The sample of Dr Iwan E-book In CD-rom “The Vintage Middle East Pictures 1900-1905”

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The Middle East

 Vintage Pictures Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

iNTRODUCTIONS

This are the comperative study between the vintage photos in 1900-1905 with the situation now, are still same or different?

The study very important to estimate the save of Humankind history artifact especially in the holy land area in Middle East like Jerusalem etc.

I hope the image of holy site will help everybody to make a closed relation with

our holy building and holy prophet

May God bless this study

Jakarta October 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

June 1905

 

 


[Dr and Mrs Rosen, Charlotte Roche and Arabs in boat.

 Dr. Fritz Rosen –

German Consul in Jerusalem in 1905

Andreas Michell German Ambassador  in Jerusalem now

 

[The Dead Sea – Mrs Rosen on horseback. (Dr. Fritz Rosen – German Consul in Jerusalem)]

The Dead see Now

 

 

Our tour of Israel continues this morning with this photograph from the early 1900’s. The pictures shows a man relaxing in the Dead Sea.
 
I guess the Dead Sea is so salty that you actually bob like a cork in it rather than sinking. You can see he is floating quiet nicely, and is even reading a book and shading himself with an umbrella.

 

 

Jerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (June 1900)
[Church of the Holy Sepulchre]

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church Now

//

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is known as the Church of the Resurrection to Eastern Orthodox Christians.

It is revered as the site of Golgotha or Calvary, the spot where Christ was crucified. It is also widely believed to be the site of his burial (sepulcher).

It is the holiest of Christian sites, and has been a pilgrimage destination since the fourth century. It Is located less than 2,000 feet from

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Israel Photo
Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

the Dome of the Rock and Temple Mount, which are the holiest sites in Judaism and the third holiest in Islam.

As Golgotha is the end of Christ’s last journey,

the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is set at the termination of

the Via Dolorosa,

the route he walked from his condemnation by Pontius Pilate and imprisonment to his crucifixion and burial.

The Via Dolorosa begins at

the Lion’s Gate (the first Station of the Cross)

in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, and contains the 14 Stations of the Cross.

Stations 10 to 14 of the Cross are all within the church.

Station 10 is where Jesus was stripped,

and is just outside the entrance to the church. Station 11 is just inside the entrance, marking the spot where he was nailed to the cross. The Rock of Golgotha marks the spot where he died.

This is Station 12,

and here is the church’s lovely Medici altar from Florence, Italy.

Station 13

is where he was taken down from the cross,

 

and is where there is a statue of Our Lady of Sorrows.

Station 14

is the tomb and place of resurrection, and is inside the chapel.

The actual Rock of the Calvary, around which the Church of the Resurrection was built, is here and visible under glass on either side of the main altar.

Most scholars believe in the historic accuracy of the geography involved in the location of this Christian site. It appears that early Christians held religious rites on this site beginning with the resurrection.

After the city was occupied by Romans, the Emperor Hadrian built a temple to Aphrodite here in 66 AD.

When Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 AD, he began construction on the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgotha was reputedly uncovered by the builders. His mother, St. Helena, is said to have found three crosses, one of which was supposedly the True Cross.

The church was almost completely destroyed in 1009, and it was subsequently partially rebuilt. It was this Church of the Resurrection where the knights of the First Crusade prayed.

Their leader, Godfrey of Bouillon, became the first Christian King of Jerusalem and “Defender of the Holy Sepulcher.”

The history of the church can be seen in the mixtures of various architecture, which is a mixture of Byzantine, medieval, Crusader, and modern elements. Additionally, the church is jointly administered by orthodox and apostolic Christians from Greece, Armenia, and Ethiopia—in addition to the Roman Catholic Church. Their artistic and architectural influences are also evident.

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The sample Of Dr Iwan Ebook In CD ROM :”The NBA Star History Collections Intro”

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr iwan e-boook In CD-rom edition

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THE NBA HISTORY COLLECTIONS

 

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition

Special For Senior ollectors

Copyright @ 2012

Praface

Since the TV programs available in Indonesia (TVRI) I have seen a variety of NBA Basketball game around 1970 with current NBA star

 Kareem Abdul Djabar ,

Larry Birth, and then become more attractive since the appearance of NBA superstars

Magic Johson,

Michel Jordan with friends from BULLS and His Rival  just as

Shaq O’Neill,

Charles Berkeley,

Kevin Garnet.


In 1998

 when the international recession which Indonesia is also a very great inflation exchange rate of one dollar down Rp.1500. – To Rp. 15,000 and then became stable range Rp.9000. ‘.

At that time very much NBA basketball cards sold in Jkarta khsusnya at Mall Citra Land that much demand from Trisakti students and Tarumanegara. also at Mall Kelapa ivory in store P%&J. and Mall of Arion.

Inflation due to the decline and extinction of NBA  basketball cards in poipularitas as Michel Jordan despite resignation later improved his popularity with the advent of the new NBA star KOBE and TIM DUNCAN, lots of cards sold at closeout prices still remain with the old Crurency so so very cheap.

I saw this opportunity and  dicided to invest iTrade Card NBA basketball cards especially for the U.S. # 100. – Who was worth RP.Rp/1.500.0000.- can get so many cards that are only sold around Rp. 3000. – Sa, 10,000 pices. only.and I find that investment is very much NBA basketball cards,

 how much the price of NBA trade card now”

2007-08 Upper Deck SPx Basketball Trading Cards

Get 10 packs with 3 cards per pack with this box of 2007-08 Upper Deck SPx Basketball Trading Cards. Find an autograph or memorabilia card in every pack, on average. Look for at least one Autographed Rookie Jersey card per box, on average! Find 3 patch cards numbered to 50 or less in every case, on average! Look for one-of-one …

$199.99

this box of 2007-08 Upper Deck SPx Basketball Trading Cards. Find an autograph or memorabilia card in every pack, on average. Look for at least one Autographed Rookie Jersey card per box, on average! Find 3 patch cards numbered to 50 or less in every case, on average! Look for one-of-one …

The price up two times but the card only three in a pack, different form in 1998
the price look at
 

Beckett Basketball Monthly NBA Card Guide – September 2012

 At first I just collect special limited edition card just like the printed just 100 cards down, then the card is a limited edition of the NBA star, then the Rookie card of the top,

 

 

Then I started to compile a CD of electronic books preformance -ROM contains the history of the NBA and basketball cards (Trade card) are popular and this is the result.


I wrote this paper for future generations because of the current NBA star Michel jordan era before there’s nothing to know, this is called Vintage Tr4ade Card, then Jordan era will be divided into sections

 

Collecting basketball cards is one of the greatest hobbies today.  Not only is a hobby, but it is also a serious business for many basketball card collectors.  Some of the most popular basketball cards that are being collected today are basketball rookie cards, autographed cards, and even game worn cards.  When you are looking to buy basketball cards, you have to consider a number of factors such as the popularity of the player, the condition of the card and, is the card graded or not.

How to Increase Your Basketball Cards Value 

When you are trying to sell your basketball cards for a profit you will have to take into consideration the condition of the card.  If the card has scratches on it or any other damage to it, its value will naturally go down.  To increase the value of your basketball cards you can have them graded, which means that a professional grading company will authenticate your cards and give them a grade from 1 to 10, ten being the highest.  This will increase your basketball card values and you will be able to sell them for more money.

Why It’s Important to Use a Basketball Card Price Guide

Using a basketball card price guide is the best thing you can to get an idea on what your basketball cards are really worth.  You can purchase price guides online like the beckett price guide which is what most people use.  If you know a card collector that can see how much your cards are worth that will be also helpful. Its very important that you know what your basketball cards are worth so that you wont sell them for more or less than what they are really worth.

Collecting Basketball Trading Cards

Basketball trading cards are as popular as basketball itself.  Of course some of the most popular basketball players that collectors are searching for are Magic Johnson, Kobe Bryant Basketball Cards, and Michael Jordan Basketball Cards.  These are players that basketball card collectors are also interested in and their cards are always in demand.

How to Find Basketball Card Prices

If you want to find out what are the prices of the basketball cards that you have then one thing you can do is use a price guide that will tell you how much it will cost you to buy a specific card and how much you can get when you sell it.  Basketball price guides are usually not expensive but what most people don’t understand is that when you buy a price guide or when you subscribe to a site that gives you basketball card prices for a fee of course, you will have access to a wealth of information about basketball cards.  Basketball card pricing is determined by a number of things such if the card is a rookie card it will more than likely be more valuable.  If a basketball cards is old it is also more valuable to basketball card collectors.  If you have autographed basketball cards then they are more valuable since they are harder to come by.  When you want to know what a specific card is worth you should go to an auction site like eBay for example and look for that card and see how much people are selling it for.

What Are Your Basketball Card Worth?

If you are wondering what your basketball cards are worth then there are a couple of things you can like go to a cards shop and ask the collector how much they are worth.  Also you can go to auction sites like eBay where millions of people are buying and selling basketball cards every day.  To keep your cards in the best condition and therefore there value will stay high, you can make sure that they are storage correctly.  Placing them in hard plastic covers is the best thing you can do because you eliminate the possibility of harming your cards in any way.

Rookie Basketball Cards

Rookie basketball cards are very popular with basketball card collectors because rookie cards are the first year cards of sports players.  Usually people are looking for rookie cards because they are harder to find and they always want to add then to their basketball card collection.  If you are able to find graded basketball rookie cards, even better.  If the cards are not graded then you probably should have them graded.

Where to Buy Basketball Cards

If you want to buy basketball cards but you are not sure where the best place to buy them is, then you can try a couple of places like eBay.  This is one of the most popular auction sites that people and card collectors use.  You can find any card that you want on eBay for affordable prices.  There are also sports sites that sell basketball cards from all the NBA teams.  You can find basketball rookie cards, autographed cards, and even game used cards. Some basketball cards are harder to find like insert cards which are a part of a set and that set name is usually on the back of the card.  Another card that is harder to find because it is more in demand is the game used or game worn basketball card which are cards that have a piece of the player’s jersey on it or another item.  This cards and more you will be able to find at basketball card boxes that you can purchase online.

Buying Autographed Basketball Cards

Autographed basketball cards will always be in demand because they are harder to get a hold of.  Any sports item that is autographed will be more valuable and people will always pay more money for it.  If you are able to find Michael Jordan, Kobe Bryant, or Lebron James autographed basketball cards then you have added a lot of value to your basketball card collection.  If these are the cards that you are trying to sell then you shouldn’t have a problem getting good money for them

  NBA  Star History

 part NBA Legend

part1985-1990,

Part 1990 – 1995,

Part 1995-200, a

nd parts 2000-2005.

 

Today of course the NBA lovers are fans of NBA star muthakir King James of Miami Heats, Shaq O’Neill and Michel Jordan retired.


This paper is still a lot lack info and writing technical so comment ko, suggestions and additional information so I would expect.

I dedicate this paper to my son Albert Suwandy Djohan Oetama, because the advice I have successfully invested NBA basketball cards, he was watching the game last Michel Jordan in the 1998 NBA Finals during the Chaos peregantian president Suharto in my house in krelapa Ivory.

 

Jaklarta September 2012

 The Situation of NBA Trade Card now in2012

Normally we don’t bring up price for several reasons. 
 
1 – prices change over time.
 
  2 – the question of value can be subjective. 
 
For some $4 a pack is expensive, for others $200 a box is nothing.  But with 2011-12 Panini Preferred Basketball we felt it necessary to bring up price to emphasis the level of the “high risk, high reward” nature of this box.  
 
Now lets move to the bulk of the review, the cards.  There are four styles of autograph cards you can pull.  The Panini Preferred Signatures that are standard cards with autographs, Panini Choice Awards styled after the old Cramer’s Choice Award triangular die cuts, the impressive Crown Royale Silhouettes and the Crown Royal die cut signature cards.  There is also a 6 to 8 swatch booklet card in every box.
 
Preferred is unquestionably in our ultra premium cards category.  Each box contains 4 cards, three autographs and one booklet card.
 
Here are the cards we pulled from our box.
 
 
 Ekpe Udoh Preferred Signatures #/49, Darryl Dawkins Preferred Signatures #/74
 
 Brandon Jennings Sihlouette Material/Auto #/49
  
Preferred 7 swatch booklet “Assists” Jason Kidd, Steve Nash, Tony Parker, Derrick Rose, Dwayne Wade, Chris Paul & Rajon Rondo
 
Overall Look
We have already established how great the Silhouettes are and the die cut award and Royale cards are also good looking.  Normally I don’t have an issue with sticker autos and I understand the production process enough to know how going all on-card for a product is difficult, but at $50 a card, the non-recessed or framed sticker autos are definitely not Preferred, a real shame in a product that otherwise is outstanding.
 
Quality and Variety of Players
Because of the lockout, there are no rookie cards in this product, which enhances the checklist for me personally.  I prefer my high end products to be mainly proven players with established appeal.  I am aware that hot rookies can drive a product and bring big money for those who flip cards, but it increases the risk for anyone who is holding onto these cards long term as the value can spiral downward rather quickly. 
 
Thrill Seeking Fulfillment and Experience
The thrill is there for this product with plenty of chances to hit big cards.
 
Buyers Remorse or Speculator’s Delight
If you are only planning of flipping these cards you might have a difficult time recouping your money unless you buy in bulk to spread the risk which could lead to buyers remorse.  But for those who collect and hold, if you understand the high risk nature of Preferred, there is a good chance you will walk away happy.
 
 

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

 

Kata Pengantar

Sejak program TV tersedia di Indonesia (TVRI) saya telah melihat berbagai pertandingan Basketball NBA sekitar tahun 1970 dengan bintang NBA saat itu Hakeem Abdul Djabar,Larry Birth, dan kemudian menjadi lebih menarik sejak tampilnya mahabintang NBA Michel Jordan dengan teman-temannya dari BULLS dan lawan tanguhnya seperti Shaq O’Neill, Charles Barkeley, Kevin Garnet.

Pada tahun 1998 saat terjadi resesi internasional dimana Indonesia juga terjadi inflasi yang sangat hebat kurs rupiah turun dari satu dollar RP.1500.- menjadi Rp. 15.000 dan kemudian menjadi stabil berkisar Rp.9000.’.

Pada saat itu kartu basket NBA sangat banyak dijual di Jakarta khususnya di Mall Citra Land yang banyak peminatnya dari mahasiswa Trisakti dan Tarumanegara. juga di Mall Kelapa gading di toko P%J. serta Mall Arion.

Akibat Inflasi tersebut kartu basket mengalami kehancuran bauk dalam poipularitas karena mundurnya Michel Jordan walaupun kemudian popularitasnya membaik dengan munculnya bintang NBA baru KOBE dan TIM DUNCAN, banyak kartu dijual dengan obral harga masih tetap dengan kuurs lama sehingga jadi sangat murah sekali.

Saya melihat kesempatan ini, dan mmeutuskan untu berinvestasi di Trade Card khususnya kartu Basket NBA

sebab dengan  US# 100.- yang saat itu bernilai RP.Rp/1.500.0000.- dapat memperoleh sangat banyak kartu yang hanya dijual berkisar Rp. 3000.- sa,pai Rp.10.000. saja.dari investasi tersebut saya menemukan sangat banyak kartu basket NBA ,

Pada awalnya saya hanya mengumpul kartu edisi khusus terbatas saja seperti cetakan  hanya 100 kartu kebawah, kemudian kartu edisi terbatas para bintang NBA, kemudian kartu Rookie papan atas,selanjutnyasaya mulai menyusun suatu buku elektronik dalam CD-ROM berisi sejarah perkembangan NBA dan kartu basket(Trade Card) yang populer dan inilah hasilnya.

Karya tulis ini saya tulis untuk generasi yang akan datang sebab saat ini para Bintang NBA Era sebelum Michel jordan sudah tidak ada yang mengetahuinya, ini dinamakan Vintage Tr4ade Card,

Kemudian era Jordan akan dibagi dalam beberapa bagian NBA STAR  History part legend NBA ,part 1985-1990, Part 1990-1995,Part 1995-200,dan part 2000-2005.

Saat ini tentu para pecinta NBA adalah fans dari bintang NBA muthakir King James dari Miami Heats, Shaq O’Neill dan Michel Jordan sudah pensiun.

Karya tulis ini masih banyak kekurangannya sehingga komentar,saran dan tambahan informasi sangat saya harapkan.

Karya tulis ini saya dedikasikan kepada Putra saya Albert suwandy Djohan Oetama, karena atas sarannya saya telah berhasil menginvestasikan kartu basket NBA , Ia masih menonton pertandingan terakhir Michel Jordan dalam Final NBA tahun 1998 saat terjadi Chaos pergantian presiden suharto dirumah saya di krelapa Gading.

Jaklarta September 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Top 10 Basketball Players To Collect

LeBron James

1) LeBron James-King James is the face of the NBA right now and his rookie cards are already pretty high in price. LeBron came close to getting to the NBA finals last year but fell short. If King James can ever win an NBA Championship, his rookie cards will shoot up even more in value.LeBron’s rookie cards can be found in 2003-04 basketball card sets.

 

NBA Rookie Cards

Dwyane Wade

4) Dwyane Wade-“DWADE” is already an established superstar and his cards, much like LeBron’s, are already up there in price. But if you have the cash, grab a few of his rookies and put them away.Wade’s rookie cards can be found in 2003-04 basketball card sets.

 

NBA Rookie Cards

Kobe Bryant

5) Kobe Bryant-Kobe has been in the league for a long time and he has accomplished a lot with the Los Angeles Lakers.Kobe and his Lakers are coming off a Championship season in 2008-09. His best rookie card is his 1996-97 Topps Chrome. And it won’t come cheap as it will set you back about $200. Maybe try for a few of his lwer end rookies if you can’t shell out that kind of cash. Maybe his Bowmans Best card could be a option for you.Kobe’s rookies can be found in 1996-97 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Danny Granger

6) Danny Granger-This guy is a prolific scoring machine and is only getting better as time goes by. He plays in Indiana for the Pacers so he doesn’t get a lot of national exposure. But, believe me, you have got to get his rookie cards right now while they are still affordable.Danny Granger rookie cards can be found in 2005-06 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Andrew Bynum

7
) Andrew Bynum-Playing on the same team as Kobe Bryant can only help this kid get better and better. Bynum could be the next superstar Center in the NBA so you better grab his rookies now before they head up in price.Andrew Bynum rookie cards can be found in 2005-06 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Deron Williams

8) Deron Williams-And up and coming point guard, Williams plays in Utah for the Jazz. He and Chris Paul are always getting compared to each other. A great point guard in the making.Deron Williams’ rookie cards can be found in 2005-06 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Chris Paul

2) Chris Paul-One of the best point guards in the NBA and his cards are still rising in value. So you better pick them up now.Chris Paul’s nickname is “CP3” and his rookie cards can be found in 2005-06 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Dwight Howard

3) Dwight Howard-The best power forward in the NBA right now and his rookie cards’ value continue to rise. Howard came close to winning an NBA title in 2008-09. But his team, the Orlando Magic, fell short as they lost to Kobe Bryant and the Los Angeles Lakers.Howard’s rookie cards can be found 2004-05 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Kevin Durant

9) Kevin Durant-This kid is another great scorer that doesn’t get much national attention because he plays for the Oklahoma City Thunder. But picking up his rookie cards is a great idea right now.Kevin Durant rookie cards can be found in 2007-08 basketball card sets.

