Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO

DUTCH EAST INDIE

 

Chong Yeau Tian leader of the Chinese in Medan 1911

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

The Chinese Overseas Kapitan

Part two

 Dutch East Indie Colony

 

Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan

 

Created By

Dr4 Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

//

[edit] History

[edit] Pre-colonial interaction

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese.[disputed] The standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China.[disputed] Chinese sources, however, are useful external sources of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries such as Fa Hien, a Buddhist monk who passed the region in the fifth century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty.

Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Islamic evangelists in Java (Wali Songo, or the Nine Ambassadors) were of Chinese ancestry. At least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants: Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang (son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga, and Sunan Gunungjati.[5] <This shouldn’t actually be ironic since those Islamic evangelists are actually Hui Chinese, a Chinese ethnic group who are Muslim. In contrast, most of the present Chinese Indonesians are mainly not Hui Chinese. Rather, they are mostly Han Chinese, another Chinese ethnic group which is the majority ethnic group in mainland China, coming from Fujian, Guangdong, etc.> One theory suggests that Chinese traders were among the first to bring Islam to Indonesia, including those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He, or Sam Po Kong, in the fifteenth century. Zheng He himself was a Muslim from the Hui minority ethnic group in China. Other theories based on documented accounts of Indian Gujarati traders and merchants, long familiar with Java, suggest they introduced Sufism there and the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

Since the voyages of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the region as an attractive trading partner.

[edit] Dutch colonial era

[edit] Favored position under the Dutch

 

 

Portrait of the Chinese kapitein of Rembang, Central Java (ca. 1913)

The largest waves of Chinese migration happened during early to middle Dutch colonial era (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries) seeking to find new opportunities of trade.

Race relations between the Chinese Indonesians and native Indonesians (pribumi) have always been problematic, and remain so up to the present. Some commentators trace this to the Dutch era when colonial policy favored the ethnic Chinese, and in so doing established the economic dominance of the Chinese over the region.[citation needed]

The caste system established by the Dutch also made it disadvantageous for ethnic Chinese to assimilate into the native population. Assimilation would mean being placed in the lowest estate together with the natives. Ethnic Chinese, together with Arabs and other “foreign orientals” were members of the second estate. The first estate was reserved for Europeans.[6]

As such, the Dutch were among the early practitioners of a classic colonial strategy practiced in many other times and places by displacing and destroying native systems of authority through favoring specific ethnic or religious minorities. They become props of colonial rule and a buffer between itself and the majority indigenous population. (France and Britain would eventually use the local Christian and Jewish communities in the Arab world in the same way.)

Having the favor of the Dutch and being considered by “intelligent, diligent, and capable of overseeing Dutch plantations”, many ethnic Chinese supported colonial rule[citation needed]. Indeed, in the early years of the Dutch East Indies, ethnic Chinese actively helped strengthen Dutch domination in the region. Souw Beng Kong, the Kapitan Cina (“Captain of the Chinese”) of Banten, for example, organized a large-scale immigration of Chinese under his rule to Batavia in the seventeenth century. This significantly destabilized the regional economy and facilitated Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Banten.

As a reward, Souw was made the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia in 1619. His successors and later, the Majoors der Chinezen, were given landed fiefdoms and the Dutch-invented hereditary title of Sia by the colonial government.

Among them, these aristocratic Peranakan families controlled a great deal of Java’s land and wealth, confiscated by the Dutch from the native (pribumi) aristocracy. Through the officership system they governed the Peranakan and ethnic Chinese populations of Batavia. The system was later extended to other centers of Dutch power in Java and the rest of the archipelago.[7] Deprived of land, the native aristocracy lacked the economic resources (income via agricultural, livestock and timber products, alluvial and subterranean mineral resources, most particularly gold and gemstones) vital to fund their kingdoms, princedoms and dukedoms. Essentially bankrupted by theft of their land and forced transition to Chinese ownership, the aristocracy was hamstrung to raise military force against the usurpers.

Both the Dutch and the Chinese participated in the trade of thousands of Javanese slaves. Javanese considered problematic were shipped off to Chinese plantations in Sumatra.[citation needed]

[edit] Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

In their position, the Chinese often did not receive friendly attitudes from the Dutch. In the early decades of the eighteenth century, tensions began to build. In some ways, it resulted from the fact that having settled in and around Batavia ever since its foundation, the Chinese had come to be a major element in its economic life.

Chinese workers were greatly involved in building Batavia and cultivating the adjacent agricultural areas. And Chinese traders, who were arriving in growing numbers, made the Dutch East India Company (VOC) increasingly dependent on them.

The VOC came to make most of its profits from trade among different Asian destinations rather than back to the Netherlands themselves – and it was naturally the Chinese traders residing in Batavia who had the best contacts in China.

Dutch and Chinese needed each other – which in theory should have ensured a good relationship. But an element among the Dutch colonists came to increasingly resent the situation of the Chinese being their effective social equals and economic rivals. The Chinese traders, like the Dutch ones, were tax-payers – which was an economic burden but also conferred considerable privileges (a phenomenon comparable to the later resentment of French settlers in Algeria to local Christians and Jews being legally their equals).

What set off a cataclysm of hatred and bloodshed was not only cliquish Chinese trading but the other major branch of their economic activity on Java: agricultural work carried out by poor Chinese coolies who were imported and employed by rich Chinese entrepreneurs. Such coolies were, for example, the dominant part of the labor force employed in the sugar plantations at the Ommelanden of Batavia, a major field of economic activity.

The importation of ever more coolies caused an enormous increase in the Chinese population in the VOC-ruled area of Batavia and its environs, and they came to constitute nearly half of the total population just before 1740. Already in 1690, the colonial authorities had imposed severe limitations on further immigration from China. This did not have, however, the effect of stopping the importation of more coolies. Rather, they continued to be imported through the payment of bribes to the authorities, and were all the more dependent on their employers (usually Chinese themselves) and susceptible to lucrative exploitation.

From about 1720 the sugar market went through a deepening crisis, with the markets in Europe becoming saturated, and the plantations of Java facing sharp competition from cheaper Brazilian sugar. Many of the sugar planters went bankrupt, and the authorities took no step to alleviate the situation of the workers thrown out of their jobs – with the result being bands of unemployed, hungry and desperate coolies turning to brigandage.

Belatedly, at July, 1740 the colonial authorities, c.q. Adriaan Valckenier and Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff decreed that all the coolies of the Ommelanden were to be transferred to Dutch-run plantations at Galle in Southern Ceylon. That might or might not have been the true intention, but rumors rife among the coolies were that the Dutch actually intended to throw them overboard once out of sight of the shore. Instead of boarding the ships, the coolies burst into an all-out revolt, with roaming bands robbing and killing in the countryside and some even attempting to attack Batavia itself.

There is no evidence that the better off Chinese living inside the walled area of Batavia, some five thousand in number, were planning to join the rebellious coolies outside. However, many of the Dutch inhabitants did have such suspicions. On October 9, 1740, the order was issued to search the houses of all the Chinese residents in Batavia. This soon degenerated into an all-out, three-day long massacre – with Chinese being massacred in their homes, and earlier captured Chinese being killed out of hand in prisons and hospitals.

A preacher fanned the flames from the pulpit, declaring that the killing of Chinese was “God’s Will”, and the colonial government itself reportedly posted a bounty for decapitated Chinese heads. The number of victims in these three days is variously estimated at between five thousand and ten thousand. The name Kali Angke (traditional Chinese: ; literally, “Red River”) is said to date from that time, recalling the blood flowing into the river.[8][9]

Afterwards, the “restoration of order” was proclaimed, with surviving Chinese henceforth ghettoized in specific quarters of Batavia and other Dutch-ruled cities. The Chinese area of Batavia was designated Glodok, where many Chinese still live in present-day Jakarta.

Following the massacre, the Dutch Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier was arrested and required to account for himself to the Heeren XVII (“Seventeen Lords”, the VOC directors in Amsterdam). He died in prison, however, and the charges against him were declared “annulled by death”.

The affair continued to crop up in later periods, especially in times of tension.[10]

 

Graf van de kapitein der Chinezen So Bing Kong (Bencon) te Batavia, vermoedelijk op Goenoeng Karang, een oude Chinese begraafplaats aan de Jacatraweg 1916

 

Situation now

Due to Coolaberation between Driwancybermuseum and Zheng He Museum Penang, I have made a special reasearche about the Famous  Chinese overseas In Malaya during British Colony  and Indonesia during Dutch East Indie

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, 1888-11-23

Oei Tan Nio, echtgenote van de kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 27-jarige leeftijd

 

Oei Tjan Nio in bruidskleding, echtgenote van Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta

After work Hard and spend much time and loan, The research were finish and this info will show in Zheng He Museum Penang lead by Robert Yeap.

I also found some informations related to that famous man.like kapitan Cina in stratits settlement penang,Malacca,Singapore ,Kuching Sarawak  and also from federated Malayan like Kuala Lumpur etc,also from Indonesia(Dutch East Indie that time) like Deli medan,tanjung balai ashan ,padang city, Batavia(Jakarta),surabyaa .

 

Kapitan cina rembang 1885

Due to many realted informations,this book will be divided by two part,part one Malaya area and part two Indonesia (Dutch East Indie Area)

 

Kapitan Cina Surabaya and Mrs  1880

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan(mayor rank) Cina Surabaya Han Tjong Khing  1924

 

 

When and why the Kapitan Cina organization starting?

 

Kapitan cina(leuteant rank) Laboehan deli 1880

 I have a very best information from web blog Chinese overseas in British Colony and Kapitan cina Batavia, but some of informations cannot read all because qere protacted with the PDF and other computer technology which made only by very high technology a part of information can read, but I think enough and good informations were extist,this some of the info below.

[edit] Continued Immigration and division into three sub-communities

 

 

Chinese family portrait (ca. 1870)

Even such bloody events did not put an end to the continued Chinese emigration to the Indies, where economic opportunities not available in China itself outweighed the dangers of discrimination or persecution.

Earlier Chinese immigrants had much closer ties toward mainland China. This was manifested in their strong desire to return home and consideration of the Indies as yet another temporary settlement.

Attitudes started changing from the middle eighteenth century when the Qing emperor of the time, Qian Long, considered these expatriates to be “turncoats” and thereby a threat to China. Still, while Emperor Qian Long adopted a general “closed-door policy”, there was no evidence that Chinese expatriates were banned from returning to their original homeland.

Many of them, however, found the Indies an increasingly attractive abode. The hostile and oppressive Manchu government of the Qing dynasty brought even more migrants from China. Lured by comfortable lives, some of them no longer associated themselves with mainland China. They were called Cina Babas or Peranakans. Some Cina Babas intermarried with indigenous Indonesian (pribumis), often the slave-girl of a coollie.

Most, however, identified themselves as Dutchmen, embraced Christianity, generally enjoyed higher education and social status, and mimicking Western lifestyles considered themselves the more refined. They got to be called Qiao Sheng (literally, “foreign-born”). Beginning in the late Nineteenth Century, most of the Dutch-invented aristocratic “Sia” families underwent rapid westernization. By the early decades of the twentieth century, many of them—especially those domiciled around Batavia—had become “more Dutch than the Dutch themselves”. The Sias were consequently some of the strongest proponents of colonial rule.

Those who still maintained ties toward China, whose main belief was Confucianism, considered Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs unfilial, all the more so because Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically shunned Chinese tradition. The ones who still maintained “purity” were called Cina Totoks.

These three groups of Chinese Indonesians had starkly different nationalistic views and tendencies. At the time

  • Qiao Shengs were more inclined toward the Dutch;
  • Cina Totoks were more inclined toward mainland China;

and

  • Cina Babas were more toward the indigenous population of the Indies.

[edit] Changing Dutch policies and decline of the Sia aristocracy

 

Chinese paifang in Bandung on the occasion of the marriage of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard in 1937

By the 1920s and 1930s, the long standing hold over the economy of the old Sia families, Qiao Sheng par excellence, was systematically destroyed by the very Dutch colonial government they supported . Following Queen Wilhelmina‘s speech to the Estates General (the Dutch Parliament) in which she insisted that a “moral debt” was owed to the people of the East Indies, the colonial government implemented its so-called “social policy”. This was aimed at ending feudalism in Java and breaking up the large estates of the Peranakan pretender aristocracy.

It was the Chinese Sias, more than the native aristocracy, who suffered from this measure. The native aristocracy did not own much land, due to the fact that the Dutch had generations prior forcibly confiscated and split the former Kingdom of Majapahit into four. The Dutch, to remedy the unfavourabale and indeed racist treatment of the natives, initiated a program of civil service employment for suitably pliable upper middle-class semi-aristocratic families, known as priyayi.

Dutch compulsory acquisition of Peranakan fiefdoms destroyed many of the older Chinese landowning families. While some successfully managed to get into business, most former Sias—their title becoming obsolete by the 1940s—were swamped in economic power by Totok Chinese. This latter group remains, even today, the most powerful economic group in Indonesia.[11]

Concomittant with the decline of the feudal-type Sias, Chinese Indonesians underwent a process of modernization and of building up Western-type political and social institutions. Chinese Indonesians built the first of their schools in Surabaya in the 1920s—one of the first non-Western schools in Java—and by the 1960s, many Chinese schools had been established in the major cities. The first Chinese newspapers were also printed during this era, and several Chinese political parties were established. These parties ranged from those who saw themselves as part of the Indonesian nationalist movement, and those who felt that Chinese Indonesians were still Chinese citizens – a question that was left unresolved for many decades.[citation needed]

[edit] Nationalism and revolution (1900–1945)

[edit] Reflections of Chinese mainland politics

Later waves of migrants still maintained ties to China, mainly by supporting Chinese nationalistic movements to overthrow the Qing dynasty. Although the support was mainly monetary, some Chinese Indonesians were actively involved in the inside politics, especially so during the Sun Yat Sen era. Cina Totoks were particularly active.

Although the Chinese Communists were largely unsupported at first, from the 1930s on the Communists’ effort to drive the Japanese occupants out of China gained the support of many Cina Totoks and even some Qiao Shengs. Thus, Indonesian Chinese manifestations of support towards mainland China became divided into two camps, parallel with the civil war sides in China itself: Nationalistic (Kuomintang or Guómíndǎng) and Communistic (Gòngchǎndǎng).

[edit] Sympathy for Indonesian nationalism

At the turn of the 20th century, however, Cina Babass were increasingly assimilated into Indonesian culture. Younger generations of Cina Totoks still tried to maintain ties with China.

Although the Dutch had given the Chinese Indonesians a special status, they were becoming increasingly oppressive and discriminative against all Chinese Indonesians. So, all three groups – Qiao Shengs, Cina Babas, and Cina Totoks – were more and more cooperative toward the Indonesian national movement, especially in providing monetary support.

This comment is disputed as much documentary evidence amply illustrates overwhelming Chinese support for Dutch paramilitary attempts to crush the Independence movement thereby incurring long-standing enmity of the Indonesian native.

More and more Chinese Indonesians were involved in Indonesian politics. Cina Totoks typically set up specific Chinese political parties which aimed at an Indonesia-China alliance and established newspapers. Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically joined nationalist parties jointly with pribumis. Some of them, serving as officers in the Dutch Army and later the Japanese one, but never used their positions to help the national movement.

 

 

On 10 November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po published what is now known as Indonesia Raya, Indonesia’s national anthem.

They were also among the pioneers of Indonesian newspapers. In their fledgling publishing companies, they published their own political ideas along with contributions from other Indonesian writers. In November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po (traditional Chinese: 新報; pinyin: xīn bào) was the first paper to openly publish the text of the national anthem Indonesia Raya. On occasion, those involved in such activities ran a concrete risk of imprisonment or even of their lives, as the Dutch colonial authorities banned nationalistic publications and activities.

Chinese Indonesians were active in supporting the independence movement during the 1940s Japanese occupation, when all but the Overseas Chinese Association (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huáqiáo Zhōnghuì) were banned by the Japanese military authorities. Some notable pro-independence activists were Siauw Giok Tjhan and Liem Koen Hian, but the latter died as a People’s Republic of China citizen (Kusuma,2004:27). Yap Tjwan Bing, a member of Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, became a US citizen in the 1960s.

 

 

 

Kapitan cina medan Tjong A Fie 1906

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjonng A Fie with family 1900

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan

The Chinese Consulate

The formation of Chinese consulate in Singapore in 1877 , an Penang in 1890, also in Padang West Sumatra and Payakumbuh West Sumatra (years still not known) respectively was primanly to serve as communicate between the Chinese Gouvernment  and the Chinese overseas . Apart from that it was also the Chinese tentative to gain support and loyality from her wealthy  Overseas member.

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan 1910

 

 

The house of Kapitan cina medan Tjong Jong Hian 1900

The office of the Vice-consult functions in various aspects and capacities .The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya and Duitcg East Indie For istance

 

1893

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

The Penang Brand engaged with the Chinese Affairs in Penang <Perak,Sealngor, Kedah and Perlis.Whereass the Singapore branch comcerned in the areas such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan , Kelantan and Trengannu

 

Kapitan Cina Tanjungpura Medan Hho Tsai Toan in 1890

 

The prime role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interest however in the ealy 1900’s other Chinese organizations  such as the Chinese Advisory board (1890) ,Chinese chamber of Commerce Po Leung Kok(1886) as well as other Chinese clan association had surged in all mayor owns in British Malaya thus the importance of the Vice consult had apparentely ceased.

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje 1867

In 1891 ,the vice consult of Singapore was promote to the rank of Consult gereal in south East asia and in 1933 the chinedse consult was established in Kuala lumpur and the Chinese Affairs in the Federataed of Malaya.

Source

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina Langkat  Tjoeng Njan Khin with government in Binjei

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan*mayor rank) cina Aceh Lie A sie

Op de rug gezien v.l.n.r.: majoor K. van der Maaten, sultan Mohammad Dawot Sjah, Toeankoe Ibrahim (zoon van de sultan) en assistent-resident W.J.F. Vermeulen; V.l.n.r. tegenover majoor K. van der Maaten: luitenant-generaal J.B. van Heutsz (gedeeltelijk), assistent-resident A.C. Veenhuizen, luitenant-kolonel G.C.E. van Daalen (gedeeltelijk), onbekend, controleur C. Schultz, Toeankoe Pangeran Oesén, Toeankoe Machmoet, onbekend, majoor titulair der Chinezen Lie A Sie

 

Kapitan(leuteannt rank) can meando 1873

 

The same situation same in Dutch East Indie(Indonesia now) but the rank different,there were Mayor Cina, Kapitan Cina and Leutenant Cina depend on the demography and geography of dutch east indie from government, Residentie,subresidentie(Assisten-resident area) and more small area.

 

Kapitan Cina Medan 1900 Oen Goan The

 

In Padang there were two Chinese vice-consut at Pariaman name Lir Ma Say, he ever send money to Dutch east ndie government to help the Krakato eruption victim in 19th century but later closed because move to Padang city there were vicde consut Gho Goan Tee and Lie Ma say became the first Mayor Cina, and then Gho Goa tee,then Ang Eng Lay, then Lie Oen Kiong,then the son of Gho Goan Tee(Gho sun Tong) his brother Gho Sun hin merried my Aunt Kang Kim Lian they lived at Singapore. My grandgrandpa Chua Chay Hiok(Tjoa Tjay Hiok) became the vice Consult in Payakumbuh west Sumatra upland ,later my uncle TJOa seng Lian became the Kapitan cina at Payakumbuh he ever send money to help republic of China during sun Yat sen(Kuomintang) to build the railways ,

 

Opening van de eerste jaarmarkt te Semarang 1908

At Batavia(now Jakarta) the first Kapitan was So ban Kong,he strated from Bantam ,then moved to Batavia during VOC first built this city in 16th century, then the Khouw faili were the next kapitan cina Batavia. I was found the best book about a dutch man travelling in ndonesia in late 19th century,in that rare book I found the pictures of the first kaiptan cina Padang city profile Lie Ma say, and other 19th century book about tarvellin in Java also I found the profil of Surabaya kapitan Cina.

In  The 1941 Dutch East Indie Almanac book  were list all the kapitan cina from all part of Indonesia,and from the Book of Dutch and colony ‘s employe 1939, I found the kapitan cina and famous Chinese overseas in Dutch East indie complete with profile picture and short life histories .

 

 

De gemeenteraadsleden van Bindjai met enkele dame

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

Indonesian National Revolution

During the Indonesian National Revolution following World War II, many Chinese Indonesians supported the Independence movement. BPUPKI’s (Body for Investigating Preparation Attempts of Indonesia’s Independence) membership included six ethnic Chinese members who contributed to the drafting of the Indonesian Constitution in 1945.[citation needed] The formation of all-Chinese Indonesian units in the Revolution was discussed,[12] similar to the formation of the all-Japanese American Nisei units in World War II. This suggestion was ultimately rejected, and the ethnic Chinese were advised to instead join their local pro-Independence groups. Due to the lack of such clearly-defined ethnic unit, the precise number of Chinese Indonesians who took part in the Indonesian National Revolution, and their percentage of the Chinese Indonesian community as a whole, remains disputed. It is a sensitive issue due to it sometimes being linked to the post-war status of Chinese Indonesians and their equal status (or lack of one) in the Indonesia created by that war.

In 1946, the Consul General of the Republic of China, Chiang Chia Tung, expressed in Malang the ROC’s support for Indonesia’s independence

 

 

 

 

Root of Tionghoa


The word has been used in a letter Tionghwa loyal to the Nippon army .
Chinese or tionghwa , is a term that is made by people of Chinese descent in Indonesia , which is derived from the Chinese word zhonghua . Zhonghua pronounced in Hokkien dialect of Chinese .

 

 

Chinese overseas at Baroes Tapanoeli in 1910

Discourse Tsung Hwa at least been started since 1880, which is the desire of the people in China to be free from the power of the royal dynasty and establish a more democratic and stronger . This discourse to be heard by people of Chinese origin living in the Dutch East Indies when it was called the Chinese People .

 

 

Chinese overseas Tin Worker  at Bangka 1920

A group of people from China whose children were born in the Dutch East Indies , felt the need to learn the culture and language . In 1900 , they founded the school in the Dutch East Indies , under the auspices of an entity called ” Tjung Hwei Hwa Kwan ” , which is when the pronunciation becomes Tiong Hoa Hwe Indonesianized Kwan ( THHK ) . THHK along the way not only provide Chinese language and culture education , but also foster a sense of unity among the Chinese in the Netherlands Indies , along with changes in the term ” China ” to ” Chinese ” in the Dutch East Indies .


 

Uitreiking van een onderscheiding aan de kapitein der Chinezen, Tan Djoe An, bij zijn aftreden door de resident te Modjokerto in 1918

 

Population in Indonesia

 

 

 

Kapitan cina Ambarawa Kwee An Kie 1875


Based Volkstelling ( census ) in the Dutch East Indies , Indonesian – Chinese population reached 1.233 million ( 2.03 % ) of the population of Indonesia in 1930. [ 5 ] There is no official data on the number of Chinese population in Indonesia issued by the government since Indonesian independence . But the American anthropologist , G.W. Skinner , in his research has estimated the Chinese population in Indonesia reached 2.505 million ( 2.5% ) in 1961 . [ 6 ]

 

Chenese overseas in DEI in 1876

 

In the population census in 2000 , when for the first time census respondents were asked about their ethnic origin , only 1 % of the total Indonesian population claiming to be Chinese . A rough estimate of the number of trust – Indonesian ethnic Chinese today is located in between the range of 4 % – 5 % of the total population of Indonesia . [ 7 ]
Region of origin in China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Installatie van de majoor der Chinezen door resident W.J.M. Michielsen, vermoedelijk dhr. Pjang a Yong te Medan in 1893

 

 

Aanwezige bestuursambtenaren onder andere: resident van de Oostkust van Sumatra W.J.M. Michielsen, assistent-resident J.C. van Hasselt en secretaris J.A. van Rijn van Alkemade


Map the distribution of ancestral tribal homelands Chinese – Indonesian
The height of the coastal trade interaction southeastern China , causing a lot of people who also feel the need to go out cruising for trade . The main aim when it was Southeast Asia . Because the cruise is highly dependent on monsoons , then each year the traders will live in areas of Southeast Asia who visited them . And so on there are traders who decided to settle down and marry local women , there are also traders who returned to China to continue to trade .

 


V.l.n.r. op de 1e rij: Daliloeddin, Moorianto Koesoemo Oetojo, Soenito, Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro, onbekende, Abdoerachman, onbekende, Djalal Moechsin, onbekende, Adnin; op de 2e rij: Zain Sjarif, Annie de Ridder, Reny [Irene Yvonne] Poetiray, Rasono Woerjaningrat, mevr. Alings, mevr. Abdoerachman, Margriet Tuera (vertegenwoordigster Kaoem Iboe Indonesia), dochter van mevr. Alings; op de 3e rij: Sidartawan, Joesoef Moedadalam, mevr. Poernomo, Soenardi, onbekende, mevr. Soenardi, 2 Chinezen, 2 onbekenden, Evie [Georgine Eveline] Poetiray, 4 onbekenden, Hartono; op de 4e rij: Soegeng Notohadinegoro, Hadiono Koesoemo Oetojo, Madeleine Hubrecht, Soehoenan Hamzah, Soeripno, Ati Nataatmadja (dochter van regent Tjiandjoer); 2 onbekenden, Trees Nataatmadja (dochter regent Tjiandjoer), Koessardjono

 

Chinese people in Indonesia , mostly originating from southeast China . They include the tribes :
 Hakka
§
§ Hainan
 Hokkien
§
 Cantonese
§
§ Hokchia
 Tiochiu
§
The area of origin is concentrated in the coastal southeast is understandable , because of the Tang Dynasty from port cities in coastal southeastern China indeed has become a bustling trading port . Quanzhou been noted as the largest airport and the busiest port in the world in those days . [ Citation needed ]

Undo edits

 

Title Chinese optocht te Sitoebondo ter gelegenheid van het vijfentwintigjarig regeringsjubileum van koningin Wilhelmina in 1923 Op de banier staan in Chinese karakters drie plaatsnamen uit de Fujian provincie in China: “Zhou, Xinghua en Fuqing”. Waarschijnlijk de plaatsen waar deze overzeesche Chinezen vandaan komen.Is this translation better than the original?

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The first recorded movement of people from China into Maritime Southeast Asia was the arrival of Mongol forces under Kublai Khan that culminated in the invasion of Java in 1293.

 The Mongols introduced Chinese technologies to the island, including shipbuilding and coinage. Their intervention hastened the decline of the classical kingdoms such as Singhasari and precipitated the rise of the Majapahit empire.[16]

 

Chinezen dragen een balk voor de bouw van een boortoren te Pangkalanbrandan in 1929

Album, Foto-boek I, was bestemd voor de moeder van E.P.L. de Hoog. Zie ook albums 1041, 1042 en 1043.

Some Chinese and Portuguese sources indicate that Chinese traders were the first to arrive on Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to buy cloves, but they were later driven out by Javanese traders as Majapahit expanded.[17]

 

 

 Khoe Hock Cho (rechts in het midden) op de dag van zijn benoeming tot luitenant der Chinezen te Tandjoengbalai en P. Scheffer, assistent-resident van Asahan, vóór de Chineesche Hollandsche School te Tandjoengbalai

 

Kapitan (lieutenant rank) Cina Tanjungbalai Asahan  khoe Hock cho 1927

Chinese Muslim traders from the eastern coast of China arrived at the coastal towns of Indonesia and Malaysia in the early 15th century. They were led by the mariner Zheng He, who commanded several expeditions to southeastern Asia between 1405 and 1430. In the book The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores (瀛涯勝覽), his translator Ma Huan documented the activities of the Chinese Muslims in the archipelago and the legacy left by Zheng He and his men.[18] These traders settled along the northern coast of Java, but there is no documentation of their settlements beyond the 16th century. The Chinese Muslims were likely to have been absorbed into the majority Muslim population.[19] Between 1450 and 1520, the Ming Dynasty‘s interest in southeastern Asia reached a low point and trade, both legal and illegal, rarely reached the archipelago.[20] The Portuguese made no mention of any resident Chinese minority population when they arrived in Indonesia in the early 16th century.[21] Trade from the north was re-established when China legalized private trade in 1567 through licensing 50 junks a year. Several years later silver began flowing into the region, from Japan, Mexico, and Europe, and trade flourished once again. Distinct Chinese colonies emerged in hundreds of ports throughout southeastern Asia, including the pepper port of Banten.[20]

Chinese traders boycotted Portuguese Malacca after it fell to the Portuguese in the 1511 Capture of Malacca.[22] The Chinese engaged in business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[23] Some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city using ships. The Javanese–Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in “The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon”.[22]

 

 

Chinese ethnic in the 1930s .

Removal of traders from the north to the south occurs on a large scale . Chinese emperor then, Tsi Thi Huang , memakarsai displacement.

In the book Lord of the Rims ( from Coastal Taipan ) written by Sterling Seagrave , mentioned four reasons Emperor who managed to unite the Chinese mainland in that incident .
 First , Tsi fear with his biological father bribes science , Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei , go spread the merchant who is a supporter of his father . As said the book , Tsi is the son of an affair between the Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei with concubines . Lu put a mistress who was pregnant concubines .

 

 

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

When 10 -year -old Tsi he was appointed emperor . Lu became Prime Minister for 10 years . And the only prime minister of gologan merchants during Chinese history .

The second reason , North China famous for its agriculture . So it is a cleansing action against the traders .

 

Hoogwaardigheidsbekleders bij Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin (3e v.r.), sultan van Siak in 1905 V.l.n.r.: […] (luitenant der Chinezen), luitenant Koentze, […] (vermoedelijk de broer van de sultan), sultan Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin, […] (vermoedelijk bestuursambtenaar) en luitenant De Graaf


Later , the emperor wanted to develop the Chinese population in the South .
The final reason relates to the orthodox view of Confucianism which was looked down on the merchants , the merchants put under farmers : with logic , most farmers still produce rice , while the merchants did not return any results .
The Emperor ordered the transfer of the merchants ( and their friends ) on a large scale to the southern regions ( Fu Jian , Kwang – Tong ) .

The is then spread throughout the world , estimated at 55 million people . Four percent of the total number of inhabitants of the land which is also known as the Chinese .

However , the deployment of a third invasion of China into the world community . The first wave is done by Zheng He ( Cheng Ho ) about six hundred
years ago ( National Geographic ) . Admiral is only known Muslim , took his army south regions trace . History textbooks mention he had stopped in Java and made ​​a covenant with the king and locals.

The second deployment occurred when struck Chinese opium war in 1840 . Ruling Qing Dynasty tried to stop the opium . But , as the British saw great potential in this trade , they instead send warships as an answer . China defeated and ditandanganilah opium trade agreements allow Britain handed Hong Kong and in the lap of the Queen of England .

Many Chinese people who escaped from the state of chaos that hit the country . They spread to southern Asia , including Southeast Asia .
This is the beginning of the theory of Chinese people entering the area of ​​West Sumatra .


 

Sudarma , elders there to justify it . ” I was born in Padang . ‘s Been half a century in Padang . Grandfather I have parents , who called kongconya already in Padang . Parents My mother got it from the original Chinese . So the age of 12 years he joined his parents in Indonesia . Actually, the objective is not to Indonesia . goal was probably to the Philippines . attacked But since the storm, stranded in Bagan Si Api Api . Nah , keep walking , eventually arrived at Padang , Padang settled in , “he says .

Could be , parents Sudarma a resident who came in the second wave . The truth of the fact it can be strengthened with age See Hin Kiong Temple is located in Kampung China .
Dick Halim ( 80 ) , the Chinese elders estimate pagoda built before 1860. It could be because , according to records Erniawati , Padang State University lecturer and researcher at the Chinese community Minang , the pagoda was burned in

1861 .

Chinese Captain Lie Say
Lie Ma Say 

Major Chinese Lie Say
who was appointed by the Dutch to bring in workers from China to rebuild the shrine . “Muslims are also looking mosque where to go , right? ” Said Erniwati .

Another theory is derived from the Chinese Padang Pariaman . Ernawati , who wrote the book Smoke Hio in Minang , Chinese Community in West Sumatra , estimates The Chinese already in Pariaman in the 13th century . When entered into Pariaman Aceh .

Not surprising actually . Pariaman is a haven for the merchants in those days . Pariaman a trading center on the coast . Not surprisingly , in 1630 , Christine Dobbin , author of the economic turmoil and the Rise of Islam and the Padri Movement , 1784-1847 Minangkabau , Chinese quarter estimates already exist in Pariaman .

Unfortunately, a tragic event to trigger the departure of the Chinese from Pariaman . During the Japanese occupation , the Chinese brought her two daughters to the Japan office .
 The other vision ditanggap by young men who happened to see him . Traitor whispers erupted immediately . Two girls was immediately taken to the beach and dibelek with kangso ( a tool made from aluminum cans ) .

According Erniwati , the attack was carried out without a plan. Hence , the tool is not sharp weapons are usually prepared to kill . “Besides , the punishment for traitors . Not only the Chinese people feel the punishment , community leaders who also became a Japanese spy , got the same sentence . , “Said the bachelor 2 UNP ‘s History majors .

Fear crept Chinese society . Gradually they began to leave Pariaman .
By 1965 some Chinese people still dwell there . However , entering the 1967 is rather difficult to find the slant-eyed in Pariaman . ” Because of what happened PKI or PRRI , ” said Erniawati . Slowly the Chinese berangur moved to Padang . Precisely , in the cottage at the moment.

However , the reason could also be the basis of the economy . Pariaman no longer considered fertile ground for 19th century trade approach . So it is not just Chinese traders who left , but also traders from other regions .

 

READ MORE INFORMATION
Dr Iwan note
I get information from the grand son Tjoe Lie – grand son ( great grandson ) of Ma Lie Say ,
Lie Ma Say dating from China’s Qing dynasty in the late 19th century, around the years 1830 to 1840 with or near the wife as a trade envoy Qing Empire in Pariaman , then he moved to Padang Panjang and Batusanggkar here he married again and had a son that is

Namely Soan Lie Tong Li who has two sons Sam and Lie Lin . Lie Lie son sam has Djoe Tong who has several sons and daughters of the Lie Tjoe Yang , his wife Tjan Tjeng hay ( my wife’s mother ‘s brother ) , and my pastor friend Lie Tjoe san ( Sandarma Akhbar SH ) .
According to my brother Dr. Johan Main Edhie , my sister’s husband’s grandfather Ie Po Tak Bun Tjoa major pariaman married to his son ( probably lie lin ) called Lie Hok Seng ( they do not have children , your child meangkat Ipo Tjoa Kang Sung Tak Bun Him whose wife sister Tjoa toen oldest Gin ,
 

Kang brother kim Bwee ( no1 ) . lian.tjabo kim kang kang and sim poe , Kang Kim Mua ( No. 3 ) , namely his mother drg Tjoe Lie Heng – wife named Ben Pangabean kim hwa Kang , as well as my father’s wife ‘s sister Djintjek keng Ie the GHO Lie Kim named her jade – Go siei Hong , GSlan , GHO Soei ing.bersaudara Nine . ( Dr iwan note )

Ethical Trade Platform Minang – China Relations


It is estimated , there were 12 thousand Chinese people lived in Padang. Hundreds of clan or tribe inhabiting .
However , only eight tribes who have a home meeting . GHO is the eighth tribe , Lie – Kwee , Tan , Ong , Tjoa – Kwa , Lim Hwang and Kho . Kho clan is a clan who built the house last meetings. ” Marga another few in number . So do not build a house meeting , “said Rush of Family Hanura Lie – Kwee . Lie- Kwee currently has 600 members . All were over 17 years old .
( At least the genus Auyong , is the founder of the famous daily KOMPAS Auyong Peng Koen was born in Payakumbuh – known as PKOyong – Dr Iwan note )

As the name implies , the meeting house was used to organize events involving one family. For example, the Lunar ( Chinese New Year ) , Cap Go Meh ( 15th day of the Chinese New Year celebration ) , Kio , Sipasan or Pek Chun ( the feast that commemorates the height of summer ) . In fact , the 140 th anniversary , the family plans to invite Lie – Kwee – Kwee Lie entire tribe residing in Indonesia . ” But , it’s three years away , ” said Lie Kian Guan secretary secretary Lie – Kwee family set .
Kinship is to be number one for the Chinese . And as ” indigenous ” people of Central Asia ( Japan and Korea ) , they are maintaining the dignity of the family . If embarrassing , suicide or disposed of the family is an appropriate punishment . ” On the field , for example, many families are no longer recognized , to the extent that made ​​the ad in the paper , because it tarnished the family disgrace , ” said Hanura .

They had great respect for ancestors . This is a fundamental attitude to the Chinese . ” It’s influenced by the teachings of Tao Confunsius and attached to each of the Chinese , ” said Erniwati .

One more is the attitude of the Chinese authorities often approach . In the Dutch period they were considered second-class citizens . While indigenous third grade . So also in Japanese and Sukarno era . They get an opportunity that many people are not even natives though .

Only in the Suharto era , tap the Chinese trade a little freedom is restricted in the public eye . Therefore , some Chinese people become successful entrepreneurs such as Sui Liong Liem ( Salim ) , the owner of Bank BCA . ( Dr Iwan note : Sofyan Wanandi – Liem Bian from Padang koen one successful Chinese entrepreneurs )

At the time of Sukarno’s Dutch and they are placed with a single purpose , the economy . Dutch resettle them along the Dutch region , such as in the area to be monitored Kampuang Cino in overseeing their trade . Soekarno Likewise , those in the ‘ hand over ‘ in one place and only allowed to trade .

This , according to Hanura , there are pros and cons . On the one hand they fulfilled economically , but on the other hand they can not contribute in other areas . ” How many civil servants who are of Chinese descent ,” he asked .

Jealousy had mastered the natives saw their success in trade . No wonder , when there are riots , the Chinese became targets as the events of 1998. ” Though not all Chinese people rich . Look at Tanah Kongsi market , ” said Hanura .
However , in the crunch Padang Minang ethnic Chinese and does not occur or is not as big as other cities . According Erniwati , the unique relationship between the two.
As a fellow tribe strong trade and has a strong culture and religion , should conflicts often occur . ” It seems , ethical trade makes both respect each other , ” said Erniwati .

Ethical trade makes both tribes are in a position of a friend . It looks like the two have shared trade area . Trade dominated the national level as well as the Minang people to the international area , the Chinese had been the ruler .

99 % Could not Chinese
Loose from the Soeharto era , the Chinese became more freely . Government pressure is much reduced . The Chinese are more liberated in performing worship and culture . No wonder the Chinese New Year or Cap Go Meh feels more festive than year to year . ” The most exciting event was Sipasan . Cap Go Meh At this time the show will take place most festive Sipasan because Sipasan long , “said Xin Xui who trade in front of the HBT .

Even so , alkulturasi quietly been taking place. China long before people breathe easier.

‘ The proof , 99 % of Chinese people who live here can no longer be Chinese , ” said Hanura . Distance away from ancestral lands , as well as limited memory makes Chinese culture slowly began to be forgotten . Many residents in Padang ‘s Chinatown was shocked when Erniwati mention Chinese traditions that had never been heard . Language that emerged was impressed funny . Tanah Kongsi market may witness alkulturasi languages. If you were there , Malay – Chinese sounds here and there . Pigi where lu ( going ) , Telok kecik papaw ( urinating large eggs , kind of expression ) , it would ndak o ( he will not) , for example .
To attenuate the distance , ceremonies , religious warnings sought to be implemented as it should . Although it only to write Chinese characters without understanding its meaning. ” Ndak ambo know , do , ” said Hanura when asked the purpose of the text contained in lanterns .

When interviewed Hanura palanquin procession is preparing event on Thursday ( 5/2 ) ago . A mystical events like dabuih at Coastal . The goal of the ancestors . Kio houses paraded to the other clans . ” To friendship , ” said Arif Rusli Rusdi , Jiko ( representative ) of the Lie and Kwee family .

Additionally , Sipasan be unique in Kampung Chinese art . In fact according to Hanura , art is not found in other Chinatowns in Indonesian .

During Mother’s Day , the Chinese community held a unique competition . Race wearing marapulai Minangkabau. Variations also vary . There Sawahlunto wedding dress , Bukittinggi , Payakumbuh , “said Hanura who happens to get a wedding dress from Padang .

From there he also learned that culturally there is a very obvious similarities between the Minang culture with Chinese . ” Especially the wedding dress . And Telong said in a poem has similarities with Tenglong ( lanterns ) . ”
Erniwati similarities justify it even called this a bit sensitive to the Minang .

Another visible change is the Chinese people are now no longer closed to accept members from outside the ethnic . In fact , many players brown -skinned dragon or lion . ” There’s even a Muslim , ” said Hanura .
 

No wonder that there was a lion dance show , not all players yellow . Belo eyes also appeared as the head emerged from behind the lion dance .
Can not be touched when “spring ” this will end . Erniwati convinced that the Chinese community in Padang will not get political interference and excessive pressure from the Minangkabau ethnic . ( Yusrizal KW / Andika Destika Khagen / S.Metron M / Esha Tough Son / Gus RY ) from Padang Ekpres Daily Newspaper

 

I hope this informations about Chiense overseas history especially vice consuslt cina and kapitan Cina with related collections will made the next generation now how their relatives grand-grandpa became very success live in Indonesia and Malaysia (that time straits,federated Malaya and dutch east Indie)

I will put some info from this book in Mr Robert Yeap ‘s Zheng he museum Penang which we are coabolrations with mutual benefit, and if someone want to get the full information can buy the complete CD-ROM straight to me via my email address

iwansywandy@gmail.com

Jkarta November 2013

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HISTORY OF CHINESE OVERSEAS IN INDONESIA DURING DUTCH EAST INDIE

Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago almost entirely originated from ethnic Han groups of what are now the Fujian and Guangdong provinces in southern China, known for their regional diversity.[78]

The Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in the world with large numbers living in Southeast Asia.[79] Nearly all Chinese Indonesians are either patrilineal descendants of these early immigrants, or new immigrants born in mainland China.[80]

 

 

The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.

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Tambang timah Pulau Bangka hampir seluruhnya mempekerjakan pekerja Cina.

Sebagai kelompok pertama dari orang-orang Cina untuk menetap dalam jumlah besar, Hokkien selatan Fujian menjadi kelompok imigran yang dominan hingga pertengahan abad ke-19.
Maritim-pedagang budaya mereka berasal dari pekerjaan perdagangan mereka sementara di Indonesia. Keturunan dari Hokkiens adalah kelompok dominan di Indonesia Timur, Tengah, dan Jawa Timur, dan pantai barat Sumatera.
Tiociu, tetangga selatan Hokkien, ditemukan di seluruh pantai timur Sumatera, di Kepulauan Riau, dan di bagian barat Kalimantan. Mereka lebih disukai sebagai buruh perkebunan di Sumatera, tetapi telah menjadi pedagang di daerah mana Hokkien yang tidak terwakili. [81]
The Hakka, tidak seperti Hokkien dan Teochew, berasal dari daerah pedalaman pegunungan Guangdong dan tidak memiliki budaya maritim. [81] Karena medan yang tidak produktif daerah rumah mereka, Hakka beremigrasi karena kebutuhan ekonomi dalam beberapa gelombang dari 1850-1930 dan yang termiskin dari kelompok imigran Cina. Meskipun mereka pada awalnya dihuni pusat pertambangan barat Kalimantan dan Pulau Bangka, Hakkas menjadi tertarik pada pertumbuhan yang cepat dari Batavia dan Jawa Barat di akhir abad 19 [82].
Orang Kanton, seperti Hakka, yang terkenal di seluruh Asia Tenggara sebagai penambang. Migrasi mereka di abad ke-19 sebagian besar diarahkan pada tambang timah Bangka, di lepas pantai timur Sumatera. Terkemuka tradisional sebagai pengrajin terampil, Kanton manfaat dari kontak dekat dengan orang Eropa di Guangdong dan Hong Kong dengan belajar tentang keberhasilan mesin dan industri. Mereka bermigrasi ke Jawa sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Hakka, tapi untuk alasan yang berbeda. Di kota-kota di Indonesia mereka menjadi pengrajin, pekerja mesin, dan pemilik bisnis kecil seperti restoran dan hotel-menjaga layanan. The Kanton yang merata di seluruh kepulauan dan nomor jauh lebih sedikit daripada Hokkien atau Hakka. Akibatnya peran mereka sangat penting sekunder dalam masyarakat Tionghoa [82].

As the first group of Chinese people to settle in large numbers, the Hokkien of southern Fujian became the dominant immigrant group until the middle of the 19th century.

Their maritime-mercantile culture comes from their trade occupations whilst in Indonesia. Descendants of Hokkiens are the dominant group in eastern Indonesia, Central and East Java, and the western coast of Sumatra.

Teochews, southern neighbors of the Hokkien, are found throughout the eastern coast of Sumatra, in the Riau Archipelago, and in western Borneo. They were preferred as plantation laborers in Sumatra but have become traders in regions where the Hokkien are not well represented.[81]

The Hakka, unlike the Hokkien and the Teochew, originate from the mountainous inland regions of Guangdong and do not have a maritime culture.[81] Due to the unproductive terrain of their home region, the Hakka emigrated out of economic necessity in several waves from 1850 to 1930 and were the poorest of the Chinese immigrant groups. Although they initially populated the mining centers of western Borneo and Bangka Island, Hakkas became attracted to the rapid growth of Batavia and West Java in the late 19th century.[82]

Cantonese people, like the Hakka, were well known throughout Southeast Asia as mineworkers. Their migration in the 19th century was largely directed toward the tin mines of Bangka, off the east coast of Sumatra. Notable traditionally as skilled artisans, the Cantonese benefited from close contact with Europeans in Guangdong and Hong Kong by learning about machinery and industrial success. They migrated to Java about the same time as the Hakka, but for different reasons. In Indonesia’s cities they became artisans, machine workers, and owners of small businesses such as restaurants and hotel-keeping services. The Cantonese are evenly dispersed throughout the archipelago and number far less than the Hokkien or the Hakka. Consequently their roles are of secondary importance in the Chinese communities.[82]

 

By the time the Dutch arrived in the early 17th century,

major Chinese settlements existed along the north coast of Java. Most were traders and merchants, but they also practiced agriculture in inland areas.

The Dutch contracted many of these immigrants as skilled artisans in the construction of Batavia (Jakarta) on the northwestern coast of Java.[19]

A recently created harbor was selected as the new headquarters of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) in 1609 by Jan Pieterszoon Coen. It grew into a major hub for trade with China and India.

