Driwan Narural History Cybermuseum show:”The rare vintage Indonesian Dinosaurus Chlamydosaurus Kingi (Gamabar antik Dinosaurus Tokek)












Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)


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              DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)


The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Showcase :

The  Rare Vintage Indonesian Dinosaurus Chlamydosaurus Kingi Picture(Dinosaurus Tokek),also name grilled Lizard .This is the very rare and high value of  Chlamydasaurus kingi(Tokek)

Please honor my copyright, donnot copy without my permission,thanks

Frame One :

Dr iwan s Collection

Chlamydasaurus Kingii from google explorations:

Frame Two:

The List Of Asia Dinosaurus

List of Asian dinosaurs

This is a list of dinosaurs whose remains have been found in Asia other than India, which was a different continent for much of the Mesozoic Era, the time period when the dinosaurs lived. More dinosaurs have been found in Asia than any other continent so far.



List of Asian dinosaurs

Name↓ Period↓ Diet[1]↓ Notes↓
Abrosaurus Jurassic herbivore A Small sauropod that looked a lot like Camarasaurus.
Achillobator Cretaceous carnivore
Adasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Agilisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Airakoraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Albalophosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Alectrosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Alioramus Cretaceous carnivore
Altirhinus Cretaceous herbivore
Alxasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Amtosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Based only on fragments of its skull.
Amurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Anchiornis Jurassic carnivore Smallest known dinosaur that is not a bird.
Anserimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Aralosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Archaeoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Archaeornithoides Cretaceous carnivore
Archaeornithomimus Cretaceous omnivore
Arkharavia Cretaceous omnivore
Arstanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Asiaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Asiamericana Cretaceous carnivore
Asiatosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Auroraceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Avimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Bactrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Bagaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Bagaraatan Cretaceous carnivore
Bainoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Bakesaurus Cretaceous (unknown) Uncertain, see article
Balochisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Banji Cretaceous (unknown)
Baotianmansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Barsboldia Cretaceous herbivore
Beipiaosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Beishanlong Cretaceous omnivore
Bellusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Bienosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Bissektipelta Cretaceous herbivore
Bolong Cretaceous herbivore
Borealosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Borogovia Cretaceous carnivore
Breviceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Brohisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Byronosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Caenagnathasia Cretaceous omnivore
Caudipteryx Cretaceous omnivore
Ceratonykus Cretaceous omnivore
Changchunsaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Changdusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chaoyangsaurus Jurassic herbivore
Charonosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Chialingosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chiayusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chilantaisaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Chingkankousaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Chinshakiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chuandongocoelurus Jurassic carnivore
Chuanjiesaurus Jurassic herbivore
Chungkingosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Citipati Cretaceous omnivore
Conchoraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Crichtonsaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Cryptovolans Cretaceous carnivore
Daanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Dachongosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Damalasaurus Jurassic herbivore
Dashanpusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Datousaurus Jurassic herbivore
Daxiatitan Cretaceous herbivore
Deinocheirus Cretaceous carnivore
Dilong Cretaceous carnivore
Dilophosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Dongbeititan Cretaceous herbivore
Dongyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Elmisaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Enigmosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Eomamenchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Epidendrosaurus Jurassic carnivore See article
Epidexipteryx Jurassic carnivore
Equijubus Cretaceous herbivore
Erketu Cretaceous herbivore
Erliansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Erlikosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Eshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Eugongbusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Euhelopus Cretaceous herbivore
Ferganasaurus Jurassic herbivore
Ferganocephale Jurassic herbivore
Fukuiraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Fukuisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Fukuititan Cretaceous herbivore
Fulengia Jurassic herbivore
Fusuisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Futabasaurus Cretaceous carnivore Name not published officially and later used for a plesiosaur
Gadolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Gallimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Garudimimus Cretaceous omnivore
Gasosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Gigantoraptor Cretaceous omnivore
Gigantspinosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Gilmoreosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Gobiceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Gobisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Gobititan Cretaceous herbivore
Gongbusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Gongxianosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Goyocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Graciliceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Graciliraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Guanlong Jurassic carnivore
Gyposaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hanwulosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Haplocheirus Jurassic carnivore
Harpymimus Cretaceous herbivore
Heilongjiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Heishansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Helioceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Hexinlusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Heyuannia Cretaceous carnivore
Hironosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Hisanohamasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Homalocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Hongshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Huabeisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Huanghetitan Cretaceous herbivore
Huaxiagnathus Cretaceous carnivore
Huayangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hudiesaurus Jurassic herbivore
Hulsanpes Cretaceous carnivore
Incisivosaurus Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Ingenia Cretaceous (unknown)
Isanosaurus Triassic herbivore A very early dinosaur
Itemirus Cretaceous carnivore
Jaxartosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jeholosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jiangjunosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Jiangshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jinfengopteryx Jurassic/Cretaceous omnivore
Jingshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Jintasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jinzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Jiutaisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Kagasaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Kaijiangosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Katsuyamasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Kelmayisaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Kerberosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Khaan Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Khetranisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Kileskus Jurassic carnivore
Kinnareemimus Cretaceous omnivore
Klamelisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Kol Cretaceous carnivore
Koreanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Kulceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Kunmingosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Kuszholia Cretaceous (unknown)
Lamaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Lancanjiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Lanzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Leshansaurus Jurassic carnivore
