The Literature Study Of Rare Unique Collections’s Investation Value(Studi kepustakaan Koleksi nilai InvestasiLangka Dan Unik)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

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  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

THE LITERATURE STUDY OF  UNIQUE COLLECTION ‘S  INVESTATION VALUE
                              * Ill c-001

          
                                             
                                                        BY

                               Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

Ill-C 001.Kartupos Amal in commemoration of One Year of Free Indonesia, 1946, sent from Wood Plant Priaman to West Sumatra.

1.The research of Collections  that has an investment value (unique and rare) that a “reasonable” collection is something interesting at the moment, especially since the crisis Global stock markets in last  2008 where the confidence of investors towards capital market (shares) began to decline and begin to look “Investment at  Collection” * 1)

 2. The investment value of a collection is determined not only by the scarcity or old age but also by the quality and beauty for personal enjoyment and exhibitions * 2)

 3.Beutifful collection depends on the consumer’s eyes and the condition of collections such as its investment value is a subjective thing

4.Istilah Unique Collections from English Unique Collection is often interpreted incorrectly so identified with a unique collection of rare collections with high investment value and eventually become a pile of garbage collection of unique because there is no investment value and no collector wants to buy it so sold in kilogram such as waste paper.

 There is also a unique

5.Koleksi called “Rare”, “Limited Edition” or “Curio”, “Antique” * 3)

 6. Collectors and investors a unique collection has always encountered difficulty in selecting a decent collection collected, are often disappointed when selling his collection because it is considered very low tidakseperti the diperkirakannya.Sehubungan to the above is necessary to study a literature study, comparison willing deri collection development catalog and value of auction results within a certain period of time in order to be able to answer some of the things that always makes pertanyaanbagi collectors and investors a unique collection:

a. Types of collections worthy of investment

   Netherlands Indies stamps of the most rare and collectible worthy

b. How to prove the hypothesis below:

1) Unique collection does not always have the value of investments

                                            

Stamps during the war of independence of Indonesia on Sumatra’s most endangered only two seeds are found, one of which there are stamps dimuseum Den Haag The Netherlands belongs to the famous collector of Ricardo and that this personal property of Dr. Iwan S, but although not necessarily unique and rare high-value inventasinya, my wife commented ugly stamps not appeal to everyone interested, but when viewed Bulterman dutch philatelic experts immediately shouted wow while holding the head, very interesting, there are only two in the world, want to sell, I said no because the proper postage stamps on display at museums Indonesia or juxtaposed with a collection Ricardo at the Hague Museum, but when I offer to other philatelic experts from Holland, I say, this stamp I want to donate to the Musuem Hague on condition that my name be listed and I was invited to Holland during the delivery receipt donation charter of this rare stamp He said I should be let out, but already five years old no answer, how, I can confirm the hypothesis of rare but interesting and not always have a high investment value.

2) always has a unique collection of information needed certain people.

                                         

battered map is not attractive, but it has the information you’ll want to know, you know, and Kalijati Subang may not be, the place is very historic, Mat is a dijatikan airfield where the handover of power from military talks Hiundia To the Commander of the Dutch forces in Java pendarata Dai Nippon Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, nah lu, this new collection of valuable historical information is needed because the people of Indonesia and of course the Netherlands, and then you’ll want to know how Immamura General profile, to satisfy your curious look at the photos in question below

                                                 

After seeing Immamura jen.Hitoshi profile, add your curiosity, he conferred with whom,-please read the 1942 Japanese occupation of Java or The Military Administration of Dai Nippon Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu Java or Java. (Waah, it makes people curious information-hungry-Dr Iwan s)

The investment value can be known collection of antique trade market lately become known due to the recession that many “dealers” (merchant-peyalur) and “auctioner” (auctioneer) believes this will end ugly situation. Objects and collections of its kind developed competitive prices are always found and sometimes suprising a rapidly changing type of object status and became a collector’s item * 4)

                                               

This medal was Mao who want a collection, but currently hunted Chinese collector, because the country’s economy soared and people began to prosper, then the most beloved komeradnya scarce especially during the cultural revolution in the purchase price is very high, even a lot of copies produced in 1978 when new mao died is still purchased in China for a souvenir by tourists because of the original price is exorbitant. Expert philatelists late V. Esbensen once wrote a letter to me, what do you collect philatelic items and the Japanese occupation of Indonesia’s independence war in Sumatra, an investment wkatu will be a very high value if your country is more prosperous economy, it is true when the Japanese economic boom 1985, Japanese Occupation of philatelic collection of all the Japanese hired premises exorbitant prices, but this time the Japanese collectors are old and many died as Mr Aoki market for so lonely anymore, I’ve sold at a profit again booming, until now my collection of China still intact and began to boom, perhaps I should immediately take it off, how, not amazing.

Investment interest in stamps that had started to fade sparkle * 5) after various capital market crisis.

Traders collection of money (numismatic) will be showered money if someone figures illustrated the old money dies. * 6)

On this, there is my experience, a pile of money when I see old pictures bung Karno fractions Rp.25  money”prit jigo”(jigo means  25 in java,pruit  means  police fluit.)very much in circulation, in conditions which are smooth hard to come by, you know how the price skyrocketed began ten thousand dollars, then up twenty-five thousand dollars out of 1990 and finally in 2000 rocketed so a hundred thousand dollars, but since the economic recession falling again live 75 thousand dollars, for the moment I have most tinngi off all but the serial number has the same or increased PA 12345 and I am still pretty because the prospects are particularly good collection of serial numbers of one or two letters, do not know yet learned dong, read the book, curious about the message of this book before it runs out combed others, information is our teacher to become a successful collector (Dr. Iwan S)

Author of an article titled “The Collector” admiration for the collectors who love the collection was transformed into knowledge for the crowds, but he was concerned about the greed and their keserakahan* 7)

Collection that has a high investment value is not always illiquid, hard-sold by market value, traders have the principle of “buy-cheap and sell as cheaply as high”. Nevertheless there is also a collection of the liquid, among others, watches Antiques * 8)

The wealth of an ethnic cultural heritage is a reflection of a culture, one of which is equipment and meubeler Chinese ethnic “cuiho” which utilized at marriage * 9) (including musical instruments, prayer desk and bed clothes and knick-perniknya following Bridal-pen)

Everyone has the idol and brackish respective heronya so interested in storing printed matter, photographs and cards with pictures of the idol known as “trade card” * 10)

The Idol of the present tempo da sports field by the target of collectors such as football card spot * 11) and NBA Basketball Ball * 12)

The term Unusual Coins (coins unusual) “Sometimes confusing” (a confusing time) with the term creation of “the cormercial marketplace” (an open place in the city who use the site pasa), is often a “Deceptive realm of numinmatic emission” (issuance of currency scam ). Unusual Coins Nevertheless there is also published as the local currency or tokens * 12)

                                                 

This silver coin 1975 mas-1980 sold the store to weigh about 45 grams of silver, sold per gram rp 500 is equal to one U.S. $, so it costs about 45 U.S. $, you know how much it costs now, because it is very rare and very limited edition silver coins Dutch King Willem I of this value is the same with a Toyota Avanza, kalu not believe it can definitely try to look if one wants to exchange with his car, but do not be battered.

Discusses Unique collection will not be exhausted so that the paper is limited regarding the collection does not include any Personal Unique Collections Unique Nation or National Heritage (National Heritage Collection * 13)

Collectors and investors a unique collection of the world very much like the King of Great Britain Stamp Collection parents Queen Elizabeth II Great Britain, former King of Egypt’s extraordinary collection when he abdicated auctioned at prices high enough so that dijulukilah kolesi time stamp as “The King of collection and The collection of the King “seiiring with the development of postal communication in the late twentieth century, the postal stamp issued in a very high sold to 20-100 million eksp. As well as communist countries through the following propaganda movement that dispenses postage stamps that have been stamped postal stamps collectible investments decreased, so that when inin only a unique rare stamps are still so sought after collectors and investors spesialistis * 14)

Collectors and local investors in Indonsia pretty much the end of 2008 arose in the case of ancient statues Solo and involves collector who does not confess as an investor, was released by the State court, and this time prosecutors appeal (do not save a unique collection of national cultural heritage is protected secar law, -pen).

Some collectors are known to the authors discussed in the paper itself, among others, Postal History collectors of Japanese occupation and revolution NRI Ricardo 1942-49 Mr. Jacobson’s former director of state-owned van den Berg-Batavia which currently belongs to the Museum Fiateli Hague Netherlands, ex-lead Ceramic Collection Average IOC Mr. Brundage, Japanese Samurai Collection Mr. Baud-Sri Lanka Collector Cigarette Wrap Butet Kertajaya, Paintings Collection Afandi Bp Sumarican and lainnya.suceeded   some stamp collectors Unique Collection which can afford to buy houses, collectors of antique furniture antique store building in Jakarta, Collector paintings visualization Indonesia from the Netherlands and other countries * 14)

Results research of about Type, Value Investing and discussion as well as a unique collection of illustrations unique collection of private collector Jakarta is simply the next chapter, for collector can contacted senior and specialist writers to be able to discuss and obtain special personal papers with the agreement.

After reading this simple book, readers who understand Indonesian expected to provide corrections and input new information temuam unique collection can then be published so that a more complete book in two language, Indonesian and English in the future. .

The discussion notes Feet:

* 1) Endarto, Eko, Investing in Collectibles, Majallah Cash, December 2008 issue. Eko Endarto, author of the article above is a financial planner from the Bureau of Financial Planning & Rekan Jakarta Senduk Safir, wrote in Majallah contact: “Investing is not easy in unique Collection. There are many criteria that determine an item worthy of collection or not. However, the many criteria it also makes no fixed rule could be a good collector’s item or not. Investment in the collection gives a high yield potential, because people do not because of physical mengingginkannya, but “value” of his.

* 2) Carlson, Lars-Oslo, Postiljonen International Auction 192, Malmo Sweden, 2008p.16.

            An item of oustanding quality and beauty. A rarity for its appearance and not necessarily for its value. Suitable in any private collection for enjoyment as well as for exhibition. An item of excellencein highest regard to quality, beauty and rarity. A wonderful Addition on any collection in its area.

* 3) Apex philatelicauctions No. 88, Kingston, Surrey, Englan, july 2008, P.2

            We deal in a commudity for the which there are no accepted, standard guidelines covering all eventualities.The beauty lies in the eye of the beholder And that no two eyes look at will from the same collection (stamps) in the sane way. Collection condition, just like collection valuation, is a subjective affair, your ideas may be the same as mine: They Might not be.Thelaw equally, of course, makes its living out of arguing the toss abput subjectivity Nowhere does stop white and gray begin black and gray stop and begin?

* 3) Salim, Peter “Nith Bahasa-Indonesia Collegiate Dictionary, 2000

a) Collection, (1.) collection, the collection of these fossils took twenty years, the collection of these fossils took 20 years. (2.) Koleksi.The museum has a large collection of fossils, the museum’s rich collection of fossil-fosil.3.Onggokan, stacks, a collection of mud, mud.

b) Unique. Unique. A unique design, unique design. (Other than the other-world philately uniquely identified with RRR, there is only one-pen)

c) Rare (1)unusual found.. a rare flower, the flowers are rarely obtained. (2). archaic. Very good, (3). Extraordinary, a rare option, an incredible opportunity.

 d) Limited Edition. (1) Limited is limited (only one exemplar one of one, one hundred exemplar written No. 1: 100-pen). (2) Edition, (a). Issue. edition, prints. A new edition, new edition. (B) .. The number of publications. The third edition of a book, the third edition of the book (generally the first edition and a limited amount of stamp collection as the first black British penny, first edition antique book / comic book-pen) 2. Sample issue (mold-proof experiment, Ultramar, sample / model / examples / sample-pen).

(E) Curio (1).. Want to tahu.I am curious to know what he’s making.saya want to know what is being done (a curiosity raises motivation collection collection-pen). (2). Strange and abstruse. (3.) Curio comes from the Italian language means strange and interesting stuff (associated with magical powers, protection and sustenance-pen)

(F) Antique.Adj (French) (1) antique; old-fashioned, outmoded, an antique statuw, an antique statue. (2) From the ancient Greeks and Romans, (3) From the time of the lalu.antique hero, the hero and, (3) The style of the past, (4) The style or model

Antique (5) is an ancient, antiquity.

4) Miller, Judith and Martin Miller’s Collectables price guide, WilliamClows ltd, England, 1996.

The Antiques trade at least seems a to be shrugging off the recession and most dealers and auctioners seem That quetly confident the worst is over. Collectables continiu to be growing and exciting area, with bargaining prices Treasures still being discovered at boot fairs or in attics and new, suprising Sometimes, objects rapidly aquiring collectables status.

5) Nurdiana, Avantih, Genih M. Sinaga, Must: Hobbies and Collectibles Rezeki thanks to glue stamps, Cash, a nov.2008hal 16

Investment interest had faded stamps that started shining as falling prices of various instruments investasi.Asal smart choice, collection or investment in philately postage stamps will be taping the sustenance of abundant opportunities.

6) Sihite, Magdalena and Hidayah, Arryl Acmad; General of the Great died Menningalkan Mamfaat; Cash February, 2008 Page 16

Besides having a historical, ancient money is also a lucrative investment fields. There are people who actually reap for Suharto when former preiden meninggal.Mereka money traders (old) who sprayed the price of old money sustenance dengannaiknya pictorial Suharto and many are looking for coins Suharto of Rp 300,000 and Rp.500.000. made of 23 carat gold, the coin is specially designed for the limited circle bdan not sold according to its nominal price, USD 850.00 .- Fractional padaawalnya already sold Rp. 1 million. (The same thing with the money and the general picture of the president Sukarno Sudirman-pen)

7) Ajidarma, Seno Gumira; San Collector; Compass December 28, 2007, hal3

Collection as a representation of greed and keserakahan.Sang collectors like to have everything as complete. For the true collector, completeness is the key word, danpada turn completeness then enrich his knowledge. They may dihalalkanboleh lawful because it means that produkyif, the rescue of cultural property and the nation. But how the ancient statues collectors who do not understand your own collection? Do I also have to say if the collector does not know anything about archeology, the best way to make sense of the ancient statues, albeit amateur. (The collectors need to be alert to the collection of national cultural heritage is protected by law-pen, but law enforcement officials also need to understand the kind of national culture collection of ancient items must not otherwise protected so that the judge deliver goods to their demands. Usually as a pretext for compensation-pen )

* 8) Khoiriyah, Ruisa; tanggan Antique Jewelry Bags Make CiamikKontan Contents, December 2008, p. 6.

Pengemar antique watches more and more, but can reap the benefits nan thick, fairly liquid.Ramainya pasarnyapun watch antique hunters from abroad make a lot of people looked at this old stuff as an alternative investment. Watches such ancient ema, the price goes up steadily. (Same thing * with an antique camera-pen)

* 9) Cross-Cultural. “Cuiho” Riwayatmu first; Compass, January 2009.

The title above cited two words in the lyrics of “Solo” by Gesang.Bedanya, this paper does not want meomantiskan circumstances and the wealth of cultural heritage of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia.Tujuannya is a reflection of acculturation, not the glorification of the past. Various types of cabinets cuiho tionghoa typical display at Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Wednesday (14 / 1). Cupboard end of the 19th century to early 20th-century iasanya are used for supplies for the bride baru.Pameran greatest legacy of the Peranakan Chinese culture that lasted 15 – 23 January 2009 at the same time welcome the lunar new year which falls on 26 January 2009

* 10) Salim, Peter ibid * 3)

 Tradeable can be exchanged, can diperjuabelikan.Tradecard 9 (sports propaganda cards, cigarettes and others traded for collection-pen)

* 11) Brenner, David; The Love of Soccer; Octopus Book Limited ed / 1, London, 1953 p90. and Compass (AP / Reuters / Ray) “Ronaldo Best inword” Kompas 14 January 2009.

Soccer Chronology, 1857 Photos of the soccer-the poldest bola.Shefield FC soccer club in the world-is still in existense formed.1928. football cards from cigarette factory (cigaret card) with pictures Dixie Dean. Dixie Dean scores a record 60 League goals in a seasons’ 1928 The first 10 000 poundserlings transfer from Bolton’s David Jack moves to Asenal, 1933 Ted Drake scores seven goals for Arsenal in a League games against Aston Villa. A Devision on Record, Photo of Bobby Moore, England’s Worldcup winning captaian in 1966, The best of Ajax’s three successive European Cup win in the seventies was Their second record, a 2-0 win over Inter-Milan. Both goals were the resource persons mecurial scored by Johan Cruyff, Pele last game.The match was the between the Cosmos and Santos of Brazil.

Manchester United’s Portuguese player ChristianoRonaldo fought back tears after trbaik crowned world player of FIFA in Zurich, Switzerland Monday 12? 1 – (2009)

* 12) Mishler, Cliford in Michael & Cuhaj; Unusual World Coins, companion volume to the standard catalaog of World Coins, 4th Edition, KP Books, USA, 2005

The purpose of Unusual World Coin of Unsual is to chronicle the confusing Sometimes, Often Deceptive realm of numismatic emissions, primaly created with RHE commercial marketplace in mind, the which purport to reprsent sovereign government entities. As the Standard Catalog of World Coins mission is focused on the circulating and non-circulating legal tender coins of the national Government, Such issues included here are Generally exempted from coverage in SCWC. While some early issues in the realm were the resource persons UWC documented by Richard D. Kenney in his study Unofficial Coins of the World (as published in the Numismatitist 1962-64), the number of offerings in the marketplace Multiplied Appearing exponetially from decade to decade since the 1960 s into these early years of the 21st century. The purpose of UWC is to porovde order to this universe as it related, compares and contrast to SCWC realm. (Never found some coins that semuka unsusual mistaken for a false creation of a coin dealer, was later discovered to include the unusual coin coin a very limited local or limited production with a substantial investment value is discussed in chapter IV of the unique collection of private-pen)

* 13) S. Iwan; “Unique Collection of World Heritage”, Personal Essay, 1990, not yet published.

Unique collection of World Heritage generally be associated with a unique collection of ethnic / national heritage which is a legally protected moyong so generally state-owned and on display in the National Musuem, for personal property should be reported and must have permission to be stored and the time of death should be left to museum national because it is important to study the origin and culture of the nation. The motivation for writing this book for research and reviewing this collection of world heritage requires a very high cost and there must be written permission for are indicated in a paper. Digitally record the image collections are often prohibited by the museum grounds will damage the collections. Illustration World Heritage Collection. Collections can only be displayed from the collection of illustrations from the book Antique books, especially before World War two early 20th-century khususnyadari illustrations and watercolors, prints lithography, and wood block engranve XV till XIX century that today’s increasingly difficult to find and value of the investment continues to rise because many pengemarnya and attractive display dikafe-cafes and restaurants, especially for the generation of babyboomers born in 1960-1970 who are currently well-established economy.

* 14) S. Iwan; Rare stamps are unique; personal papers, 1998, unpublished.

Unique rare stamps instead there is only one world or the new 2,3,4 or 5 are met is still sought out and hunted down by collectors and investors since the monetary crisis of 1998 10 YEAR AHEAD WITH HOPE TO BE INCREASED BY SAVINGS invetasi Fair VALUE FOR OLD HRI.

* 14) S. Iwan; Collector’s Collection Unique World: personal papers, 2000, unpublished.

Collector’s Collection is a collection of unique private world that need to be given awards, now there are given an international certificate by Gueiness local records and Indonesia by MURI (Indonesian Record Museum), but no one has menkaji motivation of the collector and his collection of visualization in detail, the author examines from literature study several prominent collectors in the world and appears logical that the public has not been known. This paper aims to motivate the development of a unique collection of new collectors, so unique collection can be known and useful in scientific research for the betterment of mankind on earth and the collector of a unique collection of opening up to reveal a collection of findings and a special certificate from the authors will be used as a memento of the results business.

PS. THE COMPLETE BOOK EXIST,BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,CONSIST THE UNIQUE COLLECTIONS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD, PHILLATELIC NUMISMATIC, LABEL, PICTURES,DOCUMENT HISTPRIC COLLECTION AND OTHER RARE UNIQUE COLLECTIONS FOUND BY Dr IWAN AND FRIEND , PLEASE SUNCRIBED VIA COMMENT,-Dr IWAN NOTE)

Indonesia  version:

 

S T U D I    K E P U S T A K A A N NILAI INVESTASI KOLEKSI UNIK YANG  LANGKA

                                            *ill c-001

          

                                             OLEH

                                                          Dr  I W A N   SUWANDY,MHA

*ill-C 001.Kartupos Amal dalam rangka peringatan Satu Tahun Indonesia  Merdeka 1946, dikirim dari Priaman ke Kayu Tanam SUMBAR.

1.Kajian tentang  koleksi  yang memiliki nilai investasi (unik dan langka) sehingga ”layak koleksi” adalah sesuatu hal yang menarik pada saat ini, terutama sejak terjadinya krisis Global pasar saham pada akhirtahun 2008 dimana keyakinan para investor terhadap pasar modal(saham) mulai menurun dan mulai melirik ”Investasi dibarang Koleksi”*1)

 2. Nilai investasi suatu koleksi ditentukan bukan hanya oleh kelangkaan atau umur yang tua  tetapi juga oleh kualitas dan keindahan untuk kesenangan pribadi dan pameran   *2)

 3.Keindahan koleksi tergantung pada mata konsumen dan kondisi koleksi  seperti nilai investasinya  adalah suatu hal subjektif 

4.Istilah Koleksi Unik berasal dari bahasa Inggeris Unique Collection sering diartikan secara keliru sehingga koleksi unik diidentikkan dengan koleksi langka dengan nilai investasi tinggi dan akhirnya koleksi unik menjadi tumpukan sampah karena  tidak ada nilai investasinya dan tak ada kolektor yang mau membelinya sehingga dijual dalam bentuk kiloan seperti kertas bekas.

 5.Koleksi unik ada juga yang menyebut”Rare”, ”Limited Edition” atau “Curio”,”Antique”*3)

 6. Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik selalu menemui kesulitan dalam memilih koleksi yang layak dikumpul, sering kecewa saat menjual koleksinya karena dinilai sangat rendah tidakseperti yang diperkirakannya.Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas perlu dilakukan kajian  berupa studi kepustakaan, sudi perbandingan perkembangan nilai koleksi deri katalogus dan hasil lelangan dalam suatu kurun waktu tertentu guna dapat menjawab  beberapa hal yang selalu menjadikan pertanyaanbagi para kolektor dan investor koleksi unik :

a.      Jenis koleksi yang layak dijadikan investasi

                                         

                      Prangko Hindia Belanda yang paling langka dan layak dikoleksi

b.      Bagaimana membuktikan hipotesis dibawah ini:

1)     Koleksi unik tidak selalu memiliki nilai investasi

                                           

Prangko Masa perang kemerdekaan RI di Sumatera  yang paling langka hanya  dua biji ditemukan,salah satunya ada dimuseum prangko Den Haag Negeri Belanda kepunyaan kolektor terkenal Ricardo dan yang ini milik pribadi Dr iwan S, tetapi walaupun unik dan langka belum tentu nilai inventasinya tinggi, isteri saya berkomentar prangko jelek tak menarik siapa yang tertarik, tetapi bila dilihat Bulterman pakar filateli belanda langsung berteriak wow sambil pegang kepala,sangat menarik,hanya ada dua didunia,mau jual , jawab saya tidak karena sepantasnya prangko ini dipajang di museum prangko Indonesia atau disandingkan dengan koleksi Ricardo di Museum den Haag, tetapi saat saya tawarkan kepada pakar filateli lainnya dari Negeri Belanda, saya katakan,prangko ini ingin saya sumbangkan ke musuem den Haag dengan syarat nama saya dicantumkan dan saya diundang ke negeri Belanda saat penyerahan piagam tanda terima sumbangan prangko langka ini, Ia jawab boleh saya akan beri tahu,tetapi sudah lima tahun tidak ada jawaban,bagaimana ,benarkan hipotesis saya langka tapi tak menarik dan tak selalu memiliki nilai investasi tinggi.

2)     Koleksi unik selalu memiliki informasi yang dibutuh orang-orang tertentu.

                                        

peta butut ini tidak menarik, tetapi memiliki informasi yang anda pasti ingin tahu, Subang anda tahu dan Kalijati mungkin tidak, tempat tersebut sangat bersejarah, kalijati adalah lapangan terbang yang dijatikan tempat perundingan penyerahan kekuasaan dari Militer Hiundia Belanda Kepada Panglima pasukan pendarata Dai Nippon di Jawa Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, nah lu, baru koleksi ini bernilai histori karena ada informasi yang dibutuhkan rakyat Indonesia dan tentunya Belanda, dan selanjutnya anda pasti ingin tahu bagaimanakah profil Jendral Immamura ,untuk memenuhi penasaran anda lihat foto yang bersangkutan dibawah ini

                                                

Setelah melihat profil jen.Hitoshi Immamura,anda tambah penasaran , ia berunding dengan siapa,-silahkan baca Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa 1942 atau The Dai Nippon Military Administration Java atau Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu Jawa.(waah,memang penasaran membuat orang haus informasi-Dr iwan s)

Nilai investasi  koleksi dapat diketahui dari market  perdagangan barang antik yang akhir-akhir ini menjadi tidak diketahui  akibat resesi sehingga banyak “dealer”(pedagang-peyalur) dan “auctioner”(pelelang)  yakin  situasi jelek ini akan berakhir. Benda-benda koleksi berkembang jenisnya dan harga  bersaing selalu ditemukan  dan kadang-kadang suprising  suatu jenis benda dengan cepat berubah statusnya menjadi barang koleksi *4)

                                              

Medali Mao ini dulu siapa yang mau koleksi, tetapi saat ini diburu kolektor China, karena ekonomi negaranya meroket dan rakyatnya mulai makmur, maka komeradnya yang paling dicintai khususnya yang langka masa revolusi kebudayaan di beli dengan harga sangat tinggi, malah tiruannya yang banyak diproduksi tahun 1978 saat mao baru meninggal dunia saat ini masih dibeli di China untuk kenang-kenangan oleh turis karena yang asli harganya selangit. Pakar filatelis almarhum V.Esbensen pernah menulis surat kepada saya, apa yang anda kumpulkan benda filateli masa pendudukan jepang dan perang kemerdekaan RI di Sumatra,suatu wkatu akan menjadi investasi yang sangat tinggi nilainya apabila negara anda tambah makmur ekonominya,ternyata benar saat Jepang booming ekonominya tahun 1985, koleksi filateli Pendudukan jepang diborong semua orang Jepang denga harga selangit, tapi saat ini para kolektor jepang sudah tua dan banyak meninggal seperti mr Aoki pasarannya jadi sepi lagi,untung saya sudah jual saat lagi booming, sampai saat ini koleksi saya dari China masih utuh dan mulai booming,mungkin saya harus segera melepasnya, bagaimana, menakjubkan bukan.

Minat investasi perangko yang sempat memudar mulai berbinar *5) setelah berbagai pasar modal mengalami krisis.  

Para pedagang koleksi uang (numismatik) akan kecipratan duit apabila uang lama bergambar seseorang tokoh meninggal dunia. *6)

Tentang hal ini , ada pengalaman saya ,suatu waktu saya menemui setumpuk duit lama gambar bung Karno pecahan Rp.25 alias uang prit jigo yang sangat banyak beredar,dalam kondisi yang masih mulus sulit didapat, anda tahu bagaimana harganya meroket mulai sepuluh ribu rupiah, kemudian naik dua puluh lima ribu rupiah tahu 1990 dan akhirnya tahun 2000 meroket jadi seratus ribu rupiah,tapi karena resesi ekonomi jatuh lagi tinggal 75 ribu rupiah,untuk saat paling tinngi sudah saya lepas seluruhnya kecuali yang nomor serinya sama atau naik PA 12345 dan cantik masih saya koleksi karena prospeknya bagus terutama nomor seri satu atau dua huruf,belum tahu belajar dong, baca buku, penasaran pesan buku ini sebelum habis disikat orang lain,informasi adalah guru kita untuk menjadi kolektor yang sukses(Dr iwan S)

Penulis artikel berjudul “Sang Kolektor” kagum  kepada kolektor  yang kecintaannya  terhadap koleksi menjelma  menjadi  pengetahuan bagi orang banyak, tetapi ia  prihatin terhadap kerakusan dan kesrakahan mereka *7)

Koleksi yang memiliki nilai investasi tinggi tidak selalu likuid ,susah dijual dengan nilai pasar, pedagang punya prinsip “beli semurah-murahnya dan jual setinggi-tingginya”. Kendatipun demikian ada juga koleksi yang liquid antara lain Jam tangan Antik *8)

Kekayaan warisan budaya suatu etnis merupakan refleksi suatu kultur, salah satunya adalah peralatan dan meubeler etnis tionghoa “cuiho” yang dimanfaatkan saat menikah *9)(termasuk alat musik,meja sembahyang dan pakaian serta Ranjang Pengantin berikut pernak-perniknya-pen)

Setiap orang memiliki idola dan heronya masin-masing sehingga berminat menyimpan barang cetak,foto dan kartu dengan gambar sang idola yang dikenal sebagai “trade card”*10)

Sang Idola tempo dulu da masa kini dibidang oleh raga menjadi incaran para kolektor seperti spot card sepak bola*11) dan Basket Ball NBA*12)

Istilah Unusual Coins( koin yang tidak biasa)  “ sometimes confusing” (beberapa waktu  membingungkan) dengan  istilah kreasi   “ the cormercial marketplace”(Tempat terbuka dikota yang gunakan  sebagai lokasi pasa), sering  merupakan “deceptive realm of numinmatic  emission  “ ( penerbitan matauang  tipuan ). Kendatipun demikian Unusual Coins ada juga yang diterbitkan sebagai mata uang lokal atau token *12)

                                                

Koin perak ini tahun1975-1980 dijual toko mas dengan menimbang berat peraknya sekitar 45 gr,dijual per gram rp 500 sama dengan satu US $ ,jadi harganya sekitar 45 US$, anda tahu berapa harganya sekarang, karena sangat langka dan edisinya sangat terbatas koin perak Belanda Raja Willem I ini nilainya sama dengan sebuah mobil Toyota Avanza,kalu tak percaya coba cari bila dapat pasti ada yang mau tukar dengan mobilnya,tapi jangan yang butut.

