lon

          Nai cu-tri  9 B Nguyen deuy R 11 ky 14

          The’ ca’n cua’c so”   050977    cap tai quan    ngai 1960

 

          Chu ky cua cu-tri     Cap tai Saigon ngay 6 thanh 3 nam 1963  

                                    Quan-Truong Quo’n    8

 

                                                                             CHAU MINH CHUNG

 

                             Chu Y” : 1. The nay duoc cap hoan Toan mien phi

                                                        2. Xin gia the de Quan Trong cac quoc

                                                             Bau cu khac.

                                                        3.Ai dung cu tri cua nguot khac hooc

                                                            Dua the cu-tri cua minh cho ngua khac

                                                            Cung co bi truy to theobhinh tuoi.

             

 

4) no info

 

5) May 1963

 

(1)  May,8th.1963

South Vietnamese troops and police shoot at Buddhist demonstrators in Hue. (D)

6) June 1963

(1)Crisis intensifies as Buddhist monk commits suicide by self –immolation.

A Budihst monk burns himself to death in Saigon in this day ,as a protest against the South Vietnamese governnment ‘s mistreatment of Budhist.

 This suicide , the first of several by Budhist militans as Tri Quang, after that  a Buddhists Monk displayed pheno-menal skill in Mobilizationn south Vietnam ‘s Buddhist to protest against the Diem regime.

 He and  other monks stage a sit down strike on a street in Saigon , then sparked widespread demonstrations against the Govern-ment. Two kind of photo’s angle self immolations, first form the left side and second from the right , also the photo of  Tri Quang sitdown strike  (D & P)

 

7) July 1963

 

(1)  July,4th. 1963

      CIA agent, informs from South Vietnam General Tran Van Don, officers are plotting against Diem.(D)

     (2) July,7th 1963

     The Vietnamese Emblem and armor defend stamps issued in this day.

 

(3) August 1963

    

(1) Vietnam Special force cordon off the Saigon Market because of student demonstration (P)

(2)Dean of the school of Science and Paedagogy at the center trying to calm student holding a protest demonstration against the repressive measures of the Diem government (photo)

         

(3)Students at the School of Sciences and Paedagogy holding a protest demonstration against the Diem goverment(photo)

                  

(4) Tam Pham Bieu , Dean of the school of Medicine at the University of Saigon, speaking to Students after his arrest by the Diem Government.(photo)

                   

(5) Military Governor of Saigon-Cholon (Gia Dinh) province holding a press conference at the city hall to defend the Diem government’s position during the period of martial law two. Look at the Governor’s photo (D&P)

                  

(6) Anti-Diem goverment demonstration by the student at the University of Saigon School of Sciences and Paedagogy(P)

                  

(7) Demonstration by high school students against Diem Goverment at the Saigon city street (Truong vo Truong Toan, canh ben Truong Trung Vuong, gan so Thu Saigon-P)

(8)August 9th 1963

         

(a)US secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara visit Saigon , look the photo , he sat behind ARVN Brig.General Do Cao Tri (photo)

         

(b)General Maxwell D.Taylor also visit South Vietnam and he had made a tour of Inspection with ARVN General Van Minh Duoang, look at his photo when gave military salute (photo)

                   

(c)The photo of the South Vietnam presidential family , their put the native traditional gown , at left Diem (P)

 

(d) Madame Dinh Nhu Ngo , ex first lady during Diem regime, waving from the stairs of an airoplane  to went abroad before His husband and her brother in law Ngo Dinh Diem assasination.(photo)

 

(e) During the period of martial law, Military Governor Ge. Ton That Dinh and General Nguyen van La holding a confrence to defend the Diem Goverment’s position, look at their Photo (D&P)

 

(f) In this day, Phu Lam SG Budhist monk arrested by Diem regime, being held in guarded compound at Phu Lam (Photo)

 

(g) The Photo of Rome Italy- Arch-bishop Ngo Dinh Thuc , was taken in this day (P)

 

(h)The photo of official meeting in Saigon this day, ARVN General Nguyen Dinh Thuan defend the Diem position to the US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge jr and US secretary of defense  Robert S. McNamara.(P)

         

(i)  Unidentificated Dean of the School of Sciences and paedagogy attempting to persuaden the security Police of The Diem government no to arrest the student demonstrator (P), but The Student still being taken away in trucks by them(P)

(3)  August,21th 1963

     Ngo Dinh Nu’s forces attack Buddhist temples.(D)

(4) August,22th 1963

Washington recommends tha Nhu be removed; also suggest American support for mutinous generals against Diem.(D)

 

9) September 1963

 

(1) September,2nd 1963

     Kennedy criticized Diem in a television interview.(D)

         

(2) Pres.Ngo Dinh Diem’s brother Ngho Ding Nhu and his younger son  with his wife went to europe by aeroplane (Photo at airport)

         

(3) Us Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge yunior meeting with President of southnVietnam Ngo Dinh Diem (P)

And he talking with Mr Ngo Dinh Nhu at a diplomatic reception (P), he also talking with acting Foreign Minister Truong Cong Cuu at a diplomatic reception.

         

(4) Us Ambassador H.C.Lodge Jr shaking hands with US Army services on the Saigon city street(P) and he with his wife  leaving St Christopher’s Anglican Episcopal congregation Church after services on Sunday.(P)

 

(5)  The formation of the 11th Air Assault Division.  After  the one year prepared concept tested in two month s of continous maneuver against the 82nd Airborne Division.

 The outcome was strongly vin favor of the helicopter-borne forces and the 82nd was defeated as sound-ly as any division ever was its peace-time maneuvers.(D)

 

 

 

          (6) President Diem talking with a delegation of Budhist monks from the Union Committee for the Defense of Pure Buddhism at Gia Long.(P)

 

          (7) Nhu holding press confrence (P)

 

          (8) Police participating in a Diem government sponsored demonstration (P)

         

(9) Police holding back a crows at the An Quang Pagoda as the Buddhist monk are taken away again by the Diem government(P)

 

          (10) Police hauling away high school student who were demon-strating against the Diem goverment (P)

 

          (11)Pictures of the Buddhist monks who burned themselves to death  prior to the anti-Diem Government revolution in the xa-Loi pagoda (P)

         

(12) Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Saigon being welcomed back by medical student after his arrest by the Diem government (P)

         

(13) Combat Policemen going to student demonstration (P)

         

(14) Buddhist monk tidying up the vestry rooms in the Xa Loi pagoda at its official reopening by permission of the Diem government(P)

 

          (15) September,13th 1963

The photo at Belgrade,Yugoslavia, where Kennedy,s meet Mrs Nhu, accompanied by  Senator Edward(P)

And Senator Edward M.kennedy tals with Mrs Nhu(P)

 

 

 

10) October 1963

(1)October ,10th 1963

Infantrymen move toward the woodline after being airlifted to a landing zone in Xa Ba Phuic during a search and destroy mission (P)

(2)October 1963, 16.000 US troops  sent more to South Vietnam . The Geneva agreement were dead, as the US responded military to increasing Vietcong activity.(D)

     (3) October,21th 1963

     Mrs Nhu in Whasington DC ( Ba Ngo Dinh Nhu trong buei hop bao tai Washington DC, Hoa Ky)

11) November 1963

(1)November 1st 1963

(a)A photo of Vietcong army(?) in this day, Cac binh si tham gia cuoc dao chanh (please someone translate to find more information-auth)

         

(b)The Photo of Dinh Gia Long (office) , noi TT Ngo Dinh Diem va ong (overthrew ?)

 

(c)in this day, at The photo we saw the  wrecked Presidential Palaced, gutted & ransacked after military coup that overthrew Diem Goverment(P)

  

(d) Mayor General Van Don Tran with other officers and troops celebreting overthrown in this day(P)

         

(e) General Van Minh Duong leader of military coup that overthrew Diem regime , in this day made a press conference (P)

         

(f) The photo of Monks meeting with Military coup after overthrew Diem Regime (P)

         

(g) In this day , Vietnamese dancing again at night club (after forbidden during the Diem regime ) aftrer overthrew of Diem Regime (P)

__________________________________________

(2) November,2nd. 1963

( The Diem and Nhu assasination’s day)

____________________________________

(a)Arrest and Assassination of Diem and Nhu.(source:Wikipedia)

Marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d’etat led by General  Duong Van Minh in november 1963.

On the morning , November,2nd 1963 , Diem and his adviser, young brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, were arrested after the Army of The Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) had been successful in bloody overnight siege on Gia Long Palace in Saigon.

The coup was the culmination of nine years of autocratic and nepotistic family rule in South Vietnam Dis-comfort with the Diem regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded  with mass Buddhist protest against long standing religious dicrimination after the government shooting of protesters who defed a ban on the flying of the Budhist flag.

When rebel forces entered the palace, the Ngo brothers were not present, as they escaped the night to the loyalist shelter in Cholon.

 

The brothers had kept in communication with the rebels through a direct link from the shelter to the palace, and misled them into believing that they were still in the palace.

The Ngo brothers agreed to surrender and were promised safe exile, after being arrest,  they were instead    executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by ARVN officers on the journy back  to military headquaters at Son Nhut Air Base.

While no formal inquiry was conducted, the responbility for the death of the Ngo brothers in the trip. Minh’s  bodygueard, Captain  Nguyen van Nhung, and on Major Duong Hieu Ngia, both of whom guarded the brothers during the trip.

Minh’s army colleagues and US official in Saigon agreed that Minh ordered the executions.

They postulated various motives, including that the brothers embar-rassed Minh by fleeing the Prseidential Palace, and that the brothers were killed to prevent a later political came back.

 The general initially attempted to cover up the execution by suggesting that the brothers had committed suicide, but this was contradicted when photos of the Ngo’bloofied bodies surfaced in the media.

 

(b) The street of Saigon were littered when opponent of Diem broke into the office of a newspaper sympathetic to the Government Diem’s overthrow was greeted with jubilation by the Saigon populace which had hated his harsh rule(P)

 

(c) In the morning of this day, a mutinous South Vietnamese soldier inside  the presidential palace , after Diem and Nhu had fled to a hiding place on the Saigon suburbs (P)

 

(d) The bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel carrier, in which they were murdered by two insurgent officer after their captutre on this day. They had surrendered, hoping to be permitted to leave the country (P)

 

(e) The book’s illustration of the bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel courier , in which they were mudered by two insurgent officers after their capture on November 2 1963 ,They had surrendered hoping to be permitted to leave the country (ibid S.Karnow)

 

(f)Nguyen Bao Tung best phillatelic collections aslo contain the stamps of the Founder of the Republic of Vietnam who was assasinated after The military coup on November.1st 1963., the collections bore the signatures of the president Diem and official seals

( very rare collections with original signature and official seals because no one keep the Diem official cover after he was assasinations, please comment –auth)

 

(3)November,22th 1963

(a)Three weeks after Diem’s death  J.F.Kannedy assasination in Dallas, succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.

The death of Kennedy and Diem led to a new phase  in the American involvement in Vietnam (D)   

 

(b)Henry Cabot Lodge, American ambassador to Saigon, with President Diem. Lodge had little patience for Diem, whom he felt was hindering the American effort on help South Vietnam fight the Vietcong (P)

 

(c) An American adviser, leads South Vietnamese troops into action in thge Mekong delta in 1963. America adviser then in Vietnam were suppos-ed to avoid combat, but many parti-cipated in battle neverless(P

 

12)December 1963

 

(1) December,15th 1963

     The Thanh-Minh-Tu, AP PHU HAI, XA PHANRI-CUA “THIEP MOI” invitation(?) letter from Phu-Hot to Kinh Goi Ong Bu “ Quan-Truong Quan(Military) Hoa –Da

__________________________________________

“Trong 9 nam chien tranh tan khuc.Tan-Minh-Tu Phu-Hai pai bj canh tieu tan sup do, mai den nay m duoc co-duyen xay dung hoan thanh, do cung nhoi au giup do cua Chinh-quyen, nho su giup do cua cac nha hao tam ung-ho va duc tin tuong manh liet cua toan dan trong Ap, gop lan cua moi lap nen.

Le Khan thanh se cu hanh trong 3 ngay 12,13, va  14 thang 11 quy –Mao  tuc ngay 27,28,29,29-12-1963 the chuong trinh vach dinh ben canh.

….etc………………………………………….

                                    Tron trong kinh moi

                                    T.M. Ban To-chuc

                                                Truong-Ban

                                                Tran-Van-Ne (OD)

 

(Please native Vietnamese collectors will helping me to translate this  very rare document and also the below document , because the information from this document very useable for postal history colecter and Vietnamese historian-auth)

 

 

(2)December,12th 1963

The very rare official letter send by  Cuorier from Ngoc Bang Saigon double red circle stamped on Covers sending by Courier to Ong Ba,Trung Uy’ Quan Trung. He oa-Da.

        Inside Doan Ca-Kich Ngoc Bang Saigon,Chiep Moi Card used for writting the latter :

 

____________________________________________

     26-12-63

      Kouh Anh!

Doan cua chung toi rui qua din dia phung nay theit bai luon 3 hon’i khy dhuong xoay tu’.

            Itiui guo nay ca 50 doan vien Chua Co buoi au son nai.

            King thi vi hoan caung dien diug cua gauf ceuy dau hiem 3 ngay ray Rly ngoi dan duoa.

            Vay: Vo choy toi nho eum dui thua vio auh nho anth tieui.

            Pheuing hui gi’up do doang ti guing say duo ngay Tet.

            Hoay Rinz. (PH)

 

(Please native Vietnam to help me for translate this interesting informations from this letter, why this cover din’t send by Postal , may be no postal services by the worst situation , if someone have the postal histori covers in 1963 please comment and sho us that rare collection-auth)

 

(2)The meeting between General AVRN Van Minh Duong with American Ambassador Henry Cabot Jr and Robet McNamara,(P),

__________________________________

4.3.3. AVRN  War in 1964-1967

__________________________________

a. AVRN vs Vietcong war 1964

______________________________

1)January 1964

(1)January,30th. 1964

General Nguyen Khan seizes power in Saigon , arrest four ruling generals but allow Minh to remain as figure head chief of State.(D)

(2) In the year after 1963 , Nguyen van Thieu steadily in importance he became the deputy premier and minister of defense.

 

2)February 1964

Not yet info

3) March 1964

(1)US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara visit Vietnam , vow support for Khanh.(D)

 

(2) March,20th 1964

The chinese written postally cover from Saigon-Vietnam 20.3.1964 to Saigon-Cholon  Viet-Nam 21.3.1964, with  1d justice emblem and 2d Unesco stamps (rate 3 d) .

( Cholon was the chinese overseas area over the Mekong river in Saigon where I found this posta history , the address in chinese traslate means…….. :……………..auth)

4) April and 5) May 1964 noinfo

 

6) June 1964

 

 

 

(1)June , 2nd . 1964

Pantagon Strategist refine plans for bombing North Vietnam.

