Bedah Buku karangan Madong Lubis”Pramasastra Lanjut”

Bedah Buku Karya

Madong Lubis

Prama Sastra Lanjut

Pengantar

Kakak sya dr Edhie Djohan Oetama pernah tingal di jalan Madong Lubis Medan, dan dari ecrita teman-teman di medan madong Lubis terkenal sebagai sastrawan dari tapanuli.

Pada tahun 2005 saya menemukan sebuah buku langka karangan Madong Lubis yang berjudul

Prama sastra edisi ketiga

Buku ini sudah dicetak tiga kali, edisi pertama tahun 1947,edisi kedua 1948 dan edisi ketiga 1950.

Setelah membaca buku ini pada awalnya menjelaskan mengenai bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa persatuan Indonesia dengan cukup jelas, dan  banyak hal yang menarik ditemui , salah satunya adalah

KEINDAHAN BAHASA INDONESIA

Saat saya mencari informasi lebih lanjut mengenai Sastrawan Madong Lubis melaui internet .saya menemukan suatu  pesan dari web pasasr buku yang mencari buku karya Madong Lubis Prama sastra

Isi Pesannya sebabgai berikut

1 Jun 2013 … Mohon bantuannya, saya mencari Buku karya Madong Lubis yang berjudul
Prama Sastra Landjutan

Bagi yang ingin memiliki buku langka karangan madong lubis yang cukup tebal itu dapat menghubungi saya liwat komentar dengan menupload identitas KTP dan riwayat Pekerjaan singkatnya untuk sekuritas terhadap serangan hacker internet,nanti and akan dihubungi untuk persyaratan administrasi lainnya.

Silahkan membaca cuplikan dari CD-Rom Dr Iwan  yang berjudul Bedah Buku Prama sastra karya  Madong Lubis dengan ejaan sudah disesuaikan dengan ejaan yang berlaku saat ini di Indonesia

Jakarta September 2013

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

Pramasastra Lanjut

Oleh

 

Madong Lubis

Cetatkan III

Penerbit

PUSTAKA PENGGEMAR

GRYZA SATIVA

1950

Halaman Kedua

Kami Putera dan Puteri Indonesia

Menjunjung bahasa Persatuan bahsa Indonesia

Kongres Pemuda

28-10-1928

Pendahuluan

Dalam cetakan ke I

Didalam kehidupan setiap hari perlu sekali kita setiap masa mengatakan maksud,perasaan dan pikiran kita kepada orang lain.Cara melakukan itu bermacam-macam ,boleh dengan isyarat atau  tanda,boleh dengan gerak-gerik muka dan  boleh dengan bunyi atau suara.

Bunyi itu kedengaran kepada orang dan dapat digambarkan dengan huruf atau dengan  tanda lain.

Bunyi yang bermacam-macam itu kebanyakannya berkumpul –kumpul menjadikan kata-kata yang ada artinya.

Kata-kata yang tertentu itu semuanya menjadikan bahasa, lain Bangsa lain bahasanya.

Bahasa yang dipakai oleh suatu bangsapun berlain-lain juga sedikit-sedikit ; lain bahasa desa. Sebutan orangpun ada kalanya berasing-asing.

Itulah sebabnya maka bahasa itu diatur orang, diatur ejaannya, diatur susun kata dan kalimatnya, diteapkan pula sebutannya.

Dengan hal yang demikian terjadilah bahasa yang dituliskan orang,yang dinamai juga Bahasa buku dan kini disebut  orang Bahasa Perpustakaan(Bahasa cerdas umum) dan Bahasa Kesusastraan.

Oleh sebab Indonesia ini sangat luas dan mempunyai bahasa daerah berates macam, maka bahasa persatuan itu perlu benar diketahui orang.Makin banyak sekolah-sekolah dan buku-bukunya , makin maju perniagaan, makin baik perhubungan lau-lintas , maka semakin dekatlah bahasa orang kepada bahasa persatuan itu dan kian banyaklah orang yang mengetahuinya.

Dan seterusnya ………

Medan bulan 1  1946

Pengarang

 

Pendahuluan

Dalam cetakan ke II

Buku cetakan kedua ini kita sebut namanya PRAMA SASATRA LANJUT  untuk membedakannya dengan PRAMA SASTRA SEDERHANA yang diterbitkan disamping cetakan Pertama dalam tahun 1945 yang bernama PRAMA SASTRA  saja.

Perlu pula disebutkan bahwa cetakan pertama telah diperiksa oleh suatu panitia resmi di Pematangsiantar ibu kota Propinsi Sumatra dalam bulan III-1947 dan telah disahkan untuk SMA diseluruh Sumatra.

Pendahuluan

Dalam cetakan ke II

Buku ini diterbitkan ketiga kalinya untuk memenuhi pesanan Kementerian Pendidikan Pengajaran dan Kebudayaan R.I. untuk dipergunakan pada “Sekolah Lanjutan” UMJUMNYA BAGI Masyarakat yang ingin memperdalam Ilmunya dalam bahasa Ibunya sendiri.

Kita berharap kitab ini mendapat sambutan yang baik dari masyarakat untuk Nusa dan Bangsa

Medan 30-5-1950

ML

BAHASA INDONESIA

Bahasa Melayu

Adapun bahasa Indonesia berasal dari bahasa melayu dan bahasa Melayu itu dimaukkan orang kedlam keluarga bahasa  Austronesia atau Polinesia.

Menurut anggapan setengah orang adalah orang Melayu itu berasal dari Sultan Iskandar Zulkarnain,salah seorang dari pada putera sultan itu bersama-sama dengan pengiringnya turun ke sumatera dan berkampung di Gunung Merapi di Sumatera barat.

Menurut cerita orang itulah asal orang Minangkabau. Dari situ pecahlah keturunan  yang mulia itu ke Jambi dan Palembang.

Buku “Sejarah Melayu”karangan Tun Sri Lanang menerangkan , bahwa keturunan Sultan Iskandar Zulkarnain itu mula-mula menginjak bumi Sumatera ialah dimuara Sungai Musi dekat Palembang. Dari situ mereka  itu ke sumatera Barat, ini lebih lekas diterima akal. Diantara anak cucunya ada yang pindah bersama-sama dengan pengiringnya kekampung-kampung di singapura, yakni Sri Tri Buana. Dari situ mereka itu pindah pula ke Malaka, sebab didesak oleh rakyat Modjopahit. Di malaka kembang-biaklah bangsa itu dan dari sanalah memecah keturunannya kemana-mana di Indonesia ini, seperti kepesisir pulau Borneo,ke Sulawesi dan ketempat lain-lain.

Demikian kata setengah orang tentang asal usul orang Melayu, tetapi banyak pula orang pandai-pandai ,ahli-ahli sejarah, yang lain pendapatnya,seperti Thomas Stamford Raffles, Francis Buchanan,Max Muller,Wallace,Keane,Kern dan lain lain .Ahli-ahli yang tersebut itu tiada mau mengakui, bahwa bangsa melayu itu pecahnya dari sumatera.

Perbedaan pendapat yang timbul sampai sekarang ini tentu kelak akan dihapuskan oleh penyelidikan yang lebih dalam

Bahasa Persatuan

Adapun orang-orang Melayu yang di Melaka itulah , salah satu dari suku bangsa yang terutama dan pertama sekali yang membuat perhubungan dengan orang Aceh,Tionghoa,Eropah dan bangsa lain-lain yang datang berniaga ke Timur ini.

Itulah sebabnya maka Bahasa Melayu itulah yang pertama-tama sekali dijadikannya memperhubungkan dirinya dengan saudagar-saudagar didalam perniagaan,apalagi karena itu orang Melayu suka berlayar kemana-mana dan pembawaannya keras berpegang kepada adat-istiadat dan bahasanya. Dengan hal yang demikian berkembanglah bahasa Melayu dikepulauan ini.

Diantara bangsa-bnagsa asing yang mengembangkan bahasa Melayu terutama sekali orang Portugal. Bahasa Melayu dibawanya dari Melaka kepulau-pulau lain dan bahasa itu pulalah dipergunakannya menyampaikan maksudnya kepada raja-raja dan kepala negeri serta saudagar-saudagar.

Bukan saja ke Borneo, ke Sulawesi dank e Jawa , bahasa Melayu menjadi bahasa perantaraan, tetapi sampai juga ke Banda,ke Ambon dan kepulau lain di Maluku.

Ituklah sebabnya maka bahasa melayu menjadi bahasa perantara , bahas Persatuan bangsa-bangsa yang ada di Indonesia. Mr Moh Yamin menerangkan dalam kongres bahasa Indonesia dalam tahun 1938 , bahwa bahasa melayu sudah menjadi bahasa persatuan, sebelum orang belanda,Portugis dan Inggeris datang ke Indonesia.

Demikianlah bahasa itu makin jelas gambarnya. Olehh karena banyaknya suku-suku bangsa yang mempergunakan bhaasa itu, maka terjadilah sendirinya bahasa Melayu daerah, seperti bahasa melayu-Deli, Melayu-Jawa, Melayu-Betawi,Melayu-Tapanuli,Malayu-Minangjabau,Melayu-Ambon dan lain-lain.

Perkembangan agama Islam di ndonesia turut pula menjadikan syarat dan sebab yang terpenting mengukuhkan pendidikan bahasa Melayu menjadi bahasa persatuan,bahasa Kebangsaan, synthese segala bahasa-bahasa daerah.

Keindahan Bahasa

Seni Sastra

Apakah yang diamai seni sastra ?

Pada Permulaan kitab ini telah dijelaskan sedikit , bahwa bahasa perpustakaan ialah bahasa yang baik, yang dipakai didalam buku-buku, tidak berbeda dari pada bahasa cerdas umum.

Apabila sebuah ata sebahagian karangan disebabkan oleh bentuk dan paduan kalimat serta pemilihan kata-katanya, ada mengandung keindahan sehingga menerbitkan perasaan murni kepada pembaca atau membuat orang terharu, maka disebut oranglah akan bahasa itu bahasa seni (sastra).

Pantun

Buah pohon kesusteraan Indonesia yang terkenal dan terpenting sekali adalah pantun.

Pantun meliputi seluruh alam Indonesia , dari sabang sampai ke Merauke.

Bukan hanya didangau buruk ditengah sawah dan lading,bukan saja dikaki gunung dan ditepi sungai, tetapi dirumah besar,didalam kota,diatas lautan,bahkan didalam lingkungan adat istiadatpun masih kedengaran pantun mendengung dengan nayringnya.

Menurut penyelidikan kita, sebaik-baik pantun yang seimbang dengan batang lagu tiap-tiap baris 10 buah sukuyan perhatikanlah

Jikalau tuan mudik kehulu

Petikkan  Saya bunga kemboja

Jikalau tuan mati dahulu

Nantikan saya dipintu surge

Pntun boleh disamakan dengan perumpamaan yakni kalimat yang dijadikan perbandingan,perumpamaan , missal,contoh,tamsil sesuatu keadaan atau kejadian

Belum beranak, sudah ditimang

Buruk muka, cermin dibelah

Seperti durian dengan ketimun

 

Pepatah

Pematah, berasal dari kata patah, faedahnya untuk pematah(mematahkan) cakap orang lain.

Jika seseorang mendengar mengucapkan suatu pepatah untuk menyambut berita yang diwartakan oleh seorang pembicara maka seoalh-olah habislah cerita, seakan-akan pendengar menyuruh pembicara menghabisi ceritanya,patahlah cakap pembicara.

Amsal Pepatah yang mengandung nasehat

Sehari sehelai benag, lama-lama sehelai kain

Malu bertanya, sesat dijalan

Berkata dibawah-bawah, mandi dihilir-hilir.

Bidai ialah pepatah yang bunyi klaimatnya mengandung kebenaran

Anjing menyalak, tidak mengigit

Asam digunung, ikan , garam dilaut , berjumpa dalam belanga

Anak kambing tidak akan menjadi anak harimau

Anak dipangku, kemenakan dibimbing.

 

Kesusasteraan baru

Zaman baru membuka pintunya dan mulai mengembangkan sayap dalam tahun 1930.

Pemuda-pemuda dan sebahagian dari pada orang-orang terpelajar yang mendapat didikan Barat, yang telah mengenal Willem Kloos,Schiller,Multatuli,Guygens dan pujangga Barat yang lain-lain tidak merasa puas dengan pantun dan syair. Mereka itu mengandung cita-cita , mempunyai khayal dan ingin hendak mencipta.

Terbit riak,alaun, timbul gelora dan angin topan diatas segara tempat perahunya berlayar menuju pulau cita-cita.

Ada yang mencari kesunyian , ada yang mencari kedamaian dan kebebasan dari ikatan belenggu bahkan ada pula yang heneak berjuang.

Semuanya itu tidak dapat dilafalkannya didalam pantun dan syair, didalam ibarat dan talibun.

Sanjak baru susah difahamkan oleh pujangga lama, karena lain sanjak dan iaramanya.

Pujangga baru ada yang melukiskan khayalnya didalam sanjak ababec, dan lagi ada pujangga yang mencari kata-kata yang pelik-pelik untuk perhiasan madahnya.

Yang banyak dilukiskan oleh pujangga yang terkenal ialah Sonnet, yakni sanjak yang terjadi dari 14 baris . sanjaknya bermacam-macam.

Kita petik dibawah ini Setangkai Bunga dari Taman Pujangga Baru, buah tanggan Rustam Effendi, sebuah Sonnet, yang berisi Kebenaran(realiteit) dalam Percikan Permenungan

AIR MATA

Banyak kenalan kaum kerabat

Kawan bergurau bersuka-suka

Tetapi diwaktu berhati sehat

Kemana tempat mengadukan Luka?

Ayah dan Ibu sanak selingkar

Tempat mengadu mengatakan susah

Tetapi mereka semata mendengar

Mengertipun tidak perkataan gundah

Tidak seorang datang membujuk

Klau kita diremas duka

Tidak seorang datang mengajuk

Dalam lautan Perasaan kita

Hnayalaj Air Mata diwaktu bersembunyi

Dapat mencucrkan obat nurani.

Sebuah sonnet yang lain, buah tanggan Mr M.Yamin , yang menginggtakan kita kepada punjangga Barat tahun 1880, kita turunkan dibawh ini

GEMBALA

Perasaan siapa tidakkan Nyala

Melihat anak berlagu dendang

Seorang saja ditengah padang

Tiada berbaju buka kepala

Baginilah nasib naak gembala

Berteduh dibawah kayu nan rindang

Semenjak pagi meninggalkan kandang

Pulang kerumah disenja kala

Jauh sedikit, sesayup sampai

Terdengar olehku bunyi serunai

Melagukan alam, nan molek permai

Wahai Gembala disegara hijau

Mendengar puputmu menurutkan kerbau

Maulah aku menurutkan dikau.

SUDAHKAH TUAN MEMPELAJAR SENI SASTRA ?

 

Siapa yang tidak dapat mengecap nikmat seni sastra , ia adalah seorang biadap dan akan tetap sebagai dia.

GOETHE

CD-ROM BERISI BUKU KARYA MADONG LUBIS PRAMASASTRA LANJUT 

DENGAN EJAAN YANG TELAH DISESUAIKAN

DISUNTING

OLEH

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

TERSEDIA

SILAHKAN MENGAJUKAN PERMOHONAN LIWAT KOMENTAR DENGAN MENCANTUMKAN ALAMAT EMAILNYA PADA KOMENTAR

(COMMENT)

 

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The Chinese Nobel Prize Winner Gao Xingjian’s Book :”Soul Mountain” and Painting Exhibition(Buku Karangan Penulis Tiongkok Yang memperoleh Hadiah Nobel tahun 2000)

 

 
 
 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

FRAME ONE :The Chinese Nobel Prize writter Gao Xingjian’s Book:”Soul Mountain”the amizing book

Gao Xingjian

Gao Xingjian

Soul Mountain

Chapter One

This piece is 2,600 words or about seven printed pages long

THE OLD BUS is a city reject. After shaking in it for twelve hours on the potholed highway since early morning, you arrive in this mountain county town in the South.In the bus station, which is littered with ice-block wrappers and sugar cane scraps, you stand with your backpack and a bag and look around for a while. People are getting off the bus or walking past, men humping sacks and women carrying babies. A crowd of youths, unhampered by sacks or baskets, have their hands free. They take sunflower seeds out of their pockets, toss them one at a time into their mouths and spit out the shells. With a loud crack the kernels are expertly eaten. To be leisurely and carefree is endemic to the place. They are locals and life has made them like this, they have been here for many generations and you wouldn’t need to go looking anywhere else for them. The earliest to leave the place travelled by river in black canopy boats and overland in hired carts, or by foot if they didn’t have the money. Of course at that time there were no buses and no bus stations. Nowadays, as long as they are still able to travel, they flock back home, even from the other side of the Pacific, arriving in cars or big air-conditioned coaches. The rich, the famous and the nothing in particular all hurry back because they are getting old. After all, who doesn’t love the home of their ancestors? They don’t intend to stay so they walk around looking relaxed, talking and laughing loudly, and effusing fondness and affection for the place. When friends meet they don’t just give a nod or a handshake in the meaningless ritual of city people, but rather they shout the person’s name or thump him on the back. Hugging is also common, but not for women. By the cement trough where the buses are washed, two young women hold hands as they chat. The women here have lovely voices and you can’t help taking a second look. The one with her back to you is wearing an indigo-print headscarf. This type of scarf, and how it’s tied, dates back many generations but is seldom seen these days. You find yourself walking towards them. The scarf is knotted under her chin and the two ends point up. She has a beautiful face. Her features are delicate, so is her slim body. You pass close by them. They have been holding hands all this time, both have red coarse hands and strong fingers. Both are probably recent brides back seeing relatives and friends, or visiting parents. Here, the word xlfu means one’s own daughter-in-law and using it like rustic Northerners to refer to any young married woman will immediately incur angry abuse. On the other hand, a married woman calls her own husband laogong, yet your laogong and my laogong are both used. People here speak with a unique intonation even though they are descendants of the same legendary emperor and are of the same culture and race.
You can’t explain why you’re here. It happened that you were on a train and this person mentioned a place called Lingshan. He was sitting opposite and your cup was next to his. As the train moved, the lids on the cups clattered against one another. If the lids kept on clattering or clattered and then stopped, that would have been the end of it. However, whenever you and he were about to separate the cups, the clattering would stop, and as soon as you and he looked away the clattering would start again. He and you reached out, but again the clattering stopped. The two of you laughed at the same instant, put the cups well apart, and started a conversation. You asked him where he was going.”Lingshan””What?””Lingshan, ling meaning spirit or soul, and shanmeaning mountain.”You’d been to lots of places, visited lots of famous mountains, but had never heard of this place.

Your friend opposite had closed his eyes and WAS dozing. Like anyone else, you couldn’t help being curious and naturally wanted to know which famous places you’d missed on your travels. Also, you liked doing things properly and it was annoying that there was a place you’ve never even heard of. You asked him about the location of Lingshan.

“At the source of the You River,” he said, opening his eyes.

You didn’t know this You River either, but was embarrassed about asking and gave an ambiguous nod which could have meant either “I see, thanks” or “Oh, I know the place”. This satisfied your desire for superiority, but not your curiosity. After a while you asked how to get there and the route up the mountain.

“Take the train to Wuyizhen, then go upstream by boat on the You River.”

“Whats there? Scenery? Temples? Historic sites?” you asked, trying to be casual.

“It’s all virgin wilderness.”

“Ancient forests?”

“Of course, but not just ancient forests.”

“What about Wild Men?” you said, joking.

He laughed without any sarcasm, and didn’t seem to be making fun of himself which intrigued you even more. You had to find out more about him.

“Are you an ecologist? A biologist? An anthropologist? An archaeologist?”

He shook his head each time then said, “I’m more interested in living people.”

“So you’re doing research on folk customs? You’re a sociologist? An ethnographer? An ethnologist? A journalist, perhaps? An adventurer?”

“I’m an amateur in all of these.”

The two of you started laughing.

“I’m an expert amateur in all of these!”

The laughing made you and him cheerful. He lit a cigarette and couldn’t stop talking as he told you about the wonders of Lingshan. Afterwards, at your request, he tore up his empty cigarette box and drew a map of the route up Lingshan. In the North it is already late autumn but the summer heat hasn’t completely subsided. Before sunset, it is still quite hot in the sun and sweat starts running down your back. You leave the station to have a look around. There’s nothing nearby except for the little inn across the road. It’s an old-style two-storey building with a wooden shopfront. Upstairs the floorboards creak badly but worse still is the grime on the pillow and sleeping mat. If you wanted to have a wash, you’d have to wait till it was dark to strip off and pour water over yourself in the damp and narrow courtyard. This is a stopover for the village peddlers and craftsmen.

 THE BUS TUA adalah sebuah kota menolak. Setelah gemetar di dalamnya selama dua belas jam di jalan raya berlubang-lubang sejak pagi, Anda tiba di kota ini wilayah gunung di Selatan.

Di stasiun bis, yang penuh dengan pembungkus es-blok dan skrap gula tebu, Anda berdiri dengan ransel dan tas dan melihat sekitar untuk sementara waktu. Orang-orang turun dari bus terakhir atau berjalan, laki-laki dan perempuan menjunjung karung sambil membawa bayi. Sekelompok pemuda, dihalangi oleh karung atau keranjang, memiliki tangan mereka bebas. Mereka mengambil biji bunga matahari keluar dari kantong mereka, melemparkannya  satu per satu ke dalam mulut mereka dan dimuntahkan kerang. Dengan retak keras kernel adalah ahli dimakan. Untuk menjadi santai dan riang adalah endemik untuk menempatkan. Mereka adalah penduduk setempat dan kehidupan telah membuat mereka seperti ini, mereka telah di sini selama beberapa generasi dan Anda tidak perlu pergi mencari tempat lain untuk mereka. Paling awal untuk meninggalkan tempat bepergian dengan perahu sungai di kanopi hitam dan darat di gerobak disewa, atau dengan kaki kalau mereka tidak punya uang. Tentu saja pada waktu itu tidak ada bis dan tidak ada stasiun bis. Saat ini, selama mereka masih dapat melakukan perjalanan, mereka kawanan kembali ke rumah, bahkan dari sisi lain Pasifik, tiba di mobil atau pelatih ber-AC besar. Orang kaya, yang terkenal dan tidak terburu-buru khususnya semua kembali karena mereka mulai tua. Setelah semua, yang tidak menyukai rumah nenek moyang mereka? Mereka tidak berniat untuk tinggal sehingga mereka berjalan di sekitar tampak santai, berbicara dan tertawa keras, dan curahan kecintaan dan kasih sayang untuk tempat itu. Ketika teman-teman bertemu mereka tidak hanya memberikan mengangguk atau jabat tangan dalam ritual berarti orang kota, melainkan mereka berteriak nama orang atau berdebar-debar dia di belakang. Memeluk juga umum, tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Oleh palung semen tempat bus dicuci, dua perempuan muda berpegangan tangan saat mereka bercakap-cakap(chatting). Para wanita di sini memiliki suara indah dan Anda tidak dapat membantu mengambil melihat kedua. Yang satu dengan kembali kepada Anda adalah mengenakan jilbab nila-cetak. Jenis syal, dan bagaimana hal itu diikat, tanggal kembali generasi banyak tapi jarang terlihat hari ini. Anda menemukan diri Anda berjalan ke arah mereka. syal ini rajutan di bawah dagu dan kedua ujung titik atas. Dia memiliki wajah cantik. fitur nya adalah halus, sehingga tubuh ramping. Anda melewati dekat oleh mereka. Mereka telah memegang tangan selama ini, keduanya memiliki tangan kasar merah dan jari-jari yang kuat. Keduanya mungkin pengantin baru-baru ini kembali melihat kerabat dan teman-teman, atau mengunjungi orang tua. Di sini, kata xlfu berarti satu putri-sendiri di-hukum dan menggunakannya seperti utara pedesaan untuk merujuk kepada semua wanita yang menikah muda segera akan dikenakan penyalahgunaan marah. Di sisi lain, seorang wanita yang sudah menikah panggilan Laogong suaminya sendiri, namun Laogong Anda dan Laogong saya keduanya digunakan. Orang di sini berbicara dengan intonasi yang unik meskipun mereka adalah keturunan dari kaisar legendaris yang sama dan budaya yang sama dan ras.

Anda tidak dapat menjelaskan mengapa Anda di sini. Itu terjadi bahwa Anda berada di kereta dan orang ini disebutkan tempat yang disebut Lingshan. Dia duduk berlawanan dan cangkir Anda di samping nya. Saat kereta bergerak, penutup pada cangkir berdentang terhadap satu sama lain. Jika tutup terus gemerincing atau terjatuh dan kemudian berhenti, yang seharusnya akhir itu. Namun, setiap kali Anda dan dia hendak memisahkan cangkir, derap akan berhenti, dan segera setelah Anda dan dia memalingkan muka dengan gemerincing akan mulai lagi. Dia dan Anda mengulurkan tangan, tapi sekali lagi gemerincing itu berhenti. Anda berdua tertawa pada saat yang sama, baik meletakkan cangkir terpisah, dan mulai percakapan. Anda bertanya padanya di mana ia akan pergi.

“Lingshan”

“Apa?”

“Lingshan, ling berarti roh atau jiwa, dan gunung yang berarti shan.”

Kau pernah ke banyak tempat, mengunjungi banyak gunung terkenal, tetapi belum pernah mendengar tentang tempat ini.

berlawanan Teman Anda telah menutup matanya dan WS tertidur. Seperti orang lain, Anda tidak bisa menahan rasa penasaran dan ingin tahu yang terkenal dengan tempat-tempat kau ketinggalan pada perjalanan anda. Juga, Anda suka melakukan hal-hal baik dan itu menjengkelkan bahwa ada tempat yang belum pernah dengar. Anda bertanya tentang lokasi Lingshan.

“Pada sumber Anda Sungai,” katanya, membuka matanya.

Kau tidak tahu ini Anda Sungai baik, tapi merasa malu tentang meminta dan memberikan mengangguk ambigu yang bisa berarti baik “Saya melihat, terima kasih” atau “Oh, aku tahu tempat”. Puas ini keinginan Anda untuk keunggulan, tetapi tidak rasa ingin tahu Anda. Setelah beberapa saat Anda bertanya bagaimana untuk sampai ke sana dan rute atas gunung.

“Naik kereta api ke Wuyizhen, kemudian pergi hulu dengan perahu di Sungai Anda.”

“Pemandangan apa yang ada?? Candi? Situs Bersejarah?” Anda bertanya, mencoba untuk bersikap santai.

“Ini semua padang belantara perawan.”