Membahas Koleksi Unik tidak akan habis-habisnya sehingga dalam karya tulis ini dibatasi mengenai Koleksi Unik Pribadi saja tidak meliputi Koleksi Unik Warisan Bangsa atau National (National Heritage Collection*13)

Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik didunia sangat banyak  seperti Koleksi perangko  Raja Inggeris orang tuanya Ratu Elisabeth II Inggeris, Bekas Raja Mesir yang koleksi luar biasa saat ia turun tahta dilelang dengan harga yang cukup tinggi saat itu sehingga dijulukilah kolesi perangko sebagai “The King of collection and the collection of the King” seiiring dengan berkembangnya komunikasi pos pada akhir abad ke XX pihak pos menerbitkan perangko dalam julah yang sangat tinggi sampai 20-100 juta eksp. Serta gerakan propaganda negara komunis liwat perangko yang membagi-bagikan perangko yang telah distempel pos investasi dikoleksi perangko menurun sehingga saat inin hanya yang perangko unik yang langka saja yang masih jadi incaran kolektor dan investor spesialistis *14)

Kolektor dan Investor lokal di Indonsia cukup banyak akhir tahun 2008 timbul kasus Arca Kuno di Solo dan melibatkan kolektor yang tidak mengaku sebagai investor , dibebaskan oleh pengadilan Negeri  ,dan saat ini jaksa  naik banding ( jangan menyimpan  koleksi unik warisan budaya nasional yang dilindungi secar hukum,-pen).

Beberapa kolektor yang dikenal penulis dibahas dalam karya tulis tersendiri antara lain kolektor Postal History Pendudukan Jepang dan revolusi kemerdekaan NRI 1942-49 Mr Ricardo mantan direktur BUMN Jacobson van den Berg –Batavia  yang saat ini milik  Museum Fiateli den Haag Negeri Belanda, Koleksi Keramik Mantan pimpin IOC Mr Average Brundage  , Koleksi Samurai Jepang Mr Baud –Srilangka, Kolektor Bungkus Rokok Butet Kertajaya,Koleksi Lukisan Afandi Bp Sumarican dan lainnya.Keberhasilan beberapa Kolektor Koleksi Perangko Unik yang mampu membeli rumah,Kolektor meubel antik membangun toko antik di Jakarta, Kolektor lukisan yang memvisualisai Indonesia dari negeri Belanda dan lainnya*14)

Hasil kjian mengenai Jenis, Nilai Investasi koleksi unik serta pembahasannya serta illustrasi koleksi unik pribadi kolektor Jakarta secara sederhana pada bab berikutnya, untukkolektor senior dan spesialistik dapat menhubunggi penulis guna dapat berdiskusi dan memperoleh karyatulis khusus pribadi dengan perjanjian.

Setelah membaca buku sederhana ini , pembaca yang memahami bahasa Indonesia diharapkan memberikan koreksi dan masukan informasi temuam koleksi unik baru sehinga selanjutnya dapat diterbitkan buku yang lebih lengkap dalamdua bahasa Indonesia dan Inggeris pada masa mendatang. .

Pembahasan catatan Kaki :

*1) Endarto,Eko,Berinvestasi di Barang Koleksi, Majallah Kontan,edisi Desember 2008.            Eko Endarto , penulis  artikel tersebut diatas  adalah perencana keuangan dari Biro Perencana Keuangan Safir Senduk & Rekan Jakarta , menulis dalam majallah kontak :” Berinvestasi dibarang Koleksi tak mudah. Ada banyak kriteria yang menentukan suatu barang layak koleksi atau bukan. Namun banyaknya kriteria itu   pula yang membuat tak ada aturan baku suatu barang bisa menjadi barang koleksi atau bukan. Investasi di koleksi memberi potensi hasil tinggi, karena orang memang mengingginkannya bukan karena fisik, tapi “nilai”-nya.

*2)Carlson,Lars-Oslo, Postiljonen International Auction 192,Malmo Sweden ,2008p.16.

            An Item of oustanding quality and beauty. A rarity for its appearance  and not necessarily for its value. Suitable in any collection for private enjoyment as well as for exhibition. An item of highest excellencein regard to quality,beauty and rarity . A wonderful addition on any collection  in its area.

*3)Apex philatelicauctions no 88,Kingston ,Surrey,Englan,july 2008,p.2

            We deal in a commudity for which there are no accepted,standard guidelines covering all eventualities.The beauty lies in the eye of the beholder and that no two eyes will look at the same collection(stamp) in the sane way. Collection condition,just like collection valuation, is a subjective affair, your ideas may be the same as mine: equally they might not be.Thelaw , of course, makes its living out of arguing the toss abput subjectivity-where does white stop and grey begin and grey stop and black begin ?

*3)Salim,Peter”Nith Collegiate English-Indonesia Dictionary,2000

a)Collection ,(1.)Pengumpulan,the collection of these fossil took twenty years ,pengumpulan dari fosil-fosil ini memakan waktu 20 tahun.( 2.)Koleksi.The museum has a large collection of fossils, museum itu kaya dengan koleksi fosil-fosil.3.Onggokan,tumpukan, a collection of mud,tumpukan lumpur.

b)Unique. Unik. A unique design, rancangan yang khas.(lain dari yang lain-Dunia filatelis unik disamakan dengan RRR , hanya satu ada-pen)

c)Rare.(1).jarangdidapat. a rare flower,bunga yang jarang didapatkan.(2). archaic. Sangat baik, (3).luarbiasa ,a rare option,kesempatan luar biasa.

 d)Limited Edition.(1)Limited  terbatas(hanya satu exemplar one of one, seratus exemplar ditulis no 1 : 100-pen).(2)Edition, (a).Terbitan,.edisi,cetakan. A new edition, edisi baru.(b)..Jumlah terbitan. The third edition of a book,terbitan ketiga dari buku(umumnya edisi pertama jumlah terbatas dan menjadi koleksi misalnya perangko pertama black penny inggeris, first edition buku antik/buku komik –pen)2. Contoh terbitan (cetakan percobaan-proof,  Ultramar,sample/model/tjontoh/contoh-pen).

(e)Curio.(1).Ingin tahu.I am curious to know what he’s making.saya ingin tahu apa yang sedang diperbuatnya (rasa ingin tahu ini menimbulkan motivasi pengumpulan koleksi-pen).(2). Aneh dan sukar dimengerti.(3.) curio berasal dari bahasa italia artinya barang aneh dan menarik (  dikaitkan dengan daya magis ,perlindungan dan rezeki-pen)

(f)Antique.Adj(perancis)(1)antik;kuno,ketinggalan zaman,an antique statuw,patung yang antik.(2)Dari masa Yunani dan Romawi kuno,(3)Dari masa yang lalu.antique hero,pahlawan masa lalu,(3)Dengan gaya masa lalu;(4)Gaya atau model

antik(5) secara kuno,antiquity.

4)Miller,Judith and Martin,Miller’s Collectables price guide,WilliamClows ltd,England,1996.

The Antiques trade at least seems to be shrugging off the recession and most dealers and auctioners seem quetly confident that the worst is over. Collectables continiu to be growing and exciting area, with bargaining prices treasures still being discovered  at boot fairs or in attics and new, sometimes suprising,objects rapidly aquiring collectables status.

5)Nurdiana,Avantih,Genih M. Sinaga,Mesti; Hobi dan Rezeki Merekat berkat Koleksi Perangko, Kontan,1 nov.2008hal 16

Minat investasi perangko yang sempat memudar mulai berbinar seiring anjloknya harga berbagai instrumen investasi.Asal pintar memilih,koleksi atau investasi di prangko bakal merekatkan filatelis pada peluang rezeki yang melimpah.

6)Sihite,Magdalena dan Hidayah,Arryl Acmad;Jenderal Besar Mangkat Menningalkan Mamfaat; Kontan Februari,2008 Hal 16

Selain memiliki historis , uang kuno juga merupakan ladang investasi yang menggiurkan. Ada orang yang malah menangguk untuk kala mantan preiden Soeharto meninggal.Mereka pedagang duit (lama)  yang kecipratan rezeki dengannaiknya harga uang lama bergambar Soeharto dan banyak yang mencari uang logam Soeharto pecahan  Rp 300.000 dan Rp.500.000. terbuat dari emas 23 karat ,uang logam kusus ini dirancang untuk  bagi kalangan terbatas bdan tidak dijual sesuai harga nominalnya ,padaawalnya pecahan Rp 850.00.- sudah dijual  Rp. 1 juta.( Hal yang sama dengan Uang bergambar presiden Soekarno dan jendral Sudirman-pen) 

7)Ajidarma,Seno Gumira;San Kolektor; Kompas 28 Desember 2007,hal3

Koleksi sebagai representasi kerakusan dan keserakahan.Sang kolektor ingin memiliki semuanya dengan  selengkap-lengkapnya. Bagi kolektor sejati, kelengkapan adalah kata kunci, danpada gilirannya  kelengkapan itu kemudian memperkaya pengetahuannya. Mereka boleh dihalalkanboleh dihalalkan karena maknanya yang produkyif,yakni menyelamatkan harta budaya dan mencerdaskan bangsa. Tetapi bagaimana kolektor arca kuno yang tidak memahami koleksi sendiri? Apakah saya juga harus mengatakan  jika sang kolektor tidak tahu menahu tentang  arkeologi , cara terbaik untuk memaknai arca kuno, meskipun secara amatiran. (para kolektor perlu waspada dengan koleksi pusaka budaya nasional yang dilindungi oleh undang-undang-pen, tetapi para penegak hukum juga perlu memahami jenis koleksi budaya nasional jangan asal barang kuno dinyatakan barang dilindungi sehingga hakim membebaskan tuntutan mereka. Biasanya sebagai dalih buat kompensasi-pen)

*8) Khoiriyah, Ruisa; Jam Tanggan Antik Bikin Isi Kantong CiamikKontan,Desember 2008,hal 6.

Pengemar jam tangan antik kian banyak, selain bisa meraup keuntungan nan tebal, pasarnyapun lumayan liquid.Ramainya pemburu arloji antik dari manca negara membikin banyak orang melirik barang lawas ini sebagai alternatif investasi. Jam tangan kuno seperti ema ,harganya naik terus.(hal sama dngan kamera antik-pen)

*9)Lintas Budaya.”Cuiho”Riwayatmu dulu;Kompas,januari 2009.

Judul diatas mengutip dua kata dalam lirik “Bengawan Solo”karya Gesang.Bedanya ,tulisan ini  tak ingin meomantiskan keadaan dan kekayaan warisan budaya Tionghoa peranakan  di Indonesia.Tujuannya adalah refleksi akulturasi,bukan glorifikasi masa lalu. Aneka jenis lemari cuiho khas tionghoa dipamerkan di Bentara Budaya Jakarta,Rabu (14/1).Lemari akhir abad ke-19 hingga awal abad ke-20 tersebut iasanya digunakan untuk bekal bagi pengantin baru.Pameran warisan Budaya Tionghoa Peranakan terbesar yang berlangsung 15-23 januari 2009 ini sekaligus menyambut tahun baru Imlek yang jatuh tanggal 26 januari 2009

*10)Salim,Peter ibid *3)

 Tradeable dapat ditukarkan,dapat diperjuabelikan.Tradecard 9(kartu propaganda olah raga, sigaret dan lainnya yang diperdagangkan untuk koleksi-pen)

*11)Brenner,David; The Love of Soccer;Octopus Book Limited ed/1  ,london,1953 p90 .  dan Kompas(AP/Reuters/Ray)”Ronaldo Terbaik Didunia”Kompas 14 januari 2009.

Soccer Chronology,1857 Foto pertandingan sepak bola.Shefield FC-the poldest soccer club in the world still in existense –is formed.1928. kartu sepakbola dari pabrik sigaret(Cigaret card)  dengan gambar Dixie Dean .Dixie Dean scores a record 60 League goals in a seasons’ 1928 The first 10.000 poundserlings  transfer David Jack moves from Bolton to Asenal ,  1933 Ted Drake scores seven goal for Arsenal in a League games against Aston Villa. A Devision on Record,Foto Bobby Moore, England’s Worldcup winning captaian in 1966,The best of Ajax’s three successive European Cup win in the seventies was their record second, a 2-0 win over Inter-Milan .Both goals were scored by mecurial Johan Cruyff,Pele  last game.The match was between Cosmos and Santos of Brasil.

Pemain Manchester United asal Portugal ChristianoRonaldo berusaha menahan air mata setelah dinobatkan sebagai pemain trbaik dunia FIFA di Zurich,Swiss senin 12?1-(2009)

*12) Mishler,Cliford in Michael &Cuhaj ; Unusual World Coin,companion volume to standard catalaog of world Coin, 4th Edition,KP Books,USA,2005

The purpose of Unusual of Unsual World Coin is to chronicle the sometimes confusing, often deceptive realm of numismatic emissions, primaly created with rhe commercial marketplace in mind, which purport to reprsent sovereign government entities. As the Standard Catalog of World Coins mission is focused on the circulating and non-circulating legal tender coin of nasional goverment , such issues included here are generally exempted from coverage in SCWC . While some early issues in the UWC realm were documented by Richard D.Kenney in his study Unofficial Coins of the World ( as published in the Numismatitist 1962-64),the number of offerings appearing in the marketplace multiplied exponetially from decade to decade since the 1960 s into these early years of the 21st century. The purpose of UWC is to porovde order to this universe as  it related, compares and contrast to SCWC realm.(pernah ditemukan beberapa unsusual coins yang semuka dikira kreasi palsu dari pedagang koin, ternyata kemudian diketahui koin tersebut termasuk unusual koin lokal yang sangat limited atau terbatas produksinya dengan nilai investasi yang cukup bermakna yang dibahas dalam bab IV koleksi  unik pribadi-pen)

*13) S.Iwan ; “Koleksi Unik Warisan  Dunia”, Karya Tulis pribadi ,1990,Belum dipublikasikan.

Koleksi Unik Warisan Dunia umumnya berupa koleksi unik terkait dengan suatu etnis/bangsa  yang merupakan warisan nenek moyong sehingga dilindungi secara hukum umumnya milik negara dan dipajang dalam musuem nasional, bagi milik pribadi harus dilaporkan dan harus memiliki izin untuk disimpan serta saat meninggal harus diserahkan kepada museum nasional karena penting untuk mempelajari asal usul dan kebudayaan bangsa. Motivasi penulisan buku ini karena untuk penelitian dan mengkaji koleksi warisan dunia ini membutuhkan biaya yang sangat tinggi dan harus ada izin tertulis untuk dtampilkan dalam sebuah karya tulis. Merekam gambar koleksi secara digital sering dilarang oleh museum dengan alasan akan merusak koleksi. Illustrasi World Heritage Collection . Koleksi hanya dapat ditampilkan dari koleksi illustrasi dari Buku Antik khususnya buku-buku sebelum perang dunia ke-2 awal abad ke-20 dan khususnyadari ilustrasi lukisan cat air , cetakan lithografi,engranve dan wood block abad XV sampai XIX  yang saat ini semakin sulit ditemui dan nilai investasinya terus naik karena banyak pengemarnya  serta menarik dipajang dikafe-kafe dan restoran  terutama bagi generasi babyboomers kelahiran tahun 1960-1970 yang saat ini sedang mapan ekonominya.

*14)S.Iwan;Perangko Langka yang unik;karya tulis pribadi,1998,belum dipublikasi.

Perangko unik langka malah ada yang hanya satu-satunya didunia atau baru 2,3,4 atau 5 yang ditemui sampai saat ini masih dicari dan diburu oleh para kolektor dan investor berhubung terjadinya krisis moneter tahun 1998  DENGAN HARAPAN 10 TAHUN MENDATANG MENJADI TABUNGAN INVETASI DENGAN PENINGKATAN NILAI LUMAYAN BUAT HRI TUA.

*14)S.Iwan; Kolektor  Koleksi Unik Di  Dunia:karya tulis pribadi,2000,belum dipublikasi.

Kolektor Koleksi unik dunia merupakan koleksi pribadi yang perlu diberikan penghargaan, saat ini sudah ada yang diberikan sertifikat internasional oleh Gueiness record dan lokal Indonesia oleh MURI(Museum Record Indonesia), tetapi belum ada yang menkaji motivasi para kolektor dan visualisasi koleksinya secara terperinci, penulis mengkaji dari studi kepustakaan beberapa kolektor yang ternama didunia maupun di Indoesia yang umum belum dikenal. Karya tulis ini bertujuan memotivasi berkembangnya kolektor koleksi unik baru, sehingga koleksi uNik dapat diketahui dan bermanfaat dalam penelitian ilmiah demi kemajuan umat manusia didunia serta para kolektor koleksi unik membuka diri untuk memperlihatkan koleksi temuannya dan sertifikat khusus dari penulis akan dapat dijadikan kenang-kenangan atas hasil usahanya.

THE END@copyright Dr IWANS 2011

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Sikhs In Singapore’s Historic Collections(Koleksi Sejarah Suku Sikhs Di Singapura)

 1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUMMUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA                     

Events in Anglo-Sikh History

Pre 1800:
Guru Arjun Dev’s Martyrdom 1606     Massacre of Sikhs in Dehli 1716
1800-1900:
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1806
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1809
Tripartite Treaty 1838
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1840
Anglo-Afghan Wars 1941
Hardinges proclamation 1845
First Anglo-Sikh War 1845-46
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1846
Anglo-Sikh Treaty Dec 1846
First Sikh Battalion – 1846
  Second Anglo-Sikh War 1848-49
Annexation of Punjab 1849

Sikhs in Singapore 1850
The Indian Mutiny – 1857
Namdhari Movement 1857
Singh Sabha Movement 1870
Kirpan Morcha 1878
Electrification of GT 1897
Battle of Saraghari 1897
Sikh Regiments 1859-1914
1900-2000:
Sikh Journalism
Ghadr Movement 1912
Komagata Maru 1914

Jallianwalla Bagh 1919
Constitutional Reform 1919
Babbar Akali Movement 1920’s
Akali Movement 1920’s
Guru Ka Bhag Morcha 1921
Morcha Chabian 1921
Sikh Forces in Iraq – 1922
Nankana Sahib Massacre 1921
Panja Sahib Massacre 1922
Pheru Morcha 1922
Sikh Gurdwara Act 1925
Communal Award 1932
  Shahid Ganj Agitation 1935
Sikh Contribution to Freedom
Transfer of Power 1947
Partition Of The Punjab – 1947
Punjabi Suba – 1966
The Turban Case 1976
Amritsar Massacre 1978
Kanpur Massacre 1978
Operation Bluestar 1984
Assasination of Indira Gandhi
Dehli Massacre 1984
Sikhs in Birmingham – 1991
Sikh Asylum Seekers 1996
Vaisakhi 99 Celebrations 1999
Queens Visit to Harimandir 2002 

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

03070035

Sikhs in Singapore
Historic Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUMMUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA                          WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM                 SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Sikh Regiments Of The British India Army – Part I

Vintage Pictures Of  The British Army India : Part I

From the archives

1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893

1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893

Note that English Officers in the Sikh Regiments wore turbans.

The respect and affection that the English had for the Sikhs is well recorded. There is no historical evidence of the English entering Sikh places of worship and desecrating them.

15th Punjab Regiment

15th Punjab Regiment

5th Battalion The Sikh Regiment

5th Battalion The Sikh Regiment

SINGAPORE SIKHS HISTORIC COLLECTIONS(KOLEKSI SEJARAH SUKU SIKHS  DI SINGAPORE)

VERSI SATU: Awal Imigran Sikh terutama polisi

Awal Sikh Imigran

prolog:
Siapa Sikh pertama di Singapura? Jawabannya adalah tidak mudah datang. Tidak ada catatan ada yang dengan jelas menyatakan yang merupakan Sikh pertama yang mendarat di sini.

1.1849

 Banyak Sikh tua masih hidup dalam cerita-cerita Singapura mengingat satu Maharaj Singh, seorang tahanan politik diasingkan ke Singapura oleh Inggris setelah Perang Kedua di Sikh Sikh 1849.A kelahiran mulia, ia menolak untuk mengakui kekalahan ke Inggris dan membentuk gerilya band dengan pengikutnya.

2.1850

Sayangnya untuk Maharaj Singh, dia tertangkap dan dipenjara sebelum ia benar-benar bisa mengatur dirinya sendiri. Tetapi popularitasnya di kalangan Sikh, bahkan setelah dia dipenjara, adalah sedemikian rupa sehingga Inggris memutuskan itu dalam kepentingan mereka sendiri untuk him.He pengasingan dikirim ke Singapura dengan hamba laki-laki, tiba di sini kira pada 1850-an. Dia ditempatkan di Penjara Jalan Outram tua dan oleh semua account adalah orang yang religius, menghabiskan waktu yang lama dalam doa dan meditasi. Tales diturunkan dari mulut ke mulut berbicara tentang dirinya yang memiliki kekuatan spiritual dan keajaiban bekerja. Tidak ada catatan ketika ia meninggal, tetapi diketahui bahwa setelah kematiannya, ia dikremasi di luar Penjara Jalan Outram. Sikh pada masa itu, percaya ia adalah suci, dibangun sebuah makam di tempat di mana ia dikremasi.

Ketika pemerintah ingin memperluas penjara, makam patah dan dibangun kembali di tempat sekitar satu mil jauhnya. Dalam tahun kemudian, Singapore General Hospital (SGH) dibangun di dekat lokasi makam. Itu tidak terganggu dan tetap dalam apa yang menjadi halaman rumah sakit. Pada tahun 1965, pemerintah meminta orang-orang Sikh untuk menghapus makam karena mereka ingin memperluas rumah sakit. Jadi sekali lagi, makam itu putus. Kali ini setelah beberapa doa, lima batu semua yang tersisa dari makam tua, dihapus dan ditempatkan di tempat peristirahatan baru di halaman depan Kuil Jalan Silat dekatnya.

Beberapa orang menyebutnya candi ini sebagai Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Mengapa Baba Karam Singh dan tidak Maharaj Singh? Ada beberapa kontroversi mengenai siapa yang makam di Outram Road dan alasan selanjutnya SGH benar-benar milik. Titik-satunya konsensus adalah bahwa itu milik orang suci. Ada orang yang percaya itu adalah Maharaj Singh. Kemudian lagi ada orang yang mengatakan itu adalah bahwa Baba Karam Singh, yang dikatakan memiliki beberapa kekuatan spiritual juga. Yang pasti adalah bahwa mereka yang mempertahankan makam dan kemudian membuatnya menjadi sebuah tempat suci macam, percaya Baba Karam Singh dan nama telah datang untuk tinggal. Mungkin ada tahanan politik lainnya diasingkan ke Singapura juga, tapi tidak ada yang dikenal dari mereka.

Gelombang pertama Sikh mendarat di Singapura datang dalam bentuk sepahi (polisi) direkrut di India untuk membantu menjaga perdamaian dan meletakkan perang geng Cina.

Fighter INDIA

 
Bhai Maharaj Singh adalah salah satu orang pertama Punjab untuk meluncurkan gerakan kemerdekaan di Punjab setelah Inggris mengambil alih Punjab. Ia mengorganisir perlawanan terhadap imperialisme Inggris setelah kekalahan Tentara Sikh, diasingkan sebagai Negara priosoner, meninggal tanggal 5 Juli 1856 di Penjara Singapura.
Bhai Maharaj SINGH JI
Kemartiran HARI – 5 JULY 1856

Dia mengatakan pada tahun 1849: “Akan ada lagi Perang Nasional”.

“Bhai Mahararaj Singh, seorang Sikh kesucian imam terkenal, dan pengaruh besar, orang pertama yang mengangkat standar pemberontakan melampaui batas-batas Multan pada tahun 1848, dan satu-satunya pemimpin dari catatan yang tidak meletakkan senjata untuk Sir Walter Gilbert di Rawalpindi. ” kata Henry Lawrence, Residen Lahore

Rencana Bhai Maharaj Singh tindakan melawan Inggris unggul dibingkai di hutan Lembah Chumb:

1. Untuk menyelamatkan Dalip Singh Maharajah dari Lahore Fort.
2. Untuk mengatur Front Persatuan dari semua kekuatan anti-Inggris.
3. Diselenggarakan gangguan oleh serangan subversi dan kejutan pada kas Inggris dan penampungan.

Dia ditampilkan jenderal militer yang luar biasa dan pengetahuan peperangan taktis. Apa yang berkelanjutan baginya adalah warisan yang kaya rohaninya.

Maharaj Singh memimpin kampanye anti-Inggris sebagai masalah kewajiban agama terhadap umat-Nya. Setelah Perang Anglo-Sikh Pertama ia pindah tentang Doab Jalandhar, sebuah wilayah Inggris dan membangkitkan orang melawan Inggris. Ia menghubungi Dewan Mool Raj, yang Nazim Multan untuk menaikkan bendera pemberontakan terhadap pemerintahan Inggris di Lahore Kerajaan. Dia pergi ke Hazara mana Sardar Singh Chattar Attariwala sedang mempersiapkan untuk memberontak. Kehadiran Maharaj Singh ada memberikan dorongan untuk penyebab pemberontakan. Para Bhai memicu, pemberontakan panjang tahun, hampir nasional di niat. Ia berusaha untuk memperpanjang ke seluruh India Utara dengan melibatkan di dalamnya Maharaja Bikaner. Dost Muhammad, Amir Afghanistan dan Maharaja Gulab Singh dari Jammu dan Kashmir tapi tidak bisa mencapai keberhasilan yang diinginkan. Lalu datanglah Perang Anglo-Sikh Kedua yang mengakibatkan pencaplokan Punjab oleh Inggris pada 29 Maret 1849.
Aneksasi Punjab oleh Inggris melambat aktivitas para pejuang kemerdekaan di provinsi untuk sejumlah alasan. Pemerintah Inggris Dalip Singh dihapus Maharaj luar Punjab ke Missouri di yang namanya para pejuang kemerdekaan telah terjadi antara 1846-1849. Kedua, Rani Jindan melarikan diri ke Nepal dan tidak bisa secara efektif membimbing gerakan. Terakhir, para pemimpin Punjab yang telah berperang melawan Inggris dalam Perang Sikh Kedua diasingkan atau dimasukkan ke dalam penjara di United Provinces.

Maharaj Singh, namun tidak mengizinkan gerakan kebebasan untuk mati. Dia dihubungkan sebuah rencana baru untuk melanjutkan perjuangan. Dia melarikan diri dari Rawalpindi ke Jammu dan dari kulit keluar dikirim utusan rahasia untuk menghubungi, khususnya, habis prajurit Angkatan Darat Khalsa, yang Jagirdars dan kepala yang telah dirampas perkebunan mereka pensiun oleh pemerintah Inggris dan juga pemegang agama perkebunan, khususnya Gosains di perbukitan Kangra, yang bisa membantunya membiayai perjuangan kemerdekaan.

Maharaj Singh meminta bantuan dari Dost Muhammad, Amir Kabul, dalam perjuangan untuk kemerdekaan Punjab dari kekuasaan asing. Dia menulis kepada Amir dan saudaranya Sultan Muhammad Khan untuk dukungan, tetapi mereka menolak untuk membuat dia membantu apapun. Bhai Maharaj Singh berencana untuk membuat jenis serangan gerilya di distrik-distrik militer Inggris dipilih Hoshiarpur, Hajipur dan mungkin Jalandhar. Anak buahnya menjarah kas pemerintah di Bajwara.

Contoh Maharaj Singh membangkitkan orang-orang yang tidak puas. Para kepala Attariwala, Dewan Hakim Rai dan Sardars Majithia itu diaduk untuk bertindak meskipun gerakan mereka dibatasi ke desa mereka oleh perintah dari pemerintah Inggris. Faquirs dan Brahmana yang telah membantu dalam membawa pesan dari Rani Jindan dan kepala lainnya selama periode pra-aneksasi mulai mengunjungi tempat-tempat mantan pemberontak, kepala pada satu dalih untuk yang lain. Intelijen Inggris melaporkan bahwa orang-orang ini menyediakan link antara Bhai Maharaj Singh dan pemimpin-pemimpin yang siap untuk memberontak melawan Inggris dalam konser dengan Bhai Sahib.

Sahib Bhai diperoleh bantuan yang cukup besar dari sejumlah besar orang berpengaruh di distrik Hoshiarpur. Pada November 1849, ia menyelesaikan semua pengaturan untuk menyerang penampungan di Doab Jalandhar. Dalam jemaat terbuka di Syam Chaurasi, sebuah desa di distrik Hoshiarpur dia menyatakan Posh 20 (3 Januari 1850) selanjutnya sebagai tanggal keberuntungan untuk umum meningkat. Para Bhai membuat dirinya terlalu mencolok dan harus membayar harga untuk itu. Pada tanggal 29 Desember 1849, Vinsittat, Komisaris Wakil Jalandhar menangkapnya bersama dengan 21 pengikutnya tak bersenjata dekat Adampur. Vansttart Komisaris Wakil Jalandhar yang menangkap dia, menulis: “Guru adalah tidak manusia biasa Dia adalah penduduk asli apa yang Yesus adalah yang paling bersemangat orang Kristen mukjizat-Nya dilihat oleh puluhan ribu, dan lebih implisit diyakini dari.. yang bekerja oleh para nabi kuno. ”

Bahkan lebih murah hati adalah Mcleod, Komisaris Doab, yang menulis: “.. dia tetap pada umumnya, tapi sedikit lebih lama … penghinaan lebih dari sebuah karakter yang mengkhawatirkan akan diupayakan … yang hasilnya, akan … mungkin mustahil untuk meramalkan. ”

Kabar penangkapan Maharaj Singh dan penahanannya di Penjara Sipil Jalandhar menyebar seperti api. Sejumlah besar orang Hindu, Muslim dan Sikh kota berkumpul di luar penjara membuat pemerintah khawatir kalau-kalau orang mungkin mencoba untuk mendapatkan Bhai Sahib dirilis. Jaksa Distrik langsung mendapat Maharaj Singh dan terdekat muridnya Kharak Singh dipindahkan ke tahanan penguasa militer.

