The Diem South vietnam War 1955-1962

 

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

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    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Diem South Vietnam War 1955-1962

DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)

a.TRANSITION PERIOD -1954

1) October    1954

(1)October ,23th 1954

 

(a)The  President Eisenhower’s latter  to Diem :

___________________________________

Dear Mr President,

 

I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.

 

The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened  by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.

 

You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort

 

We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.

I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.

 

The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .

 

The Government  of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.

 

Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.

 

Sincerely,

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower.

__________________________________________________

(source : Modern History Sourcebook)

(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam  Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.

___________________________________

b. The First year of Diem regime-1955

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

 (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

 

     (1) February,2th,1955

     The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon  with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .

 “Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for  Charger  two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56, 

        (Best collection for showed-auth)

3)March 1955

 

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

 

             

4) April 1955

 (1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect

at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy  to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North.

      

5) -6) no info

7) July 1955

(1)July.11th 1955

 

(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969) 

 

(b)The late used revenue of  Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stampedGarantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”

 

(2)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(3) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

 

(a)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

 

(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

 

(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

8) August 1955

Not yet information.

 

9) September 1955

     Not yet information

10) October 1955

(1) October.23th 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .

(2)October,26th. 1955

(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him  had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

       The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

       (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)

 

(c) The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P) 

 

 

(3) 1955

(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustrationCa Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD) 

( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)

 

(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection  contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped

 

 

 

11) November 1955

(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan

The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.

     “Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan

( best flag thematic photo’s  collec-tions, auth)

12) December 1955

 

(1)     December ,9th.1955

The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group  to  an ancient building

“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”

(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)

     

(2)     December,11th 1955

The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)

 

 

 

 

_______________________________

c.Diem’s Regime in1956

_________________________________

1) January 1956

 

(1)in 1955 and 1956,

(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.

The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.     

(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2) February –4)April 1956

     Not yet info

5) May 1956

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.

The complete Khai Sinh form :

 

————————————————————————

 

Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam                               Chung Thu Thay Giay

          Trung-Viet

         ==ooo===                                             KHAI  SINH

 

Lang  Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi

Quan  Yifoa  Vang

Tinh     Quan Nam

 

Ten ho dua con :  Nguyen Nhan

Trai hay gai        :  Trai

Sinh cho na’e     :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang

Sinh ngay nao    :   Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3

Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.

Ten Ho Cha         : Nguyen Khue

Nha ciro o’ dau  :  thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang

Ngep-ngep         :  lam Nong

Ten ho me           :  Dang thi Sifaul

Vo chanh hay thu:  Vo Chanh

Ten ho nguoi khai:  Nguyen Khue

May Toi                 : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi

Ngep-ngep          :  Lam Nong

Nha cua o’ dau   :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang

Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi

Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai

Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi

Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai

quan Hoi vong.

 

               Lam tai  Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.

NGU’OI KHAI             Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa  Hoa Thoi

Nguyen Khue                 squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-

Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong

Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI

Nhung nguoi Chung       Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong

Chinh Xa Hoa Thai

                                          Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956

                                                     TINH TRUONG

                                            Signed and red circle stamped

 

————————————————————————

(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)

4) June 1956 no info

5) July 1956

 

(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) August 1956

 

(1)             Nuoi Ngot 1956

The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.

 

(2)             Long Hai 1956

The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.

7) September 1956

(1) September,17th 1956

The  Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.

_______________________________________________ 

UNIVERSITE-POPULAIRE

FRANCO-VIETNAMIENE

   14 Rue President Tinh                           PHOTO

           SAIGON

CARTE D’ADMISSION

M     Do Thin Muoi

Est admis aux Cource de:

  1. Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
  2. Francais A 66  Age……………………………………………….
  3. Anglais debut A 40   profession ……………………………
  4. ………………………………………………………………………….. 

Saigon ,le 17-9 1956            Adresse………………………….

      Le Directeur                               Le Titulaire

     Hansigned                             Handsigned

____________________________________

10) October 1956

 

(1)  October,5th.1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN

In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)

 

(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

 

8) November 1956 no info

9) December 1956

(1) December 7th 1956

The rare  earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By  the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized  7-12-52  with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.

 (Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another  29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)

____________________________________

 4.3.2 DIEM REGIME   WAR 1957-1963

____________________________________

 

a. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

 

a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen  Ngoc Vy

The South vietnamese Communist  ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.

Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.

The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.

Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.

Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.

The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged  in a guerrila civil war.

Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.

That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.

This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.

SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian  and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.

The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.

The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.

American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability  they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.   

The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.

An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.

What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated  per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.

Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,

In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.

Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)

April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.

Kennedy order  a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.

There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.

Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.

First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of  the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.

But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.

It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,

The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.

Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.

The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.

But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.

The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.

 

b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)

     Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.

Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.

 ( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and  startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)

     The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to  ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.

          More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.

          Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.

          Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.

          When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.

          The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.

          Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.

          Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and  could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.

          The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.

          Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s 

(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .

          The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because  the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)

          Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.

          More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth),   were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.

          A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s

 

 

 

 

_____________________________

b. Diem regime war collections.

_________________________________

 

__________________________________

a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957

__________________________________

1) Jan 1957

    

(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)

 

(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.

 

(3)January.2nd 1957

 The receipt of Car service station “  Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.

(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that  the  transition period between the Franch power to  Nationalist power in South Vietnam  had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)

 

2) February 1957

 

(1)February.16th 1957

The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.

3)March 1957

(1)March, 11th 1957

The original photo of vietnamese lady  at Long Hai.

(2)March,19th 1957

The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,

(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the  postal ‘s porto ,  prevent against the law,  they used 30 cent.  DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. –auth)

4) April 1957

 

     (1) April, 27 1957

     The Vo Giay Ban Nha  certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :

_____________________________________________________

(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.

 

(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,

 

        Vu  Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng

Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414

Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC)  de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach  va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t  can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.

        Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho

        Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam  ai tro ngai co o

Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.

 

            Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957               

Ong Do-van-pho                   Ba nguyen thi-kim

 

           Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.

 

                                                        On Tran-van-Ruo

 

Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc

O’ So Van Pho cap

Nguyen thi Kim Lan

Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957

Truong Saigon-Cholon

Vuong-quan Nha

Blue double circle stampedVIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”

_______________________________________________________

 (THE LATEST SAIGON-CHOLON TAX REGIONALES REVENUE-AUTH)

5) May 1957

 

(1)May.7th 1957

The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.

  Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint   0$20” with 3x 0$40  Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped

 

(2)May.8 th.1957

 

(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.

(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)

    

(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :

_____________________________________

 

ECOLE VUONG-GIA-CAN

 216,Ru Dixmunde-Saigon

     46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO

_____________________________________________________________

 

Certifie l’Authenticitie                  CARTE D’IDENTITE

   de la signature de            le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG-         PHOTO

Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN   GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie

Opposee ci-controle               que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai

Saigon le 21.5.1957                   No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940

          Stamped                           a’ tan an Vinh Long

Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon  fils d M,Nguyen van Tri

TRUONG QUAN-BA                     et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa

                                                       Profession  pilote

SIGNED & VIOLET               domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon  

DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.

“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh         Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957

S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*”                           Le Directeur

Signed & Red double circle  stamped

“ VUONG-GIA-CAN * TRUONG –HOC-

TU-THUO* 46 PHAN-THANH-GIAN.

________________________________________________________________

( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue,  but because the situation still used .

Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem.  Taxes regional ,Franch style  was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning   “Niem thue “ .

Due to the bad quality , on the  revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth) 

(3)May.18th 1957

     Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)

 

6)June 1957

 

(1)June.7th 1957

     The First Covers of  Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia

(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)

 

(2)June,18th 1957

The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue

 (very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)

  

(3)June.8th 1957

The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80

(The earliest  Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).

 

(4)June.18th 1957

The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20  Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.

 (The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)

 

(5)June.21th 1957

The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).

 

 

 

 

7) July 1957

 

(1) July.16th 1957

The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue

(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition  revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)  

 

(2)July.12th 1957

The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,

( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)

(3)July.17th.1957

The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.

 

(4)July.12th 1957

The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80  cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon  470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-

(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)

 

(5)July.26th 1957

The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue  with 3 x 0$80  Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.

(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)

(6)July ,30th 1957

The receipt of car&motorbike  service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”

 

 

8) August 1957

(1)August.27th 1957

The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.

 

(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period  including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show  look at that varition revenue-auth)

9)September 1957

(1)September.20th 1957

The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.

(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)

 

(2)September.19th 1957

The unusual nominal value of revenue only  2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.

(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only  2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)

(3)September.26th 1957

The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport  for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh  “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80

(The Indochine old form still used-auth)

 

10) October 1957

(1)October 1957

Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized  thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.

During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)

(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising  in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,

 

(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)

________________________________

 b)Diem AVRN vs VIETCONG GUERILLA’S in 1958

_____________________________

1) January 1958

 

(1)Diem in 1958

 Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .

2) February 1958

(1)February,7th 1958

The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)

3) -4) 1958

     No info

5) May 1958

(1)May.8th.1958

The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.

6) June 1958

(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .

7) July 1958

(1)July.31th 1958

The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)

8) August 1958

(1)August.15th 1958

The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :

_____________________________________

Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958  .

          Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET  so quan 400.052

Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.

          Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .

Chuyen mon   :         Bo-Binh

 

Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958

             Chan cu kao

Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong

 

KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958

Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon

Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu

                             Signed&stamped.

____________________________________________________________________

(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed  with the picture of  green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.

This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)

9) September 1958

(1) September.27th 1958

Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise  attack (PH)

10)-11) 1958 no info

12) December 1958

(1)  by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)

 

_____________________________________

c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong  in 1959

________________________________

1) January 1959

(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)

(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam

( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)

  

     (3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”

2) February 1959

(1)February ,18th 1959

The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.

    _____________________________

Nha Trang 14.2.59      cds Nha trang            

Cordial souvenuer                      18.2.1959

Nuedley vocine                   Nguyen Ba Luon

Pour l’annee                         Profeneur

      Ky’ Hoi                                E’cole Francaise de              

                                                        CHOLON

__________________________________

                 

(2)February .6th 1959

The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.

(This revenue document very find condition  and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)

3) March 1959

(1)   March,1st. 1959

     BINH CHUNG  RA-DA.  Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)

     (2) March,3rd 1959

The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.

Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,

Autheticated  with  regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”

 

(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this  regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)

 

     (3) March 14th 1959

          The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the  6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.

(The Vietnam hero’s  Trung sister  very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said  that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I  Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)

4) April 1959 no info

5) May 1959

(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)

 

6) no info

7) July 1959

(1) July 1959

Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)

(2)July,12th. 1959

        The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:

___________________________________________

                                                                   Dalat le 12.7.50

Monsieur Triat,

 

Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous

aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.

..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la

photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang)  .

         

#Bientiet et Bon counage.                   Signed

 

______________________________________________________

(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)

(3)July,15th. 1959

     To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7

signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)

 

(4) July 24th 1959

Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh

AU-TRI-VIEN PHU-NHUAN B.N. 10$

Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :

____________________________________

Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.

Tan Binh,26.6.1959

T.U.N BAN CHA’P HANH XA HOI

Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng

Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI  Tinh Gia-dinh

Quan Tan-Binh.

______________________________

 (What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)

8) August 1959

 

   (1) August,1st,1959

   The red “The’  Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :

 

 

 

       _____________________________________________

                        THE’ CU’ – TRI

          BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959

                        No. 0634621 A/IX

 

    Ho’ Te’n   Nguyen Thi Thuan

    Ngay sinh va sinh :  29 tuoi

    Dia-chi  9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy

    The’ co’n cuo’c so’  B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..

    Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a       Zua’n Ta’m     ngay  1 Thang 8 na’m 1959

     Nguo co the                                     Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n

                                                               Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i

 

                                                                        Handsigned

  CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua

                    Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.

_________________________________________________________________________  

9) no info

10) October 1959

(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)

This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)

When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue  and  I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.

In my last visit july 2009, I have went  by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then   turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),

More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,  

At left side of the basilica,  I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)  

 

11) November 1959

 

(1) November,28th 1959

The  official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.

 This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)

(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.

 Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.

Nom  : Vo Thi Thao

Classe:  10 eiue A

Venant de 11.

12)December 1959

    

(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.

Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.

(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)

(3)    December,12th 1959

The traffic accident of two car  NCC 578 and NBO 096  report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.

(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time  because not many cars in Saigon-auth)

______________________________

d) Diem’s ARVN vs Vietcong  GUERILLA’S in 1960

_______________________________

1)January 1960

(1)Early 1960

     The turbine-powered helicopters appeared , and the US and South Vietnam infantry called the “ Helicopter war “.

The two turbine-powered helicopters which emerge as the backbone of the  new airmobile Division were the Bell HU-1 “Huey” and the larger Vertol CH-47 “Chinook”, without such aircraft the airmobile concept could not been implemen-ted.(D)   

(2) Eighteenth prominet South Vietnamese petition Diem to reform his government.(D)

2) February 1960

No info

3)March 1960

(1)March.25th 1960

The Vietnam Cong  Hoa Ho-Tich Tric-Luc B Khai Sanh , Bo thanh Saigon be thieu II 832 certificat , with Regional Saigon Cholon revenue  overprint red 1960, yellow revenue 10$ + green revenue 5$ .

(The earliest year of overprint regional Bothan saigon  revenue in 1960 and the latest 1975 during the fall of Saigon, the overprint on two type regional Bothan Saigon revenue  10$00 revenue yellow bad design and  green 5$00 fine native building design revenue , what is the meaning of Tri Luc Bo Khai San, I have the complete sertificate from 1960 until 1975 except 1963 with  regional Bo Than Saigon revenue, very best collection to showed, please comment about the 1963 the worst & Diem’s assasination year-auth)

 

 

 

4)April 1960

(1)April 2nd 1960

 

The U’U-Dai Card (what the meaning ? please someone tranlate-auth)

 

(a)the Front of U’U –Dai card

___________________________________________

THE U’U-DAI CARD,

XIN GIU NAY DEN NAM TAM CUNG MOT S XE.

          DUOC MIEN PHI RUA XE, BOM MO

VA XIT DAU MOT LAN

 

 

___________________________________________

 

 

 

(b) The Back  of U’U Dai card.

_________________________________________

HANG TAN-SANH

195 DAI-LONG TRI-PHUONG CHOLON

So xe : NSF 338

Eua,Bom Mo.Xit Dau -2 AVR 1960

Nhot May : Mo Bi Loi L AF

Nhot Hop Soo :Sx Go

Nhot Bong Sau: Sx Go  

____________________________________

5)-8) no info

9) September 1960

(1)  September,5th 1960

       Long Dong congress opens in Hanoi, stresses need to combat Diem regime.  (D)

10) October 1960

(1)October,4th 1960

Station Service facture NCC no 518 marque(merk) Peugeot , 120$ with common type bigger  Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 0$40.

11) November 1960

(1) November,8th 1960

J.F.Kenney defeat Richard Nixon for the prisidency.

 

(2) November,11th 1960

     South Vietnamese army unit un-successfully  attempt to overthrew Diem.(D)

12) December 1960

(1) December,20th. 1960

          (a)Hanoi leaders from National Liberation Front for South Vietnam , which Saigon regime dubs the “Vietcong” meaning communist Vietnam. The movement was formed on directives from Hanoi(D)

 

          (b) Nguyen Huu Tho, head of the National Liberation front, as the Vietcong was officially called.(P)

 

 

 

e).Diem vs Vietcong Guerilla  in 1961

_______________________________

1) January 1961

(1) Murderer of Gouverment official by Vietcong 4000 per year.(D)

(2) The communist regions of the country border on North and South Vietnam  so actees as a passage for supplien and men on the maze of jungle trails known as the Ho Chi-minh trails.

(3) January,6th. 1961

     Khruschev declaring that the Soviet Union would support what he called “National Liberation Movement”

2) February 1962

(1)February.13th 1961

The reciept of car repaired station service Tan-Sn-Nhui Saigon 270$ with Vietnam Conghoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$40 .

 

3) March 1962 no info

4)April 1961

     (1) April,29th. 1961

(a)US troops deployment  to South Vietnam were discussed within Kennedy administration.

     (b) Common President Ngu Dienh Diem second issued stamp. The uncommon mint 9 pi stamp,

(I found this stamps , used off cover, in Indonesia-aut)

 

5) May 1961

(1)Alerts went out to American bases, a modest  100 –men increase in the nearly 700-strong American advisory mission in South Vietnam was approved.

Aproval for the despatch of a further 400 special Forces troops was goven. Extra military resources were provided, enabling the Vienamese army to be expanded from 150.000 to 170.000 troops. Finnaly US Troops were stationed in Thailand. (D)

(2) Vice-president Johnson chatting with Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon . Johnson, whom Kennedy had sent on an ambassadorial world tour, exuberantly praised Diem as the “Winston Churchill of asia” which reassured Diem of American support(P)

(3) Autumn 1961

     General Taylor had recommended to the President the despatch of 8000 US combat soldiers becuase in a memorandum the Joint Chief of Staff had estimated that 40.000 US troops would clean up thew Vietcong threat,  that if the North Vietnamese and Chinese intervened another 128.000.

(4) A second Geneva Conference to “neutralise”Laos.

6) June 1961

(1)President Diem at Presidential palace on 7th anniversary as President

(2)June.4th 1961

The reciept of electricity in Franc char .”Compagne Des Eaux Et D’ Electricite De L’Indochine” 67$20, with rare small type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem (revenue) 0$20. signed at Saigon 4 juin 1961 by P.P. De La C’Des Eaux et D’Electricite De L’Indochine.

 (very rare 1$00 small type Vietnam Conghoa Coniem revenue used at 7th Diem’s presidential day   anniversary ,please comment if someone have another nominal, look at the differents size at the photo illustration-auth)

(4)June.21th 1961

The certificate of Ho – Tich “Trich-Luc Bo Khaisanh” with regional Saigon Cholon revenue ,yellow 10$ ,red overprint 1961.

7)-10) no info

 

11) November 1961

 

(1) November,11th 1961

The receipt   of S.A.R Kaswa than chettiaa  23 dung 104 toat tich , propitaire Saigon , from Huyenh Xien 51$ with Vietnam Cong Hoa CON NIEM (REVENUE) , 0$20, F OR PAYING 36 M2  ve khoan tra tien muon dat o duang (Huose’s LAND TAX?) month 10 1962.

(I have the same receipt from 1-7-1961 , every month t 1-12-1962-auth)

(2)  November.21th 1961

The reciept of contractor Loan”TUE-NGHIA-DUONG SAIGON –CHOLON” the form with vietnamese and chinese char, from (nhan cua) Pho-Vu,cholon street (duong) Phai Tu so 42, maney

2216$ , Con Niem (revenue) type Vietnam Cong  hoa Con Niem 5$+ 1$ (rate 6$) with red chinese char stamped.

 

 

 

 

 

__________________________________________

f)Diem AVRN vs Vietcong in 1962

__________________________________

1) January 1962 no info

2) February 1962.

(1) February ,6th 1962

American Military Assistance Command (AMAC) and CORDS (Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support) formed in South Vietnam

(IMNAHA report the postal history of AMAC and CORDS team , look at Andrew Crasshow blog.-auth)

 

(2)February.16th.1962

The Hoc Sinh(Born/birth ) card, for 1961/1962, with yellow Saigon Cholon regional revenue 10$ overprint red 1962 sign by Hieu truong Nguyen Van Phu with Official Vietnam Conghoa quan truong quan nha sign & red stamped authentication, (may be this was the first The Hoc Sinh Card, or she forgotten to made in 1961-auth)  

(3) February,27th. 1962

         

(a)Two South Vietnamese pilots bomb Diem’s palace but Diem and his family survive. Diem and family miraculously escape injury, but Madame Nhu(Diem brother,s wife) slightly hurt.(D)

      

(b)Sometime laters, madame Nhu inspect the bomb palace (P)

3) March 1962

(1)March .10th 1962

Find condition , Rare Saigon vietnam Dien Tin (Telegramme) cds Saigon-T.U.V.T Vietnam 10.6.1962

From Xuanloc to Le-thi-phuoc 52 Nguy enphi Khanh Saigon. “TRINH BIEN TRONG (work in ?) 24 GIAO , HIEN TRUONG”

(The rare and only one telegram found during vietnam war in 1962-auth)

 (2)  March,20th. 1962

      Postally used cover with Vietnam Buu Chin  Cong Hua’s Unesco comemmoration stamps 3×1 Dong (rate 3 Dong) send from Saigon (round CDS) to Kinh goi ong Le-Van-Hai, Giao-Vien Lop Nhut”B” Truong Nam Tieu-Hoc Long-Xuyen.An-Giang (rare destination PH)  

(3)March.22th.1962

The Facture Reparatins ‘s receipt of Saigon Xe hoi Cong-Ty 34vBoulevard Thong-Nhut Saigon. From Mr Giang Thi Naoh money 636$77, with two type revenue Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem small size 1$00 and bigger size 0$40.(This the rare earliest small size VCH Con niem type revenue-auth ) 

 

4) April 1962 no info

5) May 1962

(1)Vietcong formed battalion-size units in central Vietnam.(D)

6) June 1962

(1) June, 19th. 1962

     The VERY RARE ,Vietnam Telegram “Dien Tin”  send from Saigon Telegram date stamped SAIGON. T.U.V.T-VIETNAM 10.6.1962.