(2)Johnson anticipate a large scale US effort:

       (a)The Tonkin Resolution was simply intended to give him the discretion to punish the North Vietnamese, but it was  noneless regarded  as essential to bring stability to an independent

(b) Non-communist  South-Vietnam in order to counter Khruschev’s claim to have the right to support “ war of National Liberation”(D)

7)July 1964, no info

 

8) August 1964

(1)Vietnam was still seen  by the public as no more than a miror problem : The Us would need only to flex her muscles for the communists to back down.(D)

       

(2)Covert South Vietnamese Maritime operations begin against North Vietnam.(D)

        (3) North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the MADDOX , an US destroyer in Tongkin Gulf, August 2(D).

       

(4) A doubtful second incident report two days later(D)

(5) US aircraft bomb North Vietnam for the first time in this month.(D)

     (6) August, 21st , 1964

      The rare postal history of US’s Kennedy prestamped 11c airmail letter sheet       send from native vietnamese at California CDS “SAN LUIS OBISPRO 1934004, Aug 21 1967” to South Vietnam CDS “Saigon-Vietnam 26-8 1967”

The handwitten latter in vietnamese language:

 

Cal Poly-San Luis Obispro                         Chu nhat 20.8.1967

 

                             Hong mien

          Lan qua khong dube bien y ma Hong, anh ut truong La Hong da quan anh, khong con nho gi dten thang anh xa xoi may nua the roi dong hu do anh nhen duoc the Hong vo nhat la khan quan co do think tay Hong sung tai, va anh thay minh co loi doi nghi oan cho hong, hong chonanh xia nha. Tu nay anh khong dan nghi tam bay tam ba nhu vay  noi dan nhung anh anh hong ung dung bo be anh nuy , moi lan duoi thu van biet chat itoi gia ma viet cho anh doi dong de goi la chanh qua soy am tam long doi coi nay. Anh thang thue cau du truong ve qua tang ma hong, anh vat sung luong va cam doi thay tu nua lanh de anh quang khan cua hong.

Mau ve  kiem day lain anh thich thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy diem anh nhuoc tu lan. Honh khan that, anh ky biet noi sao cho bet sui  biet an cua voi hong duoc, anh nung khong biet hong nuon gi e anh co gi anh ve tang hong theu y hong, thu san hong biet nho, hong muon gi anh nung chra y ca muon la……..etc….

          Hong lua nay ra Sao! Anh rat nay tu Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy ky vien va thy luong ve Hay chue Hong voi ve, manh an duong man.

                                                                             Signed Hien

______________________________________________________________

( This collection very interesting, because not many communication between Vietnamese who study in California to his friend (Girl?) and writting information and comment about his own country, we will understood about the vietnam information in US –please someone wil kind to translate-auth)

9) September 1964

(1)September,7th 1964

     The South Vietnam first day covers-Premier Jour D’Emmision of Bai Bien (Plaque De) “Ha Tien” stamps, firstday special stamped  Tem Tho “Ba Bien Ha Tien.Saigon , Ngay Bau-Rien 7-9-64. (PH)

10) October 1964

 

(1)October,30th. 1964

     Vietcong attack  Bienhoa air base, but Johnson rejects proposal for   retaliatory raids against North Vietnam .(D)

11) November 1964

(1)Lyndon Johnson defeats Barry Goldwater for the presidency ,November 3(D).

 

(2) Saigon convulsed by Rioters protest Khanh’s rule  and Taylor now ambassador , urges Khanh to leave the country.(D)

12)December 1964

 

(1)  December,24th. 1964

     Vietcong terrorist bomb American military billet in Saigon, but Johnson again rejects proposal for raids against North Vietnam.(D)

(2) December.20th 1964

Bien Lai Khai Sanh- Bo Thanh saigon certificate-without photo(?) ,sign and stamped by Quan-Truong ,vietnam Cong Hoa NAM –PHAN, for Tian boi Phan ,tai quan 4 Saigon durong (street) 9 Le Chach, con (Children) cua :Tian hoc Diec,va cua Ly tu Ky (father & Mother?)

___________________________________

b)AVRN vs Vietcong  in1965

____________________________________

1)January 1965

No info

 

 

 

 

2) February 1965

(1) February,4th. 1965

Johnson’s national security adviser, Mc Geo Jr and George Bundy, arrives in Saigon, as Soveit Prime Minister Alaksei Kosygin arrives in Hanoi (D)

 

(2) February,7th 1965

Vietcong stage attacks against American installations and this time Johnson authorizes Flaming Dart,US

 air raids against North Viet-nam.(D)

(3) February,12th 1965

Postally used Airmail covers from  Danang to Saigon, rate 3 Dong, Rolling type CDS Danang 12.2.1965 and in the back CDS Saigon 12.2.1965

       Inside the letter handwritten :

__________________________________________________

Danang 10.2.65

Bich men,

Minh don thu Bi’ch vao nhung ngay dau ma in’am moi, vao nhung.ngay mia minh thay can phai co i c’an gi thay doi; thay doi ca noi tam lan ngoai guan.

            Bi’cha, thu thach ta’ den voi minh nhung a lan trong nam Nguoi minh gia tay hoan toan nhu kho he’o.tuy nhien nhua dong von con tu cho minh tiep tuc cuoc toi.

            Cuoc toi nay kerong biet co ban tay Dinh menh nhung vao kgong, mrrang dau co hay khong-kerong thanh van te-ma vanb te chines van loi ngudi voi thuch tai thuc tai la i traong tay tau kso.

            Toai tong y’ voi Bich y’ nghi bignam yen the tuc nay. Oi! Ly tuong la I con vat kerong ca chan, no chi quet tren mat tat nay i vet loang ten negam.

            That na chung ta chi ta nhang nong cu cho toi nay. Dieu to khong ,conghia ta cai tines kien na minh te bai ten the te’ noi khong tim ra tuoc I loi thoat, boi vi dau nuon dau khong con ngun voi cuoc toi rang buoc nhan mot c’ach ro rang.chines khong Kerong co y noi rang “ Minh voi Bich tuy 2 ma I” nhung su thuc van Kerong che dau tuoi tien do  …….etc…………..

            Cuortha,vi ta noi va toan vong, ninh muon duic Bich va toan gia mot nan vui tuai va may man.

            Voi nhung loi bao quat tren tay, minh chi nhun Biich lap lai nhien lan nhunh cau cuoi la nhung loi chuc thang that nhat.

            Thans that duc Bich vui tien. (PH&D)

_________________________________________________________________________

 (This letter send one month before the US Marine land to defend Danang.auth)

(4)February,24th 1965.

     Operation Rolling Thunder , sustained American bombing of North Vietnam , begins in this day with South Vietnam as airbase(D)

3)March 1965

 

(1)March,8th. 1965

Two Marine battalions land to defend Danang airfield, the marine wer the first American combat troop to defended airbased  in Vietnam.(D) and The photo of Marine Land-ing(P)

(2)March,9th. 1965

Postally used airmail cover from Danang one day after US Marine landing to defend Danang airfield, CDS Danang 9.3.1965  with stamps 3 Dong(rate) and CDS Saigon 11.3.1965 (two days), inside the love letter(?) from N.H.Taoi to P.N.Bich  :

_______________________________________________________

Danang 9/3 65

Bich men

Duoc thu Bich(name) qiua luo minh tang Sua Soan mioi thi ni Minh nong Bich thong cam cho su tra ti tre nay m athu loi nse.

            Deng luc tinh than minh dang cang thang vi nhung noi uat han nam aqua,tang luc minh tang chan nan su bhoc ten cuc to, tha Bich ten minh la mot niem an yui dang men Minh van biet, von nguh cu neu Sau moi that bay ma khong bay ra nhung Su rhon keo te wem tiem nsung nguyen do nao da tua ten thrit bon cug thi soau nay kso na co the vuot lengiai toan.

Tuy wien tung vi the ma tem ion tonguh minh tem i nonien buj amij nsu nerong nguti xung quant minh mia nsu vay moi lay i su kso ai suot toi Du biet vay, minh van psai nsin theng vao thuc tai, i thuc tai pru-psang, ban ha minh tay ngubi nay the nay, no nguoi kia the kra hose’ nhin minh voi, i tain trang the nao? –dtac biet nhung bau chi than minh.

Co 8 tam trang nha minh, Bich moi tay mot Su mia mai ngho-ngei. Do chi la I van dte tam ly.

Buy nhien , nhi la noi the, chu minh van vui song lam Bich a. Nghi nha Bich, tui minh hi con vai chuc nam mia la ta dta psai dtoi husug cuoc dtoi Bi gi minh phsai vi I ksiu quang be bnho ay dte huy hoai moc toi. Do (Heart picture) Bich thay minh khong phai vi mang mai cam tu ti dtang tren the qian nay, vat lon voi moc tong kan voi the choi con nguoi ben kia landtat.

Dao nay thi minh Sua Soan ha thi roi, tuy du nhus song nam mia khong con, nhung minh voi co gang mia I nguoi lun, Bich cu tiu la ban Bich se kerong dtun thot vong cho Bich in khong ? 3 thang lo ngay Sau se ytra loi.

Minh va Cau khong ctuoc tin yi o’bhayen ca’ Minh se ctanh that cau chuc Bich ung Gai quyen van Su nhuy ,Hen thu Sau. Bhao thanh cong. Toai  (PH &OD)

________________________________________________________

4) April 1965

 

(1) 25.000  young and better educated social groups were Marched to the Whitehouse demostrations against the Vietnam War.

 

(2) April,8th 1965

North Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong rejects Johnson’s proposal, says ettlementt must be based on vietcong program (D)

Pham van Dong vintage Photo, found in the Ho Chi Minh photo collection as a given during Afro Asia Confrence in Bandung Indonesia,1955.(OP)

 

5) May 1965

(1) May,15th 1965

Ho Chi Minh handwritten about the Vietnam nationalist war ( found in Hanoi-auth)

6) June 1965

(1)  June,11th 1965

Air Vice Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky takes over as prime minister of military regime in Saigon (D) and the photo of Cao Ky (P)

(2)  June , 26th.1965

American command in Saigon reports that Vietcong have put five South Vietnamese combat regiments and nine battalions out of action in recent month (D) and the photo Vietcong combats (P)

(3)Near the mountain peak called Don Den , twenty kilometers northwes t of the Danang Air base, the Cade River serpentined its down from the green mountains  on its way to the South China sea. It curved abruptly east across the flat bottom of a narrow, elbow-shaped valley the Ameican called Elephant Valley from an action that occured there one ninght  in this day.

 

Infantrymen from the Third Marine Regiment were act up on the lower jungle-covered ridges of Dong Den when, incredibly enough, they heard through the darkness what they thought to be the trumpeting of elephants. They radioed in for artillery illumination rounds to bring the Valley out of shadows.Sure enough, it was elephant.

 

A string of eight of eight of them with their drivers was wending its way across the flat rice land. The elephants were loaded with heavy cannon and ammunition for the Vietcong.Atillery made short work of the pachyderm convoy. The action went down in Marine lore as the Battle of Elephant Valley.

       

 

 

Since it was a natural gateway from the North tp the South, the valley constanly swarmed with hamburgers on resupply and replacement missions.(D)

 

7) July 1965

 

(1)July,8th. 1965

Johnson reappoints Lodge ambassador to South Vietnam, to replace Taylor and eighteen combat battalion now in the country.(D)

 

(2)Mid Winter 1965

The marines became the first U.S. Forces in Vietnam to establised authentic snipper schools, snippers classes were only three days long .

 

Two men armed with bolt-action rifles slipped silently into jungle hide dep inside Vietcong territory , they settled down to wait. Any unnecessary movement might disclose their position. They spoke only in an occa-sional whisper.They did not smoke. Some times they waited as long as ten to rweleve hours  like that in order to release a single accurate shot at an  elusive enemy.

 

They had adopted a weapon borrowed from the VC, who had in turn borrowed it from the japanese and others from as far as men had gynpowder and realized the advantage of killing from hiding at a distance- the rifle that cracks from nowhere to bring sudden death.

 

 

 

 

Vietnam , with its lack of combat lines, its fluid battlefield, and an enemy that often operated singly or in asmall sniper warfare, evenmore so than the trenches of world war I or the more conventional setpiece action of World war II.

               

US forces had a numbrer of crack riflemen, they possessed frew trained snipers at the beginning of the Vietnam involvement. The Vietcong soldier considered himself relatively safe at range 600 yards or more.

       

There were instances of VC walking in plain sight at distances of 700 to 1000 yards  while they directed mortar fire on American Positions. In the jungles and hemlets of the countryside, communist felt free to move about at will, confident they could spot U.S. patrols first and either avoid them or lure them into ambushes for vtheir own marksmen.

       

So desperate was the need for qualifiued US sippers to counteract the enemy in the new kind of war .Although rarely publicized, the exploits of American Vietnam snipers have become a permanent part of the history of the war.

 

Word of their feats spread quickly in-country , As :    “Thrirty-three guerillas filtered onto a road that went past a sprawling vietnamese cementery.

 

 

 

 

 They were operating in their own backyard. This was”Charlie Land’ “Mr Charles” controlled it so throughly that he could afford to relax. None of the guerrillas showed concerned as they sloppily formed up to march up the road to a village where they would replenish their food supplies.

 

Suddenly , the point man grabbed his chest as a bullet from a hidden rifleman sent him sprawling to the ground.

 

The crack of the rifle eight hundred yards away was barely discernible. Hidden in tall knife grass, the US Marine who fired the shot quickly jacked a fresh round into the still-smoking chamber of his Einchester Model 70. Off to his right, his teammate drop a second VC.

 

Within the next few minutes the  pair of sharpshooting Marine snipers killed eleven Viet Cong and wounded six more as they rained lead into the panicked guerrilla ranks. Entire battalion operations and week-long sweeps rarely accounted for that many enemy causalties.(D)

(3)July,24th. 1965

BINH CHUNG TEN LUA, Dion Vi Anh Hung. Luc Lu’o’ng Vu Trang Nhan Dan(D)

(4) July,28th. 1965

Johnson approves Westmoreland’s request for forty-four additional combat battalions (D) and the photo of combat battalion(P)

 

       (5)After concencus was reached   by Johnson’s  adviser that  the  Viet-cong could defeated and the North Vietnam were forced to a negotiated when know that they willn’t win the war.

          The momentos dicisioned to plan a war in Whitehouse, after extensive discussion between Johnson and his close advisers their were no recognation that South Vietnamese were fighting among themselves and that North Vietnam were also Vietnamese.

 

8) August 1965

 

(1)The experimental divison  was redisgnated the 1st Air cavalry Division (air mobile) , incorporated into the active Army sructure, and sent to South Vietnam.

 

          (2)     Combat operations generally have confirmed the effectivesess of the air-cavalary units. One of the major operation questions,the vulnerability of helicopters to ground fire, it is  reported that only 48 helicopter were lost in the first four years, which in cluded a period nearly three years when only a few helicopters were in the country in support of Vietnam forces.

