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KISAH PERTUALANGAN MAGELLAN
Cerita tentang Columbus pertama kali saya dengar saat belajar sejarah dunia di Don Bosco high School Padang tahun 1962, setelah itu saya berusaha mencari informasi tetapi tidak pernah sewcara lengkap,karena kesibukan sekolah dan kemudian berkerja yang snagt sibuk hanya sedikit informasi yang dapat ditemui,baru saat pension tahun 2001 saya punya banyak kesempatan meneruskan hobi sejarah saya menemui sebuah buku ensiklopedia tahun 1952 yang isinya sangat menarik karena dari ksiah tragis menimpa Columbus pada ekspidisi terakhir ia di tangkap, mengapa bisa terjadi seperti itu ? Hal ini perlu menjadi pelajaran bagi generasi penerus ,agar hal yang baik dari Columbus dapat dijadikan pedoman dan diteruskan tetapi hal yang jelek jangan diulang, belajarlah dari sejarah, maka kemudian secara serius saya kumpulkan seluruh informasi terkait Columbus dan akhirnya terjawablah tentang keberhasilan dan kegagalan Columbus.Untuk menambah informasi dalam pengantar ini saya kutip dari ensikopodia indesia tahun 1952 setelah menemukan informasi pertualangan Columbus, menjadi obsesi saya untuk mengetahui pertualangan selanjutnya yang menuju Lautan Pasific termasuk Indonesia, saya sudha mendengar tentang Magellan dan pernah melihat kuburan porrtugis di tepi panta kota padang dan juga membaca kisah pertulangan magellan ke MAluku dan filipina serta amerika selatan, nah saya mulai mengumpulkan informasi
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1480 Magellan Born to a noble Family in Portugal
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was born to a minor Portuguese noble family in 1480 and by the age of 12 had become a pageboy to his Queen, at the Court of King John II. Like many of the younger Portuguese nobility he received his education at Court and could look forward to a military command, a diplomatic post or an administrative position in Portugal or her colonies
Magellan was born around 1480 either at Vila Nova de Gaia, near Porto, in Douro Litoral Province, or at Sabrosa, near Vila Real, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province, in Portugal. He was the son of Rodrigo de Magalhães, alcaide-mór of Aveiro (1433–1500) (son of Pedro Afonso de Magalhães and wife Quinta de Sousa) and wife Alda de Mesquita and brother of Leonor or Genebra de Magalhães, wife with issue of João Fernandes Barbosa. After the death of his parents during his tenth year, he became a page to Queen Leonor at the Portuguese royal court because of his family’s heritage
. However fired by the exploits of earlier Portuguese explorers like Dias and Da Gama he began his career as a soldier/adventurer on the 1505 expedition to India under the command of Francisco de Almeida. After seven years of distinguished service in India, Malacca (Malaysian peninsula) and the Moluccas (Spice Islands) he returned to Portugal but received little recognition from his King, Manuel I, and no increase in his pension.
Worse still he had put all his savings into backing a scheme by a Portuguese trader to ship pepper from India to Portugal. The merchant had subsequently died and his father had fled the country to escape his son’s creditors. Magellan who had only a meager pension to live on was broke and so he volunteered for a Portuguese campaign against Morocco; where he again distinguished himself with his bravery.
However he not only suffered a severe leg wound which caused him to limp for the rest of his life, he also, whilst in the position of Quartermaster suffered the unjust accusations of dishonesty, theft and treason. Magellan found the charges against him contemptuous and he rashly abandoned his post to return to Lisbon and clear his name. The King, Manuel I refused to intercede on his behalf and ordered him back to Morocco. Magellan returned to face trial and was cleared of all charges but his relationship with his King had deteriorated to such an extent that Manuel I refused all of Magellan’s requests for financial recognition of his loyal service and told him that he could take his offers of service elsewhere. This was the principle reason why Magellan came to sail around the world under the Spanish flag.
In March 1505 at the age of 25, Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Francisco de Almeida as the first viceroy of Portuguese India. Although his name does not appear in the chronicles, it is known that he remained there eight years, in Goa, Cochin and Quilon. He participated in several battles, including the battle of Cannanore in 1506, where he was wounded. In 1509 he fought in the battle of Diu. He later sailed under Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in the first Portuguese embassy to Malacca, with Francisco Serrão, his friend and possibly cousin. In September, after arriving at Malacca, the expedition fell victim to a conspiracy ending in retreat. Magellan had a crucial role, warning Sequeira and saving Francisco Serrão, who had landed. These actions earned him honors and a promotion(wiki)
Pada tahun 1511, Portugis merajalela di selat Malaka. Imperium Aceh lumpuh dibuatnya. Bersamaan dengan itu, kesibukan lalu lintas perdagangan pun tersendat di kawasan yang sangat sibuk itu.
Kerakusan Portugis membuat kapal-kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan Eropa tak bisa lewat. Akhirnya, pantai barat yang ombaknya dikenal ganas terpaksa dipilih sebagai jalur alternatif perdagangan dunia.
Sepotong pesisir di muara sungai Arau tiba-tiba menjadi persinggahan yang ramai di tepian samudera Indonesia sebelum kapal-kapal dagang melanjutkan pelayaran ke Jawa. Pelabuhan kecil yang awalnya bernama kampung Batung itu kini bernama kota Padang
Kepopuleran pelabuhan Muaro Padang sebagai kota pelabuhan internasional sudah dimulai sejak tahun 1511 saat Portugis memblokade selat Malaka setelah menguasai kerajaan Malaka Blokade itu untuk melumpuhkan kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh yang sebelumnya mengendalikan aktifitas perdagangan di selat Malaka.