 

 

 

 

:                                                                     :                                            :

:                  DIE’N   TIN                  :   VIET-NAM CONG-HOA :

:                  TELEGRAMME                   :    REPUBLIQUEB DU VIETNAM  :

:    ____________________________________                            ______________         :

:

:                       : GUI   BI     : GOC    O :         :        B U U   –  D I E N  :

:

:         2       ______________________         : POSTES ET TELECOMMUNICATIONS   :

:                       :  SAIGON  :XUANLOC :                

:______________________________________       :  Le –Thi-Chuoc 52         :

:                                                       :Nguyen Phi Khanh  Saigon:

:                                               9/6

:                                                                  :___________________________:

:

:    Trinh  Zie’n trong    24  gio’ =

:

:                                                             Hie’n Truo’ng :   :________________________________________________ :

Chinh-phu’ kho’ng chiu trach-nhie’m va’ vie’c do’i tin tuc cua tu- han bang dien-tin

L’etat n’est 0 du chine resposabilite a’ raison de la correspondance par la voie telegraphique

 

    

(2) Mid 1962

Amerivan advisers increase from 700 to 12.000.

(3)In 1962

The best South Vietnam capture the Vietcong ‘s photography in 1962

 

(a)Vietcong capture by South Vietnam army (ARVN)  were put at prison camp ‘s Kham Duc compound (Photo)

 

(b) South Vietnamese Infantry warly moving past hut they set ablaze after they found it held communist literature (photo)

 

(c)ARVN soldiers loading their Vietcong prisoners on small canoe-like boats in Mekong delta.

 

(d)AVRN soldiers wading into canal to put equiptment in boats to lure Vietcong guerillas from nearby flooded paddies (Photo)

(3) June.1st 1962

The reciept money BP$1479$00, with Vietnam Conghoa ConNiem revenue 3$00, for paying in French “Mille quatre cent si xante dix nuef piastres” from mr Ba Huyn Xiem by LXXX VIETNAM CONG HOA QUAN TRUONG ,  ve khoan tra tien muon dat  dung nguyen che nghia hem lo s n(TF 183) 36 m2, thay mat nguoi chu dat saigon 1-6-1962  handsign. ( I also have the same receipt for 51$ not use france char anymore , date 1-12-1962, with same type revenue 0$20-auth)

 

7) July 1962 no info

8) August 1962

(1) August.6th 1962

The Chung Chi ,  duong Cong-quyns 132-133 Saigon  “Marconi’s school’s certificate, chung ban ong(Mr) Nguyen –ngoc-Siem, sanb (born0 1-8-1934 tai Hien Thanh,Tan-an, da then boc lop Ke-tan tai bon truong, tie ngay 1.2-1962 den ngay 1.8.62 . sign Saigon 6.8.1962, Hieu Truong Nguyen Van Giau. Autentication with  overprint red 1962 on yellow Saigon cholon regional revenue 10$. Sign and red stamped Vietnam Cong Hoa official “bamboo design.

9) September 1962 no info

10) October 1962

(1) October,1st 1962

The same “THE HOC –SINH” Card  of Miss Do Thi Muoi tai(born) My Tho 2.3.1937, address 23 Ng Thung Chan Saigon above (16.2.1962) WITH Cholon Saigon regional revenue overprint red 1962, BUT DIFFERENT LEAGALIZED : KT.QUAN –TRUONG QUAN NHI WITH VIOLET STAMPED.and hoc lap de IV nien kha 1962 /1963 (informatif document about the change of goverment official and new card for 1962/1963 -auth)

 

 

11) November 1962

 

(1)     November ,1st.1962

The prestamped “ Brisbane Qld Aust.   4-PM 1 NOV 1962 POSTED PILLAR BOX,  and rolling dated stamped PERTH. INV.  ,AU 10 GAME NOV 1962  hand written Acc (Sencored ?) on document’s envelope, send to Lam Huu Sia,36 So That Diem Saigon , S.Viet-Nam.

(rare cover from Brisbane Australia via  PERTH (sencored?) to So Thanh Diem street Saigon South Vietnam –very interesting Diem street, what is  the name that street now ? a historic information of Diem topicalcollection-aut)

 

12) December 1962

 

(1) December.1st 1962

The receipt of S.A.R KASWATHAN-CHETTIM, MONEY bp $ 51, WITH VIETNAM CONG HOA CON NIEM REVENUE 0$20, ve khan tra tien muon dat a duong N.C. Nghia ham la So 5 (36m2 Land ta)

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

 

 

 

 

 

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The Vintage Saigon (HCM city) Pictures Collections Part Two During French Indochine

 
photo

Saigon 1882 – Palais du Gouverneur

 
photo

Saigon 1882 – Le Cercle des Officiers (47 bd Le Duan)

CLB Sĩ quan Pháp, nay là UBND Q1. Cạnh bên là công trường xây dựng nhà thờ Đức Bà, với mái ngói xuống thật thấp, che phần nền móng đang thi công

L’escadre russe dans le port de Saigon – Hạm đội Nga trong cảng SG

photo

Đúng 120 năm trước, Thái tử nước Nga viếng thăm Sài Gòn ngày 21-3-1891

Le Voyage du Tsarévitch – Fêtes données en l’honneur de Son Altesse à Saïgon, 21-3-1891 – Đúng 120 năm trước đây, vào ngày 21-3-1891, Thái tử nước Nga Oukhtomsky mà sau này là Sa hoàng Nikôlai Đệ nhị, đã ghé thăm Sài Gòn trong chuyến thăm viếng vùng Viễn Đông. (Năm đó Thái tử 23 tuổi, và 3 năm sau, vào năm 1894 ông lên ngôi Sa hoàng, kế vị Sa hoàng Alexandre III cha ông vừa mất vì bịnh).

SAIGON DURING FRENCH INDOCHINE PICTURES COLLECTIONS

 
photo

SAIGON – Entrée de la Rue Catinat 1902

 
photo

Saîgon. Cochinchine. Pousse pousse. 1906

 
photo

SAIGON – Types Anamites 1906

 
photo

Passerelle à Cholon – 1909

 
photo

Saïgon vers 1909 – La Rue Catinat

 
 
photo

Saïgon 1909 – Les réjouissances Publiques du 14 Juillet – L’invention de la Grande Roue

 
photo

Saïgon 1909 – La Rue Catinat

 
photo

SAIGON – Place du Théâtre et la Rue Catinat 1914

 
photo

SAIGON – Bd Charner et l’Hôtel de Ville 1920

photo

Rue Catinat 1924

photo

Saigon. Port de commerce 1931

 
photo

EPICERIE CHINOISE – SAIGON 1931

tiệm tạp hóa của người

 
photo

SAIGON 1934

 
photo

Souvenir de la Foire-Exposition de Saïgon du 20.12.1942

Kỷ niệm Hội Chợ – Triển Lãm Sài Gòn

 
photo

SAIGON 1944 – STATUE OF FRANCIS GARNIER

tượng Francis Garnier phía trước Nhà hát TP

the end @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vintage Saigon(HCM city) Picture Postcard Collections part one After 1945

THE VINTAGE SAIGON PICTURE POSTCARD COLLECTIONS

PART ONE

SAIGON - Cercle Sportif - La Piscine

Saïgon - Le Cercle Sportif

SAIGON - Perspective du Boulevard Charner face à la Rivière de Saïgon

SAIGON - Le boulevard Charner

SAIGON - Perspective de la rue Catinat

SAIGON - Nouveau quartier de Khanh-Hoï

Saigon - Le Temple Protestant

Saigon - Le Temple Protestant. 1935
 
 

souvenir de saïgon en 1908

souvenir de saïgon en 1908

Anyone can see this photo

Saigon - Vietnam - 1967-68

Saigon – Vietnam – 1967-68

Anyone can see this photo

Saigon - Vietnam - 1967-68

Saigon – Vietnam – 1967-68

Anyone can see this photo

Công viên Vạn Xuân góc Pasteur - Trần Quý Cáp

Công viên Vạn Xuân góc Pasteur – Trần Quý Cáp

vườn hoa nhỏ phía trước Tiểu học Trần Quý Cáp và ĐH Kiến Trúc SG, nay đã bị phá bỏ, chiếm của

Anyone can see this photo Công viên Chi Lăng

Công viên Chi Lăng

Vườn Hoa Chi Lăng, đường Tự Do

Anyone can see this photo

tượng Nữ vương Hòa bình

tượng Nữ vương Hòa bình

Anyone can see this photo 

tượng Trần Nguyên Hãn

tượng Trần Nguyên Hãn

bùng binh Quách Thị Trang trước Chợ Bến Thành

Anyone can see this photo

Dinh Độc Lập

Dinh Độc Lập

Anyone can see this photo

trụ sở Bộ Tư Pháp trước 1975, nay là UBND Q1

trụ sở Bộ Tư Pháp trước 1975, nay là UBND Q1

số 47 ĐL Thống Nhất SG

Anyone can see this photo

Công trường Lam Sơn

Công trường Lam Sơn

Anyone can see this photo

Trước 1975 là PX của Mỹ, hiện nay là KS Hoàng Đế

Trước 1975 là PX của Mỹ, hiện nay là KS Hoàng Đế

PX Mỹ tại số 117 Phan Đình Phùng (nay là Nguyễn Đình Chiểu) Q.3 Sài Gòn

Anyone can see this photo trước Chợ Bà Chiểu, Gia Định

trước Chợ Bà Chiểu, Gia Định

Anyone can see this photo

Đò ngang bến Bạch Đằng

Đò ngang bến Bạch Đằng

Anyone can see this photo hè phố Lê Lợi trước Thương xá TAX

hè phố Lê Lợi trước Thương xá TAX

Anyone can see this photo

hè phố Nguyễn Huệ

hè phố Nguyễn Huệ

Anyone can see this photo

Nguyễn Huệ

Nguyễn Huệ

Anyone can see this photo Pasteur

Pasteur

Anyone can see this photo

đường Hồng Thập Tự (nay là XVNT), đoạn gần rạp Olympic

đường Hồng Thập Tự (nay là XVNT), đoạn gần rạp Olympic

 
photo

saîgon – un groupe d’élégantes

 
photo

COCHINCHINE – Restaurant indigène en plein air

 
photo

saïgon – place de la cathédrale – sortie de la messe

 
photo

SAIGON – LES HALLES CENTRALES. THE CENTRAL MARKET

 
photo

Saïgon. 14 juillet 1946

 
 

đường Hai Bà Trưng

photo

Saïgon. Rue Catinat 1946

photo

Saïgon. Fusilier- marin motocycliste rue Catinat 1946

photo

Saïgon. L’Hôtel des Postes 1946

 
photo

Saïgon. Place Francis-Garnier (du Théâtre) et rue Catinat 1947

 
photo

INDOCHINE – SAIGON 1947 – LE MARCHE – MARCHAND AMBULANT

 
photo

Port de Saïgon. Jonques et sampans 1947

photo

Saïgon. Rue Paul-Blanchy 1947

 
photo

Le marché de Tan Dinh – 1947

 
photo

In French Indo China, oxen pulling carts down the street. Jul 1948

photo

Saigon Jul 1948 – Locals riding the street car, in French Indochina.

 
photo

Saigon 1948 – In French Indo China, racks of bicycles lining the street.

đường Nguyễn Huệ xưa

photo

Saïgon. Polyclinique Dejean de La Bâtie 1949

photo

Un coin du port de Saïgon 1954

 
photo

1955 SAÏGON – Boulevard Bonnard

Tên ông toàn quyền Bonard hay bị các ông Tây viết sai thành bonard

tượng Bá Đa Lộc đã được đưa về Pháp

photo

SAIGON 1957 – LA CATHEDRALE VUE AERIENNE

 
photo

INAUGURATION DU SERVICE DES CHEQUES POSTAUX – SAIGON 15-5-1962

 
photo

Trước 1975 là PX của Mỹ, hiện nay là KS Hoàng Đế

PX Mỹ tại số 117 Phan Đình Phùng (nay là Nguyễn Đình Chiểu) Q.3 Sài Gòn

Anyone can see this photo

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011

Dai Nippon War In Vietnam 1941-1945

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Dai Nippon War In Vietnam  (1941-1945)

1 Before Japanese came

1)1941

(1)From 1941 to 1945 almost all of Indochina stamps were designed by vietnamese painters ans printed in Vietnam as well (D)

(2)Ho return to Vietnam and form the Viethminh to fight both Japan and Franch.(D)

(2)March.14th 1941
The Receipt of house rental paid, stamped Cantho Village du thoi than.
(D)

(3)Juil(July) 5th 1941
The rare vintage Chinese Certifacate of Registration at Cholon saigon, name Ly Chu Yen , writting in chinese character and Chinese Kuomintang (Star) emblem, with Light brown 20 cent Chinese Fiscal revenue design old chinese native building , Chinese consulate cholon saigon stamped .
( I found one complete certificate and one uncomplete half certificate without photo but the Chinese consulate stamped on revenue more clair. The very fine show piece. I have a visit at the Saigon(now Ho Chi Minh City)’s Consulate PR China ,to get fast one day visa two entree with four times cost than normal one weeks finish visa one entree, but the service very best, and I used that visa to see the Histroric Nguyen trai and Le loi Langson border between PR China –south autonon Quanshi’s province with the north area of Vietnam, they called the Freedom border -auth)

(4)August.30.1941
The rare Postal Recepisse(Reciept) “a remettre au depossant”, name and destination : Phan Ky Che Ban bien Place de Ai Section Rach –gia, send from CDS Cantho Cochinchine 30.8.41.

28) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine
(1)The picture of Hotel at “Baclieu”” Le pare et l’Hotet de I’Inspection”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon,Gravure Braun&Cie .Dornach(France).(P)
(2)The Vintage Picture Postcard Of CochinChine.”the picture of Potterie Canal of Cholon with the junks.”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon , Cholon 1634. gravure Braunn &Cie.Dornach(france).
(I have seen the canal during last visit in 2009,still many ships but no jung anymore -auth)(P)
(3) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine. The pisctur of la Douene Bentre.
The card was isuued by Photo Nadal Saigon, Bentre 1104,Gravure Braun & Cie.Dornach(France) (P)

33)1941
(1)June.30th 1941
The very rare Postal Recepisse no 671 postal cancel CANTHO-COCHINCHINE 9.30 , 30-6.1941.
Recipesse, remettre ao deposant,
(A rempiir per l’expediteur.)
Nom et adresse du destinatire (the destination address): Chan Ky chee Bon Bien
Rue : Pace de la Section a’ Rachgia.

(A remplir per l’agent des Postes.
Nature de L’object Valeur declare remboursement Poid.
(1) Voir notice e speciale au veran
(2) Coller 1e1 L’etiquette gommes du G-20

In The Back :
Notice Speciale
Si L’object ne porte pas de declaration de va-
Leur et n’est pas greve de remboursement biffer
Par deux forts traits de plume,Les emplacement
Reseves pour L’inscription de la valeur declaree
Ou du montant du remboursment.
Le delai se prescription des valeurs de toute
Nature confie’ens a’ La Poste est est d’un on.
La designation de L’expenditeur peut e’tre faite
Au moyen d’une griffe.
En vuebd’eviter le stationement au guichet,
Les expenditeurs sont prie’s d’affranchix regulie’re-
Ment leurs envois avant le depo’t.)

translate english:

Recipesse, deliver ao applicant,
(A rempiir allow the sender.)
Name and address of destinatire (the destination address): Chan Ky chee Bon Bien
Street: Pace of the Section ‘Rachgia.

(To be completed per agent of Posts.
Nature of the objective value declared Weight refund.
(1) See the special notice e veran
(2) The label gums 1e1 Paste the G-20

In The Back:
Special Notice
If the object does not file will
Their strike and not refund delete
By two strong strokes of the pen, the location
Resevation for registration of the value declared
Or the amount of the Money Back.
The limitation period to any values
Nature has confie’ens’ La Poste is a one.
The designation of expenditeur can e’tre made
Using a claw.
In vuebd’eviter parking at the counter,
The requests are expenditeurs’s of affranchix regulie’re-
Ment before their shipments depo’t.)
(The Best postal History postal cancel of Cantho Cocchinchine during WWII with Speciale notes in French , as the postal History of French hegomony and historic colonial in Cochinchina , also very impostant to the comparative study postal cancelled of the postal used covers in Indochina after the war, because two many fake falsifiaction bogus postal used covers, I will showed this very rare postal history, not put on my blog because someone will made falsification fake cancel on covers-auth)

(2)November.21.1941
The light green paper receipt of land’s house rental tax paid, sign by Nguoi than with red French liberty stamped of Cantho vIllage du Tan Buoi(D)
_

3.2.2 VIETNAM PROCTECTORATE DAI NIPPON (1942-1945)

__________________________________
1) 1942
____________________________________

(1)June.19th 1942
The red paper receipt of Land House tax paid,handwritten , signed Nguoi Than with very light red franch liberty square stamped of Cantho Village du Tan Buoi ( Rare document during WWII – Vietnam Francaise indochina as the Protectorate Dai Nippon , Vietnam still used the same stamped of Indochine cantho village-auth)
___________________________________
2)1943
_____________________________________
(1)August,4th 1943
The light pink paper receipt of land-house tax paid signed nguoi thanh with very very light franch liberty stamped of cantho village red stamped.
(Very rare document during WWII 1943 from The Indochine protectorat Dai Nippon village ‘s stamped still used -auth)

___________________________________
3)1944
____________________________________

(1) Vo Nguyen Giap forms Vietminh Army(D) and the vintage photo of him (P)

(2) By the end of 1944,US Forces under General Douglas MacArthur had fought their way through the Pacific and werereconquering the Phillipines. Rumor spread that bthey would debark in Indochina in their first assaut against the Asian continent.
General de Gaulle, determined to regain Indochina for France, feared that vthe Americans would favor the Vietnamese nationalist.
He parachuted Franch agents and arms into the area with orders to attack the Japanese as the US troops hit the beaches. Soon Saigon buzzed with talk of the forthcoming French Operation.

__________________________________
4) 1945-The end of WW II and Franch resettlement and Vietnam Independent war was begun.
____________________________________
A. Before Dai Nippon take over the Government.

1)January 1945

(1)January 4th 1945
The Very rare & veryfine condition Gia Dinh reciept 55$ and 9$32 from Li Van San (Nhan lanh cua M) for “Pr le compte de li r Nang & Ho-thi Dau (?) , ve thue dat nha/pho, so bo thue —,nam- 1944. (no revenue exist.)
Ngay 4-1-1945
Violet Gia Dinh –Binh Bhoa Ya ‘s square stamped design bird and chinmese char.
(Very rare extrafine village Bin Hoa ya of Gia Dinh province (after that Saigon-Cholon) ‘s document during Dai Toa Senso- Great East Asia War 1942-1945-, the latest dcument before the France administration was took over by Dai Nippon in March 1945-auth)

__________________________________
Move down march!!!!!!!
B. DAI NIPPON MILLITARY ADMINISTRATIN IN INDOCHINE PROTECTORATE.FROM MARCH 1945 TO SEPTEMBER 1945.
___________________________________
1) March,9th.1945
(b)The Japanese lost no time in reacting .On the evening of March.9th 1945 , after strategically deploying their forces, they instructed the French govenor to place his army under their command.
(b) In Hanoi , they ceremoniously intrened the French soldiers who had surrendered without fighting. But in oother place ,those who resisted were wiped out to the man. They imprisoned several hundred French civilians , many of whom were totured to death by the same native jailers employed by the colonial adminis-tration to brutalize Vietnamese nationalist.
(c) Overnight , French power had cumbled, and the Japanese seemed to be doomed to defeat. Which Vietnamese faction would fill the void?.

Move up January 1945!!!!!
(a)When the influence of World war II affected the French Indochina, the French Government issued a catagory of notes in which the ame of the issuing organ, Le gouvernment General de I’Indochine, at time from 1940 onward . the paper quality became worse than before, the paper was carelessly presented in IDEO(imprimerie d’Extreme-Orient _far east Printing House ) Hanoi.

(b)During this period , there were still metalcurrency, the leads coins were moulded with a paddy ear on one side . Especially there were issued lead coins with a paddy cluster moulded on the back side. A popular saying in relation to currency was orally propagated to stir up among people the anti-French Resistence for Independece :” When the paddy grows on the lead, elephants tram papers, the Monk shall have to disappear soon”(D)

(c) Worried by the growing Japanese influence, the French encouraged their own youth groups. But the Vietminh quickly infiltrated them and also seeded its cadres in japanese-sponsored associations. So, with no more than five thousand members in early 1945, the vietminh has a web of activitits all cross Vietnam, ready to act as events unfolded(D-ibid stanley Karnow p-159)

_____________________________________
move up. March.!!!!!
(2) January ,31th.1945
The Diploma from Guberneur General Indochina sign under delegetion to Secretary General with Indochina Goveuneur general stamped , at hanoi 31 Jan 1945, during Indochina as Protectorate Dai Nippon. The complete diploma in france :

Republique Francaise
Diploma D’Etudes Primaires Superiures Indochinoises
La Gouverneur General de Indochine.
Vu les directs du 20 octobre 1910:
Vu le direct du 2 mai 1920 ,modifie par le decret du 18 october 1922,
Vu Le Reglement General de l’Instruction Publique en Indochine :
Vu Le process-verbal de l’examen subi par Mn Nguyen van Loi ne le 7 Juin 1925,
Par leguel la Commission de l’examen atteste que le Diplome d’Etudes primaires superieures.
A Thoibinh,Cantho a ete juge d’obtenir le (epreuve facultative ————–) avec La mention Passable—–
Delivre a Mr “Nguyen van Loi “ Le present diploma pour servir et valoir ce que de droit.