 

(3)Some 700 Air Force, Navy , and Marine Fighters aircraft were available for close support work in South Vietnam during this year 1965

 

(4)An excellent communications network was set up so that vietually any village or any military which comes attack by Viet Cong  may immediately issue and emergency call into the Tactical Air Control Center (TACC) in Saigon  which keeps an up-to-date situation report on th elocation and readiness of every attack air craft in the South of Vietnam. In 1965 , approximately 20 percent of the fighter strikes were response to emergency less than 15 minutes.

 

(5)The necessary close control has been maintained by a team of Forward Air Control (FAC) who fly low and slower over every target and mark it with smoke before it is bombed. About 150 FAC air planes, primarily Cesna O-1’s .

 

(6)A diverse Group of aircraft are employed for ground attack.The most numerous type is the fast Jet Fighters  which can responds quickly to emergencies, it included : The North American F-100, Northrop F-5, MacDonnel F-4, Douglas A-4, Grumman A-6, Martin B-57,and vought F-8,(D)  

 

(7)Troop airlifted into Tuy Hoa to protect rice fields (P) and  Swift helicopter “YN2” evacuation of wounded soldiers has saved many lives (P)

 

(8) The air attacks which reaced significant proportion in thei year have been unsuccesful , because they did not bring the surrender of The North Vietnamese and the Vietcong.(D)

 

9) September 1965

(1) September,1st .1965-

free airmail service was started.(PH)

Free airmail service went into effect in this day for all military personal letters, letter size tape recording and postcard in their generally accepted from are entitle to free transit.

Letter send under this free mail policy will be handle as US air mail.Your full military address to include name,rank, and service number must appear on the envelope.

The word free in th upper right hand corner must  be in Your handwritting. It cannot be typed  or mechanically marked .

Mail may be sent free to the foreign countries. Letter so mailed cannot be registered.They may be sent special delivery if an additional special delivery cxharge is paid. (info from IMNAHA).      

(The Vietnamese Quan Buu  Military Post also have free air mail with military without nominal value stamp or pre-stamp letter sheet, must write  the HQ & KBC number, but if sent to civillian must added special rate of stamp-auth)

 

 

10) October 1965

 

(1) October,3rd. 1965

The reciept of buying Toshiba 4 band radio 5400 dong with Hiem(revenue) 11 Dong ( 5x d dong yellow and one Dong red revenue) , from Le-Cong Radio 398,Dai-lo Dong –Khanh Cholon.

        The back of this document,  used to write “Giay Ban)

_______________________________________________________

Zen toi la Bui Tram Phu to zuai so c/co/7858vcapngay 6.7.60 tai quan ngu tai so Nha 242/4 ben nguyen duy X-c co loan i cou may thou thanh hien Toshiba 4 ban Transior so;6,672 cho ba am thi cai cam cho thi la  5200,00 dong neu san co  ai can cho thi toi xin chui toi voi nho chuc chach.

            Mai ky ren yoi day ,B.T.Phu.(sign) Cholon  30.10.65.(OPH&D)

__________________________________________________

(2) American forces defeated North Vietnam units at the  La Drang valley

 

(11) November 1965

       (1) November,10th.1965

              The AVRN postal history  cover , send from KBC 4858 (AVRN 7th Infantry divisond 2nd regiment 1st Batalion with military stamp without NOMINAL value (Quan Buu ) type M1 ,but the military  stamp not cancelled  and  rare KBC red doble circle stamped ” G.D .M.A.G.V.N.  KBC 4.858  THU –TIN-VINH”  to Cholon CDS “CHOLON-VIETNAM 9-11-1968. In the back rolling Saigon Vietnam cds but the date not clear.

(rare AVRN postal history, why send thruogh  regular post office , not  military post that is why without “Quan Buu” stamped and the Military stamp didn’t cancelled,,KBC 4858 didn.t know the location, what the meaning of GDMSAGVN and Thu Thin-vinh?  may be after tsomeone ranslate the letter inside we will no the history fact-auth)

  

          The letter inside in vietnamese language :

______________________________________________________________

       KBC 4858   

            10/11/65

                                                            Thu’a Chi

Tu ra truong dten non t thang em chang co dip rao dten than hai bac cung cac chi . That loi vo cung em nghi Hai Bac va cac chi Tuyen.

Xhan mot hom ve phep nghe thoa bao co noy chi cho em Kinh Loi tham noi manh. Chac dto nay noi cung chang biet mot dtua chai re ra lam sao. Em dtung la dtua chau vo la phai khong chi.

Em cung cau nuong hai bai va cao chi dteu manh. Chi Bay. Chi Tam va anh Sau dto nay vao Dai Hoe ce weng anh sau chec saj ra truong co phai.

Em thi het hoc dtuoc roi Hanh Quan luon Manh tu tai I le Loi biet bao gi o’ co’dtoi Nhiem luc buon ghe.

Nghe noi anh tu vai quan dtoi Vay anh tu co’ dtuoc nay o’ Saigon khong chi. Mong anh dtuoc nhien may hon em.

Mot lan nua nho chi chuyen than noi hai bac, chi Hai vo cao chi

                                                            Em Chi

                                                    Le-Luu –Nghia

 

 

(12) December 1965

 

(1)December,25th 1965

Johnson suspends bombing of North Vietnam in an attempt to induce the North Vietnam to negotiate.(D)

(2)Late 1965,

Nguyen van Thieu was appointed chief of state late in 1965 by Nguyen Kao Ky, who became premier when the South Vietnamese generals decided to form their own government following the weak  civillian regime of Dr Phan Quat .

__________________________________-

c) AVRN vs Vietcong in 1966

______________________________

(1)January 1966

 

(1) Backbone of Airlift  is a group of less than 250 four engine Lockheed C-130 transport and twin engine Fairchild C-130’s. These are supplemented by a smaller number od de Haviland VC-2 Caribou which were transferred from the Air Force in this year.(D)

 

(2)January,1st.1966

The receipt of Bien-Lai Tien(future purchase?) Muon Pho-Cholon (chinese area Saigon) 991$10 , tien thue pho 900$ and tien thue 1.2% ,tue cong ve rac 81&  With revenue Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 2$00.

(The earliest VCH-Con Niem revenue collection for future purchase added for credit interest and country?,please comment–auth) 

(3)  January,31th. 1966

        Johnson resumes Bombing.

 

2) February 1966

 

(1) February,8th. 1966

Johnson and South Vietnam leaders issue a communique, in Honolulu , emphazing need for pacification in Soutrh Vietnam(D)

3) March 1966

(1)March ,10th.1966

Buddhist demonstrators against Saigon regime in Hue and Danang(D)

4) April 1966 no info

5)May 1966

(1) May,23th 1966

Government troops take over Danang (D) .

6)June 1966

(1)June,14th. 1966

A Complete document “Giao Keo” Saigon Thuy cuc with South Vietnam green  30 Dong revenue with red double circle Saigon Thuy Duc stamped date 14.6.1966 and Stamps 2 dong with Postal Circulair Date stamped Saigon-cholon 15.10.1966, rare combination never report before (OD&PH)

(2) June,16th. 1966

Government troops take over Hue(D)

(3) June,29th. 1966

American aircraft bomb oil depots near Hanoi and Haiphong (D)

7)-8) no info

9) September 1966

 

(1)       France President calls American withdrawal from vietnam during his visiting Cambodia.(D)

 

(2) September,25th 1966

 

(a)FREE POSTALLY USED COVER FROM MILITARY ACADEMY/ARMED FORCE TRANING SCHOOL NATHRANG KBC 4311 red airmail COVER from  Hop TD-894 (?, please comment-auth  ) TO So 1/TR 16/lg 4 Nho caiu trao cho me (?) Saigon. And the vintage photo of Nha Trang HQ 505 LST (landing ship Transport )-Phillipine navy , on the back of photo hand written “ Ky niem ngay uo ki he 56 Doa Nu trah quoc gia Su Phan Nha Trang”

Nhatrang   military cover Hop TD 894 KBC 4311with Quan Buu M1(Military Post) Stamp without nominal with not clear CDS of Nha Trang , not clear red double circle official Stamped  to Saigon .

(The earliest postally used  Military stamps type M1 during the Vietnam liberation War ,rare postal history-auth)

     Inside the covers the letter :

 

 

_____________________________________________

Nha Trang 26/9.66

Kinh anh !

 

Den hom nay mia la con 12 ngay se mau khoa.

            Em thu cho anh hay. “Heart picture” Ngoai Hue, neu  anh  thi ten nha t         hang thinh (ban em) choi thang ay choi dep lam.

Anh dten do choi va co the nho nha no nan com hoai lai dto a nha khoi muon nha.

No co thu cho em. Anh co gap no bao  no lai em co loi hoi ho tham no .

                        Thu anh vai hang, xin tam but Chine anh vui may mau.

            Em via Dah.

TB. Dia chauc thinh, Lunchi thinh 82 Chi Long Hue.(OD&PH)    

 

(b) Civil postally used cover with Thw Thao The Duc olympic 1 d and flower 3d stamps (rate 4d) send from Qui Nhon to Saigon, CDS Quinon-vietnam (not clear) 15.9.1966. The letter inside:

________________________________________________________________

                                                                        Qui Nhon 22.9.1966

                                                                                    Em Ye’u

Moi nam gio sang anh da thuec day roi. Thoi guen anh tap  dtuoc trong nhung ngay o’ Saigon. Giaa phut nay thuc en hay un ngu trong chau an? Troi Saigon dta lanh  tro em ? han em dtang no nhung giao modtep.

Em oi! Em mo thy gi? Anh, Nghi rang ting yeu cua  chung ta chua dtu dte? Anh nghi? Rang tinh yeu cua chung ta chua dtu dte dti vao nhung gioi ngu than tum ma em tinh yeu cua anh chua dtu manh di chiem tran vin long un? Chung co lo tu hem anh roi ra dten Zui nhon dten nay, anh dta goi dten em toi da thu thu tu,trong khi dto anh chi ? nhon cua em co mat. Mat la thu trang gan thang ! Anh truong thu chuoc dtuoc tinh trang dto. Tinh yeu dtang dtot chay long anh, em but chung ? Anh nho em Kinh phung guea Khung canh vang ve cua in ro trong tins anh. Anh khao khat duoc gap em,dtuoc nhin tan mat em cuoi va nhat la anh muon hon em.

Em yeu mui ,anh lai nho dten truoc phi mot troi dti vao chan nui,………………..etc……………………………………………

(very long latter, if someone will tranlate I will put all letter in the blog, many “Anh” what the meaning ?-auth)

Hay viet tha cho anh den nhe ! Vieyt that nhieu vao ! Bao nhien l         oi em Viet anh cam thay van Chua dtu. Sap dten gio anh phai dte rua mat dte xuong van phong. Ban ngay anh ban lo cho hoc ninh dten bu dtau , Theo sau  so noi nhien hon.

                        Hon Em !

                                                                                    Anh

________________________________________________________

            (3) September,29th 1966

            The vietnamese letter from Phu Nhuan Thu nan :

 

       

        Phu Nhuan                            Thu Nam ngay 29.9.66

                                                                        Hong,

                                                Anh ve Saigon nhi phepgiao hi 12.9.66

Vi han mot tuyen, nam moi viet  Pho Hong duoi.

Da loi khay nhem duoi thi ji cua Hong ca ? ca le doi Hong da co 1 lei gi doi thang….Du sao di nua, Hong vuong nen cho anh biet vien co.

            Thai Hong da nhen duin the ma anh canh dau may thang ?

Hong ha hoi mien gap cho anh yoy Ichi nhan duoi thu nay de anh  yen lan.

Ve Saigon buon nhien va mat ly do phai nan Li that nghiep chua biet lan hay hoc nen thong di dai la toi anh tua.

Hong va manh vi vau di lau nha thung Le lho anh gie than ha vo ca gia guyen.

 

                                                                                    Anh

Doi Thi? 369 Truong Lai Bien 369

            Phu nhuan saigon.

__________________________________________________________________________

 

(10) October 1966

(1)American and South Vietnamese leaders conclude conference in Manila. American troops strength in Vietnam reaches nearly 400.000 by year-end(D)

 

 

 

 

     (2) October ,7th.1966

     The Vietnamese letter used official sheet :

 

 

 

Viet-Nam Cong Hoa

     Bo Noi Thu                                                  7-10-66

 Nha-Vien-Thong                                                 AH

 

            Em moi lan doc thu A H thay an han vo coy voidto! An han vi H ma chan thu di phai nhien phai tranh hon troy dtoi A A cu tranh h hua Ha , hon phan them nhan h im nhan loi tat ca  loi lam noi guan troy lam vi H o biet lam vui loy A  ma o biet chup them nhien son lai dty len di soi hy dtui dta cho them truong Anh biet vi sao o vi H soisy dthuy dti gua rui ong thien tra ma H …..etc………(very long and bad written latter, what the meaning of “Biet” –auth)

 

11) November 1966

 

(1)Each of South Vietnam’s provices  and districts, there would be an Intelligence and operations coordination center (PIOCC or DIOCC)  where captured enemy documents would be read, prisoners interrogated , and dossiers maintained on all suspected members of the Vietcong infrastucture (VCI) .

Once adossier became large or convincing enough, the individual would be targeted for arrest by the Vietnamese Police, the military, or one of the provincial reconnais unit (PRU).

Phung Hoang had its origin in November 1966 when the Vietnam Stasion, MACV J-2, and the Vietnamese National Police cooperated to form a combined intelligence staff called CT-4. Its mission was to identification and neutralization of the Vietcong infrastructure in MR-4, which at thzattime corresponded roughlyto Gia Dinh Province plus the Saigon-Cholon metropolitan area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________________

d)1967-the second years of Vietnam Liberation’s war.

___________________________________

1)January 1967

(1)January,28th. 1967

North Vietnamese Foreign Minister Nguyen Duy Trinh says Unites States must stop bombing North Vietnam before talks begin.(D)

 

2) Postal History New zealand Army in Vietnam (courtecy IMNAHA send to Me in Jan 2011,thanks Mr Andrew  Crasshow)

New Zealand Forces in Vietnam

In May 1965, New Zealand announced its decision to deploy a combat force to Vietnam including a 105-mm howitzer battery, replacing an engineer platoon and surgical team deployed the previous year. The unit was attached to the US 173rd Airborne Brigade under MACV command, with the primary mission of supporting Australian forces in Phuoc Tuy Province.

In November, 1967, New Zealand and Australian forces entered a working arrangement to reimburse the United States military for services and support including base camp construction, transportation within Vietnam and military postal facilities that included a closed pouch system for all personal and official mail.

 

The illustrated cover, sent via the US APO postal service was sent to England, under-franked with 10-cents postage and assessed 3-pence postage due.
 The sender was one of 18 members of the New Zealand Army Detachment headquartered in Saigon. Total in-country strength of New Zealand forces at this time was 534.