Akibatnya kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan sebagian Eropa terpaksa memutar haluan, dan menjadikan kawasan pantai barat Sumatera sebagai penghubung ke laut Jawa melalui perairan Sunda. Pelabuhan Muaro seperti diselamatkan ombak. Mendadak ia ternama sebagai kota pelabuhan karena disinggahi kapal dagang dari Inggris, Perancis dan Cina.
Peningalan portugeus di Kota Padang berupa makam didepan penjara ditepi pantai padang sampai tahun 1963 masi dapat dilihat kemudian hilang dimakan abrasi gelombang lautan hiindia yang hebat sehingga tepipantai berkurrang hampir 30 meter.
Lihat foto dan lukisan pantai padang milik Dr Iwan dibawah ini
Padang beach and Monkey Hill in 1891
Kuburan portugis ditepipantai padang
Padang beach and monkey hill in 1892
Portugeus soldier grave at the padang beach 1892
Kuburan portugis idepan penjara dekt tepi pantai padang
Lokasi kuburan portugis tahun 196 s udah hilang akibat abrasi gelombang laut,fot Dr Iqwan dan kakaknya dr Edhie
Padang Beach in 1971
On the Moluccan expedition of 1511,
Magellan’s friend, Francisco Serrao had been shipwrecked and had taken refuge on the island of Ternate where, despite later voyages there by the Portuguese, he had chosen to remain.
He had sent letters back to Portugal extolling the riches of the islands and urging Magellan to visit him. Because the exact longitude of the Moluccas was uncertain, Magellan thought that their far easterly position might bring them into the Spanish hemisphere as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillias of 1494.
His plan was to sail west and like Columbus before him to try and find the western route to the east and the Spice Islands.
This expedition he hoped would ensure his financial security as well as bringing him the fame and recognition he felt was long overdue. To this end he began to study all the maps, pilots logs, charts and journals he could obtain.
He knew that Columbus had failed to find a passage around the Central American coastline, that Cabot had likewise failed in the North, that the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci had possibly reached as far South as the River Plate estuary and Patagonia without encountering a passage and that Balboa had crossed the Panamanian Isthmus and seen a great ocean that was different to the Atlantic.
He became convinced that a southwestern route was there south of the River Plate, and the scientist, mapmaker and scholar Rui Faleiro, who thought that the likely passage was just below the 40 degree South latitude, shared this belief.
He also assured Magellan that the ocean Balboa had seen could not be more than a couple of thousand miles across and that the Spice Islands must therefore be in the Spanish half of the world as laid down by the Treaty of Tordesillias. With his humiliation at the hands of the Portuguese King fresh in his mind, it was to Spain that Magellan now offered his knowledge and his services.
This plan may have been encouraged by the news of Juan Diaz de Solis’ Spanish expedition of 1515 which had reached 35 degrees South before an exploratory landing party led by Solis himself had encountered death and disaster.
They were attacked by hostile natives, slaughtered, butchered roasted and then eaten in view of the rest of the crew watching from the safety of their ships.
The expedition was aborted but the news from the survivors back in Spain seemed to indicate that with the coastline bearing west at that point, a likely passage through to Balboa’s Ocean lay just South of that latitude.
Magellan’s plan interested the young Spanish monarch Charles I (later the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and a formal agreement was made between the two in March 1518, whereby Magellan was appointed Captain General of the proposed expedition, given five ships, and the prospective governorship of any new lands he might discover plus one fifth of the profits from the voyage.
The five ships, San Antonio, Trinidad, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago were all small, (none above 130 tons), old and somewhat the worse for wear. They all needed extensive repairs and renovation to make them seaworthy for such a voyage much to the amusement of Alvarez the Portuguese agent in Spain. Alvarez did his utmost to sow seeds of doubt amongst Magellan’s new backers, whilst gauging what potential threat they might pose to the Portuguese possessions overseas.
Satisfied that they were as poorly armed as they were fitted, Alvarez thought Portuguese interests might be best served by an opportunist attack on them if they should stray anywhere near Portuguese colonial interests.
His interference in Magellan’s preparations led to Spanish misgivings over the number of Portuguese members of the proposed crews and in the end only 37 of the 270 odd crew were Portuguese with three of the five captains of the individual ships being Spanish. The remainder of the various crews comprised of Greeks, Italians, French, Flemings, Africans, Spanish, an Englishman and Malays including Enrique, a slave from Malacca who Magellan had brought back to Portugal on his previous expedition East.
Also on board was a Venetian, Antonio Pigafetta, a Papal Ambassador at the court of King Charles. Whether he was on board out of a sense for adventure, or on behalf of the Pope should any dispute arise over whose half the Spice Islands were in, or as a spy for his native Venice is unclear. Whatever his reasons Pigafetta kept a detailed journal of the voyage, describing the weather, wildlife and indigenous people as well as the conditions the crew were forced to endure.
In 1511, under the new governor Afonso de Albuquerque, Magellan and Serrão participated in the conquest of Malacca. After the conquest their ways parted: Magellan was promoted, with a rich plunder and, in the company of a Malay he had indentured and baptized Enrique of Malacca, he returned to Portugal in 1512. Serrão departed in the first expedition sent to find the “Spice Islands” in the Moluccas, where he remained. He married a woman from Amboina and became a military advisor to the Sultan of Ternate, Bayan Sirrullah. His letters to Magellan would prove decisive, giving information about the spice-producing territories.(wiki)
After taking a leave without permission, Magellan fell out of favour. Serving in Morocco, he was wounded, resulting in a permanent limp. He was accused of trading illegally with the Moors. The accusations were proved false, but he received no further offers of employment after 15 May 1514(wiki)
Later on in 1515, he got an employment offer as a crew member on a Portuguese ship, but rejected this(wiki)
In 1517 after a quarrel with King Manuel I, who denied his persistent demands to lead an expedition to reach the spice islands from the east (i.e., while sailing westwards, seeking to avoid the need to sail around the tip of Africa), he left for Spain. In Seville he befriended his countryman Diogo Barbosa and soon married his daughter by his second wife María Caldera Beatriz Barbosa. They had two children: Rodrigo de Magalhães and Carlos de Magalhães, both of whom died at a young age(wiki)
Throughout the voyage his admiration for Magellan, for his command and character is displayed on every page. Two other important members of the company were Albo, a Greek pilot who kept a detailed navigational log from the first sighting of the Brazilian Coast until the sighting of Cape Vincent on the return
(November 29th 1519 to September 4, 1522)
and San Martin an astrologer and astronomer who made calculations on the exact point of longitude the ships had reached; he was also the most accomplished pilot at celestial navigation amongst Magellan’s crew.