Ditemukan terlalu berisiko untuk menempatkan Bhai Maharaj Singh diadili di India dan dia dideportasi ke Singapura. Dia tiba pada “Shah Muhmed”, pada tanggal 9 Juli 1850, bersama dengan seorang murid, Kharak Singh, dan pindah ke Penjara Outram. Ia disimpan dalam kurungan tersendiri dalam sel 14 oleh 15 kaki, yang, karena sampai Walling dari jendela, telah “lanjut diberikan gelap, perahu dan benar-benar tidak sehat” (Makalah Konsultasi Rahasia, 28 Februari 1851, # 52-57 ). Dia praktis buta dalam waktu tiga tahun, menderita kanker di lidahnya, dan telah bengkak dan nyeri rematik di kakinya dan pergelangan kaki. The Surgeon Sipil, Singapura, direkomendasikan bahwa Bhai Maharaj Singh diperbolehkan sesekali berjalan kaki di tempat terbuka, tapi ini ditolak oleh Pemerintah Inggris di India. Hasilnya adalah bahwa kesehatannya terus memburuk, dan sekitar dua bulan sebelum kematiannya, leher dan lidahnya menjadi bengkak sehingga menjadi sangat sulit baginya untuk menelan.

Bhai Maharaj Singh meninggal pada 5 Juli 1856. Dia dikremasi di sebidang tanah di luar penjara, mungkin dengan Khurruck Singh, yang juga meninggal di penjara nanti.

Bhai Maharaj SINGH MEMORIAL SINGAPURA

1870

Batch pertama juga dari Patiala, Ludhiana dan Ferozepur dibawa ke Singapura pada akhir 1870 dan membentuk Kontingen Polisi Sikh pertama ditempatkan di Garis Sepoy kemudian dikenal sebagai Hill Pearl menghadap Chinatown

1873

Pada tahun 1873, Kapten Speedy direkrut 110 Sikh dari distrik Patiala, Ludhiana Punjab dan Ferozepur untuk layanan di Perak (di Malaysia). Band ini dikenal sebagai Polisi Bersenjata Perak. Keberhasilan ini direkrut awal mendorong Inggris untuk merekrut Sikh lebih dan 1888, di bawah satu Kapten Walker, kelompok itu tumbuh dan kemudian dikenal sebagai Perak 1 Sikh. Dengan 1896, gaya nomor 900 dan berganti nama menjadi negara bagian Melayu Guides dengan Walker sebagai Kolonel pertama mereka.

Sementara itu, keberhasilan Sikh sebagai polisi atau sepahi di Malaya memimpin Inggris untuk mendatangkan beberapa ke Singapura. . Sikh polisi juga direkrut oleh Perusahaan Tanjong Pagar Dock untuk membentuk Angkatan Kepolisian Tanjong Pagar Dock.

1885

Sementara gelombang pertama Sikh datang terutama sebagai polisi, pada tahun 1885 Sikh lebih dari kabupaten lain di Punjab yaitu, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar dan Lahore adalah membuat cara mereka sendiri ke Singapura untuk mencari kekayaan mereka. Sebagian besar Sikh tidak bisa masuk ke Kepolisian sebagai direkrut sebelumnya dibatasi entri selanjutnya kepada kerabat atau orang kabupaten sesama. Dengan demikian, para migran ini kemudian menjadi penjaga, polisi polisi tambahan, pengusaha waktu kecil atau pergi ke peternakan sapi perah. Kisah satu Hari Singh Choney dari Gurdaspur distrik adalah khas dari para migran awal. Hari Singh datang ke Singapura pada 1885. Dia melakukan perjalanan seperti banyak orang lain di dek, memasak makanan sendiri. Dia mendarat di Singapura di Tanjong Pagar dan dibantu oleh beberapa polisi yang bertugas Sikh yang memberinya akomodasi sementara. Satu Sunder Singh, seorang polisi polisi, membantunya menemukan pekerjaan berpatroli di dasar Botanic Gardens. Seperti banyak Sikh di Singapura kemudian, Hari Singh memimpin hidup sangat hemat, pemulangan sebagian besar tabungannya dan membantu untuk membawa keluar kerabat lainnya. Beberapa tahun setelah kedatangannya, Hari Singh dibawa keluar adiknya Jaimall Singh dan menemukannya pekerjaan sebagai polisi Polisi tambahan. Tugas ini APC pada masa itu untuk menjaga toko-toko opium Pemerintah menjalankan yang kemudian hukum di Singapura.

Banyak dari awal Sikh datang sebagai bujangan. Mereka kemudian kembali ke India dengan uang, menikah dan membawa keluarga mereka kembali. Hari Singh tidak berbeda, kecuali dalam kasus ia harus kembali agak tiba-tiba sebagai kakaknya Bhagat Singh meninggal mendadak meninggalkan seorang anak muda. Hari Singh menikah di India dan mengadopsi anak Bhagat Singh, Achar Singh.

VERSION ONE:Early Sikhs Immigrants mainly a policeman

Early Sikh Immigrants

prologue:
Who was Singapore’s first Sikh? The answer is not readily forthcoming. No records exist which clearly state who was the first Sikh to land here. 

1.1849

 Many of the older Sikhs still alive in Singapore recall tales of one Maharaj Singh, a political prisoner exiled to Singapore by the British after the Second Sikh War in 1849.A Sikh of noble birth, he refused to concede defeat to the British and formed a guerilla band with his followers. 

2.1850  

Unfortunately for maharaj Singh , he was caught and imprisoned before he could really organise himself. But his popularity among the Sikhs, even after he was jailed, was such that the British decided it was in their own interests to exile him.He was sent to Singapore with a manservant, arriving here sometime in the 1850’s. He was housed in the old Outram Road Jail and by all accounts was a religious person, spending long periods of time in prayer and meditation. Tales passed down by word of mouth speak of him possessing spiritual powers and of working miracles. There is no record of when he died, but it is known that after his death, he was cremated outside Outram Road Jail. Sikhs of that period, believing he was a saint, built a tomb on the spot where he was cremated.

When the authorities wanted to expand the prison, his tomb was broken up and rebuilt on a spot about a mile away. In later years, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) was built near the site of the tomb. It was not disturbed and remained in what became the hospital grounds. In 1965, the government asked the Sikhs to remove the tomb as they wished to expand the hospital. So once again, the tomb was broken up. This time after some prayers, five stones all that remained of the old tomb, were removed and placed in a new resting place in the forecourt of the Silat Road Temple nearby.

Some people call this temple as Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Why Baba Karam Singh and not Maharaj Singh? There is some controversy over who the tomb at Outram Road and subsequently SGH grounds really belonged to. The only point of consensus is that it belonged to a saintly person. There are those who believe it is Maharaj Singh’s. Then again there are those who say it was that of Baba Karam Singh, who was said to possess some spiritual powers too. What is certain is that those who maintained the tomb and later made it into a shrine of sorts, believed it was Baba Karam Singh and the name has come to stay. There may have been other political prisoners exiled to Singapore too, but nothing is known of them.

The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) recruited in India to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars.

Fighter of INDIA

 
Bhai Maharaj Singh was one of the first people of Punjab to launch a freedom movement in Punjab after the British took over Punjab. He organised resistance to British imperialism after the defeat of the Sikh Army, was exiled as State priosoner, died on 5th July, 1856 in Singapore Jail.

BHAI MAHARAJ SINGH JI
MARTYRDOM DAY – 5 JULY 1856

He said in 1849: “There will be another National War”.

“Bhai Mahararaj Singh, a Sikh priest of reputed sanctity, and of great influence, the first man who raised the standards of rebellion beyond the confines of Multan in 1848, and the only leader of note who did not lay down his arms to Sir Walter Gilberts at Rawalpindi.” said Henry Lawrence, Resident of Lahore

Bhai Maharaj Singh’s plan of action against the superior British was framed in the jungles of the Chumb Valley:

1. To rescue Maharajah Dalip Singh from Lahore Fort.
2. To organize a United Front of all anti-British forces.
3. Organized disruption by subversion and surprise attacks on British treasuries and cantonments.

He displayed superb military generalship and knowledge of tactical warfare. What sustained him was his rich spiritual heritage.

Maharaj Singh led the anti British campaign as a matter of religious duty towards his people. After the First Anglo-Sikh War he moved about the Jalandhar Doab, a British territory and aroused the people against the British. He contacted Dewan Mool Raj, the Nazim of Multan to raise a banner of revolt against the British administration of Lahore Kingdom. He went to Hazara where Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was preparing to rebel. Maharaj Singh’s presence there gave a boost to the cause of rebellion. The Bhai ignited, a year long revolt, almost national in intention. He sought to extend it all over northern India by involving in it the Maharaja of Bikaner. Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan and Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir but could not achieve desired success. Then came the Second Anglo-Sikh War which resulted in the annexation of the Punjab by the British on March 29, 1849.

The annexation of the Punjab by the British slackened the activities of the freedom fighters in the province for a number of reasons. The British Government removed Maharaj Dalip Singh outside Punjab to Missouri in whose name the freedom fighters had fought between 1846-49. Secondly, Rani Jindan escaped to Nepal and could not effectively guide the movement. Lastly, the chiefs of the Punjab who had fought the British in the Second Sikh War were exiled or were put in the prison in the United Provinces.

Maharaj Singh, however did not allow the freedom movement to die out. He chalked out a fresh plan to continue the struggle. He escaped from Rawalpindi to Jammu and from his hide out sent secret emissaries to contact, in particular, the discharged soldiers of the Khalsa Army, the Jagirdars and chiefs who had been dispossessed of their estates of pension by the British authorities and also the holders of religious estates, particularly the Gosains in the Kangra hills, who could help him finance the freedom struggle.

Maharaj Singh sought help from Dost Mohammad, The Amir of Kabul, in Punjab’s struggle for freedom from foreign rule. He wrote to the Amir and his brother Sultan Muhammad Khan for support; but they refused to render him any help. Bhai Maharaj Singh planned to make guerilla type of attacks on the selected British cantonments of Hoshiarpur, Hajipur and possibly Jalandhar. His men looted the government treasury at Bajwara.

Maharaj Singh’s example aroused the disgruntled people. The Attariwala chiefs, Dewan Hakim Rai and the Majithia Sardars were stirred to action though their movements were restricted to their villages by the orders of the British authorities. Faquirs and Brahmans who had helped in carrying message of Rani Jindan and other chiefs during the pre-annexation period started visiting places of ex-rebels, chiefs on one pretext to the other. The British intelligence reported that these people were providing links between Bhai Maharaj Singh and the chiefs who were prepared to rebel against the British in concert with Bhai Sahib.

The Bhai Sahib obtained substantial help from a large number of influential people in the Hoshiarpur district. In November 1849, he completed all arrangements for attacking cantonments in the Jalandhar Doab. In an open congregation at Sham Chaurasi, a village in the Hoshiarpur district he declared the 20th Posh (3rd January, 1850) next as the auspicious date for the general rising. The Bhai was making himself too conspicuous and had to pay the price for it. On December 29, 1849, Vinsittat, the Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar arrested him along with his 21 unarmed followers near Adampur. Vansttart the Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar who arrested him, wrote: “The Guru is no ordinary man. He is to the natives what Jesus was to the most zealous of Christians. His miracles were seen by tens of thousands, and are more implicitly believed than those worked by the ancient prophets.”

Even more generous was Mcleod, Commissioner of the Doab, who wrote: “.. had he remained at large, but a little longer … more outrages of an alarming character would have been attempted … the result of which,… would perhaps be impossible to foretell.”

The news of Maharaj Singh’s arrest and his detention in the Jalandhar Civil Jail spread like a wildfire. A large number of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of the town gathered outside the jail making the authorities apprehensive lest the people might attempt to get Bhai Sahib released. The District Magistrate immediately got Maharaj Singh and his closest disciple Kharak Singh transferred to the custody of the military authorities.

It was found too risky to put Bhai Maharaj Singh on trial in India and he was deported to Singapore. He arrived on the “Muhmed Shah”, on 9th July 1850, together with a disciple, Kharak Singh, and moved to Outram Jail. He was kept in solitary confinement in a cell 14 by 15 feet, which, because of the walling up of the windows, had been “further rendered dark, dinghy and absolutely unhealthy” (Secret Consultation Papers, 28th Feb 1851, #52-57). He was practically blind within three years, developed cancer on his tongue, and had rheumatic swellings and pains in his feet and ankles. The Civil Surgeon, Singapore, recommended that Bhai Maharaj Singh be allowed an occasional walk in the open, but this was turned down by the British Government of India. The result was that his health continued to deteriorate, and about two months before his death, his neck and tongue became so swollen that it became very difficult for him to swallow.

Bhai Maharaj Singh died on 5th July 1856. He was cremated on a plot of land outside the prison, presumably by Khurruck Singh, who also died in prison later.

BHAI MAHARAJ SINGH MEMORIAL SINGAPORE

1870

The first batch also from Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur was brought to Singapore in the late 1870s and formed the first Sikh Police Contingent stationed at Sepoy Lines later known as Pearl’s Hill overlooking Chinatown

1873

In 1873, Captain Speedy recruited 110 Sikhs from the Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab for service in Perak (in Malaysia). This band was known as the Perak Armed Police. The success of these early recruits prompted the British to recruit more Sikhs and by 1888, under one Captain Walker, the group had grown and came to be known as the 1st Perak Sikhs. By 1896, the force numbered 900 and was renamed the Malay States Guides with Walker as their first Colonel.

Meanwhile, the success of the Sikhs as policemen or sepoys in Malaya led the British to bring some down to Singapore. . Sikh policemen were also recruited by the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company to form the Tanjong Pagar Dock Police Force.

1885

While the first wave of Sikhs came mainly as policemen, by 1885 more Sikhs from other districts in Punjab namely, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar and Lahore were making their own way down to Singapore to seek their fortunes. Most of these Sikhs could not enter the Police Force as the earlier recruits restricted subsequent entry to their relatives or fellow district folks. As such, these later migrants became watchmen, additional police constables, small time businessmen or went into dairy farming. The story of one Hari Singh Choney from Gurdaspur district is typical of these early migrants. Hari Singh came to Singapore in 1885. He travelled like many others on deck, cooking his own meals. He landed in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar and was helped by some Sikh policemen on duty who gave him temporary accommodation. One Sunder Singh, a police constable, helped him find a job patrolling the grounds of the Botanic Gardens. Like many of the Sikhs in Singapore then, Hari Singh led a very frugal life, repatriating most of his savings and helping to bring out other relatives. A couple of years after his arrival, Hari Singh brought out his younger brother Jaimall Singh and found him a job as an Additional Police Constable. The job of these APCs in those days was to guard the Government run opium shops which were then legal in Singapore.

Many of these early Sikhs came as bachelors. They later returned to India with some money, married and brought their families back. Hari Singh was no different, except in his case he had to return rather suddenly as his elder brother Bhagat Singh died suddenly leaving behind a young son. Hari Singh got married in India and adopted Bhagat Singh’s son, Achar Singh.

1900

03070035

Singapura. Polisi Sikh
Kartupos – “Singapura Polisi Sikh..” c1900

Hari Singh kembali ke Singapura setelah 1900 dan mendapat pekerjaan sebagai penjaga dengan Lim Hoe Chiang dari Tanjong Pagar. Ia diberi tempat tinggal di pabrik, di persimpangan Wallich Street dan Peck Seah Street. Sebelah pabrik itu sepotong terbuka tanah di mana Hari Singh memutuskan untuk membangun sebuah gudang kayu dan menjaga beberapa ekor sapi perah. Dia mulai dengan tiga ekor sapi dan mulai apa yang akhirnya menjadi bisnis penuh waktu. Anak angkatnya, Achar Singh, mulai sekolah tapi itu beberapa waktu sebelum keluarga tumbuh.

1920

Pada tahun 1920, pertama dari empat Hari Singh putra lahir. Lalu datanglah si kembar Bassan Singh dan Singh Wassawa diikuti oleh termuda, Inder Singh. Anak-anak punya banyak teman-teman Sikh sebagai oleh kemudian banyak Sikh lain telah bermigrasi ke Singapura. Satu Sewa Singh Sedukay, yang desa dekat dengan Hari Singh di India yang menetap di Wallich Street dan membangun sebuah gudang kayu di samping Hari Singh dan memulai bisnis sendiri ternak. Sewa Singh Sedukay anak tertua, Dewan Singh Randhawa sampai 1980-an berlari koran hanya Punjabi Mingguan di Singapura.

Seperti semua migran Sikh lainnya, Hari Singh menempatkan banyak penekanan pada pendidikan. Dia memastikan anak-anaknya diperoleh baik bahasa Inggris dan Punjabi pendidikan. Achar Singh bergabung dengan Kantor Percetakan Pemerintah di Johor Bahru sebagai bukti pembaca. Sewa Singh bergabung dengan Departemen Kedokteran seperti yang dilakukan Bassan Singh. Inder Singh kemudian pindah ke Inggris dan menjadi penambang batu bara. Wasswa Singh meninggal dalam usia remaja. Setelah menghabiskan hampir seluruh masa dewasanya di Singapura, Hari Singh seperti sezamannya, tidak ingin mengakhiri hari-harinya di Singapura. Dia kembali ke India pada tahun 1952 dan meninggal di sana segera setelah. Keturunannya sekarang generasi keempat Sikh di Singapura, yang duduk nyaman kelas menengah Singapura, yang sementara mereka masih menjaga hubungan dengan desa mereka di Punjab, tidak memiliki niat untuk kembali ke sana.

Para Sikh awal baik penjaga, polisi atau susu petani. Para pedagang atau pengusaha dalam masyarakat muncul banyak nanti setelah Perang Dunia Kedua dan didirikan sendiri di High Street, berurusan dengan terutama tekstil. Seperti yang dinyatakan sebelumnya, Sikh awal penekanan banyak dalam pendidikan dan tidak mengherankan, anak-anak mereka baik menjadi pegawai negeri atau profesional melalui kerja keras dan belajar.

1920

Kuil Sikh di Singapura
Agama merupakan bagian integral dari kehidupan sehari-hari Sikh. Ketika batch pertama dari Sikh dibawa ke Singapura oleh Perusahaan India Timur sebagai polisi, sebuah kuil dibangun untuk mereka di Barak Bukit Pearl. Demikian pula, Perusahaan Tanjong Pagar Dock dibangun sebuah kuil untuk Polisi di Anson Road. Pada tahun 1920, seorang pedagang Sindhi menyumbangkan rumahnya di Queen Street untuk sebuah kuil Sikh dan menamakannya “Wada Gurdwara”, yang berarti “Kuil Besar”. Komite manajemen terdiri dari wakil-wakil terpilih dari Sikh Majha, Malwa dan Doaba. Tiga candi yang mewakili daerah-daerah – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Sabha dan Khalsa Dharmak Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – dikirim tiga anggota masing-masing untuk komite manajemen dan satu anggota masing-masing untuk Komite (Makanan) Langar.

1925

Pada tahun 1925, Sikh Majha membuka sebuah kuil di sebuah rumah berlantai dua di Queen Street dekat persimpangan Bras Basah Road. Dua tahun kemudian, ada kesalahpahaman atas imam, Giani Partap Singh, karena ia membayar mas kawin untuk menikah. Santa Singh Sedukay dan Ganesa Singh Malli dibuka lagi kuil di Cecil Street dengan Partap Singh Giani sebagai imam. Jadi selama waktu yang singkat, ada dua Singh Sabhas di Singapura. Dua tahun kemudian, kedua faksi diselesaikan perbedaan mereka dan semua Sikh Mahja pindah kembali ke tempat Queen Street. Pada tahun 1931, Sabha pindah ke kuil baru di 90 Jalan Wilkie. Pada tahun 1980, Sabha pindah ke gedung baru di Jalan 92 Wilkie berdekatan yang dibangun pada tahun 1931. Gedung tua diubah menjadi Ghar Janjh dan untuk akomodasi. Ada rencana untuk museum juga.

Para Sikh Malwa mulai sebuah kuil di Jalan Chandy belakang Gedung Cathay hadir sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Sikh Majha mulai Sri Guru Singh Sabha. Dari Jalan Chandy, yang Khalsa Dharmak Sabha pindah ke gedung ini pada 18 Jalan Niven.

Para Sikh Doaba telah kuil mereka di Kirk Teras. Pemerintah memperoleh tanah mereka untuk pembangunan perkotaan dan mereka telah sejak pindah ke Lorong 19 Geyland.

Dulu ada yang lain Kuil Sikh di sebuah gedung bertingkat ganda di Kerbau Road. Ini telah ada sejak sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua.

Ada juga Kuil Sikh lain yang dibangun untuk kenyamanan Sikh yang tinggal di dekatnya. Salah satu candi tersebut adalah Jalan Gurdwara Kayu. Ada juga satu di Naval Base untuk Sikh bekerja di pangkalan. Lain adalah di Sembawang Jalan bagi mereka yang tinggal dan bekerja di luar daerah basis. Hari ini, sebuah kuil baru ada di Yishun disebut Yishun Gurdwara. Ini merupakan hasil penggabungan dari Kayu Jalan dan Gurdwaras Sembawang, mengikuti perkembangan perumahan di utara Singapura. Ketika Pemerintah Inggris memutuskan untuk meningkatkan dan memperluas daerah Dewan Harbour, itu perlu untuk menghancurkan Barak Polisi Dock mana candi ini terletak. Ini ditawarkan tanah Kontingen Sikh di Jalan Silat untuk bait suci dan juga memberikan bantuan moneter. Dua polisi dari Kontingen Sikh dinominasikan untuk mengumpulkan dana untuk membangun candi ini. Salah satunya adalah Wasawa Singh, ayah dari Bakshis Singh, seorang pensiunan kepala sekolah. Dana dikumpulkan dari masyarakat Sikh di Singapura, Malaya dan Pulau Christmas dan Silat Jalan Sikh Temple menjadi kenyataan. Pengelolaan kuil itu diserahkan kepada polisi Sikh di bawah pimpinan seorang petugas Kontingen Sikh. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kontingen Sikh dibubarkan dan Kuil Jalan Silat diserahkan ke Komite Sentral Kuil Sikh. Bait suci adalah hari ini bagian dari Kuil Sikh Tengah.

Ketika India dan Pakistan mencapai kemerdekaan, pengusaha Sikh banyak orang yang tercerabut dari rumah mereka datang ke Singapura dan secara bertahap jumlah ini tumbuh. Pada awalnya, ini digunakan untuk berdoa Sikh di Kuil Sikh Tengah di Queen Street. Kemudian, mereka mulai bergerak memegang sebuah kuil doa di rumah-rumah anggota mereka dengan rotasi. Mereka segera memutuskan untuk memiliki bait suci mereka sendiri dan dalam waktu membeli sebuah gedung di Jalan Wilkinson mana mereka telah berubah menjadi sebuah kuil yang indah. Keanggotaan terbatas pada para pendiri asli. Keanggotaan asosiasi ini terbuka untuk semua tetapi ini tidak memiliki anggota mengatakan dalam menjalankan kuil.

Baru Tengah Sikh Temple bangunan selesai pada tahun 1986 dan dibangun dengan biaya $ 6 juta. Ini memiliki ruang doa ber-AC dan kedap suara. Ada parkir bawah tanah, fasilitas dapur modern, akomodasi bagi para imam, ruang untuk pertemuan, dan perpustakaan.

Sikh Awal Imam dan Ragis
Para imam pertama dari kalangan polisi Sikh atau sepahi. Dua dari mereka Bhai Bhai Wasawa Singh dan Amar Singh. Di antara para imam awal di Singapura Narain Singh Bhai Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, dijuluki Bhai Pawa karena ia sangat pendek, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh dan Singh Bhai Ganda.

1920

Pada 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, ada sekelompok Shabad (himne) penyanyi dari desa Mallian. Mereka lima nomor, semua saudara dan sepupu dan semua lebih dari enam meter. Mereka mengenakan malmal (jenis yang sangat tipis dari kain katun) kameez atau kemeja seperti yang dipakai oleh Pahelwans (pegulat), dan kalung emas. Mereka sebagian besar pasir Halle dey Shabads, (dinyanyikan seperti Kawalis dengan beat cepat). Anak-anak menemukan beat yang cepat dengan Dholak (drum), Shaney (simbal kecil), Chimta dan Khartale (instrumen musik India) yang sangat menawan

1930.

Barulah pada tahun 1930-an yang Sikh di Singapura memiliki kesempatan untuk mendengarkan jenis lain dari penyanyi profesional dari India ketika Janki Bai dan Kalka Bai Calcutta menghabiskan waktu sebulan di Singapura dan memberikan pertunjukan setiap malam di Serangoon Road. Ada juga konser diberikan oleh para profesional. Di antara musisi terkenal dan berbakat dan penyanyi adalah Dr Chotta Singh, Guru Sawan, Ustad Noor Md Khan, Veer Chand dan Master Muhammad.

Ada juga banyak berbakat Tabla (drum) pemain termasuk Sardar Khan, Ustad Muhammad dan Krishna Deo Tiwari. Seorang mahasiswa Gwalior, Krishan Deo juga eksponen brilian Mirdhang tersebut. Dia memberikan sejumlah pertunjukan solo di Teater Victoria dan antara Masyarakat India Utara ia biasanya disebut Mirdhangi. Sangat sedikit orang yang tahu nama yang sebenarnya.

Saat ini, banyak Kirtan dilakukan di candi ini baik oleh imam atau oleh Ragis profesional (musisi) yang datang pada tur. Akibatnya, sangat sedikit melakukan Kirtan Singapura Sikh di kuil-kuil sekarang. Seva Singh dan keluarganya digunakan untuk menjadi salah satu pengecualian. Putra sulungnya, Terlochan Singh adalah Sitarist dari Willayat Khna Gharana dan penyanyi klasik dicapai. Satwant Singh dan Surinderjeet Singh dicapai Tabla (drum) pemain. Dengan mereka seperti Sikh Singapura kebanyakan, Kirtan hanya hobi.

pada 1930 di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura. Ia belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah dia. Kemudian Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India

Almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik di tahun 1930-an di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura.

1931

Pada tahun 1931 kegiatan Olahraga, sekelompok anak muda Sikh berkumpul dan membentuk Asosiasi Khalsa. Yang termasuk kelompok ini Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa dan Teja Singh. Clubhouse pertama di padang (lapangan) pada akhir St.Georges Road. Ini adalah sebuah pondok kayu. Pada hari-hari, para anggota merasa sulit bahkan untuk membayar gaji pengurus.

Sebagai Sikh lebih dan lebih bergabung asosiasi, hal dimeriahkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, asosiasi pindah ke Jalan Bahagia mana klub yang tepat dibangun. Ada bidang yang bagus untuk game dan untuk pameran tahunan menyenangkan, Mela Punjabi. Beberapa tahun kemudian, pemerintah menawarkan sebuah situs di Tessensohn Jalan dengan kompensasi untuk bangunan tua. Sebuah komite dibentuk bangunan dengan Keadilan Choor Singh sebagai ketua. Clubhouse baru tidak pernah bisa dibangun tanpa upaya tak kenal lelah dari komite yang terdiri dari Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta dan Tharam Singh.

Anak laki-laki kami selalu dilakukan dengan baik dalam olahraga, memenangkan kejuaraan liga dan kompetisi knockout di kali banyak hoki. Dalam kriket, kami biasa kurang baik. Selain Sekolah kemudian Punjabi bertempat di klub, Tae Kwon Do dan Karate pelajaran juga dilakukan di sana. Klub ini masih digunakan untuk pernikahan dan pesta makan malam.

Komunitas Sikh selalu mengambil bagian aktif dalam semua Perayaan Hari Nasional dengan mengirimkan kontingen peserta pawai untuk Parade di bawah bendera Singapore Khalsa Asosiasi. Dalam salah satu Kompetisi Lampung Hari Nasional, kami memenangkan Hadiah Terbaik Lampung Budaya dan kami diberikan Piala Perak. Untuk upaya ini menang, kita harus berterima kasih Satwant Bath Singh, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Candler, Terlochan Harbans Singh dan Singh untuk kerja keras mereka. Para Penari Bhangra di masa lalu pawai digunakan untuk menjadi hit besar dengan penonton. Pada suatu hari yang basah keterangan di The Straits Times dengan gambar para penari membaca: “Tarian kegembiraan di jalan-jalan Singapura”.

1934

Setelah kembali pada tahun 1934, ia mengambil pekerjaan lamanya sebagai imam Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia membantu semua orang yang datang kepadanya dan tidak pernah berubah siapa pun menjauh. Selama pendudukan Jepang, dia mulai berdandan dengan chaddar (sepotong kain putih) dan segera orang mulai menangani dia sebagai Sant Sohan Singh. Dia memegang Granthi Samelans (Konferensi Para Imam) untuk semua imam Sikh di Malaya dan Singapura di mana topik-topik kepentingan bersama dibahas. Setelah kematiannya, ada lebih seperti konferensi berlangsung. Pada tahun 1921, Dewan Khalsa Bhai Malaya dipekerjakan Singh Pall, Bhai Badan Singh dan Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musisi) untuk melakukan parchaar (mengkhotbahkan agama) di Malaya. Singapura Sikh mampu mendengarkan mereka kadang-kadang ketika mereka diundang ke Singapura. Bhai Bhai Pall Singh dan Badan Singh baik siswa dari Jowalla Bhai terkenal Singh dari Baba Bakala. Sangat menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan melodi klasik mereka. Iringan pada drum dengan Bahadur Singh menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan. Anak Bhai Singh Pall yang tumbuh dan bergabung dengan kelompok ayah mereka. Sohan Singh Josh, anak sulung adalah Tabla dicapai (drum) player. Bhai Badan Singh hidup sampai usia lanjut. Dia dikenang oleh banyak siswa di seluruh negeri.

Almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik

.1937

Mr Singh Bhag belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah dia. Kemudian Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India.

1940

Tahun 1940 Sikh Misionaris Socierty, kelompok Sikh membentuk sebuah asosiasi untuk menyebarkan iman Sikh dan menyebutnya Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. Pria di balik langkah itu Bhag Singh, seorang guru sekolah. Yang lain dalam kelompok itu Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Gulzar Singh Hitashi dan. Kantor terdaftar dari Masyarakat berada di 175 Queen Street. Komite Masyarakat kemudian berhasil mendapatkan Giani Phuman Singh, seorang Sikh yang terpelajar dari India untuk bergabung. Selama tahun-tahun berikutnya, kelompok pemuda pekerja berbuat banyak untuk menyebarkan agama Sikh. Traktat dalam bahasa Tamil, Melayu, Cina dan Inggris itu dibagikan gratis sehingga masyarakat lain akan datang untuk mengetahui Sikh dan iman mereka lebih baik. Giani Phuman Singh perjalanan seluruh Malaya dan memberikan ceramah di kuil-kuil.