Batavia became home to the largest Chinese community in the archipelago and remains so in the 21st century.[24]

Coen and other early Governors-General promoted the entry of Chinese immigrants to new settlements “for the benefit of those places and for the purpose of gathering spices like cloves, nutmeg, and mace”.[25]

The port’s Chinese population of 300–400 in 1619 had grown to at least 10,000 by 1740.[26] The Dutch, however, introduced a racial classification system that separated residents of Chinese ancestry from those of other ancestry.[27]

Most of those who settled in the archipelago had already severed their ties with the mainland and welcomed favorable treatment and protection under the Dutch.[28]

Some became “revenue farmers”, middlemen within the corporate structure of the VOC, tasked with collecting export–import duties and managing the harvest of natural resources;[29] although this was highly profitable, it earned the enmity of the pribumi population. Others worked as opium farmers.[30]

Following the 1740 Batavia massacre and ensuing war, in which the Chinese rebelled against the Dutch,[31] the Dutch attempted to place a quota on the number of Chinese who could enter the Indies.

Amoy was designated as the only immigration port to the archipelago, and ships were limited to a specified number of crew and passengers depending on size. This quota was adjusted at times to meet demand for overseas workers, such as in July 1802 when sugar mills near Batavia were in need of workers.[32]

When the VOC was nationalized on 31 December 1799, many freedoms the Chinese experienced under the corporation were eliminated by the Dutch government.

Among them was the Chinese monopoly on the salt trade which had been granted by the VOC administration.[33]

An 1816 regulation introduced a requirement for the indigenous population and Chinese traveling within the territory to obtain a travel permit. Those who did not carry a permit faced arrest by security officers.

The Governor-General also introduced a resolution in 1825 which forbade “foreign Asians in Java such as Malays, Buginese and Chinese” from living within the same neighborhood as the native population.[34]

Following the costly Java War (1825–1830) the Dutch introduced a new agrarian and cultivation system that required farmers to “yield up a portion of their fields and cultivate crops suitable for the European market”. Compulsory cultivation restored the economy of the colony, but ended the system of revenue farms established under the VOC.[35]

 

 

The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.

The Chinese were perceived as temporary residents and encountered difficulties in obtaining land rights. Europeans were prioritized in the choice of plantation areas, while colonial officials believed the remaining plots must be protected and preserved for the indigenous population.

Short-term and renewable leases of varying lengths[b] were later introduced as a temporary measure, but many Chinese remained on these lands upon expiration of their contracts and became squatters.[36]

In the second half of the 19th century the colonial government began experimenting with the idea of an “Ethical Policy” to protect the indigenous population, casting the Chinese as the “foremost enemy of the state”. Under the new policy the administration increased restrictions on Chinese economic activities, which they believed exploited the native population.[37]

In western Borneo the Chinese established their first major mining settlement in 1760. Ousting Dutch settlers and the local Malay princes, they joined into a new republic known as Lanfang.

By 1819 they came into conflict with the new Dutch government and were seen as “incompatible” with its objectives, yet indispensable for the development of the region.[38] The Bangka–Belitung Islands also became examples of major settlements in rural areas.

In 1851 28 Chinese were recorded on the islands and by 1915 the population had risen to nearly 40,000 and fishing and tobacco industries had developed. Coolies brought into the region after the end of the 19th century were mostly hired from the Straits Settlements owing to recruiting obstacles that existed in China.[39]

CHINA: Through the Lens of John Thomson 1868-1872

An historic photographic exhibition including 150 images taken in China between 1868 and 1872. The exhibition includes a wide variety of images, themes and locations in China from Beijing to Fujian to Guangdong including landscapes, people, architecture, domestic and street scenes.  The show in Beijing is accompanied by several displays of original clothes from the era.

John Thomson (1837–1921) was born in Edinburgh two years before the invention of the daguerreotype was announced to the world in 1839.

This discovery was the beginning of photography. That same year Fox Talbot introduced the calotype process, and with this new medium David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, two remarkable Scottish photographers living in Edinburgh, produced nearly 3,000 images, including city views, landscapes and scenes of everyday life. Their work undoubtedly had a profound influence on Thomson.

 In the years leading up to Thomson becoming a professional photographer, the technology of photography also developed at an incredible speed. The invention of the wet-collodian process in 1850 is regarded as the watershed: it reduced the exposure time and the cost of making photographs; it also produced sharper images. The wet-collodian process quickly replaced daguerreotype and calotype.

As Thomson remarked: ‘the detail in wet-collodian negatives was of microscopic minuteness whilst presenting the finest gradation and printing quality which had never indeed been surpassed by any known method’. But this in itself added to his difficulties: it was necessary to make the negatives on glass plates that had to be coated with wet-collodian emulsion before the exposure was made, thus there was a large amount of cumbersome equipment that had to be carried from place to place.

Yet Thomson persevered. To endure hardship was part of his Victorian education. He showed enormous energy and stamina. Like many of his Victorian contemporaries, he was excited by the opening up of Africa and Asia to the West, and he shared in the enthusiasm for exploring exotic places. He believed that by using photography, ‘the explorer may add not only to the interest, but to the permanent value of his work’.  And ‘the camera should be a power in this age of instruction to instruct the age’.

In 1862, Thomson set out for Singapore, where he opened a studio and established himself as a professional portrait photographer. Meanwhile, he also became increasingly interested in the local culture and people. From Singapore he travelled into Malaya and Sumatra and took a number of photographs of local landscapes and people. In 1866, after moving to Bangkok, he made his first photographic expedition into Cambodia and Indo-China (Vietnam). His photographs of Cambodia and Siam (Thailand) established him as a serious travel photographer, and gained him membership of both the Ethnographic Society of London and the Royal Geographic Society.

During his second trip to Asia, Thomson based himself at the thriving British Crown Colony of Hong Kong in 1868. There he studied Chinese and Chinese culture while making a few short trips into Guangdong. Thomson’s major China expedition began in 1870. For two years he travelled extensively from Guangdong to Fujian, and then to eastern and northern China, including the imperial capital Beijing, before heading down to the River Yangtse, altogether covering nearly 5000 miles. In China, Thomson excelled as a photographer in quality, depth and breadth, and also in artistic sensibility. The experience he gained, and the techniques he developed, on the streets of Beijing laid the foundation for his Street Life in London, compiled five years later. This established him as the pioneer of photojournalism and one of the most influential photographers of his generation.

After returning to Britain, Thomson took up an active role informing the public about China. Besides giving illustrated presentations, he continuously published photographic and written works on China. He sensed that a profound transformation was taking place in the world, and ‘through the agency of steam and telegraphy, [China] is being brought day by day into closer relationship with ourselves … China cannot much longer lie undisturbed in statii quo.’  Undoubtedly his photographs contributed greatly to 19th-century Europe’s view of Asia and filled the visual gap between East and West. He became known as ‘China’ Thomson.

Yet what marked Thomson’s work out was not simply the massive amount of visual information he offered. His uniqueness was his zeal to present a faithful and precise, though not always agreeable, account of China and Chinese people. He wanted his audiences to witness China’s floods, famines, pestilences and civil wars; but even more so, he wanted share them the human aspect of life in China. He wanted his work to transcend that of the casual illustration of idiosyncratic types, to portray human beings as individuals full of peculiarities.

In 1920, Thomson decided to sell his 650 glass negatives, including those of China, to the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, but died before the transaction could be completed. Eventually Henry Solomon Wellcome (1853–1936), the American-born pharmacist and philanthropist, bought the negatives from Thomson’s heirs.

Although Wellcome’s museum had a medical and historical theme, Wellcome was a cosmopolitan, and, in some aspects, compulsive collector. He also had an anthropological approach to history, and his ultimate aim was to create a Museum of Man, although this dream was never realised. After his death much of his collection, including Thomson’s negatives in three wooden crates, ended up in the Wellcome Library in London, where they remain today.

The 150 images included in this exhibition are all from the Wellcome Library’s collection. While a few images were reproduced in Thomson’s published works and shown in exhibitions, the great majority of his photographs have never been exhibited. Take, for example, the stereoscopes. Each of these negatives comprises two photographs taken from slightly different angles. Previously, due to the cost of photo-publishing, only one of the exposures was printed.

The images included for this exhibition have been chosen mainly for their locations, namely those of Beijing, Guangdong and Fujian.

The photographs Thomson took in Fujian and Guangdong are his strongest series of landscapes. But they also show his sensitivity.

The human aspect of his work was even more evident in his photos of the poor. In Guangdong and Fujian, he became increasingly concerned with the lives and conditions of ordinary Chinese.

As he travelled further, this concern developed. In the imperial capital of Beijing, Thomson not only displayed his talent as professional portrait photographer, his street scenes of Beijing showed that he was ahead of his time. These deeply moving images are sometimes compared to street photographs by the great 20th-century masters like Andre Kertesz, Henri Cartier-Bresson or Robert Doisneau. But more importantly, they will remain as incredibly valuable historical material for anyone wishing to understand 19th-century China and its people in their struggle to become modern.

Fujian Province, China

 

 

Provinsi Fujian adalah tanah nenek moyang saya yang meninggalkan tepi pantai provinsi ini pada abad ke-19 dan tenggelam akar di Nanyang – Laut Selatan. Atau dikenal sebagai Asia Tenggara. Mereka tinggal selama beberapa generasi di Malaysia sebelum ayah saya membuat jalan selatan ke dinamo pulau yang muncul dari Singapura yang meledak ekonomis tidak lama setelah ia tiba. Menjadi anak di luar negeri berkali-kali dihapus, saya tidak bisa memikirkan satu alasan mengapa saya harus jauh tertarik di Fujian, selain kepeduliannya motherlands yang memanggil semua yang meninggalkan pantainya dari ikan untuk unggas ke manusia. Melalui pembacaan latar belakang saya, saya ingin melukis pemandangan Anda dalam kata-kata. Mungkin suatu hari, aku akan bisa untuk mengisi stroke luas

(Kakek saya Gho kim Thian dating dari Cganzhou atau Tjiang tjioe Hokkien setelah pernah ikut ayahnya(ngkongtjo) ke Indonesia karena tidak mau menikah dengan wanita yang dipilih orang tuanya, Ia mengembara ke sumatera barat menuju kota Pajakumbuh, disana ia sebagai orang sinkek ditampung oleh ngkongtjo saya Tjoa Tjay hiok,ayah dari kakek saya Tjoa Gin Toen di Payakumbuh, dipekerjakan diperusahaan dagangnya,

Kmudian ia dijodohkan dengan anak saudaranya Tjoa giok Wan, dan ternyata putranya,ayah saya G.T.Bo(Djohan Oetama) kem menikah dengan putrid pamannya sendiri Anna Tjoa Giok Lan,

Ayah saya selalu memanggil mertuanya Ngkoe(paman).-

Tahun 2008 saya berkesempatan mengunjungi kampong halaman kakek saya versama isteri Lily ,yang berjarak 2 jam dengan Bus dari Xianmen dan perumahan seperti di kota Padang berada disamping suatu wihara yang sangat indah Kay yuan temple namanya,dengan suatu pagoda yang Indah,

saya heran mengapa kakek saya mau meninggalkan kota Changzhou yang begitu Indah,apakah mungkin karena pengaruh serangan Dai Nippon di Manchuria/ dan kemudian terjadi pembantaiaan di Nanking,mungkin saja, ngkongtjo saya pernah menyusul putranya Gho kim thian tetapi tidak bertemu muka hanya melambaikan tsnggan di pelabuhan Teluk Bayur saja,ini saat baru diketahui kakek saya sudah menikah dan tunagannya di tiongkok baru diputuskan.catatan dr Iwan)

Fujian province is the homeland of my ancestors who left the shores of this coastal province in the 19th century and sank roots in Nanyang – the South Seas. Otherwise known as South East Asia. They lived for generations in Malaysia before my father made his way south to the emerging island dynamo of Singapore which exploded economically not long after he arrived. Being an overseas son many times removed, I can’t think of a single reason why I should be remotely interested in Fujian, other than the stirrings of motherlands that call all who leave its shores from fish to fowl to mankind. Through my background readings, I’d like to paint you a landscape in words. Maybe one day, I’ll be able to fill in the broad strokes…


The Mountains of Fujian

Fujian is predominantly mountainous – walled in on the north, west and south sides. A truly spectacular sight. The precious arable flat land is rich but self limiting for a growing population.

There are over 1,000 islands off the Fujian coast which provides welcome fishing grounds for subsistence and over 600 species of fish.

The islands also provide the geographic shelter that created natural harbours for Fuzhou (Hokchew), Quanzhou (Chuanchew) and Xiamen (Amoy) to develop into trading ports

In fact, during the Tang dynasty of 608 – 907 AD – China’s Renaissance Period of culture, literature, trade and arts, Chuanchew was a mecca for Arab and European traders who called the city Zaytun.

At the height of such international travel and trade, Hokkiens began to follow the trading routes into South East Asia and setting up trading settlements.

Thus began the Fujian Exodus.

THE STORY OF THE FUJIAN EXODUS

The Fujian Exodus is a story of hope and inspiration.

Of pioneering and sacrifice.

It is a legacy that we can all be proud of.

 

 

 

 


Trade Winds Fan The Flames Of Fujian Migration


Manila
Dibutuhkan hanya tiga hari
dengan  sampah untuk mencapai Manila dari Fujian. Manila adalah pusat strategis perdagangan galleon di pusat Asia. Manila adalah depot perdagangan perak Meksiko pada rute ke China sebagai pembayaran atas sutra dan porselen.

Para Hokkiens baik siap untuk bertindak sebagai perantara di Manila untuk perdagangan ini dan segera membentuk sebuah komunitas yang masih berlangsung hingga hari ini.

 

Manila

It takes only three days for a junk to reach Manila from Fujian. Manila was a strategic hub of the galleon trade in the centre of Asia. Manila was a trade depot for Mexican silver on route to China as payment for silk and porcelain. The Hokkiens were well poised to act as intermediaries in Manila for this trade and soon formed a community that still thrives today.


Perdagangan Bebas di Singapura dan Malaya
Janji keberuntungan terbatas terletak di jantung perdagangan bebas Asia Tenggara – Singapura dan Malaysia – kemudian dikenal sebagai Settlements Selat Singapura, Penang dan Malaka.
Semua tiga kota adalah pelabuhan alam dan pelabuhan seperti Amoy dan Chuanchew. Hokkiens pergi dari pelabuhan ke pelabuhan dan membentuk masyarakat yang mengakar sampai hari ini.
Ke hari Penang, Malaka dan Singapura dan dialek Min’Nan masih Fraca lingua paling Cina di sana

Free Trade in Singapore and Malaya

The promise of limitless fortune lay in the free trade heartland of South East Asia – Singapore and Malaysia – then known as the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca.

All three cities were natural ports and harbours like Amoy and Chuanchew. Hokkiens went from port to port and formed communities that are entrenched to this day.

Go to Penang, Malacca and Singapore today and the Min’Nan dialect is still the lingua fraca of most Chinese there.


Warisan Keberanian dan Ketahanan
Tan Kah Kee. Kekasih
Patriot Cina yang memimpin kampanye penggalangan dana dari Singapura untuk membantu anti-perang upaya China dalam Perang Dunia 2. Dia dihormati di Singapura Hokkien Huay Kuan, terbesar dialek bangsa asosiasi klan.
Jimei juga merupakan kota kelahiran Mr Tan Kah Kee-, pemimpin Cina terkenal di luar negeri yang mengabdikan homself sepenuhnya terhadap pendidikan cause.He mulai berbagai sekolah di kota, termasuk Sekolah Jimei normal, Jimei Navigasi Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Produk Technical Institute dan Pertanian Sekolah selain TK Jimei, Jimei Sekolah Dasar dan Sekolah Menengah Jimei.

Kediaman mantan Mr.Tan Kah-Kee terletak di Jalan Jiageng di kota Jimei.It masih menjaga penampilan lama untuk dikunjungi dan direnungkan. Mr.Tan Kah-kee tinggal hemat sepanjang hidupnya. Tidak ada yang dapat tetap bergeming ketika mereka melihat betapa sederhananya  pakaian yang mereka kebutuhan sehari-hari
Tan Kah Kee didirikan Amoy University di Xiamen dan membangun sebuah distrik sekolah untuk memajukan penyebab pendidikan di provinsi rumah kami. Pada kematiannya, ia diberi pemakaman kenegaraan oleh Beijing.

 

Legacies of Courage and Resilience

Tan Kah Kee. Beloved China Patriot who led the fund raising campaign from Singapore to aid China’s anti-war effort in World War 2. He honoured in Singapore’s Hokkien Huay Kuan, the nation’s largest dialect clan association.

Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah-Kee, a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted homself wholly to the education cause.He had started various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School,Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarden, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School.

 

The former residence of Mr.Tan Kah-Kee is situated on Jiageng Road in the town of Jimei.It is still keeping its old looks to be visited and pondered. Mr.Tan Kah-kee was living frugally all his life. No one can keep unmoved when they see how simple those daily necessities and clothings are.

Tan Kah Kee established Amoy University in Xiamen and built a school district to further the cause of education in our home province. At his death, he was given a state funeral by Beijing.

(Perlu dilakukan penelitian situasi di Padang sumatera barat yang situasi hamper sama ,walaupun tentunya agak berbeda akibat pengaruh situasi, seperti Kakek iibu saya ,ayak dari nenek saya Tan Kim soan yang bernama Tan giok lin dating dari Filipina bersama isteri yang juga dari Hokian,dan saat isterinya meninggal menikah dengan putrid Minangkabau Asli dan memeluk agama Isdlam, ia mendirikan Bioskop pertama di kota Padang bernama Scalabio,saat meninggal dengan penguburan menurut agama Islam dan dikuburkan dikuburan Islam Pasir Angek dipinggir pantai dekat kuburan keramat Kiai Islam,saat ini sudah dibongkar dan kuburannya dipindahkan ke tabing.catatan dr Iwan)

 

LOCAL BORN

Hokkiens as a rule, migrated without their women, to save them from a life of hardship worse than the one they leave behind. Consequently, marriages with local Malay women in Singapore, Malaya and the Philippines created a new line of Chinese descendants who never knew the motherland.

In the Philippines, they were known as the Chinese mestizos.

The most famous mestizo of all was none other than the national hero of the Philippines – Jose Rizal, a Philippines patriot who engineered a failed revolution against the Spanish colonialists and was martyred..(The dsam in Indonesia Dr Iwan Note)

 

 

Divided nationalism (1900–1949)[edit source | editbeta]

 

 

Chinese language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka

The Chinese revolutionary figure Sun Yat-sen visited southeast Asia in 1900,[40] and later that year the socio-religious organization Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan (中華 會館), also known as the Chinese Association, was founded. Their goal was to urge ethnic Chinese in the Indies to support the revolutionary movement in China.

 

Tionghoa Cianjur 1890

In its effort to build Chinese-speaking schools the association argued that the teaching of the English and Chinese languages should be prioritized over Dutch, to provide themselves with the means of taking, in the words of Phoa Keng Hek, “a two or three-day voyage (Java–Singapore) into a wider world where they can move freely” and overcome restrictions of their activities.[41]

Several years later the Dutch authorities abandoned its segregation policies, abolished travel permits for the ethnic Chinese, and allowed them to freely move throughout the colony.

The 1911 Xinhai Revolution and the 1912 founding of the Republic of China coincided with a growing Chinese-nationalist movement within the Indies.[40]

Although there was no recognizable nationalist movement among the indigenous population until 1908, Dutch authorities feared that nationalist sentiments would spread with the growth of ethnically mixed associations, known as kongsi.

In 1911 some Javanese members of the Kong Sing association in Surakarta broke away and clashed with the ethnic Chinese.

This incident led to the creation of Sarekat Islam, the first organized popular nationalist movement in the Indies. Indigenous groups saw the Chinese nationalist sentiment as “haughty”, leading to mutual antagonism.[42]

 

The anti-Chinese sentiment spread throughout Java in 1918 and led to mass violence orchestrated by members of Sarekat Islam on the ethnic Chinese in Kudus.[43] Following this incident the left-wing Chinese nationalist daily Sin Po called on both sides to work together to improve living conditions because it considered most ethnic Chinese, like most of the indigenous population, to be poor.[44]

 

 

Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper[45]

Sin Po first went into print in 1910 and began gaining momentum as the leading advocate of Chinese political nationalism in 1917. The ethnic Chinese who followed its stream of thought refused any involvement with local institutions and would only participate in politics relating to mainland China.[46]

A second stream was later formed by wealthy ethnic Chinese who received an education at Dutch-run schools. This Dutch-oriented group wished for increased participation in local politics, Dutch education for the ethnic Chinese, and the furthering of ethnic Chinese economic standing within the colonial economy. Championed by the Volksraad‘s sole ethnic Chinese representative Kan Hok Hoei, this movement gained momentum and reached its peak with the Chung Hwa Congress of 1927 and the 1928 formation of the Chung Hwa Hui party, which elected Kan as its president. The editor-in-chief of the Madjallah Panorama news magazine criticized Sin Po for misguiding the ethnic Chinese by pressuring them into a Chinese-nationalist stance.[47]

In 1932 pro-Indonesian counterparts founded the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia to support absorption of the ethnic Chinese into the Javanese population and support the call for self-government of Indonesia. Members of this group were primarily peranakan.[48] This division resurfaced at the end of the period of Japanese occupation (1942–1945).[49] Under the occupation ethnic Chinese communities were attacked by Japanese forces, in part owing to suspicions that they contained sympathizers of the Kuomintang as a consequence of the Second Sino-Japanese War. When the Dutch returned, following the end of World War II, the chaos caused by advancing forces and retreating revolutionaries also saw radical Muslim groups attack ethnic Chinese communities.[43]

Although revolutionary leaders were sympathetic toward the ethnic Chinese, they were unable to stop the sporadic violence. Those who were affected fled from the rural areas to Dutch-controlled cities, a move many Indonesians saw as proof of pro-Dutch sentiments.[50] There was evidence, however, that Chinese Indonesians were represented and participated in independence efforts. Four members of the Committee for the Investigation of the Preparation for Indonesian Independence (Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, BPUPKI) and one member on the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, PPKI) had Chinese names

 

Tionhoa hwe  koan school

 

 

INDONESIAN PERANAKANS: TIONGHUA CINA PERANAKAN INDONESIA

 

Indonesian traditions and beliefs have exerted a strong influence over those ethnic Chinese migrants who have resided in the country for generations.

Most came to Indonesia during the 12th & 15th centuries thereby making Peranakan settlement & history in Indonesia older than that of Malaya’s.

The long-resident Peranakan, or Straits Chinese, who have settled mostly in Java and other outer islands such as the Riau islands, West Kalimantan and Sumatra, are the earliest examples of assimilation in Indonesian society.

The Peranakans are descendents of Chinese merchants, males who came unaccompanied to the East Indies for the lucrative spice trade.

Many of these immigrants married the local Indonesian women and their descendents are today known as the Peranakan, meaning local born. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia was just as similar and identical to that of Singapore and Malaysian Peranakan Culture in more ways than one.

 

Photo above:

Old Photos of Indonesian Peranakans & an old Peranakan book in Dutch (right).

 

 

After the late 19th century, the invention of the steamship facilitated the flow of Chinese migrants to Indonesia, who this time came accompanied by their wives and families.

Unlike the Peranakans, these Pure Chinese, or Totoks as they were known, had Chinese families and retained the use of the Chinese language, dress and customs.

They kept their mainland Chinese culture for generations and saw to the establishment of Chinese schools, newspapers and most eminently, Chinese business networks.

 

Historians today have largely attributed the prosperous economic activity among the Chinese as the reason for the Dutch colonial policy that segregated the Totoks and Peranakans from the rest of the Indonesian community.

This led to no small measure of misunderstanding and jealousy among the two groups.

The Peranakan Chinese population in Indonesia numbers at 6 million people out of a total Chinese population of 9 million while the Totok or Pure Chinese Community numbers at around 3 million or so.

Making them the largest Peranakan Chinese community in the entire world. Singapore and Malaysia however only have a miniscule 500,000 Peranakan Chinese each.

This explains why the overwhelming majority Indonesian Chinese only converse to each other in local Indonesian dialects and Bahasa Indonesia and not in Mandarin.

The Dutch imposed a policy of seperation that gave powers and trading priveleges to the Peranakan & Totok Communities.

As a result they were known as Chukongs or Kapitan Cina and controlled vast areas of land, plantation, coal and gold mines, diamond & tin mines and the like. Therefore the wealth and prestige of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia was similar to that of those in the Straits Settements

 

Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia has largely died outdue to the numerous and anti Chinese policies that were so prevalent in the past. However in spite of these issues Peranakan Culture in the form of Food and Language has survived till this very day. Ayam Buah Keluak, Kueh Lapis and Kueh Bengka Ambon are just some of the cultural contributions that the Indonesian Peranakans have given to the rest of the Peranakan Communities in Malaya. The lovely sarung kebaya itself as we know it originated in Indonesia itself not in the Straits Settlements as it was invented by the Indonesian Chinese Peranakans themselves.

 

 

PERANAKAN CHINESE POLITICS IN INDONESIA

Indies-Chinese nationalism in the early 20th century was shaped by the transformation of the Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies.

The Chinese community in this period was characterised by the division between the Totok and the Peranakan communities, and by the growing influence of the Totok community.

Skinner views the distinction between the Totok and the Peranakan communities as cultural: the Totok community was characterised by its pure Chinese culture, while the peranakan community was characterised by its cross Chinese-Javanese culture. The construction of a united Chinese community could have been achieved if a single community of Totoks and Peranakans had been constructed. I shall now proceed to explain why this was not achieved.

The expansion of the Totok community at the beginning of the 20th century was a consequence of the inability of the Peranakan community to completely assimilate the new Chinese migrants who had arrived from China to take advantage of the economic development of the Dutch East Indies.

This massive migration of labourers can be identified as belonging to the Huagong pattern. From the 1900s this migration started to include women, and this gave the male migrants the freedom to choose not to settle with peranakan or indigenous women; this weakened one route of assimilation into the peranakan community.

The large proportion of Hakka and Cantonese dialect groups among the migrants also weakened assimilation since the Peranakan community was distinctly Hokkien.

 

Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. In 1909 the Qing government issued the Nationality Law which declared all overseas Chinese to be Chinese nationals, this raised Huaqiao consciousness as it gave a legal basis for China-orientation. This consciousness prevented assimilation into the Peranakan community as the new migrants were motivated to maintain and propagate their pure Chinese culture. Indeed, the Totok community actively sought to re-sinicize the peranakan community, as seen in the efforts of institutions such as the Totok press and Totok-dominated Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) schools to revive Peranakan interest in Chinese culture and to establish a China-oriented world-view.

Just as the Peranakan community failed to assimilate the Huagong migrants, contributing to the rise of the Totok community, the Totok community failed in its goal of re-sinicizing the Peranakan community. One fundamental reason was that the peranakans perceived China to be an alien land. This was due to the vast difference between peranakan and Chinese culture, and the fact that most peranakans perceived the Dutch East Indies to be their homeland. In the late 1910s a group of peranakan leaders migrated to China; all but one found China to be an alien place to live. Dutch efforts to prevent the re-sinification of the Peranakans also contributed to the continuance of the Indies Dutch-orientation of the Peranakan community.

 

Photo Above: Books on emborideing Nonya Kebaya & Indonesian Peranakan History. The fact that unhappiness with Dutch policy was a central motivation behind the apparent unity between the Peranakan and the Totok communities can be seen in the Dutch Nationality Law (DNL) issue. Apart from dismantling unpopular policies, the Dutch sought to maintain the Indies-orientation of the peranakan Chinese through the establishment of Dutch-Chinese schools, the first of which was established in 1908. These schools were a reaction to the THHK schools, and they were popular with the peranakan community. The Dutch-Chinese schools eventually grew to be more popular than the THHK schools with the Peranakan community, as the latter were seen to be suitable only for those living in China. By the late 1930s, it was clear that the THHK schools serviced the Totok community, while the Dutch-Chinese schools serviced the Peranakan community. [15] The China-oriented nationalist attempt to re-sinicize the Peranakan community through education had failed.

 

Photo above: Indonesian Peranakan Festivasl held yearly at Tangerang and Jakarta with Dondnag Sayang troupe. The failure of the attempt to unify the Chinese community under the China-oriented nationalist movement is most clearly demonstrated by the establishment of the all-peranakan Chung Hua Hui (CHH) in 1927, which was the first of the major all-peranakan organisations.

This marked the peranakan rejection of China-oriented nationalism and the totok-dominated pan-Chinese organisations.

But as Skinner points out, this disunity was already evident in the 1917 Semarang conference.

Suryadinata notes that among the participants of this conference can be identified a small group of Peranakan leaders such as Kan Hok Hoei (H. H. Kan) who did not seek protection from China and who sought collaboration with the Dutch in order to protect their interests. H. H. Kan would eventually help establish the CHH, which was an Indies-oriented organisation. It sought to promote the interests of the Indies-Chinese community through collaboration with the Dutch, as manifested in its participation in the Volksraad. In contrast, the China-oriented nationalist movement rejected involvement in local politics, as seen in the Semarang conference’s declaration that the Indies Chinese should not participate in the Volksraad. The CHH failed to unify the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community.

 

Above Photo: Shows one of the panels at the Peranakan Festival in Jakarta describing the Sarung Kebaya called Kebaya Encim in Indonesia used by the Nonyas and old Bibiks there. In response to what was seen as the CHH’s pro-Dutch position, a group of Indonesian-oriented Peranakans established the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (PTI) in 1932. The PTI, seeking political assimilation of the Chinese in the indigenous Indonesian society, was anti-colonial and supported the Indonesian nationalist movement. The establishment of the PTI marked the internal division in the Indies-oriented peranakan community between the pro-Dutch and Indonesian-oriented groups. Like the CHH, the PTI was unable to unite the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community. Lacking the support of Peranakan big business that the CHH enjoyed, the PTI was politically weaker than the CHH.

In the early 20th century the Indies-Chinese community hence was divided into three groups. The first was the China-oriented group, mainly consisting of the totok community. The second was the Indies-oriented Peranakan pro-Dutch CHH. The third was the Indonesian-oriented Peranakan PTI. This division was manifested in the geographical dispersal of these groups’ centres of power. The China-oriented group was based in Batavia, which was the gateway into the Dutch East Indies for new Chinese migrants. The CHH was based in Semarang, which possessed an old and established Peranakan community and which was also a centre for Peranakan big business. The PTI was based in Surabaya, which was a centre for contact between Indonesian nationalists and Peranakans.

 

Above Photo: Peranakan Cultural Exhibitions & Festivals being held in different parts of Indonesia. The inability of each of these three groups to establish hegemony over the others led to the disunity of the Indies-Chinese community. The China-oriented nationalists failed to reconstruct the Indies-orientation of the Peranakans, largely due to Dutch efforts to prevent the peranakans from becoming China-orientated. The Indies-orientated pro-Dutch CHH was rejected by the anti-colonial Peranakan group. The Indonesian-oriented PTI was politically weak and could not gain political strength beyond East Java. The Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies hence was characterised by disunity prior to the Second World War. After Independence from Holland, anti Chinese Demonstrations, massacres, killings and riots obliterated Peranakan Chinese Associations, Culture and Position. Anti Chinese policies and outright discrimination further worsened Peranakan Chinese influence as many Peranakans immigrated to Holland, Australia and other western countries. This immigration is continuing at quite a considerable scale till this very day.

The situation today however is vastly different & has greatly improved as more Indonesian Nonyas are using the kebaya their grandmothers used to use and having yearly Peranakan Festivals on a simlar scale to that of their Malaysian, Thai and Singapore Peranakans cousins. There has been a revival of Peranakan culture in the last 10 decades in Indonesia ever since Chinese New Year has been declared part of a National Holiday. There has been the numerous openings of Indonesian Peranakan restaurants, cultural & antique shops, musuems, festivals, exhibitions and special events held to showcase and promote Peranakan culture all over the Indonesian islands

 

MAP

 

 

 

Padang Chinese community formed the organization, with the goal of serving the needs of members in the social and cultural fields.

 

Old West Sumatra Map

Look more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina or Capitan China was originally a Portuguese title for the representative of a Chinese enclave.[1][2] The 15th century rulers of Southeast Asia, such as Melaka (modern day Malacca) and Banten (or Bantam), chose to deal with a single individual from each ethnic group under their rule.[3][4] This administrative method of indirect rule was later adopted by the Portuguese when they took over Melaka in the 16th century, as well as the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, and the English in British Malaya.[3]

 

Kapitan can Surabaya 1880

Throughout Southeast Asia, Batavia (now Jakarta) arguably boasts the longest continuous history of the institution of Kapitan Cina: see the official website of the Koang Koan Archives at Leiden University. In 1619, the Dutch appointed Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam, as the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. Through Kapitein Beng Kong, then, the Batavian Captaincy succeeded the much-earlier institution of Kapitan Cina of Bantam. Batavia also produced probably Asia’s only female Kapitan Cina, the so-called Nyai Bali, who was appointed officially by the VOC to her post in 1649: see Yuan Bingling, “The Last Resort” in Blussé, Leonard & Chen, Menghong, “The Archives of the Kongkoan of Batavia” (Den Haag, 2003), pp. 30-31). The Batavian Captaincy ended in 1945 with the death of Khouw Kim An, the last Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia, possibly also the last such intermediary rulers in Southeast Asia. The issue of a Luitenant, Kapitein or Majoor der Chinesen are entitled, by Peranakan custom, to the hereditary dignity of Sia.

With the end of the colonial period, the title became purely an honorary one.[3]

Masa-masa awal

 

 

Seorang pria Tionghoa berkuncir (toucang) di jalanan Batavia pertengahan tahun 1910-an.

Orang dari Tiongkok daratan telah ribuan tahun mengunjungi dan mendiami kepulauan Nusantara.

Beberapa catatan tertua ditulis oleh para agamawan, seperti Fa Hien pada abad ke-4 dan I Ching pada abad ke-7. Fa Hien melaporkan suatu kerajaan di Jawa (“To lo mo”) dan I Ching ingin datang ke India untuk mempelajari agama Buddha dan singgah dulu di Nusantara untuk belajar bahasa Sansekerta dahulu. Di Jawa ia berguru pada seseorang bernama Jñânabhadra.

Dengan berkembangnya kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, para imigran Tiongkok pun mulai berdatangan, terutama untuk kepentingan perdagangan. Pada prasasti-prasasti dari Jawa orang Cina disebut-sebut sebagai warga asing yang menetap di samping nama-nama sukubangsa dari Nusantara, daratan Asia Tenggara dan anakbenua India. Dalam suatu prasasti perunggu bertahun 860 dari Jawa Timur disebut suatu istilah, Juru Cina, yang berkait dengan jabatan pengurus orang-orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sana. Beberapa motif relief di Candi Sewu diduga juga mendapat pengaruh dari motif-motif kain sutera Tiongkok.[8]

Catatan Ma Huan, ketika turut serta dalam ekspedisi Cheng Ho, menyebut secara jelas bahwa pedagang Cina muslim menghuni ibukota dan kota-kota bandar Majapahit (abad ke-15) dan membentuk satu dari tiga komponen penduduk kerajaan itu.[9] Ekspedisi Cheng Ho juga meninggalkan jejak di Semarang, ketika orang keduanya, Wang Jinghong, sakit dan memaksa rombongan melepas sauh di Simongan (sekarang bagian dari Kota Semarang). Wang kemudian menetap karena tidak mampu mengikuti ekspedisi selanjutnya. Ia dan pengikutnya menjadi salah satu cikal-bakal warga Tionghoa Semarang. Wang mengabadikan Cheng Ho menjadi sebuah patung (disebut “Mbah Ledakar Juragan Dampo Awang Sam Po Kong”), serta membangun kelenteng Sam Po Kong atau Gedung Batu.[10] Di komplek ini Wang juga dikuburkan dan dijuluki “Mbah Jurumudi Dampo Awang”.[11]

Sejumlah sejarawan juga menunjukkan bahwa Raden Patah, pendiri Kesultanan Demak, memiliki darah Tiongkok selain keturunan Majapahit. Beberapa wali penyebar agama Islam di Jawa juga memiliki darah Tiongkok, meskipun mereka memeluk Islam dan tidak lagi secara aktif mempraktekkan kultur Tionghoa.

Kitab Sunda Tina Layang Parahyang menyebutkan kedatangan rombongan Tionghoa ke muara Ci Sadane (sekarang Teluknaga) pada tahun 1407, di masa daerah itu masih di bawah kekuasaan Kerajaan Sunda (Pajajaran). Pemimpinnya adalah Halung dan mereka terdampar sebelum mencapai tujuan di Kalapa.

 

 

Ilustrasi pedagang Tionghoa di Banten

Era kolonial

Di masa kolonial, Belanda pernah mengangkat beberapa pemimpin komunitas dengan gelar Kapiten Cina, yang diwajibkan setia dan menjadi penghubung antara pemerintah dengan komunitas Tionghoa. Beberapa di antara mereka ternyata juga telah berjasa bagi masyarakat umum, misalnya So Beng Kong dan Phoa Beng Gan yang membangun kanal di Batavia[rujukan?]. Di Yogyakarta, Kapiten Tan Djin Sing sempat menjadi Bupati Yogyakarta.[12]

 

Pembantaian orang Tionghoa tanggal 9 Oktober 1740 di Batavia

Sebetulnya terdapat juga kelompok Tionghoa yang pernah berjuang melawan Belanda, baik sendiri maupun bersama etnis lain. Bersama etnis Jawa, kelompok Tionghoa berperang melawan VOC tahun 17401743.[rujukan?] Di Kalimantan Barat, komunitas Tionghoa yang tergabung dalam “Republik” Lanfong[rujukan?] berperang dengan pasukan Belanda pada abad XIX.

Dalam perjalanan sejarah pra kemerdekaan, beberapa kali etnis Tionghoa menjadi sasaran pembunuhan massal atau penjarahan, seperti pembantaian di Batavia 1740 dan pembantaian masa perang Jawa 1825-1830. Pembantaian di Batavia tersebut [13][14][4] melahirkan gerakan perlawanan dari etnis Tionghoa yang bergerak di beberapa kota di Jawa Tengah yang dibantu pula oleh etnis Jawa. Pada gilirannya ini mengakibatkan pecahnya kerajaan Mataram. Orang Tionghoa tidak lagi diperbolehkan bermukim di sembarang tempat. Aturan Wijkenstelsel ini menciptakan pemukiman etnis Tionghoa atau pecinan di sejumlah kota besar di Hindia Belanda.

 

 

Daerah Pecinan di Banjarmasin.

 

 

Kelenteng Tua Pek Kong di Ketapang.

Pendidikan

Kebangkitan nasionalisme di Hindia Belanda tidak terlepas dari perkembangan yang terjadi pada komunitas Tionghoa. Tanggal 17 Maret 1900 terbentuk di Batavia Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) yang mendirikan sekolah-sekolah, seperti di kota Garut dirintis dan didirikan pada tahun 1907 oleh seorang pengusaha hasil bumi saat itu bernama Lauw O Teng beserta kedua anak lelakinya bernama Lauw Tek Hay dan Lauw Tek Siang,dengan maksud agar orang Tionghoa bisa pintar, (kemudian jumlahnya mencapai 54 buah sekolah dan di tahun 1908 dan mencapai 450 sekolah tahun 1934). Inisiatif ini diikuti oleh etnis lain, seperti keturunan Arab yang mendirikan Djamiat-ul Chair meniru model THHK. Pada gilirannya hal ini menyadarkan priyayi Jawa tentang pentingnya pendidikan bagi generasi muda sehingga dibentuklah Budi Utomo.

Perekonomian

Target pemerintah kolonial untuk mencegah interaksi pribumi dengan etnis Tionghoa melalui aturan passenstelsel dan Wijkenstelsel itu ternyata menciptakan konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi orang Tionghoa di perkotaan. Ketika perekonomian dunia beralih ke sektor industri, orang-orang Tionghoa paling siap berusaha dengan spesialisasi usaha makanan-minuman, jamu, peralatan rumah tangga, bahan bangunan, pemintalan, batik, kretek dan transportasi. Tahun 1909 di Buitenzorg (Bogor) Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh RA Tirtoadisuryo mengikuti model Siang Hwee (kamar dagang orang Tionghoa) yang dibentuk tahun 1906 di Batavia. Bahkan pembentukan Sarekat Islam (SI) di Surakarta tidak terlepas dari pengaruh asosiasi yang lebih dulu dibuat oleh warga Tionghoa. Pendiri SI, Haji Samanhudi, pada mulanya adalah anggota Kong Sing, organisasi paguyuban tolong-menolong orang Tionghoa di Surakarta. Samanhudi juga kemudian membentuk Rekso Rumekso yaitu Kong Sing-nya orang Jawa.

Pergerakan

Pemerintah kolonial Belanda makin kuatir karena Sun Yat Sen memproklamasikan Republik Cina, Januari 1912. Organisasi Tionghoa yang pada mulanya berkecimpung dalam bidang sosial-budaya mulai mengarah kepada politik. Tujuannya menghapuskan perlakukan diskriminatif terhadap orang-orang Tionghoa di Hindia Belanda dalam bidang pendidikan, hukum/peradilan, status sipil, beban pajak, hambatan bergerak dan bertempat tinggal.

Dalam rangka pelaksanaan Politik Etis, pemerintah kolonial berusaha memajukan pendidikan, namun warga Tionghoa tidak diikutkan dalam program tersebut. Padahal orang Tionghoa membayar pajak ganda (pajak penghasilan dan pajak kekayaan). Pajak penghasilan diwajibkan kepada warga pribumi yang bukan petani. Pajak kekayaan (rumah, kuda, kereta, kendaraan bermotor dan peralatan rumah tangga) dikenakan hanya bagi Orang Eropa dan Timur Asing (termasuk orang etnis Tionghoa). Hambatan untuk bergerak dikenakan bagi warga Tionghoa dengan adanya passenstelsel.

Pada waktu terjadinya Sumpah Pemuda, ada beberapa nama dari kelompok Tionghoa sempat hadir, antara lain Kwee Tiam Hong dan tiga pemuda Tionghoa lainnya. Sin Po sebagai koran Melayu Tionghoa juga sangat banyak memberikan sumbangan dalam menyebarkan informasi yang bersifat nasionalis. Pada 1920-an itu, harian Sin Po memelopori penggunaan kata Indonesia bumiputera sebagai pengganti kata Belanda inlander di semua penerbitannya. Langkah ini kemudian diikuti oleh banyak harian lain. Sebagai balas budi, semua pers lokal kemudian mengganti kata “Tjina” dengan kata Tionghoa. Pada 1931 Liem Koen Hian mendirikan PTI, Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (dan bukan Partai Tjina Indonesia).

 

   
  1. 1.        

 

 

 

 

 

Driwancybermuseum Galery(continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

The Chronology y Chinese Overseas In DEI History Collections

1840

In 1840

 

 

Lie Ma Say with his wife were ordered by the Qing Dinasty Fujian government to visit Priaman City west Sumatra as the Trade Mission officer.Li Ma say started from Amoy(no Xiamen) by ship to Indonesia.

Hadirnya Pasar

Perkembangan kota me­nga­­kibatkan beberapa pe­dagang Tionghoa yang ada di Padang mendirikan sebuah Pasar di Kampung Tionghoa dekat Kelenteng di atas tanah milik Kapten Tionghoa, Lie Maa Saay dan dikelola Poa Leng. “Sekarang pasar itu terkenal dengan nama Pasar Tanah Kongsi,” kata Erniwati.

Pasar Tanah Kongsi ini berdekatan dengan Pasar Mudik yang berdekatan de­ngan pasar yang dibangun orang Minangkabau.

1855

Chinese Captau   Li say was the first Tionghoa padang captain ,

Info from Lie swan hauw

Lie Saaij or Lie Ma Saaij must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents.
\Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1855)


Before Lie Say there were among others Lie Piet as captain of the chinese with Lie Kee as lieutenant. ( ±1855 )

1856

 

Chinese man

1856

 

 

 

 

Chinese tionghoa batavia(two pictures)

 

Kapitan (lieutenant Rank) Batavia in 1856

 

 

 

Chines ejava tyrader in 1856

 

Chinese women and kid of Java in 1856

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese java family in 1856

 

 

 

 

Chinese Java in 1856(four pictures)

1857

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje

In 1858,

the Tionghoa People(Chinese overseas) in Priaman west Sumatra : 216,consist 101 man,34 women and 81 children.

1858

in Padang City only 1564 people

consist 677 man,264 women and 605 children

(source verslag Sumatra’s Westkust,1858 no 122/6,page 101)
1859

 

CHEONG FATT TZE 張弼士

 

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name, Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

 

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

 

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.

1859

 

Cheong Fatt Tze(Thio Tiauw Siat.)

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name,

 

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

 

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.

1867

 

 

 

The Riau linnga Sultan soelaiman take picture in Batavia 1867(two Pictures)

 

1870

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinse bride Batavia(three pictures)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Batavia key repaireman in 1870

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Batavia linen cloth trader in 1870(two pictures)

 

 

 

Pernnakan tionghoa women  Batavia in 1870

 

 

in 1875,

 

Cheong Fat Tze commenced business in Penang in partnership with

Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia)

and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

And ten years later he managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore, where another three years later he secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).

 

 

1876

 

 

Chineseman kwee khe foan

 

Two chineseman

Chinese Captain Lie Say

Lie Ma Say

 

 

 

Seorang Mayor Tionghoa Lie Say

yang diangkat oleh Belanda sampai mendatangkan pekerja-pekerja dari Cina untuk kembali membangun rumah suci itu. “Orang Islam kemana pergi juga mencari masjid, kan?” ujar Erniwati.

 

Teori lain mengatakan Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Pariaman. Ernawati, yang menulis buku Asap Hio di Ranah Minang, Komunitas Tionghoa di Sumatera Barat, memperkirakan Orang Cina sudah berada di Pariaman pada abad 13. Saat Aceh masuk ke Pariaman.

 

Tidak mengherankan sebenarnya. Pariaman adalah surga bagi kaum pedagang di zaman itu. Pariaman menjadi pusat dagang di pesisir. Tak heran, pada 1630, Christine Dobbin, penulis buku Gejolak ekonomi dan Kebangkitan Islam dan Gerakan Paderi, Minangkabau 1784-1847, memperkirakan perkampungan Cina sudah ada di Pariaman.