On September 20, 1519
the flotilla of five ships finally sailed off into the Atlantic heading first for the Canaries and then onto South America.
However, the course taken south went along the Coast of Africa until Sierra Leone and then went across the Atlantic was both extremely long and hazardous being susceptible to extreme changes in the wind and weather.
Already there was talk of mutiny amongst the Spanish Officers who had plenty of experience in crossing the Atlantic. Magellan knew this route was well known for its unpredictable weather and that most ships tried to avoid it, but he was anxious to negate any Portuguese attempts to intercept and destroy his expedition and despite the misgivings of some of his Spanish officers refused to jeopardize his mission by altering his course.
The Spanish Captains, Castilians of high birth considered themselves more knowledgeable and it wasn’t long before there was open insubordin-ation resulting in the replacement of Cartogena as the Captain of the San Antonio with another Spaniard, Antonio de Coca.
On November 29th
the fleet sighted the coastline of Brazil near where the modern port of Recife stands
and on December 13th
they moored in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janiero) where they were able to replenish their supplies by bartering with the natives “For the King in a deck of playing cards ……….. they gave me six chickens, thinking that they had got the better of me” (Pigafetta). They were also able to buy young native women from their fathers for the price of a hatchet or knife. Magellan allowed his crew some freedom and many of them set up ‘love nests’ with their women on shore, but he still kept a firm discipline when it mattered – executing the ship’s master of the Victoria for sodomizing a young apprentice seaman.
The threat of mutiny by his Spanish captains was also a constant source of concern and he was forced to arrest de Coca for conspiring to release Cartagena from his confinement on the Victoria. Because they were technically moored in a Portuguese colony, albeit one that had not established a proper trading post, they sought to leave as soon as they had recuperated
and by December 26th
they were sailing out of Guanabara Bay and heading south. After two weeks the ships had reached Cape St Mary where Magellan is reputed to have said of the large hill behind the Cape “I see a mountain” [Montem Video] thereby naming the place where Uruguay’s capital city now stands.
They explored the estuary of the River Plate, ruling out any possible channel and then continued South with the weather growing increasingly colder, the terrain bleaker and the seas rougher before stopping briefly at Bahia de los Patos (literally Ducks’ Bay) named after the abundant penguins found there.
The penguins along with sea lions provided the necessary fresh food supplies and after sheltering from tremendous storms they continued southwards.
By March 31st 1520
they had reached 49 degrees 15’ South, but the ships were taking such a heavy battering in the worsening climate that Magellan put into a sheltered bay named St Julian to wait out the rest of the Southern winter and to make good all the vital repairs that the different ships needed.
In order to survive the winter and still have enough provisions to continue the search, Magellan cut the daily rations in half much to the annoyance of his crew. His determination to find a southwestern passage was fuelled by the knowledge that should he fail he faced the choice between a return to Spain in disgrace and with little prospect of further backing, or risking sailing east, south of the Cape of Good Hope, away from the Portuguese shipping lines and onto the Spice Islands.
This latter option meant the possibility of being intercepted by the Portuguese that would have caused his sponsor the King of Spain great embarrassment and would have further damaged his reputation at both courts.
In a resolute speech to his men, he promised them the paradise of the Moluccas if they would honor their commitment, trust his leadership and behave accordingly.
Most of the crew were probably won over by Magellan’s stand but certainly not the Castilian Officers and Captains whose resentment of his single mindedness and inflexibility was still growing.
The following night April 1st,1520
Easter Sunday the Spanish-led mutiny took place. Capatins Quesada and Cartagena on the Concepcion, Captain Mendoza of the Victoria and the master of the Concepcion del Cano with other Officers plotted to overthrow Magellan and return to Spain.
To this end they boarded the San Antonio and took command, so that when Magellan awoke the following morning he found that only his own ship the Trinidad along with the smaller Santiago were still loyal to him.
The three mutineers’ ships gave them a firepower advantage of two to one and if they had moved with the same decisiveness as Magellan they would have without doubt succeeded. However, the mutineers were unable to coordinate their efforts or win the total loyalty of their crews and as a result suffered the consequences.
Characteristically Magellan moved swiftly and with great opportunism. Taking advantage of the mutineers’ attempts at negotiation he sent Espinosa, the Trinidad’s loyal master of arms along with a disguised boarding party and retook the Victoria that same evening.
Having regained numerical superiority he then blockaded the bay and forced a showdown. It is not known for certain whether Magellan was instrumental in cutting loose the anchors of the San Antonio but the ship did indeed break loose of its anchorage and drifted broadside of the Trinidad enabling Magellan to board and recapture her.
The Concepcion had no choice now but to surrender, so that within 48 hours the mutiny had taken place and been extinguished. Magellan’s justice was swift but by the standards of the day not unduly brutal. Although many of the crew had participated in the mutiny, forty were found guilty of treason and sentenced to death.
