The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


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Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum



   THE CHINA CIVIL WAR 1914-1940


                      Dr IWAN S.

  Limited private E-book  edition 

     Special for Premium Member

           Jakarta 2011



This book based on several rare books

1. The 50 Years of Postal administartion In China

“A letter from home is worth a million dollars” so runs an old Chinese saying. Today(1946), the entire concept is,perhaps,changed. After over half a century of postal service, million of such letter are being transmitted daily through China’s postal network. Peple recieve long-awaited messages from their relatives and friends so frequently and speedily that they no longer regard letters as having any pecuniary value
(Now we can communicate very fast by Digital SMS only in second,that is why not many postcard send anymore and not many pstcard or cover with stamps fund anymore, but postal history collection still exist because this collections were the History fact relaeted with the Humanlife heritage but became difficult to found that is why the collectors must keep the postally used covers-Dr Iwan S.)

To trace the origin of Postal service in China, one has to dig into Chinese history books which tell of the I Chan or Imperial Government courier services and the Minchu or native posting agencies as early as the Chow dynasty in 1122 B.C.
The I Chan, maintained only at the Imperial palace, ran errands between the state and the provincial authorities, while the Minchu was operated for the general public with varying charges paid by the sender and the adressee.Both the I CHan and the Minchu were well-equipped and efficiently organized,covering the greater parts of Szechwan,Shensi ,Kansu and the far west. 

In 1861, an Englishman, named Robert Hart,started an experimental postal service in China along modern line
(Some of the Robert Hart postal used cover have found this day, all the cover had his initial RH -look illustration. The UCN&UCM founder have done the same in 1985 from Indonesia to all over the world one a liitle send back to sender because the country have independence, this rare collections postally used covers from all over the world to indonesia will showed later in this Blog. In 1896″The travel around the world 25 years ago with postal history collections”Dr Iwan S.).

1n 1896 ,the Emperor issued a special decree giving official recognation to the “European” postal sysyetm and bringing to end the old I Chan and Minchu postal practices -look the Foreign Post office in China stamp and postmark illustration ( The founder havel writen about the Foreign Posta services in China “The Freign Uniform in China Postal history” will put in this UCN blog later)
This postal system was for many years operated by the Chinese Maritime Customs-look the Customs postmarrk illustration.
It was not until a General Post Office was formed in 1911 that the Postal administration became a separate Government organization
When the Republic (of China) came into existance in 1912, China’s postal administration had already been firmly established, and so on March 1st,1914 , she formally became a party to the international postal convention. 

When the Sino-Japanese War br0ke ut in 1937, China’s(ROC) postal
system suffered a heavy blow. Its head office had to be evacuated first from Nanking to Hankow, and then to the hills of Chungking. Score of mail rutes and numerous postal establishments fell into the hands of the Japanese who either set them ablaze or turnedthem into military defense works.-look illustration of Dai nippon overprint on china stamps.
However, unlike wartime Europe where mail service between the enemy or occupied areas and the “free” country was handled by the International Red Cross (same in indonesia,look at Indonesia Independence war,will put in this blog later by The Chinese Hospital Yang seng Ie red cross Batavia-Jakarta-Dr Iwan S.), the postal administration in China had creditably succeeded in keeping
open its major mail links between Free China and the leading occupied area such as Shanghai,canton and Hongkong (also Amoy szeming-now Xianmen , that is why all the ROC stamps postal used during the resistant war have send to indonesia and will illustarted in the China Resistant & Liberation war collections-Dr Iwan s.)