 
 

NBA Rookie Cards

Brandon Roy

1
0) Brandon Roy-Another potentially great point guard in the making. And he plays on an up and coming team in the Portland Trailblazers. Roy hit some big shots for the Blazers in 2008-09 and he is getting better each year he is in the NBA. Better get his rookie cards now.Brandon Roy rookie cards can be found in 2006-07 basketball card sets

INTRODUCTION

NBA All-Star Game Most Valuable Player Award

From Wikipedia

 

The National Basketball Association All-Star Game Most Valuable Player (MVP) is an annual National Basketball Association (NBA) award given to the player(s) voted best of the annual All-Star Game. The award was established in 1953 when NBA officials decided to designate an MVP for each year’s game. The league also re-honored players from the previous two All-Star Games. Ed Macauley and Paul Arizin were selected as the 1951 and 1952 MVP winners respectively.[1] The voting is conducted by a panel of media members, who cast their vote after the conclusion of the game. The player(s) with the most votes or ties for the most votes wins the award.[2] No All-Star Game MVP was named in 1999 since the game was canceled due to the league’s lockout.[3]

Bob Pettit and Kobe Bryant are the only two players to win the All-Star Game MVP four times. Oscar Robertson, Michael Jordan, and Shaquille O’Neal have each won the award three times, while Bob Cousy, Julius Erving, Isiah Thomas, Magic Johnson, Karl Malone, Allen Iverson, and LeBron James have all won the award twice. James’ first All-Star MVP in 2006 made him the youngest to have ever won the award at the age of 21.[4] Four of the games had joint winners—Elgin Baylor and Pettit in 1959, John Stockton and Malone in 1993, O’Neal and Tim Duncan in 2000, as well as Bryant and O’Neal in 2009. O’Neal became the first player in All-Star history to share two MVP awards. The Los Angeles Lakers have had eleven winners while the Boston Celtics have had eight. Duncan of the U.S. Virgin Islands is the only winner not born in the United States. Duncan is an American citizen, but is considered an “international” player by the NBA because he was not born in one of the fifty states or Washington, D.C.[5] No player trained entirely outside the U.S. has won the award; Duncan played U.S. college basketball at Wake Forest. The 2011 All-Star Game MVP was Bryant. The 2012 All star Game MVP was Kevin Durant.[6]

Winners

 

Wilt Chamberlain holding a basketball

Hall of Famer Wilt Chamberlain won the award in the 1960 NBA All-Star Game.

head shot of Michael Jordan

Hall of Famer Michael Jordan won the award three times in his career.

head shot of Charles Barkley

Hall of Famer Charles Barkley won the award in the 1991 NBA All-Star Game.

Shaquille O'Neal preparing to shoot a free throw

Shaquille O’Neal has won the award three times in his career.

Kobe Bryant at a game

Kobe Bryant has won the award four times in his career.

^ Denotes player who is still active in the NBA
* Elected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
Player (X) Denotes the number of times the player has been awarded the MVP award
Team (X) Denotes the number of times a player from this team has won
Season Player Position Nationality Team
1951 Macauley, EdEd Macauley* Center/Forward  United States Boston Celtics
1952 Arizin, PaulPaul Arizin* Forward/Guard  United States Philadelphia Warriors
1953 Mikan, GeorgeGeorge Mikan* Center  United States Minneapolis Lakers
1954 Cousy, BobBob Cousy* Guard  United States Boston Celtics (2)
1955 Sharman, BillBill Sharman* Guard  United States Boston Celtics (3)
1956 Pettit, BobBob Pettit* Forward/Center  United States St. Louis Hawks
1957 Cousy, BobBob Cousy* (2) Guard  United States Boston Celtics (4)
1958 Pettit, BobBob Pettit* (2) Forward/Center  United States St. Louis Hawks (2)
1959[a] Baylor, ElginElgin Baylor* Forward  United States Minneapolis Lakers (2)
1959[a] Pettit, BobBob Pettit* (3) Forward/Center  United States St. Louis Hawks (3)
1960 Chamberlain, WiltWilt Chamberlain* Center  United States Philadelphia Warriors (2)
1961 Robertson, OscarOscar Robertson* Guard  United States Cincinnati Royals
1962 Pettit, BobBob Pettit* (4) Forward/Center  United States St. Louis Hawks (4)
1963 Russell, BillBill Russell* Center  United States Boston Celtics (5)
1964 Robertson, OscarOscar Robertson* (2) Guard  United States Cincinnati Royals (2)
1965 Lucas, JerryJerry Lucas* Forward/Center  United States Cincinnati Royals (3)
1966 Smith, AdrianAdrian Smith Guard  United States Cincinnati Royals (4)
1967 Barry, RickRick Barry* Forward  United States San Francisco Warriors (3)
1968 Greer, HalHal Greer* Guard/Forward  United States Philadelphia 76ers
1969 Robertson, OscarOscar Robertson* (3) Guard  United States Cincinnati Royals (5)
1970 Reed, WillisWillis Reed* Center/Forward  United States New York Knicks
1971 Wilkens, LennyLenny Wilkens* Guard  United States Seattle SuperSonics
1972 West, JerryJerry West* Guard/Forward  United States Los Angeles Lakers (3)
1973 Cowens, DaveDave Cowens* Center/Forward  United States Boston Celtics (6)
1974 Lanier, BobBob Lanier* Center  United States Detroit Pistons
1975 Frazier, WaltWalt Frazier* Guard  United States New York Knicks (2)
1976 Bing, DaveDave Bing* Guard  United States Washington Bullets
1977 Erving, JuliusJulius Erving* Forward/Guard  United States Philadelphia 76ers (2)
1978 Smith, RandyRandy Smith Guard/Forward  United States Buffalo Braves
1979 Thompson, DavidDavid Thompson* Guard/Forward  United States Denver Nuggets
1980 Gervin, GeorgeGeorge Gervin* Guard/Forward  United States San Antonio Spurs
1981 Archibald, NateNate Archibald* Guard  United States Boston Celtics (7)
1982 Bird, LarryLarry Bird* Forward  United States Boston Celtics (8)
1983 Erving, JuliusJulius Erving* (2) Forward/Guard  United States Philadelphia 76ers (3)
1984 Thomas, IsiahIsiah Thomas* Guard  United States Detroit Pistons (2)
1985 Sampson, RalphRalph Sampson* Center/Forward  United States Houston Rockets
1986 Thomas, IsiahIsiah Thomas* (2) Guard  United States Detroit Pistons (3)
1987 Chambers, TomTom Chambers Forward/Center  United States Seattle SuperSonics (2)
1988 Jordan, MichaelMichael Jordan* Guard  United States Chicago Bulls
1989 Malone, KarlKarl Malone Forward  United States Utah Jazz
1990 Johnson, MagicMagic Johnson* Guard  United States Los Angeles Lakers (4)
1991 Barkley, CharlesCharles Barkley* Forward  United States Philadelphia 76ers (4)
1992 Johnson, MagicMagic Johnson* (2) Guard  United States Los Angeles Lakers (5)
1993[a] Stockton, JohnJohn Stockton* Guard  United States Utah Jazz (2)
1993[a] Malone, KarlKarl Malone* (2) Forward  United States Utah Jazz (3)
1994 Pippen, ScottieScottie Pippen* Forward/Guard  United States Chicago Bulls (2)
1995 Richmond, MitchMitch Richmond Guard  United States Sacramento Kings (6)
1996 Jordan, MichaelMichael Jordan* (2) Guard  United States Chicago Bulls (3)
1997 Rice, GlenGlen Rice Forward  United States Charlotte Hornets
1998 Jordan, MichaelMichael Jordan* (3) Guard  United States Chicago Bulls (4)
1999 Not awarded as the game was canceled due to the league’s lockout.[3]
2000[a] O’Neal, ShaquilleShaquille O’Neal Center  United States Los Angeles Lakers (6)
2000[a] Duncan, TimTim Duncan^ Forward/Center  United States[b] San Antonio Spurs (2)
2001 Iverson, AllenAllen Iverson Guard  United States Philadelphia 76ers (5)
2002 Bryant, KobeKobe Bryant^ Guard  United States Los Angeles Lakers (7)
2003 Garnett, KevinKevin Garnett^ Forward  United States Minnesota Timberwolves
2004 O’Neal, ShaquilleShaquille O’Neal (2) Center  United States Los Angeles Lakers (8)
2005 Iverson, AllenAllen Iverson (2) Guard  United States Philadelphia 76ers (6)
2006 James, LeBronLeBron James^ Forward  United States Cleveland Cavaliers
2007 Bryant, KobeKobe Bryant^ (2) Guard  United States Los Angeles Lakers (9)
2008 James, LeBronLeBron James^ (2) Forward  United States Cleveland Cavaliers (2)
2009[a] Bryant, KobeKobe Bryant^ (3) Guard  United States Los Angeles Lakers (10)
2009[a] O’Neal, ShaquilleShaquille O’Neal (3) Center  United States Phoenix Suns
2010 Wade, DwyaneDwyane Wade^ Guard  United States Miami Heat
2011 Bryant, KobeKobe Bryant^ (4) Guard  United States Los Angeles Lakers (11)
2012 Durant, KevinKevin Durant^ Forward  United States Oklahoma City Thunder

List of NBA champions

Source Wiki

The National Basketball Association (NBA) (or Basketball Association of America (BAA) from 1946–49) Finals is the championship series for the NBA and the conclusion of the sport’s postseason. All Finals have been played in a best-of-seven format, and contested between the winners of the Eastern Conference and the Western Conference (formerly Divisions before 1970), except in 1950 in which the Eastern Division champion faced the winner between the Western and Central Division champions. Prior to 1949, the playoffs were instituted a three-stage tournament where the two semifinal winners played each other in the finals.[1][2][3] The winning team of the series receives the Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy.

The home-and-away format in the NBA Finals was in a 2–2–1–1–1 format (that is, the team with the better regular season record plays on their home court in Games 1, 2, 5 and 7) until 1985 (except 1949 and 19531955, in a 2–3–2 format;[4][5][6][7] 1956 and 1971, in 1–1–1–1–1–1–1 format;[8][9] 1975 and 1978, in a 1–2–2–1–1 format).[10][11] After 1985, the games were changed to a 2–3–2 format (the team with the better regular season record plays on their home court in Games 1, 2, 6 and 7).[12]

The Eastern Conference/Division leads the Western Conference/Division in series won (35–27). The defunct Central Division won one championship. The Boston Celtics and the Minneapolis / Los Angeles Lakers alone own half of the titles, having won a combined 33 of 66 championships.

Trophies

 

 

The original Walter A. Brown Trophy displayed at the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame

 

 

The Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy. This trophy design was commissioned in 1977 to replace the original, retaining the Walter A. Brown Trophy name until 1984.

[edit] Walter A. Brown Trophy

The Walter A. Brown Trophy was a trophy awarded to the BAA/NBA champions from 1949 to 1977. The trophy was kept by the winning team for one year and given to the winning team of the following year’s finals, unless the previous team won again, much like the NHL’s Stanley Cup, which continues that tradition to this day.

The trophy was originally referred to as the NBA Finals trophy,[13] but was renamed in 1964 after Walter A. Brown, the original owner of the Boston Celtics who was instrumental in merging the BAA and the National Basketball League into the NBA in 1949.[14][15]

A new trophy design was created for the 1977 NBA Finals, although it retained the Walter A. Brown title. Unlike the original championship trophy, the new trophy was given permanently to the winning team and a new one was made every year. It was renamed the Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy in 1984 to honor former NBA commissioner Larry O’Brien.[16][17][18]

The inaugural winner of the trophy was the Philadelphia Warriors, who defeated the Chicago Stags.[19] The Boston Celtics won the trophy 14 times, the most in league history. From 1957 to 1969, they won the NBA Finals 11 out of 13 times, including eight consecutive wins. The final recipient of the trophy was the Philadelphia 76ers, who defeated the Los Angeles Lakers in the 1983 NBA Finals.

[edit] Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy

Main article: Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy

As mentioned above, the trophy was renamed to the Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy in 1984 in honor of Larry O’Brien, who served as the NBA commissioner from 1975 to 1983.[16] The trophy is made out of 14.5 pounds of sterling silver and vermeil with a 24 karat gold overlay, and stands 2 feet (0.61 m) tall. It is designed to look like a basketball about to enter a net. The year and team names are engraved on the trophies, and are often prominently displayed in the team’s arena.[17][18][20]

The Boston Celtics were the inaugural winner of the renamed trophy in 1984 defeating the Los Angeles Lakers in seven games (4–3) in the 1984 NBA Finals.[21] The Los Angeles Lakers have won the trophy eight times, and the Chicago Bulls have won it six times.[22] The Miami Heat are the current holders after winning the title in 2012.

 

 

 

 

[edit] Champions

[edit] Legend

 

 

Bold

Winning team of the NBA Finals

 

Had or tied for the best regular season record for that season

[edit] BAA champions

Year

Western Champion

Result

Eastern Champion

Reference

1947

Chicago Stags

1–4

Philadelphia Warriors

[23]

1948

Baltimore Bullets[a]

4–2

Philadelphia Warriors

[24]

1949

Minneapolis Lakers

4–2

Washington Capitols

[25]

[edit] NBA champions

Year

Western Champion

Result

Eastern Champion

Reference

1950

Minneapolis Lakers[b]

4–2

Syracuse Nationals

[27][26]

1951

Rochester Royals

4–3

New York Knicks

[28]

1952

Minneapolis Lakers

4–3

New York Knicks

[29]

1953

Minneapolis Lakers

4–1

New York Knicks

[30]

1954

Minneapolis Lakers

4–3

Syracuse Nationals

[31]

1955

Fort Wayne Pistons

3–4

Syracuse Nationals

[32]

1956

Fort Wayne Pistons

1–4

Philadelphia Warriors

[33]

1957

St. Louis Hawks

3–4

Boston Celtics

[34]

1958

St. Louis Hawks

4–2

Boston Celtics

[35]

1959

Minneapolis Lakers

0–4

Boston Celtics

[36]

1960

St. Louis Hawks

3–4

Boston Celtics

[37]

1961

St. Louis Hawks

1–4

Boston Celtics

[38]

1962

Los Angeles Lakers

3–4

Boston Celtics

[39]

1963

Los Angeles Lakers

2–4

Boston Celtics

[40]

1964[c]

San Francisco Warriors

1–4

Boston Celtics

[41]

1965

Los Angeles Lakers

1–4

Boston Celtics

[42]

1966

Los Angeles Lakers

3–4

Boston Celtics

[43]

1967

San Francisco Warriors

2–4

Philadelphia 76ers

[44]

1968

Los Angeles Lakers

2–4

Boston Celtics

[45]

1969

Los Angeles Lakers

3–4

Boston Celtics

[46]

1970

Los Angeles Lakers

3–4

New York Knicks

[47]

1971

Milwaukee Bucks

4–0

Baltimore Bullets

[48]

1972

Los Angeles Lakers

4–1

New York Knicks

[49]

1973

Los Angeles Lakers

1–4

New York Knicks

[50]

1974

Milwaukee Bucks

3–4

Boston Celtics

[51]

1975

Golden State Warriors

4–0

Washington Bullets

[52]

1976

Phoenix Suns

2–4

Boston Celtics

[53]

1977[d]

Portland Trail Blazers

4–2

Philadelphia 76ers

[54]

1978

Seattle SuperSonics

3–4

Washington Bullets

[55]

1979

Seattle SuperSonics

4–1

Washington Bullets

[56]

1980

Los Angeles Lakers

4–2

Philadelphia 76ers

[57]

1981

Houston Rockets

2–4

Boston Celtics

[58]

1982

Los Angeles Lakers

4–2

Philadelphia 76ers

[59]

1983

Los Angeles Lakers

0–4

Philadelphia 76ers

[60]

1984[e]

Los Angeles Lakers

3–4

Boston Celtics

[21]

1985

Los Angeles Lakers

4–2

Boston Celtics

[61]

1986

Houston Rockets

2–4

Boston Celtics

[62]

1987

Los Angeles Lakers

4–2

Boston Celtics

[63]

1988

Los Angeles Lakers

4–3

Detroit Pistons

[64]

1989

Los Angeles Lakers

0–4

Detroit Pistons

[65]

1990

Portland Trail Blazers

1–4

Detroit Pistons

[66]

1991

Los Angeles Lakers

1–4

Chicago Bulls

[67]

1992

Portland Trail Blazers

2–4

Chicago Bulls

[68]

1993

Phoenix Suns

2–4

Chicago Bulls

[69]

1994

Houston Rockets

4–3

New York Knicks

[70]

1995

Houston Rockets

4–0

Orlando Magic

[71]

1996

Seattle SuperSonics

2–4

Chicago Bulls

[72]

1997

Utah Jazz

2–4

Chicago Bulls

[73]

1998

Utah Jazz

2–4

Chicago Bulls

[74]

1999[f]

San Antonio Spurs

4–1

New York Knicks

[76]

2000

Los Angeles Lakers

4–2

Indiana Pacers

[77]

2001

Los Angeles Lakers

4–1

Philadelphia 76ers

[78]

2002

Los Angeles Lakers

4–0

New Jersey Nets

[79]

2003

San Antonio Spurs

4–2

New Jersey Nets

[80]

2004

Los Angeles Lakers

1–4

Detroit Pistons

[81]

2005

San Antonio Spurs

4–3

Detroit Pistons

[82]

2006

Dallas Mavericks

2–4

Miami Heat

[83]

2007

San Antonio Spurs

4–0

Cleveland Cavaliers

[84]

2008

Los Angeles Lakers

2–4

Boston Celtics

[85]

2009

Los Angeles Lakers

4–1

Orlando Magic

[86]

2010

Los Angeles Lakers

4–3

Boston Celtics

[87]

2011

Dallas Mavericks

4–2

Miami Heat

[88]

2012[g]

Oklahoma City Thunder

1–4

Miami Heat

[91]

[edit] Results by teams

Teams

Win

Loss

Total

Year(s) won

Year(s) lost

Boston Celtics

17

4

21

1957, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962,
1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1968,
1969, 1974, 1976, 1981, 1984,
1986, 2008
1958, 1985, 1987, 2010
Minneapolis / Los Angeles Lakers

16

15

31

1949, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1954,
1972, 1980, 1982, 1985, 1987,
1988, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2009,
2010
1959, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1966,
1968, 1969, 1970, 1973, 1983,
1984, 1989, 1991, 2004, 2008
Chicago Bulls

6

0

6

1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997,
1998

San Antonio Spurs

4

0

4

1999, 2003, 2005, 2007

Syracuse Nationals / Philadelphia 76ers

3

6

9

1955, 1967, 1983 1950, 1954, 1977, 1980, 1982,
2001
Fort Wayne / Detroit Pistons

3

4

7

1989, 1990, 2004 1955, 1956, 1988, 2005
Philadelphia / San Francisco / Golden State Warriors

3

3

6

1947, 1956, 1975 1948, 1964, 1967
New York Knicks

2

6

8

1970, 1973 1951, 1952, 1953, 1972, 1994,
1999
Houston Rockets

2

2

4

1994, 1995 1981, 1986
Miami Heat

2

1

3

2006, 2012 2011
Baltimore / Washington Bullets (now Washington Wizards)

1

3

4

1978 1971, 1975, 1979
St. Louis / Atlanta Hawks

1

3

4

1958 1957, 1960, 1961
Seattle SuperSonics/Oklahoma City Thunder

1

3

4

1979 1978, 1996, 2012
Portland Trail Blazers

1

2

3

1977 1990, 1992
Dallas Mavericks

1

1

2

2011 2006
Milwaukee Bucks

1

1

2

1971 1974
Rochester Royals (now Sacramento Kings)

1

0

1

1951

Baltimore Bullets (folded in 1954)[a]

1

0

1

1948

New Jersey Nets (now Brooklyn Nets)

0

2

2

2002, 2003
Orlando Magic

0

2

2

1995, 2009
Phoenix Suns

0

2

2

1976, 1993
Utah Jazz

0

2

2

1997, 1998
Cleveland Cavaliers

0

1

1

2007
Indiana Pacers

0

1

1

2000
Chicago Stags (folded in 1950)

0

1

1

1947
Washington Capitols (folded in 1951)

0

1

1

1949

[edit] Notes

  1. 1.     ^ Not affiliated with the present-day Washington Wizards who were known as the Baltimore/Capital/Washington Bullets from 1963 to 1997.
  2. 2.     ^ Due to the NBA’s realignment into three divisions, the team with the best regular season record after the Divisional Finals advanced automatically to the NBA Finals while the other two teams faced off in the NBA Semifinals to determine the other finalist. Eastern Division champion Syracuse had the best regular season record among the division champions, causing Central Division (no relation to the current Central Division) champion Minneapolis to face Western Division champion Anderson Packers in the NBA Semifinals.[26]
  3. 3.     ^ The trophy was renamed for Walter A. Brown.
  4. 4.     ^ The trophy was replaced by a new design.[17][18]
  5. 5.     ^ The trophy was renamed for Larry O’Brien.
  6. 6.     ^ Due to a lockout, the season did not start until February 5, 1999, and all 29 teams played a shortened 50 game regular season schedule.[75]
  7. 7.     ^ Due to a lockout, the season did not start until December 25, 2011 and all 30 teams played a shortened 66-game regular season schedule

The history Of NBA

sourceL wiki

National Basketball Association

 
Current season or competition:
2012–13 NBA season
NBALogo.svg
Sport Basketball
Founded June 6, 1946,
New York City, United States
Commissioner David Stern
Motto Where Amazing Happens
Inaugural season 1946–47
No. of teams 30
Country(ies) United States (29 teams)
Canada (1 team)
Continent FIBA Americas (Americas)
Most recent champion(s) Miami Heat (2nd title)
Most titles Boston Celtics (17 titles)
TV partner(s) ABC
ESPN
TNT
NBA TV
Official website www.NBA.com

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the pre-eminent men’s professional basketball league in North America. With thirty franchised member clubs (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada), the NBA is widely considered to be the premier men’s professional basketball league in the world. It is an active member of USA Basketball (USAB),[1] which is recognized by FIBA (also known as the International Basketball Federation) as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the 4 major North American professional sports leagues. NBA players are the world’s best paid sportsmen, by average annual salary per player.[2]

The league was founded in New York City on June 6, 1946 as the Basketball Association of America (BAA).[3] The league adopted the name National Basketball Association in 1949 after merging with the rival National Basketball League (NBL). The league’s several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in New York City. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in Secaucus, New Jersey.

