The Chinese Overseas Malaysia History collections from Chinese Language source

 

The Chimese Malaysia History collections

based On Info

From Chinese Langugae  sourche

Edited By

Dr Iwan suwandy,mHA

Special For Foreign Student Whon Study In Chinese Overseas Malaysia University

Copyright 2 2012

 This History were written dedicated to My frined

 Dr Francis Ngu and mr Chan Kee teck Kuching Serawak

may this info will support your political struggle

Archives:

《神仙•老虎•狗》——(一)

作者

Fairy • Tiger • dog “- (a)
FEB 14
Of the voice of justice


我在报界二十多年,学到了一个教训;不可尽信报纸所言。我国报章必需每年更换出版准证,业者为了生存,不得不抱着有限度的言论自由来经营,为了保证来年能继续出版,就得讨好政府,在“必要”时把一些真相“杀”掉。

不过,报界有更大的“黑手”,不是政府,而是财团。我们华人控制的财团,华商在马来西亚尤其是砂劳越,做生意的手段是有名的利害,往往为了达到赚钱的目的,可以不择手段,只要钱能到手就好,其他的什么礼仪廉耻都不重要。

有时,他们他们在赚钱的过程中“偶然”干了一些见不得光的事,怕记者抖出来,就很难在上流社会立足,所以就会设法把真相盖住,包括有贿赂、恐吓,各种软硬手段都出齐,只要能保住一张脸皮就好。

我生就是一幅牛脾气,很多朋友都认为不适合当记者,时常为了不买账而得罪了很多有头有脸的“社会毒瘤”。多年来我的这些“死对头”一直想把我撬走,包括在我的老板面前打毒针,威胁利诱。直到今年初才成功,这是后话,另会详述。

在砂州当记者,薪水薄得可耻。所以,大部份记者要靠兼职才能生存,我也不例外。第一个月上班就学人招徕广告赚些“干仙”糊口,第一个客户就跟我耍了一招太极拳中最厉害的推拿手,让我毫无招架的能力。

我还记得当时名字最常上报的生意人之中有一个是林启化,他是诗华日报董事长,也是当时有名的大公司林合春号东,我刚打算“骗吃”,第一个想到的对象自然非他莫属。

第一次去林氏办事处,心中紧张得要命,面对林氏,道了来意,他第一句话就问我有没有抽拥。我想,假如告诉他我有十五巴仙好赚,他可能不要登广告了。所以决定说个“白色的谎言”,就否认有“干仙”。生意人毕竟油条得很,他一听我没钱可赚,立刻“安慰”我;既然没有抽佣,那又何必把钱白白送给报社呢,对不对?等以后你有钱赚再说吧!

哇塞,厉害!以后好多年,我都赚不到林先生的钱。直到有一段时期,当林兄当了中华总商会长,而又时常闹绯闻之际,他通过第三者,一个共同的朋友郭孟峤来“暗示”林氏有意跟我套交情,叫我去找他拿广告。我去了,其后多年我的了不少甜头,直到林氏的大老婆觉得心疼而不再登广告为止。林太太时常坐镇公司,操很大的权势。

原来林兄犯了寡人之疾,平时除了杯中之物,还酷爱“酒”后面那个东西,郭孟峤是个执胯子弟,父亲留下了一爿小小的印务馆,平时没什么生意,不知如何攀上了林兄,称兄道弟起来,白天一起吃饭,晚上就上夜总会泡台湾歌星,一道留下风流抽糗史。

林氏原配貌若蛤蟆,据林氏告诉朋友,那是当年在外地遇车祸时受到当时做护士的黄端贞的悉心照料,为了报恩才娶回来,完全没有感情的,不算数。现在有了钱也有了地位,看到漂亮的台湾妞当然会心跳一百。

由于他肯花钱,林兄身边的傍友越来越多,绯闻着实不少。其实他在香港早有个二奶,还有儿女都早已长大,大老婆被瞒在鼓里多年,直到有一年林兄差一点心脏病发作,为了后事才抖出来。大娘刚发现时还闹自杀,不过命大死不了,林兄在香港这个二奶据说晚景相当凄凉,身后萧条,后来有的儿女还进了精神病院。

林兄的桃色新闻不断,连他自己的诗华日报都觉得不登都过不去。有一次林兄带了一个台湾婆到京城酒店开房,风流快活时突然不省人事,差点中了马上风。幸亏姣婆经验丰富,抱着林兄不放,又把银针在他肛门附近硬戣,才免得水长流,自此玩完。诗华日报在报导中还把男主角喻为“李小龙第二”。

诗华日报后来更刊登了一篇林家大老婆的访谈,文中含有甚多影射林兄的风流行径,他看了本就大动肝火,再加上傍友的怂恿,一怒之下卖掉诗华股份,辞去董事长的职位,不做“新闻从业员”了。

林兄诸多风流艳迹中,最为人津津乐道者,莫过于他的一套金蝉脱壳之计,话说有一次他告诉大老婆,说要上加帛镇“公干”,去了几天还未回家,黄氏心想老公这么努力做工好难得,别累坏了。就决定去加帛看老公。回家带了一锅鸡汤,天未亮就坐快艇去了,到了加帛店里,把主管叫来,一问之下,原来老公根本没来过!

黄氏回到诗巫总店,百思不得其解。后来还是软硬兼施之下,阿末才和盘托出,原来那天林兄坐了公司捷艇出门,到了公务局码头就下船,车夫用汽车又把他载回市区,直上京城酒店四楼,由那儿坐电梯更上一层楼,风流快活去了。林兄是很努力,不过却是在埋头苦干!

林兄很是狡猾。有一次他叫郭孟峤带一个操台湾口音的中年妇女,说是西马来的保险营业员,因为我“认识的人多”,希望能够带她去走走。大家看是我带来的,多多少少都应酬些少。我一直不知就里,以为只是替朋友做了另一件好事。岂料事过多年,有一天遇见林家大娘,没头没脑被她骂了一顿,说我帮她老公扯皮条!

原来那位“保险营业员”是嫁来大马的台湾妇女,与原来的老公离婚了被林兄搭上,借口卖保险,其实是来诗巫跟林兄幽会。

后来被林兄收藏在柔佛州新山,有一次我替福华银行拍摄三十周年纪念照,在新山分行还见到她在经理办事处等支票簿,而银行职员都叫她林太太。

《神仙•老虎•狗》——(二)待续…..

by:fb刘世久

 

发表在 神仙•老虎•狗

1条评论

Twenty years in the press, I learned a lesson; can not believe everything the newspapers said. Of newspapers must be replaced annually publishing permit the industry in order to survive, had to hold a limited freedom of speech to business, in order to ensure that will be able to continue to publish, you have to please the government, “necessary” truth “kill” off.


However, the press have more of the “black hands”, not the government, but the consortium. Our Chinese-controlled consortium, the Chinese businessmen in Malaysia, especially Sarawak, the means of doing business is well-known interest, often in order to achieve the purpose of making money, you can do anything, as long as the money can be hand like other liturgical sense of shame is not important.


Sometimes, they in the process of making money “accidental” did some shady things, afraid that the reporters ferreted out, it is difficult to gain a foothold in the high society, so will try to cover the truth, including bribery, intimidation, various hard and soft means a homogeneous, can keep a skinned like.


I was born a pigheadedness, many of my friends are not considered appropriate when a reporter often not buy it offended a lot of head and face “social cancer”. Over the years, my “rival” I was trying to pry away, including lethal playing in front of my boss, threats and inducements. Successful until earlier this year, this is something, and the other will be detailed.


When a reporter in Sarawak, salaries thin shameful. So, most reporters rely on part-time in order to survive, and I am no exception. The first month of work school attract advertising earn some the “dry cents” subsistence, first client told me playing a trick the Taijiquan most powerful massage hands, let me no ability to Parry.


I still remember the businessman was the name most frequently reported among LIN Qi-oriented, he is chairman of the See Hua Daily News, was also famous Riverside Spring, East, I’m just going to “cheat eat”, the first thought the object Nature must go to him.

First offices to Lim, the hearts of wrought, the face of the Lim said his intentions, his first words to ask me there is no pumping owned.

 

I think, if I told him 15 per cent pay any more, he may not want to advertise. So I decided to say a “white lie” denied “dry cents. Businessman after all fritters very him a no money to be made, immediately “comfort”; since there is no commission, then why should the money be handing the newspaper it right? Later you say it making money!

Wow, amazing! After many years, I have earned less than Lin’s money. Until there is a period of time, when the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Lin Xiong, yet often trouble in the scandal on the occasion, through a third party, to “imply” Lim intends Tao Jiaoqing with me and told me to find him a common friend Guo Meng Qiao Take advertising.

 

I go, followed by years of me a lot of sweetness, until Lin’s wife feel distressed, to advertisers. Mrs. Lin often sits Company, speaks very powerful.

The original Lin Xiong committed Guaren of the disease, usually in addition to the things of the cup also fond of “wine” that thing behind Guo Meng Qiao is executive hips children to father left a tiny Printing Museum, usually no business, I do not know how The climbed Lin Xiong, fraternizing up dinner during the day, night nightclub bubble Taiwanese singer, a left Merry pumping Qiu history.

Lin’s wife Maoruo toad, Lim told a friend, that is by the nurse did Huang Duanzhen taken care of the year in a car accident in the field, in order to repay have married back, not feelings, does not count. Now money has also been the position to see the beautiful Taiwan girl of course Heartbeat 100.

Friends of the Pong Lin Xiong around more and more, because he is willing to pay, and really a lot of scandal. In fact, he has already grown up in Hong Kong has long been a mistress, there are children the big wife was hiding in the drums for many years, until the year Lin Xiong almost heart attack, in order to take care of things shake out.

Aunt just found also an attempt at suicide, but was lucky not die, the Lin Xiong mistress in Hong Kong is said to evening scene quite bleak depression behind, and later, some children into a mental hospital.
The constantly, Lin Xiong Taosexinwen his See Hua Daily News do not think Gordon would go through. Once Lin Xiong with a Taiwan woman to the capital Jiudiankaifang, Merry merry suddenly unconscious almost immediately in the wind.

 

Thanks to the rich experience of Jiao woman, holding Lin Xiong and hold again silver needles near his anus hard lance before lest Flows, and since then comes to an end. See Hua Daily News also reported actor hailed as Bruce Lee “.

See Hua Daily News and later published an interview with the wife of a Lin family, contains much innuendo Lin Xiong Merry act, he saw this on flies into a rage, coupled with the near Friends of the instigation, huff sell Shi Hua shares, resigned from the posts of chairman of the board, not journalists.

Lin Xiong many Merry brilliant track in the most talked about than he withdraw its role of a measure, saying that once he told his wife, said to be on Kapit town “on business” went a few days has not been back to the home, Wong thought her husband so hard workmanship so rare, not tired. Decided to go to see her husband Kapit. Home with a pot of chicken soup, the day is not lit table speedboat to Kapit store, called the charge of a question under the original husband simply never been!

Huang returned to the the Sibu headquarters, baffled. Later or carrot and stick under Ahmad was a clean breast of the original day Lin Xiong sit company Jie boats go out to the official Bureau pier on disembark, the coachman again he set out by car back to the city, straight on the capital hotel fourth floor, sat elevator the next level, Merry merry. Lin Xiong is very hard, but it is hard at work!

Lin Xiong is very cunning.

 

 

 

 Once he called Guo Meng Qiao middle-aged woman with an operation in Taiwan accent, said Simma insurance salesperson, because I know many people “want to be able to take her to walk. I brought more or less entertaining existing. I have been unknowingly, thought it was just another good thing to do for a friend. Unexpectedly, the things over the years, and one day met the aunt of the Lin family, unthinking scolded by her meal, that I helped her husband pimp!

The original man “insurance salesperson is married to Malaysian women, divorce Lin Xiong catch the original husband, an excuse to sell insurance, in fact, is to Sibu with Lin Xiong tryst.

Later Lin Xiong collection in Johor Bahru, once my 30th anniversary photo shoot behalf Fuhua Bank branches in Johor Bahru to see her checkbook manager offices, bank staff called her Mrs. Lin.
Fairy • Tiger • dog – (b) To be continued …..
by: fb Liu long
Published in the fairy tiger • • dog

《神仙•老虎•狗》

前因后果

作者

The circumstances surrounding the fairy • Tiger • dog ”
FEB 12
Of the voice of justice

七十年代初期,我刚进入新闻界,一位前辈钟茂麟曾经以“骗吃”谑称记者。他说做这个行业就像苦哈哈,整天为三餐奔跑“骗一口饭吃”,一语道破个中苦乐。

他说,当有人要用到记者之际,它们总会千方百计讨好记者,出尽法宝让记者快乐,那时候的记者就有快乐似神仙的感觉。

或者,当时有钱有地位的人干了坏事被记者抓住把柄,怕得不得了,要跟记者“讲数”,这是刻的记者就像老虎那么凶!

可是,当记者要发恶之际,却遇到一个更恶更凶的对手,他不但可以在你的老板面前用恶势力把你压得透不过气来,一个不妙很可能还会带几个打手把你揍一顿,那时,做记者的只有像狗儿那么可怜了。

这本书的书名,其实就是记者的代号。

往后所记所述,就是我二十二年记者生涯里的见闻,我不想偏袒朋友,也不刻意丑化敌人,纯粹是要尽一点新闻工作者的本分,把那些报章不敢刊载的事实记载下来,以对历史的见证作个交代。

刘世久
一九九三年九月十三日子夜
捞园路本宅

《神仙•老虎•狗》序

礼、义、治人之大法;廉、耻、立人之大节。
蓋不廉则无所不取,不耻则无所不为。
人而如此,则祸败乱亡,亦无所不至。
人不可以无耻,无耻之耻,无耻矣。

“廉耻”乃为人之重要条件,居于社会领导地位之知识份子,尤应知耻。篇首几句乃采录自顾炎武之文章;作者眼看明室诸臣纷纷投降满清,只图当前功名富贵,不惜千秋名节,实由于不知耻之所致,心有所感,乃写出本编沉痛之文章,指出“廉耻”之重要,奉劝士大夫须“知耻”。

“神仙老虎狗”这本书甚多情节将是围绕着“廉耻”两个字,道出我华族群中人如何把“礼仪”抛弃,把廉耻丢开,而一味往钱堆里头躜的丑陋的一面。

我生长于道德沉沦,纳妾风盛之动乱时代,大家都以三妻四妾为荣,有钱人好色,尚可理解;邻家一个流动小贩,家中大小七八口三餐不继,却也去学人家养个小老婆,真是天下之大,无奇不有。读书人读了几年圣贤书,对风流涵义一知半解,尚以为下流就是风流的另一种写法;一些行将就木的“社会名流”在师爷劝说之下,只道老尚风流是寿症。女孩子家听信江湖看命佬谗言,认为只有嫁给有钱人作阿二才有“钱”途,一个没有受过几年教育的女记者一心以为嫁对了人,跟着一个小流氓出身的“有钱人”作第五六房小妾,却不想衰婆遇着空心老倌,不但把“老公”累垮,也断送了自己的前途。

作书人不想自命清高,但是放眼看去,能够处乱世而不改其操守之君子难找啦。

松柏后凋零于岁寒,鸡鸣不己于风雨

谨以此句献于那些尚有一念之贞的君子共勉之

……..待续

by:fb刘世久

 

发表在 神仙•老虎•狗

发表评论

 The early ’70s, I just go into journalism, a senior Zhongmao Lin once ridiculed reporters to “cheat eat. He said to do in this industry is like Ku Haha, run “cheat food to eat for meals throughout the day, gave away the joy.


He said that when people use to reporters on the occasion, they will always do everything possible to please the reporters, all possible ways to let reporters happy, when the journalists there feeling happy as an immortal.

Or was the money and rank did a bad thing by reporters to grasp the handle, scared incredible, keep reporters talk about the number of “carved reporters like Tiger fierceness!
However, when reporters evil, but encountered a more evil and more fierce opponents, he not only can be in front of your boss with evil overwhelming to a not good is likely to bring a few thugs to beat, then, do reporters only like dogs so pitiful.
The title of this book, in fact, is the reporter’s code. Subsequent written above, is twenty-two years I press career horizons, I do not want to favoritism friend, not deliberately vilify the enemy, is simply to do a little duty of journalists, those newspapers did not dare report the facts written down and explain to the witness of history.

《神仙•老虎•狗》作者生平简介

作者

Author Biography “fairy • Tiger • dog”
FEB 12
Of the voice of justice

各位朋友,网上首次出现神仙老虎狗这本禁书原文,这是处女首航,为了尊重已故原作者刘世久先生将不会修改或添加,把原汁原味的书呈现给大家。文章将会以每天流出一篇的方式,直至整本书完毕。故事中对人性贪婪地追逐名利金钱地位毫不保留的揭发,社会名流地方闻人国阵朋党的勾结一一呈现在各位的眼前。谢谢!
——————————————————————————–

《神仙•老虎•狗》作者生平简介

禁书《神仙•老虎•狗》揭发诗巫名人的丑闻秘辛,在其笔下的诗巫名人(当然都是有钱人)都是表面风光,一幅慈善家面貌,私生活却都不道德的一面。这其中真真假假不是外人所能掌握,不过无风不起浪,可能有某些事实的成份。作者因为书内文章被泄露并复印流传,结果为免是非而自我流亡海外。

作者是资深名记者刘世久,大家都称他为SK.那是他的英文名缩写。他也以Oscar Lau来做为与朋友的交往。 SK Lau刘世久,是诗巫教育界前辈刘贤任的长子。早年在下游丹章公集的中正学校受教育,老爸就是校长.中学则在公教中学受教。他受过中英教育,也曾负笈台湾,因此中英文都很棒。

离开学校后,他曾在当年诗巫邮政局二楼的“电讯部”工作。那个时期,人们与外地连系,都需要打电报,以英文字母数目,来计算费用。这就是“电讯部”的工作之一。他在“电讯部”工作之时,即开始投稿给在汶莱出版的英文「婆罗洲纪事报」(Borneo Bulletin)。每次领到稿费时,他便会很识趣的买一些食品回公司招待大家。

及后他在英文「砂拉越论坛报」(Sarawak Tribune)出任记者兼诗巫的广告招徕员。那个时期,他的收入最丰,本地记者没有一个可以望其项背。最风光时期,他可以每个月到新加坡”吃风”一趟。不必说那个时候,即使是现在,也没有多少打工一族能够如此轻松的每个月自费出门逍遥自在几天。

关于SK Lau的事迹很多.那年,他为了一本书而出国。出走前夕,深夜九点多约一名深交者见面,表示次日要离开了。那是1996年9月,也是最后一次与该名知己真人面对面,此后再没有见过面,直至他于2004年在北京离世。

离开诗巫那一天,他大清早乘坐最早班快艇,大约是清晨5点45分,由诗巫前往古晋。在古晋呆上好几天,然后才飞往新加坡。他来来去去新加坡和吉隆坡之间,才飞去美国。在美国西北部一位朋友的家,也住了一两个月,过后便飞到台湾,原本计划要在这个他比较熟悉的环境下生活。不过,后来改变主意,转赴北京,就此定居下来。

在这期间,他也经常会飞回吉隆坡,办点签证或做点事。在北京,他的优越英文水平,就是他的饭碗。他开始为翻译社工作。在这个国际大都会,翻译是一门大生意,许多中国人与外国人做生意,不会英文,极须会英文的人员负责写信,弄合约等等。中国政府也积极将其法律以英文书写,他的公司也曾经获得合约进行法律的翻译。在中国这个华文的世界,居然靠英文吃糊,说来难令人入信,偏偏就是如此。其实也不足为奇,英文是国际语言,国际上做生意,当然是英文最吃香了。

2004年漂泊在北京56岁的刘世久在北京自己租住的房子里悄然离世,直到十余天之后才被朋友发现。刘世久的朋友华先生怀着悲痛的心情向记者讲述了这件蹊跷事。 他和刘世久相识于新加坡,由于共同的摄影爱好使他们成为了很好的朋友。两人每隔两三天都要通一次电话,刘世久几乎每周都要到华先生的工作室做客。

2004年1月16日,我们通过一次电话,当时649(刘世久的外号)说自己改变了去香港过年的计划,要留在北京过年。想不到那竟是我们最后一次通话。”1月18日,华先生起程去江西,出发之前拨打刘世久家里的电话、手机都没人接听。从18日直到27日回到北京,华先生无数次拨打刘世久的手机都无人接听,直到后来手机里传出噪音,最后关机。

大年初七,刘世久的几个朋友来到酒仙桥他租住的房子,发现防盗门没有关,从门缝里可以看到房间里开着灯。附近邻居、居委会都说自从春节以后就没见过这个老人了,几个朋友当即报警。在找到房主之后,警方人员及刘世久的朋友于正月初八进入他的房间。华先生说:“我从客厅里看到649躺在卧室的床上,身上盖着被子,拖鞋放在床边,好像穿着毛衣。他的脸全是黑色的,好像已经腐烂。

据一直与刘世久保持邮件联系的马来西亚朋友说,他们的邮件联系中断于1月16日,而华先生与刘世久最后一次通话也是16日。据此推断,刘世久的遗体被发现时他已经去世十多天了。 华先生说,刘世久很早妻子就去世了,儿子也英年早逝,他来北京之后一直独居。刘世久与朋友们很合得来,出事之前没听说他有什么烦心事。他不抽烟、不喝酒,虽然有时闹牙疼、腿疼,但从未听说有什么致命的疾病。究竟是谋杀、仇杀或有其他原因?最后北京公安也查不出一个结果。刘世久无疾的离世更加让遗留下的这本书《神仙•老虎•狗》更增添了神秘感!

刘世久在北京离世后,家属将其移灵诗巫。

……..待续

by:fb刘世久 

 

从KFC被鲸吞事件,看巫统朋党打压华商的手段!

作者

Dear friends, online for the first time the banned original fairy tiger dog, this is the the virgin maiden voyage, in order to respect the the deceased original author, Mr. Liu Shijiu will not modify or add to the original book presented to you. The article will a daily outflow a way, until the completion of the entire book. Story of greed of human nature to chase fame and money position without reservation, came to light, the collusion of the socialite local celebrity in the Barisan Nasional cronies presented one by one in front of you for. Thank you!
—————————

 

Author Biography “fairy • Tiger • dog”
The banned “fairy the Tiger • • dog” came to light Sibu celebrity scandal secrets behind the pen Sibu celebrity (of course, are rich) are the surface scenery, a philanthropist outlook, private life is nothing but immoral. Which half-truths are not outsiders can get hold of, but no smoke without fire, there may be some facts constituent. Author because the book within the article was leaked copy spread, the results in order to avoid non-self-exile overseas.

The author is Senior Reporter Liu long, everyone called him that his English name abbreviation SK. Oscar Lau as the exchanges with friends. SK Lau Liu for a long time, is the eldest son of the Sibu educators predecessors Xian any. Early downstream Dan Zhang recognized set of Chiang Kai-shek school education, the father is the principal. Taught secondary school in the Catholic High School. He was educated in the British education, also headed for Taiwan, in English are great.

After leaving school, he worked in the same year Sibu Post Office on the second floor of the Telecommunications Ministry. That period, people with foreign ties, need to send a telegram to calculate the cost, the number of letters in English. This is the work of one of the “Office of the Telecommunications Ministry. Telecommunications Ministry “when he began Contributor to published in English in Brunei Borneo Chronicle (Borneo Bulletin). Each received royalties, he would be very good grace to buy some food back to the company to entertain everyone.

English “Sarawak Tribune” (Sarawak Tribune) and after he served as a reporter and Sibu advertising to attract members. That period, his income is the most abundant, no one can hold a candle to local reporters. The most beautiful period of time, he can every month to Singapore “eat wind trip. Needless to say at that time, and even now, not how many wage earners can so easily each month at their own expense to go unaffected few days.
SK Lau deeds. That year, he order a book and abroad. Eve of the exodus, the middle of the night more than nine to meet about a very good friend to leave the next day. It was in September 1996, also the last real face-to-face with the friend, and then not met, until he passed away in Beijing in 2004.
Leave Sibu day early in the morning to take the first class speedboat about early morning 5:45, Kuching, Sibu Go. Stay in Kuching for few days before flying to Singapore. Come and go between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, and flew to the United States. Also lived in the home of a friend in the northwestern United States, two months after they flew to Taiwan, the original plan to live in his more familiar environment. However, later change your mind and want to switch to Beijing this settled down.

During this period, he often flew back to Kuala Lumpur, do a visa or do something. In Beijing, his superior standard of English, is his livelihood. He began working for translation agencies.

 

In this cosmopolitan city, the translation is a big business, many Chinese and foreigners to do business, not English, English dire need personnel responsible for a letter, get contracts.

 

The Chinese government is also actively its law is written in English, his company has also been awarded a contract for legal translation. Rely on English in China, the Chinese world, actually eat paste, said to difficult people into the letter, but why is that. In fact, it is not surprising, English is an international language, international business, of course, is English the most popular.

2004 drifting quietly passed away in Beijing rental house in Beijing, the 56-year-old Liu for a long time, until ten days after being friends found. Liu long-standing friend Wah sadness to Xiqiao Shi told reporters about this. Liu for a long time and he met in Singapore, they became good friends due to common photography hobby. Two every twenty-three days must pass a phone, Liu long almost every week to Wah studio guest.

January 16, 2004, by a telephone, 649 (Liu long nickname) was changed to the New Year in Hong Kong plan to stay in Beijing, the Chinese New Year. Not think that was actually the last time we talk. January 18, Wah leave to Jiangxi, Liu long home phone, mobile phone call before departure no one answered. Returned to Beijing from the 18th until the 27th, Wah numerous phone call Liu long unanswered until later phone noise came last shutdown.

Year 7 Liu for a long time, several friends came Jiuxianqiao his rented house, and found that the anti-theft door is not closed, you can see through the crack, the room lights on.

 

The neighborhood, the neighborhood say have not seen since the Spring Festival after the old man, and a few friends immediately alarm. In the eighth day the first month, police officers, and Liu long friends find homeowners to enter his room. Wah said: “I see 649 lying on the bed of the bedroom from the living room, was covered by blankets, slippers on the bed, as if wearing a sweater, his face is all black, and seems to have rot.

According to Malaysian friends say has been with Liu a long time to keep contact, their contact interrupt January 16, Mr. Hua and Liu long last call on the 16th. Inferred that, Liu long the remains were found, he had died more than 10 days. Wah Liu for a long long time ago his wife died, his son also died young, and has lived alone after he came to Beijing. Liu long friends along quite well, and have not heard before the accident he had something on your mind.

 

He does not smoke, does not drink, although the sometimes trouble toothache, leg pain, but never heard of a fatal disease. Whether it is murder, vendetta, or are there other reasons? Finally, the Beijing

 

Public Security also can not find a result. The book Liu for a long time without disease death left behind, more immortal • Tiger • dog “and add more mystery!
Liu long passed away in Beijing, and the family will shift its spiritual Sibu.
…….. To be continued
by: fb Liu long
Published in the fairy tiger • • dog

KFC 的历史我懂,70年代第一个将它引进大马市场的是商人吕正义先生。

From KFC is devoured event, the means to suppress the Chinese businessmen to see UMNO cronies!
FEB 8
Of the voice of justice

 

第一间KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN快餐店,吉隆坡东姑阿都拉曼大街开设本地的第一间店铺。现在还在。记得当年的肯德基家乡鸡,是没有SELF SERVICE这回事的。你进去肯德基快餐店,是有WAITER来写单的。而且当年也不是简称KFC。

吕正义先生当年是炒原产品期货买卖的高手。当年经商环境也不像现在这么限制。当年吕正义先生100%控制肯德基家乡鸡股权。 80年代初期,传说他在炒棕油期货的时候得罪马哈迪,因为老马想通过棕油期货买卖,控制世界原棕油价格。

吕正义却看准契机,趁低买进趁高放,灵活运用手法将期货价格锁死,加上伦敦期货市场有许多更精明干练的玩家;老马想控制原棕油期货市场,却反而大败亏输,亏了国库20多亿!但是吕正义却赚进数以千万计的利润。这造成老马非常震怒和感觉丢脸,于是迁怒吕正义。

也有传说当年老马上台,培养土着朋党,有人看中肯德基这块肥肉。有人利用吕先生炒棕油期货得罪马哈迪的弱点,企图强迫他将肯德基股权出让给马来人。但是吕正义天生傲骨,最讨厌受到无理压迫;最后他选择宁愿退出大马商界,将肯德基股权统统卖给巴生商人林玉静!吕正义先生后来远走美国,90年代初期客死异乡,在美国病故。

林玉静后来当上大马中华总商会会长。原本以为有中华总商会会长和隆雪华人大会堂会长的头衔,巫统朋党至少会有顾忌,不敢动他的主意。谁知巫统朋党玩阴招!

80年代,巫统朋党知道马来人非常喜欢吃肯德基家乡鸡,肯德基的业务发展非常迅速,分店到处开,已经成了大马快餐连锁店第一品牌。巫统朋党利用宗教,向林玉静找碴!他们抨击肯德基家乡鸡不是HALAL的。他们指责肯德基家乡鸡屠宰鸡只的过程不符合HALAL条规,要马来人杯葛肯德基!

当年这件事确实让林玉静很困扰。加上当年老马强势推行新经济政策,不断强迫林老必须让马来人参股。为了申请HALAL准证,林老无法可施,只好忍痛让出部分股权,换取巫统朋党取消呼吁马来人杯葛肯德基的举动。林老自己也没有想到,让出部分股权之后,犹如引狼入室。虽然林老还拥有肯德基的控制性股权,但行政体系渐渐落入马来人手中。

80年代末期,林玉静掌控的隆雪华堂和中华总商会并不平静。当年华商在新经济政策下饱受冲击,对政府的行政举措怨声载道,而华商之间也出现分裂。林玉静受到了以颜清文为首的华商反对派竞争。林玉静让出肯德基家乡鸡股权的事,也造成了一些华商不满,认为他身为商会最高领导人,竟然带头向巫统朋党妥协,这是不对的。

林玉静后来因为华团纷争,加上他的上市公司《富产》在1997金融风暴中严重受创,负债累累,无奈之下将肯德基股权完全脱手给马来商家伊德里斯。从此卸下《鸡王》称号。

于是肯德基家乡鸡正式易主,名称也改为KFC,沿用至今。

by Danfeng Zhang

 

发表在 大马华商的故事

发表评论

 

KFC’s history I know, businessman Mr. Lv Zhengyi 1970s it introduced the Malaysian market.
First KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN fast food restaurant, Kuala Lumpur, Tunku Abdul Rahman Street, opened a local shop.

 

Still there. I remember when Kentucky Fried Chicken, SELF SERVICE. You go to KFC, the WAITER write single. And then is not referred to as the KFC.
Mr. Lv Zhengyi year master is the the fried original product futures trading. When the business environment is also unlike such restrictions. When Mr. Lv Zhengyi 100% control of Kentucky Fried chicken stock. The early 1980s, the legendary fried palm oil futures offend Mahathir, like palm oil futures trading, control the price of crude palm oil in the world because the old horse.

Lv Zhengyi has spotted an opportunity to bargain buying to take advantage of high-level, flexible use of the approach to the futures price locked, plus many more shrewd players in the futures market in London; nag want to control the CPO futures market, contrary defeat loss to lose the treasury more than 20 billion deficit! However Lv

 

Zhengyi has earned tens of millions of dollars of profit. This caused the old horse very furious and feel disgrace, so anger Lv Zhengyi.
Legend year old horse came to power, the culture of indigenous youth gangs, some fancy KFC piece of fat.

 

Some people take advantage of the weakness of Mr. Lu fried palm oil futures offend Mahathir, an attempt to force him to KFC equity to sell to the Malaysian. Lv Zhengyi born proud and most hate to be unreasonably oppression;

 

 Finally, he chose to withdraw from the Malaysian business community prefer KFC equity Klang businessman Lin Yujing all sold! Mr. Lv Zhengyi later flee the United States in the early 1990s Kesiyixiang, died of illness in the United States.

The Lin Yujing Later when the the Malaysian Chinese General Chamber of Commerce. Originally thought that the title of president of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce and the Long Snow Chinese Town Hall, and the UMNO cronies have scruples, at least not dare move his idea.

 

Who knows UMNO cronies play underhand!
1980s, UMNO cronies know Malaysian like to eat Kentucky Fried Chicken, KFC business is developing very rapidly, and there were branches, has become the first brand of the fast-food chain in Malaysia. UMNO cronies use of religion to Lin Yujing trouble for! They attacked the Kentucky Fried Chicken is not HALAL.

 

They accused Kentucky Fried Chicken slaughter chickens process does not comply with the the HALAL regulations to Malaysian boycott KFC!

When this thing really Lin Yujing very troubled. Plus year old horse strong implementation of the new economic policy, constantly forced Lin old must be Malaysian shares.

 

To apply for HALAL permit old forest can not be applied, reluctantly forced to give up a portion of the shares in exchange for UMNO cronies cancel called on the Malaysian boycott KFC move.

 

 The forest old had no idea, so that a part of the shares, as if asking for trouble. Old forest also has a controlling stake in KFC, but gradually fall into the hands of the Malaysian administrative system.

The late 1980s, Long Xuehua Tang Lin Yujing control of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce is not calm. When suffering from the impact of the new economic policy, Chinese businessmen the government administrative initiatives complaining, among Chinese businessmen also appears split.

 

The Lin Yujing by Yan Qingwen headed the Chinese businessmen opposition competition.