Sayang, sebuah peristiwa mengenaskan menjadi pemicu hengkangnya orang Cina dari Pariaman. Pada masa pendudukan Jepang, seorang Cina membawa dua anak gadisnya ke kantor Jepang.

Penglihatan itu ditanggap lain oleh para pemuda yang kebetulan melihatnya. Bisik-bisik pengkhianat merebak segera. Dua anak gadis itu langsung di bawa ke pantai dan dibelek dengan kangso (alat yang terbuat dari kaleng alumunium).

 

Menurut Erniwati, serangan itu dilakukan tanpa perencanaan. Makanya, alat yang disiapkan bukan senjata tajam biasanya untuk membunuh. “Lagi pula, itu hukuman bagi pengkhianat. Tidak orang Cina saja yang merasakan hukuman itu, pemuka masyarakat yang juga ikut menjadi mata-mata Jepang, mendapat hukuman yang sama.,” ujar sarjana S-2 jurusan Sejarah UNP ini.

Ketakutan merayapi masyarakat Cina. Berangsur-angsur mereka mulai meninggalkan Pariaman.

Sampai 1965 beberapa orang Cina masih berdiam di sana. Tapi, memasuki 1967 agak sulit menemukan kaum bermata sipit di Pariaman. “Karena kejadian PKI atau PRRI,” terang Erniawati. Perlahan orang Cina berangur pindah ke Padang. Tepatnya, di kawasan pondok saat ini.

Namun, alasan ekonomi bisa juga dijadikan dasar. Pariaman tidak lagi dianggap ladang yang subur bagi perdagangan mendekati abad ke 19. Sehingga tidak saja pedagang Cina yang meninggalkan, tapi juga pedagang dari daerah lain.

READ MORE INFORMATION

Dr Iwan note

Saya memperoleh informasi dari putranya Lie Tjoe yang grand-grand  son(cicit) dari Lie Ma Say,

 

 

Lie Ma Say dating dari Tiongkok masa dinasti Qing pada akhir abad ke-19 sekitar tahun 1830-1840 besama istri sebagai Utusan dagang Kerajaan Qing di Pariaman,kemudian ia pindah ke Padang Panjang dan Batusangkar disini ia menikah lagi dan memiliki  putra yaitu Lie Tong  Soan  yang memiliki dua putra Li Sam dan Lie Lin. Lie sam memiliki putra Lie Djoe Tong  yang  memiliki beberapa putra putri yaitu Lie Tjoe Yang,isterinya Tjan Tjeng hay(kakak ibu mertua saya),dan teman saya pastor Lie Tjoe san(Sandarma Akhbar SH).

Menurut kakak saya Dr Edhie Johan utama, suami adik kakek saya Ie Po Tjoa Bun Tak menikah dengan putranya mayor pariaman (mungkin lie lin) bernama Lie Seng Hok(mereka tidak memiliki anak,meangkat anak saudara Ipo Tjoa  Bun Tak Kang Sung Him yang isterinya adik Tjoa Gin toen yang paling tua  ,

 

 

saudaranya Kang kim Bwee(no1) .kim lian.tjabo kang dan kang sim poe,  Kang Kim Mua(no 3) yaitu ibunya drg Lie Tjoe Heng-isterinya Ben Pangabean bernama Kang kim hwa,serta isteri adik ayah saya Djintjek Gho Ie keng yang bernama Lie Kim giok-ibunya Go siei Hong,G.S.lan ,Gho soei ing.bersaudara Sembilan orang.(Dr iwan note)

In 1879,

 

Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.

 

 

 

1870

 

Tionghoa klenteneng temple at Padang in 1870

 

Tionghoa merried women in 1870

 

 

in 1875,

 

Cheong Fat Tze  commenced business in Penang in partnership with Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia) and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

 

 

 

DEI Indonesian Tionghoa women in 1875(three pictures)

 

In 1879,

 

Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.

1880

According to the magazine in 1880, the city of Pariaman were the ship port, like  the Port of Bengkulu and Sibolga sebaigaiman

(Said Zakaria,1930,Handwritten Document Book)

 

Chinese Batavia kid during tjap Go Meh in 1880

 

 

 

Klenteng padang In 1880

 

 

Chinese prostitute at Laboehan deli in 1880

 

Kapitan cina Laboehan deli 1880

 

1880

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kelenteng(wihara) Padang CHINESE TEMPLE  1880

 

 

Klenteng Padang 1880. Beside this Klenteng(Tionghoa temple)

This building maybe beside the Tionghoa Kelenteng which before the Major Tionghoa Lie say house(Dr Iwan)

And in the front the small street

 

pasar borong

 

 

Mak Pak soen,OPIUM TRADER  pADANG 1880

 

 

Tionghoa gambling in 19th century

 

1885

 

Cheong Fat Tze managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore,

In 1886,

 

Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles. This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products. In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.

 

 

 

In 1886,

 

Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles.

This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products.

In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.

 

 

 

1888

 

Cheong Fat Tze secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).

1888

 

Emma Haven in 1888 (now teluk Bayur)

 

1888

 

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 40-jarige leeftijd and wife oei tin nio

1890

 

Chineseman 1890

 

1890

 

Mr Cheong Fat Tze  From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri  Dr Iwan  Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu Dr Iwan  ada yang masih berada di Penang,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang dan salah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.(Dr Iwan)

Lim A King yang mempelopori perhimpunan baru ini dengan nama Heng Beng Tong pada tahun 1890. Ia lalu menjadi toako pertama HBT.

Pada tahun 1895 organisasi ini disahkan secara hukum dengan AD/ART yang resmi dengan masa bakti pengurus tahun 1895-1901.

Info dari Tnbeng penasehat HBT 2006 kepad Lisasuroso

 

 

 

Cheong Fat Tze

The Founer Of HTT Padang City

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name,

Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history

 

1890

Until 1890,because quite a lot of difficulties in taking care of the needs of ethnic Chinese, formed a new association or joint venture. Organization formed

Heng  Beng  Tong (HBT).

Old HBT picture not yet found

 

HBT now

The two organizations have different procedures and features of the relations among its members.

Each member of the HBT, for example, regardless of religion, are required to perform prayers Kwan Tee Koen and ancestral spirits by lifting incense.

 

While HTT members must meet a summons and is responsible for the implementation of the cemetery.

Although in some areas of Indonesia such as Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and others, there is a foundation or organization of ethnic Chinese, but Chinese organizations that exist in West Sumatra to say unique, because there are only born and West Sumatra alone and not in other areas.

In these organizations also embraced the membership of all the tribes and clans of existing ethnic Chinese.

 

Another plus is that they are able to maintain the original Chinese culture from generation to generation like a funeral that is still practiced in ancient China. Cemetery organization is even listed as the organization’s first funeral is present in the archipelago.

The formation of this cemetery organization need not be separated from Chinese ethnic Padang worked together when they wanted to bury the corpses.

They must carry the coffins of a hollowed piece of wood logs up the mountain that overlooks the sea. The process of carrying crates weighing up to hundreds of pounds is to be done with the stretcher. Without cooperation, the family would be impossible to do it alone

What is interesting is that although they managed to maintain their cultural identity, very few of the residents of Padang Chinese who can speak Mandarin.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1893

 

 

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

Who were them with Kapitan Tjong Yong HIan ?

 

 

 

 

Kaptan cina Medan guard in 1893

 

 

 

 

 

In May 1893,

 

Cheong Fat Tse became the Honorary Vice-Consul of China in Penang.

Followed by his business success in the Dutch colonies,

1890

 

 

Mr lCheong Fat Tze From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri saya Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu saya ada yang masih berada di Penang anak saudar kakek saya Chua Gim Goe ,named Chuan Ban Boe ,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang sekitar tahun 1970 name Robert Ma dan salah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.

 

 

 

1892

 

Het sorteren van tabaksbladeren door Chinezen op tabaksonderneming Tandem op Noord-Sumatra

reisfoto
Bootreis van Govert J. van Tets in 1892-1893

 

 

Kpitan cina di aceh with

Koloniale geschiedenis. Indië, Atjeh- oorlog aan het einde van de 19de eeuw. De onderwerping van Panglima Polim. Generaal Van Heutsz spreekt de hoofden toe. Indië

1900

 

 

Kapitein der Chinezen Tjong Yong Hian met zijn vrouw en acht kinderen te Medan

 

Chines women 1900

 

Sekolah Tionghoa Hwee koan di Padang  1900

 

 

 

1901

 

Kapitein der Chinezen met zijn gevolg in Maleisië

 

 

 

 

1903

 

Kapitan cina Bangka lim Woe Sieng

 1905

 

 

 

De Kapitein der Chinezen Tjong A Fie met familie voor zijn woning te Medan 1905

Gerobak ditarik kuda 1917 adalah nara sumber dengan Sapu digunakan untuk membersihkan kota.
1923 Renovasi Balai Kota.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yii-dadi) didirikan oleh orang-orang Chaozhou di toko-toko Durian.
1924-1945 Aturan Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Bermotor kendaraan nara sumber yang digunakan untuk menggantikan kuda mobil untuk membersihkan kota.
1929 Kantor Perusahaan Dagang Belanda (sekarang Bank Exim) telah selesai (digunakan oleh Gunseikanbu Selama pendudukan Jepang).
1936-ting Guanyin (Guanyin) dibangun oleh Hakka perempuan di Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) didirikan oleh perempuan Chaozhou di Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
Akhir 1942 pemerintahan Belanda. Penduduk = 80.000.
2000 populasi Field = 1.898.013
 
. Cf: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia
Deli Maatschappij NV de bedrijf van een adalah Nederlands koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf pintu adalah pada tahun 1869 Nienhuys opgericht Yakub als een tabakscultuurmaatschappij Met voor het concessie Sultanaat Deli di Sumatera, Nederlands-Indie. Di Deli Maatschappij voor de 50% geparticipeerd werd pintu de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. Dalam de eeuw negentiende exploiteerde Deli Maatschappij de 120 000 hektar. De activiteiten vormden Maatschappij voor een van de een impuls sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor Deli Maatschappij van de di Medan Paleis van het tegenwoordig van de Gouverneur Sumatera.

Terjemahan: Deli Maatschappij NV adalah sebuah perusahaan asal Belanda kolonial. Perusahaan ini didirikan pada tahun 1869 oleh budaya tembakau Nienhuys Yakub sebagai perusahaan dengan konsesi untuk Kesultanan Deli di Sumatera, Hindia Belanda. Di Deli Company ada partisipasi 50% dari Masyarakat Perdagangan Belanda. Pada Abad Kesembilan Belas Deli Company dieksploitasi 120.000 hektar. Kegiatan perusahaan membentuk suatu dorongan untuk pertumbuhan yang kuat dari kota Medan. Markas mantan Deli Company di Medan saat ini istana Gubernur Sumatera. [Lihat foto di bawah ini di sebelah kiri]

English Version

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HISTORY OF TJONG A FIE

History of The Tjong A Fie Mansion

A prominent home located in the heart of Medan City at Kesawan Square, this beautiful mansion is full of characters and cultures behind its history in Medan.

The History of Tjong A Fie

Tjong Fung Nam, born from Hakka family and more popularly known as Tjong A Fie is born on 1860 in the village of Sungkow, Moyan or Meixien.  He was raised from a simple home, with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian.  Both have to give up schooling from a young age to help their father in his shop.  Even with limited education, Tjong A Fie quickly learned the business and trading skills and soon pursued his dreams to become independent and successful, hence leaving his village in search for a better life.

 

Tjong A fie

In 1880, after sailing for months, he finally arrived at the port of Deli (Medan).  At that time his brother Tjong Yong Hian had already been living in Sumatra for 5 years and had became a respected merchant in Sumatra.  However, the independent Tjong A Fie wanted to find his own living and went about finding his own work.  Tjong A Fie started to learn and develop business skills from working for Tjong Sui Fo. He developed his social skills interacting with people of all races, Chinese, Melayu, Arab, India, including Dutch.  He began by learning the language Bahasa Melayu which became the national language used in Medan Deli.

 

The Entertaining Hall

Tjong A Fie grew and became a well respected person in Medan Sumatra, where he stayed away from gambling, alcohol and prostitution in the developing town of Medan.  With his strong sense of leadership and fairness, he became the mediator for the Chinese. The Dutch also seek his help when their plantations have problems with labor issues.  His ability to solve these issues earned him to become the Chinese lieutenant. With his outstanding performance, he was elected to become a Captain (Kapiten).

 

The various rooms

Tjong A Fie was known as a respected businessman who has good social networks and has build good relation with the Sultan Deli, Makmoen Al Rasjid Perkasa Alamsjah and Tuanku Raja Moeda.  As they became good friends, Tjong A Fie became his trusted person and helped dealt with many business matters.

Tjong A Fie also became the first Chinese to own a tobacco plantation. He also developed and expanded to tea plantation in Bandar Baroe and large coconut/palm oil plantations.

Along with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian, Tjong A Fie joint partner with Tio Tiaw Siat also known as Chang Pi Shih, his uncle as well as consulate of China in Singapore and set up a railway company known as The Chow-Chow & Swatow Railyway Co.Ltd. in China

 

The Bedroom

Tjong A Fie, a very active social contributor, donated much of his wealth building many facilities for the welfare of the poor regardless of race, cultural beliefs or nationality including many places of worships such as Chinese & Hindu temple, Mosques and Churches.

As a well respected person in Medan who owns many plantations, palm oil and sugar factories, banks and railway companies, he employed more than 10.000 workers. As recommended by Sultan Deli, Tjong A Fie was appointed member of gemeenteraad (city council) and cultuurraad (cultural council)

4 February 1921, Tjong A Fie passed away from apopleksia or bleeding in the brain, in his home at Jalan Kesawan, Medan.  It shook the city Medan, thousands flock to pay respect from all over including Sumatera Timur, Aceh, Padang, Penang, Malaysia, Singapore and Java. He became a legend known by many in Medan till today.

Four months before his death, Tjong A Fie wrote his will in the presence of notary Dirk Johan Facquin den Grave.

Side  car: this odd name is probably a miss-spelling of Fouquain de Grave–as for instance shown in Pucca’s Blog: Memories of a Nonya Notaris Fouquain de Grave–but either way I would not want to pronounce that eminent name with an American accent.

Written in his will, he wanted all his wealth to be managed by Yayasan Toen Moek Tong which was established in Medan and Sungkow at the time of his death. The Yayasan based in Medan has been given 5 missions. Three of them are to provide financial help to young talented people that wished to complete their education, without no cultural or racial choice. Yayasan will also help the disabled who are no longer able to work including the blind or those with fatal illness.  Thirdly, the Yayasan will also help victims of natural disaster of any race or nationality.

1873-1924 The rule of Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, “the Builder”.
1878 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Tanjung Mulia (between Titipapan & Labuhan)
1880s Guandi-miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) was erected by Guangdong people in Medan (Jl. Irian Barat 2).
1880s Guanyin-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) was erected by Xinghua people in Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 The first newspaper “Deli Courant” was published.

 

Side Note: in checking the web for “Deli courant” I came across many fastfood outlets, or deli’s, where they serve ”delicatessen” (Dutch for delicacies) but also a reference to Sutan Sharir–an important early Indonesian statesman–one of that country’s founding fathers in fact, who had roots in Padang and Medan. He had also been a study friend of my Opa Otto at Leiden University, where they both studied law. On the way back to the Indies, Sharir made the long ocean trip as the pro forma ‘babysitter’ of my uncle Ernst (aka Oom Kiddie) since Opa Otto was still on Government pay and entitled to one ‘servant’. He opted to help out his friend Sharir instead.

 

Sjahrir: politics and exile in Indonesia – Google Books Result by Rudolf Mrázek – 1994 – Biography & Autobiography – 526 pages
128 In Gemeente Medan 1909-1934 (Medan: Deli Courant, 1934),  which mentions that Deli was a bit like the East Indies wild west: if you had committed murder in Batavia, you’d still be welcome in Medan–and every Dutch loafer was a potential grand seigneur in Deli. I mentioned Sharir before in my journal entry

 

Now we can continue with the timeline:

1886 Medan became the capital of northern Sumatra.
1886 “Witte Societeit” (“a rather grand club”) was erected next to the post office. [see photo hereunder]

 

1888 Sultan of Deli (Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah) moved from Labuhan Deli [series of pitcures below]

 

 

 

to the Maimoon Palace in Medan. [following two photographs of exterior and interior:]

 

 

1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 – near Pulo Brayan)
1891 Shoushan-gong (Guanyin) was erected by Fujianese in Labuhan Deli
1895 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Titipapan.
1898 Hotel De Boer was constructed.
1898-1939 Publication of “De Sumatra Post” by Joseph Hallermann, a German.
1900 Tjong A Fie mansion was built.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu temple) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pandu Baru 2)
1907 Sultan Mosque was built [see pictures below]

 

 

1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Construction of post office (Snuyf, architect – head of Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Medan was a small city. Population = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam) [see pictures below]

 

 

 

 

1913 Tjong A Fie donated the city hall’s clock tower.
1917 Horse drawn carts with brooms were used for town cleaning.
1923 Renovation of City Hall.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yuhuang-dadi) was erected by Chaozhou people in Kedai Durian.
1924-1945 The rule of Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Motorized vehicles were used to replace the horse drawn cars for town cleaning.
1929 Office of Netherlands Trading Company (now Bank Exim) was completed (used by Gunseikanbu during the Japanese occupation).
1936 Guanyin-ting (Guanyin) was erected by Hakka women in Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) was erected by Chaozhou women in Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
1942 End of Dutch rule. Population = 80,000.
2000 Medan’s population = 1,898,013

 

Cf.: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia

De N.V. Deli Maatschappij is een Nederlands bedrijf van koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf is in 1869 opgericht door Jacob Nienhuys als tabakscultuurmaatschappij met een concessie voor het Sultanaat Deli in Sumatra, Nederlands-Indië. In de Deli Maatschappij werd voor 50 % geparticipeerd door de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. In de negentiende eeuw exploiteerde de Deli Maatschappij 120.000 hectare. De activiteiten van de maatschappij vormden een impuls voor een sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij in Medan is tegenwoordig het paleis van de Gouverneur van Sumatra.

Translation: The NV Deli Maatschappij is a Dutch company of colonial origin. The company was founded in 1869 by Jacob Nienhuys as a tabacco culture company with a concession for the Sultanate Deli in Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies. In the Deli Company there was a 50% participation of the Netherlands Trading Society. In the nineteenth century the Deli Company exploited 120,000 hectares. The activities of the company formed an impulse for the strong growth of the city of Medan. The onetime headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan is today the palace of the Governor of Sumatra. [See photo below on the left]

 

1908

 

 

Zittend 1e rij v.l.n.r.: dhr. Haase, controleur Coert, dhr. v.d. Hout, dhr. de Vogel, resident de Vogel, assistent-resident Priester, Chef van McNeill & Co. D.M. Campbell, dhr. Cremer. 2e rij v.l.n.r.: assistent-resident Mc.Gillavry, lid van het kraton van Jogjakarta, een jurylid, kapitein der Chinezen, regent, officier van justitie Bouwma

1910

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan

1911

 

Taocang etnis tionghoa sampai tahun 1911

 

In 1912,

 the Board of Trustees chaired by Cheah Choo Yew successfully acquired the Cheah Sek Tong Family Cemetery and thenceforth the Sek Tong Cheah clansmen have their own land to rest after their passing away.

1913

 

 

 

Tionghoa mortem Upacara traditional Pengoeboeran

 

 

Pemakaman Orang tionghoa di Padang tempo doeloe(mungkin ini Ang Eng Hoat? Keluarha Ang Tjeng Liang harap komentar

 

Dr Iwan ever look the Tionghoa Burial ceremony during his grandpa pass away in 1957.

 

The coffin were get the very big hard wood with the many flower and the coffin bring by hand from his house at Belantung now A Yani street, with parade to the mountain hill about 5 km , there were two type of music one Gambang  and other marching band.

 When the coffin shut by bigger nail the older son Dr Iwan father must hit by martel,the sound very dramatic , all the family get the mourning gown from merkan linen   and when praying all the son must under the praying table,

During praying the HTT kongsi gave medal to the Grandpa with read the letter called Tjay Boen, and many friend gave the mourning  plaque called Liang tek Tjay made by black or white linen

Dr Iwan younger uncle Gho Ie Tong(ntjek Baba) bring the dust of praying hio walking very long,

every bridge His Father must asking his father in Law  Thoa Gin Toen as Tjengke Meong to back home with kneel in the ground road.

 

Batavia Chinese camp in 1913

1918

 

 

Uitreiking van een onderscheiding aan de kapitein der Chinezen, Tan Djoe An, bij zijn aftreden door de resident te Modjokerto

  • E.Q. Lie, I live in Mojokerto and I’m interesting in research of Chineese in Mojokerto. Could you tell me about the Capitain in Mojokerto?

Tan Djoe An: geboren 1857, handelaar in o.a. djatihout en jeruk, eigenaar van de grootste toko van Modjokerto, Luitenant der Chinezen van Modjokerto vanaf 1897,

Kapitein vanaf 1912. Trad in 1917 terug wegens afnemende gezondheid, kreeg wegens verdiensten de Kleine Gouden Ster (zie foto). Plaats van uitreiking was Tan Djoe An’s huis aan de Jl. Kediri, Mojokerto (tegenwoordig Jl. Majapahit 139, de voorgevel bestaat nog steeds, zij het weggestopt achter een toko en de deuren zijn dichtgemetseld).

Tan Djoe An is de Chinees met de onderscheiding. Naast hem Resident Van Aalst van Soerabaja, daar weer naast Assistent-Resident Kern van Modjokerto.

 Op de begane grond Ong Tiang Sing, neef en opvolger van Tan Djoe An. Rechts de Chinese elite van Modjokerto. Het groepje op de onderste trede zijn familieleden van de Kapitein, waaronder minstens 2 zonen.

De corpulente man is vermoedelijk Tan Oen Liang, de laatste luitenant der Chinezen van Modjokerto.

Tan Djoe An overleed omstreeks 1919, 1920

1930

 

 

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan 1930

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina medan Jap’s daughter

 

Kapitan cina medan Jap relatives

 

 

 

1933

 

 

 

 

Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat;

De gemeenteraadsleden van Bindjai met enkele dames

 

 

 

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappi

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Batavia street house( Batavia China Towan)

1941

Kapitein der Chinesen  Redisdentie west Sumatra 1941

Kapten etnis Tionghoa Padang :

 Liem Tjhoen Goan (sejak  1 April 1937)                

 Letnan etnis Tionghoa Pariaman:

 Ghan Ho Ie (sejak  19 sept.1906)              

Letnan etnis  Tionghoa Bukittinggi(Fort de Kock) dan Padang Panjang   :

Tjoa sin Soe (sejak 4 Maret 1929)    Letnan etnisTionghoa Payakumbuh :

Tjoa Seng Lian (sejak 18 maret 1939),                                                                                                                   putranya Tjoa Tjoan Soei menikah dengan adik mertua Dr iwan Oei Tiong Hien, Oei Soei                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heng dan putranya Ien.

( Sumber regeering alamanac 1941)

 

 

Orang Tionghoa Pejabat Hindia Belanda tahun 1941(sumber Reegering Almanac 1941)

Batavia

Afdelling Financiele ,Schatkistambtenaar de klasse K.T.Liem

 Dienst Der Oost-Aziatische Zaken

Hooftranslateur voor de Japansche S.Cho(Tsang Tsui Shih) sejak 1 januari 1939

Regenstschap Kediri

Hoofdcommies : Tan tek beng ,10 mei 1940

Major,Kapitein , Letnan der Chinesen

Regenstschap Batavia

Chineesche Raad

Voorsitter Khouw Kim An (Majoor de Chinesen 3 februari 1937)

Sekretaris Tan Boen Sing,11 April 1922,

 Leden

Lie Tjian Tjoen 17 Agustus 1029(kapitein de chinesen)                                                                                         Lie Boen Sin,27 sept 1929(lieutenant)

Niet ambtelijke Leden

Ong Kek Tjiaoe,21 april 1931                                                                                                                           Dr Tjiong Boen Kie, 9 maret 1940

 

Gouvernment Sumatra

Residentie Atjeh

Afdeelling Noordkust van Atjeh (Sigli)

Onderafdeelling Sigli

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjong Tjhi Tjhaij, 31 des. 1926

Onderafdeelling Lho’Seumawe

Luitenant der Chineezen Tan Joe Sin, 19 oct.1922

Onderafdeelling Bireuen

Luitenant der Chineezen Wong Tjiauw ,26 sept 1913

Afdeelling Oostdkust van Atjeh met Alaslanden Gajoloeas en Serbodjadi (Langsa)

Onderafdeelling Idi

Luitenant der Chineezen Chioe Sim Aann, 20 Jan 1918

Onderafdeelling Langsa

Luitenant der Chineezen Tjoeng Ted Joeng, 21 Maret 1918

Onderafdeelling Tamiang(Koealasimpang)

Luitenant der Chineezen Moe Tin Siong

 

 

Residentie Oostkust van Sumatra

Afdeelling Deli en Serdang (Medan)

Onderafdeelling Beneden Deli(Medan)

Major  der Chineezen Khoe Tjin Tek

Luitenant der Chineezen medan Oei han Tiong                                                                                                      Luitenant der Chineezen Laboeandeli : Hsu Hua Chang                                                                                             Luitenant der Chineezen Belawan : Oey Chin Kiat.

Dear Dr. Iwan,

I read your blog on history of Padang , Sumatra and enjoyed the nostalgia…

Perhaps with luck, u may know something of other historical TiongHua communities in Sumatra- am interested to know more about Khoo Cheow Teong who was a active trader from Tanjong Balai, Asahan( east coast, North Sumatra ) in 1900s.

He had two sons; Khoo Sian Wei and Sian Ewe, the former stayed back in Asahan whilst the father and second son, Sian Ewe lived a active biz n social life in Penang. I am a descendant but have no contact or knowledge of their family or biz in Asahan. Now am trying to catchup and wonder if you can kindly share what u may know or refer me to sources ( clan associations? Newspaper reports? Museum? Archives? English, Jawi or Dutch language?? Etc)  and people who may know the Khoo family.

 

Thanks for yr help, rgds robertY

 

Sent from my iPad

Afdeelling Simaeloengoen en De Karolanden(Pematangsiantar)

Onderafdeelling Simaeloengoen (Pematangsiantar)

Luitenant der Chineezen :  Ang Cheng

Residentie Tapanoeli

Afdeelling Sibolga

Luitenant der Chineezen : Lim Hoh Eng

Afdeelling Nias Goenoeng Sitoli

Onderafdeelling Nias en omligende eilanden(Goenoeng Sitoli)

Luitenant der Chineezen :    Lim Eng The

Onderafdeelling Batoe-eilande(Poelau Tello)

Luitenant der Chineezen :     Go Tiauw Hie, 16 juni 1932

 

 

 

Residentie Riouw en Onderhooringheden

Onderafdeelling Selat Pandjang

Luitenant der Chineezen : Kan Tjong Ho ,1 oct 1934

Onderafdeelling Bagan Siapi-api

Luitenant der Chineezen : LOe Tjin Poh

Afdelling Tandjoengpinang

Kapiten de chineesen te Tandjong Pinang : Oei Pit Ship,8 Sept .1930                                                                  Luitenant der chineesen voor Zuid Bintan : Tan Foo Kong,18 Okt.1915                                                            Luitenant der Chineesen voor  Noord-Bintan : Tan Swie Kie,19 juli 1916                                                       Luitenant der Chineesen te Pl,Boeloeh : Tan Joe She,1 aug 1930

Onderafdelling Karimoen (Tandjoengbalai)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                Tandjoengbalai Oei Kim Hoe,29 Maret 1935                                                                                                          Tandjoeng batoe Wong Seap Par, 27 April 1929

Onderafdelling Linga(Dao Singkep)

Luitenant der Chineesen te                                                                                                                                          Penoeba : Lie Eng Goan,20 dec 1938                                                                                                               Dabo(singkep): Tjoa meng Koei, 15 Sept.1938

Onderafdelling Poelau Toedjoeh(Terempa)

Luitenant der Chinesen terempa : Tjioe Tiong Thin ,Feb 1938

Afdelling Inderagiri (Rengat)

Luitenant der Chineesen Go Koen Sia ,16 jan.1936

(Dr iwan pernah kerumah nya tahun 1985, dan bertemu putranya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi almarhum seperti lukisan Tiongkok,dan medali yang diperolehnya dari gubernur jendral dan juga ada postal history masa revolusi berupa dokumen dengan metera pendudukan jepang)

 

Onderafdelling Inderagirische Benelanden (Tembilahan)

Luitenant der Chineesen tembilahan Lauw Tio Sia,1 jan.1936

 

 Residentie west Sumatra 1941

Kapten etnis Tionghoa Padang :

 Liem Tjhoen Goan (sejak  1 April 1937)                

 Letnan etnis Tionghoa Pariaman:

 Ghan Ho Ie (sejak  19 sept.1906)              

Letnan etnis  Tionghoa Bukittinggi(Fort de Kock) dan Padang Panjang   :

Tjoa sin Soe (sejak 4 Maret 1929)                                                                                                      Letnan etnisTionghoa Payakumbuh :

Tjoa Seng Lian (sejak 18 maret 1939),                                                                                                                   putranya Tjoa Tjoan Soei menikah dengan adik mertua Dr iwan Oei Tiong Hien, Oei Soei                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heng dan putranya Ien.

Residentie Palembang

Onderafdeling Hoofplaats Palembang  en Banjoeasinstreken(Palembang)

Kapiten der Chineesen Kwee Gan Keng, 9 Jan.1934

Residentie Bangka en Billiton

(hofdplaats Pangkalpinang)

Onderafdelling Midden-Bangka(Pangkalpinang)

Kapitein der Chinesen  Bong Joeng Kin ,24 dec 1932 Luitenant der Chinesen Se Siong Men, 24 Dec 1932

Afdelling Biliton(Tandjoengpandan)

Kapitein titulair de chineesen :Phong Jong Fong, 25 Maret 1938

Residentie Westerafdeelling van Borneo(hoofdplaats Pontianak)

Afdeeling Pontianak

Onderafdeelling Pontianak

Kapitein der chineezen Kwee Eng Hoe

Onderafdeelling Singkawang

Kapitein der Chineezen te

 Singkawang :  Theng Soen Teng                                                                                                                  Pemangkat : Lie Kian Nam                                                                                                                              Montrado : Eo Djong Khim

Onderafdeelling Bengkajang

Kapitein der Chineezen Lim A Lak

Onderafdeelling Sambas

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjen Fai Tjong

Onderafdeelling Mempawah

Kapitan der Chineezen Tjang Fen Sen

 

Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdelling van Borneo

Afdelling Bandjarmasin

Kapitein der chineesen  Tjoe Tay An , 5 April 1918

Onderafdellig Martapoera

Kapitein titulair der Chinesen Oey Tay Poen, 24 Agustus 1923

Afdelling Samarinda

Luitenant der Chineesen  voor  de onderafdelling Koetai en Boven Mahakam (standplaats Samarinda) : Ngo Keng Tjoen, 6 sept 1918

Onderafdelling Oost-Koetai

Luitenant der Chineesen te Sanga-sanga Dalam : Tan Keng Ban (voor het onderdistrict sanga-sanga) 21 maret 1928

Onderafdelling Balikpapan

Luitenant der Chineesen Voor het onderdistrict Balikpapan : Wong Thay Hin, 28 Agustus 1933

Afdeelling Boeloengan BN Beroe(Tarakan)

Onderafdeeling Beraoe(Tandjoeng Redeb)

Luitenant der Chineezen  Lim Kim Fen, 3 Juli 1940

Residentie Manado

Berau

Conniezeen redacteur : E.K.Njo,12 sept 1935

Afdeelling Dongala

Luitenant der Chineezen  Tjoa Tiong Hean, 30 Jan 1930

Residentie Timor en Onderhoorigheden

Onderafdeelling Koepang

Kapitein der chineezen  Lie San Njan, 15 feb 1925

Hoof de Chineezen Tjioe Tek Giok,29 april 1925- Tjioe Soen Seng(Babaoe Koepang)-Tjong Soei Tap(Tjamplong Koepang), Tjoeng KIe Seng(Naiklioe-Koepang).

 

 

Onderafdeelling Roti(Baa)

Hoof de Chineezen Djong Kiet Hien,29 Agustus 1940

Onderafdeelling Zuid-midden Timor(Soe)

Hoof de Chineezen Ta A Hin(Niki-niki), Tan Kion Tjeang(Kapan), Sea I Hoat(SoE)

Onderafdeelling Nord-midden Timor(Kofannanoe)

Hoof de Chineezen Tan Foe Djoen

Onderafdeelling Beloe(Atamboea)

Hoof de Chineezen Laij Ko Hie(atamboea)

 

Afdeelling Alor ( Kalabahi)

Hoof de Chineezen Ong Gwan Tjin alias Ong Kie Seng,27 April 1938

Onderafdeelling Ende

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Siang tek, 12 Juni 1939

Onderafdeelling Maoemere(maoemere)

Hoof de Chineezen  Ong Ka Tjao, 12 Juni 1929

Onderafdeelling Mangarai (Roeteng)

Hoof de Chineezen  Pius The Kie Teng, 14 Maret 1938

Afdeelling Soembawa en Soemba(Raba)

Onderafdeelling Bima(Raba)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Koan, 28 Nov  1936

Onderafdeelling Soembawa(soembawabesar)

Hoof de Chineezen  Oei Si Moe alias Oei Hok Goei(soembawa besar),

Wong Jat Hwa(Taliwang)

Onderafdeelling Oost Soemba (Waingapoe)

Hoof de Chineezen  Lie Thiauw La,15 Juni 1938

Gouvernment Soerakarta

Afdeelling Soerakarta

Kapitein  der Chineezen soerakarta  Ing Siang Tan

Luitent der chineezen sragen Liem Poo Djong

( Sumber regeering alamanac 1941)

 

 

Chinese in semarang 1941

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2013

 

 

 

Driwancybermuseum Galery(continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

 

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO

DUTCH EAST INDIE

 

Chong Yeau Tian leader of the Chinese in Medan 1911

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

The Chinese Overseas Kapitan

Part two

 Dutch East Indie Colony

 

Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan

 

Created By

Dr4 Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

//

[edit] History

[edit] Pre-colonial interaction

There was little direct Chinese involvement in what is now Indonesia before the fifteenth century. Trade between China and the Indonesian archipelago was in the hands of Indonesians, rather than Chinese.[disputed] The standard word for a Chinese trading vessel, junk, is derived from the Javanese word jong, which described large teak vessels that trekked north from Southeast Asia to southern China.[disputed] Chinese sources, however, are useful external sources of information on early Indonesia, including the records of a few emissaries such as Fa Hien, a Buddhist monk who passed the region in the fifth century on his way to India. Kingdoms of Indonesia and China had some relationships that thrived during the Tang dynasty.

Ironically, though most of the present Chinese Indonesians are not Muslims, some of the earliest Islamic evangelists in Java (Wali Songo, or the Nine Ambassadors) were of Chinese ancestry. At least four of those nine were original Chinese or Chinese descendants: Sunan Ampel, Sunan Bonang (son of Ampel and a Chinese woman), Sunan Kalijaga, and Sunan Gunungjati.[5] <This shouldn’t actually be ironic since those Islamic evangelists are actually Hui Chinese, a Chinese ethnic group who are Muslim. In contrast, most of the present Chinese Indonesians are mainly not Hui Chinese. Rather, they are mostly Han Chinese, another Chinese ethnic group which is the majority ethnic group in mainland China, coming from Fujian, Guangdong, etc.> One theory suggests that Chinese traders were among the first to bring Islam to Indonesia, including those who came to Semarang under the leadership of Admiral Zheng He, or Sam Po Kong, in the fifteenth century. Zheng He himself was a Muslim from the Hui minority ethnic group in China. Other theories based on documented accounts of Indian Gujarati traders and merchants, long familiar with Java, suggest they introduced Sufism there and the Malay Peninsula.[citation needed]

Since the voyages of Zheng He, many Chinese considered the region as an attractive trading partner.

[edit] Dutch colonial era

[edit] Favored position under the Dutch

 

 

Portrait of the Chinese kapitein of Rembang, Central Java (ca. 1913)

The largest waves of Chinese migration happened during early to middle Dutch colonial era (sixteenth to nineteenth centuries) seeking to find new opportunities of trade.

Race relations between the Chinese Indonesians and native Indonesians (pribumi) have always been problematic, and remain so up to the present. Some commentators trace this to the Dutch era when colonial policy favored the ethnic Chinese, and in so doing established the economic dominance of the Chinese over the region.[citation needed]

The caste system established by the Dutch also made it disadvantageous for ethnic Chinese to assimilate into the native population. Assimilation would mean being placed in the lowest estate together with the natives. Ethnic Chinese, together with Arabs and other “foreign orientals” were members of the second estate. The first estate was reserved for Europeans.[6]

As such, the Dutch were among the early practitioners of a classic colonial strategy practiced in many other times and places by displacing and destroying native systems of authority through favoring specific ethnic or religious minorities. They become props of colonial rule and a buffer between itself and the majority indigenous population. (France and Britain would eventually use the local Christian and Jewish communities in the Arab world in the same way.)

Having the favor of the Dutch and being considered by “intelligent, diligent, and capable of overseeing Dutch plantations”, many ethnic Chinese supported colonial rule[citation needed]. Indeed, in the early years of the Dutch East Indies, ethnic Chinese actively helped strengthen Dutch domination in the region. Souw Beng Kong, the Kapitan Cina (“Captain of the Chinese”) of Banten, for example, organized a large-scale immigration of Chinese under his rule to Batavia in the seventeenth century. This significantly destabilized the regional economy and facilitated Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Banten.

As a reward, Souw was made the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia in 1619. His successors and later, the Majoors der Chinezen, were given landed fiefdoms and the Dutch-invented hereditary title of Sia by the colonial government.

Among them, these aristocratic Peranakan families controlled a great deal of Java’s land and wealth, confiscated by the Dutch from the native (pribumi) aristocracy. Through the officership system they governed the Peranakan and ethnic Chinese populations of Batavia. The system was later extended to other centers of Dutch power in Java and the rest of the archipelago.[7] Deprived of land, the native aristocracy lacked the economic resources (income via agricultural, livestock and timber products, alluvial and subterranean mineral resources, most particularly gold and gemstones) vital to fund their kingdoms, princedoms and dukedoms. Essentially bankrupted by theft of their land and forced transition to Chinese ownership, the aristocracy was hamstrung to raise military force against the usurpers.

Both the Dutch and the Chinese participated in the trade of thousands of Javanese slaves. Javanese considered problematic were shipped off to Chinese plantations in Sumatra.[citation needed]

[edit] Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

In their position, the Chinese often did not receive friendly attitudes from the Dutch. In the early decades of the eighteenth century, tensions began to build. In some ways, it resulted from the fact that having settled in and around Batavia ever since its foundation, the Chinese had come to be a major element in its economic life.

Chinese workers were greatly involved in building Batavia and cultivating the adjacent agricultural areas. And Chinese traders, who were arriving in growing numbers, made the Dutch East India Company (VOC) increasingly dependent on them.

The VOC came to make most of its profits from trade among different Asian destinations rather than back to the Netherlands themselves – and it was naturally the Chinese traders residing in Batavia who had the best contacts in China.

Dutch and Chinese needed each other – which in theory should have ensured a good relationship. But an element among the Dutch colonists came to increasingly resent the situation of the Chinese being their effective social equals and economic rivals. The Chinese traders, like the Dutch ones, were tax-payers – which was an economic burden but also conferred considerable privileges (a phenomenon comparable to the later resentment of French settlers in Algeria to local Christians and Jews being legally their equals).

What set off a cataclysm of hatred and bloodshed was not only cliquish Chinese trading but the other major branch of their economic activity on Java: agricultural work carried out by poor Chinese coolies who were imported and employed by rich Chinese entrepreneurs. Such coolies were, for example, the dominant part of the labor force employed in the sugar plantations at the Ommelanden of Batavia, a major field of economic activity.

The importation of ever more coolies caused an enormous increase in the Chinese population in the VOC-ruled area of Batavia and its environs, and they came to constitute nearly half of the total population just before 1740. Already in 1690, the colonial authorities had imposed severe limitations on further immigration from China. This did not have, however, the effect of stopping the importation of more coolies. Rather, they continued to be imported through the payment of bribes to the authorities, and were all the more dependent on their employers (usually Chinese themselves) and susceptible to lucrative exploitation.

From about 1720 the sugar market went through a deepening crisis, with the markets in Europe becoming saturated, and the plantations of Java facing sharp competition from cheaper Brazilian sugar. Many of the sugar planters went bankrupt, and the authorities took no step to alleviate the situation of the workers thrown out of their jobs – with the result being bands of unemployed, hungry and desperate coolies turning to brigandage.

Belatedly, at July, 1740 the colonial authorities, c.q. Adriaan Valckenier and Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff decreed that all the coolies of the Ommelanden were to be transferred to Dutch-run plantations at Galle in Southern Ceylon. That might or might not have been the true intention, but rumors rife among the coolies were that the Dutch actually intended to throw them overboard once out of sight of the shore. Instead of boarding the ships, the coolies burst into an all-out revolt, with roaming bands robbing and killing in the countryside and some even attempting to attack Batavia itself.

There is no evidence that the better off Chinese living inside the walled area of Batavia, some five thousand in number, were planning to join the rebellious coolies outside. However, many of the Dutch inhabitants did have such suspicions. On October 9, 1740, the order was issued to search the houses of all the Chinese residents in Batavia. This soon degenerated into an all-out, three-day long massacre – with Chinese being massacred in their homes, and earlier captured Chinese being killed out of hand in prisons and hospitals.

A preacher fanned the flames from the pulpit, declaring that the killing of Chinese was “God’s Will”, and the colonial government itself reportedly posted a bounty for decapitated Chinese heads. The number of victims in these three days is variously estimated at between five thousand and ten thousand. The name Kali Angke (traditional Chinese: ; literally, “Red River”) is said to date from that time, recalling the blood flowing into the river.[8][9]

Afterwards, the “restoration of order” was proclaimed, with surviving Chinese henceforth ghettoized in specific quarters of Batavia and other Dutch-ruled cities. The Chinese area of Batavia was designated Glodok, where many Chinese still live in present-day Jakarta.

Following the massacre, the Dutch Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier was arrested and required to account for himself to the Heeren XVII (“Seventeen Lords”, the VOC directors in Amsterdam). He died in prison, however, and the charges against him were declared “annulled by death”.

The affair continued to crop up in later periods, especially in times of tension.[10]

 

Graf van de kapitein der Chinezen So Bing Kong (Bencon) te Batavia, vermoedelijk op Goenoeng Karang, een oude Chinese begraafplaats aan de Jacatraweg 1916

 

Situation now

Due to Coolaberation between Driwancybermuseum and Zheng He Museum Penang, I have made a special reasearche about the Famous  Chinese overseas In Malaya during British Colony  and Indonesia during Dutch East Indie

 

Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, 1888-11-23

Oei Tan Nio, echtgenote van de kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta, op 27-jarige leeftijd

 

Oei Tjan Nio in bruidskleding, echtgenote van Liem Kie Djwan, kapitein der Chinezen te Jogjakarta

After work Hard and spend much time and loan, The research were finish and this info will show in Zheng He Museum Penang lead by Robert Yeap.

I also found some informations related to that famous man.like kapitan Cina in stratits settlement penang,Malacca,Singapore ,Kuching Sarawak  and also from federated Malayan like Kuala Lumpur etc,also from Indonesia(Dutch East Indie that time) like Deli medan,tanjung balai ashan ,padang city, Batavia(Jakarta),surabyaa .

 

Kapitan cina rembang 1885

Due to many realted informations,this book will be divided by two part,part one Malaya area and part two Indonesia (Dutch East Indie Area)

 

Kapitan Cina Surabaya and Mrs  1880

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan(mayor rank) Cina Surabaya Han Tjong Khing  1924

 

 

When and why the Kapitan Cina organization starting?

 

Kapitan cina(leuteant rank) Laboehan deli 1880

 I have a very best information from web blog Chinese overseas in British Colony and Kapitan cina Batavia, but some of informations cannot read all because qere protacted with the PDF and other computer technology which made only by very high technology a part of information can read, but I think enough and good informations were extist,this some of the info below.

[edit] Continued Immigration and division into three sub-communities

 

 

Chinese family portrait (ca. 1870)

Even such bloody events did not put an end to the continued Chinese emigration to the Indies, where economic opportunities not available in China itself outweighed the dangers of discrimination or persecution.

Earlier Chinese immigrants had much closer ties toward mainland China. This was manifested in their strong desire to return home and consideration of the Indies as yet another temporary settlement.

Attitudes started changing from the middle eighteenth century when the Qing emperor of the time, Qian Long, considered these expatriates to be “turncoats” and thereby a threat to China. Still, while Emperor Qian Long adopted a general “closed-door policy”, there was no evidence that Chinese expatriates were banned from returning to their original homeland.

Many of them, however, found the Indies an increasingly attractive abode. The hostile and oppressive Manchu government of the Qing dynasty brought even more migrants from China. Lured by comfortable lives, some of them no longer associated themselves with mainland China. They were called Cina Babas or Peranakans. Some Cina Babas intermarried with indigenous Indonesian (pribumis), often the slave-girl of a coollie.

Most, however, identified themselves as Dutchmen, embraced Christianity, generally enjoyed higher education and social status, and mimicking Western lifestyles considered themselves the more refined. They got to be called Qiao Sheng (literally, “foreign-born”). Beginning in the late Nineteenth Century, most of the Dutch-invented aristocratic “Sia” families underwent rapid westernization. By the early decades of the twentieth century, many of them—especially those domiciled around Batavia—had become “more Dutch than the Dutch themselves”. The Sias were consequently some of the strongest proponents of colonial rule.

Those who still maintained ties toward China, whose main belief was Confucianism, considered Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs unfilial, all the more so because Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically shunned Chinese tradition. The ones who still maintained “purity” were called Cina Totoks.

These three groups of Chinese Indonesians had starkly different nationalistic views and tendencies. At the time

  • Qiao Shengs were more inclined toward the Dutch;
  • Cina Totoks were more inclined toward mainland China;

and

  • Cina Babas were more toward the indigenous population of the Indies.