Sikh Missionary Society juga meluncurkan Dana Beasiswa untuk siswa miskin Sikh untuk mengejar pendidikan mereka di universitas. Membantu Moneter juga diberikan kepada anak-anak untuk studi sekunder mereka sekolah. Para penerima pertama Gorboux Singh, yang menjadi kepala sekolah, Harbans Singh, yang menjadi seorang pengacara dan Nachatar Singh.

Kekuatan pendorong di belakang masyarakat itu Bhag Singh. Kematiannya pada tahun 1960 adalah kehilangan besar Sikh di Singapura dan Malaya. Komite bahwa alat selama menjalankan Masyarakat tidak bisa melanjutkan seperti sebelumnya dan sekarang masyarakat hanya nama dalam buku-buku dari Registrar of Societies.

Pada tahun 1940 kami telah Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Kartar Singh Giani Khandawalla dan Hazara Singh Bhai. Imam-imam belajar menjalani kehidupan mereka berkhotbah dan dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat. Selama waktu luang mereka, mereka memberikan pelajaran gratis Gurmukhi kepada anak-anak. Beberapa dari mereka juga bisa melakukan Kirtan dengan iringan tabla dan harmonium.

Nama lain yang terkenal adalah Sant Sohan Singh dari Malaka. Ia lahir di India pada tahun 1902 dan datang ke Malaya pada tahun 1926. Dia tinggal di Kuil Sikh Seremban untuk waktu yang singkat dan pada 1926 diangkat imam di Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia adalah seorang Pathi Akhand sangat baik dan segera setiap orang mulai memanggilnya Sohan Singh Giani. Hubungannya dengan tiga imam sangat terpelajar, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Pasir Gulab Singh dan Singh Giani Chanan Gurne, membuatnya sadar bahwa dia tidak memiliki banyak pengetahuan sejauh tulisan suci yang bersangkutan. Jadi pada tahun 1932, ia pergi cuti ke India dan bergabung College Gurmat di Damdama Sahib dan di sana ia belajar di bawah Kartar Singh Dakha, seorang sarjana Sikh sangat terkenal. Ia memperoleh gelar dalam Giani dan juga diberikan gelar “Maha Kawya Kawi Giani” (belajar penyair besar intelektual) untuk puisiny

 THE 20th CENTURY

1900

03070035

Singapore. Sikh Policeman
Postcard – “Singapore. Sikh Policeman.” c1900

Hari Singh returned to Singapore after 1900 and got a job as a watchman with Lim Hoe Chiang of Tanjong Pagar. He was given a place to stay at the factory, at the junction of Wallich Street and Peck Seah Street. Next to the factory was an open piece of ground where Hari Singh decided to build a wooden shed and keep some dairy cows. He started with three cows and began what was eventually to become a full-time business. His adopted son, Achar Singh, started schooling but it was some time before the family grew.

1915-1918 during WW I

1920

In 1920, the first of Hari Singh’s four sons was born. Then came the twins Bassan Singh and Wassawa Singh followed by the youngest, Inder Singh. The boys had plenty of Sikh friends as by then a lot of other Sikhs had migrated to Singapore. One Sewa Singh Sedukay, whose village is close to Hari Singh’s in India settled in Wallich Street and built a wooden shed next to Hari Singh’s and started his own cattle business. Sewa Singh Sedukay’s eldest son, Dewan Singh Randhawa till the 1980s ran the only Punjabi Weekly newspaper in Singapore.

Like all other Sikh migrants, Hari Singh put a lot of emphasis on education. He made sure his children acquired both English and Punjabi education. Achar Singh joined the Government Printing Office in Johor Bahru as a proof reader. Sewa Singh joined the Medical Department as did Bassan Singh. Inder Singh later migrated to England and became a coal miner. Wasswa Singh died in his teens. After spending virtually his whole adult life in Singapore, Hari Singh like his contemporaries, did not wish to end his days in Singapore. He returned to India in 1952 and died there soon after. His descendants now fourth generation Sikhs in Singapore, are comfortably settled middle class Singaporeans, who while they still maintain links with their village in Punjab, have no intentions to return there.

The early Sikhs were either watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers. The traders or businessmen in the community came much later after the Second World War and established themselves in High Street, dealing in mainly textiles. As stated earlier, the early Sikhs placed much emphasis in education and not surprisingly, their children either became civil servants or professionals through hard work and study.

1920

Sikh Temples in Singapore
Religion is an integral part of the daily life of a Sikh. When the first batch of Sikhs was brought to Singapore by the East India Company as policemen, a temple was built for them at Pearl’s Hill Barracks. Similarly, the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company built a temple for the Police in Anson Road. In 1920, a Sindhi merchant donated his house in Queen Street for a temple and the Sikhs named it “Wada Gurdwara”, meaning “The Big Temple”. The management committee consisted of elected representatives of the Majha, Malwa and Doaba Sikhs. The three temples representing these areas – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Khalsa Dharmak Sabha and Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – sent three members each for the management committee and one member each for the Langar (Food) Committee.

1925

In 1925, the Majha Sikhs opened a temple in a double storey house in Queen Street near the junction of Bras Basah Road. Two years later, there was a misunderstanding over the priest, Giani Partap Singh, because he paid a dowry to get married. Santa Singh Sedukay and Ganesa Singh Malli opened another temple in Cecil Street with Giani Partap Singh as priest. So during this short period, there were two Singh Sabhas in Singapore. Two years later, both factions settled their differences and all the Mahja Sikhs moved back to the Queen Street premises. In 1931, the Sabha moved to its new temple at 90 Wilkie Road. In 1980, the Sabha moved to a new building at 92 Wilkie Road adjacent to the one built in 1931. The old building was converted into a Janjh Ghar and for accomodation. There are plans for a museum as well.

The Malwa Sikhs started a temple in Chandy Road behind the present Cathay Building about the same time as the Majha Sikhs started the Sri Guru Singh Sabha. From Chandy Road, the Khalsa Dharmak Sabha moved to its present building at 18 Niven Road.

The Doaba Sikhs had their temple at Kirk Terrace. The government acquired their land for urban development and they have since moved to Lorong 19 Geyland.

There used to be another Sikh Temple in a double storey building in Kerbau Road. This had been in existence since before the Second World War.

There were also other Sikh Temples built for the convenience of Sikhs living in nearby. One such temple was the Jalan Kayu Gurdwara. There was also one in the Naval Base for Sikhs working in the base. Another was in Sembawang Road for those living and working outside the base area. Today, a new temple exists in Yishun called Yishun Gurdwara. This is the result of the merger of the Jalan Kayu and Sembawang Gurdwaras, following the residential developments in the north of Singapore. When the British Government decided to improve and extend the Harbour Board area, it was necessary to demolish the Dock Police Barracks where the temple was situated. It offered the Sikh Contingent land in Silat Road for the temple and also gave monetary aid. Two policemen from the Sikh Contingent were nominated to collect funds for the building of this temple. One of them was Wasawa Singh, father of Bakshis Singh, a retired school principal. Funds were collected from the Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple.

When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple.

The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground car park, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.

The Early Sikh Priests and Ragis
The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.

1920

In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type of cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sand mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating

1930. 

It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed.

There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name.

Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.

in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore.

1931

In 1931 Sport activities , a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.

As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Road with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh.

Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

The Sikh Community has always taken an active part in all the National Day Celebrations by sending a contingent of marchers to the Parade under the banner of the Singapore Khalsa Association. In one of the National Day Float Competitions, we won the Best Cultural Float Prize and we were awarded the Silver Cup. For this winning effort, we have to thank Satwant Singh Bath, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Dler, Terlochan Singh and Harbans Singh for their hard work. The Bhangra Dancers in the march past used to be a great hit with the spectators. On one wet day the caption in The Straits Times with a picture of the dancers read : “The dance of joy in the streets of Singapore”.

1934

On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music

.1937

Mr Bhag Singh studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India.

1940

In 1940 the Sikh Missionary Socierty , a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

In the 1940s we had Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment.

Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of “Kawi Kawya Maha Giani” (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry.

During Dai Nippon Occupation 1942-1945

. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

 .
In 1940 the Sikh Missionary Socierty , a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

1950

In early 1950 the Sikh Partinidh Sabda, at a meeting held at the Queen Street Sikh Temple, the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was formed. Its function was to run the Khalsa English School in Niven Road and the Khalsa Punjab School in Wilkie Road.

The Khalsa English School was very necessary at this time because there was a shortage of schools in Singapore and many of our Sikh children could not find places in government and government aided schools. Classes were from primary to secondary levels. When there were sufficient schools in Singapore to absorb all the children, the Khalsa English School was closed. The Khalsa Punjabi School at the Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Wilkie Road was transferred to the Singapore Khalsa Association and the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was dissolved.

The Sikh Newspapers and the Press
The first Sikh newspaper was started in Malaya in 1936 and was called the Pardesi Khalsa Sewak. In 1965, there was a change of ownership and the name was changes to Malayan Samachar. Dewan Singh Randhawa, who resigned from the Singapore Police Force in 1946, started the first Punjabi paper in Singapore in 1951. He called it the Navjiwan (New Life). It was printed in Gurmukhi script and the paper had to struggle even though it was the only Punjabi paper in Southeast Asia. Advertisments, printing of wedding cards and commercial printing kept the paper going. In the late seventies and early eighties, things brightened up. The paper brought in the latest in off-set printing. It by now had subscribers not only in Singapore, but in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Australia.

Two other Sikhs have gone into the printing business and do only commercial printing. They are Kartar Singh, a retired police officer who owns Ford Printers and Gurpal Singh who owns Magh Printers. Incidentally, Gurpal Singh learned the printing business as a teenager at Navjiwan.

After Independence, the Congress leaders of India forgot their promises given to Sikh people. These very Congress lead adopted every conceivable postureand shrank from no stratagem to keep Sikhs permanently under their political heel, first, by refusing to form a Punjabi speaking state in which the Sikhs might acquire political effectiveness, and second, by not giving Sikhs and Punjab a special status in the Constitution Act of India.

In 1954, when Master Tara Singh reminded Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru of the solemn undertaking given to Sikhs many times on behalf of the majority community that after Independence Sikhs will be given an autonomous state, he coolly replied, “the circumstances have now changed “

After eighteen years of agitation and suffering, creation of a Punjabi speaking state was announced. But the commission which demarcated the boundaries on the impugned and tainted 1961 census left some of the Punjabi speaking areas out of Punjab state and gave them over to Haryana which was created out of residuary areas. The commission even allocated Chandigarh to Haryana. The problem of getting Punjabi speaking areas and Chandigarh restored to the Punjab became a major issue. Many fasts and counter fasts were kept by Sikhs and Hindus on this issue. Sardar Darshan Singh Pheruman courted martyrdom by fasting unto death on October 27, 1969. He died on 74th day of his fast, renewing the Sikh tradition of sacrifice and martyrdom. On January 26, 1970 Sant Fateh Singh, President of Shiromani Akali Dal went on fast declaring that if demand for restoring Chandigarh to Punjab is not met, he would burn himself alive On February 1, 1970 the Government announced its decision to hand over Chandigarh to Punjab, in lieu of areas of Fazilka and Abohar Tehsil to Haryana.

 

Due to the split in the Sikh leadership which started showing on the surface in 1960 onwards two factions in the Akal Dal were created: one led by Master Tara Singh and the other by Sant Fateh Singh. The result of these divisions among the Sikhs was that Akali Dal was never able to form a pure Sikh Government in Punjab. In 1967 Akali Dal formed the first non-Congress Government in Punjab with the support of Jan Sangh and the Communist party. After that Akali Dal formed the non-Congress Government twice, but both the times it was with the help of Jan Sangh or Janata Party. It speaks poorly of the Sikh ieadership and politics that even in a state in which they have majority they could not form a government, run purely by their political wing, Akali Dal.On October 16, 1973 the Akali Dal, when it was not in power, passed “The Anandpur Sahib Resolution.” The major provisions this resolution were;
regional autonomy for punjab,
return of Chandigarh to Punjab,
special status for Sikhs in the Indian union,
a supreme court review of Punjab river waters,
return of the Punjabi speaking areas to Punjab,
return of the administration of the Punjab Electric Board as well as the three thermal headworks to Punjab,
provision of a fare share of electricity to Punjab,
and some minor religious demands.

 

During the 1970’s and till the 1980’S the Akali Dal and Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee leaders has been centering around the following leaders: Prakash Singh Badal, Gurcharn Singh Tohra, Jagdev Singh Talwandi, Sujit Singh Barnala, Balwant Singh and Harchand Singh Longowal. But these leaders did not do much to get the Anandpur Sahib Resolution implemented in Punjab. Even when Akalis formed their Government supported by Janata Party in 1977 in Punjab, they did nothing outstanding to ensure that the provisions of Anandpur Sahib Resolution were implementedThey went out of their way to discourage and crush the anti-Nirankari movement started by Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and the Babbar Khalsa as a result of April 13, 1978 incident, in which thirteen devout Amritdhari Gursikhs were shot dead by the Nirankaris in Amritsar.Particularly, the behaviour of Jiwan Singh Umranangal and P.S.Badal, who were keen to win over Hindus even if it meant harming the interests of Sikhs, was most deplorable. By the time Congress (I) Government came into power again in 1980, the gap between the Akali leaders and Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had widenedWith a view to win over Hindu majority of North India and Punjab, Mrs. Indira Gandhi mischievously exploited the anti-Nirankari movement in Punjab to create communal antagonism between Sikhs and Hindus in 1980. State terrorism against devout Amritdhari Sikhs was started in Punjab through her stooge Chief Minister of Punjab, Darbara Singh, during 1982. As a reaction to the Police terrorism on Sikhs, the devout Sikhs started taking revenge on Police and officials who ordered persecution of Sikhs in 1982-83.

 

In August 1982 the ‘Dharam Yudh’ agitation was started under the dictatorship of Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, to whom all Akali Dal members of Legislative Assembly and Parliament had submitted the resignation. In October 1983, the Centre Government imposed President’s Rule Punjab.From October 1983 to June 1984, is a story of political manipulations and mischievous designs on the part of Indira Gandhi to destroy the Sikh faith and exterminate the Sikh people with a view to win over Hindu votes in India.Indira Gandhi throughout negotiations between Akali Dal and Centre never let the negotiations reach finalization or settlement because she had an ulterior motive. She let the Punjab crisis drag on in order to rally the state’s Hindus behind her and in order unify the Hindu majority of North Indian states, all of whom were concerned about the growing shrillness of the Sikh agitation. The Hindu psyche had been poisoned so much against the Sikhs through communication media and mischievous political manipulations that they wanted the Delhi Government to deal more forcefully with Sikhs. By stone-walling the Sikhs, Gandhi was consolidating her position with the Hindu majority , particularly of North India, whose support she considered necessary to win in national elections that were to be held January 1985.Sant Jarnail Singh Ji, Khalsa, Bhindranwale was one man who had the political foresight and vision and who knew that Indira Gandhi was not finalizing the negotiation because she wanted to derive the politcal advantage out of it. He also knew that all the Akali Dal leaders stood fast supported the Sikh masses of Punjab, could not damage the Sikhs. On contrary, if the Akali Dal leader show split, and entered into underhand negotiations with her, she will not only outmaneuver them, but also defeat the efforts jointly put in by all Sikhs in Dharam Yudh agitation for acceptance of Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

 

It was the saddest thing for the Sikhs to happen: Almost all the Akali leaders betrayed the Sikhs and Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale for their selfish ends and had secret meetings with representatives of Mrs.Indira Gandhi. They reached a secret understanding with her; they would not stand in her way if she used armed forces to attack Golden Temple complex and destroy Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his associates. All that they wanted in return were minister and chiefminister positions for themselves.As a result of such underhand negotiations and understanding, Mrs. Gandhi gathered the courage for launching of Operation Bluestar. The Sikhs know very well the details of desecration and destruction caused to Golden Temple complex, as also the massacre of thousands of innocent Sikh pilgrims in Golden Temple. But strangely enough H.S.Longowal and G.S.Tohra were safely escorted to the Government Guest houses! The developments, after they were released from their sanctuaries, clearly show as to what sort of loyalty these leaders had to the Sikh Panth. After playing their political gimmicks, they were again back in their saddles of President Akali Dal and President SGPC. They shamelessly built their palaces of power positions on the graveyards of tens of thousands of innocent Sikhs and on rubbles of the Akal Takhat and other historic shrines. Tens thousands of Sikhs were massacred burnt alive all over India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi, because there was no Sikh leader like Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, whom the Hidhu leaders feared.Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale was a Sikh leader, whom the Delhi rulers feared. For they knew that the Sikh masses were behind him and he could not be bought on any cost; He was a selfless servant of the Khalsa, for, he had transcended all earthly temptations which enslave the mortal beings. He was an example of the true Khalsa, who lived for Truth and died fighting for Truth.

 

A RECORD OF BETRAYAL1. [1950] The Indian Consitution was adopted. The Sikh leaders did not endorse it because all promises and assurances previously made were ignored.2. [1954] When jawaharlal Nehru was reminded of past promises, he answered, “The circumstances have now changed”3. [1956] Indian States were reorganized on language basis. Only Punjab is left out4. [1966] After a prolonged struggle and peaceful agitation, a Punjabi speaking state was created by divding Punjab further into three states.5. [1975] Indira Gandhi was found guilty of election fraud by the Indian courts. She suspended the constitution to stay in office. The Sikhs spearheaded a non violent protest against this blow to democracy. 50,000 Sikhs went to jail. Indira Gandhi never forgot that the Sikhs had opposed her one person rule.6. [1981-1984] More than 250 Sikhs were butchered by Indian security forces in fake encounters. More than 250,000 were arrested during this period while peacefully demanding state autonomy for Punjab and the rest of the state in India and their just share of Punjab waters as envisaged by international riparian laws.7. [1984] Indira Gandhi’s response to the Sikhs was uniquely senseless. From June 5-7 a full scale army attack was launched on the Golden Temple and 40 other temples, killing thousands of innocent Sikhs – men, women and children. Many of the dead have never been accounted for.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

SHIKS IN SINGAPORE VERSION TWO 


 

 

second version:

Sikhism in Singapore 

There are some 15,000 Sikhs in Singapore. The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) in 1873 brought by the British to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars. The early Sikhs were employed as watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers.

It was only after the Second World War that they established themselves as traders or businessmen in the community in High Street, mainly dealing in textiles. Today there are about 15,000 Sikhs in Singapore.

Contents

 

Early Sikh Immigrants

Who was Singapore’s first Sikh? The answer is not readily forthcoming. No records exist which clearly state who was the first Sikh to land here. But many of the older Sikhs still alive in Singapore recall tales of one Maharaj Singh, a political prisoner exiled to Singapore by the British after the Second Sikh War in 1849.

A Sikh of noble birth, he refused to concede defeat to the British and formed a guerilla band with his followers. Unfortunately for him, he was caught and imprisoned before he could really organise himself. But his popularity among the Sikhs, even after he was jailed, was such that the British decided it was in their own interests to exile him.

He was sent to Singapore with a manservant, arriving here sometime in the 1850’s. He was housed in the old Outram Road Jail and by all accounts was a religious person, spending long periods of time in prayer and meditation. Tales passed down by word of mouth speak of him possessing spiritual powers and of working miracles. There is no record of when he died, but it is known that after his death, he was cremated outside Outram Road Jail. Sikhs of that period, believing he was a saint, built a tomb on the spot where he was cremated.

When the authorities wanted to expand the prison, his tomb was broken up and rebuilt on a spot about a mile away. In later years, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) was built near the site of the tomb. It was not disturbed and remained in what became the hospital grounds. In 1965, the government asked the Sikhs to remove the tomb as they wished to expand the hospital. So once again, the tomb was broken up. This time after some prayers, five stones all that remained of the old tomb, were removed and placed in a new resting place in the forecourt of the Silat Road Temple nearby.

Some people call this temple as Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Why Baba Karam Singh and not Maharaj Singh? There is some controversy over who the tomb at Outram Road and subsequently SGH grounds really belonged to. The only point of consensus is that it belonged to a saintly person. There are those who believe it is Maharaj Singh’s. Then again there are those who say it was that of Baba Karam Singh, who was said to possess some spiritual powers too. What is certain is that those who maintained the tomb and later made it into a shrine of sorts, believed it was Baba Karam Singh and the name has come to stay. There may have been other political prisoners exiled to Singapore too, but nothing is known of them.

The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) recruited in India to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars. In 1873, Captain Speedy recruited 110 Sikhs from the Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab for service in Perak (in Malaysia). This band was known as the Perak Armed Police. The success of these early recruits prompted the British to recruit more Sikhs and by 1888, under one Captain Walker, the group had grown and came to be known as the 1st Perak Sikhs. By 1896, the force numbered 900 and was renamed the Malay States Guides with Walker as their first Colonel.

Meanwhile, the success of the Sikhs as policemen or sepoys in Malaya led the British to bring some down to Singapore. The first batch also from Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur was brought to Singapore in the late 1870s and formed the first Sikh Police Contingent stationed at Sepoy Lines later known as Pearl’s Hill overlooking Chinatown. Sikh policemen were also recruited by the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company to form the Tanjong Pagar Dock Police Force.

While the first wave of Sikhs came mainly as policemen, by 1885 more Sikhs from other districts in Punjab namely, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar and Lahore were making their own way down to Singapore to seek their fortunes. Most of these Sikhs could not enter the Police Force as the earlier recruits restricted subsequent entry to their relatives or fellow district folks. As such, these later migrants became watchmen, additional police constables, small time businessmen or went into dairy farming. The story of one Hari Singh Choney from Gurdaspur district is typical of these early migrants. Hari Singh came to Singapore in 1885. He travelled like many others on deck, cooking his own meals. He landed in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar and was helped by some Sikh policemen on duty who gave him temporary accommodation. One Sunder Singh, a police constable, helped him find a job patrolling the grounds of the Botanic Gardens. Like many of the Sikhs in Singapore then, Hari Singh led a very frugal life, repatriating most of his savings and helping to bring out other relatives. A couple of years after his arrival, Hari Singh brought out his younger brother Jaimall Singh and found him a job as an Additional Police Constable. The job of these APCs in those days was to guard the Government run opium shops which were then legal in Singapore.

Many of these early Sikhs came as bachelors. They later returned to India with some money, married and brought their families back. Hari Singh was no different, except in his case he had to return rather suddenly as his elder brother Bhagat Singh died suddenly leaving behind a young son. Hari Singh got married in India and adopted Bhagat Singh’s son, Achar Singh.

Hari Singh returned to Singapore after 1900 and got a job as a watchman with Lim Hoe Chiang of Tanjong Pagar. He was given a place to stay at the factory, at the junction of Wallich Street and Peck Seah Street. Next to the factory was an open piece of ground where Hari Singh decided to build a wooden shed and keep some dairy cows. He started with three cows and began what was eventually to become a full-time business. His adopted son, Achar Singh, started schooling but it was some time before the family grew. In 1920, the first of Hari Singh’s four sons was born. Then came the twins Bassan Singh and Wassawa Singh followed by the youngest, Inder Singh. The boys had plenty of Sikh friends as by then a lot of other Sikhs had migrated to Singapore. One Sewa Singh Sedukay, whose village is close to Hari Singh’s in India settled in Wallich Street and built a wooden shed next to Hari Singh’s and started his own cattle business. Sewa Singh Sedukay’s eldest son, Dewan Singh Randhawa till the 1980s ran the only Punjabi Weekly newspaper in Singapore.

Like all other Sikh migrants, Hari Singh put a lot of emphasis on education. He made sure his children acquired both English and Punjabi education. Achar Singh joined the Government Printing Office in Johor Bahru as a proof reader. Sewa Singh joined the Medical Department as did Bassan Singh. Inder Singh later migrated to England and became a coal miner. Wasswa Singh died in his teens. After spending virtually his whole adult life in Singapore, Hari Singh like his contemporaries, did not wish to end his days in Singapore. He returned to India in 1952 and died there soon after. His descendants now fourth generation Sikhs in Singapore, are comfortably settled middle class Singaporeans, who while they still maintain links with their village in Punjab, have no intentions to return there.

The early Sikhs were either watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers. The traders or businessmen in the community came much later after the Second World War and established themselves in High Street, dealing in mainly textiles. As stated earlier, the early Sikhs placed much emphasis in education and not surprisingly, their children either became civil servants or professionals through hard work and study.

Sikh Temples in Singapore

Religion is an integral part of the daily life of a Sikh. When the first batch of Sikhs was brought to Singapore by the East India Company as policemen, a temple was built for them at Pearl’s Hill Barracks. Similarly, the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company built a temple for the Police in Anson Road. In 1920, a Sindhi merchant donated his house in Queen Street for a temple and the Sikhs named it Wada Gurdwara, meaning The Big Temple. The management committee consisted of elected representatives of the Majha, Malwa and Doaba Sikhs. The three temples representing these areas – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Khalsa Dharmak Sabha and Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – sent three members each for the management committee and one member each for the Langar (Food) Committee.

In 1925, the Majha Sikhs opened a temple in a double storey house in Queen Street near the junction of Bras Basah Road. Two years later, there was a misunderstanding over the priest, Giani Partap Singh, because he paid a dowry to get married. Santa Singh Sedukay and Ganesa Singh Malli opened another temple in Cecil Street with Giani Partap Singh as priest. So during this short period, there were two Singh Sabhas in Singapore. Two years later, both factions settled their differences and all the Mahja Sikhs moved back to the Queen Street premises. In 1931, the Sabha moved to its new temple at 90 Wilkie Road. In 1980, the Sabha moved to a new building at 92 Wilkie Road adjacent to the one built in 1931. The old building was converted into a Janjh Ghar and for accomodation. There are plans for a museum as well.

The Malwa Sikhs started a temple in Chandy Road behind the present Cathay Building about the same time as the Majha Sikhs started the Sri Guru Singh Sabha. From Chandy Road, the Khalsa Dharmak Sabha moved to its present building at 18 Niven Road.

The Doaba Sikhs had their temple at Kirk Terrace. The government acquired their land for urban development and they have since moved to Lorong 19 Geyland.

There used to be another Sikh Temple in a double storey building in Kerbau Road. This had been in existence since before the Second World War.

There were also other Sikh Temples built for the convenience of Sikhs living in nearby. One such temple was the Jalan Kayu Gurdwara. There was also one in the Naval Base for Sikhs working in the base. Another was in Sembawang Road for those living and working outside the base area. Today, a new temple exists in Yishun called Yishun Gurdwara. This is the result of the merger of the Jalan Kayu and Sembawang Gurdwaras, following the residential developments in the north of Singapore. When the British Government decided to improve and extend the Harbour Board area, it was necessary to demolish the Dock Police Barracks where the temple was situated. It offered the Sikh Contingent land in Silat Road for the temple and also gave monetary aid. Two policemen from the Sikh Contingent were nominated to collect funds for the building of this temple. One of them was Wasawa Singh, father of Bakshis Singh, a retired school principal. Funds were collected from the Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple.

When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple.

The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground car park, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.

The Early Sikh Priests and Ragis

The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.

In the 1940s we had Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment.

Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh Pandit, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of Kawi Kawya Maha Giani (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry.

On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India.

In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type of cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sand mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating.

It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed.

There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name.

Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.

Sports and Other Activities

In 1931, a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.

As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Road with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh.

Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

The Sikh Community has always taken an active part in all the National Day Celebrations by sending a contingent of marchers to the Parade under the banner of the Singapore Khalsa Association. In one of the National Day Float Competitions, we won the Best Cultural Float Prize and we were awarded the Silver Cup. For this winning effort, we have to thank Satwant Singh Bath, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Dler, Terlochan Singh and Harbans Singh for their hard work. The Bhangra Dancers in the march past used to be a great hit with the spectators. On one wet day the caption in The Straits Times with a picture of the dancers read : The dance of joy in the streets of Singapore.

The Sikh Missionary Society

In 1940, a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

The Sikh Partinidh Sabha

In early 1950, at a meeting held at the Queen Street Sikh Temple, the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was formed. Its function was to run the Khalsa English School in Niven Road and the Khalsa Punjab School in Wilkie Road.

The Khalsa English School was very necessary at this time because there was a shortage of schools in Singapore and many of our Sikh children could not find places in government and government aided schools. Classes were from primary to secondary levels. When there were sufficient schools in Singapore to absorb all the children, the Khalsa English School was closed. The Khalsa Punjabi School at the Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Wilkie Road was transferred to the Singapore Khalsa Association and the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was dissolved.

The Sikh Newspapers and the Press

The first Sikh newspaper was started in Malaya in 1936 and was called the Pardesi Khalsa Sewak. In 1965, there was a change of ownership and the name was changes to Malayan Samachar. Dewan Singh Randhawa, who resigned from the Singapore Police Force in 1946, started the first Punjabi paper in Singapore in 1951. He called it the Navjiwan (New Life). It was printed in Gurmukhi script and the paper had to struggle even though it was the only Punjabi paper in Southeast Asia. Advertisments, printing of wedding cards and commercial printing kept the paper going. In the late seventies and early eighties, things brightened up. The paper brought in the latest in off-set printing. It by now had subscribers not only in Singapore, but in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Australia.