However Magellan could not afford to lose such a large number of his company and so he pardoned the lot; they were put to work, chained by the feet, working the pumps, clearing the putrid bilges and undertaking other menial hard labor.
Of the ringleaders, Mendoza had already been killed by Espinosa on the retaking of the Victoria, but was still taken ashore, decapitated and quartered. Quesada who was alive suffered the same punishment. Cano was spared and put in chains in the bilges with the other mutineers and Cartagena who had been a perpetual thorn in Magellan’s side for the whole expedition was also spared but later was left marooned along with a priest on the desolate coast when the ships finally departed. He was never heard of or seen again.
The winter in Patagonia was extremely hard and life very uncomfortable for the crew who had to refit the ships for the voyage ahead. Their rations had been cut by half and there was little wild food locally apart from mussels.
Several of them froze to death and there were many cases of frostbite. Pigafetta made copious notes of the region that Magellan had called Patagonia because the natives had such large feet encased in big leather boots (Patagonia means large foot in Spanish).
In fact two of the native men were captured to be taken back as presents for the King, but neither survived the journey.
The Santiago was the first ship to be repaired and Magellan, eager to find the Western passage as soon as possible, sent her on an exploratory probe along the coast.
Unfortunately 70 miles south near the Santa Cruz estuary a sudden gale drove her aground and she broke up, leaving the crew stranded.
Two members trekked for eleven days back to San Julian to alert Magellan and an overland rescue party was organized.
It was not until August 24th
Magellan with Santiago’s crew redistributed amongst the four remaining ships and Serrano the ‘Santiago’s’ captain, now installed as the Captain of the Concepcion that Magellan finally left the bay.
They moved along the coast near to where the Santiago had been wrecked to a better winter anchorage in the estuary of the Santa Cruz where there were plenty of supplies of fish, seals and seabirds to replenish their stores.
on 18th October 1520
After a two-month stay and unknowingly within 300 miles of it, on 18th October they set off in search of the passage.
Three days later they had reached the Cape of the Virgins (named by Magellan) and Magellan instructed the Concepcion and the San Antonio to investigate a small inlet at the far side of the bay sided by high peaks.
After an anxious wait of five days the two ships returned with the news that the inlet was not a river but a strait leading into a bay followed by another Strait leading into an even larger bay. The passage had been found.
Carefully sounding their way through the straits they reached Cape Valentine where Magellan sent the San Antonio to investigate the southeast channel whilst taking the other three ships southwest in what was proved to be the right direction.
The San Antonio, was carrying the bulk of the fleet’s provisions, had a Portuguese pilot Gomes who was both jealous and disaffected with Magellan’s command and together with the fleet’s treasurer Guerra they took control of the ship from the Captain Mesquita.
Persuading the rest of the crew that Magellan was leading them all to certain doom and starvation they retraced their route to the South Atlantic and straight home to Spain, where, despite Mesquita’s testimony, their tales of Magellan’s injustice were believed.
It is interesting to note that whilst Magellan had always made every attempt to save or rescue his crew when abandoned, the San Antonio made no effort to retrieve the marooned Cartagena at St Julian.
It was now of paramount importance to Magellan that he succeeded in his mission, as he knew the consequences he must face if he returned to Spain unsuccessful after the San Antonio told her story.
The Strait of Magellan cuts through the southern tip of South America connecting the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean.
Passage into the Pacific
The journey resumed. The help of Duarte Barbosa was crucial in facing the riot in Puerto San Julian; Magellan appointed him as captain of the Victoria. The Santiago was sent down the coast on a scouting expedition and was wrecked in a sudden storm. All of its crew survived and made it safely to shore. Two of them returned overland to inform Magellan of what had happened, and to bring rescue to their comrades. After this experience, Magellan decided to wait for a few weeks more before resuming the voyage.
At 52°S latitude on 21 October, the fleet reached Cape Virgenes and concluded they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. Four ships began an arduous trip through the 373-mile (600 km) long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos, (“All Saints’ Channel”), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints’ Day. The strait is now named the Strait of Magellan. He first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait, but the latter, commanded by Gómez, deserted and returned to Spain on 20 November. On 28 November, the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness. Magellan and his crew(wiki)
On November 28, 1520
after spending 36 days in the ‘Magellan’ Straits the three remaining ships entered what Magellan called the Mar Pacifico. Magellan with greatly diminished stores now made the almost fatal mistake of not seeking out new provisions for the journey across the Pacific.
He still believed that the distance to the Moluccas was not much more than the length of the Mediterranean and therefore it was prudent to push on as speedily as possible.
His wife died in Seville around 1521.(wiki)
on Feb 13, 1521
He kept the South American coastline in sight whilst heading north to about 30º South before heading northwest and crossing the equator on Feb 13, 1521 at about 160-165º W longitude, missing both the Tahitian and Marquesas Island groups, where they could have amply replenished their supplies and the crew could have recovered. Both food and water were running out and what was left was rotten or putrid, so that the crew was suffering from malnutrition and scurvy.
“We ate biscuit that was no longer biscuit but powder of biscuits swarming with worms that had eaten the good. It stank strongly of rat urine. Rats were sold for half a ducat each and even so we could not always get them.”
Magellan realized that if they were approaching the Moluccas they had to find a place to harbor soon, so that the crew could recover before sailing too close to the dangers of Portuguese waters where he knew he might be challenged. Unfortunately his knowledge of this part of the world was based on third hand travelers’ and merchants’ tales and having come from an easterly direction he was not at all sure of the geography, believing that he was quite near the Japanese coast.
On February 28th
they had reached 13º North and sailing west arrived at the island of Guam (having passed by unnoticed the Marshall Islands).