[edit] Changing Dutch policies and decline of the Sia aristocracy

 

Chinese paifang in Bandung on the occasion of the marriage of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard in 1937

By the 1920s and 1930s, the long standing hold over the economy of the old Sia families, Qiao Sheng par excellence, was systematically destroyed by the very Dutch colonial government they supported . Following Queen Wilhelmina‘s speech to the Estates General (the Dutch Parliament) in which she insisted that a “moral debt” was owed to the people of the East Indies, the colonial government implemented its so-called “social policy”. This was aimed at ending feudalism in Java and breaking up the large estates of the Peranakan pretender aristocracy.

It was the Chinese Sias, more than the native aristocracy, who suffered from this measure. The native aristocracy did not own much land, due to the fact that the Dutch had generations prior forcibly confiscated and split the former Kingdom of Majapahit into four. The Dutch, to remedy the unfavourabale and indeed racist treatment of the natives, initiated a program of civil service employment for suitably pliable upper middle-class semi-aristocratic families, known as priyayi.

Dutch compulsory acquisition of Peranakan fiefdoms destroyed many of the older Chinese landowning families. While some successfully managed to get into business, most former Sias—their title becoming obsolete by the 1940s—were swamped in economic power by Totok Chinese. This latter group remains, even today, the most powerful economic group in Indonesia.[11]

Concomittant with the decline of the feudal-type Sias, Chinese Indonesians underwent a process of modernization and of building up Western-type political and social institutions. Chinese Indonesians built the first of their schools in Surabaya in the 1920s—one of the first non-Western schools in Java—and by the 1960s, many Chinese schools had been established in the major cities. The first Chinese newspapers were also printed during this era, and several Chinese political parties were established. These parties ranged from those who saw themselves as part of the Indonesian nationalist movement, and those who felt that Chinese Indonesians were still Chinese citizens – a question that was left unresolved for many decades.[citation needed]

[edit] Nationalism and revolution (1900–1945)

[edit] Reflections of Chinese mainland politics

Later waves of migrants still maintained ties to China, mainly by supporting Chinese nationalistic movements to overthrow the Qing dynasty. Although the support was mainly monetary, some Chinese Indonesians were actively involved in the inside politics, especially so during the Sun Yat Sen era. Cina Totoks were particularly active.

Although the Chinese Communists were largely unsupported at first, from the 1930s on the Communists’ effort to drive the Japanese occupants out of China gained the support of many Cina Totoks and even some Qiao Shengs. Thus, Indonesian Chinese manifestations of support towards mainland China became divided into two camps, parallel with the civil war sides in China itself: Nationalistic (Kuomintang or Guómíndǎng) and Communistic (Gòngchǎndǎng).

[edit] Sympathy for Indonesian nationalism

At the turn of the 20th century, however, Cina Babass were increasingly assimilated into Indonesian culture. Younger generations of Cina Totoks still tried to maintain ties with China.

Although the Dutch had given the Chinese Indonesians a special status, they were becoming increasingly oppressive and discriminative against all Chinese Indonesians. So, all three groups – Qiao Shengs, Cina Babas, and Cina Totoks – were more and more cooperative toward the Indonesian national movement, especially in providing monetary support.

This comment is disputed as much documentary evidence amply illustrates overwhelming Chinese support for Dutch paramilitary attempts to crush the Independence movement thereby incurring long-standing enmity of the Indonesian native.

More and more Chinese Indonesians were involved in Indonesian politics. Cina Totoks typically set up specific Chinese political parties which aimed at an Indonesia-China alliance and established newspapers. Cina Babas and Qiao Shengs typically joined nationalist parties jointly with pribumis. Some of them, serving as officers in the Dutch Army and later the Japanese one, but never used their positions to help the national movement.

 

 

On 10 November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po published what is now known as Indonesia Raya, Indonesia’s national anthem.

They were also among the pioneers of Indonesian newspapers. In their fledgling publishing companies, they published their own political ideas along with contributions from other Indonesian writers. In November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po (traditional Chinese: 新報; pinyin: xīn bào) was the first paper to openly publish the text of the national anthem Indonesia Raya. On occasion, those involved in such activities ran a concrete risk of imprisonment or even of their lives, as the Dutch colonial authorities banned nationalistic publications and activities.

Chinese Indonesians were active in supporting the independence movement during the 1940s Japanese occupation, when all but the Overseas Chinese Association (traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Huáqiáo Zhōnghuì) were banned by the Japanese military authorities. Some notable pro-independence activists were Siauw Giok Tjhan and Liem Koen Hian, but the latter died as a People’s Republic of China citizen (Kusuma,2004:27). Yap Tjwan Bing, a member of Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, became a US citizen in the 1960s.

 

 

 

Kapitan cina medan Tjong A Fie 1906

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjonng A Fie with family 1900

 

Huwelijk van de dochter van de Kapitein der Chinezen Jap Soen Tjai te Medan

The Chinese Consulate

The formation of Chinese consulate in Singapore in 1877 , an Penang in 1890, also in Padang West Sumatra and Payakumbuh West Sumatra (years still not known) respectively was primanly to serve as communicate between the Chinese Gouvernment  and the Chinese overseas . Apart from that it was also the Chinese tentative to gain support and loyality from her wealthy  Overseas member.

 

Tjong Jong Hian, kapitein der Chinezen te Medan 1910

 

 

The house of Kapitan cina medan Tjong Jong Hian 1900

The office of the Vice-consult functions in various aspects and capacities .The diplomatic rule of the Chinese Vice-Consul was based in demography and geography of British Malaya and Duitcg East Indie For istance

 

1893

Installatie van Tjong Yong Hian als kapitein en Tjong A Fie als luitenant der Chinezen te Medan

The Penang Brand engaged with the Chinese Affairs in Penang <Perak,Sealngor, Kedah and Perlis.Whereass the Singapore branch comcerned in the areas such as Johor, Malacca, Negri Sembilan , Kelantan and Trengannu

 

Kapitan Cina Tanjungpura Medan Hho Tsai Toan in 1890

 

The prime role of the Vice-Consul was also concerned in protecting the Chinese and their business interest however in the ealy 1900’s other Chinese organizations  such as the Chinese Advisory board (1890) ,Chinese chamber of Commerce Po Leung Kok(1886) as well as other Chinese clan association had surged in all mayor owns in British Malaya thus the importance of the Vice consult had apparentely ceased.

 

Vrouw van de kapitein der Chinezen te Batavia en een meisje 1867

In 1891 ,the vice consult of Singapore was promote to the rank of Consult gereal in south East asia and in 1933 the chinedse consult was established in Kuala lumpur and the Chinese Affairs in the Federataed of Malaya.

Source

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina Langkat  Tjoeng Njan Khin with government in Binjei

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan*mayor rank) cina Aceh Lie A sie

Op de rug gezien v.l.n.r.: majoor K. van der Maaten, sultan Mohammad Dawot Sjah, Toeankoe Ibrahim (zoon van de sultan) en assistent-resident W.J.F. Vermeulen; V.l.n.r. tegenover majoor K. van der Maaten: luitenant-generaal J.B. van Heutsz (gedeeltelijk), assistent-resident A.C. Veenhuizen, luitenant-kolonel G.C.E. van Daalen (gedeeltelijk), onbekend, controleur C. Schultz, Toeankoe Pangeran Oesén, Toeankoe Machmoet, onbekend, majoor titulair der Chinezen Lie A Sie

 

Kapitan(leuteannt rank) can meando 1873

 

The same situation same in Dutch East Indie(Indonesia now) but the rank different,there were Mayor Cina, Kapitan Cina and Leutenant Cina depend on the demography and geography of dutch east indie from government, Residentie,subresidentie(Assisten-resident area) and more small area.

 

Kapitan Cina Medan 1900 Oen Goan The

 

In Padang there were two Chinese vice-consut at Pariaman name Lir Ma Say, he ever send money to Dutch east ndie government to help the Krakato eruption victim in 19th century but later closed because move to Padang city there were vicde consut Gho Goan Tee and Lie Ma say became the first Mayor Cina, and then Gho Goa tee,then Ang Eng Lay, then Lie Oen Kiong,then the son of Gho Goan Tee(Gho sun Tong) his brother Gho Sun hin merried my Aunt Kang Kim Lian they lived at Singapore. My grandgrandpa Chua Chay Hiok(Tjoa Tjay Hiok) became the vice Consult in Payakumbuh west Sumatra upland ,later my uncle TJOa seng Lian became the Kapitan cina at Payakumbuh he ever send money to help republic of China during sun Yat sen(Kuomintang) to build the railways ,

 

Opening van de eerste jaarmarkt te Semarang 1908

At Batavia(now Jakarta) the first Kapitan was So ban Kong,he strated from Bantam ,then moved to Batavia during VOC first built this city in 16th century, then the Khouw faili were the next kapitan cina Batavia. I was found the best book about a dutch man travelling in ndonesia in late 19th century,in that rare book I found the pictures of the first kaiptan cina Padang city profile Lie Ma say, and other 19th century book about tarvellin in Java also I found the profil of Surabaya kapitan Cina.

In  The 1941 Dutch East Indie Almanac book  were list all the kapitan cina from all part of Indonesia,and from the Book of Dutch and colony ‘s employe 1939, I found the kapitan cina and famous Chinese overseas in Dutch East indie complete with profile picture and short life histories .

 

 

De gemeenteraadsleden van Bindjai met enkele dame

Van de raad maakten deel uit: W.Ph. Coolhaas, voorzitter; Tjoeng Njan Khin, kapitein-titulair der Chinezen van Boven Langkat; Djalaloedin, landschapsarts van Langkat; Tengkoe Mohamad Jasin, pangeran van Boven Langkat en waarnemend vice-voorzitter van de Karapatan in Langkat; mr J.B. Kan, voorzitter van de Landraden te Bindjai en Langsa; Baharoeddin, fiscaal-griffier van het Landgerecht te Bindjai; W.F. Verrijk, hoofdopzichter van de Afdeling Weg en Werken van de Deli Spoorweg Maatschappij; ir P.M. Visser, inspecteur van de Langkatondernemingen van de Deli Maatschappij; J. Louwerier, chef-geneesheer van het Bangkattan-hospitaal van de Deli Maatschappij; H.J. Lever, waarnemend administrateur van de onderneming Timbang Langkat van de Deli-Batavia Maatschappij

Indonesian National Revolution

During the Indonesian National Revolution following World War II, many Chinese Indonesians supported the Independence movement. BPUPKI’s (Body for Investigating Preparation Attempts of Indonesia’s Independence) membership included six ethnic Chinese members who contributed to the drafting of the Indonesian Constitution in 1945.[citation needed] The formation of all-Chinese Indonesian units in the Revolution was discussed,[12] similar to the formation of the all-Japanese American Nisei units in World War II. This suggestion was ultimately rejected, and the ethnic Chinese were advised to instead join their local pro-Independence groups. Due to the lack of such clearly-defined ethnic unit, the precise number of Chinese Indonesians who took part in the Indonesian National Revolution, and their percentage of the Chinese Indonesian community as a whole, remains disputed. It is a sensitive issue due to it sometimes being linked to the post-war status of Chinese Indonesians and their equal status (or lack of one) in the Indonesia created by that war.

In 1946, the Consul General of the Republic of China, Chiang Chia Tung, expressed in Malang the ROC’s support for Indonesia’s independence

 

 

 

 

Root of Tionghoa


The word has been used in a letter Tionghwa loyal to the Nippon army .
Chinese or tionghwa , is a term that is made by people of Chinese descent in Indonesia , which is derived from the Chinese word zhonghua . Zhonghua pronounced in Hokkien dialect of Chinese .

 

 

Chinese overseas at Baroes Tapanoeli in 1910

Discourse Tsung Hwa at least been started since 1880, which is the desire of the people in China to be free from the power of the royal dynasty and establish a more democratic and stronger . This discourse to be heard by people of Chinese origin living in the Dutch East Indies when it was called the Chinese People .

 

 

Chinese overseas Tin Worker  at Bangka 1920

A group of people from China whose children were born in the Dutch East Indies , felt the need to learn the culture and language . In 1900 , they founded the school in the Dutch East Indies , under the auspices of an entity called ” Tjung Hwei Hwa Kwan ” , which is when the pronunciation becomes Tiong Hoa Hwe Indonesianized Kwan ( THHK ) . THHK along the way not only provide Chinese language and culture education , but also foster a sense of unity among the Chinese in the Netherlands Indies , along with changes in the term ” China ” to ” Chinese ” in the Dutch East Indies .


 

Uitreiking van een onderscheiding aan de kapitein der Chinezen, Tan Djoe An, bij zijn aftreden door de resident te Modjokerto in 1918

 

Population in Indonesia

 

 

 

Kapitan cina Ambarawa Kwee An Kie 1875


Based Volkstelling ( census ) in the Dutch East Indies , Indonesian – Chinese population reached 1.233 million ( 2.03 % ) of the population of Indonesia in 1930. [ 5 ] There is no official data on the number of Chinese population in Indonesia issued by the government since Indonesian independence . But the American anthropologist , G.W. Skinner , in his research has estimated the Chinese population in Indonesia reached 2.505 million ( 2.5% ) in 1961 . [ 6 ]

 

Chenese overseas in DEI in 1876

 

In the population census in 2000 , when for the first time census respondents were asked about their ethnic origin , only 1 % of the total Indonesian population claiming to be Chinese . A rough estimate of the number of trust – Indonesian ethnic Chinese today is located in between the range of 4 % – 5 % of the total population of Indonesia . [ 7 ]
Region of origin in China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Installatie van de majoor der Chinezen door resident W.J.M. Michielsen, vermoedelijk dhr. Pjang a Yong te Medan in 1893

 

 

Aanwezige bestuursambtenaren onder andere: resident van de Oostkust van Sumatra W.J.M. Michielsen, assistent-resident J.C. van Hasselt en secretaris J.A. van Rijn van Alkemade


Map the distribution of ancestral tribal homelands Chinese – Indonesian
The height of the coastal trade interaction southeastern China , causing a lot of people who also feel the need to go out cruising for trade . The main aim when it was Southeast Asia . Because the cruise is highly dependent on monsoons , then each year the traders will live in areas of Southeast Asia who visited them . And so on there are traders who decided to settle down and marry local women , there are also traders who returned to China to continue to trade .

 


V.l.n.r. op de 1e rij: Daliloeddin, Moorianto Koesoemo Oetojo, Soenito, Soedjarwo Tjondronegoro, onbekende, Abdoerachman, onbekende, Djalal Moechsin, onbekende, Adnin; op de 2e rij: Zain Sjarif, Annie de Ridder, Reny [Irene Yvonne] Poetiray, Rasono Woerjaningrat, mevr. Alings, mevr. Abdoerachman, Margriet Tuera (vertegenwoordigster Kaoem Iboe Indonesia), dochter van mevr. Alings; op de 3e rij: Sidartawan, Joesoef Moedadalam, mevr. Poernomo, Soenardi, onbekende, mevr. Soenardi, 2 Chinezen, 2 onbekenden, Evie [Georgine Eveline] Poetiray, 4 onbekenden, Hartono; op de 4e rij: Soegeng Notohadinegoro, Hadiono Koesoemo Oetojo, Madeleine Hubrecht, Soehoenan Hamzah, Soeripno, Ati Nataatmadja (dochter van regent Tjiandjoer); 2 onbekenden, Trees Nataatmadja (dochter regent Tjiandjoer), Koessardjono

 

Chinese people in Indonesia , mostly originating from southeast China . They include the tribes :
 Hakka
§
§ Hainan
 Hokkien
§
 Cantonese
§
§ Hokchia
 Tiochiu
§
The area of origin is concentrated in the coastal southeast is understandable , because of the Tang Dynasty from port cities in coastal southeastern China indeed has become a bustling trading port . Quanzhou been noted as the largest airport and the busiest port in the world in those days . [ Citation needed ]

Undo edits

 

Title Chinese optocht te Sitoebondo ter gelegenheid van het vijfentwintigjarig regeringsjubileum van koningin Wilhelmina in 1923 Op de banier staan in Chinese karakters drie plaatsnamen uit de Fujian provincie in China: “Zhou, Xinghua en Fuqing”. Waarschijnlijk de plaatsen waar deze overzeesche Chinezen vandaan komen.Is this translation better than the original?

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The first recorded movement of people from China into Maritime Southeast Asia was the arrival of Mongol forces under Kublai Khan that culminated in the invasion of Java in 1293.

 The Mongols introduced Chinese technologies to the island, including shipbuilding and coinage. Their intervention hastened the decline of the classical kingdoms such as Singhasari and precipitated the rise of the Majapahit empire.[16]

 

Chinezen dragen een balk voor de bouw van een boortoren te Pangkalanbrandan in 1929

Album, Foto-boek I, was bestemd voor de moeder van E.P.L. de Hoog. Zie ook albums 1041, 1042 en 1043.

Some Chinese and Portuguese sources indicate that Chinese traders were the first to arrive on Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to buy cloves, but they were later driven out by Javanese traders as Majapahit expanded.[17]

 

 

 Khoe Hock Cho (rechts in het midden) op de dag van zijn benoeming tot luitenant der Chinezen te Tandjoengbalai en P. Scheffer, assistent-resident van Asahan, vóór de Chineesche Hollandsche School te Tandjoengbalai

 

Kapitan (lieutenant rank) Cina Tanjungbalai Asahan  khoe Hock cho 1927

Chinese Muslim traders from the eastern coast of China arrived at the coastal towns of Indonesia and Malaysia in the early 15th century. They were led by the mariner Zheng He, who commanded several expeditions to southeastern Asia between 1405 and 1430. In the book The Overall Survey of the Ocean’s Shores (瀛涯勝覽), his translator Ma Huan documented the activities of the Chinese Muslims in the archipelago and the legacy left by Zheng He and his men.[18] These traders settled along the northern coast of Java, but there is no documentation of their settlements beyond the 16th century. The Chinese Muslims were likely to have been absorbed into the majority Muslim population.[19] Between 1450 and 1520, the Ming Dynasty‘s interest in southeastern Asia reached a low point and trade, both legal and illegal, rarely reached the archipelago.[20] The Portuguese made no mention of any resident Chinese minority population when they arrived in Indonesia in the early 16th century.[21] Trade from the north was re-established when China legalized private trade in 1567 through licensing 50 junks a year. Several years later silver began flowing into the region, from Japan, Mexico, and Europe, and trade flourished once again. Distinct Chinese colonies emerged in hundreds of ports throughout southeastern Asia, including the pepper port of Banten.[20]

Chinese traders boycotted Portuguese Malacca after it fell to the Portuguese in the 1511 Capture of Malacca.[22] The Chinese engaged in business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[23] Some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city using ships. The Javanese–Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in “The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon”.[22]

 

 

Chinese ethnic in the 1930s .

Removal of traders from the north to the south occurs on a large scale . Chinese emperor then, Tsi Thi Huang , memakarsai displacement.

In the book Lord of the Rims ( from Coastal Taipan ) written by Sterling Seagrave , mentioned four reasons Emperor who managed to unite the Chinese mainland in that incident .
 First , Tsi fear with his biological father bribes science , Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei , go spread the merchant who is a supporter of his father . As said the book , Tsi is the son of an affair between the Prime Minister Lu Pei Wei with concubines . Lu put a mistress who was pregnant concubines .

 

 

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

Groepsfoto van het personeel van Regionale Werk Plaats van de Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij genomen voor het vertrek van E.P.L. de Hoog van Babo in West-Nieuw-Guinea

When 10 -year -old Tsi he was appointed emperor . Lu became Prime Minister for 10 years . And the only prime minister of gologan merchants during Chinese history .

The second reason , North China famous for its agriculture . So it is a cleansing action against the traders .

 

Hoogwaardigheidsbekleders bij Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin (3e v.r.), sultan van Siak in 1905 V.l.n.r.: […] (luitenant der Chinezen), luitenant Koentze, […] (vermoedelijk de broer van de sultan), sultan Sjarif Kasim Abdul Djalil Saifoedin, […] (vermoedelijk bestuursambtenaar) en luitenant De Graaf


Later , the emperor wanted to develop the Chinese population in the South .
The final reason relates to the orthodox view of Confucianism which was looked down on the merchants , the merchants put under farmers : with logic , most farmers still produce rice , while the merchants did not return any results .
The Emperor ordered the transfer of the merchants ( and their friends ) on a large scale to the southern regions ( Fu Jian , Kwang – Tong ) .

The is then spread throughout the world , estimated at 55 million people . Four percent of the total number of inhabitants of the land which is also known as the Chinese .

However , the deployment of a third invasion of China into the world community . The first wave is done by Zheng He ( Cheng Ho ) about six hundred
years ago ( National Geographic ) . Admiral is only known Muslim , took his army south regions trace . History textbooks mention he had stopped in Java and made ​​a covenant with the king and locals.

The second deployment occurred when struck Chinese opium war in 1840 . Ruling Qing Dynasty tried to stop the opium . But , as the British saw great potential in this trade , they instead send warships as an answer . China defeated and ditandanganilah opium trade agreements allow Britain handed Hong Kong and in the lap of the Queen of England .

Many Chinese people who escaped from the state of chaos that hit the country . They spread to southern Asia , including Southeast Asia .
This is the beginning of the theory of Chinese people entering the area of ​​West Sumatra .


 

Sudarma , elders there to justify it . ” I was born in Padang . ‘s Been half a century in Padang . Grandfather I have parents , who called kongconya already in Padang . Parents My mother got it from the original Chinese . So the age of 12 years he joined his parents in Indonesia . Actually, the objective is not to Indonesia . goal was probably to the Philippines . attacked But since the storm, stranded in Bagan Si Api Api . Nah , keep walking , eventually arrived at Padang , Padang settled in , “he says .

Could be , parents Sudarma a resident who came in the second wave . The truth of the fact it can be strengthened with age See Hin Kiong Temple is located in Kampung China .
Dick Halim ( 80 ) , the Chinese elders estimate pagoda built before 1860. It could be because , according to records Erniawati , Padang State University lecturer and researcher at the Chinese community Minang , the pagoda was burned in

1861 .

Chinese Captain Lie Say
Lie Ma Say 

Major Chinese Lie Say
who was appointed by the Dutch to bring in workers from China to rebuild the shrine . “Muslims are also looking mosque where to go , right? ” Said Erniwati .

Another theory is derived from the Chinese Padang Pariaman . Ernawati , who wrote the book Smoke Hio in Minang , Chinese Community in West Sumatra , estimates The Chinese already in Pariaman in the 13th century . When entered into Pariaman Aceh .

Not surprising actually . Pariaman is a haven for the merchants in those days . Pariaman a trading center on the coast . Not surprisingly , in 1630 , Christine Dobbin , author of the economic turmoil and the Rise of Islam and the Padri Movement , 1784-1847 Minangkabau , Chinese quarter estimates already exist in Pariaman .

Unfortunately, a tragic event to trigger the departure of the Chinese from Pariaman . During the Japanese occupation , the Chinese brought her two daughters to the Japan office .
 The other vision ditanggap by young men who happened to see him . Traitor whispers erupted immediately . Two girls was immediately taken to the beach and dibelek with kangso ( a tool made from aluminum cans ) .

According Erniwati , the attack was carried out without a plan. Hence , the tool is not sharp weapons are usually prepared to kill . “Besides , the punishment for traitors . Not only the Chinese people feel the punishment , community leaders who also became a Japanese spy , got the same sentence . , “Said the bachelor 2 UNP ‘s History majors .

Fear crept Chinese society . Gradually they began to leave Pariaman .
By 1965 some Chinese people still dwell there . However , entering the 1967 is rather difficult to find the slant-eyed in Pariaman . ” Because of what happened PKI or PRRI , ” said Erniawati . Slowly the Chinese berangur moved to Padang . Precisely , in the cottage at the moment.

However , the reason could also be the basis of the economy . Pariaman no longer considered fertile ground for 19th century trade approach . So it is not just Chinese traders who left , but also traders from other regions .

 

READ MORE INFORMATION
Dr Iwan note
I get information from the grand son Tjoe Lie – grand son ( great grandson ) of Ma Lie Say ,
Lie Ma Say dating from China’s Qing dynasty in the late 19th century, around the years 1830 to 1840 with or near the wife as a trade envoy Qing Empire in Pariaman , then he moved to Padang Panjang and Batusanggkar here he married again and had a son that is

Namely Soan Lie Tong Li who has two sons Sam and Lie Lin . Lie Lie son sam has Djoe Tong who has several sons and daughters of the Lie Tjoe Yang , his wife Tjan Tjeng hay ( my wife’s mother ‘s brother ) , and my pastor friend Lie Tjoe san ( Sandarma Akhbar SH ) .
According to my brother Dr. Johan Main Edhie , my sister’s husband’s grandfather Ie Po Tak Bun Tjoa major pariaman married to his son ( probably lie lin ) called Lie Hok Seng ( they do not have children , your child meangkat Ipo Tjoa Kang Sung Tak Bun Him whose wife sister Tjoa toen oldest Gin ,
 

Kang brother kim Bwee ( no1 ) . lian.tjabo kim kang kang and sim poe , Kang Kim Mua ( No. 3 ) , namely his mother drg Tjoe Lie Heng – wife named Ben Pangabean kim hwa Kang , as well as my father’s wife ‘s sister Djintjek keng Ie the GHO Lie Kim named her jade – Go siei Hong , GSlan , GHO Soei ing.bersaudara Nine . ( Dr iwan note )

Ethical Trade Platform Minang – China Relations


It is estimated , there were 12 thousand Chinese people lived in Padang. Hundreds of clan or tribe inhabiting .
However , only eight tribes who have a home meeting . GHO is the eighth tribe , Lie – Kwee , Tan , Ong , Tjoa – Kwa , Lim Hwang and Kho . Kho clan is a clan who built the house last meetings. ” Marga another few in number . So do not build a house meeting , “said Rush of Family Hanura Lie – Kwee . Lie- Kwee currently has 600 members . All were over 17 years old .
( At least the genus Auyong , is the founder of the famous daily KOMPAS Auyong Peng Koen was born in Payakumbuh – known as PKOyong – Dr Iwan note )

As the name implies , the meeting house was used to organize events involving one family. For example, the Lunar ( Chinese New Year ) , Cap Go Meh ( 15th day of the Chinese New Year celebration ) , Kio , Sipasan or Pek Chun ( the feast that commemorates the height of summer ) . In fact , the 140 th anniversary , the family plans to invite Lie – Kwee – Kwee Lie entire tribe residing in Indonesia . ” But , it’s three years away , ” said Lie Kian Guan secretary secretary Lie – Kwee family set .
Kinship is to be number one for the Chinese . And as ” indigenous ” people of Central Asia ( Japan and Korea ) , they are maintaining the dignity of the family . If embarrassing , suicide or disposed of the family is an appropriate punishment . ” On the field , for example, many families are no longer recognized , to the extent that made ​​the ad in the paper , because it tarnished the family disgrace , ” said Hanura .

They had great respect for ancestors . This is a fundamental attitude to the Chinese . ” It’s influenced by the teachings of Tao Confunsius and attached to each of the Chinese , ” said Erniwati .

One more is the attitude of the Chinese authorities often approach . In the Dutch period they were considered second-class citizens . While indigenous third grade . So also in Japanese and Sukarno era . They get an opportunity that many people are not even natives though .

Only in the Suharto era , tap the Chinese trade a little freedom is restricted in the public eye . Therefore , some Chinese people become successful entrepreneurs such as Sui Liong Liem ( Salim ) , the owner of Bank BCA . ( Dr Iwan note : Sofyan Wanandi – Liem Bian from Padang koen one successful Chinese entrepreneurs )

At the time of Sukarno’s Dutch and they are placed with a single purpose , the economy . Dutch resettle them along the Dutch region , such as in the area to be monitored Kampuang Cino in overseeing their trade . Soekarno Likewise , those in the ‘ hand over ‘ in one place and only allowed to trade .

This , according to Hanura , there are pros and cons . On the one hand they fulfilled economically , but on the other hand they can not contribute in other areas . ” How many civil servants who are of Chinese descent ,” he asked .

Jealousy had mastered the natives saw their success in trade . No wonder , when there are riots , the Chinese became targets as the events of 1998. ” Though not all Chinese people rich . Look at Tanah Kongsi market , ” said Hanura .
However , in the crunch Padang Minang ethnic Chinese and does not occur or is not as big as other cities . According Erniwati , the unique relationship between the two.
As a fellow tribe strong trade and has a strong culture and religion , should conflicts often occur . ” It seems , ethical trade makes both respect each other , ” said Erniwati .

Ethical trade makes both tribes are in a position of a friend . It looks like the two have shared trade area . Trade dominated the national level as well as the Minang people to the international area , the Chinese had been the ruler .

99 % Could not Chinese
Loose from the Soeharto era , the Chinese became more freely . Government pressure is much reduced . The Chinese are more liberated in performing worship and culture . No wonder the Chinese New Year or Cap Go Meh feels more festive than year to year . ” The most exciting event was Sipasan . Cap Go Meh At this time the show will take place most festive Sipasan because Sipasan long , “said Xin Xui who trade in front of the HBT .

Even so , alkulturasi quietly been taking place. China long before people breathe easier.

‘ The proof , 99 % of Chinese people who live here can no longer be Chinese , ” said Hanura . Distance away from ancestral lands , as well as limited memory makes Chinese culture slowly began to be forgotten . Many residents in Padang ‘s Chinatown was shocked when Erniwati mention Chinese traditions that had never been heard . Language that emerged was impressed funny . Tanah Kongsi market may witness alkulturasi languages. If you were there , Malay – Chinese sounds here and there . Pigi where lu ( going ) , Telok kecik papaw ( urinating large eggs , kind of expression ) , it would ndak o ( he will not) , for example .
To attenuate the distance , ceremonies , religious warnings sought to be implemented as it should . Although it only to write Chinese characters without understanding its meaning. ” Ndak ambo know , do , ” said Hanura when asked the purpose of the text contained in lanterns .

When interviewed Hanura palanquin procession is preparing event on Thursday ( 5/2 ) ago . A mystical events like dabuih at Coastal . The goal of the ancestors . Kio houses paraded to the other clans . ” To friendship , ” said Arif Rusli Rusdi , Jiko ( representative ) of the Lie and Kwee family .

Additionally , Sipasan be unique in Kampung Chinese art . In fact according to Hanura , art is not found in other Chinatowns in Indonesian .

During Mother’s Day , the Chinese community held a unique competition . Race wearing marapulai Minangkabau. Variations also vary . There Sawahlunto wedding dress , Bukittinggi , Payakumbuh , “said Hanura who happens to get a wedding dress from Padang .

From there he also learned that culturally there is a very obvious similarities between the Minang culture with Chinese . ” Especially the wedding dress . And Telong said in a poem has similarities with Tenglong ( lanterns ) . ”
Erniwati similarities justify it even called this a bit sensitive to the Minang .

Another visible change is the Chinese people are now no longer closed to accept members from outside the ethnic . In fact , many players brown -skinned dragon or lion . ” There’s even a Muslim , ” said Hanura .
 

No wonder that there was a lion dance show , not all players yellow . Belo eyes also appeared as the head emerged from behind the lion dance .
Can not be touched when “spring ” this will end . Erniwati convinced that the Chinese community in Padang will not get political interference and excessive pressure from the Minangkabau ethnic . ( Yusrizal KW / Andika Destika Khagen / S.Metron M / Esha Tough Son / Gus RY ) from Padang Ekpres Daily Newspaper

 

I hope this informations about Chiense overseas history especially vice consuslt cina and kapitan Cina with related collections will made the next generation now how their relatives grand-grandpa became very success live in Indonesia and Malaysia (that time straits,federated Malaya and dutch east Indie)

I will put some info from this book in Mr Robert Yeap ‘s Zheng he museum Penang which we are coabolrations with mutual benefit, and if someone want to get the full information can buy the complete CD-ROM straight to me via my email address

iwansywandy@gmail.com

Jkarta November 2013

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE HISTORY OF CHINESE OVERSEAS IN INDONESIA DURING DUTCH EAST INDIE

Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago almost entirely originated from ethnic Han groups of what are now the Fujian and Guangdong provinces in southern China, known for their regional diversity.[78]

The Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in the world with large numbers living in Southeast Asia.[79] Nearly all Chinese Indonesians are either patrilineal descendants of these early immigrants, or new immigrants born in mainland China.[80]

 

 

The tin mines of Bangka Island almost entirely employed Chinese workers.

Top of Form

Tambang timah Pulau Bangka hampir seluruhnya mempekerjakan pekerja Cina.

Sebagai kelompok pertama dari orang-orang Cina untuk menetap dalam jumlah besar, Hokkien selatan Fujian menjadi kelompok imigran yang dominan hingga pertengahan abad ke-19.
Maritim-pedagang budaya mereka berasal dari pekerjaan perdagangan mereka sementara di Indonesia. Keturunan dari Hokkiens adalah kelompok dominan di Indonesia Timur, Tengah, dan Jawa Timur, dan pantai barat Sumatera.
Tiociu, tetangga selatan Hokkien, ditemukan di seluruh pantai timur Sumatera, di Kepulauan Riau, dan di bagian barat Kalimantan. Mereka lebih disukai sebagai buruh perkebunan di Sumatera, tetapi telah menjadi pedagang di daerah mana Hokkien yang tidak terwakili. [81]
The Hakka, tidak seperti Hokkien dan Teochew, berasal dari daerah pedalaman pegunungan Guangdong dan tidak memiliki budaya maritim. [81] Karena medan yang tidak produktif daerah rumah mereka, Hakka beremigrasi karena kebutuhan ekonomi dalam beberapa gelombang dari 1850-1930 dan yang termiskin dari kelompok imigran Cina. Meskipun mereka pada awalnya dihuni pusat pertambangan barat Kalimantan dan Pulau Bangka, Hakkas menjadi tertarik pada pertumbuhan yang cepat dari Batavia dan Jawa Barat di akhir abad 19 [82].
Orang Kanton, seperti Hakka, yang terkenal di seluruh Asia Tenggara sebagai penambang. Migrasi mereka di abad ke-19 sebagian besar diarahkan pada tambang timah Bangka, di lepas pantai timur Sumatera. Terkemuka tradisional sebagai pengrajin terampil, Kanton manfaat dari kontak dekat dengan orang Eropa di Guangdong dan Hong Kong dengan belajar tentang keberhasilan mesin dan industri. Mereka bermigrasi ke Jawa sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Hakka, tapi untuk alasan yang berbeda. Di kota-kota di Indonesia mereka menjadi pengrajin, pekerja mesin, dan pemilik bisnis kecil seperti restoran dan hotel-menjaga layanan. The Kanton yang merata di seluruh kepulauan dan nomor jauh lebih sedikit daripada Hokkien atau Hakka. Akibatnya peran mereka sangat penting sekunder dalam masyarakat Tionghoa [82].

As the first group of Chinese people to settle in large numbers, the Hokkien of southern Fujian became the dominant immigrant group until the middle of the 19th century.

Their maritime-mercantile culture comes from their trade occupations whilst in Indonesia. Descendants of Hokkiens are the dominant group in eastern Indonesia, Central and East Java, and the western coast of Sumatra.

Teochews, southern neighbors of the Hokkien, are found throughout the eastern coast of Sumatra, in the Riau Archipelago, and in western Borneo. They were preferred as plantation laborers in Sumatra but have become traders in regions where the Hokkien are not well represented.[81]

The Hakka, unlike the Hokkien and the Teochew, originate from the mountainous inland regions of Guangdong and do not have a maritime culture.[81] Due to the unproductive terrain of their home region, the Hakka emigrated out of economic necessity in several waves from 1850 to 1930 and were the poorest of the Chinese immigrant groups. Although they initially populated the mining centers of western Borneo and Bangka Island, Hakkas became attracted to the rapid growth of Batavia and West Java in the late 19th century.[82]

Cantonese people, like the Hakka, were well known throughout Southeast Asia as mineworkers. Their migration in the 19th century was largely directed toward the tin mines of Bangka, off the east coast of Sumatra. Notable traditionally as skilled artisans, the Cantonese benefited from close contact with Europeans in Guangdong and Hong Kong by learning about machinery and industrial success. They migrated to Java about the same time as the Hakka, but for different reasons. In Indonesia’s cities they became artisans, machine workers, and owners of small businesses such as restaurants and hotel-keeping services. The Cantonese are evenly dispersed throughout the archipelago and number far less than the Hokkien or the Hakka. Consequently their roles are of secondary importance in the Chinese communities.[82]

 

By the time the Dutch arrived in the early 17th century,

major Chinese settlements existed along the north coast of Java. Most were traders and merchants, but they also practiced agriculture in inland areas.

The Dutch contracted many of these immigrants as skilled artisans in the construction of Batavia (Jakarta) on the northwestern coast of Java.[19]

A recently created harbor was selected as the new headquarters of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) in 1609 by Jan Pieterszoon Coen. It grew into a major hub for trade with China and India.

Batavia became home to the largest Chinese community in the archipelago and remains so in the 21st century.[24]

Coen and other early Governors-General promoted the entry of Chinese immigrants to new settlements “for the benefit of those places and for the purpose of gathering spices like cloves, nutmeg, and mace”.[25]

The port’s Chinese population of 300–400 in 1619 had grown to at least 10,000 by 1740.[26] The Dutch, however, introduced a racial classification system that separated residents of Chinese ancestry from those of other ancestry.[27]

Most of those who settled in the archipelago had already severed their ties with the mainland and welcomed favorable treatment and protection under the Dutch.[28]

Some became “revenue farmers”, middlemen within the corporate structure of the VOC, tasked with collecting export–import duties and managing the harvest of natural resources;[29] although this was highly profitable, it earned the enmity of the pribumi population. Others worked as opium farmers.[30]

Following the 1740 Batavia massacre and ensuing war, in which the Chinese rebelled against the Dutch,[31] the Dutch attempted to place a quota on the number of Chinese who could enter the Indies.

Amoy was designated as the only immigration port to the archipelago, and ships were limited to a specified number of crew and passengers depending on size. This quota was adjusted at times to meet demand for overseas workers, such as in July 1802 when sugar mills near Batavia were in need of workers.[32]

When the VOC was nationalized on 31 December 1799, many freedoms the Chinese experienced under the corporation were eliminated by the Dutch government.

Among them was the Chinese monopoly on the salt trade which had been granted by the VOC administration.[33]

An 1816 regulation introduced a requirement for the indigenous population and Chinese traveling within the territory to obtain a travel permit. Those who did not carry a permit faced arrest by security officers.

The Governor-General also introduced a resolution in 1825 which forbade “foreign Asians in Java such as Malays, Buginese and Chinese” from living within the same neighborhood as the native population.[34]

Following the costly Java War (1825–1830) the Dutch introduced a new agrarian and cultivation system that required farmers to “yield up a portion of their fields and cultivate crops suitable for the European market”. Compulsory cultivation restored the economy of the colony, but ended the system of revenue farms established under the VOC.[35]

 

 

The first Dutch Chinese Schools were established in 1892 following a split in curriculum from the native population.

The Chinese were perceived as temporary residents and encountered difficulties in obtaining land rights. Europeans were prioritized in the choice of plantation areas, while colonial officials believed the remaining plots must be protected and preserved for the indigenous population.

Short-term and renewable leases of varying lengths[b] were later introduced as a temporary measure, but many Chinese remained on these lands upon expiration of their contracts and became squatters.[36]

In the second half of the 19th century the colonial government began experimenting with the idea of an “Ethical Policy” to protect the indigenous population, casting the Chinese as the “foremost enemy of the state”. Under the new policy the administration increased restrictions on Chinese economic activities, which they believed exploited the native population.[37]

In western Borneo the Chinese established their first major mining settlement in 1760. Ousting Dutch settlers and the local Malay princes, they joined into a new republic known as Lanfang.

By 1819 they came into conflict with the new Dutch government and were seen as “incompatible” with its objectives, yet indispensable for the development of the region.[38] The Bangka–Belitung Islands also became examples of major settlements in rural areas.

In 1851 28 Chinese were recorded on the islands and by 1915 the population had risen to nearly 40,000 and fishing and tobacco industries had developed. Coolies brought into the region after the end of the 19th century were mostly hired from the Straits Settlements owing to recruiting obstacles that existed in China.[39]

CHINA: Through the Lens of John Thomson 1868-1872

An historic photographic exhibition including 150 images taken in China between 1868 and 1872. The exhibition includes a wide variety of images, themes and locations in China from Beijing to Fujian to Guangdong including landscapes, people, architecture, domestic and street scenes.  The show in Beijing is accompanied by several displays of original clothes from the era.

John Thomson (1837–1921) was born in Edinburgh two years before the invention of the daguerreotype was announced to the world in 1839.

This discovery was the beginning of photography. That same year Fox Talbot introduced the calotype process, and with this new medium David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, two remarkable Scottish photographers living in Edinburgh, produced nearly 3,000 images, including city views, landscapes and scenes of everyday life. Their work undoubtedly had a profound influence on Thomson.

 In the years leading up to Thomson becoming a professional photographer, the technology of photography also developed at an incredible speed. The invention of the wet-collodian process in 1850 is regarded as the watershed: it reduced the exposure time and the cost of making photographs; it also produced sharper images. The wet-collodian process quickly replaced daguerreotype and calotype.

As Thomson remarked: ‘the detail in wet-collodian negatives was of microscopic minuteness whilst presenting the finest gradation and printing quality which had never indeed been surpassed by any known method’. But this in itself added to his difficulties: it was necessary to make the negatives on glass plates that had to be coated with wet-collodian emulsion before the exposure was made, thus there was a large amount of cumbersome equipment that had to be carried from place to place.

Yet Thomson persevered. To endure hardship was part of his Victorian education. He showed enormous energy and stamina. Like many of his Victorian contemporaries, he was excited by the opening up of Africa and Asia to the West, and he shared in the enthusiasm for exploring exotic places. He believed that by using photography, ‘the explorer may add not only to the interest, but to the permanent value of his work’.  And ‘the camera should be a power in this age of instruction to instruct the age’.

In 1862, Thomson set out for Singapore, where he opened a studio and established himself as a professional portrait photographer. Meanwhile, he also became increasingly interested in the local culture and people. From Singapore he travelled into Malaya and Sumatra and took a number of photographs of local landscapes and people. In 1866, after moving to Bangkok, he made his first photographic expedition into Cambodia and Indo-China (Vietnam). His photographs of Cambodia and Siam (Thailand) established him as a serious travel photographer, and gained him membership of both the Ethnographic Society of London and the Royal Geographic Society.

During his second trip to Asia, Thomson based himself at the thriving British Crown Colony of Hong Kong in 1868. There he studied Chinese and Chinese culture while making a few short trips into Guangdong. Thomson’s major China expedition began in 1870. For two years he travelled extensively from Guangdong to Fujian, and then to eastern and northern China, including the imperial capital Beijing, before heading down to the River Yangtse, altogether covering nearly 5000 miles. In China, Thomson excelled as a photographer in quality, depth and breadth, and also in artistic sensibility. The experience he gained, and the techniques he developed, on the streets of Beijing laid the foundation for his Street Life in London, compiled five years later. This established him as the pioneer of photojournalism and one of the most influential photographers of his generation.

After returning to Britain, Thomson took up an active role informing the public about China. Besides giving illustrated presentations, he continuously published photographic and written works on China. He sensed that a profound transformation was taking place in the world, and ‘through the agency of steam and telegraphy, [China] is being brought day by day into closer relationship with ourselves … China cannot much longer lie undisturbed in statii quo.’  Undoubtedly his photographs contributed greatly to 19th-century Europe’s view of Asia and filled the visual gap between East and West. He became known as ‘China’ Thomson.

Yet what marked Thomson’s work out was not simply the massive amount of visual information he offered. His uniqueness was his zeal to present a faithful and precise, though not always agreeable, account of China and Chinese people. He wanted his audiences to witness China’s floods, famines, pestilences and civil wars; but even more so, he wanted share them the human aspect of life in China. He wanted his work to transcend that of the casual illustration of idiosyncratic types, to portray human beings as individuals full of peculiarities.

In 1920, Thomson decided to sell his 650 glass negatives, including those of China, to the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, but died before the transaction could be completed. Eventually Henry Solomon Wellcome (1853–1936), the American-born pharmacist and philanthropist, bought the negatives from Thomson’s heirs.

Although Wellcome’s museum had a medical and historical theme, Wellcome was a cosmopolitan, and, in some aspects, compulsive collector. He also had an anthropological approach to history, and his ultimate aim was to create a Museum of Man, although this dream was never realised. After his death much of his collection, including Thomson’s negatives in three wooden crates, ended up in the Wellcome Library in London, where they remain today.

The 150 images included in this exhibition are all from the Wellcome Library’s collection. While a few images were reproduced in Thomson’s published works and shown in exhibitions, the great majority of his photographs have never been exhibited. Take, for example, the stereoscopes. Each of these negatives comprises two photographs taken from slightly different angles. Previously, due to the cost of photo-publishing, only one of the exposures was printed.

The images included for this exhibition have been chosen mainly for their locations, namely those of Beijing, Guangdong and Fujian.

The photographs Thomson took in Fujian and Guangdong are his strongest series of landscapes. But they also show his sensitivity.

The human aspect of his work was even more evident in his photos of the poor. In Guangdong and Fujian, he became increasingly concerned with the lives and conditions of ordinary Chinese.

As he travelled further, this concern developed. In the imperial capital of Beijing, Thomson not only displayed his talent as professional portrait photographer, his street scenes of Beijing showed that he was ahead of his time. These deeply moving images are sometimes compared to street photographs by the great 20th-century masters like Andre Kertesz, Henri Cartier-Bresson or Robert Doisneau. But more importantly, they will remain as incredibly valuable historical material for anyone wishing to understand 19th-century China and its people in their struggle to become modern.