Foreign mail took the formof airmail and was mostly transmitted from Kunming to Calcutta ( UCM have the postal used stamped with CDS Kunming), where made for foreign destinations. Parcel pst service to the United States,canada,England,Russia, and some countries in the middle East was reopened in 1944, after an agreement was made among the Chinese Ministry of Communications, the Indian and the Soviet postal administrations. The volume of domestic mail during the war, as shwn in the year 1944, stood well over 650.000.000 pieces (Where that postalused cover now? why became diddfuct to found in China now, may be many was burn during the war or the collector get the stamps off covers-Dr Iwan s) 

ROC’s postal service undertook a program of rehabilitation soon after V-J day. Except in the Communist-occupied areas where the branch office had to be abandoned (No,the postal service still open and local stamp still issued by the Communist people liberation army , read the China liberation war collection- Dr iwan S)
The ROC postal service was resumed almost instantly inthe newly recovered areas. An over-all postal rehabilitaion program was carried out, which not only restored the old offices but also established new branches in many remote places.
Up to the end of 1946 , a total of 60.602 general post offices, branch office, stations and agencies had been registered with the postal administration. During that year, 1.027.937.076 letters or two and a half letters for each Chinese, were delivered by more than 100.000 green-uniformed messengers cvering a total distance of 349.383 miles.
Due to the vast sovered by the domestic pstal services, the modes of transmitting letters by the couriers vary in accordance with available types of transportation, ranging from mules and carts in the mountainous regions by the four-engine DC-4s. Ordinary foreign mail winds its way through the Siberian railway to Russia ot through the Hankw-Canton railway to countries in Southeast Asia including Indonesia). Mail for the European or the Americans is usuallyshipped by cean liners (Shipmail or paquebot)through the Pacific Ocean or the suez canal. Airmail is being flown by the Pan American Airways, the British Overseas aviation corporation,the china national aviation copo0ration, the Phillipine Airlinens and the northwest Air lines to various parts of the world. 

During the past year or two China’s postal administration has made rapid strides toward mdernization, and some ofits method and services may be regarded as even revolutionary. A 24-hours services is maintained by some post offices in Nanking and Shanghai, maiking posible the delivery of rdinary letters between the capital and the Metropolis of shanghai within ten hours. Many new methods are now being tried, first in the Shanghai-nanking area and later to be extended to other cities 

(1) New Post Office at Kulow
(2) Mobile Post Office operating in the bigger Nanking city.
(3) Moror-cyclist postman for special delivery or express
(4) Postmen ready to colect and deliver mail on bicycles
(5) General post office in Shanghai frnts Schw Creek.
(6) Interior of General post Office Building in Sahnghai
(7) Camel Caravan packed with mail on their trek across the Gobi desert.
(8) Sledge carry mail across the frozen Sungari River in the Nortwest
(9) Post office near Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanking nation’s capital
(10) Postal both, miniature post office,serves public at popular spot 

(1) 50 th anniversary of the post office 1946 stamp 100.-yuan
(2) 50th anniversary of the post office 1946 stamp 500 yuan 


1.. China Resistant war Banknote collections

1) China Restant war  National Bank Banknote

2) China Resistent war Foreigh Bank Bank Note

3) China Resistent War Military Banknote

2. China Resistant War Coin

1) Chung Hua Minh Kuo cash Coin

2) Chung Hua Minh Kuo silver coin

3. China Resistant War Ceramic

1) Chung Hua Min Kuo Mark

2) Private Mark

4. China Resistant War Pictures

1) Picture Postcard

2) Lithography


4) Label

(1) Matchbox label

(2) revenue label

(3) Cinderella Label

(4) trade card label

(5) other type label


1.The Swedish Travelling from Beijing to Mongol and Russia 1928

2. The travelling by boat through the china river 1936


After seeking almost two month this day UCN staff found the very rare iinformatif about : 

(2) The Historic of China Resistent war
(a) 1914-1927
The author written very detailed about the Chiang Northward expedition against the China Warlord forces and suthward expedition against the Mao Communist people forces.
The best information read at The China Resistant war collections.
(b) 1936-1938
The author written about the Dai Nippon army strategic” attack and reinforcement” from Manchuria to Shnaghai until the beginning of Dai Nippon war in 1937.
The best informations from this vintage book read at The China Resistance War Collections. 