Levnesovia Cretaceous herbivore
Liaoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Liaoningosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Smallest known ankylosaur
Limusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Linheraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Luanchuanraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Lufengosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Lukousaurus Jurassic carnivore Possibly a crocodilian rather than a dinosaur
Luoyanggia Cretaceous (unknown)
Machairasaurus Cretaceous omnivore
Magnirostris Cretaceous herbivore
Mahakala Cretaceous carnivore
Maleevus Cretaceous herbivore
Mamenchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Mandschurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Marisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Megacervixosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Mei Cretaceous carnivore
Microceratus Cretaceous herbivore
Microdontosaurus (unknown) herbivore Dating dubious
Microhadrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Micropachycephalosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Microraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Mifunesaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Minotaurasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Mongolosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Monkonosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Monolophosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Mononykus Cretaceous carnivore
Nanningosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nanshiungosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Nanyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Neimongosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nemegtomaia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Nemegtosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Ngexisaurus Jurassic carnivore
Nipponosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Nomingia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Nurosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Olorotitan Cretaceous herbivore
Omeisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Opisthocoelicaudia Cretaceous herbivore
Oshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Otogosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Oviraptor Cretaceous omnivore
Pakisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Parvicursor Cretaceous (unknown)
Pedopenna Jurassic (unknown)
Peishansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Penelopognathus Cretaceous herbivore
Phaedrolosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Phuwiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Pinacosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Platyceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Prenocephale Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Probactrosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Prodeinodon Cretaceous carnivore Dubious, see article
Protarchaeopteryx Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Protoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Protognathosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Psittacosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Pukyongosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Qiaowanlong Cretaceous herbivore
Qingxiusaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Qinlingosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Quaesitosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Raptorex Cretaceous carnivore
Rinchenia Cretaceous omnivore
Ruyangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sahaliyania Cretaceous herbivore
Saichania Cretaceous herbivore
Sanchusaurus Cretaceous herbivore May be synonymous with Gallimimus.
Sangonghesaurus Jurassic/Cretaceous herbivore
Sanpasaurus Jurassic herbivore Dubious, see article
Saurolophus Cretaceous herbivore
Sauroplites Cretaceous herbivore
Saurornithoides Cretaceous carnivore May be the same dinosaur as Troodon.
Scansoriopteryx Jurassic/Cretaceous (unknown)
Segnosaurus Cretaceous herbivore/omnivore
Shamosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shanag Cretaceous carnivore
Shantungosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shanweiniao Cretaceous (unknown)
Shanxia Cretaceous herbivore
Shanyangosaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Shaochilong Cretaceous carnivore
Shenzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shidaisaurus Jurassic (unknown)
Shixinggia Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Shuangmiaosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Shunosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Shuvuuia Cretaceous (unknown)
Siamosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Siamotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore
Siluosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Similicaudipteryx Cretaceous omnivore
Sinocalliopteryx Cretaceous carnivore
Sinoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Sinocoelurus Jurassic carnivore
Sinopliosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Sinornithoides Cretaceous carnivore
Sinornithomimus Cretaceous herbivore
Sinornithosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Sinosauropteryx Cretaceous carnivore
Sinosaurus Triassic/Jurassic carnivore
Sinovenator Cretaceous carnivore
Sinraptor Jurassic carnivore
Sinusonasus Cretaceous carnivore
Sinotyrannus Cretaceous carnivore
Sonidosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
SPS 100/44 Cretaceous carnivore/omnivore
Stegosaurides Cretaceous herbivore
Sugiyamasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Sulaimanisaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Suzhousaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Szechuanoraptor Jurassic herbivore
Szechuanosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Talarurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tangvayosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tanius Cretaceous herbivore
Tarbosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Tarchia Cretaceous herbivore
Tatisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Therizinosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Had huge claws
Tianchisaurus Jurassic herbivore
Tianyulong Cretaceous herbivore
Tianyuraptor Cretaceous carnivore
Tianzhenosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tienshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Titanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tochisaurus Cretaceous omnivore
Tonganosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Tonouchisaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Troodon Cretaceous carnivore Known from teeth discovered in Siberia. Also lived in North America
Tsaagan Cretaceous carnivore
Tsagantegia Cretaceous herbivore
Tsintaosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Tsuchikurasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Tugulusaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Tuojiangosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Turanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore First ceratopsid found outside North America (though ceratopsians are known from elsewhere)
Tylocephale Cretaceous herbivore
Udanoceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Ultrasaurus Cretaceous herbivore Dubious, see article
Urbacodon Cretaceous carnivore
Velociraptor Cretaceous carnivore Feathered, about turkey-size
Vitakridrinda Cretaceous carnivore
Wakinosaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Wannanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Wuerhosaurus Cretaceous herbivore Stegosaurid that survived until the Cretaceous
Wulagasaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Xianshanosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Xiaosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Xinjiangovenator Cretaceous (unknown)
Xiongguanlong Cretaceous carnivore
Xixianykus Cretaceous (unknown)
Xixiasaurus Cretaceous carnivore
Xixiposaurus Jurassic omnivore
Xuanhanosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Xuanhuaceratops Jurassic herbivore
Yamaceratops Cretaceous herbivore
Yandangornis Cretaceous carnivore
Yandusaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yangchuanosaurus Jurassic carnivore
Yibinosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yimenosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yingshanosaurus Jurassic herbivore The only fossil specimen of this species has apparently been lost.
Yinlong Jurassic herbivore
Yixianosaurus Cretaceous (unknown)
Yuanmousaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yunnanosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Yunxiansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zanabazar Cretaceous carnivore
Zhejiangosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zhongornis Cretaceous (unknown) Seems intermediary between Archaeopteryx and birds
Zhongyuansaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zhuchengosaurus Cretaceous herbivore
Zigongosaurus Jurassic herbivore
Zizhongosaurus Jurassic herbivore