“Kuno hutan?”

“Tentu saja, tetapi bukan hanya kuno hutan.”

“Bagaimana Liar Pria?” Anda berkata, bercanda.

Dia tertawa tanpa sarkasme apapun, dan tampaknya tidak akan membuat olok dirinya sendiri yang tertarik Anda bahkan lebih. Anda harus mencari tahu lebih banyak tentang dia.

“Apakah Anda seorang ahli ekologi biologi A?? Antropolog An? Arkeolog An?”

Dia menggeleng setiap kali lalu berkata, “Saya lebih tertarik pada kehidupan orang.”

“Jadi kau melakukan penelitian tentang adat rakyat Kau? Sosiolog? Etnograf An? Etnolog An? Jurnalis, mungkin? Petualang An?”

“Aku seorang amatir dalam semua.”

Anda berdua mulai tertawa.

“Saya ahli amatir dalam semua ini!”

The tertawa membuat Anda dan dia ceria. Dia menyalakan rokok dan tidak dapat berhenti berbicara ketika ia memberitahu Anda tentang keajaiban Lingshan. Setelah itu, atas permintaan Anda, ia merobek kotak rokok kosong dan menggambar peta rute Facebook Lingshan. Di Utara itu sudah akhir musim gugur namun musim panas belum sepenuhnya surut. Sebelum matahari terbenam, masih cukup panas di bawah sinar matahari dan keringat mulai membasahi punggung. Anda meninggalkan stasiun untuk melihat-lihat. Tidak ada di dekatnya kecuali untuk penginapan kecil di seberang jalan. Ini sebuah bangunan dua lantai gaya lama dengan shopfront kayu. Di lantai atas papan lantai berderit buruk tapi lebih buruk masih merupakan kotoran di atas bantal dan tikar tidur. Jika Anda ingin memiliki mencuci, Anda harus menunggu sampai hari sudah gelap untuk strip off dan menuangkan air di atas diri Anda di halaman lembab dan sempit. Ini adalah persinggahan bagi pedagang asongan desa dan pengrajin.

 
 

2.Gao Xingjian’s  poem:

1.you can remember the words of the ditty:

In moonlight thick as soup , I ride out to burn incense. For Luo Dajie who burnt to death.For Dou Sanniang who died in a rage.Sanniang picked beans.but the pods were empty,she married master Ji. but master Ji was short.So she married  a crab, the crab crossed a ditch.trod on an cel.The eel complained, it complained to a monk.The monk said a prayer, a prayer to Guanyin,So Guanyin pissed,The piss hit my son,his belly hurt.So I got an exorcist to dance.The dance didn’t work.But still cost heaps of money

Anda dapat mengingat kata-kata lagu pendek ini:
Dalam cahaya bulan setebal sup, aku naik keluar untuk membakar dupa. Untuk Luo Dajie yang dibakar untuk kematian.Untuk  Dou Sanniang yang meninggal dalam sebuah rage.Sanniang mengambil kacang hijau.Tetapi polongnya kosong, Ia menikah dengan master Ji. tapi master Ji pendek.So ia menikah kepiting, kepiting menyeberangi ditch.trod pada belut cel.Mengeluh, mengeluh kepada seorang biarawan pendeta.Pendeta  mengucapkan doa, doa untuk Guanyin, Jadi Guanyin marah dan kencing, kencingnya  mengenai  anak saya.Sehingga  perutnya cedera, sehingga saya menari untuk  mengusir setan .Tarian tersebut tidak berhasil .Tetapi  masih membutuhkan biaya setumpukan uang

2.I can see the people ,hear their voices, the sound of a gong and the  beat of drum.however outside the windows is only the sound of the  mountain and the lapping of water

There are three hundreed and sixty pole loads of songs,which load do you carry on your pole?There  are thirty -six thousand books of songs,Which book do you carry in your hand?Address me as master singer for I know,The first book is the script born within us, I understand  when I hear.The amster singer is an expert.to know the principle of Earth and Heaven.I venture to ask him. In which month of which year was song born? On which day of which month was song born?

Aku bisa melihat orang-orang, mendengar suara mereka, suara gong dan irama genderang .Kendatipun diluar jendela hanya suara gunung dan memukul-mukul air
Ada tiga ratus dan beban tiang enam puluh lagu, dengan beban yang Anda melanjutkan tiang Anda? Ada tiga puluh enam ribu buku lagu, buku yang Anda bawa di tangan Anda? Alamat saya sebagai penyanyi master karena aku tahu, pertama buku adalah script lahir dalam diri kita, aku memahami ketika aku dengar.The penyanyi master adalah sebuah expert.Untuk  mengetahui prinsip Bumi dan usaha Surga.Saya  bertanya padanya. Di mana bulan yang tahun lagu ini lahir? Pada hari yang bulan apa lagu ini  lahir ?

Frame Two :

The Gao xingjian Paintings

1. Museo Wurth La Rioja hosts ‘After the Flood’ an Exhibition by Gao Xingjian

  1.  

    artwork: Gao Xingjian - Lightning, 2006 - Ink on canvas, 200 x 300 cm. - Courtesy of  Museo Wurth La Rioja 

    AGONCILLO-LA RIOJA, SPAIN – Museo Wurth La Rioja presents the exhibition ‘After the Flood’, which brings together the work by the prestigious Chinese artist Gao Xingjian (Ganzhou, China, 1940), 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature. A selection of 80 recently created artworks, including ink paintings on canvas and paper. Regarded as one of the most important Chinese writers at present, Gao Xingjian still is not well known as a painter in Spain, although he is recognized by the international art scene and his oeuvre was previously exhibited at the Reina Sofia Museum (Madrid, 2002). His work has been presented in several solo and group exhibitions in Europe, Asia and the United States, and is included in important art collections around the world

    Gao’s art emerges from an unique fusion of Oriental and Western cultures. His painting is characterized by the dominant use of traditional Chinese means –such as rice paper, Chinese ink and brushes-, but his technique reveals to be thoroughly modern. Through his comprehensive study of modern Western art, Gao has finely appreciated the importance given to the physical act of painting, the exploration on pictorial materiality, and specially, the autonomous status of painting.

    artwork: Gao Xingjian, The Auspices, 2006 192 x 200 cm. -  Ink on canvasThe exhibition After the Flood comprises large and medium-scale canvases and works on rice paper rendered in Chinese ink, carried out in 2008 and is fully representative of Gao’s style. The artworks exude a fluid technique and spontaneous overflow, with lightly brushstrokes, by means of which he explores the painterly possibilities of ink. White and black, light and shadow, achieve a great variety of tonalities, giving a sensual and poetic effect full of texture. The pictures fluctuate between figurative and abstract painting, depicting images that in a broader sense remind of landscapes and inner worlds, as well as cosmic processes inspired by the artists’ reflections on the complexity of the human existence.

    Gao Xingjian was born in 1940, in the Chinese province of Jianxi. Novelist, dramatist, theatre director, literary critic, stage director and painter, he studied French literature, worked as translator and, later, as scriptwriter at the Theatre of Popular Art in Beijing. The theatrical debut of the plays Signal Alarm (1982) and Bus Stop (1983) was condemned by the Chinese authorities and, in 1986, his work was definitely banned. A year later, Gao went into exile in Paris, where he has lived since then, and became French citizen in 1998. In France, he published Soul Mountain (1990), one of his most famous and acclaimed novels. Amongst other International awards, in 2000 Gao Xingjian received the Nobel Prize in Literature and was also named Chevalier de l’Ordre de la Légion d’ Honneur by the President of the Republic of France.

2.Gao Xinjian ‘s Painting :”Lonely atmospheric and melancholic beauty”

 


.

 3.Gao Xingjian Painting:”La Dispersion”

 

  Gao Xingjian, La Dispersion

TITLE:  La Dispersion
ARTIST:  Gao Xingjian
WORK DATE:  2008
CATEGORY:  Paintings
MATERIALS:  Ink on canvas
SIZE:  h: 60 x w: 81 cm / h: 23.6 x w: 31.9 in
REGION:  Chinese
STYLE:  Contemporary (ca. 1945-present)
   
GALLERY:  +34 93 487 6759    Send Email
ONLINE CATALOGUE(S):  Gao Xingjian ‘Después del diluvio’  Oct 23 – Dec 31, 2008
 
 

 

Frame Three:

The Gao Xingjian Profile During Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.

 

Gao Xingjian

The Nobel Prize in Literature

 
Gao Xingjian and His Majesty the King
Gao Xingjian receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.

 

Gao Xingjian
Gao Xingjian after receiving his Nobel Prize from His Majesty the King at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000.

 

Award Ceremony
The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 2000. Gao Xingjian sits in the middle of the front row.

 

Nobel Laureate in Literature Gao Xingjian at the table of
Gao Xingjian at the table of honour at the Nobel Banquet at the Stockholm City Hall, 10 December 2000.

FRAME FOUR :

The Biography of Chinese Noble Prized Literature Gao Xingjian

 
 
 
 
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Gao.
Gao Xingjian
Born January 4, 1940 (1940-01-04) (age 71)
Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China
Occupation novelist, playwright, critic, translator, screenwriter, director, painter
Citizenship China (1949-1996)
France (since 1997)
Alma mater Beijing Foreign Studies University
Period since 1982
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
2000

Gao Xingjian (Chinese: 高行健; pinyin: Gāo Xíngjiàn; Wade–Giles: Kao Hsing-chien, pronounced [kɑ́ʊ ɕǐŋtɕjɛ̂n]; born January 4, 1940) is a Chinese-born novelist, playwright, critic, and painter. An émigré to France since 1987, Gao was granted French citizenship in 1997. He is a noted translator (particularly of Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco), screenwriter, stage director, and a celebrated painter.

Gao was the recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Literature “for an œuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”.[1] Gao’s drama is considered to be fundamentally absurdist in nature and avant-garde in his native China. His prose works tend to be less celebrated in China but are highly regarded elsewhere in Europe and the West. He once burnt a suitcase packed with manuscripts during the Cultural Revolution to avoid persecution.[2]

Contents

 

Life

Gao’s original home town is Taizhou, Jiangsu. Born in Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China, Gao has been a French citizen since 1997. In 1992 he was awarded the Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French government.

Early years in Jiangxi and Jiangsu

Gao’s father was a clerk in the Bank of China, and his mother was a member of the Young Men’s Christian Association. His mother was once a playactress of Anti-Japanese Theatre during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Under his mother’s influence, Gao enjoyed painting, writing and theatre very much when he was a little boy. During his middle school years, he read lots of literature translated from the West, and he studied sketching, ink and wash painting, oil painting and clay sculpture under the guidance of painter Yun Zongying (simplified Chinese: 郓宗嬴; traditional Chinese: 鄆宗嬴; pinyin: Yùn Zōngyíng).

In 1950, his family moved to Nanjing, the capital city of Jiangsu Province. In 1952, Gao entered the Nanjing Number 10 Middle School (南京市 第十 中学; later renamed Jinling High School (zh:金陵中学) which was the Middle School attached to Nanjing University.

Years in Beijing and Anhui

In 1957 Gao graduated, and, following his mother’s advice, chose Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU, 北京外国语大学) instead of the Central Academy of Fine Arts (中央美术学院), although he was thought to be talented in art.

In 1962 Gao graduated from the Department of French, BFSU, and then entered the Chinese International Bookstore (中国国际书店), where he became a professional translator. During the 1970s, because of the Down to the Countryside Movement, he went to and stayed in the countryside and did farm labour in Anhui Province. He taught as a Chinese teacher in Gangkou Middle School (港口中学), Ningguo Xian (宁国县), Anhui Province for a short time. In 1975, he was allowed to go back to Beijing and became the group leader of French translation for the magazine Construction in China (《中国建设》).

In 1977 Gao worked for the Committee of Foreign Relationship, Chinese Association of Writers (中国作家协会对外联络委员会). In May 1979, he visited Paris with Chinese writers including Ba Jin (巴金), and served as a French-Chinese translator in the group. In 1980, Gao became a screenwriter and playwright for the Beijing People’s Art Theatre (北京人民艺术剧院).

Gao is known as a pioneer of absurdist drama in China, where Signal Alarm (《绝对信号》, 1982) and Bus Stop (《车站》, 1983) were produced during his term as resident playwright at the Beijing People’s Art Theatre from 1981 to 1987. Influenced by European theatrical models, it gained him a reputation as an avant-garde writer. His other plays, The Primitive (1985) and The Other Shore (《彼岸》, 1986), all openly criticised the government’s state policies.

In 1986 Gao was misdiagnosed with lung cancer, and he began a 10-month trek along the Yangtze, which resulted in his novel Soul Mountain (《灵山》). The part-memoir, part-novel, first published in Taiwan in 1989, mixes literary genres and utilizes shifting narrative voices. It has been specially cited by the Swedish Nobel committee as “one of those singular literary creations that seem impossible to compare with anything but themselves.” The book details his travels from Sichuan province to the coast, and life among Chinese minorities such as the Qiang, Miao, and Yi peoples on the fringes of Han Chinese civilization.

Years in Europe and Paris

By 1987, Gao had shifted to Bagnolet, a city adjacent to Paris, France. The political Fugitives (1989), which makes reference to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, resulted in all his works being banned from performance in China.

Works

Selected works:

Dramas and performances

  • 《绝对信号》 (Signal Alarm, 1982)
    • 1982, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1992, in Taiwan
  • 《车站》 (Bus Stop, 1983)
    • 1983, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1984, in Yugoslavia
    • 1986, in Hong Kong
    • 1988, in Britain
    • 1992, in Austria
    • 1999, in Japan
  • 《野人》 (Wild Men, “Savages”, 1985)
    • 1985, in Beijing People’s Art Theatre
    • 1988, in Hamburg, Germany
    • 1990, in Hong Kong
  • 《彼岸》 (The Other Shore, 1986)
  • 《躲雨》 (Shelter the Rain)
    • 1981, in Sweden
  • 《冥城》 (Dark City)
    • 1988, in Hong Kong
  • 《声声慢变奏》 (Transition of Sheng-Sheng-Man)
    • 1989, in United States
  • 《逃亡》 (Escape)
    • 1990, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1990, in Sweden
    • 1992, in Germany, Poland
    • 1994, in France
    • 1997, in Japan, Africa
  • 《生死界》 (Death Sector / Between Life and Death)
    • 1991, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in France
    • 1994, in Sydney, Italy
    • 1996, in Poland
    • 1996, in US
  • 《山海经传》 (A Tale of Shan Hai Jing)
    • 1992, published by Hong Kong Tian & Di Book Press (香港天地图书公司)
  • 《对话与反诘》 (Dialogue & Rhetorical / Dialogue and Rebuttal)
    • 1992, published in magazine Today (《今天》)
    • 1992, in Vienna
    • 1995, 1999, in Paris
  • 《周末四重奏》 (Weekends Quartet / Weekend Quartet)
    • 1999, published by Hong Kong New Century Press (香港新世纪出版社)
  • 《夜游神》 (Nighthawk / Nocturnal Wanderer)
    • 1999, in France
  • 《八月雪》 (Snow in August)
    • 2000, published by Taiwan Lianjing Press (台湾联经出版社)
    • 19 Dec 2002, in Taipei
  • 《高行健戏剧集》 (Collection)
  • 《高行健戏剧六种》 (Collection, 1995, published by Taiwan Dijiao Press (台湾帝教出版社))
  • 《行路难》 (Xinglunan)
  • 《喀巴拉山》 (Mountain Kebala)
  • 《独白》 (Soliloquy)

Fiction

  • 《寒夜的星辰》 (“Constellation in a Cold Night”, 1979)
  • 《有只鸽子叫红唇儿》 (“Such a Pigeon called Red Lips”, 1984) – a collection of novellas
  • 《给我老爷买鱼竿》 (Buying a Fishing Rod for My Grandfather, 1986–1990) – a short story collection
  • 《灵山》 (Soul Mountain, 1989)
  • 《一个人的圣经》 (One Man’s Bible, 1998)

Poem

While being forced to work as a peasant – a form of ‘education’ under the Cultural Revolution – in the 1970s, Gao Xingjian produced many plays, short stories, poems and critical pieces that he had eventually to burn to avoid the consequences of his dissident literature being discovered.[3] Of the work he produced subsequently, he published no collections of poetry, being known more widely for his drama, fiction and essays. However, one short poem exists that represents a distinctively modern style akin to his other writings:

天葬台
宰了 / 割了 / 烂捣碎了 / 燃一柱香 / 打一声呼哨 / 来了 / 就去了 / 来去都干干净净
Sky Burial
Cut / Scalped / Pounded into pieces / Light an incense / Blow the whistle / Come / Gone / Out and out

(13 April 1986, Beijing)[4]

Other texts

  • 《巴金在巴黎》 (Ba Jin in Paris, 1979, essay)
  • 《现代小说技巧初探》 (“A Preliminary Examination of Modern Fictional Techniques”, 1981)
  • 《谈小说观和小说技巧》 (1983)
  • 《没有主义》 (Without -isms, translated by W. Lau, D. Sauviat & M. Williams // Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia. Vols 27 & 28, 1995–96
  • 《对一种现代戏剧的追求》 (1988, published by China Drama Press) (中国戏剧出版社))
  • 《高行健·2000年文库——当代中国文库精读》 (1999, published by Hong Kong Mingpao Press) (香港明报出版社)

Paintings

Gao is a renowned painter, especially for his ink and wash painting. His exhibitions have included:

  • Le goût de l’encre, Paris, Hazan 2002
  • Return to Painting, New York, Perennial 2002
  • “无我之境·有我之境”, Singapore, 17 Nov 2005 – 7 Feb 2006
  • The End of the World, Germany, 29 Mar – 27 May 2007

Works in English

  • Buying a Fishing Rod for my Grandfather, short stories, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2004, ISBN 0-00-717038-6
  • Soul Mountain, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, London, 2001, ISBN 0-00-711923-2
  • One Man’s Bible, novel, trans. Mabel Lee, Flamingo, ISBN 0-06-621132-8
  • The Other Shore, plays, trans. G. Fong, Chinese University Press, ISBN 962-201-862-9
  • The Other Side, play, trans. Jo Riley, in An Oxford Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Drama, 1997, ISBN 0-19-586880-3
  • Silhouette/Shadow: The Cinematic Art of Gao Xingjian, film/images/poetry, ed. Fiona Sze-Lorrain, Contours, Paris, ISBN 978-981-05-9207-3

Reception

Official response from mainland China

The Premier Zhu Rongji delivered a congratulatory message to Gao when interviewed by the Hong Kong newspaper East Daily (《东方日报》):

  • Q.: What’s your comment on Gao’s winning Nobel Prize ?
  • A.: I am very happy that works written in Chinese can win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Chinese characters have a history of several thousand years, and Chinese language has an infinite charm, (I) believe that there will be Chinese works winning Nobel Prizes again in the future. Although it’s a pity that the winner this time is a French citizen instead of Chinese, I still would like to send my congratulations both to the winner and the French Department of Culture. (Original words: 我很高兴用汉语写作的文学作品获诺贝尔文学奖。汉字有几千年的历史,汉语有无穷的魅力,相信今后还会有汉语或华语作品获奖。很遗憾这次获奖的是法国人不是中国人,但我还是要向获奖者和法国文化部表示祝贺。)

Comments from Chinese writers

Gao’s work has led to fierce discussion among Chinese writers, both positive and negative.

Many Chinese writers[who?] comment that Gao’s “Chinoiserie”, or translatable works, have opened a new approach for Chinese modern literature to the Swedish Academy, and that his winning the Nobel Prize in its 100th anniversary year is a happy occasion for Chinese literature.

In his article on Gao in the June 2008 issue of Muse, a now-defunct Hong Kong magazine, Leo Lee Ou-fan (李歐梵) praises the use of Chinese language in Soul Mountain: ‘Whether it works or not, it is a rich fictional language filled with vernacular speeches and elegant 文言 (classical) formulations as well as dialects, thus constituting a “heteroglossic” tapestry of sounds and rhythms that can indeed be read aloud (as Gao himself has done in his public readings).’[5]

Before 2000, a dozen Chinese writers and scholars already predicted Gao’s winning the Nobel Prize for Literature, including Hu Yaoheng (Chinese:胡耀恒) [6] Pan Jun (潘军)[7] as early as 1999. Chinese literature (characters, language, etc.) has heavily influenced East Asian literature, and Chinese language elements are widely used in several languages including Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese. In addition, with 20th-century Japanese writers having already won the Prize, many Chinese writers had predicted before 2000 that soon there would be a Literature winner with a Chinese background.

 Honors

 Trivia

  • Gao Xingjian’s Swedish translator Göran Malmqvist, is a member of the Swedish Academy and was responsible for the translation to Swedish for Nobel Prize consideration. Ten days before the award decision was made public, Gao Xingjian changed his Swedish publisher (from Forum to Atlantis), but Göran Malmqvist has denied leaking information about the award [1].
  • Gao is one of the two Nobel laureates to give an Nobel acceptance speech in Chinese so far (after Samuel C. C. Ting in 1976).
  • Gao has been the center of an artistic piece of video art. The art exhibit is entitled ‘Voom’ and was presented at the University of Iowa art museum in March 2008.

References

  1. ^ “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000”. Nobelprize. October 7, 2010. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2000/. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  2. ^ Alex Duval Smith (2005-10-14). “A Nobel Calling: 100 Years of Controversy”. The Independent (news.independent.co.uk). http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article319509.ece. Retrieved 2008-04-26. “2000: During the Cultural Revolution, Xingjian burnt a whole suitcase full of manuscripts to avoid punishment. Sent to a re-education camp where he was brutally treated, he continued to live in China and remained a party member. Only when L’autre Rive (The Other Shore) was banned in 1987 did he leave his country of birth and apply for asylum in France” 
  3. ^ Mabel Lee, ‘Nobel Laureate 2000 Gao Xingjian and his Novel Soul Mountain’ in CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal, September, 2003, Accessed 14 August 2007
  4. ^ Published on the website Ba Huang’s Art Studio
  5. ^ Lee, Leo Ou-fan (6 2008). “The happy exile”. Muse Magazine (17): 93. 
  6. ^ http://culture.163.com/edit/001013/001013_42352.html
  7. ^ http://news.21cn.com/today/2006/09/14/2973393.shtml

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

The Article in Rare German Book 1895:” The Toumbuluh tribe in Minahasa Nort Celebes.”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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Showcase:

The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :

Alte Gebrauche Bei Hetrathen,Geburt und Sterberfallen Bei Dem TOUMBULUH STAMM In Der Minahasa North Celebes. von Dr JGF Riedel.

Old Used For Hetrathen, birth and Sterberfallen In The TOUMBULUH Minahasa tribe in the North Celebes

 

1. True padi the crop, the most appropriate time for the Anknupfen a more or less intimate acquaintance will agree the young people to live together or umu gewonhnlich as they print their own manner, Heerdgenossen to be.
 After the sign of assent, besttehend of finely cut tobacco and a worn garment, each entrusted with, and subordinate to the Jungling its proposal to the decision taking his parents and a’testen Blutsverwandtten.2. Part of a Maltese of red, and black gel barrels( Tenun IKat).
 
3.After have older you Sirih-chewed pinang, is the girl in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 
religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
 
 
 
 from the for them some room to light and gives the young Ling implied taste of a vase Pinang, Sirih, lime and tobacco BEITEN to hear, while they at the same.4.Hiernach eat, although this is not a constraint, the young people, even with the most common fig WALIAN, Plate X 25.After distribute the food to the young Verwandtten compact little presents and provides the Walian-sacrifice for the wewene Empungs, from rice, a boiled rice with a new tub Plate X Fig 3 as a base6.When  they do in the middle of the night one of the main pillars of the house has settled law, waving to the estate Walians, Plate X Fig 2 and Walian-wewene the jumgen sounds close to him, glad she stand before the victim and let them hold both the ends of the WOKA and the hands of the two Walian.
 This SILANAN Genant, AFFIRMING the ceremony is for the beidderseitingen SIRIH_PINANG.
 
After the WALIAN gave the signal for silence, he speaks in a loud voice:
 “O Walians, your Empungs, Beschirmgeister ours, come down here and eat the rice and meat that you will be sacrificed by this Heerdgenossen; their prayer a high old and happy , stay away from all evil ihmen, tiredness and bad dream same things we ask of you also empungs that inhabit the house, our Empung their Kalahwakan to you, Kasosoran, Kasedukan Karondoran and may stop. empung her in the sky and on ground are, let these young heerdgenossen live a long and happy, have o walian. Walians both are then as the evidence of young people considered to have voluntarily agreed about heerdgenossen gegenseiting to be,
 
  

1. Wahren der pafi-Ernte, der passendsten Zeit fur das Anknupfen einer mehr oder minder intimen Bekanntschaft, verabreden die jungen Leute gewonhnlich um zusammenzuwohnen oder umu,wie sie es eigennartig ausdrucken,Heerdgenossen zu werden. Nachdem das Zeichen der Zustimmung,besttehend aus feingeschnittenem Tabak und einem abgetragenen Kleidungsstuck,einander anvertraut ist, unterwirft der Jungling sein Vorhaben der Beschlussnahme seiner Eltern und a’testen Blutsverwandtten.

2. Theil einer Malte von roth,gel und schwarzer Fasser.

3.Nachdem die alteren ihr Sirih-pinang gekaut haben,kommt das Madchen, in PATOLA Tucher gekleidet und mit KDELANA behangt,gleich denen der WALIAN_WEWENE, Tafel X Fig 1 aus dem fur sie bestimmten Gemach zum Vorschein und bietet dem Jungling stillschweigend aus einem geschmackvoll hearbeiten Gefass Pinang,Sirih,Kalk und Tabak an,wahrend sie zu gleicher.

4.Hiernach essen,obgleich dies kein ZWANG ist, die jungen Leute,auch wohl gemeinschaftlich mit dem WALIAN ,Tafel X fig 2.