 

 

The Lin Yujing let out the equity interest in the things of the Kentucky Fried Chicken, also caused some Chinese businessmen dissatisfied that he, as the supreme leader of the Chamber of Commerce, even take the lead to compromise, it is not right to UMNO cronies.

Lin Yujing disputes later because the Chinese group, plus he’s listed companies “rich” serious injuries to the financial turmoil of 1997, heavily in debt, desperation KFC equity completely get rid of to Malay businesses Idris,. Since then remove the “Chicken King” title.

So Kentucky Fried Chicken officially changed hands, the name was changed to KFC, still in use.
by Danfeng Zhang
Chinese businessmen in Malaysia story

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》第四回:华裔民主,路在何方?

作者

Retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back: Chinese democracy go?
FEB 5
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好,我们又见面了。昨天说到,当英国殖民政府在1946年提出《马来亚同盟》概念的时候,遭到由翁嘉化领导的巫统大力反对。

英国建议的马来亚同盟,是战后英国所制定的一份协议书,以把马来亚各州(不包括新加坡)置于英国的直接统治下。

Good evening everyone, we met again. Speaking yesterday, when the British colonial government in 1946 proposed “Malaya alliance” concept was Wengjia of strong opposition from the leadership of UMNO.
British proposed the Malayan alliance, an agreement developed in post-war Britain, the Malayan states (excluding Singapore) placed under the direct rule of the British.

英国政府决定,一旦政局复元而临时性的军事统治过去后,马来亚同盟将成立,旨在创造一个更有效率的政府组织和促进马来亚不同种族的马来亚人民的团结。但是,马来社会鉴于未顾及各州苏丹地位,和认为不利于马来民族,乃群起反对。在著名的领袖拿督翁的领导下,马来民族统一机构(简称巫统UMNO)成立,以反对马来亚同盟,结果英国让步。

另一方面,华人对于长期在马来亚居留后,将因此获得合法地位及政治权利的条件,却表现得不热衷。这是因为长期以来他们未被英国接受为马来亚人及被视为外来人,他们还是不能确定本身的身份,因此并不重视这个问题。到底从1945年到1948年,华人的政治思潮是如何的呢?我们可以从历史上看到几方面的发展。

首先,有相当多的华人,仍然认为自己是中国人民的一份子,而那些对政治感到兴趣的,仍然十分关注中日战争之前就存在着的中国政治斗争。所谓战前,即廿世纪初期,海外华人分成保皇派和亲孙中山先生的革命派,孙中山先生革命成功后,海外华人都转向支持国民党。

国共分歧华侨分派

1927年以后,接掌国民党大权的蒋介石将枪口对准中国共产党,誓要剿灭中共。于是中共和国民党展开斗争,海外华人便部份的分成两派,一派支持蒋介石领导下的国民党,另一派较倾向毛泽东领导的中共,当然也存在着不涉及政治及中立者。1945年,日本战败投降后,国共两派的对立尤其明显,不但在舆论上,同时在社团中也趋向针锋相对。

换句话说,属于这一类的华人已把注意力集中在中国的政治,更甚于马来亚政治的变化,而这一群华人中,不少是领导份子或中坚份子,他们的活动也受到重视,对华人来说,具有一定的影响。当然,毫无疑义的,不论是倾左或倾右的华人,都一致欢呼日本于1945年8月10日接受波茨坦宣言,无条件投降,最明显的欢庆反映在1945年10月10日(双十节)的国民政府国庆日。

在新加坡,不同的政治思想和不同阶层华人社团,估计450单位参加庆祝,庞大的游行队伍约有8万人。一些华人社会袖及舆论界抓住这个机会,以号召华人大团结。报人胡愈之更建议成立《华侨民主同盟》,胡文虎也响应并认为,海外华人的团结有助排解国共纠纷,同时,代表东南亚华人的陈嘉庚(南洋华侨筹赈总会主席),也受到支持参加中国政治协商会议。

The British Government’s decision, once the political situation to recover and temporary military rule in the past, Malaya alliance will be established, aimed at creating a more efficient government organizations and promote the unity of the Malayan People of different races in Malaya. Malay community view, however, failed to take into account states Sudan, status, and that is not conducive to the ethnic Malay are rallied together to oppose.

 

 The famous leader Datuk Ong Tee under the leadership of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO UMNO), set up to oppose the Malayan alliance results concessions.

On the other hand, the Chinese conditions for long-term in Malaya residence, will therefore obtain legal status and political rights, but not act enthusiastic.

This is because a long time they were not the United Kingdom for the people of Malaya and is regarded as outsiders, they still can not determine their own identity, and therefore does not attach importance to this issue. In the end, from 1945 to 1948, the Chinese political thought about? We can see from the history of the aspects of development.

First of all, there are a considerable number of Chinese still consider themselves part of the Chinese people, and those who are interested in politics are still very concerned about the political struggle exist prior to the Sino-Japanese War.

 

The so-called pre-war, that is the beginning of the twentieth century, overseas Chinese into royalists and pro-revolutionaries of the Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yat-sen after the success of the revolution, the overseas Chinese are turning to support the KMT.

KMT-CPC differences Overseas distribution
Since 1927, took over the the KMT power of Chiang Kai-shek at gunpoint Communist Party of China, vowing to wipe out the Chinese Communists. So the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang fought overseas Chinese will be part of the split into two factions, one faction supporting Chiang Kai-shek, under the leadership of the Kuomintang, the other faction led by Mao Zedong’s Communist China tend, of course, there is apolitical and neutral.

 

After Japan surrendered in 1945, the two factions of the opposition KMT and CPC is particularly evident not only in the public opinion in both the societies also tend to tit-for-tat.

In other words, belonging to the Chinese has focused in China’s political, and even more in Malaya political changes, this group of Chinese, many leading intellectuals or the backbone of their activities has also been importance of the Chinese, has a certain impact.

 

 Of course, there can be no doubt, both tilting left or Chinese dumping right, are unanimous in cheering on August 10, 1945, Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration, unconditional surrender, the most obvious celebration reflected in the October 10, 1945 (double National Day of ten), the National Government.
Different political ideas and different sectors of Chinese Associations in Singapore, it is estimated that 450 units to participate in the celebration, with a huge parade of about 80,000. Some Chinese social sleeves and opinion to seize this opportunity to call for the great unity of the Chinese. Newspaper people Hu Yuzhi recommended the establishment of the Overseas Chinese Democratic League, Aw Boon Haw response and that the unity of overseas Chinese will help resolve the KMT-CPC disputes, at the same time, on behalf of the Southeast Asian Chinese Tan Kah Kee (Nanyang Chinese Collection Relief Association Chairman), also supported to participate in the Chinese Political Consultative Conference

但是,较后的局面显示,彼此不能合作。陈嘉庚早于1940年就认为国共难合作,态度趋向支持中共。因此,陈嘉庚除了呼吁不同姓氏的宗祠及乡团团结,以统一华文教育作为团结的起点外,并没有参加于1946年2月的新加坡华侨总会的成立大会。《新加坡华侨总会》的发起人包括胡文虎,李光前,陈六使,连瀛洲及林文庆。

与此同时,在吉隆坡召开的94个华团代表大会,也希望胡文虎及陈嘉庚,提出具体的团结计划。不过,在中国方面,国共的合作始终不能达成,尽管海外华人大声疾呼,并赞同中国政治协商会议的《民主化国家,国有化军队》的两大口号,但议案只是一纸空文,不能推行。

一个半月后(1946年3月中旬),国共内战在中国东北爆发,以后就一直打到1949年,国民党退居台湾为止,毛泽东于同年10月1日宣布中华人民共和国成立。

陈嘉庚早在1945年11月就指出,中国内战是不可避免的,因为中共和国民党无法妥协,唯有在战场决定胜负。他认为,与国民党政府谋和是极为困难的。

表面团结昙花一现

马来亚的华人团体,大多数主张和平解决斗争。当时的新加坡中华总商会会长连瀛洲及华文报的一般言论也多有此倾向。 《南洋商报》说,通过政治解决可以赢取大多数人民的支持,反之准备战争者最终将被人民唾弃。

但是,当国共内战于1946年不可避免爆发时,马来亚的华人又明显的分成两个斗争集团。战后初期左右派的团结局面只是昙花一现,没有产生任何效果,从1946年到1948年期间,华人社团支持国民党的比较多。

例如:雪兰莪中华大会堂在董事会紧急会议上,议决代表92个华人社团通电蒋介石,表示支持国民政府力促苏联退兵东北。在槟城,逾百间社团也作出相同的议决,接着马六甲、彭亨、森美兰及霹雳的华人团体尽皆响应。苏联军队于1946年4月6日起逐渐撤出东北,留下真空成为国共激烈争夺的场所。战争升级底下,马来亚华人社团中出现呼吁停战的要求,包括倾左的团体在内。

促成华人社团激烈争执的,是陈嘉庚于1946年9月7日,以南洋华侨筹赈总会主席名义,拍电美国总统杜鲁门、参众议院议长、马绍尔将军及司徒雷登博士(他们曾经协助调解国共斗争),对国民党政府展开攻击,指其无能和独裁,要求美国从中国撤军,停止军援国民政府。

这一来,触发了一场华人社会的大论战。 《中国报》,《南洋商报》及《星洲日报》等发表社论指责陈嘉庚《滥用名义》,并建议结束《南侨总会》,因为这个总会是在抗日战争时为援助伤兵及难民而设,现已过时。另一方面,反国民党的华文报则支持陈嘉庚,如《新加坡民主周刊》。

不单是这样,华人团体分成两个对立阵营,一方面是以商人为主的华团,主张讨伐陈嘉庚的立场。如吉打、柔佛、霹雳的中华总商会,雳霹及雪兰莪中华大会堂及约八十三个华团致电杜鲁门总统及蒋介石,强烈反对陈嘉庚的意见。随后马六甲、文冬、麻坡、森美兰及柔佛的华团介入支持蒋介石。

另一方面是以工人及文娱界为主的团体,则大力支持陈嘉庚的言论。在会馆中,除了新加坡福建会馆支持陈嘉庚外,其他会馆和商团都是反陈嘉庚的。陈本身也承认这一事实的存在。在当时,大部份较大规模的华人社团,如中华总商会,雪兰莪及霹雳中华大会堂、广东会馆、福建会馆及客属公会都反对陈嘉庚。其实,这也是因为大部份有关社团是由国民党份子所控制的。

自此而后,比较积极活动的华人,在政治思想上分庭抗礼,斗争不断升级,演至水火不容,甚至发生流血事件。1946年10月10日在实兆远庆祝双十节时,就爆发两派公开械斗事件,较后波及邦咯岛。不久,情势转向对陈嘉庚有利,1946年12月24日,北京大学一名女学生沈崇指说被两名美国军人凌辱,导致南洋华人情绪沸腾,全马各地妇女团体于1947年1月中在吉隆坡召开会议,议决向美国总统提出抗议。

不久之后,台湾发生严重暴乱,反对台湾省长陈仪的高压政策(他是在日本将台湾归还中国后,即被委为台湾省省长)。即是台湾本省人最悲痛的《二二八事件》。由于40年代陈仪曾任福建省省长,陈嘉庚于参观后认为是情况最恶劣的一省,乃将矛头指向陈仪,马新的华人社团也有响应,这包括福建会馆、南安会馆等。

加上国民政府对学生、报人及智识份子展开镇压,造成新加坡《南侨日报》(陈嘉庚所经营)展开猛烈抨击。陈嘉庚也在174个社团代表大会上,否定国共合作的可能性。接着有更多团体群起响应,尤其是左派团体。

左右两派斗争升级

1947年7月4日,国民党宣布全面对中共作战,再一次掀起马来亚华人中的左右派论争。在马来亚的国民党人,全力支持蒋介石的全国总动员谕令,他们也通过各地的中华总商会采取主动,支持国民政府。左派团体,包括中国民主同盟马来亚支会则加紧支持陈嘉庚,以进行反击。

1947年10月27日,中国国民党政府宣布中国民主同盟为非法组织,引致马来亚左派团体的抗议,而对蒋介石的政府进行更猛烈的攻击。 《南侨日报》的社论扮演着重要的角色。但马来亚亲国民党份子欢迎国民政府的宣布。

1948年3月29日,蒋介石在退守中偏安南京,但重新被选为总统,这再进一步刺激国民党份子展开活动,他们争取诸多华人社团支持,在雪兰莪中华大会堂的号召下,欢迎蒋介石的当选。除了在吉隆坡外,怡保、槟城、马六甲、柔佛、新山及其他城市的华人团体,也分别庆祝。

此举进一步的激怒左派团体,1948年5月4日,新加坡华人争取中国和平与民主同盟、中华民主同盟支会、华人职工会与新民主青年团等,在船员俱乐部召开华团大会,有119个社团超逾500名代表与席,指责当时的当政者背叛孙中山的三民主义,并宣称总统选举是非法的。两派间的不妥协和无止息的斗争,引起了英国政府的关注,不允许两派过于明显地在马来亚展开政治活动。

英殖民地政府的态度先是偏向国民党,因此造成与左派团体关系恶化,以至于中国民主同盟马来亚的支会,也在1949年5月被禁止,直到中共于1949年10月1日正式取得中国的政权后的翌年,英国加以承认,局面因而转向对国民党不利。

可以这么说,直到1948年杪前,马来亚亲国民党份子在政治斗争中仍占上风,一些主要团体如中华总商会、华人大会堂及大部份会馆多忠于国民党政府,大多数华文报也有此倾向,但是1949年开始,国民政府在马来亚所获得的支持越来越少,甚至一些国民党人转向支持中共。

综观上述,马来亚的华人,尤其是上层阶级及劳动阶级,都有明显的不同政治倾向,他们大部份的时候是关注中国政治的演变,虽然对本地的政治也有所关心,还是朝向中国政局为多,这是因为富时的华人政治意识,多以中国作为其关注的对象。

专业人士组民主党

However, compared to the situation after the show, not co-operate with each other. Tan Kah Kee difficult to believe that the KMT-CPC cooperation, the attitude tends to support the Communists in 1940. Addition to calling the different surnames ancestral hall and township group solidarity, Tan Kah Kee, unified Chinese education as a starting point for unity and not to participate in Singapore in February 1946 the inaugural meeting of the Overseas Chinese Association. The promoters of the Singapore Overseas Chinese Association “Aw Boon Haw, Lee Kong Chian Chen Sye, Lien Ying Chow and Lim Boon Keng.
At the same time, 94 Chinese Mission Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, hope Aw Boon Haw and Tan Kah Kee, proposed a specific plan of unity. However, in the case of China, the KMT-CPC cooperation can never be reached, to speak out on behalf of the overseas Chinese and the Chinese Political Consultative Conference and endorsed the slogan “democratization of the country, the nationalization of the army two, but the motion only on paper, could not be implemented.
A half months later (mid-March 1946), the Chinese civil war broke out in northeast China, after it has been hit in 1949, the KMT retreated to Taiwan, Mao Zedong declared the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1 of the same year.
Tan Kah Kee as early as November 1945, pointed out that China’s civil war is inevitable, because the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang can not compromise, the only way to decide the outcome on the battlefield. He believes that, with the the KMT government seeking and is extremely difficult.
Surface unity short-lived
The Malaya Chinese community, the majority favored a peaceful settlement to the struggle. General remarks of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce president Lien Ying Chow Chinese newspaper also many have this tendency. Nanyang Siang Pau said, can win the support of the majority of the people through a political settlement, contrary to prepare the war will eventually be deserted by the people.
However, when the inevitable outbreak of the Chinese Civil War in 1946, the Chinese in Malaya divided into two struggles Group. The unity faction about the early postwar period is just a flash in the pan, and did not have any effect, during the period from 1946 to 1948, the Chinese associations support the KMT more.
For example: Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, in an emergency meeting of the Board of Directors, resolved on behalf of 92 Chinese associations energized Chiang Kai-shek, expressed support for the National Government urged the Soviet Union to retreat northeast. Over 100 rooms Societies also make the same RESOLVED in Penang, Malacca, Pahang, Negri Sembilan and Perak Chinese community then depart response. Soviet troops gradually withdraw from the northeast on April 6, 1946, leaving a vacuum between the KMT and the CCP fierce competition for the spaces. The escalation of the war under the Malayan Chinese Associations called for a truce requirements, including tilting left groups.
Led to the Chinese Associations fierce dispute the Tan Kah Kee on September 7, 1946, the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia Collection Relief on behalf of the Chairman of the Federation, shoot electric U.S. President Harry Truman, reference the Speaker of the House of Representatives, General Marshall and Dr. Stuart (they used to help mediate the country struggle) of KMT government attack, refers to its incompetence and dictatorial, demanding that the U.S. withdraw its troops from China, stop military aid to the National Government.
This way, triggered a great debate of the Chinese community. “China Daily, Nanyang Siang Pau and Sin Chew Daily” published an editorial accused Tan Kah Kee “abuse of the name of”, and suggested that the end of Namchow always “, because this will always aid wounded soldiers in the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and refugee, is now obsolete. Anti-KMT Chinese newspaper, on the other hand, the support of Tan Kah Kee, the Singapore democracy Weekly.
Not only so, the Chinese community is divided into two opposing camps, on the one hand, a businessman based Chinese group advocated a crusade against the stance of Tan Kah Kee. Kedah, Johor, Perak Chinese Chamber of Commerce the Gimli Perak and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall and about eighty-three of Chinese group call President Truman and Chiang Kai-shek, is strongly opposed to the views of Tan Kah Kee. Followed by the Malacca, the Bentong, Muar, Negeri Sembilan and Johor Chinese group to intervene to support the Chiang Kai-shek.
On the other hand is based on workers and civic community based groups, strongly supported the remarks of Tan Kah Kee. In the clubhouse, in addition to the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan support of Tan Kah Kee Hall and the business group are anti-Kah Kee. Chen also admitted the existence of the fact. At the time, most of the large-scale Chinese associations, such as the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Selangor and Perak Chinese Assembly Hall, Hall of Guangdong, Fujian Hall and Hakka Association are opposed to the Tan Kah Kee. In fact, this is also because the majority of the organizations concerned by the elements of the KMT controlled.
Since then, the active Chinese rival political ideology, the escalating struggle speech to fire and ice, and even bloodshed. October 10, 1946 in Sitiawan celebrate the Double Ten Day, on the outbreak of the two factions public fight with weapons incident, and later spread to Pangkor Island. Soon, the situation turning of Tan Kah Kee, December 24, 1946, Peking University, a female student Shen Chong said two U.S. soldiers abuse, leading the Nanyang Chinese sentiment boiling throughout Malaysia women’s groups in mid-January 1947 Kuala Lumpur meeting, resolved to protest to the President of the United States.
Soon after, serious riots against Taiwan governor Chen Yi’s high-handed policy (he is in Japan after Taiwan was returned to China, he incurs appointed as governor of Taiwan Province). That is, the the Taiwan natives most grieving the “incident”. Since the 1940s, Chen Yi former governor of Fujian Province, Tan Kah Kee visit that is the worst Province, is directed against Chen Yi, Ma Chinese Associations response, including Fujian Hall, Southampton Hall.
Plus the National Government of the student newspaper and intellectual elements repression caused Singapore Namchow Daily “(Tan Kah Kee operated) fierce criticism. Tan Kah Kee also the 174 societies Congress to deny the possibility of the KMT-CPC cooperation. Then there are more groups rallied together to respond to, especially leftist groups.
Left and right factions struggle to upgrade
July 4, 1947, the KMT announced an across-the CCP combat, once again set off a the Malayan Chinese around the Debate. In the the Malayan KMT full support of Chiang Kai-shek’s National Story decree, they also all over the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce initiative to support the National Government. Leftist groups, including the China Democratic League Malaya Ward stepped up to support the Tan Kah Kee, to counterattack.
October 27, 1947, the Chinese Nationalist government announced that the China Democratic League, as an illegal organization, resulting in Malaya leftist groups protest violent attacks on the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Namchow Daily editorial plays an important role. Malaya pro-KMT activists welcomed the announcement of the National Government.
March 29, 1948, in Chiang Kai-shek retreated to sacrifice the long Nanjing, but re-elected President, further stimulate the KMT activists conducted its activities, they fight for many Chinese associations support to the call of the Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, welcomed the election of Chiang Kai-shek . Except in Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Penang, Malacca, Johor, Johor Bahru and other cities in the Chinese community, were also celebrating.
This further angered leftist groups, May 4, 1948, the Singapore Chinese fight for peace and Democratic League, China Democratic League clubs, the Chinese trade unions and the New Democratic Youth, the crew club convened Chinese Mission Conference, 119 societies were in excess of 500 delegates and seats, accusing those in power at the time betrayed Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles of the People, and declared that the presidential election is illegal. Factions struggle between compromise and no unruly, attracted the attention of the British Government, does not allow factions too obvious political activities commenced in Malaya.
The attitude of the British colonial government first bias Kuomintang, therefore resulting in the deterioration of relations with the leftist groups that ward of the China Democratic League of Malaya also banned in May 1949 until the Chinese Communist Party officially acquired on October 1, 1949 The following year, the British regime to be recognized, thus steering the KMT adverse situation.
So to speak, until 1948 seconds, Malaya pro-KMT elements still prevail in the political struggle, some of the major organizations such as the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Town Hall and the Hall of the majority of more loyal to the KMT government, most Chinese newspaper also This tendency, but in 1949, the support of the National Government in Malaya less and less, and even some Nationalists turned to support the Communists.
Looking at the above, the Chinese in Malaya, especially the upper class and the working class, has noticeably different political tendencies, their most concerned about China’s political evolution, local politics have also been concerned about, or toward China councils more, this is because the rich Chinese political awareness, and more as the object of their attention to China.
Group of Democratic Party of professionals

二战结束后,马来亚华人对当地的政治动态基本上是不明朗的。英国当局重新统治马来亚后,即解散抗日武装部队,以防后患,随着英政府对职工会进行严密管制,双方的关系日呈紧张。1948年6月,马共发动武装叛变,马来亚因此宣布进入紧急状态。紧急法令是7月15日生效,直到7月23日,马共及其附属团体被宣布为非法组织。

另一方面,战后初期的马来亚人民,不论力量多寡,都可以组成一个政治团体,展开政治斗争。马来民族主义份子的醒觉和巫统力量的加强是其中一个发展。那些具有左倾思想的专业人士或半专业人士,组成了非共的左派政党,这些人以非马来人占多数,他们包括律师、医生及教师和受过高等教育的知识份子。而明显的,他们之中多数是受英文教育者,包括了华人、印度人及欧亚混籍人。

这个政党命名为马来亚民主同盟(MALAYAN DEMOCRATIC UNION)简称MUD,党主席是菲立何亚琳(PHILIP HOALIM),最活跃和具有代表性人物是欧亚混籍律师约翰伊伯(JOHN EBER)。他在日治时期曾被拘留过,战后积极活动,公开抨击英国施政,以致英国当局对这个政党存有质疑态度,但仍然允许公务员参加。

由于英校教师参加者众,马来亚民主同盟遂主张实施统一的教育制度。在小学阶段,使用母语教育,而到了中学阶段,全部使用英语作为教学媒介,但马来文定为必修科,这种建议是要使马来亚的教育走向西方化。

马来亚民主同盟于1945年12月提出的政纲包括:

(一)成立一个自治的马来亚政府,参加英联邦。
(二)立法议员全部民选。
(三)凡满21岁的马来亚公民,不论种族、性别、宗教或财富,皆可参加投票。
(四)个人言论出版及集会获得完全的自由。
(五)基本的,中学的及技术教育的革新。
(六)推行社会安全计划,包括医药免费。
(七)改善人民的生活。
(八)马来亚人民的就业机会均等,消除任何的肤色限制。

马来亚民主同盟的成立是从英国工党,尤其是从工党左派份子中吸取政治灵感的。当时英工党在英国当政,使到马来亚的英殖民政府很感为难。民主党模仿英国工党的政策,要求平等权利及允许职工会积极参加政治。它看来已视本身是马来亚的未来(工党)。虽然马来亚民主同盟明显的不是一个共党组织,但它的左派姿态成为共党”统一阵线”渗透的目标。

民主同盟失败因素

After the end of World War II, the Malayan Chinese local political dynamics basically uncertain. British authorities re-ruled Malaya, that after the dissolution of the anti-Japanese armed forces, and to prevent future trouble with the British government to maintain tight control of trade unions, the ties between the two sides was nervous. In June 1948, Ma launched an armed rebellion, Malaya therefore declare an emergency. The emergency decree entered into force on July 15, until July 23, Malaysian, and its subsidiary bodies was declared an illegal organization.
On the other hand, the early post-war period, the Malayan People, regardless of the power of the amount, can form a political group, a political struggle. The strengthening of the elements in the wake of Malay nationalism and UMNO forces is one of development. Leftist ideology professionals or semi-professionals, composed of non-Communist left-wing political parties, these people are the majority of non-Malays, including lawyers, doctors and teachers, and highly educated intellectuals. Obvious among them the majority of the English-educated, including the Chinese, Indian and Eurasian mixed nationals.
This party named the Malayan Democratic Alliance (MALAYAN DEMOCRATIC UNION) referred to as the MUD Party Chairman Phillip He Yalin (PHILIP HOALIM), is the most active and representative figures the Eurasia mixed nationality the lawyer John Yibe (JOHN EBER). He has been detained during the Japanese occupation, postwar active, openly critical of the British policy, there is a questioning attitude that the British authorities on the political parties, but still allow civil servants to participate.
British school teachers participated in by many people, the Malayan Democratic Alliance then advocated the implementation of a unified education system. At the primary stage, the use of mother tongue education, and to the secondary level, all use English as the medium of instruction, but Malay Wending as a compulsory subject, this proposal is to make education in Malaya toward Westernization.
The Malayan Democratic Alliance’s platform in December 1945 include:
(A) the establishment of an autonomous Malayan government to participate in the Commonwealth.
(B) all elected legislators.
(C) Where the 21-year-old Malayan citizens, regardless of race, gender, religion or wealth, can vote.
(D) personal speech, publication and assembly completely free.
(E) the basic, secondary and technical education innovation.
(F) the implementation of social security schemes, including medicine free.
(G) to improve the lives of the people.
(Viii) the Malayan People of the Equal Employment Opportunity eliminate any color restrictions.
The establishment of the Democratic League of Malaya from the British Labour Party, in particular, is drawn from the Labour leftists political inspiration. British Labour Party was in power in the United Kingdom, so that the British colonial government in Malaya is a sense of things difficult. Democratic Party imitate the policy of the British Labour Party, to demand equal rights and to allow trade unions to actively participate in politics. It seems that sees itself as the future of Malaya (Labour Party). Although obvious Malayan Democratic Alliance of party organizations, but not a leftist attitude became the target of communist penetration of the “united front”.
Democratic League failure factors

马来亚民主同盟为证明它并不是一个种族性政党,邀请各政治集团于12月7日在新加坡的总部举行会议,以便对马来亚的未来宪法作出联合建议,有11个单位出席参加。

他们成立了泛马联合行动理事会(ALL-MALAYA COUNCIL OF JOINT ACTION /AMCJA)。三个急进的马来民族主义团体起先加入这个组织,不久之后却退出,另组阵线以反对巫统所支持的马来亚联合邦协定。

所谓马来亚联合邦协定,就是在1946年英国提出马来亚同盟草案被巫统大力反对之后,英国与巫统和各州苏丹谈商结果,同意以马来亚联合邦协定取代。这样一来,泛马联合行动理事会便成为非马来人的政治团体。

马来亚民主同盟的失败,是有几个因素造成的:

(一)英国不承认它是代表马来亚(包括新加坡)人民的唯一政党,也不同意把新加坡,包括在马来亚联合邦协定内,而是坚持与巫统及各州苏丹谈商,到近尾声时,同意成立工作委员会来聆听非马来人社会的意见,泛马联合行动理事会的抗议被忽视,乃杯葛提供意见,转而自行草拟一份宪法,建议即刻给马来亚(包括新加坡)独立的地位。

公民权应自动发给那些在马来亚出世,或其父亲已是马来亚公民的妇女。那些在10年内,有8年是居住在马来亚者而年满18岁可以成为归化公民,但此举不被英国重视和接受。

(二)虽然在反对马来亚联合邦协定上,这个理事会是一致的,但不同思想意识的集团却相互矛盾而导致分裂。例如对于所得税法令,马来亚民主同盟支持,但中华总商会表示强烈的反对。

(三)1948年,马共突然发动叛乱,马来亚民主同盟的西方化左派人士不能适应,对暴力感到厌恶。这样一来,泛马联合行动理事会已不能发生作用,加上较早时急进的马来民族主义份子的退出和巫统的不认同,它已经不能再声称是代表全岛各族人民的政党了。(题外话,这种情形和目前的马华非常相似。马华不断号称代表大马华人,可是大马华人普遍上并不认同。)

到了1948年6月25日,马来亚民主同盟党基于《公民权利被剥夺及混乱的政治情势》为理由,宣布它不能再有任何作用。以马来亚民主同盟党作为核心的泛马联合行动理事会的失败,标志着华人政治上的分歧。

虽然有一度马六甲的中华总商会会长敦陈祯禄及各州中华总商会加入理事会的努力,并且曾经于1947年10月20日号召罢市一天,以抗议马来亚联合邦协定的提出。不过,它最后还是无法成功取得代表马来亚华社的地位,而迅速在政坛上消失。但不久之后,敦陈祯禄转向另一力面发展,导致马华公会的组成。从此改写了马来亚华人政治的局面。

有关马华成立的经过和发展,最后爆发一系列党争;从一个满怀政治理想,政治力量庞大的华裔政党,到今天沦落为巫统的看门狗,应声虫。这些,都会在紧接着要开讲的《马华春秋》中,有详尽的阐述。

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》。走笔至此,已经全文播完。感谢大家的热烈支持。我们再会了!晚安!

by:Mask Man

 

发表在 馬來西亞的真實歷史, 追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史

发表评论

Malayan Democratic League to prove it is not a racist political party, invite political groups meeting in the headquarters in Singapore on December 7, in order to make a joint recommendation of Malaya Constitution, there are 11 units attended.
They set up a Joint Action Council FALMAC (ALL-MALAYA COUNCIL OF JOINT ACTION / AMCJA). Three radical Malay nationalist groups initially joined the organization shortly after they quit, another group Front to oppose UMNO supported by the Federation of Malaya Agreement.
The so-called Federation of Malaya Agreement, in 1946 the British Malayan alliance draft UMNO vigorously oppose UMNO and states Sudan on suppliers results agree replaced by the Federation of Malaya Agreement. As a result, the Joint Action Council FALMAC became non-Malaysian political groups.
The failure of the Democratic League of Malaya, is caused by several factors:
(A) The United Kingdom does not recognize that it is the only political party on behalf of the people of Malaya (including Singapore), do not agree with Singapore, including the Federation of Malaya Agreement, but adhere to talk with the UMNO and states Sudan providers to Toward the end, agreed to set up a working committee to listen to the views of the community of non-Malaysian Joint Action Council FALMAC protest was ignored, is the boycott to provide advice in favor of their own drafting a constitution recommends immediate to Malaya (including Singapore) independent status.
Citizenship should be automatically sent to the women who were born in Malaya, or his father have been citizens of Malaya. In 10 years, 8 years and 18 years of age can become naturalized citizens living in Malaya, but this is not the British attention and accept.
(B) against the Federation of Malaya Agreement, the Council is the same, but different ideology Group conflicting result of the split. For example, the Income Tax Act, Malaya democratic Democrats support, but expressed strong opposition from the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce.
(C) 1948, Ma sudden rebellion, the the Malayan Democratic Alliance Western leftists can not adapt, disgusted by the violence. As a result, the Joint Action Council FALMAC not play a role, plus the the earlier radical Malay nationalists exit and UMNO do not agree, it can no longer claim on behalf of the political party of the people of all ethnic groups in the entire island a. (By the way, this situation is very similar to the current MCA MCA constantly claims on behalf of the Malaysian Chinese, but the Malaysian Chinese were generally do not agree.)
June 25, 1948, the Malayan Democratic Alliance Party, on grounds based on civil rights deprivation and chaotic political situation “, announced that it no longer has any effect. The failure of the joint action FALMAC Council, as the core of the Democratic Alliance Party of Malaya marks the Chinese political differences.
Although once Malacca Chinese Chamber of Commerce president Tun Tan Cheng Lock, and state of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce to join the efforts of the Council, and have called for strike day on October 20, 1947, to protest against the Federation of Malaya Agreement proposed. However, it eventually can not be successful in obtaining representative of the status of the Malayan Chinese community, and quickly disappeared in the political arena. But shortly afterwards, Tun Tan Cheng Lock turned to another force surface development, led to the composition of the MCA. From rewriting the the Malayan Chinese political situation.
For MCA was established after the development of the last outbreak of a series of party struggles; reduced to UMNO watchdog, yes-men from a full political ideals, political forces large ethnic Chinese political party, to this day. These are to be followed by lecture “Ma Hua Chunqiu” in detail.
“Retrospective the Malayan Chinese sages struggle”. Write rapidly this point, it has been aired. Thank you for your warm support. We would again! Good night!
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》第三回:战后的马来亚华社四分五裂

作者

“Retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back: postwar Malayan Chinese community torn apart
FEB 3
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好!今天晚上,继续为大家支持开讲《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》。

今晚的第三回合,重点将是《中国国民党与中国共产党的内战,对海外华人社会思想带来的巨大冲击》。昨天晚上,我们说到,新马两地华社在20世纪初期,开始纷纷创立工商组织与商会组织。

在这个时期各州成立的中华总商会,虽然是清廷所赞成的,有倾向清廷的思想意识,但对殖民地政府也没有坏处,因此先后被允许成立起来,这类组织容纳各帮派代表,而在促进谅解及团结方面,有了多少的帮助。

成立最早的是槟城中华总商会(1903年),继之为关丹中华商会(1903年),雪兰莪中华总商会成立于1904年,新加坡中华总商会成立于1906年,以后各州各县都有商会之组织。

和其他地缘性和血缘性组织不同的,是中华总商会是当时越过方言藩篱的最主要的组织。地缘性组织,如广东会馆提倡广东方言,韩江公会与潮州会馆倡议潮州方言,客家公会使用的是客家方言,福建公会当然就是以福建方言为主。血缘性质的组织,如林氏宗祠,陈氏书院,辛柯蔡乡亲会,颜氏公会等等,则以本性宗族的语言为标准。

中华总商会的设立,打破了方言的隔阂,统一使用华文华语;对于团结华社各帮各派,起到了很大的作用。固然于1911年后,华人社会基本上还是保持帮派林立的现象,但辛亥革命运动,无疑已吹起了团结之风。这是至为重要的第一步,否则不会有今日的成果。

最重要的,是革命思潮带来了新的思想,冲击了旧社会和旧传统。 《利他主义》,《舍己为群》,《平等自由》的观念不断传开。女子学校受鼓励设立,女人允许加入社会活动,也参加孙中山革命。平等主义:男女平等及不分年龄,和爱国主义:利他主义及舍己为群,成为改变海外华人社会的主要思想力量。

南洋华社掀起思想改革浪潮

孙中山革命成功后,便将同盟会与另四个团体合并,1912年8月13日成立中国国民党。这个政党较后在马来亚获允许成立支部。由于英国当局认为国民党并非与英殖民政府对抗,因此不反对国民党在新马两地公开运作。 1912年12月18日,新加坡成立了中国国民党星洲联络支部。1923年,这个支部8个重要职员中,有七个为英籍侨生,包括一位早期抨击孙中山革命活动的林文庆博士。

国民党在马来亚继续合法活动,直到1925年其注册被吊消,理由是未根据社团法令提供所需的资料。虽然如此,国民党的活动未停止,而是继续秘密地存在。

 

Good evening, everyone! Tonight, we continue to support the lecture “retrospective the Malayan Chinese sages of the past history of struggle.