Frame three:

The  Clamydasaurus Kingii info (from Google expl) 

Frilled lizard

Chlamydosaurus kingii 


Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the American Museum of Natural History
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
(unranked): Ornithodira
(unranked): Dinosauromorpha
(unranked): Dinosauriformes
Superorder: Dinosauria
Owen, 1842
Orders and suborders

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period (about 230 million years ago) until the end of the Cretaceous (about 65 million years ago). The extinction of most dinosaur species occurred during the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. The fossil record indicates that birds evolved within theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period. Some of them survived the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, including the ancestors of all modern birds. Consequently, in modern classification systems, birds are considered a type of dinosaur—the only group of which that has survived to the present day.[1][2]

Dinosaurs are a diverse and varied group of animals; birds, at over 9,000 species, are the most diverse group of vertebrate besides perciform fish.[3] Paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera[4] and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.[5] Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains.[6] Some dinosaurs are or were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Some have been bipedal, others quadrupedal, and others have been able to shift between these body postures. Many non-avian species developed elaborate skeletal modifications such as bony armor, horns or crests. Avian dinosaurs have been the planet’s dominant flying vertebrate since the extinction of the pterosaurs. Although generally known for the large size of some species, most dinosaurs were human-sized or even smaller. Most groups of dinosaurs are known to have built nests and laid eggs.