Enregistre saus le no.1191 La Directeur pi Fait a hanoi 31 Jan 1945
(Direction de l’Lnstruction deI’Instruction Le Gouverneur General
Publique) Publique en de I’Indochine,
Indochina PAR Delegation
Secretary General
du Gouvernerment General I’Indochina
Slautier.
(OD)

(The very rare historic document before the Dai nippon took over the French administration in 1945 , the last French administration during WWII-auth)

_____________________________________
B. DAI NIPPON MILITARY ADMINISTRATION IN VIETNAM March-August 1945
_____________________________________

(1)March.9th.1945

(a)Japanese took over the Government administration through out Indochina. (D)

(b) Phung Thuong, as a boy before WWII , he had felt no particular resentment against the French, whom he rarely saw. But the famine of 1945 arused his hostility to both the Japanese and the French, and Vietminh agents entered the villages, urging the peasant to organize. They evoked Ho Chi Minh, a name then unknown to Khang. Even so, he agreed to head a platoon of seventry peasant armed with machetes and scythes, with only tw musket among them . They fortified the villages, building staves in hole covered with foliage. One night, in ambitius eneavor , they had fired six of their seven bullets. (D)

(2)11th March 1945
Bao Dai proclaims the indepen-dence of Vietnam under Japanese auspices.
Bo Dai, the indolent puppet emperr, had been hunting during the Japanese cuop.(D)

3) April 1945
No collections and information-auth

4) May 1945
No collection and information-auth

5) June 1945
No collection and infornation-auth

6)July 1945
(1)The allied leaders had met in Postdam, a Berlin suburb, to plan the future. There they had devised a schemed to disarm the Japanese in vietnam- aminor item on their agenda- by dividing the country at the sixteenth parllel. The British would take the South, the Chinese Nationalist the north, it was a formula for catastrope.

(2)The British commander, General Douglas Gracey, was miscast. A colonial officer with limited political experience but a genuine affection for his Indian troops, he held the parenalistic view that “natives” should not defy Europeans. Officially, his was not to reason why, he had been plainly told by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the allied commander for Southeast asia ,to avoid Vietnam’sinternal problems and merely handle the Japanese. But Gracey, guidednby his prejudices , (D)

7)August 1945

(1) August.14th 1945
Ir Soekarno and Drs Mohamad Hatta (Indonesian National’s leader during Dai Nippon Military Adminis-tration in Indonesia) went by flight to Saigon and by road to Dalat , where they have a meeting with Marskal Tarauchi (the command of Dai Nippon Military Administration in Saout East Asia ) and they have The Indonesia Indepen-dence’s mandat (D)
( Read the detail history in Unique Collection’s. Blog(By Dr Iean S.) “ Indonesia Independent War document and Postal History“-auth)

(2) When and Where the DaiNippon surrender in Vietnam ?-auth

________________________________
C.TRANSITION PERIOD AFTER JAPANESE SURRENDER IN VIETNAM 1945.
__________________________________
1)August 1945

(1)ANNAM BECAME THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM INCLUDING TONKIN,ANNAM AND COCHINCHINE WITH HANOI AS THE CAPITAL.

(2)By the summer of 1945 , flood aggravated the already serious food shortage as the Red River dikes , neglected by local officials, burst in several spot. In Nothern Vietnam, poor in the best of circumstances, two million people out of a population of ten million starved to death.
Not far from Hanoi , a leathery old peasant by the name of Duong Van Khang recalled years afterward that so many of his fellow villagers died :” We didn’t have enough wood for coffins and buried them in bamboo mats.”

(3)Condition were no better in the cities. Dr Tran Duy Hung, mayor of Hanoi at the time, recollected the scene in an interview decade later.

(4) Starving peasant in several places attacacked French post and stromed Japanese granaties.

(5) With the news of Japan’s surrender in August, the uprising spread. Vietminh agent mved quickly to take advatage of the Turmoil. A villager recounted the events of that period in a district of Thai Binh province, in the Red River delta :
“The Village marketplace was jummed. A man in brown pants and a cloth shirt climbed onto a chair, and guards armed with machetes spears and sticks surrounded him. He delivered a speech, saying that the Japanese had capitulated to the allies, and that the time had come for Vietminh to seized power . I was just a teenager in ragged clothes, and I asked a schoolmate, “ Now that we’ve seized power, who will be the mandarin?” He replied :”Get this.the mandarin is just apeassant-really ordinary”

(6) The Vietminh leader the marched to the district headquaters; the procession behind him swelled as nearby villagers joined in. The local chief had fled. The Vietminh leader seated himself in the district chief’s chair t dramatize his new authority. The next day, Vietminh agents put a village official on trial before five thousand peple assembled on a soccer field.
They read the charges. He had been an accmplice of the Japanese pirates. He had forced the peasants to pull up their rice and plant jute and peanuts, enriching himself even though the people were miserable and dying. He admitted that he had worrked for the Japanese but claimed that he was just carrying out orders. But they announced that his crime was very serious because he had opposed the revolution and helped the enemy. So They sentenced him to death and shot him right there.
This really fired up the people. They went after the henchmen of the Japanese, dragging them out of their housees, making them lower their heads and beating them. That finished their prestige, and the fervor of the massed kept rising.(D)

(7) August.16th 1945
To keep pace with the momentum, Ho Chi Minh summned sixty comrades to Tran Tao, a village in Thai nguyen province, North of Hanoi.
The time had come to grab power and greet the allies on the arrival. Ho formed a National Liberation Comittee with himself as president, calling it “The equivallent of a provisional government “ appealing for a general insurrection, he proclaimed in classic revolutionary style “ The oppresed the world over are wresting back theirindependent. We should not lag behind.(D)
Clad in coarse khaki uniforms or black pajamas, the first Vietminh detachments entere Hanoi on August 16, raking over publics buildings as Japanese troops stood by.
The emperor ‘s delegate, a symbol of imperial authority, resigned to a Vietminh-run committee of citizens which promptly announced its seizure of power from a balcony of the Hanoi opera house, a model of French gingerbread architecture

1945-1957: Vietnam

 Short history of Vietnam from the defeat of Japan in 1945
In the autumn of 1945 Japan, defeated, was forced to leave Indochina, the former French colony it had occupied at the start of the war. In the meantime, a revolutionary movement had grown there, determined to end colonial control and to achieve a new life for the peasants of Indochina. Led by a Communist named Ho Chi Minh, the revolutionists fought against the Japanese, and when they were gone held a spectacular celebration in Hanoi in late 1945, with a million people in the streets, and issued a Declaration of Independence. It borrowed from the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, in the French Revolution, and from the American Declaration of Independence, and began: “All men are created equal. They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” Just as the Americans in 1776 had listed their grievances against the English King, the Vietnamese listed their complaints against French rule:

They have enforced inhuman laws… They have built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots, they have drowned uprisings in rivers of blood. They have fettered public opinion… They have robbed us of our rice fields, our mines, our forests, and our raw materials…

They have invented numerous unjustifiable taxes and reduced our people, especially our peasantry, to a state of extreme poverty… from the end of last year, to the beginning of this year… more than two million of our fellow-citizens died of starvation…

The whole Vietnamese people, animated by a common purpose, are determined to fight to the bitter end against any attempt by the French colonialists to reconquer their country.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vietnam during French Indochine 1900-1940

 

THE VIETNAM DURING fRENCH iNDOCHINE 1900-1940

                                          

                                                       Indochina native vietnam army

CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

( Compile by Dr iwan s from his own collections added from internet google exploration.)

1.1901

(1) April.3rd. 1901
The Bank Of Indochina issued in saigon and Haipong four kind of note with nominalonly in Frech language (1,5,20 and 100 piastres).

                                                
The notes in Tonkin (haipong) was not allowed to excahnge for Cochinchinese (Saigon) notes and cochinchinese notes had to spent in Cochinchina(Saigon).
(The Haiphong notes very rare difficult to found, I have seen one in the auction, and I have the Saigon notes found in Hanoi – auth)

                                                              

(2)august.6th 1901
Off cover of postally used stamp on two type regular definitives Indochine RF stamp type I standard navigation and commerce orange 4 cent and red 6 cent, CDS Dalat-A(nam) 6.8.01, was found in Indonesia.
(Dalat a historic city for Indonesian people because Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman meet Field Markal Tarauci to have an authority to Indonesia Independent in August.14th 1945, read the complete story in this block and look “Indonesia Independent War” and look the vintage picture postcard-and vintahe photo/picture in 1964 Vietnam Unique collections- auth)

21) 1902-1904
Not yet info

20)1905
(1)In this year Bank of IndoChina issued 5 Piasters Paper Money

                                                

(2) October.14th 1905
Off cover Indochine first regular deffinitive stamps ,brown,15 cent, postally used cds Dien Bien (phu) 14 Oct 05 ,was found in Indonesia
( The famous city Dien Bien Phu where the Vietminh win the war against Franch, very popular city-unique CDS-auth)

21) 1906
Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign were issued 1 phan cash coins thwo types , machinal struck and traditional struck.(Traditional struch more rare that the macinal struck)

22)1907

(1)Than-Thai vietnam emperor throught out from vietnam to Reunion island by Franch (P)

(2) The attractive native woman design regular stamps were issued in 1907.(PH)

23) 1908-1910
Not yet info

24) 1911
(1) Ho leave Vietnam(D)
(2) October,4th .1911
Off piece Two Blue definitives native women Indochine 1 Piastre ,1000A2000 revenue , used with handwritten 4/10/11 .were found in Indonesia
(the unique earliest 20th century high nominal revenue, because in this time many used in low nominal,because in this year recetion and tax revenue became high, -auth)

25) 1912
(1) January,31.1912
The early off cover postally used CDS Lao Bao –Anam 31.Jan.12 on orange first type definitif Indochine Stamp 10 cent. Found in Indonesia (what the new name of the citry Lao Bao ? rare village postal stamp ?,because didn’t found in later vietnam name, please comment for information-auth)

26)1913
Early twentieth century Indochine Justice Francaise Extract “Extrait du casier judiciare concernant” Tribunal Cantho. Droit de timbre a o$15 en compte avec le Tresor.
Extrait du casier judiciare concernant
Name (nomne) : Nguyen Huee Tam
Fils de Nguyen Huee Vien
Et de Ha thi-Thu
Ne le 21 Fevrier 1925 a Tan quoi (Cantho)
Domicilee au dit lien
Etat civil et de familie Celibataire
Profession ……………………………….
Nationalite Sujet francais de Cochinchine
Pour extrait conforme:

Cantho le 1er December 1913
Le Greffier
Vu au Parquet Signed Lie
De procureui de la Republique Round Stamped
“Procureur De La Republique

Tribunal De cantho”
27) 1914
Some hundred thousand Viet-namese go to French in Labor battalions during WW I.(D)

28) 1916
Emperor Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign issued two kind of 1 phan cash coind “Khai Dinh Thong Bao” Traditinal and mechanical struck. (The mechanical struck more comon coins-auth)

29) 1917
Not yet info

30)1918
Ho arrives in Paris during Russian revolution and remains there for the next seven years.(D)

31) 1919
(1)Ho tries to petition for self determination in Vietnam against President Woodrow Wilson , at the Versailles Peace Conference
(2) A surcharged set of 1919 reccestated by the changeover from centimes to piastres in the present years. And a reprinted set staring 1/10 cent denominated.(PH)

32) 1920

(1)Ho joins newly formed French Communist Party .(D) and the photo of Saigon in this year.(P)

Vietnam was at this time part of French Indochina, with communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2) In 1920 the Banknoted issues from Haipong and Saigon could circulated all over Indochinese territory In this year also issued low nominal banknote 10 ,20 and 50 cents.(Haipong issued more difficult to found-auth)

(3) September. 2nd 1920
(1)The earliest Reciept of House land tax Paid sign by Nguoi thau of Cantho, Village du thoi thanh, with red stamped. Franch Liberty Indochina with chine character.(D)( I have the best collection of this land tax reciept from Village Tan –Buoi from 1920-1922, 1930-1934, 1939, 1940-1943, 1946, 1949. This unique document were the factual information that during 1923-1929, 1935-1938, 1944-145, 1947-1948 something happen that the land tax did,t paid and the authority also change by name , may be the conflict and war situations, let we proof that fact with historic informations, let the Historian made the study of this historic collections, let ‘s study together-auth)

33)1921

(1) June.29th1921
The receipt of land house tax paid ?(so hien bien lai ) , nhan lauh cua hua i ngsat, nguoin thau signed Nguoi than and red Franch Liberty stamped Cantho- Village du tan-Buoi

34) 1922
(1)Khai Dinh(1916-1925) Annam’s emperor visit Paris (P)
(2) July.10th 1922
The reciept of Land Tax paid, signed Nguoi Than, redbrown French liberty stamped Cantho, Village du Tan Buoi.
(the last signed Ngoui Than-auth)
And anpther same document but with first signed Vien chuoc thou nhem (new title-auth)

(4) December,17th,1922
The blue paper reciept of Land tax paid, signed by Vien Chuoc thou nhem and lFrench liberty stamped Catho ,Village du Tan Buoi. (D)

35)1923

(1)January 25th 1923
Republique Francaise Indochine 36 cent Revenue Sheet, used added Indochine Dimanston revenue 24 cent USED WITH stamped Annuale , This was the the Francaise Indchine revenue’s letter sheet contract “To ban Chuoc vuon ruong” adress “Nguoi ban le van thiet 45 luoi vo la Nguyen thi Khue 42 tuoi Saigon , for “Gia ban chuoc ban lon Mot Ngan Dong(1000$00)”, between ngoi ban ming and nguoi mua ming , “zoi-giao : Trong bon nam chuoc thi bac co loi nam ba phan ngoai bon nam chuoc lai thi bac nad loi con von J ngay to”( please native Vietnamese t translate this historic revenue sheet-auth)

(2)April ,5th.1923
Bo Dai was born in hue the capital of Vietnam Kingdom ( He was the last emperor of Vietnam-auth)

(3) April 13th 1923
Francaise Indochine 24 cent Revenue letter’s sheet was used to write the information in Franch & Vietnamese characters :
a) Lang cap duc nam 1866
S-o-160-50 2 Ha 20.00-Rg 2ecl VC-Thong Minh –dao ,S-Re chle , E.-Re .Nguyen Do , O.-Re.Nguyen tac-Yen.
b) 9 Jiullet 1905
212-243-88bNgai-v-Thoi -2.26a.00-Vuon .
NG .-reg Chu , S-Reach hu-Tri , E-V-Vg-Tai-Vang , O.-Re.Le-v-Thanh.
Ngua cua con Hbh-Phai la Hbh van Tbao trans NG0 2908 du 9 Juillet 1905.

c) 17 Aout 1909.
Vendu deft par les heritiers de Thuan Wbai’;t;Do ewught Ngo 2809 du 17 aout 1909. signe Eudel.
d)Emperor Khai dinh at His Palace

d1)5 September 1917
(1)Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi survant partage a l’anuable intervenu entre les heririers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt Ngo -2773 du 5 September 1917. Po L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard,
(2) Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi suivant partage a’ l’annuale inteerheum entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Do euregt ngo 277e eu 5 September 1917 .P.o L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.
d) Extrait de Diao du Village de3 Thanh Thien, canton de Mhinh-puc
(1)Lang cap duc nam 1866
49-24-49 Diavo actuel -2.000 Ha-Reg 2e-cl : N-Reg chu,S-V-chu,E.-Re Ngai –v-Do, O-Re.Nguyen tacc yen.
Veneu deft per Pham-v-quan ,sanh,Thien,Ngai, Duong, bay, Than,Hoa,Dieu,Thuong, Nham,Cuac, Dat, Chou et Gian, heritiers de Thuan, ai Ngai-v-Do enregt No 2809 du i7 Aout 1909 P.o.eur Sign Eudel.
Part attribuee Ngai –v-Thoi suivant partage a l’annuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt-Ngo 2773 du 5 September 1917. P.o.Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(2) 71-34-71 Ngai-van-Thoi
2 Ha Reg 1er cl : Ng –reg-Chu, SW.- Vuon chu, E. R-Ng-tac-vang, O-r-Le-v;Thanh,
Ngua duc cua Hbuynh-v-Phai va vo la Nbg Ru Phuong cau chung no 2369ndu 17/7-1901.
Part attribute a Ngai-v-Thoi sui vanpartage l’anuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai van-Do enregtno.2773 du 5 Septembre 1917 Le l’Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(3) 72-170 -72 Ngai –v-Thoi 280.00 : Thong Minh Dao, S.- reg chu, E.- rg Ng-tac-Vang , O.- reg Le-van-Thanh.
Ngua euc cua thj Phuong la vo Phai cau chung so 2367 du 17 September 1901.
Ngeme partage que le Ngo-3H du bo. P.g.l’Ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.

P.E. G.
Droit percu : 5 $ 00.-
Quittance No.5511
Bentre, le 13 Avril 1923
P.L’administrateur etfro
Sign by Huchard & Red Bentre Stamped. ( interesting information about ? from 1866 to 1917 and officially sign by Bentre Administrators with offcial stamped. On 12 April 1923, may be this official information about land owner ? from the Bentre Admninistration in 1923. )

36) 1924

(1)Ho leaves Paris for Moscow , becomes full-time Communist agent . Later went to Canton as assistant to Mikhail Borodin , Soviet represen-tative in China.(D)

Ho leave Paris because his communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2)In November 1924 Hồ arrived in Guangzhou(canton)  on a boat from Vladivostok.[4] He posed as a Chinese citizen named Lý Thụy (Li Shui) and worked as a translator for Comintern agent and Soviet arms dealer Mikhail Borodin.
(3) December.8.1924
Off cover brown definitive Indochine RF stamp , 12 cent in double circle type -2 stamp, Postally used CDS Hanoi (To)nkin 8.12.24.
 

 

37) 1925


(a)Emperor Khai Dinh was died, he was burried at imperial ‘s tombs, near the purfurmed river. His tomb very best and artistic, like miniature city, with many artistic statue of dragon,gourd and civillian, elephant, horse .

 and interior very artistic


Theorically Bao Dai his elder son became the emperor Of Vietnam, and The young emperor came back from France to ascended the throne under france tottulage.

( I have some original vintage photo of Khai dinh Tomb fro 1930 , 1949, and 1955, the old photo, the childrens were riding the horse and elephant ‘s statues
In the modern times we hav the informations about that Tomb :………………………………………..- auth)
Khai Dinh ‘s elder sons was the last empror of Annam 1926-1945, but he always at Paris, and under Japanese protectorate he came back to Vietnam stayed at Dalat,
( by referendum the last emperor was thrown out by Ngho Dinh Diem in 1955, read another subchapter-auth)

(b)In May 1925, Hồ participated in the founding of Thanh Niên, or Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association. This group was a forerunner of today’s Vietnamese Communist Party.
 
 

 

38) 1927

(1) June .13th.1927
Mytho Indentity Card,certifies exaste les reneignaments et-dessus(issue by) Mytho le 13 Juin 1927 Le Directeur, form was printed by Photo-Nadal,120 rue cayinat,saigon. (Nadal-photo have produced many vintage picture postcard-auth)
No. Maticule 372
Nom (name) : Ly Thi Nega
Ne l e(born ) : 13 Juillet(july) 1913
A’ (at) Phu Lun (Sadec)
Eleve de L’Ecole des : Sacuro
Nom,profession : Ly dai Con
Adresse des parents : Proprieclaire a Phu Lun (Sadec). (Sadec an native traibes near the border with ex annam area-auth)

(2) August 18th 1927
Republique Francaise Indochine 12 cent revenue sheet, used at Bentre,by Tong Minh-hue Lang Thanh –thoi,
Bentre Village square official stamped with chinese char. Also thumb –finger print sign.

(3) August,1st 1927
Rare Indochine 40 cent Revenue 300$ A4000$ , used on Document “To Han Mai dat” Bentre le 1er Aout 1927 , handfinger thumb signed of seven persons , legalised by the chief of Bentre Village with square stamped Bentre Village Thanthoi and Province De Bentre Administrateure stamped at 3 Aout 1927.

(4) October.24.1927
The rare and unique Carte D’Indentite (I.D.) Changenebes de Domicile (Change the domicillies) from”D’Outremer Service de Laison avec les originares aries Territoires Francais d’Outra-Mer” (The Service’s laisson of Foreign France teritory area) with the round stamped on blue Republique Francaise Timbre tax d’outra-mer ,very rare Revenue for France Colony, pity the ID card quality poor but useable for historic archived and must restored–auth)
Nom (name) : Luong hoc San
Nationalite: Citayen Union Frnacasie (Cochinchine).
Profession : Efecidiant (not clear ?)
Ne le : 24 octobre 1927
Long Binh Ranch..Cochinchine.(The rare used Franch colony revenue in cochine china, pity the revenue in bad condition,but the photo and card good condition, still interesting Cochine chine ID card during that colonial era-auth)

39)1928
No Collections and no Information, please someone will kind to send the info in 1928-auth.

40)1929

(1)Nguyen Ai –Quoc more knwon Ho Chi Minh have builded Vietnam Communist Party (D&P)

(2)Nearly Mint Picture Postcard Hanoi-Le Jardin Botonique.printed by Grands Magasines Reunie Hanoi(OP)

(3)Republique Francaise Indochina 10 Cent Revenue sheet overprinted Indochine 3 Cent used in chinese char about …. with six square stamped “ “P.Binhoh-h.Phu-Cai”in center chinese char…….(PH)

____________________________________
41) 1930,the economic crisis and rebellion year.
_____________________________________

(1)in 1930 the economic crisis added the social economic conflict between the poor farmer and labourmens ,in Indochine they have made rebellion the same situation in China.