 

Tonight’s third round, the focus will be on the Chinese Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China’s civil war, the huge impact overseas Chinese social ideology. Last night, we said, Singapore and Malaysia, the Chinese community in the early 20th century, begun the creation of business organizations and trade associations.
 States established during this period of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Qing court the favor of the tendency Manchu ideology does not hurt, but the colonial government, has been allowed to set up such organizations to accommodate various gangs represent, and how much help to promote understanding and unity.
The oldest is the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce (1903), followed by Selangor Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1904 as the the Kuantan Chinese Chamber of Commerce (1903), the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1906, after state counties have Chamber of Commerce of the organization.
And other geopolitical and tribal organizations, is the most important organization of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, then crossed the dialect barriers. Geopolitical organization, such as Canton Center promotes the dialect of Guangdong Hanjiang Gong will Chiu Chow Association initiative Chaozhou dialect the Hakka Association Hakka dialect, Fujian Association of course, is mainly in Fujian dialect. Kinship nature of the organization, such as Lin Ancestral Hall, Chen Clan Academy, Xinke the Cai folks will, Yan’s Association, by the nature of the clan’s language as a standard.
The establishment of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, to break the barriers of dialect, unified Chinese Chinese; gang factions for unity of the Chinese community has played a big role. Of course, after 1911, the Chinese community is basically to keep gangs everywhere, but Revolution movement undoubtedly has blown the unity of the wind. This is to an important first step, otherwise they would not have today’s results.
The most important is the The revolutionary thoughts brought new ideas, and the impact of the old society and old traditions. “Altruism,” gave himself for the group, the concept of “equal freedom” continue to spread. Girls’ schools be encouraged to set up, a woman is allowed to join social activities, and also to participate in the Sun Yat-sen revolution. Egalitarianism: equality of the sexes and regardless of age, and patriotism: altruism and gave himself for the group, change the strength of the main ideas of the overseas Chinese community.
The Nanyang Chinese community set off a wave of thought reform
After the success of the revolutionary Sun Yat-sen, put United League merged with the other four groups, established on August 13, 1912, the Chinese Nationalist Party. Later this party is permitted to set up branch in Malaya. British authorities believe that the KMT is not against the British colonial government, the opposition Kuomintang operate openly in Singapore and Malaysia. December 18, 1912, Singapore set up a the Sin Chew contact branch of the Chinese Kuomintang. In 1923, 8 of this branch staff, seven for British overseas Chinese students, including an early attack Dr. Lin Wenqing Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary activities.
KMT in Malaya to continue the legitimate activities of its registered until 1925 been disqualified on the grounds that the required information is not provided under the Societies Act. Nevertheless, the KMT’s activities did not stop, but continued to exist in secret.

另一方面,袁世凯在辛亥革命成功后,抓住北方军权,又掌握尚未全面灭亡的清廷大权,孙中山为顾全大局,只要实行共和,即可退位,以致1913年袁世凯篡夺大权,就任大总统,旋后又想复辟帝制,于翌年下令解散中国国民党。

在日本和外来势力的支持下,袁世凯逐步地趋向做皇帝的美梦,当然他是在丧失主权下,换取日本的支持。原想准备于1916年登基为《中华帝国皇帝》,没料到各地军政反叛,在气怒之下,这个被万民所咒的大野心家,终于1916年6月6日死了。

际此时期,中国已陷入军阀割据局面,孙中山眼见革命果实行将化为泡影,又起而讨伐,于1924年,在广州成立南方政府,加强海外华人的联系,以寻求支持结束中国的分裂局面。

翌年,孙中山先生不幸病逝,统一中国的大业未能完成。这期间的中国,处在四分五裂的状态中,外国势力因此有机可乘。

The other hand, in the success of the Revolution, Yuan Shikai seize the northern military power, but also master the demise of the Qing government power are not yet fully, Sun Yat-sen for the overall situation, as long as a republican, to abdicate, so that Yuan Shikai usurp power in 1913, assuming the presidency.supination want the restoration of the monarchy, and ordered the dissolution of the Chinese Nationalist Party in the following year.
The support of the Japanese and foreign forces, Yuan Shikai gradually tend to do the emperor’s dream, of course, he is in the loss of sovereignty in exchange for the support of the Japan. Originally wanted to prepare the Chinese Emperor accession to the throne in 1916, did not expect over the military and political rebellion, anger under air, The Curse of the people careerist, and finally died on June 6, 1916 a.
Occasion of this period, China has been plunged into warlordism situation, Sun Yat-sen seeing the fruits of the revolution about to naught, erection and crusade, was established in 1924 in Guangzhou, the southern government to strengthen the ties of overseas Chinese to seek support for the end of China’s separatist situation.
The following year, Dr. Sun Yat-sen died, unfortunately, unified China’s great cause of failure to complete. This period, China, in fragmented state foreign forces therefore take advantage of the.

1927年,蒋介石取得国民党的控制权,从此就和1921年成立的中国共产党展开了长时期的斗争。话说回来,在1919年5月4日,当时中国爆发一场具有深远影响的文化运动,大大地改变了华人的思想。那就是历史上有名的《五四运动》。

五四运动发生在第一次世界大战后,是在中国最脆弱和最危难的关头下,掀起的新思想运动,向封建制度和旧礼教展开无情的揭露和抨击,从而唤起人们的政治意识。为了达到这个目的,白话文被提倡,新文学运动也应运而生了。同样的,马来亚的华人社会也起了变化。马华新文学思想,是接受了中国五四文化运动的影响,具有反帝反封建的精神,在马新地区,包括沙巴和砂拉越发展起来的华文白话文学。

1919年10月初,新加坡新国民日报创刊,其副刊《新国民杂志》及另一些版位如《时评栏》、《新闻版》等,出现了一定数量、具有新思想新精神的白话文章,这是马华新文学史的开端。

In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek made ​​KMT control over ever since and established in 1921, the Chinese Communist Party launched a prolonged struggle. Having said that, May 4, 1919, when the outbreak of a far-reaching impact on the cultural movement to change the thinking of the Chinese. That is the history of the famous “May Fourth Movement

毫无争议的,五四运动对马来亚华人思潮的启迪具有很大的作用,马新华文报刊杂志的蓬勃出现,话剧运动的推广,对整个华社的思想,起了一种革命性的变化。

特别是对知识份子而言,思潮的激荡加速了他们对政治的热心和更加关心华人社会的问题及切身的利益,文化和教育的兴盛自不在话下。在新文学运动浪潮鼓动之下,陈嘉庚于1923年创办《南洋商报》,胡文虎胡文豹兄弟的《星洲日报》于1929年创刊,《现代日报》创刊于1936年,《星槟日报》创刊于1939年,就是在新文化运动催促下的产物。

反日本运动成为华社主流

在政治方面,1919年马新华人社会也展开反日运动。五四运动的反日余波,很快就冲击到马新的华族社会,引起了共鸣。工人学生群起骚动、捣毁日货、洗劫日人工厂,秩序大乱。接着槟岛也发生骚乱,吉隆坡亦有小规模的示威运动。

由此看来,马来亚华人的政治思潮除了被灌输倾向中国,以从清廷中拯救出来外,更带有反抗侵略的行动,尤其对日本军国主义的横行更是义愤填膺,继而转入反帝国主义的时代。

这个时候,英国殖民势力也是介入中国的其中一个(香港就是英国的殖民地),因此对马来亚华人政治的醒觉和矛头指向外国侵略者感到不安,于是采取行动取缔。但迄至国民党于1926、27年北阀胜利后,英国政府又改变态度;对新马两地华人的改革思潮采取默许的立场。

Fourth Movement occurred after World War I, is the most vulnerable and the most perilous moment in China, setting off new ideas movement ruthlessly exposed and criticized the feudal system and the old Confucianism expand, so as to arouse the political consciousness of the people. In order to achieve this objective, the vernacular is to promote new literary movement came into being. Similarly, the Chinese community in Malaya also began to change. MCA new literary thinking, is to accept the influence of China’s May Fourth cultural movement, anti-imperialist and anti-feudal spirit, the new areas in Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak Chinese vernacular literature developed.
In early October 1919, Singapore’s new national daily newspaper founded and its supplement “the new national magazine, and some version bit like” Commentary bar “,” news “, there has been a certain amount, the vernacular articles with new ideas and new spirit, which the beginning of MCA’s new literary history

There is no dispute that the May Fourth Movement, the inspiration of the Malayan Chinese thought has a big role, Ma Xinhua Wen newspapers and magazines vigorous promotion of the sport of drama, from the thinking of the Chinese community, a revolutionarychanges

Especially the intellectuals thought Agitation accelerated to mention their political zeal and more concerned with the problems of the Chinese community and personal interests, culture and education flourished since. Tan Kah Kee in 1923, under the instigation of the new wave of literary movement founded Nanyang Siang Pau, the brothers Aw Boon Haw Hu Wen leopard “Sin Chew Daily” was founded in 1929, the Modern Daily News was first published in 1936, was first published in The Star Penang Daily in 1939, under the urging of the New Culture Movement product.
Anti-Japanese movement has become the mainstream of the Chinese community
In political terms, the the 1919 Ma Xinhua person society to expand the anti-Japanese movement. The aftermath of the May Fourth Movement, the anti-Japanese, and soon the impact to the the horse new ethnic society, struck a chord. Workers the students rallied unrest, smashed Japanese products, ransacked the Japanese factory, order and chaos. Followed by the Penang Island riots, Kuala Lumpur, also small-scale demonstrations.
Seen in this light, addition to instill tendency to rescue from the Qing court, the the Malayan Chinese political thought with action against aggression, especially the rampage of Japanese militarism indignation, and then transferred to the anti-the era of imperialism.
This time, the British colonial forces are also involved in China’s one (Hong Kong is a British colony), the point of the Malayan Chinese political awakening and spearhead foreign invaders uneasy, so to take action against. But till to the KMT in 1926,27 North valve after the victory, the British government to change its attitude; take acquiesced in the position of the reform of Chinese thought of the two new horse

但是,当年由于华人也受到中国共产党的影响,左倾思想已出现,这可从英国殖民政府搜获反英及反帝国主义的文件得到证实。

1927年,蒋介石的清党和中共的分裂,也波及马新华人社会。左派团体和国民党的斗争时有所闻。但在大局来说,抗日仍然是一个主流,因为日本军国主义者已逐步的占领中国的领土,且企图称霸整个亚洲。

1928年的《三五济南惨案》,1931年的《九一八事变》及翌年《一二八事变》,直到1937年的《七七芦沟桥事变》,在在使到中国和亚洲处在日本军国主义的阴影下,臭名昭著的《大东亚共荣圈》,就是日本帝国主义炮制出来的霸权毒瘤。

这样一来,抗日救亡运动成了马来亚华人的主流思潮,激起了空前的群众运动,1937年的反日运动是由华族巨商陈嘉庚所领导(陈嘉庚是南洋商报创办人),中下层人士热烈反应,其中尤以下层的劳动工人,出钱出力,不惜一切牺牲来完成历史任务。

而文化及教育界人士也口诛笔伐,筹款义捐。连接而来的是大规模的抵制日货。更为重要的是,这次运动突破了马华社会传统的帮派观念,大家同仇敌忾,组织了全马筹赈总会,共策进行。抗战的宣传工具──文学,也出现了一个波澜壮阔的局面。鼓吹救亡,鼓舞士气,惩戒汉奸,抵制日货,筹款赈济伤兵难民,组织华工赴华服务等等,成了许多作品的热门题材。

However, when due to the Chinese by the Chinese Communist Party, the leftist ideology appears, which can be confirmed from the British colonial government seized the anti-British and anti-imperialist file.
In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek’s clear the party and the Chinese Communist Party’s split, also spread to Ma Xinhua human society. Leftist groups and the Kuomintang struggle from time to time. But in the big picture, the anti-Japanese is still the mainstream the Japanese militarists gradual occupation of the territory of China, and the attempt to dominate the whole of Asia.
1928 “3 by 5 the Jinan Massacre”, “September 18 Incident” in 1931 and the following year the “Incident” until 1937 “July Marco Polo Bridge Incident”, in in so that China and Asia in under the shadow of Japanese militarism, the infamous “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” is cooked up by the Japanese imperialist hegemony tumor.
As a result, the anti-Japanese movement has become the mainstream thought of the Malayan Chinese, sparking an unprecedented mass movement, the anti-Japanese movement in 1937 led by the ethnic Chinese business magnates Tan Kah Kee (Tan Kah Kee Nanyang Siang Pau founder), in the lower people enthusiastic reaction, particularly among the lower labor, money and efforts, whatever the cost to complete the historic task.
The culture and the education sector is also vocal opposition, the fundraising Yijuan. Connection from a large-scale boycott of Japanese goods. More importantly, this movement break through the the gang concept of the MCA social tradition, all against the common enemy, organizations throughout Malaysia Collection Relief Association, co-policy conduct. Propaganda tool of resistance the ─ ─ literature, there have been a magnificent situation. Preached salvation, boost morale, discipline traitor boycott of Japanese goods, fundraising Relief wounded refugees, organizations laborers to go to China to service, has become a popular theme in many of the works.

从马新富商陈嘉庚的历史,可以看出他的政治思潮的变化以及在第二次世界大战前,华人思潮的其中一个倾向。当然陈嘉庚并不代表全体华人的思潮,因为土生华侨就和他的思想有一段距离,即使是南来的华人也不尽然与他具有同样的想法。

富商陈嘉庚办报兴学

海外华侨展开反日运动时期,若解读马新富商陈嘉庚的一生历史,几乎可以说明,当时一部份华人的政治思潮演变。王赓武教授把海外华人划分成三个集团:

甲集团,他们主要关心中国政治和中国对外政策;

乙集团,他们主要关心社区政治;

丙集团,他们已进入非华人的权力金字塔,而不管是否由土著、殖民地宗主国或是民族主义者掌权。

陈嘉庚是属于甲集团,但又带有乙集团的影子。他于1890年(17岁)南来新加坡,他的父亲陈纪柏已先在新加坡开基立业。 1910年,他拥有资产45万元。1909年,他认识了孙中山,1910年剪去辫子,加入中国同盟会,断绝与清廷的关系,是为他从政之开始。辛亥革命爆发后,陈嘉庚负责筹款救济闽省同胞及维持治安。 1913年在家乡兴办集美小学;1912年又创办厦门大学。

1928年3月5日,日本军国主义派兵占领济南,惨杀外交官蔡公时及民众,是为历史上的《三五济南惨案》。消息传至新加坡,陈氏召集各界成立山东惨祸筹赈会,汇去130万元,并号召华人反对日本侵略,展开抵制日货运动。他在所创办的《南洋商报》广为宣传。

1931年《九一八事变》,日本帝国主义侵占东北三省,陈嘉庚在新加坡召开侨民大会,通电国际联盟(联合国前身)及美国总统,敦请履行条约,维护世界和平,否则大战即将到来。由于世界经济不景气随之而来。美国陷入经济大萧条,冲击全世界的经济同时笼罩在经济萧条的阴影之下。陈嘉庚的经济蒙受严重损失和打击,终在1934年将陈嘉庚股份有限公司收盘。

1937年,《七七卢沟桥事变》爆发,中国对日本展开全面抗战。 1938年10月10日,陈嘉庚成立南洋华侨筹赈祖国难民总会(简称南侨总会),他出任主席,接着被选为马来亚各区华侨筹赈通讯主任。

From Maxin Fu Tan Kah Kee history, you can see the change of his political thought, and before the Second World War, the Chinese thought one tendency. Course Tan Kah Kee does not mean that all Chinese thought, because native Overseas Chinese and his ideas for some distance, even south to the Chinese is not always the case and he has the same idea.
Wealthy businessman Tan Kah Kee running a newspaper Schooling
Overseas Chinese to expand the period of anti-Japanese movement to interpret the Maxin Fu Tan Kah Kee life history can explain almost was a part of the Chinese political thought evolved. Professor Wang Gengwu overseas Chinese were divided into three groups:
A Group, they are mainly concerned about Chinese politics and foreign policy;
B Group, they are mainly concerned about community politics;
Group C, they have access to non-Chinese power pyramid, regardless of whether indigenous, colonial sovereign state or nationalists in power.
Tan Kah Kee is part of the A Group, but with Group B’s shadow. In 1890 (17 years), he came to Singapore in the south, his father Chen Jibo open base in Singapore and the Founding. In 1910, he owned the assets of 450,000 yuan. In 1909, he met Sun Yat-sen in 1910 cut off the braids to join the Chinese Alliance to sever relations with the Qing court, for his political start. Revolution broke out, the Tan Kah Kee responsible for fundraising relief compatriots in Fujian Province, and to maintain law and order. Jimei Primary School in his hometown to set up in 1913; Xiamen University, founded in 1912.
March 5, 1928, the Japanese militarists to send troops occupied Jinan, massacre diplomats Cai time and people, as the history of “3 by 5 Jinan Massacre. The news spread to Singapore, Chan engaging established Shandong horrible disaster chips Relief Commission, to remit 130 million, and called on the Chinese against the Japanese aggression, expand the boycott of Japanese goods. He founded the “Nanyang Siang Pau” widely publicized.
1931 “Mukden Incident, the Japanese imperialists invaded and occupied the three provinces in Northeast China, Tan Kah Kee nationals Assembly held in Singapore, energized the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) and the President of the United States urges the to fulfill treaty, safeguarding world peace, or the upcoming war. Due to the world economic downturn attendant. The United States into the Great Depression, the impact of the world economy at the same time shrouded in the shadow of recession. Tan Kah Kee’s economy suffered severe losses and combat, and finally closing in 1934, Tan Kah Kee Corporation.
In 1937, the outbreak of the Seven Marco Polo Bridge Incident “, Japan, China initiated a comprehensive Anti-Japanese War. October 10, 1938, Tan Kah Kee the Nanyang Chinese Collection Relief motherland refugee Association (referred to as Namchow always), he served as President, then was elected the Malaya district Huaqiao Collection Relief Communications Director.

根据记载,当时筹款总数每年达到1亿6000余万元,但由于当时国民党非常腐败,许多捐款落入当时国民党一些高官的袋子。

陈嘉庚坚持抗日,反对妥协,因此对当时国民党副总裁汪精卫之主张对日和谈提出驳斥和反对。不客气地形容汪精卫是《秦桧卖国求荣》。

汪精卫主和失败后,为了躲避蒋介石追杀而逃往越南。随后接受日本招安献议,担任日本在东北扶助的,逊帝溥仪成立的《伪满洲国》丞相。

陈嘉庚转向支持中国共产党

1940年,陈嘉庚率领南侨总会慰劳团,回中国慰劳抗日军。过后他对国民党政府感到失望,乃倾向支持中共。

1942年,日本蝗军侵略南洋,马新沦陷时,陈嘉庚避难爪哇,1945年8月,日本军国主义投降,10月6日陈嘉庚自爪哇回到新加坡。

1946年,他用南侨总会长名义,拍电报给美国总统杜鲁门,要求停止干预中国内政,不再援蒋,以使内战终止。

这一年,他在新加坡又办了《南侨日报》,对国民党政府展开抨击。 1949年5月5日他从新加坡回国观光。较后在中国定居,1961年逝世。陈嘉庚在抗日战争时期是南洋华社的领袖,但他坦承筹款数目不是十分理想,虽然也不叫人失望。他说,除了资本家及侨生多不认捐外,其他如认过一次特别捐后,都不肯再认常月捐,故逐月成绩仅有此数(逾200万元)。

他认为,若资本家及中等商行,肯将其逐月入息,捐出十分之二、三,则全马义捐可增许多倍。至于每月有此200多万元,大半有赖货物捐及各游艺会所收集。而英属北婆罗洲(即今沙巴),华人虽有8万余人,劳动界占大部份,抗战后诸埠亦多成立筹赈会,但认常月捐仅古晋、诗巫数万元。

陈嘉庚的历史,在战后以来的一段时期,被人利用为指华人忠于中国的例子,但香港中文大学讲师郑赤琰博士在一篇论文中这样说:《不错,一些华侨和陈嘉庚在50年代以前,将大部份财产移回中国,但这是在马来亚独立前的事,也较中共于1949年建立政权为早。 》

无可否认的,在辛亥革命后至抗日的年代,侨生社会鲜少介入这类的政治活动,除了极少数领袖如林文庆等人外,绝大部份置身度外,因为他们忠于英殖民政府。但是,郑赤琰博士说,战后以来,峇峇(Baba)在新马政治中扮演了重要的角色。

英国殖民政府对于华人的抗日运动先是有所担心的,怕局面会失去控制,危及其统治地位和经济利益。最显著的是已被国民党及左派团体的斗争所困扰,迄至七七抗战开始,内部的斗争才缓和,而矛头一致向外。有人形容这是马来亚华人首次表现出团结的大好形势。

马来亚共产党的崛起

较后于1939年,英国宣布对德国希特勒作战,而希特勒又是与日本军国主义者狼狈为奸,造成英国改变对华人的态度。配合着反抗侵略行动。马新的华人也曾几次举行援英募款运动,慰劳英军及救助世界任何地方受难的英国人。因此英国政府深受感动,允许华人公开抗日,抵制日货,且于1941年日本南侵时,英人谋使华人政党共同站在同一个战线上。

According to historical records, the fundraising total number annually to reach 100 million more than 6000 million, many donations falling into the Kuomintang some senior officials of the bag at that time, but then Kuomintang very corrupt.
Tan Kah Kee persist in the War of Resistance against the compromise, the then the Kuomintang vice president Wang Jingwei’s advocate Negotiations refute and oppose. Bluntly describe Wang Ching-wei Qin Hui traitorous glory.
After the failure of the primary and Wang Jingwei, and fled to Vietnam to escape Chiang Kai-shek to kill. Then accepted the amnesty offer meeting as Japan to assist in the Northeast, Johnson Emperor Pu Yi, established the puppet state of Manchukuo, “the prime minister.
Tan Kah Kee turned to support the Communist Party of China
In 1940, Tan Kah Kee led Namchow always reward group back to China to reward anti-Japanese Army. After he disappointed with the Kuomintang government was inclined to support the Chinese Communist Party.
The the 1942 locust military aggression the Nanyang, horse new fall, Tan Kah Kee refuge Java, in August 1945, the surrender of Japanese militarism, October 6 Tan Kah Kee Java back to Singapore.
In 1946, he used the name of Namchow the president, sent a telegram to U.S. President Harry Truman to stop interfering in China’s internal affairs, no longer aid to Chiang, in order to make the Civil War terminate.
This year, he was in Singapore, and also do Namchow Daily expand criticized the KMT government. May 5, 1949, he returned from Singapore sightseeing. Later settled in China, and his death in 1961. Tan Kah Kee the Nanyang Chinese community leaders in the Anti-Japanese War, but he admits that fundraising number is not very good, though not disappointing. He says capitalists and overseas Chinese students do not take pledges recognize a special donation refused recognition often months tax, it month by month scores only this number (over 200 million).
He believes that the capitalists and medium businesses, and would be willing to month to month income, donated two tenths, three, the full horse Yijuan can increase many times. As for the over 200 million per month, more than half depends goods to donate, and recreation clubs collection. British North Borneo (now Sabah), although the 80,000 people of Chinese labor sector accounted for the majority of all ports after the War of Resistance Against Japan Relief Commission resembles the establishment of chips, but recognition often monthly donation only Kuching, Sibu, tens of thousands of dollars .
The history of Tan Kah Kee, in the period since the war, to be used as refers to Hua Renzhong example in China, Hong Kong Chinese University lecturer Dr. Zheng Chiyan paper said: “Yes, some overseas Chinese Tan Kah Kee in 1950s large part of the property to move back to China, but this is the pre-independence Malaya thing compared to the Chinese Communists in 1949, establishment of the regime is earlier. ‘
Undeniably, to the anti-Japanese era after the Revolution of 1911, overseas Chinese society rarely involved in such political activities, in addition to a handful of leaders such as Lim Boon Keng et al, opting out of the vast majority of, because they are loyal to the British colonial government. . However, the Dr. Zheng Chiyan said, since the war, Baba (Baba) play an important role in the politics of the new horse.
The British colonial government have to worry about the Chinese anti-Japanese movement first, afraid the situation will be a loss of control, endangering its dominance and economic interests. The most significant has been plagued by the KMT and the struggle of the leftist groups, Up to seventy-seven war began, the internal struggle before easing, while the spearhead consistent outward. Some people describe this excellent situation for the Malayan Chinese for the first time to show solidarity.
The rise of the Communist Party of Malaya
Than after 1939, Britain declared war Germany Hitler, and Hitler and the Japanese militarists working hand in glove, causing the British to change on the attitude of the Chinese. Combined with the action against aggression. Ma Chinese also aid the British several times held fundraising campaign, to reward British troops and rescue anywhere in the world suffering British. Therefore, the British Government was deeply moved, allowing the Chinese public anti-Japanese boycott of Japanese goods, and when the southward invasion of Japan in 1941, the British to seek the Chinese political parties to stand on the same front.


1941年,华侨动员委员会,在陈嘉庚主持下成立,动员委员会获得国民党及共产党的赞成,及得到殖民政府汤姆斯总督的祝福。该会在许多方面参加抗日军的工作,直到1942年2月15日,新加坡沦陷为止。

1940年国民党与中共,在重庆成立一项合作协定,促成了马来亚的马共与英国合作抗日。但是在战后,马共因为反对殖民统治,并曾公开活动,于1948年发动叛乱,退出法律范围,因此在英国殖民政府颁布紧急法令下,成为非法团体。从辛亥革命、抗日战争直至日本投降,马来亚的华人政治思潮是从低潮走向高潮,然后又有所分裂,国民党派和左派的斗争即为一例。

不过,新的政治思潮已在战后出现,盖过了以前的潮流,那就是不分种族的爱国意识和民族主义的抬头,纷纷要求国家独立,标志着战后以来,政治思想的再一次大转变。从战前的历史变迁看来,马来亚的华人在政治上是有所分歧的,即使是华社本身,也因方言互异,帮派林立,一直到今天。

至于思想上的落后与迷信的一面,则未因五四运动全面消除。相反的,人民之间仍然存在,甚至因各种的变相怂恿,封建的思想有大行其道之虞,对华人的政治醒觉无疑是一股阻力。不过,总的来说,战后的马来亚华人,已从倾向中国政治转向效忠于马来亚。这种政治思潮,标志着华人思想的转变,是值得重视的转捩点,也是一个新的起点。

战后三种思想演变

日本于1945年8月投降,正式结束了第二次世界大战。西方的希特勒及墨索里尼失败于前,日本军国主义者崩溃于后,整个世界出现了新的形势。

In 1941, the Overseas Chinese Mobilization Committee was established in the Tan Kah Kee, under the auspices of the Mobilization Committee in favor of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and to get the blessings of the colonial government Toms Governor. This in many ways to participate in the work of the Anti-Japanese Army until February 15, 1942, the fall of Singapore so far.
Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1940, was established in Chongqing a cooperation agreement contributed to the total co-operation with the British anti-Japanese Malaya horse. But in war, horses against colonial rule, and has publicly activities rebellion in 1948, exit the scope of the law, and therefore become illegal groups in the British colonial government issued an emergency decree. From the Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan until Japan’s surrender, the Malayan Chinese political thought from the low tide toward a climax, and then divided KMT camp and leftist struggle is an example.
However, the new political thought in the post-war overshadowed the previous trend, that is, non-racial sense of patriotism and the rise of nationalism, have asked the country’s independence marked the post-war years, the political thought again changes. It seems from the historical changes of the pre-war Malaya Chinese divided politically, even the Chinese community, due to dialect differences gangs everywhere, until today.
As for the ideological backwardness and superstition side, not because of the May Fourth Movement, the total elimination. Instead, between the people still exist, even feudal ideas have become very popular in danger due to various disguised instigation, Chinese political awareness is undoubtedly a resistance. Overall, however, the post-war Malayan Chinese, from the tendency of Chinese Political allegiance to Malaya. This kind of political thought, marks the transformation of Chinese thought, is noteworthy turning point and a new starting point.
The evolution of the post-war three thoughts
Japan surrendered in August 1945, the official end of the Second World War. Hitler and Mussolini Western failure in the former, after the collapse of the Japanese militarists in the entire world to the new situation.