2.The informations about Geologist Explorations in China between 1914-1937.
(1) 1914
When the author arrived at Peking on May 16th 1914 to take up his appointment as geological adviser to the Chinese Gvernment, he turned a page in his life’s book . A much later page, written fr the most part by other hands than him, was turned when he visited Nanking on December 11th and 12th 1936.
In the year 1911-12 a proud and ancient imperial edifice,time down and wheater-beaten, had fallen to the ground and the new men who were to build a fresh one were still somewhat dazed and bewildered,wondering how to begin. At the head of the department of Mines, to which I (the author) considered myself to belong, was an amiable little mining engineer, trained in France; a well-meaning and conscientiuous man , but scarcely a pioneer in difficult learned man of the times. Above him was the Menister of agriculture, a learned man of old school, famous of his beautiful handwritting and for the model community he had made of his native village, but too was hardly one to use a motor plough.
But after some months had passed there came a man whoose whole type was symptomatic of a new age. This was a yound geologist who had studied first at Cambridge and afterwards with Professor Gregory in Galsgow. He was just back from a tour of exploration in Yunnan and was nominally chief f China’s projected geological survey.but a chief without staff , as he put it rather sarcastically at our first meeting.he was DR V.K.Ting.
(2) 1916
Meanwhile, we Swedish colleagues had achieved a certain success at the very beginning, namely the discovery of the Lung-Yen ores. I(the author) recieved orders from the then President, Yuan Shih-kai, who was aman of a great gifts but hopelessly restricted by the old fashioned ideaa of Imperial times,to go to the Palace and submit a report on what was known of the iron ores of China. After a two hours’demonstration of all our material Yuan summed up the situation in a masterly way, and a few weaks later, in January 1916, he (Yuan Shih-kai ) issued an order for the appointment of a considerable staff for Geological Survey which till then had only existed on paper.
On the completion of the school cource the authorities showed their confidence by inviting me(the author) to examine these youn man (DR Ting) during a week’s field work on one og the great coald-fields of North China and to recommend the best of them for appointment as geologist.
(3) 1919

(a)The May 4th Movement of 1919 is regarded as the ideological origin of many important events in modern Chinese history. Its direct cause was the unequal treaties imposed on China after the First World War. Motivated by strong patriotism, students initiated the movement, and it further developed into a national protest movement involving people from all walks of life. It also marked the introduction into China of various new ideologies, among which the spread of Marxism-Leninism is worthy of special mention. Under the influence of Russia’s October Revolution of 1917, 12 delegates, including Mao Zedong, representing communist groups in different places throughout the nation, held the First National Congress in Shanghai in 1921 to found the Communist Party of China (CPC).  

The Chinese people led by the CPC underwent successively the Northern Expeditionary War (1924-27), the War of Agrarian Revolution (also known as “Ten-Year Civil War,” 1927-37), the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-45), and the War of Liberation (1946-49). Owing to the cooperation and joint resistance of the CPC and Kuomintang, the Japanese aggressors were defeated but shortly after the anti-Japanese war, the Kuomintang re-launched civil war. After the three-year War of Liberation led by the CPC, the Kuomintang government was finally overthrown in 1949
(b) Nanking-shanghai Information in 1919

When my train(author arrived in the arly morning at the nanking station ) I recognized nothing except that the clenliness and easy poltiness f the railway staff, the representative of the travel bureu and the prters, which I had found in Shanghai were the same here. The dirty colies who formerly swarmed abut platforms and stations were gone. and when an hur later I sat in a car spinning alng the great avanue which runs through the city it struck me that I was looking at a new twn which had suddenly rise out f the grund. n the right hand i the caught sight of a well-proportined brick building within an open yard planted with trees could nt be musch more that a year old. It occured to me that this ought not t be an ordinary government building but was more probably a modern,peacefully situated scientific institution. Hardly had I thougyt this out when my eye caught the Chinese inscription and I found ,I had reached my goal, The Geological survey of China, in this new home in Nanking.
Here I found the haind-painted originalmof the map of China published by Ting and Wong in celebration of the diamond Jubilee of the leading newspaper Shun Pao. This map had been universally admired for the wealth of its cartography of the vast empire, but also for its fine modern production, with graduated colours indicating the altitude.
But let us go back to the museum. We entered first the mineralogical-petrographic section, arranged in two alternate types of show-case, one for inerals and the other for rocks. The suitability of such an arrangement may be open to discussion,but it has a handsome and ingenious appearance.
Then we went up to the top floor where the archeological material is exhibited,with the great, amazingly rich finds from Chou Kuo tien, and here we saw first of all te splendid sepulchral urns fromKansu, which we we had i stockholm for examination and which had now been moved with the reat from Peking. but then we came to finds from Chuo Kou tien, the home of Peking Man.
(4) 1922
When in 1922 DR Ting was placed at the head of a new coal-mining enterprise in Southern Manchuria. 