(2)The second type Banknote issued by The bank of Indochina, this notes different from the first type, the name of the issuing bank, which “Banque de I’Indochine (Indochine written jointly without dash, the first type “ Indo-Chine”), while in the transitional period of the two typical categoriethe one-piaster notes bore the bank name of “banque de I’Indo-Chine”, and there was on their back side trilinual letters of Chinese,Vietnamese,cambodian and note emblem.
For these second catagory of notes, on their back side there were lines of Chinese Characters and a legal warning (in French) which have been all writen nratly and lightly. The note values have been written clearly in three letters of chinese,Vietnamese and Cambodian.
The following five-piaster notes were called very popularly by our compatriots as “Con Cong ”(Peacock) papers. On the back side of the twenty piaster notes there was the four-faces statue found at bayon temple (Cambodia). They were called populary as “Giay Qanh”( “Vingt Papers) which come from the french number “Vingt”(twenty).
For one hundred-piaster note, there was rather special thing. The Vietnamese figures (The single vase,The Imperial Temple Gate of Hue,capital city) were shown on the front side, while on their back side was seen the bust of Joseph-Francois Dupleix, a well-kown french colonialist official. ( I have this notes in fine condition, but very difficult to find the veryfine or unc condition, this note were found in Russian market Phonphen Cambodia, in Ho Chi Minh city difficult to find the Indochine papermoney, alway verybad condition maybe because the Liberation ‘s war and many Saigon ntaive vietnamese flea away after the fall of saigon, the only place still found was Cholon area, but the chinese there very carefully to change this high nominal value after the French leave that area, please comment-auth)

The Doc Luc, Giay Qanh and Con Cong(Single vase, twenty piaster pape and peacock) have constituted a triad of big notes which have been used for a rather long time under the French rule.After this three bankonote, issued the same banknote disign but the Baque De I’Indochine and nominal value in Red Colour , the rare banknote was the highest nominal 1000 piastres, the first type in yellow colour ( That is way very rare the very fine conditions , many poor conditions have found –auth).
After this Banque De I’Indochine issued several design cammon banknote, une,cinq,cent,cinq cent with native design.

(3)January,13th .1930
Rare chinese calligraphy bring by chinese immigrant (hoa Kiao or Chinese overseas) to Cholon-Saigon, about Chinese homeland traditional ritual from Tjiang Shi (Quanshi?) , the best time to pray at 10.15 pm , position up above, also about Chinese zodiac good fortune.
(I have found several document ,revenue and postal history written in chinese char during ancient time, francaise Indochine, Bodai’s,diem ‘s and liberation war from the Vienama’s chinese overseas area at Haiphng near Hanoi and Cholon- Saigon. I will write a special book about Vietnam’s Chinese Overseas unique collections- auth)

(4) November,13th 1930
The reciept of Land House tax with Indochine Francaise liberty armour ‘s Cantho Village violet stamped , signed by Ngui Thau, before by Vien Chuc Thau Nhan. (fiscal history-auth)

42) 1931

(1)August,7th 1931.
The reciept of Land House tax paid ,signed Vien Chu thau Nham with Violet French Liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan Buoi (D)
( the change again of official govern-ment system in the village four times from 1920-1939, from Nguoi Thu(1922) – Vien Chuc Thau Nham(1923)- Nguoi Thau(1930)- Vien Chuc thau Nham(1931)-Nguoi thanh(1932)- Vien thau Nhan(1939 )-Nguoi Thau (1939,May)- Vien chuc thau nhan (1940)-Nguoi thau(1941)-Thue (1946)-Nguoi thau (1949), very best informatif set collection So Hien Bien lai , especially the year 1941-1942-1943 – 1946-1nd 1949 as the collection for showed-please comment-auth)

43) 1932

(1)July.10.1932
The Reciept of Land house tax paid, signed Vien Chuc thau nham, with red-brown franch liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi (D)

44)1933

(1) December, 17th 1933
The Pink paper reciept of Land House tax, signed Nguoi Than, with Red French liberty stamped Canth, village du Tan Buoi (D)

45) 1934

(1)May 20th 1934
Emperor Bo Dai merried Jeannete Marie (?) at the imperial city of Hue.
And his wife became “Hong Hau Nhan Phuong” or empress of the South.
( I ever stayed at the “Nhan Phuong” Hotel at Hanoi near Hoat kiem lake in 2007-auth)

(2)October, 15.1934
The White paper reciept of Land house tax pai, signed Ngui Thou with red chinese character of the Frech liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan buoi (D)

46) 1935

(1)December.30th 1935
Off cover emperor Bo Dai official stamps send from the capital of Vienam administration office , 5 cent orange Indochine definitive stamps overprint Service, postally used CDS HUE –A(NAM) 30.12.35
(Hue was the capital of the state of Anam . The Service stamps
for official latter of the Annam kingdom adminsitration during the last emperor Bo Dai-auth)

(2) Blue Matches label withe elephant design,”Societe Indochinese des alldmetes-Benthuy-Hanoi” with chinese char.
(Very rare Matches label from Indochine Francaise in the Tonkin village Benthuy –Hanoi found in Indonesia before the World war II , because many collections burns during Vietminth war against Franc in 1952-1955, this is the first reported of that kind collections, were someone had the same collection please comment –auth)

47)1936

(1)In 1936

(a) stamps issue depecting the various native emperor and king in variety of commemorative honouring notable figures.

(b) Old styled chinese char about Chinese School information (difficult to translate, my be someone will help me -auth)

(2)August.21th .1936
The Vaccination card, “ Ville De Cholon” Etat-Civil Indigne(Bo doi Bon Quoc), Bulletin De Naissance (To Bien Lai khai Sanh)
Identification :
Nome et prenom : Law Ngoc
Sexe de l’infant ; Hau um
Ne le (born) :18.8.36
Address :A Cholon Rue Thu Gia De Lam Thong Et de Hua Teich .

Ephemera of The Variolla vaccination ’s law in Vietnamnese and Chinese char:
“ Every newborn child must have variolla vaccination, ifn’t done the parent will have sactions”
Behind the card stamped :
Vaccine contre La variola 21-8-36, Succin 24-8-36, Vaccine per BCG 22-8-36.

(Rare Histroric health vacinnation record collection during Francaise Indochine at Cholon-Saigon Cochinchine in 1936 –auth)

48)1937
No collection and information, why? Please comment -auth

49)1938
No collections and information Why snf what happened ? please comment-auth.

50)1939

(1)29th April 1939
Two vintage document used as the covers of Hand written vintage book:

(a)The Reciept of personal Tax from Village Da ban-Huyen de Yen Binh, paid (Paye) 129$81 , “import personnel and Toncier of” nguyen Quang ,hand sign by “Administrtaeur-Resident”at 29 april 1939 with official stamped
Pour L’annee 1939
Village de Da Ban
Canton de….. Huyen de Yen Binh
1.-Impo’t personnel
. …contribuables a’ 250$00
…..contribuables a’ 200.00
….. contribuables a’150.00
……contribuables a’ 125.00
……contribuqbles a’ 105.00
…..contribuables a’ 80.00
…..contribuables a’ 55.00
…..contribuables a’ 40.00
…..contribuables a’ 25.00
…..contribuables a’ 15.00
…..contribuables a’ 7.00
…..contribuables a’ 5.00
..32contribuables a’ 2.50 80,00
….6contribuables a’ 1.00 6,00—— 86.00
Centimes additionales a’impot personnel 17.20
————–
Total de l.impot personnel et des centiemes additionnales 103.20

2.-Impot Toncter
Riziores de 1’ classe—— Mau a’1$90
– 2’ classe…… Mau a’1,50
– 3’classe……. 11 Mau a1,00…..11,00
Terrains de 1’classe…… Mau a’2$30…
— 2’classe…. Mau a’1.00
— 3’ classe…. 12 Mau a’0,50…..6.00
— 4’classe….. 30 Mau a’0.17……5,10
— 5’classe….. Mau a’0,02…..
Total de L’impot foncier 22,10
3.centiemes additionnels au principal de l’impot
Au profit du Badget provincial…………….. 4,42
4.4/1000 additionels au principal de L’impot foncier
Au profit deLa’Chambre d’Agriculture….0,09——– 26.61
______________
Total de lo’impot a’ verser par le village———- 129.81
________________
Arrete a La somme de Cent vingt reuf pistres ,quatre vingt et un cente.
Nguyen Quang te ………..29 april 1939
Administateur Resident
(b) Versaments Printed Document, The Rice field class no 1 & 2 and Land Tax in chinese char.
Nu du carnet d’enregistre ment ……….831
DATE de versements …………………….3739
VERSEMENTES
En Toutes latters….toen trrs piatres cents
En Piastres ……………………………………….103,20
Hand sign and not clear official handstsaped :
TRESORER’ DU CONTROLUER(?) ..
PLACE DU ECONOMIQUE..(?)..
IN THE CENTER ‘PA………..”

d) Vintage Handwritten Book in Chinese charcter and many Coding pictures about the confucian prayed

(This Unique Imporst Fiscal “ Nguyen or Tunyen(?) Quan ‘s “ Import personnel and Toncier from village Da Ban ,huyen Yen Binh was the first report Fiscal revenue historic collections from Vietnam, I am very lucky to find this very rare document with another documen were used as the cover of an handwritten chinese char vintage books in antique shop near Hoat Kiem lake Hanoi in 2007. auth)

(2) October,30-1939
Off Cover brown native stamp Indochine RF 50 cent, postally used CDS Haipong 30.10.39 (Haiphong was the older capital of Tonkin, the chinese marchant harbor, the rare Haiphong’s picture and ID Card look at the next page, chronologic year 1947 and 1955. auth)

29) 1938
(1)September.4th 1938
THE VERY RARE WESSELS ‘S HANOI TONKIN COVER TO DUTCH East Indie (now Indonesia).
THE UNUSUAL AIRMAIL cover from HANOI TONKIN, FOUR POSTALLED STAMPED DESTINATIONS WITH HANDWRITTEN DESTINATION AND PORTO F 1.
This postally covers was sent from Hanoi Tongkin to Het Postzegelhuis (Post Office) Djogja Indes Neerlandaises (Ned.Indie, now Indonesia) WITH FIVE Rhodes STAMPS , 3 x 5 cent , 6 cent and 18 cent Indochina stamps(rate 39 cent) Par avion WITH INDOCHINA MAP, with ROUND Postmark HANOI P.O.-TONKIN WITHOUT DATE , SENT VIA BANGKOK G.PO.c 4.9.38 , VIA BATAVIA (HANDWRITTEN IN BLUE PARKER INK “HAUR BATAVIA”(NOW JAKARTA) AND ARRIVING POSTMARK DJOKJAKARTA 7.9.38 WITH HANDWRITTEN f 1.- ADDED PORTO ONE GULDEN. (UNSUAL PORTO)
(the photo of this Wessel’s cover will show in this blog. Please comment if anyone have the same collection-auth)

(2)Near mint Indochine Pictured Postcard with the Native village Tonkin Womens sold the flower and fruit “Paysannes Tonkinese revenant du Marche.
This card base on “Cliche No-Nhu_Hoan,MY-Hao Ban-Yen-Nham-Tonkin, pritted by Edition photo NADAL ,Saigon-Imp.Braun(P)

51)1939
(1)March.23th 1939
The blue paper receipt of land House tax paid, signed Vien Chuc Than Nham with red French liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi , 23 mars 1939. (D)

52)1940
(1) March.29,1940
The Police D’Abonnement A L’Eau Porable , Cochine Chine polish insurance (?) With very rare overprint 36 on Indochine Francaise 25 cent Timbre fiscal revenue , le abonemen Cathedral De Saigon .RP Eugene Scullard ,Place Pigneu de Boheine.
secteur de saigon, Services Technique, control de Eaux et De Electricite, This contract sign at Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Vue et propose L’Ingenuer Charge du Controle, L’Abonne, Vue et soumis a L’apprebation de M.L’Administrateur Le chef de services technique sign R.Lachamp, and Vu et accepted Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Le chef de Service Administratifs with Cholon Region Station Services Technique Stamped.(Very Rare Cathedral de Saigon abbonnement certificate with very rare overprint Yellow-36 on 25 cent Indochine francaise timbre fiscal revenue, only found one pieces this emergencies revenue-auth)

(2)May.22.1940
(b)The Republique Francaise Indochine 15 cent Requete revenue sheet
(a) added “Tonkin -handstamped” R.F.Indochine 3 cent revenue , used with village stamped with chinese character “H.Phu-Cat V.Dai-Hac”, this revenue sheet was the house and land transaction , the house located at the highsociety area, north the village, south Phan Tiu, West Phan Yen, East Kwang chung .
( This revenue sheet found at Hanoi Hoat Kiem area” and the best showed collection to compare between the Tonkin ‘s Phu-Cai Hand-stamped 3 cent, with The Cochinchina’s Mytho- Mechanical overprint 3 cent, wonderful two historic revenue sheet from Tonkin-phut Cai (north) and Cochinchina-Mytho (south) found by Indonesian , especially if showed in USA or French , please comment-auth)

(b)added “ Cochinchina-mechanical overprint” R.F.Indochine 3 cent, used at “Tinh Mytho,Tong Phong vu ,” at Tang Hoa Log. To Ban Dut Dat Ruong”ontract betweeen “Vhu Phua and Chu Ben” date (ngay) 22 Mai 1940, (found at Ho Chi Minh city from Cholon area.-auth)

(3) July.17th.1940
Gouvernement General De L’Indochine, Residence de Thai Binh
“LIVRET DE FAMILLE” Nguyen Van Tan
(Family’s book, inside the book Nguyen Van Tan write in red ink the name and birth date of their family from the first generation born Hanoi,Nguyen van Tan 25.12.1893, 2nd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi.3rd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi 4th Nguyen van Kiem birth date 5.10.1922 at Thai Binh , 5th Le thiMInh,10-10-1930 at Ha Dong, 5) Nguyen van Toan 4.12.1954 at Saigon.Nguyen van Thinh 3.12.1956 at saigon and Nguyen Van Tring ,1-12-1957 at Da Nang etc another 11 persons.
(Unique Family birth date book of Governement General the Indochine, rare document from the official France colony administration, better shwed with another Gouvernur General Indchine document-auth)

(4) October,18th 1940
The best chinese overseas in Vietnam peom art calligraphy, as the remambrance for the best freands.
Including in small book more than fifteen poem and phraese about : (a)struggle for Independent
(b) you can have high vision, but must look at the true situations.
(c) Younger people don’t have the thought like a poet writers about old days situations , the Youngerman must made action to pass the threads in futures times.
(d)The Enemy were someone against us, the people were the battles.

(5)October .19th.1940
The Kuomintang flag with Sun Yat Sen photo as the head of Chinese overseas Middle school “Ijazah” , was authentication by Embassy of the republic of China .Saigon. double circle official kuomintang symbol stamped ,with big red squared official choped .
(The rare chinese overseas school document with China kuomintang –cholon ‘s embassy stamped.
I have another collection with the Kuomintang embassy stamped from Haipong and cholon- rare showed item and will list detailed in my another book title “The Unique Vietnam’s Chinese overseas document.revenue and postal history collections” –auth)

(6) December,19th 1940
The Police de’abbonent of General Immobiliere de Saigonm104.Bd Charner sretificate with very rare overprint 36 on 30 cent’s Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal (the other one 25 cent) on the Police D’Ambnnemen a L’eau Potable, sign by Directeur de la du Generale Immobiliere de Saigon,

( two very rare revenue onerprint 36 on indochine Francaise Timbre fiscal 25 cent and 30 cent very intersting collection for showed, the abnnement polish of the famous Saigon’s Cathedral and Saigon’s General Immobiliere building.-auth)

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vietnam during Indochine at World War II 1942-1945.

 

VIETNAM’S INDOCHINE FRANCAISE
DURING WW II (1941-1945)

3.2.1 Before Japanese came

1)1941

(1)From 1941 to 1945 almost all of Indochina stamps were designed by vietnamese painters ans printed in Vietnam as well (D)

(2)Ho return to Vietnam and form the Viethminh to fight both Japan and Franch.(D)

(2)March.14th 1941
The Receipt of house rental paid, stamped Cantho Village du thoi than.
(D)

(3)Juil(July) 5th 1941
The rare vintage Chinese Certifacate of Registration at Cholon saigon, name Ly Chu Yen , writting in chinese character and Chinese Kuomintang (Star) emblem, with Light brown 20 cent Chinese Fiscal revenue design old chinese native building , Chinese consulate cholon saigon stamped .
( I found one complete certificate and one uncomplete half certificate without photo but the Chinese consulate stamped on revenue more clair. The very fine show piece. I have a visit at the Saigon(now Ho Chi Minh City)’s Consulate PR China ,to get fast one day visa two entree with four times cost than normal one weeks finish visa one entree, but the service very best, and I used that visa to see the Histroric Nguyen trai and Le loi Langson border between PR China –south autonon Quanshi’s province with the north area of Vietnam, they called the Freedom border -auth)

(4)August.30.1941
The rare Postal Recepisse(Reciept) “a remettre au depossant”, name and destination : Phan Ky Che Ban bien Place de Ai Section Rach –gia, send from CDS Cantho Cochinchine 30.8.41.

28) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine
(1)The picture of Hotel at “Baclieu”” Le pare et l’Hotet de I’Inspection”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon,Gravure Braun&Cie .Dornach(France).(P)
(2)The Vintage Picture Postcard Of CochinChine.”the picture of Potterie Canal of Cholon with the junks.”
The card was issued by Photo Nadal Saigon , Cholon 1634. gravure Braunn &Cie.Dornach(france).
(I have seen the canal during last visit in 2009,still many ships but no jung anymore -auth)(P)
(3) The Vintage Picture Postcard of Cochinchine. The pisctur of la Douene Bentre.
The card was isuued by Photo Nadal Saigon, Bentre 1104,Gravure Braun & Cie.Dornach(France) (P)

33)1941
(1)June.30th 1941
The very rare Postal Recepisse no 671 postal cancel CANTHO-COCHINCHINE 9.30 , 30-6.1941.
Recipesse, remettre ao deposant,
(A rempiir per l’expediteur.)
Nom et adresse du destinatire (the destination address): Chan Ky chee Bon Bien
Rue : Pace de la Section a’ Rachgia.

(A remplir per l’agent des Postes.
Nature de L’object Valeur declare remboursement Poid.
(1) Voir notice e speciale au veran
(2) Coller 1e1 L’etiquette gommes du G-20

In The Back :
Notice Speciale
Si L’object ne porte pas de declaration de va-
Leur et n’est pas greve de remboursement biffer
Par deux forts traits de plume,Les emplacement
Reseves pour L’inscription de la valeur declaree
Ou du montant du remboursment.
Le delai se prescription des valeurs de toute
Nature confie’ens a’ La Poste est est d’un on.
La designation de L’expenditeur peut e’tre faite
Au moyen d’une griffe.
En vuebd’eviter le stationement au guichet,
Les expenditeurs sont prie’s d’affranchix regulie’re-
Ment leurs envois avant le depo’t.)
(The Best postal History postal cancel of Cantho Cocchinchine during WWII with Speciale notes in French , as the postal History of French hegomony and historic colonial in Cochinchina , also very impostant to the comparative study postal cancelled of the postal used covers in Indochina after the war, because two many fake falsifiaction bogus postal used covers, I will showed this very rare postal history, not put on my blog because someone will made falsification fake cancel on covers-auth)

(2)November.21.1941
The light green paper receipt of land’s house rental tax paid, sign by Nguoi than with red French liberty stamped of Cantho vIllage du Tan Buoi(D)
_

3.2.2 VIETNAM PROCTECTORATE DAI NIPPON (1942-1945)

__________________________________
1) 1942
____________________________________

(1)June.19th 1942
The red paper receipt of Land House tax paid,handwritten , signed Nguoi Than with very light red franch liberty square stamped of Cantho Village du Tan Buoi ( Rare document during WWII – Vietnam Francaise indochina as the Protectorate Dai Nippon , Vietnam still used the same stamped of Indochine cantho village-auth)
___________________________________
2)1943
_____________________________________
(1)August,4th 1943
The light pink paper receipt of land-house tax paid signed nguoi thanh with very very light franch liberty stamped of cantho village red stamped.
(Very rare document during WWII 1943 from The Indochine protectorat Dai Nippon village ‘s stamped still used -auth)

___________________________________
3)1944
____________________________________

(1) Vo Nguyen Giap forms Vietminh Army(D) and the vintage photo of him (P)

(2) By the end of 1944,US Forces under General Douglas MacArthur had fought their way through the Pacific and werereconquering the Phillipines. Rumor spread that bthey would debark in Indochina in their first assaut against the Asian continent.
General de Gaulle, determined to regain Indochina for France, feared that vthe Americans would favor the Vietnamese nationalist.
He parachuted Franch agents and arms into the area with orders to attack the Japanese as the US troops hit the beaches. Soon Saigon buzzed with talk of the forthcoming French Operation.

__________________________________
4) 1945-The end of WW II and Franch resettlement and Vietnam Independent war was begun.
____________________________________
A. Before Dai Nippon take over the Government.

1)January 1945

(1)January 4th 1945
The Very rare & veryfine condition Gia Dinh reciept 55$ and 9$32 from Li Van San (Nhan lanh cua M) for “Pr le compte de li r Nang & Ho-thi Dau (?) , ve thue dat nha/pho, so bo thue —,nam- 1944. (no revenue exist.)
Ngay 4-1-1945
Violet Gia Dinh –Binh Bhoa Ya ‘s square stamped design bird and chinmese char.
(Very rare extrafine village Bin Hoa ya of Gia Dinh province (after that Saigon-Cholon) ‘s document during Dai Toa Senso- Great East Asia War 1942-1945-, the latest dcument before the France administration was took over by Dai Nippon in March 1945-auth)

__________________________________
Move down march!!!!!!!
B. DAI NIPPON MILLITARY ADMINISTRATIN IN INDOCHINE PROTECTORATE.FROM MARCH 1945 TO SEPTEMBER 1945.
___________________________________
1) March,9th.1945
(b)The Japanese lost no time in reacting .On the evening of March.9th 1945 , after strategically deploying their forces, they instructed the French govenor to place his army under their command.
(b) In Hanoi , they ceremoniously intrened the French soldiers who had surrendered without fighting. But in oother place ,those who resisted were wiped out to the man. They imprisoned several hundred French civilians , many of whom were totured to death by the same native jailers employed by the colonial adminis-tration to brutalize Vietnamese nationalist.
(c) Overnight , French power had cumbled, and the Japanese seemed to be doomed to defeat. Which Vietnamese faction would fill the void?.