 

一边是美国军力的膨胀,迅速地跃居西方集团盟主的地位,领导资本主义世界。另一边是以苏联为首的集团,在东欧建立共产体系,也使到亚洲一些地区成为共产国家,如中国、北越及北韩(朝鲜)等。

但是,处在这两个夹缝中的其他国家人民,民族主义的思潮强烈地表露出来。这种思潮反映在争取国家的独立和自主方面,人民纷纷要求摆脱殖民地的统治。有些国家很快在战后即得独立,如印尼、印度等,而有些国家延至五十年代或六十、七十年代才实现独立的愿望。

第二次世界大战后,由于民族主义思潮的风起云涌,居住在东南亚的华人,处在极为微妙的地位,他们在理论上,需要或归属于居住地区或倾向中国之间作一抉择。但是,由于政治意识的分歧及一些华人采取保留的态度,造成了社团领袖或华人领袖,在政治方面所扮演的角色是不尽相同的。

前面说过,如果从历史的情况来分析的话,有的学者认为,战后华人的政治态度一般上可以分成三个集团。

甲集团主要关心中国政治和中国的对外政策;

乙集团主要关心社区政治;

丙集团已进入了非华人的权力政治金字塔,而不管是否由于土著、殖民地宗主国或是民族主义者掌权。

不过,王赓武教授认为,自1945年以来,甲集团的狂热已消退,许多人转变成为乙集团, 形成华人社区的统一与团结。飘浮不定的丙集团华人数目在增加,并努力向居留地认同。可是,这种情况在马来亚乃至后来的马来西亚并不明显,换句话说,这种分析的科学性是有斟酌的余地。

因为战后以来,马来亚的华人就不曾出现过团结与统一的局面,而是继续在政治上存在着分化,甚至是相互斗争的。王赓武教授在另一篇论文《马来亚的华人政治》里,将马来亚的华人分成三个政治体:

甲集团与中国的政治保持联系,经常与中国的命运认同;

乙集团包括大多数精明而讲求实际的华人,保持低调或作间接的政治联系; 丙集团是属于那些少部份的摇摆不定的人,因为他们难于确定自己的身份,但一般上倾向于某种程度的对马来亚的效忠。这种说法,比前一种说法较为明朗,但未涉及思想上划分他们的歧异。马来亚的华人在战后所受到的政治冲击,基本上可以分成下列三类:

(一)倾向中国,但是属于国民党份子或是具有右派的思想。

(二)倾向中国,但思想左倾。

(三)土生华人, 受英文教育,思想倾向西方,尤其视英国为其效忠对象,他们被称为《峇峇》。

新马华人处在分裂状态

无可否认的,第二次世界大战的惨痛教训,唤醒了东南亚的人民,普遍对政治的醒觉和重视,民族主义的浪潮排山倒海而来。但是,马来亚政治发展算是比较缓慢的,以致不需经过流血斗争即能迫使英国让步,当然这也是英国的深谋远虑──在政治上让步换取经济的既得利益。

同时,毋容讳言的,马来人的民族主义思潮表现得比较强烈,进而结成一股政治力量,于1946年反对英国提出的马来亚同盟(MALAYAN UNION),促使英国必须拟定另一种政治结构──马来亚联合邦,以确保马来人的政治地位。

马来亚联合邦协定于1948年2月1日生效,标志着马来人在政治上扮演积极角色的开始。而马来亚的华人,战后初期,仍未培养起马来亚的意识,倾向中国的,不论是左派或右派,热衷于相互的斗争,尤甚于关心如何争取独立以成为新兴国家的主人之一。不关心政治的,仍然抱着只管经济利益的态度,同时也担心当地的左派运动波及而受累,宁可置身度外。

土生的华人峇峇,对英国有深厚的感情,继续迷恋于英国的殖民地统治而受到庇护,甚至过于洋化的峇峇视英伦为其祖国,因此对于独立运动是拿不定主意,而不加以重视。基本上,华人就是处在一个分裂的状态中。就拿1946年英国建议的马来亚同盟来说:它是战后英国所制定的一份协议书,以把马来亚各州(不包括新加坡)置于英国的直接统治下。

英国政府决定,一旦政局复元而临时性的军事统治过去后,马来亚同盟将成立,旨在创造一个更有效率的政府组织和促进马来亚不同种族的马来亚人民的团结。但是,马来社会鉴于未顾及各州苏丹地位,和认为不利于马来民族,乃群起反对。在著名的领袖拿督翁的领导下,马来民族统一机构(简称巫统UMNO)成立,以反对马来亚同盟,结果英国让步。

另一方面,非马来人对于长期在马来亚居留后,将因此获得合法地位及政治权利的条件,却表现得不热衷。可能他们仍然对日治时代余悸未消,长期以来他们未被英国接受为马来亚人及被视为外来人,他们还是不能确定本身的身份,因此并不重视这个问题。

《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史第三回》就讲到这里,明晚同样时间,继续为大家主讲最终回;我们明晚再见。

by:Mask Man

 

发表在 馬來西亞的真實歷史, 追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史

发表评论

In 1941, the Overseas Chinese Mobilization Committee was established in the Tan Kah Kee, under the auspices of the Mobilization Committee in favor of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and to get the blessings of the colonial government Toms Governor. This in many ways to participate in the work of the Anti-Japanese Army until February 15, 1942, the fall of Singapore so far.
Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1940, was established in Chongqing a cooperation agreement contributed to the total co-operation with the British anti-Japanese Malaya horse. But in war, horses against colonial rule, and has publicly activities rebellion in 1948, exit the scope of the law, and therefore become illegal groups in the British colonial government issued an emergency decree. From the Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan until Japan’s surrender, the Malayan Chinese political thought from the low tide toward a climax, and then divided KMT camp and leftist struggle is an example.
However, the new political thought in the post-war overshadowed the previous trend, that is, non-racial sense of patriotism and the rise of nationalism, have asked the country’s independence marked the post-war years, the political thought again changes. It seems from the historical changes of the pre-war Malaya Chinese divided politically, even the Chinese community, due to dialect differences gangs everywhere, until today.
As for the ideological backwardness and superstition side, not because of the May Fourth Movement, the total elimination. Instead, between the people still exist, even feudal ideas have become very popular in danger due to various disguised instigation, Chinese political awareness is undoubtedly a resistance. Overall, however, the post-war Malayan Chinese, from the tendency of Chinese Political allegiance to Malaya. This kind of political thought, marks the transformation of Chinese thought, is noteworthy turning point and a new starting point.
The evolution of the post-war three thoughts
Japan surrendered in August 1945, the official end of the Second World War. Hitler and Mussolini Western failure in the former, after the collapse of the Japanese militarists in the entire world to the new situation.

 One side is the expansion of U.S. military power, quickly leapt to the chief and the status of the Western Group, the leaders of the capitalist world. The other side in the group headed by the Soviet Union, and the establishment of the communist system in Eastern Europe, but also so that some parts of Asia became communist countries, such as China, North Vietnam and North Korea (DPRK).
However, in these two caught between the people of other countries, nationalist thought strongly show it. This trend is reflected in the fight for national independence and autonomy, people have asked to get rid of the colonial rule. Some countries soon after the war that was independent, such as Indonesia, India, and some countries until the fifties or sixty, the desire for independence in the seventies.
After World War II, due to the surging nationalist thought, the Chinese living in Southeast Asia, in a very delicate position, in theory, they need to or vested in the district of residence or inclination to make a choice between China. However, due to the political awareness of the differences and some Chinese adopt a reserved attitude, causing the community leaders or the Chinese leaders, the political aspects of the role played by the different.
As mentioned above, the history analysis, and some scholars believe that the postwar Chinese political attitude generally can be divided into three groups.
A Group is principally concerned about Chinese politics and foreign policy;
Group B mainly concerned about community politics;
Group C has entered the power of non-Chinese political pyramid, regardless of whether the indigenous, colonial sovereign state or nationalists in power.
However, Professor Wang Gengwu Since 1945, the Group A frenzy has subsided, many people transformed into the B Group, the formation of the unity and solidarity of the Chinese community. C Group, the fleeting nature of Chinese number increased, and efforts to agree to the residence. However, this case is not obvious in Malaya and, later, Malaysia, in other words, this scientific analysis is room for discretion.
Because since the war, the Chinese in Malaya never encountered the situation of solidarity and unity, but continue to exist in the political differentiation, and even fight against each other. Professor Wang Gengwu In another paper Malaya Chinese political, divided into three political body of the Chinese in Malaya:
A Group to keep in touch with China’s political, often with the fate of China’s identity;
Group B including the most astute and pragmatic Chinese, to keep a low profile or indirect political ties; C Group is a small portion wavering, because they are difficult to determine their own identity, but generally tend somehow The degree of allegiance to Malaya. This argument, a clearer picture than the previous way of saying, but did not involve the ideological divide their discrepancy. The Malayan Chinese suffered in the post-war political impact, basically can be divided into the following three categories:
(A) the tendency, but belong to the KMT activists or rightist thinking.
(B) the tendency to China, but leftist ideology.
(C) Peranakan, the English-educated, ideological orientation West, especially according to the United Kingdom for their loyalty, they were known as “Baba”.
The new horse Chinese in divided
Undeniably, the painful lessons of the Second World War, has awakened the people of Southeast Asia, widespread political awareness and attention, the wave of nationalism avalanche. Malayan political development, however, is relatively slow, so do not need to go through a bloody struggle that forced the British concession Of course, this is also the British foresight ─ ─ political concessions in exchange for economic vested interests.
Needless to say, the Malaysian nationalist thought was relatively strong, and thus to form a political force, in 1946 against the British proposed the Malayan Union (MALAYAN UNION), prompted the UK must develop alternative political structures-the Federation of Malaya, in order to ensure that the the Malaysian political status.
The Federation of Malaya Agreement came into effect on February 1, 1948, marks the start of the Malaysian assume an active role in the political. Chinese in Malaya, the early postwar period, yet cultivating awareness of Malaya tendency in China, whether leftist or rightist interested in each other’s struggles, especially in concerned about how to fight for independence in order to become the master of the emerging countries one. Do not care about politics, still holding the attitude of just economic benefits, also worried about local leftist movement spread and involvement, rather aloof.
Native Chinese Babas, British deep feelings continue to be obsessed with asylum by the British colonial rule, and even too westernized Baba, as England their motherland, for the independence movement is undecided, rather than attach importance . Basically, the Chinese is in a divided state. Take the 1946 British proposed the Malayan alliance: it is an agreement developed in post-war Britain, the Malaya states (excluding Singapore) placed under the direct rule of the British.
The British Government’s decision, once the political situation to recover and temporary military rule in the past, Malaya alliance will be established, aimed at creating a more efficient government organizations and promote the unity of the Malayan People of different races in Malaya. Malay community view, however, failed to take into account states Sudan, status, and that is not conducive to the ethnic Malay are rallied together to oppose. The famous leader Datuk Ong Tee under the leadership of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO UMNO), set up to oppose the Malayan alliance results concessions.
On the other hand, non-Malaysian conditions for long-term in Malaya residence, will therefore obtain legal status and political rights, but not act enthusiastic. They are still probably the sentimental to the Japanese colonial era, for a long time they were not accepted for the people of Malaya and is regarded as outsiders, they still can not determine their own identity, and therefore does not attach importance to this issue.
The retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back “stop here, tomorrow night the same time, we continue to Speaker final back; tomorrow we Goodbye.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

《追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史》第二回:风起云涌的革命思潮时代

作者

Retrospective Malayan-Chinese sages struggle back to the second: the turbulent era of revolutionary thoughts
FEB 2
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好!很高兴又一次跟大家见面。

昨天说到,十九世纪末期,马来亚华裔社会受到满清皇朝光绪皇帝的感召,纷纷出资兴学。第一间的正规华校,当推建立于1904年(光绪卅年)的槟城中华学校,接着雪州有尊孔学校,霹州有育才学校之设,此风一开,全马各地纷纷兴学办校,教育风气至为蓬勃。

当时华人办学,并没有得到英殖民政府的资助,完全是在自力更生的情形下,传播华文教育。直到1920年,英殖民政府实施一项法令,要求对学校及教员进行登记和统制,并对华校实施津贴制度,虽然这只限海峡殖民地及马来联邦,而马来属邦不包括在内,不过华人还是不断发展华校。

据巴素博士统计,1938年,单在海峡殖民地与马来联邦的华校生逾9万名,英校生有2万7000余名。换句话说,读华校的人数远超过英校的数目。同样的情形,也反映在华文报业的兴起。

Good evening, everyone!I am pleased once again to meet with you.
Speaking yesterday, the late nineteenth century, Malaya, the ethnic Chinese community inspired by the Qing Dynasty Emperor Guangxu, have funded up schools. The first formal school, when the push was established in 1904 (Guangxu thirty years), Penang Chinese School, followed by Selangor respect holes schools, the Perak State the Yucai School of set, this wind one open, everywhere throughout Malaysia Schooling running schools, education atmosphere to flourish.
Chinese schools, and funded by the British colonial government did not, in the case of self-reliance, the dissemination of Chinese education. Until 1920, the British colonial government implemented a decree requiring the registration and control of schools and teachers, and China school implementation of the system of allowances Although this limited the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, while the Malay States, including However, the Chinese, or the continuous development of Chinese schools.
According to the Basu Dr. statistical, in 1938, a single Chinese-educated in the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, more than 90,000, and 27,000 more than British students. In other words, the number of people reading Chinese schools far more than the number of English schools. The same situation is also reflected in the rise of the Chinese Press.

虽然马来亚的第一份华文报,是1815年8月5日在马六甲创刊的《察世俗每月统计传》,是由教会主办,富宗教色彩,前后刊行六年半;但真正具有规模和有启迪作用的,是1880年在新加坡开办的《叻报》。

它是一份形式较多样化的华文报,创办人是薛有礼,一位新加坡土生土长的华人。他受过英文教育,但对中华文化酷爱。新加坡报人陈蒙鹤女士在《新加坡早期的华文报,1880年至1912年》的英文专书中,曾经分析《叻报》创办的动机,她认为《叻报》不是为利,而是为推广中华文化,改进华人社会风气,且具有爱国意识。

《叻报》内容包括新闻、社论、通讯及广告。新闻有本坡新闻、外埠新闻及国际新闻,前后刊行51年,第一任主笔叶季允,乃被礼聘从中国南来主持笔政,达41年之久。

But the real scale Malaya a Chinese newspaper, founded in Malacca on August 5, 1815 Depiction monthly statistics Biography “is sponsored by the church, the rich religious overtones, before and after the issue by the six and a half;and revealing, opened in Singapore in 1880, was “smart reported.
It is a more diversified forms of Chinese newspaper, founder Xueyou Li, a Singapore native Chinese. He received an English education, but the passion for Chinese culture. Singapore reported that people Miss Chen Menghe the English designed book in Singapore’s early Chinese newspaper, 1880-1912 “, used to analyze the motives of the founder of” smart “, she thinks smart reported” not for profit, but to promote Chinese culture, improvement of Chinese social atmosphere, and has a patriotic consciousness.
Smart newspaper content including news, editorials, communications and advertising. News news of the slope to other towns news and international news, before and after the issue by 51 years the first writer Ye Jiyun is polishers from South China to preside over the writing important, up to 41 years

学校和报纸俱是传播智识和文化的所在,对于政治思想的灌输,也是至为重要的工具。因此,从早期的华校和华报性质看来,清廷所要宣扬的是一套维护帝制的封建思想,对于儒家学说的重视,不遗余力,目的是要鼓起华人对清廷的效忠和跟随保守的政治潮流。

华人社团取代私会党

必须提起的是华人社团,在促进民族意识和保护会员方面所扮演的角色。一般认为,华人社团的组织是伴随华人南移的产物,虽然它很早就存在,但因早期私会党的势力庞大,支派很多,以致成为华人社会的〈保护者〉,社团的重要性也就相对减低了。

直到英殖民政府在1890年对付私会党组织后,公开注册的社团便如雨后春笋而起,取代私会党的作用。当然,这不是说社团较私会党发源迟,而是其功能在较后期才表规出来。

Schools and newspapers club where the dissemination of intellectual and cultural, for the inculcation of political thought, but also to an important tool. Therefore, it seems from the early nature of Chinese schools and Chinese newspaper, the Qing court to be propagated is a maintenance monarchy feudal thinking, For Confucianism attention, spare no effort to muster allegiance and follow conservative Chinese Manchu political trends.
Chinese associations to replace the Secret Societies
Must be brought by a Chinese community’s role in promoting the national consciousness and protection of Member. Is generally believed that the Chinese community organization is accompanied by Chinese southward, although it is very early, but large forces of the early secret societies, many of the tribe that it has become <protectors> Chinese society, the importance of the association relatively lower.
Until the British colonial government in 1890 to deal with the private party organizations, public associations registered mushroomed into the sky, to replace the role of the Secret Societies. Of course, this does not mean that societies than private party originated late, but its function only in the longer term regulation out

马六甲的青云亭是华人最古老的结合组织,槟城的广福宫,建于1800年。就是最早期的华人社团。

初期,庙宇与地缘性存有混合为一体的迹象。 1801年,槟城嘉应会馆的前身〈仁和公司〉成立,建筑为庙宇,槟城的广汀会馆前身为〈广东公司〉,成立于1801年。马六甲的应和会馆成立时,初称〈梅州众记公司〉,1825年改称为〈应和公司〉,嗣后始再改为〈应和书馆〉。

较早时期成立的会馆,多与私会党组织脱离不了关系。同乡团体,从故乡带来家族制度以及一切风俗习惯,会党亦是其中之一。所谓的会党,是指来自同一个乡下的村民所成立的组织,负责照顾所有乡党的福利和生活。会党对党员来说,是有绝对的义务,无条件扶助的团体。当权者认为,可以利用为支配的工具;农民和劳动者认为,是结合同人再好没有的组织,革命家亦认为它是具有重要意义的。

在马来亚槟城的福建公司,和海山党大伯公会,就是这样的会党组织;广汀会馆,宁阳会馆和义兴党,亦有不能分离的联系。若以县会馆而论,新加坡宁阳会馆的创办人,在义兴党的洪家祠中安有牌位。无疑的同乡团体具有封建性格。同时孙中山在华侨中,能够组织同盟会,原因就是可以动员私会党,所以会馆事业,是有利维持封建社会的秩序。

除了地缘性的同乡会,血缘性的宗祠外,亦有一种被认为是代表工商业和职工组织的业缘性团体,如建造行、兴和打金行、鲁班行等。华社研究学者认为,英殖民地政府鼓励带有商业性质的代表性组织,包括同乡会和宗祠在内,一个有名望的人,可以一身兼数职,而成为一方领袖。

当英国发现私会党的组织已尾大不掉,且渗入一些早期的会馆(前称公司)时,乃改弦易辙,通过扶持会馆、宗祠和商团来取代会党(私会党)的地位。廿世纪初叶,华团应运大量而生,这也是其中的原因之一。英国人也希望有名望的温和派华人领袖,特别重视受英文教育的侨领,来领导社团,直接归属英国统治,而又能协助政府推行政策。

华社团体百花齐放

就拿槟城来说,嘉庆5年(1800年)建立了广福宫(广东及福建人合作)后,又于光绪12年(1886年)在毗邻,挂起了市政府招牌的平章会馆,商业与社团结合的机能,发挥的淋漓尽致。从教育、报业及华团三方面的发展来看,马来亚华社对封建制度的维护表露无遗。尊孔学校及孔教会的中华学校,即旨在推行以孔子为代表的儒家学说,华文报宣扬封建文化也有其功效;华团拜祭神位,除削减私会党力量外,亦在于巩固封建体系。

虽然这些发展和所传播的政治意识,不全然与英国政治思潮相符合,但并未危及英国的统治地位和经济利益,因此英殖民政府也就任由华人的政治思潮自行发展。不过,英国人认为,通过法律的控制,对于华人的政治意识的控制是有效的,更何况当时,华人并无驱赶英国人的观念,只是侧重在经济发展和谋生,在政治上不很关注中国的政局变化。但是,上层的华社份子则以取得满清皇廷赐封的官衔为荣耀。

 

 

Malacca Cheng Hoon Teng is the most ancient Chinese combination of organizations, Penang Kwong Fuk Palace, built in 1800. Most of the early Chinese societies.
The mixed early temples and geopolitical there as one of the signs. 1801, Penang the Jiaying Hall’s predecessor <Renhe company> set up the construction of the temple, Penang wide Ting Hall, formerly known as <Guangdong company, established in 1801. Malacca the should and Hall of established early <Meizhou public record company> 1825 reform known as the <and> subsequent beginning and then changed to <and library.
Earlier period established associations, inseparable from the multi-party organizations and the private will. Fellow groups from hometown family system and all customs, will be one party. The so-called secret societies, the organization set up by the villagers from the same country, responsible for looking after the welfare and lives of all Xiangdang. Will be the party of the party members who have an absolute obligation to unconditionally help groups. Those in power think, can be used as a tool of domination; farmers and laborers that the combination colleagues no matter how good organization, revolutionaries also think it is important.
Malaya Penang Fujian, and seamounts Party uncle Association, this will party organizations; wide Ting Hall, Ningyang the Hall and Yising Party, also can not be separated from contact. Terms of the terms of the County Hall, the founder of Singapore the Ningyang Hall’s, in Hung Yising Party Ancestral Hall Zhong’an tablets. Undoubtedly groups of fellow feudal character. The Sun Yat-sen in the Chinese ability to organize League, the reason is that we can mobilize the Secret Societies, Hall career is conducive to maintaining the order of the feudal society.
In addition to the geopolitical Association of consanguinity ancestral halls, also a karmic groups on behalf of the industry, commerce and trade union organizations, such as the construction of the line,, Hing and goldsmith line, Luban line. Chinese community scholars believe that the British colonial government encouraged with a representative of the commercial nature of organizations, including Associations and ancestral hall, a prestigious, can be one of several roles, and become party leader.
When the British Secret Societies, organizations have been far too cumbersome, and to penetrate some early Hall (formerly the company) is to change course, and will support Hall, the ancestral hall and business group to replace the party (Secret Societies) status. Ye, the Chinese group in the early twentieth century to be shipped a large number of born, this is also one of the causes. The British renowned the moderates Chinese leaders, in particular the emphasis on the English-educated community leaders, to lead societies, directly attributable to British rule, but also to assist the Government in the implementation of the policy.
Chinese community groups flourishing
Take Penang, Jiaqing five years (1800) to establish the Kwong Fuk Palace (Guangdong and Fujian cooperation), Guangxu 12 years (1886) in the adjacent suspend the municipal government the signs of Pingzhang Hall combine the functions of the business and the community, to play the most. From the perspective of the development of the three aspects of education, the press and the Chinese group, Malayan Chinese community is the maintenance of the feudal system revealed. Respect hole schools and the hole church schools, that is designed to promote Confucianism represented by Confucius, the Chinese newspaper publicized feudal culture and its efficacy; Chinese group to pay respects to the tablets, in addition to reduce the power of the secret societies, is to consolidate the feudal system.
Although the development and spread of political consciousness, not entirely consistent with the British political thought, but did not endanger the dominance and economic interests of the United Kingdom, the British colonial government will let Chinese political thought itself. However, the British think is valid through the control of the law, for the control of the political consciousness of the Chinese, not to mention the time, the Chinese had no concept of driving away the British, just focus in economic development and to make a living, not very concerned about the Chinese political the political situation changes. However, the upper of the Chinese community activists the one that gets the official title for the glory of the Manchu Huangting encomienda

第一位获得清廷赐封官衔的华侨,是新加坡的章芳琳,时为1869年,所得的官衔为道官,以褒奖他慷慨献捐福建省的防务基金。

之前,海外华人得不到清廷《皇恩》之赐,是因为满清政府对海外臣民,采取敌视态度的一种表现。满清当局一向把海外华人看成罪犯或中国文化的背弃者。认为他们私自逃离国家到海外谋生,是一种被祖叛国的行为。但是到了19世纪末,清朝政府对华侨政策,发生重大的变化。 1893年,清廷颁布的一项通令,对华侨撤消传统的限制和惩罚,并献议保护那些回返祖国的华人。

通过捐款而授予官职是另一种拢络的手法,以使侨民忠于满清帝国。这是因为清廷在后期的经济出现危机,不得不借助海外华人的经济力量。演变到后来,授官之举成为清朝确保华侨效忠的一种手段,后来被利用做为一种政治武器,以对抗保皇党和革命党在新加坡、马来亚华族社会的影响力。

两种政治思想斗争

从历史发展看来,在20世纪之前的新马华侨政治潮流是不显著的,一般上是低调的。他们摆脱了清朝统治下的民不聊生的困境后,投身怒海,移居到马来亚,目的是为了谋生,而不是从事政治活动。只是在被动的情况下,他们依附着领袖及首领的政治意识,不过从未正式的集体表明政治态度。

Get a the Qing court encomienda rank the overseas Chinese, Zhang Fang Lin, Singapore for 1869, when the official title of the proceeds for the Road officials to compliment his generous offer to donate to the defense fund of Fujian Province.
Before, the overseas Chinese are not the Qing court’s infinite royal thanks Manchu government to take a hostile attitude towards a performance overseas subjects. The Manchu authorities has always been the overseas Chinese as criminals or desertion of Chinese culture. That they secretly fled the country to overseas to make a living, a progenitor of treason behavior. But by the end of the 19th century, the Qing government, the Overseas Chinese policy, significant changes occurred. In 1893, the Qing government promulgated a general order of the Overseas Chinese to undo traditional restrictions and punishment and offer advice to protect those who return the Chinese motherland.
Through donations and grant office is another a Longluo tactics to make nationals loyal to the Manchu empire. This is because the Qing court in the latter part of the economic crisis, had to resort to overseas Chinese economic power. Evolved later granted official move into the Qing Dynasty as a means to ensure that overseas Chinese allegiance later used as a political weapon to counter the influence of the royalists and the Revolutionary Party in Singapore, Malaya, ethnic Chinese community.
Two political ideological struggle
From the historical development in the 20th century, before the new horse Overseas Chinese political trend is not significant, generally low-key. After they got rid of the plight of the destitute people under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, to join the high seas, emigrated to Malaya, in order to earn a living, rather than engaging in political activities. Just in the case of passive, they rely on the political consciousness of the leaders and chiefs, but never officially collectively demonstrate political attitudes.

基本上,从甲必丹之设立,到土生华人社会的形成,到私会党的蓬勃,吸纳新客成为党员,到被英殖民政府封官收买,到最后被清廷封官收买,及后便在上层社会展开两种政治思潮的斗争。第一种思潮,是效忠清廷,协助腐败的满清政府致力巩固江山,取缔反抗清廷的份子;第二种思潮,则是追随孙中山先生的革命思想,出钱出力支持推翻满清政权。

这种斗争一直延续到20世纪,而掀起了一场波澜壮阔的运动,并且在一定程度上,激发整个华人社会的政治醒觉,纷纷加入了政治斗争。先是改良派的康有为到来争取华人,继之是孙中山先生的革命运动,接着便是抗日的斗争,随后是国共斗争的冲击,转入五十年代,民族主义兴起,华人政治思潮有了一个巨大和划时代的转变。

Basically, from the the Kapitan establishment to the formation of the Peranakan community, to the private party’s boom to attract new customers to become party members, to buy the official seal of the British colonial government, to buy last Qing court official seal, and afterwill commence in the upper classes of society the struggle between two political thought. First thought, allegiance to the Qing court assist corrupt Manchu government is committed to consolidate the country, ban against Manchu activists; second thought, is to follow Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary ideas, money and efforts to support the overthrow of the Manchu regime .
This struggle has been extended to the 20th century, and set off a surging movement to stimulate the political consciousness of the whole Chinese society, and to some extent, have joined the political struggle. First reformists Kang Youwei come to fight the Chinese, followed by Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement, followed by the anti-Japanese struggle, followed by the impact of the country struggle into the fifties and the rise of nationalism, the Chinese political thought have a huge and epoch-making changes

清朝统治下的中国,是一个丧权辱国的时代,在鸦片战争(1839年至1842年是第一次鸦片战争,1856年至1860年是第二次鸦片战争)前后,改良主义的思想即已在中国兴起。

尤其到了中日甲午战争阶段(1894年至1895年),由于清朝一再对外来霸权主义让步,促使一批知识份子提出改良主义学说,其中以康有为及梁启超为代表人物,推出了维新运动,但是遭到了当权派的反击。以谭嗣同为首的《四君子》被慈禧太后下令拘捕斩首。

戊戌政变的失败,迫使康有为及梁启超向外逃亡。他们的思想是保皇的,与光绪皇帝有密切联系,所痛恨的是慈禧太后为首的当权派。

China under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, an era of national betrayal and humiliation in the Opium War (1839-1842 First Opium War, the Second Opium War in 1856 to 1860) before and after the reformist ideas already in Chinarise.
Especially to the Sino-Japanese War phase (1894-1895), the Qing Dynasty the repeated foreign hegemonism concessions, prompting a group of intellectuals of the reformist doctrine, which representatives of Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, the introduction of the reform movement, but was to kleptocrats counterattack. Tan Sitong led by the “four gentlemen” Empress Dowager Cixi ordered the arrest of the beheading.
The failure of the coup d’etat, forcing Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao fled out. Their thoughts royalist, in close contact with the Emperor Guangxu, hated by the Empress Dowager Cixi, led by those in power.

他们谴责慈禧太后30年来的反动统治,不仅是中国人民的公敌,且是《大清十一代之罪人》,而《欲医中国之病,唯有将此恶政府除去,而另立一好政府(指光绪皇帝复辟)则下来俱妥矣》。

康有为及梁启超是属于《保皇派》的代表人物,不主张推翻帝制,到海外宣扬思想时,也促请华人支持光绪皇帝,对抗慈禧太后的顽固派。

康有为逃难的时候曾经到过马来亚,怡保的旅游景点霹雳洞,也有留下他的墨宝。不久之后,以孙中山先生为首的中国革命派也来到马新等地宣扬革命,以推翻满清政权,另立国民政府。

这两种对立的思想,在马来亚的华人社会中引起了一定程度的冲击,但在争取华人关心中国的政治前途方面,却是没有多大的差别。保皇份子曾先后在新加坡创办了《天南新报)(1898-1905年)与《南洋总汇报)(1905-1946年),他们也在槟榔屿创办了《槟城新报》(1895-1936年)。

康有为在另一方面也宣扬办学,鼓励华人筹组孔庙与社团等。孔教会乃先后在马星各地成立。有人指出,今日南洋各地,尤其是马来亚,有许多的华文学校,是由康有为在当时奠立基础的。

They condemned the Empress Dowager Cixi reactionary rule of the past 30 years, not only is the enemy of the people of China, and the Qing 10th generation of sinners “, and” For doctors of the disease in China, only the removal of this evil government, raise him up a goodthe government (Guangxu emperor restoration) down all properly carry on.
Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao royalists representative, does not advocate the overthrow of the monarchy, to overseas aired thinking, also urged the Chinese Emperor Guangxu against the Empress Dowager Cixi of the diehards.
Kang Youwei fled have visited attractions in Malaya, Ipoh, Perak hole, leaving his masterpieces. Soon after, the revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-sen came to horse new to their revolution to overthrow the Manchu regime, a separate National Government.
Two opposing ideas in the Chinese community in Malaya caused a certain degree of impact, but towards the Chinese are concerned about China’s political future, but it is not much of a difference. Royalist activists has “day Southern New) (1898-1905), was founded in Singapore with the Nanyang Allgemeine Zeitung) (1905-1946), they are also Penang founder of Penang, Hong Kong Daily News” (1895-1936 ).
Kang Youwei also publicize the school, on the other hand, to encourage the Chinese to the formation of the Confucius Temple and Societies. Holes church is successively set up around the horse Stars. It was pointed out that, today all over Southeast Asia, especially Malaya, many Chinese schools, by Kang Youwei then lay the foundation

在当时的上层华人社会,分成两种不同的看法,其一是海峡华人峇峇的亲英国思想,对中国政局不表关心。比如由峇峇薛有礼创办的《叻报》,即向康有为泼冷水。

其二是与中国有关系的,尤其是获得清廷赐封官衔的上层份子,他们宁可支持保皇运动,也不支持孙中山的革命运动。因此,保皇党初时在南洋社会占了优势。

例如英籍华人领袖林文庆就极力诋毁孙中山的革命,称他是《魔王》。

孙中山结合海外私会党势力

尽管如此,孙中山并不气馁,他在极为艰辛的不利条件下,组织他的革命团体。私会党的组织就成为他的结合对象之一。孙中山也是三合会的会员,他在中国、檀香山与海外其他地方都与三合会的支会联络。

后来,在1894年,孙中山自行成立的《兴中会》,也是依据传统的秘密会社的方式而行,会员同样用血宣誓,也同样传用秘密信号与言语。孙中山在革命运动中,曾利用私会党的协助。他于1903年在檀香山毅然加入致公堂,并被推举为《洪棍》,在洪门组织,称元帅为洪棍。

At the upper Chinese society is divided into two different views, one Straits Chinese Babas pro-British thinking, not table concerned about the political situation of China. Such as founded by Baba Xueyou Li, “smart”, namely Kang Youwei pour cold water.
The second is the relationship with China, especially the upper elements of the Qing court encomienda rank, they would rather support the royalist movement, does not support the Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement. Thus, royalists early in Nanyang social accounted advantage.
Such as the the British Chinese leader Lim Boon Keng strongly discredit the Sun Yat-sen’s revolution, said he was “the devil”.
Sun Yat-sen combined overseas Secret Societies forces
Nevertheless, Sun Yat-sen was not discouraged, he organized his revolutionary groups in extremely hard under adverse conditions. Secret Societies, the organization became his combination of one of the objects. Sun Yat-sen also triad members, his contact with Triad ward in China, Honolulu and elsewhere overseas.
Later, in 1894, Sun Yat-sen established by “Revive China Society”, is based on the traditional way of secret societies and the line, the member of the same blood oath is also borne by secret signals and speech. Sun Yat-sen, the revolutionary movement, have been used with the assistance of the Secret Societies. In Honolulu in 1903, decided to join the Zhi Gong Tang, and was elected to “Hung stick”, in the freemason organization, said Marshal Hung stick.


孙中山的《兴中会》,总会设在中国,分会散设各地,痛斥满清腐败无能,要求振兴中国。到了1905年,演化成同盟会,发出宣言表明:《驱除鞑虏,恢复中华,创立民国,平均地权》。同盟会于1906年在新加坡设立,随后在吉隆坡、槟城,森美兰、马六甲及瓜拉比劳纷纷设立分会,但在怡保计划不得逞,因为遭受保皇党份子的激烈反对。

保皇党与革命党的政治斗争,亦可从同盟会创办的报纸打对台戏窥见一斑。同盟会在新加坡设立《图南日报》(1904-1905年)与《中兴日报》(1907-1910年),也在槟城设立《光华日报》(1909年─迄今)。从历史资料显示,目前仍然是槟州最主要的报章《光华日报》,就是在孙中山先生的《同盟会》支持下创立的。

Sun Yat-sen’s Revive China Society “, always in China, club casual setting around, denouncing the Manchu corrupt and incompetent, and the revitalization of China. By 1905, evolved into the United League, issued a declaration that: “expel the Manchus and restore China to the creation of the Republic, the average land ownership. United League set up in Singapore in 1906, and then have to set up branch in Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Negri Sembilan, Malacca and melon Labi Lao, but the plan does not succeed in Ipoh, suffered because of the fierce opposition of the royalist activists.
Royalists and political struggle of the Revolutionary Party, a rival show to get a glimpse of the founder of the newspaper can also be downloaded from the United League. United League “Figure” (1904-1905) of the Southern Daily the “ZTE Daily” (1907-1910), established in Singapore, Kwong Wah Yit Poh (1909 ─ present) also set up in Penang. From historical data, is still the most important newspapers in Penang Kwong Wah Yit Poh, is founded by Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s “United League support.