In December 1935 DR Ting,while on a geological expedition in the province of Hunan, was accidentally posioned by carbon monoxide in his room at Chines hotel and Wong at once secured the best doctor in Nanking and flew to Hunan.later specialist were also summond from the great medical collage in Paking. But on January 5th the ravaged lung ceased to function. China had lost one of her best sons, a man equally admirable for his perspicacity as an organizer, his keen critical acuntences and his unflinching loyality to this those who had once gained his friendship ( I hope the China government gift him the honor as the National China Geolgist hero-Dr Iwan S.)
(6) Nanking,SApril 1937
Regarded purely as a geographical feauture, Nanking possests a neighbour of the first importance, and that is the Yangtze river. Just outside Hsi Kuan, The Maritime Customs, the mighty river rolls its grey andmuddy stream between low banks.
the southerncapital would occupy quite common place situation on the flat plain of the delta, didnot the purple Mountain len a peculiar charm to the surrounding.
If the collectors want to know the complete Geological history of china 1914-1939 written by the sewedish geologyst J.Gunnar anderson in 1939 please asked editor via comment, this the only geologist repor about china ever seen because forbidden to open geologist informations, the secret informations of all counyries in the world ,my son geologist have told me, during DEI in Indonesia Indonesian citizen didn’t allowed to study Geologist at Institute Technology Bandung ,where my son studies there in 1994-1998. Thi story dedicated for my son Alberst S. Uniquecollections photographer , he stayed at Pertamina geologist exploration Sumatra at Prabumulih, also hello to his boss Mr Bambang which I had meet him at bajubang Pertamina camp jambi and now he was the chief of pertamina Sumatra at Prabumulih, thank you for teaching my son Pak Bambang. 

3 The book and author information
(2) Author : J.Gunnar Anderson, Chinese senior geologist consultant during Chinese Restistant war 1914-1927 and 1936-1938.
(3) First Publishing in England 1939 translate from the wedish by Arthur G.Chater from the first publishing in Stockholm “Under Brinnande Krig,1938. 

The informations still not complete,that is why I hope comment,coreections and suggestion from the historian and collecterors from all over the world  in order the make this book more complete. Tahnk you very much to all my friend which help me with their informations that made this book more fast finished.

Jakarta Mei 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy.




A. Dr Sun Yat Sen’s Revolutionary

(1) 1912
(a) The founding Father Dr Sun leaves shanghai station the morning on New year’s day 1912 for his nanking searing-in as the ROC provisional president.
the document of Dr Sun Yat Sen ‘s Declaration and the oat taken by him during the President swearing-in ceremony at Nanking and the photo after the ceremonies still exist now at The Sun Yat-sen Memoriable Museum.
After the ceremony Dr Sun and other leaders went to the Ming Tomb at Nanking for ceremonies informing ancetors that the Alien Qing Manchus had been overthrown and Chinese ruled restored.