The small number of personnel in Vietnam makes mail sent by NZ units less plentiful than that of their Australian and Korean counterparts. It should also be somewhat less plentiful than mail from Thai allied forces. I have not found that to the the case, and it is reflected in the significantly higher market prices for Thai material related to the Vietnam War.
Strength of Military Assistance Forces in Vietnam in 1967 (US Department of the Army):

 

3) March 1967

 

(1) March,1st. 1967

The best summin high-up of the war in Vietnam was written by Corelli Barnet in PUNCH , “ The Americans have yet to be persuaded that they cannot win their Vietnam conflict on the battle-field”(D) 

(2)  March,21st 1967

Johnson ends two-day meeting on Guam with Thieu and Ky, North Vietnam reveal exchange of letters betweenJohnson and Ho Chi Minh.

 

4) April 1967

 

(1) April,3rd. 1967

Nhiem Vu Rat Nang Ne Va Het Suc Ve Hang. Boi doi Truong Son du’o’c Quoc hoi va Chinh phu tuyen du’o’ng . Don vi anh luc Luong vu trang nhan dan (D)

 

5)May 1967

(1)  May,1st 1967

(a) Ellsworth Bunker arrives Saigon to replace Ldge as ambassador.(D)

(b) In this day issued a psecial first day cover with a soldier  with gun and people repaired the wheel of Tank, 1-5-1967 , the stamp about the soldier and civillian stamps, “DOI SONG DAN CHUNG, La Vie Du Peuple Au Vietnam , Premier Jour d’emission , First Day cover”

          (this cover found at Cholon Saigon-auth)

 

(2)  May,7th 1967

The Original handsigned of  the book ‘s writter , George M.T.Kahin ,on the inner page of his book’s “The United States in Vietnam” with his hand written For  Nugroho(in memoriam Indonesian Military Historian) with best wishes May,7th,1967 .Djakarta (old type,since 1971 Jakarta-auth)

6) June 1976

(1) June,10th. 1967

Rare official Vu quoc Hien , Luat  Su Toa Thruoang Tham Nathrang ( pri-soned Camp ?) covers to Cholon. With  Stamps 3 dong + 1 dong (rate4 dong) CDS Nha Trang 10.7.1976.

        Inside the official  Vu Quoc Hien letter.

__________________________________   

Thua Ong,

Phuc dap quy tho ngay 2/7/67 Toi tran trong bao tin ong ro , viec chua ong Toa da goi ra de hoa giai (theo thu tuc) vao ngay 21-7-67.

                        Ngay do toibs thay mat Ong de di hau Toa.

            Kinh Thu.

(Please someone tranlate this important information, because rare official latter from South Vietnam still exist now due  to many refugees from this area and all the document were burned  before they put in the Truong Tam “Change of Thought” camp after the fall of Saigon in 1975-auth)

 

7)June 1967

(1) Unused Bankbiljet (Check) of Vietnam COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRY BANK in 196… branch SAIGON

 

(rare bank Chaque during liberation war, and the location at Ham Nghi street,  he was  very short time ‘s emperor and vietnam hero, his coins very rare,where that street now?-auth)

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________________

CHI PHIEU so A  09718                                  VN$………….

Cheque no.

      VIET-NAM CONG-THUONG NGAN HANG

BANQUE COMMERCIALE ET INDUSTRILLE DU VIETNAM

                     HOI HAC DANH VON 50.000.000 VN$

                        TRU-SO : 93-95 ,DAI –LO HAM-NGHI SAIGON

       Nhan chi-phieu nay,xin tra………………………………

                                  So bac viet toan chu (somme en toutes lettres)

            PAYES CONTRE DE CHEQUE

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Do tinh cua ………………………………………………………………………….

A L’ORDE DE

____DUOC TRA’ TAI________________ .                             ……,ngay……..196….

            :     PAYABLE A                                      :

            :   VIET-NAM CONG-THUONG-HANG:

            :   S A I G O N                                       :

            ___________________________________

      TRUONG-MUC

          COMPTE                     NG MINH TUYEN -32 819

 

     (2) July, 22th,1967

        The postal used official cover of Thieng Noi Hy-Vong Hop Tha 453 Saigon AN LOAT PHAM  , rolling type cds  SAIGON-VIETNAM 22-7 1967 with Stamps soldier and a worker  hands with his “scop” ,rate 0d80

(interesting low rate for official cover  0d80,    no destination because the cover’s type with clear window address,and the letter not included-please comment why and what the meaning of An Loat Pham and Thieng Noi Hy-Vong Hop Tha-auth)

8) August 1967

     (1) August,21st 1967

     The US airogram pre stamped John F.Kennedy 11 c Air mail USA, send from Hien,230 Fremont hall, Cal Poly San Luis 223 , California 93401-USA, rolling CDS SAN LUIS OBIS PO Aug 21 1967, to Ho Thi Tuyet Hong 16/18/3 Nguyen Thien Thuat Saigon South Vietnam and  destination CDS SAIGON VIET-NAM 26-8. 1967 , the letter in viet-namese:

 

———————————————————

Cal. Poly-San Luis Obispa          Chi nhat 20.8.1967

                                                Hong nien

Lan qua khong duse tin gi ma Hong, anh ui tuong la Hong da quen anh,khong con nha gi dten thang anh xa xoi nay mue the roi dong lue doi anh nhem diuse thy Hong va nhat minh ra loi da nghi con Hong, Hong cho anh xin nha, tu nay anh khong doi nghi tam bay  tam ba nhi nay nua , moi lan dua thi nen bouh chid thoi gio ma viet cho anh doi dong de gui la  chind qua am tam long don coi nay.

Anh thang cau de tiue ve qua tang ma Honh, anh quang khan mia Hong mau va kien dan lan anh thieh thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy dien anh nhuoc tai lan. Hong khan that,anh khy biet ni Sao cho het su biet in cua voi Hong duoc, anh nung khong biet Hong nuon gi anh lo gi ang se tang Hong thei y Hong , thu San Ha biet nha ,Hong nuon gi anh nung  chuei y ca nuoc la……etc……..

Anh thi da gei ngu cua, co viet then, nha cho anh giu loi lin tham Hong lue nay ra sao ? anh rat nung tin Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy  ky mien va thy luong ve Hay Chiu Honh vin ve manh an mey man.

———————————————————-

9) September 1967

(1) Just prior October 1967

Just prior the South’s Vietnam October 1967 election, Hien and Chau supposedly met again. Chau, visiblyconcerned about his future, allergedly said he had decided to leave the military to run for the National Assembly from Kien Hoa province.

           

In that delicate exchange of nuaces for which the Vietnamese  and their language are famous, Hien understood Chau to be asking for help, both in money and in votes from Vietcong cadres.

           

There was not enough time, Hien said, to get Chau money, but he did report Chau’s desire for help in getting out the vote. Hien claimed  he did not know what in anything, his superiors had done about it, but he added slyly it wsas interesting that Chau had won his National Assembly seat by a wide majority.His interrogators were left to draw what ever conclusion from this claver gambit that they wished,

                       

A report on Hien’s version of theChau contact was passed to Major Chung in accordance with NIC standard operating procedure for sharing data derived from interrogations conducted at the NIC.

           

            We know the report was quickly translate into Vietnamese and send to Binh, Quang and Thieu.

           

The Vietnamese questioned Chau, he admitted having met Hien once and having recieved Hien’s probe about setting up a meeting with the Americans. He claimed to have reported this to the Americans with a view to helping them set up a dialog with the NLF and Hanoi but that nothing had come of it. Chau said he saw himself as having acted throughout tisaffair as a Vietnamese nationalist. He denied haing violated any South Vietnamese laws.

           

Now the political nightmare started. Binh and Colonel Nguyen Mau, the head of yhe Special Brsanch of the National police, both asked me if it were true that Chau had worked under American.(D)

 

(2) September,3rd. 1967

Mc Namara,testifying before a Sanate subcomittee in this day, assert American bombing of North Vietnam is ineffective (D)

 

10) October 1967

 

(1)October ,3 rd.1967

 

(a)The government announced that the presidential election will held Oct 3 as scheduled with President Nguyen van Thieu as the only candidate,

    

(b)The announcement appeared to dash all U.S. hopes and afforts by U.S.Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker to make the presidential election a multiple race. Bunker had met two straight with Thieu in seeking a solution.

      

(c) In South Vietnam , Thieu elected president, KY vice president.

      

(d) Thieu won as expected in the ballothing.

11) November 1967  

(1)By the end of 1967

(a)following his electoral triumph, President Thieu sought to make his goverment more representative than it had been and to nuity politically and organizationally, only two of 19 cabinet members were soldiers and premier, Tran van Huong , was acivillian ,

 

(b) The combat troop had risen from 175.000 to 525.00.

 

(c)The Vietnamese and Vietcong matched and outpaced the US buil-up.

 

(d) By counting all by day which supplied the the communisr they kill in hundreds of skirmishes in rice-fields and forests and in attacks on village Vietcong by night, they thought they were surely winning the war. But these missions to seek out and kill the enemy didnot bring conflict to en end.

         

(e)American tactic proved of no avail in the Jungle of Vietnam. A helicopter gunship was not as effective as tens of thousand Vietcong and Viethminh, each armed with a rifle and able to live on adaily bowl of rice .It was impossible to kill them all.

Casualties would be replaced with new recruits, increase in American Combat troops with increased numbers of Viethminh. The Vietcong controlled much of Southern countryside.

         

(f) The very rare Vietminh propaganda ‘s picture  and North Vietnam stamps about the Vietcong shoot down the American ‘s  aircraft combat were issued this day(P & PH)

 

(g) Nganh Quan Y, who born 16.4.1956 had written about Vietnam in 1967 :

 

Thuchien loi day cua Bac Ho trong thu Nguoi gui can bo va chien si quan y ngay 31-7-1967:” Nguoi thay thuoc gioi dong thoi phai nhu la nguoi me hien, het long het suc cuu chua va phuc vu throng binh, benh binh”

Nganh quan y da tan tinh cuu chua va dieu tri khoi mot so lon thuong binh, bnh binh, trong do co nhieu truaong hop vet thuong va benh tat rat hiem ngheo. Rieng vien quan y 108, hang nam dieu tri tu 7000 den 8000 nguoi.(D)

 

(2) November,8th. 1967

The Postally used home made cover of NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corp) Saigon Bureu Saigo,republic of Vietnam,  send with Bu Chinh Vietnam Cong Hoa 1 Dong stamp ,CDS Saigon  18-11.1967 to Cholon.

The cover have made of half page -3 stencil brochure in Vietnamese charater :

____________________________________

Moi’ day mot thong tin v…………..

Trong ban tin tu Viet Nam gui ve…….

Pittsburg courier, da viet da so……….

Cho rang ho chien dau cho mot muc………………………………………………

Cuoc bieu tinh ‘hoa binh’ tai Hoa…..

            THU LANH LAO DONG INDONESIA UNG ……………. CUOC CHIEN DAU CUA VIET NAM CONG………………..

            Hoa Thinh Don(TM),-……………………

Va cung la mot nhan vat quoc hoi…..

Ngo loi trong mot chuong trinh tro……

Quoc rang cuoc vieng tham moi day…….. da khien ong tin can phai ung ho……….trong cuoc chien dau gianh doc ia………………………………..

            Ong, Darius Marpaun—chu……Thien Chua Giao Indonesia—da tu…. bao, ong noi :’Cong san tai quoc….. bi loai tru trong mot cuoc dao chi….. Viet Nam chi la mot bu nhin cua…..Nam (Viet cong) la mot phong trao.

            Nhay 8-8, ong Marpaung…. trinh vo truyen thanh nhan……

            Ong Marpaung cung tuyen….cuoc tham Vien moi day cua ong….khao voi ong tran Quoc Bu’u—Chu…….Viet Nam—ya ong da duoc biet ….chuch khung bo cua Chong san va Mat….la mot chong cu chinnh tri cua  dan ….Viet.

SAIGON SAP CO MOT BANH VIEN NHI…

            Nuu Uoc(TM)-Mot brnh…duoc xay cat tai Saigon,voi kinh…Chuc Cuu Tro Y’Te Nhi Dong Quoc Te….Nhan vien Virt Nam nhan lanh dieu….5 nam.

            Bacsy Arthur J.Barsky ,…..cho biet la benh vien se bat dau…tu 6 toi 9 thang sap toi.

            Den an cua to chuc gom he….. ‘Dieu tri cac tre em va huan luyen…

            Ong giai thich ‘Chung… toi nam nam Chung toi co the hoan…..Viet Nam va trao lai hoan toan cho…..benh vien do.

            To chuck nay la mot to ch….khong co muc dich chinh tri va tu….hoat dong co dich vu y te dac biet do gia kem mo mang.

……benh,vien dau tien thiet lap…….giai phau chinh hinh cac thoi.

……khong han che cong viec cua….. chinh hinh,trong khi’tai…xet nhu cau tai day va tu…..dieu tri nhung benh gi duoc.

….tien nhan va dieu duong gom do Uy Ban Cuu Tro Quoc Te.

            Tro Quoc Te, ong Morton Ham-burg…tiep nhan noi tren se do nhan ….oc cac tre em bi benh hoan.

________________________________________________

(Histories’s Infornation from  Postal History covers. The historic fact  not only about postal services but also the information about foreign native citizen who joint the lieration war , from Indonesian Darius Marpung, Rusian Arthur J.Sparky,Germans Morton Hamburg .

I hope  native Vietnamese will be kind to translate this very interesting postal history and war history ’s informations ,especially for the three men family –auth)

 

(3)  November,16th. 1967

SO TUY THAN  like a pasport book ,Hong tuoi 1957, so quan 57 A.1777,010 , Ly-Lich:   the name (Ho Ten) Nguyen Trien Lan , born (Senh) ngay(date) 1.3.1937 tai Huon duong sign by Chu-su Phong Toyen Binh ,Nguyen Van Cau, vai tu coch B.I.V.V. and red double circle stamps fauna like bamboo design ,five fingers print Dau Lan Tay, Tay Phai and Danh-Muc , Nhung trong toi va kinh toi-Hinpaht in another page.

The end of the book we found a documen ‘Phieu Dung Lam Giat Chuyen van Form , sign by Doan truong (OD)

 

12) December 1967

 

(1) December 20th 1967

On this day , Prime Minister Tran van Kiem issued a letter of instruction calling for cooperation and coordination by all goverment of Vietnam (GVN) agencies in a program to neutralize the VCI (Vietcong  Central Intelligence-auth).

This letter gave the activity its legal designation of Phung Hoang, the name of a mythological animal that apprears only during times of peace and prosperity.

 

(perhaps the prime minister believed that invoking such a potent symbol would bring about the desired consummation).

         

(2)December,29th 1967

Foreign minister Thrinh have said on this day, that North  Vietnam will “Talk once the US halts its bombing.