Contents

 

[edit] History

[edit] Creation and merger

The Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada. On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now regards as the first played in its history.[4] Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play primarily in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not significantly better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league’s 1948 title, and the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title.

The headquarters of the National Basketball Association in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, USA.[5]

On August 3, 1949, the BAA agreed to merge with the NBL, creating the new National Basketball Association.[6] The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities,[6] as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises, all of which are still in the league (the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Golden State Warriors, Los Angeles Lakers, Royals/Kings, Detroit Pistons, Atlanta Hawks, and Nationals/76ers). The process of contraction saw the league’s smaller-city franchises move to larger cities. The Hawks shifted from “Tri-Cities” (the area now known as the Quad Cities) to Milwaukee (in 1951) and then to St. Louis, Missouri (in 1955); the Royals from Rochester, New York to Cincinnati (in 1957); and the Pistons from Fort Wayne, Indiana to Detroit (in 1957).

Although Japanese-American Wataru Misaka technically broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, 1950 is recognized as the year the NBA integrated. This year witnessed the addition of African American players by several teams, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel “Sweetwater” Clifton with the Knicks, and Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league’s first dynasty.[7] To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.[8] If a team does not attempt to score a field goal (or the ball fails to make contact with the rim) within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent.

[edit] Celtics’ dominance, league expansion, and competition

In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, who already featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, and went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring (100) and rebounding (55). Russell’s rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest in the history of American team sports.

Bill Russell defending Wilt Chamberlain in 1966.

The 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from the 1959–66. This championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966-67, but regained it in the 1967-68 season and repeated in 1969. The domination totaled nine of the 10 championship banners of the 1960s.[9]

Through this period, the NBA continued to strengthen with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, and the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises. The Chicago Packers (now Washington Wizards) became the ninth NBA team in 1961. From 1966 to 1968, the league expanded from 9 to 14 teams, introducing the Chicago Bulls, Seattle SuperSonics (now Oklahoma City Thunder), San Diego Rockets (who relocated to Houston four years later), Milwaukee Bucks, and Phoenix Suns.

In 1967, the league faced a new external threat with the formation of the American Basketball Association (ABA). The leagues engaged in a bidding war. The NBA landed the most important college star of the era, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (then known as Lew Alcindor). However, the NBA’s leading scorer, Rick Barry, jumped to the ABA, as did four veteran referees—Norm Drucker, Earl Strom, John Vanak, and Joe Gushue.[10]

In 1969, Alan Siegel, who oversaw the design of Jerry Dior’s Major League Baseball logo a year prior, created the modern NBA logo inspired by the MLB’s. It incorporates the silhouette of the legendary Jerry West based on a photo by Wen Roberts, although NBA officials denied a particular player as being its influence because, according to Siegel, “They want to institutionalize it rather than individualize it. It’s become such a ubiquitous, classic symbol and focal point of their identity and their licensing program that they don’t necessarily want to identify it with one player.” The iconic logo debuted in 1971 and would remain a fixture of the NBA brand.[11][12]

The ABA succeeded in signing a number of major stars in the ’70s, including Julius Erving of the Virginia Squires, in part because it allowed teams to sign college undergraduates. The NBA expanded rapidly during this period, one purpose being to tie up the most viable cities. From 1966 to 1974, the NBA grew from nine franchises to 18. In 1970, the Portland Trail Blazers, Cleveland Cavaliers, and Buffalo Braves (now the Los Angeles Clippers) all made their debuts expanding the league to 17.[13] The New Orleans Jazz (now in Utah) came aboard in 1974 bringing the total to 18. Following the 1976 season, the leagues reached a settlement that provided for the addition of four ABA franchises to the NBA, raising the number of franchises in the league at that time to 22. The franchises added were the San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets, Indiana Pacers, and New York Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets). Some of the biggest stars of this era were Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Rick Barry, Dave Cowens, Julius Erving, Elvin Hayes, Walt Frazier, Moses Malone, Artis Gilmore, George Gervin, Dan Issel, and Pete Maravich. The end of the decade, however, saw declining TV ratings, low attendance and drug-related player issues – both perceived and real – that threatened to derail the NBA.

[edit] Surging popularity

Los Angeles Lakers Magic Johnson and Boston Celtics Larry Bird in Game Two of the 1985 NBA Finals at Boston Garden.

The league added the ABA’s innovative three-point field goal beginning in 1979 to open up the game. That same year, rookies Larry Bird and Magic Johnson joined the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers respectively, initiating a period of significant growth in fan interest in the NBA throughout the country and the world. In 1984 they played against each other for the first time in the NBA Finals. Johnson went on to lead the Lakers to five titles, and Bird went on to lead the Celtics to three. Also in the early ’80s, the NBA added one more expansion franchise, the Dallas Mavericks, bringing the total to 23 teams. Later on, Larry Bird won the first three three-point shooting contests. Current league commissioner David Stern took office on April 1, 1984, and oversaw the expansion and growth of the NBA to a global commodity.

Michael Jordan going in for a dunk

Michael Jordan entered the league in 1984 with the Chicago Bulls, providing an even more popular star to support growing interest in the league. This resulted in more cities demanding teams of their own. In 1988 and 1989, four cities got their wishes as the Charlotte Hornets, Miami Heat, Orlando Magic, and Minnesota Timberwolves made their NBA debuts, bringing the total to 27 teams. In the first year of the 1990s, the Detroit Pistons would win the second of their back-to-back titles, led by Chuck Daly and Isiah Thomas. Jordan and Scottie Pippen would lead the Bulls to two three-peats in eight years during the 1991–98 seasons. Hakeem Olajuwon won back-to-back titles with the Houston Rockets in ’94 and ’95.

The 1992 Olympic basketball Dream Team, the first to use current NBA stars, featured Michael Jordan as the anchor, along with Bird, Magic, David Robinson, Patrick Ewing, Scottie Pippen, Clyde Drexler, Karl Malone, John Stockton, Chris Mullin, Charles Barkley, and Christian Laettner.

In 1995, the NBA expanded to Canada with the addition of the Vancouver Grizzlies and the Toronto Raptors. In 2001, the Vancouver Grizzlies relocated to Memphis, which left the Raptors as the only Canadian team in the NBA. In 1996, the NBA created a women’s league, the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA). In 1998, the NBA owners began a lockout which lasted 191 days and was settled on January 18, 1999. As a result of this lockout the 1998–99 NBA season was reduced from 82 to 50 games (61% of a normal season), and the All-Star Game was cancelled. The San Antonio Spurs won their first championship, and first by a former ABA team, by beating the New York Knicks, who were the first, and to this date, the only, eighth seed to ever make the NBA Finals.

[edit] Modern era

Since the breakup of the Chicago Bulls championship roster in the summer of 1998, the Western Conference has dominated, with the Los Angeles Lakers and San Antonio Spurs combining to win the title in nine of fourteen years. Tim Duncan and David Robinson won the 1999 championship with the Spurs, and Shaquille O’Neal and Kobe Bryant started the 2000s with three consecutive championships for the Lakers. The Spurs reclaimed the title in 2003 against the Nets. In 2004, the Lakers returned to the Finals, only to fall in five games to the Detroit Pistons.

Dirk Nowitzki and John Wall in action as the Dallas Mavericks face the Washington Wizards in 2011

After the Spurs took home the Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy in 2005, the 2006 Finals featured two franchises making their inaugural Finals appearances. The Miami Heat, led by their star shooting guard, Dwyane Wade, and Shaquille O’Neal, who had been traded from the Lakers during the 2004 summer, won the series over the Dallas Mavericks in 6 after losing the first two games. The Lakers/Spurs dominance continued in 2007 with a four-game sweep by the Spurs over the Cleveland Cavaliers, who were led by LeBron James. The 2008 Finals saw a rematch of the league’s highest profile rivalry, the Boston Celtics and Los Angeles Lakers, with the Celtics prevailing, for their league leading 17th championship, thanks to their new big three of Paul Pierce, Ray Allen, and Kevin Garnett.

In 2009, the Lakers with Kobe Bryant returned to the Finals, this time defeating the Dwight Howard-led Orlando Magic.[14] Kobe Bryant won his first Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award award in his 13th season after leading the Lakers to their first NBA championship since the departure of Shaquille O’Neal.[15]

The 2010 NBA All-Star Game was held at Cowboys Stadium in front of the largest crowd ever, 108,713.[16] At the end of that season, the Celtics and the Lakers renewed their rivalry from 2008 when they met again in the NBA Finals for a record 12th time. The Lakers won the title in Game 7, 83–79.[17] Before the start of the 2010–11 season the NBA had an exciting summer with one of the most anticipated free agent classes of all time. Two of which signed, and one resigned, with the Miami Heat, leading to a season that was heavily centered on their eventual success or failure at taking home the championship. The Heat, led by LeBron James, Dwyane Wade, and Chris Bosh, did in fact make the Finals against the Dallas Mavericks, in a rematch for the franchises of the 2006 Finals. The Mavericks, led by Dirk Nowitzki (the eventual NBA Finals MVP), took the series in six games. This was the Mavericks’ first title. Other veterans like Shawn Marion, Jason Kidd, and Jason Terry also won their first titles with Nowitzki.

On July 1, 2011, at 12:01 a.m., the NBA announced another lockout.[18] After the first few weeks of the season were canceled, the players and owners ratified a new collective bargaining agreement on December 8, 2011, setting up a shortened 66-game season.[19]

[edit] International influence

Further information: List of foreign NBA players
This list of “famous” or “notable” sporting persons has no clear inclusion or exclusion criteria. Please help to define clear inclusion criteria and edit the list to contain only subjects that fit that criteria. (June 2012)

Following pioneers like Dražen Petrović (Croatia) who joined the NBA in the late 1980s, an increasing number of international players have moved directly from playing elsewhere in the world to starring in the NBA. Below is a short list of notable foreign players, either currently or formerly active in the league:

On some occasions, young players, most but not all from the English-speaking world, have attended U.S. colleges before playing in the NBA. Notable examples are:

Since 2006, the NBA has faced Euroleague teams in exhibition matches in the NBA Europe Live Tour and since 2009 in the Euroleague American Tour.

The 2009–10 season season opened with a record of 83 international players on the opening night rosters, tying the record set in the 2006–07 season.[20]

[edit] Other developments

In 2001, an affiliated minor league, the National Basketball Development League, now called the NBA Development League (or D-League) was created.[21] Before the league was started, there were strong rumors that the NBA would purchase the CBA, and call it its developmental league, as the Continental Basketball Association was its “minor league” affiliate for years. 20% of NBA players spent time in this league and over 143 players have been called up to play in the NBA.[citation needed]

In 2004, two years after the Hornets’ relocation to New Orleans, the NBA returned to North Carolina as the Charlotte Bobcats were formed as an expansion team.

In 2005, the Hornets relocated to Oklahoma City for two seasons because of damage caused by Hurricane Katrina. In 2007, the Hornets returned to New Orleans.

On June 28, 2006, a new official game ball was introduced for the 2006–07 season, marking the first change to the ball in over 35 years and only the second ball in 60 seasons.[22] Manufactured by Spalding, the new ball featured a new design and new synthetic material that Spalding claimed offered a better grip, feel, and consistency than the original ball. However, many players were vocal in their disdain for the new ball, saying that it was too sticky when dry, and too slippery when wet.

On December 11, 2006, Commissioner Stern announced that beginning January 1, 2007, the NBA would return to the traditional leather basketball in use prior to the 2006–07 season. The change was influenced by frequent player complaints and confirmed hand injuries (cuts) caused by the microfiber ball.[23] The Players’ Association had filed a suit in behalf of the players against the NBA over the new ball.[24] As of 2006, the NBA team jerseys are manufactured by Adidas, which purchased the previous supplier, Reebok.

On July 19, 2007, the Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated allegations that veteran NBA referee Tim Donaghy bet on basketball games he officiated over the past two seasons and that he made calls affecting the point spread in those games.[25] On August 15, 2007, Donaghy pleaded guilty to two federal charges related to the investigation. However, he could face additional charges if it is determined that he deliberately miscalled individual games. Donaghy claimed in 2008 that certain refs were friendly with players and “company men” for the NBA. Donaghy alleged that refs influenced the outcome of certain playoff and finals games in 2002 and 2005. NBA commissioner David Stern denied the allegations and said Donaghy was a convicted felon and a “singing, cooperating witness”.[26] Donaghy served 15 months in prison and was released in November 2009.[27] According to an independent study by Ronald Beech of Game 6 of the NBA 2002 Western Conference Finals between the Lakers and Kings, although the refs increased the Lakers’ chances of winning through foul calls during the game, there was no collusion to fix the game. On alleged “star treatment” during Game 6 by the refs toward certain players, Beech claimed, “there does seem to be issues with different standards and allowances for different players.” [28]

On July 2, 2008, it was announced that the Seattle SuperSonics would relocate to Oklahoma City. The Oklahoma City Thunder began playing in the 2008–09 season.

On October 11, 2008, the Phoenix Suns and the Denver Nuggets played the first outdoor game in the modern era of the NBA at the Indian Wells Tennis Garden.[29]

On September 1, 2009, the contract between the NBA and its referees expired, creating a referee lockout. On October 1, 2009, the first preseason games were played and replacement referees from the WNBA and NBA Development League were used. The last time replacement referees were used was the beginning of the 1995–96 season.[30] The NBA and the regular referees reached a deal on October 23, 2009.[31]

In 2011 the first official NBA league games on European ground took place. In two matchups the New Jersey Nets faced the Toronto Raptors in London‘s O2 Arena in front of over 20,000 fans.

In July 2011, the NBA laid off around 114 league employees (about 11 percent of all the league office workforce) to save money.[32]

The 2011–12 NBA season, scheduled to begin November 1, 2011 with a matchup between the defending champion Dallas Mavericks and the Chicago Bulls, was postponed due to a labor dispute. The lockout officially ended on December 8, 2011, when players and owners ratified a new collective bargaining agreement, and the season began on Christmas Day.

On April 30, 2012, the New Jersey Nets officially changed their name to the Brooklyn Nets. They will begin playing in the New York City borough of Brooklyn in the 2012–13 season.

[edit] Teams

The NBA originated in 1946 with 11 teams, and through a sequence of team expansions, reductions, and relocations currently consists of 30 teams. The United States is home to 29 teams and one is located in Canada. The Boston Celtics have won the most championships with 17 NBA Finals wins. The second most successful franchise is the Los Angeles Lakers, who have 16 overall championships (11 in Los Angeles, 5 in Minneapolis). Following the Lakers are the Chicago Bulls with six championships, all of them over an 8-year span during the 1990s, and the San Antonio Spurs with four championships, all since 1999.

The current league organization divides thirty teams into two conferences of three divisions with five teams each. The current divisional alignment was introduced in the 2004–05 season.

Division Team City, Region Arena Founded Joined Head coach
Eastern Conference
Atlantic Boston Celtics Boston, MA TD Garden 1946 Doc Rivers
Brooklyn Nets Brooklyn, New York City, NY Barclays Center 1967* 1976 Avery Johnson
New York Knicks Manhattan, New York City, NY Madison Square Garden 1946 Mike Woodson
Philadelphia 76ers Philadelphia, PA Wells Fargo Center 1946* 1949 Doug Collins
Toronto Raptors Toronto, ON Air Canada Centre 1995 Dwane Casey
Central Chicago Bulls Chicago, IL United Center 1966 Tom Thibodeau
Cleveland Cavaliers Cleveland, OH Quicken Loans Arena 1970 Byron Scott
Detroit Pistons Auburn Hills, MI The Palace of Auburn Hills 1941* 1948 Lawrence Frank
Indiana Pacers Indianapolis, IN Bankers Life Fieldhouse 1967 1976 Frank Vogel
Milwaukee Bucks Milwaukee, WI BMO Harris Bradley Center 1968 Scott Skiles
Southeast Atlanta Hawks Atlanta, GA Philips Arena 1946* 1949 Larry Drew
Charlotte Bobcats Charlotte, NC Time Warner Cable Arena 2004 Mike Dunlap
Miami Heat Miami, FL American Airlines Arena 1988 Erik Spoelstra
Orlando Magic Orlando, FL Amway Center 1989 Jacque Vaughn
Washington Wizards Washington, D.C. Verizon Center 1961* Randy Wittman
Western Conference
Northwest Denver Nuggets Denver, CO Pepsi Center 1967 1976 George Karl
Minnesota Timberwolves Minneapolis, MN Target Center 1989 Rick Adelman
Oklahoma City Thunder Oklahoma City, OK Chesapeake Energy Arena 1967* Scott Brooks
Portland Trail Blazers Portland, OR Rose Garden 1970 Terry Stotts
Utah Jazz Salt Lake City, UT EnergySolutions Arena 1974* Tyrone Corbin
Pacific Golden State Warriors Oakland, CA Oracle Arena 1946* Mark Jackson
Los Angeles Clippers Los Angeles, CA Staples Center 1970* Vinny Del Negro
Los Angeles Lakers Los Angeles, CA Staples Center 1947* 1948 Mike Brown
Phoenix Suns Phoenix, AZ US Airways Center 1968 Alvin Gentry
Sacramento Kings Sacramento, CA Power Balance Pavilion 1945* 1948 Keith Smart
Southwest Dallas Mavericks Dallas, TX American Airlines Center 1980 Rick Carlisle
Houston Rockets Houston, TX Toyota Center 1967* Kevin McHale
Memphis Grizzlies Memphis, TN FedExForum 1995* Lionel Hollins
New Orleans Hornets New Orleans, LA New Orleans Arena 1988* Monty Williams
San Antonio Spurs San Antonio, TX AT&T Center 1967* 1976 Gregg Popovich
Notes
  1. An asterisk (*) denotes a franchise move. See the respective team articles for more information.
  2. The Fort Wayne Pistons, Minneapolis Lakers and Rochester Royals all joined the NBA (BAA) in 1948 from the NBL.
  3. The Syracuse Nationals and Tri-Cities Blackhawks joined the NBA in 1949 as part of the BAA-NBL merger.
  4. The Indiana Pacers, New York Nets, San Antonio Spurs, and Denver Nuggets all joined the NBA in 1976 as part of the NBA-ABA merger.

[edit] Regular season

Following the summer break, teams begin training camps in late September. Training camps allow the coaching staff to evaluate players (especially rookies), scout the team’s strengths and weaknesses, prepare the players for the rigorous regular season, and determine the 12-man active roster (and a 3-man inactive list) with which they will begin the regular season. Teams have the ability to assign players with less than two years of experience to the NBA development league. After training camp, a series of preseason exhibition games are held. The NBA regular season begins in the last week of October.

During the regular season, each team plays 82 games, 41 each home and away. A team faces opponents in its own division four times a year (16 games). Each team plays six of the teams from the other two divisions in its conference four times (24 games), and the remaining four teams three times (12 games). Finally, each team plays all the teams in the other conference twice apiece (30 games). This asymmetrical structure means the strength of schedule will vary between teams (but not as significantly as the NFL or MLB). Over five seasons, each team will have played 80 games against their division (20 games against each opponent, 10 at home, 10 on the road), 180 games against the rest of their conference (18 games against each opponent, 9 at home, 9 on the road), and 150 games against the other conference (10 games against each team, 5 at home, 5 on the road).

The Miami Heat playing the Orlando Magic in 2011

As of 2008, the NBA is one of only two of the Big 4 in North America in which teams play every other team during the regular season (the other being the National Hockey League). Each team hosts and visits every other team at least once every season. For a few seasons until 2008, the NBA had the distinction of being the only one of the four major leagues in which all teams play every other team.