From the logs and journals available Magellan’s course had taken him across the Pacific missing out every one of the large South Sea Island groups. It was incredible misfortune.
Both crew and ships were barely functional by the time they reached Guam, but the crew was too ill or weak to consider mutiny and tended to optimism in Magellan’s belief that they had reached the northern edge of the Molucca archipelago.
Magellan was able to re-supply the ships, but constant thieving by the natives including one of the longboats from the Trinidad forced him to use a raiding party that killed seven natives and wounded several others. Pigafetta recounts that when the natives were hit by crossbow bolts they were so astonished that they promptly pulled them out and as a result died from hemorrhaging. This trouble with the natives caused Magellan to rename the islands, Islas le los Lodrones [Islands of Thieves].
Although the crew were refreshed by new supplies of water, fruit and fish a longer rest was needed before any possible encounter with the Portuguese and so sailing southwest the four ships arrived a week later at the island of Samur in the Philippines.
They settled on the smaller island of Homonhon where they were visited by friendly natives who brought them fresh food, spices, and wine. Magellan cemented the friendship by becoming a blood brother with the Chief.
It was also obvious from the jewelry worn that gold was plentiful in these islands. From measurements made by both Albo and San Martin it became apparent that the expedition had passed beyond the Spanish hemisphere and had already entered the Portuguese domain.
This was slightly awkward for Magellan as he had assured King Charles that the Moluccas lay just within the Spanish half. Having journeyed all this way across the Pacific, losing 19 men through scurvy and suffering all manners of deprivation to find themselves already within territory reserved for Portuguese exploitation was a sever blow.
However there was provision in the Treaty of Tordesillias for discovered unclaimed territory in either half to belong to the discoverer if he could establish trading ports and conclude alliances with the local rulers.
Sailing on they arrived at the small island of Limosawa where to the delight of all parties concerned, Magellan’s Malay slave Enrique was able not only to understand the natives but also to be understood himself.
Although Enrique was thought to have originally come from Sumatra it was quite possible that he was already a captured slave by then and it has been suggested that only someone from the Central Philippines could have understood the dialect. If this was so it means that Enrique, a humble Philippine slave was the first man to have circumnavigated the globe.
Striking up another friendship with the local native Chief, Magellan’s fleet was taken on to the larger island of Cebu, where once again Magellan not only became the local ruler’s (Humabon) blood brother and established trading agreements but also converted him and two thousand of his people to Christianity.
It was clear that Magellan had plans for Humabon and Cebu to become the central base for subsequent Spanish exploitation of the Philippines.
The crews were refreshed by the abundance of good food and water and were also able to indulge in their favorite pastime of rampant sexual liaisons with the women of Cebu. Pigafetta’s journal interestingly notes that the men of Cebu pierced their penises with gold or tin bolts that often had small spurs attached to either end. Females from the age of six upwards progressively had their vaginas opened and enlarged to accommodate these penis appendages. Pigafetta confirms a fact that is hardly surprising by noting that the women of Cebu seemed to prefer
Magellan’s men as lovers rather than the locals.
Learning that Humabon had several rivals to the rulership of Cebu, Magellan forced other local chiefs to accept Humabon’s authority.
However one, Lapulapu, refused and Magellan personally took charge of a force of both Spanish and natives to subjugate him.
April 27, 1521
Magellan himself was killed in a tribal war
he became involved in on behalf of a treacherous chieftain, and the final leg of his voyage was completed without him.
Whether his success as a great Christian warrior and leader had clouded his judgment or whether he just underestimated the opposition, the fact was the campaign was a disaster and brought about Magellan’s death.
Unable to use the firepower of his ships because of an outlying reef, Magellan’s men were overwhelmed by superior numbers, and although his own personal resolution and bravery ensured that the majority of his men were able to escape, he himself was cut down and killed on April 27, 1521.
The invulnerability of the Spanish had been destroyed and with it Humabon’s faith in them. At a subsequent banquet, Serrano and Barbosa, who had assumed joint command (along with a party of men that included San Martin), were ambushed and killed by Humabon.
Enrique, who had been promised his freedom should Magellan die and then found that Serrano would not honor this was probably instrumental in helping set up the trap. Fortunately Pigafetta who relished banquets and parties was suffering from a head wound and did not attend.
The Philippine expedition that had begun so promisingly had ended in tatters. Carvalho assumed command, and owing to the loss of manpower to crew three ships, the Concepcion the least seaworthy of the three was scuttled and burnt.
There followed six months of meandering around the Philippines and Brunei, most of it spent searching out fresh supplies.
Death in the Philippines
Heading northwest, the crew reached the equator on 13 February 1521. On 6 March they reached the Marianas and Guam. Magellan called Guam the “Island of Sails” because they saw a lot of sailboats. They renamed as Ladrones Island (Island of Thieves) because many of the small boats of Trinidad were stolen there. On 17 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, with 150 crew left. Members of his expedition became the first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago, but they were not the first Europeans.
Magellan relied on Enrique, his Malay servant and interpreter, to communicate with the native tribes. He had been indentured by Magellan in 1511 after the colonization of Malacca, and had accompanied him through later adventures. They traded gifts with Rajah Siaiu of Mazaua who guided them to Cebu on 7 April.
Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly towards Magellan and the Spaniards; both he and his queen Hara Amihan were baptized as Christians. Afterward, Rajah Humabon and his ally Datu Zula convinced Magellan to kill their enemy, Datu Lapu-Lapu, on Mactan. Magellan wanted to convert Lapu-Lapu to Christianity, as he had Humabon, but Lapu-Lapu rejected that. On the morning of 27 April 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan with a small attack force. During the resulting battle against Lapu-Lapu’s troops, Magellan was struck by a bamboo spear, and later surrounded and finished off with other weapons.