除了通过报纸之外,革命党人也通过演讲和一些社团从事活动,最著名的便是槟城的《阅书报社》(于1908年11月在社团法令下登记)。

尽管保皇党在马新的政治活动,曾在初期占上风,且得到上层份子的拥护,但同盟会则借助秘密会社的力量和中等阶级的支持,展开了一场针锋相对的尖锐化斗争;渐渐的后来居上。直到1908年慈禧太后和光绪皇帝于同月内死去后,保皇党已失去一个《挟天子之名》的号召力,而且清廷日益腐化,眼见大势已去,一些上层份子也掉转方向,支持孙中山了。

根据史料显示,华人群众并未全力介入保皇党及同盟会的活动,这是由于他们并不十分了解这些的政治斗争。而且,这两派的人多数周旋在中上层社会,尤以孙中山的身份更为特殊,他备受英国殖民政府的监视,不能自由活动,以致需要通过其他团体及报章来宣扬它的理想。

辛亥革命为海外华社带来激荡

1911年,中国辛亥革命成功,推翻满清帝制,建立中华民国政府,这个历史转变给海外华人社会的政治醒觉,带来巨大的震荡。究竟同盟会有多大的政治力量呢?根据一位革命党领袖邓慕韩统计,1908年在东南亚有3000名同盟会的会员,大部份来自马来亚、新加坡两地。当年新马一带的华裔总人口约为60万人。

日本的历史观察家估计,从1909年到1910年,在新隆槟三地约有2500名会员。如果此说无误,则其成员只占当时马新华人十五岁以上人口的0.3到0.5巴仙。但是,在孙中山先生于1911年12月29日在南京就任临时大总统后,许多中立派及保皇派份子转而支持孙中山先生,形势为之一转。尤其是在武昌起义后(导致清廷的灭亡),槟城有5000人剪掉辫子,怡保也有2000人返回中国参加孙中山的革命。

在捐款方面,槟城有6000到8000元,怡保有4000到5000元,吉隆坡有4000到5000元及其他市镇也响应,总计3万元到4万1000元不等。参加同盟会的人也增加至占当时华人15岁人口的4.4巴仙至5.9巴仙。总的来说,马来西亚华人政治思潮虽然已有所改变和较为积极,但上层社会仍有分歧,有人拒绝支持孙中山,吉隆坡的矿商陆佑及姚东生即为两个明显的例子。

The addition through newspapers, revolutionaries engaged in activities through lectures and some societies, the most famous is the Penang read books newspaper “(registered under the Societies Act in November 1908).
Gradually come from behind despite royalist new political activities in Malaysia, in the early upper hand, and the upper support of the criminals, but the United League With the power of the secret societies, and middle-class support, launched a tit-for-tat sharp struggle; . Until the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu died in the same month in 1908, the royalists had lost a “relying on the name of the Son of Heaven,” the appeal, and the Qing government increasingly corrupt, seeing the hopeless situation, some activists also turned the direction of the upper, support for Sun Yat-sen had.
According to historical data show that the Chinese masses did not fully involved the activities of the royalists and the United League, because they do not fully understand these political struggles. Moreover, the majority of the people of the two factions in the middle and upper social deal, especially the identity of Dr. Sun Yat-sen is more special, he is much of the British colonial government surveillance, can not be freedom of movement, so by other groups and newspapers to promote its ideals.
1911 Revolution for the overseas Chinese community agitation
In 1911, the success of the Chinese Revolution, the overthrow of the Manchu monarchy and the establishment of the government of the Republic of China, this historic change to the political awareness of the overseas Chinese community, huge shock. Exactly how much political forces United League? In Southeast Asia in 1908, according to a Revolutionary Party leader Deng Mu Han 3000 United League members, most from Malaya, Singapore. When new horse in the vicinity of a total population of approximately 600,000 people of Chinese descent.
The Japanese history observers estimated that, from 1909 to 1910, some 2,500 members in the new Long Penang. If this is correct, only then Ma Xinhua over the age of 15, 0.3 to 0.5% of the population of its members. Became provisional president Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing on December 29, 1911, however, a number of centrist and royalist elements in favor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the situation for one turn. Especially after the Wuchang Uprising (leading to the demise of the Qing), 5000 cut off the braids in Penang, Ipoh, there are 2,000 people to return to China to participate in the Sun Yat-sen’s revolution.
In donations, Penang 6000-8000 yuan 4000-5000 yuan in Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, also responds to 4000-5000 yuan and other towns, ranging from 30,000 yuan to 41,000 yuan in total. The people participating in the United League is also increased to 4.4 per cent to 5.9 per cent share of the then 15-year-old population of the Chinese. Overall, the Malaysian Chinese political thought has changed and a more positive differences remain, but the upper classes of society, some people refused to support two obvious examples of Sun Yat-sen, Loke Yew, Kuala Lumpur miners and Yao Dongsheng is.

他们不介入革命是有一些因素的,譬如不愿卷入任何与现存政权对立的活动,同时他们是在英国的保护下,得以成为巨富,他们因此与英国的关系较为良好,而对中国的效忠缺乏热忱。不过,也有富商转变他们的思想立场,如霹雳的矿商胡子春。他本是保皇派的人物,较后赞扬孙中山的革命是中国的先锋队。胡子春是霹雳华教中坚份子胡万铎的祖父。

正由于孙中山在为理想奔波时所遭受到的挫折,乃转而向中下层人民,以争取他们的支持。特别是受过教育的中层阶级,在阅读孙中山的言论及报纸的鼓吹文章后,华社思潮起了急速的变化,对满清的暴政起恶感,对外国的侵略产生抗拒心理,他们甚至本身也成为宣传家。

据知,在此时期,霹雳有2000名华工返回中国,那些尚在矿地的矿工,也合捐了1万元。这说明了孙中山的政治宣传已打进马来亚华人的中下层社会。除了工人以外,低层的人物包括私会党员、小贩、三轮车夫,乃至妓女及乞丐也捐款给革命运动。

They do not intervene in the revolution there are some factors, such as do not want to become involved in any confrontation with the existing regime activities, at the same time they are under the protection of the British, able to become wealthy, they are therefore relatively good relations with the United Kingdom to Chinaallegiance to a lack of enthusiasm. However, there are wealthy businessmen to change their ideological stance, as the Thunderbolt miner Hu Zichun. He royalists figure, later praised Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary vanguard of China. Hu Zaichun is the the Perak Chinese teach backbone of Hu Wan Tudor’s grandfather.
Precisely because of the setbacks suffered by the Sun Yat-sen is ideal to run around, is turned to the people of the middle and lower classes, in order to win their support. Especially the educated middle class, read after Sun Yat-sen’s advocacy speech and newspaper article from the Chinese community thought the rapid changes in the ill-feeling from the Manchu tyranny produce resistance to foreign aggression, they even itself become publicity house.
Far as I know, in this period, Perak 2000 Chinese laborers to return to China, and those still in the mine to the miners, together donated $ 1 million. This shows that the Sun Yat-sen’s political propaganda has reached the the Malayan Chinese middle and lower social. In addition to workers, the low-level figures, including the private will of party members, hawkers, rickshaw drivers, and even prostitutes and beggars contributions to the revolutionary movement.

尽管现代一些学者提到辛亥革命时,认为对整个马来亚和新加坡华人社会的冲击并不是很大,也不是澈底;但他们并没有否定对20世纪初,华人的闭塞,保守与冥顽思想起了很大的冲击。

王赓武教授在其论文《1900-1911年海峡殖民地华人保皇党份子及革命党份子》中指出:《介于1900年与1911年间,最主要的不是经济与社会的变迁,而是海峡殖民地华人,倾向中国的思想与态度的转变。 》

民族主义思潮风起云涌

二十世纪初期,根据颜清湟博士形容,在这个时期马、新华人介入中国的革命活动是史无前例的,虽然革命活动主要在于拯救中国,但对海外华人确有深远的影响。这种影响可以分成三类:海外华人民族主义思潮的兴起;海外华人团结力量的增长及新思想的涌现。

其一,由于民族主义的思想鼓吹,遂使到数以千计的海外华青,回到中国参加推翻清朝,甚至牺牲生命,并有许多捐款支持孙中山的革命。从1911年启开的民族主义思潮,成为马新华人与中国维系关系的主要指导源泉。同时,这种思潮也带着反对外来势力的意念,一直发展下去。

其二,在孙中山先生展开革命之前,海外华人是不团结的,也有帮派的斗争。不团结阻碍了革命思想的传播,帮派斗争影响华人社会的经济成长,并阻止了不同方言集团的合作。

Although modern scholars mentioned in the Revolution, that the impact on the entire Chinese community in Malaya and Singapore is not great, nor is it thoroughly; but they do not negate the effect of the early 20th century, the Chinese occlusion, conservative and stubborn ideologya great impact.
Professor Wang Gengwu pointed out in his essay “1900-1911 Straits Settlements Chinese royalist elements Revolutionary Party elements”: “between 1900 and 1911, the most important is not economic and social changes, but the Chinese of the Straits Settlements, the tendency China’s ideological change of attitude. ‘
Nationalism Thought surging
The early twentieth century, according to Dr. Yen Ching Huangzhong describe the horse in this period, the new Chinese intervention revolutionary activities in China is unprecedented, revolutionary activities mainly to save China, but does have a profound impact on the overseas Chinese. This influence can be divided into three categories: The Rise of the overseas Chinese nationalism; growth of overseas Chinese solidarity and the emergence of new ideas.
First, the nationalist ideology preaches, occasioned to the thousands of Overseas Chinese Youth, returned to China to participate in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, and even their lives, and many contributions in support of the revolution of Sun Yat-sen. Ma Xinhua maintaining relationships with China from 1911 Kai nationalist thought, the main source of guidance. In the same time, this trend took against the idea of foreign forces, has been to develop.
Second, before the revolution of Sun Yat-sen expand overseas Chinese is not united, gang struggle. Unity to hinder the spread of revolutionary ideas, gang wars affect the economic growth of the Chinese community, and to stop the cooperation of different dialects Group.

当孙中山先生于1906年,在吉隆坡主持同盟会支会成立仪式时发出警告说:本地华人的不团结,最终将导致整个华人社会的崩溃。

他于是通过同盟会,展开各种宣传运动。如阅书报社、夜校、戏剧表演,使到不同力量的集团,为孙中山的革命而在一起工作,他们学习相互了解,相互合作以解决共同的难题。通过不间断的联系,华人的团结精神和国民意识乃被加强和发展起来。

1909年在霹雳打巴成立的《集群社》,就是灌输团结思想的组织。另一项最主要的发展,便是在学校传播华语,逐渐打破用方言教学。当然保皇派在这方面也有其贡献,它使到华人有了共同的媒介语。

我们也注意到,在这个时期各州成立的中华总商会(最初为华人商务局)。虽然这些组织是清廷所赞成的,有倾向清廷的思想意识,但对殖民地政府也没有坏处,因此先后被允许成立起来,这类组织容纳各帮派代表,而在促进谅解及团结方面,有了多少的帮助。

今天晚上的《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史第二回》就讲到这里。明天晚上,同样的时间,我们再见。祝各位晚安。

by:Mask Man

 

《追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史》第一

When Sun Yat-sen in 1906, in Kuala Lumpur, presided over the inaugural ceremony of the United League clubs warned: local Chinese are not united, will eventually lead to the collapse of the whole Chinese society.
He League, expand the various publicity campaigns. Such as reading books newspaper, evening, theater performances, so that a different strength of the Group, Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary work together, they learn to understand each other, cooperate with each other to solve common problems. Uninterrupted contact the spirit of unity and national consciousness of the Chinese is to be strengthened and developed.
Thunderbolt Pakistan established cluster community in 1909, is to instill ideological and organizational unity. Another major development is the spread of Chinese in schools to gradually break the dialect teaching. Course royalists in this regard also has its own contribution to it so that the Chinese have a common media language.
We also note that the states set up during this period of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (originally Chinese Business Bureau). While these organizations are in favor of the Qing court, have a tendency to imperial ideology, but no harm has been allowed to set up such organizations to accommodate various gangs represent the colonial government in promoting understanding and unity how much help.
Tonight retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back “to stop here. Tomorrow night, the same time, we will meet. I wish you good night.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

回:峇峇的诞生与私会党的崛起

作者

 

Retrospective Malayan-Chinese sages struggle back: Baba’s birth and the rise of Secret Societies
FEB 1
Of the voice of justice

自从20世纪70年代开始,巫统推行新经济政策,并且成为国阵内一党独大的政党以来,大马华社经常成为少数巫统极端分子出言不逊,任意欺压的对象。到了80年代马哈迪掌政的时代,这种现象尤其严重,一直到今天,我们仍然不时听到和看到一些极端巫统分子发表《华人寄居论》,《滚回中国论》;甚至还有马来学者公认侮辱华裔。说我们的祖先当年南来,男人是当龟公,女人是当妓女云云。

即使华社群起抗议声讨,但是在当政者巫统的庇护,和马华不敢开口理论之下,这些发表侮辱华人言论的政客学者都不会受到对付。久而久之,许多年轻一辈的马来人,都认为华人确实是马来西亚独立后才从中国来到这里生活的《寄居者》。这片土地的真正而且为一的主人,就是马来人。连马哈迪也会跟着起哄,利用《Tanah Melayu》的字眼来证明,这里原本是马来人的地方。

更加可恶的是,居然还有类似邱嘉金之类数典忘祖之徒附和马哈迪,否定了华人先辈开拓这片土地的历史功绩。有鉴于此,半年前我就决定收集大马华人史料,立志还原大马华人先辈在这片土地开荒的血泪史。籍此给与那些不学无术的巫统政客和无耻的学者一个强而有力的反击。这里有四个论点,需要先跟大家说明。

Since UMNO implementation of the new economic policy, since the 1970s, and become a one-party dominant political parties in the Barisan Nasional, Malaysia’s Chinese community often become minority UMNO extremists insulted the any oppressing object. 80 the ‘Mahathir Di Zhangzheng era, this phenomenon is especially serious, until today, we still hear from time to time and see some extreme UMNO molecular published “Chinese sojourn’,” go back to China ‘; even Malay scholars recognized insult to the ethnic Chinese. That our ancestors then south, a man is when the turtles public, the woman as a prostitute so.
Even from the Chinese community protest to denounce, but in the refuge of those in power in UMNO and MCA afraid to speak under, politicians and scholars published insult Chinese speech are not subject to deal with. Over time, many of the younger generation of Malaysian, Chinese indeed sojourners from China after the independence of Malaysia came here to live. Real but also as a master of the land, is a Malaysian. Even Mahathir also followed the booing, the use of the words “Tanah Melayu” to prove where the original is a Malaysian place.
More appalling is that actually there Qiu Jia Jin class have forgotten progenitor of the believers to go along with Mahathir denied Chinese ancestors to explore the historical merits of this piece of land. In view of this, six months ago, I decided to collect the Malaysian Chinese historical materials, determined to restore the wasteland tragic history of the Malaysian Chinese fathers brought forth on this piece of land. Whereby a strong counterattack to give those ignoramuses Umno politicians and shameless scholars. There are four arguments need to be explained to begin with.

 

第一:华人早在1千200年前,就已经来到这片土地,华人先辈来到马来半岛的历史,比马来人更久远。这可从考古学者在吉兰丹,登嘉楼和柔佛州发现的唐代陶瓦古物得以证明(可惜这些出土文物的鉴定结果都被当政者刻意掩盖了)

第二:马来民族也不是这片土地的原本主人。马来人事实上都是印尼亚齐一带移民到马来半岛的后裔。仅有大约600年的历史。

The first: the Chinese as early as 1,200 years ago, it has come to this land, Chinese ancestors came to the history of the Malay Peninsula, more distant than the Malaysian. This can be found by archaeologists in Kelantan, Terengganu and Johor Tang Dynasty terra cotta Antiquities evidenced (Unfortunately, these archaeological finds identification results are those in power deliberately covered up)
Second: Malay nationalism is not the original owners of this land. The Malaysian In fact all the descendants of immigrants to the Malay Peninsula in Indonesia’s Aceh area. Only about 600 years old.

第三:这片土地的真正主人,是原住民Orang Asli。他们才是从有文字记载以来就一直生活在这片土地的真正主人。就像瑙鲁族之于纽西兰,红印第安人之于美国。

第四:从从三佛齐、赤土、狼牙修、盘盘、屈都昆等半岛古国的历史记载及出土文物证明马来半岛古国都是奉行印度文化,证明印度人移居到马来半岛的时间也比马来人更早。

因此,我们大马华裔公民绝对可以很有尊严的告诉全世界,我们也是这片土地的原住民,是这片土地的土著。和其他所有民族一样,拥有平等的地位。那些说我们华人是外来寄居者的人,其实等同于在讲他们自己!

Third: the true masters of this land, the aboriginal Orang Asli. Since they are the ones from the written records have been living in the real masters of this land. Like Nauru family in New Zealand, Red Indians in the United States.
Fourth: are pursued from the Malay Peninsula from Srivijaya, terracotta, Spike repair, trays and trays, Qu Dukun Peninsula ancient historical records and archaeological finds prove ancient Indian culture, prove that Indians migrated to the Malay Peninsula The time is earlier than the Malaysian.
Therefore, our Malaysian-Chinese citizens can definitely tell the world of the very dignity, we are the indigenous people of this land, this land’s indigenous. Like all other nations, have equal status. Those who say that we Chinese foreign sojourners, in fact, equivalent to speak their own!

因此,我们大马华裔公民绝对可以很有尊严的告诉全世界,我们也是这片土地的原住民,是这片土地的土著。和其他所有民族一样,拥有平等的地位。那些说我们华人是外来寄居者的人,其实等同于在讲他们自己!

在开始之前,请容许我很简单的问一问各位朋友,尤其是年轻一辈的朋友,这些有趣的问题:

你或许知道吉隆坡有不少以华人名字命名的街道,像陆佑路(Jalan Loke You),陈秀莲路(Jalan Chan Shau Lin),叶观胜路(Jalan Yap Kuan Seng)等等,当然全马还有许多大小城镇的街道,都有华裔先贤的名字。你们知道这些先贤的背景吗?你们听说过他们的事迹吗?知道他们为了这片土地的开拓和发展,贡献了什么力量?相信大家的答案都是模糊的。

现在,就让我为大家细说从头,马来西亚华侨苦拼数百年的血泪史。给大家一个比较清楚的历史轮廓;还原大马华裔先贤辛苦奋斗的真相。这些历史真相,保证100%真实,而且,肯定是大家在国民中学历史课本上看不到,读不到,也找不到的。因为,国阵政府多年来都在努力抹杀华裔先贤开拓这片土地的功劳!

华人最早期的峇峇社会

马来西亚华人先贤的奋斗历程和政治思潮的演变,是必须从历史事件去追溯的。由于华人帮派林立,思想繁杂,要全面的剖释思潮的发展是极其困离的。鉴于资料有限,因此我只能尽量从历史片断去概述,挂一漏万及主观上的错误,在所难免;尚请大家见谅。

Therefore, our Malaysian-Chinese citizens can definitely tell the world of the very dignity, we are the indigenous people of this land, this land’s indigenous. Like all other nations, have equal status. Those who say that we Chinese foreign sojourners, in fact, equivalent to speak their own!
Before you begin, please allow me to ask you friends very simple, in particular, is a friend of the younger generation, the interesting question:
You probably know that many streets named after a Chinese name in Kuala Lumpur, Loke Yew Road (Jalan Loke, You), Chen Hsiu-lien Road (Jalan Chan of Shau Lin), the Ye Guansheng Road (Jalan Yap Kuan Seng) and so on, of course, the whole horse many towns and cities the streets, there are ethnic Chinese sages name. Do you know the background of these sages? Have you heard of their deeds? To know in order to explore and develop the land, they contributed what forces? I believe that everyone’s answer is vague.
Now, let me as we elaborate scratch, Malaysian Chinese bitter fight to the tragic history of centuries. Give a clear historical outline; restore the Truth Malaysian ethnic Chinese sages hard struggle. These historical truth, to guarantee 100% true, and certainly is not read, can not find the point of view in a junior high school history textbooks. BN government over the years in efforts to obliterate ethnic Chinese sages to develop this piece of land credit!
Chinese earliest Babas society

华人移居东南亚,包括马来西亚,是很早的事。例如历史学家姚丹在他的著作《马来亚华侨史纲要》一书中指出,在唐代末叶以迄五代,华人流寓苏门答腊岛者已多,散居马来半岛者,亦为数不少。他们习惯称呼自己为《唐人》,就是一种口传的证据。

不过,《马来亚华侨史》的作者维特巴素博士则认为,十四世纪马六甲王朝成立后,华人的移居比较规模化,而在1511年葡萄牙占领马六甲后,华人才存有永久居留的意念。但是,截至十七世纪,华人在马六甲的人口不过三、四百名。 (注:荷兰人于1641年打败葡萄牙,占领马六甲。)

延至十八世纪中叶,居住在马来亚的华人总数只是数千人。他们多是商人和矿工。在这初期的迁居移殖阶段,他们亦有与马来妇女、暹罗、马达(BATAK)和巴里(BALI)妇女通婚。在有文字记载的马来半岛历史上,首次诞生第二代的华人子弟。

这些早期留居在马六甲的华人,终于组成一个《峇峇》(BABA)社会,较后这类的社会也在槟城和新加坡顺序建立起来。在马来文里,他们的名称是《Peranakan》。并且自组《海峡华人公会》。

Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, early. Yao Dan, for example, the historian, in his book “The Malayan Overseas Chinese History Outline” a book that the last years in the Tang Dynasty to until the Five Dynasties and Chinese Refugees of Sumatra Island, Diaspora Malay Peninsula, and there are many . They used to call themselves “Chinese”, is evidence of an oral tradition.
However, Malayan Overseas Chinese History “Dr. Wei Teba prime of that, after the establishment of the fourteenth century Malacca Chinese migrants comparison scale, Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, the Chinese talent there for permanent residence ideas. However, as of the 17th century, the Chinese population in Malacca but three or four hundred. (Note: the Dutch in 1641, defeated the Portuguese occupation of Malacca.)
Extended to eighteen century, thousands of people of the total number of Chinese living in Malaya. They are mostly businessmen and miners. Moved in early colonization stage, they are also with Malay women the Siamese the motor (BATAK) and Barry (BALI) women intermarriage. , The first time the birth of the second generation of Chinese who have a written record of the history of the Malay Peninsula.
These early stay in Malacca Chinese, and finally form a society “Baba” (BABA), the latter type of social order also Penang and Singapore established. Malay, their name is “Peranakan”. And since the set of the Straits Chinese Association.

所谓《海峡华人公会》,就是由一批已转化为峇峇的华人所组成。根据约翰甘默(JOHOR CLAMMER)所著《海峡华人公会》─书中,对峇峇社会有下列的分析。

他认为,峇峇是一个与中国没有联系的社会,而且生活习惯已经《土生化》。虽然在一定程度上仍然保存中国的旧传统,但语言方面的《福建马来化》和装饰上的改变,使到他们成为特殊的社群。其实,华人比较有规模的移民,是英国于1786年占领槟榔屿后。到了1824年,英国将槟城、马六甲及新加坡合并为海峡殖民地(Straits Settlement),华人移民在这三个地区的人数激增。

1874年,英国与霹雳苏丹签署邦咯条约,揭开英殖民势力介入半岛的序幕。 1884年,马来联邦成立,1909年马来属邦成立。到廿世纪初,整个马来半岛落入英国手中,华人的移民也就更进一步增加。根据统计,1911年,马来半岛及海峡殖民地人口中,华人共有87万4200人。

由于华人大量移入,海峡侨生(或称土生华人,即峇峇)所扮演的角色也受到冲击。一般而言,峇峇的思想是西方化的,接受英国为宗主国,因而成为英国人乐于聘用的政府部门文员。十八世纪和十九世纪初叶,峇峇的政治意识与行为,大都是效忠于大英帝国与海峡殖民地政府,而不是中国。

马来亚华侨的甲必丹制度

1900年,满清政府的义和团事件,导致八国联军进攻中国,当时有一名海峡侨生,投稿《海峡华人杂志》(THE STRAITS CHINESE MAGAZINE),呼吁海峡华人组成一支分遣队到中国与英军并肩作战,共同对付义和团。

Straits Chinese Association, has been transformed by a group of Chinese Babas. Straits Chinese Association “─ book written by John Gan Farmer (JOHOR CLAMMER), the following analysis of the social Babas.
He believes that Baba is no contact with the Chinese community, and habits has soil biochemical. Although still save the old tradition, to a certain extent, but the language of of Fujian Maleinized and decoration of change, so that they become a special community. In fact, the Chinese have more scale immigration, is occupied by the United Kingdom in 1786, Penang. To 1824, the British merger of Penang, Malacca and Singapore Straits Settlements (Straits Settlement), a surge in the number of Chinese immigrants in these three areas.
In 1874, the United Kingdom and the Perak Sudan signed the Pangkor Treaty, opened the prelude to the British colonial forces to intervene Peninsula. In 1884, the Federated Malay States was founded, the Malay States established in 1909. To the beginning of the twentieth century, the entire Malay Peninsula fall into British hands, the Chinese immigrants will further increase. According to statistics, in 1911, the population of the Malay Peninsula and the Straits Settlements, the Chinese total of 874,200 people.
Due to the the Chinese large number of shifted, the Strait of overseas Chinese students (or Peranakan Baba) plays the role of impact. Generally, Baba thought Westernized interview with Britain as a sovereign state, and thus become the British happy government departments employ clerks. Leaves, Baba’s political awareness and behavior in the beginning of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, mostly loyal to the British Empire and the Straits Settlements government, rather than China.
Malayan Overseas Chinese Kapitan system
1900, the Manchu government Boxer event, lead to the Eight-Power Allied Forces attack China was a Straits overseas Chinese students, Contributor “Straits Chinese Magazine” (THE STRAITS CHINESE MAGAZINE), called for the Straits Chinese a detachment to the Chinese and British troops alongside combat, jointly deal with Boxer

1901年11月,有100名海峡侨生加入新加坡义勇军步兵队,表现对英国政府的忠贞。不过在十九与廿世纪交替间,清廷、保皇党与革命党三股势力在马来亚和新加坡的活动,曾导致若干海峡侨生领袖的思想激荡。他们热望中国能变法图强,跻身世界强国之林。其中如林文庆.伍连德、曾锦文与阮添寿等人,更毅然回中国服务。

另一方面,从中国移居马来亚的华人,归属于两种包含着政治体系的制度,其一是受公开承认的《甲必丹制度》,其二是容许存在的帮会组织。所谓《甲必丹》,就是英文的Captain。也就是华人统称的《酋长》或《蕃长》。受委蕃长者,通常是当地华裔族群中德高望重或有相当影响力者。比如吉隆坡开埠功臣叶亚来,就是受封的甲必丹。

在马来亚,第一位被葡萄牙殖民政府委任的甲必丹是郑启基,又名郑芳扬。荷兰殖民时代的甲必丹则为李君常(原名李为经)。一些华社研究学者认为,郑启基是马来亚最古老寺庙青云亭的创建人。不过也有学者认为,郑启基于1632年在漳州出生,于1677年,委任他为甲必丹的是荷兰殖民政府。

 

In November 1901, the 100 Straits overseas Chinese the Singapore Volunteers Infantry Team, and the performance of the loyalty of the British Government. However, in the nineteenth and twentieth century alternating between the activities of the three forces of the Qing court, royalists and the Revolutionary Party of Malaya and Singapore, has led to ideological agitation of certain Strait overseas Chinese leaders. They desire to undertake political reforms, one of the world powers. Which such Boon Keng. Wu Lien-teh, Tsang Kam Man with Ruan Tianshou, decided to return to China service.
The other hand, from the Chinese of Chinese settlers in Malaya, attributable to the two contain the political system of the system, one is by openly admitted that “Kapitan system, and the second is to allow the presence of gang organization. The so-called “Kapitan”, the English Captain. Is the Chinese collectively referred to as the “chief” or “Fan.” By the Committee aboriginal elders, who is highly respected in the local Chinese population or have considerable influence. Yap Ah Loy, such as Kuala Lumpur, its history, the hero, is a glimpse of the Kapitan.
In Malaya, one appointed by the Portuguese colonial government Kapitan Zhengqi Ji, also known as Zheng Fangyang. Kapitan, the Dutch colonial era, compared with Li Jun Chang (formerly known as Lee by). Chinese community scholars believe the Zheng Qiji is the most ancient temples in Malaya Cheng Hoon Teng create people. Some scholars believe that Zhengqi Ji in 1632 were born in Zhangzhou, in 1677, appointed him as Kapitan Dutch colonial government.

不论哪一种说法比较准确,我们可以肯定的是,在英殖民势力侵入马来半岛之前,华人甲必丹制度已在马来亚存在。华社研究学者认为,华人在马来亚建立本身的社会,自然带来既有的社会和政治结构。殖民政府当局也允许华人这样做。华人建立自己的学校,而华人社会的福利及社会服务制度,通过自己主动获得确保。

早期的中国满清政府,也通过赐封南洋〈华人甲必丹〉制度,来维持南洋当地的法律与秩序。从历史事件显示,早期华人甲必丹是一种家长式的统治,与清朝有着一定的联系。他们在马来亚的华人社会,维持着封建式的地位,基本上,政治思想是倾向中国的帝王制度,最突出的例子是槟城的第一任华人甲必丹辜礼欢,约在1790年被莱特委任,距离莱特占领槟城不过三、四年时间,当时华人不过二百名左右。

No matter what kind of more accurate to say that, we can be sure, before the British colonial forces invade the Malay Peninsula, the the Chinese Kapitan system has been in Malaya. The researchers believe that in the Chinese community, the Chinese in Malaya to build their own social, natural to bring the existing social and political structures. The colonial Administration also allows the Chinese to do so. Chinese to build their own schools, and the welfare of the Chinese community and social services system ensure, through their own initiative.
The early Chinese Manchu government also adopted the the encomienda Nanyang <the Chinese Kapitan> system to maintain law and order in the Nanyang local. From the historical events of the early Chinese Kapitan a paternalistic rule has some connection with the Qing Dynasty. Chinese community in Malaya, they maintain the feudal status, basically, the political thinking is the tendency of China’s imperial system, the most prominent example is the first Chinese in Penang Kapitan Huan Koo ceremony, about 1790 Wright appointed from the Wright occupation of Penang, but three or four years, when the Chinese, but two hundred.

辜氏借着英国人的势力,成为酒税承包人,跃居富豪,他的次子辜安平,少时被送往中国,初在林则徐幕府服务,后调往台湾。中日甲午战争,中国战败,被迫将台湾割让给日本后,辜安平尚被封为贵族。

至于辜礼欢的孙子辜鸿铭(辜礼欢的第三子辜龙池的儿子),被英国贵族布朗(FORBES SCOTT BROWN)收为养子,后负笈英国爱丁堡大学,荣获文学硕士,精通法语、德语和现代希腊语。因受清朝帝制影响,开始留辫子,抛弃洋服,穿中国衣。1873年,辜鸿铭回中国,考中进士,出任两湖总督张之洞的幕僚。他的著述甚丰,其中《怒吼之声》表达的世界伦理观念,备受欧洲人重视,而译成数种西洋文。

Koo by British forces, the liquor tax contractor, leapt to the rich, his second son, Guan Ping, came from being sent to China, and early in the the Lin Zexu shogunate service, after transferred to Taiwan. After the Sino-Japanese War, China was defeated and forced to Taiwan was ceded to Japan, Guan Ping yet been called aristocracy.
As for Koo ceremony Huan’s grandson Gu Hongming (Ku ceremony Huan’s third sub-Koo Longchi’s son), by the British aristocracy Brown (FORBES SCOTT BROWN) received as a foster child, after going abroad for the University of Edinburgh, UK, was awarded a Master of Arts, proficient in French, German and modern Greek. Due to the impact of the Qing dynasty imperial, began Liu Bianzi abandoned tailor wear Chinese clothes. 1873, Gu Hongming back to China, comprehensive examinations Scholars as Hubei and Hunan Governor Zhang Zhidong aides. The his writings handsome world expressed by the roar of sound ethics much emphasis on Europeans, and translated into several Western Man

可是他的顽固思想,使他在清朝灭亡后,仍然主张保留辫子、缠脚、纳妾与抽鸦片等恶习,竟叫嚣辫子为〈中华民族之标志与徽号〉。更叫人不齿的是,在民国成立后十年,他依然背着潮流,只有逊帝宣统对他的〈忠贞不渝〉表示激赏,曾死后追封他为〈唐公〉(溥仪逊位后,被日本人利用为傀儡,建立伪满洲王国)。

私会党崛起争夺势力

如果说,英国人先是借助当地的华人领袖或有地位的人来控制华人社会,以为英殖民政府牟利,那么,到后来英国人则是利用私会党魁来担任甲必丹,以驾驭华人社会,监督他们和灌输大英帝国的思想。

私会党传入马来亚,也是与中国移民同一时期。根据巴素博士说:〈马来亚华人私会党,大体来说,出于天地会分脉,亦称为洪门或三合会,在中国已生存有好几个世纪,原本属于宗教或慈善自助的团体,而在满清时,具有反清复明的政治意识。 〉

三合会大约是成立于1674年,即清朝入关后约卅年。他们打起反清复明的旗帜,并发愿:〈严守秘密,歃血饮酒,结为义兄弟〉。档案显示,在槟榔屿开埠后的十三年,即1799年,私会党已在槟城公开活动,且曾鼓起暴乱。

据槟榔屿的海山会领袖刘亚昌供述,1825年,他们已备有300只小船,结集1万5000暹罗人,1000华人及8000马来人,准备在槟起事,意图推翻英国殖民政府。如果此说确有根据,那证明早期的私会党,也拥有反抗英殖民统治的政治思想,但因力量不足,有需借助暹罗人的支持。不过,有关的举事最终功败垂成。

历史资料也指出,其实华人并不真正支持暹罗入侵,有的只是为了支持吉打苏丹所展开的维护尊严和地位斗争,确保吉打安宁。吉打州,早年某些华人领袖对马来王室的效忠,几乎变成了传奇的故事。李氏兄弟(李欲修及李欲正)和甲必丹戴春桃(又名戴春华),对吉打当地社会的忠诚服务的事迹,长久遗留在当地人民的记忆中。

But he’s stubborn ideology, so he still advocating the preservation of the Qing dynasty, braids, foot-binding, concubinage, opium and other vices, actually clamoring for braids <Chinese nation flag and emblem>. More as people despised, in 10 years after the founding of the Republic, he is still carrying the trend, only Hudson Emperor Xuantong <faithful> appreciative, has bestowed his death <Tang public> (Pu Yi abdicated after Japanese used as a puppet of the establishment of the puppet Manchuria Kingdom).
Rise of the Secret Societies contention forces
If British first by Chinese leaders to control Chinese society, and that the British colonial government for profit status, then, to the British is the use of the private will party leader to serve as the Kapitan, to manage the Chinese community, monitor them and instill the thinking of the British Empire.
The private party incoming Malaya, but also with the Chinese immigrants the same period. According to Dr. Basu: Malayan Chinese private party, generally speaking, out of heaven and earth will be divided clock, also known as freemason or triad, have survived for centuries in China, originally belonged to religious or charitable self-help groups, in the Qing, anti Fuming political awareness. >
The Triad approximately established in 1674, the Qing Dynasty entry about thirty years. Playing the banner of anti Fuming concurrent willing: kept secret, drink blood drinking, became sworn brothers>. The file shows thirteen years in Penang after Opening in 1799, the secret societies in Penang public events, and had to muster riots.
According to Liu Yachang, Penang seamounts will leaders confession, in 1825, they have been equipped with 300 boats and Collecting 15,000 Siam, 1000 Chinese and 8000 Malaysian in Penang uprising, with intent to overthrow the British colonial government. If under that proves early private party, also has a political ideology against the British colonial rule, but the lack of strength, requires the use of the Siamese support. However, the uprising eventually lost.
The historical data also pointed out that, in fact, the Chinese do not really support Siam invasion, some just to support Kyrgyzstan to hit Sudan launched dignity and status struggle, to ensure that the Kedah tranquility. Kedah early years, some Chinese leaders on the allegiance of the Malay royal, has become almost legendary story. Lee’s brother (Lee Items Number of Copies and Lee For positive) and A Kapitan Dai Chun Tao (aka Dai Chunhua), Kedah deeds of loyal service to the local community, long-term legacy in the memories of the local people.