Fujian Province, China

 

 

Provinsi Fujian adalah tanah nenek moyang saya yang meninggalkan tepi pantai provinsi ini pada abad ke-19 dan tenggelam akar di Nanyang – Laut Selatan. Atau dikenal sebagai Asia Tenggara. Mereka tinggal selama beberapa generasi di Malaysia sebelum ayah saya membuat jalan selatan ke dinamo pulau yang muncul dari Singapura yang meledak ekonomis tidak lama setelah ia tiba. Menjadi anak di luar negeri berkali-kali dihapus, saya tidak bisa memikirkan satu alasan mengapa saya harus jauh tertarik di Fujian, selain kepeduliannya motherlands yang memanggil semua yang meninggalkan pantainya dari ikan untuk unggas ke manusia. Melalui pembacaan latar belakang saya, saya ingin melukis pemandangan Anda dalam kata-kata. Mungkin suatu hari, aku akan bisa untuk mengisi stroke luas

(Kakek saya Gho kim Thian dating dari Cganzhou atau Tjiang tjioe Hokkien setelah pernah ikut ayahnya(ngkongtjo) ke Indonesia karena tidak mau menikah dengan wanita yang dipilih orang tuanya, Ia mengembara ke sumatera barat menuju kota Pajakumbuh, disana ia sebagai orang sinkek ditampung oleh ngkongtjo saya Tjoa Tjay hiok,ayah dari kakek saya Tjoa Gin Toen di Payakumbuh, dipekerjakan diperusahaan dagangnya,

Kmudian ia dijodohkan dengan anak saudaranya Tjoa giok Wan, dan ternyata putranya,ayah saya G.T.Bo(Djohan Oetama) kem menikah dengan putrid pamannya sendiri Anna Tjoa Giok Lan,

Ayah saya selalu memanggil mertuanya Ngkoe(paman).-

Tahun 2008 saya berkesempatan mengunjungi kampong halaman kakek saya versama isteri Lily ,yang berjarak 2 jam dengan Bus dari Xianmen dan perumahan seperti di kota Padang berada disamping suatu wihara yang sangat indah Kay yuan temple namanya,dengan suatu pagoda yang Indah,

saya heran mengapa kakek saya mau meninggalkan kota Changzhou yang begitu Indah,apakah mungkin karena pengaruh serangan Dai Nippon di Manchuria/ dan kemudian terjadi pembantaiaan di Nanking,mungkin saja, ngkongtjo saya pernah menyusul putranya Gho kim thian tetapi tidak bertemu muka hanya melambaikan tsnggan di pelabuhan Teluk Bayur saja,ini saat baru diketahui kakek saya sudah menikah dan tunagannya di tiongkok baru diputuskan.catatan dr Iwan)

Fujian province is the homeland of my ancestors who left the shores of this coastal province in the 19th century and sank roots in Nanyang – the South Seas. Otherwise known as South East Asia. They lived for generations in Malaysia before my father made his way south to the emerging island dynamo of Singapore which exploded economically not long after he arrived. Being an overseas son many times removed, I can’t think of a single reason why I should be remotely interested in Fujian, other than the stirrings of motherlands that call all who leave its shores from fish to fowl to mankind. Through my background readings, I’d like to paint you a landscape in words. Maybe one day, I’ll be able to fill in the broad strokes…


The Mountains of Fujian

Fujian is predominantly mountainous – walled in on the north, west and south sides. A truly spectacular sight. The precious arable flat land is rich but self limiting for a growing population.

There are over 1,000 islands off the Fujian coast which provides welcome fishing grounds for subsistence and over 600 species of fish.

The islands also provide the geographic shelter that created natural harbours for Fuzhou (Hokchew), Quanzhou (Chuanchew) and Xiamen (Amoy) to develop into trading ports

In fact, during the Tang dynasty of 608 – 907 AD – China’s Renaissance Period of culture, literature, trade and arts, Chuanchew was a mecca for Arab and European traders who called the city Zaytun.

At the height of such international travel and trade, Hokkiens began to follow the trading routes into South East Asia and setting up trading settlements.

Thus began the Fujian Exodus.

THE STORY OF THE FUJIAN EXODUS

The Fujian Exodus is a story of hope and inspiration.

Of pioneering and sacrifice.

It is a legacy that we can all be proud of.

 

 

 

 


Trade Winds Fan The Flames Of Fujian Migration


Manila
Dibutuhkan hanya tiga hari
dengan  sampah untuk mencapai Manila dari Fujian. Manila adalah pusat strategis perdagangan galleon di pusat Asia. Manila adalah depot perdagangan perak Meksiko pada rute ke China sebagai pembayaran atas sutra dan porselen.

Para Hokkiens baik siap untuk bertindak sebagai perantara di Manila untuk perdagangan ini dan segera membentuk sebuah komunitas yang masih berlangsung hingga hari ini.

 

Manila

It takes only three days for a junk to reach Manila from Fujian. Manila was a strategic hub of the galleon trade in the centre of Asia. Manila was a trade depot for Mexican silver on route to China as payment for silk and porcelain. The Hokkiens were well poised to act as intermediaries in Manila for this trade and soon formed a community that still thrives today.


Perdagangan Bebas di Singapura dan Malaya
Janji keberuntungan terbatas terletak di jantung perdagangan bebas Asia Tenggara – Singapura dan Malaysia – kemudian dikenal sebagai Settlements Selat Singapura, Penang dan Malaka.
Semua tiga kota adalah pelabuhan alam dan pelabuhan seperti Amoy dan Chuanchew. Hokkiens pergi dari pelabuhan ke pelabuhan dan membentuk masyarakat yang mengakar sampai hari ini.
Ke hari Penang, Malaka dan Singapura dan dialek Min’Nan masih Fraca lingua paling Cina di sana

Free Trade in Singapore and Malaya

The promise of limitless fortune lay in the free trade heartland of South East Asia – Singapore and Malaysia – then known as the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca.

All three cities were natural ports and harbours like Amoy and Chuanchew. Hokkiens went from port to port and formed communities that are entrenched to this day.

Go to Penang, Malacca and Singapore today and the Min’Nan dialect is still the lingua fraca of most Chinese there.


Warisan Keberanian dan Ketahanan
Tan Kah Kee. Kekasih
Patriot Cina yang memimpin kampanye penggalangan dana dari Singapura untuk membantu anti-perang upaya China dalam Perang Dunia 2. Dia dihormati di Singapura Hokkien Huay Kuan, terbesar dialek bangsa asosiasi klan.
Jimei juga merupakan kota kelahiran Mr Tan Kah Kee-, pemimpin Cina terkenal di luar negeri yang mengabdikan homself sepenuhnya terhadap pendidikan cause.He mulai berbagai sekolah di kota, termasuk Sekolah Jimei normal, Jimei Navigasi Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Produk Technical Institute dan Pertanian Sekolah selain TK Jimei, Jimei Sekolah Dasar dan Sekolah Menengah Jimei.

Kediaman mantan Mr.Tan Kah-Kee terletak di Jalan Jiageng di kota Jimei.It masih menjaga penampilan lama untuk dikunjungi dan direnungkan. Mr.Tan Kah-kee tinggal hemat sepanjang hidupnya. Tidak ada yang dapat tetap bergeming ketika mereka melihat betapa sederhananya  pakaian yang mereka kebutuhan sehari-hari
Tan Kah Kee didirikan Amoy University di Xiamen dan membangun sebuah distrik sekolah untuk memajukan penyebab pendidikan di provinsi rumah kami. Pada kematiannya, ia diberi pemakaman kenegaraan oleh Beijing.

 

Legacies of Courage and Resilience

Tan Kah Kee. Beloved China Patriot who led the fund raising campaign from Singapore to aid China’s anti-war effort in World War 2. He honoured in Singapore’s Hokkien Huay Kuan, the nation’s largest dialect clan association.

Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah-Kee, a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted homself wholly to the education cause.He had started various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School,Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarden, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School.

 

The former residence of Mr.Tan Kah-Kee is situated on Jiageng Road in the town of Jimei.It is still keeping its old looks to be visited and pondered. Mr.Tan Kah-kee was living frugally all his life. No one can keep unmoved when they see how simple those daily necessities and clothings are.

Tan Kah Kee established Amoy University in Xiamen and built a school district to further the cause of education in our home province. At his death, he was given a state funeral by Beijing.

(Perlu dilakukan penelitian situasi di Padang sumatera barat yang situasi hamper sama ,walaupun tentunya agak berbeda akibat pengaruh situasi, seperti Kakek iibu saya ,ayak dari nenek saya Tan Kim soan yang bernama Tan giok lin dating dari Filipina bersama isteri yang juga dari Hokian,dan saat isterinya meninggal menikah dengan putrid Minangkabau Asli dan memeluk agama Isdlam, ia mendirikan Bioskop pertama di kota Padang bernama Scalabio,saat meninggal dengan penguburan menurut agama Islam dan dikuburkan dikuburan Islam Pasir Angek dipinggir pantai dekat kuburan keramat Kiai Islam,saat ini sudah dibongkar dan kuburannya dipindahkan ke tabing.catatan dr Iwan)

 

LOCAL BORN

Hokkiens as a rule, migrated without their women, to save them from a life of hardship worse than the one they leave behind. Consequently, marriages with local Malay women in Singapore, Malaya and the Philippines created a new line of Chinese descendants who never knew the motherland.

In the Philippines, they were known as the Chinese mestizos.

The most famous mestizo of all was none other than the national hero of the Philippines – Jose Rizal, a Philippines patriot who engineered a failed revolution against the Spanish colonialists and was martyred..(The dsam in Indonesia Dr Iwan Note)

 

 

Divided nationalism (1900–1949)[edit source | editbeta]

 

 

Chinese language school owned by the Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan in Sungailiat, Bangka

The Chinese revolutionary figure Sun Yat-sen visited southeast Asia in 1900,[40] and later that year the socio-religious organization Tiong Hoa Hwe Koan (中華 會館), also known as the Chinese Association, was founded. Their goal was to urge ethnic Chinese in the Indies to support the revolutionary movement in China.

 

Tionghoa Cianjur 1890

In its effort to build Chinese-speaking schools the association argued that the teaching of the English and Chinese languages should be prioritized over Dutch, to provide themselves with the means of taking, in the words of Phoa Keng Hek, “a two or three-day voyage (Java–Singapore) into a wider world where they can move freely” and overcome restrictions of their activities.[41]

Several years later the Dutch authorities abandoned its segregation policies, abolished travel permits for the ethnic Chinese, and allowed them to freely move throughout the colony.

The 1911 Xinhai Revolution and the 1912 founding of the Republic of China coincided with a growing Chinese-nationalist movement within the Indies.[40]

Although there was no recognizable nationalist movement among the indigenous population until 1908, Dutch authorities feared that nationalist sentiments would spread with the growth of ethnically mixed associations, known as kongsi.

In 1911 some Javanese members of the Kong Sing association in Surakarta broke away and clashed with the ethnic Chinese.

This incident led to the creation of Sarekat Islam, the first organized popular nationalist movement in the Indies. Indigenous groups saw the Chinese nationalist sentiment as “haughty”, leading to mutual antagonism.[42]

 

The anti-Chinese sentiment spread throughout Java in 1918 and led to mass violence orchestrated by members of Sarekat Islam on the ethnic Chinese in Kudus.[43] Following this incident the left-wing Chinese nationalist daily Sin Po called on both sides to work together to improve living conditions because it considered most ethnic Chinese, like most of the indigenous population, to be poor.[44]

 

 

Early draft of the Indonesia Raya, later adopted as a national anthem, in a 1928 weekly edition of the Sin Po newspaper[45]

Sin Po first went into print in 1910 and began gaining momentum as the leading advocate of Chinese political nationalism in 1917. The ethnic Chinese who followed its stream of thought refused any involvement with local institutions and would only participate in politics relating to mainland China.[46]

A second stream was later formed by wealthy ethnic Chinese who received an education at Dutch-run schools. This Dutch-oriented group wished for increased participation in local politics, Dutch education for the ethnic Chinese, and the furthering of ethnic Chinese economic standing within the colonial economy. Championed by the Volksraad‘s sole ethnic Chinese representative Kan Hok Hoei, this movement gained momentum and reached its peak with the Chung Hwa Congress of 1927 and the 1928 formation of the Chung Hwa Hui party, which elected Kan as its president. The editor-in-chief of the Madjallah Panorama news magazine criticized Sin Po for misguiding the ethnic Chinese by pressuring them into a Chinese-nationalist stance.[47]

In 1932 pro-Indonesian counterparts founded the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia to support absorption of the ethnic Chinese into the Javanese population and support the call for self-government of Indonesia. Members of this group were primarily peranakan.[48] This division resurfaced at the end of the period of Japanese occupation (1942–1945).[49] Under the occupation ethnic Chinese communities were attacked by Japanese forces, in part owing to suspicions that they contained sympathizers of the Kuomintang as a consequence of the Second Sino-Japanese War. When the Dutch returned, following the end of World War II, the chaos caused by advancing forces and retreating revolutionaries also saw radical Muslim groups attack ethnic Chinese communities.[43]

Although revolutionary leaders were sympathetic toward the ethnic Chinese, they were unable to stop the sporadic violence. Those who were affected fled from the rural areas to Dutch-controlled cities, a move many Indonesians saw as proof of pro-Dutch sentiments.[50] There was evidence, however, that Chinese Indonesians were represented and participated in independence efforts. Four members of the Committee for the Investigation of the Preparation for Indonesian Independence (Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, BPUPKI) and one member on the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, PPKI) had Chinese names

 

Tionhoa hwe  koan school

Driwancybermuseum Galery(continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

INDONESIAN PERANAKANS: TIONGHUA CINA PERANAKAN INDONESIA

 

Indonesian traditions and beliefs have exerted a strong influence over those ethnic Chinese migrants who have resided in the country for generations.

Most came to Indonesia during the 12th & 15th centuries thereby making Peranakan settlement & history in Indonesia older than that of Malaya’s.

The long-resident Peranakan, or Straits Chinese, who have settled mostly in Java and other outer islands such as the Riau islands, West Kalimantan and Sumatra, are the earliest examples of assimilation in Indonesian society.

The Peranakans are descendents of Chinese merchants, males who came unaccompanied to the East Indies for the lucrative spice trade.

Many of these immigrants married the local Indonesian women and their descendents are today known as the Peranakan, meaning local born. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia was just as similar and identical to that of Singapore and Malaysian Peranakan Culture in more ways than one.

 

Photo above:

Old Photos of Indonesian Peranakans & an old Peranakan book in Dutch (right).

 

 

After the late 19th century, the invention of the steamship facilitated the flow of Chinese migrants to Indonesia, who this time came accompanied by their wives and families.

Unlike the Peranakans, these Pure Chinese, or Totoks as they were known, had Chinese families and retained the use of the Chinese language, dress and customs.

They kept their mainland Chinese culture for generations and saw to the establishment of Chinese schools, newspapers and most eminently, Chinese business networks.

 

Historians today have largely attributed the prosperous economic activity among the Chinese as the reason for the Dutch colonial policy that segregated the Totoks and Peranakans from the rest of the Indonesian community.

This led to no small measure of misunderstanding and jealousy among the two groups.

The Peranakan Chinese population in Indonesia numbers at 6 million people out of a total Chinese population of 9 million while the Totok or Pure Chinese Community numbers at around 3 million or so.

Making them the largest Peranakan Chinese community in the entire world. Singapore and Malaysia however only have a miniscule 500,000 Peranakan Chinese each.

This explains why the overwhelming majority Indonesian Chinese only converse to each other in local Indonesian dialects and Bahasa Indonesia and not in Mandarin.

The Dutch imposed a policy of seperation that gave powers and trading priveleges to the Peranakan & Totok Communities.

As a result they were known as Chukongs or Kapitan Cina and controlled vast areas of land, plantation, coal and gold mines, diamond & tin mines and the like. Therefore the wealth and prestige of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia was similar to that of those in the Straits Settements

 

Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia has largely died outdue to the numerous and anti Chinese policies that were so prevalent in the past. However in spite of these issues Peranakan Culture in the form of Food and Language has survived till this very day. Ayam Buah Keluak, Kueh Lapis and Kueh Bengka Ambon are just some of the cultural contributions that the Indonesian Peranakans have given to the rest of the Peranakan Communities in Malaya. The lovely sarung kebaya itself as we know it originated in Indonesia itself not in the Straits Settlements as it was invented by the Indonesian Chinese Peranakans themselves.

 

 

PERANAKAN CHINESE POLITICS IN INDONESIA

Indies-Chinese nationalism in the early 20th century was shaped by the transformation of the Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies.

The Chinese community in this period was characterised by the division between the Totok and the Peranakan communities, and by the growing influence of the Totok community.

Skinner views the distinction between the Totok and the Peranakan communities as cultural: the Totok community was characterised by its pure Chinese culture, while the peranakan community was characterised by its cross Chinese-Javanese culture. The construction of a united Chinese community could have been achieved if a single community of Totoks and Peranakans had been constructed. I shall now proceed to explain why this was not achieved.

The expansion of the Totok community at the beginning of the 20th century was a consequence of the inability of the Peranakan community to completely assimilate the new Chinese migrants who had arrived from China to take advantage of the economic development of the Dutch East Indies.

This massive migration of labourers can be identified as belonging to the Huagong pattern. From the 1900s this migration started to include women, and this gave the male migrants the freedom to choose not to settle with peranakan or indigenous women; this weakened one route of assimilation into the peranakan community.

The large proportion of Hakka and Cantonese dialect groups among the migrants also weakened assimilation since the Peranakan community was distinctly Hokkien.

 

Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. In 1909 the Qing government issued the Nationality Law which declared all overseas Chinese to be Chinese nationals, this raised Huaqiao consciousness as it gave a legal basis for China-orientation. This consciousness prevented assimilation into the Peranakan community as the new migrants were motivated to maintain and propagate their pure Chinese culture. Indeed, the Totok community actively sought to re-sinicize the peranakan community, as seen in the efforts of institutions such as the Totok press and Totok-dominated Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) schools to revive Peranakan interest in Chinese culture and to establish a China-oriented world-view.

Just as the Peranakan community failed to assimilate the Huagong migrants, contributing to the rise of the Totok community, the Totok community failed in its goal of re-sinicizing the Peranakan community. One fundamental reason was that the peranakans perceived China to be an alien land. This was due to the vast difference between peranakan and Chinese culture, and the fact that most peranakans perceived the Dutch East Indies to be their homeland. In the late 1910s a group of peranakan leaders migrated to China; all but one found China to be an alien place to live. Dutch efforts to prevent the re-sinification of the Peranakans also contributed to the continuance of the Indies Dutch-orientation of the Peranakan community.

 

Photo Above: Books on emborideing Nonya Kebaya & Indonesian Peranakan History. The fact that unhappiness with Dutch policy was a central motivation behind the apparent unity between the Peranakan and the Totok communities can be seen in the Dutch Nationality Law (DNL) issue. Apart from dismantling unpopular policies, the Dutch sought to maintain the Indies-orientation of the peranakan Chinese through the establishment of Dutch-Chinese schools, the first of which was established in 1908. These schools were a reaction to the THHK schools, and they were popular with the peranakan community. The Dutch-Chinese schools eventually grew to be more popular than the THHK schools with the Peranakan community, as the latter were seen to be suitable only for those living in China. By the late 1930s, it was clear that the THHK schools serviced the Totok community, while the Dutch-Chinese schools serviced the Peranakan community. [15] The China-oriented nationalist attempt to re-sinicize the Peranakan community through education had failed.

 

Photo above: Indonesian Peranakan Festivasl held yearly at Tangerang and Jakarta with Dondnag Sayang troupe. The failure of the attempt to unify the Chinese community under the China-oriented nationalist movement is most clearly demonstrated by the establishment of the all-peranakan Chung Hua Hui (CHH) in 1927, which was the first of the major all-peranakan organisations.

This marked the peranakan rejection of China-oriented nationalism and the totok-dominated pan-Chinese organisations.

But as Skinner points out, this disunity was already evident in the 1917 Semarang conference.

Suryadinata notes that among the participants of this conference can be identified a small group of Peranakan leaders such as Kan Hok Hoei (H. H. Kan) who did not seek protection from China and who sought collaboration with the Dutch in order to protect their interests. H. H. Kan would eventually help establish the CHH, which was an Indies-oriented organisation. It sought to promote the interests of the Indies-Chinese community through collaboration with the Dutch, as manifested in its participation in the Volksraad. In contrast, the China-oriented nationalist movement rejected involvement in local politics, as seen in the Semarang conference’s declaration that the Indies Chinese should not participate in the Volksraad. The CHH failed to unify the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community.

 

Above Photo: Shows one of the panels at the Peranakan Festival in Jakarta describing the Sarung Kebaya called Kebaya Encim in Indonesia used by the Nonyas and old Bibiks there. In response to what was seen as the CHH’s pro-Dutch position, a group of Indonesian-oriented Peranakans established the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (PTI) in 1932. The PTI, seeking political assimilation of the Chinese in the indigenous Indonesian society, was anti-colonial and supported the Indonesian nationalist movement. The establishment of the PTI marked the internal division in the Indies-oriented peranakan community between the pro-Dutch and Indonesian-oriented groups. Like the CHH, the PTI was unable to unite the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community. Lacking the support of Peranakan big business that the CHH enjoyed, the PTI was politically weaker than the CHH.

In the early 20th century the Indies-Chinese community hence was divided into three groups. The first was the China-oriented group, mainly consisting of the totok community. The second was the Indies-oriented Peranakan pro-Dutch CHH. The third was the Indonesian-oriented Peranakan PTI. This division was manifested in the geographical dispersal of these groups’ centres of power. The China-oriented group was based in Batavia, which was the gateway into the Dutch East Indies for new Chinese migrants. The CHH was based in Semarang, which possessed an old and established Peranakan community and which was also a centre for Peranakan big business. The PTI was based in Surabaya, which was a centre for contact between Indonesian nationalists and Peranakans.

 

Above Photo: Peranakan Cultural Exhibitions & Festivals being held in different parts of Indonesia. The inability of each of these three groups to establish hegemony over the others led to the disunity of the Indies-Chinese community. The China-oriented nationalists failed to reconstruct the Indies-orientation of the Peranakans, largely due to Dutch efforts to prevent the peranakans from becoming China-orientated. The Indies-orientated pro-Dutch CHH was rejected by the anti-colonial Peranakan group. The Indonesian-oriented PTI was politically weak and could not gain political strength beyond East Java. The Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies hence was characterised by disunity prior to the Second World War. After Independence from Holland, anti Chinese Demonstrations, massacres, killings and riots obliterated Peranakan Chinese Associations, Culture and Position. Anti Chinese policies and outright discrimination further worsened Peranakan Chinese influence as many Peranakans immigrated to Holland, Australia and other western countries. This immigration is continuing at quite a considerable scale till this very day.

The situation today however is vastly different & has greatly improved as more Indonesian Nonyas are using the kebaya their grandmothers used to use and having yearly Peranakan Festivals on a simlar scale to that of their Malaysian, Thai and Singapore Peranakans cousins. There has been a revival of Peranakan culture in the last 10 decades in Indonesia ever since Chinese New Year has been declared part of a National Holiday. There has been the numerous openings of Indonesian Peranakan restaurants, cultural & antique shops, musuems, festivals, exhibitions and special events held to showcase and promote Peranakan culture all over the Indonesian islands

 

MAP

 

 

 

Padang Chinese community formed the organization, with the goal of serving the needs of members in the social and cultural fields.

 

Old West Sumatra Map

Look more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kapitan Cina or Capitan China was originally a Portuguese title for the representative of a Chinese enclave.[1][2] The 15th century rulers of Southeast Asia, such as Melaka (modern day Malacca) and Banten (or Bantam), chose to deal with a single individual from each ethnic group under their rule.[3][4] This administrative method of indirect rule was later adopted by the Portuguese when they took over Melaka in the 16th century, as well as the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, and the English in British Malaya.[3]

 

Kapitan can Surabaya 1880

Throughout Southeast Asia, Batavia (now Jakarta) arguably boasts the longest continuous history of the institution of Kapitan Cina: see the official website of the Koang Koan Archives at Leiden University. In 1619, the Dutch appointed Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam, as the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. Through Kapitein Beng Kong, then, the Batavian Captaincy succeeded the much-earlier institution of Kapitan Cina of Bantam. Batavia also produced probably Asia’s only female Kapitan Cina, the so-called Nyai Bali, who was appointed officially by the VOC to her post in 1649: see Yuan Bingling, “The Last Resort” in Blussé, Leonard & Chen, Menghong, “The Archives of the Kongkoan of Batavia” (Den Haag, 2003), pp. 30-31). The Batavian Captaincy ended in 1945 with the death of Khouw Kim An, the last Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia, possibly also the last such intermediary rulers in Southeast Asia. The issue of a Luitenant, Kapitein or Majoor der Chinesen are entitled, by Peranakan custom, to the hereditary dignity of Sia.

With the end of the colonial period, the title became purely an honorary one.[3]

Masa-masa awal

 

 

Seorang pria Tionghoa berkuncir (toucang) di jalanan Batavia pertengahan tahun 1910-an.

Orang dari Tiongkok daratan telah ribuan tahun mengunjungi dan mendiami kepulauan Nusantara.

Beberapa catatan tertua ditulis oleh para agamawan, seperti Fa Hien pada abad ke-4 dan I Ching pada abad ke-7. Fa Hien melaporkan suatu kerajaan di Jawa (“To lo mo”) dan I Ching ingin datang ke India untuk mempelajari agama Buddha dan singgah dulu di Nusantara untuk belajar bahasa Sansekerta dahulu. Di Jawa ia berguru pada seseorang bernama Jñânabhadra.

Dengan berkembangnya kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, para imigran Tiongkok pun mulai berdatangan, terutama untuk kepentingan perdagangan. Pada prasasti-prasasti dari Jawa orang Cina disebut-sebut sebagai warga asing yang menetap di samping nama-nama sukubangsa dari Nusantara, daratan Asia Tenggara dan anakbenua India. Dalam suatu prasasti perunggu bertahun 860 dari Jawa Timur disebut suatu istilah, Juru Cina, yang berkait dengan jabatan pengurus orang-orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sana. Beberapa motif relief di Candi Sewu diduga juga mendapat pengaruh dari motif-motif kain sutera Tiongkok.[8]

Catatan Ma Huan, ketika turut serta dalam ekspedisi Cheng Ho, menyebut secara jelas bahwa pedagang Cina muslim menghuni ibukota dan kota-kota bandar Majapahit (abad ke-15) dan membentuk satu dari tiga komponen penduduk kerajaan itu.[9] Ekspedisi Cheng Ho juga meninggalkan jejak di Semarang, ketika orang keduanya, Wang Jinghong, sakit dan memaksa rombongan melepas sauh di Simongan (sekarang bagian dari Kota Semarang). Wang kemudian menetap karena tidak mampu mengikuti ekspedisi selanjutnya. Ia dan pengikutnya menjadi salah satu cikal-bakal warga Tionghoa Semarang. Wang mengabadikan Cheng Ho menjadi sebuah patung (disebut “Mbah Ledakar Juragan Dampo Awang Sam Po Kong”), serta membangun kelenteng Sam Po Kong atau Gedung Batu.[10] Di komplek ini Wang juga dikuburkan dan dijuluki “Mbah Jurumudi Dampo Awang”.[11]

Sejumlah sejarawan juga menunjukkan bahwa Raden Patah, pendiri Kesultanan Demak, memiliki darah Tiongkok selain keturunan Majapahit. Beberapa wali penyebar agama Islam di Jawa juga memiliki darah Tiongkok, meskipun mereka memeluk Islam dan tidak lagi secara aktif mempraktekkan kultur Tionghoa.

Kitab Sunda Tina Layang Parahyang menyebutkan kedatangan rombongan Tionghoa ke muara Ci Sadane (sekarang Teluknaga) pada tahun 1407, di masa daerah itu masih di bawah kekuasaan Kerajaan Sunda (Pajajaran). Pemimpinnya adalah Halung dan mereka terdampar sebelum mencapai tujuan di Kalapa.

 

 

Ilustrasi pedagang Tionghoa di Banten

Era kolonial

Di masa kolonial, Belanda pernah mengangkat beberapa pemimpin komunitas dengan gelar Kapiten Cina, yang diwajibkan setia dan menjadi penghubung antara pemerintah dengan komunitas Tionghoa. Beberapa di antara mereka ternyata juga telah berjasa bagi masyarakat umum, misalnya So Beng Kong dan Phoa Beng Gan yang membangun kanal di Batavia[rujukan?]. Di Yogyakarta, Kapiten Tan Djin Sing sempat menjadi Bupati Yogyakarta.[12]

 

Pembantaian orang Tionghoa tanggal 9 Oktober 1740 di Batavia

Sebetulnya terdapat juga kelompok Tionghoa yang pernah berjuang melawan Belanda, baik sendiri maupun bersama etnis lain. Bersama etnis Jawa, kelompok Tionghoa berperang melawan VOC tahun 17401743.[rujukan?] Di Kalimantan Barat, komunitas Tionghoa yang tergabung dalam “Republik” Lanfong[rujukan?] berperang dengan pasukan Belanda pada abad XIX.

Dalam perjalanan sejarah pra kemerdekaan, beberapa kali etnis Tionghoa menjadi sasaran pembunuhan massal atau penjarahan, seperti pembantaian di Batavia 1740 dan pembantaian masa perang Jawa 1825-1830. Pembantaian di Batavia tersebut [13][14][4] melahirkan gerakan perlawanan dari etnis Tionghoa yang bergerak di beberapa kota di Jawa Tengah yang dibantu pula oleh etnis Jawa. Pada gilirannya ini mengakibatkan pecahnya kerajaan Mataram. Orang Tionghoa tidak lagi diperbolehkan bermukim di sembarang tempat. Aturan Wijkenstelsel ini menciptakan pemukiman etnis Tionghoa atau pecinan di sejumlah kota besar di Hindia Belanda.

 

 

Daerah Pecinan di Banjarmasin.

 

 

Kelenteng Tua Pek Kong di Ketapang.

Pendidikan

Kebangkitan nasionalisme di Hindia Belanda tidak terlepas dari perkembangan yang terjadi pada komunitas Tionghoa. Tanggal 17 Maret 1900 terbentuk di Batavia Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) yang mendirikan sekolah-sekolah, seperti di kota Garut dirintis dan didirikan pada tahun 1907 oleh seorang pengusaha hasil bumi saat itu bernama Lauw O Teng beserta kedua anak lelakinya bernama Lauw Tek Hay dan Lauw Tek Siang,dengan maksud agar orang Tionghoa bisa pintar, (kemudian jumlahnya mencapai 54 buah sekolah dan di tahun 1908 dan mencapai 450 sekolah tahun 1934). Inisiatif ini diikuti oleh etnis lain, seperti keturunan Arab yang mendirikan Djamiat-ul Chair meniru model THHK. Pada gilirannya hal ini menyadarkan priyayi Jawa tentang pentingnya pendidikan bagi generasi muda sehingga dibentuklah Budi Utomo.

Perekonomian

Target pemerintah kolonial untuk mencegah interaksi pribumi dengan etnis Tionghoa melalui aturan passenstelsel dan Wijkenstelsel itu ternyata menciptakan konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi orang Tionghoa di perkotaan. Ketika perekonomian dunia beralih ke sektor industri, orang-orang Tionghoa paling siap berusaha dengan spesialisasi usaha makanan-minuman, jamu, peralatan rumah tangga, bahan bangunan, pemintalan, batik, kretek dan transportasi. Tahun 1909 di Buitenzorg (Bogor) Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh RA Tirtoadisuryo mengikuti model Siang Hwee (kamar dagang orang Tionghoa) yang dibentuk tahun 1906 di Batavia. Bahkan pembentukan Sarekat Islam (SI) di Surakarta tidak terlepas dari pengaruh asosiasi yang lebih dulu dibuat oleh warga Tionghoa. Pendiri SI, Haji Samanhudi, pada mulanya adalah anggota Kong Sing, organisasi paguyuban tolong-menolong orang Tionghoa di Surakarta. Samanhudi juga kemudian membentuk Rekso Rumekso yaitu Kong Sing-nya orang Jawa.

Pergerakan

Pemerintah kolonial Belanda makin kuatir karena Sun Yat Sen memproklamasikan Republik Cina, Januari 1912. Organisasi Tionghoa yang pada mulanya berkecimpung dalam bidang sosial-budaya mulai mengarah kepada politik. Tujuannya menghapuskan perlakukan diskriminatif terhadap orang-orang Tionghoa di Hindia Belanda dalam bidang pendidikan, hukum/peradilan, status sipil, beban pajak, hambatan bergerak dan bertempat tinggal.

Dalam rangka pelaksanaan Politik Etis, pemerintah kolonial berusaha memajukan pendidikan, namun warga Tionghoa tidak diikutkan dalam program tersebut. Padahal orang Tionghoa membayar pajak ganda (pajak penghasilan dan pajak kekayaan). Pajak penghasilan diwajibkan kepada warga pribumi yang bukan petani. Pajak kekayaan (rumah, kuda, kereta, kendaraan bermotor dan peralatan rumah tangga) dikenakan hanya bagi Orang Eropa dan Timur Asing (termasuk orang etnis Tionghoa). Hambatan untuk bergerak dikenakan bagi warga Tionghoa dengan adanya passenstelsel.

Pada waktu terjadinya Sumpah Pemuda, ada beberapa nama dari kelompok Tionghoa sempat hadir, antara lain Kwee Tiam Hong dan tiga pemuda Tionghoa lainnya. Sin Po sebagai koran Melayu Tionghoa juga sangat banyak memberikan sumbangan dalam menyebarkan informasi yang bersifat nasionalis. Pada 1920-an itu, harian Sin Po memelopori penggunaan kata Indonesia bumiputera sebagai pengganti kata Belanda inlander di semua penerbitannya. Langkah ini kemudian diikuti oleh banyak harian lain. Sebagai balas budi, semua pers lokal kemudian mengganti kata “Tjina” dengan kata Tionghoa. Pada 1931 Liem Koen Hian mendirikan PTI, Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (dan bukan Partai Tjina Indonesia).

 

   
  1. 1.        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN SUMATRA

SUMATRA EAST COAST

MEDAN

 

Chong Yong Tian, elder brother of Chong Yeau Tian

Worked in Cheong Fatt Tze’s company in Medan, Sumatra. Vice president of a Penang foreign trade board, 1895. The Dutch made him Chinese leader in Medan.In 1907 was bestowed as a third rank mandarin by the Qing court for his services to the private railway industry in China. Died 1911. (IS THAT A SUN OR FLAMING WHEEL BEHIND THE BIRD’S WING?)

 

 

Chong Yeau Tian, younger brother of Chong Yong Tian

Brought over to Medan by his elder brother, Chong Yong Tian. Was bestowed as a 4th. rank mandarin by the Qing court, for his services to the private railway industry in China. Took over as leader of the Chinese in Medan after the death of his brother in 1911. Died 1921.                      (ISN’T THAT A FEMALE RANK BADGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tobacco Platation Deli 1905

 

 

 

TANJUNG BALAI ASAHAN

 

Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan

SUMATRA WEST COAST

LIE MA SAY

 

Major Chinese Say A Lie  who was appointed by the Dutch to bring in workers from China to rebuild the shrine.

In 1840 Lie Ma Say with his wife were ordered by the Qing Dinasty Fujian government to visit Priaman City west Sumatra as the Trade Mission officer.Li Ma say started from Amoy(no Xiamen) by ship to Indonesia.

 

In 1855 Chinese Kapitan    Li say was the first Tionghoa padang Kapitan  ,

Info from Lie swan hauw Lie Say or Lie Ma Say must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents. Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1855)

 

History

Another theory is derived from the Chinese Padang Pariaman . Ernawati , who wrote a book on the Hio Smoke Minang , Chinese Community in West Sumatra , estimates The Chinese already in Pariaman in the 13th century . When entering into Pariaman Aceh .

Not surprising actually . Pariaman is a haven for the merchants at that time . Pariaman become a trade center on the coast .

 Not surprisingly , in 1630 , Christine Dobbin , author of the economic turmoil and the Rise of Islam and the Padri Movement , 1784-1847 Minangkabau , Chinese quarter estimates already exist in Pariaman .
Unfortunately, a tragic event to trigger the departure of the Chinese people of Pariaman . During the Japanese occupation , the Chinese brought her two daughters to the Japan office . The other vision ditanggap by young men who happened to see him . Traitor whispers erupted immediately . Two girls were immediately taken to the beach and dibelek with kangso ( a tool made of aluminum ) .
According Erniwati , the attack was carried out without planning . Hence , the tool is not sharp weapons are usually prepared to kill . “Besides , the punishment for traitors . Not only the Chinese people feel the punishment , community leaders who also became a Japanese spy , gets the same punishment . , “Said S – 2 undergraduate majors UNP ‘s history .

Fear creeping Chinese society . Gradually they began to leave Pariaman . By 1965 some Chinese people still dwell there . However , entering the 1967 is rather difficult to find the slant-eyed in Pariaman . ” Because the incidence of PKI or PRRI , ” said Erniawati . Slowly the Chinese berangur moved to Champaign . Precisely , in the cottage at the moment.

However , economic reasons can also be used as a basis . Pariaman no longer considered fertile ground for approaching the trade of the 19th century . So it is not just the Chinese traders who left , but also traders from other regions .

Ethical Trade Platform Minang – China Relations
It is estimated there are 12 thousand Chinese people living in Padang . Hundreds of clan or tribe inhabiting .
However , only eight tribes have a home meetings . GHO is the eighth tribe , Lie – Kwee , Tan , Ong , Tjoa – Kwa , Lim Hwang and Kho . Kho clan is the last clan to build a meeting house . ” Highways are another few in number . So do not build a meeting house , “said Rush of Family Hanura Lie – Kwee . Lie – Kwee currently has 600 members . All were over 17 years old .

As the name implies , the meeting house was used to organize events involving one family . For example, the Lunar ( Chinese New Year ) , Cap Go Meh ( 15th day of the celebration of Chinese New Year ) , Kio , Sipasan or Pek Chun ( the feast that commemorates the height of summer ) .

 In fact , the 140 th anniversary , the family plans to invite Lie – Kwee – Kwee Lie entire tribe residing in Indonesia . ” But , it’s three years away , ” said Lie Kian Guan secretary secretary set of Lie – Kwee family .
Kinship is to be number one for Chinese people . And like the ” indigenous ” people of Central Asia ( Japan and Korea ) , they are maintaining the dignity of the family . If embarrassing , suicide or disposed of families is an appropriate punishment . ” On the field , for example, many families are no longer recognized , to the extent that made ​​the ad in the paper , because it tarnished the large family disgrace , ” said Hanura .

They had great respect for ancestors . This is a fundamental attitude to the Chinese . ” It’s influenced by the teachings of the Tao Confunsius and attached to each of the Chinese , ‘ said Erniwati .

One more is the attitude of the Chinese authorities often approach . In the Dutch period they were considered second-class citizens . While indigenous third grade . So also in Japanese and Sukarno era . Those who do not get the opportunity that many people even though natives .

Only in the Suharto era , tap the China trade a little freedom is limited in view of the public eye . Therefore , some Chinese people become successful entrepreneurs like Sio Liong Liem ( ?) , The owner of Bank BCA . ( Dr Iwan note : Sofyan Wanandi – bian Liem from Padang koen one successful Chinese entrepreneurs )

In the days of the Dutch and Sukarno they are placed with a purpose , economy . Dutch resettle them along the Dutch region , such as in the area to be monitored Kampuang Cino in overseeing their trade . Sukarno Likewise , those in the ” hand over ” in one place and only allowed to trade .

This , according to Hanura , there are pros and cons . On the one hand they fulfilled economically , but on the other hand they can not contribute in other areas . ” How many civil servants who are of Chinese descent ,” he asked .

Jealousy had mastered the natives saw their success in trade . No wonder , if there are riots , the Chinese became targets as the events of 1998. ” Though not all Chinese people rich . Look at Tanah Kongsi market , ” said Hanura .
However , in the crunch Padang Minang ethnic Chinese and does not occur or is not as big as other cities . According Erniwati , unique relationship occurs between the two.
As a fellow tribe strong trade and has a strong culture and religion , it should be frequent collisions . ” It seems , ethical trade makes both respect each other , ” said Erniwati .

Ethical trade that makes both tribes are in a position of a friend . Looks like the trade area is divided into two alone . Trade dominated the national level as well as for international regions Minang , Chinese who became the ruler .

99 % Could not Chinese
Regardless of the Soeharto era , the Chinese became more freely . Government pressure is much reduced . The Chinese are more liberated in the running of worship and culture . No wonder the Chinese New Year or Cap Go Meh feels more festive from year to year . ” The most exciting event was Sipasan . Cap Go Meh At this time the show will take place most festive Sipasan because Sipasan long , “said Xin Xui who trade in front of the HBT .

Even so , alkulturasi quietly been taking place . Long before the Chinese people breathe easier.

‘ The proof , 99 % of Chinese people who live here can no longer Chinese , ” said Hanura . The long distance from the land of the ancestors, as well as limited memory makes Chinese culture slowly began to be forgotten . Many residents in Padang ‘s Chinatown was shocked when Erniwati mention Chinese traditions that had never been heard . Language was impressed that appear funny . Land Market may witness alkulturasi Kongsi language . If you were there , Malay – Chinese sounds here and there . Pigi where lu ( going ) , Telok kecik papaya ( small water large eggs , kind of expression ) , it would ndak o ( he will not) , for example .
To attenuate the distance , ceremonies , religious warnings sought to be implemented properly . Although it was only to write Chinese characters without understanding the meaning . ” Ndak ambo know , do , ” said when asked intent Hanura text contained in lanterns .

When interviewed Hanura palanquin procession is preparing for the event on Thursday (5 /2) . A mystical events like dabuih at Coastal . The goal of the ancestors . Kio marched to the homes of other clans . ” To friendship , ” said Arif Rusdi Rush , Jiko ( representative ) of the Lie and Kwee family .

In addition , Sipasan be unique in the village of Chinese art . In fact according to Hanura , art not found in other Chinatowns in Indonesian .

As Mother’s Day , the Chinese community held a unique competition . Minangkabau marapulai race wear . Similarly diverse variations. There Sawahlunto wedding dress , Bukittinggi , Payakumbuh , “said Hanura who happens to get the wedding dress of Padang .

From there he also learned that culturally there is a very obvious similarities between the Minang culture with Chinese . ” Especially the wedding dress . And Telong said in a poem has similarities with Tenglong ( lanterns ) . ”
Erniwati justify the resemblance even call this rather sensitive to the Minang community .

Another change is evident is the Chinese people are now no longer closed to accept members from outside the ethnic . In fact , many players liong or brown skinned lion . ” In fact there is Islam , ” said Hanura

Source :Ernawati(Asap Hio di Minangkabau)

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN JAVA

BATAVIA(JAKARTA)

 

Kapitan Cina or Capitan China was originally a Portuguese title for the representative of a Chinese enclave. The 15th century rulers of Southeast Asia, such as Melaka (modern day Malacca) and Banten (or Bantam), chose to deal with a single inpidual from each ethnic group under their rule. This administrative method of indirect rule was later adopted by the Portuguese when they took over Melaka in the 16th century, as well as the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, and the English in British Malaya.

Throughout Southeast Asia, Batavia (now Jakarta) arguably boasts the longest continuous history of the institution of Kapitan Cina: see the official website of the Koang Koan Archives at Leiden University. In 1619, the Dutch appointed Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam, as the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. Through Kapitein Beng Kong, then, the Batavian Captaincy succeeded the much-earlier institution of Kapitan Cina of Bantam. Batavia also produced probably Asia’s only female Kapitan Cina, the so-called Nyai Bali, who was appointed officially by the VOC to her post in 1649: see Yuan Bingling, “The Last Resort” in Blussé, Leonard & Chen, Menghong, “The Archives of the Kongkoan of Batavia” (Den Haag, 2003), pp. 30-31). The Batavian Captaincy ended in 1945 with the death of Khouw Kim An, the last Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia, possibly also the last such intermediary rulers in Southeast Asia. The issue of a Luitenant, Kapitein or Majoor der Chinesen are entitled, by Peranakan custom, to the hereditary dignity of Sia.

With the end of the colonial period, the title became purely an honorary one.

Kapiteins and Majoors of Batavia (present day Jakarta)[edit]

  • 1619 – 1644: Kapitein Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam
  • Kapitein Lim Lak Tjo
  • Kapitein Phoa Beng Gan
  • Kapitein Gan Djie
  • Nyonya Kapitein Gan Djie, dubbed “Nyai Bali”
  • Kapitein Tjoa Hoan Giok
  • Kapitein Ni Hoe Kong
  • Majoor Tan Eng Goan
  • Majoor Tan Tjoet Tiat
  • Majoor Lie Tjian Tjoen
  • Majoor Tio Tek Ho
  • Majoor Khouw Kim An

 

 

Tionghoa Gambling in Batavia

Di Indonesia permainan judi sudah ada sejak jaman dulu, dalam cerita Mahabarata dapat diketahui bahwa Pandawa menjadi kehilangan kerajaan dan dibuang ke hutan selama 13 tahun karena kalah dalam permainan judi melawan Kurawa.

Sabung Ayam merupakan bentuk permainan judi  tradisional dan banyak dilakukan oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Ketika VOC bercokol, untuk memperoleh penghasilan pajak yang tinggi dari pengelola rumah-rumah judi tersebut, maka pemerintah VOC memberi izin pada para Kapitan Tionghoa untuk membuka rumah judi sejak 1620. Rumah judi itu bisa berada di dalam ataupun di luar benteng Kota Batavia.

Sejak masa Souw Beng Kong, Kapitan Tionghoa pertama di Batavia, rumah judi resmi telah berdiri. Souw Beng Kong tak hanya mengurus tempat judi tapi juga pembuatan koin dan rumah timbang untuk barang-barang orang Tionghoa.

Ia juga diberi hak menarik cukai sebesar 20 persen dari pajak judi yang dikenakan VOC kepada para pemilik rumah judi.

 

 

foto pria sedang berjudi saat jaman penjajahan belanda

Judi kartu dan dadu, atau disebut juga po, cukup beken di kalangan penggemar judi di Batavia. Masyarakat Tionghoa pada masa itu pun juga sudah memperkenalkan judi capjiki.

Sementara itu, untuk permainan lotere ala Eropa atau Belanda baru masuk Hindia Belanda pada pertengahan abad ke-19.

Sumber Artikel: Phesolo || Sumber Gambar: Berbagai Sumber

 

 

 

 

 

 

1619 – 1644:

 

Kapitein Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam

 

 

Children look at a grave of Chinese Captain Souw Beng Kong located between houses in Mangga Dua Selatan in North Jakarta. The historical site is managed by the Captain Souw Beng Kong Foundation. JP/P.J

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kaptian cina Souw beng Kong , menurut Nederland Indische company ia tiada bisa harapkan(hareP) pekerjaannya akan menjandi mudah(gampang) dengan dapat segala keterangan dan catatan dari orang-orang tionghoa .Golongan orang-orang Tionghoa yand dulu datang di Hindia Belanda dan tinggal di Batavia tiada ada dalam buku atau tulisan akan catat hal ihwalnya sendiri atau hal ihwal bangsanya dan dengan tiada tulisan peringatan dari ini hal, juga susah diharapkan ,turunannya mereka itu ada  surat-surat dari orang-orang tuannya yang dulu tentang itu pasal (masalah), Pengarang membuat begitu Cuma (hanya) bisa(dapat) keterangan –keterangan buat pekerjaannya dan tulisan-tulisan kelenteng-kelenteng dan itu batu-batu kuburn-Nisan(Bongpai) yang tiada rusak dan tiada ingkar.Maka perlulah orang cari(mencari) tulisan-tulisan itu dan dikumpul menjadi satu..