5.Nach dem Essen vertheilen die Verwandtten des Junglings kleine Geschenke und bereit die Walian-wewene  das Opfer fur die Empungs,aus Reis,einem gekochten mit einer neuen Reiswanne Tafel X Fig 3. als Unterlage

6.Wenn sie dies in dder Mitte des Hauses nacht einem der Hauptpfeiler niedergesetz hat,winkt einer der anwesen Walians,Tafel X fig 2. und die Walian-wewene die jumgen Laute zu sich heran,heissen sie vor dem Opfer stehn und lassen sie zugleich die Enden der WOKA und die Hande der beiden Walian festhalten. Diese< SILANAN genante,Feierlichkeit dient zur Bekraftigung des beidderseitingen des SIRIH_PINANG. Nachdem der WZLIAN das Zeichen zum Schweigen gegeben hat, spricht er mit erhobener Stimme :” O Walians,Ihr Empungs,Beschirmgeister der unseren,kommt hienieden und esst vom Reis und Fleische dass Euch durch diese Heerdgenossen geopfert wird; gebet ihnen ein hohes alter und gluck,haltet fern von ihmen alle uebel, Mudigkeit und schlecte Traume,dasselbige fragen wir auch von auch ihr empungs, die dieses haus bewohnen, ihe empung die ihr euch zu kalahwakan,kasosoran,kasedukan und karondoran aufhaltet. ihr empung die im im himmel und auf erden seid,lasset diese jungen heerdgenossen ein langes leben und gluck haben, o walian . beide wAlians werden danach als die zeugen der jungen leute betrachtet,die freiwillig ubereingekommen sind um gegenseiting heerdgenossen zu werden,

Ethnic group of Minahasa Tribes

1. Malesung (Min Nan Tou)


 
Ethnic group Minahasa is the majority tribe who inhabited the city of Manado, the customary law is an area of Minahasa tribe or also known as “Malesung”. Own origins from the opinion of a linguist and the Ancient Chinese characters, called Tandean in 1997 came to examine the “Watu Pinawetengan” through the words “Min Nan Tou” contained in the rock, he reveals, tou Minahasa is derived from the land of Mongolia’s King Ming King who came to immigrate to Minahasa. Meaning of Min Nan Tou are “derived from the island’s  King Ming

2.Related Minahasa People Terms

Minahasa

Minahasa

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia (in past called by Portuguese as North Selebes). The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language. (read more)

Tompaso

Tompaso is a highland subdistrict located about 45 km southwest of Manado in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It also refers to a sub-tribe as part of larger Tontemboan tribe in the Minahasa ethnic group.

According to history, Tompaso is believed to be the origin of Minahasa people before they spread all over the land of Minahasa. One of its villages, Pinabetengan, inherited a megalithic stone about 4 m long and 2 m high tagged with full of carved pictures. The pictures portray some kind of lifetime covenant of how Minahasans were supposed to divide their territory and live peacefully.

Sam Ratulangi

Dr. Gerungan Saul Samuel Yacob Ratulangi or Ratu Langie (November 5, 1890 – June 30, 1949), usually known as Sam Ratulangi, was a Minahasa politician, journalist and teacher from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. His famous saying in the Tondano language ‘Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou’ is translated as ‘man lives to educate others’.

3. Minahasa Kabasan Dance

Kabasaran Dance, a War Dance, traditional dance Minahasa – North Sulawesi, which tells how to maintain soil Minahasa Minahasa tribe from enemies who want to occupy it. Dance Kabasaran or this war dance demonstrated the Sword Shield and Spear. This Kabasaran dance danced for special occasions such as reception room or in different events and cultural tourism.

Kabasaran Dance 2 Kabasaran Dance

Kabasaran Dance 1 Kabasaran Dance

Dancing with the dress all in red, bulging eyes, fierce face, accompanied by drums, carrying swords and sharp spears, making dance kabasaran very different from other dances in Indonesia where they spit smile with graceful movements.

This dance is a dance traditional Minahasa military, who are appointed from the said; Wasal, which means rooster comb is cut so that the chicken becomes more fierce in battle.

This dance is accompanied by the sound of drums and / or a small gong. Percussion instruments like Gong, Tambour or Kolintang called “Pa ‘Wasalen” and the dancers called Kawasalan, which means the dance by imitating the movements of two roosters who are fighting.

Kawasalan word was later developed into Kabasaran which is a combination of two words “ni Kawasal Sarian” “Kawasal” means to accompany and follow the movements of dance, while “Sarian” is a war leader who led traditional Minahasa military dance. Manado Malay language development and then change the letter “W” to “B” so that the word was changed to Kabasaran, which really does not have any connection with the word “great” in Indonesian, but eventually became the dance penjemput for the dignitary-magnifying.

In ancient times the dancers Kabasaran, just as a dancer in traditional ceremonies. However, in their daily life they were farmers. If Minahasa was in a state of war, then the dancers kabasaran be Waranei (warrior). The basic form of this dance is nine sword (santi) or nine spear (wengkouw) with horses step 4 / 4 which consists of two steps to the left, and two steps to the right.

Each dancer kabasaran have a sharp weapon which is the legacy of his old ancestors, because the dancers are dancers who kabasaran hereditary. This dance is generally composed of three parts (in fact there are more than three, only now they are very rarely done). Round – round consists of:

  • 1. Cakalele, which comes from the word “saka” which means fight, and “catfish” means chasing jump – jump. This round was once danced when the soldiers would go to war or returning from war. Or, this round showed great ferocity to fight on the guest, to give a sense of security on the great guest who came to visit us that even Satan the great fear of disturbing guest dancer escort Kabasaran.
  • 2. The second act is called Kumoyak, which comes from the word “torn” means, swung his sharp sword or spear gun down ride, back and forth to calm himself from the sense of anger when fighting. The word “tear” itself can mean persuading the spirit of the enemy or opponent who has been killed in battle.
  • 3. Lalaya’an. In this section the dancers dance free and delighted to escape from feeling angry like dancing “Lionda” by hand dipinggang and other dances of delight. This whole dance is based on cue or command of the leader of a dance called “Tumu-tuzuk” (Tombulu) or “Sarian” (Tonsea). Cue given in the language of sub-ethnic Tombulu, Tonsea, Tondano, Totemboan, Ratahan, Tombatu and Bantik. In this dance, all dancers must be allowed to express Garang without a smile, except at half lalayaan, where the dancers are allowed to spit cheerful smile.

Clothing used in this dance is made of woven fabric and Minahasa original fabric “Patola”, ie red woven fabric of Tombulu and not available in other areas in Minahasa, as written in the book Alfoersche Legenden in writing by the PN. Wilken 1830, where kabasaran Minahasa has basic wear pants and red shirt, then wrapped bond woven fabric. In this case each sub-ethnic Minahasa had a special way of weaving cloth. Special Kabasaran of Remboken and Pareipei, they are more like fashion instead of war and ceremonial clothing, namely by means of moss-lichen trees as camouflage war.

It is unfortunate that since the 1950s, native woven cloth began to disappear so kabasaran Minahasa eventually wear woven cloth Kalimantan and East because of the shape, color and motif resembled Minahasa woven fabrics such as: Kokerah, Tinonton, Pasolongan, Bentenen. Kabasaran hats made of native cloth headband yag ornate rooster feathers, bird feathers and bird Taong Paradise. There is also a flower decoration or Tiwoho canoes. Other decorative ornaments used are “lei-lei” necklaces or neck, “wongkur” cover calf foot, “rerenge’en” or the bells bells (bells made of brass).

In the past the Dutch colonial era, there are local laws regarding Kabasaran contained in the Government Gazette No. 104 B, in 1859 which stipulates that

1. Funeral ceremony the leaders of the country (Law Basar, Kadua Law, Old Law) and public figures, obtained under guard Kabasaran. Also on the country’s leaders a family wedding.
2. Customary celebrations, ceremonies pick up great guest dignitaries Dutch Resident, controller by Kabasaran.
3. Kabasaran assigned as “Opas” (village police).
4. A Kabasaran served to maintain the security checkpoint for 24 days a year.

Kabasaran which has been designated as the village policeman in the Government Gazette of the above, finally forced by the Dutch should be abolished in 1901 because at that time there are 28 prisoners who escaped from prison Manado. To recapture all the prisoners who escaped them, the Dutch police ordered the village, in this case Kabasaran, to arrest those prisoners. But the unfortunate fate of the prisoners, because they were not taken alive but all of them were killed, chopped up by Kabasaran. The Kabasaran at that time located in the village organizations led by the Old Law. Each country or village had ten Kabasaran one of them was the leader of the team is called “Pa’impulu’an ne Kabasaran”. With status as an employee of the village, they would receive benefits in the form of rice, white sugar, and cloth.

It was horrible the Kabasaran at the time, because although only paid with rice, white sugar, and cloth, they were able to slaughter 28 people who all died with terrible injuries.

4. mysteri Kiowa tribe

 
 


Si-sisil-en
e Apo-Apo’

im Banua
Ka-senduk-an
K I O W A

“Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”So-Petor!Preparation of “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa” (Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa) is, based on a chain stories, narrated from the mouth kemulut hereditary among ethnic Kiowa, which is still stored or recorded in the public memory of Ka-Senduk KiowaPu-purengkey-en (a chain of mouth stories kemulut similar legend), the collected and edited and summarized, then poured in the form of a written form of stories, written as it is by the editors / authors, based on oral stories from the speakers, as well as findings findings and the formulation of “Meeting the public culture of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa”, which is supported by the evidence in the form of heritage objects and inscriptions and archaeological sites that were around the Ka-Senduk Wanua of Kiowa (Kiawa), which is a witness life history of the past that can provide inspiration to reveal the veil of mystery, which pervade the “Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.Inputs from various parties who are credible sources, particularly the legend and legacy of stories and cultural history of Ka-Senduk communities of Kiowa spoken by “Tumu-said Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian”, is an extremely literature precious and high value for the preparation of this paper (paper is not based on written literature diperpustakaan, therefore there is no official papers which tell of the legend or pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa).The late-Tumu said Ute ‘Rakian is the last elderly speakers are still to hear directly from the Pa-ma’tu’an and the Wali’an and Tona’as, and Te-keep-an and the Ki’i-ki’i- im about Banua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa who lived with the order of life and governance-how as well as rules and the rules of life Ka-Senduk’s, according to the tradition of the elders and the ancestors.Although since the nineteenth century society Ka-Senduk of Kiowa in general have embraced Christianity, both Protestant and Catholic, but most of them, there are those who embrace and maintain the traditions and customs and ancestral cult, so that their spiritual life remains influenced by the “Ka-Senduk cult’s and lifestyle” Mem-pa’ando of “Kiowa.According to accounts from the remnants of cult followers and ancestral traditions and customs here, Tumu-Ute said ‘listen and learn and understand and know about many things related concerning the religious life, spiritual and physical and social life, economy, welfare, leadership, security and order, especially the traditions and customs, and culture of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.Of those parents and observers as well as observers and lovers of Kiowa culture that is still alive or dead, is also obtained valuable inputs are valuable history and high culture, especially after increased efforts and activities of O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), the excavation business development and cultural preservation of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, more and more directed and more stable.
 
 

“Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”

Maka-Petor !

Penyusunan “Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa” (Si-sisil-en e Apo-Apo’ e Kiowa) ini, bersumber pada ceritera-ceritera berantai, yang dituturkan dari mulut kemulut secara turun-temurun dikalangan etnis Kiowa, yang masih tersimpan atau tercatat dalam ingatan masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa

Pu-purengkey-en (ceritera berantai dari mulut kemulut sejenis legenda) ini, dikumpulkan dan disunting serta dirangkum, kemudian dituangkan dalam bentuk suatu tulisan berupa ceritera, yang ditulis apa adanya oleh penyunting/penyusun, berdasarkan ceritera lisan dari para penutur, maupun temuan-temuan dan rumusan “Sarasehan budaya masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa”, yang didukung dengan bukti-bukti berupa peninggalan benda-benda dan prasasti serta situs-situs purbakala yang berada disekitar Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa (Kiawa), yang merupakan saksi hidup sejarah masa lalu yang dapat memberikan inspirasi untuk mengungkapkan selubung misteri, yang menyelimuti “Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”.

Masukan-masukan dari berbagai pihak yang merupakan nara sumber yang layak dipercaya, terutama sekali warisan legenda serta ceritera-ceritera sejarah dan budaya masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa dituturkan oleh “Tumu-tutur Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian”, adalah merupakan literatur yang sangat berharga dan bernilai tinggi bagi penyusunan tulisan ini (Tulisan ini tidak didasarkan pada literatur tertulis diperpustakaan, oleh karena belum ada tulisan resmi yang menceriterakan tentang legenda atau pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa).

Almarhum Tumu-tutur Ute’ Rakian adalah penutur tua terakhir yang masih mendengar langsung dari para Pa-ma’tu’an serta para Wali’an dan Tona’as, maupun Te-terus-an serta para Ki’i-ki’i-ten im Banua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa yang hidup dengan tatanan hidup dan tata-cara serta aturan dan kaidah-kaidah hidup Ka-senduk-an, sesuai dengan adat istiadat nenek moyang dan para leluhur.

Walaupun sejak abad kesembilan belas masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa pada umumnya sudah memeluk agama Kristen, baik Protestan maupun Katolik, namun sebagian dari antara mereka, masih ada yang menganut dan mempertahankan tradisi serta adat istiadat dan aliran kepercayaan leluhur, sehingga kehidupan rohani mereka tetap dipengaruhi oleh “aliran kepercayaan Ka-senduk-an dan pola hidup “Mem-pa’ando-an” Kiowa.

Menurut penuturan dari sisa-sisa penganut aliran kepercayaan dan tradisi serta adat istiadat leluhur inilah, Tumu-tutur Ute’ mendengarkan dan mempelajari serta memahami dan mengetahui, tentang banyak hal yang berkaitan tentang kehidupan religius, rohani dan jasmani serta hidup bermasyarakat, perekonomian, kesejahteraan, kepemimpinan, keamanan dan ketertiban, terutama tradisi dan adat istiadat, maupun kebudayaan leluhur etnis Kiowa.

Dari orang-orang tua dan pemerhati serta pengamat dan pencinta budaya Kiowa yang masih hidup maupun yang sudah meninggal, diperoleh juga masukan-masukan berharga yang bernilai sejarah dan budaya yang tinggi, apalagi setelah ditingkatkannya usaha dan kegiatan O-oak-an in Aram e Kiowa (Lembaga Budaya Kiowa), maka pengembangan usaha penggalian dan pelestarian budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, semakin lebih terarah dan semakin mantap.

O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), which was pioneered by Tunu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian who was accompanied by Tumu, said Drs. Palar Nico together with the observer and the observer as well as lovers and figures as well as people who never wrestled and participated in cultural rituals Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, Old alUkung Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Piri Hein, Anthony Nayoan , Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan etc., become a very useful tool for extracting Senduk Ka-cultural roots of Kiowa

From among the oldest sources, the late apo ‘Klaas L. Sajow, who was born and raised in the village Kiawa (which is always called “Puser in Tana ‘Ka-Senduk-an”) and as adults wander (lumantak) to make a living in South Minahasa. later married and settled even Janunri died in 1996 at the age of 100 years, Kroit village, district Motoling, has provided a real participation in the form of feedback about stories “Puser in Tana ‘ancient’ is demonstrated also by the legacy of the ancestral heritage of ethnic Kiowa, that before he died promised to restore it to Puser heritage in Tana ‘, al flag (wirus im banua), the banner of war (wirus tu-turu ‘im Custody e Waraney), weapons (santi, wentir, tu-Tura’), po-Porong, etc., is also an invaluable contribution to the excavation of cultural roots Ka- Senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-Palar said Drs Nico, who has decades of accompanying Tumu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian (deceased), has a lot of vocabulary and a collection of stories and personal accounts gathered from the old speakers tentenag Ka-Senduk culture of Kiowa, so it helps the business inventory of the necessary data.

The young generation lover and observer and observer of culture, which actively involve themselves and voluntarily explore, learn, examine, examines, traces and relics make the preparation of documentation for the purposes of writing and preserving the cultures of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, among others:

Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan SE, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda etc., is a young generation successor to the ideals of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.

Concrete manifestation of the business re-excavation of cultural roots Ka-Senduk’s, namely the implementation of “Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa” initiated by the lovers and observers and observers Kiowa culture, with the intent and purpose to explore the cultural roots and customs and traditions of ethnic ancestry Kiowa ancestors.

Meeting was conducted from early 1992 until now, as the realization of observer agreement realization that the secret art and mystery “KASENDUKAN Kiowa” needs to be extracted after seeing “KAROT-KAROT” (scratches) on the rocks in the river and around the WATU TU’US IM-PA-AN PEPA’AR Ranowangko river edge (near the lake Tona’as Wellem Rakian) on September 9, 1991, led by Tumu-speech WANGKO ‘UTE’ RAKIAN; the implementation is done routinely and regularly, including the establishment of team- small team, a team of research and development, verification and monitoring team, formulator and author manuscripts and special teams as required for purposes of repair, rectification and adjustment to the new accurate data found.

To complement the data and supporting evidence, also held a review and field research on heritage sites and archaeological sites around Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, as well as interviews and dialogues with the “tu’a im-tu’a banua “and the charcoal-man known as a lover and observer and observer of culture.

Confirmation of the truth of the findings in the field, as well as inputs as well as stories and narrative a person, done with a special interview and exchange ideas and opinions, and dialogue with people who are already quite old and is considered the master and learn the ins and outs and cultural customs and traditions Ka -Senduk’s, then posed as a discussion in the workshop, to then be studied and studied again the truth and authenticity, and then requested to be formulated and made the writing.

Workshop activities and study a special group and small team meetings, as well as review and field research, conducted since mid-1992 to 1999, still continue and run continuously to obtain the findings of a more complete, to enrich the cultural repertory khasana Ka-Senduk of Kiowa.

It is regrettable because the input of workshop participants in the form of original papers from the workshop participants, about what they know or hear or see for yourself from their parents or their ancestors, especially also the resume of the workshop, nearly everything is destroyed and can not be saved, due to because of stagnant water due to floods that hit the residential penyususn, where archives are stored resumme workshop results. Floods that hit Jakarta Metropolitan city on 10 to 13 Februai 1996, has also checked out the house in the area of ​​Green Ville compiler Block T No. 1 Jakarta, where the flood reached a height of approximately 100 centimeter, so the cupboard and filing cabinet located in the Room part below, where the notes and writings as well as casette tape recorded conversations and interviews with the elders, especially Tumu-Ute said ‘that is a résumé archive Senduk Ka-cultural gatherings of Kiowa, and dozens of cassette tape recorder hidden recording ( recorderder tape is stored in a bag) Salanti Ferry interview about the roots of cultural arts Kasendukan Kiowa, the Ute Tumututur ‘Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Mark Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Peter Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Eyebrows Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober and other people who were interviewed in secret by Ferry Salanti, also flooded and submerged in water for 4 days, including a collection of “conversations” penyusu with the elders of the Kiowa , including stories that had the “compiler” heard by community leaders, among others, by the late Derek mistaken ex Old Law when he was still alive, who happens to have neighbors with the authors about the year 1962/1963, also with Apo ‘Melius Walukow father from Tuwa ‘Peter Walukow often watched him mix of drugs, Apo’ Tertius Piri (where my brother and I Yull often below by Ito ‘Alex Worotitjan looking concoction of drugs), the late Passport Alphius Wowor, the late Endie Rakian, Deceased singon Alo,, Grandma Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Discard Rimper, especially too late and the late HM Taulu Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, FS Watuseke, cultural-other culture, especially also Rietje Rawung aunt and uncle Buyung pemiilik Manguni TOMOHON BOOK HOUSE (Importers book Eastern Indonesia’s largest school books and college in the 1950s are still many published and printed in Holland, in addition to books already published and printed in Indonesia) in 1956-1958, where I live and help them maintain bookstore while in school and read books of art and culture, history and other knowledge that there is no guest / customer, including notes I summarize the story that never are told by the late Justus Worotitjan (tete ‘sergeant) badminton field, about Worotitjan village (now named Kapitu), so the total damaged and destroyed by standing water, which can not be rescued by the maids who kept the house, including the aunt and cousin Yetje Assa Dra Siska Worotitjan compiler can not save casette and archives workshops and other goods because of overflow water occurs at night while they lay on the floor above and find out later the house was flooded the next day. But still lucky because the inputs and resume the essentials workshop, an outline has been included by the author in the diskette / computer.

The data and materials written about the culture of the Ka-Senduk remaining Kiowa and stored on disks / computers this reason, the materials the words “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.

Stories about the village or Ro’ong Kiawa Kiowa (Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), found also in some literature, written and published in the Dutch colonial era, but its content is very much deviated from the actual situation and reality.

Apparently the experts and cultural researcher and writer who authored certtera about the situation and what is related to the history and customs and traditions of society Kiawa (Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), not knowing at all or never perform or review research and field observations, but only heard from the speakers of a third party who only heard from the second party (the adventurous amateurs, which incidentally, to explore the outback “Wanua Kasendukan”), who only knew vaguely about the state of culture and art center Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). The authors do not or have never visited the “national and cultural origins Kasendukan Kiowa, because it was difficult due to go into” navel in tana “, due to its natural condition is still remote and difficult to visit because of natural conditions and terrain that is still covered with dense forest and factors reluctance of the researchers / writers to visit the expedition and the area is still very remote pengungungan time; Moreover, people’s stories about berkunjungnya Whites (SE TOUW Kulo ‘, which is estimated stranded on the beach around Tumpaan Maruasey around the mouth of the river, then their sailors and merchant adventurers who accompanied the missionaries wandered down the river kepegunungan with Maruasey, Nimanga and reached the river and into Wanua Ranowangko Kiowa, Kiowa Wanua because in there are places called TINO’TOKKAN CULO SI (where whites chopped , who estimated a PASTOR because CULO SI ‘referred to, called and calling people with the title “Padre”), including terms as CASTELA, Santa Cruz, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) who used the name of several locations in the plantations and settlements Wanua Kiowa, signaling and indicate that there were people “white skin, which never stopped even settle in Wanua Kiowa, carrying the seeds of plants cloves, cocoa, nutmeg, coffee, and spices and other plants, still exist in Wanua Kiowa It also includes words and terms such as sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo etc., are still used by residents until now ..

 
 

O-oak-an in aram e Kiowa (Lembaga Budaya Kiowa) yang dipelopori oleh Tunu-tutur Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian yang didampingi oleh Tumu-tutur Drs. Nico Palar bersama-sama dengan para pemerhati dan pengamat serta pencinta maupun tokoh-tokoh serta orang-orang yang pernah bergelut dan ikut dalam ritual-ritual budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, a.l.Ukung Tua Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Hein Piri, Anthon Nayoan, Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan dll, menjadi sarana yang sangat bermanfaat bagi penggalian akar budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa

Dari antara nara sumber yang paling tua, Almarhum apo’ Klaas L. Sajow, yang dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di desa Kiawa (yang selalu disebutnya “Puser in Tana’ Ka-senduk-an”) dan setelah dewasa merantau (lumantak) untuk mencari nafkah di Minahasa Selatan. kemudian kawin dan menetap bahkan meninggal pada bulan Janunri 1996 dalam usia 100 tahun, didesa Kroit, kecamatan Motoling, telah memberikan partisipasi nyata berupa masukan tentang ceritera-ceritera “Puser in Tana’ purbakala” yang dibuktikannya juga dengan pusaka peninggalan milik para leluhur etnis Kiowa, yang sebelum beliau meninggal menjanjikan untuk mengembalikan pusaka itu ke Puser in Tana’, a.l. bendera (wirus im banua), panji peperangan (wirus tu-turu’ im balak e waraney), senjata (santi, wentir, tu-tura’), po-porong, dll, merupakan sumbangan tak ternilai pula untuk penggalian akar budaya Ka-senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-tutur Drs Nico Palar, yang sudah puluhan tahun mendampingi Tumu-tutur Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian (almarhum), memiliki banyak perbendaharaan dan kumpulan ceritera dan catatan-catatan pribadi yang dikumpulkannya dari para penutur tua tentenag kebudayaan Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, sehingga sangat membantu usaha inventarisasi tentang data-data yang diperlukan.

Generasi muda pencinta serta pemerhati dan pengamat budaya, yang melibatkan diri secara aktip dan sukarela menggali, mempelajari, menelaah, meneliti, menelusuri peninggalan-peninggalan dan membuat dokumentasi untuk keperluan penyusunan tulisan serta melestarikan kultur budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, antara lain :

Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan S.E, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda dll, adalah merupakan generasi muda penerus cita-cita leluhur etnis Kiowa.

Wujud nyata dari usaha penggalian kembali akar budaya Ka-senduk-an, yaitu pelaksanaan “Sarasehan Budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa” yang diprakarsai oleh para pencinta dan pemerhati serta pengamat budaya Kiowa, dengan maksud dan tujuan untuk menggali kembali akar budaya dan adat istiadat serta tradisi nenek moyang leluhur etnis Kiowa.

Sarasehan itu dilakukan sejak awal tahun 1992 sampai sekarang ini, sebagai realisasi pewujudan kesepakatan pemerhati seni budaya bahwa rahasia dan misteri “KASENDUKAN KIOWA” perlu digali setelah melihat “KAROT-KAROT” (GORESAN-GORESAN) pada batu-batu di sungai dan disekitar di WATU TU’US IM PA-PEPA’AR-AN ditepi sungai Ranowangko (dekat telaga Tona’as Wellem Rakian) pada 9 September 1991, dipimpin TUMU-TUTUR WANGKO’ UTE’ RAKIAN; yang pelaksanaannya dilakukan secara rutin dan berkala, termasuk pembentukan tim-tim kecil, tim penelitian dan pengembangan, tim verifikasi dan pengawasan, perumus dan penyusun naskah serta tim-tim khusus sesuai kebutuhan untuk keperluan perbaikan, pembetulan serta penyesuaian dengan data-data akurat baru yang ditemukan.

Untuk melengkapi data serta bukti-bukti pendukung, diadakan pula peninjauan dan penelitian lapangan di lokasi-lokasi peninggalan serta situs-situs purbakala disekitar Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, maupun wawancara dan dialog dengan para “tu’a-tu’a im banua” dan arang-orang yang dikenal sebagai pencinta serta pemerhati dan pengamat budaya.

Konfirmasi tentang kebenaran temuan-temuan dilapangan, maupun masukan serta ceritera dan penuturan seseorang, dilakukan dengan wawancara khusus serta tukar pikiran dan pendapat, maupun dialog dengan orang-orang yang sudah cukup berumur dan dianggap menguasai dan mengetahui seluk beluk dan adat istiadat serta tradisi budaya Ka-senduk-an, kemudian dilontarkan sebagai bahan diskusi dalam sarasehan, untuk kemudian dikaji dan diteliti kembali kebenaran dan keotentikannya, baru kemudian dimintakan untuk dirumuskan dan dibuatkan tulisan.

Kegiatan sarasehan serta studi kelompok khusus dan rapat-rapat tim kecil, maupun peninjauan dan penelitian lapangan, dilakukan sejak medio 1992 sampai tahun 1999, masih dilanjutkan dan berjalan terus menerus untuk memperoleh temuan-temuan yang lebih lengkap, untuk memperkaya khasana perbendaharaan budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa.