 

___________________________________

4.3.3            Vietnam Liberation war 1968-1975

a. TET OFFENSIVE  , Vietcong attack  in 1968.

________________________________

1)January 1968

(1)Sihanouk tells  Johnson ‘s emissary, ester Bowles,that he will not stop American forces from pursuing the Vietcong over the Cambodian border.(D)

 

(2) January,15th. 1968

BIEN VIEN SO 307 /Q6.QV STENCIL CETRIFICATE, SIGN BY NGUYEN THANH TRACH , TUNG-QUNG(?) THRUONG QUAN SAU FOR Toa So Tham Saigon, Luc Tinh Cholon knom 13 gia 8 Phuong Bien vien. With finger print without photo on ..nhon Tay Tro columm.(OD)

 

(3)After a decade of American tactics the communist planned a devasting blow “The Tet Offensive” against town in South Vietnam, was design as an all out effort to impress on American that the Vietcong were far stronger that they had supposed.

In preparation for Tet , was design as all-out effort and the North Vietnam had endeavoured to draw US troops from the towns by a diversionary attack on a nothern US base at Khesan .

 

(4)31th January 1968

(a)On Tet Holidays, the Vietcong and Vietminh launched “The Tet Offensive” against the town of South Vietnamm and mounted a huge offensive, penetrating several town s in an attempt to destroy the morale of the South Vietnamese and Americans , who believed  that their power was confined  to the countryside.

 

(b)It caught the Americans and the South Vietnamese completely by Suprise, because Tet was the National New Year Holiday period, dureing which a truce had always been observed, and because the town of South Vietnam had hierto been thought secure against the largely rural Vietcong.

 

(c)Score of Vietnamese towns were assault by  some  70.000 Vietcong and Vietminh , who created wide spread destruction  and even penetrate the heavily fortified US Embassy compaound in Saigon.

 

 

(d)The carnage was worst in the ancient city of Hue in central Vietnam, there the Vietcong overhelmed the South Vietnam Garrison . look at the vintage photo(ibid S,karnow)  ‘a wounded  GI helped by  his buddies  during the battle of Hue. The  toughtest  fighting occured  at the Citadel, which the Vietcong  held tenaciously American artillary  and aircraft also bombed and shelleted this city.”      

 

(e)In the end the communists were bloodily repulsed, but the terrible scenes of fighting shown on American television  screens conviced most Americans that US soldiers should be brought home.

         

(f)The ability of the communists to pene-trate  and even to hold their positions in a number of South Vietnamese town hitherto believed to be fitmly in South Vietnamese and American hands succeede in undermining American morale in their longest and most succesful war,

         

(g)The US President ‘s assurances that The Tet Offensive was the most disastrous Vietnam defeat of the war were perfectly true, but they carried little connection.(D)

 

(h)Tet offensive of 1968 was a campaining  “Liberate” the South before Ho ‘s death (ibid Stanley Karnow)

 

(b) Tet offensive Map (P)

2) february 1968

(1) Early 1968

After Tet offensive, Whasington was forced  to awful conclusion  that US could  no longer win the war(D)

(IMNAHA report a bogus fake first day cover with ilagalizes too sharp postal cancel Quan Buu 1.2.1968 on the second type Miltitary non nominal value, and fake  postmark” kho tet mau than de phong xuan ky dau.”

I have found the 2nd type Military stamp not cancelled by Quan Buu in sept 1968, but Quan buu cancelled on military stamps type 1 at april 1968, we can made comparative studies about the original quan buu cancelled-aut)

 

(2) February,25th. 1968

After twenty six days of Fighting, American and South Vietnamese troops recapture Hue.

 

3) March 1968

(1)  March,1st. 1968

The issued “ should another  206.000 troops be sent to Vietnam, bringing numbers there to almost three quaters of a million? The new secretary of Defense Clifford and the president rejected the increase.

 

(2) March ,21th .1968

(a)   After three weeks Vietcong occupation at Hue,  massacre 3000 people and buried them in hastily dug mass graves.      

 

(b) Before American and South Vietnamese troops regained control, the Tet offensive had caused them 6000 combat death. Thousand more Vietnamese civilian died, caught up in the fighting. For the Vietcong, the casuaties amounted to a devasting 50.000. AS a fighting force they was never recovered.

 

(c)The weakening of the Vietcong was not unwelcome in Hanoi. Indeede, in as Tet was a double victory for North Vietnamese because it undermined American confidence that the war would ever be won and it prevented the independent communist in the South Vietnam  from being able to challenge the nothern communist regime. The Vietminh henceforth played the major military role and so gained the upper hand in determining the future of vietnam.

 

 

(3)  March,31th. 1968

 

(a) Johnson announced his decision  not to seek re-election; he also indicated that there  would be a measure of disengagement from the war, reflecting the new consencus among his advisers, including former hawks, That at least freed his hand from the inevitable political infighting as the election loomed nearer and anabled him to concentrate on finding a viable alternative strategy in Vietnam .

 

(b)He also announced a partial bombing halt and invitee the North Vietnamese to begin peace talk.

 

(c) He says that he will not run for re-election(D)

(d) Propaganda picture anti Vietnam war, Presiden Johnson bring back home” daddy skull and bone” to his son (P)

 

4) no info

 

5) MAY 1968

 

      (1) May, 22th 1968

A very rare KHAI SANH’s certificate  signed by  Nhan chung, Ho lai and Tran-Hoc-lung in 22-05-1968. without revenue

(the rare collection after four month tet offensive without revenue,military free tax  dan used military area number Ku Buu chin(KBC) 3014(An Duc-Vinh Long) , please comment the complete form of Khai Sanh,s certifiacte below-auth)

 

 

 

 

                     KHAI SANH

:So hieu  250

 

:                                       ________________________________________________

     :                                        :Ten,ho au-nhi              TRAN-TUAN-TAI

     :                                    :P hai :                              NAM                                    :

            :                  :            Ngay hai muoi mot thang nam duong       :

     :                                       :            chin tram sau muoi tam(21-05-1968)          :

     :    SAU-Y-THONG-BO: Sanh: (ngay,thang,nam)…………………………………..:

            : AN-Duc 25/05/1968:  Tai   :…………………Xa An-DUC……………………………:

     : Chu-Tich K/Ho-Tich:   Cha:………………….Tran-Hoc-Luong……………………:

            :                                  :  Tuoi :………………….Hai muoi tam tuoi. ………………..:

            :     Signed &              :  Nghe-nghiep:…….Quan nhan……………………………:

            :       Stamped            :  Cu tru tai  :…………KBC 3014………………………………:

            :Vietnam conghoa         :  Me :…………………..TRANH-LINH…………………………..:

            :Vinh Long Chau.?,,        :  Tuoi :………………….Hai Moi hai tuoi……………………..:

            : UY-BAN  MINH CHANH :  Nghe-nghiep:……Noi Tro…………………………………..:

            : Nguyen-Tam-the    :  Cac tru trai………..Trai gia binh Trong doan 16BB..:

     :   CHUNG NHAN      : Vo :……………………Vo chanh……………………………….:

            :Chu ky cua UY Ban hanh chanh Nghe-nghiep:……..Quan Nhan………………………………..:

            : Xa An-Duc tren day :  Cu tru tai :…………….K.B.C.3014………………………………….:

            :Vinh-Long ngay 25/5/1968    :  Ngay Khai:……………Ngay 22 thang 5 DL 1968…………….:

            : TL Quan Truong CT    :  Nguoi chung thu nhirt: ..LE-HOANG-MINH………………………..:

            :P HO QUAN TRUONG  : Tuoi :……………………..Hai muoi chin tuoi………………………:

            :                                     : Nghe-nghiep:……….Quan nhan…………………………………:

            :    signed & stamped : Cu tru tai :………………K.B.C.3014………………………………….:

            :                                      : Nguoi chu thu nhi :..LE-HUU-HANH……………………………..:

            : TRAN-VAN-LAN         : Tuoi:……………………….Hai muoi lam tuoi………………………:

            :                                     : Nghe-nghiep:…………Quan Nhan………………………………..:

            :                                     : Cu tru tai :………………K.B.C. 4014………………………………… :

            :                                    :_____________________________________________________:

            :                                                                                                                                               :                       Lam tai ….AN-DUC…………..ngay 22….thang…05…nam..1968……..:

            :                                   Nguoi khai                   Ho lai                      nhan chung        :

            :                            TRAN-HC-LUONG     NGUYEN-VAN-THE    LE-HOANG-MINH

            :                                   (KY TEN)                   (KY TEN)                     (KY TEN)          

                ::                                                                                                                                                                                  :

                :                                                                                                                                      LE-HUU-HANH

            :                                                                                                           (KY TEN)              :

            :_________________________________________________________________________:_     

6) June 1968

(1)  June,5th. 1968

Robert Kennedy was assasination while celebrating his victory in California elections .

(2) The Vietnamese war may become the biggest question mark in airpower history. Even when the full records of the war become available, judgment of airpower effectiveness atill will be a matter of opinion as weel as fact.

The restrictions that always accompany a limited conflict have clouded  the vietnamese situation throughly, and it will be difficult for anyone to appraise the true worth of airpower in this war objectively.(D)

 

(3) A USAF helicopter airlift supplies to a Special Forces camp in the central highland of Vietnam (P), A foward air control (FAC) ground team keeps in radio contact with an airborn 0-1 Bird Dog(P), and Vietnamese Air Force A-1 H Skyraiders over Bien Hoa air Base

( I have the postal history sent from this base , keep reading you will find that-auth)(P)

 

7) July 1968

(1)July,1st.1968

Finally in this day With some nudging from Bill Colby, then chief of MACV CORRD, President Nguyen van Thieu put his official stamped of approval on the program.

 

 

 

8) August 1968

(1)     Ho Chu tjeh da tang co thu’ong cho nganh xe quan su nhan dip Hoi ngi lai xe gi’o’i va tho sua chua gioi toan quan thang 8 nam 1968. La co mang nhung dong chu :

Yeu xe nhu con

              Quy xang nhu mau

              Vuot moi kho khan

              Hoan thanh nhiem vu

                           Bac Ho.

(2)  August,24th. 1968

Information from “NGANH XANG DAU QUAN DOI”:

 

(a)Ngay 13.6.1968. nganh xang dau da xay  dung xang 42 km duong ong dan dau vuot qua Nam Ban ,Dong Loc, Truong Bang.(D)

(b)Ngay 24.8.1968. Cuc Xang dau thuoc. Tong cuc Hau can chinh thuc thanh lap.(D)

(c) thang 11-1968 , tiep tuc keo dai them 230 km duong ong xuong phia Nam,doc theo duong chien luoc so 12, kip thoi van hanh xang tren duong ong,cung cap cho cac doan xe van tai cho hang vao chien truong.(D)

 

 

 

(3) August,27th. 1968

Air Mail Military Covers from Phong Dinh  with Military Stamp  without nominal value  but not cancelled, Nahrang circulaired date stamped  9.9.68 outside the stamp (send two weeks  from the date of the letter 27.8.68)

This civil letter from Nha Trang to Army personel KBC 4882 TSE  R Won cho/ AA I (location ?).

(This miltary cover or civilian  send by regular Phong dinh post office without KBC and Quan Buu CHOPPED,why military stamps used,please comment after read the letter below –auth).

_______________________________________________________________________

Dem Jay Cho 27.8.68

                    Imh Hoang kinh men.

                    Phnong cham biet thn hoiu em ena phuong cgan dem voi amh la can mot su chom tre, chao la mam hi mong choi va trach hon phuong chan lom phai khong chi loim phai khong cho phuong chan xin loi anhe.

Imh hoang men Troi somh ra chi phuong chan, koi ban cho phuong chan mot noi miem san kho .Pjuong cham ng heo lam , ngeo tat ca hi imh yen cho den vat chat , cho khong nhn omh phoang Imong Imong chan Ai conbiet cho pjuong cham ngoi con gan tay do nay Moi khira dtnong ,phuong chan chi biet nhm xnong,nhn nhn lon cuoc dtoi.

IJ tnoi som mong ina phuong cham xau so any . Troi oi dtinh menh , Thuong che.cha bem cho Phuang chan mot hinh hai, one khong vam cho phuong chan mot mem, Im oni trong cnoa song du mot mem Im vni nho nho. Imh khoang si! Moiu Rhi phuong chan soi bong minh trong gnong, ma com thay Im than vo enng, nhong Phuong chan kip ngln,Imy minh,xan xi, nhing con dtuoc 8 hau phuong, yen lanh, trong khi co,nhien omh linh, cha ngheo tat, ca ma con phan chien chan o noi vong minh lay kho nhoc,Phuong chan nghi chan minh thi,dtang Im cac anh hinh kho nhoc dto nhat la cao anh o mien xa, khong ngo, phuong chan ctuoc dirm phuc anh bien thn den chnh mon biet dnng bhan ena Phuong chan,n ? Khong anh ching tim hien vi ve Phuong , chan ca, nh chi can biet phuong,chan co em gai xau xi va ong hao nan. Omh hay inong inong phuang chan trong tri nho, khi emh muon nghi chen phuong chan, vi su that luc nao emg phu phong va cay dong.

Phuong chan xin ching, but nhe, hen thu sau chuc omh chem nay  chi vao mong dep….

                        Em gai nho Tay thomh (Phuong Chan)

A anh con nho chia khong de phuong chom bien lan ma nho,

Jhn vo. N.H.Trang, cong gnyenh can da moi , Phong Dinh.(OD&PH)

_______________________________________________________

(4) August.8th. 1968

Nixon elected president of the United States with Spiro Agnew as vice –president.(D)

9) September 1968

(1) September .14th.1968

A letter from True Giang ,

 

 

       ——————————————————

Co Hien

Nhan duitc thu c0 tri that phan van kho ngi, khong kieu Co new viet thu cho co khong, nhung rai to quiyet dinh thu chico, keo co trong thui hoan J mai, co Se nghu khong tot ve ngun ban qua co cua toi tri hanh bao tin khong vui co Ro hoang dta anh dung lia dto tri thanh that chia buon cung co va hien nay tri dang gui 2 la thui Cuo co goi cho hoang va 1 taan anh-toi xin loi co ve nanh dong khong dtep cua toi, vi toi va hoang lam2 nguoi ban than new toi da biet co qua nhung thu trore tren dtay toi xin goi tra anh. Cua Co ve Cgu.

Thu dteu dtay vai hay Co reo mot lau nua thanh that chia buon cung co neu Co Co gi muon noi toi khng dam tai choi.

Xin dung but chuo co may man lon. Kinh Chao.

T.B. neu can thu cho toi Xin de de : Ts H.V.J DDR KBC 4882 (location ?) Xin Co Vui Long Hui Bo, Sui Chau Tho Cua Toi. Cam Buu. (OD)

 

       ______________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

10) October 1968

 

       (1) October, 21th.1968

       The series 641 with JJ  Replacement code of  US military Payment Certificate  start from 31.8.1965 type to 21.10.1968, and this day began to used the BB replacement code until 11.8.1969, this token issued special  for used at South Vietnam field area. The design of US beautiful woman , nominal 5 cent- 25 cent-50 cent-1 dollar,5 dollar  and 10 dollar. The last use of this token in this day .