1821年,暹罗占据吉打,迫使大批马来人集体逃往槟城和威省。但吉打苏丹在当地人民,包括华人的合作下,致力维护社会秩序和各族人民应有的权利。直到1909年,英暹条约签署后,吉兰丹、丁加奴、吉打及玻璃市的宗主权归英国。巴素博士发现,1825年时,马来亚有下列四个私会党组织:义兴、和成、海山及华生。

他们的初期组织结构是:海山与义兴,散布于殖民地各处,会员均服从会中领袖的命令及约束。他们称其领袖为大哥。这些私会党分作四个、八个或十二个主要干部,然后分成许多支派,每个干部及每个支派,都有一位头目管理。从唐山(中国)南来的移民,叫做〈新客〉,他们来到任何一个地方时,这些私会党便会派人邀请他们入会,假如他们拒绝的话,便会受迫害。

由此可见,早期的华人结帮立会,在表面和名义上是讲求兄弟义气,有福共享,有难同当,但实际上却是领袖在培植势力,以向英殖民政府争取更大的利益。在政治方面,他们没有浓厚的倾向,虽然标榜反清复明,但在利益争夺底下,私会党已沦为争夺地盘的组织了。

尽管如此,英国人还是没办法控制他们,以致巴素博士形容私会党组织是〈政府中的政府〉,俨然是马新华人的〈地下统治者〉。莱佛士的私人秘书文西阿都拉在其自传中,有描述私会党强制华人入党的情形,迫使他们就范,否则受到毒打,甚至被杀害。

以当时的情形看来,南来的华人一无所有,他们别无选择,只有被迫参加这些私会党。根据史载,私会党后来竟分成两大派系,一为义兴,一为海山。这两大派系吸纳不同省籍的人士,且以拉律(即今太平)的暴乱为最严重的冲突实例。

私会党制造暴乱

霹雳的暴动也称拉律暴动。拉律以产锡闻名,起初归海山党人开采,首领是郑景贵,地盘是在吉利包矿区(即今太平监狱地)。另外,在太平甘文丁,则归义兴党人所发掘,首领为苏亚昌。两党为利而争,兼之籍贯互异,义兴属粤之四邑,即广东帮;海山属闽南五县,即福建帮。

另一说法,义兴以广府人为主,海山以客籍人为主。首次暴动发生于1862年,继之1872及1874年再发生第二及第三次暴动。私会党鼓起暴动之前,已断续在各地发生暴乱,如新加坡、槟城、马六甲以至砂劳越,例如新加坡1851年的大暴乱,起因于私会党不满一些华人改奉天主教,结果造成500人丧生。槟城于1867年也发生在三合(义兴)与督公(大伯公)之间的殴斗,竟展开十日大械斗,使全市陷于瘫痪。

然而最为重要者是拉律的第三次暴动,终于启开英殖民政府干涉联邦内陆的序幕。着名的邦咯条约就是于1874年签署的,英国的参政司制度于是逐一推进马来半岛内陆。私会党的政治意识是随着首领而发展的,他们曾反对英国的施政,也抗拒任何对他们利益的约束,更建立了自己的小王国。

In 1821, Siam occupy Kedah, forcing a large number of Malaysian collective fled to Penang and Butterworth. But Kedah the Sudan local people, including cooperation with the Chinese, seeking to uphold the social order and the rights of the people of all ethnic groups should have. Until 1909, after the signing of the Anglo-Siam Treaty of Kelantan, Terengganu, guitar playing and the suzerainty of Perlis under British. Dr. Basu, the 1825 Malaya the four private party organizations: Yi Xing, and into, seamounts and Watson.
Their initial organizational structure: the seamounts and Yising, scattered colonies throughout Member obey the command of the leader will and constraints. They call leader for Big Brother. These secret societies divided into four, eight or twelve cadres, and then divided into many tribes of each cadre and each tribe has a leader management. From Tangshan (China) south of immigrants, called the new passenger>, and they come to any place, these secret societies would send people to invite them to membership, will be persecuted if they refused.
Thus, the early Chinese knot help legislature emphasis on brotherhood in surface and nominally blessed to share, when in trouble with, but in fact it is the leader in nurturing forces, to fight for the greater interests of the British colonial government. In political terms, they do not have a strong tendency, although advertised anti Fuming, but in the interests of competition for under Secret Societies has been reduced to turf battles organization.
Nevertheless, the British still no way to control them, so that Dr. Basu described the party organizations in the private will Government> <government, just like Ma Xinhua <underground rulers>. Raffles Private Secretary Vinci Abdullah in his autobiography, described Secret Societies circumstances force the Chinese to join the party, forcing them into submission, and otherwise severely beaten, and even killed.
It seems the situation at the time, the Southern Chinese have nothing, they have no choice but to be forced to participate in these secret societies. Contains the history, secret societies was actually split into two factions, one of Yee Hing, a seamount. The two factions attract persons of different provinces, and riots the pull-law (now the Pacific) as the most serious conflicts instance.
Secret Societies manufacturing riots
Perak riots also said the pull legal riots. Pull law known to produce tin, initially under seamount partisan exploitation, chief Chung Keng Quee site is in the the Geely package mine (now the Taiping prison places). In Kamunting, Taiping, under Yising partisan excavations by the princes of Suya Chang. While bipartisan Tametoshi contention, Chairman of Hometown different, Yising case of Four Counties in Guangdong, namely Guangdong to help; the seamount case Minnan five counties, namely Fujian to help.
Another saying Yising mainly Cantonese people, seamounts mainly Hakka people. The first riots occurred in 1862, followed by the second and third riots happen again in 1872 and 1874. Secret Societies muster riots, has intermittent riots around, such as Singapore, Penang, Malacca and even Sarawak, for example, the 1851 riots in Singapore, due to the Secret Societies dissatisfaction with some Chinese reform Bong Catholic, resulting in 500 people were killed. Penang also occurred in 1867 in fighting between the triple (Yising) Governor male (Grand Uncle) actually commence on the 10th fight with weapons, so that the city came to a standstill.
However, the most important is the third pull-law riot, and finally open the British colonial government to interfere in the prelude to the federal inland. The famous Pangkor Treaty is signed in 1874, and the British the political participation Division system so one by one advancing the Malay Peninsula inland. Secret Societies of political awareness with the leader of the development, they had objected to the policy of the United Kingdom, also resist any constraints on their interests, and established their own little kingdom.

但是狡黠的英国统治者,在这方面是随机应变的。当无法镇压时,便采取拢络手段,例如义兴党和白旗会(WHITE FLAG,由马来人及印度人组成)的领袖陈亚炎被委为甲必丹,而海山党三合会首领郑景贵,也同样出任甲必丹。他们之间既是敌对,但在拉律事件后,也有合作的地方,在霹州议会上为华人利益据理力争。

甲必丹亚贵(郑景贵)和陈亚炎,身为华人社会的代表人物,自从出任甲必丹之后,都肯把大众利益放在个人利益之上。这二位旧敌表现出一种令人仰慕的特性。自从两党纠纷媾和之后,他们反而变成亲密朋友。据知,陈亚炎后来成为郑亚贵第四子的契爷,这个孩子就是有名的郑大平。

尽管私会党存在着违反法律乃至不良的记录,到了1877年被政府控制其活动,但私会党并不因此而绝迹。在19世纪下半叶,仍然在政治潮流的冲击下,表现其不定动向。不过,在华人社会的公开影响之下,私会党已经渐渐式微,由合法的华团组织取代了。综而观之,私会党当时的政治潮流不是倾向西方的,因此他们与英国的合作除了保护既存的权利外,领袖更想从中获得更大的利益。

一般而言,他们继承了旧中国的传统和宗教。譬如槟城海珠屿的大伯公张理,即被认为是最早来槟的华人,因此拜神成为华人思想的重要部份,封建的意识十分浓厚,同时也由于华社自成一体,对于街道的命名也与英文的意思截然不同。

But the the sly British rulers, resourceful in this regard. When unable to repression, they take the Long Luo means, for example Yising Party and white flag will (WHITE FLAG, composed by Malaysian and Indian) leaders Ya Yan was appointed as Kapitan, while the the seamount party triad leader Chung Keng Quee Kapitan also served. They both hostile place, but after the events of the pull-law, and cooperation for the Chinese interests in the Perak State Assembly argue.
A must Danya expensive (Chung Keng Quee) and Ya Yan, as a representative of the Chinese community, since served Kapitan are willing to put the public interest above personal interests. Both of these old enemy showed an admirable characteristics. Since the two parties disputes peace, they have become close friends. Far as I know, Ya Yan later became the godfathers of Zheng Yagui fourth son, this child is the famous Zheng Taiping.
Although the Secret Societies exist in violation of the law and even bad record, and to 1877 by the government to control its activities, but the Secret Societies not be extinct. In the second half of the 19th century, still under the impact of the political trends, performance its adventitious trends. However, in the open under the influence of the Chinese society, the private party has been gradually declining, replaced by the legitimate Chinese league organizations. Comprehensive and the concept of, the Secret Societies political trend is not Western-oriented, and their cooperation with the United Kingdom in addition to the protection of existing rights, the leaders would like to derive greater benefits.
In general, they have inherited the old tradition and religion. For example, Penang Haizhu island of Grand Uncle Zhang Li, is considered is earliest to Penang Chinese worship become an important part of the Chinese thinking, a very strong sense of feudal, but also due to the Chinese community self-contained body, for the street the name is also a very different meaning in English.

 


接受感召效忠清廷

由此可以想像,他们是在英国的殖民地土地上建立自己的社会。不过,他们已缺乏反清复明的政治意识,现实主义已经取代他们对于理想的追求。尤有进者,加上赌博与抽鸦片大行其道,华人的思想即被麻木,而对政治显然不热忱,除非是关系到切身的利益,才起而反抗。利益的冲突和争夺,及对工人的剥削已使私会党变质,而在后来的社会发展中,成为一种绊脚石。

Thus, you can imagine, they are in the British colony land to build their own society. However, they have a lack of political awareness of anti Fuming, realism has replaced their quest for the ideal. Carry, coupled with the popularity of gambling and opium, Chinese thinking Jibei numbness, while obviously not dedicated to politics, unless it is related to personal interests, was up against. Conflicts of interest and contention, and the exploitation of workers have the Secret Societies deterioration in later social development has become a stumbling block.

不过,这些私会党也不完全对政治没有意识,尤其是担任首领的,或多或少存有对中国的关心。郑景贵是其中一个例子,他在发迹后,偶尔返回家乡,捐输救济中国水灾及战争救济金。他是在李鸿章提督指挥下的法越战争时期捐献的(清廷支持越南,以阻止法国威胁中国安全)。满清政府为酬答他的捐献,特封赐予二品官衔头。这又显示早期的华人领袖,有部份在一定程度上是支持清廷的。

1877年,英政府任命白麒麟(WALTER ALEXANDER PICKERiNG)为华民护卫司,是为英人直接干预华人事务之开始。华民护卫司亦为社团注册官。 1882年危险社团法令生效后,宣布海山公司为非法组织。1889年社团法令通过,1890年,海峡殖民地政府援引新的社团法令,封闭所有华人私会党组织,并将一部份私会党徒驱逐出境,所有的社团必须重新登记才能公开活动。

同时,就在英国设立华民护卫司的同一年(1877年,即光绪3年),清廷也在新加坡设立领事馆,首任领事为胡亚基。1890年,清廷接着在槟城设领事馆,首任领事为张弼士(张振勋)。领事馆的设立意味看清廷认定当地的华人是它的子民,因此有受保护的必要,而在这方面与英国的华民护卫司制度起了冲突。

因为英国认为,住在马来亚的华人必须接受英人的统治,无其他势力可以在殖民地施行治外法权。英国坚持不让清廷对华人产生政治影响,只是允许通商的连系,以致两者关系不能协调,且演变成一种政治对抗。但是,鉴于华人的倾向,清廷在唤起华人对中国的关心取得了一定的效果。其中一个实例,是一位新加坡富商陈金钟独捐4000元,给清廷作为救济饥荒基金。

很显然的,清廷最后对英国人妥协,只委当地人出任总领事,而不是由清廷遣派,这进一步激发马来亚当地华人对清廷的效忠。虽然是住在英国统治的地方。这种通过领事馆的活动,使清廷占了优势,尤其是在政治意识的灌输,尽管当地的华人服膺于英国的法律。从华文教育和华文报业的发展,即可见诸一斑。

However, these secret societies is not entirely political consciousness, especially as leaders, more or less there is concern on China. Chung Keng Quee is one example of his fortune after occasionally return home, relief flooding in China and war relief donations. He donated to Vietnam during the war in the the Li Hongzhang prefect under the command of the law (the Qing court support Vietnam, in order to prevent the French threat to China’s security). Manchu government for answers for his donations, special seal – given the official title of the head of the two products. This show early Chinese leaders have majority support to some extent the Qing court.
In 1877, the British government appointed white unicorn (WALTER ALEXANDER PICKERiNG) Guarding Division for China and China, direct intervention in Chinese affairs start for the Englishman. Guarding Division of China and China is also the Registrar of Societies. Dangerous Societies Act to take effect in 1882, announced that the the seamount company as an illegal organization. Societies Act 1889 through 1890, the Straits Settlements government invoking the new Societies Act, closed all Chinese Secret Societies party organizations, and a portion will be private gang members deported to public events, all societies must re-register.
Meanwhile, in the UK the establishment of China and China Guarding Division of the same year (1877 Guangxu 3 years), the Qing court also Singapore to establish consulates first consul for Huya Ji. In 1890, the Qing court followed consulate in Penang, the first consul the Cheong Fatt (Zhang Zhenxun). The establishment of the consulate means that the Qing court finds that the local Chinese people, and therefore protected from the conflict in this regard with the British system of China and China Guarding Division.
As British Chinese living in Malaya must accept the rule of the British rule, and no other forces in the colonies purposes extraterritoriality. Insist on keeping the Qing government to have a political impact on the Chinese in the United Kingdom, just allow trade ties, so that the relationship between the two can not be reconciled, and evolved into a political confrontation. However, in view of the tendency of the Chinese, the Qing court arouse the Chinese care achieved a certain effect. One instance, a Singapore businessman Chen Admiralty alone donated 4,000 yuan to the Qing court as a famine relief fund.
Obviously, the Qing court last British compromise, only served as Consul General appointed locals, rather than by Qing court Dispatching, which further stimulate the the Malaya local Chinese Manchu allegiance. Although it is a place to live under British rule. This through the consulate’s activities, so that the Qing government prevailed, especially in the political consciousness of indoctrination, although local Chinese obedient to the laws of the United Kingdom. , Can be seen from the development of Chinese education and Chinese Press evident

在当时清廷的政治思潮影响下,华人对文化和教育乃告热心起来,虽然于1729年,清代雍正年间,槟城设有一所五福书院及1888年(光绪十四年戊子)又设一间南华义学,但属于私塾性质,学校规模尚未形成。

第一间的正规华校,当推建立于1904年(光绪卅年)的槟城中华学校,接着雪州有尊孔学校,霹州有育才学校之设,此风一开,全马各地纷纷兴学办校,教育风气至为蓬勃。华文教育于是在马来亚这片土地上萌芽,并茁壮成长。从此以后,马来亚华文教育的火炬,再也没有熄灭过。

今晚的《追溯马来亚华人先贤奋斗史》第一回,就说到这里。明天同样的时间,我们再会。谢谢大家的支持,晚安。

by:Mask Man

 

发表在 馬來西亞的真實歷史, 追溯馬來亞華裔先贤奋斗史

发表评论

Did the Court of political thought under the influence of the Chinese culture and education are divisions enthusiastic about it, although in 1729, the Qing Dynasty Yongzheng, Penang has a of Wufu College and 1888 (Guangxu fourteen years, Lunar) and to set up abetween South Wayi learn, but belongs to the private school in nature, the size of the school has not yet formed.
The first formal school, when the push was established in 1904 (Guangxu thirty years), Penang Chinese School, followed by Selangor respect holes schools, the Perak State the Yucai School of set, this wind one open, everywhere throughout Malaysia Schooling running schools, education atmosphere to flourish. Chinese education then Malaya on this piece of land to sprout and thrive. Since then, the torch of the Malayan Chinese education is never extinguished.
Tonight’s “retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back to the first stop here. Tomorrow the same time, we will again. Thank you for your support, good night.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

《铁窗首长林冠英:浴火重生的不死鸟》

作者

The Road Back Directorate Lim Guan Eng: the ashes of the Phoenix”
JAN 26
Of the voice of justice


大家晚上好!从大年初一到初三,一连三天和大家讲述了林吉祥的《政海浮沉录》传奇故事之后。今天,要跟大家讲讲林吉祥的儿子,《铁窗首长》林冠英。

我知道林冠英有很多粉丝,尤其年轻一辈的选民特别钟爱林冠英。选民喜欢林冠英,是出于真心。因为他虽然贵为首席部长,但是他平易近人,毫无首长的官架子。他嫉恶如仇,对社会的不平等,对当权者刻意制造各族之间的矛盾冲突,绝不选择沉默,而是用于发声。

虽然这使他遭受牢狱之灾,但是他无怨无悔,不会因为受到残酷的打压而退缩。林冠英能有今天执政槟州的成就,是他和父亲辛苦奋斗多年,卧薪尝胆得来的成果。在谈过了林吉祥之后,紧接着讲述林冠英,我个人觉得,很有意义。

因为林吉祥和林冠英,在传承家族,政治斗争目标理想和贯彻行动党的理念,各方面都有着息息相关的脉搏。在家族里,林冠英身为长子,父亲已经接近退休阶段,他必须接棒,照顾弟弟妹妹,为林家开枝散叶。这一点,林冠英做得不错。他和太太周玉清,已经育有4名子女。

在行动党的党务方面,林吉祥早已于1995年卸下党秘书长的最高职位,交棒郭金福,然后传给林冠英,完成了世代交替的工作。林冠英承继了父亲强硬的作风,在贯彻行动党斗争路线的工作方面,林吉祥绝对可以放心。

在国家政治发展大势方面,林冠英也不负众望,协助父亲圆梦,在2008年的308全国大选,率领行动党第三代年轻新锐大军出战槟州,一举推翻国阵盘踞了40年的槟州政权。继王保尼,林苍佑和许子根之后,林冠英出任槟州第四位华裔首席部长。

林冠英在峇眼国会选区中选,同时也在阿逸布爹州选区当选州议员。他率领的行动党大军,一举攻下槟州19个州议席,与夺得9个州议席的公正党联手执政槟州。308大选,民政党和马华在槟州全军覆没,输到连一席都不剩。这个在槟州马华和民政党史上,堪称史无前例。

执政槟州,圆首长梦

民主行动党获得了创党以来最大的胜利,行动党在全国竞选47个国会议席,中选28席(胜出比率59.57%)。在州立法议会方面,行动党竞选9个州属的101个州议席,中选73席(胜出比率72.28%)!行动党因此得以和公正党共同执政槟州,并且在雪兰莪和霹雳与公正党和回教党组织联合政府。

霹雳州在民联执政一年之后,由于许月凤和其他两个公正党州议员被国阵收买而倒戈跳槽;致使霹雳民联州政府垮台。许月凤三人的行为和国阵的肮脏手段,已经为大马民主政治再添一个大污点。霹雳州民联政权被国阵使用肮脏手段巧取豪夺,那是题外话。我们言归正传。

关于林冠英,这里建简单的向大家介绍他的背景。林冠英出身于1961年12月8日,出身地点在柔佛州的峇株巴辖。祖籍福建林宝山。父亲是现任怡保东区国会议员。母亲梁玉治。林冠英早期在峇株巴辖和马六甲接受小学和中学教育。

随后到澳洲莫纳斯大学深造( Monash University),考获经济会计学位,是一名合格的会计师。在父亲长期的政治理念熏陶之下,1982年,他21岁的时候,选择加入民主行动党。他在1983年从澳洲学成归来之后,并没有马上投身政治;而是在银行任职高级行政人员。

1986年,由于父亲林吉祥发动《丹绒一役》而远征槟州,在丹绒国会选区挑战代表董教总加入民政党,出战丹绒国会议席的许子根。林吉祥腾空出来的马六甲市区国会选区,便由林冠英代父守土。

他不负众望,以1万7千多张多数票击败国阵马华候选人,中选为马六甲市区国会议员。那年,林冠英才25岁。因为林冠英继承了父亲嫉恶如仇的个性,使得他针对许多不平等的课题敢怒敢言,很快就成为国阵的眼中钉,肉中刺。

1987年,由于教育部派出不谙华文的教师出任华小高职,引起董教总严厉抗议。当年刚刚度过梁陈党争的马华,还有锋芒毕露的行动党新锐,前所未有的走到了一起,与董教总联手,在吉隆坡天后宫举行抗议大集会。并且宣布如果教育部不收回成命,董教总将号召受影响的华小展开罢课行动。

董教总,行动党和马华破天荒走在一起的举动,触怒了巫统,在当年的巫青团长纳吉率领之下,也在吉隆坡Kg. Baru举行马来人大集会;扬言要以华人的鲜血清洗马来剑!

两度入狱,卧薪尝胆

局势演变成了种族对峙的局面。当年马哈迪也刚刚走过巫统AB队党争,巫统正需要一些外来事件凝聚马来人的向心力,于是默许属下刻意将原本单纯的教育课题炒成种族课题,借以转移巫统因为党争而闹分裂的视线。引导马来人将仇恨转移到华人身上。

当马来人与华人之间的仇恨被巫统的有心人不断煽风点火,眼看即将一发不可收拾,极有可能重演五一三悲剧的时候,马哈迪展开了雷厉的《茅草行动》,动用内部安全法令,大肆逮捕华裔政治人物和华社领袖。

林冠英和林吉祥父子,还有行动党许多党要,加上董教总的沈慕羽,林晃升,柯嘉逊等等,都被捕入狱。关进了太平甘文丁扣留营。林氏父子是最后两个获得无条件释放的行动党领袖。他们总共被关了长达18个月。

1989年4月,获得释放的林冠英,获选为行动党社青团团长,同时他与英文星报驻马六甲记者周玉清坠入爱河的消息正式公开。同年12月共结连理。

1990年,在林吉祥发动《丹绒二役》的龙头对决中,在槟州巴当哥打击败林苍佑,成功否决槟州国阵2/3州议会优势的同时;林冠英也已1万4千多张多数票成功连任马六甲市区国会议员。

1994年,林冠英扛上了马六甲首席部长阿都拉欣淡比仄。林冠英公开表示,他手头上拥有阿都拉欣的贪污证据。

他指控阿都拉欣拥有来路不明的财产高达2千7百42万元;并且先后10次到反贪污局报案。然而,马哈迪政府掌控之下的反贪污局始终没有采取调查行动,这令林冠英非常不满。接着,林冠英接获一位未成年少女的母亲求助,指控甲州首长涉及淫乱罪,与15岁未成年马来少女发生性关系。

从来不是种族主义者的林冠英,并不因为前来求助的是马来友族而拒绝协助。他毅然决定代未成年马来少女出头,指控阿都拉欣涉及奸淫罪。因为按照马来西亚刑事法典条文,任何男人若与未满16岁少女发生性关系,无论对方是否出于自愿,都属于违法行为。

可是,林冠英万万没有想到,他仗义为未成年马来少女出头,指控阿都拉欣涉及性丑闻事件,换来的却是令自己陷入无穷无尽的灾难中。虽然这宗性丑闻成功打击了阿都拉欣的声望,但是,在官官相护的情况之下,阿都拉欣不但官位稳固,也没有受到任何法律对付。反而是代替未成年马来少女出头的林冠英,从此官司缠身。

首先,林冠英面对总检察署以《1948年煽动法令》对他提出控告,指他发表不实言论,意图中伤马六甲首席部长的名誉。接着,由于林冠英涉嫌印刷及派发传单,因此被总检察署加控以触犯1984年印刷机及出版法令。

仗义出头,反遭出卖

开始的时候,林冠英认为所有对他的指控,罪名都是不成立的。因为阿都拉欣与未成年少女发生性丑闻的事件,他拥有人证。未成年马来少女和她的家人都愿意站出来指证阿都拉欣的奸淫罪。可是后来的形势发展,却大出林冠英的意料之外。未成年马来少女和她的家人忽然在庭上改口,自己推翻了对阿都拉欣的指控!

后来据说,未成年马来少女和家人只所以改口否认之前的指控,是因为他们私下与阿都拉欣达成和解协议,取得一笔为数不小的赔偿金;条件就是必须在法庭上翻供。

得到了大笔金钱的赔偿之下,未成年马来少女的家人见钱眼开,见利忘义,决定遵守秘密协议,在法庭上翻供,推翻之前所有的指控。这样一来,就陷林冠英于不义了。形势大逆转之下,林冠英已经没有退路。虽然有卡巴星为他打官司,但是在只手遮天的大马政坛,真理是无法战胜邪恶的。

加上马哈迪已经将黑手伸入司法界,所有不听话的法官都被对付,连最高法院院长敦沙列阿巴斯都被马哈迪设法搞到被最高元首革职。取代沙列阿巴斯的阿都哈密,基本上是听命于那哈迪的指示办案。而总检察署更加完全是政府的人。法律已经成为对付善良人民百姓的工具。

经过长达4年的司法抗争,林冠英原本于1997年被判抵触煽动法令和印刷法令罪名成立,必须缴交罚款1万5千元。但是主控官不满判决,认为刑法太轻,要求重审。于是在1998年8月25日,被法庭宣判加重刑罚,必须入狱18个月。林冠英知道正义伸张无望,不得不面对不公不义的审判,接受入狱的判决。

这就是直到今天都令知道内情者愤愤不平,宣称《犯罪的人没事,伸张正义的人坐牢》的原因。由于在狱中表现良好,林冠英于1999年8月25日,在《烈火莫熄》的热潮中,光荣出狱。林冠英虽然遭受牢狱之灾,但是他也并非完全没有收获。

这起性丑闻官司为他增添不少政治资本和筹码。尤其重要的是,他的受难大大消除了马来社会对民主行动党的隔阂。许多马来人,尤其是年轻的马来人,对民主行动党的刻板印象已经大大改观。

1999年全国大选,由于林冠英刚刚出狱,按照选举法令规定,五年内他不能参与选举。行动党中央原本打算安排林冠英的妻子周玉清《代夫从军》出战马六甲市区国会选区。

但是由于马六甲州联委会的吴良山等人反对,最后改由党中央秘书长郭金福上阵马六甲市区国会议席;周玉清改到榴莲老温区竞选州议席。结果周玉清成功胜出,并且一再连任成功,加上2008年大选,周玉清已经连续三届中选为榴莲老温区州议员。

巫统霸权,马华堕落

2004年,因为国阵政权进行世代交替,马哈迪交棒阿都拉巴达维;阿都拉形象相对温和中庸;新人事新作风,全民都愿意给于阿都拉政权一个机会。结果2004年全国大选,国阵取得有史以来最辉煌的战绩,马华的国州议员也达到史无前例的多。大家对于阿都拉政权寄予厚望。

那年,行动党秘书长郭金福在马六甲市区守土失败,败给了马华无名小卒王乃志;而林吉祥则回到霹雳州,中选为怡保东区国会议员;重新回到国会担任反对党领袖。碍于五年不得竞选的期限未满,林冠英只能继续当行动党的助选员。郭金福大选落败之后宣布辞去党中央秘书长职位。林冠英因此接过领导棒子,自2005年起出任行动党秘书长至今。

由于林冠英被认定是林吉祥钦点的接班人,他在政治上必须有更为突出和显眼的政绩,才足以确认和加强他担任党魁的合法性。所谓突出的政绩,包括对外要能让行动党支持者看到他带给党新的气息;对内更要能让党员看到未来的新希望。当然,林冠英励精图治,表现并没有让人失望。

另一方面,阿都拉领导的国阵,尤其是巫统,自从2004年取得有史以来最辉煌的战绩之后,摆出一副嚣张跋扈,不可一世的嘴脸。他们个个患上大头症。其中以阿都拉的女婿凯利,巫统署理主席纳吉,巫青团长希山姆丁为首的少壮派,更加目中无人。

他们认为马来选票已经完全回流,人民公正党再也不足为患;华裔选民也已经唾弃行动党,重投马华怀抱;因此他们对于反对党不屑一顾;甚至自大到公开表明,巫统已经不再需要华人选票!