four Original vintage smal B-W photo , at the back written in Indonesia and china language :
(a.1). Pemandangan (landscape)Koe Lao
(a.2.) Djalan2 naek koeda pegi Ming Tai Tjoe poenja koeboeran (Travelling by horse went to the Great Ming tombs).
Wah soengoeh seneng sekali!(Oh very much happy!) di ini gambar nyang naek koeda jaitoe (in the pictures which riding horse) Oen Tjiok,Tjoetjoe dari (grandchild of) oen Tjwan.
(a.3)Tionghoa Bin Kok poenja soldadoe ( Chung hwa Min kwo=Kuomintang soldier)
(a.4) Ini satoe koempoelan ponya soldadoe lagi pada brenti didepan koeboeran.(This is a soldier group were rest in the front of Tomb ? in chinese char)

(b)Jan.28th 1912
Dr Sun Yat-sen addressed the first meeting of the Provisional Council

(2) March 1912
(a)In March ,3rd..1912 The Tung men Hui assambled at Nanking and elected Dr Sun the Tsungli or President
(b) In March the government moved its seat North,
Sung Cio-yen brought the tung Meng Hui tofether with other factions and parties in KMT and Dr Sun was elected President in hope that he could bring factionalism to an end.
(3) The Qing Yuan Shih-kai issued the commerative stamps  of the revolution with his profile, consist 12 nomial 1,2,3,5,8,10,16,20,50 c and $ 1,2 & 5.- with same design
(4)ROC issued The Chung Hwa republic papermoney $10,$100, and $1000. gold ,with KMT flag design.
San Hsi Zeng Fun bank issued Ten liang banknote.

ROC postal office issued the first definitive stamps printed at London (first Def.London printing =1st DLP.) consist three design:
(1) Chinese Junk 1/2,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 10 cents.
(2) Farmer ,15,16,20 ,30 and 50 cent
(3) Palace $ 1,2,5,and 10.-

(1)June 1914
(a)In June,23th.1914 Dr Sun assambled his comrades and organized the Chung Hua Ke Ming Tang ( ChineseRevolutionary Party) to defend the provisional constitution against the effort of Yuan Shih-kai, who had seized power, dissolved parliament,scrapped theConstitution and Killed KMT member in his attempt to reestablished the momarchy. Many revolutionaries fled to Japan,
(b) J.Gunar Anderson ,Swedish Geologist have served as mining adviser to the ROC government from 1914 to 1927. He established cordial co-operation with Chinese geologist and mining engineers, and the Central government, at that time located in Peking, as weel as the provincial authorities, extended to him very possible support and facility.
(c) chekiang Provincial Govermant Bond one Dollar Local Currency , value Recieved at Hangchow guaranteed by the Financial Bureu of the Chekiang Province .
4. 1915
(a)ROC postal office issue the first definitive peking printing (1st DPP) with the same design and nominal with the 1st definive london printing(1st DLP) except added one nominal 13 cent farmer.
The different between 1st London and Pepking printing, the design of DLP were the line under the bow of the junk is smooth and didn’t touch the junk , but the 1st DPP the line rough and touch the Junk.
(b) ROC issued the Hung Shian Comerative stamps 5c,10c,50c and overprint Sin Kiang n 50 c.
(c) The Yuan Futteh Bank issued commemrative Banknte In the Memory f The Chnese Repubic Revlution in Yunnan 1916. Ten Yuan.
(a)After Yuan shih-kai failure to established a dynasty of his own and his death in misery and solitude in 1916, there remained as his fatal legacy to his people a most poisnous element, the military governors in the procinces, later nicknamed the “war Lords”, some of them men of considerable ability who seriously desired to save their country, but taken as a whole a set of greedy and inefficient generals who, ind order to carry on their endless and fruitless civil wars, exacted exorbitant taxes from the poor peaceful peasantry. The countryside was impoverished and devastated, the rollingstock of the railways became terribly depleted in the hands of the fighting armies,bandity prevailed, the student in their despair turned to Communism as a last resort. Many of the intellectual leaders held the recovery of their country to be question of decades,still distant.
(b)Dr Sun meeting with Naval office in Canton and after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the KMT’s military campaign was ended and Dr Sun decided to quit the political arena
(c) ROC military bank issued Republic- an China Military banknote at several area ,
(c.1)shanghai five dollar local currency sign m.y.sung
(c.2) Military Bank note five dollars issued by The Republic of China sign Sun Yat-sen guaranteed by the minestry of finance
(c.3) THe Republican China Military Banknote Nanking one Dollar Local Currency, guaranteed by Central Bureu.
(c.4) Republican Govderment of China Military Notes issued by the Menistry of War.One Dollar and five dollar
(c.5) The Republican Military bank-note AN Hwei one dollatr Local Currency
(c.6) The Wang-Ho Bank of the Republic Military Bank Note one dollar Local Currency.
(c.7) The Kang -Se Bank Of The Republic Military Bank Note One Dollar Local Currency
(c.8) Military note of Chekiang Goverment five Dollars