(I found all of this payment certificate except 5 cent JJ  and 50 cent JJ  and 5 dollars JJ . I found 5 cent BB and not yet found the BB replacement note of another nominal .  The collector’s name “TOKEN” because used only at special area South vietnam , private collection in fine condition except 5 cent everage good condition  have found during my visit in 2007 at HCM-city, but during my last visit 2009 I couldn’t found anymore –auth)

 

11) November 1968 no info

 

12) December 1968

(1) Until this day Somone was not the God father of The Phung Hoang  ( or Phoenix, to give it the name that the American hung ) as some would have it.program

(2)American troop strength in Vietnam at year-end is 540.000.

 

 

 

 

_____________________________________

b. VIETCONG WAR IN1969

_________________________________

1) January 1969

 

2) n(1) Nixon’s policy of Vietnamisation played into their hand as they negoytiated interminalby in Paris. Their prime aim was to reach an agreement which would get the US out but would leave them able to continue the war within the country until final victory. So they resolutelu reject any proposal out foward by Henry Kissinger, America’s chief of negotiator in Paris,which required borth North Vietnamese forces and the Americans to withdraw from the South.

          (2)American bombing caused grievous losses, but, making use of widely dispersed factories and with supplies of arms from China and Russia, the communist leadership in Hanoi was prepared to continue waging for years to come.

 

(3)The Vatican rewarded Nguyen Bao Tung ( Native Vietnam best Stamps collectors) a medal( VIIth Pontificate of H.H. Pope Paul VI) for his book entitled “Journeys of Pope Paul VI”

 

(4) President Nguyen van Tieu picked General Tran Thien Kiem as premier in a goverment with other soldiers, technocrats , and folloers of former president Diem predominated. He had chosen to base his goverment on military rather then popular support

 

          (5)Paris talks expanded to include saigon government and Vietcong representatives(D)

 

 

 

2) February 1969

 

     (1) The original vintage photo of AVRN Vietnamese captain native with two photographers,  one surgent  and one  civilian  in the front of US ARMY , ARMY PICTORIAL CENTER.

            ( I found this photo at HCM city in 2007, who know where the army Pictorial center ? I think at Saigon, who was the Vietnamese captain and is he still alive, please comment- auth)

 

3) March 1969

 

(1)March,12th. 1969

Registered 460 overprint stamped  Long –Xuyen ,Postally cover with 3 dong stamp , CDS Long-Xuyen 12.3.1969, to Trinh-Van-Phan Bo-Moc –Vu Sai-Gon. This official letter from Duong-Thanh-Pinh Truong Trung Moc Bo-De Long-Xuyen(A-G)  

(Rare registered from Long Xuyen,from official offiice civilian without KBC stamped,trough  civil post office with special rate 3d , non official 6 d , what the meaning of the official office Duong-Thanh-Pinh ? please comment -auth)

 

4) April 1969

 

      (1)April,20 th.1969

The very rare postal history of AVRN” TRAN TRANG HOA M1” postal used covers with  South Vietnam military stamps type M1 ‘s  clear CDS Quan Buu  2045 ,8.4.1969,  with red double circle Quan Doi Cong Hua BUU-TIN-VIEN KBC 4308 send from Le van Vien B.V.3.D.C /L.Ngoui Chan KBC 4308 to  code Q.T , Tran Trang Hoa  219/19 Pham ngu Lao saigon with destination CDS bigger type (saigon ?) Quan Buu 8.4.1969.

 

 

 

( This postal hstory very best for showed , becaus fine condition and the samedestination with another postal history military stamps typ M2  24-4-1969 , this  postal history one from KBC 4308 never report the location may be Cam Ranh? , another KBC 4091  –Quan Trung Military school/training academy at Quan Tre- please comment –auth)

 

 

(2)April,24th.1969

The very rare “TRAN TANG HOA M2” Quan Trung military Academy at Quantre postal history  with South Vietnam Military stamps type M2 not cancalled by Quan Buu CDS , send from Dai Doi Chi Hung Tien Doan Phong ve KBC 4091-Quan Trung  Military School/Training Academy at Quan tre , red doubble circles stamped “ Quan-Doi –Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa BUU-TIEN-VIEN K.B.C. 4.091 TOAN” and CDS Quan Buu Vietnam 26-4 1969 to Tran Tang hoa, So 219/19 Phan ngu Lao Saigon  with note :( Nho Chuyen cho Huyen Trang xin that that thar cai) , on air mail par avion envelope, no quan Buu detination CDS.

Another collection from the Quantrung KBC 4091 military acedemi :

(a )The photo of Quan Trung Military academy’s  Student, two student in the front of modern canon weapon, and one student with war helmet  was taken in another year february 1970.

(b) The ceritificate of Gunshooting bravet “ Chung nhan Then X6) from KBC 4091 –Quan Trung Military academy  April 24 1972 signe by Brig.general (Thieu-Thoang) Hoan-Van lac.

 

(The very rare M2 stamps and never found with CDS on that S.V.Military stamp ,  destination Quan tre, Military School/Training Academy “Quan Trung” , please comment the TRAN TANG HOA M2 ,the illustration as the cover of the Book Vietnam war 1 with T.T.Hoa M1 cover , please comment after read the letter inside the cover below for more information. I have seen the Fake cover of M2 stamps , report by IMNAHA. I am very happy to showed this rare postal historry with anothe M3 and Vietnam map cover , ICCS cover, if I the US Indochina phillatelic association send the invitaion to show this two  at their annual exhebation  because very difficult to get the US visa this time , please comment-auth)

 

 

                                                                                    Huyen Trang men !

La Thu ? dtai  tiu, minh chong thong biet viet ga han dto? Lan quon voi trang la ke? Lan cho Trang nghe truong hop duoc han hanh viet tho cho Trang truong hop nhu sau

Trang cuoc hanh quan luo soat thu dtech Minh dta luc Soat dtuoc so mang anh, vi rach nat vien Minh khong biet vo la to bao so nay  va May mau le Trong nhung Trang ngay vach nat dto lai con mu tien bay leu Phung Minh nghe nhat vay chu khong biet muoi dto co pha la minh tin hoang bon phung o?

Sau vi doi va hang gioi thiu cua Huyen trang, tu nhien Minh thay thich va vui vin vi chi ? Trong vai hang ngai ngai dto uo cung dta thew hien dtuoc phan nao ma long Minh hang mo uoc nhat la thich nhy chien Sat nang, vi moi mat buoi chien tat nang Minh thuong huong vi quc nha va xan dte nho thuong me gia va em doi.

Thei Minh cha them viet nha vi noi lan noi chen la Minh co the choc len dtuoc.

Minh xin nghing bat moi dtang va hen tho sau se Viet nhiem hon.Minh dtiem ma Minh so uoc nhat la Trang pha thanh tha voi Minh ten Minh Se Co gaiy thank that voi Trang moi van dte,

                                                                                    Signed

                                                                                                24.4.69

Tai bat : dia chi cua Minh hitch tai co chung nha china vi thong thung,dti nanh quan luon men nha co o han cu vay minh mien dtia chi cua anh bao co han cu dte lich lai voi huyen trang vi nha the thu se o la that lac :

                           Ha Ei vai Dieu

                              Dai Doi Chu Huy / The Doan phong Vo KBC 4091

                                          Liu Tiao lau Cho

                                            HOAN-MINH

 ___________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

(3)April,24th 1969

The very rare US Military payment certificate series 651 were issued with replacement code A-A in this day and the note used until 19.11-1973.

(This not veryrare because used during the war and before the fall of Saigon didn’t use anymore  and another series also issued in 1969 like series  661 BB in 1969 , 681 cc in 1969 and 692 EE in 1970 then in, many were change to US dollars for buying gold  due to the refugees, I have never seen this notes, only report but not confirm 5c,10c, and 25 c, the 50 cent only one report, the 1,5 and 10 dollars never report. Please comment why the series  651 AA very difficult to found?-auth)

 

5) May 1969

(1) May,10th. 1969

The Handwritten last wish letter from Ho Chi Minh at Hanoi.

_____________________________________________________________

“ Viet Nam Dan Chu Cong Hoa,Doc tap-Tu do-Han phuc.

Cuoc chong My,cu’u nuo’c cua nhan dan ta du phai kinh qua gian kho, hy sinh nhieu hon dua, song nhat dinh thang loi hoan toan.

            Do la mot dieu chac chan.

            Toi co y’ dinh de’n ngay do’, toi se’ di khap hai mien Nam Bac de’ chuc mung dong bao, can bo va chien si anh hung; tham hoi cac cu phu lao, cac chau thanh nien va nhi dong yeu quy cua chung ta.

Ke theo do , toi se thay mat nhan dan ta di tham va cam on cac nuoc anh em trong phe xa hoi chu nghia, va cac nuoc bau bin khap nam chau da tan tinh ung ho va giup do cuoc chong My, cu’u nu’oc cua nhan dan ta.

            Cuoi cung,toi de lai muon van tinh than yeu cho toan dan,toan dang,cho toan the bo doi,cho cac chau thanh nien va nhi dong.

            Toi cung gu’i muon ciu’oi cung cua toi ta. Toan Dang, toan dan ta doan ket phan dau, xay dung moi nuoc viet nam hoa binh, thong nhat,doc lip, dan chi va giau manh, va gop phan xung dang vao su’ nghirp cach mang the’gioi.

                                                              Ha’ Noi,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1969

 

HO CHI MINH.

________________________________________________________________________

 

(not complete letter, maybe native vietnam will translate the Ho Chi Minh Letter-auth)

 

 

(4) the calour Photo of Ho Chi Minh (P)

 

(5) The cover of Vietnam Book propaganda  with national Flag “Viet Nam Dau Tranh Vi Doc Lap Va Chu Nghia Xa Hoi and Chu tjeh Ho’ Chi Minh photo, in this book  have illustrated the vietnam war photo

 

(a) Chu tjeh Ho Chi Minh

 

(b) Thi xa Cao bang sau ngay quan xam lu’o’c Trung Quoc rut

 

(c) Nhan dau cac vung xung quanh thj xa Lang So’n di so tan trong thoi gian Trung quoc xam lu’o’c.

 

(d) Xu’o’ng sura chua nong cu o’ cao bang bj bon xam lu’o’c trung quoc tan pha.

 

(e)Nha may san xuat phan dam lo’n nhat Vietnam o’ Ha Bac

 

(f) Hai hong,Phan xu’ong nguoi nha may co

 

(g) Xurong che’ bien muoi o’ Nha rang.

 

(h)Ruong trong lua tinh Hoa Binh

 

(i)Cy ruong bang may o’ tinh Quang Binh

 

(j) Hai che trong nong truong Moc Chau

 

(j) Nha may go dan o tinh Phu Khanh san xuat hang xuat khan,

 

(k) Mo rong ho chua nuoc o’ tinh Lai Chau

 

(l) Nha may nhiet dien Quang Ninh

 

(m)Thap khoan tren dong bang son Hong

 

(n) Hai Pong Xay nha o’

 

(o) Cac chi tho theu lang Binh Minh gan Ha Noi

 

(p) San pham cua mot horp tac xa huyen Kim Son

 

(q) Cua hang ban den giay

 

(r) Tran dia trong nyui cua bo doi Lang Son

 

(s) Pho lu bj thiet hai trong thoi gian Trung Quoc xam lu’o’c.

 

(t) Bo doi giup dan uyen Kim Bang dan mu’o’ng dan nu’o’c tu’o’i ruong.

 

(6) Nam 1969, nganh xang dau da ngien cu’u.thiet ke va che tao thanh cong may bom cao ap Truong Son;tiep do hang loat cac loai ong va phu kien duoc che tao,nho do co the chu dong thay the, sua chua va co nguon du tru can thiet, bao dam toan bo he thong duong ong van hanh tue trong moi tinh huong.

 

 (2)   May,14th. 1969

   Nixon proposes simultaneous withdrawal from South Vietnam of American and North Vietnamese forces (D)

 

  6) June 1969

(1) June,1st 1969

The Soldier civilian stamps were issued, the uncommon mint 80 pi.

( I found thi stamp on postally cover,look at registered Danang 11.10.69 and  Saigon 17.12.69-auth)

 

 

(2)June,8th. 1969

Nixon with Thieu on USS.Midway , annouces withdrawal 25.000 American troops from Vietnam.(D)

 

7)no info

 

8) August 1969

    

     (1)August,11th.1969

        The replacement note B-B of series 661 beautifful women were issued in this day to change the series 661 J-J.and also in this day issued new design notes series 681 army warfare design with replacement coed C-C (I only found the 5 cent series 661 B-B  notes in  good condition only  , very rare in very fine condition because this notes were used until 7.10.1970 only one year and after that the war became more battles everywhere-please comment-The series 681 found 5 cent,10 cent submarine design, and 1 dollar  airforce pilot in fine condition- auth)

 

(2) August,29th,1969

The uncommon mint Bannar Man stamps,50 pi, were issued.

 

9) September 1969

(1) September,3rd. 1969

   Vietnam National Hero, Ho Chi Minh dies in Hanoi at age seventy-nine, this day (RIP=Rest In Peace).

(read his handwritten last letter, on 10th May 1976, four month before he have  passed and his vintage photo in 1955 after the Vietminh war-auth)

 

(2) September,20th,1969

The Civilian became soldier “Tong Bong Vien “ stamps were issued, the uncommon was 10 pi.

      

       (3) September,24th .1969

       The  serial collections  of Vietnam Cong-hoa Buu-Bien reciept of Bien-Lai So : Nhan Cua O Tay Chanh ,so tien la 3542. with Coniem(revenue) Vietnam Cong Hoa Nha Truoc Ba Va Coniem 3X 3$00.

(very best the collection of revenue rate and variation of tax reciept  , from 21.12.1968 until12.4.1971,this were the first report of rate during the escalation of Vietnam liberation war :

No.       Date             Tax            Revenue 

                                                Rate    Type

a)      21.12.1968      3172       0$80   large coniem

                                                2$00  Nha truoc va

                                                5$00        “

                                             ( 7$80)

b)      22.3. 1969      2772         0$80  large coniem

                                                1$00  Nha truoc va

                                                5$00       “

                                               ( 6$80)

c)     24.9.1969       3542          3  X

                                                3$00        “

                                                (9$00)

d)     23.12.1969      3472        0$80          “

                                                3$00         “

                                                5$00         “

                                              (8$80)

e)     21.3.1970       9138        2×0$80       “

                                              20$00         “

                                             (21$60)

f)       26.6.1970      8015        0$80           “

                                              20$00        “

                                            (20$80)     

g)     31.12.1970    9735      5X0$80         “

                                                20$00       “

 

                                            (24$00)

h)      12.4.1971     8875     2×10 d         stamps

                                          5$00        Nha Tuoc Ba va

                                         (25$00)

 

i)      8.7.1971        11.825   3×10$00        “

                                            2X0$80          “

                                           (31$60)

(The 10$00 revenue rare, and used stamps in March.12th 1971, why ? look at March 1971-auth)

 

10) October 1969

(1)October.17th 1969

The very rare “Bao Thi”(The  Military Headquaters) Return to sender Registered airmails Cover from R no 908 ovpt Danang , with 16 d nam-quoc-te nahn quyen ed.1968 + 2 d-soldier civilian stamps (rate 18 dong) cds Danang 17.10.69 to Saigon cds 22.10.1969,  the addres cross , handwritten Bao(1) cross with red handwritten date 21/10,  and red squared box stamped “retour afsender “and straight stamped “not found’  with hand writen 8/12 and in the back Bao Thi 12/12.