Good evening, everyone! From New Year’s Day to three days, three days and about Lim Kit Siang political and sea drifting recorded after the legend. Today, the “Cool heads tell us something about Lim Kit Siang’s son, Lim Guan Eng.
I know that Lim has a lot of fans, especially the younger generation of voters, especially beloved Lim. Voters like Lim Guan Eng, for really. Because he is expensive for the Chief Minister, but he is approachable, no head of airs. He Jieruchou deliberately created conflicts between all ethnic groups, social inequality, authority, never choose to be silent, but for the sound.
Although he suffered jail, but he regrets not shrink because of the brutal suppression. Lim Guan Eng today ruling Penang achievement, hard struggle for many years he and his father, hardships to the results. Talked Lim Kit Siang, followed by about Lim Guan Eng, I personally think that makes sense.
Lim Kit Siang and Lim Guan Eng, in the tradition of the family, the ideal of political struggle goals and implement the Action Party’s philosophy, every aspect has closely related to the pulse. The eldest son in the family, Lim Guan Eng, the father is already close to retirement, he must defend the crown, to take care of younger brothers and sisters, for the Lin family is flourishing. This, Lim Guan Eng is doing quite well. He and his wife Zhou Yuqing, who already had four children.
Action Party, the party, Lim Kit Siang has long been removed in 1995, the highest office of the Secretary-General of the party, passing on the baton Guo Jinfu, and then passed to Lim Guan Eng, the completion of the work of generational change. Lim Guan Eng has inherited the father’s tough style of work in the line of the struggle of the implementation of the Action Party, Lim Kit Siang can rest assured.
In the general trend of the development of the country’s political, Lim Guan Eng also live up to expectations, to help his father realize their dreams, in 308 national elections in 2008, the third generation of the Action Party led by young emerging army played in Penang, Penang regime overthrew the Barisan Nasional entrenched for 40 years. Following Boni, Lim Chong Eu and Koh Tsu Koon, Lim Guan Eng as Penang fourth Chinese Chief Minister.
Lim Guan Eng in Batu eye congressional districts selected, also the constituency of of Ah Yat cloth Davis State elected state legislators. Action Party, he led the army, has captured 19 state seats in Penang, teamed up with the Justice Party won nine state seats in the ruling Penang. 308 general election, Gerakan and MCA in Penang, annihilated, to lose even one seat none left. Penang MCA and Gerakan in the history of unprecedented.
Ruling of Penang, round heads of dream
Democratic Action Party won the biggest victory since the founding Action Party in the national election of 47 congressional seats, to select 28 seats (59.57% win ratio). Action Party in the State Legislative Assembly election nine states, 101 state seats, to select 73 seats (72.28% win ratio)! Action Party was able and Justice Party, the ruling Penang, and the coalition government in Selangor and Perak and Justice Party and the Muslim party organizations.
Perak NLD Party one year after Xu Yuefeng and two other Justice Party state legislators were bribed by the Barisan Nasional defection quit; resulting in the collapse of the Perak Pakatan Rakyat state government. Xu Yuefeng three acts and the dirty tricks of the Barisan Nasional, the Malaysian democracy add a large stain. The Perak Man regimes Barisan using dirty means hook or by crook, that is beside the point. We get down to business.
About Lim Guan Eng, built here to tell you about his background. Lim Guan Eng was born on December 8, 1961, birth place of Batu Pahat in Johor Palestinian jurisdiction. Native of Fujian Forestry Baoshan. Father was current Yibao Dong District Congressman. Mother Herbert Leung governance. Lim early primary and secondary education in Batu Pahat and Malacca.
Postgraduate then to Australia’s Monash University (Monash University), obtained a degree in economic accounting, and is a qualified accountant. Father nurtured under the long-term political philosophy, in 1982, when he was 21 years old, choose to join the Party of Democratic Action. And come back from Australia in 1983, he did not immediately join the political; but senior executives at the bank.
Father Lim Kit Siang launched the “Tanjung battle” in 1986, an expedition to Penang, Tanjung congressional districts challenge on behalf of the Dong Jiao Zong joined Gerakan, played the Tanjung parliamentary seats Koh Tsu Koon. Lim Kit Siang vacated Malacca urban congressional districts by Lim Guan Eng on behalf of the parent they defend their territory.
He live up to expectations, and MCA candidate to defeat Barisan 10,007 thousand majority in elected Malacca urban congressmen. That year, Lim Guan Eng was 25 years old. Lim Guan Eng inherited personalized father Jieruchou, he was the subject of many inequalities mince, and quickly became a thorn in the flesh of the National Front.
In 1987, the Ministry of Education sent are not fluent in the Chinese language teachers to serve small Chinese Higher Vocational, causing the Dong Jiao Zong stern protest. MCA then just spent Leung Chan, the party struggles, the Action Party hard-edged cutting-edge, unprecedented walked with Dong Jiao Zong jointly protest rally in Kuala Lumpur Tin Hau Temple. And announced that the Ministry of Education does not withdraw its proposal, the Dong Jiao Zong will commence strike action called on the affected Chinese small.
Dong Jiao Zong’s Action Party and the MCA the first time to come together move angered the UMNO, under the then leader of the UMNO Youth Nagy led, also in Kuala Lumpur Kg Baru Malay National People’s Congress rally held; threatened to Chinese blood cleaning Malay sword!
Twice imprisonment, hardships
The situation has evolved into a racial confrontation. Mahathir also just walked the UMNO AB team party struggles, UMNO is in need of some external event to unite the centripetal force of the Malaysian therefore acquiesced in its deliberately had simply fried education topics into racial issues, in order to transfer the UMNO because the party struggles The split between the line of sight. The boot Malaysian will be transferred to the Chinese who hate.
When the hatred between the Malaysian and Chinese UMNO people could continue to stir up trouble, seeing is about to run out of control, it is highly possible repeat of the tragedy of five hundred and thirteen, Mahathir commenced the vigorous the “thatched action” to spend The Internal Security Act, mass arrests of ethnic Chinese politicians and community leaders.
Lim Guan Eng and Lim Kit Siang and his son, there’s Action Party party must, together with Dong Jiao Zong Shen Mu Yu, Lin Fong-liter, Kejia Johnson, etc., are in jail. Off into the Pacific the Kamunting detained camp. Lim and his son’s Action Party leaders last two unconditional release. In total, they are shut up to 18 months.
In April 1989, to obtain the release of Lim Guan Eng, was elected Action Party Socialist Youth regiment officially open at the same time he fell in love with the English Star reporters in Malacca, Zhou Yuqing message. Were married in December of the same year.
1990, Lim Kit Siang launched the Tanjung two Battle “leading showdown the Penang bus when Kota defeated Lim Chong Eu, while successful veto the Penang Barisan 2/3 of the state legislature advantage; Lim also has 10,000 4 more than a majority vote of the successful re-election Malacca urban congressmen.
In 1994, Lim Guan Eng Kangshang Malacca Chief Minister Ibrahim light than Chek. Lim Guan Eng said publicly that he now has evidence of corruption Ibrahim.
He accused Ibrahim has a The unsolicited property up to $ 7 million 42 million; and has 10 to report to the Anti-Corruption Bureau. However, the Mahathir government under the control of the Anti-Corruption Bureau has not conducting an investigation, Lim very dissatisfied. Then, Lim Guan Eng, the mother of an underage girl received assistance accused Koshu heads involving adultery, sexual relations with the 15-year-old minor Malay girl.
Has never been a racist Lim Guan Eng, does not come for help Malay refused assistance. He decided behalf of a minor the Malay girls succeed, accused Ibrahim involve adultery. In accordance with the provisions of the Criminal Code in Malaysia, if any man have sexual relations with the under 16-year-old girl, regardless of whether the other party is voluntary, is illegal.
However, Lim Guan Eng absolutely did not think his sense of justice for minors succeed in Malay girl scandal involving sexual allegations Ibrahim, in return make himself into endless disaster. Although cases of sexual scandal successfully dealt a blow to the prestige of Ibrahim, under in Guanguanxianghu situation, Ibrahim not only official position is solid, not subject to any law to deal with. But is instead minors Malay girls succeed Lim from lawsuits.
First, Lim Guan Eng, the face of the Attorney General’s Office and the Sedition Act of 1948 filed a complaint against him, that he published false statements with intent to slander the reputation of the Chief Minister of Malacca. Lim allegedly printing and distributing leaflets additionally charged by the Attorney General’s Office to breach of the printing presses and Publications Act 1984.
Generous attempts succeed, Fanzao the betrayed
Beginning, Lim Guan Eng that all the charges against him, the charges are not established. Ibrahim with underage girls sex scandal, he has witnesses. The underage the Malays girl and her family are willing to stand up and testify against Ibrahim adultery. Later, however, the development of the situation, Lim Guan Eng’s big unexpected. The underage the Malays girl and her family is suddenly changed his tune in the court rejects the allegations of Ibrahim!
Later said that minors Malay girls and family only so changed to deny the allegations before they privately with Abdullah Hinda into a settlement agreement, made no small sum in compensation; condition that must be retracted in court.
Get a large sum of money in compensation under the underaged Malay girl’s family money eyes, unscrupulous, decided to comply with the secret agreement, retracted in court, overthrow all previous allegations. As a result, the trap that Lim in unrighteousness. Situation under the big reversal, Lim Guan Eng has no escape route. Although Karpal for his defense, but only fully Malaysian political arena, the truth can not be overcome evil.
Plus Mahathir has black hands stretching the judiciary, all disobedient judges are dealing with, even the President of the Supreme Court
敦沙列阿巴斯 Mahathir managed to get the Supreme Head of State dismissed. Replace 沙列阿巴斯 Abdul Hami, basically take orders from that Hadi instructions handling the case. The Attorney General’s Office more government. The law has become a tool of the people of the people in Fushan Liang.
After four years of judicial struggle, Lim Guan Eng, the original in 1997 and sentenced to contradict the Sedition Act and the Printing Act guilty, must pay a fine of 10,005 yuan. But prosecutor dissatisfied with the judgment that the criminal law too light, the request for reconsideration. So in the August 25, 1998, the court sentenced to increase the penalty must be 18 months’ imprisonment. Lim know justice and hopeless, had to face the injustice of the trial and judgment of imprisonment.
That is, until today, so know the inside story indignant, claiming that “the criminal’s right, the justice of the people in jail” reasons. On August 25, 1999 due to good performance in prison, Lim Guan Eng, “the Agni Mo quenching craze and glory of jail. Lim Guan Eng, although suffering from the jail, but he is not completely harvest.
The sexual scandals lawsuit for him to add a lot of political capital and chips. Particularly important, his crucifixion greatly eliminate of maleic social barriers of the Democratic Action Party. Malaysian, especially the young Malaysian, the stereotype of the Democratic Action Party has been greatly improved.
The 1999 national elections, Lim Guan Eng has just released from prison, in accordance with the Election Act provisions, within five years, he can not participate in the election. Action Party Central Committee had originally planned to arrange Lim Guan Eng’s wife, Zhou Yuqing Maldives army “played the Malacca urban congressional districts.
However, due to the Malacca State Joint Commission Wu Liang Mountain against, last changed by the CPC Central Committee and Secretary-General Guo Jinfu battle the Malacca urban congressional seats; Zhou Yuqing change to the the durian old temperature zone running for state seats. Results Zhou Yuqing successfully win and repeatedly re-election success, coupled with the 2008 general election, Zhou Yuqing has three consecutive elected the durian old Wen District state legislators.
UMNO hegemony, MCA Fallen
In 2004, because the National Front regime alternation of generations, Mahathir passing on the baton Abdullah Badawi; the relatively mild moderation Abdullah image; new personnel and new style, all the people are willing to give the the Abdullah regime a chance to. The results of the 2004 national elections, the National Front made the most brilliant record, the MCA state legislators reached unprecedented. We have high hopes for Abdullah’s regime.
That year, the Action Party Secretary General Guo Jinfu Malacca city to defend their territory failed, lost to the MCA nobody Nai Chi; Lim Kit Siang is returned to Perak, in elected Yi Baodong Congressman; back to Congress to serve as the leader of the opposition. Because under the age of five may not campaign period, Lim Guan Eng can only continue when the Action Party campaign workers. Guo Jinfu announced his resignation from the post of Secretary-General of the CPC Central Committee after the general election defeat. Lim took over the leadership of the stick so far served as the Secretary-General of the Action Party since 2005.
Lim Guan Eng was identified Lim Kit Siang’s hand-picked successor, he must be politically more prominent and conspicuous achievements, was enough to confirm the legitimacy of the party leader and strengthen that he served as. The so-called outstanding achievements, including foreign To make Action Party supporters see him bring the party breath; internally to allow party members to see a new hope for the future. Of course, Lim Guan Eng, good governance, the performance did not disappoint.
Abdullah-led National Front, on the other hand, especially UMNO, since the most brilliant results achieved in 2004, assumed an arrogant and despotic, the face of the mighty. They were all suffering from a big disease. Young Turks, led by Abdullah’s son-in-law, Kelly UMNO Acting main Xi Naji, head of UMNO Youth Hishammuddin Muding more defiant.
Malay ballot papers have been completely reflux, the People’s Justice Party, never less than infestation; the Chinese voters spurned Action Party to rejoin Ma Huahuai hold; therefore their disdain for the opposition; Even so arrogant as to openly express, UMNO is no longer Requires ballot Chinese!

当华社要求国阵政府兑现大选承诺,批准增建华小,和承认独中统考文凭的时候,巫统一张张狰狞的嘴脸纷纷浮上台面!他们使用过去几十年来惯用的手法,将华社的诉求统统往种族主义的方向带,浑然忘记了当初大选时候对华社许下的承诺。许多《滚回中国论》,《华裔寄居论》,《故意挑战土着特权论》纷纷出炉。

在巫统党中央代表大会上,巫青团长希山姆丁公然针对华社发表极端挑衅的言论,高高举起马来剑,扬言《誓死捍卫马来人特权》,《不惜流尽最后一滴血》云云。仿佛就是马来人的守护神了。

问题是,是谁挑起马来人特权威胁论?是华人吗?不是。是印度人吗?也不是。故意挑起马来人特权威胁论的人,就是巫统自己。他们在表演着《做贼喊捉贼》的年度烂戏!600万华社人民看在眼里,恨在心里;点滴在心头!

当年,得到史无前例大胜,国州议员多达108位的马华,政治力量应该是比过去任何时候都要强大才是;如此鼎盛的阵容,按理来说,应该很有地位和影响力协助华社向政府争取公平待遇才对!可惜,当我们年对巫统少壮派无理挑衅打压的时候。我们看到的,是一个唯唯诺诺,只会逢迎主人巫统的应声虫!

对于以上各种《寄居论》,《滚回中国论》,《举剑论》,马华不但不敢代表华人说句公道话,甚至还奴颜卑膝的对着主子哈腰驼背!华社给了马华有史以来最强大的支持力量,谁也没有想到,得到的回报竟然是这样。绝大多数的华裔选民,真正对马华死了心!

在槟城,民政党的处境也和马华大同小异。尤其是槟州巫统拥有超过半数州议席,讲话特别大声,公然对着首长许子根呼呼喝喝,许子根任何施政,都必须先看巫统的脸色。简单的说,许子根只是一个傀儡首长!

反风大起,骄兵必败

华社的不满情绪渐渐升高,巫统则继续选择与华社为敌。马华与民政却没有一个敢代表华社开声反驳。这种不满情绪累积到了308大选,终于向山洪一样爆发了!

对于当时的政治情势,林吉祥,林冠英是有所领悟,知道行动党追寻多年的政治理想,在2008年全国大选,看到了一线曙光。果然,卧薪尝胆多年,受尽痛苦磨炼的林冠英,重新出发,便取得了连他自己都不敢置信的战绩!

Xinhua News Agency, the BN government to honor election promises to approve the increase Jianhua small, and a diploma in recognition of UEC, UMNO’s a picture of the grim countenance have surfaced! They use the usual tactics of the past few decades, all the aspirations of the Chinese community to the direction of racism with totally forgotten had promised general election, when China social commitment. Many “go back to China ‘,” Chinese sojourn’, “deliberately challenge the privileges of indigenous theory have baked.
In the the UMNO Party Central Committee’s Congress, the head of UMNO Youth Hishammuddin Muding openly for the Chinese community extreme provocation remarks, Malay sword aloft and threatened to “fight to the death to defend the prerogative of the Malaysian”, “not hesitate to shed the last drop blood “and so on. If that is the patron saint of the Malaysian.
The question is, who started the Malaysian privileged threat theory? Chinese do? Not. Indians it? It is not. Deliberately provoke the Malaysian privileges threat theory is that UMNO own. They’re playin ‘annual “stop thief” rotten drama! 6000000 Chinese community people see in the eyes, hate in their hearts; drip in my heart!
Then obtained an unprecedented victory, the national state legislators as many as 108 MCA political forces should be powerful than it has ever been is; heyday lineup, logically speaking, should be very position and influence to help the Chinese community to fight for fair treatment should! Unfortunately, when UMNO Young Turks unreasonably provocative suppress. We see a submissive, only flatter the masters of UMNO’s yes-man!
“Sojourn ‘All of the above,” go back to China’, “Jujian ‘MCA only did not dare to represent the Chinese to be fair, even against the masters stoop knee Nuyan humble hunchback! Chinese community to the the MCA most powerful support force, no one would have thought, get in return turned out to be the case. The vast majority of Chinese voters, really dead MCA heart!
In Penang Gerakan situation is also and MCA or less the same. Penang UMNO seats, with more than half of the state speech particularly loud whirring drink openly against the heads of Koh Tsu Koon Koh Tsu Koon, the policy must look at UMNO’s face. Simply put, the Koh Tsu Koon is just a puppet heads of!
Anti-wind from Jiaobingbibai
The discontent of the Chinese community gradually increased, UMNO enemies continue to choose the Chinese community. MCA with the Home did not dare on behalf of the Chinese community to open sound rebuttal. This discontent accumulated to 308 general election, and finally broke out to the flash floods, like!
For the political situation at the time, Lim Kit Siang, Lim Guan Eng senses know Action Party pursuing years of political ideals, and national elections in 2008, saw a glimmer of hope. Sure enough, the hardships for many years, suffered painful tempered Lim Guan Eng, a new start, and made himself staggering record!

林吉祥再次中选霹雳州怡保东区国会议员;林冠英不但成功当选为槟州峇眼国会议员,也拿下了阿逸布爹州议席!行动党在槟州总共赢得19个州议席,加上人民公正党的9席,终于成功推翻国阵江山,取得槟州执政权!

2008年3月11日,林冠英到槟州元首府,向州元首敦阿都拉曼阿巴斯宣誓就任槟州第四任首席部长;掀开了槟州政坛崭新的一页。从政治阶下囚,到出任槟州首席部长,林冠英用了8年的时间。他在面对媒体访问的时候,带着开玩笑的语气说他自己是《铁窗首长》。

马来西亚2008年的308大选,改变了很多人的命运。林冠英可能是获益最多的人之一。一夕之间从一介平民跃升为槟城首席部长,其父林吉祥发动丹绒三役(三届大选强攻槟城)未竟的梦想,居然由第一次在槟城参选的林冠英实践。行动党(火箭)连过去只能当炮灰的候选人都当选,非常振奋人心。

行动党,公正党和回教党之所以大胜,成功否决国阵2/3多数议席优势,很大的程度上,是国阵自作孽!如果不是因为2004年大选的压倒性胜利让国阵领导人产生错觉,以为国阵从此可以鱼肉百姓,任意欺负非土着,肆意打压反对的声音,更加名目张胆的贪污滥权,甚至打压回教以外的宗教的话,国阵应该不至于如此失败。

而马华和民政之所以一败涂地,被华裔选民唾弃,绝对可以说是咎由自取。他们都辜负了华社的期望。华社将支持力量给了马华和民政,他们却利用华人的支持力量为自己谋取更大的政治利益,置华社的基本诉求于不顾。他们兵败如山倒,就是华社展现了发泄愤怒的结果。

从308到今天,已经过了快4年,林冠英治理下的槟州,取得了令人赞叹的成果。之前一些人总觉得林冠英仰赖父荫,只是另一个政坛第二代。然而,四年看下来,林冠英确实有一套,说不定他会是开创马来西亚未来的政坛要角之一。

槟州是大马唯一由华人出任首长的州属,首席部长向来备受华文报章媒体关爱,槟城点滴总是被放大。这回行动党首次入主州政府,更是三千宠爱集一身。虽然某些巫统的招数令人喷饭,比如退回一年100马币的老人津贴,据说那是赌博税,不洁,穆斯林不能领;还有,巫统怂恿光大狂人到处扰乱,飚车党公然对抗州政府。 。 。 。

然而,由于巫统一再挑衅,却造就了林冠英成为最常上头条的州首长,比内阁部长还风光。我们甚至怀疑行动党有人在巫统卧底,否则,玩那些让自己看起来很蠢的把戏,真能伤到林冠英吗?

林冠英高调地推动减塑,从周一无塑胶袋日开始,除了多次于媒体呼吁,并在实施前办了好多座谈会、说明会等,连外坡的人民都知道。

国阵虚情假意,民联真心诚意

执政并非只靠一张嘴,若提出一套完整的方案,加上首长直接与民众面对面沟通,除了宣导政策,亦可由民众的回应修正不足之处,然后再正式实施。这是很好的方式,政策成功的机率必然较高,可惜国阵很少官员懂得,或者愿意这么做。

槟城的周一无塑胶袋日非常成功,过了几个月扩大为三日,之后雪州仿效。不知羞耻为何物的马华这时跳出来,表示政府早已提倡减塑,林冠英不该揽功。问题是之前只停留在口头说说。后来中央正式公布周六无塑胶袋,就是公布而已,其他好像什么也没做。一再证明马华只会邀功不会做事。

去年林冠英提名五位资深清沟夫封PJK,受封者个个受宠若惊,笑容灿烂。虽有国阵方面有些杂音,说此举贬损封衔价值,但一般人民觉得,人家多年来不畏脏臭清沟,确实对槟城贡献良多,封一个PJK不为过。

受封的清沟夫现身说法,让大家了清沟的危险与辛苦,官员又在旁边加了句,希望民众别乱丢垃圾,增加清沟夫的工作负担。如果说这只是一场秀,那么,这是一场完整的政治秀,表扬清沟夫同时教育人民,这种政治秀非常成功。

槟城地狭人稠,是大马人口密度最高的州属,在国阵掌权的年代,曾号称垃圾州,脏名远播,垃圾显然是大问题,加上旅游业又是槟州重要产业,林冠英首长以整治环境为施政重点,似乎是正确的选择。相比国阵许多惠民政策只说不做,槟州民联政府在这方面讲到做到,确实赢了国阵几条街。

事实上,国阵中央政府目前正在抄袭槟州和雪州政府的惠民政策,包括发放100元给小学生,发放500元给每月收入低于3000元的家庭等等。虽然摆明就是抄袭,但毕竟对人民有好处,因此民联也表示欢迎。

奈何,国阵的马华和民政习惯了几十年来的作秀邀功陋习。宣布派发500元的时候,不但规定所有受惠者必须在会场聆听马华地方领袖发表自我宣传的废话,而且往往一讲就是半个小时,自己讲自己爽;还要一些民众在烈日下枯站半天。这种举动,其实只会弄巧反拙,更加增添人民的怨恨之心。看来,马华和民政直到今天,还是不明白人民要的是什么。

比如国阵派发500元援助金,受惠的民众却面无表情;反而林冠英只是派发区区100元援助金,竟然就有妇女感动得抱住林冠英的脚,感激涕零。为什么会这样?答案很简单:人民要感受的,是当政者是否真心。

国阵派发援助金,背后明显是有隐议程,一心只想骗取人民的选票,并非出于真心为人民。(看看马华代表喜欢在派钱之前上台为自己和马华歌功颂德的嘴脸就知道了)相反的,林冠英心中有人民, 不像国阵口口声声要人民感恩;民联发出的回馈金,是感恩人民对国家社会的贡献。两者之间的差别太大了。而这一点,是国阵的巫统,马华,民政党永远不会懂的。

2012年,人民普遍相信将是第13届全国大选年。人民也普遍看好民联可以保住槟州政权。甚至相信民联有机会迈向布城。

2012年开春,林冠英对于来届全国大选发表了他的看法:

他说:《2012年被推测为大选年,对党内,我期许是枪口对外,不是向内;而对国家政局,我们这些国会在野领袖的目标当然是迈向布城。》

林冠英说:要入主布城,改朝换代,民联就得把东马沙巴及砂拉越的现有2个国会议席,增至18席才有执政布城的希望。他深信,民联能够比国阵做得更好。

林冠英说:若民联能够执政布城,民联会送上《执政三大礼》,即:

1)废除所有已经赚钱的大道收费(目前有5条大道,即南北大道、中环公路、马新第二通道、北海居林高速公路及槟城大桥),因管理公司已回本;至于尚未取回投资额的大道,则不允许提高过路费或延长收费期限;

2)不再继续津贴独立发电厂,反之,将政府现阶段年度津贴的200亿令吉,用来分给老百姓, 包括每年回馈再生能源基金10亿令吉,协助太阳能和再生能源的发展;

3)降低所有统制品售价。如糖、米、油。过去,当这些必需品由私人商家控制时,涨幅只是轻微的,但是政府一接管,就暴涨。只有控制统制品价格,人民生活负担才能减轻。

谈到308之后,有人说民联没有执政经验时,林冠英这样说:《我也没有贪污滥权的经验啊!》

他说:《我深信我们比国阵更好。槟州在2010年获得史上首次最高投资额, 执政之后财政年年有余,债务也成功减了95%、我们的财务管理获得总稽查司的点名称赞、我们的廉洁获得国际透明组织的表扬(这可是马来西亚首个给国际透明组织称赞的州属)。

虽然我们施政的经验只有4年,却比国阵的51年更强、更棒。希望下届大选,不管是落在何时,我们还能够继续做出成绩,让人民看到、摸到、感觉到。我也时时自我警惕:〈打江山难,守江山更难〉。成功与否,一切视队伍的团队精神。

天时地利固然重要,但人和却是挺进布城的关键所在。要是人心不和,就败事有余了。面对大选年,只要我们团结一致,就能够执政更多州属,甚至是向布城挺进。民联执政中央的愿望,会不会实现?且拭目以待。

《铁窗首长林冠英》讲到这里,已经结束。谢谢大家捧场。晚安了!各位!再见。

by:陈同

 

发表在 铁窗首长林冠英, 馬來西亞的真實歷史

发表评论

Lim Kit Siang again selected Perak Yibao Dong District congressman; Lim Guan Eng is not only successfully elected as Penang’s Batu eye congressmen, and also won the the Ah Yat cloth Davis State seats! Action Party won a total of 19 state seats in Penang, with 9 seats in the People’s Justice Party, and finally succeeded in overthrowing Barisan jiangshan, made Penang ruling rights!
March 11, 2008, Lim Guan Eng to Penang capital of Pertua Dune Abdul Rahman Abbas was sworn in as the fourth Chief Minister of Penang; opened a new page in Penang political arena. From political prisoner to act as the Chief Minister of Penang, Lim Guan Eng, with a time of 8 years. He said with a joking tone in the face of media access he is “Cool heads.
308 general election in Malaysia in 2008, changed the fate of many people. Lim Guan Eng is probably one of the most benefit. Suddenly jumped from the ordinary citizen as the Chief Minister of Penang, his father, Lim Kit Siang launch Tanjung Battle (third general election storm Penang) unfinished dream, actually practice by the first election in Penang, Lim Guan Eng. Action Party (rocket) candidates are elected with the past can only serve as cannon fodder, very exciting.
Action Party, the reason why the Justice Party and the Islamic Party victory, successfully vetoed a 2/3 majority of seats in the National Front advantage, to a large extent on the BN regret! If not for the landslide victory in the 2004 election for the leader of the National Front have a misconception that the National Front from oppressing any bully non-indigenous, wanton suppress dissenting voices more Zhang Dan corruption and abuse of power, and even to suppress Islam outside religion, the National Front should not be such a failure.
And the reason why the MCA and the Home suffered a crushing defeat, the Chinese voters spurned can definitely say is to blame. They have to live up to the expectations of the Chinese community. Will support the strength of the Chinese community to the MCA and the Home, they are making use of the Chinese support the interests of greater political power for their own personal set of the basic demands of the expense of the Chinese community. They never led, is to show the results to vent their anger in the Chinese community.
From 308 to today, has been almost four years, and the Penang Lim governance, achieved impressive results. Before, some people always feel that Lim Guan Eng rely on parent Yum just another political arena, the second generation. However, four years looking down, Lim Guan Eng does have a, maybe he will, is to create the future of one of the political arena, key players in Malaysia.
Penang is Malaysia’s only Chinese directorate states the case, the Chief Minister has always been popular Chinese newspapers and media care, Penang drip always be enlarged. Back Action Party took over state government for the first time, more Sexing set a. Although some UMNO tricks hilarious returned 100 ringgit a year such as old age allowance, said that gambling tax, unclean, Muslims can not collar; There, UMNO encouraged the Everbright Madman everywhere disrupt, car Biao Party defy State Government. . . .
However, because of the Umno provocation, but created a Lim Heads of state of the most common on the headlines, cabinet ministers scenery. We even suspect’s Action Party was undercover in UMNO, otherwise, play themselves look stupid trick, really hurt to Lim Guan Eng?
Lim Guan Eng, a high-profile drive less plastic, no plastic bag day from Monday, except in the media several times called on to do a lot of the forum before implementation, briefings, and even the outer slope of the people know.
Barisan hypocrites, NLD sincerely
Mouth govern alone will not put forward a complete package, together with the heads of direct face-to-face communication with the public, can also be corrected by the response of the people in addition to the promotion policy, inadequacies, and then the formal implementation. This is a good way, the probability of success of the policy will certainly be higher, Unfortunately, few Barisan officials know how, or are willing to do so.
Penang Monday plastic bag-free day was very successful, and a few months later was expanded to three days after Selangor emulate. Shameless what MCA jump out, said the government has long advocated less plastic, Lim Guan Eng should not embrace the power. Before only stay in the lip. Later, the Central Committee officially announced Saturday without a plastic bag, is announced., The other as if did not do anything. Repeatedly proved that the MCA will only take credit for not doing things.
Last year, Lim Guan Eng nominate five senior the Qing ditch husband closure PJK glimpse of all flattered brilliant smile. Although the Barisan Nasional some noise, said the move derogatory seal the title value, but generally the people think, people afraid of dirty, smelly ditch clearance over the years, indeed Penang contribution, sealed a PJK not.
Glimpse of the Qing ditch husband own experiences, the the clear ditch the dangerous and hard, the officials added in the next sentence, the hope people Bieluan taking out the trash, increase Qing ditch husband’s work burden. If this is just a show, then, this is a complete political show recognition of the clear ditch husband at the same time educate the people, the very success of this political show.
Penang densely populated, the Malaysian states with the highest population density in the case, in the era of the National Front took power, once known as junk state, the dirty name spread far and wide, garbage is obviously a big problem, together with Penang tourism is an important industry Lim heads to improve our environment, as the policy focus seems to be the right choice. Compared to the number of farmer-friendly policy of the National Front only saying no, Penang Pakatan Rakyat government in this regard mentioned do indeed win the National Front a few blocks.
In fact, the central government of the National Front is plagiarism Penang and Selangor, farmer-friendly policy of the government, including the payment of 100 yuan to primary school students, paid 500 yuan to a monthly income of less than 3,000 yuan family. Made clear that plagiarism, but, after all, will benefit the people, the NLD also welcome.
Nonetheless, the National Front of the MCA and the Home accustomed to decades of putting on a show to claim credit bad habits. The declared 500 yuan, not only requires all beneficiaries must be at the venue to listen to MCA local leaders released a self-promotional nonsense, and often one speaking for half an hour, they speak their own cool; but also some of the people in the hot sun dry station half a day . Such a move, in fact, will only be counter-productive, adding more of the heart of the people’s resentment. It seems that until today, the MCA and the Home, or do not understand what the people want.
Such as the National Front distributed 500 yuan relief fund to benefit its people are deadpan; contrary, Lim Guan Eng is only distributed to a mere 100 yuan relief fund, turned out there are women moved clinging to the feet of Lim Guan Eng, feel grateful. Why is that? The answer is simple: people want to feel, is whether those in power really.
To distribute assistance to the National Front, behind the obvious is a hidden agenda, one would like to cheat the people’s votes, not because really for the people. (See MCA representatives like singing the praises of the face for themselves and MCA came to power before handing out money to know), Lim Guan Eng, the hearts of the people, unlike Barisan keeps the people Thanksgiving; the NLD issued by Rakeback Thanksgiving People’s contribution to the national society. The difference between the two is too large. , BN UMNO, MCA, Gerakan never understand.
In 2012, the people generally believe will be the 13th national election year. People are generally optimistic about the NLD can keep Penang regime. Even believe the NLD have the opportunity to move towards Putrajaya.
2012 spring, Lim Guan Eng expressed his views for the coming national elections:
He said: “2012 has been speculated for the election year, within the party, my expectations muzzle foreign, not inward;, the goal of these congressional opposition leaders towards Putrajaya, the country’s political situation. ‘
Lim Guan Eng said: White Putrajaya, regime change, the NLD must East the Ma Shaba and Sarawak existing two congressional seats to 18 seats only govern the hope of Putrajaya. He was convinced that the NLD can do a better job than the National Front.
Lim Guan Eng said: the NLD govern Putrajaya, Resident Association sent the three ruling gift “, that:
1) by repealing all profitable toll charges (5 Avenue North and South Avenue, Central Road, the horse new second channel, Lin Expressway, the North Sea Habitat and Penang Bridge), due to the management company has recovered; does not yet take back to the Avenue of the investment, is not allowed to raise tolls or extend the toll period;
2) no longer continue the subsidy independent power plants, on the contrary, the Government’s current annual allowance of RM20 billion, used to give to people, including feedback Renewable Energy Fund annually RM1 billion to assist in the development of solar and renewable energy;
3) reduce the price of all system products. Such as sugar, rice, oil. In the past, when these necessities are controlled by private businesses, or only slightly, but the government is a take over on the skyrocketing. Only the control system products prices, in order to alleviate the burden of the people’s living.
Comes to 308, it was said that the NLD did not experience in governance, Lim said: “I do not have to corruption and abuse of power experience! ‘
He said: “I am confident that we are better than the National Front. Penang in 2010 for the first time in the history of the highest amount of investment, the ruling after fiscal year more than the debt also successfully reduced by 95%, our financial management to obtain total division of the Auditor praised our honest praise of Transparency International ( This is the first in Malaysia to Transparency International praised the states).
Although the experience of our policy of only four years, more than 51 years of the National Front, the better. Hope that the next general election, the fall when we can continue to make achievements, let the people see, touch, feel. I also constantly self-vigilance: <DaJiangShan difficult to keep country more difficult>. Success, all as the team’s esprit de corps.
The right place at the right time is important, and is advancing Putrajaya key. If people do not and, more failures than successes. The face of the election year, as long as we are united, we can govern more states, or even advance to Putrajaya. NLD Party Central desire will not be realized? Wait and see.
Behind bars heads of Lim Guan Eng, “talked about here, is over. Thank you all join. Good night! You! Goodbye.
by: Chen Tong
The real history behind bars heads of Lim Guan Eng, Malaysia

《林吉祥外一章:铁汉也有柔情》

作者

“Lim Kit Siang outside chapter: Hud also have tenderness”
JAN 26
Of the voice of justice

大家晚上好!张某受陈同前辈所托,为《林吉祥政海浮沉录》进行外一章的补充。

主要是因为陈同前辈觉得,《林吉祥政海浮沉录》没有讲述到林吉祥的家庭,是一个遗憾。因此,陈同前辈认为,在连续三天的主题开讲之后,应该补充一则有关林吉祥家居生活的点滴,才算完美。陈同前辈叫到,张某当然义不容辞,欣然接下任务。看过陈同前辈连续三天开讲《林吉祥政海浮沉录》之后,相信大家对林吉祥先生的政途经历,已经有一个具体的印象了。

但是,对于他私底下的家庭生活,相信了解的人还是有限。因此,张某的任务,就是为大家揭开他私底下的生活风貌。这里有一个蛮有趣的对比:林吉祥和蔡细历,谁对老婆比较忠诚?相信大家心中早就有答案了!单单看蔡细历的偷情五级色情光碟就知道,说起对老婆的忠诚,对孩子的身教和言教,蔡细历都输林吉祥几条街!