 

Menanti Taman Wisata Sejarah di Makam Beng Kong

  • Penulis :
    • WARTA KOTA Pradaningrum Mijarto
    • Kamis, 16 April 2009 | 11:30 WIB
 

 

Makam kapitan China pertama di Batavia, Souw Beng Kong, di sebuah gang sempit di kawasan Mangga Dua, Jakarta setelah dipugar | Warta Kota/Pradaningrum

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEBUAH gang sempit di antara permukiman padat di kawasan Mangga Dua kini seakan mencuat. Tepatnya, mungkin, semakin mencuat karena semakin banyak orang mengetahui keberadaan gang ini – sebuah gang yang terbilang istimewa. Gang kecil bernama Taruna di Jalan Pangeran Jayakarta ini menyimpan satu makam kuno dari petinggi Batavia di tahun 1600-an.

Di tahun 1600-an kawasan itu merupakan kebun luas milik seorang kapitan. Kini kebun luas itu sudah berubah menjadi sebuah kawasan padat penduduk. Tak ada  lagi bekas-bekas masa lalu kecuali makam kuno tadi.     

Makam yang disebut-sebut ajaib ini adalah makam kapitan Tionghoa pertama di Batavia, Souw Beng Kong. Ajaib karena makam dari tahun 1644 itu tak tergerus perkembangan kota, tak tergusur bangunan petak di kawasan ini. Makam kuno dengan tiga batu nisan berbahasa Belanda dan China ini sempat terlupakan, tak terurus hingga jadi dasar bangunan kos (hingga sekitar tahun lalu).

Di tahun 1929, Mayor Tionghoa Khow Kim An – pemilik Gedung Candra naya – memugar makam Beng Kong. Khow Kim An juga yang menambahkan dua nisan, berbahasa Belanda dan China, yang menjelaskan riwayat sang kapitan untuk melengkapi makam. Keajaiban lain adalah kenyataan bahwa makam Mayor Kim An yang memugar makam Beng Kong pun belum ditemukan keberadaannya.   

Menurut Hendra Lukito, pengamat bangunan China klasik, keberadaan makam  yang bisa melampaui beberapa zaman, penyerobotan tanah, pembangunan liar sungguh dahsyat. “Bayangkan, makam ini ada di kawasan kumuh. Di atas makamnya malah ada bangunan bertingkat lengkap dengan jamban,” ujarnya.

Di tahun 2002 berbagai kelompok masyarakat dari Universitas Tarumanegara, Matakin (Majelis Tinggi Agama Khonghucu Indonsia), Paguyuban Sosial Masyarakat Tionghoa Indonesia (PSMTI) didukung oleh marga Souw berkumpul hingga pada 2006 makam Souw beng Kong bisa mulai dipugar dan mendapat lahan seluas 200 m2. Padahal, seperti sudah disebutkan di atas, dulu kawasan ini adalah kebun milik Beng Kong – luasnya 20.000 m2 hadiah dari Pemerintah Belanda.

Kini makam itu sudah dikonservasi bahkan diusulkan agar menjadi benda cagar budaya. “Kita sudah usulkan dari tahun lalu, tapi belum ada tanggapan. Kita  tunggu aja, tapi kita juga tetap usahakan terus ke DPRD DKI dan dinas (Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan DKI – Red),” ujar Hendarmin Susilo, ketua Yayasan Souw Beng Kong . Sementara itu Ernawati Sugondo, anggota komisi B DPRD DKI menyatakan usulan ini mendapat tanggapan positif dari DPRD DKI.   

Total anggaran pemugaran sekitar Rp 400 juta. Kini, anggaran besar diperlukan untuk mewujudkan rencana makam menjadi taman wisata sejarah. Pembebasan tanah di sekitar makam adalah tahap selanjutnya yang harus dikerjakan oleh Yayasan Souw Beng Kong. Upaya pembebasan tanah ini agar makam bisa terlihat dari Jalan Pangeran Jayakarta. Tujuan akhirnya tak lain adalah mewujudkan Taman Wisata Sejarah Kota Tua Batavia. Sebuah upaya yang tak mudah, tapi bukan tak mungkin

Ziarah Kuburan souw beng Kong

 

Hari Minggu (21/8) kemarin pihak Yayasan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong mengadakan ziarah kubur dalam rangka tradisi sembahyang musim gugur di makam Kapiten Souw Beng Kong, Pangeran Jayakarta, Jakarta Pusat.

Kapiten Souw Beng Kong merupakan tokoh sejarah yang hidup pada tahun 1619-1644, masa pemerintahan Belanda di Indonesia. Makamnya dijadikan situs bersejarah.

Menurut pemerhati sejarah dan warisan budaya kolonial dari Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Indonesia,  Dr. Lilie Suratminto, tulisan yang tertera di batu nisan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong—yang ditulis dalam bahasa Belanda dan Mandarin Tradisional—menceritakan silsilah hidup Souw Beng Kong sebagai saudagar hingga turut berperan dalam pemerintahan di Jakarta. “Ia adalah seorang yang cerdas, maju, pemberani,” katanya.

“Souw Beng Kong perlu dikenang atas jasanya. Ia turut mendirikan dan membangun Jakarta,” senada disampaikan Eddy Sadeli, Dewan Pengawas Yayasan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong yang juga ialah anggota DPR RI.

“Pada masa itu Souw Beng Kong sebagai wali bagi warga Tionghoa yang berada di Jakarta, karena pemerintahan saat itu masih diurus masing-masing, belum seperti sekarang,” tambahnya menjelaskan.

Situs makam Souw Beng Kong ini terakhir kali dipugar tahun 2006-2008. Ketika ditemukan oleh beberapa orang yang tim gabungan sekitar tahun 2003, keadaan makam sangat terlantar dan memprihatinkan. Makam terhimpit di antara bangunan-bangunan pemukiman yang agak kumuh. “Bahkan bagian pusara dijadikan bordes tangga untuk naik ke atas loteng,” ujar Eddy.

(Gloria Samantha)

Aswin Hinanto Tjandra, Berharap Makam Souw Beng Kong Jadi Cagar Budaya

Written by admin | 14/11/2012 | 1

BULAN  lalu, tepatnya pada Minggu (23/9), Sembahyang Musim Gugur dilaksanakan di Makam Kapiten Souw Beng Kong (KSBK) di Gang Taruna, Jl. Pangeran Jayakarta, Jakarta. Pada kesempatan itu, Ir. Aswin Hinanto Tjandra selaku wakil ketua Yayasan KSBK turut hadir. Dia mengemukakan bahwa dirinya mewakili Ketua Yayasan KSBK, KRT. Hendarmin Susilo, yang sudah tak mampu lagi menakhodai Yayasan KSBK karena alasan kesehatan.

“Karena keterbatasan fisik, Pak Hendarmin berpesan kepada saya bahwa per Maret 2013, adalah masa akhir kepemimpinannya dan dia tidak mampu lagi mengepalai Yayasam KSBK. Saya pribadi menilai dia sebagai sosok yang memiliki integritas serta bersahaja. Sejujurnya, sulit untuk mencari pengganti dirinya,” ungkapnya ketika itu.

Pemilik nama Mandarin Tjan Tek Hin itu juga berkata, untuk masa kepemimpinan selanjutnya, ketua Yayasan KBSK yang baru tidak hanya mesti berkarakter pemimpin, tetapi juga memiliki kepedulian terhadap sejarah.

“Dalam hal ini, saya pun sebenarnya tidak masuk dalam kandidat kriteria ketua Yayasan periode selanjutnya. Berbahasa Mandarin saja tidak fasih. Untuk itu, saya harus sadar diri dengan kapasitas kemampuan yang saya miliki,” ungkapnya sembari tertawa lepas.

Terlepas dari segala keterbatasannya, pria yang sehari-hari berprofesi sebagai dosen di salah satu universitas terkemuka di Jakarta ini memiliki harapan besar. Selain berharap Yayasan KSBK menjadi lebih baik lagi, Aswin juga berharap situs makam KSBK mendapatkan surat keputusan dari pemerintah agar makam tersebut bisa dijadikan cagar budaya sekaligus sejarah yang dapat diingat oleh orang banyak. Willy Suyanto

Filed in: Sosok

 

Yayasan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong (KSBK) menggelar acara sembahyang ceng bersama pada hari Minggu (7/4) yang berlokasi di Makam KSBK yang terletak di kawasan Sawah Besar, Jakarta Pusat. Hadir pada acara tersebut beberapa pengurus Yayasan KSBK diantaranya So Wee Ming, Aswin Hinanto Tjandra, Brigjen TNI Purn Tedy Jusuf, Kamil Setiadi, dan lainnya.

Dalam sambutannya, Warso selaku tokoh masyarakat daerah situs makan KSBK mengemukakan bahwa peringatan ceng beng adalah bukti bahwa manusia menghormati leluhur dan budaya yang telah diwariskan. “Semoga prosesi ini dapat mengilhami kita semua dan saya dapat terus berada disini untuk mendukung acara positif ini,” jelasnya.

Lukito, selaku Anggota Badan Pembina dalam pidatonya berkata, warga Tionghoa di Indonesia masih diwarisi makam Tionghoa yang menunjukkan keberadaan masyarakat etnis Tionghoa telah ada sejak beberapa abad lalu. “Mari kita sama-sama menyelesaikan proyek dan cita-cita almarhum KRT Hendarmin Susilo salah satunya mengajukan situs makan KSBK ke Pemprov agar dijadikan cagar budaya,” ungkapnya.

Perwakilan almarhum KRT Hendarmin Susilo, Ketua Badan Pengurus 2008-2013, Aswin Hinanto, mengemukakan perginya almarhum  KRT Hendarmin Susilo seperti ayam kehilangan induknya. Ia menghimbau dewan pembina agar merekrut badan pengurus baru periode 2013-2018 yang lebih mida mengingat sekarang seluruh anggotanya sudah berusia lanjut.

Acara dilanjutkan dengan penyerahan plakat kenang-kenangan kepada pihak yang memberikan sumbangsih dalam perawatan situs makam KSBK, dilanjutkan dengan foto bersama, sembahyang, dan makan siang bersama para tamu yang hadir di siang itu. (willy suyanto)

Filed in: News

 

Sesudah Candranaya dan SMAN2 Hancur . Lalu ?

Budaya-Tionghoa.Net | ADA sebuah makam kuno yang terlupakan di Gang Taruna, Jalan Pangeran Jayakarta, Jakarta Barat, yaitu makam tokoh pionir perantau Tionghoa bernama Souw Beng Kong (1580-1644) yang diberi jabatan Kapiten Non Militer oleh VOC sejak tanggal 11-10-1619 s/d 8-4-1644. Ketika itu daratan Tiongkok masih berada di bawah kekuasaan Dinasti Ming, jadi orang Tionghoa saat itu belum memakai kuncir di kepalanya. Tempat kelahiran Souw Beng Kong adalah Desa Tongan Provinsi Fujian Tingkok Selatan. Di tempat persinggahannya yang pertama di Banten, ia berhasil menjadi seorang pedagang yang ulung dan tokoh penting.

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Beserta sekitar 200 orang perantauan Tionghoa lainnya, ia meninggalkan Banten pindah ke Batavia. JPZ Coen sangat berterima kasih atas segala jasanya karena turut membangun kota Batavia. Orang Belanda biasa menyebut namanya ”Bencon”. Ia menjadi sahabat karib JPZ Coen dan merupakan tokoh besar yang berjasa bagi kehidupan masyarakat Tionghoa di kala itu. Ia berjasa pula dalam pengembangan persawahan dan perkebunan tebu, dan menjelang akhir hayatnya sempat berlayar ke Pulau Formosa untuk memajukan hubungan niaga langsung antara Formosa dan Batavia.
Sekitar 60 tahun yang lalu makamnya masih tampak utuh dan di mulut Gang Taruna masih berdiri tegak sebuah gapura. Gang Taruna dulunya bernama Gang Souw Beng Kong. Pada bulan Oktober 1929 ”KONG KUAN” (Dewan Perwakilan Masyarakat Tinghoa) menyediakan dana sebesar 2.500 Golden untuk biaya renovasi makam tersebut. Pada saat ini makam SBK, turut terhimpit dengan laju perkembangan kota dan pertumbuhan penduduk DKI Jakarta yang sangat pesat. Namun kita masih sangat bersyukur kalau makam kuno itu masih bisa bertahan dan tidak sampai tergusur walau pada saat ini dalam kondisi sangat terlantar dan nyaris punah.
SBK dimakamkan di atas tanah perkebunan miliknya sendiri dan di sekitarnya sebetulnya masih ada beberapa makam lainnya dari keluarga SBK, tetapi pada saat ini semuanya sudah musnah kecuali masih tertinggal satu saja yang kondisinya serupa dengan makam SBK. Sungguh sayang sekali nama Souw Beng Kong atau Bencon kurang melegenda dalam komunitas suku Tionghoa. Tetapi titik terang sudah mulai terlihat dalam era reformasi dengan adanya beberapa tulisan yang membahas makam kuno yang terlupakan itu, antara lain di Jakarta Post (2/12/2002) dan Mandarin Post (Agustus 2002) serta usaha penelitian pakar sejarah A Heuken, Denys Lombard dan Claudine Salmon.
Beberapa dosen dan mahasiswa Fak Teknik Arsitektur UNTAR yang dikepalai Ir WP Zhong, menyatakan keprihatinannya karena di atas makam kuno itu sudah dibangun rumah tinggal dan lingkungan sekitarnya sudah padat sekali dengan perumahan kumuh. Tulisan ini hendak membangkitkan kesadaran dan rasa kepedulian masyarakat suku Tionghoa terutama sekali kepada Organisasi Paguyuban Sosial Marga TH-Indonesia, INTI, MAKIN, Yin Hua Rhu Shang, Perkumpulan Hakka dan lain-lain untuk mulai memberikan perhatian dan penghargaan kepada makam kuno yang merupakan monumen bersejarah tokoh pionir perantau Tionghoa yang turut membangun kota Batavia ini. Kiranya sudah saatnya untuk mengadakan tindakan konservasi dan renovasi atau sebagai langkah pendahuluan dibangun dahulu sebuah gapura di mulut Gang Taruna itu. Hal itu patut dilakukan demi menghormati leluhur kita agar pendidikan etika moral dan warisan budaya luhur bisa berlanjut terus sampai generasi seterusnya.

2 Desember 2003
Budaya-Tionghoa.

 

30 3 / 2012

 

Pada Tahun 1611, Gubernur Jenderal VOC Pieter Both mengutus bawahannya Jan Pieterzoon Koen ke Tanah Banten untuk membeli Hasil Bumi dan rempah-rempah terutama Lada, di Banten dia berkenalan dengan seorang saudagar Tionghoa yang sangat berpengaruh di wilayah itu serta mepnya tanah perkebunan yang sangat luas yang bernama Souw Beng Kong ( oleh orang Belanda ditulis sebagai BENCON ), Souw Beng Kong sangat dihormati dan dipercaya penuh oleh para petani dan pedagang di wilayah itu, setiap pedagang asing dari Inggris , Portugis dan Belanda yang ingin membeli Hasil Bumi haruslah melakukan pembelian dan negosiasi harga dengan kehadiran pihak Souw Beng Kong .

 

Souw Beng Kong ( selanjutnya disingkat sebagai SBK ) diperkirakan lahir di Tang Oa dekat Kota Pelabuhan Amoy – Propinsi Hokkian, kira-kira Tahun 1580. Istri resminya diperkirakan berdarah Melayu bernama INQUA ( ? ),karena Surat Wasiat terakhir dari SBK harus diterjemahkan dahulu kedalam Bahasa Melayu,SBK mempunyai seorang anak yang masih tinggal di daerah asalnya di Tiongkok, Ia juga mempunyai 2 orang putra anak dari 2 perempuan Bali, seorang putra lagi dari istri lain seorang perempuan Tionghoa dan ada lagi seorang putrid dari istri yang tidak pernah disebut namanya.


Pada masa itu sudah banyak masyarakat Tionghoa yang tinggal mengelompok disuatu tempat yang dikelilingi Poho Bambu yang kelak tempat tersebut dikenal dengan sebutan daerah Bambu Cina. Masa itu Pelabuhan Banten adalah sebuah pelabuhuan yang sangat ramai dikunjungi oleh para pedagang dari mancanegara, terutama pada bulan February sampai bula April banyak pedagang dari Daratan Tiongkok yang dating ntk membeli hasil bumi terutamanya adalah Lada dan Kopra.


Peranan kelompok orang Tionghoa sangatlah penting dalam turut memajukan perdagangan di wilayah Kesultanan Bantensejak Zaman Dahulu , Hal ini terlihat dari hasil penggalian di daerah Banten Girang menunjukan bahwa orang-orang Tionghoa sudah berinteraksi dengan masyarakat Banten sejak Abad ke 7 – 8 dan setidak nya dari hasil penggalian purbakala tersebut terlihat bahwa telah terjadi hubungan yang sangat erat dan saling menguntungkan untuk kedua belah pihak.


Kebanyakan dari orang Tionghoa kala itu datang dari pesisir Daratan Tiongkok Selatan, pada awalnya mereka dating untuk berdagang dan memuat barang-barang dagangan tersebut dengan Jung-Jung ( Kapal China Zaman dulu yang sangat terkenal ) dan kembali ke negeri asalnya , setelah itu banyak dari mereka yang memutuskan untuk tinggal dan mencari penghidupan disini dan pengaruh mereka sangatlah besar kemudian berkembang memasuki hampir semua sektor ekonomi, mulai dari tata cara bertani sampai ke pemasaran hasil bumi, dari berdagang keliling sampai ke perdagangan dengan kalangan internasional, dari Tukang Kayu sampai Pandai Besi, dari pembuatan garam sampai pembuatan batu bata.


Jan Pieterzoon Coen yang datang untuk membeli hasil bumi mulai mencoba mempengaruhi dan menekan SBK, tetapi tidak berhasil karena sebagai pedagang yang piawai SBK tidaklah mudah untuk diintimidasi dan diteka, dalam hal ini Sultan Banten waktu itu merasa sangat senang dan terbantu oleh Pihak SBk dan kelompok Tionghoa lainnya yang dianggap bisa mengadakan negosiasi dagang yang bisa menguntungkan Kesultanan Banten. Orang-orang Tionghoa in juga yang mengajarkan teknologi baru dalam hal bertani sehinga hasilnya bisa melimpah seperti bertani dengan sistim persawahan lengkap dengan pengairannya karena sebelumnya mereka hanya bercocok tanam dengan sistim lading sehingga hasilnya kurang memuaskan.


Ketika Jan Pieterzoon Coen berhasil merebut Jayakarta / Sunda Kelapa pada Tahun 1619, penduduk setempat tidak mau mengadakan hubngan dagang dengan pihak Belanda, demikian juga dengan orang Tionghoa karena sebelumnya Belanda telah membuat perjanjian dengan Pangeran Jayakarta, dalam perjanjian itu disebutkan bahwa orang-orang Tionghoa tidak diperbolehkan membangun rumah disekitar Loji yang didirikan Belanda, padahal waktu sudah banyak orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sekitar pesisir pantai dimana Belanda banyak mendirikan Loji-loji nya sehingga banyak dari warga Tionghoa yang rumahnya harus dibongkar dan harus pindah ketempat lain untuk menjauhi Loji-loji tersebut.


Untuk merebut hati golongan Tionghoa ini maka akhirnya Coen menghapus peraturan tersebut, namun golongan Tionghoa sudah patah arang dan tidak percaya lagi pada Belanda serta tidak mau lagi berhubungan dagang, menghadapi hal ini Coen teringat pada SBK, pedagang yang sangat dihormati oleh masyarakat Tionghoa.

Pemboikotan yang dilakukan oleh komunitas Tionghoa ini makin lama makin hebat, para pedagang Tionghoa juga tidak mau lagi menjual dagangannya kepada pihak Belanda, bahkan tidak ada orang Tionghoa yang mau memperbaiki sepatu para Serdadu Belanda. Jan Pieterzoon Coen akhirnya sadar akan potensi kerugian lebih besar yang bisa terjadi kalau masalah ini berlarut-larut, akhirnya ia memutuskan untuk menemui SBK dan meminta bantuannya untuk mengatur dan mengurus komunitas Tionghoa di Batavia maupun di Banten.Kepada bawahannya dia memberi perintah bahwa “ Siapapun yang ingin memperluas dan memperkuat perdagangan serta pengaruh Belanda, harus bekerja sama dengan komunitas Tionghoa, karena mereka adalah bangsa yang ulet, rajin dan giat bekerja – ” dan hanya SBK lah orang yang tepat untuk diajak bekerja sama. “ Tidak ada yang lebih cocok untuk tujuan kita selain bekerja-sama dengan komunitas Tionghoa “ demikian laporan J.P. Coen kepada Heeren XVII. Coen juga menyatakan bahwa “ komunitas ini sangat bertentangan dengan penduduk asli yang berwatak pemalas, susah diatur dan tidak dapat dipercaya, orang-orang Tionghoa ini adalah pekerja yang rajin, tidak kenal lelah, sangat terampil dan berdisiplin kuat “. Demikian setelah melalui proses pendekatan dan bersaing dengan pihak Kesultanan Banten dan juga karena Sultan Banten telah melakukan kesalahan fatal dengan menyuruh membongkar semua rumah orang Tionghoa yang terletak dipinggiran pantai Banten karena hal ini dianggap terlalu mengganggu pemandangannya dalam memantau Pantai Banten, maka berangsur-angsur orang-orang Tionghoa dibawah pimpinan Souw Beng Kong dan Lim Lak Co ( Shoemaker van Banten / Pembuat Sepatu dari Banten ) berpindah ke Batavia. Sejak itu pelan-pelan Pelabuhan Banten mulai ditinggalkan oleh para pedagang mancanegara, pusat kegiatan perdagangan pun mulai berpindah ke Batavia. Gelombang pertama perpindahan itu sebanyak 170 Keluarga Tionghoa dari Banten mulai memasuki Batavia, dan SBK harus menampung dan mengurusi mereka . Untuk keperluan mengatur masyarakat Tionghoa tersebut maka Jan Pieterzoon Coen pada tanggal 11 Oktober 1619 mengangkat Souw Beng Kong menjadi Kapiten ( Kapitein ) Tionghoa yang pertama yang diangkat oleh Pihak Belanda, pada masa itu penduduk Tionghoa yang ada di Batavia sudah sekitar 400 Keluarga dan terus bertambah. Souw Beng Kong juga diangkat sebagai sebagai Ketua Kongkoan ( Dewan Tionghoa masa itu ), Dewan itu bertugas untuk mengatur segala keperluan dan kepentingan orang-orang Tionghoa mulai dari Upacara Perkawinan , Upacara dan tempat Pemakaman serta memilih tempat-tempat pemakaman untuk orang Tionghoa di Batavia. Mengenai soal Kongkoan ini sejarahwan dari Universitas Leiden Belanda yaitu Profesor Leonard Blusse menyatakan, Kongkoan ini dipergunakan oleh Pemerintah Belanda selain untuk mengurusi orang Tionghoa, Dewan ini juga bertugas menjadi semacam petugas sensus yg mencatat semua data-data tentang masyarakat Tionghoa dan yang terlebih penting adalah untuk menarik bermacam Pajak dari mereka. Profesor Blusse saat ini dengan Historical Institute ( IGEER ) sedang melakukan pekerjaan besar yaitu menyusun dan membuat microfilm tentang daftar dan data-data dari anggota Kongkoan di Batavia dari mulai didirikan dibawah Pimpinan Souw Beng Kong yang jumlahnya mencapai puluhan ribu orang, data dari para anggota Kongkoan tersebut sa’at ini sudah berada di Universitas Leiden, bila selesai data itu dapat digunakan oleh para orang-orang Tionghoa yang ingin mencari asal-usul dan akar keluarganya.

Sebagai Kapiten , Souw Beng Kong ditugasi untuk mengurusi urusan sipil termasuk harus bisa mengatasi bila ada keributan antar sesama orang Tionghoa. Ketika pada 24 Juni 1620 di Batavia dibentuk College van Schepenen, Souw Beng Kong sebagai Kapiten Tionghoa sa’at itu juga diberi jabatan dalam Dewan tersebut, Jabatan Souw Beng Kong dalam Dewan tersebut bukan hanya memberikan nasihat, tetapi juga memutuskan dan bertanggung-jawab atas segala perkara-perkara yang berkenaan dengan orang Tionghoa yang diajukan kepada Dewan / Majelis tersebut.


Dengan Surat Keputusan Gubernur Jenderal pada 18 Agustus 1620, Souw Beng Kong diberi kekuasaan penuh untuk menangkap orang-orang Tionghoa yang menurut pendapatnya harus ditangkap ( semisal terlibat tindakan Kriminal ) dan menyerahkannya kepada pemerintah Belanda. Pengangkatan Souw Beng Kong dalam jabatannya tersebut juga disetujui oleh Pemerintah Pusat di Negeri Belanda, seperti yang tertera dalam surat kepada J.P. Coen yang antara lain menyatakan “ Pemerintah Kerajaan Belanda menyetujui pengangkatan Tuan BENCON ( Belanda menyebut SBK dengan nama BENCON ) sebagai anggota Dewan College van Schepenen “

Dalam melaksanakan tugasnya, Souw Beng Kong dibantu oleh seorang sekretaris beragama Islam yang bernama Gouw Cay. Kedua pimpinan orang Tionghoa ini tidak diberi gaji tetapi diberi hak untuk menarik cukai sebesar 20 % dari dari Pajak Judi yang dikenakan Pemerintah Belanda kepada para Pachter ( Penyelenggara Rumah Judi ) di Batavia, Rumah Judi ini sengaja dipelihara oleh pemerintah Belanda tujuannya tentu untuk menarik uang pajak dari para para pemain judi yang kebanyakan adalah para Kuli Kontrak dan Budak yang sangat kecanduan judi dimana sering kali uang yang diterima dihabiskan di meja judi. Sebenarnya bukan hal yang mustahil bila Pemerintah Belanda memang mau menghapuskan rumah-rumah judi tersebut tetapi hal ini sengaja dipelihara dan dilindungi oleh para petugas Belanda setempat yang mendapatkan setoran / upeti dari para penyelenggara rumah judi tersebut, rumah judi tersebut harus membayar jumlah yang cukup besar sampai mencapi 6000 Sterling tiap bulannya. Gouw Cay sebagai sekretaris Souw Beng Kong dengan Surat Keputusan Gubernur Jenderal Belanda tertanggap 1 Agustus 1621 diberi sebidang tanah berupa kebun kelapa di Kampung Bebek. Ditempat tersebut pada Tahun 1625 Gouw Cay membangun sebuah Mesjid yang sampai Tahun 1920 an masih berdiri.


Dibawah pimpinan Souw Beng Kong, jumlah penduduk Tionghoa di Batavia meningkat dengan pesat sampai mencapai 1000 keluarga pada Tahun 1622. Mereka pada umumnya hidup dengan berdagang dan bertani, pemboikotan kepada Pemerintah Belanda juga berangsur-angsur dihentikan Karena Pemerintah Belanda telah memberikan kebebasan kepada orang Tionghoa untuk membangun rumahnya dimana saja mereka suka dalam artian tidak lagi dibatasi hanya boleh membangun di daerah tertentu,setiap hari makin banyak saja orang Tionghoa yang berdatangan dan tinggal di Batavia. Daerah perumahan pun berkembang dengan pesat, baik didalam kota maupun daerah pinggiran, demikian juga dengan sektor perdagangan berkembang dengan pesat. Boleh dikata bahwa Souw Beng Kong turut membangun fondasi dalam mengembangkan Kota Batavia yang dimulai oleh Jan Pieterszoon Coen.

Karena jasa-jasanya, dengan Surat Keputusan tertanggal 1 February 1623 Gubernur Jenderal JP Coen member hadiah 2 bidang kebun kelapa kepada Souw Beng Kong diatas tanah tersebut dibangun rumah-rumah batu yang cukup megah atas biaya Pemerintah Belanda, penjagaan 24 jam juga diberikan demi menjaga keamanan Souw Beng Kong dan keluarganya. Dalam catatan “ Kalapaci “ disebutkan bahwa orang-orang dari Tiongkok selatan tidak suka berhubungan dengan Pemerintah Belanda di Batavia karena kapal-kapal Jung mereka yang akan pulang ke Tiongkok sering dicegat dan dirampas diperairan sebelah utara Nusantara ( atas hal ini utusan dari Gubernur penguasa Fukien datang ke Batavia untuk menyampaikan protes atas tidakan perompakan yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang Belanda dibawah pimpinan Cornelis Reyersen ). Barang-barang rampasan diangkut ke Batavia dan awaknya dibui untuk kemudian dijual kepada para hartawan sebagai budak belian dengan harga 60 Real ( ? ) perorangnya kemudian dipekerjakan sebagai budak perkebunan dan pertanian dengan Pajak Kepala sebesar 1,5 Real sebulan. Waktu itu Souw Beng Kong dan Gouw Cay diberi hak untuk membuat mata uangnya sendiri yang terbuat dari timah dan timahnya harus dibeli dari pihak Belanda dengan tidak dikenakan pajak.


Tahun 1628-1629 terjadi perang antara Belanda dengan tentara Sultan Agung di front Timur, dengan tentara Banten di front Barat dan armada tentara Inggris dari laut di front Utara maka Souw Beng Kong menunjukan sikap Netral dan Tidak Memihak, berkali-kali J P Coen dari Pihak Belanda meminta bantuan dan saran tapi ditolak oleh Souw Beng Kong dan Sultan Banten yang pernah punya hubungan baik dengannya juga meminta bantuan Souw Beng Kong tetapi juga ditolaknya dengan halus, ini membuktikan bahwa kedatangan orang Tionghoa di Bumi Nusantara ini tidak punya maksud untuk terlibat dalam Konflik dan ingin menjadi Penguasa tetapi murni karena ingin berdagang dan mencari kehidupan yang lebih baik.
Setelah berhasil melakukan penyusupan kedalam pasukan Sultan Agung dan berhasil membakar ransum serta berhasil mengalahkan pasukan tentara Banten dan juga mengalahkan armada Inggris, maka Pemerintah VOC makin memperkokoh posisinya di Batavia, Pemerintah Belanda memberlakukan peraturan yang ketat, setiap warga dilarang bepergian tanpa Surat Izin dari Pemerintah Belanda.

Souw Beng Kong menjadi tidak senang bekerja sama lagi dengan pihak pemerintah Belanda, ia mengajukan permohonan untuk kembali ke Tiongkok. Setelah permohonannya dikabulkan maka dengan menumpang kapal perang “ de swaen “ dia berangkat ke Tiongkok melalui Taiwan. Namun, ketika di Taiwan dia membaca maklumat dari pemerintah Tiongkok yang menyatakan bahwa barang siapa yang pernah bekerja sama dengan pihak Belanda, maka harta bendanya akan disita dan orangnya akan dikenakan hukuman berat. Karena takut maka Souw Beng Kong membatalkan kepulangannya ke Tiongkok dan selama dua tahun dia tinggal di Taiwan sambil berdagang dan ternyata usahanya tersebut gagal.

Selama di Taiwan Souw Beng Kong akhirnya terlibat dalam sejumlah usaha penyelundupan dan perdangangan gelap, tetapi mengingat akan jasa-jasanya kepada kaum Tionghoa di Batavia maka dia tetap dilindungi oleh para sahabatnya, para pejabat Belanda di Batavia mengirimkan utusan dan surat kepada Gubernur Taiwan sehingga dia lolos dari hukuman pemerintah Tiongkok dan akhirnya ia memutuskan kembali ke Batavia. Pada tahun 1639 , dengan menumpang Kapal perang Belanda “ Brouckoort “ dia pun bersama keluarganya kembali ke Batavia. Ternyata sesampai di Batavia Souw Beng Kong masih tetap dihormati, walaupun kedudukannya sebagai anggota College van Schepenen telah digantikan oleh Phoa Beng Gan ( yang oleh Belanda disebut Binggam), tetapi jasa-jasa Souw Beng Kong masih tetap diingat oleh pihak Belanda. Ketika dibentuk Boedel Kamer atau Balai Harta Peninggalan untuk mengurus dan melindungi harta warisan kaum Hartawan Tionghoa yang tidak mempunyai ahli waris, maka Souw Beng Kong pun mendapat kehormatan dan diangkat untuk mengepalainya ( Boedel Messter ). Kemudian, bersama Lim Lak Co, Souw Beng Kong mengajukan resolusi agar pemerintah Belanda menaruh perhatian khusus dan serius kepada kampung orang Tionghoa untuk menjaga kesehatan dan diperbaiki lingkungannya, tuntutan kedua orang ini dipenuhi oleh pemerintah Belanda dan hasilnya adalah penataan lingkungan pecinan di seputar Pancoran-Kota yang sampai sekarang masih belum banyak berubah, pengaruh Souw Beng Kong pun semakin bertambah kuat. Akhirnya karena telah berusia lanjut Souw Beng Kong mengajukan pengunduran diri dan Lim Lak Co dipilih menjadi pengganti Souw Beng Kong.

Souw Beng Kong meninggal pada 8 April 1644 dan seluruh masyarakat Tionghoa ikut berkabung, pemerintah Belanda juga menyatakan turut bela sungkawa, Phoa Beng Gan sebagai Kapitein pengganti Souw Beng Kong pun mengajukan permohonan agar jenazah Souw Beng Kong boleh disemayamkan di rumahnya, sambil menunggu selesainya pembangunan komplek makam yang memakan waktu dua bulan lamanya.
Upacara pemakamannya dilakukan dengan penuh kebesaran dan penghormatan, masyarakat Tionghoa dari seluruh Batavia dan sekitarnya pun turut mengantarkan jenazahnya ke pemakaman yang jumlahnya mungkin mencapai belasan ribu orang. Pemerintah Belanda pun memberikan penghormatan penuh secara kemiliteran.
Sampai dengan akhir tahun 1960 an Makam Souw Beng Kong tersebut masih bisa dijumpai di Gang Taruna ( dahulu disebut Gang Souw Beng Kong ) di Jalan P. Jayakarta.

Dalam rangka melestarikan peninggalan sejarah dan turut menghargai jasa-jasa almarhum Souw Beng Kong serta sebagai wujud keperdulian terhadap Bangsa dan Negara maka pada 11 Februari 2008 di Jakarta telah didirikan Yayasan Kapitein Souw Beng Kong yang dipimpin oleh KRT Hendarmin Susilo ( So Sien Ming ) yang program pertamanya adalah membebaskan tanah di sekeliling makam Souw Beng Kong yang sudah di dikuasai oleh warga sekitar, bahkan diatas makam Souw Beng Kong tersebut pernah berdiri sebuah rumah lengkap dengan kamar mandinya, Yayasan Kapitein Souw Beng Kong juga sudah merehabilitasi komplek makam tersebut sehingga sekarang ini layak disebut sebagai makam orang ternama dan juga mengadakan upacara-upacara adat sesuai dengan kepercayaan yang dipeluk oleh almarhum Souw Beng Kong. Demikianlah kisah dari seorang Tokoh Marga Souw yang boleh dibanggakan oleh kalangan Marga Souw, karena beliau selain sebagai Kapitein Pertama dari golongan Tionghoa, dia juga sangat besar jasa-jasanya terhadap kaum Tionghoa , dia sangat di hormati dan dicintai oleh kaum Tionghoa pada waktu itu, semoga tulisan bisa menjadi inspirasi dan kebanggaan bersama dari Kaum Keturunan Marga Souw.

 

 

1. Pada tahun 1909 dipugar oleh Kong Koan (Dewan Opsir Tionghoa).

2. Pada bulan Oktober 1929 “KONG KUAN” (Dewan Perwakilan Masyarakat Tinghoa) menyediakan dana sebesar 2.500 Golden untuk biaya renovasi makam tersebut dibawah perintah Majoor der Chineezen Khouw Kim An (1875-1946).

3. Pada bulan April 2006 ini ada yang mengaku keluarganya yang membeli rumah di atas makam itu. Kabarnya, mereka akan memperbaiki makam ini.

 

  • Kapitein Lim Lak Tjo
  • Kapitein Phoa Beng Gan
  • Kapitein Gan Djie
  • Nyonya Kapitein Gan Djie, dubbed “Nyai Bali” [5] [6]
  • Kapitein Tjoa Hoan Giok
  • Kapitein Ni Hoe Kong
  • Majoor Tan Eng Goan
  • Majoor Tan Tjoet Tiat
  • Majoor Lie Tjian Tjoen
  • Majoor Tio Tek Ho
  • Majoor Khouw Kim An

 

 

 

Overseas Chinese Kapitan Sourabaya

 

Painting by Surabaya Overseas Chinece Kapitan Han Jan Pit in 1805

Original info

Tekening van de tuin van de kapitein der chinezen Hanjanpit te Soerabaja vervaardigd door H.J. Wardenaar tijdens een reis naar het oostelijke deel van Java in opdracht van N. Engelhard op 29 augustus 1805.

 

Tekening in aanzicht op het tuinhuis van de luitenant der chinezen Hanzoerik van Soerabaja vervaardigd door H.J. Wardenaar tijdens een reis naar het oostelijke deel van Java in opdracht van N. Engelhard op 28 augustus 1805.

Chinese overseas picture In Java

1890

 

Straat, vermoedelijk te Batavia met op de achtergrond de Amsterdamse Poort

1900

 

Chinese tempel, vermoedelijk op Java

1930

 

“Karbouwenhoeder. Toekang angon kerbo.”

 

 

1935

 

Tionghoa shop at Jogya market

1941

 

Chienese overseas mosque Madjobo Koedoes

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN KALIMANTAN

 

 

 

 

 

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN CELEBES

Overseas Chinese Kapitan  Makassar

 

Kapitan cina makassae Tomb 1900-1920

 

1886

Dansers (Kabesarant), vermoedelijk bij Gorotalo

 

 

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN MOLLUCA

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN LESSER SUNDA(BALI AND EAST ACHIPHELAGO NUSANTARA)

FAMOUS CHINESE OVERSEAS IN PAPUA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HISTORY

6th  Century

Menurut Erniwati, ken­dati sulit menelusuri sejak kapan masuknya orang Tiong­hoa ke Indonesia, namun dari cacatan yang bersumber dari Cina menuliskan tentang ke­da­tangan utusan dari Lang-ya (Malaya) di antaranya, pada awal abad ke-6, yaitu ninik mamak Minangkabau Sultan Balun yang kemudian bergelar Datuk Parpatiah Nan Sa­batang, dari kelarasan Bodi Chaniago.

Datuk Parpatiah Nan Sa­batang dikabarkan me­rantau ke Siam, Indocina, dan ke­negeri Cina, sebelum Datuk Parpatiah Nan Sabatang mempresentasikan konsep adat matrilineal di Minang­kabau.

“Tujuh abad setelah itu, abad ke-13, Pantai Pariaman telah dikunjungi  oleh pe­dagang dari Gujarat, Cina, dan pedagang lainnya, terjalin di pelabuhan ini,” kata Erniwati.

Selain itu, tambah Er­niwati, seorang Raja Tiongkok dahulunya pernah meminang Bundo Kanduang dengan mengirim seperangkat pe­laminan sebagai ikatannya. Tapi rencana itu tak ter­laksana, karena dalam per­jalanan kapal Raja Tiongkok itu mengalami musibah. “Na­mun seperangkat pelaminan sebagai ikatan pertunangan itu sudah diterima Bundo Kanduang.”

Sementara itu, Mely G Tan, dari perkembangan dan masuknya etnis Tionghoa ke Sumatera Barat membaginya berdasarkan dialek bahasa di Cina menjadi tiga ke­lompok dialek yang masing-masing dengan spesialisasi kerjanya, yaitu orang Hokkian berasal dari Fukien Selatan di Cina Selatan, kemudian per­ka­winan campuran dengan pen­duduk lokal yang akhirnya membentuk Tionghoa pe­ra­nakan. Ciri-cirinya berbahasa Melayu.

Sampai kini, tradisi yang masih melekat sejak dulu, hingga kini masih dengan setia dijalankan orang Tiong­hoa. Misalnya, upacara yang dilakukan oleh orang Tiong­hoa di Sumatera Barat pada umumnya berkaitan dengan unsure kepercayaan, seperti penyembahan kepada nenek moyangnya.

Secara umum, orang Tiong­­hoa berprofesi sebagai pe­dagang dan industri, seperti di Piaman. Pabrik minyak kelapa yang terkenal di Pa­riaman adalah milik Tjoa Tjeng Han cap Unta dan minyak kelapa Lam Kiauw di Padang.

Lebih jauh Erniwati men­jelaskan, pusat pemerintahan dan perdagangan di pantai barat Sumatera Barat, Pa­dang menjadi kota penting bagi orang Tionghoa dibandingkan dengan kota lainnya.

1511

Pada tahun 1511, Portugis merajalela di selat Malaka. Imperium Aceh lumpuh dibuatnya. Bersamaan dengan itu, kesibukan lalu lintas perdagangan pun tersendat di kawasan yang sangat sibuk itu.

Kerakusan Portugis membuat kapal-kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan Eropa tak bisa lewat. Akhirnya, pantai barat yang ombaknya dikenal ganas terpaksa dipilih sebagai jalur alternatif perdagangan dunia.

Sepotong pesisir di muara sungai Arau tiba-tiba menjadi persinggahan yang ramai di tepian samudera Indonesia sebelum kapal-kapal dagang melanjutkan pelayaran ke Jawa. Pelabuhan kecil yang awalnya bernama kampung Batung itu kini bernama kota Padang.

 

1511

Kepopuleran pelabuhan Muaro sebagai kota pelabuhan internasional sudah dimulai sejak tahun 1511 saat Portugis memblokade selat Malaka setelah menguasai kerajaan Malaka

Blokade itu untuk melumpuhkan kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh yang sebelumnya mengendalikan aktifitas perdagangan di selat Malaka.

Akibatnya kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan sebagian Eropa terpaksa memutar haluan, dan menjadikan kawasan pantai barat Sumatera sebagai penghubung ke laut Jawa melalui perairan Sunda.

Pelabuhan Muaro seperti diselamatkan ombak. Mendadak ia ternama sebagai kota pelabuhan karena disinggahi kapal dagang dari Inggris, Perancis dan Cina. .

(Insidesumatra)

1633

Belakangan VOC berhasil mengadu-domba masyarakat Minangkabau dan Aceh, sehingga tercipta Perjanjian Painan pada tahun 1633 yang sekaligus mengakhiri kekuasaan Aceh di Minang. Salah satu poin penting perjanjian Painan adalah, tidak mengakui kerajaan Aceh, dan sebaliknya mengakui Raja Minangkabau sebagai penguasa tertinggi dan mengakui VOC sebagai pelindung serta hanya berdagang dengan mereka. (insidesumatra)

1667

Menindaklanjuti perjanjian ini, pada tahun 1667 VOC menjadikan Padang sebagai pusat perwakilan (headquarter) untuk wilayah pesisir barat Sumatera yang ditandai dengan pembangunan benteng pertahanan atau loji. Pembangunan loji ini atas izin penghulu terkemuka, Orang Kayo Kaciak. Loji berbentuk empat segi dengan setiap sisi sepanjang 100 meter dan tinggi enam meter di sekitar Muaro. Penentangan terhadap VOC muncul dari rakyat Minangkabau di Pauh dan Koto Tangah. Mereka membakar loji pada 7 Agustus 1669. Momen inilah kemudian yang ditetapkan sebagai “Hari Jadi Kota Padang”. Setelah berakhirnya masa VOC yang ditutup karena rugi, pada 20 Mei 1784 Belanda secara resmi mengambil alih Padang dan menjadikannya pusat kedudukan dan pusat perniagaan di wilayah Sumatera. Belanda membangun gudang-gudang untuk menumpuk barang sebelum dikapalkan melalui pelabuhan Muara Padang yang berada di muara Batang (sungai) Arau. Kawasan inilah yang merupakan kawasan awal Kota Tua Padang. Batang Arau yang berhulu sekitar 25 kilometer ke pegunungan Bukit Barisan merupakan salah satu dari lima sungai di Padang. Sungai ini sangat penting karena posisinya sangat strategis dibanding Batang Kuranji, Batang Tarung, Batang Tandis dan Batang Lagan.(insidesumatra)

 

July 6, 1662

Treaty of Painan:

coastal areas of Minangkabau, including Padang, become a protectorate of the VOC, which guarantees them security against raids from Aceh

1663

 

 

 

Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

 

 

 Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

This town then became an important place since year 1663 when the Dutch, via the Dutch East India Company set-up a trading post in ‘Pulau Cingkuk’, one of many islands offshore the town, according to “Perjanjian Painan” or ‘Painan Treaty’.

 

Cingkuk island now

 

 

cingkuk island now

 

If you go to Painan, West Sumatera, Indonesia, don’t forget to across the sea to Cingkuk Island, the sands are white, so many coral here, and we can see sea animal such as colourful fish, sea cucumber, through the water because the water is very clear. WHAT A BEAUTIFUL ISLAND ever.

It is also cheap to go here. You just need to pay about Rp 10,000 or $ 1 per person to rent a boat to across the sea to the island. At this island you also can play banana boat also only Rp 10,000 0r $1 per person.

 

 It is Very cheap right????

 

Let’s fell the smell of the virgin sea,,,

And not far from Cingkuk Island, there is Langkisau Hill. We can see almost the part of Padang City from there. You will see a very beautiful view here. Oh,,, and the good news is, this tour object is free entering. You just need to climb the ladder till the top of the hill. Nice, huh?!

Unfortunately because do not have much time there, meanwhile, there is still so many thing to find there.

 

 

1670

VOC notch the West Sumatra with the help of local leaders is strong enough.