Two other Sikhs have gone into the printing business and do only commercial printing. They are Kartar Singh, a retired police officer who owns Ford Printers and Gurpal Singh who owns Magh Printers. Incidentally, Gurpal Singh learned the printing business as a teenager at Navjiwan

Version three

 Komunitas Sikh di Singapura, Malaya dan Pulau Christmas dan Silat Jalan Sikh Temple menjadi kenyataan. Pengelolaan kuil itu diserahkan kepada polisi Sikh di bawah pimpinan seorang petugas Kontingen Sikh. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kontingen Sikh dibubarkan dan Kuil Jalan Silat diserahkan ke Komite Sentral Kuil Sikh. Bait suci adalah hari ini bagian dari Kuil Sikh Tengah. Ketika India dan Pakistan mencapai kemerdekaan, pengusaha Sikh banyak orang yang tercerabut dari rumah mereka datang ke Singapura dan secara bertahap jumlah ini tumbuh. Pada awalnya, ini digunakan untuk berdoa Sikh di Kuil Sikh Tengah di Queen Street. Kemudian, mereka mulai bergerak memegang sebuah kuil doa di rumah-rumah anggota mereka dengan rotasi. Mereka segera memutuskan untuk memiliki bait suci mereka sendiri dan dalam waktu membeli sebuah gedung di Jalan Wilkinson mana mereka telah berubah menjadi sebuah kuil yang indah. Keanggotaan terbatas pada para pendiri asli. Keanggotaan asosiasi ini terbuka untuk semua tetapi ini tidak memiliki anggota mengatakan dalam menjalankan kuil. Baru Tengah Sikh Temple bangunan selesai pada tahun 1986 dan dibangun dengan biaya $ 6 juta. Ini memiliki ruang doa ber-AC dan kedap suara. Ada parkir bawah tanah, fasilitas dapur modern, akomodasi bagi para imam, ruang untuk pertemuan, dan imam pertama library.The berasal dari kalangan polisi Sikh atau sepahi. Dua dari mereka Bhai Bhai Wasawa Singh dan Amar Singh. Di antara para imam awal di Singapura Narain Singh Bhai Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, dijuluki Bhai Pawa karena ia sangat pendek, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Bhai Inder Singh dan Ganda Singh.In tahun 1940 kami telah Bhai Sebagai sa Bandal Singh, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Kartar Singh Giani Khandawalla dan Hazara Singh Bhai. Imam-imam belajar menjalani kehidupan mereka berkhotbah dan dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat. Selama waktu luang mereka, mereka memberikan pelajaran gratis Gurmukhi kepada anak-anak. Beberapa dari mereka juga bisa melakukan Kirtan dengan iringan tabla dan harmonium. Nama lain yang terkenal adalah Sant Sohan Singh dari Malaka. Ia lahir di India pada tahun 1902 dan datang ke Malaya pada tahun 1926. Dia tinggal di Kuil Sikh Seremban untuk waktu yang singkat dan pada 1926 diangkat imam di Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia adalah seorang Pathi Akhand sangat baik dan segera setiap orang mulai memanggilnya Sohan Singh Giani. Hubungannya dengan tiga imam sangat terpelajar, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Pasir Gulab Singh dan Singh Giani Chanan Gurne, membuatnya sadar bahwa dia tidak memiliki banyak pengetahuan sejauh tulisan suci yang bersangkutan. Jadi pada tahun 1932, ia pergi cuti ke India dan bergabung College Gurmat di Damdama Sahib dan di sana ia belajar di bawah Kartar Singh Dakha, seorang sarjana Sikh sangat terkenal. Ia memperoleh gelar dalam Giani dan juga diberikan gelar “Maha Kawya Kawi Giani” (belajar penyair besar intelektual) untuk puisinya. Setelah kembali pada tahun 1934, ia mengambil pekerjaan lamanya sebagai imam Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia membantu semua orang yang datang kepadanya dan tidak pernah berubah siapa pun menjauh. Selama pendudukan Jepang, dia mulai berdandan dengan chaddar (sepotong kain putih) dan segera orang mulai menangani dia sebagai Sant Sohan Singh. Dia memegang Granthi Samelans (Konferensi Para Imam) untuk semua imam Sikh di Malaya dan Singapura di mana topik-topik kepentingan bersama dibahas. Setelah kematiannya, ada lebih seperti konferensi berlangsung. Pada tahun 1921, Dewan Khalsa Bhai Malaya dipekerjakan Singh Pall, Bhai Badan Singh dan Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musisi) untuk melakukan parchaar (mengkhotbahkan agama) di Malaya. Singapura Sikh mampu mendengarkan mereka kadang-kadang ketika mereka diundang ke Singapura. Bhai Bhai Pall Singh dan Badan Singh baik siswa dari Jowalla Bhai terkenal Singh dari Baba Bakala. Sangat menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan melodi klasik mereka. Iringan pada drum dengan Bahadur Singh menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan. Anak Bhai Singh Pall yang tumbuh dan bergabung dengan kelompok ayah mereka. Sohan Singh Josh, anak sulung adalah Tabla dicapai (drum) player. Bhai Badan Singh hidup sampai usia lanjut. Dia dikenang oleh banyak siswa di seluruh negeri ini almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik di tahun 1930-an di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura. Ia belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah him.Later Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India. Pada 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, ada sekelompok Shabad (himne) penyanyi dari desa Mallian. Mereka lima nomor, semua saudara dan sepupu dan semua lebih dari enam meter. Mereka mengenakan malmal (jenis yang sangat tipis dari kain katun) kameez atau kemeja seperti yang dipakai oleh Pahelwans (pegulat), dan kalung emas. Mereka menyanyikan sebagian besar Halle dey Shabads, (dinyanyikan seperti Kawalis dengan beat cepat). Anak-anak menemukan beat yang cepat dengan Dholak (drum), Shaney (simbal kecil), Chimta dan Khartale (instrumen musik India) yang sangat menawan. Barulah pada tahun 1930-an yang Sikh di Singapura memiliki kesempatan untuk mendengarkan jenis lain dari penyanyi profesional dari India ketika Janki Bai dan Kalka Bai Calcutta menghabiskan waktu sebulan di Singapura dan memberikan pertunjukan setiap malam di Serangoon Road. Ada juga konser diberikan oleh para profesional. Di antara musisi terkenal dan berbakat dan penyanyi adalah Dr Chotta Singh, Guru Sawan, Ustad Noor Md Khan, Veer Chand dan Master Muhammad. Ada juga banyak berbakat Tabla (drum) pemain termasuk Sardar Khan, Ustad Muhammad dan Krishna Deo Tiwari. Seorang mahasiswa Gwalior, Krishan Deo juga eksponen brilian Mirdhang tersebut. Dia memberikan sejumlah pertunjukan solo di Teater Victoria dan antara Masyarakat India Utara ia biasanya disebut Mirdhangi. Sangat sedikit orang yang tahu nama yang sebenarnya. Saat ini, banyak Kirtan dilakukan di candi ini baik oleh imam atau oleh Ragis profesional (musisi) yang datang pada tur. Akibatnya, sangat sedikit melakukan Kirtan Singapura Sikh di kuil-kuil sekarang. Seva Singh dan keluarganya digunakan untuk menjadi salah satu pengecualian. Putra sulungnya, Terlochan Singh adalah Sitarist dari Willayat Khna Gharana dan penyanyi klasik dicapai. Satwant Singh dan Surinderjeet Singh dicapai Tabla (drum) pemain. Dengan mereka seperti Sikh Singapura kebanyakan, Kirtan hanya hobby.In 1931, sekelompok anak muda Sikh berkumpul dan membentuk Asosiasi Khalsa. Yang termasuk kelompok ini Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa dan Teja Singh. Clubhouse pertama di padang (lapangan) pada akhir St.Georges Road. Ini adalah sebuah pondok kayu. Pada hari-hari, para anggota merasa sulit bahkan untuk membayar gaji caretaker.As Sikh lebih dan lebih bergabung asosiasi, hal dimeriahkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, asosiasi pindah ke Jalan Bahagia mana klub yang tepat dibangun. Ada bidang yang bagus untuk game dan untuk pameran tahunan menyenangkan, Mela Punjabi. Beberapa tahun kemudian, pemerintah menawarkan sebuah situs di Tessensohn Roadn dengan kompensasi untuk bangunan tua. Sebuah komite dibentuk bangunan dengan Keadilan Choor Singh sebagai ketua. Clubhouse baru tidak pernah bisa dibangun tanpa upaya tak kenal lelah dari komite yang terdiri dari Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta dan Tharam Singh. Anak laki-laki kami selalu dilakukan dengan baik dalam olahraga, memenangkan kejuaraan liga dan kompetisi knockout di kali banyak hoki. Dalam kriket, kami biasa kurang baik. Selain Sekolah kemudian Punjabi bertempat di klub, Tae Kwon Do dan Karate pelajaran juga dilakukan di sana. Klub ini masih digunakan untuk pernikahan dan pesta makan malam.

 
 

Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple. When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple. The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground carpark, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.In the 1940s we had Bhai As sa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment. Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of “Kawi Kawya Maha Giani” (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry. On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him.Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India. In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type o f cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sang mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating. It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed. There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name. Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.In 1931, a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa,Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Roadn with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh. Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

 

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Kisah Tawanan Perang Dai Nippon 1942-1945 Bagian Keempat(Dai Nippon Prisoner of War)

 MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

Prisoners of war exercising

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI iNDONESIA

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON BAGIAN KEempat 1942-1945

THE DAI NIPPON POW PART Four 1942-1945 

1.Tahanan perang Dai Nippon dari tentara  Inggris

.Peneliti Jepang berharap untuk melacak tahanan perang Inggris yang muncul dalam foto-foto yang telah dirahasiakan sejak akhir Perang Dunia Kedua
Prisoners in a POW camp in Japan in the last year of the war
Gambar: Courtesy of Tahanan Perang Jaringan Penelitian Jepang

 

2.TAHANAN PERANG AMERIKA SERIKAT

Serangan terhadap pangkalan angkatan laut AS di Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

The attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Kisah ini berlatar pada musim dingin tahun 1941 (pada tanggal 7 Desember Jepang menyerang pangkalan angkatan laut AS di Pearl Harbor).

Setelah serangan ini, AS merasa dipaksa untuk memasuki Perang Dunia II.

Dalam Superman dan baju hangat baru Paula Brown, narator terkejut dengan gambar mengerikan dari tahanan yang ditahan oleh Jepang – yang disiksa sebagian oleh ditolak makanan atau air – ketika dia pergi ke bioskop setelah pesta ulang tahun Paula Brown ‘.

Orang Jepang terkenal untuk mengobati tahanan buruk. Beberapa laporan yang diterbitkan setelah perang termasuk fakta mengerikan. Misalnya, tahanan:

dipaksa untuk berbaris lebih dari 50 mil tanpa makanan atau air (selama satu perjalanan paksa, 16.000 orang meninggal dalam dua minggu)
menyerang dengan senapan, bambu atau apa pun yang bisa menyakiti
dipenggal kepalanya karena pelanggaran sedikit pun, seperti memiliki noda air di celana mereka
makan lebih dari 100g beras berair hari
digiring ke kereta api, di mana mereka sering meninggal karena dehidrasi.

Tentara AS di sebuah kamp tawanan perang Jepang

US soldiers in a Japanese prisoner-of-war camp

Kekejaman sengaja Jepang terhadap tawanan mereka tercermin dalam cerita baik ketika Sheldon Fein penyiksaan serangga dan Paula Brown menyalahkan narator untuk merusak pakaian salju nya. Dapatkah Anda memikirkan alasan lain mengapa perang membuat latar belakang yang baik untuk cerita? (Silahkan lihat pada bagian Tema.)

3.Perang Dunia Dua – Tawanan Kamp Jepang Perang 
  

 
Japanese Prisoner of War Camps

Ada lebih dari 140.000 tahanan putih di kamp-kamp tahanan perang Jepang. Dari jumlah tersebut, satu dari tiga meninggal akibat kelaparan, kerja, hukuman atau dari penyakit yang tidak ada obat untuk mengobati.

Tahanan dari Jepang menemukan diri mereka di kamp-kamp di Jepang, Taiwan, Singapura dan Jepang lainnya yang diduduki negara.

Kamp tawanan perang di Jepang bertempat menangkap kedua personel militer dan warga sipil yang telah di Timur sebelum pecahnya perang.

Ketentuan Konvensi Jenewa diabaikan oleh Jepang yang membuat peraturan dan hukuman yang dijatuhkan pada kehendak dari Komandan Kamp. 

 
Execution of a prisoner of war

Kamp-kamp itu dikelilingi dengan pagar kawat berduri atau kayu yang tinggi dan mereka yang mencoba melarikan diri akan dieksekusi di depan tahanan lainnya. Di beberapa kamp Jepang juga dilaksanakan sepuluh tahanan lainnya juga. Upaya melarikan diri dari kamp-kamp Jepang langka.

“Kematian seorang POW.” Tahanan dari Jepang: POW Dunia …

Akomodasi Camp pada umumnya di barak dan tahanan diberi tikar untuk tidur. 

 
Prisoners of war exercising

Sangat sedikit dari para penjaga Jepang berbicara bahasa Inggris dan interniran dipaksa untuk belajar bahasa Jepang dalam rangka untuk memahami perintah mereka diberikan. Kegagalan untuk mematuhi instruksi akan merit pemukulan. Tenko adalah nama yang diberikan kepada harian roll-call dan tahanan harus memanggil tawanan nomor mereka di Jepang.

Mayoritas tahanan dipekerjakan di pertambangan, bidang, galangan kapal dan pabrik pada diet sekitar 600 kalori per hari. Harry Carver komentar “.. saya – seorang budak kulit putih saya bekerja 12 jam sehari pada diet kacang kedelai dan rumput laut..” Tahanan jarang diberikan lemak dalam diet mereka dan semuanya terus-menerus lapar. Mayoritas selamat pada gandum, daging rebus hijau, atau ikan sekali sebulan dan rebusan rumput laut. Palang Merah paket yang tidak didistribusikan kepada para tahanan.

Mereka yang menderita kondisi terburuk dan kesulitan sementara tawanan perang Jepang, orang-orang yang dikirim untuk membangun kereta api Birma-Thailand. Tawanan perang dan labourors Asia bekerja berdampingan untuk membangun kereta api 260 km dengan tangan. Mereka diharapkan bekerja dari fajar hingga senja, sepuluh hari dan satu hari libur, bumi bergerak, membangun jembatan, peledakan melalui pegunungan dan peletakan jalur.

Mereka bertahan pada diet sedikit beras dan sayur-sayuran dan sakit adalah hal biasa. Narapidana menderita kekurangan gizi, bisul dan kolera. Sekitar 61.000 tahanan ditempatkan untuk bekerja di perusahaan kereta api. Dari mereka 13.000 mati.

4.Para POW Kamp

POWs in camp.

Tawanan perang dalam kamp POW dekat Ohasi, Jepang. Para tahanan termasuk pria selusin dari U.S.S. Houston, beberapa orang Amerika dari Artileri Lapangan 131, dan Australia dari Angkatan Bersenjata Kekaisaran Australia dan HMAS Perth. Hadiah Henry ciri khas.

Dari 1068 anggota kru di Houston, 368 selamat dari tenggelamnya kapal dan berenang jam-panjang pantai Jawa. Setelah mencapai pantai, banyak orang segera menemukan diri mereka tawanan Jepang. Lainnya melakukan kontak dengan penduduk asli Jawa, yang memperingatkan Jepang untuk kehadiran pelaut. Setelah di tangan Jepang, orang-orang dari Houston memulai hidup kesulitan primitif dan perlakuan brutal yang akan berlangsung selama tiga setengah tahun.

Setelah minggu pertempuran dan cobaan dalam air, orang-orang itu kelelahan dan lapar, banyak dari mereka yang tercakup dalam minyak dari kapal. Beberapa sangat buruk terbakar. Kelompok tawanan digiring dan dipaksa untuk bertahan “bashings” dari Jepang, yang menggunakan popor senapan mereka untuk menjaga orang-orang bergerak. Jepang mengambil tawanan Amerika mereka ke kota Serang, di mana mereka menghabiskan seminggu penuh sesak ke teater lokal bersama dengan tahanan Australia dan Belanda, dengan sedikit makanan dan tidak ada perawatan medis, sebelum dipindahkan ke penjara lokal, dimana kondisi sama-sama buruk .

Railroad Spike

Ini spike pulih dari situs Burma-Thailand tahun Kereta Api banyak setelah perang. Hampir 13.000 tawanan perang Sekutu tewas bangunan “Kereta Api Kematian.” Hadiah dari Otto Schwarz.

POW Spoon
 
Seorang sersan infanteri Jepang memberikan sendok ini untuk POW George Detre saat ia ditangkap. Selama berbulan-bulan Detre satu-satunya orang yang memiliki alat, dan ia menggunakan sendok untuk 2 1 / 2 tahun. Hadiah George Detre.
 

Pada bulan April 1942, sebagian besar pria diangkut ke “Camp Sepeda” di Batavia. Sepeda Camp, yang telah menjadi tempat untuk Angkatan Sepeda Batalyon Kesepuluh Hindia Belanda Tentara, menawarkan POW kondisi terbaik mereka akan mengalami sebagai tawanan-perang-. Orang-orang memiliki akses ke shower dan air mengalir, dan tinggal tiga ke sebuah ruangan di barak dengan lantai semen. Dalam Sepeda Camp, orang-orang dari Houston yang bergabung dengan pasukan dari Batalion 2, Artileri Lapangan 131, unit Garda Nasional dari Texas (dijuluki “Batalyon Hilang” karena keberadaan mereka tidak diketahui selama Perang Dunia II).

Pada bulan Oktober, sebagian besar tawanan perang diambil dari Kamp Sepeda ke Singapura, sedangkan sisanya dikirim untuk bekerja di berbagai kamp di seluruh Asia. Perjalanan ke Singapura adalah salah satu pengalaman yang paling mengerikan memulihkan keadaan mereka, sebagai laki-laki macet ke dalam memegang dari kargo tua berkarat seperti Dai Nichi Maru. Para POW menghabiskan beberapa hari dan malam pada “kapal neraka” dengan tidak ada ruang untuk bergerak dan hampir setiap beras untuk makan, di tengah orang-orang yang sekarang sakit disentri. Setelah tiba, para pria menghabiskan beberapa minggu di Camp Changi sebelum mengambil kapal lain neraka ke tujuan akhir mereka di Moulmein, Burma.

Prisoners working on railroad

Tawanan perang Sekutu membantu membangun Kereta Api Birma-Thailand di tengah kondisi hidup primitif seperti ini. Hadiah Miles Betty Batchelor.

A P.O.W.'s Gear
 
Barang-barang ini tawanan perang difoto pada pelepasan tawanan perang dari Tikus Buri, Thailand, pada 1945. Hadiah dari Eugene Wilkinson.
 

Jepang membawa tawanan perang Amerika ke Burma untuk menjadi kerja paksa untuk proyek khusus. Berkeinginan untuk menciptakan rute yang lebih nyaman dari Thailand ke Burma untuk memindahkan pasukan dan bahan baku, Jepang merencanakan untuk menghubungkan dua jalur kereta api dalam lima belas bulan mustahil pendek. Mereka menempatkan 61.000 tawanan perang Sekutu dan lebih dari 200.000 penduduk asli Asia untuk bekerja membangun Kereta Api Burma-Thailand, yang akan membentang 250 mil antara gunung-gunung, melintasi sungai, dan melalui hutan. POW Amerika di lima puluh orang tim menebang pohon, tempat tidur jalan dan jembatan dibangun, dan dasi diletakkan dan rel untuk Kereta Api Kematian.

Kondisi hidup untuk buruh yang mengerikan. Setiap orang menerima setengah cangkir bug-beras sehari penuh, dan beberapa POW turun di bawah 80 kilogram. Malnutrisi membawa penyakit, seperti beri-beri, pellagra, dan kudis. Lingkungan tropis dibesarkan lebih banyak kasus disentri, ditambah malaria, kolera, dan borok tropis yang makan melalui daging untuk mengekspos tulang. Walaupun dokter hadir di kamp-kamp, ​​mereka tidak diperbolehkan ada obat atau alat untuk praktek kedokteran. Para pekerja yang terlalu lambat dipukuli; mereka yang terlalu sakit untuk bekerja tidak mendapat makanan, dan akhirnya dikirim ke Kamp 80 terkenal Kilo mati.

POWs rescued after the war

Pada bulan Agustus 1945, POW belajar bahwa perang sudah berakhir dan mereka akan segera dirilis setelah 3 1 / 2 tahun sebagai tawanan perang. Hadiah Mrs Jack (Doris) Smith.

Hampir 13.000 tawanan perang Sekutu dan 100.000 penduduk asli Asia meninggal gedung Kereta Api Kematian, termasuk 79 orang dari Houston. Setelah penyelesaian kereta api pada bulan Oktober 1943, POW yang masih hidup tersebar ke berbagai kamp di Singapura, Burma, Indocina, dan Jepang, di mana mereka melakukan pekerjaan manual untuk Jepang sampai akhir perang. Pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1945, POW mengetahui bahwa perang sudah berakhir. Setelah pembebasan mereka, mereka dikirim ke rumah sakit di Calcutta, India dan Filipina sebelum kembali ke Amerika Serikat, di mana mereka bersatu kembali dengan orang yang mereka cintai dan memulai proses membangun kembali kehidupan mereka.

 

5.KAMP TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI CHANGI SINGAPORE

Changi adalah salah satu tahanan Jepang yang lebih terkenal kamp-kamp perang. Changi digunakan untuk memenjarakan warga sipil dan tentara Sekutu Melayu. Pengobatan yang POW di Changi itu kasar, tapi cocok dengan keyakinan yang dipegang oleh Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang bahwa mereka yang telah menyerah itu bersalah karena tidak menghormati negara mereka dan keluarga dan, dengan demikian, pantas untuk diperlakukan dengan cara lain.

Untuk alasan ini, 40.000 orang dari penyerahan Singapura berbaris ke ujung utara pulau di mana mereka dipenjarakan di sebuah pangkalan militer yang disebut Selerang, yang berada di dekat desa Changi. Penduduk sipil Inggris di Singapura dipenjara di penjara Changi itu sendiri, satu mil jauhnya dari Selerang. Akhirnya, setiap referensi untuk daerah hanya dibuat untuk Changi.

Selama beberapa bulan pertama POW di Changi diizinkan untuk melakukan apa yang mereka inginkan dengan sedikit gangguan dari Jepang. Hanya ada cukup makanan dan obat-obatan disediakan dan, untuk memulai dengan, Jepang tampaknya acuh tak acuh terhadap apa yang tidak POW di Changi. Konser diorganisir, kuis, acara olahraga dll Kamp itu disusun menjadi batalyon, resimen dll dan disiplin militer teliti dipertahankan. Namun, oleh Paskah 1942, sikap orang Jepang telah berubah. Mereka terorganisir pihak bekerja untuk memperbaiki dermaga yang rusak di Singapura dan makanan dan obat-obatan menjadi langka. Lebih tajam, Jepang menegaskan bahwa mereka tidak menandatangani Konvensi Jenewa dan mereka berlari kamp karena mereka lihat cocok.

Tahun 1942 pindah, kematian dari disentri dan kekurangan vitamin menjadi lebih umum.

Suasana Jepang berubah untuk yang terburuk ketika POW mencoba melarikan diri. Upaya itu gagal dan Jepang menuntut bahwa setiap orang di kamp menandatangani dokumen yang menyatakan bahwa mereka tidak akan berusaha untuk melarikan diri. Ini ditolak. Akibatnya, 20.000 itu digiring ke POW persegi barak dan diberitahu bahwa mereka akan tetap di sana sampai perintah itu diberikan untuk menandatangani dokumen. Ketika ini tidak mendapatkan hasil yang diinginkan, sekelompok POW adalah berbaris ke pantai lokal dan ditembak. Meskipun demikian, tidak ada yang menandatangani dokumen. Hanya ketika orang-orang itu terancam oleh epidemi, adalah perintah yang diberikan bahwa dokumen harus ditandatangani. Namun, komandan menjelaskan bahwa dokumen itu tidak mengikat seperti telah ditandatangani dibawah paksaan. Dia juga tahu bahwa anak buahnya sangat membutuhkan obat bahwa Jepang akan dipotong jika dokumen belum ditandatangani. Tapi episode ini menandai titik of no return-untuk itu POW di Changi.

Jepang menggunakan POW di Changi untuk kerja paksa. Rumus sangat sederhana – jika Anda bekerja, Anda akan mendapatkan makanan. Jika Anda tidak bekerja, Anda akan mendapatkan makanan. Pria dibuat untuk bekerja di dermaga di mana mereka dimuat amunisi ke kapal. Mereka juga digunakan untuk saluran pembuangan yang jelas rusak dalam serangan di Singapura. Orang-orang yang terlalu sakit untuk bekerja bergantung pada mereka yang bisa bekerja untuk makanan mereka. Berbagi apa yang sudah persediaan sedikit menjadi cara hidup.

Jumlah itu terus di Changi POW turun cukup tajam sebagai laki-laki terus-menerus dikirim ke daerah lain di kekaisaran Jepang untuk bekerja. Pria dikirim ke Kalimantan untuk bekerja, atau ke Thailand untuk bekerja di kereta api Birma-Thailand atau Jepang sendiri di mana mereka dibuat untuk bekerja di tambang. Mereka digantikan oleh lebih banyak tentara ditangkap, penerbang dan pelaut dari berbagai negara Sekutu. Malaria, disentri dan dermatitis yang umum, seperti juga pemukulan karena tidak bekerja cukup keras.

Pada 1943, 7.000 pria kiri di Selerang dipindahkan ke penjara di Changi. Itu dibangun untuk menahan 1.000 orang. Jepang dijejalkan dalam 7.000 tawanan perang, lima atau enam hingga satu sel manusia. Dengan kepadatan penduduk, risiko penyakit dan penyebarannya sangat nyata. Sangat sedikit tiba dari Palang Merah dan orang-orang di Changi harus bergantung pada inisiatif mereka sendiri untuk bertahan hidup. Misalnya, petugas medis tentara pada tablet dibuat Changi dan meyakinkan para penjaga Jepang bahwa mereka adalah obat untuk VD, dan sesuai menjualnya kepada para penjaga. Mereka kemudian bisa membeli obat yang tepat untuk laki-laki mereka sendiri dalam upaya untuk membantu mereka yang sakit.

Sebagai akhir dari Perang Pasifik mendekat, jatah ke POW itu berkurang dan kebutuhan kerja meningkat. POW itu dibuat untuk menggali terowongan dan lubang rubah di perbukitan sekitar Singapura sehingga Jepang akan memiliki tempat untuk menyembunyikan dan melawan ketika Sekutu akhirnya mencapai Singapura. Bayar untuk pekerjaan ini telah meningkat menjadi 30 sen per hari – tapi satu kelapa biaya $ 30. POW Banyak yang percaya bahwa Jepang akan membunuh mereka sebagai Sekutu sudah dekat ke Singapura. Hal ini pernah terjadi. Ketika Kaisar Hirohito kepada masyarakat Jepang bahwa perang ‘telah pergi belum tentu untuk keuntungan kami, tentara Jepang di Changi hanya diserahkan penjara untuk mereka yang telah menjadi tahanan. Untuk para prajurit, mereka hanya mematuhi perintah Imperial dan tidak mempermalukan keluarga mereka atau negara.

Ketika Lord Mountbatten tiba di Singapura, ia bergabung dengan RAPWI – ‘Rehabilitasi Tahanan Perang Sekutu dan interniran’. Amerika adalah yang pertama untuk meninggalkan Changi. Yang tersisa RAPWI dibaptis ‘Simpan semua Tahanan Perang Tidak terbatas’. Ketika orang itu dipulangkan mereka pergi baik Sri Lanka atau Australia untuk pulih

hilangnya tragis NX73975, Swasta Henry Raymond Everingham, di sebuah kamp POW Jepang di Chnagi Singapura.
Setelah benar-benar dipermalukan oleh dibuat bodoh total untuk jatuh untuk spoof terakhir surat kabar Guardian – Saya akan berpikir David Flint mungkin harus mundur ke nya Bondi Beach datar untuk daun melalui buku-buku bergambar tentang Ratu sebagai seorang anak.

Tapi tidak, di sini dia berada di Anzac Day dalam satu napas menyerukan agar setiap orang menghormati hari dan tidak politik atau memecah-belah – kemudian dalam napas berikutnya, ini bodoh bergaya regurgitates permohonan sebelumnya Ray Martin untuk perubahan ke bendera Australia. Saya akan berpikir itu adalah hak setiap Australia untuk mengatakan apa yang dia suka yang setiap hari dalam seminggu – Anzac Day atau tidak – tetapi Flint menampilkan totalnya kurangnya pemahaman tentang jiwa Australia; kebebasan berbicara. Pasti hari-hari awal di Indonesia.

Jadi, pada Hari Anzac biarkan aku mendapatkan sedikit pribadi.

Saya juga ingin bendera berubah. Saya ingin bendera negara asing dihapus dari sudut bendera negara saya. Saya ingin bendera saya menjadi jelas Australia – sesuatu yang hanya tidak dapat dalam desain sekarang.

NX73975, Swasta Henry Raymond Everingham
Sekarang, apa Flint tahu tentang pikiran prajurit Australia dan perempuan yang berjuang dan bertugas di bawah bendera ini lolos saya.

Aku ingin tahu … apakah dia memiliki saudara kandung atau paman atau bibi yang masuk dalam kategori itu?

 
 
 

English Version :

 
 
The attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.The attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

The story is set in the winter of 1941 (on 7 December the Japanese attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor).

After this attack, the US felt forced to enter World War Two.

In Superman and Paula Brown’s new Snowsuit, the narrator is shocked by gruesome images of prisoners held by the Japanese – who were tortured in part by being denied food or water – when she goes to the movies after Paula Browns’ birthday party.

The Japanese were notorious for treating prisoners badly. Some reports published after the war include horrific facts. For example, prisoners were:

  • forced to march over 50 miles with no food or water (during one forced march, 16,000 men died in two weeks)
  • struck with rifles, bamboo or anything that could inflict pain
  • beheaded for the slightest misdemeanour, like having water stains on their trousers
  • fed just over 100g of watery rice a day
  • herded into trains, where they often died of dehydration.
US soldiers in a Japanese prisoner-of-war campUS soldiers in a Japanese prisoner-of-war camp

The deliberate cruelty of the Japanese towards their prisoners is reflected in the story both when Sheldon Fein tortures insects and Paula Brown blames the narrator for spoiling her snowsuit. Can you think of other reasons why the war makes a good backdrop for the story? (Have a look at the Themes section.)