Pigafetta and Ginés de Mafra provided written documents of the events culminating in Magellan’s death:
When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the boats. When we reached land, [the natives] had formed in three divisions to the number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries… The musketeers and crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly… Recognizing the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet off his head twice… A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain’s face, but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the native’s body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the boats, which were already pulling off.
Magellan provided in his will that Enrique, his interpreter, was to be freed upon his death. But after the battle, the remaining ships’ masters refused to free the Malay. Enrique escaped his indenture on 1 May with the aid of Rajah Humabon, amid the deaths of almost 30 crewmen.
Pigafetta had been jotting down words in both Butuanon and Cebuano languages – which he started at Mazaua on 29 March and his list grew to a total of 145 words. He continued communications with indigenous peoples during the rest of the voyage.
“Nothing of Magellan’s body survived, that afternoon the grieving rajah-king, hoping to recover his remains, offered Mactan’s victorious chief a handsome ransom of copper and iron for them but Datu Lapulapu refused. He intended to keep the body as a war trophy. Since his wife and child died in Seville before any member of the expedition could return to Spain, it seemed that every evidence of Ferdinand Magellan’s existence had vanished from the earth.”
On September 21st
after fleeing Brunei Carvallho who had never received the full confidence of his crew, and who stood accused of unnecessarily abandoning crew members in tricky situations was deposed as commander being replaced by Espinosa, with Cano the former mutineer, being made Captain of the Victoria.
Finally on November 8, 1521
the two ships sailed into the harbor of Tidore to a warm welcome. They had hoped and expected to be met by Magellan’s shipwrecked friend Serrao but he had died from poison some eight months before as a result of becoming too involved in local native politics (compare with Magellan).
Albo who had been keeping his navigational log since first crossing the Atlantic was able to confirm that the Moluccas were placed in the Portuguese hemisphere.
This did not deter the Spanish, however, because the local feeling was strongly anti-Portuguese and with the help of a disaffected Portuguese trader called Larosa, a treaty of alliance was concluded with the Rajah of Tidore.
In fact the Portuguese had apparently been awaiting Magellan’s ships from the onset of the voyage with two squadrons of warships.
One Squadron had been sent to the Cape of Good Hope should he strike east for the Moluccas, the other to the estuary of the River Plate should he attempt to find the western passage.
When both failed to locate Magellan, the Indian fleet had been alerted and a small force had been sent to the Moluccas.
This expedition had ended in disaster and death as they had antagonized the local Rajah with their treatment of the local women. A few days before the two Spanish ships had arrived in Tidore, the survivors had fled back to Malacca without any knowledge of the Spanish ships imminent arrival.
Fortunately Espinosa managed to keep his own crew from their usual sexual indulgences and apart from signing treaties and purchasing a large cargo of cloves, he enjoyed an amicable relationship with the locals and their rulers.
on December 18th
The two ships laden with their cargoes prepared to leave for Spain on December 18th, but almost immediately the Trinidad sprung such a bad leak that she was forced to remain to carry out extensive repairs.
Thus the Victoria under the command of Cano finally left on her own on December 21st and by sailing southwest to Timor and through the Timor Sea into the Indian Ocean she took a fluctuating course due west two degrees either side of 40 degree parallel.
The journey turned out to be a nightmare, probably worse than the crossing of the Pacific as the crew were forced to do arduous work on the pumps to combat the appalling leaks, all on rations of just rice and water as the meat and other fresh produce had spoilt through lack of salt or any other preservative.
May 19, 1522,
With the crew on the verge of mutiny and in extremely harsh conditions the Cape of Good Hope was eventually rounded on May 19, 1522, but the Victoria was badly damaged and 21 of her Crew were to die from starvation, disease or exhaustion between the Cape and the Cape Verde Islands.
Desperate to get fresh food and also slaves to man the pumps Cano was forced to take the huge risk of putting into the Portuguese Cape Verde Islands. By pretending to be part of a Spanish fleet that had been blown off course in a storm whilst returning from the Americas they were able to harbor and negotiate for new supplies.
Carelessly one of the crewmembers used some cloves (that could only have come from the Portuguese Moluccas) as part of the transactions and when their ruse was discovered Cano was forced to put to sea immediately, thereby abandoning 13 of his crew (including Pigafetta).
Caro sailed on to Spain with a crew of only 18, arriving September 6, 1522 at the harbor of San Lucar, a circumnavigation of the Earth that had taken just two weeks under three years to complete.
It is interesting to note that while on the Cape Verde Islands they had discovered that although all the logs on the boat showed that it was a Wednesday, the calendars on land all showed it to be a Thursday. At first they puzzled over the mistake they thought they had made before eventually realizing that by traveling a 360-degree circumference of the globe they had lost a day.
Cano was received as a hero and, at an enquiry set up into the voyage, condemned Magellan’s unfairness, thereby lending weight to the arguments of the deserters of the San Antonio. It was not until much later when other crewmembers accounts, including Pigafetta’s, became known that Magellan’s reputation was restored.
April 6, 1522
Meanwhile the crew of the Trinidad under Espinosa had embarked on an equally hazardous and grueling voyage trying to re-cross the Pacific from west to east. Departing Tidore on April 6, 1522 after having made the necessary repairs they sailed north east, but lacking knowledge of the northern Pacific’s wind system they struggled up to the 44 degree parallel just off the Japanese coast still hoping to get some westerly winds.