The NBA is also the only league that regularly schedules games on Christmas Day.[33] The league has been playing games regularly on the holiday since 1947,[34] though the first Christmas Day games weren’t televised until 1983–84.[35] Games played on this day have featured some of the best teams and players.[33][34][35] Christmas is also notable for NBA on television, as the holiday is when the first NBA games air on network television each season.[34][35] Games played on this day have been some of the highest-rated games during a particular season.

In February, the regular season pauses to celebrate the annual NBA All-Star Game. Fans vote throughout the United States, Canada, and on the Internet, and the top vote-getters at each position in each conference are given a starting spot on their conference’s All-Star team. Coaches vote to choose the remaining 14 All-Stars. Then, Eastern conference players face the Western conference players in the All-Star game. The player with the best performance during the game is rewarded with a Game MVP award. Other attractions of the All-Star break include the Rookie Challenge, where the top rookies and second-year players in the NBA play against each other in a 5-on-5 basketball game; the Skills Challenge, where players compete to finish an obstacle course consisting of shooting, passing, and dribbling in the fastest time; the Three Point Contest, where players compete to score the most amount of three-point field goals in a given time; and the NBA Slam Dunk Contest, where players compete to dunk the ball in the most entertaining way according to the judges. These other attractions have varying names which include the names of the various sponsors who have paid for naming rights.

Shortly after the All-Star break is the trade deadline, which is set to fall on the 16th Thursday of the season (usually in February) at 3pm Eastern Time.[36][37] After this date, teams are not allowed to exchange players with each other for the remainder of the season, although they may still sign and release players. Major trades are often completed right before the trading deadline, making that day a hectic time for general managers.

Around the middle of April, the regular season ends. It is during this time that voting begins for individual awards, as well as the selection of the honorary, league-wide, post-season teams. The Sixth Man of the Year Award is given to the best player coming off the bench (must have more games coming off the bench than actual games started). The Rookie of the Year Award is awarded to the most outstanding first-year player. The Most Improved Player Award is awarded to the player who is deemed to have shown the most improvement from the previous season. The Defensive Player of the Year Award is awarded to the league’s best defender. The Coach of the Year Award is awarded to the coach that has made the most positive difference to a team. The Most Valuable Player Award is given to player deemed the most valuable for (his team) that season. Additionally, Sporting News awards an unofficial (but widely recognized) Executive of the Year Award to the general manager who is adjudged to have performed the best job for the benefit of his franchise.

The post-season teams are the All-NBA Team, the All-Defensive Team, and the All-Rookie Team; each consists of five players. There are three All-NBA teams, consisting of the top players at each position, with first-team status being the most desirable. There are two All-Defensive teams, consisting of the top defenders at each position. There are also two All-Rookie teams, consisting of the top first-year players regardless of position.

[edit] Playoffs

Main article: NBA Playoffs

The Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy is awarded to the winner of the NBA Finals.

NBA Playoffs begin in late April, with eight teams in each conference going for the Championship. The three division winners, along with the team with the next best record from the conference are given the top four seeds. The next four teams in terms of record are given the lower four seeds.

Having a higher seed offers several advantages. Since the first seed begins the playoffs playing against the eighth seed, the second seed plays the seventh seed, the third seed plays the sixth seed, and the fourth seed plays the fifth seed, having a higher seed means a team faces a weaker team in the first round. The team in each series with the better record has home court advantage, including the First Round. This means that, for example, if the team who receives the 5 seed has a better record than the team with the 4 seed (by virtue of a divisional championship), the 5 seed would have home court advantage, even though the other team has a higher seed. Therefore, the team with the best regular season record in the league is guaranteed home court advantage in every series it plays. For example, in 2006, the Denver Nuggets won 44 games and captured the Northwest Division and the #3 seed. Their opponent was the #6 seed Los Angeles Clippers, who won 47 games and finished second in the Pacific Division. Although Denver won its much weaker division, the Clippers had home-court advantage and won the series in 5.

The playoffs follow a tournament format. Each team plays an opponent in a best-of-seven series, with the first team to win four games advancing into the next round, while the other team is eliminated from the playoffs. In the next round, the successful team plays against another advancing team of the same conference. All but one team in each conference are eliminated from the playoffs. Since the NBA does not re-seed teams, the playoff bracket in each conference uses a traditional design, with the winner of the series matching the 1st and 8th seeded teams playing the winner of the series matching the 4th and 5th seeded teams, and the winner of the series matching the 2nd and 7th seeded teams playing the winner of the series matching the 3rd and 6th seeded teams. In every round except the NBA Finals, the best-of-7 series follows a 2–2–1–1–1 home-court pattern, meaning that one team will have home court in games 1, 2, 5, and 7, while the other plays at home in games 3, 4, and 6. For the NBA Finals, the series follows a 2–3–2 pattern, meaning that one team will have home court in games 1, 2, 6, and 7, while the other plays at home in games 3, 4, and 5. The 2–3–2 pattern has been in place since 1985.

The final playoff round, a best-of-seven series between the victors of both conferences, is known as the NBA Finals, and is held annually in June. The victor in the NBA Finals wins the Larry O’Brien Championship Trophy. Each player and major contributor—including coaches and the general manager—on the winning team receive a championship ring. In addition, the league awards the Bill Russell NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award to the best performing player of the series.

On August 2, 2006, the NBA announced the new playoff format. The new format takes the three division winners and the second-place team with the best record and rank them 1–4 by record. The other 4 slots are filled by best record other than those other 4 teams.[38] Previously, the top three seeds went to the division winners.

[edit] International competitions

The National Basketball Association has sporadically participated in international club competitions. From 1987 to 1999 the NBA champions played against the continental champions of the Fédération Internationale de Basketball (FIBA) in the McDonald’s Championship. This tournament was won by the NBA invitee every year it was held. FIBA is organizing a new World Club Championship to begin in 2010, and currently plans to invite the NBA champions starting in 2011.[39]

[edit] Notable people

[edit] Presidents and commissioners

Further information: Commissioner of the NBA

[edit] Players

[edit] Coaches

[edit] Awards

[edit] See also

The end @copyright 2012

Informasi dari Gubernur Baru Jakarta Joko Widodo (JOKOWI INFORMATIONS COLLECTIONS)

JOKO WIDODO

(JOKOWI)

INFORMATIONS COLLECTIOBNS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Introductions

Baru saja Joko Widdod alias JOKWI memeangkan Pemilihan gubernuk DKI Jakarta berdasarkan Quick Count belaiu meraih  54 ,11%  suara dari rakyat Jakarta dan Gubernur yang lama DR Fauzi Bowo telah mengucapkan selamat kepadanya

jokowi info collections

Biodata Joko Widodo

Nama : Joko Widodo

alias: JOKOWI
Tempat Tanggal Lahir: Surakarta, 21 Juni 1961
Agama : Islam
Pekerjaan : Pengusaha
Agama : Islam
Profil Facebook : jokowi
Akun twitter : jokowi_do2
Email: jokowi@indo.net.id
Alamat Kantor : Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 2 Telp. 644644, 642020, Psw 400, Fax. 646303
Alamat Rumah Dinas : Rumah Dinas Loji Gandrung Jl. Slamet Riyadi No. 261 Telp. 712004
HP. 0817441111
Pendidikan:

  • SDN 111 Tirtoyoso Solo
  • SMPN 1 Solo
  • SMAN 6 Solo
  • Fakultas Kehutanan UGM Yogyakarta lulusan 1985

Karir:

  • Pendiri Koperasi Pengembangan Industri Kecil Solo (1990)
  • Ketua Bidang Pertambangan & Energi Kamar Dagang dan Industri Surakarta (1992-1996)
  • Ketua Asosiasi Permebelan dan Industri Kerajinan Indonesia Surakarta (2002-2007)
  • Gunernur terpilih DKI Jakarta 2012

Asal Nama Julukan Jokowi

“Jokowi itu pemberian nama dari buyer saya dari Prancis,” begitu kata Wali Kota Solo, Joko Widodo, saat ditanya dari mana muncul nama Jokowi. Kata dia, begitu banyak nama dengan nama depan Joko yang jadi eksportir mebel kayu. Pembeli dari luar bingung untuk membedakan, Joko yang ini apa Joko yang itu. Makanya, dia terus diberi nama khusus, ‘Jokowi’. Panggilan itu kemudian melekat sampai sekarang. Di kartu nama yang dia berikan tertulis, Jokowi, Wali Kota Solo. Belakangan dia mengecek, di Solo yang namanya persis Joko Widodo ada 16 orang.
Saat ini, Jokowi menjabat untuk periode kedua. Kemenangan mutlak diperoleh saat pemilihan wali kota tahun lalu. Nama Jokowi kini tidak hanya populer, tapi kepribadiannya juga disukai masyarakat. Setidaknya, ketika pergi ke pasar-pasar, para pedagang beramai-ramai memanggilnya, atau paling tidak berbisik pada orang sebelahnya, “Eh..itu Pak Joko.”

PICTURE COLLECTIONS

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CARICATURE COLLECTIONS

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 jakarta firs lady mrs jokowi profile

Istri Jokowi:

Menang Kalah itu Risiko

Tribunnews.com – Minggu, 25 Maret 2012 08:23 WIB 
Istri Jokowi: Menang Kalah itu Risiko

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
//

TRIBUNNEWS.COM –

Dengan tersenyum dan mencoba berdiplomasi di hadapan para wartawan di Loji Gandrung, Selasa awal pekan lalu, istri Wali Kota Solo Joko Widodo, Iriana menegaskan dirinya siap mengikuti keputusan sang suami, termasuk menanggung risiko terkait keputusan maju sebagai calon gubernur DKI Jakarta.

“Sebagai istri saya mendukung keputusan suami. Mengalir saja. Menang kalah adalah risiko, dan apabila kalah pun harus juga siap,” ujarnya.

Keputusan Joko Widodo menjadi calon gubernur DKI berpasangan dengan Basuki Tjahaja Purnama alias Ahok, sudah disinggung dalam keluarga, termasuk dengan anak anak mereka.  “Tunggu saja Pak Joko. Saya juga belum tahu teknisnya seperti apa selama kampanye,” katanya.

Dukungan penuh ditunjukan Iriana kepada Jokowi saat menaggapi pertanyaan wartawan. Ia hanya mengatakan, “Tidak bisa ditunjukkan lewat kata-kata sikap dukungan saya. Ini adalah tugas berat ya, jadi kita harus support dan berdoa semua lancar. Dan apabila Pak Joko menang, saya siap,” katanya singkat

source tribune news

Isteri AHOK

 Veronica Basuki T. Purnama

SIAPAKAH JOKO WIDODOD?

WHOS IS JOKO WIDODO? 

 Whos IS JOKO WIDODO? 
source. Biography Jokowi (Joko Widodo)
Monday, July 23, 2012
Biography Jokowi (Joko Widodo)
 
 
Jokowi is a prominent leader and Mayor of Solo commendable role promoting Esemka Cars. Ir. Joko Widodo (Jokowi) is the mayor of Surakarta (Solo) for twice the term of office 2005-2015. Deputy mayor is F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo. Jokowi born in Surakarta on June 21, 1961. Jokowi religion is Islam.Biography Jokowi (Joko Widodo)
Jokowi engineer degree from the Faculty of Forestry in 1985. When running for mayor of Solo, many doubted the ability of a man who is a merchant’s house and garden furniture, and even up to the time he was elected. But a year after he led many progressive breakthrough made by him. He took the example of the development of many cities in Europe that often he visits in order to a business trip.Under his leadership, Solo would change rapidly. Branding for the city of Solo performed by approving the motto “Solo: The Spirit of Java”. Does progressive step enough for the size of the cities in Java: it is able to relocate the junk dealer in the Garden Banjarsari almost no turbulence to revitalize the function of open green land, provides qualified investors to want to think about the public interest, conduct regular direct and open communication (broadcast by local television) with the community. Balekambang Park, which displaced since abandoned by its administrators, maketh the park. Jokowi also did not hesitate to dismiss investor who does not agree with the principle of leadership. As a follow-up branding Surakarta he filed to become a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities and accepted in 2006. The step continues with the success of Surakarta to host the organization’s conference in October 2008. In 2007 Surakarta has also hosted the World Music Festival (FMD) which was held at Fort Vastenburg complex threatened to be evicted the business and shopping center. FMD in 2008 was held in the Palace complex Mangkunegaran.
Thanks to these achievements, Jokowi selected as one of “10 Leaders 2008” by the magazine Tempo.Origin Name Nickname Jokowi
“Jokowi was the name of my buyers from France,” says Mayor of Solo, Joko Widodo, when asked where the name appears Jokowi. He said, so many names with the first name Jim who became exporters of wooden furniture. Buyers from outside the confused to distinguish, that’s what Joko Joko it. So, he keeps a special named, ‘Jokowi’. The call is then attached to the present. In the card he gave a written, Jokowi, Solo Mayor. Later he checked, his name right in Solo Joko Widodo there are 16 people.
Currently, Jokowi served for the second period. Absolute victory obtained at the municipal elections last year. Name Jokowi now not only popular, but his personality is also appreciated by the public. At least, when going to the markets, traders abuzz call, or at least whisper to the next, “Eh .. it was Pak Joko.”
How is it that he can be loved the Solo? Any policy that has made the people happy? Why did he have to step on their employees? Reuters reporters following interview, Pappilanda Ditto, with Jokowi recent travels throughout the half-day in around Solo.What attitude do you bring in running career as a bureaucrat?
In principle, I only work for the people. Just that simple. I think baseball stuff, wong can not get anything. Want judged to be good, please, willing rated well, yes please. My job’s just work. Nah no willingness sorts. Baseball had any target. Work. That’s it.
Right, I do not heroics and exactly what we are doing even everyone can work on. Just, like baseball. Intentions baseball. That’s it. Baseball goes high. Simple as that.
For example, five years ago, we in the district ID card service snafu. ID cards could be two weeks, it could be three weeks of completion. There is no clear time. Depending on who asks, can a week, two weeks could. However, by improving the system, will be able to change anything. Setting up the system, then implementing the system, and if there is a baseball would implement the system, yes, I stepped on.
Originally internal reaction how?
Yes always, resistance year ahead, but after that, well, ordinary. Everything that was normal, so everyone was pleased. Yes, we understand that this cake, it turned out so well be done.
To change the system ID, three headman me off, I dislodged the district. At that time, when the meeting followed by 51 village heads, village heads there are three that seem intent. Nah maybe an hour, sir, at least three days, they said. The next day the old man out of office. If I am, so alone. Meeting five district again, there is one district, hard pack, because they have data entry. Wow this is the same, lah. Yes, it is.
In fact, after they are gone, the system is able to walk. The entire district is now like a bank. There is no longer a gap between the public and employees, is open all. One hour has also been finished. Rupiah to be paid according to regulations, Rp 5,000.
You also had an interesting experience in handling Merchants Street Markets (PKL) who then many a reference?
Iya. Now many of the areas here, like changing the mindset. Oh apparently handling (PKL) be without a fight. It is not easy. Our experience at that time was to move street vendors in the district that has been used as a place Banjarsari selling even a place to stay for more than 20 years. The area was actually the elite, but as a trading place and a place to stay, that look is untidiness.
Five years ago, they invited me to eat here (meeting the mayor’s office). I go to lunch, I invited dinner. I was talking to. Up to 54 times, I go to lunch, dinner, like this. Seven months like this. Finally, they want to move. Baseball goes in-gebukin.Why it took seven months, why not in the first three months?
We see-saw the wind, lah. If you see, the first time I spoke to them here, they are all direct attach banners. Anyway, if removed, would fight to the death, nyiapin bamboo spears. In fact, no one threatened to burn the town hall.
The heat it until the meeting to what?
Still up to the 30th meeting. Meeting new 30-50 we speak. What they need, what they want, what they worry about. First, they asked the nine route public transportation to get to new areas. We give three public transit. The road is narrow, we are broadening.
The difficult part is, they want assurances turnover in the new as in the old. Well, what the mayor told to warrant such. My answer, sustenance above set, but four months later would I advertise on local television, in local newspapers, I put banners all over town. Finally, they want to move.
I prepare their emigration 45 truck, I tunggui two days, they moved on their own. Their emigration from the old place to the new place I relay the palace soldiers. This is baseball no matter where in the world. They brought cone one by one as a symbol of prosperity. That is, emigration happy. Place the old has become a green open space again.
Turnover in the new place?
Could four times. Could be asked to get there, do not ask me. But, yes there are approximately ten times, there are four times. An average of four times. There is a $ 300 million a month. It was not a street vendor again, shaking my head.
What about the other vendors?
After the ex-PKL Banjarsari move, not difficult to convince the others. Simply meeting three to seven times the meeting is over. Until now, we’ve moved 23 points PKL, no problem.
Lha a merchant even bother now relocated street vendors were asking. Those of us who do not have money. Until now, still 38 percent of street vendors who have not been relocated. So, if you still see the street vendors on the street or sidewalk, it was part of the 38 percent earlier.Apparently, the empowerment of market concern you?
Oiya. We’ve been renovating 34 markets and build new markets in seven locations. If managed well, this market brings huge revenue.
Once, when I entered, the income of only $ 7.8 billion market, is now Rp 19.2 billion. Hotel only Rp 10 billion to Rp 5 billion restaurant, parking USD 1.8 billion, $ 4 billion in advertising. The result was only Rp 19.2 billion from Rp 2600 Daily retribution. Merchant a lot, really. This is a must see. Good management of origin, baseball loss we wake up the market. Underserved communities-traders, we can income like that.
Meanwhile, if the mall, I knew baseball, most IMB pay it, we want to pull what? Hence, we limit the mall too. So did we limit the hypermarket. In fact, I also stop minimarket permission. The plan will be used to open 60-80, but was not authorized by me. Now there are only a dozen.
But, it seems Klewer Market untapped yes, conditions are still not comfortable?
Klewer that, whoa. Duitnya big one. Yesterday, investors counted, Rp 400 billion. Money from where? Budget how twenty years, we want to find a moment what has not been met. Solo budget Rp 780 billion to Rp 1.26 trillion this year. We can not afford. Traders in Klewer more, 3000’s traders, the market is also huge. There, the Solo many, many Sukoharjo, Sragen many, Jepara there, there Pekalongan, Tegal there. Batik from everywhere. But, I’m sure there jurusnya, just have not met aja.
Matter of education, in some areas has been done free education, whether at the Solo as well?
We’re different. Here, we are issuing cards to students, there are platinum, gold, and silver. They are the most impoverished obtain a platinum card. They are free of everything from tuition to the needs of the school as well as operational costs. Then, it got all the gold, but not as much as platinum. So is the silver, just paid for local government for specific needs.
It also imposed for health?
Yes, there was a card like that, there are gold and silver. Gold is for those who enter the poorest of the poor. All free, inpatient care, dialysis and even the gold is also for free.Apparently, now the people have confidence in you, but in the beginning was elected, many who doubt?
Well, one year, lah. His name is not yet known, I’m not a piece of mayor, skinny, ugly. I also never appeared in Solo baseball, especially my 100 per cent export business. There is a doubt, yes let alone, till now nothing about baseball. Want doubt, would assess ugly, it’s up to people.
First, what is the intention initially be mayor?
Nah no intention, accident. Ndak know it. First, the first election, we can vote 37 percent, narrowly won. Wong I am not famous, really. The other well-known all right, my baseball. But, it seems people are lazy with famous people. Want to try the famous baseball. Trial and error, so I told the accident was that it was true.
What’s the most memorable for you as mayor?
Most impressive? Most impressively, if first, right, mayor must formalize is the big thing. Inaugurating the biggest mall great example. But, now, gate, post ronda, my everything open, really. Post ronda’m open mayor, the mayor opened the gate, so what about the people who asked, open aja. Yes, sometimes funny too. But we enjoy.
What is the first difficulties you encounter while serving as mayor?
Problems rules. True. We are, if in business, looking as simple as possible, as efficiently as possible. But, we in government can not get, no stage rules. Though budget exist, baseball rules are met, can not get through. Should be, could we kerjain two weeks, had to wait two years. Many of the rules are just handcuff ourselves, too procedural. We are so the procedure.
What consideration when you are running for the second time?
Actually, I want baseball. Want to return to habitat carpenter. At that time, every day coming in droves various groups that pushed me forward again. They say, is the voice of the people. I think, this is nope, what is just political engineering. Two weeks of my leave, my giddy thinking that. I go home, OK I surveyed. My first survey, failure by 87 percent. Can not believe, I survey again, failure by 87 percent.After the survey, I see, there really wishes of the people. So, who came to me was true. And it turned out I was able to almost 91 percent. I see no hope and expectations that are too large. My calculations are 65-70 per cent. Count on paper 65:35, or 60:40, approx.
There is no concern, when it takes office, all you wake up still awake?
First there is the blueprint, no concept plan of the city. At the very least, the new leader of baseball’ll have to use 100 percent, 70 percent seenggaknya. Do not be, has SMP, back to kindergarten. I also have an obligation to prepare and tell what to do later.Biodata Joko Widodo
Name: Joko Widodo
Place Date of Birth: Surakarta, June 21, 1961
Religion: Islam
Occupation: Entrepreneur
Religion: Islam
Facebook Profile: Jokowi
Twitter account: jokowi_do2
Email: jokowi@indo.net.id
Office Address: Jl. Jend. Sudirman No.. 2 Tel. 644 644, 642 020, Psw 400, Fax. 646 303
Home Office Address: Home Office Loji Gandrung Jl. No. Slamet Riyadi. 261 Tel. 712 004
HP. 0817441111
Education:SDN 111 Tirtoyoso Solo
SMPN 1 Solo
SMAN 6 Solo
Faculty of Forestry UGM 1985 graduates
Career:Founder of Small Industries Development Cooperative Solo (1990)
Head of Mining & Energy Surakarta Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1992-1996)
Chairman of the Association of Indonesian Furniture and Handicraft Industry Surakarta (2002-2007)
Awards:

Joko Widodo selected as one of “10 Leaders 2008”
Being the best mayor in 2009
Pak Joko Widodo jg awarded Bung Hatta Award, for his leadership and his performance during the build and lead the city of Solo.
Surakarta University Eleven March (UNS) Award
Moreover, thanks to his leadership (and of course all those who helped), the city of Solo jg won many awards, among

Cities Pro-Investment of Regional Investment Board of Central Java
Child Friendly City of the State Ministry for Women’s Empowerment
Nugraha rides from the Department of Transportation
Sanitation and Slum Settlement Arrangement of the Department of Public Works
Cities with Best Spatial-2 in Indonesia

 
 
source. Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

Senin, 23 Juli 2012

Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

 
 
 
Jokowi adalah tokoh pemimpin terpuji Walikota Solo dan berperan memperomosikan Mobil ESEMKA. Ir. Joko Widodo (Jokowi) adalah walikota Kota Surakarta (Solo) untuk dua kali masa bhakti 2005-2015. Wakil walikotanya adalah F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo. Jokowi lahir di Surakarta pada 21 Juni 1961. Agama Jokowi adalah Islam.