Sangat disesalkan karena masukan para peserta sarasehan dalam bentuk tulisan asli dari para peserta sarasehan, tentang apa yang mereka ketahui atau dengar atau lihat sendiri dari orang tua atau para leluhur, terutama juga resume dari hasil sarasehan, hampir semuanya sudah musnah dan tidak dapat diselamatkan, disebabkan oleh karena tergenang air akibat banjir besar yang melanda rumah tinggal penyususn, tempat arsip resumme hasil sarasehan disimpan. Banjir yang melanda kota Metropolitan Jakarta pada tanggal 10 sampai dengan 13 Februai 1996, telah menimpah juga rumah penyusun di daerah Green Ville Block T No 1 Jakarta, dimana banjir mencapai ketinggian kurang lebih 100 Centi Meter, sehingga almari serta filling cabinet yang terletak didalam kamar bagian bawah, tempat penyimpanan catatan dan tulisan-tulisan maupun casette tape recorder rekaman pembicaraan serta hasil wawancara dengan para tua-tua terutama Tumu-tutur Ute’ yang merupakan arsip resume sarasehan budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, serta puluhan cassette tape recorder rekaman tersembunyi (tape recorderder disimpan dalam kantong) wawancara Ferry Salanti tentang akar seni budaya Kasendukan Kiowa, dengan Tumututur Ute’ Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Markus Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Petrus Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Alis Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober dan orang-orang lainnya yang diwawancarai diam-diam oleh Ferry Salanti, turut tergenang dan terendam air selama 4 hari, termasuk kumpulan “percakapan-percakapan “penyusu dengan para tua-tua Kiowa, termasuk ceritera-ceritera yang pernah “penyusun” dengar dengan tokoh-tokoh masyarakat, antara lain dengan almarhum Derek Silap ex Hukum Tua ketika beliau masih hidup, yang kebetulan pernah bertetangga dengan penyusun sekitar tahun 1962/1963, juga dengan Apo’ Melius Walukow ayah dari Tuwa’ Petrus Walukow sering menyaksikan beliau meramu obat-obatan , Apo’ Tertius Piri (dimana saya dan adik saya Yull sering dibawah oleh Ito’ Alex Worotitjan melihat-lihat ramuan obat-obatan), Almarhum Paspor Alphius Wowor, Almarhum Endie Rakian, Almarhum Alo Singon,, Nenek Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Buang Rimper, terutama juga Almarhum H.M Taulu dan Almarhum Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, F.S Watuseke, budayawan-budayawan lainnya, terutama juga tante Rietje Rawung dan Oom Buyung pemiilik GEDUNG BUKU MANGUNI TOMOHON (Pengimpor buku terbesar di Indonesia Timur yang buku-buku pelajaran sekolah dan perguruan tinggi pada tahun 1950an masih banyak diterbitkan dan dicetak di Negeri Belanda, selain buku-buku yang sudah diterbitkan dan dicetak di Indonesia) pada tahun 1956-1958, dimana saya tinggal dan membantu mereka menjaga toko buku sambil bersekolah dan membaca buku-buku seni budaya, sejarah dan pengetahuan lainnya kalau tidak ada tamu/langganan, termasuk catatan yang saya rangkum dari ceritera yang pernah diceriterakan oleh Almarhum Yustus Worotitjan (tete’ sersan) dilapangan badminton, tentang desa Worotitjan (sekarang bernama Kapitu), sehingga rusak total dan hancur karena genangan air, yang tidak dapat diselamatkan oleh para pembantu rumah tangga yang menunggui rumah, termasuk Tante Yetje Assa dan sepupu penyusun Dra Siska Worotitjan tidak dapat menyelamatkan casette serta arsip sarasehan dan barang barang lainnya karena luapan air terjadi pada malam hari sedangkan mereka tidur dilantai atas dan nanti mengetahui rumah sudah digenangi air pada keesokan harinya. Namun masih beruntung karena masukan-masukan serta resume sarasehan yang penting-penting, secara garis besar telah dimasukkan oleh penyusun dalam disket/komputer .

Data-data dan bahan-bahan tulisan mengenai budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa yang masih tersisa dan tersimpan dalam disket/komputer itulah, yang menjadi bahan tulisan “Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”.

Ceritera tentang desa Kiawa atau Ro’ong Kiowa (Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa), ditemukan juga dalam beberapa literatur, yang ditulis dan diterbitkan pada zaman penjajahan kolonial Belanda, tetapi isinya sangat jauh menyimpang dari keadaan serta kenyataan sebenarnya.

Rupanya para ahli serta peneliti budaya dan penulis yang mengarang certtera tentang keadaan dan apa yang berhubungan dengan sejarah dan adat istiadat serta tradisi masyarakat Kiawa (Ka-senduk-an Kiowa), tidak mengetahui sama sekali atau tidak pernah melakukan penelitian serta pengamatan atau peninjauan lapangan, tetapi hanya mendengar dari para penutur pihak ketiga yang hanya mendengar dari pihak kedua (para petualang amatiran yang secara kebetulan, menjelajahi pedalaman “Wanua Kasendukan”), yang hanya mengetahui secara samar-samar tentang keadaan pusat budaya dan seni Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). Para penulis tidak atau belum pernah berkunjung ke “pusat dan asal muasal budaya Kasendukan Kiowa, disebabkan karena saat itu sulit masuk ke “puser in tana”, karena kondisi alamnya yang masih terpencil dan sulit dikunjungi karena kondisi alam dan medannya yang masih ditumbuhi hutan lebat dan factor-faktor keengganan dari para peneliti/penulis untuk mengunjungi dan mengadakan ekspedisi didaerah pengungungan yang masih sangat terpencil saat itu; Apalagi ceritera rakyat tentang berkunjungnya Orang Kulit Putih (SE TOUW KULO’, yang diperkirakan terdampar di Pantai sekitar Tumpaan disekitar muara sungai Maruasey, lalu mereka para pelaut dan saudagar petualang yang didampingi misionaris mengembara kepegunungan dengan menyusuri sungai Maruasey, Nimanga dan sampai di hulu sungai Ranowangko dan masuk ke Wanua Kiowa, sebab di Wanua Kiowa ada tempat-tempat yang disebut TINO’TOKKAN SI CULO (tempat orang kulit putih dicincang, yang diperkirakan seorang PASTOR karena SI CULO’ yang dimaksud, dipanggil orang dengan sebutan dan panggilan “PADRE”), termasuk juga istilah-istilah sebutan CASTELA, SANTA CRUZ, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) yang dijadikan nama beberapa lokasi perkebunan dan pemukiman di Wanua Kiowa, menandakan serta mengindikasikan bahwa pernah ada orang “kulit putih, yang pernah mampir bahkan bermukim di Wanua Kiowa, sambil membawa benih-benih tanaman cengkeh, coklat, pala, kopi, dan rempah-rempah serta tanaman lainnya, masih ada di Wanua Kiowa, termasuk juga kata-kata serta istilah-istilah seperti sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo dll, masih digunakan oleh penduduk sampai sekarang..

In our effort to get the data written at the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, (Royal Institute Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Holland, editors who accompanied Po’ouw Tumober Juice, Po’ouw Martin van Broukhoven and Yeyen Liemando, who repeatedly visited kelemaga, we do not or may not have been found, evidence of research or direct search farm sites and archaeological peningglan in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa by experts and researchers from the Dutch archaeological, about archaeological sites and cultural roots as well as indigenous customs and beliefs flow Kasendukan Kiowa, including our search, in the literature that we’ve carefully together in Bibliptheek van het Missiehuis der Missionarisen “Sacre Coeur” Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg Netherlands.
(Last we heard from Pastor Renwarin and his father, who visited La’un Dano, Kiowa, that the files in Tilburg has been taken to Pineleng, by an expert and researcher of ancient art and culture Esa Mina, origin, Father Renwarin Kakaskasen in Seminary Pineleng).

The evidence that a review or research on customs and traditions and the Kiowa culture is not deeply researched and written for not carrying in the literature about the existence of sites and relics of prehistoric prbakala in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu So-sio-siouw in La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo ‘e We-wene.wo Amut the Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-an-cone La’un Dano Ma-wara ‘
• Toy Touw Wangko-‘Me-an-upus
• Toy Touw Wiwing-an-
• Toy Touw Sondek i Rorot an arch,
• Toy Touw other-scattered in several places,
• Timbukar (waruga) which amounts to approximately 300 pieces in the ancient times (which is scattered from front of house Family Pieter Walukow arrived at the cemetery on the western village of Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (youngest citizens)
• Watu Tumo-Towa, which exist in some places,
• Watu Amian, (justified by a Japanese husband of a woman lecturer in UNSRAT and Mr. HYODO Cs from Japan Tobacco who installed the machines Cigarettes factory in the foothills of navel IN TANA ‘,, who visited WATU AMIAN
• Watu-ta’di Pa-an,
• Pa-peku’an,
• Pa-putung’s,
• Tombara’an.
• Pa-an-soring.
• Kentur Puser in Tana ‘
• Pa-an i-ra’da SOKOPE ‘an Lengko’an. (Paradiso)
• etc..

Including the data or materials that tell of:
• Angouw e Touw ASIC Amian (Alien Cave of the North).
• Wo-leley.
• Kastela,
• Ta’sic-ell,
• Santana,
• Guantanamera
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok of the Culo ‘
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho ‘
• Ti-nincas’s,
• and other ancient relics and sites as well as pre-history that lie in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. as well as sacred objects and other historical widespread around Wanua Kiowa.

The things mentioned above show and prove, that the writer on matters Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (now Kiawa) in those days, did not have knowledge about the cultural roots of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, so the writing is much different from the circumstances and the reality and human remains ancient and pre-history that is in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.

Even the impression that the author did not conduct a review and field research, let alone communicate and dialogue with the elders of the Kiowa tradition, perhaps even directly, or do not visit or the introduction of environmental adaptation to feel and explore in depth the approaches and dialogue straight from the heart of what precautionary believed, trusted and felt and known by the Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, even more than that, probably do not know or never saw the sites and ancient relics Kiawa village.

“Mystery of Pu-en-purebgkey e Kiowa” or “Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa”, which are told by the ancestors of the ancestors to the parents until the child-great-great-grandchildren for generations, provides a snapshot , on the state and society of ancient life Ka-Senduk of Kiowa as derived Apo ‘Amut e We-Wene and Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa under the guidance of Wali’an La’un Dano.

To all participants Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa, and the persons-source, Tumu-Tumu-said-said, observers and analysts as well as lovers of Kiowa culture and individuals, who have been involved in search and preparation of this paper, the authors ingim express appreciation to the expression of gratitude and a sincere apology, if his name is not or has not been recorded in writing in this paper, even more than that please forgive if this paper is still too far away or less effective.

A strange event occurred in Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa in Kentur La’un Dano, where the trees’ Tawa’ang “show daunya terikat’teranyam nine strands into one (siouw nga-lalay daung in Laughter’ ang had begun esa pules ma-nga-pules), although attempted to be degraded or open braid / knot, still re-woven and bound by nature, these events took place over several months and witnessed by many people.

Strange and bizarre events that happen over and over again ie inside the track and doing research on ancient heritage sites in the Kiowa area, by chance, without any planned or arranged and engineered, the person who collected always consist of nine people, this is beginning on the date 9 September 1993 at Sondek arch (the former site of PA-AN E-PEPA’AR WALI’AN WO WO SE SE TONA’AS IM TETERUSAN Banua KASENDUKAN and once lived APO ‘INA’ ROROT), in which nine people under the leadership Tona’as Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian plug-li’us Watu Tundek Pa-an (nine men who gathered this is by chance).

 
 

Dalam usaha kami untuk mendapatkan data-data tertulis di Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology,( Koninklijk Institut Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Holand, penyunting yang didampingi Po’ouw Jus Tumober, Po’ouw Martin van Broukhoven serta Yeyen Liemando, yang berulang-ulang berkunjung kelemaga tersebut, kami tidak atau mungkin belum menemukan, bukti adanya penelitian atau penelusuran secara langsung kelokasi situs-situs dan peningglan purbakala di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa oleh para ahli dan peneliti purbakala dari Belanda, tentang situs-situs purbakala serta akar budaya serta adapt istiadat dan aliran kepercayaan Kasendukan Kiowa, termasuk juga penelusuran kami, dalam literature yang kami pernah teliti bersama-sama di Bibliptheek van het Missiehuis der Missionarisen “Sacre Coeur” Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg Nederland.
(Terakhir kami dengar dari Pastor Renwarin dan ayahnya, yang pernah berkunjung ke La’un Dano, Kiowa, bahwa berkas-berkas di Tilburg sudah dibawa ke Pineleng, oleh seorang ahli dan peneliti seni dan budaya purbakala Mina Esa, asal Kakaskasen yaitu Pastor Renwarin di Seminari Tinggi Pineleng ).

Bukti-bukti bahwa peninjauan atau penelitian tentang adat istiadat serta tradisi dan budaya Kiowa tidak diteliti dan ditulis secara mendalam karena tidak tercatatnya dalam literatur tentang adanya situs-situs prbakala dan peninggalan pra sejarah di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu Maka-sio-siouw di La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo’ Amut e We-wene.wo si Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-tumpeng-an La’un Dano Ma-wara’
• Toy-Touw Wangko’ Me-upus-an
• Toy-Touw Wiwing-an
• Toy Touw i Rorot an Sondek Aret,
• Toy-Touw lainnya yang tersebar dibeberapa tempat,
• Timbukar (waruga) yang berjumlah kurang lebih 300 buah pada zaman dahulu (yang tersebar mulai dari depan rumah Keluarga Pieter Walukow sampai di pekuburan disebelah barat desa Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (Warga termuda)
• Watu Tumo-towa, yang ada dibeberapa tempat,
• Watu Amian,(dibenarkan oleh seorang Jepang suami dari seorang dosen wanita di UNSRAT dan Mr HYODO Cs dari Japan Tobacco yang memasang mesin-mesin pabrik Rokok Kretek di kaki bukit PUSER IN TANA’,, yang pernah berkunjung ke WATU AMIAN
• Watu Pa-ta’di-an,
• Pa-peku’an,
• Pa-putung-an,
• Tombara’an.
• Pa-soring-an.
• Kentur Puser in Tana’
• Pa-ra’da-an i SOKOPE’ an Lengko’an. (PARADISO)
• dll.

Termasuk data-data atau bahan-bahan yang menceriterakan tentang :
• Angouw e Touw Asic Amian (Gua Orang Asing dari Utara ).
• Wo-leley.
• Kastela,
• Ta’sic-ela,
• Santana,
• Guantanamera
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok-an si Culo’
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho’
• Ti-nincas-an,
• dan lain-lain situs serta peninggalan purbakala dan pra sejarah yang bertebaran di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. maupun obyek keramat dan bersejarah lainnya yang tersebar luas disekitar wanua Kiowa.

Hal-hal tersebut diatas menunjukkan dan membuktikan, bahwa penulis tentang hal ikhwal Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (sekarang Kiawa) pada zaman itu, tidak memiliki pengetahuan tentang akar budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, sehingga penulisannya jauh berbeda dengan keadaan serta realita dan peninggalan-peninggalan purbakala dan pra sejarah yang ada di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.

Bahkan terkesan bahwa penulisnya tidak melakukan peninjauan dan penelitian lapangan, apalagi berkomunikasi dan berdialog dengan para tua-tua adat Kiowa, bahkan mungkin tidak berkunjung langsung atau melakukan adaptasi atau pengenalan lingkungan untuk merasakan dan menyelami secara mendalam melalui pendekatan dan dialog langsung dari hati kehati apa yang diyakini, dipercayai serta dirasakan dan diketahui oleh masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, bahkan lebih dari itu, mungkin tidak mengetahui atau tidak pernah melihat situs-situs dan peninggalan purbakala didesa Kiawa.

“Misteri Pu-purebgkey-en e Kiowa” atau “Si-sisil-en e Apo-Apo’ e Kiowa”, yang diceriterakan oleh nenek moyang leluhur kepada orang tua sampai pada anak-cucu-cicit secara turun-temurun, memberikan gambaran sekilas, tentang keadaan dan kehidupan purbakala masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa sebagai turunan Apo’ Amut e We-wene dan Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa dibawah bimbingan dari Wali’an La’un Dano.

Kepada seluruh peserta Sarasehan Budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, serta para nara-sumber, tumu-tutur-tumu-tutur, pemerhati dan pengamat serta pencinta budaya Kiowa serta pribadi-pribadi, yang pernah terlibat dalam penelusuran serta penyusunan tulisan ini, penyusun ingim menyampaikan penghargaan dalam ungkapan terima kasih serta permohonan maaf yang ikhlas, apabila namanya tidak atau belum tercatat secara tertulis dalam tulisan ini, bahkan lebih dari itu mohon dimaafkan pula apabila tulisan ini masih jauh atau kurang mengena .

Satu peristiwa aneh terjadi di Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo’ e Kiowa di Kentur La’un Dano, dimana pohon ‘TAWA’ANG” memperlihatkan sembilan helai daunya terikat’teranyam menjadi satu (siouw nga-lalay daung in Tawa’ang me-pules ma-muali esa nga-pules), walaupun dicoba untuk diuraikan atau dibuka anyaman/ikatannya, tetap kembali teranyam dan terikat secara alamiah, peristiwa ini terjadi selama beberapa bulan dan disaksikan oleh banyak sekali orang.

Peristiwa aneh dan ganjil yang terjadi berulang-ulang yaitu didalam menelusuri dan melakukan penelitian atas situs-situs peninggalan purbakala di kawasan Kiowa, secara tak disengaja, tanpa direncanakan atau diatur dan direkayasa, orang yang terkumpul selalu terdiri dari sembilan orang, hal ini dimulai pada tanggal 9 September 1993 di Sondek Aret (bekas tempat PA-PEPA’AR-AN E WALI’AN WO SE TONA’AS WO SE TETERUSAN IM BANUA KASENDUKAN dan sekaligus tinggal APO’ INA’ ROROT), dimana sembilan orang dibawah pimpinan Tona’as Wangko’ Ute’ Rakian menancapkan Watu Tundek Pa-li’us-an (sembilan orang yang terkumpul ini adalah secara kebetulan).

Khusus untuk Pendeta V. Rumondor serta Drs. Alex Rumondor, maupun Bapak Jan Menayang dan Drs. Lexy Rumengan MBA dari Yayasan Maka Wanua Jakarta, yang selalu mendorong kami untuk menerbitkan tulisan ini, tak lupa pula kami ucapkan banyak terima kasih.

Pada kesempatan khusus dalam Seminar Budaya Kasendukan Kiowa, yang diadakan di ruang pertemuan KIR MANDALA, yang dihadiri Profesor DR Lucky Sondakh serta DR Oscar Rompis Phd dan tokoh-tokoh budaya Mina Esa di Kiowa, diusulkan untuk mengadakan penelitian dan pengkajian tentang hubungan serta kaitan tentang WATU TIMBUKAR serta situs-situs purbakala di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa dengan WATU PINAWETENGAN di desa Pinabetengan dan WATU peninggalan DOTU-DOTU KANONANG dimana terdapat batu berbentuk meja dan tempat duduk disekeliling meja batu, yang ada didalam satu GUA didesa KANONANG.

Penelitian dan pengkajian yang dimaksud dikaitkan dengan ceritera dari Tumututur Wangko Ute’ Rakian dan Tumututur Drs Nico Palar selaku Ketua Umum Lembaga Budaya Kiowa, bahwa dari hasil penelitian seorang Profesor asal Jerman yang ahli purbakala, ditemukan bahwa WATU PINAWETENGAN dperkirakan sudah ada sekitar abad ke 7 sesudah Masehi (+- tahun 650); Sedangkan ada WATU TIMBUKAR dan WATU TUMOTOWA serta TOY TOUW di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa yang jauh lebih tua, sebab diperkirakan dibuat pada abad ke 5 (lima) sebelum Masehi.

Dalam seminar tentang Budaya Kasendukan Kiowa pada tahun 1996 di ruang pertemuan KIR MANDALA, yang dihadiri oleh Bapak Kolonel Wim Tenges yang banyak mengetahui dan menguasai tentang akar Seni dan Budaya Mina Esa dengan timnya, terutama pula seorang ahli yang menerjemahkan Bahasa Tountemboan kedalam Bahasa Indonesia yaitu Prof A.B.G. Ratu, termasuk kakak beradik pemerhati ahli yang meneliti dan menelusuri Budaya Mina Esa yaitu Pendeta V Rumondor dan Drs Alex Rumondor (Dosen Universitas Indonesia), termasuk beberapa pemerhati Budaya Minahasa, serta masyarakat umum lainnya yang mengikuti seminar yang dimaksud.

Pertemuan itu dihadiri pula oleh Nyonya Rumondor yang sudah berusia 100 tahun (ibu kandung Pendeta V. Rumondor dan Drs Alex Rumondor) yang dalam percakapan banyak meneriterakan tentang ikatan hubungan kekeluargaan antara masayakat Sonder dan Kiawa, yang sangat erat persaudaraannya, hal mana terkait pula dengan pernyataan-pernyataan Tokoh masyaraka Sonder Bapak Jan Sendouw yang selalu mengeskan bahwa “orang Sonder aslinya berasala dari Kiowa. dan beberapa tokoh Budaya Mina-Esa, Wim Tenges menyatakan bahwa: dengan bukti bahwa adanya TIMBUKAR sebanyak lebih dari 300 buah belum termasuk yang sudah terbenam dalam tanah, dan adanya salah satu TIMBUKAR termudah dari Apo’ SENGKONA WOWOR, membuktikan bahwa Wanua Kiowa dahulu kala bermukim banyak KOLANO ( dalam arti bangsawan atau golongan ningrat, namun bukan berarti RAJA; sebab masyarakat Kasendukan Kiowa hanya mengenal WALI’AN dan TONA’AS sebagai PEMIMPIN atau KEPALA yang dipilih secara demokratis oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat, dari antara CENDEKIAWAN dan TOKOH-TOKOH masyarakat yang sakti, memiliki ilmu dan pengetahuan serta pengalaman yang sangat luas, memiliki kepercayaan dan kredibilitas dan akuntabilitas serta bijaksana, cerdas, cakap pandai, berwibawa, panutan yang memiliki wibawa dan kemampuan serta dapat memimpin masyarakat, untuk bergotong royong dan bersama-sama dalam kebersamaan dan kerukunan serta kesatuan hati, pikiran dan perasaan untuk mencapai maksud dan tujuan umum, untuk, membangun masyarakat yang adil makmur dan sejahtera, rukun, tolong menolong, aman damai dan sentausa rohani dan jasmani), apalagi TIMBUKAR TERTUA umurnya lebih tua dari Watu Pinawetengan (hasil penelitian sorang Profesor dari Jerman, diperkirakan abad ke 5 sebelum Masehi sudah ada Timbukar di Kiowa, membuktikan pula bahwa Wanua Kiowa adalah WANUA paling Tua dibumi Kasendukan Kiowa).

Teristimewa kepada Tumu-tutur Drs. Nico Palar dan Ukung Tua Pieter Hein Piri serta Pendeta Julius Talumantak STH, yang secara aktip memberi masukan serta membantu melakukan koreksi dan perbaikan maupun penyempurnaan seperlunya, diucapkan terima kasih sebanyak-banyaknya.

Usaha pemerhati muda Alex Salanti SE serta rekan-rekannya, yang memprakarsai kegiatan-kegiatan napak tilas akar budaya Kiowa, lewat lintas alam serta usaha festival kesenian dan kebudayaan melalui “Ma’ando Maka-Petor”, sangat mendukung aktualisasi penyusunan tulisan ini.

Bagi Dr. Mieke Schouten, yang pernah bermukim di Tincep dan berlanglang buana keliling daerah Tountemboan, terutama di Wanua Kiowa, sebagai seorang expert yang melakukan penelitian bahasa dan budaya Tountemboan serta penulis buku-buku budaya a.l. Minahasa and Bolaang Mongondow, an annotated Bibliography 1800-1942 (The Hague – Martinus Nijhoff – 1981) dan sekarang mengajar di Departamento de Sociologia e Comunicacao Social, Universidade Da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha – Portugal.

Pada pertemuan dan perbincangan dengan penulis pada bulan Maret 1997 di kota Leiden, Negeri Belanda, DR. Mieke Schouten menyatakan bahwa : dalam penelitian lapangan selama berada di Minahasa, beliau menemukan bahasa dan budaya Tountemboan yang asli tersisa sekarang hanya terdapat didesa Kiawa (Kiowa), sedangkan di Tincep dan Sonder sudah dipengaruhi sedikit oleh bahasa Toumbulu sebab berdekatan dengan desa Sawangan dan Rambunan (yang berbahasa Toum-bulu’), yang sangat erat hubungan dalam pergaulan sehari-hari bahkan kawin-mawin, sehingga hubungan kekeluargaannya sangat dekat dan akrab, menyebabkan perkawinan dua bahasapun tak terelakkan. Bahasa Tountemboan di Kiowa masih dituturkan secara asli dalam pergaulan sehari-hari, dalam acara-acara khusus, kumpulan-kumpulan, yang masih diwarnai oleh bahasa dan adat istiadat dan prilaku serta budaya Tountemboan asli.

Beliau juga mengenal Tumu-tutur “Ute Marthin Luther Rakian almarhum serta Felix Rakian alm. serta anak-anak (bahkan ada tulisan tangan budaya Kiowa oleh alm Felix Rawung Rakian yang ada ditangan beliau), juga kenal dengan ex Ukung Tu’a Jopie Rondonuwu, Stans Raintung yang pernah menjamu beliau, Guru-guru sekolah-sekolah a.l. Encik Ross Kilisan dan murid-murid SD- RK yang pada waktu itu, terkenal dengan Maengketnya, Drs. Nico Palar dll. Kesan beliau tentang Kiawa cukup luar biasa, sebab katanya beliau juga suka mengikuti ibadah religius dalam KOLOM-KOLOM GEREJANI yang secara khas beribadah dengan bahasa doa dan kothbah serta nyanyian maka-tana’ Tountemboan, termasuk didalam kumpulan “ma’ando”( hal-hal tersebut diceriterakann belaiu kepada penyunting saat bertemu dengan beliau di Leiden Negeri Belanda).

DR. Mieke Schouten menyarankan agar “Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”, sebaiknya ditulis apa adanya, sesuai dengan masukan daripada para Tumu-tutur maupun ceritera dan legenda yang beredar dan diceriterakan secara turun-temurun dikalangan masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, supaya isi dari pada tulisan ini betul-betul ceritera dan tulisan asli Kiowa, untuk memelihara keaslian dan keotentikan legenda Kiowa.