The term “dinosaur” was coined in 1842 by the English paleontologist Richard Owen, and derives from Greek δεινός (deinos) “terrible, powerful, wondrous” + σαῦρος (sauros) “lizard”.


The taxon Dinosauria was formally named in 1842 by Sir Richard Owen, who used it to refer to the “distinct tribe or sub-order of Saurian Reptiles” that were then being recognized in England and around the world.[8]:103 The term is derived from the Greek words δεινός (deinos meaning “terrible”, “powerful”, or “wondrous”) and σαῦρος (sauros meaning “lizard” or “reptile”).[8]:103[9] Though the taxonomic name has often been interpreted as a reference to dinosaurs’ teeth, claws, and other fearsome characteristics, Owen intended it merely to evoke their size and majesty.[10] In colloquial English “dinosaur” is sometimes used to describe an obsolete or unsuccessful thing or person,[11] despite the dinosaurs’ 160 million year reign and the global abundance and diversity of their avian descendants: modern-day birds.

Modern definition

Under phylogenetic taxonomy, dinosaurs are usually defined as the group consisting of “Triceratops, Neornithes [modern birds], their most recent common ancestor, and all descendants.”[12] It has also been suggested that Dinosauria be defined with respect to the most recent common ancestor of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, because these were two of the three genera cited by Richard Owen when he recognized the Dinosauria.[13] Both definitions result in the same set of animals being defined as dinosaurs, including theropods (mostly bipedal carnivores), sauropodomorphs (mostly large herbivorous quadrupeds with long necks and tails), ankylosaurians (armored herbivorous quadrupeds), stegosaurians (plated herbivorous quadrupeds), ceratopsians (herbivorous quadrupeds with horns and frills), and ornithopods (bipedal or quadrupedal herbivores including “duck-bills”). These definitions are written to correspond with scientific conceptions of dinosaurs that predate the modern use of phylogenetics. The continuity of meaning is intended to prevent confusion about what the term “dinosaur” means.

There is a wide consensus among paleontologists that birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs. Using the strict cladistical definition that all descendants of a single common ancestor must be included in a group for that group to be natural, birds would thus be dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are theropods, which are saurischians, which are dinosaurs.[14]

From the point of view of cladistics, birds are dinosaurs, but in ordinary speech the word “dinosaur” does not include birds. Additionally, referring to dinosaurs that are not birds as “non-avian dinosaurs” is cumbersome. For clarity, this article will use “dinosaur” as a synonym for “non-avian dinosaur”. The term “non-avian dinosaur” will be used for emphasis as needed.

General description

Stegosaurus skeleton, Field Museum, Chicago



Edmontonia was an armored dinosaur of the group Ankylosauria

Marasuchus, a dinosaur-like ornithodiran


Full skeleton of an early carnivorous dinosaur, displayed in a glass case in a museum

The early forms Herrerasaurus (large), Eoraptor (small) and a Plateosaurus skull


, “.)