Move up January 1945!!!!!
(a)When the influence of World war II affected the French Indochina, the French Government issued a catagory of notes in which the ame of the issuing organ, Le gouvernment General de I’Indochine, at time from 1940 onward . the paper quality became worse than before, the paper was carelessly presented in IDEO(imprimerie d’Extreme-Orient _far east Printing House ) Hanoi.

(b)During this period , there were still metalcurrency, the leads coins were moulded with a paddy ear on one side . Especially there were issued lead coins with a paddy cluster moulded on the back side. A popular saying in relation to currency was orally propagated to stir up among people the anti-French Resistence for Independece :” When the paddy grows on the lead, elephants tram papers, the Monk shall have to disappear soon”(D)

(c) Worried by the growing Japanese influence, the French encouraged their own youth groups. But the Vietminh quickly infiltrated them and also seeded its cadres in japanese-sponsored associations. So, with no more than five thousand members in early 1945, the vietminh has a web of activitits all cross Vietnam, ready to act as events unfolded(D-ibid stanley Karnow p-159)

_____________________________________
move up. March.!!!!!
(2) January ,31th.1945
The Diploma from Guberneur General Indochina sign under delegetion to Secretary General with Indochina Goveuneur general stamped , at hanoi 31 Jan 1945, during Indochina as Protectorate Dai Nippon. The complete diploma in france :

Republique Francaise
Diploma D’Etudes Primaires Superiures Indochinoises
La Gouverneur General de Indochine.
Vu les directs du 20 octobre 1910:
Vu le direct du 2 mai 1920 ,modifie par le decret du 18 october 1922,
Vu Le Reglement General de l’Instruction Publique en Indochine :
Vu Le process-verbal de l’examen subi par Mn Nguyen van Loi ne le 7 Juin 1925,
Par leguel la Commission de l’examen atteste que le Diplome d’Etudes primaires superieures.
A Thoibinh,Cantho a ete juge d’obtenir le (epreuve facultative ————–) avec La mention Passable—–
Delivre a Mr “Nguyen van Loi “ Le present diploma pour servir et valoir ce que de droit.

Enregistre saus le no.1191 La Directeur pi Fait a hanoi 31 Jan 1945
(Direction de l’Lnstruction deI’Instruction Le Gouverneur General
Publique) Publique en de I’Indochine,
Indochina PAR Delegation
Secretary General
du Gouvernerment General I’Indochina
Slautier.
(OD)

(The very rare historic document before the Dai nippon took over the French administration in 1945 , the last French administration during WWII-auth)

_____________________________________
B. DAI NIPPON MILITARY ADMINISTRATION IN VIETNAM March-August 1945
_____________________________________

(1)March.9th.1945

(a)Japanese took over the Government administration through out Indochina. (D)

(b) Phung Thuong, as a boy before WWII , he had felt no particular resentment against the French, whom he rarely saw. But the famine of 1945 arused his hostility to both the Japanese and the French, and Vietminh agents entered the villages, urging the peasant to organize. They evoked Ho Chi Minh, a name then unknown to Khang. Even so, he agreed to head a platoon of seventry peasant armed with machetes and scythes, with only tw musket among them . They fortified the villages, building staves in hole covered with foliage. One night, in ambitius eneavor , they had fired six of their seven bullets. (D)

(2)11th March 1945
Bao Dai proclaims the indepen-dence of Vietnam under Japanese auspices.
Bo Dai, the indolent puppet emperr, had been hunting during the Japanese cuop.(D)

3) April 1945
No collections and information-auth

4) May 1945
No collection and information-auth

5) June 1945
No collection and infornation-auth

6)July 1945
(1)The allied leaders had met in Postdam, a Berlin suburb, to plan the future. There they had devised a schemed to disarm the Japanese in vietnam- aminor item on their agenda- by dividing the country at the sixteenth parllel. The British would take the South, the Chinese Nationalist the north, it was a formula for catastrope.

(2)The British commander, General Douglas Gracey, was miscast. A colonial officer with limited political experience but a genuine affection for his Indian troops, he held the parenalistic view that “natives” should not defy Europeans. Officially, his was not to reason why, he had been plainly told by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the allied commander for Southeast asia ,to avoid Vietnam’sinternal problems and merely handle the Japanese. But Gracey, guidednby his prejudices , (D)

7)August 1945

(1) August.14th 1945
Ir Soekarno and Drs Mohamad Hatta (Indonesian National’s leader during Dai Nippon Military Adminis-tration in Indonesia) went by flight to Saigon and by road to Dalat , where they have a meeting with Marskal Tarauchi (the command of Dai Nippon Military Administration in Saout East Asia ) and they have The Indonesia Indepen-dence’s mandat (D)
( Read the detail history in Unique Collection’s. Blog(By Dr Iean S.) “ Indonesia Independent War document and Postal History“-auth)

(2) When and Where the DaiNippon surrender in Vietnam ?-auth

________________________________
C.TRANSITION PERIOD AFTER JAPANESE SURRENDER IN VIETNAM 1945.
__________________________________
1)August 1945

(1)ANNAM BECAME THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM INCLUDING TONKIN,ANNAM AND COCHINCHINE WITH HANOI AS THE CAPITAL.

(2)By the summer of 1945 , flood aggravated the already serious food shortage as the Red River dikes , neglected by local officials, burst in several spot. In Nothern Vietnam, poor in the best of circumstances, two million people out of a population of ten million starved to death.
Not far from Hanoi , a leathery old peasant by the name of Duong Van Khang recalled years afterward that so many of his fellow villagers died :” We didn’t have enough wood for coffins and buried them in bamboo mats.”

(3)Condition were no better in the cities. Dr Tran Duy Hung, mayor of Hanoi at the time, recollected the scene in an interview decade later.

(4) Starving peasant in several places attacacked French post and stromed Japanese granaties.

(5) With the news of Japan’s surrender in August, the uprising spread. Vietminh agent mved quickly to take advatage of the Turmoil. A villager recounted the events of that period in a district of Thai Binh province, in the Red River delta :
“The Village marketplace was jummed. A man in brown pants and a cloth shirt climbed onto a chair, and guards armed with machetes spears and sticks surrounded him. He delivered a speech, saying that the Japanese had capitulated to the allies, and that the time had come for Vietminh to seized power . I was just a teenager in ragged clothes, and I asked a schoolmate, “ Now that we’ve seized power, who will be the mandarin?” He replied :”Get this.the mandarin is just apeassant-really ordinary”

(6) The Vietminh leader the marched to the district headquaters; the procession behind him swelled as nearby villagers joined in. The local chief had fled. The Vietminh leader seated himself in the district chief’s chair t dramatize his new authority. The next day, Vietminh agents put a village official on trial before five thousand peple assembled on a soccer field.
They read the charges. He had been an accmplice of the Japanese pirates. He had forced the peasants to pull up their rice and plant jute and peanuts, enriching himself even though the people were miserable and dying. He admitted that he had worrked for the Japanese but claimed that he was just carrying out orders. But they announced that his crime was very serious because he had opposed the revolution and helped the enemy. So They sentenced him to death and shot him right there.
This really fired up the people. They went after the henchmen of the Japanese, dragging them out of their housees, making them lower their heads and beating them. That finished their prestige, and the fervor of the massed kept rising.(D)

(7) August.16th 1945
To keep pace with the momentum, Ho Chi Minh summned sixty comrades to Tran Tao, a village in Thai nguyen province, North of Hanoi.
The time had come to grab power and greet the allies on the arrival. Ho formed a National Liberation Comittee with himself as president, calling it “The equivallent of a provisional government “ appealing for a general insurrection, he proclaimed in classic revolutionary style “ The oppresed the world over are wresting back theirindependent. We should not lag behind.(D)
Clad in coarse khaki uniforms or black pajamas, the first Vietminh detachments entere Hanoi on August 16, raking over publics buildings as Japanese troops stood by.
The emperor ‘s delegate, a symbol of imperial authority, resigned to a Vietminh-run committee of citizens which promptly announced its seizure of power from a balcony of the Hanoi opera house, a model of French gingerbread architecture

the edn @ copryright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Northvietnam-Vichi war(Vietminh) 1945-1955

 

THE VIETMINH  WAR

@copyright Dr Iwan S (iwansuwandy) 2010. iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.

 

                                                         

                                     Ho and friend stamps after victory 1954

I.  Historical Background

1.Above and Beyond.vol.4,New Horizon Publisher.Inc.Chicago,196 

(1) The vital role of air power in Vietnam during French vietminh war in the early 1950 were not exist.

(2)The French Army had the same mobility and firepower as the guerilla.

It was tied to the road for rapid movement of large units and its heavy fire-power was provided by attellery which could not be moved anymore quickly than its infantry.

(3)Under these circumstances the initiative was firmly in the hand of the Viet Minh who did not attack until the situation was strongly in their favor, and they could keep their forces secure indefinetely in jungle strong-hold.

(4)The most common Vietminh tactic was to attack one of the scattered French garrison with strong forces, and then to ambush relief columns sent to its aid by road.

(5)Many large French units were wiped out and it was impossible to force the Viet Minh to fight a conventional battle of importance.

(6)Finally, the Viet Minh did accept the challange of a conventional battle, but it was near the town of Dien Bien Phu in a rimote district of nortwestern Vietnam.

French commanders believed they could win even  though they had been forced into defensive positions and were cut off from inforcement and resupply by road.

Their estimate proved incorrect and before  their final defeat , the government in Paris sought US aid in the form of airpower to bombard the Viet Minh assembeld around Dien Bien Phu  , to resupply the French troops and if necessary to evacuate them.

It wasnot possible to arrange this aid and the ill-equipped French air  unit were  not able to stop the Viet Minh victory which lead to a complete French withdrawal from South East Asia.

                                    

2.Montgomery. A History of Warfare, Collins,St James’s Place London, 19

(1)In Vietnam , vietminh guerrilas took to jungle to fight against reesta-blishment of Franch control.

 (2)The war began in 1946 with the French attempt to reconquer Indo-China, which had been part of their empire since the early 1880’s.

(3)It ended with the armistice Agree-ment signed in Geneva in 1954, which left Vietnam divided between North and South along the 17th parallel  (line-auth).

(4)In this war the French losses were 35.000 killed and 48.000 wounded. The campaign repays study.

(5)What stand out are the hesitation, vacillation , lack of clear political purpose, and the constant political and military interference on the part of the home government in Paris.

(6)It also highlights the utter incompetence and arrogant blidness of the French military command set-up in IndoChina, which conducted the war with a complete disregard for local condition.

(7)The final disaster was the surrender of the French garrison of Dien Bien Phu on fifth May 1954,which was the death blow to the French empire, and threw that area open to the cold war.

(8)The lesson for the present is do not hold an Asian enemy in contempt.

This is an interesting book on the subject by a French author,Jules Roy, The Battle of Dien Bien Phu(I have the PHOTO OF THIS BOOK-AUTH). When Roy returned to Hanoi in 1963, the Vietminh commander General Giap

, said to him :” You were defeated by yourself” that is very true.The French realized in 1954 that they had lost their Indo-China war”

(I have the original photo of Giap,Ho , Pham van Dong and other Vietminh war hero , found in Indonesia during Afro-Asia conference 1955 at bandung-Indonesia-auth)

 3.French and the Vietminh (Kahin,America in Vietnam War,1976

 1)On the eve of Japan’s defeated in World war II.

     (a)The Vietminh confidently looked foward to Allied support in any future struggle against colonialism, because of the assistance they had given to his resistance movement against the Japanenese.

     Ho Chi Minh apparently anti-cipated ultimate Allied recog-nation to his newly-established goverment, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

     This expectation was clearly reflected in his government’s declaration of Independence of September 2,1945 which stated :

“We are convinced that the allied nations….will not refuse to acknow-ledge the independence of Viet Nam”

     (b) But France’s postpower government was determined to reassert French control in Indochina; and Russia included-mwere more concerned with maintaining good relation with France than with any effective support of the priciple of Self-determination in Vietnam.

(c)The first hind of Allied plans for postwar Vietnam came at Posdam. The Agreement reached there in July 1945 stipulated that, following the defeat of Japan.

     British forces were to occupy the southern half of Vietnam up to the 16th paralel, and China nationalist (Kuomintang) Chiang Kai-shek forces were take over the country North of the parallel.

     Under this agreement the mandate of both the British and Chinese Nationalist forces was restricted to “the round-up and disarming of the Japanese and the Recovery of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees”( In Indonesia the same, called RAPWI-auth)

                                                                         

     The conduct of the Allied occu-pation in fact went far beyond this limited assigment.

 The Commander of The British occupations forces, Major-General Douglas Gracey, exceeded both the Postdam Mandate and the orders of his superior Admiral Louis Mountbatten , who had admonished him to “confine operations of British/Indian troops to this limited tasks which he had been set.”

(d)Short of troops of his own, Gracey relied heavily upon japanese forces to keep Saigon and the surrounding areas under his control and out of the hands of the Vietminh.

He rearmed the bulk of the 5000 French troops interned in the Saigon area . ( the complete information read chronologist, “Bodai regime”-auth)

     (e)The Kuomintang Chinese army, in the northen half of Vietnam , devi-ated from the Postdam mandate in an other different way. Their force of 180.000 men, which was far larger than required, displayed more interest in systematically looting the country than in repartriating of The Japanese.

     In parts of Northen Tonkin , the Chinese replaced the Vietminh with their own proteges. However, despite attempts to influence the Vietminh’s activities, the Chinese commanders recognized Ho Chi Minh’s regime in Hanoi as the de facto government and allowed it to function with con-siderable freedom ( the complete informations read the nex subcapterd below-chronology-auth)

3).Vietnam (Constantino,Renato “The Making of Filipino” A Story of Phillipine Colonial politics” page 205& 231, first printing 1969,… panay avenue,Quezon City,Phillipine)

(a) The United States has asked her Allies to join her in warning communists “Against further aggresion in ear-torn Indochina”

(b) The next subject on which Senator Recto opposed the US position,and President Magsasay’s as well, was vietnam.

(c)Describing Vice-prosident Carcia’s prompt expression of support for United States intervention as ill-advised, he cautioned the Foreign Affairs Department against making ,without prior consultation with Congress, statements which might involve the country in war.

He pinted out that the Phillipines is in No Position to issued such “threats” because it is just a “small power” He expressed the fera that “ we may just be like hunring dogs sent out to bark at wild boars. Not physically able to fight the boar, we back out at first sign of conflict”

     Besides, he reminded the govern-ment that sould ourt threatening words involved us in war , our mu-tual defense agreement did not con-tain the categorial assurance that united States would come to our defense.

(d)President Magsasay said “ the last vestiges ( of the old-style colonialism) are now disappearing from Asia”, but the oppositioned Senator Recto said : (1)“ Westren colonialism is far from dead, and it is not correct to say that it has reached the last vestigial stage.Of course  it is doubtful if it can conquer again or re-establish itself upon the vast areas of the globe that it controlled in the 18th and 19th centuries, but this certainly is not due to lack of willingness or ebthuasiasm to do so, but rather to impressive evolution of the nationalism of many subject peoples since the closing years of the last century, starting in Asia with our own successful revolution against the Spanish colonial government.”   

 (2)“ Freedom-loving Asians correctly believe that it is not for any Westren people now to decide for any Asian nation what principles of foreign policy it may adopt or  repudiate”

(3)I am definitely against the commitment of Filipino troops in the war in Indochina. There is no cause, no reason for sending our fighting men to assist a colonial power to  perpetuate itsef against the Liberation ambition of the native population”

(4)Recto advised the United states to drop her”supercillious and patronizing attitude toward “Asia for the Asians”if she wants Asian cooperation”

(e) Magsaysay Reacts.

This veiled criticism of magsaysay and the more open attack  on Americans and pro-Americans like Romulo had an immediate repcussion.

(f) The Brownell doctrine, foreign policy, Indochina, and Japanese reparations each provided a new battle ground in the worsening relation between Recto and Magsaysay.

     The United states through her defense secretary that Filipino soldiers would not be sent to fight abroad, Recto felt that the Filipino people should be made to understand that “unless full gaurantees are secured from America” .

(g) The clash between Recto and the President Magsaysay was the paramount feature of party politics at that time. Everyone’s attention was focused on this duel between formidalbe adversaries.

  (h)Liberal Representative Diosdado Macapagal, implementing his party’s pledge of support to Magsaysay and perhaps trying to drive a deeper wedge between Magsaysay and Nacionalista Party leaders, enumerated in radio address the following ten “fundamental” conflicts between Magsaysay and Recto ( the complete history will list in UC’s nex book “Phillipnes Unique collections” –auth)(i)The fundamental’s conflict about Indochina-war :

(1) While the president Magsaysay is for joining the U.S. in warning Red China from intervening in Indochina, Senator Recto has opposed such step as like a dog rousing the wild boars from its lair only to run away.

(2) While the  president Magsaysay has dropped Asia for the Asians as a policy, Senator Recto has vowed  to make it a basis of our foreign palicy.

 (the historic informations  about the Phillipines and Vietnam Independen-ce war will put at the chronologic collections information. I hope after read the historicbacground we know that in phillipine, were senator recto opposides the President Magsaysay policy about Filipinos joined the Indochina war, detailed read the Renato Constantino books-auth)

d.ibid Stanley Karnow,1994

(1)After the defeat of the French by Ho Chi Minh and General Giap in summer of 1954 , there appeared the chance of negotiated solution .

(2)The Geneva conference of that year had resulted is a number of agree-ments and compromise.

 (3)The lighting was ended, and Vietnam was divided slose in the 17th paralel, with the North Vietnamese controlling what became the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, recognised by the communist state; in the South arose the anti communist Republic of Vietnam.

(4)Vietnam , it was proposed, would be unified again following elections in July 1956.

 (5)Two crusial features of the Geneva Accords were thus Vietnam were remain unitary states whose future would decided by elections, and that no foreign troops were permitted to assist North or South Vietnam. But from the start prohibition against the inroduction of foreign’s arm and amunition’s was a dead letter.

 (6)Eisenhower and Dulles  regarded the Geneva Accords as appesement of communism and a defeat for the free world.

They dissociated themselves from the agreements but promised not to overturn them by force provided there was no aggreasion from the North. They also expressed doubts about the all-Vietnamese elections and inssted that they be held under the auspices of the United Nation.

 

 

 

 

 II. The Chronology of VICHY-VIETMINH WAR COLLECTIONS  ( COMPILE FROM Dr IWAN s. And other private’s COLLECTIONS)

a) 1945

1) August 1945(1) August.19th.1945

(a)Vietminh August revolution begun. (Where their headquaters,Hanoi? Or in the jungle? Please comment, because very important to know their areal authority connected with their postal area and will used to know the pstal history collection orisinil or fake -auth) (D)

(b) During this period , the banknotes issued by the French have been circulating all over the three parts og Vietnam, cambodia and Laos. For some time when petty notes became rare, the people had even to tear the notes into halves to be used as change among them.

2) September 1945

 

(1) September.2nd. 1945

  

(a)The Democratic Republic of Vietnam proclaimed the Indepen-dence. (Where ? in Hanoi?-please comment-auth)

(b) The dubious Imnaha postal history’s report, Special cacheted cover address to Nam Dinh province from Hanoi CDS Hanoi-Tonkin 2.9.45 the Vietnam Independence day, with 6 Indochina stamps overprint “Chi Dung Trung Ngay La’  and also shoetype cancel Nam-dinh Tonkin 6-9-45 cancel.( I think thi spostal history fake, because in liberation war independent in Vientnam like Indonesia the Indepence proclaimed without the permission of the Japanese soldiers because the allied armed forces asked them to status Quo , that is why no special Indepence postmark , in that day still used the Japanese occupation stamped or Indochina stamped in vietnam without overprint because Japnese occupations stamped never issued in Vietnam because too short time occupied, please comment –auth)

(3)In parts of Nothern Tonkin , the Kuomintang Chinese Army , depen-ded on Postdam agreement’s man-date replaced the Vietminh with their own pote’ge’s.

However, despite attempts to influ-ence the Vietminh’s activities, the Chinese commanders recognized Ho Chi Minh’s regime as de Facto goverment and allowed it to function with considerable freedom

(the situation near same with Indonesia Indpendent war at the same time but more late in Sepetember 1945 by the British allied forces, read “Indonesian Independent war-auth)

Neverless, the weight of the Chinese occupation, politically as well as economically, was sufficiently onerous to dispose the Vietminh to meet some of France’s demands in order to secure the evacuation of Chiang’s troops from the area.(ibid Kahin)

(4)The young Republic could not immedietly issued its own stamps,  some of the Indochinese stamps were temporaly used with new incriptions “DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM”,”INDEPENDENCE  ,FREEDOM ,HAPPINESS”,”POSTS”.\,”FAMINE RELIEF ” AND “PEOPLE’S LIVEHOOD” over-printed.

Alltogether 13 different inscription were over-printed on 53 different Indochinese stamps converting into 57 Vietnamese stamps.(D)

(be careful many bogus fake overprint were issued,IMNAHA postal history just put in his blog, the Democratic republic of Vietnam overprint stamps postally used on cover and off piece revenue overprint Vietnam Dan Cu Cong Hoa,  North Vienam area

                                                            

                                                                   Haiphong Church

The Saigon & southern area(ex Cochin-China) Never found  stamps and revenue from the nothern area until the fall of Saigon in 1975 , but some document were found belong to the chinese overseas who refugee from Haiphong to Cholon-Saigon, the discussion will at the collections,

Please all the Indochina revenue and postal history expert all over the world to give their comment-auth )

(4) A vietminh committee set up to govern was wrangling with Jean Cedile, whom de Gaulle had sent to Indochina as France’s representative. French residents, afraid to lose their colonial privileges, were barcing for a fight.(D)

3) October 1945

     When the French colonialist returned, French currency continued to be spent again in the French-occupied regions. Together with their own conspiracy to re-occupy Indochina.