Dari Dr. David Henley (Englishman beristerikan seorang Indonesia asli asal Solo, yang kenal dekat dengan budayawan F.S. Watuseke yang menjadi nara sumber beliau terkait survey dalam penulisan disertasi tentang akar sejarah dan budaya Timur khusunya budaya Minahasa, untuk memperoleh gelar Doktor di Sydney), yang diperkenalkan oleh Dr. Mieke Schouten pada bulan Maret 1977, penulis memperoleh saran dan petunjuk istimewa tentang penulisan budaya Minahasa. ( beliau adalah “Researcher”, yang juga banyak menulis buku, a.l Nationalism and Regionalism in a Colonial Context, Minahasa in the Dutch East Indies, Verhandlingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal, Land en Volkenkunde, 1996 KITLV Press Leiden, sangat tertarik dengan tulisan Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa) .

Dalam pertemuan dan perbincangan antara penyusun/penulis dengan DR. MIEKE SCHOUTEN dan DR. DAVID HENLY (yang juga didampingi para ahli lainnya, disaksikan Po’ouw Jus Tumober, Po’ouw Martin van Broekhouven, Yeyen Liemando, di Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology,( Koninklijk Institut Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Nederland, tempat beliau bekerja sebagai “researcher”, beliau-beliau menyarankan kepada penyusun , agar penulisan buku ini sebaiknya ditulis apa adanya, sesuai cerita dan legenda masyarakat Kiowa, tanpa dipengaruhi argumentasi dari orang-orang yang merasakan, memperaktekkan, bahkan merasakan serta mengalami langsung, apalagi mengerti dan menghayati akar budaya Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa, karena tidak pernah bersentuhan dengan akar budaya serta kehidupan sehari-hari, termasuk juga jangan disesuaikan atau diadaptasikan dengan tulisan lain.

Usulan dan saran beliau-beliau bertjuan supaya terpelihara otentisitas keaslian ceriteranya, termasuk juga disarankan pada kami, untuk tidak memperdedatkan keotentikan penulisan, sebab sumber ceriteranya kebanyakan ceritera dari mlut kemulut secara turun temurun, sehingga vasiasinya berbeda-beda cara penyajiannya, bahkan mungkin ada perkembangan serta perobahan versi yang berubah-ubah, sebab itu disarankan supaya tidak perlu mempermasalahkan kontroversi data dan sumber serta asal usul, gaya, versi, corak ceritera dan legenda, termasuk perbedaan pengertian dan pandangannya.

Berulang-ulang beliau-beliau menyarankan supaya perbedaan pandangan dan pendapat orang lain, tidak perlu dipermasalahkan dan diperdebatkan atau dijadikan polemic, terutama pula jangan berusaha mempertemukan atau menyesuaikan dengan legenda dan ceritera-ceritera yang beredar atau berkembang dimasyarakat terutama pemikiran serta pendapat yang berbeda tentang seni budaya Minahasa, sebab tidak ada atau belum ada “bukti tertulis” yang ditemukan selaku rujukan pembuktian dan pembenaran atau penolakan, karena sangat sulit sekali mencari dan menemukan keaslian dan keotentikan sumber ceriteranya melalui prasasti atau peninggalan-peninggalan dan tulisan-tulisan purbakala dalam situs-situs pra sejarah purbakala di Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa, tetapi lebih baik gunakan narasumber yaitu “orang-orang lanjut usia” dengan mengusahakan menyebutkan sebanyak mungkin para “penutur” yang kurang lebih pernah mendengar legenda “Kasendukan Kiowa” dari Tona’as-tona’as serta kakek nenek buyut yang pernah mendengar tentang legenda-legenda yang berasal dari ceritera dari mulut kemulut secara turun temurun sebagai nara sumbernya.

Tak lupa pula disampaikan terima kasih kepada Mr. Martin van Broekhouven (Suami dari Jetje Lamonge), Sekretaris Bond van Minahasa Nederland, juga Sdra. Jus Tumober (seorang putera kelahiran asli Kiowa), anak dari Pangukur August Tumober dan Pengurus Bond Minahasa di Belanda, yang dibesarkan dan menjadi dewasa di Kiowa, seorang pemerhati dan pencinta sejarah, budaya dan nilai-nilai seni Kasendukan Kiowa, yang banyak memberikan, masukan dan tambahan-tambahan CERITERA DAN LEGENDA tentang seni budaya dan sejarah dan tradisi masyarakat Kasendukan Kiowa (beliau sudah menetap selama kurang lebih 37 tahun di Nederland), yang kedua-duanya mendampingi dan membantu kami selama +- 3 bulan bolak-balik berkunjung ke beberapa pusat arsip budaya dan seni serta museum benda-benda purbakala yang tersimpan di museum-museum purbakala di Belanda dan pusat-pusat arsip serta bibliotik seni budaya dan sejarah “Wanua Kasendukan” di Nederland, kami haturkan banyak terima kasih.

Bantuan berupa kesediaan untuk koreksi dan pengetikan naskah oleh Dra. Veronica Yeyen Liemmando dan Dra. Siska Worotitjan, membantu pula kelancaran penyusunan tulisan ini.

Adanya tulisan tentang akar budaya maupun adat istiadat, serta seritera tentang kehidupan dan kebudayaan masyarakat Kiowa, maupun peninggalan-peninggalan dan situs-situs purbakala serta seni-budaya Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, teristimewa pula keadaan alam dan lingkungannya, menjadikan tulisan ini sebagai panduan pengetahuan tentang adat istiadat, kehidupan dan kebudayaan masyarakat Kiowa, maupun juga pengetahuan tentang wisata dan obyek wisata Kiowa.

Tulisan ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan, karena kemungkinan banyak kekurangan dan kekeliruan, apalagi masih jauh dari harapan, selera dan keinginan yang dicita-citakan, karena masih jauh sekali dari bentuk dan mutu penyusunan serta penulisan dan penyajian yang memadai dan sempurna, sehingga membutuhkan uluran tangan untuk menambah atau memperbaiki serta penyempurnaannya.

Mohon maaf atas segala kekurangan, kekeliruan, kekilafan serta kesalahan atau hal-hal yang kurang tepat serta tidak sesuai dengan pandangan atau selera dan keinginan pembaca, oleh sebab itu kami sangat terbuka terhadap kritik, saran dan usul-usul perbaikan, bila ada temuan-temuan dalam tulisan ini, yang menyimpang, salah pengertian, atau keliru pengetikannya, bahkan berulang-ulang disebutkan dan lain-lain persoalan yang kurang berkenan dihati pembaca atau sulit dimengerti, seperti pepatah yang menyatakan bahwa : “Tak ada gading yang tidak ada retaknya”.

Tulisan ini, dipersembahkan sebagai warisan bagi generasi muda dan untuk masyarakat Ka-senduk-an Kiowa khususnya, teristimewa juga bagi Saudara-saudara atau keturunan yang masih berdarah atau titisan dotu-dotu yang berasal dari Wanua Ka-senduk-an atau Ma-lesung atau Mina-Esa (Minahasa), yang tersebar diseluruh penjuru dunia, bahkan lebih dari itu pula, teristimewa bagi bangsa dan negara Panca Sila yaitu Republik Indonesia tercinta, uuntuk memperkaya khasanah perbendaharaan budaya nasional warisan nenek moyang kepada anak cucunya.

Semoga tulisan ini bermanfaat pula bagi pengembangan dan pelestarian budaya bangsa dan negara Indonesia.

Wanua Ka-senduk-an Kiowa, 9 – 9 – 1999.
Paka-tu’an wo Paka-lowir-en kita im baya !

Maka-Petor !

4.Minahasa Information

 (1)Tona’as im pa’seke’an Minahasa 1890

 
Seorang priester (walian/religious ) Minahasa (Tona’as im pa’seke’an) dalam pakaian kebesarannya berkain patola (tahun 1890an).

(2)  The second Law of Large in Afdeling Manado 1880s

 
Para Hukum Besar/Hukum Kedua se-Minahasa dalam Afdeling Manado sekitar tahun 1880-an di Tikala – Manado.

 3.The history of Minahasa

Minahasa
Minahasan.JPG
Minahasan tribesman in a parade in Surabaya, East Java.
Total population
ca. 1 million in North Sulawesi
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia
(predominantly North Sulawesi)
   
Languages
Minahasan languages, Manado Malay, Indonesian language
Religion
Protestantism (89%), Roman Catholicism (10,5%), Islam (0,5%)
Related ethnic groups
Bolaang Mongondow people, Gorontalo people

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language.

Minahasa Raya is the area covering Bitung City, Manado City and Minahasa Regency, which are three of the seven regional administrations in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Originally inhabited by Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages-speaking peoples, the region was colonized in the 16th century by the Portuguese and Spanish, then the Dutch. In the Dutch East Indies the Minahasa people identified strongly with the Dutch language, culture and the Protestant faith — so strongly, in fact, that when Indonesia became independent in 1945 factions of political elites of the region pleaded with the Dutch to let it become a province of the Netherlands.[1] There is a considerable number of people from the Minahasa living in the Netherlands, as part of the Indo community.[2]

Contents

 

 History

Kabasaran Minahasa.

The name of the land of Minahasa has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and then finally the current name Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united”. This name dates from the war against the Kingdom of Bolaang Mangondow. However, other sources cite that the original name of Minahasa was Malesung, meaning “paddy rotary”, then changed to Se Mahasa, meaning “they that unite,” and finally Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united.”[3]

North Sulawesi never developed any large empire. In 670, the leaders of the different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met by a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they founded a community of independent states, who would form one unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemies if they were attacked.[4]

The Origin of Minahasa People

It is unknown when the land of Minahasa was first occupied by humans. The Minahasans believe that they are descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. Initially, the descendants of Toar-Lumimuut were divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (two times nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes among these people. Their leaders (Tona’as) then decided to meet and talk about this. They met in Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). That meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing of language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing of ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan corresponding to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone of Dividing) was then built. It is a favourite tourist destination.

The groups Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan then established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside these territories. These new villages then became a ruling center of a group of villages called puak, later walak, comparable to the present-day district.

Subsequently a new group of people arrived in Pulisan peninsula. Due to numerous conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages surrounding a large lake. These people were therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is now the Tondano lake.

Minahasa Warriors.

In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were:

  • people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed in Atep. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Tonsawang.
  • people from Tomori Bay. These were the ancestors of the subethnic Pasam-bangko (Ratahan dan Pasan)
  • people from Bolaang Mangondow who were the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang).
  • people from the Bacan archipelago and Sangi, who then occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. These were the subethnic Bobentehu (Bajo). They landed in the place now called Sindulang. They then established a kingdom called Manado which ended in 1670 and became walak Manado.
  • people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first in Panimburan and then went to Bolaang-Mangondow
  • and finally to the place where Malalayang is now located. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.

These are the nine subethnic groups in Minahasa (which explains the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9): Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Pasan Ratahan, Ponosakan, Babontehu and Bantik.

The name Minahasa itself arose at the time the Minahasans fought against Bolaang Mangondow. Among the Minahasan heroes in these wars against Bolaang Mangondow are: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war along Amurang Bay).

Until the dominance of Dutch influence in the 17th and 18th century the Minahassans lived in warrior societies that practised headhunting.[5]

 The European Era

Minahasa Wedding.

In the second half of the 16th century, both Portuguese and the Spanish arrived in North Sulawesi. Half-way though the 17th century there was a rapprochement between the Minahasan chiefs and the Dutch VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which was given concrete form in the treaty of 1679 (which can be found in the Corpus Diplomaticus Neerlando-Indicum 1934, vol. III, no 425). From 1801-1816, the Netherlands were occupied by the French imperial forces of Napoleon and the Minahasa came under English control. In 1817 Dutch rule was re-established until 1949.

At the time of the first contact with Europeans the sultanate of Ternate held some sway over North Sulawesi, and the area was often visited by seafaring Bugis traders from South Sulawesi. The Spanish and the Portuguese, the first Europeans to arrive, landed in Minahasa via the port of Makasar, but also landed at Sulu Island (off the north coast of Borneo) and at the port of Manado. The abundance of natural resources in Minahasa made Manado a strategic port for European traders sailing to and from the spice island of Maluku. Although they had sporadic contacts with Minahasa, the Spanish and Portuguese influence was limited by the power of the Ternate sultanate.

The Portuguese and Spaniards left reminders of their presence in the north in subtle ways. Portuguese surnames and various Portuguese words not found elsewhere in Indonesia, like garrida for an enticing woman and buraco for a bad man, can still be found in Minahasa. In the 1560s the Portuguese Franciscan missionaries made some converts in Minahasa.

The Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[6] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo. [7]

Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[8] Minahasan rulers sent Supit, Pa’at dan Lontoh (their statues are located in Kauditan, about 30 km to Bitung) where they made an alliance treaty with the Dutch. Together eventually gained the upper hand in 1655, built their own fortress in 1658 and expelled the last of the Portuguese a few years later.

By the early 17th century the Dutch had toppled the Ternate sultanate, and then set about eclipsing the Spanish and Portuguese. As was the usual case in the 1640s and 50s, the Dutch colluded with local powers to throw out their European competitors. In 1677 the Dutch occupied Pulau Sangir and, two years later, the Dutch governor of Maluku, Robert Padtbrugge, visited Manado. Out of this visit came a treaty with the local Minahasan chiefs, which led to domination by the Dutch for the next 300 years.

The Dutch helped unite the linguistically diverse Minahasa confederacy, and in 1693 the Minahasa scored a decisive military victory against the Bolaang to the south. The Dutch influence flourished as the Minahasans embraced the European goods and Christian religion. Missionary schools in Manado in 1881 were among the first attempts at mass education in Indonesia, giving their graduates a considerable edge in gaining civil service, military and other positions of influence.

Relations with the Dutch were often less than cordial (a war was fought around Tondano between 1807 and 1809) and the region did not actually come under direct Dutch rule until 1870. The Dutch and the Minahasans eventually became so close that the north was often referred to as the 12th province of the Netherlands. A Manado – based political movement called Twaalfde Provincie even campaigned for Minahasa’s integration into the Dutch state in 1947.

Portuguese activity apart, Christianity became a force in the early 1820s when a Calvinist group, the Netherlands Missionary Society, turned from an almost exclusive interest in Maluku to the Minahasa area. The wholesale conversion of the Minahasans was almost complete by 1860. With the missionaries came mission schools, which meant that, as in Ambon and Roti, Western education in Minahasa started much earlier than in other parts of Indonesia. The Dutch government eventually took over some of these schools and also set up others. Because the schools taught in Dutch, the Minahasans had an early advantage in the competition for government jobs and places in the colonial army. Minahasans remain among the educated elite today.

Armed Forces

Minahasa reserve troops, Tondano Landstorm, 1948.

A relatively large number of Minahasans pursued professional military careers in the colonial army (KNIL). Next to the South Moluccan Ambonese, the Minahasa Menadonese were also considered a martial race and therefore particularly competent and trustworthy as soldiers. As KNIL soldiers the Minahasans fought alongside the Dutch to subdue rebellions in other parts of the archipelago, such as for instance the Java War of 1825-30.

As a large percentage of Minahasans was formally equalised to the European legal class, young men were also obliged to serve as conscripts when mandatory military service for Europeans was introduced in 1917. Older men (as off 32) were obliged to join the Home guard (Dutch: Landstorm).

During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in WWII many Menadonese soldiers were held captive as POW‘s.

They seemed to gain a special role in the Dutch scheme of things and their loyalty to the Dutch as soldiers, their Christian religion and their geographic isolation from the rest of Indonesia all led to a sense of being ‘different’ from the other ethnic groups of the archipelago.[clarification needed]

Republic of Indonesia

The Japanese occupation of 1942-45 was a period of deprivation, and the Allies bombed Manado heavily in 1945. During the Revolution for independence that followed, there was bitter division between pro-Indonesian Unitarians and those favoring Dutch-sponsored federalism. The appointment of a Manadonese Christian, Sam Ratulangi, as the first republican governor of eastern Indonesia, was decisive in winning Minahasan support for the republic.

As the young republic lurched from crisis to crisis, Jakarta‘s monopoly over the copra trade seriously weakened Minahasa’s economy. Illegal exports flourished and in June 1956 Jakarta ordered the closure of Manado port, the busiest smuggling port in the republic. Local leaders refused and Jakarta backed down. Soon Permesta rebels confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform. Jakarta responded in Manado by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

The Minahasan sense of being different quickly became a problem for the central government after independence. As in Sumatra, there was a general feeling that the central government was inefficient, development was stagnating and money was being plugged into Java. Circumstances favored the spread of communism.

In March 1957, the military leaders of both southern and northern Sulawesi launched a confrontation with the central government, with demands for greater regional autonomy. They demanded more local development, a fairer share of revenue, help in suppressing the Kahar Muzakar rebellion in Southern Sulawesi, and a cabinet of the central government led jointly by Soekarno and Hatta. At least initially the ‘Permesta’ (Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam) rebellion was a reformist rather than a separatist movement.

Negotiations between the central government and the Sulawesi military leaders prevented violence in southern Sulawesi, but the Minahasan leaders were dissatisfied with the agreements and the movement split. Inspired, perhaps, by fears of domination by the south, the Minahasan leaders declared their own autonomous state of North Sulawesi in June 1957. By this time the central government had the situation in southern Sulawesi pretty much under control but in the north they had no strong local figure to rely upon and there were rumors that the USA, suspected of supplying arms to rebels in Sumatra, was also in contact with the Minahasan leaders.

The possibility of foreign intervention finally drove the central government to seek military support from southern Sulawesi. Permesta forces were driven out of central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Sangir island and from Morotai in Maluku (from whose airfield the rebels had hoped to fly bombing raids on Jakarta). The rebels’ few planes (supplied by the USA and flown by Filipino, Taiwanese and US pilots) were destroyed. US policy shifted, favoring Jakarta, and in June 1958 central government troops landed in Minahasa. The Permesta rebellion was finally put down in mid-1961.

The effect of both the Sumatran and Sulawesi rebellions was to strengthen exactly those trends the rebels had hoped to weaken. Central authority was enhanced at the expense of local autonomy, radical nationalism gained over pragmatic moderation, the power of the communists and Soekarno increased while that of Hatta waned, and Soekarno was able to establish guided democracy in 1959.

Recently, the Indonesian government has adopted policies to strengthen local autonomy, the very idea that Permesta fought for.

[9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

Culture

Religion

Tontemboan Bible, by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar, published in 1907 by Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland.

At 97% of the population, the Minahasa Regency has one of highest proportions of Christianity in Indonesia. It has the highest density of church buildings in Indonesia, with approximately one church for every 100m road.[citation needed] This is due to a successful missionary campaign by European Christians in Northern Sulawesi.

In 1907, Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland published a bible in the Tontemboan language, a language of Minahasa. It was edited by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar.

Jehovah’s Witnesses begin their first preaching activity in this province in 1932. The first Minahasa to be baptized was Brother Theo Ratu; he is also claimed as the first Indonesian to be baptized. His son Vicky Ratu was also one of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, now joined in Tangerang Kota Congregation. In the 2007 Service Year in North Sulawesi their peak publisher figures were 2,500 publishers.

 Cuisine

Minahasan cuisine is very spicy, and can feature ingredients not typically found in other parts of Indonesia. For example, dog (RW, short for rintek wuuk, or “fine hair” in Tontemboan), cat (tusuk, also known as eveready because of the cat logo used by the battery), forest rat, and fruit bat (paniki) are commonly eaten. The provincial capital Manado is often referred to as Kota Tinutuan, in reference to a popular local dish: a rice porridge made with corn, smoked fish, greens, and chilies. Known outside the province as Bubur Manado, tinutuan is supposed to improve health and vitality.

Dance

Kabasaran war dance, performed at a parade on August 17, 2006

Kabasaran is the fierce and famous Minahasan wardance which reminds of the old Minahasa warrior societies. The dancers wear red garments which in the old times was a color exclusive for the accomplished headhunter. This dance is similar to the Moluccan Cakalele wardance.[15]

 Music

Minahasa music is highly influenced by that of the European colonials; their festivals feature large marching ensembles made up of clarinets, saxophones (source), trumpets, trombones, and tubas, all constructed out of local bamboo.[16]

Languages

In the Minahasa, 5 distinct languages are spoken: Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Toulour, Tonsea and Tombulu. In 1996, the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Dallas, published the North Sulawesi Language Survey by Scott Merrifield and Martinus Salea. It gives an overview of the classification and distribution of the languages, based on a detailed study of the phonology and vocabulary.[17]

Influences of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch can be found in the Indonesian dialect of the Minahasa (Manado Malay or Minahasa Malay):

Chair in Indonesian is kursi, in the Minahasa its called kadera (cadera – Spanish word for hip; cadeira – Portuguese word for chair).

Horse in Indonesian is kuda, a word of Sanscrit origin. In the town of Tomohon, a horse is called kafalio (caballo – Spanish, cavalo – Portuguese).

There is not much known yet about the ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, its origin or translation.[18]

Cultural revival

Ever since the overall de-centralisation following the end of Suharto’s New Order era the Minahasa is bolstering its regional autonomy scheme, among others by positioning itself to profile a unique cultural entity & identity. The three main Minahasa NGO’s active in the cultural revival movement are: ‘Yayasan Suara Nurami’ (The Voice from Within Foundation); ‘Minahasa Wangko’ (Minahasa the Great) both founded by Bert Supit and ‘Peduli Minahasa’ (Take care of Minahasa).[19]

National Heroes of Indonesia from Minahasa

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The Article In rare German Book 1895″The Rage Night to The ethnography of Otong Java”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

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  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

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    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

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The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :

Nachtrage zur Ethnographie der Otong Java Inseln. von E.Parkinson . 

Rage night to the ethnography of Otong Java islands By E.Parkinson

1. Die Ueberlieferungen der Otong Java Insulaner melden, dass Lolo der Erschaffer und zulgleich der erste Bewohner der Inselgruppe war. Auf dem Meeresgrunde wohned,haute er die Korallenriffe empor; zu einer Zeit, als diese noch nicht uber die Meeresfla’ che gestigen, kam von ferner eine Kanoe und darin SIVA.Dieser sah den Kops LOLO.s aus dem Sande hervorragen und er ergriff ihn an den Haaren,die von den Wellen hin und her bewegt wurden und zaerrte daran. LOLO rief ihm zu recht kra’tig zu ziehen und es gelang dem SIVA ihn ganz ans Licht zu bringen. LOLO jedoch bedeutete dem Siva  wieder fortzuziehen ,denn seine Insel sei noch nicht fertig, auch sei dieselbe zu seinem eigenen Gebrauch und nicht fur fremdlinge bestimmt, worauf siva weiter zog. lolo baute nun fleissig weiter und brachte bald das riff so hoch uber wasser,dass die wellen nicht daruber hin spulen konnten; alsdann begann er das gestein mit gras und krautern zu bekleiden, dann mit buschen und gestrupp und endlich mit grossen baumen.

 
The traditions of the islanders Otong Java report that Lolo was the creator and zulgleich the first inhabitants of the archipelago. Wohned on the sea bed, he cut up the coral reefs, at a time as this term is not disturbed over the Meeresfla ‘che, also came from a canoe, and it looked SIVA.
The  LOLO.s his head from the sand stand out and he took by the hair, which were moved by the waves back and forth and zaerrte it. LOLO called him to pull rather kra’tig and succeeded in SIVA bring it all to light. LOLO but meant to Siva move away again, for his island was not yet finished, also the same for his own use and not for strangers is determined what went siva on. lolo now built more diligently and soon brought the riff so high above water that the waves could not even consider writing coils, then he began to rock with grass and herbs to hold, then bushes and trees and finally admit rupp with large
 
2. The Ancient Javanese Singing
(1)GESANG BEI DEM TODE EINES TU’U (SINGING IN THE DEATH OF A Tu’u)
E a ke marigo u ko kaiau
e i aro iho gae o i loko keovo
 
E a makari’i u ko kalau,
e i aro lho oga kuga i loko keovo
 
E a ke masaga u kou kaga,
e i aro iho oga i loko keovo
 
E a ke aiku i kalau ke makagi,
e i aro iho oga i loko keovo
 
E a ke he’o i kaeau, ke sauri’i,
e i aro iho oga i loko keovo
 
Schones Wetter am Morgen,nehme Kanoe,gehe nach Mitte der Passage.
Morgenstern lat in der Mitte der Passage, halte Wind ab.
Schildkrote sitzt under Seegras, in der Mitte de Passage
Aiku, halte Wind ab am Morgen in der Mitte der Passage.
Tintenflach,halte Wind ab am Morgen in der Mitte der Passage.
 
 

Fine weather in the morning, take canoe, go to the middle passage.
Morning star  in the middle of the passage, hold the wind.
Turtle sits under sea grass in the middle de Passage
Aiku think, from wind in the morning in the middle of the passage.
Ink Flat think, from wind in the morning in the middle of the passage
(2) VA SIRI KAMAGA
 
Ku’e ku’e Werfe es fort Wo ist dein Vater
Antwort : Mein Vater ist todt, er hatte mich lieb
Chor:Ku’e ,ku’e Werfe es fort Wo ist deine mutter?
Antwort: Meinde Mutter ist todt.sie hat mich gross gezogen.
 Chor: ku’e ku’e Wete es fort Wo ist dein Grossvater.
Antw.: Mein Grossvater, isch sehe ihn nicht mehr.
Chor:Ku’e ku’e Wete es fort.Wo ist deine Grossmutter
Antw.: Meine mGrossmutter , sie hat nicht stets getragen.
Chor.Ku’e ku’e Werfe es fort Wo ist deins Schwester ?
Antw.: Meine Schwawester is allein im hause
Chor.: Ku’e ku’e Werfe es fort. Wo ist dein Bruder
Antw.: Mein Bruder ist nacht einen andern Haus gegangen
Chor.: Ku’e Ku’e Wete es fort SWo ist dein Land (Grundstuck)
Antw.: Ich gehe nach meinrem Land, Ich werde dort sterben,ich werde immer dorty bleiben
 

 

Ku’e ku’e throw it away Where is your father
Answer: My father is dead, he loved me
Chorus: Ku’e ku’e, throw it away Where’s your mother?
Answer: todt.sie municipality mother pulled me great.
  Chorus: ku’e ku’e throw it away Where is your grandfather.
Ans: My grandfather, severally can not see him.
Chorus: Ku’e ku’e throw it away.Wo it is your Grandmother
Ans: My grandmother , she has not worn at all times.
Chor.Ku ‘e ku’e throw it away Where is your sister?
Ans: I don’t have Sister, I am   alone in the home
Chorus. Ku’e ku’e throw it away. Where is your brother
Ans: My brother is another night gone home
Chorus. Ku’e Ku’e throw it away Where  is your land (plot)
Ans: I am going to my country, I will die there, I will always remain do

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The Article in Rare German Book 1888:” On Various Less Known Victim use by The OLOH NGADJU IN BORNEO”

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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The Article in Rare German Book 1888 :

“Ueber Verschiedene WENIGER BEKANNTE OPFERGEBRAUCHE bei den Oloh Ngadju In Borneo von F.Grabowsky mit Tafel X”

“On Various LESS KNOWN VICTIM use by The oloh Ngaju In Borneo, by F. Grabowsky with table  X”

(Berbagai objek Korban kurang dikenal Yang Dipakai Oleh Suku Dajak Oloh Ngudju Di Kalimantan)

1.”Da Mahatara, der gute Gott,uns nichts Boses zufugt,so brauchen with ihm auch keine Opfer zu bringen”, sagte mir einst im Laufe des Gespra’ches ein alter, mit den a’usserst complicirten religio’sen Verha’ltnissen (Agama) seines Stammes sehr vertrauter Dajacke; “dagegen mu’ssen wir den u’bringen Go’ttern ung Geistern,die uns bald schaden ,bald nu’tzen ko’nnen, bei verschiedenen Geigenheiten Opfer daebringen.