 

Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

Jokowi meraih gelar insinyur dari Fakultas Kehutanan UGM pada tahun 1985. Ketika mencalonkan diri sebagai walikota Solo, banyak yang meragukan kemampuan pria yang berprofesi sebagai pedagang mebel rumah dan taman ini; bahkan hingga saat ia terpilih. Namun setahun setelah ia memimpin, banyak gebrakan progresif dilakukan olehnya. Ia banyak mengambil contoh pengembangan kota-kota di Eropa yang sering ia kunjungi dalam rangka perjalanan bisnisnya.

Di bawah kepemimpinannya, Solo mengalami perubahan yang pesat. Branding untuk kota Solo dilakukan dengan menyetujui moto “Solo: The Spirit of Java“. Langkah yang dilakukannya cukup progresif untuk ukuran kota-kota di Jawa: ia mampu merelokasi pedagang barang bekas di Taman Banjarsari hampir tanpa gejolak untuk merevitalisasi fungsi lahan hijau terbuka, memberi syarat pada investor untuk mau memikirkan kepentingan publik, melakukan komunikasi langsung rutin dan terbuka (disiarkan oleh televisi lokal) dengan masyarakat. Taman Balekambang, yang terlantar semenjak ditinggalkan oleh pengelolanya, dijadikannya taman. Jokowi juga tak segan menampik investor yang tidak setuju dengan prinsip kepemimpinannya. Sebagai tindak lanjut branding ia mengajukan Surakarta untuk menjadi anggota Organisasi Kota-kota Warisan Dunia dan diterima pada tahun 2006. Langkahnya berlanjut dengan keberhasilan Surakarta menjadi tuan rumah Konferensi organisasi tersebut pada bulan Oktober 2008 ini. Pada tahun 2007 Surakarta juga telah menjadi tuan rumah Festival Musik Dunia (FMD) yang diadakan di kompleks Benteng Vastenburg yang terancam digusur untuk dijadikan pusat bisnis dan perbelanjaan. FMD pada tahun 2008 diselenggarakan di komplek Istana Mangkunegaran.
Berkat prestasi tersebut, Jokowi terpilih menjadi salah satu dari “10 Tokoh 2008″ oleh Majalah Tempo.

Asal Nama Julukan Jokowi

“Jokowi itu pemberian nama dari buyer saya dari Prancis,” begitu kata Wali Kota Solo, Joko Widodo, saat ditanya dari mana muncul nama Jokowi. Kata dia, begitu banyak nama dengan nama depan Joko yang jadi eksportir mebel kayu. Pembeli dari luar bingung untuk membedakan, Joko yang ini apa Joko yang itu. Makanya, dia terus diberi nama khusus, ‘Jokowi’. Panggilan itu kemudian melekat sampai sekarang. Di kartu nama yang dia berikan tertulis, Jokowi, Wali Kota Solo. Belakangan dia mengecek, di Solo yang namanya persis Joko Widodo ada 16 orang.
Saat ini, Jokowi menjabat untuk periode kedua. Kemenangan mutlak diperoleh saat pemilihan wali kota tahun lalu. Nama Jokowi kini tidak hanya populer, tapi kepribadiannya juga disukai masyarakat. Setidaknya, ketika pergi ke pasar-pasar, para pedagang beramai-ramai memanggilnya, atau paling tidak berbisik pada orang sebelahnya, “Eh..itu Pak Joko.”
Bagaimana ceritanya sehingga dia bisa dicintai masyarakat Solo? Kebijakan apa saja yang telah membuat rakyatnya senang? Mengapa pula dia harus menginjak pegawainya? Berikut wawancara wartawan Republika, Ditto Pappilanda, dengan Jokowi dalam kebersamaannya sepanjang setengah hari di seputaran Solo.

Sikap apa yang Anda bawa dalam menjalankan karier sebagai birokrat?
Secara prinsip, saya hanya bekerja untuk rakyat. Hanya itu, simpel. Saya enggak berpikir macam-macam, wong enggak bisa apa-apa. Mau dinilai tidak baik, silakan, mau dinilai baik, ya silakan. Saya kan tugasnya hanya bekerja. Enggak ada kemauan macam-macam. Enggak punya target apa-apa. Bekerja. Begitu saja.
Bener, saya tidak muluk-muluk dan sebenarnya yang kita jalankan pun semua orang bisa ngerjain. Hanya, mau enggak. Punya niat enggak. Itu saja. Enggak usah tinggi-tinggi. Sederhana sekali.
Contoh, lima tahun yang lalu, pelayanan KTP kita di kecamatan semrawut. KTP bisa dua minggu, bisa tiga minggu selesai. Tidak ada waktu yang jelas. Bergantung pada yang meminta, seminggu bisa, dua minggu bisa. Tapi, dengan memperbaiki sistem, apa pun akan bisa berubah. Menyiapkan sistem, kemudian melaksanakan sistem itu, dan kalau ada yang enggak mau melaksanakan sistem, ya, saya injak.
Awalnya reaksi internal bagaimana?
Ya biasa, resistensi setahun di depan, tapi setelah itu, ya, biasa saja. Semuanya kalau sudah biasa, ya semuanya senang. Ya, kita mengerti itu masalah kue, ternyata ya juga bisa dilakukan.
Untuk mengubah sistem proses KTP itu, tiga lurah saya copot, satu camat saya copot. Saat itu, ketika rapat diikuti 51 lurah, ada tiga lurah yang kelihatan tidak niat. Enggak mungkin satu jam, pak, paling tiga hari, kata mereka. Besoknya lurah itu tidak menjabat. Kalau saya, gitu saja. Rapat lima camat lagi, ada satu camat, sulit pak, karena harus entri data. Wah ini sama, lah. Ya, sudah.
Nyatanya, setelah mereka hilang, sistemnya bisa jalan. Seluruh kecamatan sekarang sudah seperti bank. Tidak ada lagi sekat antara masyarakat dan pegawai, terbuka semua. Satu jam juga sudah jadi. Rupiah yang harus dibayar sesuai perda, Rp 5.000.
Anda juga punya pengalaman menarik dalam penanganan Pedagang Kaki Lima (PKL) yang kemudian banyak menjadi rujukan?
Iya. Sekarang banyak daerah-daerah ke sini, mau mengubah mindset. Oh ternyata penanganan (PKL) bisa tanpa berantem. Memang tidak mudah. Pengalaman kami waktu itu adalah memindahkan PKL di Kecamatan Banjarsari yang sudah dijadikan tempat jualan bahkan juga tempat tinggal selama lebih dari 20 tahun. Kawasan itu sebetulnya kawasan elite, tapi karena menjadi tempat dagang sekaligus tempat tinggal, yang terlihat adalah kekumuhan.
Lima tahun yang lalu, mereka saya undang makan di sini (ruang rapat rumah dinas wali kota). Saya ajak makan siang, saya ajak makan malam. Saya ajak bicara. Sampai 54 kali, saya ajak makan siang, makan malam, seperti ini. Tujuh bulan seperti ini. Akhirnya, mereka mau pindah. Enggak usah di-gebukin.

Mengapa butuh tujuh bulan, mengapa tidak di tiga bulan pertama?
Kita melihat-melihat angin, lah. Kalau Anda lihat, pertama kali mereka saya ajak ke sini, mereka semuanya langsung pasang spanduk. Pokoknya kalau dipindah, akan berjuang sampai titik darah penghabisan, nyiapin bambu runcing. Bahkan, ada yang mengancam membakar balai kota.
Situasi panas itu sampai pertemuan ke berapa?
Masih sampai pertemuan ke-30. Pertemuan 30-50 baru kita berbicara. Mereka butuh apa, mereka ingin apa, mereka khawatir mengenai apa. Dulu, mereka minta sembilan trayek angkot untuk menuju wilayah baru. Kita beri tiga angkutan umum. Jalannya yang sempit, kita perlebar.
Yang sulit itu, mereka meminta jaminan omzet di tempat yang baru sama seperti di tempat yang lama. Wah, bagaimana wali kota disuruh menjamin seperti itu. Jawaban saya, rezeki yang atur di atas, tapi nanti selama empat bulan akan saya iklankan di televisi lokal, di koran lokal, saya pasang spanduk di seluruh penjuru kota. Akhirnya, mereka mau pindah.
Pindahnya mereka saya siapkan 45 truk, saya tunggui dua hari, mereka pindah sendiri-sendiri. Pindahnya mereka dari tempat lama ke tempat baru saya kirab dengan prajurit keraton. Ini yang enggak ada di dunia mana pun. Mereka bawa tumpeng satu per satu sebagai simbol kemakmuran. Artinya, pindahnya senang. Tempat yang lama sudah jadi ruang terbuka hijau kembali.
Omzetnya di tempat yang baru?
Bisa empat kali. Bisa tanya ke sana, jangan tanya saya. Tapi, ya kira-kira ada yang sepuluh kali, ada yang empat kali. Rata-rata empat kali. Ada yang sebulan Rp 300 juta. Itu sudah bukan PKL lagi, geleng-geleng saya.
Bagaimana dengan PKL yang lain?
Setelah yang eks-PKL Banjarsari pindah, tidak sulit meyakinkan yang lain. Cukup pertemuan tiga sampai tujuh kali pertemuan selesai. Sampai saat ini, kita sudah pindahkan 23 titik PKL, tidak ada masalah.
Lha yang repot sekarang ini malah pedagang PKL itu minta direlokasi. Kita yang nggak punya duit. Sampai sekarang ini, masih 38 persen PKL yang belum direlokasi. Jadi, kalau masih melihat PKL di jalan atau trotoar, itu bagian dari 38 persen tadi.

Tampaknya, pemberdayaan pasar menjadi perhatian Anda?
Oiya. Kita sudah merenovasi 34 pasar dan membangun pasar yang baru di tujuh lokasi. Jika dikelola dengan baik, pasar ini mendatangkan pendapatan daerah yang besar.
Dulu, ketika saya masuk, pendapatan dari pasar hanya Rp 7,8 miliar, sekarang Rp 19,2 miliar. Hotel hanya Rp 10 miliar, restoran Rp 5 miliar, parkir Rp 1,8 miliar, advertising Rp 4 miliar. Hasil Rp 19,2 miliar itu hanya dari retribusi harian Rp 2.600. Pedagangnya banyak sekali, kok. Ini yang harus dilihat. Asal manajemennya bagus, enggak rugi kita bangun-bangun pasar. Masyarakat-pedagang terlayani, kita dapat income seperti itu.
Sementara kalau mal, enggak tahu saya, paling bayar IMB saja, kita mau tarik apa? Makanya, mal juga kita batasi. Begitu juga hypermarket kita batasi. Bahkan, minimarket juga saya stop izinnya. Rencananya dulu akan ada 60-80 yang buka, tapi tidak saya izinkan. Sekarang hanya ada belasan.
Tapi, sepertinya Pasar Klewer belum tersentuh ya, kondisinya masih kurang nyaman?
Klewer itu, waduh. Duitnya gede sekali. Kemarin, dihitung investor, Rp 400 miliar. Duit dari mana? Anggaran berapa puluh tahun, kita mau cari jurus apa belum ketemu. Anggaran belanja Solo Rp 780 miliar, tahun ini Rp 1,26 triliun. Tidak mampu kita. Pedagang di Klewer lebih banyak, 3.000-an pedagang, pasarnya juga besar sekali. Di situ, yang Solo banyak, Sukoharjo banyak, Sragen banyak, Jepara ada, Pekalongan ada, Tegal ada. Batik dari mana-mana. Tapi, saya yakin ada jurusnya, hanya belum ketemu aja.
Soal pendidikan, di beberapa daerah sudah banyak dilakukan pendidikan gratis, apakah di Solo juga begitu?
Kita beda. Di sini, kita menerbitkan kartu untuk siswa, ada platinum, gold, dan silver. Mereka yang paling miskin itu memperoleh kartu platinum. Mereka ini gratis semuanya, mulai dari uang pangkal sampai kebutuhan sekolah dan juga biaya operasional. Kemudian, yang gold itu mendapat fasilitas, tapi tak sebanyak platinum. Begitu juga yang silver, hanya dibayari pemkot untuk kebutuhan tertentu.
Itu juga yang diberlakukan untuk kesehatan?
Iya, ada kartu seperti itu, ada gold dan silver. Gold ini untuk mereka yang masuk golongan sangat miskin. Semua gratis, perawatan rawat inap, bahkan cuci darah pun untuk yang gold ini gratis.

Tampaknya, sekarang masyarakat sudah percaya pada Anda, padahal di awal terpilih, banyak yang sangsi?
Yah, satu tahun, lah. Namanya belum dikenal, saya kan bukan potongan wali kota, kurus, jelek. Saya juga enggak pernah muncul di Solo, apalagi bisnis saya 100 persen ekspor. Ada yang sangsi, ya biar saja, sampai sekarang enggak apa-apa. Mau sangsi, mau menilai jelek, terserah orang.
Dulu, apa niat awalnya jadi wali kota?
Enggak ada niat, kecelakaan. Ndak tahu itu. Dulu, pilkada pertama, kita dapat suara 37 persen, menang tipis. Wong saya bukan orang terkenal, kok. Yang lain terkenal semuanya kan, saya enggak. Tapi, kelihatannya masyarakat sudah malas dengan orang terkenal. Mau coba yang enggak terkenal. Coba-coba, jadi saya bilang kecelakaan tadi itu memang betul.
Hal apa yang paling mengesankan selama Anda menjadi wali kota?
Paling mengesankan? Paling mengesankan itu, kalau dulu, kan, wali kota mesti meresmikan hal yang gede-gede. Meresmikan mal terbesar besar misalnya. Tapi, sekarang, gapura, pos ronda, semuanya saya yang buka, kok. Pos ronda minta dibuka wali kota, gapura dibuka wali kota, ya gimana rakyat yang minta, buka aja. Ya, kadang-kadang lucu juga. Tapi kita nikmati.
Apa kesulitan yang paling pertama Anda temui saat menjabat sebagai wali kota?
Masalah aturan. Betul. Kita, kalau di usaha, mencari yang se-simpel mungkin, seefisien mungkin. Tapi, kita di pemerintahan enggak bisa, ada tahapan aturan. Meskipun anggaran ada, aturannya enggak terpenuhi, enggak bisa jalani. Harusnya, bisa kita kerjain dua minggu, harus menunggu dua tahun. Banyak aturan-aturan yang justru membelenggu kita sendiri, terlalu prosedural. Kita ini jadi negara prosedur.
Apa pertimbangannya saat Anda mencalonkan untuk kali kedua?
Sebetulnya, saya enggak mau. Mau balik lagi ke habitat tukang kayu. Saat itu, setiap hari datang berbondong-bondong berbagai kelompok yang mendorong saya maju lagi. Mereka katakan, ini suara rakyat. Saya berpikir, ini benar ndak, apa hanya rekayasa politik. Dua minggu saya cuti, pusing saya mikir itu. Saya pulang, okelah saya survei saja. Saya survei pertama, dapatnya 87 persen. Enggak percaya, saya survei lagi, dapatnya 87 persen lagi.

Setelah survei itu, saya melihat, benar-benar ada keinginan masyarakat. Jadi, yang datang ke saya itu benar. Dan ternyata memang saya dapat hampir 91 persen. Saya lihat ada harapan dan ekspektasi yang terlalu besar. Perhitungan saya 65-70 persen. Hitungan di atas kertas 65:35, atau 60:40, kira-kira.
Ada kekhwatiran tidak, ketika lepas jabatan, semua yang Anda bangun tetap terjaga?
Pertama ada blueprint, ada concept plan kota. Paling tidak, pemimpin baru nanti enggak usah pakai 100 persen, seenggaknya 70 persen. Jangan sampai, sudah SMP, kembali lagi ke TK. Saya punya kewajiban juga untuk menyiapkan dan memberi tahu apa yang harus dilakukan nantinya.

Biodata Joko Widodo

Nama : Joko Widodo
Tempat Tanggal Lahir: Surakarta, 21 Juni 1961
Agama : Islam
Pekerjaan : Pengusaha
Agama : Islam
Profil Facebook : jokowi
Akun twitter : jokowi_do2
Email: jokowi@indo.net.id
Alamat Kantor : Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 2 Telp. 644644, 642020, Psw 400, Fax. 646303
Alamat Rumah Dinas : Rumah Dinas Loji Gandrung Jl. Slamet Riyadi No. 261 Telp. 712004
HP. 0817441111
Pendidikan:

  • SDN 111 Tirtoyoso Solo
  • SMPN 1 Solo
  • SMAN 6 Solo
  • Fakultas Kehutanan UGM Yogyakarta lulusan 1985

Karir:

  • Pendiri Koperasi Pengembangan Industri Kecil Solo (1990)
  • Ketua Bidang Pertambangan & Energi Kamar Dagang dan Industri Surakarta (1992-1996)
  • Ketua Asosiasi Permebelan dan Industri Kerajinan Indonesia Surakarta (2002-2007)

Penghargaan:

  • Joko Widodo terpilih menjadi salah satu dari “10 Tokoh 2008″
  • Menjadi walikota terbaik tahun 2009
  • Pak Joko Widodo jg meraih penghargaan Bung Hatta Award, atas kepemimpinan dan kinerja beliau selama membangun dan memimpin kota Solo.
  • Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta (UNS) Award

Selain itu, berkat kepemimpinan beliau (dan tentunya semua pihak yg membantu), kota Solo jg banyak meraih penghargaan, di antaranya

  • Kota Pro-Investasi dari Badan Penanaman Modal Daerah Jawa Tengah
  • Kota Layak Anak dari Kementerian Negara Pemberdayaan Perempuan
  • Wahana Nugraha dari Departemen Perhubungan
  • Sanitasi dan Penataan Permukiman Kumuh dari Departemen Pekerjaan Umum
  • Kota dengan Tata Ruang Terbaik ke-2 di Indonesia

WHY HE CHOSE THE VICE GOVERNOR FRO9M TIONGHOA ETHNIC FROM BANGK ISLAND/

Leaders Biography: Tjahaya Basuki Purnama (Ahok)
6
Yesterday I saw that happen to kick Andi showing a prominent East Belitung and former regent period 2005-2010. Seeing a passionate zeal to eradicate corruption and to serve the community, figure this one deserves appreciation from the public. More on Tjahaja Basuki Purnama are often addressed Ahok, see the following article which I quote from wikipedia:

Ir. Tjahaja Basuki Purnama, M.M. ‘ (Born in Manggar, East Pacific Islands, June 29, 1966, age 45 years) was the Regent of the East Pacific Islands 2005-2010. He is the first ethnic Chinese who became Regent of East Belitung. Ahok, as he is usually called, is known to have a strong desire and concern for the welfare of the people. People in the province of Bangka-Belitung greet the first son of Alm. Indra Tjahaja Purnama (Zhong Kim Nam) and Buniarti Ningsing (Nen Bun Caw) by calling “Koh Ahok”.