But with inadequate provisions, a broken main mast and a crew succumbing to scurvy they were forced to retreat south, finally surrendering to a Portuguese force that had been sent to the Moluccas. Of the 54 Europeans who set off from Tidore only 21 survived, the rest were imprisoned, and only four of them, including Espinosa ever made it back to Spain. Larosa, the Portuguese trader who had opted to return with the Trinidad rather than the Victoria was beheaded as a traitor. The local rajah, with the arrival of the Portuguese force repudiated all the agreements and treaties he had made with the Spanish.
Of the 270 odd crew that had left in 1519, only 35 altogether returned to Spain. Although he had died in the Philippines, it is to Magellan that the credit for the voyage belongs. He had found the western route to the east and had achieved what Columbus had tried and failed to do.
During boy untol highschool in 1955-1963 , I still saw the five portugeus soldier tomb at the hindia oceam padang beach at the front of Padang Jail, later I foun the picture of padang beach with the painting by Datuk Satin 1939 and we can see the graves,now nothing leave anymore because the beach abrations,look the painting below
And also the fort of portugeus at Cingkuk island west sumatra at the front of Painan and bayang village
Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island
Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island
As for the Moluccas, Spanish interest waned for two reasons. First the Portuguese with established bases in Southern Africa, India and Malaya were in a far better position to exploit the Moluccas that were after all proven to be in their hemisphere.
Secondly, the Spanish American possessions that at first had seemed largely worthless were now, after Cortes Conquest of Mexico, proving to be abundant in gold and silver. In 1529 Charles signed away any claims for the Moluccas that Spain had in return for 350,000 ducats at the Treaty of Saragossa.
When the Spanish later continued their exploration of the Pacific it was from their base in Panaman.
The work Magellan had done in the Philippines eventually paid off, as the islands became Spain’s largest Pacific colony lasting almost until the 20th Century.
In purely financial and diplomatic terms the voyage was a failure; the small profits raised on the Victoria’s cargo of cloves failed to offer a reasonable return; the human cost was terrible; diplomatically it had offended the Portuguese and scientifically it had failed to prove Spanish claims to the Moluccas.
Yet despite the overt goals of the expedition being a failure, Magellan’s personal goal of finding a western route to the east and the knowledge of the globe resulting from that was one of mankind’s greatest successes. Magellan’s voyage had given the world its known dimensions, although it would take another three centuries to fill in all the gaps.
Albo’s navigational log together with San Martin’s observations had given the unknown Pacific its dimensions of one third of the earth’s surface whereas previous knowledge/speculators had limited it to a sea a little larger than the Mediterranean. Magellan’s route, particularly through the straits named after him was attempted many times in expeditions that followed his but with little success.
The two voyages that did succeed in the passage then floundered in the Pacific. A mendacious campaign was mounted that the whole route had been a sham, so difficult was it proving to replicate, that the true worth of his seamanship was recognized.
Lesser men would have failed and indeed did so, but Magellan was a genuine leader, he had a determined self-belief allied with a stubborn nature that belied his romantic notion of heroism and honor. Intensely proud of his nobility and his own worth, he could be tough when needed, humane and caring when circumstances warranted it and always courageous. He always tried to deal fairly with the natives and his expedition while under his command carried out none of the atrocities that previous and future Colonials seemed to revel in. From his voyage the new humanists in Europe, the philosophers, scholars, scientists and artists were able to gain a truer understanding of their world and with this information continue to challenge the dogma and medieval beliefs that were still prevalent. He had provided the answer to man’s seemingly eternal quest to find the true shape and size of the Earth.
Source Iain Murray.
The Magellan–Elcano voyage. Victoria, one of the original five ships, circumnavigated the globe, finishing 16 months after the explorer’s death.
The casualties suffered in the Philippines left the expedition with too few men to sail all three of the remaining ships. Consequently, on 2 May they abandoned and burned Concepción. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, the expedition fled westward to Palawan. They left that island on 21 June and were guided to Brunei, Borneo by Moro pilots, who could navigate the shallow seas. They anchored off the Brunei breakwater for 35 days, where Pigafetta, an Italian from Vicenza, recorded the splendour of Rajah Siripada’s court (gold, two pearls the size of hens’ eggs, etc.).
In addition, Brunei boasted tame elephants and an armament of 62 cannons, more than five times the armament of Magellan’s ships. Brunei people were not interested in the Spanish cargo of cloves, but these proved more valuable than gold upon the return to Spain. Pigafetta noted the refined goods of the court, including porcelain and eyeglasses (neither of which were yet widely available in Europe).
When reaching the Maluku Islands (the Spice Islands) on 6 November, the total crew numbered 115. They traded with the Sultan of Tidore, a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who was the ally of the Portuguese.
The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, tried to return to Spain by sailing westwards. However, as they left the Spice Islands, the Trinidad began to take on water. The crew tried to discover and repair the leak, but failed. They concluded that Trinidad would need to spend considerable time being overhauled, but the small Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crew. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and tried to return to Spain via the Pacific route. This attempt failed. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese, and was eventually wrecked in a storm while at anchor under Portuguese control.
Victoria set sail via the Indian Ocean route home on 21 December, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano. By 6 May the Victoria rounded the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen died of starvation before Elcano put into Cape Verde, a Portuguese holding, where he abandoned 13 more crew on 9 July in fear of losing his cargo of 26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon).
On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan’s voyage arrived in Spain aboard the Victoria, almost exactly three years after the fleet of five ships had departed. Magellan had not intended to circumnavigate the world, only to find a secure way through which the Spanish ships could navigate to the Spice Islands. After his death, Elcano decided to push westward, thereby completing the first known voyage around the entire Earth.
Maximilianus Transylvanus interviewed some of the surviving members of the expedition when they presented themselves to the Spanish court at Valladolid in the autumn of 1522. He wrote the first account of the voyage, which was published in 1523. Pigafetta’s account was not published until 1525, and was not published in its entirety until 1800. This was the Italian transcription by Carlo Amoretti of what is now called the “Ambrosiana codex.” The expedition eked out a small profit, but the crew was not paid full wages.