6. 1917
(a)Parliament was dissolved again and Dr Sun decided to send the navy to Canton as a move to safeguard the provisional contiturion
(b) In September 10th , Dr sun established a military government at Canton.

II. Saving The ROC

1. Dr Sun to quit the political arena and Chiang Combatting adversaries (1917-1925)

(1)Chiang Khai-sek stayed with his father and mother in the small village , he have merried the first wife( village lady) but he never love her.


(a)The Agricultural.Industrial and Connercial Trust Company limited at Chang Chow issued Banknote ren cents and one dollar.

(b) In 1918,when Ye Ye moved to Tianjin (Ford Of Heaven), the last Qing Emperor had been deposed and China had fragmented into fieldoms governed by warlords. To the North,Japan already controlled Korea and now sert her sights on China. At the Versailles Peace Conference held after the conclusion of the first World War, Japan was allowede by Britain and her allies to seize and keep Germany’scolonial prossessions in Shandong Province as a reward for having remained neutral. Emboldened,Japan began moving into Manchuria.Japanese soldiers the infiltrated south to Tianjin(Adeline Yen,1997)

(3)1919 no info

(4) 1920

Shanghai in late 1920 was an exhilarating city for a young girl. While the rest of Chila still travelled by push carts, sedan chairs and horse-drawn carriages, in shanghai shining imported motor cars were speeding down well paved roads alongside trams and busses. giant, colourful billboards advertising  British cigarettes , holywood movies and french cosmetic gazed down at crowded pavement teeming with youmgman in suits and ties and girls clacking around in high-heeled shoes and stylish qipaos.(ibid adelin yen 1977)

(a)ROC post Office issued three stamps commemorated 25 years China Post Office 1,5,6,and 10 c. and Famine relief surcharge on the junk stamps 1c on 2c,3c on 4c and 5c on 6c.
Also issued the first Isuued airmail stamps (without KMT emblem) nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.
(b) THe National Bank of China issued ten cents and ten dollars banknote with Dr Sun profile.

(a)Chen Chun-ming(the chinese warlord) mounted his coup attemp-ted and Dr Sun took refuge abroad the Naval vessel “Yungfeng” at Whampoa and Chiang risked his life to rush to the side of Dr Sun
(b) ROC issued the first black machinal overprint i cent provisional on the junk Stamps
(c) August 1922
Fragment used farmer stamp 20 cent ,CDS Shanghai 21.8.22.
(d) ROC post office issued Provisiional surcharge on Junk and Farmer(Reaper) type stamps

(5) 1923
(a)In this year, Dr Sun sent Chiang to Russia on an inspection tour.
(b) ROC post office issued the second definitive Peking printing stamps (2nd DPP) , same design and nominal, but added $20.- Palace stamps.This 2nd DPP more common that the first DLP and DPP0.
also iisued the First Constitutin commemrative stamp 1,2,4 and 10 cent.
(c) The Central bank Of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen Banknote sign by LSWong one dolar, 10 dollar and 100 dollars. and this banknote used at Hunan,Kiangsi $Kwansi with official Handchopped in violet ink.