The problem is the attitude of the people who sulitbdan community leaders are often at odds and dutch memuhak depada one class. But sometimes the Dutch embrace both classes and then over the Dutch rock should be given a token of gratitude for services rendered whether concession

,
Thanks Groenenwegen and Verspreet diplomacy, the Dutch managed to cultivate a small layer of executing the will golongn Company (Company VOC) VOC thus not dealing directly with the people.
One way of securing his pretense with King minangkabau dutch, to accomplish this task charged to Mr. Pits substitute Verspreet.
The skipper White has many followers in the Middle Koto Pariaman much fuss to the Dutch cause problems even though he did not openly oppose the Dutch,

(Rusdi Amran, West Sumatra Plakat Long Until, Sinar Harapan, 1981)

 

1672

Showdown In Pariaman
In 1672 White was appointed skipper of VOCs into regen who was a prince of a rather important in Kototengah, experiencing disturbing the original followers of Kayo Maradjo VII-Koto and he also got into trouble because they do not fit the Commander Radja and Datuk Bandaro In Padang.
Many Penghulu Belnda including Panglimo Radjo and Datuk Maradjo o not happy with skipper White, they asked for it to be replaced. Pits are not quickly replace it because he had many followers among the people of Koto symbolic middle and not overtly anti VOC
Pits on the above resolved without the help of Batavia.
(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

1673
In the year 1673 the conflict between the King of Madjunto by the dead of Sultan Adil Muhammadsyah of Indrapura completed after the sultan’s father, Sultan Malfarsyah Muhammadsyah
(Rusdi Amran, 1981)


1674

1674, King of  Minangkabau world(Rajo Alam Minangkabau) pass away  , this led to disputes as to who will replace it. Children or niece
Finally The four Bandaro (BaSO Ampek Balai ) decides son Raja ruled the western part, while Kemanakan (nephew ) ruled the East.

(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

 

1674
In the Year 1674 then dispute between King Adil of Madjunto with Sultan Sulaiman of Indrapura completed (Rusdi Amran, 1981)


(Rusdi Amra, 1981)

1674
According to the agreement Painan, trade boats containing merchandise from Aceh to Pariaman be banned and arrested
Ibrahim Radjo penhulu of Pariaman has a relationship with skipper White regen Voc in Pariaman, and Suri Naro of Salido.

Until Pariaman Aceh boat loaded with merchandise and by Painan  Agrrement this boat must be captured and impounded but Radjo Ibrahim XII sent  200 people from the north-Koto located Painan and river lime, to mempertahankan In such which a  same boat of brother Ibrahim Radjo of religion, Radjo Mahkota , thousands of people were moving towards the west coast of Sumatra Agam .

 This situation made VOC office Padang confused(binguang) , Koto-Tengah and Pariaman, especially when Radjo Ibrahim and Putih  did not appear when called into the field.
 Apparently there are talks between Eadjo Ibrahim with Radjo Adil and Mahkota Radjo to evict people from the Maradjo Kayo-VII Koto near Pariaman order Radjo Ibrahim to head Pariaman.

If this is successful they will continue into the Middle Koto, and the White Nakhoda Kayo expel Commander of Padang So tidk no immediate danger to the VOC.


Ibrahim action is considered as a defiance VOC and VOC Temangung when an investigator who has a young Valves VOC employees were sent to search the  movement.
Results of search 
A prince named  Nakhoda Putih(skipper White ) Lengang bumi-in-law who does not know the  mass movement plan , carry merchandise bought from VOC Pariaman to  Padang through Koto Tengah . He was beaten out and robbed goods, heard by a white captain(nakhoda Putih)  handed again.

 

Tempers fray against deputy skipper with his followers in the river rotan and  most eager to attack skipper White ( Nakhoda Putih)was Radjo Ibrahim.

 Putih  almost any skipper could captivity, but a successful escape
After learned this  search  report this  VOC. Against  skipper White( Nakhoda Putih)

(Rusdi Amra, 1981)

1675
In August 1675, the VOC in handing out money to catch Regen  Pariaman Nakhoda  Putih.
In December 1675  VOC split-bagikan money again in Pariamna to the prince who gathered there and they swear to the Pits to destroy skipper White( regen Nakhoda  Putih)

 

 


1676
In 1676 occurred the actual Minangkabau People’s Movement spearheaded by pro Dutch  elements, the movement is not addressed to the Dutch but to a party whose leader wants to be changed.

This situation is favorable for the Dutch VOC, because the organization is not good with not one  goal  and not have one leadership and engage skipper of Koto-White Middle RADJO of Pariaman Radjo Ibrahim Adil of Manjunto, Bandaro Pandjang of Batipuh, Radjo Batuah of Ulakan and Suri Naro of Salido.
The dispute heated up when the son of Batipuh found died  ,assasination  killed by  Bandaro Pandjang  from Ulakan so Bandaro Pandjang dating and his family helped by Lubuk Alung invade and mengusir(shoo)  Datuk Bandaro of this Ulakan.Kota including looted and burned hamlets near Pariaman.
Lubuk Alung participate because before this Ulakan had attacked their village in retaliation, but this plan  canceled after 12 ½  gold thail paid by Pariaman.and  Regen Nakhoda  Putih( skipper White) was a  Ulakan’s friend
In June 1976, Suri Naro of Salido secretly dealing with skipper White (regen Putih) to strike Padang but can be stopped by Panglimo Radjo with his followers of Padang
(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

1680 1695

 Mighty Tuanku Raja Mulia(Holy King ) Stakeholder XXXII

1680
Disputes between  leader in Minangkabau hamper the delivery of gold and relocation pepper the beach.


 Raja  Adil of Manjuto in Tarusan secretly sell  their pepper  to british  in Bencoolen  and Banten not to VOC


After a ten year stint Pits moved to

 

 

Malacca  became the governor there , His place was taken over by Hurdt Melchior who moved

 

 

 

 

from the Cingkuk  island to  Padang .

 

 

 

Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

 

 

 

 

 Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

 

 

During Hult appointed as the highest vice of VOC in Padang, West Sumatra coast state still troublesome, such disputesbe between lIndigenous leaders and VOCs are generally not intervene,

Only City Pauh often robbed .. flame*dbakar) and people driven to anything and still rebelled.

To overcome this the Panglimo  Radjo in Padang had armed some thousand people to deal with attacks from Pauh.
The Dutch  does not have a lot of forces at this time, while the  Central VOC Government in Batavia  does not want to send an expedition to West Sumatra.

 

The same thing happened in Tarusan, Imagine and Bandar-X South area of Padang, small wars happen because leaders want to have a position.

 


This situation creates difficulties for the VOC trade flows when it rains it is no longer (weak).


In In February 1680,

unexpectedly visited Padang Sultan Ahmadsyah, envoy of King Minangkabau

 

Who came to Padang  is The Son of  king  Minangkabau who ruled the eastern part, the messenger brings a letter addressed to Hurdt and Panglimo Radjo to renew contracts and appointed as the official representative Panglimo Radjo Radja-Alam Minangkabau. And further recommends Radja Minangkabau people that do not disturb the VOC trade and paid tribute to the King of Aceh paid to the Minangkabau King.
On this occasion Hurdt asked King Minangkabau that skipper-WHITE scold naughty. But it was rejected because the King minangkabau not have the power to carry it out. This has led to frustration for Hurdt and central pemeruntah VOC in Batavia.
Vice VOC in Padang are not desperate, he kept trying to reconcile the princes and the representatives of the people are pro belanda.karena could disrupt VOC trade.
Finally Enterprises VOC managed, on 29 August 1680 in the city of Padang skipper gathered from Koto-WHITE-Tangah H with 10 the prince, Sultan Ahmadsyah from Indrapura, and Rajo-FAIR from Madjunto respectively with 20 and 18 penghulu.Panglimo Radjo of Padang carrying 12 penghulunya and Sari-Salido Naro of premises 9 princes and some traditional leaders. Voc along with other companions.
Everyone present signed important agreements and solemnly pledged to support all efforts VOC and renew all contracts ever signed first.

 

 


They also promised not to fussy-fussy and fighting each other again.
Since the conclusion of the agreement on which is the victory diplomatus VOC, VOC trade flows become fluent, but Hurdt
 be called  to Batavia because he was suspected of cheating with finances VOCs. He investigated continuously,Hurdt served only one year in the city of Padang

 

Three follow VOC  Man at Padang also only each served only one year as well, all withdrawn  for the same reason coruption  although isnpector or commissioners sent for investigating  found no results at all.


Corruption continues until the VOC was disbanded at the end of the 18th century. West Sumatra is an area for VOC loss due to costs incurred for the crush of people reversing yidak forever too large profit peradsangan dubanding with VOC.


It is being considered for release VOC Batavia West Sumatra region, but it is always opposed by representatives in the West Suamtera padded seat that benefit himself.

 

 


(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

1679

Deman Emas  Di Salido(sambungan)

Pada tahun  1679 dikirim dari pucuk pimpinan vOC di Amsterdam, 69 orang ahli pertambangan dari euro yang kemudian ditambah lagi. Nafsu vOC ini mungkin disebakan karena pada  tahun ini terjadi perdamaian dengan rakyat Bayang-village dan tambanga emas yang ada disana diserahkan kepada VOC.

Kemudian kepala perwakilan VOC di Padang Tuan Pits dikrim ke Salido untuk memeriksa tambang tersebut dan ia memebrillaporan ke Batavia bahwa masa depan tambang itu baik.

(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

Penduduk Tionghoa datang tidak lama setelah pendirian pos VOC. Orang Tionghoa di Padang yang biasa disebut dengan Cina Padang, sebagian besar sudah membaur dan biasanya berbahasa Minang.[54](wiki)
se­belum abad ke-19, ke­be­radaan orang Tionghoa secara umum dapat dikatakan tidak mem­pengaruhi tatanan sosial dan sistem ekonomi tra­disional yang berkembang dalam masya­­­rakat Minang­kabau di pedalaman Suma­tera Barat.

1680

Cina tahun 1680 datang berdagang ke Inderapura 9 tahun pasca perjanjian pemuka kota pantai dari Ombak Ketaun (Pesisir Selatan) hingga Air Bangis (Pesisir Utara, Pasaman Barat sekarang) ditandatangani (1680) oleh Raja Adil dan Muhammadsyah (sultan Inderapura) sedikit memberi ruang gerak kepada VOC berdagang lada dan emas

1686
In 1686, the Pariaman (Pryaman as written in the notes W. Marsden) start dealing with the British.
As the area is located on the beach, has become a destination Pariaman trade and conquest of foreign nations that do cruise ships a few centuries ago. Ports entreport Pariaman time was very advanced. (Shvoong, 2002)

In the Month August 1686
  EIC English also came to West Sumatra to compete with the VOC for profit., They also try to approach local leaders.
But because of the situation in the Euro, the leader  of  VOC in Batavia always  told  VOC  Padang. To remember that  Avoid looking for an issue with the EIC British., If necessary, native friend who got beat.
To achieve this purpose , in August 1686 gathered again the Penghulu and Followers VOC in Padang city, and they all promised not to seek and facilitate trade relations with British EIC. (East India Company)

Besides that  came  some  the  Representative  of King Minangkabau to West Sumatra coastal regions to levy tribute but  not  successful because the VOC had forgotten terms – terms of skits with former Minangkabau King.
The first vice-king was not able to appease the princes fighting each other.

THE SECOND
In fact, several times thE Viceroy OF  minangkabau Kingdom even participated in the movement against the VOC.

The last Came envoy of Minangkabau King ,named Maharaja Laksmana, he had come to collect tribute  until Singkel  in the north and Ketaun in  the south. He was received with honor by Vice VOC in Padang, but was not given a single cent.
That the state at the end of the 17th century in western Sumatra Padang and peisir time

 

 

(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

 

In 1686,

Amangkurat II sends secret letters to Johore, Minangkabau, English East India Co, even Siam trying to find help against VOC.

1695 1719

Sultan Tuanku Raja Raja Alam Bagewang II Stakeholder XXVII

1696

Sultan Muhammad Syah of Indrapura abdicates and VOC gains influence in the absence of a ruler there.

1697

 

Supervision of Ulama education scholars in Pariaman up in 1697

 

17th Century

In the 17th century Pagarruyung king of the rumored MinangKabhu very charismatic and full power.

  Empire centered in Tanah Datar, famous in those days as a gold mine of the most easily looted, because gold does not have to dig too deep to be found.

  Governor General of Netherlands Cornelis van Quelbergh representative for the Dutch VOC Malacca in 1641 sent Thomas Dias (Portuguese citizens in Malacca, as was previously occupied by the Portuguese) to get to the Siak river and tried to make contact with the King in making trade agreements MinangKhabu gold, pepper and Tin, as well as an envoy to discuss the long-running conflict between the Dutch Malacca Johore, Siak, Jambi and Palembang.

  Researchers reviewed data about the doubting Thomas Dias trip, because Pagarruyung not close to the river in Tanah Datar Selo, but probably farther north near the river between Buo and Kumanis Sinamar

 

VOC membawa orang Nias ke Padang  sebagai budak sejak awal abad ke-17(wiki)

 

1719 1739

Sultan Tuanku Raja Arif Alam Badaeunsyah XXVIII

1739 1780

King Tuanku Raja Alam Alam Muningsyah I XXIX

1766

Top of Form

western part  Pasaman consisting of coastal areas Katiagan starting from the south and ends at aia Bangih in the north has become a haven the merchants of Europe such as Britain and the Netherlands.

Katiagan Masang rod bounded by a separate territory with Tiku Agam area once contained a highly developed commercial center with a major brokerage named Peto Mage ‘, a Minangkabau half of Aceh who have shed a bit into the mouth of the Batang Masang. Christine Dobbin writes as follows;

When the British private traders began entering these waters, the Pasaman can also supply them with pepper and this continues until the end of abat eighteen, when the place is also a regional supplier of rice to the British power on the coast farther.

Pasaman also provide a way out for the export of gold from Rao, the valley immediately to the north Alahan length, which is the area of ​​exporting gold from time immemorial.

British trade with the region’s growing Pasaman so in 1766 the Netherlands was also flying the flag there, but they can only survive until the year 1772.

After developing the ports because of its association with the British people, while the Acehnese traders also came and settled on the coast between Pasaman and Masang River.

Pasaman area thus evolved into part of the coastal trade network developed based on the needs of British private traders.

If we cast a little view of the east, not far from the town center Simpang Ampek, therein lies the area named Mount Ophir. The Minangkabau language vocabulary, does not have the word “Ophir”. Mentioned in the literature that comes from the word Ophir Portuguese vocabulary.

What makes people interested in the Portuguese hills, so they named the Mount Ophir. But we will not discuss this.

This area of ​​Mount Ophir before Indonesia’s independence, one of the Dutch business developing oil palm plantations and that’s when the first foreign plant called palm touching Pasaman.

After the nationalization of Dutch companies under Law no. 56 In 1958, this estate belonged to PTPN VI.

 

 

Raja 1775/xxxx
1775 1810 Marhum Asal (posthumous name)

 

 

1780 1798

King Tuanku Tuanku Raja Alam Basusu Ampek Muningsyah II King of XXX

Tasik (Kota Pinang)

 

Raja 1785/xxxx
1785 1800 Sultan Rakhmat Syah

Sultanate 1789/1816
1789 1816 Khalifatullah Inayat Syah

1816
extinction of the state and the colonial government of the Netherlands

up

Successor states of Pinangawan

Dates:

1630
status Pinangawan splits:

Bila-
Sungai Taras-
Tasik-

Bila-

Raja 1785/xxxx
1785 1800 Sultan Rakhmat Syah
1800 1835 Sultan Alam II Bidar
1835 1865 Sultan Alam Bidar III
1865 1903 Sultan Alam Bidar IV
1903 xxxx Bidar Sultan Alam V

-Sungai Taras (Kampong Raja)

Raja 1775/xxxx
1775 1810 Marhum Asal (posthumous name)
1810 1835 Marhum Mangkat of Rantau Baru (posthumous name)
The Sultan Muda 1835 1871
1871 xxxx Sultan Muda II

-Tasik (Kota Pinang)

Raja 1795/xxxx
1795 1815

Sultan Bongsa II

1815 1871

Sultan Mustafa

 

1798 1803

King Tuanku Tuanku Rajo Alam Onion Muningsyah III King of the XXXI


-Sungai Taras (Kampong Raja)

 


Sultanate 1789/1816
1789 1816 Khalifatullah Inayat Syah

Raja 1795/xxxx
1795 1815 Sultan Bongsa II

 

 

Raja 1795/xxxx
1795 1815

Sultan Bongsa II

 

 

Sultan bagagaryah Official stamped

19th century


19th Century AD is the most decisive in history and culture of Minangkabau.

 

In this century there has been not only a series of purification and renewal efforts of the creed and practice of traditional and syarak, but also there has been interference of the

colonial Dutch East Indies which pitted indigenous people and religious people, who both embraced Islam.

The term ‘agreement’ is felt more appropriate than the term ‘determination’, therefore in accordance with the principles
‘Sit up straight at the same low-high’ followed by the Minangkabau society.

The term ‘Minangkabau culture’ refers to a whole way of life as one of the Minangkabau ethnic group

ethnic groups in Indonesia between 1072 according to data from the National Census of 2000. Ethnic diversity of Indonesia than is recognized
sesanti Coat in the State, was also recognized by Article 36 a of the Constitution of 1945.

Review of SBK ABS cultivated in this Agreement is comprehensive and actionable, so that

includes not only the teachings of the betsifat normative, but also the institutions that implement these teachings, human behavior
who embrace the teachings, and policies that need to be further considered in the implementation.

A concise review of the history of the concept of ‘Indigenous Basandi Syarak, Syarak Basandi Qur’aan’ can be seen in
Gusti Asnan, 2003, History of Minangkabau dictionary, PPIM, Padang, pages 8-10.

The phrase ‘customary mangato syarak mamakai’ than there is in the range of books on traditional Minangkabau proverb goes, is also

The dictum contained in the Decree of the Great Council of West Sumatra No. IX LKAAM TAP-10/MUBES / IX LKAAM/SB/VI/2005
Dated June 5, 2005 On Application of Customary Basandi Syarak Syarak Basandi Qur’aan.

‘Aspect’ refers to the Province of West Sumatra, while the ‘Overseas’ refers to the tribal areas overseas
Minangkabau people, both in Indonesia, as well as abroad.

As citizens, Minangkabau society has the right to enjoy rights and protections of the Unitary
Republic of Indonesia and shall be subject to the fundamental positive law of the State and the Republic of Indonesia.

This section should be listed as a historical background, to understand the position in Minangkabau society SBK ABS
experiencing a wave of change many times.

 

1800

1800

Notes,
MAK ITAM,
Minang people is the nickname for the air rail LOKKOMOTIF black with steam that has been around since about 1800’s in Minangkabau

This train to pass through the rail serrated ramp area
The dramatic image is visible when the train was passing through the edge of Lake Batur, adjacent vehicle lane

 

1803-1821

After experiencing a prolonged conflict, Followed by a devastating civil war between the years 1803-1821, Followed by
Minangkabau war between the years 1821 – 1838
  to face the armies of the colonial Dutch East Indies,

1810 1835
Marhum died of seacoast New (Posthumous name)

Book ‘lost interest Tuanku Rao’ and Controversies Heroism lord Tambusai
by Suryadi
Compass (Thursday, 10/16/2008) the results of the discussion of the Indonesian version of the second edition (the first in 1992 by the INIS) Christine Dobbin book that is quite classic: Economic turmoil, Islamic Awakening and Padri War (New York: Community Bamboo, 2008) . The book was also discussed again at the Padang on 18 October.

Discussion of the book is a sort of continuation of the polemic about

 

Padri War (1803-1837)
which has been ongoing since last year.
One of the initiators polemic is Basyral Hamidi Harahap (BHH), the author lost interest Tuanku Rao (New York: Community Bamboo, September 2007). In this book the author, among others criticize lord Tambusai (1784-1882), the first national hero of origin Riau based 071/TK/Tahun Presidential Decree No. 1995.
Polemics about sticking Padri War again, with BHH as one of the main propulsion motors, initially triggered by the user republikasi MO Parlindungan, Pongkinangolngolan Sinamabela title Tuanku Rao: Hanbali school of Islamic Terror in Batak, 1816-1833 (New York: LKiS, 2006) the first edition (1964) has criticized Hamka (1974).
Along with that comes a degree of heroism petitions sued Bonjol Tuanku Imam accused of violating human rights because it forces invaded Padri Batak Land (1816-1833) who killed “millions” of people in the area (see: http://www.petitiononline.com/ knurl / petition.html).
Now it seems to go a step further polemic: the title of the report in Kompas dated October 16, 2008 was quite controversial: “Casualties of War Rectification Request Padri History”. Thus, the explicit claims of the children and grandchildren of war casualties that occurred nearly two hundred years ago it was that history Padri War was in the public has been “not correct” to say nothing untrue.
This brief review BHH in lost interest a little view Tuanku Rao (GTR) on the heroic lord Tambusai, the common thread that can be pulled to the discussion that took place in the field as reported by Reuters that.
Although this book is ‘spread’ here and there, less effective, and weak in terms of theory and methodology, but the content that is full of lost interest is clearly focused on criticism of the cruelty and brutality of The Padri when they invaded the Land of Batak. The invasion has joined the ancestors BHH own torment. In GTR BHH questioned the patriotism and heroism Tambusai my lord and my lord Imam Bonjol (hlm.106-7).
Tuanku Tambusai and irony Padri War
It can not be denied that the war had left the memories of heroic Padri well as traumatic to the people in the three regions: West Sumatra, North Sumatra (Tapanuli and vicinity), and Riau (Rokan and vicinity).
For about the first 20 years of the war (1803-1821) was practically a mutually berbunuhan fellow Minangkabau and his brothers from the Land of Batak.
Starting in April 1821
Company involved in the war as “invited” the Indigenous. Furthermore, it is the resistance war repel invaders Netherlands.
Heroism lord Tambusai more associated with the final episode Padri War. After the fortress fell Bonjol

1811

 

Original Lithography Muara Batang arau Padang 1811 By Merseden

(Courtecy dr Iwan suwandy found  in Jakarta)

Compare with he repro below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENTRANCE_OF_PADANG_RIVER.jpg ‎(472 × 400 pixels, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

PLATE 18. ENTRANCE OF PADANG RIVER. With Buffaloes.


From The history of Sumatra, containing an account of the government, laws, customs, and manners of the native inhabitants with a description of the natural products and a relation of the ancient political state of that islandby William Marsden, F.R.S., the Third Edition with corrections, additions, and plates. London. Printed for the Author by J. M’Creery, Black-Horse-Court, and sold by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster-Row 1811

 

VIEW_OF_PADANG_HILL.jpg ‎(472 × 409 pixels, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

PLATE 18a. VIEW OF PADANG HILL. Published by W. Marsden, 1810.

From The history of Sumatra, containing an account of the government, laws, customs, and manners of the native inhabitants with a description of the natural products and a relation of the ancient political state of that islandby William Marsden, F.R.S., the Third Edition with corrections, additions, and plates. London. Printed for the Author by J. M’Creery, Black-Horse-Court, and sold by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster-Row 1811

 

 

1814

However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang.

The Convention of 1814 only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang.

Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau.

 

Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.

 

 

 

1821

The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38)

 

 

Monkey Hill(Gunung Monyet) sketch in 1821

 

 

Sketch Batang Arau 1821

In 1840

 

Lie Ma Say with his wife were ordered by the Qing Dinasty Fujian government to visit Priaman City west Sumatra as the Trade Mission officer.Li Ma say started from Amoy(no Xiamen) by ship to Indonesia.

 

 

Hadirnya Pasar

Perkembangan kota me­nga­­kibatkan beberapa pe­dagang Tionghoa yang ada di Padang mendirikan sebuah Pasar di Kampung Tionghoa dekat Kelenteng di atas tanah milik Kapten Tionghoa, Lie Maa Saay dan dikelola Poa Leng. “Sekarang pasar itu terkenal dengan nama Pasar Tanah Kongsi,” kata Erniwati.

Pasar Tanah Kongsi ini berdekatan dengan Pasar Mudik yang berdekatan de­ngan pasar yang dibangun orang Minangkabau.

 

 

1840

Sekitar tahun 1340, daerah ini hanya dikenal sebagai kampung nelayan. Namanya kampung Batung. Kampung ini di bawah sistem pemerintahan nagari yang diperintah Penghulu Delapan Suku. Cikal-bakal masuknya Belanda di Ranah Minang berlangsung dengan kedatangan VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) untuk melakukan transaksi dagang

 

Status sebagai pusat perniagaan kemudian memacu pertumbuhan fisik kota dan semakin berkembang pasca terbangunnya pelabuhan Emma Haven yang sekarang disebut sebagai Teluk Bayur pada abad ke 19.

Kota ini lebih melesat lagi setelah ditemukannya tambang batubara di Umbilin, Sawah Lunto/Sijunjung, oleh peneliti Belanda, De Greve. Namun sentra perdagangan tetap di Muaro. ***

Sejak lama, kota Padang adalah wilayah persaingan pasar yang sengit. Para pesaing muncul berdasarkan etnis tertentu, hingga akhirnya tumbuh berbagai pusat perdagangan seperti Pasar Gadang, Pasar Mudik, Pasar Batipuh, Pasar Tanah Kongsi, Pasar Jawa dan sebagainya. Pasar pertama di Kota Padang adalah Pasar Gadang yang berada di sisi kanan Batang Arau. Pasar Mudik yang jauh dari situ berdiri kemudian.

Lantas pedagang Cina membuat pasar baru dekat Klenteng See Hion Kiong (1861) yang masih berdiri sampai sekarang.

Namun sejumlah kebakaran kemudian menghanguskan pasar. Kawasan kota Padang pada masa itu terbagi dalam kelompok-kelompok bangsa.

Para penduduk keturunan Cina bermukim di sekitar Pasar Tanah Kongsi yang selanjutnya disebut Kampung Cina.

Bagian kota lain didiami pemukim keturunan India, saudagar dari Arabia dan Persia yang kemudian terkenal dengan Kampung Keling.

Ada juga Kampung Jawa yang didiami perantau asal Jawa yang konon sudah ada di Minangkabau sejak zaman Majapahit. Agak ke hulu lagi, berdiam warga keturunan Nias, Melayu dan Bugis. Sementara masyarakat Minangkabau asli bermukim agak di belakang lagi.

 

 

1845

 

 

Padang reede,

DEI Boat arrived at muara Batang Arau Padang City in 1845,painting By Van de Velde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1855

 

Chinese Captau   Li say was the first Tionghoa padang captain ,

Info from Lie swan hauw

Lie Saaij or Lie Ma Saaij must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents.
\Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1855)


Before Lie Saaij there were among others Lie Piet as captain of the chinese with Lie Kee as lieutenant. ( ±1855 )

1851

Chan Yong Chuan

was a merchant at Padang, West Sumatra, who later moved to Penang in 1851 had a son born in Penang nam Chan Kim Boon

My family also move to penang from Payakumbuh (family of Kam Djoe Ho), the son of my grandpa brother Chua Gim Boe named Chuan Ban Boen ‘s son became the chief of Penang Police Departmen,circa 1970 named Albert Ma (DR Iwan note)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chan Kim Boon

Chan Kim Boon was a famous, writer, poet, novelist, translator, and had profound knowledge in Chinese literature and mythology. He was well versed in English, Chinese and Malay. Born in Penang in 1851  to Chan Yong Chuan. His father was a merchant at Padang, Sumatra, who later moved to Penang.

 

 

 

CHEONG FATT TZE 張弼士

 

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name, Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

 

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi

 

 

 

The Origin Of Surname And Background

The Sek Tong Cheah clan is the descendants of Yan Di Shen Nong. Jiang Zi Ya, the 56th generation grandson of Yan Di, assisted King Zhou Wu to defeat the Zhou of Shang Dynasty in 1122 B.C and he was appointed as “General In Battle and Premier In Court”. Ten generations later, Shen Bo was born. Shen Bo became the brother-in-law of King Zhou Xuan and he was awarded with Xie (Cheah), somewhere around Chen Liu in Henan (presently known as Wan Cheng in Nan Yang District of Henan). He adopted the name of his county as his surname and he became the first original ancestor of the Xie (Cheah) clan.

 

Cheah Beng Him also known as Cheah Tong San, one of the 85th generation grandsons of Shen Bo was born in 1233.  Towards the end of 13th century, he moved to settle down in Sek Tong Village in the subdivision of Sam Toh of Hai Teng District of

Cheang Chew in Fukien

 (presently known as Shi Tang Village of Hai Cheng District, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China) and he became the progenitor of the Sek Tong Cheah clan.

 

During the late period of Manchu Emperor Qian Long in the 18th century, due to economical stagnation in Southern Fukien including Sek Tong Village, the Cheah clansmen left their village and brave through the stormy seas to look for greener pastures overseas.

 

From a partial record of the Cheah Genealogy compiled in the early reign of Manchu Emperor Tong Zhi, there were 110 clansmen buried in Penang between the 18th century during the reign of

 Manchu Emperor Qian Long

 and mid19th century during the reign of

 

Manchu Emperor, Xian Feng.

 

This reflects the sufferings encountered by the Cheahs during the early development of Penang and that Penang was the important destination of the Cheah clans in their emigration to South East Asia.

 

 

Establishment

The Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi also known as Cheah Si Hock Haw Kong Kongsi or in short Cheah Kongsi was formed in 1810 by the Cheah clansmen of Sek Tong Village, Sam Toh Sub-division, Hai Teng District of Cheang Chew, Fukien, who have settled down overseas and their descendants in Penang, later, constructed the present magnificent clan temple.

 

Their clansmen in Penang, besides striving hard to accumulate personal wealth, did not forget the worshipping of their patron saints, the two Hock Haw Kong which they brought along from Liu She An Temple in their village and also at the same time did not forget to explore means to integrate their fellow clansmen for purpose of mutual assistance and self-defence. Initially, they purchased a landed property at T.S. 20 Georgetown in the name of “Jee Oui Hock How Kong” on May 25, 1810. Their pioneer leaders at that time were Cheah Chengin, Cheah Gnow Sooe, Cheah Pang and Cheah Yeam.

 

On 2nd July 1828,

 Cheah Chengin, Cheah Lye Yeam and Cheah (Tai) Pang as Trustees for “Cheah Kay Hock How Kong Kongsi” purchased the site of the present ancestral temple. Since then, under the leaderships of Cheah Yeam, Cheah Soye, Cheah Chow Phan and Cheah Oon Heap respectively until 1860, the Kongsi served as conveyor of traditional patriarchal clan rules in order to promote a rational social order of mutuality and harmony among the Cheah clan and at the same exercised the function of accumulating collective material wealth.

 

In 1858,

 under the leadership of Cheah Chow Phan, Cheah Teow Koh and Cheah Phaik Ee, the clansmen successfully united to erect the ancestral temple to worship their two territorial patron saints, the two Hock Haw Kong, with $12,367 from the common fund of the Kongsi, and it was called Chong Tek Tong Cheah Kay Beow then.

 

In 1891,

Cheah Oon Heap officially registered the Cheah Kongsi with the Registrar of Society and the Board of Trustees was formed from 14 members from the ten sections namely Sai Suah, Chooi Thau, Eh Boey, Tcheng Kow, Ow Kow, Ho Boey, Teng Tang Kheh, Eh Tang Kheh, Eh Choo and Thaw Theah to handle its administration

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.

1859

 

Cheong Fatt Tze(Thio Tiauw Siat.)

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name,

 

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

 

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.

CHEAH CHOO YEW, CH, JP

Cheah Choo Yew was born in 1841 to Cheah Yam with ancestry in Sek Tong, Fujian. Cheah Yam or also known as Cheah Hun Yam was an early settler in Penang, in around 1750s, when the Colony was founded by Sir Francis Light.

 

Cheah Yam first settled at Bagan Dalam, Province Wellesley as an angler, before moved to Penang. By then he was already a successful merchant. During the early time, he owned two houses and a shop lot in Penang and was then a wealthy man where his property worth 2,700 Spanish dollars.

 

Cheah Yam soon recognized as the leader for the Cheah clansmen, and in 1801 he acquired a building at Armenian Street to form the Cheah ancestral temple and housed the Patron Saints Hock Haw of Sek Tong.

 

In 1820,

the under the name of the Cheah temple, a property was purchased and named the Jee Lye Hock Haw Kongsi. Cheah Yam died in 1845 and was then a well-established man among the Chinese community in the Colony. His active involvement in assisting and concerning the welfare of Cheah clansmen in Penang was passed to his wife, Ong Sin Neoh.

 

In 1858,

Ong Sin Neoh and her son, Cheah Choo Yew founded the Cheah Kay Sek Tong Seah Hock Haw Kong Kongsi (Cheah Clan Temple) at Armenian Street, the establishment of the temple cost 12,367 Spanish dollars. The construction work commenced in 1858 and ended in 1873.

 

 

 

In 1870

Published agrarian laws that prohibit non-indigenous people to own farmland. People initially lived in the port tionghoa priaman, although there are also found in the harbor my heart.

1870

 

 

Batang arau Padang look from the appenberg(gunung Monyet) in 1870

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1872

 

 

 

in 1875,

 

Cheong Fat Tze commenced business in Penang in partnership with

Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia)

and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

And ten years later he managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore, where another three years later he secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1875

 

 

Padang Beach in 1875

In 1879,

 

Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.

 

1870

 

Padang City seen from the Hill in 1870

1870

 

Tionghoa klenteneng temple at Padang in 1870

 

Tionghoa merried women in 1870

in 1875,

 

Cheong Fat Tze  commenced business in Penang in partnership with Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia) and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

 

 

In 1879,

 

Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.

1880

According to the magazine in 1880, the city of Pariaman were the ship port, like  the Port of Bengkulu and Sibolga sebaigaiman

(Said Zakaria,1930,Handwritten Document Book)

 

 

 

 

Klenteng padang

In 1880

1880

 

 

Kampong Tionghoa  with Bendi in 1880

Compare with Singapore Tionghoa street in 19th century below

 

 

 

 

 

Chine camp(kampong tionghoa) Street starting from the Kinol Aphotek corner until the Chinese temple.

 

 

Kampong tionghoa during earthquake 2008

The left one,with staircase where my grandfather printing office(later My Father and Uncle) Express.also seen Eng Djoe Bie and at the right the house Mie Yap Kie(noodle restautrant),Lena Khoe my teacher house(his father the brother of My Wife Grandmother at Padang Panjang Mrs Tjan Tjie Seng),no car this time only Bendi(delman ,horse carriage) and pedati.

then the house of the mother of dr Lie Po Tjoe(maria), then the house of Khoe family(mfather of Lena Khoe my teacher at SD Fransikus(low s basic school or Sekolah Dasar),her sister merried Thio Tjoe Liong,

after that I donn’t know, the one gang to Kali Kecil street, the took(shop) Julia  father of dr Itje Juliani, then Toko(shop) Romeo (later became wasserij,now painting Shop Tjia Eng Wan and his his wife mu second uncucle  ,my father brother Gho Ie Keng- name Gho soei Hong, then Hidangan Kita

,then the shoe shop, then Nam Yang  restaurant(father of Bo liong) the corner now became the car shop

then  Kampung sebelah street then  Khoun  Chan foto studio,Hen seng hotel, Toko Murah owner Oei Soei Ho, from his first wife they did not had children and  get step children Oei Djie san and Oei Bok sioe(meeried with my thirs  brother of My Father Gho Ie Hauw(Hardi Firgo), after that the new house before burned, many years this building not finish. I remember only few oner like the father of Eng Liang and Eng Liep and Mak Kim Lian (son of Mak Pak soei) merried  aunt Tjoe she ever played lawn tennis with me their children  Mak Ying Fa,Mak yoek Fa and son Mak Wan Wie.

 

In 1945 live at Kampoeng tionghoa street(now Pondok street) based to dr Iwan collections Road tax registration Book

kampoeng tionghoa,now Pondok street (  Tjan Hoei Nio ,no 21,  Tjoa eng Keng   gold marchant shop at kampoeng Tionghoa  and he had also house  at tepi Bandar Olo where dr Italian and Dr Khamardi thalut practse, Tjoa  tjong Thay, Sho Sien Hien, )

At the leftside of kampong (village)  Tionghoa street were the house of gho (father of dr Gho Tjeng hoen) the fist leader of Gho Famili(marga) Kongsi Padang, then small gang

tanah Kongsi Market At OPadang City (not yet found old illustration)

,

Situation now

Compare with Dr Iwan Grandpa HomelandCZhnagzhou

From Quanzhou (Tjiang Tjioe) Bus station  by taxi Dr Iwan  went to the very exciting Pagoda temple with many ancient statue collection, old wooden tree (400 years old) ,

 

 

 

Kay Yuan Temple beside Dr Iwan Grandpa Homeland

 

 

Walked fron the Kaiyuan temple to the left and from here at least i saw my grandpa home area, the old Hokian House same with in indonesia chinese area(Tionghoa), in my Granpa homeland I found some interesting collections like vintage mao era ID, the Cultural revolution books,near same I found during visit at nanning -south china fromHanoi I cann’t show nanning photo because i took video theremay be if wordpress gave me facility the Video fromHanoi and Nanning will put in the blog. I am very happy to came the area where my grandpa was born, tall my family this our grandpa city (he called Tjiangtjioe)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kelenteng(wihara) Padang CHINESE TEMPLE  1880

 

 

Klenteng Padang 1880. Beside this Klenteng(Tionghoa temple)

This building maybe beside the Tionghoa Kelenteng which before the Major Tionghoa Lie say house(Dr Iwan)

And in the front the small street

 

pasar borong

 

 

Mak Pak soen,OPIUM TRADER  pADANG 1880

 

 

Tionghoa gambling in 19th century

 

1880

 

Klenten in Rembang java

 

In 1883,

 

Cheong Fatt Tze acquired another steamer, the Hock Canton, which also had the same route as the former

 

 

1883

 

the first chinese Major ( Majoor der chinezen ) of Padang City , which appointment was done after he contributed more than 25.000 old dutch guilders to the Krakatau relief fund in 1883.

The pther Major de  cheneesen  of Padang city as told by my mother were Lie Tjay Thai, and Gho goan Tee,

 

In 1883,

 

 

Cheong Fat Tze  acquired another steamer, the Hock Canton, which also had the same route as the former.

After 14 years of experience in running the steamship business, in 1893 he established a steamship company at Penang, known as Kong Hock Kiok Limited Company and had nine steamers running to Perak, Tongkah, Klang, Asahan, and Deli.

 

 

 

 

1885

 

Cheong Fat Tze managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore,

At the same time in Payakumbuh my grandgrandpa

 

‘Chua Chay Hiok became viceconsult in Payakumbuh,every singkek from china came to payakumbuh report to him and he gave the work included my grandpa Gho Kim thian he cam from Changzhou(Tjiang Tjioe) Fukien,and later he was merried with the daughter of Chua Chay Hiok sister named Chua giok Wan,

 

 

 

 

that is why my father

 

 Djohan Gho

called his father inlaw Chua Gim Toen,uncle

 

(father of my mother Chua Giok Lan,chua Gim toen the son of Chua chay Hiok) uncle.

In 1886,

 

Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles. This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products. In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.

 

 

 

In 1886,

 

Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles.

This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products.

In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.

 

 

 

1888

 

Cheong Fat Tze secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).

1888

 

Emma Haven in 1888 (now teluk Bayur)

1888

Sultan deli membangun istana  Maimoon

 

Kiahnya sebagai berikut:

 

 Beberapa bangunan peninggalan Kesultanan Deli juga menjadi bukti perkembangan daerah ini pada masa itu, misalnya

 

Istana Maimun..(wiki)

Dalam benak gw waktu itu, medan isinya orang batak semua. tnyata gw salah. banyak juga penduduk keturunan melayu disini. salah satu bukti peninggalan kerajaan melayu yang pernah berjaya adalah

 

 Istana Maimun.

Aga disayangkan, sewaktu gw kesana sekitar 2 thn silam, kondisinya sudah seperti rumah hunian yang dipenuhi jemuran dan antena televisi. mudah2an skr sudah kembali seperti layaknya Istana yang dulu pernah berjaya

Berlokasi di Jl. Brigjen Katamso Medan (10 km dari bandara), Istana Maimun merupakan peninggalan Sultan Kerajaan Deli (jadi inget soto deli di deket kesawan, enak banget!!!)bernama Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah. pusat kerajaan deli ini didominasi dengan warna kuning (warna khas orang melayu) dan selesai dibangun tahun 1888 dengan arsitek berkebangsaan Italia. kalau diperhatikan, bangunan ini memiliki perpaduan antara budaya Islam dan Eropa, dengan beberapa material (seperti ubin dan marmer) yang memang langung diimpor dari Eropa. Bagunan terdiri dari 2 lantai dengan 3 bagian yaitu bangunan induk, sayap kiri dan sayap kanan. pengaruh budaya eropa agaknya cukup kental tertata di istana ini, dari mulai lampu, kursi, meja, lemari, jendela sampai pintu dorong. sedangkan pengaruh Islam dapat dilihat dari bentuk lengkungan (arcade) di bagian atap yang menyerupai perahu terbalik (lengkungan persia) yang biasanya dijumpai pada bangunan2 di kawasan timur tengah.

salah satu ruang yang ada di dalam bangunan adalah balaiurung. tempat ini biasa digunakan untuk upacara penobatan Sultan Deli dan tempat keluarga sultan sungkem2an di hari raya Islam. selanjutnya terdapat 40 kamar yang terdiri dari 20 kamar di lantai atas (tempat singasana sultan) dan lainnya di bagian bawah. tnyata dilantai bawah ada penjaranya jg lho.

 

Di komplek istana, kita bisa liat sebuah meriam yang agaknya dikeramatkan. meriam ini punya cerita. konon legendanya di jaman kesultanan Deli lama tinggallah seorang putri cantik bernama Putri Hijau. kecantikannya sempat membuat Sultan Aceh jatuh cinta dan hendak melamar tuk dijadikan permaisuri. namun lamaran tersebut ditolak kedua saudara laki2 sang putri.

 Sultan Aceh marah, dan timbullah perang antara kesultanan aceh dan deli. dengan kesaktiannya, seorang saudara sang putri menjelma menjadi ular tangga dan seorang lagi menjadi sepucuk meriam yang tidak pernah berhenti menembak tentara aceh (meriam ini yang skr ada di Istana Maimun). kesultanan deli lama mengalami kekalahan dan putra mahkota yang menjelma menjadi meriam meledak sebagian karena kecewa. ledakan itu konon melontarkan bagian belakang meriam sampai ke Labuhan Deli dan bagian depan ke dataran tinggi Karo.

Sang putri kemudian ditawan, dimasukkan ke peti kaca dan dibawa ke aceh. sampai di Ujung Jamboe Aye membuat permintaan terakhir dengan upacara penyerahan beras dan telur sebelum peti diturunkan dari kapal. saat upacara dimulai, angin ribut berhembus, disertai gelombang laut yang sangat tinggi. dari dalam laut muncul saudara sang putri yang menjelma menjadi ular naga dan dengan rahangnya ia mengambil peti adiknya dan dibawa masuk ke laut(Siertha)

 

Istana Maimun terlihat dari depan

 

Istana Maimun ini didesain atau dirancang oleh arsitek dari Italia yang kemudian dibangun oleh Sultan Deli, Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah pada taun 1888 silam, Istana Maimun memiliki luas sebesar 2.772 meter persegi dengan jumlah ruangan sebanyak 30 kamar.
Istana Maimun menjadi salah satu tempat tujuan wisata yang sudah cukup populer, bukan hanya karena usianya yang sudah tua, melainkan desain interiornya yang sangat unik dapat mengundang para wisatawan berkunjung ke Istana Maimun ini,

 

dengan memadukan unsur-unsur warisan kebudayaan dari Melayu dan gaya Islam, Spanyol, India dan Italia. namun sayang sekali sekarang keadaanya kurang begitu terurus. Jika kita sedang melewati tempat ini pada waktu sore hari, kita dapat melihat anak-anak bermain sepak bola di halaman istana ini.

Istana Maimun tepatnya terletak di Jl. Brigjen Katamso Kota Medan sekitar 10 km dari bandara, wisata Istana Maimun merupakan sebuah peninggalan dari Sultan Kerajaan Deli Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah. Bagunan ini terdiri dari 2 lantai dengan memiliki 3 bagian bangunan induk, sayap kiri dan sayap kanan dan dipengaruhi budaya Eropa yang cukup kental.

 

Istana Maimun penghuni medan lorong atas

 

 

 

Istana Maimun penghuni medan

 

 

 

istana maimun tampak ruangan dalam

 

(josheiwaf)

1889

 

Foto jalan Tjong a Fie (Kesawan ) Medan in 1889

Bandingkan dengan

 

The Kesawan Streen(Tjong a Fie Street) Medan in 1920

 

1890

 

Mr Cheong Fat Tze  From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri  Dr Iwan  Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu Dr Iwan  ada yang masih berada di Penang,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang dan salah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.(Dr Iwan)

Lim A King yang mempelopori perhimpunan baru ini dengan nama Heng Beng Tong pada tahun 1890. Ia lalu menjadi toako pertama HBT.

Pada tahun 1895 organisasi ini disahkan secara hukum dengan AD/ART yang resmi dengan masa bakti pengurus tahun 1895-1901.

Info dari Tnbeng penasehat HBT 2006 kepad Lisasuroso

 

 

 

Cheong Fat Tze

The Founer Of HTT Padang City

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name,

Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history

 

1890

Until 1890,because quite a lot of difficulties in taking care of the needs of ethnic Chinese, formed a new association or joint venture. Organization formed

Heng  Beng  Tong (HBT).

Old HBT picture not yet found

 

HBT now

The two organizations have different procedures and features of the relations among its members.

Each member of the HBT, for example, regardless of religion, are required to perform prayers Kwan Tee Koen and ancestral spirits by lifting incense.

 

While HTT members must meet a summons and is responsible for the implementation of the cemetery.

Although in some areas of Indonesia such as Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and others, there is a foundation or organization of ethnic Chinese, but Chinese organizations that exist in West Sumatra to say unique, because there are only born and West Sumatra alone and not in other areas.

In these organizations also embraced the membership of all the tribes and clans of existing ethnic Chinese.

 

Another plus is that they are able to maintain the original Chinese culture from generation to generation like a funeral that is still practiced in ancient China. Cemetery organization is even listed as the organization’s first funeral is present in the archipelago.

The formation of this cemetery organization need not be separated from Chinese ethnic Padang worked together when they wanted to bury the corpses.