Several macronarian Sauropods: from left to right Camarasaurus, Brachiosaurus, Giraffatitan, and Euhelopus

” (early relatives of sauropods; small to quite large; some possibly omnivorous; bipeds and quadrupeds)


Scale diagram comparing the largest known dinosaurs in five major clades and a human


Comparative size of Giraffatitan


Comparative size of Eoraptor


A nesting ground of Maiasaura was discovered in 1978


Artist’s rendering of two Centrosaurus, herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous fauna of North America


Tyrannosaurus rex skull and upper vertebral column, Palais de la Découverte, Paris


Eubrontes, a dinosaur footprint in the Lower Jurassic Moenave Formation at the St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, southwestern Utah


The famous Berlin Specimen of Archaeopteryx lithographica

Pneumatopores on the left ilium of Aerosteon riocoloradensis


The Chicxulub Crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula; the impactor that formed this crater may have caused the dinosaur extinction.

to changing conditions

Lloyd et al. (2008) noted that, in the Mid Cretaceous, the flowering, angiosperm plants became a major part of terrestrial ecosystems, which had previously been dominated by gymnosperms such as conifers. Dinosaur coprolite–fossilized dung–indicate that, while some ate angiosperms, most herbivorous dinosaurs ate mainly gymnosperms. Statistical analysis by Lloyd et al. concluded that, contrary to earlier studies, dinosaurs did not diversify very much in the Late Cretaceous. Lloyd et al. suggested that dinosaurs’ failure to diversify as ecosystems were changing doomed them to extinction.[37]

Possible Paleocene survivors

Main article: Paleocene dinosaurs

Non-avian dinosaur remains are occasionally found above the K–T boundary. In 2001, paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg-bone fossil in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and described it as evidence of Paleocene dinosaurs. The formation in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch, approximately 64.5 million years ago. If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provide evidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the Cenozoic Era.[130] Other evidence includes the finding of dinosaur remains in the Hell Creek Formation up to 1.3 meters (51 in) above (40000 years later than) the K–T boundary. Similar reports have come from other parts of the world, including China.[131] Many scientists, however, dismissed the supposed Paleocene dinosaurs as re-worked, i.e. washed out of their original locations and then re-buried in much later sediments.[132][133] However, direct dating of the bones themselves has supported the later date, with U-Pb dating methods resulting in a precise age of 64.8 ± 0.9 million years ago.[134] If correct, the presence of a handful of dinosaurs in the early Paleocene would not change the underlying facts of the extinction.[132]

History of discovery

Dinosaur fossils have been known for millennia, although their true nature was not recognized. The Chinese, whose modern word for dinosaur is konglong (恐龍, or “terrible dragon”), considered them to be dragon bones and documented them as such. For example, Hua Yang Guo Zhi, a book written by Zhang Qu during the Western Jin Dynasty, reported the discovery of dragon bones at Wucheng in Sichuan Province.[135] Villagers in central China have long unearthed fossilized “dragon bones” for use in traditional medicines, a practice that continues today.[136] In Europe, dinosaur fossils were generally believed to be the remains of giants and other creatures killed by the Great Flood.

Scholarly descriptions of what would now be recognized as dinosaur bones first appeared in the late 17th century in England. Part of a bone, now known to have been the femur of a Megalosaurus,[137] was recovered from a limestone quarry at Cornwell near Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, England, in 1676. The fragment was sent to Robert Plot, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and first curator of the Ashmolean Museum, who published a description in his Natural History of Oxfordshire in 1677. He correctly identified the bone as the lower extremity of the femur of a large animal, and recognized that it was too large to belong to any known species. He therefore concluded it to be the thigh bone of a giant human similar to those mentioned in the Bible. In 1699, Edward Lhuyd, a friend of Sir Isaac Newton, was responsible for the first published scientific treatment of what would now be recognized as a dinosaur when he described and named a sauropod tooth, “Rutellum implicatum“,[138][139] that had been found in Caswell, near Witney, Oxfordshire.[140]

Between 1815 and 1824, the Rev William Buckland, a professor of geology at Oxford University, collected more fossilized bones of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe a dinosaur in a scientific journal.[137][141] The second dinosaur genus to be identified, Iguanodon, was discovered in 1822 by Mary Ann Mantell – the wife of English geologist Gideon Mantell. Gideon Mantell recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. He published his findings in 1825.[142][143]

The study of these “great fossil lizards” soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term “dinosaur”. He recognized that the remains that had been found so far, Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, shared a number of distinctive features, and so decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group. With the backing of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the husband of Queen Victoria, Owen established the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits.