“Since Mahatara need, the good God, they  know nothing, so with him to bring any sacrifice, ” once told me during the speaked an old, complicated with the religious  Verha’ltnissen (Agama ) very familiar Dajacke his tribe, “however, we must bring the Godesst TRAINING  spirits who harm us soon , which bring violin at various characteristics victims
 
2.Einige diesser Opfergebrauche unddie dabelverwundeten Gegensta’nde , sollen in folgenden Zeilen besprochen Werden.
Krankenheit, die durch die verschiedenartigsten Ma’chte hertvorgerufen werden kann, ist ein Hauptgru’nd, wesshalb Opfer gebracht werden. Wollen nun die Angeho’ringen eines Kranken wissen, welche unsichtbare Macht den Kranken wieder gesund machen mo’chte, so rufen sie einen Zaufberer, den Tukang tawar. Dieser aucht,indem er sichen mal soviel gelb gefa’rten Reis ausstreut , als er mit dem Daumen und den beiden ersten Fingern fassen kann die 7 Putir Santang, die Go’ttingen des Looses ,welche To’chter von Mahatara sind, heirbeizurufen,damit sie fu’r das richtige Fallen des Looses Sorge tragen. Sie steigen , auf einer Hu’rde von goldenem Bambus sitzend, von  ihrrem Bruder UMBANG AN EINEN GOLDENEN  SEIL HERNIEDERGELASSEN , zur Erdew herab,. Das Loosen um den Gott,welcher die Kur vornehmen mo’chte, geschieht in folgender Weise; Man nimmt einen Messingnapf mit  Aschwasser; in dieses werden zwei, meist chinresische Kupfermunzen'(pikis) die auf der einen Seite blank gerieben, auf der andern geschwa’rzt, hineingeworfen.Djata.den Wassergott, als den  Ma’chtigsten fragt man nun zuerst, ob er Kranken genesen wolle.
 
Some other news from this victim and the use , will be discussed in the following lines.
Sickness, which can be hertvorgerufen by the most diverse Ma’chte is a Hauptgru’nd which reason victims are brought. Want to know now Angeho’ringen a patient who make invisible force the sick back to health mo’chte, they call a Zaufberer, the Tukang tawar.
 This Auchter by yellow gefa’rten times as much rice can be spread around as he can grasp with the thumb and first two fingers of the 7 Putir Santang that Go’ttingen of the lot, which To’chter of Mahatara are heirbeizurufen so they wear fu’r correct dropping of the lot concerned.
They rise, sitting on a Hu’rde of golden bamboo, down from Ihrr brother UMBANG TO A GOLDEN ROPE LEFT down, to Erdew. The lot to the God who make mo’chte the treatment is done in the following manner; Man a brass cap takes Aschwasser; in this two, usually Chinese Copper Cash ‘(pikis) rubbed bare on one side, on the other squadron ‘shortened, hineingeworfen.Djata.den water god, as the Ma’chtigsten it be asked first whether he would heal the sick.
 
3. Die Antwort  holt man sich, indem man die Munzen aufs den Aschwasser hervorholt, ohne sie zu dehen. Kommt dreimal hintereinander die blanke Seite beider Munzen zu Tage, so will Djata(Bruder von Mahatara) die Kur ubernehmen. Im Verneinungsfalle wendet man sich an einen andern, z.. einen der luftgotter oder Sanggiangs. 

 

The answer can be obtained by taking the coins onto the Aschwasser bring out Dehen without them. Three times in succession, the bare side of both coins to light, I will Djata (brother of Mahatara) take over the cure. In the case of negative one turns to another, for example. a god of air or Sanggiangs

 4. Hat sich Djata aber  bereit bereit erklart, so sucht man durch die Munzen aufs Neue zu erfahren, ob Djata seine Bezahllung(opfer) an einer Flussmundung dargebraccht zu haben wunscht oder im Hause. Im letzteren Falle wird er dann durch das Loos befragt, ob er zu seinen Opfer in aller Stille d.h. nur durch die Zauberspru’che des Tukan Tawar gerufen zu wered wu’nsche, oder Laut, durch Sang und Trommelklang der BLIANS(Priesterinnen) with BAZIRS (Priester). Ist DJATA nun zufrieden,dass man ihm an einer Flussmu’ndung ein Opfer bringt, so wird dieses, bestehend in gebrfatenen Enten, Hu’hner, Eier ung Geba’ck in einem flachen aus BAMBUS geflochtenen viereckigen Korbe “ANTJAK” dort aufgeha’ngt,oder man versenk eine lebende Zaege in der Mu’ndung des Flusses. WILL DJATA dagegen, sei es nun laut oder still, sein OPfer im Hause in Empfang nehmen,so muss ein SAMBURUG(Fig 1) bergestellt werden.
5. TABLE X  ENGRAVED ILLUSTRATION
 

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Dr Iwan Book:”The Rare Vintage Picture of South and East Asia tribes”

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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Dr Iwan E_Book :

The Rare Vintage South and East Asia  Tribes Art  Photography

Frame One :

The Indonesian tribes

1.Battaks tribe

 
Marco Polo claims that the Battaks have been cannibals for a time extending at least as far back as the year 1290 ; and Sir T. Stamford Raffles, who was among them in 1820, found some of their law

 
 
In 1866 , Bickmore stories …
Prof. Albert S. Bickmore was traveling in Sumatra, he saw not a little of these people, and he believed then that the place where their aboriginal civilization sprang up was very likely on the shores of that famous Sumatran lake, Lake Toba, and upon the neighboring plateau of Silindung. From this locality they gradually occupied an extensive domain in the in- terior, which was extended upon either side to the seacoast. Eventually, however, the Malays spread along the coast line, and thus confined the Battaks once more to the interior.
 
The origin of the Battas is doubtful
Battas or Dutch Battaks, the inhabitants of the formerly independent Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area extends from 9 8 °-99° 35′ E., and 2°-3° 25′ S. North-east of Toba Lake dwell the Timor Batta [ Batak Timur = Simalungun now, red], and west of it the Pakpak [Dairi, red ], but on its north (in the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Batta [ Batak Karo , red ] form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus [ suku Gayo , red ] and Alias [suku Alas : red] occupying the interior of Achin [Aceh : red ].
The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese, Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population seems to have been long going on.

Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type
The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.[± 160-170 cm , red ]; of the women 4 ft. 8 in [± 130 – 140 cm , red ].
 
The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food
In general build they are rather thickset, with broad shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skulll is rather ovall than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the large, black, longshaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language of their own, and yet are cannibals.
Battaks have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism
The more civilized of them around Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal; system, the letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism.
( see: Memoirs of the Life, &c., of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1830.)
Battaks is mainly confined to a belief in three gods concept
The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in evil spirits, but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and a Destroyer, like a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.
Up to the publication of Dr H. N. van der Tuuk’s essay, Over schrift en uitspraak der Tobasche taal (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be found in W. Marsden’s Miscellaneous Works, in F. W. Junghuhn’s Battalander, and in the Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (Bataksch Leesboek, in 4 vols., 1861-1862; Batakschnederduitsch Woordenboek, 1861; Tobasche Spraakkunst, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra.
 
Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects
According to him, it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (Die Battas in ihrem Verheiltnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra, 1874) endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the first and second have again two subdivisions each.
The Battas further possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the Hata Andung, or language of the wakes, and the Hata Poda or the soothsayer’s language.
A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is very general among them. Battaks’s alphabet is said, with the Rejang and Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin.
The language is written on bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft, in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose, occasionally varied by verse.’
See also “Reisen nach dem Toba See,” Petermanns Mitteil. (1883); Modigliani, Fra i Batacchi indipendenti (Rome, 1892); Neumann, “Het Paneen Bilastroomgebiad,” Tydschr. Aardr. Gen., 1885-1887; Van Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894; Niemann in the Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Wurzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, 21 Jahre in Indien, Java, Sumatra (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G. P. Rouffaer, Die BatikKunst in niederlcindisch-Indien and ihre Geschichte (Haarlem, 1899).

 

2. Kubu Tribe 1921

Frame Two:

The Phillipines  tribes

 
Tobacco Smoking Family – 1911
Kalinga Man – 1911
Kalinga Woman – 1911
Mock Wedding of A Spaniard and a Local (Negritos)
Tattooed Bontoc Warrior
Bagobo Woman (Mindanao Rgeion) – 1914
Tinguian Woman
Tinguian Women
A Benguet Brave
Weaving Cloth Machine In Bontoc Province
Ethnic Bamboo Band
Head Hunters
Ifugao Head Hunter – 1911
Native Ifugao Tribe Dance
Igorot Tribes Men
Igorot Deer and Dog Hunters
Igorot Native Rain Coats
Moro Soldiers 1909
Negrito Cheif with His Family 1909
Tattooed Kalinga Man 1911
 

Frame Two :

The India Hindustan Tribe- 1868

 
The people of India : A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, originally prepared under the authority of the government of India, and reproduced. by J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye between 1868 – 1875.

Cole christians, aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
Rajpoot christian, from Rajpootana, Chota Nagpoor
Korewah, aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
Korewah group, aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
Moonda female aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
Bhogta, aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
Chuttro rajah, Hindoo rajpoot, Chota Nagpoor
Rajpoot, Hindoo from Marwar, Chota Nagpoor
Khanti, wild frontier tribe, Assam
Mishmi, hill tribe, Assam
Singhpo, warlike frontier tribe (Laos), Souther
Meeree, hill tribe, Assam
Kanyang, hill tribe, Assam
Moamuria or Muttuck, hill tribe, Assam
Sonai, Assam
Dooaneeah, mixed race, Assam
Kachari, of Tibetan origin, Assam
Rengma Naga, marauding hill tribe, Assam
Hill Naga, marauding tribe, Cachar
Mara Naga, marauding tribe, Munnipore

Frame Three:The Singapore Tribes

Frame Four : The Malaysian Tribes

 

Frame Five: The Vietnamese Tribes

Frame Six : The Cambodge Tribes

Frame seven :

The Laos Tribes

Kikuyu

The Kikuyu (also spelt Gikuyu) hill tribe forms the largest ethnic group in Kenya with about 24% of the country’s population. They migrated to Kenya in the sixteenth century, spread rapidly in it and called it the land of the Kirinyaga (or shining mountains).

According to Kikuyu legend, this hill tribe was founded by a man called Gikuyu. Ngai, the God of the Kikuyu took Gikuyu to the top of the Kirinyaga and asked him to build his home there and gave him his wife Mumbi. Mumbi and Gikuyu had ten daughters – but because the number ten was believed to bring bad luck – the daughters were counted as nine and ‘full nine’. The nine (some say ten) Kikuyu clans – Achera, Agachiku, Airimu, Ambui, Angare, Anjiru, Angui, Aithaga and Aitherandu are descended from these daughters of Gikuyu.

Most of the Kikuyus are farmers. Their main crops are bananas, sugarcane, yams, beans, millet, maize, black beans and other vegetables. They also raise cattle, sheep and goat. Cattle hides are used to make bedding, carrying straps and sandals while sheep and goat are used for religious sacrifice.

Though the Kikuyus are agriculturists by tradition, they are dependable hard-working people, many of whom have turned successfully to business, traveling everywhere for this purpose and even settling down in far-off lands. They are good money managers and often run more than one business successfully. They have a strong thirst for knowledge and believe that every child must be educated.

 

Frame Eight: The Timor Leste Tribes

Frame Nine:The Brunei tribes

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the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

 

 

Dr Iwan E_Book :”The East Asia Tribes Art Photography “

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

 

Dr Iwan E_Book :

The East Asia  Tribes Art  Photography

Frame One :

The Old East Asia Tribes Pictures

 Old Indonesian tribes

 Battaks

 

Old Pictures of Philippine Tribes

 
 
 
Kalinga Man – 1911
Kalinga Woman – 1911

 
Bagobo Woman (Mindanao Rgeion) – 1914
Tinguian Women
A Benguet Brave
Weaving Cloth Machine In Bontoc Province
Ethnic Bamboo Band
Head Hunters
Ifugao Head Hunter – 1911
Native Ifugao Tribe Dance
Igorot Tribes Men
Igorot Deer and Dog Hunters
Igorot Native Rain Coats
Moro Soldiers 1909
Negrito Cheif with His Family 1909
Tattooed Kalinga Man 1911
 

Frame Two :

The India Hindustan Tribe- 1868

 
The people of India : A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, originally prepared under the authority of the government of India, and reproduced. by J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye between 1868 – 1875.

Cole christians, aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
 
 DO YOU KNOW THE NAME OF TRIBES BELOW?
 photo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 IF YOU DONNOT KNOW, STILL LOOKING THE INFORMATIONS BELOW THE PHOTO GALERY.
 
 sumatra, tribes, alas, aceh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 sumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam
 
 
 
 
 sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, suku
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Frame Two:

The Indonesian tribes

The Aceh Tribes

 sumatra, tribes, alas, aceh

 

   
The majority of the Alas people live in villages and make their living from farming and raising livestock. The Alas area is considered the lumbung padi (rice storehouse) of the Aceh area. Other agricultural products include rubber, coffee, and kemiri (a local spice) as well as other forest products such as wood, rattan, resin, and incense.Neighborhoods or villages of the Alas are called kute. One kute usually consists of one or more clans that are called a merge. Extended families will live in one house and submit to the authority of the parents. They are a patrilineal society, which means they measure descent through the father’s family. Their culture emphasizes two types of law. The first type consists of religious laws that are given by God and cannot be changed. The second type consists of traditional laws, which include rules that have been made by the leaders of the community and can be changed according to the times.According to marriage customs, an engagement lasts from one to three years due to the necessity of the man acquiring the bride price, and the woman the groom price. When an Alas man and woman marry, they live near the husband’s family. After they have children, the young family will usually move and live separately (jawe) from the parents but stay in the same area and community of the merge. Polygamous marriages are permitted when the marriage has produced only boys, only girls, or no children at all (adak meu keu dueu).
Generally, the Alas people are followers of Islam, but they still seek the assistance of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist). They perform ceremonies so that their crops will prosper and be protected from plague. The dukun reads his mantra and uses magical potions of leaves and flowers that are considered powerful to ward off plagues.
The Aneuk Jamee people are one of the people groups that live on the western coastline of the Indonesian province of Aceh. They tend to live around the small bays found along the coast. They are also spread out over the low plains hemmed in by the Bukit Barisan mountain range. The Aneuk Jamee are located primarily in West Aceh Regency in the five districts of Tapak Tuan, Samadua, Susoh, Manggeng, and Labuhan Haji. There are smaller concentrations of them in South Aceh Regency in the three districts of Johan Pahlawan, Kaway XVI, and Kuala.The name aneuk jamee in the Aceh language means, “visiting child” or “newcomer.” The name was used to describe Minang people from Lubuk Sikaping, Pariaman, Rao, and Pasaman who began migrating to the area in the 17th century. Gradually, they assimilated with Aceh people in the area, a process facilitated by a common Islamic faith. Eventually, they came to feel that they were neither Aceh nor Minangkabau but rather a new people group with their own distinct culture and language. The Aneuk Jamee language is called Jamee or Jamu. For the Aceh in southern Aceh, this Jamee language is understandable because the Minangkabau vocabulary mixed with Aceh is similar to the national Indonesian language. However, the Aneuk Jamee do not understand or use the Aceh language.
Many Aneuk Jamee are fishermen, while others work in irrigated rice farming (basawah), unirrigated agriculture (baladang), and growing fruits (bakabun). There are some Aneuk Jamee who are permanent traders (baniago), but others, known as penggaleh, sell goods from village to village.The Aneuk Jamee have three levels of society. The nobles (datuk) form the highest level. The middle level is formed by district chiefs (hulu baling) and religious leaders (ulama), such as the prayer leaders (tengku), priests (imam), and Islamic judges (kadi). The common people are the lowest level. Traditional leadership in a village contains a combination of Minangkabau and Aceh elements. These leaders are the village headman (kecik), prayer-house leader (tuangku manasah), and youth leader (tuangku surau). This is somewhat different from the district level leadership, which is the same as traditional Aceh leadership patterns. This pattern consists of an area headman (mukim), village headman (kecik), street leader (ketua jurong) and elder (tuha peut).
Islam is the religion followed by the Aneuk Jamee people. As among other Indonesian peoples, the Aneuk Jamee also exhibit some elements of previous beliefs that are not easily forgotten. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are still frequently used for various things. For example, a dukun is sometimes asked to put a love spell (sijundai) on a girl or to recover a girl who has been bewitched in this manner
sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, suku.
 
 
The Gayo of Indonesia live in the remote central highlands of Aceh Province on the island of Sumatera. Their homeland lies across the Bukit Barisan Range (“Parade of Mountains”), which reaches heights of over 12,000 feet and runs for over a thousand miles. The Gayo mainly live in Central Aceh Regency and Southeast Aceh Regency. Their language is Gayo with two dialects, Gayo Lut and Gayo Luwes. The Gayo do not have a written language. Folk tales and oral stories are passed down in the form of poetry.The Gayo are close neighbors to the radical Islamic Aceh people, and in the past, the sultans of Aceh conquered the Gayo region and made the Gayo slaves. After an initial resistance (during which many Gayo were killed), the Dutch occupation from 1904-1942 resulted in the Gayo developing a thriving cash crop economy in vegetables and coffee. During the occupation and during the 50 years of Indonesian independence, the Gayo have gained access to higher levels of education, and participated to some degree in the Islamicization and modernization of their country.
The main source of income for the Gayo people is farming with the main crop being coffee. Other sources of income are fishing and gathering forest products. They also have developed skills in ceramics, weaving mats and weaving cloth. Another well known handicraft, called Kerawang Gayo, is embroidery with gold/colorful designs. In a traditional Gayo house (umah) uses palm thatch and wood. Several related families typically live together. There is also a meresah where older boys, bachelors, widowers, and male visitors sleep. This is also used for studying and religious activities. Gayo arts include saman and didong, which are mixtures of movement, literature, poetry, and singing. Apart from entertainment and recreation, these arts have ritual, educational, and informational functions, as well as being a means of maintaining balance sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, sukuin the social structure.
       The Gayo marriage pattern calls for marriage outside one’s own family. However, marriage between cousins is not forbidden. Most men marry women from the same area. This is done so that the man will already know the woman and the woman’s family can continue to look after her. A first marriage must be approved by both families (polygamy is rare, but allowed). Divorce and remarriage are quite common.
The Gayo people are mostly Muslim, but their understanding and conviction are lacking. Most Gayo still believe in good and bad spirits and holy men both dead and alive. They also continue to worship and make offerings to spirits, saints, and their ancestors.
Alas Kuet Tribe 20.000
The Kluet people are one of eight people groups that live in the Indonesian special province of Aceh. They are found in two districts of South Aceh Regency, namely North Kluet District and South Kluet District. These two districts are divided by the Krueng Kluet River, which has its source in the Leuser Mountains and empties into the Indian Ocean. The area where the Kluet people live is remote, about 20 kilometers from the main road, 50 kilometers from the city of Tapak Tuan and 500 kilometers from Banda Aceh, the provincial capital.The Kluet language is divided into 3 dialects, the Paya Dapur dialect, the Meunggamat dialect, and the Krueng Kluet dialect. Apparently the language has evolved from a combination of the Alas, Kuo, Aceh, and Minangkabau languages.
The Kluet area is very fertile, and most Kluet make their living from farming irrigated and unirrigated rice fields or growing crops such as coffee, patchouli (which produces fragrant oils), and all sorts of vegetables. Other means for livelihood include raising livestock and fishing. Fish are either eaten fresh or preserved for storage. One way of preserving the fish is by smoking it. This type of preserved or dried fish, called ikan saleh, is a specialty of the Kluet people.The Kluet people are famous for hunting, since they live at the edge of the jungle. During the time of Dutch colonialism, this people group was often noted for their skill on the battlefield. Their skill as hunters made them able fighters. They often employed guerrilla tactics to fight their enemies.The Kluet prefer to live in groups and only in certain areas. They have a strong sense of ethnic identity, and, therefore, they do not spread out very far from each other. They find it difficult to mix with other people groups, and as a result, their culture is rather closed to outsiders. Kluet villages are comprised of houses and a number of other buildings, including rice barns, a meeting center, women’s centers, religious schools, and mosques. The meeting center, called a meursah has a variety of purposes. It is used as a place to read the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book), say daily prayers, hold special Islamic celebrations, as well as a place to meet or for young men to sleep if there is no religious school in the village. The women’s center, or deyah, is a place where women may go to worship.
Most Kluet are followers of Islam. However, traditional animistic beliefs have not totally disappeared and often have significant impact. This can be seen in routines of daily life, especially in various special ceremonies. Many are afraid of supernatural ghosts (setan). They also believe one of the graves in their area has magic powers. According to the Kluet, this grave can be seen at certain times while at other times it disappears. Magic talismans are used so that evil spirits will not hurt them. The use of such talismans helps them feel calmer and more protected.
Sikule 27.000 Christian
 
Central Simeulue Island. Alternate names: Sichule, Sikhule, Wali Banuah. Dialects: Lekon, Tapah. Similar to Nias [nia].Simeulue Tribe 107.000
The Simeulue people live on Simeulue Island located 200 kilometers off the western coast of Aceh Province. Their largest towns are named Sibigo, Sigulai, and Lamame. On Simeulue Island there is no land transport available and the only means of travel is walking.Simeulue people are known as being friendly and brave. Their physical appearance is sometimes described as being more similar to northern Asian peoples because they are often of lighter skin than other Indonesians. This is different from the general appearance of the Aceh people on the mainland. The Simeulue speak Ulau, which means “island,” and it has two dialects. Sigulai is used in western Simeulue and Salang, and Devayan is used in eastern Simeulue, central Simeulue, and southern Tepang. In general the Simeulue can speak the Aceh language because of the strong influence of Aceh culture on the Simeulue.
Generally, the Simeulue make a living from planting cloves and coconuts as well as fishing. Each village usually has one mesjid (mosque) or musholla (prayer-house). Beside using it for prayer, the mesjid is also used for discussing religious issues, holding social functions, providing information from the government, and encouraging the community to work together on community projects. The village head in Simeulue is called a kecik. Previously, the Simeulue were ruled by a king before they were conquered by the king of Aceh and became part of that kingdom. The Simeulue house is built on stilts. Typically, the parents live in a large house with their unmarried children and the families of their sons. This group is called walli or walli akrab. Heredity is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father).Living arrangements after marriage are of three types. In the first pattern, the couple lives near the husband’s family. The second pattern is called paladangan sataun duo in the Devayan dialect or beladang sataun duo in the Sigulai dialect. In this pattern, the couple lives for a few years with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. After this, they live with the husband’s family for the rest of their lives. In the third pattern, which is called mafanofano, the couple always lives with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. This usually happens because the wife is an only child.
Although most Simeulue embrace Islam, many are still influenced by animistic beliefs and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spiritsTamiang Tribe 6.800sumatra, tribes, tamiang, aceh, suku
 

The Tamiang live in the southeast part of East Aceh Regency, in the Aceh Province. Previously this area was the Tamiang administrative district with a very large area of 7,760 square kilometers. Now the district has been divided into six districts, Kuala Simpang, Bendahara, Karangbaru, Seuruway, Kejuruanmuda, and Tamiang Hulu. One legend states that the name Tamiang comes from the words itam and mieng. Itam means “black” and mieng means “cheek.” This appellation supposedly arose because a king of Tamiang named Raja Muda Sedia (1332-1362) had a black mark on his cheek. Another story says that the name Tamiang comes from the name of an island in the Riau Archipelago, which was the original dwelling place of the Tamiang people’s ancestors. The Tamiang people have their own language with an 87% vocabulary similarity to the Melayu (Malay) Riau language.
The main source of income for Tamiang people is planting rice in both irrigated and unirrigated fields. Other crops which they plant are corn, cassava, tomatoes, chili peppers, and eggplant. They also grow fruits such as oranges, mangoes, durian, and langsat. Those who live on the coast fish and make coal from mangrove trees. Some become plantation workers and traders. The Tamiang rarely leave their area because their agricultural land is extensive and fertile enough to support them. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this area received many migrants from other areas because of the opening of rubber and palm oil plantations and oil wells.The Tamiang people are controlled by the “Law of the Four Peoples.” This means that the highest traditional leader is the “Datuk of the Four Peoples.” The word datuk comes from the word ndatu, which signifies the first person to open a settlement (rebas tebang). Those who came later were placed below the existing Datuk. In the ensuing process, the four Datuks united their areas and chose a king (raje) as leader. This decision was established and sealed with an agreement called Kate Tetuhe. The four datuks were titled Datuk Imam Balai, Datuk Penghulu, Datuk Hakim, and Datuk Setia Maha Raja. For the king there was a proverb: “raje adil raje disembah, raje lalin raje disangah” (A fair king will be worshipped, a cruel king will be dethroned). In upholding that role, Tamiang leaders hold onto a vow that states “kasih papa setia mati” (a father’s love is faithful to death). Traditional law was effectively carried out with the philosophy “adat dipangku, syarat dijunjung, resam dijalin, kanun diatur” (traditional law is administered but religious law is respected customary ways are formed but canon law is organized).
Tamiang people are followers of Islam, which has penetrated various aspects of their lives. However, many still carry out the ceremonies of their old beliefs. They hold certain ceremonies connected with their everyday lives, such as ceremonies held for blessing the planting of the rice (kenduri blang), the harvesting of the rice, and ceremonies to protect them for disasters (tula bala).
 