Japanese hope to identify British POWs

Prisoners in a POW camp in Japan in the last year of the war
 
 
 
Japanese researchers are hoping to trace British prisoners of war who appear in photographs that have been kept secret since the end of the Second World WarPicture: Courtesy of Prisoners of War Research Network Japan

World War Two – Japanese Prisoner of War Camps

Japanese Prisoner of War Camps

There were more than 140,000 white prisoners in Japanese prisoner of war camps. Of these, one in three died from starvation, work, punishments or from diseases for which there were no medicines to treat.

Prisoners of the Japanese found themselves in camps in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and other Japanese-occupied countries.

Prisoner of war camps in Japan housed both capture military personnel and civilians who had been in the East before the outbreak of war.

The terms of the Geneva Convention were ignored by the Japanese who made up rules and inflicted punishments at the whim of the Camp Commandant.

 
 

Execution of a prisoner of war

Camps were encircled with barbed wire or high wooden fencing and those who attempted escape would be executed in front of other prisoners. In some camps the Japanese also executed ten other prisoners as well. Escape attempts from Japanese camps were rare.

“Death of a POW.” Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World…

Camp accommodation was generally in barracks and prisoners were given mats to sleep on.

Prisoners of war exercising

Very few of the Japanese guards spoke English and internees were forced to learn Japanese in order to understand commands they were given. Failure to comply with instructions would merit a beating. Tenko was the name given to the daily roll-call and prisoners had to call out their prisoner number in Japanese.

The majority of prisoners were put to work in mines, fields, shipyards and factories on a diet of about 600 calories a day. Harry Carver comments “..I was – a white slave. I worked 12 hours a day on a diet of soya beans and seaweed.” Prisoners were rarely given fat in their diet and all were continuously hungry. The majority survived on barley, green stew, meat or fish once a month and seaweed stew. Red Cross parcels were not distributed to the prisoners.

Those that suffered the worst conditions and hardship while Japanese prisoners of war, were those that were sent to build the Burma-Thailand railway. Prisoners of war and Asian labourors worked side by side to build the 260 mile railroad by hand. They were expected to work from dawn to dusk, ten days on and one day off, moving earth, building bridges, blasting through mountains and laying track.

They survived on a meagre diet of rice and vegetables and illness was common. Prisoners suffered from malnutrition, ulcers and cholera.  Around 61,000 prisoners were put to work on the railroad. Of those 13,000 died.

Changi POW camp

Changi was one of the more notorious Japanese prisoner of war camps. Changi was used to imprison Malayan civilians and Allied soldiers. The treatment of POW’s at Changi was harsh but fitted in with the belief held by the Japanese Imperial Army that those who had surrendered to it were guilty of dishonouring their country and family and, as such, deserved to be treated in no other way.

 

For this reason, 40,000 men from the surrender of Singapore were marched to the northern tip of the island where they were imprisoned at a military base called Selerang, which was near the village of Changi. The British civilian population of Singapore was imprisoned in Changi jail itself, one mile away from Selerang. Eventually, any reference to the area was simply made to Changi.

For the first few months the POW’s at Changi were allowed to do as they wished with little interference from the Japanese. There was just enough food and medicine provided and, to begin with, the Japanese seemed indifferent to what the POW’s did at Changi. Concerts were organised, quizzes, sporting events etc. The camp was organised into battalions, regiments etc and meticulous military discipline was maintained. However, by Easter 1942, the attitude of the Japanese had changed. They organised work parties to repair the damaged docks in Singapore and food and medicine became scarce. More pointedly, the Japanese made it clear that they had not signed the Geneva Convention and that they ran the camp as they saw fit.

As 1942 moved on, death from dysentery and vitamin deficiencies became more common.

The mood of the Japanese changed for the worst when a POW tried to escape. The attempt was a failure and the Japanese demanded that everyone in the camp sign a document declaring that they would not attempt to escape. This was refused. As a result, 20,000 POW’s were herded onto a barrack square and told that they would remain there until the order was given to sign the document. When this did not get the desired result, a group of POW’s was marched to the local beach and shot. Despite this, no-one signed the document. Only when the men were threatened by an epidemic, was the order given that the document should be signed. However, the commanding officer made it clear that the document was non-binding as it had been signed under duress. He also knew that his men desperately needed the medicine that the Japanese would have withheld if the document had not been signed. But this episode marked a point of no-return for the POW’s at Changi.

The Japanese used the POW’s at Changi for forced labour. The formula was very simple – if you worked, you would get food. If you did not work, you would get no food. Men were made to work in the docks where they loaded munitions onto ships. They were also used to clear sewers damaged in the attack on Singapore. The men who were too ill to work relied on those who could work for their food. Sharing what were already meagre supplies became a way of life.

The number of POW’s kept at Changi dropped quite markedly as men were constantly shipped out to other areas in the Japanese empire to work. Men were sent to Borneo to work, or to Thailand to work on the Burma-Thai railway or to Japan itself where they were made to work down mines. They were replaced by more captured soldiers, airmen and sailors from a variety of Allied nations. Malaria, dysentery and dermatitis were common, as were beatings for not working hard enough.

In 1943, the 7,000 men left at Selerang were moved to the jail in Changi. It was built to hold 1,000 people. The Japanese crammed in the 7,000 POW’s, five or six to one-man cells. With such overcrowding, the risk of disease and it spreading was very real. Very little arrived from the Red Cross and the men at Changi had to rely on their own initiative to survive. For example, the army medics at Changi made tablets and convinced the Japanese guards that they were a cure for VD, and accordingly sold them to the guards. They could then buy proper medicine for their own men in an attempt to aid those who were sick.

As the end of the Pacific War approached, rations to the POW’s were reduced and the work requirement increased. POW’s were made to dig tunnels and fox holes in the hills around Singapore so that the Japanese would have places to hide and fight when the Allies finally reached Singapore. Pay for this work was increased to 30 cents a day – but one coconut cost $30. Many POW’s believed that the Japanese would kill them as the Allies got near to Singapore. This never happened. When Emperor Hirohito told the people of Japan that the war ‘has gone not necessarily to our advantage’, the Japanese soldiers at Changi simply handed over the prison to those who had been the prisoners. To these soldiers, they were simply obeying an Imperial order and were not disgracing their families or country.

When Lord Mountbatten arrived in Singapore, he was joined by RAPWI – ‘Rehabilitation of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees’. The Americans were the first to leave Changi. Those remaining christened RAPWI ‘Retain all Prisoners of War Indefinitely’. When men were repatriated they went to either Sri Lanka or Australia to convalesce.  

tragic loss of NX73975, Private Henry Raymond Everingham, in a Japanese POW camp in Singapore Chnagi.
Once completely humiliated by a made ​​a total fool for falling for the last spoof Guardian newspaper – I would think David Flint may have to retreat to his Bondi Beach flat to leaf through illustrated books about the Queen as a child.

But no, here he is on Anzac Day in one breath calling on everyone to respect the day and not political or divisive – and then in the next breath, this stupid style regurgitates Ray Martin’s previous request for changes to the Australian flag. I would think it is the right of every Australian to say what he likes who every day of the week – Anzac Day or not – but the Flint showing total lack of understanding about the soul of Australia; freedom of speech. Certainly early days in Indonesia.

So, on Anzac Day let me get a little personal.

I also wanted the flag changed. I want a foreign state flag removed from the corner flag of my country. I want my flag to be clear Australia – something that simply can not be in the design now.

NX73975, Private Henry Raymond Everingham
Now, what to know about the mind Flint Australian soldiers and women who fought and served under the flag of this escapes me.

I want to know … whether he had siblings or uncles or aunts who fall into that category?

 
 
The POW Camps

POWs in camp.

Prisoners of war in a POW camp near Ohasi, Japan. The prisoners include a dozen men from the U.S.S. Houston, several Americans from the 131st Field Artillery, and Australians from the Australian Imperial Forces and the HMAS Perth. Gift of Henry Thew.

Of the 1068 crew members on the Houston, 368 survived the sinking of the ship and the hours-long swim to the shore of Java. Upon reaching shore, many of the men immediately found themselves prisoners of the Japanese. Others made contact with the natives of Java, who alerted the Japanese to the sailors’ presence. Once in the hands of the Japanese, the men of the Houston began a life of primitive hardships and brutal treatment that would last for three and a half years.

Following the weeks of fighting and the ordeal in the water, the men were exhausted and hungry, many of them covered in oil from the ship. Some were very badly burned. Groups of captives were marched and forced to endure “bashings” from the Japanese, who used their rifle butts to keep the men moving. The Japanese took their American prisoners to the town of Serang, where they spent a week crowded into the local theater along with Australian and Dutch prisoners, with little food and no medical treatment, before being moved to the local jail, where conditions were equally bad.

Railroad Spike

This spike was recovered from the site of the Burma-Thai Railway many years after the war. Nearly 13,000 Allied POWs died building the “Death Railway.” Gift of Otto Schwarz.
POW Spoon

A Japanese infantry sergeant gave this spoon to POW George Detre when he was captured. For many months Detre was the only person who had a utensil, and he used the spoon for 2 1/2 years. Gift of George Detre.

In April 1942, most of the men were transported to “Bicycle Camp” in Batavia. Bicycle Camp, which had been the quarters for the Tenth Battalion Bicycle Force of the Netherlands East Indies Army, offered the POWs the best conditions they would experience as prisoners-of-war. The men had access to showers and running water, and were housed three to a room in barracks with cement floors. In Bicycle Camp, the men of the Houston were joined by troops from the 2nd Battalion, 131st Field Artillery, a National Guard unit from Texas (dubbed “the Lost Battalion” because their whereabouts were unknown during World War II).

In October, the majority of the POWs were taken from Bicycle Camp to Singapore, while the rest were sent to work in various camps throughout Asia. This journey to Singapore was one of the most horrific experiences of their captivity, as men were jammed into the holds of rusty old freighters such as the Dai Nichi Maru. The POWs spent several days and nights on these “hell ships” with no room to move and barely any rice to eat, amid men who were now sick with dysentery. Upon arriving, the men spent several weeks at Changi Camp before taking another hell ship to their ultimate destination in Moulmein, Burma.

Prisoners working on railroad

Allied prisoners-of-war helped to build the Burma-Thai Railway amid primitive living conditions like these. Gift of Betty Batchelor Miles.
A P.O.W.'s Gear

The belongings of this prisoner of war were photographed upon the release of POWs from Rat Buri, Thailand, in 1945. Gift of Eugene Wilkinson.

The Japanese brought the American POWs to Burma to become slave labor for a special project. Desiring to create a more convenient route from Thailand to Burma for moving troops and raw materials, the Japanese planned to connect two railway lines in an impossibly short fifteen months. They put 61,000 Allied prisoners-of-war and over 200,000 Asian natives to work building the Burma-Thai Railway, which would stretch 250 miles between mountains, across rivers, and through jungles. American POWs in fifty-man teams cut down trees, built road beds and bridges, and laid ties and rails for the Death Railway.

Living conditions for the laborers were appalling. Each man received half a cup of bug-infested rice a day, and some POWs dropped below 80 pounds. Malnutrition brought on diseases like beri beri, pellagra, and scurvy. The tropical environment bred more cases of dysentery, plus malaria, cholera, and tropical ulcers that ate through flesh to expose the bone. Although doctors were present in the camps, they were not allowed any drugs or tools for practicing medicine. Those workers who were too slow were beaten; those who were too sick to work received no food, and were eventually sent to the notorious 80 Kilo Camp to die.

POWs rescued after the war

In August 1945, POWs learned that the war was over and they were soon to be released after 3 1/2 years as prisoners of war. Gift of Mrs. Jack (Doris) Smith.

Nearly 13,000 Allied POWs and 100,000 Asian natives died building the Death Railway, including 79 men from the Houston. Upon the railway’s completion in October 1943, the surviving POWs were scattered to various camps in Singapore, Burma, Indochina, and Japan, where they performed manual work for the Japanese until the war’s end. On August 16, 1945, the POWs learned that the war was over. Upon their release, they were sent to hospitals in Calcutta, India and the Philippines before returning to the United States, where they reunited with their loved ones and began the process of rebuilding their lives.

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy

The Adventure of Dr Iwan In Ex Indochina(KIsah Pertualangan Dr iwan Di Vietnam_Laos_Kamboja)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Driwan’s 

Travelling  Cybermuseum

Showecase:

Map of Vietnam

Map of Vietnam

Map of Vietnam

 The Driwan’s Indochina Travel first and second days

THE EX INDOCHINA TRAVELLING (TIPS TOUR INDOCHINA)

1.HARI PERTAMA(FIRST DAYS)

a.DEPATURE FROM Jakarta indonesia(  Berangkat dari Jakarta airpot SUTA)

b.Arrive(Tiba di )Airport Tan son Nhat Ho Chi Minh City

 

Saigon – Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City - The Saigon Airport

1)Exchange money to dong(Tukar uang 100 dolar menjadi Dong)

2)ticket to Hue had bought in indonesia before (Tiket Pesawat lokal Vietnam airlines Ke Hue tgl 17 Juni malam sudah dibeli dari Jakrta  liwat internet vietnam airlines .com)

   

Departure Flight Options

Ho Chi Minh City , VN To HUE , VN Saturday, June 17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 Jun

Sunday

From 1,181,000 VND

 

20 Jun

Monday

From 1,181,000 VND

 

21 Jun

Tuesday

From 1,181,000 VND

 

                                                                 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 Jun

Sunday

From 3,494,000 VND

 

20 Jun

Monday

From 3,494,000 VND

 

21 Jun

Tuesday

From 3,494,000 VND

 

                                                                 

 

3) Out of Airport(keluar airport) Get the best Taxi Vietnam Tourist Taxi

 
photo

Vios Club

Toyota Vios’ taxis run amok in Ho Chi Minh City. Vehicles here are left hand drives.

Taxi Rate(Naik Taxi ,biaya) 80.000-120.000 dong(sekitar us $ 10.-)

when Arrived now rthe best meter taxi is Vina sun innova car taxi.

 

.or by bus n0 152 to saigon bus station at the front of Benh than market HCM city

 

c.Go to Hotel(Perjalanan menuju   )Phi Vu hotel

 

,location at corner  (lokasi persimpangan) Nguyen trai dan Lel Loi ,look the map

didepannya ada patung Le Loi naik kuda.

Address(Alamat) 7 Nguyen Trai Street Ben Thanh Ward District 1 HCM City,tel (84.8)839 8479, email: phivuhotel@saigonnet.vn. the price up now US.30,- before US.20.- (the best cheapest hotel now ,near ben than Market with same price)

 

 From the hotel, it takes just 15 minutes to walk to the Ben Thanh Market, and 10 minutes to the Reunification Palace, Notre Dame Cathedral, and the central post office.  
   
  Address: 7 Nguyen Trai St, Ben Thanh Ward, Ho Chi MinhTel: 84.8.28298479 email: phivuhotel@saigonnet.vn

 

 

 

 

 

.After put the baggage at Phivu Hotel, wlaking to Benthan Market, at night at the stree there were night market(Ben than market close 6.00 PM) . we eat there,many type of food ,and also many souvenier there.

Ben Thanh Market – Number one on any trip to Saigon Vietnam should be the historic Ben Thanh Market; located in District one, this market once the main market for locals is now focused squarely at the countries ever expanding international visitors, shoppers still get a feel for how the market was pre 1990 when Vietnam opened its doors to the west and international tourists. The variety of items for sale at Ben Thanh market is quite staggering with the sale of everything from Clothing, fabrics, cosmetics, fake Rolex and coffee thru to fruit vegetables and live animals.

Some facts about: Ben Thanh market dates back to the 17th century when it was an uncovered muddy market located near the Saigon wharf (Ben) and the Turtle Citadel (Quy Thanh) Ben Thanh Market has moved and been rebuilt twice with its current location/building being opened in March 1914, the buildings landmark clock tower is the symbol of Saigon

 

 

d. walking to market to night food (Jalan kaki ke pasar) beh than market ,for night shopping and food. at night market,ben than closed 6.oo PM

(shoping dan makan malam,kepitingnya murah dan lezat)

Ben Thanh Market – Number one on any trip to Saigon Vietnam should be the historic Ben Thanh Market; located in District one, this market once the main market for locals is now focused squarely at the countries ever expanding international visitors, shoppers still get a feel for how the market was pre 1990 when Vietnam opened its doors to the west and international tourists. The variety of items for sale at Ben Thanh market is quite staggering with the sale of everything from Clothing, fabrics, cosmetics, fake Rolex and coffee thru to fruit vegetables and live animals.

Some facts about: Ben Thanh market dates back to the 17th century when it was an uncovered muddy market located near the Saigon wharf (Ben) and the Turtle Citadel (Quy Thanh) Ben Thanh Market has moved and been rebuilt twice with its current location/building being opened in March 1914, the buildings landmark clock tower is the symbol of Saigon

 Back from market to phivu hotel II.through the beautiful garden and many native vietnamese sold fruit there.

 

THE SECOND DAY (Hari Kedua )

Pagi (morning)

1.breakfest broilled roaster(ayam bakar)  at the small street in the front phivu hotel(makan pagi) ayam pangang dijalan depan phi vu hotel ) and the to the back to binh than market after turn to the right(menuju belakang Pasar  Binh Than setelah belok kanan )

2.After that by taxi vina sun to Notre Dam Basilica cathedral

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
in 6th Ward, District 3, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

and the old saigon post office

 

 
     
  Notre Dame Cathedral: Site of an old Pagoda    
     
   
 In 1959 with the approval of the Vatican the cathedral was named Notre Dame. It is supposed to sit on the site of an old pagoda. The neo-Romanesque architecture is complete with two-40m square bell towers. The garden outside is a popular gathering place.FROM THE NOTREDAM BASILICA TO THE OLD SAIGON POST OFFICE IN THE LEFT OF THE BASILICA.Address:Notre Dame Cathedral, 1 Commune of Paris, Dist. 1 FROM BASILICA KE OLD SAIGON POST OFFICEAND THEN BY BUS TO SAIGON BUS STATION IN THE FRONT OF BINH THAN MARKET.
     
 Then Central Market or Ben Thanh Market is the biggest of the markets found in the city The building was formerly the main railway terminal. The market sells a large variety of goods from imported electronics and imported perfumes to local souvenirs, clothing and produce.
   
     
  Ben Thanh market: Markets    
 
 
 While the crafts and other goods are on the inside of the market, the produce, flowers, and meats are generally sold on the pavements and alleys surrounding the building.Address: Ben Thanh Market, Le Loi St., Dist.1
 
     

.

     
 
 
 
 Right outside the Ben Thanh Market on Le Loi Circle is the statues of General Tran Nguyen Han, a 15th-century warrior. The Circle is a busy roundabout for traffic.Address: Le Loi Blvd.
 

 

3.Take Bus to Saigon Bus Station(Naik Bus jurusan stasiun Saigon)

4.makan siang nasi campur(midday food pork rice at the front of bus station.

5.pasar antik(antique market)

6. shopping di pasar  binh than sampai malam

 

     
 Then Central Market or Ben Thanh Market is the biggest of the markets found in the city The building was formerly the main railway terminal. The market sells a large variety of goods from imported electronics and imported perfumes to local souvenirs, clothing and produce.
   
 
 
     
     
  Ben Thanh market: Markets    
 
 
 While the crafts and other goods are on the inside of the market, the produce, flowers, and meats are generally sold on the pavements and alleys surrounding the building.Address: Ben Thanh Market, Le Loi St., Dist.1
 
     

Right outside the Ben Thanh Market on Le Loi Circle is the statues of General Tran Nguyen Han, a 15th-century warrior. The Circle is a busy roundabout for traffic.

Address: Le Loi Blvd.

 

ANOTHER ALTERNATIF

Bus Station HCM city

Getting to Ho Chi Minh City: By bus

If you take a bus, you will end up at one of the following bus stations:

  • Cho Ben Thanh Bus Station – This is right in the centre of HCMC, in walking distance of the tourist sites and accomadation
  • 8.jalan kaki kelbali ke phi Vu hotel kurang lebih 15 menit liwat taman.9. jam 12.00  setelah mandi, check out dari hotel., titip koper dan jalan pasar Cho Ben Thant sampai jam 15.00  10. jam 15.00 .naik taxi ke Air port sampai jam 15.30 , By a ticket Vietnam Airlines di intrenationakl airport than so nhat from  Hanoi to Vientine Laos before  check In flight to Hue 11.. Jam 18.30 wib departure to  Hue by flight Vietnam airlines( tiket sudah dibeli liwat internet di Jakarta ).12. Jam  19.30 arrive hue

    13.. By taxi to  Hue , Hong Thien Hotel 2 (US$17,-), Hue address: 35/6 Chu Van An Road Hue 054(sudah dibeli liwat internet di Jakarta),taxi expensive 400.000 Dong(US$20) and by the Hue perfume river, emperor tomb and citadel tour tikects and night sleeping bus to Hanoi

       
     
     
       
       
       

    III.HARI KETIGA  (THE THIRD  Day )

    1.pagi jalan sekitar hotel(walking around hotel)

  •  
  • 2.7.30 AM. Tour to  perfume river  , Annam  Emperor Tomb Tu Duc, Minh Mang an
  •  Khai Dinh Tomb
  •  
  • also the Annam emperor citale. Hue Imperial City (The Citadel)

     

    3.Hari keTIGA MALAM  (THIRD day,  18 june )

    HUE-HONAI BY NIGHT Sleeping Bus ,12 hours arrive Hanoi the other days at 6.00 AM.

    =============================================================

    IV.HARI KEEMPAT PAGI.(19 june)

    1.At. 6.00 AM ARRIVE HANOI by night sleeping bus , and taxi TO Hotel area NEAR hoan kiem lake,Hotel Nam Putao. ,aksing the ticket for Hanoi city tour. and wnet to franciscus xaverius cathedral beside the hotel

  •  2.at  8.30 AM Hanoi CVity Tour:1) Hanoi Bigger Lake

    2) Hanoi Vietnam ethnic museum

    3)Ho Chi Minh Museoleum (We cannot enter  because too many visitors)

    4)Lunch et Lonely Planet restaurant

    5)around the hoan kiem lake

    6) back to Hotel

    7) 6.30 PM walking around hoan kiem lake ner Nam Phoung Hoyel whe we stayed.

  •   

     

           

    =====================

     

     

     

    ==================

     

    HARI KE 5(20 Juni)

    1.HANOI-VIENTINE BY Vietnam aerlines one hours(8.00_9.00) , arrive  Vientiene.at airport by ticket to Siem riep by Laos airline tomorrow.and also by some postcard with stamps at airport post office

    2. By taxi from airport to  Vientine US$7.- (US 1.-=3000 Kiep) only 15 minutes, to Guest House hotel ,info from the Laos Airlines officer.

    3.arrive Guest House Hotel,asking taxi for city tours.

    4. city tour by taxi ,US 15,-

    1)Vientine museum

    2) Temple

    3) Vientiene morning market

    4) 40 kim from vientine to look contemporary bigger Buddha statue , near the border between Thailand and Laos.

    5)Monument Laos

    6)back to Vientiene Morning market

     
      

     

    HARI KE 6 (21Juni)

  • Vientiene Laos via Pakse laos to Siem Riep by Laos Aoirline,the ticket buy at vientiene airport.
  • arrived siem riep airport 9.00 Pm, by taxi ,15 menit arrive Siem riep,stayed at Angkor Wat Hotel, and the by the same taxi we went to Angkor Wat temple
  •  
  • , and the angkor ancient city
  •  
  •  , Siem riep morning market,
  • the 8th day:(22 June) From SIEMRIEP  to Phon Phen by traVEL CAR(12 PASSENGER) AT MORNING  8.00 -arrived phnom phen 11.00 AM. 
  •  
  •  
  •  

    Hari ke 9(23Juni)

    Depature from Pnom phen Cambodia to Ho chi minh city BY BUS  six hours, arrive HCM city 3.00 PM back to Phivu hotel, then went to cho Ben Than market, get information about HCM city Tours, and booking via hotel for Bac Gia and Vinlong Mekong Delta tour tomorrow morning.

     

    Hari ke 8. Ho Chi Minh City ( june,24th)

  • Bac Gia and Vinlong Mekong Delta tour,AMIZING TOUR  by bus 1 1/2 hour, by boat and small canoe to bac gia look the village producing  traditional cake and lunch village food and fruit, then by boat to Vinlong city
  •  at Mekong Delta. 

Hari ke 9 

25 juni ,Sabtu

1) morning

  • (1) War Remnant Ho chi minh city Museum
  • to Remant vietnam war museum look my profile in the front of museumalso the war remmant at the left

    then  walking to Pasteur street

    Đường – Pasteur – Street

     

    Đường - Pasteur - Street

     

  • (2) Shopping Cho Ben Than Market
  • (3) Antique hunting market near saigon bus station
  • (4) Ho Chi Mint art Museum

2) Depature from Hcm city by airoplane back home to   Jakarta Indonesia

  • PS. THE COMPLETE INFORMATIONS AND ILLUSTRATION EXIST ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUNSCRIBER VIA COMMENT.

Note:The complete info and illustration exist in CD-Rom ,but only special fro Premium member,please sucscribed via comment.

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Postal and Document History Indonesia 1955

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

  
 

 

SHOWCASE :

THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OF NKRI 1955

A.Indonesian Postal History 1955

 the 10 yeras anniversay of Indonesian PTT ,design Mas Suharto the first Indonesian PTT director.

 

B.Chronologic historic collections Indonesia 1955

April 1955 Afro Asia Conference  At bandung

“Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence”

In December 1953, Chinese Premier and Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai met with a visiting Indian government delegation and put forward for the first time the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence.

These were, namely, mutual respect for each other’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful co-existence. The two countries agreed that the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence would be pursued as the guiding principles for handling bilateral relations. After that, the Five Principles were followed as basic norms guiding China’s diplomacy. China has strived to develop friendly relations with all other countries on the basis of these principles. At the same time, the five principles have also been widely recognized by the international community in governing international relations.

In 1955, the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence were made known to the whole world at the Asian-African Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia. It was the first multilateral international meeting that the New China had attended.

Premier Zhou Enlai speaks at the Afro-Asian Bandung Conference held in Indonesia, April, 1955. During the meeting, Premier Zhou advocated the principle of “seeking common ground while shelving differences” and suggested setting the Five Principles as a base for establishing friendly, cooperative relations between countries of different social systems.

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

 
 

 
 

SEPTEMEBR,29TH.1955

Indonesia‘s first parliamentary general election was held on 29 September 1955. The candidates were seeking to be elected to the 257-seat People’s Representative Council, which would replace the existing provisional legislature. Despite hopes that the election would bring about political stability, the legislature elected only lasted four years before being dissolved by presidential decree.

Contents

Background

The first elections were originally planned for January 1946, but because the Indonesian National Revolution was still underway, this was not possible. After the war, every cabinet had elections in its program. In February 1951 the Natsir cabinet introduced an election bill, but the cabinet fell before it could be debated. The next cabinet, led by Sukiman did hold some regional elections [1] Finally, in February 1952, the Wilopo cabinet introduced a bill for voter registration. Discussions in the People’s Representative Council did not start until September because of various objections from the political parties. According to Feith, there were three factors. Firstly, legislators were worried about losing their seats; secondly they were worried about a possible swing to Islamic parties and thirdly an electoral system in accordance with the Provisional Constitution of 1950 would mean less representation for regions outside Java.[2] Given the fact that cabinets had fallen after introducing controversial measures, there was reluctance to introduce an election bill and there were concerns about possible political conflicts caused by electioneering.[3] However, many political leaders wanted elections as the existing legislature was based on a compromise with Dutch and as such had little popular authority. They also believed elections would bring about greater political stability.[4] The “17 October 1952 affair”, when armed soldiers in front of the palace demanded dissolution of the legislature, led to greater demands from all parties for early elections. By 25 November, an elections bill had been submitted to the People’s Representative Council. After 18 weeks of debate and 200 proposed amendments, the bill passed on 1 April 1953 and became law on 4 April. It stipulated one member of the legislature for 150,000 residents and gave the right to vote to everybody over the age of 18, or who was or had been married.[5] Once the bill had passed the cabinet began appointing members of the Central Electoral Committee. This was to have one member from each government party and an independent chairman. However, the Indonesian National Party (PNI) protested that they had no members on the committee, and this dispute was still unresolved when the cabinet fell on 2 June.[6]

On 25 August 1953, the new prime minister, Ali Sastroamidjojo, announced a 16-month schedule for elections starting from January 1954. On 4 November the government announced a new Central Electoral Committee chaired by PNI member S. Hadikusomo and including all the parties represented in the government, namely Nahdatul Ulama (NU), the Indonesia Islamic Union Party (PSII) the Indonesia People’s Party (PRI), the National People’s Party (PRN), the Labor Party and the Indoneisan Peasant Front (BTI), as well as the government-supporting Islamic Educators Association (Perti) and the Indonesian Christian Party (Parkindo).[7]

Campaign

Campaign posters with the symbols of the parties on display in the run up the election

According to Feith, the first phase of the election campaign began on 4 April 1953 when the election bill passed into law, and the second phase when the Central Electoral Committee approved the party symbols on 31 May 1954.[8]

At the time the bill passed into law, the cabinet was a coalition of the Islamic Masjumi and nationalistic PNI. The next two cabinets were coalitions led by one of these parties with the other in opposition. Therefore, the main campaign issue was the debate debate between these two over the role of Islam in the state. Masjumi denied aiming for an Islamic state, while the PNI emphasized their pro-Pancasila stance was not anti-Islam. The two other main Islamic parties, the NU and the PSII supported Masjumi in this debate. A third factor was the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI), which campaigned on issues of poverty and the poor lot of the people due to the continued imperialist nature of cabinet policy. Masjumi tried to draw a clear line between the PKI and other parties, accusing it of being a tool of Moscow.[9]

Party programs were rarely discussed during the campaign. Party symbols with or without slogans were displayed on streets in towns and villages, on private homes, public buildings, buses, trees and calendars. The PKI made extraordinary efforts to promote its symbol, displaying it everywhere to make sure people did not forget it. The PKI campaign was based around social activities such as organizing tool sharing for farmers and building irrigation channels. The party was looking beyond the election to build a permanent basis of support.[10]

The electoral regions Indonesia was divided into for the 1955 elections

In the last few months of the campaign, the major parties focused on educating voters in areas where they had managed to establish village-level organization. This phase included persuasion and threats.[11]

All through September, party leaders were constantly traveling around the country. Daily party newspapers were printed in increasing numbers and given away for free. Articles in dailies these attacked rival parties. In the villages, the emphasis shifted from large rallies to small meetings and house-house canvassing.[12]

Preparations and polling day

President Sukarno casting his vote on polling day

Although in April 1954 the Central Electoral Committee had announced that the election would be held on 29 September the following year, by July and early August, preparations had fallen behind schedule The appointment of members of polling station committees planned to start on 1 August did not begin in many regions until 15 September. In his independence day address on 17 August, President Sukarno said that anybody putting obstacles in way of elections was a “traitor to the revolution”. On 8 September, the information minister said that elections would be held on September 29 except in a few areas where preparations were not complete. Eventually, as a result of “feverish activity”, polling station committees were ready on election day.[13]

In the run up to polling day, rumors spread, including a widespread poisoning scare in Java. There was also hoarding of goods. In many parts of country there was a spontaneous and unannounced curfew for several nights before polling day.