 

(Rare registered letter from Military HQ-“Bao  Thi” Danang after Danang under Vietcong between Jan-March 1968 –auth), return to sender after seeking many battle’s area were seen   many destinations and post stamped  during vietcong war in fighting area Danang, this the first report,altough the condition not so fine but very good multi postmark & stamped still read. The best showed covers  –auth )  

 

(2)October,15th. 1969

     Massive antiwar demonstrations in Washington (D)

(3)American troop in Vietnam reduced by 60.000.(D)

 

11) November 1969

 

(1)November,8th 1969

     The President van Thieu photo in the day at Bien Hoa , S.Vietnam , he attends National Day ceremonies at military cementary near Bien Hoa . In most photos Thieu ( wearing dark grey suit)  accompanied by Vica President Cao Ky , who is wearing a Nehru jacket. ( image by

Bettmannn/CORBIS)

 

12)December 1969

    

(1)     December,17th.1969

The postal used cover from the ownwer of VIPITRA SA import-export,88.Le Van Duyet Saigon ,to Kinh giu Bac Si Le Cuu Truong,99 Nguyen Du Saigon, stamp 2d-soldier civilian (rate 2d in city) , CDS SAIGON VIETNAM 17.12.1969.

       Inside a  beautiful “Chinese New year greeting “in chinese char” on American navy boy holding flower and the picture of a habour and a trap lady’s fish tailed  post card.

 

(2)            December, 17th.1969

The AWA aerogram letter sheet without prestamps l, send from Nguyen Hien 374/1 Nguyeng ngoc Suong Phu Nuan saigon Vietnam with  3 stamps 2 x 1,5 d and 1x 3 d (rate 6 d)  to Miss Ho Thi Tuyet Hong , CDS Saigon Vietnam 28.12 1969,as regular civilian postal service , in the back hand written :

 

_________________________________________________

Phu Nhuan                             Thu bay Ngay 27-12-69

                            Hong men,

      Mot canh thi cua Hong da den tay anh va sau do mot

Thiep Noel nua da roi vai Sau tay anh nhung anh thuo vi

Tinh da khong co mot loi than hoi gi ca cho Hong , anh

co loi nhiem , anh an han ve ming , va anh xin hong dung voi goan

lay tho thu cho anh va de anh noi so ly do toi sau anh lai co mot tai di nho  vay.     

sau khi nhan duoc thu cua hong, anh hinh goi diem thoa cho hong hen ngay gap nhung mot phan o  tai dinh phu nuan khong hen doan thoan cong cong hai le o chanh day tung co doan hoa nhung cua may seu chu my anh khong muon phu va vi vay anh da kho goi duoc cho hong……….etc…………………………………………………………….

Va vi vay ma truong tho bay ngoi viet tho hong de ta toi hong lue nay ta sau, chai cong ru van huong . Anh xin loi hong ve ru kang tren lao thu tu hay diem thoi de xen con vrie sa sau toi anh se tiu cho hong sau dung buon ve nua nhe anh biet toi voi, tho cho anh

                                                            Anh

 

 

 

 

 

The Vietnam Liberation War 1955-1962

South Vietnam Army(AVRN) vs Vietcong &Vietnminh Army 1955-1962 Ngo dhin diem Era

@copyright Dr Iwan s 2010. iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

I. PROLOG  DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)

a.TRANSITION PERIOD -1954

1) October    1954

(1)October ,23th 1954

 

(a)The  President Eisenhower’s latter  to Diem :

___________________________________

Dear Mr President,

 

I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.

 

The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened  by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.

 

You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort

 

We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.

I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.

 

The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .

 

The Government  of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.

 

Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.

 

Sincerely,

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower.

__________________________________________________

(source : Modern History Sourcebook)

(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam  Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.

___________________________________

b. The First year of Diem regime-1955

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

 (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

 

     (1) February,2th,1955

     The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon  with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .

 “Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for  Charger  two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56, 

        (Best collection for showed-auth)

3)March 1955

 

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

 

             

4) April 1955

 (1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect

at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy  to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North.

      

5) -6) no info

7) July 1955

(1)July.11th 1955

 

(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969) 

 

(b)The late used revenue of  Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stampedGarantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”

 

(2)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(3) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

 

(a)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

 

(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

 

(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

August 1955

Not yet information.

 

9) September 1955

     Not yet information

10) October 1955

(1) October.23th 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .

(2)October,26th. 1955

(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him  had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

       The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

       (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)

 

(c) The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P) 

 

 

(3) 1955

(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustrationCa Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD) 

( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)

 

(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection  contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped

 

 

 

11) November 1955

(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan

The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.

     “Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan

( best flag thematic photo’s  collec-tions, auth)

12) December 1955

 

(1)     December ,9th.1955

The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group  to  an ancient building

“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”

(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)

     

(2)     December,11th 1955

The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)

 

 

 

 

_______________________________

c.Diem’s Regime in1956

_________________________________

1) January 1956

 

(1)in 1955 and 1956,

(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.

The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.     

(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2) February –4)April 1956

     Not yet info

5) May 1956

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.

The complete Khai Sinh form :

 

————————————————————————

 

Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam                               Chung Thu Thay Giay

          Trung-Viet

         ==ooo===                                             KHAI  SINH

 

Lang  Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi

Quan  Yifoa  Vang

Tinh     Quan Nam

 

Ten ho dua con :  Nguyen Nhan

Trai hay gai        :  Trai

Sinh cho na’e     :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang

Sinh ngay nao    :   Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3

Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.

Ten Ho Cha         : Nguyen Khue

Nha ciro o’ dau  :  thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang

Ngep-ngep         :  lam Nong

Ten ho me           :  Dang thi Sifaul

Vo chanh hay thu:  Vo Chanh

Ten ho nguoi khai:  Nguyen Khue

May Toi                 : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi

Ngep-ngep          :  Lam Nong

Nha cua o’ dau   :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang

Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi

Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai

Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi

Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai

quan Hoi vong.

 

               Lam tai  Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.

NGU’OI KHAI             Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa  Hoa Thoi

Nguyen Khue                 squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-

Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong

Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI

Nhung nguoi Chung       Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong

Chinh Xa Hoa Thai

                                          Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956

                                                     TINH TRUONG

                                            Signed and red circle stamped

 

————————————————————————

(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)

4) June 1956 no info

5) July 1956

 

(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) August 1956

 

(1)             Nuoi Ngot 1956

The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.

 

(2)             Long Hai 1956

The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.

7) September 1956

(1) September,17th 1956

The  Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.

_______________________________________________ 

UNIVERSITE-POPULAIRE

FRANCO-VIETNAMIENE

   14 Rue President Tinh                           PHOTO

           SAIGON

CARTE D’ADMISSION

M     Do Thin Muoi

Est admis aux Cource de:

  1. Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
  2. Francais A 66  Age……………………………………………….
  3. Anglais debut A 40   profession ……………………………
  4. ………………………………………………………………………….. 

 

Saigon ,le 17-9 1956            Adresse………………………….

      Le Directeur                               Le Titulaire

     Hansigned                             Handsigned

____________________________________

10) October 1956

 

(1)  October,5th.1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN

In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)

 

(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

 

November 1956 no info

9) December 1956

(1) December 7th 1956

The rare  earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By  the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized  7-12-52  with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.

 (Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another  29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)

____________________________________

 4.3.2 DIEM REGIME   WAR 1957-1963

____________________________________

 

a. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

 

a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen  Ngoc Vy

The South vietnamese Communist  ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.

Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.

The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.

Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.

Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.

The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged  in a guerrila civil war.

Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.

That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.

This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.

SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian  and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.

The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.

The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.

American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability  they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.   

The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.

An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.

What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated  per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.

Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,

In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.

Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)

April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.

Kennedy order  a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.

There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.

Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.

First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of  the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.

But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.

It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,

The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.

Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.

The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.

But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.

The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.

 

b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)

     Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.

Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.

 ( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and  startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)

     The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to  ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.

          More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.

          Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.

          Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.

          When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.

          The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.

          Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.

          Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and  could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.

          The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.

          Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s 

(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .

          The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because  the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)

          Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.

          More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth),   were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.

          A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s

 

 

 

 

_____________________________

b. Diem regime war collections.

_________________________________

 

__________________________________

a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957

__________________________________

1) Jan 1957

    

(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)

 

(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.

 

(3)January.2nd 1957

 The receipt of Car service station “  Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.

(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that  the  transition period between the Franch power to  Nationalist power in South Vietnam  had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)

 

2) February 1957

 

(1)February.16th 1957

The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.

3)March 1957

(1)March, 11th 1957

The original photo of vietnamese lady  at Long Hai.

(2)March,19th 1957

The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,

(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the  postal ‘s porto ,  prevent against the law,  they used 30 cent.  DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. –auth)

4) April 1957

 

     (1) April, 27 1957

     The Vo Giay Ban Nha  certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :

_____________________________________________________

(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.

 

(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,

 

        Vu  Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng

Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414

Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC)  de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach  va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t  can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.

        Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho

        Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam  ai tro ngai co o

Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.

 

            Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957               

Ong Do-van-pho                   Ba nguyen thi-kim

 

           Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.

 

                                                        On Tran-van-Ruo

 

Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc

O’ So Van Pho cap

Nguyen thi Kim Lan

Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957

Truong Saigon-Cholon

Vuong-quan Nha

Blue double circle stampedVIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”

_______________________________________________________

 (THE LATEST SAIGON-CHOLON TAX REGIONALES REVENUE-AUTH)

5) May 1957

 

(1)May.7th 1957

The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.

  Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint   0$20” with 3x 0$40  Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped

 

(2)May.8 th.1957

 

(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.

(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)

    

(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :

_____________________________________

 

ECOLE VUONG-GIA-CAN

 216,Ru Dixmunde-Saigon

     46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO

_____________________________________________________________

 

Certifie l’Authenticitie                  CARTE D’IDENTITE

   de la signature de            le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG-         PHOTO

Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN   GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie

Opposee ci-controle               que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai

Saigon le 21.5.1957                   No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940

          Stamped                           a’ tan an Vinh Long

Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon  fils d M,Nguyen van Tri

TRUONG QUAN-BA                     et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa

                                                       Profession  pilote

SIGNED & VIOLET               domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon  

DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.

“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh         Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957

S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*”                           Le Directeur

Signed & Red double circle  stamped

“ VUONG-GIA-CAN * TRUONG –HOC-

TU-THUO* 46 PHAN-THANH-GIAN.

________________________________________________________________

( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue,  but because the situation still used .

Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem.  Taxes regional ,Franch style  was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning   “Niem thue “ .

Due to the bad quality , on the  revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth) 

(3)May.18th 1957

     Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)

 

6)June 1957

 

(1)June.7th 1957

     The First Covers of  Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia

(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)

 

(2)June,18th 1957

The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue

 (very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)

  

(3)June.8th 1957

The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80

(The earliest  Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).

 

(4)June.18th 1957

The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20  Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.

 (The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)

 

(5)June.21th 1957

The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).

 

 

 

 

7) July 1957

 

(1) July.16th 1957

The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue

(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition  revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)  

 

(2)July.12th 1957

The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,

( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)

(3)July.17th.1957

The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.

 

(4)July.12th 1957

The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80  cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon  470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-

(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)

 

(5)July.26th 1957

The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue  with 3 x 0$80  Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.

(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)

(6)July ,30th 1957

The receipt of car&motorbike  service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”

 

 

August 1957

(1)August.27th 1957

The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.

 

(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period  including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show  look at that varition revenue-auth)

9)September 1957

(1)September.20th 1957

The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.

(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)

 

(2)September.19th 1957

The unusual nominal value of revenue only  2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.

(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only  2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)

(3)September.26th 1957

The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport  for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh  “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80

(The Indochine old form still used-auth)

 

10) October 1957

(1)October 1957

Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized  thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.

During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)

(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising  in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,

 

(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)

________________________________

 b)Diem AVRN vs VIETCONG GUERILLA’S in 1958

_____________________________

1) January 1958

 

(1)Diem in 1958

 Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .

2) February 1958

(1)February,7th 1958

The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)

3) -4) 1958

     No info

5) May 1958

(1)May.8th.1958

The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.

6) June 1958

(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .

7) July 1958

(1)July.31th 1958

The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)

August 1958

(1)August.15th 1958

The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :

_____________________________________

Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958  .

          Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET  so quan 400.052

Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.

          Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .

Chuyen mon   :         Bo-Binh

 

Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958

             Chan cu kao

Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong

 

KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958

Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon

Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu

                             Signed&stamped.

____________________________________________________________________

(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed  with the picture of  green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.

This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)

9) September 1958

(1) September.27th 1958

Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise  attack (PH)

10)-11) 1958 no info

12) December 1958

(1)  by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)

 

_____________________________________

c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong  in 1959

________________________________

1) January 1959

(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)

(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam

( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)

  

     (3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”

2) February 1959

(1)February ,18th 1959

The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.

    _____________________________

Nha Trang 14.2.59      cds Nha trang            

Cordial souvenuer                      18.2.1959

Nuedley vocine                   Nguyen Ba Luon

Pour l’annee                         Profeneur

      Ky’ Hoi                                E’cole Francaise de              

                                                        CHOLON

__________________________________

                 

(2)February .6th 1959

The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.

(This revenue document very find condition  and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)

3) March 1959

(1)   March,1st. 1959

     BINH CHUNG  RA-DA.  Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)

     (2) March,3rd 1959

The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.

Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,

Autheticated  with  regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”

 

(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this  regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)

 

     (3) March 14th 1959

          The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the  6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.

(The Vietnam hero’s  Trung sister  very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said  that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I  Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)

4) April 1959 no info

5) May 1959

(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)

 

6) no info

7) July 1959

(1) July 1959

Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)

(2)July,12th. 1959

        The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:

___________________________________________

                                                                   Dalat le 12.7.50

Monsieur Triat,

 

Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous

aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.

..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la

photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang)  .

         

#Bientiet et Bon counage.                   Signed

 

______________________________________________________

(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)

(3)July,15th. 1959

     To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7

signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)

 

(4) July 24th 1959

Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh

AU-TRI-VIEN PHU-NHUAN B.N. 10$

Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :

____________________________________

Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.