Four crewmen of the original 55 on Trinidad finally returned to Spain in 1522; 51 had died in war or from disease. In total, approximately 232 sailors of assorted nationalities died on the expedition around the world with Magellan.
When Victoria, the one surviving ship, returned to the harbor of departure after completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth, only 18 men out of the original 237 men were on board. Among the survivors were two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) was a Genoese or Savonese Chief Steward. His history is preserved in the nominative registers at the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is referred to with the exact Latin patronymic, “de Judicibus”. He was initially assigned to the caravel Concepción, one of five ships of the Spanish fleet of Magellan. Martino de Judicibus embarked on the expedition with the rank of captain.
18 men returned to Seville aboard Victoria in 1522:
Francisco Albo, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia)
Miguel de Rodas (in Tui, Galicia)
Juan de Acurio, from Bermeo
Hernándo de Bustamante, from Alcántara
Nicholas the Greek, from Nafplion
Miguel Sánchez, from Rodas (in Tui, Galicia)
Antonio Hernández Colmenero, from Huelva
Juan Rodríguez, from Huelva
Diego Carmena, from Baiona (Galicia)
Juan de Arratia, from Bilbao
Vasco Gómez Gallego, from Baiona (Galicia)
Juan de Zubileta, from Barakaldo
Aftermath and legacy
Monument of Ferdinand Magellan in Punta Arenas in Chile. The statue looks towards the Strait of Magellan.
Antonio Pigafetta’s journal is the main source for much of what is known about Magellan and Elcano’s voyage. The other direct report of the voyage was that of Francisco Albo, last Victoria’s pilot, who kept a formal logbook. Europeans first learned of the circumnavigation through an account written by Maximilianus Transylvanus, a relative of sponsor Christopher de Haro, who interviewed survivors in 1522 and published his account in 1523.
soon after the return of Magellan’s expedition, Charles V sent an expedition led by García Jofre de Loaísa to occupy the Moluccas, claiming that they were in his zone of the Treaty of Tordesillas. This expedition included the most notable Spanish navigators: Juan Sebastián Elcano, who, along with many other sailors, died of malnutrition during the voyage, and the young Andrés de Urdaneta. They had difficulty reaching the Moluccas, docking at Tidore. The Portuguese were already established in nearby Ternate and the two nations had nearly a decade of skirmishing over the “possession.” (occupied by indigenous peoples.)
Since there was not a set limit to the east, in 1524 both kingdoms had tried to find the exact location of the antimeridian of Tordesillas, which would divide the world into two equal hemispheres and to resolve the “Moluccas issue”. A board met several times without reaching an agreement: the knowledge at that time was insufficient for an accurate calculation of longitude, and each gave the islands to their sovereign. An agreement was reached only with the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 1529 between Spain and Portugal. It assigned the Moluccas to Portugal and the Philippines to Spain. The course that Magellan charted was followed by other navigators, such as Sir Francis Drake. In 1565, Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the Manila-Acapulco route.
Magellan’s expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe and the first to navigate the strait in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Magellan’s name for the Pacific was adopted by other Europeans.
Magellan’s crew observed several animals that were entirely new to European science, including a “camel without humps”, which was probably a guanaco, whose range extends to Tierra del Fuego. The llama, vicuña and alpaca natural ranges were in the Andes mountains. A black “goose” that had to be skinned instead of plucked was a penguin.
The full extent of the Earth was realized, since their voyage was 14,460 Spanish leagues (60,440 km or 37,560 mi). The expedition showed the need for an International Date Line to be established. Upon returning the expedition found its date was a day behind, although they had faithfully maintained the ship’s log. They lost one day because they traveled west during their circumnavigation of the globe, opposite to Earth’s daily rotation. This caused great excitement at the time, and a special delegation was sent to the Pope to explain the oddity to him.
Two of the closest galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds in the southern celestial hemisphere, were named for Magellan sometime after 1800. The Magellan probe, which mapped the planet Venus from 1990 to 1994, was named after Magellan. The Ferdinand Magellan train rail car (also known as U.S. Car. No. 1) is a former Pullman Company observation car that was re-built by the U.S. Government for presidential use from 1943 until 1958. Also a starship of the TV series Andromeda was named Pax Magellanic, in reference of the Magellanic Clouds.
Three craters, two located on the Moon and one on Mars, have been named after Magellan using the spelling “Magelhaens”. The names were adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1935 (Magelhaens on the Moon), 1976 (Magelhaens on Mars), and 2006 (Magelhaens A on the Moon).
As of 2011[update], various initiatives are being planned to celebrate the fifth centenary of the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Seville and Sanlucar de Barrameda are planning a three-year program of events from 2019-2022.[citation needed
|Ferdinand Magellan by Frederick Ober|
|American History Stories—Volume I by Pratt|
|Discovery of New Worlds by Synge|
|Book of Discovery by Synge|
|European Hero Stories by Tappan|
|Francisco de Almeida||Distinguished himself in the wars against Granada, and was appointed first governor of Portuguese India.|
|Alfonso de Albuquerque||Naval officer who helped establish a Portuguese colony in India at Goa.|
|Juan Elcano||Took command of Magellan’s expedition after his death, and completed the journey to Spain.|
|Vasco da Gama||Sailed from Europe to the Orient by sailing around the Cape of Good Hope.|
|Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor||Holy Roman Emperor. Ruled Hapsburg Austria, the Low Countries, Spain and parts of Italy.|
|Manuel I of Portugal||King of Portugal during the era of discovery of the Far East Trade.|
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The end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2013