Nias Tribe

Nias Island in SumatraNias Island in Sumatra

 

  The Nias island lies off West Sumatra in the Indian Ocean.The villages of Bawomataluo and Hilisimae are curious places , where you can see performances of traditional Nias tribes war-dances and thrilling high- jump sports, i.e. people making dangerous leaps over 2 meter-high stones. Typical scenes are dancers clad in traditional costumes with bird feathers on their heads, a hall for the Chief-of Tribe built on wooden logs with stone chairs weighing up to 18 tons.

 

Mentawai tribe

 
photo

Mentawai tribe woman

This photo was taken in 1994 in Siberut Island in Indonesia. This lady was from the Mentawai tribe. This photo  took  in one of their huts, the light is coming through a small window hole in the hut

Kubu Jambi Tribe

Kubu people

 
 
  (Redirected from Suku Anak Dalam)
 

 

A group of Kubu people in the 1930’s in Jambi, Sumatra

 


Ethnic Child / Kubu

Kubu tribe or also known as the Ethnic Child In The Woods or one ethnic minorities living on the island of Sumatra, precisely in the provinces of Jambi and South Sumatra. They are the majority living in the provinces of Jambi, with an estimated total population of about 200,000 people.

According to oral traditions of tribes Child is Wrong Maalau people, who fled into the jungle around the Black Water, the Park Hill Twelve. They then called Ancestors Segayo. Another tradition says they came from Pagaruyung, who fled to Jambi. This reinforced the fact indigenous tribes Child have in common language and customs with Minangkabau tribe, such as matrilineal system.

Broadly speaking in Jambi they live in 3 different ecological regions, namely the People faction in the north province of Jambi (surrounding the Park Hill 30), Park Hill 12, and the southern province of Jambi (Sumatra along the causeway). They live a nomadic and basing his life on hunting and gathering, although many of them now have a rubber and other agricultural land.

Their lives are so pathetic as the loss of existing forest resources in Jambi and South Sumatra, and the processes of marginalization by the government and dominant ethnic groups (Malay People) in Jambi and South Sumatra.

 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

Tribe Aneuk JameeJamee Aneuk tribe is a tribe that spread along the western and southern coast of Aceh. In terms of language, thought is still the Minangkabau dialect of the language. However, due to the influence of cultural assimilation process is quite long, most of the Tribe Aneuk Jamee, especially those that inhabit the area that is dominated by a tribe of Aceh, for example in the area of West Aceh Regency, Jamee Aneuk language is spoken only among elderly people alone and now generally they more commonly use the language of Aceh as the lingua franca of everyday (lingua franca). The origin of the mention of “Aneuk Jamee” allegedly made famous by the local Acehnese, as a form of openness in glorifying the people of Aceh who came to evacuate residents Minangkabau (exodus) of ancestral land which was then under Dutch colonial grip. Literally, the term Aneuk Jamee language originated from Aceh, which means “child guest.”Spare Aneuk Jamee mainly found in South Aceh district (approximately 50% of the population) and some parts of Southwest Aceh district, West Aceh

 

 

 

 
 

     

 

 

 

 
 

 

Ethnic Arab-Indonesia

Ethnic Arab-Indonesia is the Indonesian population that has ethnic Arab and ethnic descent native of Indonesia. At first they generally live in Arab villages scattered in various cities in Indonesia. In the Dutch colonial era, they are regarded as foreign Asian nation along with the ethnic Chinese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Indian tribes. But as the ethnic Chinese and Indians, not a few of the Arab-Indonesia to help Indonesia’s independence struggle.

History arrival

In the aftermath of major divisions among Muslims that led to the killing of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, begin to occur displacement (hijrah), large quantities from the offspring to various parts of the world. When Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir migrated from Iraq to the Hadramaut region of Yemen about a thousand years ago, the descendants of Ali bin Abi Talib and the 70 people brought their families and followers.

Since then the developing offspring to become the largest tribes in the Hadramaut, and from the Hadramaut town is the main origins of the Arab colony who settled and mixed into a citizen of Indonesia and other Asian countries. Besides Indonesia, the people of Hadramaut is also widely available in Oman, India, Pakistan, South Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore.

There is also a citizen of Arab descent who come from Middle Eastern countries and Africa in Indonesia, for example, from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or Morocco, but fewer in number than those who came from Hadramaut.

Developments in Indonesia

The arrival of Arabs from Hadramaut colony into Indonesia is estimated to occur in three main waves.

Ages 9-11 AD

The oldest historical record is the founding of the kingdom Perlak I (East Aceh) on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M). Only two centuries after the death of the Prophet, one of the descendants of Sayyid Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja’far Sadeq Dibaj moved to the kingdom Perlak. He later married the younger brother of King Perlak Syahir Nuwi. From this marriage was born as the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah (Raja Islam) Perlak I. The historical record is officially owned by East Aceh Ulema Council and strengthened in the seminar as a paper ‘History Log and the development of Islam in Aceh’ July 10, 1978 by (the late) Professor Ali Hasymi.

Ages 12-15 AD

This period is the arrival of the progenitor of Walisongo pioneered by Sheikh Jamaluddin Akbar large family from Gujarat, are still descendants of Sheikh Muhammad Syahib Mirbath of Hadramaut. He besama preaching sons away to all corners of Southeast Asia to the archipelago with the main strategy of spreading Islam through marriage with local people mainly from the Hindu palaces.

Ages 17-19 AD

This century is marked by the last wave of mass migration of Hadramaut sayyids who spread Islam while trade in the archipelago. The latest arrivals can be characterized his descendants until now because unlike its predecessor, not a lot of intermarrying with the indigenous population. Moreover, it can be marked with the clan that we know today as Alatas, Assegaf, Al Jufri, Alaydrus, Syihab, Syahab, etc.. This is understandable because these clans newly formed later. Recorded in the history of Hadramaut, is the oldest clan As Saqqaf (Assegaf) which became the title of Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Mohammed Al Mauladdawilah after he died in 731 H or century AD 14-15 While the other clans are formed even more recently, generally in the 16th century. Usually the clan name is taken from the title of a local cleric who is widely respected. Based on the estimate in 1366 H (or about 57 years ago), they now number not less than 70 thousand inhabitants. It consists of approximately 200 genera.

Clans are up to now have a hereditary leader who holds “munsib”. The munsib live in the greatest family environment in their previous homes or families. All munsib recognized as leader by the tribes who live around them. In addition, they are also regarded as the ruler of the area where they reside. Among the most prominent munsib munsib Alatas, munsib Binsechbubakar and munsib Al Bawazier.

It is estimated that the number of Arab descent in Indonesia Hadramaut larger when compared with their numbers in place of his own ancestors. Hadramaut own population is only about 1.8 million inhabitants. Even a number of clans which in Hadramaut itself already extinct – like Basyeiban and Haneman – in Indonesia the numbers are still quite a lot. Many Arab villages scattered in various cities in Indonesia, for example in Jakarta (Pekojan), Bogor (Pond), Surakarta (Market POND), Surabaya (Ampel), Gresik (Gate), Malang (Jagalan), Cirebon (Kauman), Mojokerto ( Kauman), Yogyakarta (Kauman), Probolinggo (Diponegoro), Bondowoso, and Banjarmasin (Kampung Arab), and many more are scattered in other cities such as Palembang, Banda Aceh, Sigli, Medan, Makasar, Gorontalo, Ambon, Mataram , Ampenan, Sumbawa, Dompu, Bima, Kupang, and Papua.

Hadramaut Arab descent in Indonesia, such as his home country of Yemen, comprising two major groups: the group or Sayyidi Alawi, and Qabili group. In Indonesia, there is sometimes a distinction between groups that generally adherents Sayyidi organization Jamiat al-Kheir, with the Sheikh or Masyaikh also commonly called Irsyadi or followers of al-Ershad organization.

People and Roles

In Indonesia, since time immemorial have been a lot of people of Arab descent who became fighters, alim-ulama and preachers. Among the prominent propagator of religion who is Walisongo, who allegedly (Van Den Berg, 1886) are of Arab descent Hadramaut and / or are their students. Hadramaut Arabs who came around the 15th century and earlier have fundamental differences with those who come in the next wave (18th century and thereafter). As mentioned by Van Den Berg, the predecessor is widely assimilated with the indigenous population, mainly from the Hindu royal family. This is done in order to accelerate the spread of Islamic religion, so that their offspring are almost unrecognizable as Hadramaut Arab descent.

Among the clans of Hadramawt who were the first to Indonesia is Basyaiban family, namely Sayyid Abdul Rahman bin Abu Hafs Umar Basyaiban BaAlawi in the 17th century AD.

In the glory days of Islamic sultanates in Indonesia, some Arab descent dirajakan by local communities, among others, in Java (Demak, Cirebon and Banten), Sumatra (Aceh and Siak), and Kalimantan (Sambas, Pontianak, Kubu, and Sand) . In addition, since the longer the lot of Arab descent who became traders, and they are scattered in various parts of the archipelago of Indonesia.

Hadramaut Arabs who came in the 18th century and thereafter, not a lot of marriages with the natives as the previous wave arrival. They come already carry the name of the clans that formed later (around centuries 16-17). The descendants of Arabs who came lately Hadramaut, still easily recognizable by distinctive names of their clans. Arab-Indonesia is actively involved in the field of Islamic religious and various other aspects of life in Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

Toraja tribe

 

 

The Toraja Tribe of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, is known for the cheerful way of treating death, and its unique burial grounds carved in sheer rock.

 

 
Asmat

Asmat is a tribe in Papua. Asmat tribe known as the result of a unique wood carvings. Asmat population is divided into two, namely those living in coastal areas and those living in the hinterland. Both populations are mutually different from each other in dialect, way of life, social structure and ritual. Coastal populations further divided into two parts, namely Bisman tribe that lies between the river and river Sinesty Nin and spare Shimei.

There are many contradictions between different villages Asmat. The most horrible is the way the Asmat used to kill his enemy. When the enemy was killed, his body was taken to the village, then cut and distributed to all residents to eat together. They sing songs of death and memenggalkan head. His brain is wrapped in sago leaves are roasted and eaten.

Now usually, about 100 to 1000 people living in one village. Each village had one house Bujang and many family homes. Bujang house used for ceremonial and religious ceremonies. Family houses inhabited by two to three families, who have their own bathroom and kitchen. Today, there are approximately 70,000 Asmat live in Indonesia. The majority of children already in school Asmat.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethnic BaliBali is the ethnic tribes who inhabited the island of Bali, the Balinese language and follow the Balinese culture. Most of the ethnic Balinese Hindus, approximately 90%. While the rest are Buddhists, Muslims and Christians.There are approximately 5 million people of Bali. Most of them live on the island of Bali, but they also spread all over Indonesia.The Balinese are also contained in P. Western Lombok. There are also immigrated to Lampung, South Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi and South Sulawesi and Papua. There are two groups of ethnic Balinese. The first group are the Bali Aga, they are indigenous people who inhabit the mountains. The second group is Bali Majapahit, namely migrants from Java (Hindu Majapahit kingdom) that live in most of the island of Bali, especially in the lowlands.Livelihoods and Bali Majapahit Bali Aga is farming in rice fields. Their irrigation system known as Subak. Bonds of solidarity among members of the Subak (the same water source) water control system looks at the meeting or during a special religious ceremony, there are also ties dadia. A Dadia usually occupies a complex of houses built with walls of about 2m with an entrance is decorated with arch and stairs. Inside was a shrine where the family worship. Another bond is based on the Balinese religious ties are Hindu Balinese. There is also a bond based on the activities, livelihoods and the bonds between the citizens of caste.

 

 

 

 

 
 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bedouin Tribe / People Kanekes

The person or persons Kanekes Baduy / Bedouin are an indigenous group in the Sunda region Kendeng Mountains, Lebak regency, Banten. Their population of about 5000-8000 people and they are one of the tribes who apply isolation from the outside world. In addition they also have a taboo to be photographed.

The term “Bedouin” is the name given by residents outside the community groups, the term originated from the Dutch researchers who seem to equate them with Badawi Arab groups who are sedentary societies (nomadic). Another possibility is that because of the River and Mountain Bedouin Bedouin in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as urang Kanekes or “people Kanekes” according to their region name, or title that refers to the name of their village as Urang Cibeo (Garna, 1993).

Region

Wilayah Kanekes secara geografis terletak pada koordinat 6°27’27” – 6°30’0” LS dan 108°3’9” – 106°4’55” BT (Permana, 2001). Mereka bermukim tepat di kaki pegunungan Kendeng di desa Kanekes, Kecamatan Leuwidamar, Kabupaten Lebak-Rangkasbitung, Banten, berjarak sekitar 40 km dari kota Rangkasbitung. Wilayah yang merupakan bagian dari Pegunungan Kendeng dengan ketinggian 300 – 600 m di atas permukaan laut (DPL) tersebut mempunyai topografi berbukit dan bergelombang dengan kemiringan tanah rata-rata mencapai 45%, yang merupakan tanah vulkanik (di bagian utara), tanah endapan (di bagian tengah), dan tanah campuran (di bagian selatan). suhu rata-rata 20 °C.

The three main villages of Kanekes In the Cikeusik, CIkertawana, and Cibeo.

Language

The language they use is the language of Sunda Sunda-Banten dialect. To communicate with people outside of their current use Indonesian language, although they do not get that knowledge from school. People do not know the culture Kanekes In writing, so that the customs, beliefs / religion, and ancestor stories stored only in oral speech only.

Kanekes people do not know the school, because formal education as opposed to their customs. They reject the government proposal to build school facilities in their villages. Even to this day, although since the Suharto era, the government has tried to force them to change their way of life and build modern school facilities in their areas, people still refuse Kanekes such government efforts. As a result, the majority of people Kanekes can not read or write.

Community groups

People Kanekes still had historic links with the Sundanese. Physical appearance and their language is similar to Sundanese people in general. The only difference is their beliefs and way of life. Kanekes people shut themselves from the influence of the outside world and strictly maintain their traditional way of life, while the Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and the majority embraced Islam.

Community Kanekes generally divided into three groups: tangtu, panamping, and dangka (Permana, 2001).

Tangtu group is a group known as Kanekes In (Baduy In), the most closely followed the custom, the people living in three villages: Cibeo, Cikertawana, and Cikeusik. Typical Kanekes People are dressed in white, natural and dark blue and wearing a white headband. They are prohibited by customary to meet with foreigners (non-citizen)

Kanekes In is part of the whole person Kanekes. Unlike Kanekes Outside, residents Kanekes In still adhere to the customs of their ancestors.

Most of the rules adopted by the tribe Kanekes In include:

  • Not allowed to use vehicles for transportation
  • Not allowed to use footwear
  • The door should face north / south (except home chairman of the Pu’un or custom)
  • Prohibition of use of electronic tools (technology)
  • Using a cloth black / white as the clothes that are woven and sewn himself, and not allowed to use modern clothing.

The second community group called panamping are those known as Kanekes Outer (Outer Baduy), who lived in various villages scattered around the region Kanekes In such Cikadu, Kaduketuk, Kadukolot, Gajeboh, Cisagu, and so forth. Society of Foreign Kanekes distinctively dressed and black headband.

Foreign Kanekes are people who have been out of the peoples and regions Kanekes In. There are several things that cause the release of citizens to Kanekes Kanekes In Outer:

  • They have violated the customs of society Kanekes In.
  • Desiring to get out of Kanekes In
  • Married to a member of Foreign Kanekes

The characteristics of the person of Foreign Kanekes

  • They have known technologies, such as electronic equipment, although its use remains a Kanekes ban to every citizen, including citizens of foreign Kanekes. They use the equipment in a way secretly to escape detection from Kanekes Within supervisor.
  • The process of building houses for Foreign Kanekes been using assistive devices, such as saws, hammers, nails, etc., that were previously prohibited by customary Kanekes In.
  • Using traditional clothes with black or dark blue (for men), indicating that they are not sacred. Sometimes using modern clothes such as T-shirts and jeans.
  • Using modern household appliances, such as mattresses, pillows, plates & cups glass & plastic.
  • They live outside the area Kanekes In.

If Kanekes In and Out Kanekes Kanekes lived in the area, then “Kanekes Dangka” Kanekes live outside the region, and currently lives in the remaining two villages, namely Padawaras (Cibengkung) and Sirahdayeuh (Cihandam). Kampung Dangka functions as a kind of buffer zone on outside influences (Permana, 2001).

The origin

According to the belief that they profess, people Kanekes claimed descent from ancestors Batara, one of the seven gods or a god who is sent to earth. The origin is often attributed to the Prophet Adam as the first ancestor. According to their belief, Adam and his descendants, including the citizen has the duty Kanekes be imprisoned or ascetic (mandita) to maintain the harmony of the world.

Opinions about the origin of the Kanekes differ with the opinion of historians, who based his opinion by way of synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, travel records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, and folklore of the ‘Tatar Sunda’, which was minimal existence. Community Kanekes associated with the Kingdom of Sunda that before its collapse in the 16th century centered on Pakuan Pajajaran (around Bogor now). Before the founding of the Sultanate of Banten, the western tip of Java island is an important part of the Kingdom of Sunda. Banten is a fairly large trading port. Ciujung River are navigable various types of boats, and crowded is used to transport agricultural products from rural areas. Thus the ruler area, which is called the Prince of shoot General considers that the sustainability of the river should be maintained. For that diperintahkanlah royal army that is trained to maintain and manage the heavily wooded and hilly area in the region of Mount Kendeng. The existence of a special task forces with the Society seems to be the forerunner Kanekes that still inhabit the upper river at Mount Kendeng Ciujung the (Adimihardja, 2000). Differences of opinion was brought to the allegation that in the past, their historical identity and accidentally closed, which probably is to protect communities from attacks Kanekes own Pajajaran enemies.

Van Tricht, a physician who had conducted health research in 1928, refuting the theory. According to him, people Kanekes is a native of the area which has a strong thrust towards external influences (Garna, 1993b: 146). Kanekes own people even refuse to say that they come from people escape from Pajajaran, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According Danasasmita and Djatisunda (1986: 4-5) is the local Bedouin people who made the mandala ‘(sacred area) formally by the king, because the population is obliged to maintain kabuyutan (place of ancestor worship or ancestor), rather than Hinduism or Buddhism. Principal in this area known as Jati Sunda kabuyutan or ‘Sunda Asli’ or Sundanese wiwitan (wiwitan = original, origin, principal, teak). Hence their original religion was given the name Sunda wiwitan. The king who makes the Bedouin as a mandala is Rakeyan Darmasiksa.

Trust

Kanekes public trust which is called the Sunda wiwitan rooted in the worship of ancestral spirits (animism) which on subsequent development was also influenced by Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. The core belief is shown by the absolute pikukuh or customary provisions adopted in the daily life of people Kanekes (Garna, 1993). The most important contents of the ‘pikukuh’ (compliance) Kanekes is the concept of “without changing anything”, or a change in as little as possible:

Lojor heunteu beunang cut, short-jointed heunteu beunang.

(Length can not / should not be cut, the short can not / should not be connected)

Taboo in everyday life are interpreted literally. In agriculture, pikukuh form is by not changing the contour of the land for the fields, so how berladangnya very simple, do not cultivate the land with a plow, do not create a terracing, planted only with Portugal, which is a sharpened piece of bamboo. In housing construction also contour the ground surface is left untouched, so that a pillar of the house Kanekes often not equal in length. Words and their actions were honest, innocent, without further ado, even in their trade did not haggle.

The object of trust is important for the community Kanekes Arca Domas, the location kept secret and is considered the most sacred. Kanekes people visit these locations to conduct worship once a year in Kalima, which in 2003 coincided with the month of July. Only the highest indigenous Pu’un or chairman and several members of selected communities who follow the cult group. In the complex there are Arca Domas stone mortar that holds rain water. If at the temple was found a stone mortar is in a state full of clear water, then for the people Kanekes it is a sign that the rain of the year will be a lot down, and harvest will work well. Conversely, if the stone mortar dry or watery cloudy, it is a sign of crop failure (Permana, 2003a).

For some people, related to the persistence society, indigenous beliefs embraced this Kanekes reflect the religious beliefs of Sundanese people in general prior to the entry of Islam.

Governance

Kanekes society recognizes two systems of government, namely the national system, which follows the rules of the Indonesian state, and customary systems which are believed to follow the customs of society. Both systems were merged or diakulturasikan such that there is no conflict. Nationally, the population Kanekes led by the village head called Jaro pamarentah, which is under the sub-district, while customarily subject to the customary leader Kanekes the highest, namely “Pu’un”.


Kanekes governance structure

The highest indigenous leaders in the community Kanekes is “Pu’un” in three villages tangtu. Position lasted down through the generations, but not automatically from father to son, but can also other relatives. The term of office Pu’un not specified, only based on one’s ability to hold the position.

Executing everyday customs administration kapu’unan (kepu’unan) implemented by Jaro, which is divided into four positions, namely tangtu Jaro, Jaro dangka, Jaro dependents, and Jaro pamarentah. Jaro tangtu responsible for the implementation of customary law on citizens tangtu and various other affairs. Jaro dangka duty to maintain, administer, and maintain a deposit of ancestral land that exist within and outside Kanekes. Jaro dangka of 9 people, which when added to the 3 people called Jaro Jaro tangtu twelve. Chairman of twelve Jaro Jaro is known as a dependent. The Jaro pamarentah customarily served as a liaison between indigenous Kanekes with national governments, which in their duties aided by pangiwa, torn, and kokolot overtime or village elders (Makmur, 2001).

Livelihood

As has happened for hundreds of years, the community’s main livelihood is farming Kanekes cultivating rice. In addition they also receive additional income from selling fruit they get in the forest such as durian and keranji acid, and wild honey.

Interaction with the outside community

Kanekes society that until now strictly follow the customs is not an isolated communities, remote or isolated communities from the development of the outside world. The establishment of the Sultanate of Banten, which automatically enter into the realm Kanekes was not separated from their consciousness. As a sign of compliance / confession to authorities, the public routinely perform seba Kanekes to the Sultanate of Banten (Garna, 1993). Until now, the ceremony seba continues to take place once a year, be brought crops (rice, pulses, fruits) to the Governor of Banten (previously the Governor of West Java), through the Lebak district. In agriculture, the inhabitants of Foreign Kanekes interact closely with the community outside, for example in land leases, and labor.

Trade that in the past conducted barter, now has used ordinary rupiah currency. People Kanekes sell their fruits, honey, and sugar kawung / palm through the middlemen. They also buy the necessities of life that are not produced in the market. Market for people located outside the territory Kanekes Kanekes like Kroja market, Cibengkung, and Ciboleger.

At this time the outsiders who visit the region Kanekes increasing up to hundreds of people per visit, usually a teenager from the school, students, and other adult visitors. They receive the visitors, even to stay one night, with the proviso that visitors comply with the customs prevailing there. Customary rules, among others, should not be photographed in the region Kanekes In, do not use soap or toothpaste in a river. However, the region Kanekes remain off limits to foreigners (non-citizen). Several foreign journalists who tried to enter until now always been denied entry.

At work in the fields is not too much, people Kanekes also happy to travel to major cities around the area on condition that they must walk. Generally they go in small groups consisting of 3 to 5 people, a visit to the house of acquaintances who had come to Kanekes while selling honey and handicrafts. During the visit they usually get extra money for their daily lives.

References

  • Adimihardja, K. (2000). Bedouin people in South Banten: Human water river keepers, Indonesia Journal of Anthropology, Th. XXIV, No. 61, Jan-April 2000, p. 47-59.
  • Garna, Y. (1993). Bedouin community in Banten, in Isolated Communities in Indonesia, Editor: Koentjaraningrat & Simorangkir, Indonesia Ethnography Series No.4. Jakarta: Ministry of Social Affairs and the Indonesian National Council for Social Welfare by Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  • Iskandar, J. (1991). An evaluation of the shifting cultivation systems of the Bedouin society in West Java using the system modeling, Thesis Abstract of AGS Students,.
  • Makmur, A. (2001). Pamarentahan Kanekes Bedouin Village: Perspectives kinship.
  • Nugraheni, E. & Winata, A. (2003). Environmental conservation and plasma nutfah according to traditional wisdom Kasepuhan Mountain Mist, Journal of Indonesian Studies, Volume 13, Number 2, September 2003, pages 126-143.
  • Permana, CE (2001). Gender equality in the core universe Bedouin custom, London: Wedatama Widya Sastra.
  • Permana, CE (2003). Arca Domas Bedouin: A reference in the interpretation of archaeological megalithic community space, Indonesian Arheology on the Net,
  • Permana, CE (2003). Religion in the tradition of simple farming, Indonesian Arheology on the Net,
  • Ascher, Robert, 1971 Analogy in Archaeological Interpretation, in James Deetz (ed.) Imprint Mans from the Past. Boston: Little Brown. Page: 262 271.
  • Danasasmita, Saleh and Anis Djatisunda,., 1986 Kanekes Society. New York: Sundanologi.
  • Ekadjati, Edi S., 1995 Cultural Sundanese (A Historical Approach). Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.
  • Garna, Judhistira, 1988 Social Change in Nurhadi Rangkuti Bedouin Culture (Peny.). Bedouin people of the Core Jagat. Bentara Culture, KOMPAS, Yogyakarta: Etnodata Prosindo.
  • 1993 Bedouin Community in Banten, in Koentjaraningrat (ed.) Isolated Communities in Indonesia. New York: Scholastic. Hal. 120-152)
  • Hoevell, WR van, 1845 Bijdrage tot de kennis der der Badoeinen in het zuiden residentie Bantam. TNI, VII: 335-430.
  • Iskandar, Johan, 1992 Ecology fields in Indonesia: A Case Study of Bedouin Region, South Banten, West Java. London: Djambatan.
  • Jacobs, J. and JJ Meijer, 1891 De Badoejs. s-Grahenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Koorders, D., 1869 Losse tijdens het bezoek bij Aantekeningeng de Badois, BKI, LVI: 335-341.
  • Kramer, C., 1979 Etnoarchaeology: Implication of Ethnography for Archaeology. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Mundardjito., 1981 Etnoarkeologi: Its role in the Development of Archaeology in Indonesia, the magazine Archaeology 1-2, IV :17-29
  • Permana, R. Cecelia Eka, 1996 Spatial Bedouin Society. Thesis Anthropology Graduate Program, University of Indonesia.
  • Pleyte, CM, 1909 Artja Domas, het zielenland der Badoejs. Tijdschrift voor Indishe Taal, Land en Volkenkunde. LI: AFL. 6: 494-526.
  • Tricht, B. van, 1929 Levende Antiquiteiten in West-Java. Java IX: 43-120.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bajau tribe

Bajau tribe is a land of ethnic origin Sulu Archipelago, southern Philippines. This is a tribe of nomadic tribes who live on the sea, so-called sea gypsies. Bajau tribe Sama-Bajau language. Bajau tribe since hundreds of years ago has spread to the land of Sabah and other parts of Indonesia. Bajau tribe is also a country boy in Sabah. The tribes in Kalimantan is expected to migrate from the north (Philippines) in prehistoric times. Muslim Bajau tribe that this is the last wave of migration from the north coast of Borneo which entered East Kalimantan to South Kalimantan and occupied the surrounding islands, earlier than the arrival of the Muslim tribes of the family ie Bugis Bugis, Makassar tribe, tribal Mandar.