4)November 1945

Not yet info

5) December 1945

 (1)December.14th 1945

Two postally covers with Rhodes block 4 , 1st 4x 5 $ and 2nd 4 x 3 $, with same cds 14.12-45 to the same monseue guyermeir hanoi

(This is phillatelic cover or CTO because the rate too high and send to the same persons –auth)

 (2) December.17 th 1945

The IMNAHA report of Yersin pair overprint stamps on postally used cover, cancelled Hanoi Chanh Than Cuo 17.12-45 Ngan Phep, back stamped” Hanoi Chanh Than Cuo 18.12.45 Buu Tin” sent to Monseur Guyenare. 11 pho juu dng das Hanoi without tonkin,rate 2 Dong.

(The  rate and postal cancel fine postal history, and this time vietminh in Hanoi, but why didn’t sencored? And to the same person monseur Guyenare—this was phillatelic creations, the hand written style near same with another postal history-Auth)

 b) French-Vietminh conflict in 1946

1)January 1946

 (1)January.31th. 1946

The President Ho Chi Minh on this day has issued a decree regarding the issue of Vietnamese currency.(D)

2)February 1946

 (1)February,26th 1946

Very rare and dubious Imnaha’s  postal History report, Locally used comercial cover send in the Hanoi city , stamps scott 47-48 with soecial Vietnamese Postmarked  “Hanoi Chanh-Thau Cuc Buu Tin 26.2.46”  and in the back of cover, destination CDS Hanoi 27.2.46.

(I thing this postal history fake, because in this time Hanoi under Chinese Nationalis Allied Forces authority and no Vietnamese Postal office this day, please comment this Imnaha report postal history-auth)

(2)February.28th 1946

     In the return for substantial French concession, Chiang Kai-shek agreed to withdraw his forces within three months from the nothern half of the country. (ibid Kahin) 

3)March 1946

(1)March,3rd 1946

     In this day, Imnaha report two different dubious  postally used cover:

(a) Asia Life Insurance postally used cover, cancel Hanoi RP/11-3-46/Tonkin, sent to Eng Nguyen duong Hop 15 pho Domine ,  double pen line strip on the addres and stamped “gia lai nguan guil anf khong den tiah and hand written khong dten tanh tra par ng gia(Perfect post mark but the written style not like the vietnamese style and post cancel indochina type , why vietminh stamps cancelled by french Indochina hanoi postal cancel ? , may be this cover made by the franchman ? phillatelic creations,-auth)

     (b) Postally used cover used pair stamps scott no 3, with special date postmaked  “Que Hoi Dinh Bang 1945 VNDCCH Buu Dien 3.3.” , also had rectangular handstamped “ Ding Bang Toan Quoc Dai Bieu Ai Hoi Lan Thu Nhab Cua Nuoc Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hua”, label affixed “Envelope Commemorative Du 1er Assemblenation Du Viet Nam le 3 Mars 1946” ( To much vietnamese stamped during the worst situation, please comment original or not –auth)

(2)March,6th 1946

(a)The French accepted the Inde-pendence of Republic Democratic Vietnam under President Ho Chi Minh who fight almost more that eleventh years, now he was 35 years old.

(b)Ho Chi Minh felt compelled to reach a compromise settlement. Under this agreement he made the maximum concession possible without risking forfeiture of his dominat position in the nationalist movement. Even so, strong dissatisfaction with the settle-ment was express by various political group, and Ho had to exert all his in-fluence to secure their final acqueis-cense .

(c)Within the country the depre-dations of the Chinese occupation forces had further weakened an al-ready war-ravaged economy.

In addition, wartime neglect and Allied air bombardment of the North’s river-control systems had led the flooding of some eight provincee, causing many deaths and widespread starvation . These near catastrophic economic condition strenghted Franced’s bargainin position.

(d)Under the March 1946 agrea-ment , France could introduce 15.000 troops into the nothern part of Vietnam to relieve the Chinese occupation forces. This was on the understanding that each year thereafter 3000 of these French troops would be withdrawn , until the end of 1951 none would remain (ibid Kahin)

(e) There  were three parties in this republic, but the Vietminh was te biggest.

    

(f) The Chinese Nationalist ‘s Republic in Nanking more respect only to one Independent republic in their border but British and United Sta-tes didn’t like the Vietminh because their communist idealisme and fight to the Pacific area of Vietnam.

    

(g) The Republic Democratic Vietnam still under the Union under Frenc,  and econoly-politically United too with other Indochina area in the South.

(h)The Republic Democratic  Vietnam willn’t be developed if not United with other area because in the Northern more Industrial and in the South very rich agriculture especially rice.

     Nowadays Indochina export 1,5 millions Ton Rice, but now because of the battle or guerilla, export was down only 100.000 ton.

(i) In This situation the Independent of Republic Democratic Vietnam not full in politically and economically.

 

 4) April 1946

    

(1) In return for the Vietminh’s consent to the reentry of French forces into the North, Paris recognized Ho’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam as “ A free state, having its own govern-ment, parliament, army and tresuty, forming part of the Indochinese Federation and The french Union

(the same situation in Indonesia after the Lingajat i agree-ment , read Indonesian Independent war-auth)

 

(2) April,12th 1946

     Another dubious IMNAHA  postal history report, the postal used cover with 8 stamps including Michchel 1,3,6-10 and 12, postmark “Hanoi Chanh Thau Cuc Buu Tin “ and at the Back of cover CDS Hanoi 13.4.46.

(I think this postal history was the phillatelic creation or fake because  too many stamps not well rates and vietnamese Buu  Tin (Postal) not exist this day, please comment some one have the original Hanoi Buu Tin stamp-ed, and officially never report   –auth)

6) May 1946

    

(1)     May,9th 1946

Another dubious Imnaha postal history ‘s report :

Postally used commercial cover with block of four scott 19, locally used cover with Postmarked Hanoi Thanh Tau Cuc Buu Tin 9-5-46 with backstamped , from Hotel Splendide Hanoi ( The same hanoi Buu Tin Stamped  from February to May 1946 , I think fake postal history created by the sam person, please comment-auth)

 

(2)May,23th,1946

Chiang Kai-shek withdraw his Chinese Allied forces from the nothern half of the country. The departure of the British and Chinese forces brought the Vietminh government under direct pressure from France.

By this time it was evident to Ho that no support would be forthcoming from either the United zstates or Soviet Russia; form his perpective, the Vietminh had been deserted by the international community  and left alone to deal with French.

 

(3)May.31th 1946

     Ho departured for Paris- the city of his youth.

 

7) June 1946

 

(1) June ,1st.1946

Admiral G.Thierry D’Argenlieu, the new French Viceroy in Indochina, set up a separate puppet government in Cochinchina and  recognizing a “Free Republic”.

Spite of some local hostility towards the Tongkinese the population, who were concious of their ethnic identity with the inhibitans of North and Central Vietnam, for the most part refused to support a movement considered to represent a Franch manouvre designed to split the nation in its straggle for independence.

Moreover , in recognizing the Vietminh’s territories of Annam and Tonkin as “a free state” within the French union, it was evident that the French had in mind something short of Independent. 

 

(2)Summer 1946

      Further attempts at negotiations between French and the Vietminh proved fruitless. Relations resulted in increasing twosides worsened rapidly, while actions by both resulted in increasing friction and numerous small-scale inincident.

    

 

July 1946

Not yet info

9)August 1946

 

(1) August.19th 1946

The five type Ho  Chi Minh stamps 1,3,9,4+6,6+9 hao, were issued to comemmorative First Anniversary of August Revolution (19/8/1945) and National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam(02/9/1945)

 (Very difficult to find this stamps postally used on covers and many fake stamps-auth)

10) September 1946

(1) September 2nd 1946

(a)Marking the first National Day of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the Postal Administration of Vietnam issued the stamp-set featuring the president Ho Chi Minh’s potrait upon decree no.172/SL signed on August 27 by the Government President, consisting of 5 valued od the same design with different colours and face values designed by painter Nguyen Sang. Among this denominations, there were two with extra-tax for narional salvation. The issuance of this  stamp-set was an important stage in the development of Vietnam Postage stamps.(D).

(2)September ,8th.1946

   The information about Indochina hadn’t heard in foreign country, and in Indonesia we didn’t heard nothing.

Censor and Isolation had made by the French, then the world didn’t paid attention anymore to this small and not important country different with the other country.

But for Indonesian the Political’s rolled in Indochina more important and interesting  because the situation of socila politic in that country near same with Indonesia.

(a)The populatrion of Indo-china about half of Java, and the power of french military more than  the Duch . The Total French army more than 80.000 and new military forces alway added.

(b)The Vietnam nationalist army (Viet-minh) didn,t have much gunpower than in Indonesia because the Dai Nippon Occupation army gave their gun to the Indonesia Republicans(TRI or Republic Indonesia Army).

(c)Republic Vietnam consist two area Tonkin and Annam , situated in the North  of Indochina.(D)

(3)September,10th 1946

     Before the modus vivendi was signed, General Morliere, the French commissioner in Tonkin, had set up a unilateral French control over imports and exports at the important Tonkinese port of Haiphong. The Vietnamese had looked foward to collecting much-need customs revenue at Haiphong after signing the agreement, but the French refused toalert their control.

(4)September,19th 1946

At midnight on September 19, dressed in athin tunic, ho slipped out of his hotel accompanied by a french bodyguard and drove to a building not far away. He took the cage elevator up to the Apartement of Marius Moutet, minister of Overseas France, another new name for postwar French empire. In Moutet’s study, he iniatialed a partial agfreement, which they entitle “a modus vivendi” , an interim understaning. As he left, Ho murmured to his bodyguard :” I have just signed my dead warrant”.

     Ho’s decision to defer t the French on the Cochinchina issue was to obsess him for the rest of his life and made his ambition to reunify Vietnam almost compulsive during his last year.(ibid.Stanley Karnow)

10) October 1946

(1)When Ho returned to Hanoi , his concessions upset the Vietminh’s hard-core militants, some of whom accused him of selling out to the enemy,  but the population acclaimed him. Despite his calls for moderation, howeever, he must have known that peace wuld not last.

     General Etiene Valluy, the French commander who replaced Leclerc, circulated a secret memorandum to his officers proposing a coup d’etat against Ho , and Giap was girding his forces.(D)

 

11) November 1946

(1)November.8th 1946

The IMNAHA’s report of postally used cover with the complete petain overprint vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa, cancel “Ha-Noi  Trung Uong Bac-Bo 8-11-46, sent to monsieur Felix Lang Poste restante Hanoi , without the sender name and Hanoi-Tonkin cancelled ( This cover was the phillatelic creation because poste restante only for foreigner and the rate to high, and without arrival cancelled, that time Hanoi in the French’s authority and Ho Chi Minh was slipped away from Hanoi -auth)

(2)November 16th 1946

     Ho Chi Minh protested to French Premier  Georges Bidault against the failure of the Franco-Vietnamese Customs Commission to meet, as prescribed in the modus viverdi. He objected also to the High Commissioner’s action in levying taxeson French nationals in Vietnam.(notably on the cotton mills at Nam Dinh) as a violation of the September agreement, which stipulated that they would be under Viet Nam fiscal control.

     The atmosphere in Viet Nam was tense in November 1946.

(3)November.20th 1946

(a) a French War Crimes Commission came toLang Son to investigate a mass grave where a number of Fench soldiers, killedby the Japanese in 1945, had been buried. French troops escorting the com-mission clashed with armed Vietnam-ese and each side accused the other of provocation.

(b)The incident at Lang Son, where the number ofFrench dead was less than ten, was rapidly overshadowed by another incident of considerably more alarming propotions which began the same day. A French patrol ship seized a Chinese junk attempting to run contrabandinto Haiphong, where the French had established a virtual blockade.

(c) Vietnamese soldier fired on the French ship from the shore, and shooting broke out within the city itself. General Morlie’re and Hoang Huu Nam, VietnameseUndersecretary of State,  intervened immediately; The French agreed to respect Vietnamese sovereigny in Haiphong and both sides promised to keep their troops far enough apart in  the city to avoid friction.

(d)When a French patrol boat seized some Chinese smuggler on the morning of November 20, Vietminh militia intercept the Franch craft and arrested its three crew members. At that, the volatile French commander, a Colonel Debes, assaulted the Vietminh.

By Afternoon , fighting lashed the town as Franch tanks rolled over street barricades and the Vietminh replied with mortars. At the opera house , facing the main street square, a troupe of Vietnamese actors held off the Franch with antique muskets. 

(4) November.21th 1946

(a)A commission of French and Vietnamese officers, assigned to monitor truce violations, manage to imposed s cease-fire this day. That might have ended the flare-up, except for a decision made in Paris by Prime Minister Bidault.

     (b) D’Argenlieu flashed Bidault ‘s respnse to Saigon , where General Valluy in turn ordered General Morlier, his representative in Hanoi, to insist  that Ho put all the Vietminh forces out of Haiphong and accede to French control of the city.(I have a chinese overseas parport issued by Chinese consult at Haiphong in 1947-auth)

     (c)Morliere , anxious to avert an explosion , reassured Valluy that the ultimatum was unnecessary . since hostilities had stopped.But valluy, eager to strike, also telegraphed the hawkish Colonel Debes :” It appears that we are confronted by premedutated aggression… The momment has come for you to teach a severe lesson to those who have treacherously attacked you. Employ all means at your disposal to master Haiphong completely, and thereby bring Vietnam military leaders to a better understanding of the situation.”

    

(5)November,23th 1946

(a)On this morning, Debes demanded that the Vietminh authrities evacuate their troops from Haiphong within two hours.

    

(b)The Vietnamese, protesting that they were observing the cease-fire, telephoned Hanoi for instructions. Debes gave them an additinal forty-five minutes, then issued the order.

(c)The culminated tension on this day with the French Naval Bombardment of Haiphong, where at least 6000 Vietnamese civilian were killed.

(d)French infantry and armored units raced through Haiphong, fighting house to house against Vietminh squad. French aircraft zoomed in the bomb and strafe while the cruiser Suffren, in the harbour, lobbed shells into the city, demolishing whole neighbourhoods of flimsy structure.

     (e)The Vietminh reliated by lounching coordinated attacks against French in Hanoi,which touched off major hostilities. This event marked the beginning of a war that soon to spread throughout most of Vietnam (ibid Kahin)

 

(f)Refugees streamed into nearby provinces with their belongings in baskets and on bicycles, and the Naval guns shelled them as well .

(g)Days passed before the French finally routed the last vietminh snipers.

The Vietnamese claimed twenty thousand death s, but French admiral later estimated”No More’ than six thousand.

    

(h)Vu Quoc Uy, then chairman of the Haiphong municipal committee, told that during interview in 1981, that the Vietnamese toll had been between five hundred and a thousand.    D’Argenlieu, still in Paris, cabled congratulation to Valluy, assuring him :”We will never retreat or surrender”

 

(i)Ho sent Blum a set of concrete recommendations for restoring calm. The telegram, transmitted through Saigon, was delayed by French officials theree for nine days-during which time the conflict again escalated  (ibid Stanley Karnow)

 

(6)November 23th 1946

    

(a)In the afternoon  French and Vietnamese troops  succeeded in bringing the fighting to a halt

     This , hovever, was only the first installment of the incident at Haiphong.

(b) Admiral d’Argenliu who was in Paris at the timemaking a report to the French Government, proposed using the Haiphongclash to give the Vietnamese a lesson; and his suggestion was approved,

 “Even going so far as the use of cannons?” he asked.”Even That”, Premier Bidault replied, probably not realizing there was any questiion of immediate action.

(c)D’Argenlieyu cabled General Valluy, his deputy in Saigon, who ordered Morliere to use force against the Vietnamese. But peace had already been achieved in Haiphong.

     Morliere pointed out, the Vietnamese situation was grave and requared not the explototation of incidents but their settlement; any imprudent act might lead to widespread hostilities.

(d)Unsatisfied by this reply, General Valluy telegraphed directly to Colonel Debes , commander od the French troops at Haiphong :

     “It appears that we are up against premeditated aggressions carefully staged by the Vietnamese regular army, whichno longer seems to obey its government’s order. Under these circumstances, your commendable attempts at conciliation and division of quarters, as well as the inquiry that I asked you to make, are out of season.

     The moment has come to give a severe lessn to those who have treacherously attacked you. Use all the means at your disposal to make youself complete master of Haiphong and so bring the Vietnamese army around .

 

 

(7) November ,30th 1946

     The first Vietnamese notes were issued in this day after nearly one hundred years of French protection.

     On the Frontside : The National name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and the picture of the President Ho Chi Minh.

     On the backside : the peicture of worker, peasant and soldier, with or without a line of words of “Vietnamese note”. The note value is represented in full Vietnamese, Cambodian and Laotian letters. The number are in arab transcription.

     The signature put on these notes were those of Minister of Finance ( Pham van Dong, Le Van hien) and Director of the Central treasurury.

     This kinds of notes were called asa Financial notes”, and they were also called populary as “The old Ho’s Notes”

( We must be very carefully to collect this kind of notes, because too many variations and also many fakes, if someone want to study about this note, please read the official book ‘

“ One Hundred Years of Vietnamese Paper Currency 1875-1975” craeted by The Ho chi Minh city Philatelic Association , Nha Xhat Ban tre Hoi Tem Than Pho Ho Chi Minh) 1994. This book very difficult to find in Ho Chi Minh city, I found at Russian Market Phom Phen Cambodia and the price very high, if some one want to know information about Indochina and Vietnam banknote collection, please contact in the comment and the editor will help you for more detailed inforemations.-auth)

 

 

 

 

12) December 1946

 

(1)December,17th 1946

     “If those gooks want afight, they’ll get it,” said Valluy as he landed in Haiphong this day, his temper boiling over the slaughter of three French soldiers by Vietminh militia in Hani that day.

     Incidents were now multiplying in Hanoi and, as they had in Haiphong.

     Ho begged the Franch to recind the order , Giap deployed some thrity thousand men at three locations in the suburbs, planning to invade Hanoi if trauble started (D)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2)December.18th1946

Another IMNAHA report Of Postally used Chamer overprint stamped with cancel Hanoi Chanh Thau Cuc 18.12.46 Bac Bo, with tree kind black stamped khoe Chong Xam Lang squered, Nguoi Viet-Nam )hu Ong-Thay Viet-Nam and doublecircle Nguyen Tri phuong Doan T.N.T.P Buu , sent to monsieur Ly-OG-Lin Poste Restate Hanoi (Tonkin) ( This cover have the same addres and poste restante during tis time no Vietminh in Hanoi they have evacuated out of the city because the French attacked them after the ultimatum at Haiphong Battle- this cover phillatelic creation or bogus stamped because the battle situation one day before the French armed forces in Tonkin and the vietminh headquaters always used red ink stamped not the black ink

This cover was the same with  Indonesian Independent war postal history created by Mr Phoa Lim Koey meridori street Surabaya sent by his friend from Padang Mr GKL, Medan Mr SSt. With many high nminal stamps ,the rate not right and the postal uesd cancelle d too fine without sencored label , to see the original war’s postal history look at my blog “ Indonesian Indepent war document and postal History-auth)

(3) December.19th. 1946

   (a)The Franch Vietnam armed Forces were in Tonkin.

     (b) The origin of the events is still murky, but the vietminh militia proba-bly struck first on the evening of this day, sabotaging the municipal power plant, then breaking into French homes to murder or abduct their occupants.

(c) Alert in advance by spies, the French counter attacked, and Hanoi became a battle ground, its building aflame and its three-lined avenues littered with corpses.

     (d)Ho in bed with fever at his modest bungalow behind the French governor’s mansion, fled before the French could capture him.

    

(e)At nine in the evening, Giap issued a virtual decleration of war “ I order all soldiers and militia in the center, south,and north t stand together, go into battle, destroy the invaders, and save the nation. The resistance will be long and ardous, but out cause it just and we will surely triumph”

    

 

(f) Except for a Christmas truce, the Battle of Hanoi raged through Decem-ber.

( Very difficult to find the document ,revenue and postal history collection 1946 and 1947 because many battles around north Vietnam especially Haiphong and Hanoi, I only have one document from Haiphong in 1947, please comment-auth)

    

(g)Giap’s troops rushed into the city to join the Vietminh, their arms a hodgepodge of Ancient French muskets, old American rifles, British bren autmatics, Japanese Carbines, spears, swords and machetes as well as homemade contrivances called Phan Dinh Phung grenades, after Vietnam’s nineteenth-century nationalist hero. They fought from street to street against French tanks, artillery and machine guns.

(30 years later, Dr Tran duy Hung, then the Vietminh mayor, described the event : “We were in Kham Thien street, a French unit facinf us from across the railways tracks. We built a barricade with railroad ties, piling it high with beds, dresser, chair, tables, whatever. Not even a tank could get thrugh it. Some of our boys-we called them”gentlemen militia”-wre red and yellw shoulders braids captured frm the French. People sang revolutionary songs when they charged. We were very optimistic, very romantic. We were ordered to divert the French until our forces could withdraw from the city. We could only get out by crawling under the Long Bien Bridge (I have the photo of that bridge-auth) , which the French controlled . We exploded all the firecrackers we coulkd find. When the noice stopped, the French moved in on us, but we had escaped into the countryside to begin the long war.