On polling day itself, many voters were waiting to cast their ballot by 7 am. The day was peaceful as people realized nothing bad was going to happen. A total of 87.65% of voters cast a valid vote and 91.54% voted. Allowing for deaths between registration and polling, only about 6% did not vote.[14]

 Results

The share of the vote. Four parties won almost 80% of the vote

The election was a major success for the NU, which saw its number of seats in the People’s Representative Council increase from 8 to 45. A surprise was the poor showing of Masyumi, the Socialist Party and Murba. There was a large gap between the “big 4” (PNI, Masjumi, NU and PKI, with more than three quarters of the vote shared among them) and the rest of the parties, but contrary to expectations, the number of parties actually increased – there were now 28 with seats in the legislature as opposed to 20 before the election. However, the largest party held only 22% of seats.

The distribution of votes was uneven across the country. The PNI won 85.97% of its vote in Java, the NU 85.6% and the PKI 88.6%, despite the fact that only 66.2% of the population lived on Java. Conversely only 51.3% of Masjumi’s vote came from Java, and it established itself as the leading party for the one third of people living outside Java.[15][16]

Parties Votes % Seats
Indonesian National Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia) 8,434,653 22.3 57
Masjumi 7,903,886 20.9 57
Nahdatul Ulama (Ulema Awakening) 6,955,141 18.4 45
Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia) 6,176,914 16.4 39
Indonesian Islamic Union Party (Partai Serikat Islam Indonesia) 1,091,160 2.9 8
Indonesian Christian Party (Parkindo) (Partai Kristen Indonesia) 1,003,325 2.6 8
Catholic Party (Partai Katolik) 770,740 2.0 6
Socialist Party of Indonesia (PSI) (Partai Sosialis Indonesia) 753,191 2.0 5
League of Upholders of Indonesian Independence (IPKI) (Ikatan Penduking Kemerdekaan Indonesia) 541,306 1.4 4
Islamic Educators Association (Perti) (Perhimpunan Tarbiyah Islamiyah) 483,014 1.3 4
National People’s Party (PRN) (Partai Rakyat Nasional) 242,125 0.6 2
Labour Party (Partai Buruh) 224,167 0.6 2
Movement to Defend the Pancasila (GPPS) (Gerakan Pembela Pancasila) 219,985 0.6 2
Indonesia People’s Party (PRI) (Partai Rakyat Indonesia) 206,261 0.5 2
Police Employee’s Association of the Republic of Indonesia (PPPRI) (Persatuan Pegawai Polisi Republik Indonesia) 200,419 0.5 2
Party of the Masses (Partai Murba) 199,588 0.5 2
Consultative Council on Indonesian Citizenship (Baperki) (Badan Permusyawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia) 178,887 0.5 1
Great Indonesia Party – Wongsonegoro (Partai Indonesia Raya – Wongsonegoro) 178,481 0.5 1
Indonesian Movement (Gerakan Indonesia) 154,792 0.4 1
Indonesian Marhaen People’s Union (Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia) 149,287 0.4 1
Dayak Unity Party (Partai Persatuan Dayak) 146,054 0.4 1
Great Indonesia Party – Hazairin (Partai Indonesia Raya – Hazairin ) 114,644 0.3 1
Islamic Tharikah Unity Party (PPTI) (Partai Persatuan Tharikat Islamiyah) 85,131 0.2 1
Islamic Victory Force (AKUI) (Angkatan Kemenangan Umat Islam) 81,454 0.2 1
Village People’s Party (PRD) (Partai Rakyat Desa) 77,919 0.2 1
Party of the People of Free Indonesia (PRIM) (Partai Rakyat Indonesia Merdeka) 72,523 0.2 1
Acoma Party (Partai ACOMA / Angkatan Communis Muda) 64,514 0.2 1
R. Soejono Prawirosoedarso & Associates 53,305 0.1 1
Other parties, organizations and individual candidates 1,022,433 2.7 1
Total counted 37,785,299 257

Aftermath

The poor showing of the parties in the cabinet of Prime Minister Burhanuddin Harahap was a major blow. The parties who did better, such as the NU and the PSII were “reluctant” cabinet members with a weak standing. This left the government with the choice of making major concessions to the NU and PSII or seeing them leave the cabinet. With no clear electoral verdict, it was back to inter-party politicking and bargaining. The lack of a clear outcome discredited the existing political system.

The new People’s Representative Council convened on 4 March 1956. It was to last four years. In his opening speech, President Sukarno called for an Indonesian form of democracy, and over the next few years, he would speak more about his concept (konsepsi) of a new system of government. In 1957, the era of Liberal Democracy came to an end with the establishment of Guided Democracy. Indonesian would have to wait until 1999 for its next free national elections.[16][17][18]

 

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Postal and Document History Indonesia 1954

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA” 

SHOWCASE :

THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OF NKRI 1954

 I. Indonesian Postal History 1.

1954 RIAU 

   
 
 
 
 
 
Indonesia/RIAU 1954 ZBL 1+3+6+11  CANC  VF

2.1954-1965





Indonesia
10s, 15s (3), and 20s (3) World Refugee Year and 2.50R Sukarno 1960 Bandjarmasin Airmail to Parit Buntar, Malaysia. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO601007
$10.00




Indonesia
75s Asiatic Two-horned Rhinoceros (8), 10s Lesser Malay Chevrotain (2) and 3r Sukarno (3) 1960 Djakarta Airmail to Montreal, Canada. Illustrated Advertising Indonesian Airways. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO601110
$10.00





Indonesia
20s Bull Races, 50s Toradja Houses, 2R Buffalo Hole View, 1.25R (2) and 3R (2) Sukarno, and 75s Sukarno with Hoe 1961 Semarang Airmail to Magdeburg, Germany.

IO610516
$10.00




Indonesia
10s Lesser Malay Chevrotain and 1.5R and 5R (2) Scenes from Ramayana Ballet 1962 Quantas Boeing 707 V-Jet, Penerbangan Pertama First Flight Djakarta-London Slogan Quantas First Flight to London, England. Eustis 1473.

IO620206
$20.00




Indonesia
10s Lesser Malay Chevrotain and 1.5R and 5R (2) Scenes from Ramayana Ballet 1962 Quantas Boeing 707 V-Jet, Penerbangan Pertama First Flight Djakarta-London Slogan Quantas First Flight to London, England. Eustis 1473.

IO620206A
$20.00




Indonesia
5R (2) and 4R Sukarno and 30s Otter (2) 1962 Djakarta, Menteng Registered Airmail to Frankfurt, Germany. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO620612
$10.00




Indonesia
15R Sukarno (2) and 2R Lockheed Electra Plane 1964 Djakarta Airmail to Hobart, Tasmania.

IO640622
$10.00




Indonesia
25R Seleh 1967 Medan Registered Air Letter to Singapore.

IO671214
$20.00




Indonesia
Official Free Mail 1969 Bandung, Philateli Registered to Aarhus, Denmark with violet boxed sl Taxe Percue and violet circular Philatelic Section Bandung Postal Service Republic of Indonesia cachet. MONARCH SIZE.

IO690325
$15.00




Indonesia
Great Britain 5 1/2p QEII Machin 1975 Denpasar Paquebot Hosking 3074 to Bad Neustadt, Germany with boxed sl Posted on board the British Ship SS ‘Northern Star’ on the ‘High Seas’ cachet. Philatelic.

IO750312
$20.00









Denmark
20o Church of Kalundborg and 30o Statue of Frederik V 1958 Kobenhavn Lufthavn Illustrated Cancel SAS First Flight to Djarkarta, Indonesia. Luning 303.

DM580124A
$10.00


Add to Cart



Sweden
90o Geijer Coil 1958 Stockholm-PFFS, Flygpost Illustrated Cancel SAS First Flight to Djakarta, Indonesia. Luning 373.

SK580123
$10.00




Sweden
10o Numeral and 30o Gustaf VI Se-tenant Booklet Pair 1958 Stockholm-PFFS, Flygpost Illustrated Cancel Air Letter SAS First Flight to Djakarta, Indonesia. Luning 373.

SK580123A
$15.00




U.S. First Flight
10c Tyler Prexie on 6c Eagle in Flight Air Envelope 1959 Honolulu, Hawaii First Flight to Djakarta, Indonesia. AAMS FAM F14-126.
Oahu county.

UL590602
$10.00




U.S. First Flight
25c Universal Postal Union 1959 Wake, Wake Island Pan Am First Flight to Djakarta, Indonesia. AAMS FAM F14-127.

UL590603
$15.00




Italy
30L Eritrean Sybil and 100L Ezekiel by Michelangelo 1961 Poste Italiane, 1o Volo Alitalia A Reazione Roma – Sydney Slogan Alitalia First Flight to Jakarta, Indonesia Returned to Washington, D.C. with Non Reclame Tidak diambil label.

IT610614A
$15.00




Australia
1/- Platypus 1962 G.P.O. Sydney 129, N.S.W. Aust. Qantas First Flight to Djakarta, Indonesia. Eustis 1472.

AA620206A
$15.00




U.S. A.P.O.’s
8c Airliner Over Capitol 1967 Army & Air Force Postal Service, A.P.O. 96356 Djakarta, Indonesia to APO 96243 Saigon, Vietnam. Bi-Color Illustrated corner card Garuda Indonesian Airways. EUROPEAN SIZE.

AP671120
$15.00

II.The chronologic historic collections

 

 A. 1954

B.1955

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Postal and Document History Indonesia 1953

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA” 

SHOWCASE :

THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OF NKRI 1953

A.The Pictures Collection 1953

1953 - Ahmad Subarjo and company

  From right to left: Salim Al-Hussseini, Palestinian resident in Egypt – Ali Al-Moayyad, Minister Plenipotentiary of Yemen in Egypt – Ahmad Hilmi Pasha, Prime Minister of the All-Palestine Government – Yemeni judge Mohamed Mahmoud Al-Zubeiri – Indonesian nationalist leader Dr. Ahmad Subarjo – Eltaher – Dr. Mohamed Salaheddin Pasha, Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs – Zein Hassan, Indonesian Minister Plenipotentiary, then his country’s ambassador to Egypt.Photograph taken at Eltaher’s office in Cairo in 1953

B.The Postal history Indonesia 1953 -1956






Indonesia
10s Lesser Malay Chevrotain, 35s Soeharto, and 1R and 6R Sukarno 1953 Washington, D.C. Airmail to Stanford, Calif. with violet sl This article originally mailed in country indicated by postage. Inscribed Pouch. LEGAL SIZE.

IO530221–LS
$10.00




Indonesia
Great Britain 1/2d (2) and 1 1/2d KGVI 1953 Djakarta Paquebot Hosking 3076 to Eatontown, N.J. with violet sl Memnon 181084 Liverpool 4566 cachet. Philatelic. Crease.

IO530621
$20.00




Indonesia
20s and 15s Numeral on 10s Numeral Postal Card 1953 Semarang to Hollywood, Calif.

IO530801
$20.00




Indonesia
25s Numeral (3) 1953 Medan to Eatontown, N.J. with hs N.V. Stoomvaart Maatschappij ‘Nederland’ M.S. Poelau Laut and violet hs Pos Laut. Philatelic.

IO530811
$25.00




Indonesia
1R Sukarno (5) 1953 Djakarta Airmail Registered to Mountain View, Calif.

IO530826
$10.00





Indonesia
Canada 2c QEII Karsh (2) 1953 Djakarta Paquebot Hosking 3076 to Los Angeles, Calif. with sl SS Canada Mail. Philatelic.

IO530901
$25.00




Indonesia
35s United Nations 1953 Surabaja to Eatontown, N.J. with violet Komandan R. I. Tenggiri Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia cachet. Philatelic.

IO530912
$15.00




Indonesia
1.25R Sukarno (2) and 50s Melati Flowers c1954 Jogjakarta Airmail to Magdeburg, Germany. Crease at right. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO540000
$20.00




Indonesia
25s Numeral and 2R Sukarno 1954 Purwokerto Airmail to Aden.

IO540407
$15.00





Indonesia
2 1/2s (4) and 5s Numeral 1954 Surabaja, 16 Printed matter Wrapper to Maspeth, N.Y. LEGAL SIZE.

IO541109A–LS
$10.00




Indonesia
75s Mythological Hero 1954 Washington, D.C. to Attica, N.Y. with violet sl This article originally mailed in country indicated by postage. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO541202
$25.00




Indonesia
New Zealand 2d QEII (2) 1955 Surabaja Paquebot Hosking 3401 to Eatontown, N.J. with boxed sl Pos Laut and violet boxed sl S.S Burnside Glasgow. Philatelic.

IO551029
$20.00




Indonesia
15s Soeharto (5), 30s Post Office, 35s (4) and 75s (2) First Free Elections, and 2.50 Sukarno 1956 Djakarta Airmail Registered to Hartford, Conn. Small tear at top. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO560531
$15.00




Indonesia
10s Numeral, 15s Lesser Malay Chevrotain, 25s Otter, 35s Malayan Pangolin, 50s Banteng, 75s Rhinoceros and 25s, 50s, and 1R Asia-Africa Student Conference 1956 Malang Airmail to Hartford, Conn. Crease at Top and some discoloration. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO560713
$10.00




Indonesia
30s Post Office (2) and 25s, 50s, and 1R Asia-Africa Student Conference 1956 Semarang Airmail to Hartford, Conn.

IO561206
$10.00




Indonesia
2R Toradja House 1957 Medan Airmail PPC (Real Photo – Roman Catholic Church in Medan) to Berlin, Germany.

IO570523
$15.00




Indonesia
50s Indonesian Airways Two-motor Plane on Revolutionary Java 5s Merdeka Postal Card 1958 Jogjakarta Airmail to Launceston, Australia.

IO580818
$25.00




Indonesia
1R Sukarno (2) 1959 Malang Special Delivery to Lawang. Staple holes at top. EUROPEAN SIZE.

IO590627
$10.00




Indonesia
25s Otter (2) and 10s Lesser Malay Chevrotain on 15s Numeral Postal Card 1959 to Culver City, Calif. Cancel unreadable.

IO590715
$20.00




Indonesia
10s Lesser Malay Chevrotain and 1.50R Constitution of 1945 1959 Djakarta Airmail to Singapore Forwarded to Bangkok, Thailand. Corner card UNESCO Southeast Asia Science Cooperation Office.

IO591117
$15.00

B.The Chronologic historic collections

 I.1953 

 April 1953

April,1st.1953

By 25 November 1952 , an elections bill had been submitted to the People’s Representative Council. After 18 weeks of debate and 200 proposed amendments, the bill passed on 1 April 1953 and became law on 4 April 1953. It stipulated one member of the legislature for 150,000 residents and gave the right to vote to everybody over the age of 18, or who was or had been married.[5] Once the bill had passed the cabinet began appointing members of the Central Electoral Committee. This was to have one member from each government party and an independent chairman. However, the Indonesian National Party (PNI) protested that they had no members on the committee, and this dispute was still unresolved when the cabinet fell on 2 June

September,30th.1953

in September 1953, the North sumatra are not secured(kurang aman) becaus ethe war lead by Tgk.M.daud beeuh, Gouvernur SM Amin managed this action, because he know Daud Bereuh.Teuku Moh Hassan not speek in Parlemen /DPR,becaus ethe situation which “timbul” if the difficult matter speaking in open (dimuka umum)

PEMBERONTAKAN DI/TII DAUD BEUREUEH

 

DUTII rebellion in Aceh began with a “Proclamation” by Daud bah wa ¬ Aceh is a part of “Islamic State of Indonesia” under Imam Kartosuwirjo on September 20, 1953. Daud had held the position of Military Governor of the Special Region of Aceh as the first Dutch military aggression in the mid-1947. As military governor Gu ¬ he have complete control over defense and security areas of Aceh and to dominate the entire government apparatus ¬ both civilian and military.
As a prominent scholars and former military governor, Daud is not difficult to obtain followers. Daud is also able to persuade officials of the Government of Aceh, especially in the areas of Pidie. For some time Daud and his followers can master most parts of Aceh, including a number of cities.
Then help came from North Sumatra and Central Sumatra, security recovery operations begin. One by one the towns controlled by rebels recaptured. Once pressed from the big cities, Daud continued resistance in the forests.
Final settlement of rebellion by Daud is done by a “Council of People’s Harmony Aceh” in December 1962 at the initiative of Regional Military Commander of the I / Iskandar Muda, Col. M. Jasin. With the return of Daud into society, security in the region of Aceh fully recover

original info :

Pemberontakan DUTII di Aceh dimulai dengan “Proklamasi” Daud Beureueh bah¬wa Aceh merupakan bagian “Negara Islam Indonesia” di bawah Imam Kartosuwirjo pada tanggal 20 September 1953. Daud Beureueh pernah memegang jabatan Gubernur Militer Daerah Istimewa Aceh sewaktu agresi militer pertama Belanda pada pertengahan tahun 1947. Sebagai Gu¬bernur Militer ia berkuasa penuh atas pertahanan keamanan daerah Aceh dan me¬nguasai seluruh aparat pemerintahan baik sipil maupun militer.
Sebagai seorang tokoh ulama dan bekas Gubernur Militer, Daud Beureueh tidak sulit memperoleh pengikut. Daud Beureueh juga berhasil mempengaruhi pejabat-pejabat Pemerintah Aceh, khususnya di daerah Pidie. Untuk beberapa waktu lamanya Daud Beureueh dan pengikut-pengikutnya dapat menguasai sebagian besar daerah Aceh, termasuk sejumlah kota.
Sesudah bantuan datang dari Sumatra Utara dan Sumatra Tengah, operasi pemulihan keamanan segera dimulai. Satu demi satu kota-kota yang dikuasai pemberontak direbut kembali. Setelah didesak dari kota-kota besar, Daud Beureueh meneruskan perlawanannya di hutan-hutan.
Penyelesaian terakhir Pemberontakan Daud Beureueh ini dilakukan dengan suatu “Musyawarah Kerukunan Rakyat Aceh” pada bulan Desember 1962 atas prakarsa Panglima Kodam I/Iskandar Muda, Kolonel M. Jasin. Dengan kembalinya Daud Beureueh ke masyarakat, keamanan di daerah Aceh sepenuhnya pulih kembali

other version

Why He’s Rebel, Rebel Why They

58 years of this country stand: Aceh is still turbulent. Indonesia is satisfied with the separatist movement, but perhaps not wise enough to learn from experience. In Aceh, a cleric, charismatic community leader, Tengku Daud, took up arms against the central government in 1953. Ironic. Tengku Daud is the one who welcomed the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945 with the oath of allegiance. He loved the independence of Indonesia: Aceh dihimpunnya public funds to finance military and diplomatic struggle against the pressures RI Netherlands.

So why did he rebel? The military operation in Aceh has now entered the 12th week. There are many reasons to join or separate. But it needed more reasons to take up arms or use weapons in order to create peace. And 17 August is a good time to reflect: why they ever fell in love with it and then rebelled.

Why Aceh Rebel?

What is called Indonesia? This question is worth celebrating when we reflect on the anniversary of independence in the 58th republic we love it. Especially after the fatigue following the ceremony or after the sack race in the RT-began to disappear. For, not all the area August 17 to celebrate this event with laughter, fun tug of war or various other competitions are held for the stimulating atmosphere of joy together. In some areas of Aceh, for example, excitement unseen figures. Forget about the party competitions, as trivial as whether to put up the flag or not it could lead to the salvation of the soul of the homeowner. Indonesia’s official state symbol of hostility by some residents who want to make Aceh as an independent state, regardless of RI.

A striking difference in the atmosphere of the westernmost province’s ironic behold. How does. History has recorded how high the passions of the people of Aceh as the birth of the Republic of Indonesia, so spontaneously declared by Sukarno as “the capital of the Republic”, when the Founding Fathers and the Indonesian President is visiting for the first time, 1948. However, not until five years later, disillusionment with central government, which is felt not responsive to the aspirations of the region, began to grow. Any armed rebellion erupted since 1953. At first, because the promise of autonomy never fulfilled and, later, as the natural result of dredging by a central area of ​​Aceh’s population offended sense of justice that was barely benefiting from the economic activity.

Regardless of whatever reason, kekurangtanggapan Jakarta against disappointment, which even had to send troops to silence the protests, has reaped an armed conflict that makes thousands of citizens were killed, wounded, and millions of others suffer. That is why the celebration of the proclamation of independence this time can not only filled with fun activities, but also attention to the fellow citizens in Aceh. We all need to take time to understand why the Acehnese rebel, because only by understanding it is the right solution to solve it can be achieved.

Certainly not the conquest of the solution. We need to learn from the experience of Indonesia in order not to repeat past mistakes. The conquest of Java, Java by outside forces, such as in the heyday of Sriwijaya, proved far from sustainable. Similarly, the conquest by the forces outside Java Java, such as the Majapahit era, led to the collapse. We just need to learn from young people of this nation is on October 28, 1928 Indonesia agreed to establish on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, which gave birth to a determination to build one nation, one homeland, and one language.

When the framework is the Youth Pledge used as a benchmark, the answer to the question “why Aceh rebel?” so predictable. Therefore, centralized style of New Order government, even in the latter half of the Old Order, is essentially a round Majapahit II. Therefore, it is natural that some of the residents of Aceh Sriwijaya round fight with the mode II as well. They may not consciously do it, but check out why it is good or Daud Hasan Tiro use heyday as the capital of Sultan Iskandar II pep separatist movement.

So, how to resolve the separatist crisis triggered by the process Majapahitisasi half of this century? The answer is to return to Indonesia with the spirit of the Youth Pledge in 1928. Agreement to become one nation, one homeland, and one language on the basis of equality and mutual interests and not by domination or conquest strong against the weak. This consensus can only be built through a series of honest dialogue, rational, and look forward. Therefore, it should be built on a thorough understanding of national reconciliation.

Reconciliation is basically forgive past mistakes, but not forgotten. This means that each party must be aware has made a mistake, admit it openly, and determined not to repeat it. Once the process is passed, the next step is to conduct a public debate to define Indonesia as what is desired. You see, the identity of a nation can not be sought from the past, but it must continually be built. Citing what it says Ignas Kleden famous thinker, “Indonesia is not a Gabe, a gift, but an Aufgabe, a task, which might be an unvollendetes ein Projekt, a project still not finished.”

The way this settlement is not original, has even proven kemujarabannya in various countries. Portugal did to resolve the armed rebellion in the Azores and Madeira Islands after the country is experiencing a process of democratization in the mid-1970s. The same was done to resolve the unitary state of the Spanish separatist movements such as Catalonia and the Basque provinces after the dictator General Franco’s regime collapsed. Thus, there is no reason for pessimism that its value will not apply for complete the Aceh rebellion.

It’s not an easy task, but nor is a mission impossible.

 

other version:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

original info

Mengapa Dia Berontak, Mengapa Mereka Berontak

58 tahun negara ini berdiri: Aceh masih bergolak. Indonesia memang kenyang dengan gerakan separatis, tapi mungkin tak cukup arif menarik pelajaran dari pengalaman. Di Aceh, seorang ulama, tokoh masyarakat karismatik, Teungku Daud Beureueh, mengangkat senjata melawan pemerintah pusat pada 1953. Ironis sekali. Teungku Daud adalah orang yang menyambut proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945 dengan sumpah setia. Ia mencintai Indonesia merdeka: dihimpunnya dana masyarakat Aceh untuk membiayai perjuangan militer dan diplomatik RI melawan tekanan Belanda.

Lantas mengapa dia berontak? Operasi militer di Aceh kini telah memasuki minggu ke-12. Ada banyak alasan untuk tetap bergabung atau berpisah. Tapi dibutuhkan lebih banyak lagi alasan untuk mengangkat senjata atau menggunakan senjata demi menciptakan damai. Dan 17 Agustus adalah saat yang tepat untuk merenung: mengapa mereka yang pernah jatuh cinta itu kemudian berontak.

Mengapa Aceh Berontak?

Apa yang disebut Indonesia? Pertanyaan ini layak kita renungkan di saat merayakan hari ulang tahun kemerdekaan ke-58 republik yang kita sayangi ini. Terutama setelah rasa penat mengikuti upacara—atau setelah balap karung di RT—mulai hilang. Sebab, tak semua daerah merayakan acara 17 Agustus ini dengan tawa-ria tarik tambang ataupun berbagai perlombaan lain yang diadakan untuk merangsang suasana gembira bersama. Di beberapa daerah Aceh, misalnya, kegembiraan tak kelihatan sosoknya. Lupakan soal pesta lomba, karena soal sepele seperti apakah sebaiknya memasang bendera Merah Putih atau tidak saja bisa bermuara pada keselamatan jiwa sang pemilik rumah. Simbol resmi negara Indonesia itu dimusuhi oleh sejumlah warga yang ingin menjadikan Aceh sebagai negara merdeka, terlepas dari RI.

Perbedaan suasana yang mencolok di provinsi paling barat itu sungguhlah ironis. Bagaimana tidak. Sejarah telah mencatat betapa tingginya gairah rakyat Aceh ketika menyambut kelahiran Republik Indonesia, sehingga secara spontan dinyatakan oleh Bung Karno sebagai “daerah modal Republik”, ketika Bapak Bangsa dan Presiden Indonesia ini berkunjung untuk pertama kalinya, 1948. Namun, tak sampai lima tahun kemudian, kekecewaan terhadap pemerintah pusat, yang dirasakan tidak tanggap terhadap aspirasi daerah, mulai tumbuh. Pemberontakan bersenjata pun meletus sejak 1953. Mula-mula karena janji otonomi khusus tak kunjung ditepati dan, belakangan, karena pengerukan hasil alam daerah oleh pusat menyinggung rasa keadilan penduduk Aceh yang merasa nyaris tak mendapatkan manfaat dari kegiatan ekonomi itu.

Terlepas dari apa pun alasannya, kekurangtanggapan Jakarta terhadap kekecewaan itu—yang malah sempat mengirim tentara untuk membungkam protes—telah menuai konflik bersenjata yang membuat ribuan warga tewas, terluka, dan jutaan lainnya menderita. Itu sebabnya perayaan proklamasi kemerdekaan kali ini tak bisa hanya diisi dengan kegiatan bersenang-senang, tapi juga perhatian pada saudara sebangsa di Aceh. Kita semua perlu meluangkan waktu untuk memahami mengapa Aceh berontak, karena hanya dengan pemahaman itu solusi yang tepat untuk menyelesaikannya dapat diraih.

Tentu bukan solusi penaklukan. Kita perlu belajar dari pengalaman Indonesia masa lalu agar tak mengulangi kesalahannya. Penaklukan Jawa oleh kekuatan luar Jawa, seperti pada masa kejayaan Kerajaan Sriwijaya, terbukti jauh dari langgeng. Demikian pula penaklukan luar Jawa oleh kekuatan Jawa, seperti di era Majapahit, bermuara pada keruntuhan. Kita justru perlu belajar dari anak-anak muda bangsa ini yang pada 28 Oktober 1928 bersepakat mendirikan Indonesia atas dasar kesetaraan dan saling menguntungkan, yang melahirkan tekad untuk membangun satu bangsa, satu nusa, dan satu bahasa.

Bila kerangka pemikiran Sumpah Pemuda ini yang dijadikan patokan, jawaban atas pertanyaan “mengapa Aceh berontak?” jadi mudah ditebak. Sebab, gaya sentralistik pemerintahan Orde Baru, bahkan juga di paruh akhir pemerintahan Orde Lama, pada dasarnya adalah Majapahit babak II. Karena itu, sangat wajar jika sebagian penduduk Aceh melawannya dengan modus Sriwijaya babak II pula. Mereka mungkin tak secara sadar melakukannya, tapi simaklah mengapa baik Daud Beureueh ataupun Hasan Tiro menggunakan masa kejayaan Sultan Iskandar II sebagai modal pembangkit semangat gerakan separatisnya.

Lantas, bagaimana menyelesaikan kemelut separatisme yang dipicu oleh proses Majapahitisasi separuh abad ini? Jawabnya adalah dengan kembali ke Indonesia dengan semangat Sumpah Pemuda 1928. Kesepakatan untuk menjadi satu bangsa, satu nusa, dan satu bahasa atas dasar kesetaraan dan kepentingan bersama dan bukan oleh dominasi atau penaklukan yang kuat terhadap yang lemah. Mufakat ini hanya dapat dibangun melalui rentetan dialog yang jujur, rasional, dan melihat ke depan. Karena itu, perlu dibangun di atas kesepahaman rekonsiliasi nasional yang menyeluruh.

Rekonsiliasi pada dasarnya adalah saling memaafkan kesalahan masa lalu, tapi bukan melupakannya. Ini berarti masing-masing pihak harus menyadari telah melakukan kesalahan, mengakui secara terbuka, dan bertekad tak mengulanginya. Setelah proses ini dilalui, langkah selanjutnya adalah melakukan debat publik untuk menentukan Indonesia seperti apa yang diinginkan. Soalnya, jatidiri sebuah bangsa tak dapat dicari dari masa lampau, tapi justru harus terus-menerus dibangun. Mengutip apa yang dikatakan pemikir sohor Ignas Kleden, “Indonesia bukanlah suatu Gabe, sebuah karunia, melainkan sebuah Aufgabe, suatu tugas, yang mungkin akan merupakan ein unvollendetes Projekt, sebuah proyek yang tak kunjung selesai.”