Bajau tribe territory contained, among others:

1. East Kalimantan (Berau, Bontang, etc.)
2. South Kalimantan (New City) is called the Bajau Rampa Kapis
3. South Sulawesi (Selayar)
4. Southeast Sulawesi
5. West Nusa Tenggara
6. East Nusa Tenggara (Komodo Island)

Dani Tribes  West Papua

 
 

Dani tribesmen attack the Damal tribe during intertribal wars in Indonesia

Sakai Riauw ,south sumatra and banka belliton Island Tribes

Riau 6 Tribes

 
Riau, Tribes

 

Banka Tribe 340.000 Islam
Bangka Island. Dialects: Urban (Jakarta), North, Central, South, Lom (Belom, Mapor).
The Bangka people live on Bangka Island in the South China Sea to the east of Sumatera, specifically in Bangka Regency and Pangkal Pinang Municipality in Bangka-Belitung Province. Indonesians often visit this island because it has beautiful beaches and is easy to reach from the capital of South Sumatera (Palembang). 60% of the inhabitants of Bangka Island are Melayu (Malay) and about 25% are descendants of Chinese, who migrated to the island. The Bangka language is a branch of the Melayu language cluster.
Bangka Island is known for its large tin mining industry, which was developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. Bangka Island was influenced by the Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. This is seen in the archaeological remains of various ancient inscriptions, which have been found there. For example, the “Kota Kapur Plaque” has been found, which dates back to 686 A.D. This island is also famous for its pepper plantations, which reached their height of prosperity in 1987. However, in the 1990’s the price of pepper declined drastically and was followed by a drop in the price of tin, which seriously impacted the Bangka.The Bangka people make their living in a variety of ways. Many of the island’s inhabitants are laborers in the tin mines. In addition, many are also farmers, fishermen, and boat builders. They produce many crafts, such as cane work, plaited mats, porcelain, ceramics, and carvings from tin. Many people who live around the cities have become traders and merchants; particularly those of Chinese descent. The lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). According to tradition, after marriage, the couple does not live near either set of parents. As a result, there are many mixed marriages between the Bangka and other ethnic groups that have come to the area. This outside influence can be seen in their wedding customs. The engagement is initiated by the man’s family giving gifts to the bride. The engagement ceremony is typically done in a berbalas pantun (traditional singing dialogue). Islamic influence is also shown in the public wedding procession which is accompanied by tambourines and drums. Another regional art form is called the Sepintu Segudan. This Bangka drama tells the story of the community’s attitude of gotong royong (mutual assistance).
The majority of the people on Bangka Island are Muslims, particularly those of Melayu descent, whereas those who are of Chinese descent follow Buddhist or Confucius beliefs. The ethnic Bangka people mix Islam and traditional animistic beliefs that still flourish among the community.
Belide Tribe 22.000
The Belide live southwest of Palembang along the Musi River. One of the greatest kingdoms in the region’s history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the banks of the Musi River in South Sumatera over a thousand years ago. The Sriwijaya Kingdom was a major maritime power that controlled the nearby Straits of Malacca, which is a key waterway between Asia and Europe.The region’s historical background is rich and colorful. The Sriwijaya kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China during its era of powerful dynasties, and in 672, the Chinese scholar I Tsing recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen studying Sanskirt in what is now the regional capital of Palembang. However, few relics of this memorable era remain.
The Belide are not nomadic, but they tend to live in the same area their entire lives. The total Belide people group is comprised of about 20 villages. Traditional houses are made of wood with palm leaf roofs. The houses are built on wooden or brick columns above ground level. Their Belide language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.Approximately 60% of Belide men work as rubber tree tappers or laborers in pineapple plantations. Others work as traders or government employees. The Belide communities are typically lead by three men. A political leader is appointed and paid by the government, and a village chief is chosen by the people. The village chief is not paid, but does receive a 10% tax on land sales within the village. However, the third man, the religious leader, apparently has greater influence than the other two.Family conflicts are solved by the head of the family, and a spiritual leader may handle village level problems. Punishment for minor offenses is handled by the citizens of the village, but more serious crimes are referred to the police.Belide youth may choose their own mates with agreement from their family. If there is a member of the family that does not agree, the village chief is asked to decide. If he agrees, the family must allow the wedding to proceed. The groom must pay a bride’s price. The bride then uses this money to purchase their household essentials. Spiritual leaders are consulted to determine the best day for the wedding. It is common for Belide wedding feasts to last two to three days. Belide men may practice polygamy, but while it is permitted, it seldom occurs.
Customs and traditions have been passed down over many generations and have been harmonized with Islamic law. Although the Belide are Muslims, many of them still believe in superstition and evil spirits. For instance, some believe that whistling in a home at night calls forth evil spirits or that walking in circles on a person’s birthday brings bad luck to the person. Many write verses from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) on small pieces of paper and carry them as protection against evil. A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is often called to heal the sick and exorcise evil spirits.
Belitung Tribe 163.000
The Belitung live on the island of Belitung (sometimes called Bilton island) in the province of Bangka-Belitung. This island is located in the South China Sea on the east of Sumatera to the southwest of Bangka Island. The island is mostly lowlands with some hills, such as Tajam Laki and Tajam Bini. In some areas there are small rivers, and some small lakes can be found in old tin quarries on the island. The Belitung people’s term for themselves is Urang Belitong. The Belitung language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. A distinctive feature of their language is that it does not have the letter ‘h’ and they use ‘e’ at the end of the word rather than ‘a’. For example, jauh (far) becomes jao; hujan (rain) becomes ujan; putih (white) becomes pute; and apa becomes ape. Another distinctive feature is that they use terms that come from joining two or more words, such as hendak kemana (where are you going) becomes nakmane.
The islands are considered important for their tin mines. Many earn their livelihood from mining tin and kaolin (a fine white clay). Other occupations include trade, fishing, boat building, iron working, and general office work. Only a small part of the land is suitable for rice cultivation. Planting rice is usually done by cutting and burning an area of the forest. Besides dry rice crops, the people in this area also grow corn, cassava, sweet potato, and banana. Other crops include rubber, pepper, cloves, coconut, sweet potatoes, and bananas. Handicraft industries developed by the Belitung include porcelain ceramics and woven rattan. The traditional Belitung house is built on a raised platform with bark walls and roofs of sago palm leaves. They also have temporary villages used during harvest. These houses are built at the edge of the forest and are usually lived in during the time the people work in the field. After the harvest, the people move back to their main village.The ancestry of the Belitung can be traced through either the line of the father or the mother. A village is formed by a group of families, termed a keleka. The keleka, lead by a traditional chief along with his assistants, has its own rules and accepted boundaries. The religious leader is a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) whose duty is to lead the ceremonies of the community.
The Belitung adhere to Islam which came to the area around the 17th century. In spite of their dedication to Islam, many Belitung people are still influenced by animistic belief in spirits and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits. This can be seen in their ceremonies for working the rice fields (maras taun), fishing (buang jong), and weddings (gawai pengantin). They still believe in magical forces that inhabit sacred objects. Many things are forbidden by taboos.
Duano 19.000 Islam
19,000 (Seidlitz). Population total all countries: 15,500. West Riau archipelago and east coast of Riau, Daratan Province. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular). Alternate names: Duano’, Orang Kuala, Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Laut. 
Malay
sumatra, tribes, riau, suku,malay
Musi Sekayu Tribe 160.000 Islam
The Musi Sekayu people group generally build houses on the banks of the Musi River. Because of this, the Musi Sekayu are often called manusia sungai (river people). The literal meaning of sekayu is “one wood.” The phrase refers to a piece of long fabric that is spread out for people to sit on while eating together. The standard measurement of this long piece of cloth is designated as a musi sekayu. Unlike other people groups in Indonesia, such as the Bugis, Minangkabau or Jawa, the Musi Sekayu seldom move to a faraway place. Their desire to progress and search for their fortune is carried out only as far as the capital city of the province. This place can be reached by car in less than three hours. Their means of livelihood includes agriculture, forestry, labor, fishing, public transportation, construction, and government jobs such as teaching. The Musi Sekayu people living in the city of Palembang occupy a variety of work sectors, beginning with university professors, research specialists, land developers, shipyard workers, and pedicab drivers.
Most families of the Musi Sekayu wish for a male child. They perceive that sons are a guarantee for the country’s future power (bakal negeri) as well as guaranteeing the continuation of their hereditary line (negakke jurai).
Almost all of the Musi Sekayu people embrace the religion of Islam. Every Musi Sekayu village has a mesjid (mosque) or langgar (Muslim prayer house). Some villages have Islamic schools and musholla (small public buildings or rooms for performing religious duties) as teaching and education centers for the Islamic religion. In spite of this, the people also still consult a local dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) for treatment or to have their fortunes told.
Sakai and Talang Mamak Tribe 6.400
Thesumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam indigenous Sakai people in Riau province, for example, who used to live in lush green jungles, now have to dwell in nearly barren areas in Bengkalis. Another tribe, the Talang Mamak in Indragiri Hilir, Indragiri Hulu and Jambi, are facing similar situations as their forested surroundings, too, have been cut down for oil palm plantations or have been turned into industrial forests.
Despite their nomadic life, to these people, the earth and forests are part of their lives and something they must care for. They know how to manage their lands and forests, a knowledge that is passed down from their ancestors, which has enabled them to coexist harmoniously with nature and maintain their environs for many generations.
The majority of the Talang Mamak tribe, which comprises only 6,400 or so people, are illiterate. Most of them live in the districts of Seberida, Kelayang and Rengat Barat in Indragiri Hilir, and a small number of them live in Surnai, Bangko Tebo and Bukit 30 National Park, bordering Jambi province.
The Talang Mamak are currently languishing: the presence of forest concessionaires has been detrimental to their way of life and rendered it barely sustainable.
The state schools located far from their villages still remain a luxury for the animist tribespeople and, to make matters worse, many of them refuse to go to school, arguing that conventional, modern education would mean a departure from their long-maintained customs and traditions. They fear modern education will change their beliefs. According to tradition, converts are no longer regarded as members of the tribe.
Quite a few have embraced Christianity, but they still practice their indigenous customs, such as worshiping the animist spirits at sacred places. Others have converted to Islam, after which they become known as “Malay people” among the Talang Mamak.
  sumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam
The Sakai, Bonai, Talang Mamak and Duano tribes are socio-culturally and ethnically Malay, but have not been exposed to the Hindu, Islamic and European cultures. These people were segregated by the Malays for their “unhygienic” way of life.
Most Talang Mamak people are reluctant to become Muslims, because Islamic teachings, according to them, are contrary to their customs and traditions. For example, pork is traditional fare at wedding parties. They still use bark and leaves for clothing.
Being nomadic, they are able to prevent the government from annexing their ancestral lands and still lead a simple way of life, unaffected by external impurities. Their huts, usually measuring 3 meters by 4 meters, are built on stilts and have walls made of bark. It is in these homes that they cook, receive guests and chat. They cultivate the land around the huts — usually less than 1 square hectare, to grow cassava and sweet potatoes as their staple foods.
“We have planted cassava and sweet potatoes all our lives for many ages,” said Mohammad Supermi, 34, village chief of Durian Cacar.
Apart from farming, some of the tribespeople go to the forest to harvest rattan and honey from trees, which they call sialang. They sell the honey at the market or drink it with traditional herbal medicines.
Now, however, the ancestral forests, on which they depend their lives, are about to disappear, with the forests, the Talang Mamak way of life.

frame Three:

The Malaysian Tribes

Frame Four :Ex Indochina tribe

 1.The Vietnamese tribe

 
   

 

Vietnam has 54 tribes, they live together friendly in Vietnam nation.
   
Vietnam has 54 tribes, they live together friendly in Vietnam nation.
 

Vietnam has 54 tribes, they live together friendly in Vietnam nation.

 

 

Each tribe has particular culture form traditional costume to living habits. Hereafter we introduce to you the typical characteristic of Viet nam tribe.

Chut tribe

Muong tribe

Tho tribe

Lu tribe

Tay (Thai Nguyen) traditional costume 

Nung’s costume

Pa Then’s costume


 

 ,cambodge

and Laos Tribes

 

Traditional clothes of different hill tribes in LaosOn a terrace along the river we are given a note. It announces an evening with traditional dance, and we decide to go. Strange enough, the audience consists of 9 people, including us, but we have a great time. While we enjoy some good food the show starts with an old woman singing with 2 of her grand children. After that there are girls performing different dances and different traditional clothes, from the surrounding hill tribes in Laos. We also recognise one of the dances from the Gawai festival on Sarawak, proof of the migration and the shared heritage of different tribes in Southeast Asia.

cambodge tribe

 

   Ratanakiri in Cambodia  
  One hour by plane or 2 days by boat and bus is necessary to go in Ratanakiri, a province different of the others. Not much populated and isolated, with some very beautiful landscapes, forests, small ponds, waterfalls, and life in slow motion. The roads of Ratanakiri are in red ground and we can circulate in it only in “pick up” car any ground. Different tribal ethnic groups live there in small villages spread on hills and they go in the only big village of the region, Baglung, to sell here their thin harvests of vegetables or wild fruits and the products of their hunting.  
     
    Tribal Market in Ratanakiri  
     
     
     
   The tribals of Ratanakiri carry on their back, a particular and very beautiful basket, of different colors braided in reeds, basket of different size according to their age old. They transport there all their products. Most of the women wear on the head a turban made with their “Sarong”, piece of cotton tissues, generally with small squares at red based.  
     
   

 

     
     
  They sell or exchange on markets, any sorts of products of their crop or of their hunting  
     
   

 

     
     
     
   

 

     
     
     
     
   

 

     
  Some very simple and very reserved people that some tourists frighten a little. They live in small isolated villages. Ratanakiri has a very small population.  
     
     
   

 

     
     

frame Five: The Myanmar Tribes

1. Karen long neck Hill Tribes or Paduang

 
photo

Karen Hill Tribe Young Lady 18yrs Old

Along the border of Northern Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) live small tribes known as the Paduang and Karen or long necks, who Migrated from Burma to Thailand to which practice the custom of neck stretching which involves brass rings being placed around the women necks, there are also other tribes such as the Karen hill tribes, Hmong,hill tribes,and many more other villages, that we visited last week in Thailand.

Karen women are skilled in sewing and dyeing and weaving, they usually wear, white “V” neck blouse with combinations very colourful patterns and beads for decoration. They wear their long hair tied in a bun and covered with scarves.

The Karen are gentle, peaceful, who, like all the Hill tribes, have their highest respect for their ancestors and living elders.

2.Myanmar frontier tribes Naga

  

There is no scholarly consensus regarding the early origins of the Nagas and very little is known of the Mongoloid

groups whose southwesterly migration brought them to the sub Himalayan region of north-eastern India and north-western Myanmar. These tribes speak Tibeto-Burman dialects and it is probable that their original homeland was in the region between the Huang Ho and Yangtze (Ch’ang) rivers in northwestern China and that they came in successive waves of migration spreading over centuries.[1]
Although the presence of Mongoloid groups in the region had been attested as early as 10 B.C. the Nagas had maintained little outside contact till the later part of the 13th century. Their existence was mentioned by Ptolemy in about 150 A.D.[2] Oral traditions abound among the many tribes regarding how they came, dispersed, etc., but such accounts are steeped in myth and superstition and hence no concrete facts about their arrival to the region can emerge.
Curious coincidences of culture and language through the Pacific led some scholars to suggest that the Nagas were an off-shoot of groups which had originally descended from the central Asian plateau. Their burial customs, ornamentation, agricultural practices and even games and crafts, linked them strongly to the tribal peoples of Borneo and the Philippines

3.

Typical Mon-Khmeric look like this:Senoic tribe of Mon-Khmer raceA women of Semelai tribe of Mon-Khmer race

 

4.The Hill Tribes of Myanmar

‘Myanmar’ is the new name of Burma. In 1989, the political leaders of the country changed it (in “Burmese”, the national language of the country, Burma is spelled as ‘Myanmar’). Located in the South East Asia, Burma is also known as the land of Pagodas. There are many Buddhist shrines spanning the mainland. Burma is naturally alienated by mountains on its three sides.

Bagan, the capital city of Burma is perhaps the most affluent places of the country. It is loaded with over 2000 Stupas and pagodas. After the devastating earthquake in 1975, the restorations of the historical structures have not been completed till date.

The Burmans comprise the two third of the total population in Myanmar. It is said that about a thousand years ago, the precursors of the Burmans came down, from the mountains of southern China, to Myanmar. They started living with the people previously dwelling in the land harmoniously.

Apart from the Burmans, there are also other ethnic tribes in Myanmar. The Chin, the Kachin, the Shan, the Karen and the Mon are the other groups of ethnic tribes who live in the hilly regions of the land. Most of them do not subscribe to the Central Government of Myanmar (erstwhile Burma). However, the total population of the country also encompasses other ethic groups such as Indians, Bangladeshis and Chinese.

 

Frame Six: The China Tribes

 

YUNNAN PROVINCE is a land of rain forests, snow-capped Himalayan peaks, the Shangri-La lifestyle, minority rushing mountain rivers and some of the world’s most spectacular scenery and unusual culture. Cover about 240,000 suare kilometers, it contains half of China’s plant and animal species, including 7,000 endemic plant species and 30 endangered animal species, among them, including snow leopards, clouded leopards, Yunnan golden monkeys, red pandas., a handful of tigers and about 200 wild elephants,.

The 26 ethnic minorities that make their home in Yunnan are the Achang, Bai, Benglong, Bonan, Bulang, Dai, De’ang, Drung, Dulong. Hani (Akha), Hui, Jinuo, Jingpo (Kachin in Burma), Lahu, Lisu, Miao (Hmong), Mongols, Naxi, Nu, Pumi, She, Tibetans, Wa, Yao, Yi, and Zhuang.


Yi girls

Each minority has its own distinctive costumes, culture and language, and many of them are related to the hill tribes found Laos, Burma, Vietnam and Thailand. It is mostly the women that wear traditional costumes. Yao girls, for example, wear black and blue tunic dresses and silver hoops around their necks and wrists. Their headdresses, which are often decorated with silver, looks a deflated turban wrapped with seashells and a scarf. Men like to play checkers and sit around smoking tobacco from bongs.

Bordered by Tibet, Sichuan, Burma, Laos and Vietnam, Yunnan means “south of the clouds.” The southern part of the province is covered with green mountains, remote cultivated valley, and forested ridges with elephants, tigers, leopards and golden haired monkeys. Many of the people that live here are extremely poor and members of ethnic groups similar to those found in Southeast Asia. Over the last decade it has become a heroin and smuggling region. Marijuana grows wild.

Frame seven :

The Sinkiang tribes

Minority Tribes
     China means “the country in the centre” in Chinese. During 5000 years’ history, 24 dynasties founded and fell, a big family with 56 minorities formed finally. As a part of China, minorities have their unique custom and develop their own culture and form part of the diverse Chinese culture. When you go into those areas such as Sinkiang, Tibet or Yunnan, you may feel the great differences from others areas, since the unique geographic location, climate, and colorful folk traditions create their own characteristics. To understand China and Chinese culture better, it’s always worthy exploring those minority tribes in China.
   
 
 
Private tour to Guizhou
Guizhou “Noble Prefecture” ,located in south-central China covers an area of over 176,000 square kilometers , with a population of 35,600,000. About 65% of the dwellers are Han Chinese, with the rest are all ethnic minorities including the Miao, Bouyei, Dong Yi, Shui, Hui, Zhuang

Frame Six :

The Japan Tribes (1)

(2) Masa sensei tribe

mr-trashcan masa sensei
On Sunday afternoon photo shoots at Harajuku’s cosplay Bridge, I often meet my crazy photographer buddy, Masa-sensei “ninja shooting” the freakaziods (as shown below).

masa-photo

Another Japanese subculture that Masa-sensei likes to shoot are the bosozoku, the “violent running tribes,” who he captured last weekend. I first I thought this photo was a weaponized bosozoku sling shot car.
slingshot car japan

However, the yellow slingshot turns out to be two huge collapsable flag poles that the bosozoku use to fly their gang flags and banners during their terror runs through the neighborhoods.

terror flags
rear end of custom japanese car

The Violent Running Tribe’s main entertainment is to modify their exhaust systems to be extra loud and drive through town late at night, waving imperial Japanese flags and shouting obscenities, occasionally throwing Molotov cocktails and carrying swords spears, and generally having noisy fun.

Frame seven: The Bhutan tribes

(1) Toto Tribe

 (2) Bopak tribe

Victor in Bhutan Just back from an assignment in Bhutan, Victor sports the nomadic Bopak tribes’ contribution to humanity: a rainhat made of yak hair, making it totally water-proof.

 (3)

Frame eight :

The Mongolian Tribes

 

 

img_3506.jpg

Horsemen on the grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region

By now you’re probably starting to get to know a little bit about the wall – how it was constructed, where it was constructed, what material it was made from and some unique things about the places it passes through. But do you know why the wall was built? Was it designed to keep someone out or to keep someone in?

The traditional story is that the Great Wall was built to protect peace-loving Chinese farmers from war-crazed Mongols like Genghis Khan and his plundering hordes. The truth is a tad more complicated. In the first place, the Chinese were building changcheng, or long walls, for military purposes long before Genghis got his first pony. More generally, the Chinese built long walls for offensive purposes as well as defensive, and they often provoked Mongolian raids by refusing to engage in peaceful trade or interfering in internal Mongolian politics.

Still, academics generally agree that the wall was designed to separate the agricultural Han Chinese south of the wall from the nomadic Mongols to the north. And the stereotype of the bloodthirsty Mongols is alive and well.

img_3349.jpg

Don’t be fooled by their smiles, this is actually a Mongolian version of the haka

We wanted to see for ourselves just who these “fierce” Mongolians were, these men of astounding horsemanship who had the Chinese trembling in their boots. So we took a few days off the wall and hopped on up to Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where we got a car ride to the grasslands and entry to the annual Mongolian festival, Naadam.

img_3471.jpg

Buddhist monks bless the start of the festival

In the past, Naadam was an economic and social gathering, a time for Mongolian tribes to get together, trade goods, show off some of their best horses, and who knows, maybe plot their next raid against the Chinese. Eventually competitions in the warrior sports of horse racing, archery and wrestling became central to the festivities.

Today, Naadam is more of an all-around cultural festival, with music, eating and fashion as well as the traditional sporting contests. In the country of Mongolia, Naadam is celebrated at the same time every year; in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, Naadam takes place when the grasses of the high plateau turn green.

img_3529.jpg

The women of the steppes were known for their beauty

If you’re nearby when the authorities decide the grass is green enough, one or two days at Naadam are worth the effort to take it all in. Even if you’re just there for the opening ceremony, you can still see a lot – exotic dancers, beautiful singers, really strong men and some pretty cool horsemanship.

img_3537.jpg

The two-stringed morin khuur’s neck is in the shape of a horse’s head

During the couple of days we spent in the grasslands we stayed in the traditional Mongolian dwelling, a yurt. This is a round, tent-like structure of wooden beams and felt that the nomads would carry with them and erect where they settled. Nowadays, the fancier yurts built for tourists are fixed structures that include glass windows, sliding doors and TVs (but still no corners).

img_3553.jpg

The five-star yurts at Naadam (much nicer than the one we stayed in)

 

And finally, what do Mongolian men need to keep up their wrestling strength? Food, and lots of it. Below is something that got wheeled past us in the corridors of the dining hall.

img_3462.jpg

 Frame nine : The Tibet Tribes

 

Tibetan is one of the most important minority groups in China…Tibetan is one of the most important minority groups in China. The ancestors of the Tibetan race who lived there struck up links with the Han in the Central Plains long before the Christian era. Later, over a long period of years, the numerous tribes scattered on the Tibet Plateau became unified to form the present Tibetan race. By the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Tibetans and Hans had, through marriage between royal families and meetings leading to alliances, cemented political and kinship ties of unity and political friendship and formed close economic and cultural relations, laying a solid foundation for the ultimate founding of a unified nation. In the mid-13th century, Tibet was officially incorporated into the territory of China’s Yuan Dynasty. Since then, although China experienced several dynastic changes, Tibet has remained under the jurisdiction of the central government of China

Frame Ten : The Thailand Tribes

1.the Yao tribe

 

A Thai Yao woman in traditional wear
One of Thailand’s major tribes, the Yao, migrated from southern China at the end of the 19th century. Farming remains the predominant occupation among the Yao, known to be the only Thai tribe to possess command over the written language.

. Various tribes such as the Akha, Karen, Hmong, Yao, and Lisu have their own unique and diverse way of life –which all contribute to the rich cultural tapestry of Thailand.

 

 

2.Thailand hill karen long neck tribes

 
photo

Thailand Hill Tribes

In Thailand they would say she’s from the: “Long Neck Tribe…”

3.Chiang Rai tribe

Chiang Rai – lies in the very heart of the fabled “Golden Triangle” – the mystical meeting point of three national borders (Thailand, Laos and Myanmar). Majestic mountain scenery abounds. The area has more than its share of natural attractions and antiquities. It is also home to many high altitude hill villages where the tribes follow a way of life from a time past.

Chiang Rai, the northernmost province of Thailand is about 785 kilometres north of Bancock. Situated on the Kok River basin, Chiang Rai covers an area of approximately 11,678 square meters with an average elevation of 580 meters above sea level. The province, which is located within the renowned Golden Triangle area where Myanmar, Laos and Thailand converge.

 Hill tribe ladies - hill country - chiangmai thailand - chang thailand - elephant trekking tours

Chiang Rai, which was founded in 1262 by King Meng Rai, was the first capital of the Lanna Thai Kingdom which was later conquered by Burma. It was not until 1786 that Chiang Rai became a Thai territory and was proclaimed a province during the reign of King Rama VI in 1910

Frame eleven :

The Phillipine Tribes 1.2.3.

4Baguio Ifugao Tribe


baguio ifugao tribes
Baguio Ifugao Tribe
 
   

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011