(h)Ho had fled to Hadong, a town six miles south of Hanoi, where he echoud Giap’s call to arms-and also appealed to Westren Allies to restrain the French. -ibid stanley Karnow)

 

(i) In the Provinces of Quang nam ,Quang Ngai, Phu Yen, a lot of credit cards(Tin Phieu) came into existance ( one piaster, 5p.20p,100p,500p,1000p) being signed by The Delegate from the Central Government and the Repre-sentative for the Centarl Part’s Admi-nistrative Commitee,

(j) In Paris, however,Blum had altered his atance . Stressing his commitment to vietnam’s Independence within French Union , he now emphasized that “ Oredr must be restored” as a precondition to fresh discussion.

     He sent Marius Moutet to Vietnam to survey the situation, and Ho promptly offered to talk with the minister in whose apartment he had singed the modus vivendi four month earlier. But Moutier rejected the overture as “ propaganda” adding ambigiuously the France would only deal with “authentic spokesmen for Vietnam people”(D)

(4) At The end of 1946

     After the Vietminh failed to seize Hanoi, the French expanded along the Red River valley, the regin’s principal rice-growing area. Cnstructing towers and blockhouses, the skirmished constanly with Vietminh partisant, who emerged at night to assault their posts, then disappeared into hamlets or fled into the hills overlooking the broad plain of fertile paddy fields. Duong Van Khang had helped to form a small Vietminh unit in his village, Phung Thuong, twenty miles east of Hanoi . (D)

_______________________________

(b)Vietminh War 1947

________________________________

 

1) January 1947

 

(1)The revolving doors of the Fourth Republic spun again in this month, and Paul Ramadier, also a scialist, supplanted Blum in a caolition government composed of Socialist,Christian Democrats and communists.

    

(2)Voicing hope of peace, Ramadier dismissed d’Argenlieu and replaced him as high commisioner in Saigon with Emile Bollaert, a respected civil servant who appointed as his personal  adviser Paul Mus, a scholar of Asian affairs who was sympathetic to Vietnamese.

    

(3)Ho sensed that reconciliation was possible and proposed imme-diate cease-fire to avert a war, he warned, would “only end in hatted and bitterness between our two peoples” but Ramadier government was falling apart.(ibis Stanley Karnow)

    

(4) After 1946

The Vietminh weapons were supplemented by United States equipment captured from the French forces. Any disparity in military equipment, however , was more than compesan sated by the Vietminh’s popular backing (“People Power” -auth)

2) Febryary 1947 no info

 

 

 

 

3) March 1947

 

(1) The communists dropped their support over internal economic matter-though they voted the apprpriatins to fund the French army on Vietnam.

     So , while Ramadier tried to steer a moderate course, Christian Demo-crates in his cabinet, like Bidault and Paul Coste-Flores, the defense minister, were maneuvering to prevent negotiations. Other officials with different wiew also subverting them.(D)

4) April 1947 no info

5) May 1947

(1) The communist dropped their support over an internal economic matter.

     Instructed to present Ho with a set of suggestions. Paul Mus trevelled some sixty miles from Hanoi the Vietminh ‘s jungle headquaters.

     He informed Ho that France would agree to a cease-fire on condition that the vietminh lay down a part of its arms, permit Franch troops to circulate freely inside its zone and turn over several German and Austrian deserters from the Foreign Legion.

Would you accept if you were in my place ? Ho asked Mus :”No “ replied Mus. Ho thereupon rejected the offer-which was, in any case, a demand for surrender.(D)

 

(2) In 1947.Truman administration official conceded that Ho’s Communist “connection” might serve the Kremlin’s purposes.

 

(3) The Vietminh force had establishe a base in the Vietbac.

     The base eighty miles to north, in a landscape of jungle-clad mountains hneycombed with caves,

     Heavy monsoon rains drenched the region for half year, covering it with a protective mist againbst air raids.

(4)The French encircled the area in 1947 , by securing its only two roads and dropping in paratroopers, (that is way imposible the Vietminh overprint propaganda used on postally covers in Hanoi ,French area, in 1947-1948, be carefull many propaganda overprint stamps on cavers put in phillatelic auctions with high price-please comment-auth)

(5)They almost capture Ho Chi Minh, who slipped into camouflaged hole at the last minute.

    

(6) The French commander, General Etine Valluy, whose expe-rience until then had been in Europe , quickly sized up his effort as imposible. With a total of some fifteenth thou-sand men, he was trying to defeat sixty thousand enemy troops over nearly eighty thousand square miles of almost inpenetrable forest.

     Unlike his nineteenth-century predecessors, he was up against not small insurgent bands but a disciplined army. He could only withdraw to a thin string of forts along Route 4, a twisting road running through ravines and over high passes between the towers of Langson and Caobang . Chronically expossed to Vietminh ambushes, French soldiers dubbed it the rue san Joie, or street without Joy. (ibid Stenley Karnow,p-199).

 

6)-11) no info

12) December 1947

(1) The End of 1947

By the end of this year the increase in the popularity of Ho chi Minh and his Vietminh throughout most of Vietnam had convinced the French that Victory could not be achieved through purely Military mean.

Therefore, Paris complemented its persistent military campaign with an attempt to establish an amenable indigenious Vietnamese regime as a power strings, but she hoped that by endowing the regime she sponsored with asemblance of autonomy it would attract substantial nationalist support away from the Vietminh.

(ibid Kahin) 

___________________________________

(c) Vietminh War 1948

____________________________________

 

(1)The Map of Vietnam under Indochina in 1948(D)

(2) The Postal Administration of Vietnam also issued postage stamps in order to  meet the need for pre-paid postage on ppostal network  and at the same time to popularize the Party and state ‘s policies  and victories of the Vietnamese people and army (Propaganda-auth)  such as the stamp-set “Production and thrift” ,”Dien Bien Phu victory” “Liberation of the Capital” etc.

Stamps were printed by the extemely rudimentery means, using all the local materials available , even perforated by Sewing machine or other rudimen-tary tools.

(Some postal History of this stamps used on cover send from Hotel and another famous building, but we must be careful because during the war all the cover must sencored, the only guinined may be postcard but Vietminh never issued prepaid postal stationer that time , and also some Francaised Indochine timbre fiscal revenue also over print by the vietminh but only off document, revenue on the complete document never seen, please comment-auth)

 

(3)June 1948

(a)CIA officials had rejected a proposal to contact Ho covertly because “ a White man would be very conspicuous. In order to have an effective intelligence officer, he would have to have a little brown blood. Then, we wouldn’t be able to trust him”

 

(b) After alengthy process of Bargaining, The men chosen to head the new regime (Bo Dai, the former Emperor of Annam whom the Japanese had also endeovored to exploit in their eleventh hour) was in duced to cooperate on condition that, under his leadership, the state of Vietnam (Etat du Vietnam-auth) woul be “Indepndent within the French Union “.(Ibid Kahin)

 

(4) late 1948

In late 1948, a new French high commisioner for Indochina took over. 

Leon Pignon, fomerly political aide to Admiral d’Argenlieu favored firmness .but he foresaw that Communist , advancing across China, would soon arrive at the Vietnamese frontier to bulkwark the Vietminh.

He also reckoned that the US would

Help France more readily if a see-mingly liberal Franch policy were adopted.(D)

 

_______________________________

(d) Vietminh War 1949

________________________________

1) January 1949 in

(1) US help to the French in Indochina had limited. American troops were not engaged in fighting anywhere, and it was to be hope that the withdrawal of the Russian and American had reduced East-West tension on the Asiaa mainland,(D)

(2) The Republic of Vietnam at the south  in 1949, have 21  provinces with the bigger city, Saigon,Cholon, Cantho,Baclieu and Rachgia. (D)

2) February 1949

Not yet info

3)March 1949

(1) After an additional year of negotiations over the meaning of this terminalogy concluded with Elysee’ Agreement of March 1949, but not retified by the French Chamber of Deputies on this month. (Ibid Kahin) 

4) April 1949

Not yet info

5)May 1949

(1)May.19th 1949

The second type Ho Chi-Minh stamps ,two stamps 2d and 5d, comme-morate 59th Birth anniversary of President Ho Chi-minh

 ( never seen postally used on cover-except fake or Phyllatelic collector creation or CTO -auth)

6) June 1949

(1)18th June,18th 1949

BO DOI VAN TAI

Phuc vu chien dieh Bien Gioi(1950). Trong nhung nam (1951-1953), Trong cuoc Tien cong chirn lu’o’c Dong Xuan (1953-1954) va chien dich Dien Bien Phu(D)

(.2)The situation changed drastically in 1949, when the Chinese Communist reached the Vietnamese border.

     China could now provide the Vietminh with automatic weapns, mortars ,howitzers, even trucks, most of it captured American materiel, some of it Soviet equipment earmarked for the Korean war.

     Chinese advisers joined Vietminh detachment , and Vietminh units crossed into China to train at camps near nanning and Ching Hsi.(In 2007, I have made a trip from Hanoi by night train to Nanning,read  and back bus bus from nanning passed the langson border back to Hanoi as the remambrance of that situation, read in this blog “ Trevelling’s unique collections-4” auth )

(2)Giap swiftly expanded his battalions into regiments, and soon he had mobilized six division, each numbering ten thousend men, among them a “heavy division’ composed of attillery and engineering regiments.

     The image of ragtap Vietminh guerillas persisted, but it war pure romanticism. Giap now commanded a real army, backed up by China’s enormous weight.As a veteran Vietminh officer, recllecting the period after 1949, he told the writers “ it was a significant moment. We were no longer isolated from the communist camp”

( look at the originil vintage General Giap photo , that I  found in Indonesia from the Vietnam photo collections given to Indonesian official during Afro-Asian conference at bandung indonesia in 1955, not many foreign country know him, because the popularity of Ho Chi Minh , he almost same with Indonesia Hero General Sudriman but more popular because Bung Karno , the Ho friend , didn’t joined the Indnesian Independent war in the battle’s field, he only struggle as the polititions and didn’t joined the Guerilla war in 1949 , read “Indonesia Independent war” –auth)

2)-5) no info

6) June 1949

(1) Mid 1949

    

(a)Major support for French was not given until mid 1949, when communist rule was established in China, when Peking sent its armiest into the Korean war, this disposition to aid the Fench effort was firther reinforced.

    

(b)A policy leading to the contain-ment of China increasingly preoccu-pied the Truman Administration and during the Korean war, Paris endeavor with consideable success to convince Washington that the French camp-aign in Vietnam  basically sustained that policy.

     Thus President Truman linked his decision to Send American Forces to Korea with the announcement of Incraesed arms shipments to the French in Indochina and the interposition of American power between communist and nationalist China in Formosa Straits. (ibis Kahin)

 

(c)Between 1949-1950

   Giap had bought time to enlarge his forces. He promoted local gueri-llas to regional units and assigned regional officers and noncoms to bigger detachments.

   Between 1949 and 1950, he quadruple (four times-auth) the number of regular Vietminh battalions to one hundred and seventeen. But his army never exceeded three hundred thousand men- fewer than that of French, Foreign Legion and African colonial troops in addition to three hundred thousand Vietnamese.

   Giap ‘s ability to recruit more soldiers was limited by French control of most of Vietnam’s populated areas. (D)

 

8)-11)not yet info

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) The end of 1949

 

(1)Until the end of 1949,

(a)approximately $1.5 billion had been poured into the  war. Well before this time the french forces were being pushed back and the military initiative had passed to the Vietminh.

(b) The success of Ho’s battalions, moreover , had been achieved with the arms far interior in both quantity and quality to the rela-tively modern American equipment employed by the French,

Any dispensary in Military equipt-ment , however, was more than compenated for by the Vietminh’s popular backing, the essential attri-bute of power that the French were never able to develope( Ibid Kahin)

 

        (c) Until the end of 1949, the United States displayed little, if any, real interest in Indochina.(ibid Kahin)

_______________________________

(e).Vietminh War in1950

________________________________

(e1)January 1950

 

(1)January,14th th 1950

Ho Chi Minh declared on Jan 14 that the Democratic Republic of Vietnam is the only legal Government , it is recognized by the Soviet Union and China, but also establized diplomatic relation s with Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia, prompting some American officials to suggest that  Ho isn’t a Soviet”puppet”.

     Chinese Communist , now at the Vietnamese border, begin to provide modern weapons to the Vietminh.  

(2)When in free zones the Vietnamese notes and various credit cards, supply tickets, exchange tickets of the concerned areas will still circulating,

(3)January 25th 1950

     Ho Chi Minh first stamp postally used cover, cancel Thai-Nguyen 25-1-1950 Buu Dien Cuc, one ho chi minh first green stamp, rate ? ,sent from ng gui Ba Hoi,Thai Nguyen with red double circle stamped “vy-Ban Khang chan hanh cho/ lien-khu viet Bien/ Truong Hang Chien Hanh Chinh to Lien-Xa Van H.  lien-xa Ninh Gia  Ha Noi (The written style by Vietnamese, the color choped red, ok, But the official cover why not free stamp like I have found the same type send at Saigon? , This cover very best phillatelic creations because in 1950 all Vietminh were in the jungle and Hanoi under French power. Beware to collect a cover without original letter inside, many fake or bogus phillatelic creations, this time many seen, I hope some one will show us the original cover with original letter inside during vietminh war like you will see in my collection during Vietnam –vietcong liberation war 1968-1975-auth)

(3)January,29th,1950

     The Elyse’e Agreement of March 1949, at least in this day retified by the French Chamber of deputies.(ibid Kahin).

(4)January 18 & 31 th 1950

     They (Peking & Moscow-auth) responded promptly, establishing formal relation on January 18 and 31, respectively. The Cold War had decisively entered the Vietminh-French dispute.

Within this context, the policies of France in Indochina took on a greater legitimacy in th eeys of Washington and gave her the right to sustantial U.S. aid. (ibid Kahin)

(5)Early 1950

     (a)American experts suddenly wondered whether Ho Chi Minh might not after all be a Soviet surrogate, since he requested and obtain recognition of his regime from Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia, one of Moscow’s principal enemies. But they never explorered the mystery further- as they never had in the past nor would in the future(D)

(b)any misunderstanding could be  avoided that could turn    the cold war  into a “Hot war”.

(the Truman administration)

(c) The 1950 ‘s  were the dangerous decade.(ibid Kahin)

2) February 1950

 

(1)     February,7th 1950

(a)A week after the ratification of Elysee Agreement, The U.S. extended diplomatic recognation to his government. Thirty other states soon followed suit.(ibid Kahin)

(b) After the French Parliament finally clear its intention to ratify the Elyse’e Agreements and when inter-national backing of Bo Dai seemed imminent did Ho Chi Minh request diplomatic recognation from Peking and Moscow.(ibis Kahin)

3)-4)  not yet info

5) June 1950

 

(1)Mid 1950

Washington ‘s recognition of Bao dai sparked economic  and military-assistance programs, which began in id-1950

 

6)July 1950

(1) July.25th 1950

     The Russian –trained North Korea army crossed the 30th paralel and invaded South Korea. The Korean War begun, (the complete collections read the next book “ The unique Korean war document and postal History”-auth)

(2) July.26th. 1950

     Presiden Truman signs legislation granting USD 15 million in military and to the French  for war in Indochina

7)-11) Not yet info

12) December 1950

(1) December.6th. 1950

     French defeated at Caobang, a key post on the Chinese border , General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny named Franch military commander and high commisioner for Indochina.

(2) For all Eisenhower’s and Dulles’s ideological simplifications about “the international communist world”. Their narrowly concieved intervantion in the third worls like in Vietnam.(D)

(3) Late 1950

     The spark of hope was lagerly rekindled by Giap’s blunders, however.

      Giap perceived that his gains in the sparsely inhabited zone adjacent to China left him with two principal problem to assert the Vietminh’s political authority, he had to conquer the main population cen-ters around Hanoi and saigon, and to get the food his men desperately needed, he had to take over the rich fields of the Red River valley in the North and the Mekong delta in the south. (this is the reasons why, the Vietnam must unitied from North to South , and in 1975 they succeeded, please comment-auth)

 

    

 

 

 

__________________________________

(f) Vietminh war  1951

___________________________________

1)January 1951

     (1)Anticipating the attacks, de Lattre had strengthened the Red River valley with hundreds of cement blocked-houses and new airfield.

     He was prepared in january 1951 when two Vietminh divisions, comprising twenty thousand men, swept down from the tam Dao mountain and stormed Vinhyen

(in 1951 the vietminh still in the jungle, that is why all the covers sent to Hanoi with Vietminh stamps before Ho Came back to Hanoi in 1954 were the bogus phillatelic creations and before became postal History collectors better the study the chronologis of the history that will help the collector to know the original or fake postal history collections ,also many of the so called south central vietnam –vietminh issue and may fakes and fantasies, this issues are being studies by the phillatelist , trantrong kai  have believe some of the guinine that illustrated at IMNAHA web site, very pity all the iten not on covers or piece, very difficult to indicated the original or fake, I have discuss the original on piece and cover complete with informations at South Vietnam etat du Vietnam, Etat du Vietnam Quoic Gia, Thue coniem and Vietnam Cong Hoa Coniem, Cholon Saigon Regional timbre fiscal, Nathrang, Danang, and the overprint Viet cong on Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue in 1975 and 1976-  please comment-auth)

 

 

 

(2)A town situated amid flooded rice fields thirty miles northwest of Hanoi.

     Outnumber, the French defneders innitially fell beck. But de lattre, personally taking charge, flew in reinforcements and mustered every available aircraft to bomb the massive vietminh formation.

(3)Giap retreated after three days of fierce combat, leaving sic thousand Vietminh dead and carrying off another eight thousand wounded. He was determined to try again.(D)

 

2) February 1951

(1)February 1951

     Ho Chi Minh creates the lao Dong or Worker party as a substitute for the Comunist Party, ostensibly dissolved in 1945.

3) March 1951

(1)Late March 1951

     Giap focused on the port of Haiphong.through which the French brought in supplies, and his miscalculated, underestimating the ability of the french to deploy naval guns and move troops aboard assault boats through the region’s estuaries and move troops aboard assault boats through the region’s estuaries and canals.  

     When he launched an initial attacks against Maokhe, northwest of Haiphong , the French again fought him off (D)

 

4) no info

5)May 1951

(1)May.19th.1951

The third type  Ho Chi Minh stamps (100d green,100d violet and 200 d red) were issued for 61th Birth Anniv.of President Ho Chi Minh

(Many fake stamps, rare postally used on cover-and the overprint propaganda stamps didn’t used anymore,-auth)

(2)Late May 1951

In yet another attempt, Giap at-tacked with three division along the Day river, southeat of Hanoi, aiming to dramatize  and hecontemplated di-fferent region in which to launch a major offensive.

     Giap reckoned that the French would fight to protect Laos, whose king sided with them, largely out of an atavistic hatted for Vietnam.

     The French garrison in Laos, outside of the main towns, like vietiane and Luang Prabang, were also dispersed and vulnerable.

     Giap concluded, howeever, that Laos in the area along laotian border were strectched thin. (I found Laotian medal in Ho Chi Minh city, may be belong by the soldier who joined the battle at the laos area-auth)

6) June 1951

(1)June.5th. 1951

, President Ho Chi Minh, right after the victorious frontier campaign have signed a decree date june 5 ‘ 1951 regarding the establisment of The State bank Of Vietnam and issue the notes were exchanged in place of he “Finacial Bnotes” These notes have shown following characteristic :

     Front side : The National name of Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa) .

     Backside   : The State bank of Vietnam.

     There were only on the notes two kind of letter are Vietnamese and Chinese.(Mot Tram Hong, Nam Muoi Dong, Ngan Hang Duoc Gia Viet-Nam) There were not any signatures of the authoriries concerned, except two round seals of Director and deputy Director of the State Bank of Vietnam found on the front side of the note

The nominal of notes : 50.,100,200,500,1000 and 5000 Dong (D)

_____________________________________

(g)Vietminh war 1952

_____________________________________

1) January 1952

(1)January .11th.1952

     General Giap’s offensive in the Red River valley blunted by de Lattre, and he dies in Paris.

2)-9) no info

10) October 1952

(1) October 1952

     Giap began to deploy three divisions in the vicinity of a wretched frontier village that had been evacuated by a laotians battalion employed by the French for garrison duties. The village located in a valley eleven miles long and five miles wide, belonged to the Thai, an ethnic minority that grew rice and marketed opium brought down from the surrounding mountains by Hmong tribes. The Thai called the place Muong Thanh.

     To the Vietnamese, whose trader bought opium there, it was known as Dienbienphu.(D)

_____________________________________

(h) Vietminh war in 1953

_____________________________________

1)-3) no info

4) April 1953

    

(1)After a series of clashes in the sector, Giap probed into Laos in April 1953.

     He skirted the French posts on the Plain of Jars, a plateau strewn with prehistoric urns, and reaches the outskirts of Luangprabang, the quaint royal capital , most of whose inhabitants had fled, having been alerted in advance by a blind soothsayre. Then just as he was poised to capture the town, Giap pulled his troops out of laos as well as from the area near Dien Bien Phu .

The explanation of Giap tactic in 1990 “ I never intended to remain in Laos. It was a feint designed to distract theFrench , and it worked”

     Giap had shown that he could march into laos with relative impunity, and might attack again at the end of the rainy seasons. Henceforth the French were to fasten on Dienbienphu as the crucial barrier where they would bar the Vietminh’s future access to Laos (ibid Stenley karnow,p-204)

 

 

 

 

 

 

4)-5) no info

 

6) June 1953

 

(1)Mid 1953

     Despite the substantial aids her was getting from the United States, Franch had lost to the Vietminh her authority over all but a minor portion of the Vietnam country.