Cara penyelesaian seperti ini bukan orisinal, bahkan telah terbukti kemujarabannya di berbagai negeri. Portugal melakukannya untuk menyelesaikan pemberontakan bersenjata di Kepulauan Azores dan Madeira setelah negara ini mengalami proses demokratisasi di pertengahan 1970-an. Hal yang sama juga dilakukan negara kesatuan Spanyol untuk menyelesaikan gerakan separatis provinsi seperti Catalonia dan Basque setelah rezim diktator Jenderal Franco tumbang. Maka, tak ada alasan untuk pesimistis bahwa keampuhannya tak akan berlaku buat menyelesaikan pemberontakan Aceh.

Memang bukan pekerjaan gampang, tapi bukan pula sebuah mission impossible.

 

Pejuang Kemerdekaan yang Berontak

TIDAK pernah saya lupakan kemarahannya ketika saya katakan ada baiknya kalau undangan Dr. Mansyur untuk menghadiri konferensi se-Sumatera diterima saja. Ia memukul saya dengan tongkatnya sambil berkata: di mana akan kamu dapatkan negara yang jelas-jelas mengatakan dirinya berdasarkan Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa?”. Begitulah cerita seorang tokoh Partai Persatuan Pembangunan Daerah Istimewa Aceh tentang sebuah episode yang dialaminya dengan Teungku Daud Beureueh.

Kalau cerita diteruskan, usaha Negara Sumatera Timur (NST) menggalang kekuatan Sumatera menghadapi RI yang dipimpin Sukarno-Hatta, yang telah ditawan Belanda (1949), pun gagal. Cerita anekdotal ini hanyalah salah satu dari sekian banyak kisah tentang Teungku Daud Beureueh yang saya dapatkan di Aceh di awal tahun 1980-an.

Golkar kalah di Aceh pada pemilu tahun 1982. Entah kenapa saya disuruh meneliti soal ini. Konon—jika “laporan pandangan mata” pimpinan yang menyuruh saya itu bisa dipercaya—kekalahan itu menyebabkan Presiden mengajukan pertanyaan: “Apakah Aceh anti-Pancasila?” Singkat cerita, saya pun berangkat ke Aceh untuk mencari jawab atas pertanyaan yang agak aneh ini (Emangnyé Golkar ajé yang Pancasilais?). Tetapi sudahlah. Sebab-sebab kekalahan Golkar dengan mudah bisa diketahui. Saya pun lebih asyik meneliti visi Aceh tentang dirinya dan tentang tempatnya dalam sejarah dan masyarakat-bangsa. Selama dua minggu saya berkeliaran di sepanjang pantai timur, membelok dua hari ke Takengon, sampai akhirnya sampai di Medan. Jadi, praktis saya menjalani wilayah etnis Aceh dan Gayo saja.

Apakah yang tidak saya dapatkan dalam seri diskusi dan wawancara yang nyaris non-stop ini? Sejarah, folklore, mitos, kebanggaan sejarah, harapan, keluhan, ocehan, dan entah apa lagi. Kisah Samudra Pasai sebagai kerajaan Islam tertua, perang kolonial di Aceh yang terlama dan termahal, Hamzah Fansuri, Abdurrauf al-Singkili, dan sebagainya dengan lancar keluar dari mulut para tokoh—dari birokrat dan ulama sampai pedagang, dari yang telah mantan sampai yang masih sibuk menggapai karier. “Aceh daerah modal.” Kapal terbang Seulawah dan sebagainya adalah kebanggaan yang tak terlupakan. Tetapi seketika berbagai kisah yang membanggakan itu berakhir, helaan napas panjang pun tak selamanya bisa terelakkan. “Aceh telah sangsai,” kata seorang tokoh di Aceh Timur. Kalau telah begini, kebanggaan daerah kembali dikemukakan, tetapi dengan nada yang menuntut kewajaran dalam penghargaan.

Kalau telah begini pula berbagai cerita dari revolusi diulang-ulang dan pengalaman getir dari “Peristiwa Daerah” 1950-an diingat-ingat. Dalam ingatan kolektif yang disampaikan kepada saya itu, sering kali Tgk. Daud Beureueh tampil sebagai tokoh yang paling dominan. Kadang-kadang timbul juga keraguan dalam diri saya, “Apakah memang demikian halnya?”

Saya telah tahu bahwa persaingan ini terjadi, kata para pengecam Snouck Hurgronje, adalah akibat kemampuan ilmuwan kolonial ini melihat celah dalam sistem kepemimpinan Aceh. Ia berhasil menjadikan perbedaan peran sosial sebagai landasan bagi persaingan ideologis. Seandainya para pengecam ini benar, saya tentu bisa berkata bahwa, biarpun sebuah policy bertolak dari landasan pengetahuan yang salah, jika dijalankan dengan konsisten akhirnya akan menciptakan realitasnya sendiri.

Saya juga telah tahu bahwa sejarah masa revolusi nasional di Aceh tidak hanya menghamparkan kisah tentang pengorbanan bagi negara yang baru diproklamasikan, tetapi juga tentang konflik berdarah golongan uleebalang, dengan para pengikut ulama, yang bergabung dalam Persatuan Ulama Seluruh Aceh (PUSA). Bahkan, jika saja bacaan saya tidak mengkhianati saya, “Peristiwa Daerah” di tahun 1950-an tidak pula terbebas dari persaingan kedua corak kepemimpinan Aceh itu. Hanya, dalam wawancara saya, kisah tentang konflik internal ini disebut sepintas lalu saja, sebelum kisah beralih kembali pada masalah penghadapan Aceh dengan kekuatan luar—entah Belanda, entah pemerintah pusat. Kalau telah begini, nama Tgk. Daud Beureueh pun diulang-ulang.

Dengan mudah saya mendapatkan verifikasi yang sahih tentang cerita bahwa keterlibatan Aceh dalam revolusi nasional semakin intensif setelah Daud Beureueh dan tiga kawannya sesama ulama mengeluarkan maklumat dukungan pada Republik Indonesia, di bulan Oktober 1945. Maklumat itu juga ditandatangani oleh T. Nyak Arief, Residen Aceh, dan Tuanku Mahmud, Ketua Komite Nasional. Sepintas lalu keikutsertaan Residen dan Ketua Komite Nasional Indonesia hal yang biasa saja. Tetapi, besar dugaan saya, di masa awal revolusi—sebelum arus bawah dari konflik internal tampil ke permukaan— keikutsertaan mereka secara simbolis ingin mengatakan keutuhan kepemimpinan Aceh. Ulama, uleebalang, dan aristokrat kerajaan bersatu dalam memberikan dukungan kepada RI. Hanya, “Peristiwa Cumbok” dan kemudian gerakan pemuda PUSA, yang mengadakan “revolusi sosial” terhadap apa yang mereka sebut “feodalisme”, memorak-porandakan “bulan madu” yang singkat ini. Maka, seperti halnya “perang Aceh”, para ulama pun semakin memantapkan diri sebagai “perumus realitas” Aceh. Dan kedudukan sentral Daud Beureueh semakin kukuh juga. Konon ketika inilah Bung Karno datang ke Aceh dan ketika ini pulalah ia berjanji kepada sang ulama—yang menurut kisahnya dipanggilnya “kakak”—bahwa ia akan ikut memperjuangkan agar hukum syariah bisa dijalankan di Aceh. Entah sejarah, entah folklore. Yang jelas, kisah ini selalu diulang dan ditulis. Karena dianggap sebagai kebenaran yang sahih, mestikah diherankan kalau kejujuran Bung Karno disangsikan?

Revolusi adalah kisah yang membangkitkan rasa bangga bagi Aceh. Bukan saja daerah mereka terbebas dari pendudukan Belanda dan sebagainya, tetapi juga ketika itulah Aceh merasakan nikmat dan tantangan sebagai provinsi yang otonom. Tgk. Daud Beureueh adalah gubernur militer, yang didukung oleh mata rantai kepemimpinan lokal yang kuat. Kedudukan ini semakin diperkuat ketika “Yogya telah kembali” dan Sjafruddin Prawiranegara menjadi wakil perdana menteri yang berkedudukan di Kutaraja/Banda Aceh. Tetapi, ketika kedaulatan negara telah didapatkan dan Republik Indonesia Serikat (RIS) telah berdiri, Aceh dijadikan sebagai bagian dari Sumatera Utara. Ketika RIS bubar dan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia berdiri, keputusan diperkuat. Memang benar pemerintah pusat menghadapi berbagai corak situasi yang dilematis—sebagai akibat pilihan yang tak mudah antara keharusan rasionalisasi administrasi pemerintahan dan keberlanjutan aspirasi revolusioner—tetapi bagi masyarakat Aceh pembubaran provinsi dirasakan sebagai pengkhianatan dan penghinaan. Maka, lagi-lagi saya diingatkan pada berbagai insiden kerdil yang dilakukan aparat pemerintah terhadap Tgk. Daud Beureueh.

Ketika para tokoh pemerintah pusat masih bersedia menyibukkan diri untuk mendengar keinginan masyarakat Aceh dan menyabarkan kemarahan yang telah telanjur dicetuskan, situasi dialogis masih bisa dipertahankan. Tetapi, ketika kabinet telah berganti dan pemerintah pusat hanya melihat masalah Aceh sebagai pantulan dari persaingan internal antara para pemimpin Aceh, hal yang mestinya telah diduga itu pun terjadi. Tgk. Daud Beureueh “ke hutan” di hari Pekan Olahraga Nasional III di Medan, 21 September 1953, secara resmi dimulai. Ironis juga ia memisahkan diri ketika persatuan bangsa secara simbolis ingin diwujudkan dalam pekan olahraga. Tetap, bukankah ironis juga kalau sang pendekar kemerdekaan dengan begitu saja disingkirkan dengan dalih ketertiban pemerintahan?

Dalam masa “di hutan” itu ia, seperti juga halnya Kahar Muzakar di Sulawesi Selatan, bergabung dengan NII/Darul Islam, yang berpusat di Jawa Barat. Kemudian ia mendekatkan diri dengan Republik Persatuan Indonesia/PRRI. Dengan kata lain, sang ulama-politikus ini hanya menginginkan Aceh sebagai bagian dari alternatif NKRI—negara Islam atau/dan negara federal, tetapi bukan negara yang terpisah. Ia berontak, tetapi ia bukankah seorang separatis. Sembilan tahun kemudian ia turun ke bawah, kalah, tetapi diterima dengan segala kehormatan.

“Peristiwa Daerah” telah berakhir. Aceh pun menjadi daerah istimewa, yang dibolehkan menjalankan hukum syariah. Tetapi pertanyaan yang sering dilontarkan kepada saya: dalam hal apa Aceh diistimewakan? Atau pertanyaan ini: jika saja 10 persen dari hasil Aceh dikembalikan kepada kami, rakyat Aceh sudah puas dan berterima kasih? Seorang pedagang di Lhok Seumawe berkata, “Di manakah keadilan mau dicari kalau semeter tanah dihargai lebih murah dari semeter plastik?” Ia mungkin melebih-lebihkan masalah, tetapi tuntutan terhadap ketidakadilan semakin nyaring juga. Sementara itu, Tgk. Daud Beureueh telah diharuskan, dengan segala cara, hanya berperan sebagai “museum sejarah”—untuk dinikmati dan direnungkan. Orde Baru bukan saja telah menguasai politik dan ekonomi, tetapi juga penguasa kesadaran dan pemegang monopoli ingatan kolektif bangsa. Ketika monopoli ini goyah, mestikah diherankan kalau semuanya meletup keluar? Yang tampil bukan lagi alternatif terhadap tatanan negara, melainkan hasrat pemisahan dari bangsa dan negara yang pernah diperjuangkan Aceh dengan gigih. (Taufik Abdullah Sejarawan)

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Kontrofersi terhadap Tengku Daud Beureueh

 

Sejarah Asal Mula GAM, Penyebab Gerakan GAM di Aceh

Sejarah Asal Mula GAM (1)

Lahir karena Penindasan dan Pelecehan Tanah Adat

 

Putus sudah harapan damai di Aceh. Sejak kemarin, pemerintah mulai memberlakukan darurat militer di Aceh. Enam bulan lamanya operasi bakal dilakukan TNI. Militer diterjunkan untuk melumpuhkan Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM). Mengapa dan bagaimana lahirnya ”si Anak Nakal” di Aceh itu?

BICARA GAM

, mau tak mau, harus bicara kelahiran negara Republik Indonesia. Sebab, dari situlah kisah gerakan menuntut kemerdekaan dimulai. Lima hari setelah RI diproklamasikan, Aceh menyatakan dukungan sepenuhnya terhadap kekuasaan pemerintahan yang berpusat di Jakarta. Di bawah Residen Aceh, yang juga tokoh terkemuka, Tengku Nyak Arief, Aceh menyatakan janji kesetiaan, mendukung kemerdekaan RI dan Aceh sebagai bagian tak terpisahkan.

Pada 23 Agustus 1945, sedikitnya 56 tokoh Aceh berkumpul dan mengucapkan sumpah. ”Demi Allah, saya akan setia untuk membela kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia sampai titik darah saya yang terakhir.” Kecuali Mohammad Daud Beureueh, seluruh tokoh dan ulama Aceh mengucapkan janji itu. Pukul 10.00, Husein Naim dan M Amin Bugeh mengibarkan bendera di gedung Shu Chokan (kini, kantor gubernur). Tengku Nyak Arief gubernur di bumi Serambi Mekah.

Tetapi, ternyata tak semua tokoh Aceh mengucapkan janji setia. Mereka para hulubalang, prajurit di medan laga. Prajurit yang berjuang melawan Belanda dan Jepang. Mereka yakin, tanpa RI, mereka bisa mengelola sendiri negara Aceh. Inilah kisah awal sebuah gerakan kemerdekaan. Motornya adalah Daud Cumbok. Markasnya di daerah Bireuen. Tokoh-tokoh ulama menentang Daud Cumbok. Melalui tokoh dan pejuang Aceh, M. Nur El Ibrahimy, Daud Cumbok digempur dan kalah. Dalam sejarah, perang ini dinamakan perang saudara atau Perang Cumbok yang menewaskan tak kurang 1.500 orang selama setahun hingga 1946.

Tahun 1948, ketika pemerintahan RI berpindah ke Yogyakarta dan Syafrudin Prawiranegara ditunjuk sebagai Presiden Pemerintahan Darurat RI (PDRI), Aceh minta menjadi propinsi sendiri. Saat itulah, M. Daud Beureueh ditunjuk sebagai Gubernur Militer Aceh.

Oleh karena kondisi negara terus labil dan Belanda merajalela kembali, muncul gagasan melepaskan diri dari RI. Ide datang dari dr. Mansur. Wilayahnya tak cuma Aceh. Tetapi, meliputi Aceh, Nias, Tapanuli, Sumatera Selatan, Lampung, Bengkalis, Indragiri, Riau, Bengkulu, Jambi, dan Minangkabau. Daud Beureueh menentang ide ini. Dia pun berkampanye kepada seluruh rakyat, bahwa Aceh adalah bagian RI. Sebagai tanda bukti, Beureueh memobilisasi dana rakyat.

Setahun kemudian, 1949, Beureueh berhasil mengumpulkan dana rakyat 500.000 dolar AS. Uang itu disumbangkan utuh buat bangsa Indonesia. Uang itu diberikan ABRI 250 ribu dolar, 50 ribu dolar untuk perkantoran pemerintahan negara RI, 100 ribu dolar untuk pengembalian pemerintahan RI dari Yogyakarta ke Jakarta, dan 100 ribu dolar diberikan kepada pemerintah pusat melalui AA Maramis. Aceh juga menyumbang emas lantakan untuk membeli obligasi pemerintah, membiayai berdirinya perwakilan RI di India, Singapura dan pembelian dua pesawat terbang untuk keperluan para pemimpin RI. Saat itu Soekarno menyebut Aceh adalah modal utama kemerdekaan RI.

Setahun berlangsung, kekecewaan tumbuh. Propinsi Aceh dilebur ke Propinsi Sumatera Utara. Rakyat Aceh marah. Apalagi, janji Soekarno pada 16 Juni 1948 bahwa Aceh akan diberi hak mengurus rumah tangganya sendiri sesuai syariat Islam tak juga dipenuhi.

Intinya, Daud Beureueh ingin pengakuan hak menjalankan agama di Aceh. Bukan dilarang. Beureueh tak minta merdeka, cuma minta kebebasan menjalankan agamanya sesuai syariat Islam. Daud Beureueh pun menggulirkan ide pembentukan Negara Islam Indonesia pada April 1953. Ide ini di Jawa Barat telah diusung Kartosuwiryo pada 1949 melalui Darul Islam. Lima bulan kemudian, Beureueh menyatakan bergabung dan mengakui NII Kartosuwiryo.

Dari sinilah lantas Beureueh melakukan gerilya. Rakyat Aceh, yang notabene Islam, mendukung sepenuhnya ide NII itu. Tentara NII pun dibentuk, bernama Tentara Islam Indonesia (TII). Lantas, terkenallah pemberontakan DI/TII di sejumlah daerah. Beureueh lari ke hutan. Cuma, ada tragedi di sini. Pada 1955 telah terjadi pembunuhan masal oleh TNI. Sekitar 64 warga Aceh tak berdosa dibariskan di lapangan lalu ditembaki. Aksi ini mengecewakan tokoh Aceh yang pro-Soekarno. Melalui berbagai gejolak dan perundingan, pada 1959, Aceh memperoleh status propinsi daerah istimewa.

Dikhianati

Beureueh merasa dikhianati Soekarno. Bung Karno tidak mengindahkan struktur kepemimpinan adat dan tak menghargai peranan ulama dalam kehidupan bernegara. Padahal, rakyat Aceh itu sangat besar kepercayaannya kepada ulama. Gerilya dilakukan. Tetapi, Bung Karno mengerahkan tentaranya ke Aceh. Tahun 1962, Beureueh dibujuk menantunya El Ibrahimy agar menuruti Menhankam AH Nasution untuk menyerah. Beureueh menurut karena ada janji akan dibuatkan UU Syariat Islam bagi rakyat Aceh (baru terwujud tahun 2001).

GAM lahir di era Soeharto. Saat itu, sedang terjadi industrialisasi di Aceh. Soeharto benar-benar mencampakkan adat dan segala penghormatan rakyat Aceh. Efek judi melahirkan prostitusi, mabuk-mabukan, bar, dan segala macam yang bertentangan dengan Islam dan adat rakyat Aceh. Kekayaan alam Aceh dikuras melalui pembangunan industri yang dikuasai orang asing melalui restu pusat. Sementara rakyat Aceh tetap miskin. Pendidikan rendah, kondisi ekonomi sangat memprihatinkan.

Melihat hal ini, Daud Beureueh dan tokoh tua Aceh yang sudah tenang kemudian bergerilya kembali untuk mengembalikan kehormatan rakyat, adat Aceh dan agama Islam. Pertemuan digagas tahun 1970-an. Mereka sepakat meneruskan pembentukan Republik Islam Aceh, yakni sebuah negeri yang mulia dan penuh ampunan Tuhan. Kini mereka sadar, tujuan itu tak bisa tercapai tanpa senjata.

Lalu diutuslah Zainal Abidin menemui Hasan Tiro yang sedang belajar di Amerika. Pertemuan terjadi tahun 1972 dan disepakati Tiro akan mengirim senjata ke Aceh. Zainal tak lain adalah kakak Tiro. Sayang, senjata tak juga dikirim hingga Beureueh meninggal. Hasan Asleh, Jamil Amin, Zainal Abidin, Hasan Tiro, Ilyas Leubee, dan masih banyak lagi berkumpul di kaki Gunung Halimun, Pidie. Di sana, pada 24 Mei 1977, para tokoh eks DI/TII dan tokoh muda Aceh mendirikan GAM.

Selama empat hari bersidang, Daud Beureueh ditunjuk sebagai pemimpin tertinggi. Sementara Hasan Tiro yang tak hadir dalam pendirian GAM itu ditunjuk sebagai wali negara. GAM terdiri atas 15 menteri, empat pejabat setingkat menteri dan enam gubernur. Mereka pun bergerilya memuliakan rakyat Aceh, adat, dan agamanya yang diinjak-injak Soeharto.
* Heru B. Arifin

Miliki Pabrik Senjata dan Berlatih di Libia

Setelah didirikan, GAM mendapat dukungan rakyat. Hubungan dengan dunia internasional terus dibangun. Kekuatan bersenjata pun disusun. Berapa anggota GAM, bagaimana kekuatannya, jaringan internasionalnya, dan dananya?

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MASIH ingat deadline maklumat pemerintah 12 Mei lalu. Hingga batas waktu ultimatum, pemerintah tak juga mengeluarkan keputusan sebagai tanda awal operasi militer ke Aceh. Konon, saat itu pemerintah menghitung kekuatan TNI di sana. Ada kekhawatiran, TNI bakal dilibas GAM melalui perang gerilya.

Secara tidak langsung, kabar ini menyiratkan ketangguhan kekuatan bersenjata GAM. Sesungguhnya jumlah anggota GAM itu sebagian besar rakyat Aceh. Filosofinya begini. Jika rakyat terus ditindas, maka seluruh rakyat itu akan bangkit melawan. Dan, hal seperti inilah yang terjadi di bumi Serambi Mekah itu. Perlawanan GAM mendapat simpati luar biasa dari rakyat Aceh. Rakyat yang lama ternista dan teraniaya.

Sambil berkelakar, Panglima Tertinggi GAM dan Wakil Wali Negara Aceh Tengku Abdullah Syafei (alm) sempat mengatakan, bayi-bayi warga Aceh telah disediakan senjata AK-47 oleh GAM. Mereka akan dididik dan dilatih sebagai tentara GAM dan segera pergi berperang melawan TNI.

Sejatinya, basis perjuangan GAM dilakukan dalam dua sisi, diplomatik dan bersenjata. Jalur diplomasi langsung dipimpin Hasan Tiro dari Swedia. Opini dunia dikendalikan dari sini. Sementara basis militer dikendalikan dari markasnya di perbatasan Aceh Utara-Pidie. Seluruh kekuatan GAM dioperasikan dari tempat ini. Termasuk, seluruh komando di sejumlah wilayah di Aceh dan di beberapa negara seperti Malaysia, Pattani (Thailand), Moro (Filipina), Afghanistan, dan Kazakhstan. Tetapi, kerap GAM menipu TNI dengan cara mengubah-ubah tempat markas utamanya.

Di seluruh Aceh, GAM membuka tujuh komando, yaitu komando wilayah Pase Pantebahagia, Peurulak, Tamiang, Bateelik, Pidie, Aceh Darussalam, dan Meureum. Masing-masing komando dibawahi panglima wilayah.

Sejak berdiri tahun 1977, GAM dengan cepat melakukan pendidikan militer bagi anggota-anggotanya. Setidaknya tahun 1980-an, ribuan anak muda dilatih di camp militer di Libia. Saat itu, Presiden Libia Mohammar Khadafi mengadakan pelatihan militer bagi gerakan separatis dan teroris di seluruh dunia. Hasan Tiro berhasil memasukkan nama GAM sebagai salah satu peserta pelatihan. Pemuda kader GAM juga berhasil masuk dalam latihan di camp militer di Kandahar, Afghanistan pimpinan Osama bin Laden.

Gelombang pertama masuk tahun 1986, selanjutnya terus dilakukan hingga akhir 1990. Selama DOM, pengiriman tersendat. Tetapi, angkatan 1995-1998 sudah mendapat latihan intensif. Ketika DOM dicabut, prajurit dari Libia ini ditarik ke Aceh. Jumlahnya sekitar 5.000 personel dan dijadikan pasukan elite GAM (semacam Kopassus).

Jalur ke Libia memang agak mudah. Dari Aceh, para pemuda Aceh itu dikirim melalui Malaysia lalu menuju Libia. Jalur lainnya dari Aceh lalu ke Thailand menuju Afghanistan dan melanjutkan ke Libia. Dari jalur ketiga, yakni melalui Aceh menuju Filipina Selatan dan ke Libia. Tiga jalur penting ini hampir selalu lolos dari jangkauan petugas imigrasi, polisi, dan patroli TNI-AL.

Di era Syafei hingga sekarang dipegang Muzakkir Manaf, personel GAM terdiri atas pasukan tempur, intelijen, polisi, pasukan inong baleh (pasukan janda korban DOM) dan karades (pasukan khusus) serta Lasykar Tjut Nyak Dien (tentara wanita).

Wakil Panglima GAM Wilayah Pase Akhmad Kandang (alm) pernah mengklaim, jumlah personel GAM 70 ribu. Anggota GAM 490 ribu. Jumlah itu termasuk jumlah korban DOM 6.169 orang.

Sumber resmi Mabes TNI cuma menyebut sekitar enam ribu orang. Mantan Menhan Machfud MD menyebut 4.869 personel. Dari jumlah itu, 804 di antaranya dididik di Libia dan 115 dilatih di Filipina — Moro. Persediaan senjatanya terdiri atas pistol, senapan, GLM, mortir, granat, pelontar granat, pelontar roket, RPG, dan bom rakitan. Jenis senapan di antaranya AK-47, M-16, FN, Colt, dan SS-1.

Dari mana persenjataan itu diperoleh? Ada jalur internasional yang menyuplainya. Sejumlah negara disebut antara lain, gerakan separatis Pattani Thailand, Malaysia, gerakan Islam Moro Filipina, eks pejuang Kamboja, gerakan separatis Sikh India, gerakan Elan Tamil, dan Kazhakstan serta Libia dan Afghanistan. GAM juga membuat pabrik senjata. Di antaranya, di Kreung Sabe, Teunom — Aceh Barat — dan di Lhokseumawe dan Nisau-Aceh Utara serta di Aceh Timur. Jenis senjata yang diproduksi seperti bom, amunisi, senjata laras panjang dan pendek, pabrik senjata ini bisa dibongkar pasang sesuai dengan kondisi medan. Jika akan diserbu TNI, pabrik senjata telah dipindahkan ke daerah lain. Para ahli senjata disekolahkan ke Afghanistan dan Libia.

Senjata-senjata GAM juga berasal dari Jakarta dan Bandung.
Pasar gelap senjata ini dilakukan oleh oknum TNI dan Polri yang haus kekayaan. Bagi GAM, asal ada senjata, uang tidak masalah. Sebab, faktanya GAM ternyata memiliki sumber dana yang sangat besar. Jumlah pembelian ke oknum TNI/Polri ini bisa trilyunan rupiah. Sebuah penggerebekan tahun 2000 oleh Polda Metro Jaya sempat menemukan kuitansi Rp 3 milyar untuk pembelian senjata GAM di pasar gelap dari oknum TNI.

Kini, senjata yang dimiliki TNI juga dimiliki GAM. Yang tak dimiliki GAM adalah senjata berat. Sebab, sifatnya yang lamban. Prinsip GAM, senjata itu harus memiliki mobilitas tinggi, mudah dibawa ke mana-mana. Sebab, strategi perangnya yang hit and run. GAM bahkan mengaku memiliki senjata yang lebih modern daripada TNI. Misalnya, senjata otomatis yang dimiliki para karades. Senjata otomatis, berbentuk kecil mungil itu bisa tahan berhari-hari dalam air. Anggota karades inilah yang biasa menyusup ke kota-kota dan menyergap anggota TNI/Polri yang teledor.

Membeli senjata tentu dengan uang melimpah. Sebab, harganya yang tak murah. Lantas, dari mana mereka mendapatkan dana? GAM memiliki donatur tetap dari pengusaha-pengusaha Aceh yang sukses di luar negeri. Di antaranya, di Thailand, Malaysia, Singapura, Amerika, dan Eropa. Dana juga didapatkan dari sumbangan wajib yang diambil dari perusahaan-perusahaan lokal dan multinasional di Aceh.

Sebagai gambaran, tahun 2000 lalu, GAM meminta sumbangan wajib kepada seorang pengusaha lokal bernama Tengku Abu Bakar sebesar Rp 100 juta. Abu Bakar diberi surat berkop Neugara Atjeh-Sumatera tertanggal 15 Februari 2000 yang ditandatangani oleh Panglima GAM Wilayah Aceh Rajek Tengku Tarzura.

Mantan Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) pernah menyebut Pupuk Iskandar Muda pernah menyetor Rp 10 milyar ke GAM untuk biaya keamanan. GAM kerap melakukan gangguan bila tidak mendapatkan sumbangan wajib tersebut. Makanya, setiap bulan, GAM mendapat upeti dari para pengusaha ”sahabat GAM” itu.

Sistem komunikasi GAM juga sangat canggih. Sistem komunikasi berlapis dilakukan GAM sebagai benteng pertahanan dan propaganda. Selain handytalky, GAM juga memiliki radio tranking, radar dan telepon satelit. GAM juga memiliki penyadap telepon. Acap kali gerakan TNI/Polri dimentahkan aksi-aksi penyadapan ini. Penggerebekan sering kali gagal total.

Sistem organisasinya yang disusun dengan sistem sel juga membantu GAM survive. Tidak mudah menemukan markas GAM. Meski, ada sebagian anggota GAM yang ditangkap. Antara anggota dan pejabat satu dengan yang lain kadang tidak berhubungan, tidak saling mengenal.

Ketua Umum Forum Perjuangan dan Keadilan Rakyat Aceh (FOPKRA) Shalahuddin Al Fatah menuturkan, sejak zaman Belanda, rakyat Aceh memang tidak pernah menang. Tetapi, rakyat Aceh tidak pernah ditaklukkan. Fakta sejarah pula, gerakan rakyat Aceh menentang pusat tidak pernah menang. Tetapi, TNI tidak pernah bisa menaklukkan mereka.

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kalau boleh jujur gw salute banget sama organisasi2 yang GAM pimpin… sebegitu rapinya, hingga tidak dipungkiri TNI AL kewalahan dalam menghadapi aksi mereka…

Dari kutipan diatas ada 1 hal yang berhasil gw ambil dan bagi gw hal itu merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan kita. “Jangan mengucapkan kata kata atau sebuah janji, bila kita sendiri masih meragukan untuk menepati janji tersebut…”

October 1953

Oct.6th.1953

Prseiden soekarno pointed Mr.SM Amin as teh Gouvenour of North sumatra again.

 II. 1954

III.1955

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011