The spirit of nationalism Indonesian citizens of Chinese descent (Hakka accent / Kejia) is to grow as a family upbringing that instilled since childhood. Closest friends called him “double minority”. Much time is largely focused on defending the interests of the people. Protestant man who has a Chinese name, Wan Zhong Xie has a wife named Veronica ST (born in Medan, North Sumatra, 6 September 1977) and blessed with 3 sons and daughters named Nicholas (1998), Nathania (2001) and David Albeenner (2006).

More Ahok childhood was spent in the village of Hanging, Hanging District, one of the districts in East Belitung with both parents and three siblings, to finish completing junior secondary school education. After graduating from junior high school, Ahok continue school in Jakarta. Nevertheless, Ahok always appropriate holiday message to my hometown of his late father,

This advice was followed by Ahok and sisters Dr. Basuri T Purnama (PNS physicians in the District of East Belitung), Fifi SH Lety. LLM (legal practitioners), Harry Basuki MBA (practitioner and consultant in tourism and hospitality). Therefore, after completing their studies back home to serve and work in his hometown.

Lots of funny and sad stories attached dibenaknya up until now will never forget, when I was in junior school. Especially during school hours Islam all students must follow, there is no exception for a non-Muslim. He also encountered difficulties when learning to read and write the verses of Al Quran, being a non-Muslim. By his teacher, he was advised to follow the TPA (Parks Religious Education).

The order of the teacher was followed by a visit to a landfill (which incidentally is a mosque) is not far from where she lived in one afternoon. But what he gets is not a science, but an insult of a landfill teacher at the time, who call themselves pagans. “You infidels not (not) allowed to get in here (mosque). This is only for Muslims “. He was expelled and not allowed to learn to read and write the Koran.

He left with sadness for not being able to follow the lessons in the landfill. Religious teachers in the school and released him from learning to read and write the Koran.

Ahok skip the primary and junior secondary education in Hanging, East Belitung district. Continuing high schools and universities in Jakarta by selecting Mineral Technology Faculty of Trisakti University majoring in Geological Engineering. After completing his education and received a Bachelor of Engineering Geology (Geological Engineering) in 1989, Basuki return home, settle in the Islands and established the company’s CV. Panda engaged in mining contractor PT Timah.

After two years as a contractor, Ahok realize that to become a manager of minerals he needed capital (investors) and management professionals.

For that Ahok deciding S-2 college and majored in financial management in the College of Management Prasetiya Mulya Jakarta. Master’s Degree in Bussiness Administration (MBA) or Master of Management (MM) led to his work accepted in PT Simaxindo Primadaya in Jakarta. The company is engaged in the field of power plant construction contractor. He served as staff directors for cost analysis and project finance. Due to the concentration of employment in the Pacific Islands, in 1995 Ahok decided to quit work and return to his hometown.

In 1992 Ahok established PT. Nurindra Ekapersada in preparation for building a factory Gravel Pack Sand (GPS) in 1995. Bird Bath Factory Hamlet, Village mengkubang, District Manggar, East Belitung is expected to be a pilot project for the welfare of (shareholders, employees, and people) and to contribute to the East Pacific Islands Revenue leveraging mineral resources are limited. On the other hand believed PT. Nurindra Ekapersada memikili vision to produce a formidable human resources.

With this vision in 1994, Ahok backed by a prominent freedom fighter Alm. Wasidewo to begin construction of the first quartz sand processing plant on the island of Belitung by leveraging American technology and German. Construction of the plant is expected to also give great hope became the forerunner of the growing industrial area and harbor an ocean under the name Air Industrial Estate Kelik (Kiak). At the end of 2004, a Korean investor persuaded to build a Tin Smelter (tin ore smelting) in Kiak, this is done to raise the price of tin ore mines Pacific Islands people in the market, so that will increase the ability of the people’s economy. Korean Foreign investors are attracted to the concept agreed to provide facilities and warehousing plant complex complete with an international port in Kiak.

Went on to become entrepreneurs, not make Ahok satisfied with her career. In 2004 he was attracted to politics and joined under the banner of the party as chairman of the DPC Party PIB PIB East Belitung district. In 2004 he ran for election as a member of the legislature and was elected to the East Pacific Islands District Council 2004-2009. The entry Ahok to politics based on the message of the father (Zhong Kim Nam) who once said “You fitting so official. Because employers want to think about the people, it’s not possible, “the message of his father. Ahok then follow the advice of his father, he was then entered parliament through the Association of New Indonesia Party (PPIB). PPIB is a political party founded by the late. Sjahrir.

In the local elections (elections) Regency East Belitung 2005, Basuki paired with Khairul Effendi, BSc of Freedom Bull National Party (PNBK) participate as a candidate for Vice-regent regent-East Belitung period 2005-2010. With 37.13 percent of the votes this couple elected Regent and Vice Regent of East Belitung first definitive.

Data describing the election results, pair-Khairul Basuki excel in the district of East Belitung the barn sounds Crescent Star Party (PBB) in the legislative elections in 2004. In fact, in the capital of Belitung Manggar-East, the United Nations proposed pair also defeated Basuki-Khairul. In fact, Manggar hometown of former DPP Chairman UN Yusril Ihza Mahendra, who became the main base of the United Nations at the time. In just about two years, the aspirations of the people in the areas inhabited the Malay-Muslim groups shifted drastically.

In the elections of 2007 the Governor of Babylon, Ahok take part became governor candidate. Former President Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) support Basuki T. Purnama (Ahok) became Governor of the Pacific Islands and join her campaign.

When the show delivered his oration, Gus Dur who appeared about 15 minutes it was quite appropriate judge Ahok lead smelters Islands Province. According to Gus Dur, cagub ethnic Chinese descent has a pretty good strategic program with free education and health, when he was elected governor of the Pacific Islands. Education and health problems is essential in achieving development goals. “Ahok already implementing best program when leading East Belitung regency by exempting health care costs to all its citizens,” said Gus Dur.

Movement Three Pillars Partnership, which consists of the Indonesian Transparency Society, Chamber of Commerce and the Ministry of State Apparatus Empowerment, Thursday (01/02/2007), personal giving to the bestowal of which contribute to the fight against corruption. They are former junior high school teacher 56 Regent Jakarta and East Belitung Nurlaila T Basuki Purnama (Ahok).

Ahok in nobatkan as Anti-Corruption Leader of the elements of the State. Ahok assessed successfully suppress the spirit of corrupt government officials. It is characterized by the implementation of health care and free education for the people of East Pacific Islands. Ahok transferred allowances for government officials to the people’s interests. Movement Three Pillars Partnership is a partnership between government, business and civil society. The movement was founded in 2002, which has the goal to eradicate corruption in Indonesia. Movement Three Pillars has the slogan “Clean, Transparent and Professional” (BTP).

Honesty and sincerity are devoted to the welfare of the people and the Republic of Indonesia also conduct Ahok became one of 10 leaders who transform Indonesia by Tempo.

More on thinking Ahok please visit Blognya in: http://ahok.org

Posted by Educate sugiarto at 09:51

 

Masa Tenang, Ahok Nonton Spiderman Bareng Keluarga

Posted by on July 9, 2012 0 Comment

 

Ahok.Org – Masa tenang kampanye digunakan banyak kandidat calon Gubernur dan Wakil Gubernur Jakarta dengan berbagai macam cara. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama atau Ahok misalnya, yang memilih waktu menonton bareng keluarganya film The Amazing Spider-Man di salah satu mall di bilangan Jakarta Selatan, Minggu (8/7/2012).

Saat ditemui Tribun Jakarta, pasangan Joko Widodo itu tetap setia mengenakan kemeja kotak-kotak. Ia datang menonton mengajak isteri dan dua anaknya, Veronica dan Nathania, dan Daud Albeenner. Sementara putera sulungnya, Nicholas menghabiskan waktu berlibur di Belitung.
 
“Dengan masa tenang ini, saya kembali ke kehidupan sehari-hari. Anak-anak meminta menonton. Dan mereka menghabiskan waktu dari gereja dengan memonton. Ini sudah menjadi rutinitas kita. Dengan waktu sekarang, anak-anak sebetulnya lebih happy kita menjadi orang biasa seperti sekarang,” ujar Ahok.
 
Terkait baju kotak-kotak yang dipakainya, menurut Ahok bukan lah baju kampanye. Kebetulan broadcast message para relawan, ada usulan pergi ke mall mengenakan kemeja kotak-kotak.
 
“Ini sudah menjadi komitmen saya dengan Pak Jokowi memakai baju kotak-kotak sampai selesai pemilihan,” terangnya.
 
Veronica menambahkan, suaminya kala menghabiskan waktu bersama keluarga di luar rumah lebih banyak menonton film. Kebetulan anak sulung lebih suka menonton film action. Sehingga adik-adiknya ikutan suka menonton. Kalaupun ke luar kota, anak-anak Ahok menghabiskan waktu pulang ke kampung halaman di Belitung.
 
“Anak-anak senang di kampung. Di sana lapangan luas, berkebun, ke pantai. Mereka lebih suka daerah terbuka. Lain halnya kalau sudah besar mereka menghabiskan waktu dengan teman. Lagipula waktu bapak jadi Bupati Belitung Timur, anak-anak tinggal di sana juga,” ujar Veronica.[Tribunnews

THE END @ COPYRIGHT 2012

 

Dr Iwan’s E-Book in CD-ROM KASHMIR HISTORY COLLECTIONS

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF Dr IWAN E-BOOK IN CD-ROM EDITION

THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMEBR

PLEASE  SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

tHE Kashmir History

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Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition

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Copyright @ 2012

Kashmir Illustrations, 1854

 
//
Illustrations from  ‘Church Missionary Intelligencer’ (1854), a book that among other things has an account of a bunch of Christian missionaries in Kashmir getting chased around by Muslim mobs and getting asked ‘trick’ questions by a Pandit.

Baramulla on the Jailum, Kashmir

The geography of this place has been messing with my mind. Previously, I believed that the hillock in the background was misplaced, a figment of western imagination that mixed up Srinagar and Baramulla. It turns out that the composition of illustration is in all probability correct. The doubt created  my native imagination. This is Sumbul Bridge in Baramulla ( and the hillock is probably Aha Teng ?)

Bridge at Srinagur
Shah Hamadan

1908

 

Image

Image

a nice mourning cover (Mourning covers were black-edged envelopes used to send bereavement notices.)

It has several points of interest:


– It was sent from

Jammu

Jammu is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, which is in the country of India.According to the latest stats, Jammu has a population of 465,600. It is located in the Asia/Calcutta timezone.

Here are some photographs from this beautiful city:

 
Jammu image
Jammu
Jammu Jammu and Kashmir

to

 

Srinagar

Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir State in India, a few years after the Jammu & Kashmir State Post Office closed.


– It was sent to the wife of

Sir Francis Younghusband, who led the 1904 British Expedition to Tibet


– The cover was sent during Winter in Kashmir, when the State administration normally moved down from Srinagar, which could be cut off by snow, to Jammu.

 

Why did Lady Younghusband remain in Srinagar?


– The distance between Jammu and Srinagar is about 160 km – as the crow flies.

 

 The runners carrying this letter took 3 days to cover the distance, having to make a wide detour to the West to reach Srinagar because the passes would have been blocked by snow.

Sad to say, the Edward VII Indian Half Anna stamp is effectively worthless.

Read More Info

Retired doctor’s family to meet Dalai Lama

Retired doctor’s family to meet

The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso,

Dalai Lama

In 1903,

fearful that the Chinese were on the verge of granting Tibet to Russia  and endangering their Raj in India, the British sent a military expedition into Tibet to prevent the rumor from becoming a reality.

The commander of the expedition, Sir Francis Younghusband, brought along British civil servant and photographer John Claude White to document the campaign.

White took a series of seventy photographs which were collected in an album c. 1905.

Amongst the platinum prints and two folding panoramas is

 this striking image of Tibetan nuns.

Considering that Buddhist nuns are required to keep their hair cropped short it is unclear why this group allowed their hair to grow to such impious length. As recently as 2002, the Chinese were imprisoning Tibetan nuns and forcing them to let their hair grow out, the least offensive of their many humiliating punishments.

The Tibetans were none too happy with the British incursion, the Chinese even less so, and the British were none too kind to the Tibetans.

 

 

Brigadier-General James Ronald Leslie Macdonald,

 

leading a military force of over 3,000, including Nepalese Gurkhas, faced off against 3,000 Tibetan troops armed with muskets at

the Battle of Guru, and a very short battle it was.

 After  negotiations to head things off failed, confusion ensued and the shooting began. The British, armed with Maxim machine guns, mowed down between 600-700 Tibetan troops.

The rest were allowed to peacefully retreat. Younghusband, who now assumed command of the British army, marched into Lhasa and negotiated a treaty with the Regent, who declared, “When one has known the scorpion [China] the frog [Britain] is divine.”

The British military mission ended in 1904, unpopular at home and everywhere else.

This album was recently at Bonhams for auction. It sold for £38,400 ($61,592), inclusive of buyer’s premium.
__________

[WHITE, JOHN CLAUDE]. An album of important images taken by John Claude White during Sir Francis Younghusband’s Tibet Mission of 1903-1904. 70 platinum prints and 2 folding panoramas, images approximately 160 x 210mm., captioned on the mounts, contemporary half green morocco, lettered ‘TIBET’ on the upper cover, sailcloth chemise, oblong folio, [c.1905]

 

Some works of John Claude White

Extracted between 5 works in the catalog of Arcadja

John Claude White - Tibet And Lhasa

John Claude White – Tibet And Lhasa

Description:

Back to catalogue Place Bid or Track Lot Lot No: 528 � WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) Tibet and Lhasa, 53 photogravure plates, including a folding map, autograph letter signed (“John White”) and postmarked envelope from Lhasa pasted down to verso of upper cover, occasional light soiling, contemporary red cloth gilt, spine sunned, oblong 4to (200 x 265mm.), Johnston and Hoffman, [1908] Estimate: �7,000 – 9,000, � 7,900 – 10,000 Request Condition Report Footnote: A RARE SERIES OF IMAGES FROM YOUNGHUSBAND’S TIBET MISSION OF 1903-1904. Johnston and Hoffman’s promotional catalogue of 1905 mentions that the images were initially issued individually or in albums, as half-tone or carbon prints. They were later issued in a two volume set with letterpress descriptions by C.B. Bayley, dated 1907-08. These were almost immediately withdrawn from circulation for fear that the information contained would reveal classified details to the Chinese. Consequently, very few copies remain and are exceptionally rare. Hardly less rare is the volume offered here was published a few months later. For example, there is no copy of this edition in the British Library. When the 1903 expediton was formed White had already been in Sikkim for at least fifteen years. Together with the thrusting Younghusband, and supported by two hundred Indian troops, under the military command of General Macdonald, the expedition was to force the Tibetans to trade with British India, and to investigate concerns that Russia was gaining influence in Lhasa. Although Kurt and Pamela Meyer state in In the Shadow of the Himalayas: A Photographic Record of John Claude White 1883-1908 , that “[White’s] incomparable photographs have thus turned out to be the only lasting legacy of the ill-fated adventure of the Imperial Raj into Tibet”, the expedition succeeded, and was followed by many years of Anglo-Tibetan friendship and trade. White’s fascinating letter, on Tibet Frontier Commission headed paper, is dated 6.8.04 and addressed from Lhasa to R.H. Morton at a tea estate in Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. In it White mentions a letter written by Morton which he has forwarded to “the Chief Supply and Transport Officer” regarding a “very large order”, presumed to be for White’s photographs. As he goes on to state: “You can obtain copies of my plates later. At present I have not seen proofs.” Images in this volume include: two views of Khambajong, the fort that was the first place visited by the Mission and where initial negotiations took place; the Abbot at Khambajong (illustrated); Gyantze Jong; Debung monastery; a group of lamas of Debung monastery; four views at Nejung monastery; a group portrait of the two stewards and senior lamas of Sera monastery; the entrance to Lhasa; eight views of the Potola, the palace of the Dalai Lama; a portrait of Ti Rimpochi, the Regent of Tibet with whom “the Dalai Lama left the ecclesiastical seal when he fled, and it was he who affixed the seal, and his own, to the Treaty signed in the Potola on 7th September 1904”; “The Shapes”, or the Executive Council of Four and a group portrait of Tongsa Penlop and his retinue. Contact the Specialist to discuss this lot or selling in a future sale Email: Francesca Spickernell Tel: +44 20 7468 8350 To subscribe to or order a Printed Catalogue quote ref: 18942 Tel: +44 (0) 1666 502 200
John Claude White - The Mission Post At Gyantze

John Claude White – The Mission Post At Gyantze

 

Description:

TIBET WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) ‘The Mission Post at Gyantze’, carbon print on Whatman paper, with printed text leaf giving title and description, image 235 x 285mm., 1904, published 1906 John Claude White was an amateur photographer, who accompanied Younghusband on his mission to Tibet in 1903-4, having previously served in the Indian Public Works Department from 1876. While on the mission, White took a series of mainly landscape views. Some of these were issued in two photogravure volumes by Johnston and Hoffman of Calcutta in 1906. However, they were soon withdrawn due to the politically sensitive nature of the text and are now very scarce. Through extant Johnston and Hoffman adverts we know that single prints on ‘print-out paper’ were availabe at 2 ruppees each, whereas platinum prints were available at 3 ruppees each. The carbon prints offered here come from “edition de luxe”, which contained one hundred carbon prints made from the original negatives onto plate-sunk Whatman mounts, bound in two albums with soft-padded morocco covers for 300 ruppees. There are only four or five of these deluxe editions extant, and individual carbon prints are extremely rarely found. The accompanying caption reads: “The Mission Post at Gyantze. This is where the Mission sustained what may almost be called a state of siege for several months. They were under constant fire from the Jong, and on the occasion of the first fight at Karola, when many of the garrison were away with that force, a large body of the enemy attempted to rush the Mission Post, and one man actually got over the wall.”
John Claude White - Views Of Tibet

John Claude White – Views Of Tibet

Description:

platinum prints. 13,5 x 20 cm and 13,4 x 20,6 cm. Both annotated in pencil on the verso. The prints offered here are images. There are only six known copies of the complete Tibet album by White. The images were taken during the last ‘Tibet Mission’, an attempt by the British to force the Tibetans to cooperate on a mapping survey. – Fine strong prints in very good condition.
John Claude White - Tibet

John Claude White – Tibet

Description:

John Claude White ‘tibet’. an album of seventy-six photographs of tibet and lhasa, and a rare further series of studies including panoramas by an unidentified hand, circa 1900 and 1904 comprising seventy-five mounted studies, including one four-part panorama of Lhasa, Platinum Prints, one mounted three-part panorama of the Tsang Po Valley, Silver Prints, twenty-three mounted studies documenting the progress of the Younghusband Expedition and twelve loose studies including one three-part and one two-part panorama, Printing-out-Paper Prints (the majority in a panoramic format), the platinum prints approx. 133 by 203mm or the reverse, the panoramic prints approx. 63 by 185mm, the other printing-out-paper prints from 53 by 176mm to 143 by 208mm, the platinum prints and panorama of Tsang Po Valley titled in ink on album page, the majority of mounted panoramic prints numbered in pencil on album page, the majority of loose prints numbered in pencil on the reverse, full green leather, green cloth boards gilt-titled ‘Tibet’, oblong 4to In 1903 John Claude White, a political officer in Sikkim, was asked to join as Joint-Commissioner the ‘Tibet Frontier Commission’ under the command of Francis (later Sir Francis) Younghusband. They were joined by Captain Frederick O’Conner, who acted as interpreter, and an escort of two hundred Indian troops under the command of Brigadier-General J.R.L. Macdonald. The British officers’ secret and politically sensitive mission was to negotiate in favour of British interests in Asia in the face of the rumours that the Chinese were about to hand over Tibet to the Russians. White photographed extensively in the border regions of Tibet during his twenty years as political officer in Sikkim. However by far his most highly prized works are these, one of the earliest and most extensive photographic records of the interior and peoples of Tibet. In 1905 Messrs. Johnston & Hoffmann of Calcutta issued a promotional catalogue of the photographs taken by White. The photographs were available individually as platinum or printing-out-paper prints, in a single album of eighty prints printed in half-tone or a luxury edition of one hundred carbon prints. Johnston & Hoffmann later published the photographs as a two volume album, with letterpress descriptions by C.B. Baylay, dated 1907-8, and a smaller format one volume album of photogravures was issued in the following year. Copies of the 1907-8 publication are extremely rare (only a handful copies are known). Even rarer are albums such as this with ink manuscript titles. This album, which belonged to Lt. Col. James Arthur Prendergast Manson, officer in charge of supply and transport on the Younghusband expedition, is mounted with seventy-eight photographs by White, the titles of which appear in the Johnston & Hoffmann catalogue. Significantly, it also contains thirty-five additional mounted and loose photographs, the majority in panoramic format. More informal than the platinum prints, the photographs (which may be by White or another member of the expedition) provide a rare and fascinating record of the progress of the British officers and their Indian troops. Compare with the album sold at Christie’s, London, 30 April 1997, lot 127. Compare the additional silver prints with those attributed to Major MacCarthy Reagh Emmet Ray (1867-1906) in the collection of the National Army Museum, London. The 1907-8 publication: Sotheby’s, New York, 6 April 2000, lot 77 (previously sold Sotheby Parke Bernet, 2 November 1979, lot 258). Sotheby’s, London, 13 May 1994, lot 20. Sotheby’s, New York, 10 & 11 May 1983, lot 531. Provenance: Lt. Col. James Arthur Predergast Manson. Thence by descent.
John Claude White - Tibet

John Claude White – Tibet

 

Description:

TIBET WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) Two views of the Chaksam Ferry, carbon prints on Whatman paper, images 185 x 310mm., 1904, published 1906 (2) The expedition under Younghusband reached the Chaksam Ferry on the 25th July, 1904. It took seven days for all the troops and equipment to cross the Tsangpo, and tragically on their first day, Major G.H. Bretherton, D.S.O., the chief supply and transport officer drowned

Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment.

Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment. Objects gathered by him in Tibet as “souvenirs” in the course of the Sir Francis Younghusband “expedition” to Tibet in 1903-4, are to be returned to Tibet, as represented by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, during the Dalai Lama’s visit to Edinburgh later this month. Photographer unknown

Sify

EDINBURGH, Scotland, 12 June 2012

The sound they make is said to be an eerie, haunting kind of wail, the kind of bone-chilling howl that some might suggest is enough to wake the dead.

Perhaps that is not entirely surprising, given that the bizarre whistle, or kangling, is made from the thigh bone of a long-dead Tibetan monk.

Retrieved from a battleground, bound with carefully plaited leather, adorned with human skin and silver thread, the curious instrument was brought to Edinburgh more than 100 years ago, a keepsake from a time which, with hindsight, was hardly Britain’s finest hour.

Now, as the visit to Scotland by Tibet’s spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, approaches, it is to be finally returned home.

The foot-long bone whistle was among a collection of souvenirs from the roof of the world gathered by Edinburgh-born Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment.

He was involved when the regiment took part in the infamous Sir Francis Younghusband expedition to Tibet in 1903-4, a venture into what was then a closed and deeply private nation where outsiders rarely ventured, which would end in violence, mayhem and bloodshed.

The religious artefact — along with a collection of other Tibetan objects — was eventually brought to Edinburgh and later ended up with a family member in London.

But now Col Turnbull’s grandson, Dr Michael Turnbull, has decided the Dalai Lama’s visit to Edinburgh later this month means the time has come to return it into Tibetan possession.

“It is an act of reconciliation,” says Dr Turnbull, 71, of Longniddry. “I think my grandfather probably did not understand quite what he was doing. It was a long time ago.

“Certainly, this is an item that has no real place in my home. It is time for it to go back to its own home.”

It was late March 1904 when his grandfather, the Merchiston Castle-educated son of a Scot who had gone on to become major surgeon general in Bombay, India, found himself at the heart of what has been called “one of the most shameful acts of British history.”

A formidable army, led by Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, had been formed to march on the closed country of Tibet, on the shaky premise that the Russians planned to expand their empire into that strategic part of Asia.

Around 3000 troops from the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment, armed with machine-guns and accompanied by a further 7000 camp followers, poured into the Himalayan country to be met by locals, rich in religious spirit but armed with a rusty collection of 18th century flintlock rifles.

Who shot first is one of history’s great mysteries. Regardless, the result was bloodshed and carnage.

Some 700 lightly-armed Tibetan monks were killed in the village of Guru alone.

Overall, around 3000 Tibetans — some reports suggest 5000 — were slaughtered by Younghusband’s forces in an action sanctioned during what became known as the Great Game — the desperate race for influence in central Asia, at the heart of which sat the tiny mountainous nation.

By contrast, it’s said the British casualties amounted to five.

The hope had been to force the tiny country bordering colonial India to engage in trade and diplomacy with the British Empire, keeping any aspirations of the Russian Tsar firmly in check.

While it may have brought Tibet to its knees, the strategy was effective. In the capital, Lhasa, in August 1904, a treaty was signed effectively turning Tibet into a British protectorate.

Yet the British claims that the action had simply been intended to settle disputes over the Sikkim-Tibet border were derided by others as an invasion of Tibet.

Col Turnbull was, says his grandson, a young officer at the time without, of course, the benefits of hindsight.

“He was nominated for the Victoria Cross,” he adds. “There are illustrations in a magazine which show him dragging a wounded comrade to safety. So while it wasn’t perhaps the finest moment in British history, it wasn’t completely one-way traffic.”

Dr Turnbull, who was looked after by Col Turnbull and his wife, Jessie, after his mother died in a car accident when he was a child, has only vague recollections of his grandfather. “He died in 1952, I hardly knew him. But I do remember him as a stern and distant figure. At one point, he became deputy lord provost for Edinburgh Town Council.

“He adopted me, so to speak. I remember them taking me to St Peter’s Church for mass, even though they weren’t Catholic, but they respected the promise my father had given to my mother to raise me that way. I went on to do my PhD at New College, so they couldn’t have been too bad.”

Other items from Col Turnbull’s Tibetan collection had already been given to the National Museum by the family, including a striking three-feet -high, 17th century silver goddess and dozens of photographic slides taken during the expedition.

But the whistle — which is regarded by Tibetans to have special and magical qualities — had been kept at a London-based relative’s home.

He made the offer to return the relic to Tibet through the Edinburgh Inter-Faith Association which has helped organise the Dalai Lama’s three-day tour.

He has been granted an early morning audience with the spiritual leader on June 22, during which he will return the item.

Traditionally, a kangling is made from a hollowed-out thigh bone. Holes are made in the knee area to create a kind of trumpet while a mouthpiece is created at the other end.

Beeswax is often poured in to keep it dry and free from micro-organisms.

A kangling is used in various Himalayan Buddhist rituals.

“It might sound quite gruesome to have an instrument made from bone, but it’s not really,” said Dr Turnbull.

“To play this flute would have been a sacred thing to do. It is a precious church object and I’m very pleased that it is finally going home.”

source:Johnston Publishing Ltd
 

A practical, though lethal, gift for the Dalai Lama

 

The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso,
Excerpt from Chapter 17 of The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds published in the Ottawa Citizen.  

“The Chinese authorities seem to guard the Dalai Lama closely,” Baron Gustaf Mannerheim wrote in his diary in July 1908. The Russian colonel, who was on a secret intelligence-gathering mission in China, had just arrived at Wutai Shan, the most sacred of four Buddhist mountains in China. One of its mountaintop temples was, he wrote, “the present abode, not to say prison, of the Buddhists’ pope, the Dalai Lama.”

A Chinese army captain named Wang told Mannerheim that “a cordon of soldiers” guarded the approaches to Wutai Shan in northeast Shanxi province. In the event of an attempt to escape, Wang explained, the Dalai Lama “would be stopped, by armed force if necessary.” But in his wanderings around Wutai Shan, Mannerheim saw no such cordon. “I could not help noticing, however, that [Wang] watched my movements with the greatest interest.”

Pusading Temple was the "prison" of the Dalai Lama in 1908.

Wang urged Mannerheim to take him as his interpreter during his audience with the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. But a Tibetan prince had already secretly informed Mannerheim that Wang was not welcome. The Tibetans despised Wang, whom they considered a spy, and prohibited him and his troops from the inner precincts of the temple.

Wutai Shan was more podium than prison for the Dalai Lama. Upon arriving here in the spring of 1908, His Holiness sent messages to the Peking Legations inviting envoys to visit. William Woodville Rockhill, the American ambassador to China, was the first. He pulled on his walking boots and set out for Wutai Shan on foot, a five-day trek from Peking. Rockhill was a scholar and diplomat who had explored Inner Asia in the 1890s and spoke Tibetan. He had left Wutai Shan only a day before Mannerheim’s arrival.

“The Talé Lama seems to me a man of undoubted intelligence, open-minded… a very agreeable, kindly, thoughtful host, and a personage of great dignity,” Rockhill reported back to President Theodore Roosevelt. The Dalai Lama told Rockhill about his struggles against the Chinese and how his country’s remoteness meant Tibet had “no friends abroad.” Rockhill assured His Holiness that he was mistaken: Tibet had many foreign well-wishers who hoped to see Tibetans “prosper and happy.” Later, during the Dalai Lama’s visit to Peking, Rockhill became a confidant to the Tibetan leader, quietly pushing a rapprochement with the Chinese.

In the summer of 1908, the Dalai Lama received a parade of envoys: a German doctor from the Peking Legation; an English explorer named Christopher Irving; R.F. Johnson, a British diplomat from the Colonial Service; and Henri D’Ollone, a French army major and viscount. The Dalai Lama hoped to patch up his relations with Britain after its invasion of Lhasa in 1904 and bolster his international standing. These first audiences with the mysterious Buddhist pontiff were much anticipated.

On his second day in Wutai Shan, a messenger ran into Mannerheim’s room in the Tayuan Temple and gestured that the Dalai Lama was ready to receive him. Mannerheim duly prepared himself. While he was shaving and changing his clothes, another frantic messenger arrived to express the Dalai Lama’s impatience. “I was just as impatient,” he wrote, “but could not possibly dress any faster.” A few minutes later, an anxious Tibetan prince appeared to ask what Mannerheim meant by keeping His Holiness waiting. At a swift pace, the Baron and prince climbed the steep staircase to Pusading Temple.

Staircase to the Pusading Temple in Wutai Shan

Wang, in full dress uniform, was waiting at the top with a Chinese honour guard. The Chinese had reason to worry about Mannerheim’s visit. Chinese authorities had just arrested two Russian military officers who were inciting the Mongols to break from China and become a Russian protectorate. During his stay in Urga (now Ulan Baatar), the Dalai Lama sent messages to the Tsar through various envoys. His Holiness told one Russian military intelligence officer that both Tibet and Mongolia should “irrevocably secede from China to form an independent allied state, accomplishing this operation with Russia’s patronage and support, avoiding bloodshed.” If Russia wouldn’t help, the Dalai Lama insisted, he would even ask Britain—his former foe—for help. After his visit with the Dalai Lama, Mannerheim, in fact, trekked to Inner Mongolia to gauge the rebellious mood of the Mongols.

Wang could barely hide his wrath when Mannerheim told him that he could not attend his audience with the Tibetan pontiff. The Chinese captain argued with two of the Dalai Lama’s assistants. As the Baron slipped into a small reception hall, he caught sight of Wang “making vain efforts to force his way in behind me.”

The Dalai Lama sat on a gilded armchair placed on a dais along the back wall of the small room. Two old Tibetans, unarmed, with beards and hair speckled with grey stood behind him. The Dalai Lama was frocked in “imperial yellow with light-blue linings” and a “traditional red toga.” The thirty-three-year-old pontiff had a dark brown face, shaved head, moustache and a tuft of hair under his lower lip. His eyes were large and his teeth gleamed. Mannerheim noticed “slight hollows in the skin of his face, which are supposed to be pockmarks.” He appeared a bit nervous, “which he seems anxious to hide.” Otherwise, Mannerheim thought he was “a lively man in full possession of his mental and physical faculties.”

Mannerheim made a “profound bow,” which the Dalai Lama acknowledged with a slight nod. They exchanged silk scarves. His Holiness began with small talk, asking Mannerheim about his nationality, age and journey. The Dalai Lama then paused and, twitching nervously, asked if the Tsar had sent a secret message for him. “He awaited the translation of my reply with obvious interest,” wrote Mannerheim, who informed him that he hadn’t the opportunity to personally speak with Tsar Nicholas II before his departure. The Dalai Lama then gestured, and a beautiful piece of white silk with Tibetan letters was brought out. It was a gift that Mannerheim was to deliver personally to Nicholas II.

The Dalai Lama told Mannerheim he had been enjoying his journeys in Mongolia and China, but “his heart was in Tibet.” Many Tibetans were urging him to return. His officials claimed up to twenty thousand pilgrims visited the Dalai Lama each month, but Mannerheim thought it was “an undoubted exaggeration.” The Tibetan pontiff was in the midst of a showdown with Empress Dowager Cixi, who wanted him to come to Peking to perform the kowtow. The Dalai Lama, Mannerheim wrote, “does not look like a man resigned to play the part the Chinese Government wishes him to, but rather like one who is only waiting for an opportunity of confusing his adversary.” The wily Tibetan pontiff had postponed his journey so many times that a joke was circulating in Peking referring to him as the “Delay Lama.”

Mannerheim spoke encouragingly about Russia’s sympathies for Tibet’s struggles against the Chinese. Russia’s troubles were over, the Baron assured him, and “the Russian Army was stronger than ever.” Now, all Russians watched His Holiness’s footsteps with great interest, he added. The Dalai Lama, Mannerheim recalled, “listened to my polite speeches with unconcealed satisfaction.”

Twice the Dalai Lama ordered his bodyguards to check if Wang was eavesdropping on their conversation. It was a dangerous time for the Dalai Lama, who knew his life may be in danger if he returned to Lhasa. The Chinese were tightening their grip on Tibet. Lamas were being assassinated, monasteries plundered and Tibetans evicted from their nomadic pastures. Peking needed the Dalai Lama to be a compliant vassal who could calm his restless followers and ease Tibet’s incorporation into the Chinese Empire.

But the Dalai Lama proved defiant. He visited Peking that September and immediately fell out with the Imperial Court, which issued a decree demoting him to “a loyal and submissive Vicegerent bound by the laws of the sovereign state.” A prominent Imperial censor also openly denounced him as “a proud and ignorant man.” Rumours spread in Tibet that he had been assassinated. Outraged at various reforms, lamas threatened a “holy war” against the Chinese. By the end of 1908, a rebellion broke out, leading to the defeat of Chinese troops. The Dalai Lama eventually returned to Lhasa in 1909 and sent telegrams to Britain and all European countries attacking Peking’s claim over Tibet.

In February 1910, Chinese troops invaded Lhasa. The Dalai Lama fled to India. An Imperial decree denounced His Holiness as “an ungrateful, irreligious obstreperous profligate who is tyrannical and so unacceptable to the Tibetans, and accordingly an unsuitable leader of Lamas.” After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, His Holiness returned to Tibet in 1913, declaring the country independent. He died in 1933, leaving a prophetic last testament for the next Dalai Lama:

We must guard ourselves against the barbaric red communists… the worst of the worst. It will not be long before we find the red onslaught at our own front door… and when it happens we must be ready to defend ourselves. Otherwise our spiritual and cultural traditions will be completely eradicated… and the days and nights will pass slowly and with great suffering and terror. 

Recognizing the clear and present danger, Mannerheim offered the Dalai Lama an unusual, though practical, gift: a Browning revolver. The Baron apologized that he didn’t have a better offering, but explained that after two years’ journey he had no other items of value. The Dalai Lama laughed, “showing all his teeth,” as Mannerheim showed His Holiness how to quickly reload seven cartridges into the revolver. The Dalai Lama relished the demonstration. “The times were such,” Mannerheim wrote, “that a revolver might at times be of greater use, even to a holy man like himself, than a praying mill.”

 

 

 

From The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China by Eric Enno Tamm. Copyright © 2010 by Eric Enno Tamm. Published by arrangement with Douglas & McIntyre.

Ladakh and Kashmir, 1908

 
//
33 photographs from ‘An eastern voyage: A journal of the travels of Count Fritz Hochberg through the British empire in the East and Japan (1910) by Hochberg, Friedrich Maximilian, Graf von, (1868-1921) ,Volume: 1. Year 1908. With that the total number of photographs uploaded to this blog comes around to about 3000. And my hard-disk is still cluttered with hundreds more!

Ladakhi Woman and Chid, showing the sheepskin headgear.
Ladakhi woman at Leh
Canal between Floating Garden, Dal Lake, Srinagar 

 
Uri Road
Harrowing in Ladakh
Old Hindu Monuments near Dras
Indus Valley near Leh
Kashmiri Women Pounding Rice. 
Ladakhi women Harvesting
Ladakhi women weaving
Lamayuroo Convent
main Street Leh
Mulbe
Nimoo Resthouse
Shah Jehan’s Summer House . (Probably Nishat Bagh. This structure was apparently pulled down in relatively recent time)
Srinagar
Srinagar
Tibetans travelling
Wooden Bridge on way to Leh

the end copyight @ 2012

KOLEKSI SURAT LAMA PRE 1860(THE PRE STAMPED LETTER HISTORY COLLECTIONS)

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROm

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LET’S LEARN FROM THE PAST

 

The Old Letter Pre 1860

History Collections

 

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Limited E-Book In Cd-rom Edition

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ORIGINAL INFO FROM SPAREHAND

 Indonesian version

.1802
1802: Jonathan D. Lewis Dr John Vaughan
 
Pulau Trinidad di lepas pantai Venezuela

Surat ini ditulis oleh Jonathan D. Lewis, kepada adiknya mertua, Dr John Vaughan (1775-1807), yang dikreditkan dengan melakukan vaksinasi pertama di Delaware pada tahun 1802.

John Vaughan dididik di Chester, Pennsylvania, dan di tahun 1793 dan 1794, sementara belajar untuk menjadi seorang dokter, menghadiri kuliah di kedokteran di University of Pennsylvania di Philadelphia. Vaughan berlatih kedokteran di Delaware, pertama di Bridge Christiana dan kemudian di Wilmington.

 

 Ia adalah anggota dari organisasi profesi, termasuk Akademi Philadelphia of Medicine, Medical Society of Philadelphia, Amerika Medical Association, dan Kedokteran Delaware dan masyarakat filosofis. Vaughan adalah seorang penulis produktif, pinjaman pena untuk topik penting medis dan ilmiah.

Dia terus nya “Diary Medis No 3” sebelum dan selama wabah demam kuning serius dari 1802. Vaughan meninggal pada tahun 1807 dari demam tifoid.
Vaughan adalah seorang pengamat tekun kondisi iklim Wilmington, sering mencantumkan suhu harian, arah angin, dan cuaca.

 

 Dia percaya bahwa kondisi ini mempengaruhi terjadinya penyakit pada waktu tertentu dalam setahun. Dengan demikian, pada satu kelompok halaman Vaughan mencatat informasi cuaca untuk bulan tertentu, dan pada kelompok lain ia mencatat apa yang pasiennya menderita selama periode yang sama.

Kadang-kadang, Vaughan pecah untuk menyalin pola ini sebuah artikel yang ia baca, sesuatu yang ia dengar, atau surat bahwa ia telah baik tertulis atau diterima tentang masalah medis. Salah satu koresponden nya adalah Dr Benjamin Rush.

 

Seorang pria ilmu pengetahuan dan kedokteran, Vaughan menulis mungkin dalam hiburan untuk mendukung teorinya tentang pengaruh cuaca pada penyakit: “Pak Alrichs, seorang pembuat jam tangan cerdik, memberitahu saya bahwa musim sakit-sakitan selalu ditandai dengan pecahnya menonton springs – bahwa fakta begitu mapan untuk menjadi pepatah & itu secara khusus sehingga musim ini “Pada tanggal 26 Agustus,, 1800 Vaughan. mengatakan: “Bad account dari Baltimore & Norfolk – demam kuning menyebar dengan angka kematian yang besar.”

Pada 1802 sebuah epidemi demam kuning yang parah pecah di Wilmington. Vaughan dianggap telah menjadi satu-satunya dokter untuk tetap di kota untuk mengelola mereka yang telah tertular penyakit ditakuti.