     In the North by far the major part of Tonkin was in Vietminh hands.(ibid Kahin)

7) July 1953

(1)July.7th.1953

The series of stamps “ Production and thrift” issued with face value  in kilograms of rice 0K600,1K00,2K00 and 5K00,(D)

(naver seen postally used on covers-auth)

(2) July.13th 1953

     George Bidault , once intrasigent, said this day , two weeks before signing of the Korean cease-fire, that Franch would be in an “ untenable position” if “peace were reestablished in Korea while the war continued in Indochina”.(D)

 

August 1953

(1)August .4th.1953

     The Soviet Union was on a similar tract. Stalin’s successor had issued a statement this day, eight days after the Korean agreement was signed, proposing discussions to resolve conflict in Asia. (D)

9) no info

10) October 1953

(1)  October 1953

`    France grant Laos full independence as a mamber of the French Union

France implied in a treaty with King of Laos that it would protect his land, a member of the French Union, as the French colonial empire had been renamed following WW II.(D)

(2)Early October 1953

(a)Giap said to the writers that : “At That point, I had no idea where or even wheter a major battle might take palce”

He rode by horseback to Ho chi Minh’s headquaters, a bambooshack located in a hiltop in nothern Vietnam.

Ho chainsmoked and interrupted with questions as Giap, referring to a map briefed him on the situation. Dienbienphu never came up in the discussion. “the art of war is flexibility” Ho said . They would watch the French maneuvers and wait before making a decission.

 

(b)As Navarre poured troops into Dienbienphu, however, Giap increasingly felt that this was the place to stand. The French , he observed, were “ completely isolated” in the valley and dependent on airlifted supplies, which meant that they could strangled. By constrast , their domination ofthe surrounding mountains gave the Vietminh forces both the adventage of height for their cannon and a way to bring food and equipment in from the rear.

 

(c)Giap had not yet formulated a plan, nor did he have Ho’s approval of Dienbienphu as the battle ground. (D)

 

11) November 1953

(1) November.9th. 1953

(a)Majority of the French National Assembly expresses hope for a negotiated sttlement to Indochina war.(D)

(b)Prime minister Laniel made what amounted to offer :” If an honorable settlement were in sight, on either the local or the international level , France would be happy to accept a diplomatic solution to the conflict” (D)

(c)Navarre ordered preparations for operation Castor, under which five French battalions would retake Dienbienphu.

(c) Giap had deliberately created that impression by staging diversionary actions around the country. His scattered assault prevented the French from reinforcing one spot without leaving another open to attack. Squad of Vietminh guerrillas ambushed French convoys carrying materiel inland from the port of Haiphong, and terrorist intensified their assasinations of pri-French official.

Vietminh regulars stepped up the raids along the coast of central vietnam, crossed the border to besiege towns in the southern Laotian and seized areas of Cambodia (D)

(d)Prince Norodom Sihanouk takes command of the Cambodian army , declares Cambodian’s independence from France.(D)

(e)  Vietminh forces a push into Laos.(D)

(f)Ho Chi Minh tells a Swedish newspaperman that he is ready to discuss French peace proposal.(D)

(g)The Franch Government was forced to sign the Geneva Agreement and the peace restored in North Vietnam . Since then , a new stage of development has been opened to Vietnam postage stamps.(D)

(2)Giap began to move thirty three infantry battalions, six attelary regiments and a regiment of engineers into the region, some over long distances.

     Reflecting afterward on the massive deployment, military his prians judged that, in outweight the mobility of armies. That principle guided Giap in his struggles agains France and later America. As he told in 1990, his voice bursting with conviction :” In war there are two factors –human beings and Weapons. Ultimately ,though, human beings are the decisive factor. Human being! Human Being!”

     Thus the ground was laid for Dienbienphu, which would equal Waterloo,Gettyburg and Stalingrad as one of the decisive battles of history. It was also Giap’s epiphany.(D)

 

 

 

12) December 1953

(1)Late December 1953

Cao Xuan Nghia had told that he trekked with his infantry company for forty-five days from their camp in Thai Nguyen , nort Hanoi, reaching the highlands above Dienbienphu.

They had to cross mountain and jungles , marching at night and sleeping by day to avoid enemy bombing. They slept in foxholes, or simply alongside the trail. The Vietminh infantry each carried a rifle, ammunition and hand granades, and their packs contained a blanket, a mosquito net and a change of clothes. The army each had a week’s supply rice, which they refilled at deposits along the way. They ate greens and bamboo shoots, picked in the jungle, and occasinally villagers would give them a bit of meat. By then he (Cao) had been in the Vietminh for nine years, and he was accustomed to it .(D)

 

(2) The end of December 1953

Meanwhile, Giap had been carefully studying the terrain at Dienbienphu and concluded that it would require at least fifty thousand troops to annihilate the French garrison. He conferred again with Ho      at the end of December, recommended launching the offensive on January .25, 1954 and predict victory in about six weeks.

After posing a few questions, Ho agreed and granted him “full power” as field commander ,”This engagement must be won” he exhorted Giap, adding “ But don’t begin it unless you are sure of winning”(D)

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(i) Vietminh war in 1954

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1)January 1954

 

(1) January.25th. 1954

     Foreign ministers of United States,Britain,France and Soviet Union meet in Berlin, agree that a confe-rence on Indochina shlould be held in April.(D)

(2)Jan.18th-Feb.18th 1954

Three types stamps issued for commemorate “Month of Friendship”. Design Ho with Vorosilov and Mao, thema Vietnam-China-USSR solidarity, offset mono (100d) and becolour 50d&100d)

(I found one mint block four -100 D stamps at Ho Chi Minh city and one at Hanoi in used conditions -50 D stamps, never seen postally used covers-auth)

(3)January, 1954

     Colonel Charles Piroth, a one-armed officer in charge of the big French guns, had pledged to Navarre :”Mon general, no Vietminh cannon will be able to fire three rounds before being destroyed by my artillery”( the wrong prediction-auth)

2)-4) not yet infor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4)March.13th.1954

    

(a)Battle of Dienbienphu begins.(D)

(b)Navarre declining to credit Giap with plans for amajor test at dien-bienphu , had committed large units to central Vietnam and even refused to shift them once the bigger encoun-ter began.

     He misread Giap’s ability to move a huge force rapidly, so that his own troops were outnumbered by aratio than five to one during the trial by fire.

     He rejected the notion that the Vietminh could devastate his men with attilery deployed on the hill above Dienbienphu, nor did he foresee that the enemy emplacements would be protected by camouflage and antiaircraft guns against bombing from the air.

     He failed to anticipate that giap’s howitzers, posied within easy range of his airstrip, would cut off flights in and out of the valley, making it difficult for his besieged soldiers to recieve supplies or evacuate wounded-much less withdraw themselves. He also chose a terrain presumed suitable for tanks only to discover that, unlike its description on his map, its cover of thick bush entangled armored vehicles and its monsoon rains flooded the plain in the spring.(D)

    

 (c) American equipment captured by the Chinese Communist from the  nationalist during civil war and later given to the Vietminh. Riding in acaptured jeep, Giap accompanied the groups of bicycles and columns of men that resembles lines of ants as they trudges through the mountain jungles, laden with everything from catridges to vast quantities of rice, which had to be carried for cover the impoverished region. From time to time they sranbled for cover as French aircraft strafed and bomb them. “It was very difficult, n’est-ce pas, very difficult” Giap recalled :”Only motivated soldiers could have performed such a feat”

 

(d) An even more agonizing ordeal for Giap troops was to position the howitzer and antiaircraft in the hills above Dienbienphu. Again, with sheer muscle, cadres and coolie alige dragged the heavy weapons up the slopes with range of the Franch garrison.(D)

(e) Preparing for the new assault took nearly two month. Finally, on the afternoon of March 13, Giap gave the signal to advance.

     His first objective , Beatrice, fell imediately, and Gabrielle follow the next day as the Vietmint howitzers raked the airship and pinpointed orther French targets.

(Many pin commemorated this victory battles, I have a vintage and modern pins-auth)

(5)March. 15th 1954

    

(a)At dawn on this day, Piroth lay down in bed, pulled the safety pin out of a grenade with his teeth and blew himself to bits. He had said the night before, after Gabrielle’s collapse: “I am completely dishonored”.

(b)The French figured that the oncoming rains would mire him in mud, but just the opposite occured. The lowerings cloud hindered thei aircraft from bombing and strafing his men and made the parachuting suppliesbto their beleagured garrison nearly imposible.

(c) The French now knew that, on the eve of negotiations, they were doomed on the battlefield and also at the conference table- unless they recieved a formidable dose of outside help. Only the Unites States could furnish that aid fast and effectively. But another engagement would have to be fought in Washington(D)

 

(6) March.20th. 1954

    

(a) No sooner had Giap fired his first salvos than the French calimed that they urgently needed American Military assistance at Dienbienphu to holster their diplomacy at Geneva.

 

(b) GeneralPaul Ely, the French chief of staff, delivered the massage to Whasington on this day, winning over Admiral Arthur Radford, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff. Radford proposed that sixty B-29 bomber based in the phillippines , escorted by fighter planes of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, conduct night raids against the Vietminh perimeter around Dienbienphu. Ely returned to Paris with the plan, labeled Operation Vulture, and his government welcome it.

Another member of the joint chiefs, General Nathan Twining of the air force, endorsed the idea. But General Matthew Ridgway, army chief of staff, had little faith in air strikes- and no taste for a fight on the mainland of Asia. An old-fashioned ingantryman who had comanded the US Force in Korea, he argued that even Atomic Weapons would not reduce the need for seven American combat divisions to assure French success  in Indochina- tweleve divisions of the Chinese intervened. The other members of the joint chiefs agreed with him that  The Indochina conflict was the wrong war in the wrong place. As they stated shortly afterward: ”Indochina is devoid of decisive military objectives” and involvement  there “ would be a serious diversion of limited U.S. capabilities.(D)

 

4) April 1954

(1) April 1954

EISENHOWER –USA, decides against American intervention to help France in Indochina after Britain reject his proposal for concerted action.

Contrary to portrayals that depict him as an unalloyed “dove”. Eisenhower did not completely oppose U.S. intervention. But recalling his command of the Allies during World War II, he refused to commit America alone, “ Without allies and associates,” he told his staff at one meeting :” the leader is just an adventurer, like Genghis Khan” Besides, he had been elected on a pledge to end the war in Korea, which might  have spiraled into a bigger confrontation with China- and as his closer aside, Sherman Adams, observed : “ Having avoided one total war with Red China the year beforee in Korea, when he had United State support, he was in no mood to provoke another one in Indochina….without the British and other Westren allies.”

Eisenhower appealed to Prime Minister Churchill to participate, reminding him of the failure to stop Hitler :” by not acting in unit and in time “. He sent Dulles to London to plead his case, but the British spuned him.

 

(2)Churchill told the House of Commons that Britain “was not prepared to give any undertaking….in Indochina in advance of the results of Geneva,” and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, who was to cochair the conference with Vyascheslav Mlotov, Soviet foreign minister,  Simply refused to be “ hustled into injudicious military decision”. The best that Dulles could achieve was a British promise to conttemplate  a future regional security arrangement, which eventually became SEATO(D)

 (3)Postage Due issued and used for fines (three the third type Ho Chi Minh stamps and one 100 d production and thrift first series with overprint TT (within one or double frame) in red,dark violet ,brown or black) , denoted the amount to be collected (by post-master or letter carrier) from address, because of insufficient prepayment of postage. The insufficient amount was shown on the stamp.

 (many bogus or fake covers ever sold at auctions, the guenine postally covers with this type stamps never report,please comment-auth)

(2)April 1954

     It was clear by late april, as the battle rahged at Dienbienphu, that neither the American nor anyone else would come to rescue of the French.

     Giap told later that “ No doubt we would have had problems”he replied “ but the outcome would have been the same. Only a lunatic would have resorted to atomic weapons, which in any case would have devastated the French troops. At the time, I feared poison gas.Fortunetaly, it was never used,”(D)

 

(3)April,29th 1954

      Eisenhower speaking at a press conference on this day, he said :”You certainly cannot hope at the present state of our relatins in the world for a completely satisfactory answer with the Communists. The most you can work out is a practical way of gatting along”(D)

 

 

 

 

4) May 1954

 

(1)May ,6th 1954

The surrender of the french garrison of Dien Bien Phu

 

(2) May,7th 1954

     On the afternoon of this day, the red Vietminh flag went up over the French command bunker at Dienbienphu and French defeated.(D)

(3) May.8th. 1954

    

(a)Indochina phase of the Geneva conference with Britain and Sovier Union as cochairman.

 

(b) In Geneva, nine delegations assembled around a horseshoe-shaped table at the old League of Nations building to open dicussion aimed at ending the war in Indochina.

 

(c) In the end, the Geneva conference produced no durable solution to the Indochina conflict, only a military truce that awaited a political settlement, which never really happened. So the conference was merely an interlude between two wars – or , rather, a lull in the same war.(D)

 

6) June 1954 no info

7) July 1854

(1)July 1954

     Agreement reached at Geneva call for cessation of hostilities in Vietnam,cambodge and laos. Provisional line at secenteenth parallel divides Vietnam pending political sttlement to be achieved through nationwide elections.

 Final declaration accepted orally by all participant at the conference except United States, which states it will not disturb the agreement but would view renewed aggresion with concern.(D)

8)-9) no info

10)October 1954

(1) October.9th. 1954

    

(a)France forces leave Hanoi.(D)

    

(b) Four type stamps (10d,50d,150d ,&150d) were issued for comme-morated Victory at dien Bien Phu

 

 

(c) Due to National Bank of Vientnam was founded in 1951 and issued new currency to gradually replace the currency of Ministry of Finance, which had been circulated since 01/12/1945 . 1 d issued was equal to  10d before, and the old Ho stampes type 3 were overprinted with new value (many fake overprint, very rare postally used on cover-auth)

11) October 1954

(11)Commemorative stamps 10d-50d-150d-600 kilo of Victory at Dien Bien Phu( Chien thang Dien Bien Phu), kilo nominal was value expressed in weight of rice.

     The design of this stamps , an Vietminh soldier on top of De Castry’s bunker with vietminh one bigger star flag.

(I never seen this stamps on postally used covers, please comment-auth)

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(j) The end of Vietminh war  in 1955

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1)January 1955

 

(1)Three type stamps(10d,50&150d) design soldier hold children and the vietnam flag on the castle, were issued for commemorated Liberation of Hanoi capital (never seen this stamps-auth)

 

(2) January 1st 1955

Return of gouvernment to Hanoi stamps (1000d,1500d,2000d &3000d) were issued ,offset monocolour .

2)February 1955

(1)Land reform stamps, first issued 20d&50d.

3) -4) no info

5)May 1955

 

(1)Land reform stamps ,second issued, 5d & 10d.

6) June 1955 no info

7)July 1955

    

(1)Ho Chi Minh , in Moscow , accepts Soviet aids (I have the vintage photo of this monent-auth) , having early negotiated in Beijing for Chinese assistance.(D)

(a)USSR Moscow issued special red souvenir’s sheet stamps(PH-stamp auction internet-auth).

(b) original vintage photo Ho and Vorsilov inspected the army guard (P-fund in Indnesia-auth)

8)-11) no info

12)December 1955

(a)Land reform in North Vietnam reached its most radical phase as landlords before “People’s tribunals”(D)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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K)The First years after vietminh ‘s war in 1956

 

(1)The third series Land refrom stamps were issued,40d & 80d (I found this stamps used off cover at Hanoi-auth)

(2) The stamps for commemorated opening of the Hanoi-Muc Nam Quan railway 4 type100d,200d,300d&500d offset monocolured.

 

(3) Official stamps 20d,80d,100d ,500d ,1000d ,2000d &3000d Army hero Anh Hung Cu Chinh Lan were issued.(I found 2000d & 3000d off covers stamps at Hanoi, never seen postally used on covers,please comment-auth)

(4)Tran Da Ninh stamps (5d,10d,20d ,100d) were issued (I found Off Cover stamps at hanoi-auth)

(5)The very rare stamps Army’s Hero (Mac Thi Buoi) , picture of Guerilla Heroine (Chan dung Mac Ti Buoi) 1000d,2000d,4000d & 5000d

(I have seen used 1000d off cover blue stamps at auction in internet, and never seen postally used on cover,please comment . Conclussion Vietminh stamps circulated after the victory at Dienbienphu and French October 1954. be careful the fake postal history with CDS Haiphong or Hanoi before this date between 1950 to September 1954 except sent in the village through curier but never report, may be the revenue with Vietminh overprint will be guinine if still on North Vietnam village’s document –auth)   

 

 

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3.2. REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM BEFORE THE LIBERATION WAR (FORMER BO DAI/SAIGON REGIMES)

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3.2.1 HISTORICAL Background

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a.Vietnam A History (Ibid, Stanley Karnow,1983)

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(1)Since the Vietminh had prevailed at Diienbienphu and still menaced the French elsewhere in Indochina, Pham Van Dong predictably came on strong. He insisted on a political settlement first, under which the French would withdraw and leave the Vietnamese to resolve their own differences- a formula calculated to panic Bao dai Regime and virtually guarantee a Communist triumph. He also arguedd for  recognation ofthe Pathet Lao and the Free Khmer, the Vietminh-supported Communist movements in Laos and Cambodia, contending that they deserved legal status and control of territory in their countries.(I have the original photo of Pham van Dong from the  photo collections given the Indonesian official during Afro asia Bandung conference 1955-auth)

 The French rejected these demands , Pham van Dong refused to yield- and the conference slid to a stand still.

(2)     Zhou Enlai showed at geneva for the first time,

he’s primary  ain was to carve an agreement that would deny the United States a pretext to intervene in Indochina and again threaten China. Thus he sought a settlement that would give the French at least a foothold in their former possesion, to the exclusion the Americans.

Such an accomodation inevitably required a sacrifice of the Vietminh’s objectives. But Zhou put China’s priorities first. Besides, Chinese foreign policy throughout the centuries had been to fragment South East Asia in order to influence its states, and Zhou subscribed to that tradition. A divided Vietnam suited the Chinese better thatn a unified neighbor- particulary one that had quarreled with China for two thousand years. Similarly, China’s security would be served by restraining Vietnamese ambition in Laos and Cambodia. By curbing the Vietminh, moreover, Zhou hoped to display his noderation to India, Indonesia and the other nonaligned countries of Asia. Indeed, his appearance at Geneva was a prelude to his performance soon afterward at the Bandung Conference, where he and the Indian Prime Minister Jawalharlal Nehru embranced as they launched their campaignnto preach the “Pancasila” , the “principles of peaceful coexistence”( I have the original photo of Nehru, Zhou Enlai and Ho Chi Minh during Nonaligned Country Afro Asia Conference Bandung 1955, auth)

(3) The Vietminh showed no signs of elasticity, and Bao dai had just appointed the intractable Ngo Dinh Diem to his prime minister. But Zhou Enlai intervened. He arranged to meet Mendes-France covertly on June 23 1954, at the French embassy in Bern, the Swiss Capital.

Zhou had discarded his usual severe tunic for a gray Westren business unit, and he meant business. He told Mendes-France that, in contrast to the demands of the Vietminh, he favored a cease-fire first and a political accord afterward. He would urge the Vietminh to stop meddling in Laos and Camboda, and to respect the sovereignity of these “two Vietnams”- a direct blow to the Vietminh’s dream of unifications. The possibility of American military bases in Indochina worried him. Beyond that, he said, China’s only aim was peace in the region, adding that his government had “no other ambitions(and) poses no conditions”.

Worse awaited the Vietminh leader two evening later, at a farewell dinner organizes by Zhou. The guests included a member of Bao dai’sdelegation, Ngo Dinh Luyen, theyounger brother of Ngo dinh Diem. Pham Van Dong was astonished and dismayed that Zhou, a Communist comerade, should have invited a “puppet” of the French. But Zhou went even further, obliquely indicatingvin his silky manner that China favored a permanent partition of Vietnam. Turning to ernment to be established in Saigon open a diplomatic mission in Beijing:” Of course, Pham Van Dong is closer to us ideologically, but  doesn’t rule out representation from South. After all, aren’t you both Vietnamese,and sren’t we all Asians?”

(4) The conclussion at Geneva was to be misinterpreted, if not misunderstood, for years to come. The only documents signed were cease-fire accords ending the hostilities in Vietnam, Cambodia and laos.

The Agreement between France and The Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as the Vietminh officially called itself, wasnot a political settle-ment .It provided for temporary division of Vietnam pending a nationwide election to be held in the summer of 1956. The French forces would meanwhile withdraw from the north, and the vietminh from south. Except for the United States and the Saigon regime, the other participants merely gave their oral endorsement to afinal declaration noting the understandings.

(5) The Eisenhower administration , crusading against its foggy notion of an international Communist conspiracy, reluctantly pledged to abide by the Geneva agreement. In a separate statement, however, Bedell Smith warned that the United States would view “with grave concern…any renewal of aggression”- a caveat President Kennedy used seven years later to justify his comminment to the Ngo Dinh Diem government. Diem also rejected the Geneva accords, which put half Vietnam under Communist control, and he predicted that “another more deadly war” lay ahead for Vietnam. His forecast was prescient, after eight years of conflict and four hundred thousand soldiers and cibilians dead, the agony was far from finished(D)

 

(b)(ibid,Grenville,1994)

   The South Vietnamese government, headed by the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem , refused to sign any of the treaties but carried out the military truce conditions.

   Eisenhower’s conduct in 1954 marked another turning point in the tragic history of Vietnam and of the United States’s involvement in that tragedy, which lwd to extensive sacrifices in men, material and, a decade later social cohesion.

   What Eisenhower and dulles refused to accept was that no firm line had been drawn against further communist expansion, further erosion of the westren position in South east asia, though they had no wish for the US to replace colonial France or to exploit South Vietnam.

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011