Tan Binh,26.6.1959

T.U.N BAN CHA’P HANH XA HOI

Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng

Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI  Tinh Gia-dinh

Quan Tan-Binh.

______________________________

 (What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)

August 1959

 

   (1) August,1st,1959

   The red “The’  Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :

 

 

 

       _____________________________________________

                        THE’ CU’ – TRI

          BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959

                        No. 0634621 A/IX

 

    Ho’ Te’n   Nguyen Thi Thuan

    Ngay sinh va sinh :  29 tuoi

    Dia-chi  9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy

    The’ co’n cuo’c so’  B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..

    Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a       Zua’n Ta’m     ngay  1 Thang 8 na’m 1959

     Nguo co the                                     Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n

                                                               Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i

 

                                                                        Handsigned

  CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua

                    Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.

_________________________________________________________________________  

9) no info

10) October 1959

(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)

This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)

When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue  and  I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.

In my last visit july 2009, I have went  by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then   turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),

More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,  

At left side of the basilica,  I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)  

 

11) November 1959

 

(1) November,28th 1959

The  official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.

 This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)

(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.

 Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.

Nom  : Vo Thi Thao

Classe:  10 eiue A

Venant de 11.

12)December 1959

    

(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.

Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.

(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)

(3)    December,12th 1959

The traffic accident of two car  NCC 578 and NBO 096  report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.

(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time  because not many cars in Saigon-auth)

______________________________

d) Diem’s ARVN vs Vietcong  GUERILLA’S in 1960

_______________________________

1)January 1960

(1)Early 1960

     The turbine-powered helicopters appeared , and the US and South Vietnam infantry called the “ Helicopter war “.

The two turbine-powered helicopters which emerge as the backbone of the  new airmobile Division were the Bell HU-1 “Huey” and the larger Vertol CH-47 “Chinook”, without such aircraft the airmobile concept could not been implemen-ted.(D)   

(2) Eighteenth prominet South Vietnamese petition Diem to reform his government.(D)

2) February 1960

No info

3)March 1960

(1)March.25th 1960

The Vietnam Cong  Hoa Ho-Tich Tric-Luc B Khai Sanh , Bo thanh Saigon be thieu II 832 certificat , with Regional Saigon Cholon revenue  overprint red 1960, yellow revenue 10$ + green revenue 5$ .

(The earliest year of overprint regional Bothan saigon  revenue in 1960 and the latest 1975 during the fall of Saigon, the overprint on two type regional Bothan Saigon revenue  10$00 revenue yellow bad design and  green 5$00 fine native building design revenue , what is the meaning of Tri Luc Bo Khai San, I have the complete sertificate from 1960 until 1975 except 1963 with  regional Bo Than Saigon revenue, very best collection to showed, please comment about the 1963 the worst & Diem’s assasination year-auth)

 

 

 

4)April 1960

(1)April 2nd 1960

 

The U’U-Dai Card (what the meaning ? please someone tranlate-auth)

 

(a)the Front of U’U –Dai card

___________________________________________

THE U’U-DAI CARD,

XIN GIU NAY DEN NAM TAM CUNG MOT S XE.

          DUOC MIEN PHI RUA XE, BOM MO

VA XIT DAU MOT LAN

 

 

___________________________________________

 

 

 

(b) The Back  of U’U Dai card.

_________________________________________

HANG TAN-SANH

195 DAI-LONG TRI-PHUONG CHOLON

So xe : NSF 338

Eua,Bom Mo.Xit Dau -2 AVR 1960

Nhot May : Mo Bi Loi L AF

Nhot Hop Soo :Sx Go

Nhot Bong Sau: Sx Go  

____________________________________

5)-8) no info

9) September 1960

(1)  September,5th 1960

       Long Dong congress opens in Hanoi, stresses need to combat Diem regime.  (D)

10) October 1960

(1)October,4th 1960

Station Service facture NCC no 518 marque(merk) Peugeot , 120$ with common type bigger  Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 0$40.

11) November 1960

(1) November,8th 1960

J.F.Kenney defeat Richard Nixon for the prisidency.

 

(2) November,11th 1960

     South Vietnamese army unit un-successfully  attempt to overthrew Diem.(D)

12) December 1960

(1) December,20th. 1960

          (a)Hanoi leaders from National Liberation Front for South Vietnam , which Saigon regime dubs the “Vietcong” meaning communist Vietnam. The movement was formed on directives from Hanoi(D)

 

          (b) Nguyen Huu Tho, head of the National Liberation front, as the Vietcong was officially called.(P)

 

 

 

e).Diem vs Vietcong Guerilla  in 1961

_______________________________

1) January 1961

(1) Murderer of Gouverment official by Vietcong 4000 per year.(D)

(2) The communist regions of the country border on North and South Vietnam  so actees as a passage for supplien and men on the maze of jungle trails known as the Ho Chi-minh trails.

(3) January,6th. 1961

     Khruschev declaring that the Soviet Union would support what he called “National Liberation Movement”

2) February 1962

(1)February.13th 1961

The reciept of car repaired station service Tan-Sn-Nhui Saigon 270$ with Vietnam Conghoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$40 .

 

3) March 1962 no info

4)April 1961

     (1) April,29th. 1961

(a)US troops deployment  to South Vietnam were discussed within Kennedy administration.

     (b) Common President Ngu Dienh Diem second issued stamp. The uncommon mint 9 pi stamp,

(I found this stamps , used off cover, in Indonesia-aut)

 

5) May 1961

(1)Alerts went out to American bases, a modest  100 –men increase in the nearly 700-strong American advisory mission in South Vietnam was approved.

Aproval for the despatch of a further 400 special Forces troops was goven. Extra military resources were provided, enabling the Vienamese army to be expanded from 150.000 to 170.000 troops. Finnaly US Troops were stationed in Thailand. (D)

(2) Vice-president Johnson chatting with Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon . Johnson, whom Kennedy had sent on an ambassadorial world tour, exuberantly praised Diem as the “Winston Churchill of asia” which reassured Diem of American support(P)

(3) Autumn 1961

     General Taylor had recommended to the President the despatch of 8000 US combat soldiers becuase in a memorandum the Joint Chief of Staff had estimated that 40.000 US troops would clean up thew Vietcong threat,  that if the North Vietnamese and Chinese intervened another 128.000.

(4) A second Geneva Conference to “neutralise”Laos.

6) June 1961

(1)President Diem at Presidential palace on 7th anniversary as President

(2)June.4th 1961

The reciept of electricity in Franc char .”Compagne Des Eaux Et D’ Electricite De L’Indochine” 67$20, with rare small type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$20. signed at Saigon 4 juin 1961 by P.P. De La C’Des Eaux et D’Electricite De L’Indochine.

 (very rare 1$00 small type Vietnam Conghoa Coniem revenue used at 7th Diem’s presidential day   anniversary ,please comment if someone have another nominal, look at the differents size at the photo illustration-auth)

(4)June.21th 1961

The certificate of Ho – Tich “Trich-Luc Bo Khaisanh” with regional Saigon Cholon revenue ,yellow 10$ ,red overprint 1961.

7)-10) no info

 

11) November 1961

 

(1) November,11th 1961

The receipt   of S.A.R Kaswa than chettiaa  23 dung 104 toat tich , propitaire Saigon , from Huyenh Xien 51$ with Vietnam Cong Hoa CON NIEM (REVENUE) , 0$20, F OR PAYING 36 M2  ve khoan tra tien muon dat o duang (Huose’s LAND TAX?) month 10 1962.

(I have the same receipt from 1-7-1961 , every month t 1-12-1962-auth)

(2)  November.21th 1961

The reciept of contractor Loan”TUE-NGHIA-DUONG SAIGON –CHOLON” the form with vietnamese and chinese char, from (nhan cua) Pho-Vu,cholon street (duong) Phai Tu so 42, maney

2216$ , Con Niem (revenue) type Vietnam Cong  hoa Con Niem 5$+ 1$ (rate 6$) with red chinese char stamped.

 

 

 

 

 

__________________________________________

f)Diem AVRN vs Vietcong in 1962

__________________________________

1) January 1962 no info

2) February 1962.

(1) February ,6th 1962

American Military Assistance Command (AMAC) and CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support) formed in South Vietnam

(IMNAHA report the postal history of AMAC and CORDS team , look at Andrew Crasshow blog.-auth)

 

(2)February.16th.1962

The Hoc Sinh(Born/birth ) card, for 1961/1962, with yellow Saigon Cholon regional revenue 10$ overprint red 1962 sign by Hieu truong Nguyen Van Phu with Official Vietnam Conghoa quan truong quan nha sign & red stamped authentication, (may be this was the first The Hoc Sinh Card, or she forgotten to made in 1961-auth)  

(3) February,27th. 1962

         

(a)Two South Vietnamese pilots bomb Diem’s palace but Diem and his family survive. Diem and family miraculously escape injury, but Madame Nhu(Diem brother,s wife) slightly hurt.(D)

      

(b)Sometime laters, madame Nhu inspect the bomb palace (P)

3) March 1962

(1)March .10th 1962

Find condition , Rare Saigon vietnam Dien Tin (Telegramme) cds Saigon-T.U.V.T Vietnam 10.6.1962

From Xuanloc to Le-thi-phuoc 52 Nguy enphi Khanh Saigon. “TRINH BIEN TRONG (work in ?) 24 GIAO , HIEN TRUONG”

(The rare and only one telegram found during vietnam war in 1962-auth)

 (2)  March,20th. 1962

      Postally used cover with Vietnam Buu Chin  Cong Hua’s Unesco comemmoration stamps 3×1 Dong (rate 3 Dong) send from Saigon (round CDS) to Kinh goi ong Le-Van-Hai, Giao-Vien Lop Nhut”B” Truong Nam Tieu-Hoc Long-Xuyen.An-Giang (rare destination PH)  

(3)March.22th.1962

The Facture Reparatins ‘s receipt of Saigon Xe hoi Cong-Ty 34vBoulevard Thong-Nhut Saigon. From Mr Giang Thi Naoh money 636$77, with two type revenue Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem small size 1$00 and bigger size 0$40.(This the rare earliest small size VCH Con niem type revenue-auth ) 

 

4) April 1962 no info

5) May 1962

(1)Vietcong formed battalion-size units in central Vietnam.(D)

6) June 1962

(1) June, 19th. 1962

     The VERY RARE ,Vietnam Telegram “Dien Tin”  send from Saigon Telegram date stamped SAIGON. T.U.V.T-VIETNAM 10.6.1962.

 

 

 

 

:                                                                     :                                            :

:                  DIE’N   TIN                  :   VIET-NAM CONG-HOA :

:                  TELEGRAMME                   :    REPUBLIQUEB DU VIETNAM  :

:    ____________________________________                            ______________         :

:

:                       : GUI   BI     : GOC    O :         :        B U U   –  D I E N  :

:

:         2       ______________________         : POSTES ET TELECOMMUNICATIONS   :

:                       :  SAIGON  :XUANLOC :                

:______________________________________       :  Le –Thi-Chuoc 52         :

:                                                       :Nguyen Phi Khanh  Saigon:

:                                               9/6

:                                                                  :___________________________:

:

:    Trinh  Zie’n trong    24  gio’ =

:

:                                                             Hie’n Truo’ng :   :________________________________________________ :

Chinh-phu’ kho’ng chiu trach-nhie’m va’ vie’c do’i tin tuc cua tu- han bang dien-tin

L’etat n’est 0 du chine resposabilite a’ raison de la correspondance par la voie telegraphique

 

    

(2) Mid 1962

Amerivan advisers increase from 700 to 12.000.

(3)In 1962

The best South Vietnam capture the Vietcong ‘s photography in 1962

 

(a)Vietcong capture by South Vietnam army (ARVN)  were put at prison camp ‘s Kham Duc compound (Photo)

 

(b) South Vietnamese Infantry warly moving past hut they set ablaze after they found it held communist literature (photo)

 

(c)ARVN soldiers loading their Vietcong prisoners on small canoe-like boats in Mekong delta.

 

(d)AVRN soldiers wading into canal to put equiptment in boats to lure Vietcong guerillas from nearby flooded paddies (Photo)

(3) June.1st 1962

The reciept money BP$1479$00, with Vietnam Conghoa ConNiem revenue 3$00, for paying in French “Mille quatre cent si xante dix nuef piastres” from mr Ba Huyn Xiem by LXXX VIETNAM CONG HOA QUAN TRUONG ,  ve khoan tra tien muon dat  dung nguyen che nghia hem lo s n(TF 183) 36 m2, thay mat nguoi chu dat saigon 1-6-1962  handsign. ( I also have the same receipt for 51$ not use france char anymore , date 1-12-1962, with same type revenue 0$20-auth)

 

7) July 1962 no info

August 1962

(1) August.6th 1962

The Chung Chi ,  duong Cong-quyns 132-133 Saigon  “Marconi’s school’s certificate, chung ban ong(Mr) Nguyen –ngoc-Siem, sanb (born0 1-8-1934 tai Hien Thanh,Tan-an, da then boc lop Ke-tan tai bon truong, tie ngay 1.2-1962 den ngay 1.8.62 . sign Saigon 6.8.1962, Hieu Truong Nguyen Van Giau. Autentication with  overprint red 1962 on yellow Saigon cholon regional revenue 10$. Sign and red stamped Vietnam Cong Hoa official “bamboo design.

9) September 1962 no info

10) October 1962

(1) October,1st 1962

The same “THE HOC –SINH” Card  of Miss Do Thi Muoi tai(born) My Tho 2.3.1937, address 23 Ng Thung Chan Saigon above (16.2.1962) WITH Cholon Saigon regional revenue overprint red 1962, BUT DIFFERENT LEAGALIZED : KT.QUAN –TRUONG QUAN NHI WITH VIOLET STAMPED.and hoc lap de IV nien kha 1962 /1963 (informatif document about the change of goverment official and new card for 1962/1963 -auth)

 

 

11) November 1962

 

(1)     November ,1st.1962

The prestamped “ Brisbane Qld Aust.   4-PM 1 NOV 1962 POSTED PILLAR BOX,  and rolling dated stamped PERTH. INV.  ,AU 10 GAME NOV 1962  hand written Acc (Sencored ?) on document’s envelope, send to Lam Huu Sia,36 So That Diem Saigon , S.Viet-Nam.

(rare cover from Brisbane Australia via  PERTH (sencored?) to So Thanh Diem street Saigon South Vietnam –very interesting Diem street, what is  the name that street now ? a historic information of Diem topicalcollection-aut)

 

12) December 1962

 

(1) December.1st 1962

The receipt of S.A.R KASWATHAN-CHETTIM, MONEY bp $ 51, WITH VIETNAM CONG HOA CON NIEM REVENUE 0$20, ve khan tra tien muon dat a duong N.C. Nghia ham la So 5 (36m2 Land ta)