林吉祥和太太梁玉治,相知相许,相扶相伴超过50年。50年来,林吉祥为了政治理想奔波全国,接触的群众何止千万?由于他独特的政治魅力和俊朗的外表,他拥有无数的女性粉丝,是很自然的事。但是,从不曾听说林吉祥背着太太,闹出过任何绯闻。当然,类似Batu Pahat Katerina酒店1304号房的那种荒唐的偷情行为,更是绝对不会发生在林吉祥身上。

每个成功男人背后都有个女人,这句话形容林吉祥与太太梁玉治最贴切。梁玉治是个普通家庭主妇,多年来都在家打理家务、照顾孩子。但若深入了解,就会发现这名平凡的女人,其实一点也不平凡。林吉祥早年受过华文教育,在高中时期也到夜校继续学习中文,他在那里认识了梁玉治。开始的时候,俩人只是点头之交,直到毕业后再见面,才开始谈恋爱,而且,很快的,两人决定厮守终身。

林吉祥18岁就娶了梁玉治为妻子。林吉祥生下第一个孩子时才19岁,这个孩子就是林冠英。20岁时带着妻儿到新加坡,接着诞下两个女儿。在梁玉治的记忆中,林吉祥在新加坡当记者时,虽然白天非常忙碌,晚上多数会留在家帮忙照顾孩子,日子一天天过去,直到林吉祥决定当蒂凡那的政治秘书后,才举家搬到吉隆坡。

梁玉治不曾想过丈夫会从政,当她知道丈夫决定放弃电台新闻编辑这份高薪及稳定的工作时,她感到非常惊讶。在那个60年代,普通受薪阶级的月薪只是区区100元左右,林吉祥在新加坡电台担任高职,月入已经高达千元。可是,梁玉治并没有提出任何异议,心想即使反对也改变不了丈夫的决定,就给予全力支持。此后,林吉祥就开始忙于政治,比在新加坡的日子更忙,经常数天不回家。但是基于对丈夫的绝对信任,林夫人毫无条件地支持丈夫所做的一切。

梁玉治回忆说:《当年蒂凡那在八打灵再也租下独立式房子作党总部后,我们一家人就住在那里的其中一间房间。那时吉祥经常一个人开车外出,清早出门至深夜才回家,我常常担心他精神不足。》

在梁玉治眼中,丈夫唯一的嗜好就是阅读,只要丈夫在家她都会煮饭,丈夫若要出远门,她就会替他收拾行李,丈夫对吃的穿的都没有要求。林吉祥身上穿着平坦整齐的衬衫,都是太太用心所烫。一家人的生活过得很简朴,林吉祥让太太全权打理家中的事,梁玉治也全力做到最好,让丈夫能毫无后顾之忧地在外为政治理想而打拚。

林吉祥有收集剪报的习惯,至今还收着数不清的剪报,其实这些剪报全是梁玉治一张张细心地剪下。他看报纸时,会把要留下的新闻圈起来,然后放在一旁。林夫人有空时就会拿出自制的浆糊,把剪报贴在白纸上。为了方便丈夫日后阅读,她还会用手掌把报纸压得贴贴服服,直到今天,她的孩子及孙子都还记得她那双黑黑的,沾满报纸油墨的手掌。林吉祥从不打骂孩子。

林吉祥在五一三事件被扣留,每一次探监时,看着丈夫从监狱牢房内赤脚走出来,那消瘦的身影,梁玉治看在眼里,痛在心里。梁玉治回忆五一三事件的时候说:《吉隆坡戒严时,我在电话里叫他不要回来,结果他还是回来了,结果一下飞机,就被逮捕了。》

梁玉治说:《那时孩子还很小,婆家及娘家都在柔佛,我们又不能出门,只能在家等消息。一直到能见他时,我马上带着鸡汤去看他,他和我说没事、会好好照顾自己,我才比较安心。》

她说:《后来他被带到麻坡,我带着孩子搬回峇株巴辖,每星期带必需品、食物和书本探望他。他被释放时没人通知我们,他自己搭德士回家,我们很开心,一家人总算能团圆了。》

Good evening, everyone! Zhang by Chen entrusted with the older, “Lin Jixiang Zheng Hai drifting recorded outside chapter supplement.
Chen with predecessors feel, “the Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded” is not about Lim Kit Siang family is a pity. Chen with the older generation that, after three consecutive days of theme lecture, you should add a bit about the home life of Lim Kit Siang considered perfect. Chen called with the older generation, Zhang could I refuse, I am pleased to take over the task. Seen Chen lecture “Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded for three consecutive days with their predecessors, I believe we have a specific experience of the political career of Mr. Lin Jixiang impression.
However, for his private family life, I believe that the understanding of the people are still limited. Thus, Zhang’s task is to uncover his private life style for everyone. Here’s a pretty interesting contrast: Lim Kit Siang and Dr Chua, who is more loyal to his wife? I believe the hearts of everyone long answer! Simply by looking at the the betrayal five pornographic VCDs Chua know talking about the loyalty of his wife, children teach by example and precept, Chua lose Lim Kit Siang few blocks!
Lim Kit Siang and Mrs. Herbert Leung governance, knowing each other relative to expectations, accompanied by more than 50 years of catching. 50 years, Lim Kit Siang for political ideal to run around the country, at least 10 million of the contact with the masses? Due to his unique political charm and handsome looks, he has countless female fans, is a very natural thing. However, never heard that Lim Kit Siang carrying his wife, sudden, any scandal. Of course, the kind of absurd behavior of betrayal like Batu Pahat Katerina Hotel 1304 Room, more is definitely not occur in Lim Kit Siang body.
Behind every successful man has a woman, the most appropriate sentence to describe Lim Kit Siang, and Mrs. Herbert Leung governance. Herbert Leung governance is an ordinary housewife, housework at home over the years to take care of the children. However, if the depth of understanding, you will find this extraordinary woman, and that was not extraordinary. Lim Kit Siang have received Chinese language education in the early years in high school also went to night school to continue learning Chinese, where he met Herbert Leung governance. Started when two people just nodding acquaintance meet until after graduation, began to fall in love, and, soon, they decided to be together forever.
Lim Kit Siang married a 18-year-old Herbert Leung governance as a wife. Lim Kit Siang is only 19 years old gave birth to their first child, this child is Lim Guan Eng. Singapore with his wife and children to the age of 20, then gave birth to two daughters. Herbert Leung governance of memory, Lim Kit Siang When a reporter in Singapore, although very busy during the day and night will mostly stay at home to help care for the children, the days passed, until after Lim Kit Siang decide when Tiffany was political secretary, before his family moved to Kuala Lumpur.
Herbert Leung governance husband would have never thought of politics, when she knew her husband decided to give up this high-paying and stable radio news editor, she was very surprised. The monthly salary of ordinary wage earners in the 1960s, only a mere 100 yuan, Lim Kit Siang in Singapore Radio senior positions, and a monthly income of up to thousands. However, Herbert Leung rule does not raise any objections, thinking that even if the opposition also can not change her husband’s decision to give full support. Since then, Lim Kit Siang began busy with politics than the busier days in Singapore, often did not come home for several days. But based on absolute trust of her husband, Ms. Lin unconditionally support the husband has done.
Herbert Leung governance recalled: “When Tiffany that Petaling never rented the detached house party headquarters, our family came and dwelt in one of the rooms. Then auspicious often drive out, to go out early in the morning to late in the evening to go home, I often worried about his spirit. ‘
Herbert Leung governance in the eyes, only her husband’s hobby is reading, as long as her husband at home, she would cook, husband to a faraway place, she will pack up for him, husband to eat are not required to wear. Lim Kit Siang flat wearing neat shirt, are Mrs. intentions are hot. A person’s life is very simple, Lim Kit Siang full care of things at home and let his wife, Herbert Leung governance also do my best so that her husband will have no worries outside political ideals and hard work.
Lim Kit Siang habit of collecting newspaper clippings, and has also received numerous newspaper clippings, in fact, these clippings all a picture of Herbert Leung governance Cut carefully. When he read the newspaper, will want to leave journalism, then set aside. Ms. Lin spare time will come up with a homemade paste, to clippings paste on white paper. In order to facilitate future husband read her will with the palm of the newspaper the weight of Veg wear clothes, until today, her children and grandchildren remember her black newspaper ink-stained hands. Lim Kit Siang never cursed child.
Lim Kit Siang was detained for five hundred thirteen events every visit him, watched her husband to barefoot to come out from the prison cell that thin figure, Herbert Leung governance see in the eyes, pain in my heart. Herbert Leung governance memories of the events of five hundred thirteen: “Kuala Lumpur, martial law, the phone I told him to not come back, the results came back a result, the plane was arrested. ‘
Governance Herbert Leung said: “At the time the child is still very young, my husband and her parents are in Johor, we can not go out, only at home, and other news. Has been to see him, I’ll be right with chicken soup to see him, him and I said all right, will take good care of myself, I was more at ease. ‘
She said: “Later, he was taken to Muar, I took my children to move back to Batu Pahat with necessities, food and books of the week to visit him. Nobody notice us when he was released, he take a taxi home, we are very happy, the family finally reunited. ‘

18年后,1987年,林吉祥和林冠英父子俩在茅草行动中,再一次被扣留时,由于孩子们都已长大,梁玉治因有女儿在身边,才不至于太难过。梁玉治说,她特别感谢霹雳州的两名党元老骆瑞珍及江灼成医生,在她与两名女儿每星期北上甘文丁扣留营探望丈夫和儿子的时候,让她们在家里过夜。

林吉祥从1965年从政,迄今47载,梁玉治一直在背后默默支持。外界对丈夫的批评与谩骂,林夫人初时觉得很心痛,不过日子久了,也麻木了。梁玉治形容这名政治巨人在家是一名好丈夫,从不带政治回家,也不骂孩子。到今日为止,梁玉治依然每晚守在电话旁,等丈夫拨电话回家聊两句。

梁玉治说:《我以丈夫为荣,也希望家里的人能平安健康。》

长女林慧敏:他很宽容慈祥

林吉祥的女儿,林冠英的二妹林慧敏说,她无论是精神或情感上都以父亲作榜样,以大哥位楷模,做个永不言弃及谦卑的人。

林慧敏说:《爸爸是个很简单的人,只要满足家人需求,钱对他而言并不重要。他热爱阅读,相信知识是力量,他不断告诉我们教育的重要性。去逛街时,他都会带我们到书店。》

父亲在慧敏眼中是个充满毅力的人,尽管面对种种打压、媒体的恶意中伤甚至是被扣留,还是会坚持奋斗。

林慧敏说:《他经常告诉我们,没有事情会永远保持不变,而且以后会变得更好。他经常被人指为独裁、自私及骄傲的人。只有真正认识他的人才知道,这些指责并非事实,他是一个友善、谦虚及和蔼可亲的人,与报章所形容的完全不同。》

《他为人宽容,纵然经历这么多风雨,他及哥哥在内安法令下被扣丶哥哥被判抵触煽动及印刷法令而坐牢,他都没有对马哈迪怀恨在心,因为他认为,这些只是政治的一部分;是大马政治生态大环境造成的,所以他不埋怨任何掌握国家政治实权的人。》

林慧敏说,父亲林吉祥也是个慈祥的公公,在槟城时会帮忙照顾哥哥的孩子。

《他对小孩很有办法,被他抱在怀中的婴孩都会静静的。他很少带政治回家,也很少分享工作上的担忧,我反倒希望他能告诉我们好让我们替他分担。》林慧敏说。

尽管父亲参政面对重重逆境,但是,这使得林家上下关系更亲密,孩子的心思都围绕在父母亲身上,若父亲出事了,他们会马上想到母亲的心情。

《父亲及哥哥在茅草行动被扣留的日子,是最艰辛的时候。母亲及妹妹每周从马六甲来吉隆坡与我会面,由我开车到甘文丁扣留营探望哥哥及爸爸,足足一年半的时间,无论是身体或精神上都很折磨。》她说。

《哥哥在1998年因为马六甲首席部长和未成年少女发生性关系的事件,被关进加影监狱,我们每星期去探望他,看着他在监狱内消瘦下来,健康也出问题,我知道父亲为此感到无比痛心。》林慧敏说。

无论如何,看到2008年出现308政治大海啸,父亲率领行动党打出有史以来最辉煌的战绩,哥哥林冠英更一举拿下槟州执政权,成为继王保尼,林苍佑,许子根之后,第四位华裔首席部长;林慧敏感觉很欣慰,觉得父兄多年的努力和坚持,都没有白费。

次女林慧英眼中的林吉祥

林慧英说:《作为小女儿,我最爱向父亲撒娇及倾诉心事,在外人眼中非常严肃的林吉祥,在我心目中却是慈父。小时我很爱对他撒娇,无论是跌倒或是兄弟姐妹打架,我都会向父亲哭诉。》

可是,他的反应与母亲不同,跌倒时母亲会骂我乱跑,他却会叫我看看地板有没有裂痕。他教育我们的方式总是与别不同。

《父亲有一个风雨不改的习惯,就是每天拨电话回家,除非遇到特别情况,否则绝不会忘了每天一通电话。他也是一名对衣食住行没有要求的人,去到哪里都可以睡觉,甚至练至能在数分钟内入眠的功力!》

林慧英说:《他很坚持自己的信念,说话三思为人正直,对自己坚持的事永不放弃。能够成为他的孩子是很荣幸的事。》

小儿子林冠骏眼中的林吉祥

《父亲的公众形象总是被描述为独裁者、沙文主义者、“大嘴巴”甚至是个贪权的人。》林冠骏说:《他其实是个很安静的人,说话前会三思。他是正直的人,坚持于正确的事。对自己坚持的事,他会狠狠地做、永不放弃,对我而言,那才是他的标志。》

长子林冠英眼中的林吉祥

槟州首长林冠英如此形容他的父亲:《林吉祥被公认为拥有无比勇气、清廉及正直的人。》

他说:《莎士比亚写过:有些人生来伟大;有些人成就伟大;还有些人不得不伟大。林吉祥具备上述三种条件,甚至超越这些条件。因为,他还可以激发其他人变得伟大。》

安华眼中的林吉祥

国会反对党领袖安华说:《一般人觉得林吉祥是很强硬的领袖,其实他是很好的聆听者,不像我总是喜欢先发表意见,他是很明理的人。》

安华说:《我觉得所有人尤其是马来社群及宗教人士,若能看见他真正的一面,会发现到他是很有远见,他热爱自由与公平,而且是超越种族的藩篱。》

卡巴星眼中的林吉祥

卡巴星是林吉祥并肩作战超过40年的老战友,它这样评价林吉祥:《他会是一名很出色的律师。然而,他选择把生命奉献给政治。》

卡巴星说:《很多人觉得吉祥是很严肃的人,其实他也有幽默的一面。他总是为人设想周到,在我的印象中,我不曾见过他生气或发脾气,除了在国会里发难。》

卡巴星说:《他从不阻止我们发表任何声明或言论,他也不会问我们在干什么。他总是让我们自由发挥,不会向我们施压力,这点令我非常钦佩他。》

卡巴星认为,林吉祥忠于家庭,甚至完全以家庭作为他最后的依归。算是一个稀有品种。他说:《我们很难再找到另一个像他这样的人,我希望他还有另一个70岁,因为行动党还非常需要他!》

曾敏兴眼中的林吉祥

曾敏兴和卡巴星一样,和林吉祥是患难与共的老战友。他说:《行动党的成功有赖吉祥在背后推动。他执行很严格的纪律,制造问题者都会被孤立及驱逐,以致他被国阵的敌对者标签为独裁者,其实他不是。》

他说:《今日的吉祥与年轻时的吉祥没有两样。迈入70岁的他依然没有停下脚步,还到东马设立支部。是什么使他有如此的冲劲?那是因为他相信行动党能改变国家的政治局面,使国家能成为一个真正马来西亚人优先的国家。》

尾声:林吉祥大事记

陈同前辈在《林吉祥政海浮沉录》中,曾经形容林吉祥是《天生的政治动物》。事实上,这样的形容确实很贴切。

林吉祥在中学时期就对政治充满兴趣。1955年4月,14岁的他与一群同学从柔州峇株巴辖骑脚车到马六甲游玩,路途约有60公里。回程当天碰巧正在举行万隆会议,29个亚洲及非洲国家第一次在没有殖民国家参加的情况下,在印尼万隆举行大型国际会议,讨论亚非人民的切身利益。当时只有14岁的林吉祥非常关心这项国际会议的结果,非常关注随后的国际与国内政治演变。

林吉祥年幼时并没立下志愿在长大后要当什么,他记得18岁那年,在等待中五成绩放榜的空闲时间,有一晚与一群志同道合的同学坐在学校的沟渠边聊天。谈起政治及国家大事时,他开玩笑地建议同伴们走向世界并各自成立政党,10年后再相聚比较成绩。虽然这只是一个玩笑,林吉祥也深知创党不是一件容易的事,这足以显示他在少年时期对政治已充满热忱。

林吉祥在求学时期并没有参加任何政治及社会运动,直到完成中学踏入社会后,才开始接触到政治,继而改变了他的人生。他首先当临教,之后到新加坡海峡时报当记者,并加入职工会。

不久后又到新加坡电台工作一段日子,再到文化部担任媒体官,由于曾加入报馆职工会,他于1962年被委任为新加坡全国新闻工作者协会(Singapore National Union Of Journalist,简称SNUJ)总秘书。虽然当时的新加坡是马来西亚的一份子,林吉祥却心系马来西亚,热切关心西马的政治局势,反而没有参与新加坡的政治活动。

1964年大选,人民行动党共派9个人参选,其中的蒂凡那(民主行动党首任秘书长)中选为孟沙区国会议员,林吉祥因为参与职工会认识了蒂凡那。

1965年8月9日,新加坡脱离马来西亚,人民行动党领袖纷纷回到新加坡,蒂凡那为兑现对选民的承诺,毅然留在马来西亚,并开口要求林吉祥担任其政治秘书。当时的林吉祥还在文化部工作,并已被擢升为新加坡电视台担任编辑,这份工作不只有前途,还是铁饭碗。

蒂凡那知道林吉祥的计划,因此要求他考虑好才答覆,没想到林吉祥却一口答应担任其政治秘书,放弃新加坡的事业。

到了1965年10月,蒂凡那与其他同僚如曾敏兴等人才开始着手成立民主行动党,并进行注册工作,直到1966年3月18日才成功,跟随蒂凡那的林吉祥也自然加入行动党,并开始积极于组织工作,到全国各地招揽有志之士入党。

到了1969年5月10日大选,联盟遭受前所未有的重挫,民主行动党赢下13个席位,林吉祥中选为马六甲市区国会议员,由此展开的他迄今长达47年的政治生涯。

林吉祥政海浮沉大事记:
1966年 任民主行动党首任秘书长蒂凡那政治秘书
1967年 受委加入中央执行委员会
1968年 担任组织秘书,并任《火箭报》英文版编辑
1968年 雪兰莪沙登州议席补选,首次代表行动党出战,败于马华候选人。
1969年 5月10日,在全国大选中选为马六甲市区国会议员
1969年 前往沙巴州为独立候选人助选时被沙巴州首席部长莫斯达化驱逐出境,在新加坡转机回马时被拘捕,在未经审讯的情况下被援引《内安法令》扣留长达16个月。
1970年 10月,在扣留营里被选为马来西亚民主行动党第三任秘书长
1972年 担任国会下议院反对党领袖
1974年 中选马六甲市区国会议员
1977年 林吉祥成为正式律师(Lincoln’s Inn)
1978年 中选八打灵再也国会议员
1982年 回到马六甲国会选区,亲自收拾叛党的陈德泉,中选马六甲市区国会议员
1986年 移师槟州,宣告开展《丹绒一役》,并击败许子根,行动党夺得10个槟州议席
1987年 10月,在茅草行动中与儿子林冠英及党要一起被扣留,至1989年4月才获释
1990年 与46精神党发动《丹绒二役》的第二轮攻势,在巴当哥打州选区击败林苍佑,粉碎林苍佑不败神话,行动党夺得14个州议席
1995年 发动《丹绒三役》在丹绒国席擒下国阵候选人章志伟,但在丹绒武雅州选区败给许子根
1999年 在升旗山国席败给谢宽泰、植物园州席输给丁福南;辞去秘书长职,任党主席
2004年 中选霹雳州怡保东区国会议员,再担任国会反对党领袖。同年卸下党主席职
2008年 3月8日政治大海啸中,再次中选霹雳州怡保东区国会议员。

《林吉祥政海浮沉录》外一章,《林吉祥铁汉柔情》已经全数完毕。谢谢大家支持。再一次恭祝大家新年快乐。晚安。

by:Danfeng zhang

 

发表在 馬來西亞的真實歷史, 林吉祥政海浮沉录

发表评

18 years later, in 1987, Lim Kit Siang and Lim Guan Eng, father and son in thatched action, detained again, because the children have grown up, Herbert Leung governance daughter around, they are not to be too sad. Herbert Leung governance, said she was particularly grateful to Perak’s two party veterans Luo Ruizhen and Dr. Jiang Zhuocheng, let them spend the night at home with her two daughters week northward the Kamunting detain camp to visit her husband and son.
Lim Kit Siang from politics in 1965, and so far 47 contains Herbert Leung governance has been behind the scenes support. Outside criticism and verbal abuse of her husband, Ms. Lin initially feel very sad, but as time goes numb. LIANG Yu-chih political giants at home is a good husband, never with the political home, do not scold the child. Until now, Herbert Leung governance still night waited by the phone and wait for her husband to telephone calls home to talk to two.
Governance Herbert Leung said: “I am proud of the husband, and also hope that people at home can be safe and healthy. ‘
Eldest daughter Ms Lam: He is very forgiving kind
Daughter of Lim Kit Siang, Lim Guan Eng’s Sister Ms Lam said, she either mental or emotional father as an example, never give up and humble, to be a model of big brother bit.
Ms Lam said: “Dad is very simple, just to meet family needs, the money is not important to him. He loves to read, I believe that knowledge is power, he keeps telling us the importance of education. When you go shopping, he would take us to the bookstore. ‘
The father in the eyes of Huimin perseverance, despite all the suppressed, the media’s malicious slander and even detained, or will adhere to struggle.
Ms Lam said: “He always told us that things will always remain the same, and would later become better. He often refers to as authoritarian, selfish and proud people. The only truly recognize his talent to know that these accusations are not true, he is a friendly, humble and affable people, and the newspapers describe completely different. ‘
“He was tolerant, even though experienced so many hardships, and detained under the Internal Security Act that he and his brother, brother sentenced to contravene the Act sedition and printing jail, he did not hold a grudge on Mahathir, because he believes that these are just political part of; Malaysian political ecology environment, so he did not complain of any person to grasp the real power of the country’s political. ‘
Ms Lam said the father, Lim Kit Siang is a kindly father-in-law will help take care of her brother’s children, when in Penang.
His children very way, hold him quietly in the arms of the baby will. He rarely with political home, rarely share the worries of work, I have actually hope he can tell us so we shared his behalf. “Ms Lam said.
Father in politics face many adversities, however, which makes the Lin family up and down relationship more intimate, child’s mind around the body of the parents, they will immediately think of the feelings of the mother, if the father was hurt.
“My father and brother detained days thatched action is the most difficult time. Mother and sister a week from Malacca to Kuala Lumpur to meet with me, I drove to the the Kamunting detention of camp to visit his brother and father, a full year and a half, whether physical or mental, are tortured. “She said.
“Brother Malacca Chief Minister who have sex with underage girls event in 1998, into Kajang prison every week to visit him, looked at him in the prison weight loss down to health problems, I know that my father therefore felt extremely distressing. “Ms Lam said.
In any case, see 2008 308 political tsunami father played Action Party led by the most brilliant record, brother Lim Guan Eng, Penang ruling party winning more, after following Boni, Lim Chong Eu, Koh Tsu Koon, the fourth Bit-Chinese Chief Minister; Ms Lam feel very pleased that the years of hard work and perseverance of his father and brothers, are not in vain.
Second daughter Lin Huiying eyes of Lim Kit Siang
Lin Huiying said: “As a little daughter, I love to his father like a baby and talk to their minds, very serious in the eyes of outsiders Lim Kit Siang, in my mind, but it is fatherly. Hours I love him like a baby, either fall or brothers and sisters fight, I will be crying out to his father. ‘
However, his reaction is different from the mother, the fall, when my mother called me to run around, but he called me to see if there are no cracks in the floor. Educate our way always with a difference.
“My father to have a Fengyubugai habits, is a daily telephone calls home, unless special circumstances are encountered, otherwise will never forget a phone call a day. He is also one pair of the basic necessities of life is not required, go to where you can sleep, and even training to be able to sleep in minutes skill! ‘
Lin Huiying said: “he was to stick to their beliefs, to speak to think twice honest and never give up, he insisted. Is very honored to be able to become his children. ‘
The eyes of the youngest son of Lin Guanjun Lim Kit Siang
His father’s public image is always described as a dictator, chauvinist, “big mouth” and even greedy for power. , “Lin Guanjun said:” In fact, he is a very quiet person, will think twice before speak. He is a man of integrity, and insist on the right thing. He insisted he would mercilessly do, never give up, for me, that is a sign. ‘
The eyes of the eldest son Lim Guan Eng Lim Kit Siang
Penang Directorate Lim describes his father: “Lim Kit Siang is widely believed to have the courage, corruption and integrity. ‘
He said: “Shakespeare wrote: some are born great; great achievements of some people; Some people had to great. Lim Kit Siang of these three conditions, even surpass these conditions. Because he can inspire others to become great. ‘
Anwar eyes of Lim Kit Siang
Parliamentary Opposition Leader Anwar said: “Most people think Lim Kit Siang is very hard-line leader, in fact, he is a good listener, not like I always prefer to express their views, he is a very sensible person. ‘
Anwar said: “I think everyone, especially the Malay community and religious people, and if we see his real side, will find that he is very visionary, his love of freedom and fairness, and to transcend the barriers of race. ‘
To Karpal eyes of the Lim Kit Siang
Karpal old comrade-in-arms, so Lim Kit Siang Lim Kit Siang fought side by side for more than 40 years: “He will be a very good lawyer. However, he chose to dedicate their lives to politics. ‘
Karpal said: “Many people think that good fortune is very serious, in fact, he also has a humorous side. He was always considerate and thoughtful, in my impression, I have never seen him angry or lost his temper, except in Congress to launch an attack. ‘
Karpal said: “He never deter us from any statement or remarks, he would not have to ask what we’re doing. He always makes us free to play, not to exert pressure, this point so I admire him. ‘
Karpal, Lim Kit Siang loyal to the family, even as his last family in mind completely. Be regarded as a rare species. He said: “It is difficult to find another like him, I hope he has another 70-year-old, Action Party needed him! ‘
Zeng Min Xing eyes of Lim Kit Siang
Zeng Min Xing and Karpal and Lim Kit Siang is an old ally of sharing weal and woe. He said: “The success of the Action Party in Lai Jixiang behind. He performs a very strict discipline the manufacturing problems who are isolated and expulsion, and that he was Barisan Nasional’s hostile tag as a dictator, in fact, he is not. ‘
He said: “Today auspicious auspicious with the young man is no different. Into the 70-year-old, he still did not stop, but also to East Malaysia to set up a branch. What makes him so full of energy? That is because he believes that the Action Party can change the political situation of the country, so that the country can become a truly Malaysian priority countries. ‘
Epilogue: Lim Kit Siang Memorabilia
Chen “Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded in the same predecessors once described Lim Kit Siang is” inherently political animal. In fact, describe this really appropriate.
Lim Kit Siang great interest in politics in high school. April 1955, 14 years old, he and a group of students from Batu Pahat, Johor Palestinian jurisdiction foot car ride to Malacca play, on the road about 60 kilometers. Backhaul being held that day happened to the Bandung Conference, 29 Asian and African countries for the first time in the case of no colonial countries participated, was held in Bandung, Indonesia, large-scale international conference to discuss the vital interests of the Afro-Asian Peoples. At that time, only 14-year-old Lim Kit Siang very concerned about the results of this international conference is very concerned about the subsequent evolution of the international and domestic political.
Lim Kit Siang and serve a young age did not grow up to be when he remembers 18 years old, the results would be released free time in waiting five scores, one night with a group of like-minded students sitting in the school’s irrigation ditches chat. Talking about political and national affairs, he jokingly suggested companions to the world and each set up a political party, 10 years after the gather comparative results. Although this is just a joke, Lim Kit Siang also well aware of the founding is not an easy task, which is enough to display his teens passionate politics.
Lim Kit Siang in school days and did not participate in any political and social movement, until the completion of secondary school into the community before they came into contact with the political, then changed his life. He first when the provisional teach, when after the Singapore Straits Times reporter, and to join trade unions.
Singapore Radio soon after working for some time, and then to the Ministry of Culture as a media officer, had joined the newspaper Trade Unions, in 1962, he was appointed as Singapore’s National Journalists’ Association (Singapore National Union Of Journalist, SNUJ) Secretary General . Although Singapore was part of Malaysia, Lim Kit Siang has heart Malaysia keen interest in the political situation in West Malaysia, but did not participate in political activities in Singapore.
9 individuals from the 1964 general election, the People’s Action Party candidates, elected Bangsar District Congressman Tiffany that (Democratic Action Party Secretary-General), Lim Kit Siang know Tiffany that because of participation in union.
August 9, 1965, Singapore from Malaysia, the People’s Action Party leaders have returned to Singapore, Tiffany that to honor their commitment to voters, decided to stay in Malaysia and opening Lim Kit Siang as his political secretary. The then Lim Kit Siang also the work of the Ministry of Culture, has been promoted to the Singapore TV station as editors, not only the future of the job, or the “iron rice bowl”.
Tiffany that to know Lim Kit Siang plan, thus requiring him to consider only reply, did not expect to Lim Kit Siang was a promise to serve as its political secretary to give up career in Singapore.
October 1965, the pedicle where it and other colleagues such as Zeng Min Xing and other people began to proceed with the establishment of the Party of Democratic Action, and the registration of, until March 18, 1966 was successful, follow the pedicle where that’s Lim Kit Siang also natural join Action Party and began to actively work in the organization, to all parts of the country to recruit people with lofty ideals to join the party.
May 10, 1969 general election, the Union suffered an unprecedented setback, the Democratic Action Party won 13 seats, Lim Kit Siang, members of Congress, elected Malacca urban began for him so far up to a 47-year political career.
Lin Jixiang Zheng sea drifting Memorabilia:
1966, he was appointed the first secretary-general of the Democratic Action Party Tiffany that political secretary
By the Commission in 1967, joined the Central Executive Committee
As organizational secretary, in 1968 and served as editor of the English-language version of the rocket newspaper
The Selangor the Schaden state seats-election in 1968, on behalf of the Action Party played for the first time, defeated the candidate of the MCA.
May 10, 1969, Malacca urban members of Congress elected in national elections
To Sabah in 1969 for independent candidates being the Chief Minister of Sabah Mosda deported transit in Singapore to return to Malaysia were arrested, detained for up to invoke the Internal Security Act in the case without trial 16 months.
Camp has been detained in October 1970, was elected Secretary-General of the Malaysian Democratic Action Party
Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons in 1972, he
1974 selected Malacca urban members of Congress
In 1977 Lim Kit Siang become official lawyer (Lincoln’s Inn)
1978 selected Petaling Jaya congressman
Back to Malacca congressional districts in 1982 personally pack rebels Chen Dequan, selected of Malacca urban members of Congress
Moved to Penang in 1986, declared to carry the “Tanjung battle” and beat Koh Tsu Koon’s Action Party won 10 Penang seats
In October 1987, son Lim Guan Eng and party in the thatched action to be together detained, and was released in April 1989
1990 with 46 spirit of the party to launch the second round of the Tanjung II Battle offensive in Pakistan when Kota state constituency defeating Lim Chong Eu, smashing unbeaten myth Lim Chong Eu’s Action Party won 14 state seats
The 1995 launch Tanjung Battle country seats in Tanjung Qinxia Zhang Zhiwei, a candidate of the National Front, but lost in Tanjung Bungah state constituency Koh Tsu Koon
1999 in Penang Hill country seats lost to Xie Quantel Botanic Garden State seats lost to Ding Funan; resigned as secretary-general level, he served as party chairman
Selected, Perak Yibao Dong District Congressman in 2004, and then served as the leader of the opposition of Congress. Remove the party chairman post in the same year
The political tsunami of March 8, 2008, once again selected the Perak Yibao Dong District congressman.
“Lin Jixiang Zheng sea drifting recorded” outside the chapter, “Lim Kit Siang Young Dragons” has been fully completed. Thank you for your support. Once again, we wish you all a Happy New Year. Good night.
by: Danfeng zhang
The true history of Malaysia, Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded
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