 

 Satu tahun kemudian, American Philosophical Society meminta agar ia menulis sebuah pamflet tentang insiden tersebut. Sejarah Singkat dari Demam musim gugur yang berlaku di Borough of Wilmington di Tahun 1802 dihasilkan.

 

Diary naskah Vaughan fitur perayaan penulis langsung dan pribadi penyebaran penyakit. Dalam Vaughan pamflet rinci mengapa dia pikir epidemi demam kuning dimulai, bagaimana dia pikir itu menyebar, dan apa yang dia pikir harus dilakukan untuk memberantas itu.

 

Dalam buku hariannya Vaughan mencatat kunjungan awal dengan Ann Davidson, yang kemudian diidentifikasi sebagai pembawa awal penyakit, dan mencatat kondisi di rumah tetangga itu Davidson:
“Gudang Hadley, sebelah Davi [d] anak telah untuk waktu yang lama penuh air – & wadah umum dari kotoran setiap … sering dikutuk sebagai gangguan oleh korporasi, namun diabaikan. Wm. Cloud mengeluh yang menjadi sangat ofensif kepada mereka. ”
Vaughan menulis tentang kegiatan warga Wilmington pada tanggal 13 September: “3/4 dari orang-orang kiri bagian bawah kota ini – di bawah jalan kedua – alarm besar. Dewan Kesehatan teratur dalam efek – beberapa mengundurkan diri – Presiden melarikan diri – tidak umat manusia kembali kepada Barbarisme “.

Vaughan mungkin digunakan buku hariannya, melayani sebagai itu sebagai catatan kronologis dan sumber detail yang berharga, untuk membangun narasi pamflet nya.

 

Pada September 23, misalnya, Vaughan menulis surat tentang status penyakit kepada presiden Dewan Kesehatan, Isaac Dixon, ia disalin ke surat ini buku hariannya, dan muncul kemudian dalam surat edaran.

 

Pada akhir pamflet nya, Vaughan mendaftarkan orang yang meninggal akibat epidemi, dalam buku hariannya ia mencatat nama-nama dan alamat dari mereka terserang dan mencatat apakah mereka sembuh atau meninggal.

Vaughan pernah benar-benar ditinggalkan maksud asli dari buku hariannya – untuk menunjukkan hubungan sebab-akibat antara kondisi cuaca dan kejadian penyakit – untuk menulis tentang wabah demam kuning di Wilmington. Ada, pada kenyataannya, banyak referensi untuk kondisi cuaca selama epidemi, dan konsep memainkan peran penting dalam sejarah Concise nya.
 
Stampless Surat
 
Page 1
 
Halaman 2
 
Page 3
 
Page 4
 
Halaman 5
 
Halaman 6
 
Page 7
TRANSKRIPSI
Ditujukan kepada John Vaughan, MD, Wilmington, Negara Bagian Delaware
Port of Spain [Trinidad]
13 Juli 1802

Pada kedatangan terlambat dari Eropa & c., Saya belajar bahwa pulau ini banyak dibicarakan dan di sebagian besar tempat dianggap akuisisi besar untuk England. Saya tahu bahwa pendapat seperti berlaku di Philadelphia sebelumnya untuk keberangkatan saya.

Oleh karena itu saya akan membuat Trinidad subyek komunikasi yang hadir dari keyakinan bahwa Anda akan senang menerima saran yang mungkin diandalkan. Sebelum saya masuk pada subjek, mengizinkan saya untuk menyatakan bahwa saya telah di semua lembah terkaya dari Port de Mona luar Anna sungai dan 7 hari dalam perahu mengunjungi Margin Trinidad pada Gulph (Paria atau Ballena).

 

Yang terakhir dilakukan pada agak bersifat cabul nyata dari hidup saya seperti dalam banyak kasus, malam datang sebelum aku bisa mendarat, yang dilakukan di atas lutut saya di lumpur di iklim tidak bersahabat.

 

Dalam kata, saya telah di sebagian besar perkebunan dalam budidaya dan telah melihat hampir semua tanah yang terbaik yang liar dan rentan perbaikan.

Fungsi geografis, dan luasnya pulau dapat selalu terlihat dengan memiliki referensi peta. Populasi setuju untuk Sensus lalu diambil pada bulan Oktober 1801 adalah sekitar 39.000 jiwa. _______ Dari Warna segala. Lebih dari setengah totalitas putih adalah Perancis dan Inggris lebih banyak daripada orang-orang Spanyol. Ada di sini beberapa M______, Corsicans, Italia, & orang-orang dari hampir semua Bangsa di Eropa dengan Creoles dari semua Kepulauan di Hindia Barat.
 
Batavia (sekarang Jakarta), Jawa

reputasi buruk untuk kejahatan dan penyakit sampar.

Iklim adalah yang paling mewabah dari apapun yang saya pernah masuk Jika Batavia di Jawa telah sampai sekarang disebut Makam Eropa,

 

sebutan akan berlaku di sini dengan kekuatan yang jauh lebih besar. Saya dapat berbicara menghormati dua tempat dengan cara komparatif dari bagian sepele pengalaman.

 

Tentu Batavia tidak pernah begitu sakit-sakitan dari apa yang saya telah mampu belajar, seperti Port of Spain telah selama 2 bulan.

 

Hampir setiap orang Eropa mati yang tiba dengan maksud tinggal permanen sejak 1 April lalu (hari saya mendarat). Jika aku pernah harus memiliki kebahagiaan melihat Anda, saya akan memberikan detail mengenai hal ini yang akan hampir terhuyung kredibilitas.

Tanah yang subur di lembah dan sebagian besar dari pulau ini di tanah datar dari mungkin lain di Hindia Barat.

 

Tidak ada perhatian telah dibayarkan kepada pupuk kandang, yang merupakan bukti yang kuat kesuburan, meskipun yang saya lihat tebu dari Ratoons 9 sehalus pernah tumbuh.

Sebagian besar pulau dapat disebut tanah perawan – tidak pernah dibersihkan.

The Gulph Paria tentu menawarkan dasar mundur baik selama bulan badai dan tidak tunduk pada badai. Kekerasan angin topan atau _____ angin. Aku tidak bisa, bagaimanapun, setuju dengan jurnal Inggris ________ dalam melampirkan penting indah seperti itu. Ini akan pernah terpaksa sebagai tempat keselamatan kecuali selama bulan Badai dan kemudian hanya oleh kapal di sebuah stasiun windward.

Perang kapal ke bawah angin, mengatakan pada stasiun Jamaika, di mana kekuatan besar umumnya, tidak akan pernah berpikir datang di sini & jarak yang begitu besar, dan akan ia ingat bahwa Hindia Barat tidak menderita dengan lebih sering Badai parah dari sekali dalam 7 tahun rata-rata.

 

Kapal dagang mungkin datang ke sini tapi tidak ada sebagian besar. Pedagang akan mengejar perdagangan selama bulan-bulan badai. Mereka tidak akan mengizinkan kapal untuk lay up ____ ini.

Kami sekarang akan mempertimbangkan perdagangan interior Trinidad dan saya pikir saya bisa dengan jelas membuktikan bahwa sebagian besar pria komersial di Eropa & Amerika telah memungkinkan dirinya tertipu.

 

Pelayanan Inggris telah terus mewakili nilai Pulau di gelar besar untuk berasal dari kedekatannya dengan utama. Dari keadaan yang sederhana, mereka telah berjanji Bangsa sebuah perdagangan selundupan yang paling berkembang dengan orang Spanyol.

 

Mari kita periksa posisi bagian dari Main yang nya dari _____ ke ____ of the River & ke Passages Boca tanpa ______ lebih nyaman untuk Trinidad daripada setiap pulau lainnya.

 

Pelabuhan ini tidak dan akan menikmati hampir perdagangan eksklusif dengan port tersebut. Tapi dalam apa perdagangan terdiri?

 

 Dalam unggas dan sayuran, & cocao dari O. Saya melihat kapal saat mereka tiba dan berangkat dan akibatnya mengingat fakta dari pengetahuan primitif. Semua yang dijelaskan pantai dalam batas-batas di atas adalah total buruk – orang Spanyol dari ______ telah memperkenalkan uang kurang & telah mengambil _____.

 

Kami memiliki pembelian mereka telah sama sekali cukup. Dalam kata, mereka telah merugikan jauh lebih besar daripada manfaat ke pulau.
Pelabuhan-pelabuhan utama di Main dari mana pengaruh kekayaan secara rasional bisa diharapkan, adalah Cumana & Laguina – yang pertama adalah terdekat. Dari pelabuhan bahwa Spanyol bisa pergi ke berbagai pulau dengan fasilitas yang lebih besar daripada yang mereka bisa datang ke sini.

Mereka bisa pergi ke Antigua dan Curacao terutama dengan lebih mudah. Kepulauan lainnya bisa diberi nama. Aku sekarang akan bertanya apakah sistem keuntungan begitu sering diselenggarakan keluar dari ____ adalah tidak benar-benar hancur. Jika Spanyol bisa pergi ke tempat-tempat dengan hanya kenyamanan yang sama bahwa mereka dapat datang ke sini, mereka bisa menemukan ada jenis barang diinginkan?

 

Mereka bisa. Dalam M & C telah disebutkan, mereka setiap saat tertentu menemukan artikel yang sangat mereka inginkan. Belanda, ____ Perancis & Jerman selalu senang orang-orang Spanyol tetapi membuat maksud dari Spanyol atau orang lain untuk menganggap pengetahuan tertentu perdagangan dan dia akan mengejarnya.

Apa obyek perdagangan? Selain apa yang telah dikatakan, maka selanjutnya dapat mengamati bahwa kebiasaan Perancis & Spanyol adalah menyenangkan satu sama lain.

 

Sebagian besar orang-orang Spanyol berbicara bahasa Spanyol dan tidak ada jumlah hina yang terakhir berbicara ____.

Akhir-akhir ini telah mengatakan bahwa Prancis adalah memiliki perdagangan langsung dari pelabuhan nya di Eropa untuk orang-orang di Main. Jika ini benar, tidak ada pulau dapat menikmati perdagangan penyelundupan sampai batas tertentu.

 

Dalam hal Trinidad bisa menjanjikan dirinya sangat sedikit.
Aku senang dalam menyatakan kepada Anda bahwa saya telah diperlakukan sangat sopan sini dengan karakter sangat terhormat yang.

Saya tidak akhirnya ditentukan menghormati tempat tinggal saya. Akan kepada Allah saya bisa memperbaikinya di Amerika.

 

Kekayaan ada kriteria-satunya mint. Jika aku bisa maju di sini, saya akan setuju menjalani apapun dan setiap kesulitan & sakit untuk tujuan melakukan sesuatu untuk saudara-saudaraku.

 

Saya belum mendengar _____ tua. Ini adalah keadaan tunggal yang membuat saya dalam gelap.

Saya dengan harga, hamba yang patuh Anda, – Jonathan D. Luiz
Ingat saya Bu Vaughan. Aku minta maaf untuk memberitahu Anda bahwa Jim adalah seorang pencuri dikonfirmasi & pembohong.

 

 Semua mint ______ saya telah mampu untuk menimbulkan menunjukkan tidak ada perubahan perilaku menghormati f____ ia dijual. Aku tidak tahu apa yang harus dilakukan dengannya. Jika saya menjual dia di sini, aku takut bahwa Anda atau saya – mungkin keduanya – mungkin diperkenalkan kesulitan. Maksudku jika saya menjual dalam waktu.

 

Bila ada kesempatan menulis untuk saya, melakukan mengatakan apakah saya bisa dengan properti membuang waktunya disediakan. Membuat peluang Obligasi untuk pengiriman nya di 21 tahun

1802: Jonathan D. Lewis to Dr. John Vaughan

 

This letter was written by Jonathan D. Lewis, to his brother-in-law, Dr. John Vaughan (1775-1807), who is credited with performing the first vaccination in Delaware in 1802.

John Vaughan was educated in Chester, Pennsylvania, and in 1793 and 1794, while studying to be a doctor, attended lectures on medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Vaughan practiced medicine in Delaware, first in Christiana Bridge and later in Wilmington. He was a member of several professional organizations, including the Philadelphia Academy of Medicine, the Medical Society of Philadelphia, the American Medical Association, and the Delaware Medical and Philosophical societies. Vaughan was a prolific author, lending his pen to topics of medical and scientific importance. He kept his “Medical Diary No. 3″ before and during the serious yellow fever epidemic of 1802. Vaughan died in 1807 of typhoid fever.

Vaughan was an assiduous observer of Wilmington’s climate conditions, often listing the daily temperature, wind direction, and weather. He believed that these conditions influenced the occurrence of diseases at certain times of the year. Thus, on one group of pages Vaughan recorded weather information for a given month, and on another group he noted what his patients suffered from during the same period.

Occasionally, Vaughan broke this pattern to copy an article that he had read, something he had heard, or a letter that he had either written or received about a medical matter. One of his correspondents was Dr. Benjamin Rush. A man of science and medicine, Vaughan wrote perhaps in amusement to substantiate his theory on the influence of weather on disease: “Mr. Alrichs, an ingenious watch maker, informed me that sickly seasons were always characterized by the breaking of watch springs — that the fact was so well established as to be proverbial & that it was peculiarly so this season.” On August 26, 1800, Vaughan said: “Bad accounts from Baltimore & Norfolk — yellow fever spreading with great mortality.”

In 1802 a severe yellow fever epidemic broke out in Wilmington. Vaughan is reputed to have been the only doctor to have remained in town to administer to those who had contracted the dreaded disease. One year later, the American Philosophical Society requested that he write a pamphlet about the incident. A Concise History of the Autumnal Fever which Prevailed in the Borough of Wilmington in the Year 1802 resulted. Vaughan’s manuscript diary features the author’s immediate and private observances of the spread of the disease. In the pamphlet Vaughan detailed why he thought the yellow fever epidemic started, how he thought it spread, and what he thought had to be done to eradicate it. In his diary Vaughan recorded his early visit with Ann Davidson, whom he later identified as the initial carrier of the disease, and noted the conditions in the house neighboring the Davidson’s:

“Hadley’s cellar, adjoining Davi[d]sons has been for a long time full of water — & the common receptacle of every filth … oft condemned as a nuisance by the corporation, but neglected. Wm. Cloud complained of its being very offensive to them.”

Vaughan wrote of the activities of Wilmington residents on September 13: “3/4 of the people left the lower parts of the town — below second street — great alarm. Board of Health disorganized in effect — some resigned — President fled — are not mankind reverting to Barbarism.”

Vaughan probably used his diary, serving as it did as a chronological record and source of valuable details, to construct the narrative of his pamphlet. On September 23, for example, Vaughan wrote a letter on the status of the disease to the president of the Board of Health, Isaac Dixon; he copied this letter into his diary, and it appeared subsequently in the circular. At the end of his pamphlet, Vaughan listed the people who died from the epidemic; in his diary he recorded the names and addresses of those stricken and noted whether they recovered or died.

Vaughan never totally abandoned the original intent of his diary — to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of disease — to write about the outbreak of yellow fever in Wilmington. There are, in fact, numerous references to weather conditions during the epidemic, and the concept plays an important role in his Concise History.

TRANSCRIPTION

Addressed to John Vaughan, M.D., Wilmington, State of Delaware

Port of Spain [Trinidad]
July 13, 1802

By the late arrivals from Europe &c., I learn that this island is much spoken of and is in most places considered a great acquisition to England. I know that such an opinion prevailed in Philadelphia previous to my departure. I shall therefore make Trinidad the subject of the present communication from a conviction that you will be pleased to receive advice that may be relied on. Before I enter on the subject, permit me to state that I have been in all the richest valleys from the Port de Mona beyond the River Anna and was 7 days in a boat visiting the Trinidad Margin on the Gulph (Paria or Ballena). The latter was performed at the evident risque of my life as in many instances, night came on before I could land, which was done above my knees in mud in an unfriendly climate. In a word, I have been on most of the estates in cultivation and have seen nearly all the best lands which are wild and susceptible of improvement.

The geographical function, and extent of the island may be always seen by having reference to a map. The population agreeably to the last Census taken in October 1801 was about 39,000 souls. _______ of every Colour. More than half the totality of whites are French and the English are more numerous than the Spaniards. There are here a number of M______, Corsicans, Italians, & people from nearly all the Nations in Europe with Creoles from all the Islands in the West Indies.

The climate is the most pestilential of any that I was ever in. If Batavia in Java has been heretofore called the Grave of European, the appellation will apply here with much greater force. I can speak respecting the two places in the comparative way from a trifling portion of experience. Certainly Batavia was never so sickly from what I have been able to learn, as Port of Spain has been during the last 2 months. Almost every European is dead that arrived with an intention of permanent residence since the 1st April last (the day I landed). If I should ever have the happiness of seeing you, I will give a detail on this subject that will almost stagger credibility.

The soil is fertile in the valleys and a greater portion of the island is in flat land than perhaps any other in the West Indies. No attention has been paid to manure, which is a strong evidence of fertility, notwithstanding which I have seen cane from the 9th Ratoons as fine as ever grew. Much of the Island may be termed virgin land — not being ever cleared.

The Gulph of Paria certainly offers a base of fine retreat during the hurricane month and is not subject to hurricanes. Violent gales or _____ of wind. I cannot, however, agree with the ____ ____ English journals in attaching such wonderful importance to it. It will be never resorted to as a place of safety except during the Hurricane month and then only by vessels in a windward station.

War ships to leeward, say on the Jamaica Station, where the great force is generally, will never think of coming here & the distance being so great, and be it remembered that the West Indies are not afflicted with a severe Hurricane oftener than once in 7 years on an average. Vessels of commerce may come here but to no great extent. Merchants will pursue commerce during the Hurricane months. They will not allow their vessels to lay up this ____.

We shall now consider the interior commerce of Trinidad and I think I can clearly prove that the great bulk of commercial men in Europe & America have allowed themselves to be deceived. The ministry of Great Britain have continually represented the value of the Island in a great degree to derive from its proximity to the main. From that simple circumstance, they have promised the Nation a most flourishing contraband commerce with the Spaniards. Let us examine the position that part of the Main which his from _____ to ____ of the River & to the Boca Passages is without ______ more convenient to Trinidad than to any other Island. This Port does and will enjoy almost exclusive trade with that port. But in what does the trade consist? In poultry and vegetables, & cocao from the O. I see the vessels as they arrive and depart and consequently given the fact from a primitive knowledge. All that coast described within the limits above is miserably poor — the Spaniards from ______ have introduced less money & have taken _____. We have their purchase been at all considerable. In a word, they have been much greater disservice than benefit to the island.

The main ports on the Main from which an influence of wealth could rationally be expected, are Cumana & Laguina — the former is nearest. From that port the Spaniards can go to various islands with greater facility than they can come here. They can go to Antigua and Curacao particularly with much greater ease. Other Islands could be named. I will now ask whether the system of advantages so frequently held out from ____ is nor totally destroyed. If the Spaniards can go to those places with only the same convenience that they can come here, can they there find the kind of goods wanted? They can. In M & C already mentioned, they are at all times certain of finding the very articles they wish. Dutch, French & German ____ have always pleased the Spaniards but make it the intent of a Spaniard or any other person to presume a particular knowledge of trade and he will pursue it.

What is the object of trade? In addition to what has been said, it may be further observed that French & Spanish habits are congenial to each other. Most of the Spaniards speak spanish and no contemptible number of the latter speak ____.

Lately it has been said that France is to have a direct trade from her ports in Europe to those on the Main. If this be true, no island can enjoy a smuggling trade to any extent. In which case Trinidad can promise herself very little.

I am happy in declaring to you that I have been treated very politely here by many very respectable characters.

I am not finally determined respecting the place of my residence. Would to God I could fix it in America. Wealth there is the only criterion of mint. If I could get forward here, I would agree to undergo any and every kind of hardship & sickness for the purpose of doing something for my brothers. I have not yet heard of old _____. It is the single circumstance that keeps me in the dark.

I am with esteem, your obedient servant, — Jonathan D. Luiz

Remember me Mrs. Vaughan. I am sorry to tell you that Jim is a confirmed thief & liar. All the ______ mint I have been able to inflict has provided no change of conduct respecting the f____ he was sold for. I know not what to do with him. If I sell him here, I am fearful that you or I — perhaps both — may be introduced to trouble. I mean if I sell in time. If an opportunity exists of writing to me, do say whether I can with property dispose of his time provided. Make a Bond opportunity for his delivery at 21 years.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT @ 2012