In 1858, the first known American dinosaur was discovered, in marl pits in the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey (although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been correctly discerned). The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii. It was an extremely important find: Hadrosaurus was one of the first nearly complete dinosaur skeletons found (the first was in 1834, in Maidstone, Kent, England), and it was clearly a bipedal creature. This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards. Foulke’s discoveries sparked a wave of dinosaur mania in the United States.

Othniel Charles Marsh, 19th century photograph

Edward Drinker Cope, 19th century photograph

Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars. The feud probably originated when Marsh publicly pointed out that Cope’s reconstruction of an Elasmosaurus skeleton was flawed: Cope had inadvertently placed the plesiosaur‘s head at what should have been the animal’s tail end. The fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in 1897 when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt. Marsh ‘won’ the contest primarily because he was better funded through a relationship with the US Geological Survey. Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair’s rough methods: for example, their diggers often used dynamite to unearth bones (a method modern paleontologists would find appalling). Despite their unrefined methods, the contributions of Cope and Marsh to paleontology were vast: Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, a total of 142 new species. Cope’s collection is now at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, while Marsh’s is on display at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.[144]

After 1897, the search for dinosaur fossils extended to every continent, including Antarctica. The first Antarctic dinosaur to be discovered, the ankylosaurid Antarctopelta oliveroi, was found on Ross Island in 1986, although it was 1994 before an Antarctic species, the theropod Cryolophosaurus ellioti, was formally named and described in a scientific journal.

Current dinosaur “hot spots” include southern South America (especially Argentina) and China. China in particular has produced many exceptional feathered dinosaur specimens due to the unique geology of its dinosaur beds, as well as an ancient arid climate particularly conducive to fossilization.

The “dinosaur renaissance”

Main article: Dinosaur renaissance

The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the 1970s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom‘s discovery of Deinonychus, an active predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the then-prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded. Vertebrate paleontology has become a global science. Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South America, Madagascar, Antarctica, and most significantly China (the amazingly well-preserved feathered dinosaurs in China have further consolidated the link between dinosaurs and their conjectured living descendants, modern birds). The widespread application of cladistics, which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs. Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record.

Cultural depictions

By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size. As such, they have captured the popular imagination and become an enduring part of human culture. Entry of the word “dinosaur” into the common vernacular reflects the animals’ cultural importance: in English, “dinosaur” is commonly used to describe anything that is impractically large, slow-moving, obsolete, or bound for extinction.[7]

Public enthusiasm for dinosaurs first developed in Victorian England, where in 1854, three decades after the first scientific descriptions of dinosaur remains, the famous dinosaur sculptures were unveiled in London‘s Crystal Palace Park. The Crystal Palace dinosaurs proved so popular that a strong market in smaller replicas soon developed. In subsequent decades, dinosaur exhibits opened at parks and museums around the world, ensuring that successive generations would be introduced to the animals in an immersive and exciting way.[145] Dinosaurs’ enduring popularity, in its turn, has resulted in significant public funding for dinosaur science, and has frequently spurred new discoveries. In the United States, for example, the competition between museums for public attention led directly to the Bone Wars of the 1880s and 1890s, during which a pair of feuding paleontologists made enormous scientific contributions.[146]

The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs has ensured their appearance in literature, film and other media. Beginning in 1852 with a passing mention in Charles Dickens’ Bleak House,[147] dinosaurs have been featured in large numbers of fictional works. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s 1912 book The Lost World, the iconic 1933 film King Kong, 1954’s Godzilla and its many sequels, the best-selling 1990 novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton and its 1993 film adaptation are just a few notable examples of dinosaur appearances in fiction. Authors of general-interest non-fictional works about dinosaurs, including some prominent paleontologists, have often sought to use the animals as a way to educate readers about science in general. Dinosaurs are ubiquitous in advertising; numerous companies have referenced dinosaurs in printed or televised advertisements, either in order to sell their own products or in order to characterize their rivals as slow-moving, dim-witted or obsolete

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

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