(6) 1924
(a) in the hout of direct need, there emerged a young leader, Chiang kai-sek, a military officer who had acted as Chief of the Staff to Dr Sun Yat-sen ever since the revolution of 1911-12, had established in 1924 under the orders of this “father of the Revlution”, the Whampoa Military academy near Canton and had here created in the space of two years a new type of Military cadets educated to fight, not for any individual War Lord, but for the resistant of China.
(b)Upon Chiang return frm Russia, he was assigned to establish an army academy which opened at Whampoa n June 16,1924.
In his inaugural address Dr Sun said that the task of revolutinary forces would be to assure the continuity of the Republic and carry out the three Principles of the People
Chiang , the first ccommandant of the Academy
The entrance if the famed Whampoa academy in the subburps of Canton
Dr Sun and Chiang have taken photo on the academy’s founding day
The Vintage Picture Photo of Chiang from Book Illustration ‘China national hero ,chiang Kai-sek,
(c)From january 27th to August 24th 1924. Dr Sun gave a series of lectures on the Three Principles of the people at Canton Senior Normal School. He cmplete six lectures each on Nationalism and Democracy and four on the people’s livelihood before going to Shakuan in nothern of Northward Expedition forces.
The vintage picture photo of Canton street from vintage minddleschool history book 1938.
(d) March 1924
In March ,19th.1924,Sven Hedin have written China Travelling book in Stockholm “From Peking to Moscow” the story of his Travel by land with car and another transportation from Beijing to Moscow via Mongolia, with many picture photo illustrations. If the collectors want to know the story and the rare photo picture illustrations please aksed as the collectors choice via comment and we will put in this blog.the vintage picture photo illustration of writes profile, his car and the staff ,Port Hateman Peking,mongol caravan in Peking. Wantsjuan road,the Pas of Hongte, on Horse, Chinese trader,Larson second car at Mongol,Telegraaf station at Ude,Rest the car at Woeastijn,Temple at the high Pas, Mongolnative people,Lama Temple at Oerga, Larson car at Chara, chinese carriage at Pas mengatai, larson car at Selenga , Mongolia Oerga Smiking pipe and the picture photo at Russia.
(e) Used Block four Junk stamps 3 cent , CDS Shanghai 1 .11.24.
(f) The Fuching Bank of Kiangsi issued $1 one yuan banknote



(a) Side by side with reapested wars for progressive unifications, Chiang, backed by a great number of active and capable men, succeeded in building up during the short period from 1930 to 1937 a new modern China with a stable financial system, a reformed currency,simplified and unified taxation, important new railways and an immense network of motor roads. A new army was trained and equipped with the very able assintance of German military advisers and an air force was created with the help of America and italian instructors.

1. ROC battle 1930-1933

(1) 1930
(a)The Central China battle 1930
(b) May 1930
In his last will and testament, Dr Sun Yat-sen called fr the convening of a national coyuncil and the scrapping of all enequal treaties. these objectives were attained by Chiang. The first National Council meeting was convened at Naking in May of 1930 and at the same time the government prepared for mobilization against Dai Nippon aggression. These cadres are training at Lushan.
Chiang Government forces engage the Mao Communist in Kiangsi..





Japanese troops , which already occupied tianjin and beijing ,were now moving steadily southwards,. they met suprisingly strong resistance in nanking and, in retaliation, went on a terrifying spree of rape,looting and murder. over 3000.000 civilians and prisoners were torrtured and killed during the rape of nanking in 1937.
(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.

(a) January 1938
January.7 th.1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938

(c)Early 1938  after the nanking city was captured by the japanese . shanghai fell and chiang kaisek fled westward across china, up the yangtse river, deep into the mountainous province od sichuan. there he set up his wartime goverment in the town of chongqing. it’s not hard to image the tension and turmoil that these monumntous political upheaval imposed on chinese family life.

(d)July 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-


in 1939, sudenly and without warning, tianjin was drowned in a great flood. the disaster was of staggering propotion. the chinese called it “china’s sorrow” and went to the buddhist temple to burn incense and offewr prayers for relief. pro japanese newspapers printed in tianjin blamed the catastrope on chiang kaisek while the nationalist party press in chongqing accused the japanese


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