They must carry the coffins of a hollowed piece of wood logs up the mountain that overlooks the sea. The process of carrying crates weighing up to hundreds of pounds is to be done with the stretcher. Without cooperation, the family would be impossible to do it alone

What is interesting is that although they managed to maintain their cultural identity, very few of the residents of Padang Chinese who can speak Mandarin

 

 

 

1891

 

Toekn Perkebunan Soengai Serbangan 1891

In May 1893,

 

Cheong Fat Tse became the Honorary Vice-Consul of China in Penang.

Followed by his business success in the Dutch colonies,

1890

 

 

Mr lCheong Fat Tze From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri saya Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu sya ada yang masih berada di Penang,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang dan slah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.

1890

 

 Oranje Hotel (Hotel Muara) in 1890

Compare with in 1935

 

Oranye hotel, after the WWII changed to be Muara hotel

In 1892,

 

 Cheong Fat Tze  founded the Chang Yu Winery in Shangtung, China, producing mainly fine Western wines with some traditional Chinese herbal wines.

In May 1893,

 

Cheong Fat Tze  became the Honorary Vice-Consul of China in Penang.

Followed by his business success in the Dutch colonies,

 

 

1893

//

The Sultang of Deli Mammon Al Rasyid Perkasa alam in 1893

 

in 1896

 

 Cheong Fat Tze founded various Chinese commercial banks and was a well-known banker in China and Dutch East Indies and was on the Board of Directors of the Canton Railway and the Bank of China.

He was also a shareholder in the Sze Hai Tong Banking & Insurance Company Limited in Singapore

 

Silau Onderneming Asahan Token

 

 

 

 

Silau  Asahan Tobacco Factory  Token

 

 

 

 

 Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token

 

 

 Kuli Tionghoa memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Chinese koelies bij het sorteren van tabak

 

 

Pekerja tembakau deli dan asahan

 

 

Memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

 

Abad ke 20

 

1900

 

Klenteng Batavia(Jakarta)

 

 

Jalan utama kisaran tanjung balai asahan 1900

 

Pelabuhan  tanjung balai asahan 1900

1908

Pada Mas pemerintahan Sultan Muhammad Hussain Rahmad shah II Negeri Asahan sangat maju dan sangat dikenal oleh Pedagang dari luar negeri terutama pedagang dari negeri belanda. Banyak maskapai eropah memmbuka perkebunan(onderneming) di Asahan.

Pada masa iniBelanda banyak membangun bberapa gedung pemerintahan  dan membangun akses dari daerah lain menuju Tanjung Balai dengan membangun jalan dan jalur kereta api  serta memperluas pelabuhan

Sukltan Muhammad Husain pernah melawt kenegeri Belanda bersama Tengku Alang Yahya dan tengku Musa dsan pada tahun 1908 beliau menerima anugrah bintang Knight order of the Netherland Lion dari Ratu wihelmina.dan semasa pemerintahannya Rakyat asahan bertambah makmur hidupnya dan beberapa perusahan Eropah menjalankan perniagan dinegeri asahan.

Menurut info teman dr Iwan sat ini ada seorang peagang Tionghoa yang tersohor di tanjung Balai Asahan baca pessannya liwat email

 

Dear Dr. Iwan,

I read your blog on history of Padang , Sumatra and enjoyed the nostalgia…Perhaps with luck, u may know something of other historical TiongHua communities in Sumatra- am interested to know more about  Khoo Cheow Teong who was a active trader from Tanjong Balai, Asahan( east coast, North Sumatra ) in 1900s.  He had two sons; Khoo Sian Wei and Sian Ewe, the former stayed back in Asahan whilst the father and second son, Sian Ewe lived a active biz n social life in Penang. I am a descendant but have no contact or knowledge of their family or biz in Asahan. Now am trying to catchup and wonder if you can kindly share what u may know or refer me to sources

( clan associations? Newspaper reports? Museum? Archives? English, Jawi or Dutch language?? Etc)  and people who may know the Khoo family.Thanks for yr help, rgds robertY

Saya harap ada info buatnya

(Dr Iwan)

During visit Malaysia in November 2013,I found information about kapitan cina Tanjung balai asahan

Khoo Chew Tong

 

 

Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan

 

 

Khoo Cheng Lin born in China from Khoo Wat seng . Khoo Wat seng was among the early Chinese  and founders of the Khoo family clan temple Ee Kok Tong in 1835.

Khoo Cheng Lin elder son was first named Lim Neo in china in which he had two sons Khoo . he later moved to penang to join his father in Penang  and he merried Koh Keng Yean.

The Khoo family was a well established member in Penang an his patnarch Koh Lay HUan was the Kapitan of Penang.The marriage was arranged so as to increase the power of the Khoo-Khoo families in the Straits settlements

Khoo Cheng Lim had four sons through Koh Keng Yean, and

his youngest son Khoo Cheow Teong was a Chinese Kapitan of Asahan

 

Khoo Chew Tong

and was made a Justice of Peace by the british in Penang.

Khoo Cheng Lim’s youngest son through his principal wife in China, Khoo Soo Teong was born in 1883,he merried Quah Neo in China and had four sons.His second son Khoo Ban Seng later moved to Penang and worked for his uncle,Khoo Cheow Teong, Khoo Ban seng merried Yeoh Cheam Neo( 1939) and had a son Khoo Ewe Aik

 

Khoo Ewe Aik

 

source

 

 

 

27 juni 1917

Setelah dikuasai Belanda, Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi suatu gemeenteberdasarkan Besluit Governeur General tanggal 27 Juni 1917 dengan Stbl. no. 284/1917, sebagai akibat dibukanya perkebunan-perkebunan di derahSumatera Timur, termasuk daerah Asahan, seperti H.A.P.M., SIPEF, London Sumatera (“Lonsum”), dan lain-lain.

 Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi kota pelabuhan dan pintu masuk ke daerah Asahan yang penting artinya bagi lalu-lintas perdagangan Hindia-Belanda

 


Tanjung Balai 1900


Istana Kesultanan Asahan di Tanjung Balai. Tinggal Kenangan


TUANKU SULTAN SYAIBUN ABDULJALIL RAHMATSYAH

(5 Oktober 1906 – 6 April 1980).

 PADA PUKUL 11 TGL 19 SYAFAR 1353(15 JUNI 1933),

PEDUKO TONGKU BOSAR SYAIBUN DINOBATKAN & DITABALKAN MENJADI SULTAN NEGERI ASAHAN DI ISTANA KOTA RAJA INDRA SAKTI – TANJUNG BALAI.

KARENA SULTAN DINOBATKAN PADA HARI KAMIS, MAKA PADA JUM’AH MANIS 16 JUNI 1933, DIADAKAN ACARA DULI TUANKU & TEPUNG TAWAR DI SINGGASANA KESULTANAN ASAHAN.

TENGKU NURULASYIKIN BINTI TENGKU PANGERAN BENDAHARA NEGERI BEDAGAI, ESOKNYA KEHADAPAN BALAI PENGHADAPAN NAIK KE ATAS SINGGASANA LEPAS BERIJAB KABUL & DIDAULAT MENJADI TENGKU PERMAISURI NEGERI ASAHAN

 

 

Laurentius klappert

Assisten Resident Asahan

 

 

 

Awal Abad ke 20

Kejayaan Deli pun masih dapat kita saksikan hingga saat ini, yaitu Istana Maimun dan Masjid Raya Al-Mahsun. Kedua bangunan monumental itu didirikan oleh sultan ke-9 Kerajaan Deli, Sultan Ma’mun Al-Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah, pada awal abad ke-20.



Pada saat itu, Medan telah menjadi kota niaga yang berkembang pesat. Hubungan raja dengan asing (Belanda) untuk membuka lahan tembakau, semakin meramaikan lalu lintas barang di kota ini. Tembakau Deli pun dikenal luas sebagai tembakau kelas 1 karena ditanam di lahan yang sangat cocok, demikian setidaknya papar Profesor Abdul Rauf dari Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU), saat diskusi dengan Tim EGI 2009 Sumatera Utara (Selasa, 19 Mei 2009
).

 

Hingar bingar perdagangan di Medan pun tidak dilakukan sendiri oleh Kesultanan Deli. Selain Belanda sebagai pemilik modal, orang Jawa turut serta didatangkan ke Tanah Deli sebagai tenaga ahli di bidang pertanian tembakau, sedangkan orang China sebagai pemasarannya. Suatu kolaborasi etnis yang hingga kini menjadi bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Medan.

Tjong A Fie adalah pelopor etnis China untuk membangun Medan. Pada awal abad ke-19, jiwa muda Tjong A Fie membawanya untuk merantu hingga ke Tanah Deli. Di sini, dengan dibantu oleh saudaranya Tjong Yong Hian, A Fie melakukan perdagangan dengan penduduk setempat. Kesuksesannya dalam niaga menarik hati Pemerintah Belanda untuk mengangkatnya sebagai Walikota (semacam itu sekarang-red) yang khusus mengurusi komunitas China di Medan. Selain itu, Kekaisaran China pun memberi kepercayaan kepada A Fie sebagai Duta Besar untuk wilayah Indonesia.

Kemajemukan Medan di masa lalu inilah yang telah menjadi cikal bakal perkembangan Medan dewasa ini. Bukan hanya etnis lokal (Batak) dan Melayu saja, tetapi orang Jawa, China, India dan lainnya, telah bahu membahu membangun Medan, hingga menjadikan kota terbesar ke-4 di Indonesia ini semakin menggeliat.

Catatan kota tua Medan merupakan awal dari perjalanan Ekspedisi Geografi Indonesia ke-6, yang mengambil kajian Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Perjalanan yang diawali pada tanggal 19 Mei 2009, dilakukan untuk mengamati fenomena geografi pada suatu trase atau rute tertentu. Fenomena itu meliput abiotik, biotik, kultur, dan dampak lingkungan yang diakibatkan dari interaksi ketiga unsur tersebut.

Untuk kesekian kalinya BAKOSURTANAL pun memberikan sumbangan nyata kepada daerah untuk mengangkat potensi wilayahnya.

Oleh Agung Christianto

 

read more about Tjong a Fie

 TJONG A FIE History collections

 

 

THE HISTORY OF TJONG A FIE

THE HISTORY OF TJONG A FIE

History of The Tjong A Fie Mansion

A prominent home located in the heart of Medan City at Kesawan Square, this beautiful mansion is full of characters and cultures behind its history in Medan.

 

 

 

 

The History of Tjong A Fie

Tjong Fung Nam, born from Hakka family and more popularly known as Tjong A Fie is born on 1860 in the village of Sungkow, Moyan or Meixien.  He was raised from a simple home, with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian.  Both have to give up schooling from a young age to help their father in his shop.  Even with limited education, Tjong A Fie quickly learned the business and trading skills and soon pursued his dreams to become independent and successful, hence leaving his village in search for a better life.

 

Tjong A fie

In 1880, after sailing for months, he finally arrived at the port of Deli (Medan).  At that time his brother Tjong Yong Hian had already been living in Sumatra for 5 years and had became a respected merchant in Sumatra.  However, the independent Tjong A Fie wanted to find his own living and went about finding his own work.  Tjong A Fie started to learn and develop business skills from working for Tjong Sui Fo. He developed his social skills interacting with people of all races, Chinese, Melayu, Arab, India, including Dutch.  He began by learning the language Bahasa Melayu which became the national language used in Medan Deli.

 

 

 

The Entertaining Hall

Tjong A Fie grew and became a well respected person in Medan Sumatra, where he stayed away from gambling, alcohol and prostitution in the developing town of Medan.  With his strong sense of leadership and fairness, he became the mediator for the Chinese. The Dutch also seek his help when their plantations have problems with labor issues.  His ability to solve these issues earned him to become the Chinese lieutenant. With his outstanding performance, he was elected to become a Captain (Kapiten).

 

The various rooms

Tjong A Fie was known as a respected businessman who has good social networks and has build good relation with the Sultan Deli, Makmoen Al Rasjid Perkasa Alamsjah and Tuanku Raja Moeda.  As they became good friends, Tjong A Fie became his trusted person and helped dealt with many business matters.

Tjong A Fie also became the first Chinese to own a tobacco plantation. He also developed and expanded to tea plantation in Bandar Baroe and large coconut/palm oil plantations.

Along with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian, Tjong A Fie joint partner with Tio Tiaw Siat also known as Chang Pi Shih, his uncle as well as consulate of China in Singapore and set up a railway company known as The Chow-Chow & Swatow Railyway Co.Ltd. in China

 

 

The Bedroom

Tjong A Fie, a very active social contributor, donated much of his wealth building many facilities for the welfare of the poor regardless of race, cultural beliefs or nationality including many places of worships such as Chinese & Hindu temple, Mosques and Churches.

As a well respected person in Medan who owns many plantations, palm oil and sugar factories, banks and railway companies, he employed more than 10.000 workers. As recommended by Sultan Deli, Tjong A Fie was appointed member of gemeenteraad (city council) and cultuurraad (cultural council)

4 February 1921, Tjong A Fie passed away from apopleksia or bleeding in the brain, in his home at Jalan Kesawan, Medan.  It shook the city Medan, thousands flock to pay respect from all over including Sumatera Timur, Aceh, Padang, Penang, Malaysia, Singapore and Java. He became a legend known by many in Medan till today.

Four months before his death, Tjong A Fie wrote his will in the presence of notary Dirk Johan Facquin den Grave.

Side  car: this odd name is probably a miss-spelling of Fouquain de Grave–as for instance shown in Pucca’s Blog: Memories of a Nonya Notaris Fouquain de Grave–but either way I would not want to pronounce that eminent name with an American accent.

Written in his will, he wanted all his wealth to be managed by Yayasan Toen Moek Tong which was established in Medan and Sungkow at the time of his death. The Yayasan based in Medan has been given 5 missions. Three of them are to provide financial help to young talented people that wished to complete their education, without no cultural or racial choice. Yayasan will also help the disabled who are no longer able to work including the blind or those with fatal illness.  Thirdly, the Yayasan will also help victims of natural disaster of any race or nationality.

1873-1924 The rule of Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, “the Builder”.
1878 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Tanjung Mulia (between Titipapan & Labuhan)
1880s Guandi-miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) was erected by Guangdong people in Medan (Jl. Irian Barat 2).
1880s Guanyin-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) was erected by Xinghua people in Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 The first newspaper “Deli Courant” was published.

 

Side Note: in checking the web for “Deli courant” I came across many fastfood outlets, or deli’s, where they serve ”delicatessen” (Dutch for delicacies) but also a reference to Sutan Sharir–an important early Indonesian statesman–one of that country’s founding fathers in fact, who had roots in Padang and Medan. He had also been a study friend of my Opa Otto at Leiden University, where they both studied law. On the way back to the Indies, Sharir made the long ocean trip as the pro forma ‘babysitter’ of my uncle Ernst (aka Oom Kiddie) since Opa Otto was still on Government pay and entitled to one ‘servant’. He opted to help out his friend Sharir instead.

 

Sjahrir: politics and exile in Indonesia – Google Books Result by Rudolf Mrázek – 1994 – Biography & Autobiography – 526 pages
128 In Gemeente Medan 1909-1934 (Medan: Deli Courant, 1934),  which mentions that Deli was a bit like the East Indies wild west: if you had committed murder in Batavia, you’d still be welcome in Medan–and every Dutch loafer was a potential grand seigneur in Deli. I mentioned Sharir before in my journal entry

 

Now we can continue with the timeline:

1886 Medan became the capital of northern Sumatra.
1886 “Witte Societeit” (“a rather grand club”) was erected next to the post office. [see photo hereunder]

 

1888 Sultan of Deli (Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah) moved from Labuhan Deli [series of pitcures below]

 

 

 

to the Maimoon Palace in Medan. [following two photographs of exterior and interior:]

 

 

 

 

1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 – near Pulo Brayan)
1891 Shoushan-gong (Guanyin) was erected by Fujianese in Labuhan Deli
1895 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Titipapan.
1898 Hotel De Boer was constructed.
1898-1939 Publication of “De Sumatra Post” by Joseph Hallermann, a German.
1900 Tjong A Fie mansion was built.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu temple) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pandu Baru 2)
1907 Sultan Mosque was built [see pictures below]

 

 

1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Construction of post office (Snuyf, architect – head of Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Medan was a small city. Population = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam) [see pictures below]

 

 

 

 

 

 

1913 Tjong A Fie donated the city hall’s clock tower.
1917 Horse drawn carts with brooms were used for town cleaning.
1923 Renovation of City Hall.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yuhuang-dadi) was erected by Chaozhou people in Kedai Durian.
1924-1945 The rule of Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Motorized vehicles were used to replace the horse drawn cars for town cleaning.
1929 Office of Netherlands Trading Company (now Bank Exim) was completed (used by Gunseikanbu during the Japanese occupation).
1936 Guanyin-ting (Guanyin) was erected by Hakka women in Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) was erected by Chaozhou women in Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
1942 End of Dutch rule. Population = 80,000.
2000 Medan’s population = 1,898,013

 

Cf.: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia

De N.V. Deli Maatschappij is een Nederlands bedrijf van koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf is in 1869 opgericht door Jacob Nienhuys als tabakscultuurmaatschappij met een concessie voor het Sultanaat Deli in Sumatra, Nederlands-Indië. In de Deli Maatschappij werd voor 50 % geparticipeerd door de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. In de negentiende eeuw exploiteerde de Deli Maatschappij 120.000 hectare. De activiteiten van de maatschappij vormden een impuls voor een sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij in Medan is tegenwoordig het paleis van de Gouverneur van Sumatra.

Translation: The NV Deli Maatschappij is a Dutch company of colonial origin. The company was founded in 1869 by Jacob Nienhuys as a tabacco culture company with a concession for the Sultanate Deli in Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies. In the Deli Company there was a 50% participation of the Netherlands Trading Society. In the nineteenth century the Deli Company exploited 120,000 hectares. The activities of the company formed an impulse for the strong growth of the city of Medan. The onetime headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan is today the palace of the Governor of Sumatra. [See photo below on the left]

 

1900

 

Klenteng of Chinese tempel, vermoedelijk op Java

1901

.

Cheah Choo Yew commenced his early life at Langkat, Sumatra, and was for about two years trading in small sailing ships from one port to another. He was afterwards the government licensee for Opium Farming in Deli, Sumatra, where he engaged the business for about 17 years.

Cheah Choo Yew partnered with Khaw Joo Choe managed to the Opium and Liquor Farm in Thailand and Penang, and in 1906 he partnered with Lim Ah Siang in the Farm interest. He also managed the Gambling Farm in Siam for three years, a gambling farm at Hong Kong and also the Singapore Gambling Farm for about 12 years.

Cheah Choo Yew was a member of the Penang Advisory Board, Managing Director of Khean Guan Insurance Company Ltd., shareholder of the Eastern Shipping Company. In 1919, he founded a Chinese school in the Cheah Clan Temple, where the school ended its service in 1942.

Cheah Choo Yew was awarded the Certificate of Honour in 1928 for his invaluable public services and was made a Justice of Peace. He died in 1931 in Penang. The family obligation to serve the Cheah Clan Temple was continued by his son Cheah Seng Khim, a prominent politician in Penang during

11 februri 1908

Sultan Muhammad Husain shah II menanda tangani Kontrak  Politik dengan Belanda yang diwakili oleh Jacob ballot  residen Sumatera timur  dan pemrintah belanda juga mengankat Laurentius Klappert sebagai assisten resident  Afdelling Asahan.

Semasa hidupnya sultan Muahammad Husain menikah  6 kali, yang pertama dengan Raja tengah Uteh putri  sulung Raja tengah Muhammad abu Bakar dan isteri kedua  dengan Siti Zainab  seorang wanita keturunan Arab, isteri ketiga encik hitam ,wanita dari penang, isteri ke empat Encik Ungah(ongah) wanita dari sungai Kepayang(mungkin sumbu sama dengan  Hajjah ainon binti Awang atau singapura) yang mungkin ibu tengku Amir,isteri kelima Tengku Zahara putri Tengku uhammad Yusuf  bin Tengku Abdul Djalil atau johor-singapura, isteri keenam  tengku Madariah  dan isteri ketujuh Encik Itam

Dari pernikahan ii sultan memiliki 8 putra dan  4 putri

 

 

Tengku Besar amir

  1. 1.       Tengku amir lahir tahun 1885 di tajung Balai,dan tahun 5 mei 1899 dinobatkan sebagai tengku Besar  anak dari pasangan  Raja Uteh
  2. 2.       Tengku Ibrahim (siti ainab)
  3. 3.       Tengku Usman lahir tahun 1900(dari isteri encik hitam)
  4. 4.       Tengku Muhammad Ishak (dari isteri encik hitam),meninggal dalam  revolusi social maret 1946
  5. 5.       Tengku Haidar Manazir( dari isteri Encik Unga)
  6. 6.       Tengku Zai’bun Yunus(dari isteri tengku Zahara)
  7. 7.       Tengku Muhammad Ali(dari isteri tengku Zahara)
  8. 8.       Tengku Abdul Azis (dari isteri tengku Zahara)

Putri, tengku Darjat,aishah,Khail ul Bannah,Fatimah Badtiyah,Mariam,Jamilah,munal ,slamah,haminah,chantik,kalsum,hasnah,arfah,dan Jawahir.

 

 

Para Pendiri HAPM

Ass resident, tengku alang yaha,regent asahan,cj van kampen dan gouvernour sumastra ooskust

1907

 

“Baba Geo, onze tolk”

1910

Harag karet dunia melambung tinggi sehingga Belanda dan amerika membuka perkebunan karet di Asahanatas persetujuan sultan Muhammad Husain II dengan member konsensi tanah diaerah Kisaran  dengan nama perushaan  Hollandsche-Americaansche Plantange Maatschapij(HAPM)

 

 

1910

 

 

 

Klenteng surabaya

In 1919,

 

Sek Tong Cheah Si Eok Chye School mooted by Cheah Soo Tuan and other clansmen was opened and in the same year, Sek Tong Cheah Si Hock Haw Kong Kongsi commenced to give scholarships and financial aids to the children of Sek Tong Cheah clan to study in Chinese and English Schools in Penang. This encouraged the children of the clan to study and benefit the society and to get ride of illiterateness.

 

In 1933, the ancestral temple underwent a major restoration work and it was named as Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi to standardize with the name of the original ancestral temple in the ancestral village.

 

 

 

The annual worshipping rituals are run on rotation among the 10 sections. At the Winter Solstice Festival normally on the 22nd day of Lunar 11th moon each year, the next trustee in charge of worshipping rituals will be appointed in front of Khong Hui Seng Ong by throwing the “poey”. The duty of the newly appointed trustee in charge of worshipping rituals will commence henceforth until the next Winter Solstice Day.

 

The Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi continues the many practices of clan laws, religion, education and welfare work as stipulated in its Rules and Regulations. It keeps up with the traditional system of nominating 4 Trustees each with Khoo,Yeoh, Lim and Tan Kongsi (known as the five big clan kongsis in early Penang) to sit on the Board of Trustees of Hokkien Kongsi. Their duties are to oversee the management of five temples namely, Cheng Hoon Giam Snake Temple, Seng Ong Beow, Cheng Leong Keong, Siew Thean Keong/Kim Hoe Keong and Chooi Bee Keong Temples.

 

Besides, Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi together with the Khoo clans and Yeoh clans, whose villages are at the foot of Sam Quaye Hill (San Kuai Ning) formed the Sam Quaye Tong Kongsi to settle any disputes, if any, among themselves amicably and also to strengthen their relationship since the 19th century until today. Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi has been nominating their trustees to represent the kongsi on the respective Boards of Trustees of Penang Recreation Club, Penang SamToh Bean Lok Keok and Kong Hock Keong Temple, an apex religious organization. This helped in the maintaining good relationship and inter-segmental interactions among the leaders of the Chinese society since the old days.

 

The Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi, established in 1810, is the oldest kongsi in Penang. With the esteemed status and experience of their past clansmen of Sek Tong Cheah clan in vitalizing themselves with the solid historical past, it is believed that their new generations of clansmen would be in a better position to explore much wider into the cultural aspect and also to work with other clan societies in achieving a wider social network.

 

1920

 

 

 

Klenteng Bandung

 

1920

 

Rubber plantaion factory Deli sumatra

1922

 

Huizen aan een kanaal of rivier te Koepang

1923

 

Europese man naast een auto op de weg naar Karangnoenggal bij Tasikmalaja

1928

 

Klenteng Koepang west Timor

1930

 

Fotoansichtkaart van het paleis van de gouverneur-generaal te Buitenzorg

 

 

 

 

1934

 

Klenteng toapekong Batavia(Toasebio)

1935

 

Gezelschap met D.O.L. Cornelius (vierde v.l.n.r.) , opzichter bij de BOW (Dienst der Burgerlijke en Openbare werken) en zijn vrouw (tweede v.l.n.r. ) te Tandjoengpinang, Riouw-archipel

1936’

 

Stenen trap naar Bawomataloeo op Nias Or. 435. Aangeboden aan Dr. V.E. Korn, resident van Tapanoeli, door districtsambtenaren in Tapanoeli, als bewijs van erkentelijkheid. Sibolga, den 16en maart 1939. Albumdoos van A.C. Buisson, Noordwijk 10, Batavia-Centrum. In albumdoos een leeg album aanwezig, opgedragen aan V.E. Korn: Disembahkan kehadapan seri padoeka toean Dr. V.E. Korn, resident Tapanoeli, 29 september 1936 – 23 maart 1939. Oleh Boekhandel & Drukkerij Tapiannaoeli Sibolga. Sibolga, 20 maart 1939

1943

 

Kamp Lampersari ‘Een Mary-Gold als verjaarscadeau : aquarellen en schetsen,1942-1945’ / C. Neytzell de Wilde. – Franeker : Wever, 1987

 

OIL AND GASOLINE ADVERTEISING COLLECTIONS

DEDICATION TO MY SON

ALBERT SUWANDY DJOHAN OETAMA

HAPPY BIRTHDAY

MAY GOD BLESS YOU AND YOUR WORKING

AT OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION

FROM DADDY

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

 

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1920s USA
Shell Magazine Advert
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1920s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1920s USA
Shell Magazine Advert
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1920s USA
Red Crow Gasoline Magazine Advert
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Texaco Magazine Advert
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1940s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1957 UK
John Bull Magazine Cover
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Castrol Magazine Advert
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Castrol Magazine Advert
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Castrol Magazine Advert
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Castrol Magazine Advert
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1953 UK
Shell Coronation Magazine Advert
30540029
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Ethyl Magazine Advert
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Texaco Cheerleaders Magazine…
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Texaco Magazine Advert
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Quaker State Magazine Advert
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Texaco Magazine Advert
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Volkswagen Magazine Advert
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Volkswagen Magazine Advert
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Esso Magazine Advert
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Koppers Magazine Advert
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1940s USA
Quaker State Magazine Advert
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1940s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1940s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1937 UK
Shel Magazine Advert
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1932 UK
Shell Poster
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1923 UK
Shell Poster
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1926 UK
Shell Poster
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1924 UK
Shell Poster
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1923 UK
Shell Magazine Advert
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1932 UK
Shell Poster
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1925 UK
Shell Poster
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1928 UK
Shell Poster
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1930s UK
Slot Machines Petrol Pumps…
 
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2013 UK
Esso Magazine Advert
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2012 UK
Garnier Magazine Advert
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2012 UK
L’Oreal Magazine Advert
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Olay Magazine Advert
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1956 USA
Cadillac Magazine Advert
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2012 UK
Johnson’s Magazine Advert
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2011 UK
BP TV Advert (Grab)
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2011 UK
BP TV Advert (Grab)
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2011 UK
BP TV Advert (Grab)
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2010s UK
Volkswagen VW Magazine Advert
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2011 UK
Citroen TV Advert (Grab)
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1930s USA
Texaco
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1921 USA
Velumina Magazine Advert
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The Body Shop Magazine Advert
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Cod Liver Oil Medicine Magazine…
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1946 USA
Shell Magazine Advert
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1924 UK
Shell Magazine Advert
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1950s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1926 UK
BP Poster
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1940s USA
Marboleum Magazine Advert
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1933 USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1933 USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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2010 UK
Shell Magazine Advert
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1947 USA
Shell Magazine Advert
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1947 USA
Johnson’s Magazine Advert
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1950s USA
Tennessee Gas Magazine Advert
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1925 UK
Shell Magazine Advert
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1925 UK
BP Magazine Plate
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1925 UK
BP Magazine Advert
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1925 UK
BP Magazine Advert
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1925 UK
BP Magazine Advert
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1925 UK
Shell-Mex Magazine Advert
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1970s UK
BP Magazine Advert
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BP Magazine Advert
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BP Magazine Advert
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BP Magazine Advert
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BP Magazine Advert
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1999 UK
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BP Magazine Advert
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Gulf Oil Magazine Advert
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1979 UK
Volkswagen Magazine Advert
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1970s UK
Mini Magazine Advert
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Quaker State Magazine Advert
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American Petroleum Institute…
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Chanel Magazine Advert
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1965 USA
Chanel Magazine Advert
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1915 Spain
Petroleo Gal Magazine Advert
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1930 UK
Pratts Magazine Advert
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1929 USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1928 USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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Williams Oil-O-Matic Heating…
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1953 UK
Fuel Crisis Magazine Plate
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1907 USA
Veuve Chaffard Magazine Advert
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2008 UK
Shell Magazine Advert
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1955 UK
Olive Oil Magazine Advert
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2006 UK
British Heart Foundation…
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1927 Italy
Ottone Poster
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1910s Italy
Bertolli olio d’olivia Poster
30552410
1936 USA
Ethyl Magazine Advert (detail)
30551928
1950s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1930s UK
BP Magazine Advert
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1930s France
Energol BP Magazine Advert
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1930s UK
Castrol Magazine Advert
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1880s UK
Bath Eucryl Magazine Advert
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1948 USA
Valvoline Magazine Advert
30549358
1953 UK
Motoring Magazine Cover
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1951 UK
Energol BP Magazine Advert
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1950s USA
Quaker State Motor Oil Magazine…
30547720
1920s UK
Shell Magazine Advert
30547171
1970s UK
Laker Airlines Magazine Advert
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1890s UK
Patent Oil Warming Stoves…
30546982
1941 USA
Shell Magazine Advert (detail)
30546981
1941 USA
Shell Magazine Advert (detail)
30546675
1920s UK
Imperial Airways Shell Magazine…
30546647
1930s UK
Shell Poster
30546569
1991 UK
Esso TV Advert (Grab)
30546340
2005 UK
Bertolli TV Advert (Grab)
30546254
1930s UK
Esso Magazine Advert
30546253
1930s USA
Ethyl Magazine Advert
30545397
1969 UK
BP Magazine Advert
30545394
1968 UK
Shell & BP Magazine Advert
30545063
1970s USA
Volkswagen Magazine Advert
30545062
1976 USA
Alpha Keri Magazine Advert
30545047
1974 USA
American Electric Power Company…
30544537
1948 USA
American Petroleum Institute…
30543896
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Castrol Magazine Advert
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1983 UK
Castrol Magazine Advert
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1920s USA
Shell Magazine Advert
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Texaco Magazine Advert
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1920s USA
Shell Magazine Advert
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Mulsified Shampoo Magazine Advert
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Texaco Magazine Advert
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Red Crow Gasoline Magazine Advert
30541100
1940s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
30541097
1940s USA
Texaco Magazine Advert
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1950s UK
Shell Heating oil Magazine Advert
30541031
1957 UK
John Bull Magazine Cover
30540367
1930s UK
Castrol Magazine Advert
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1980s UK
Castrol Magazine Advert

TOYOTA HISTORY COLLECTIONS

DEDICATED TO

MY SON

ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY

 
 
30577340
2013 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30577323
2013 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30576833
2013 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30576660
2013 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30576642
2013 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30576047
2012 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30576036
2012 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30576028
2012 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30575326
2000 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30572140
2011 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30572118
2011 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30571269
2010 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30570809
2010 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30568459
2000s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30568087
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
 
30555627
2008 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30553091
2007 UK
Toyota Auris TV Advert (Grab)
 
 
30553090
2007 UK
Toyota Auris TV Advert (Grab)
 
 
30551009
2007 UK
Toyota Yaris TV Advert (Grab)
 
30551007
2007 UK
Toyota Yaris TV Advert (Grab)
 
30550850
2000s UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30550849
2000 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30550848
2000 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30550846
1990s UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30550845
1991 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30550844
1980s UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30550843
1995 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30550842
1985 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30550841
1980s UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30550840
1983 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30550839
1987 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert

Koleksi Mobil Toyota Astra

February 8, 2010 by uniquecollection

My Loving Soluna

Sekali Toyota Tetap Toyota

Kantor Pusat lama

Pabrk lama di Koromo(sekarang Hansa)

Sedan pertama Toyoda AA 1936

Toyopet Crown 1937

Landcruiser generasi pertama 1951

Toyopet crown 1955

Toyopet Crown 1958

Jeep Macho

Toyota Araco

Corona 1974

Toyota Samurai 1980

TAM Kijang generasi pertama 1984

Albert dan Corolla 1974

My Corona 1977

My loving Toyota landcruiser BJ-40

Anton&Landscruiser BJ40 1984

I.PENDAHULUAN
Sebagai pecinta mobil Toyota sejak dari awal saya selalu mempergunakan mobil produksi Toyota Astra Mobil (TAM) umumnya generasi pertama baik dari asembling CKD(complete knock down) seluruh komponen diimpor dan dipasang di Indonesia oleh
pabrik TAM yang saat itu masih bergabung antara pabrik dan pemasaran (saat ini sudah terpisah), merupakan patungan antara Astra dan Toyota Motor Coooperation Jepang .

Mobil pertama adalah Toyota corolla 1000cc green army 1974 . mobil ini kurang kuat nanjak sebab mesinnya kecil ,oleh karena saya bekerja ditempat yang tanjakannya sangat tinggi maka mobil ini dipakai oleh orang Tua , sangat awet tetap masih tokcer sampai tahun 1995 dilego karena ayah sudah meninggal dan ibu sudah tua . Mobil ini tidak pernah macet atau kecelakaan, warnanya masih asli tak pernah turun mesin,benar-benar mesin toyota sangat kuat dan tahan lama asal dirawat dengan baik sayang ccnya rendah sehingga kurang kuat bila dipasang AC, maklum Jakarta panas mana tahan yah sudah lego saja selagi masih ada yang berminat dengan harga cukup lumayan kurang lebih setengah harga corolla baru saat itu.
Mobil pertama ini mobil rejeki karena dibeli saat anak pertama lahir,Albert -photographer uniquecollection blog, lihat illustrasi photo Albert dan corolla 1974.
mengapa mobil Toyota corolla yang dipilih ? jawaban yang sebenarnya inilah mobil paling murah dan bisa dicicil semaunya dengan Bang Ali aceh tanpa pikir mutu,tetapi warnanya military green menarik hati dan transmissi manualnnya sangat mudah dipakai serta sngat irit, walaupun Kakak mertua saya mengatakan pada Isteri saya mengapa Mobil Japang yang dibeli, saat itu semua yang berbau Jepang dianggap murahan, ia memakai mobil Dodge yang saat itu keren, tetapi apa yang terjadi lima tahun kemudian mobil sedan Dodge sudah hilang dari pasaran sedang Toyota Corolla tetap berjaya sampai tahun 1995, dua puluh satu tahun masih mulus dan tokcer, sayang mesinnya kecil 1000cc tak kuat pasang AC, apaboleh buat berikan rang tua yang tinggal dikota, saya ganti mobil yang lebih kuat untuk nanjak.

Mobil kedua , Toyota Corona 1500 ,green apple. Mbil corona ini sangat kuat, dibawa jalan-jalan dari sumatera Barat ke Medan sampai beberapa kali menempuh medan yang cukup parah, aman saja, kuat dan tidak pernah rewel , mesin dan transmisinya luar biasa, hanya sistem remnya harus hati-hati waktu hujan nginjaknya perlu beberapa kali jangan satu kaligus bisa slip, memang rem gaya lama kurang mantep masih pakai sistem karet bukan hidrolik.
Setelah berjalan keliling sumatera Barat dan sumatera utara hampir 9 tahun warnanya mulai luntur diganti cat baru abu-abu jadi mulus lagi, terimakasih WATJE dan HENG catnya hebat juga , saat itu bengkel mereka ATOM jadi service station Toyota Astra,
saat itu dealer Astra belum ada di Padang, mobil pertama dan kedua dibeli secara cicilan semaunya denga Bang Ali Aceh, halo Bang Ali terima kasih
Toyota Corona ini juga mobil rezeki karena waktu dibeli isteri Hamil dan saat hamil jaln dari solok sumatera barat sampai danau toba Medan non stop 20 jam,berhenti hanya untuk makan dan istirahat tetap tokcer kehamilan tak terganggu karena mobil nyaman sekali shckbrekernya, mesih halus bunyinya dan akhirnya Anton lahir dengan selamat sampai sat ini malam kerja di TAM,memang ia dilahirkan dan dibesarkan dilingkungan mobli Toyota astra Mobil sehingga bila ditest ia bisa cerita panjang lebar dan terperinci mengenai mobil produksi Toyta Astra Mobil termasuk bengkelnya, malah ia buat gambar bengkel toyota Astra Padang karena sering kesana ikut saya yang saat itu jadi dokter bengkel Toyota sehingga enak service gratis mobil jadi tetap mulus walaupun karet kopling dan rem perlu juga diganti pada saatnya.
Sebenarnya saya sudah terlanjur jatuh cinta pada mobil corona tersebut, tetpi karena ingin pergi jalan darat ke Jawa dan Bali liwat jalan raya Sumatra dan Jawa, saya lepas mobil tersebut dengan harga yang sama dengan harga beli kurang lebih 3 kilgram Mas harganya, tambah sedikit dengan kredit dapat mobil perkasa nomor tiga.

mobil Ketiga, mobil paling saya sayangi sampai hampir 25 tahun membawa saya keliling Jawa -sumatra dan bali, tokcer, kuat aman dan tetap masih mahal harganya sampai saat ini,pasti kolektor tahu merkanya si Jago jalan offroad si BJ-40 Diesel generasi pertama di Indonesia thun 1983 “LANDCRUISER BJ-40″ diesel warna redwine, sebenarnya mau disimpan sampai usur tapi takut nanti kena aturan ibukota mobil dibawah tahun 2000 tak boleh masuk kota dan saya sudah pensiun tak pernah jalan off road lagi dan sasaran baru adalah trevel around Asia dengan pesawat udara kutukar di jengo merah Toyota lnadcriser denga Toyota Soluna thailand generasi pertama sebelum keluar generasi kedua buat taksi.

Mobil Keempat, saat pindah kejakarta , perlu mobil dua, karena lagi ada rejeki jualan koleksi unik yang masih berlebih dari beli rumah, saya beli Mobil Toyta Twin cam 1989 buat nyonya pergi ngatar Anton dan albert ke Sekolah sebab saya bertugas ke Pontianak empat tahun. Mobilkebangaan dan kesayang nyonya dipakai selama 15 tahun, mesin masih bagus hanya warna wine red pudar akibat dijempur waktu parkir tapi si OYONG pinter juga ganti cat sama sehingga tetap mulus saat dijual karena nyonya ganti mobil baru atas saran Anton yang baru pulang praktek kerja di Kota Toyota Jepang selama satu tahun, tentu sudah tahu itu mbil paling populer dan ekonomis saat ini.
Toyota twin cam kelemahnya adalah sistem kipas dan radiator, kurang cocok buat Indonesia yang sangat panas,otomatnya sering rewel sehingga air habis,untung sistem proteksinya bagus tak terbakar, hanya AC jadi korban bila jalan jauh bisa mongok kepanasan, air-air tolong tambah, radiator dan kipas ganti tokcer lagi, tapi mesinya tetap tokcer.

Mobil Kelima , Toyota Soluna red wine ,mobil kreasi Thailand generasi pertama ini, masih saya pakai saat ini, irit, sistem radiator bagus, mesin bagus,transmisi bagus, Ac bagus hanya rusak saat kebenah air banjir, tapi mesin tetap bagus walaupun nerjang air banjir lari ke apartemen dan selamat , sunggup mobil ini bagus, dan tetap awet termasuk catnya ada sedikit gores diterpa sepeda motor. Saya sayang mbil ini,pakainya hanya dalam kta sekali atau dua kali seminggu sehari-hari keliling kelapa gading saja, maunya diantikkan sampai usur, walaupun sudah 10 tahun umurnya , jalannya baru 100.000km, walaupun sedikit was was bila ada aturan buangan gas bila ditest bisa tak lulus biarlah putar-putar dalam kelapa gading saja, anton denga Kinjang Innovanya bisa keluarkota dan dalam kota dengan Toyota Viosnya bantuan tempat kerjanya di TAM.
Anton kurang setuju saya tulis tentang mobil toyota Astra Mobil, mungkin ia takut ada pengarurh buat pekerjaannya, tapi saya pikir ini pengalaman pribadi saya yang ditulis dari hati yang suci tanpa ada pengaruh apa-apa, benar berani sumpah!! saya juga ikut prihatin ada kampanya negatif buat Toyota saat ini,komentar saya , Toyota tetap Jaya, mana ada ciptaan manusia sesempurna ciptaan Tuhan, si Bule Amerika cari peluangan karena kalah bersaing, masa soal karpet nyangkut gas dijadikan msalah, kita di indonesia selalu pasang karpet khusus dibawah gas yang kasat agar tidak nyangkut, rang amerika perlu belajar dari supir Indonesia, nati waktu bama datang bisa diperlihatkan bagaimana Toyota Astra Mobil melindungi Kosumen Indonesia.

Mobil keenam dan ketujuh.milik Nyonya yang punya metode international tiap lima tahun ganti mobil, ternyata mobil Toyota Avanza generasi pertama Tahun 2004 ditaksir diatas harga beli, sehingga dapat ditukar dengan New avanza 2009.
Mobil Avanza benar benar irit, tinggi anti banjir siudah di test lulus cumalude, dan harga purna jualnya lumayan bagus, tetapi saya masih kaku pakai mobil panjang sama dengan Kijang karena takut ekornya tak muat digarase dan kalau mundur kepentok dinding, untung mobil Anton Toyota Vios dan innova sudah pakai alarm parkir tak bisa kepentok, tapi Toyota avanza belum, saya saran supaya generasi mendatang ditambah alrm tersebut biar saya lebih berani memakainya , maklum umur udah tambah uzur.

Saya ucapkan selamat kepada pimpinan Toyota astra Mobil atas prestasinya yang dapat menyelamatkan produk MobilToyota di Indonesia dari segala kemunginan cacat produksi, dan saya usul isitilah Recall diganti dengan recheck atau medical check up kata orang medis kayak saya, kesehatn manusia ciptaan Tuhan saja perlu dicek, deteksi dini tanda-tanda kurang beresnkesehatan, atasi sedini mungkin sebelum jadi rusak dan celeaka, bagaimana boss TAm,okay. Viva Toyota Astra Mobil, kata orang bule “you are still Number One”

Sebagai tanda ucapan terima kasih saya kepada Toyota Astra Mobil (TAM) dan Toyota Astra Cooperation (TMC) atas karya mereka yang telah mebantu saya sehingga dapat bergerak dengan cepat dan selamat selama kurang lebih 36 tahun(1974-2010) , saya mencoba menyusun suatu kronologis perkembangan mobil Toyota Astra dengan judul Kronologi koleksi mobil Toyota Mobil coorperation(TMC) dan Toyoto Astra Mobil,yang dikompilasi dari berbagai informasi yang saya peroleh dari eksplorasi Internet via Google berikut illustrasiny baik dari Internet maupun milik pribadi, mohon maaf jika ada yang kurang berkenan bagi TMC dan TAM, mohon koreksi karena saya bukan penulis profesional, hanya penjalan keliling asia dan kolektor benda unik termasuk Mobil unik Toyota.

II.KOLEKSI MOBIL TOYOTA MOBIL COORPERATION(TMC)

2.1. Awalnya Industri mobil Toyota

(1) 1867
Sakichi Toyoda lahir

(2) 1924
Sakici Toyoda menciptakan model mobil Toyda

(3) 1929
Toyoda automatik dipatentkan

(4) 1930
Kaichio Toyoda (generasi ke-2), mulai meneliti mesin mobil kecil dengan bahan bakar bensin.

(5) 1935
Diproduksi Toyoda automatik

(6) 1936
Diproduksi Mobil Sedan Toyoda AA

2.2. Toyota Mobil Cooperation (TMC)
Dalam bahasa Jepang disebut “Toyota Jidsha Kabushiki gaisa” dikenal sebagai Toyota adalah sebuah perusahaan multinational bermarkas di Jepang.
Ditemukan oleh Kiichiro Toyoda tahun 1937 yang merupakan perunahan dari perusahaan Ayahnya Toyota Industri untuk membuat Mobil.
Untu lebih jelasnya silahkan para kolektor membaca dan melihat illustrasi dari produksi mobil TMC :

(1) 1937
Toyota Industri diganti namanya menjadi TMC(Toyota Mobil cooperation) oleh Kiichiro Toyoda sebagai Toyoda generasi kedua.

(2) 23.8.37
TMC meluncurkan produksi Toyota Corolla generasi pertama.

(3) 1941
Pemerintah militer Dai Nippon menduduki Phillipine dan menemukan moblik amerika merk Bantam MKII, mobil ini dibawa ke Jepang untuk dijadikan contoh untuk membuat mobil jenis sama tetapi dengan model yang berbeda, untuk dapat terwujud maka penguasa militer Dai Njppon di Jepang memerintahkan TMC untuk membuat mobil Jeep tersebut dan TMC menciptakan prototipe mobil model AK yang dikenal tentara Kerajaan Jepang sebagai “Yun ShikiKomatsu-she” atau dalam bahasa Indonesia “Truk Barang era Kerajaan tahun 2604-1944″

(4) 1942
Pemerintah Jepang meminta TMC untuk memproduksi Truk ringan untuk Kampanye Militer Jepang , maka TMC menciptakan Truk AK10 yang dibuat berdasarkan mesin Bantam GP. dengan mesin 2259 cc 4 silinder mesin type C yang sesudah perang menjadi prototipe Toyota Jeep BJ.

(5) 1947
TMC menproduksi Truck model SA dikenal sebagai Toyopet, truk ini tidak kuat dan kecepatannya rendah.

(6) 1950
Pada waktu perang Korea TMC mengalami krisis finansial,sehingga saat diminta Tentara Amerika serikat untuk memproduksi Jeep Willis , TMC membuat produksi Jeep Willis dikenal sebagai jeep Korea kepala Tinggi, penulis memiliki mobil dinas type ini , tetapi kemudian dijual karena sistem rem yang jelek dan koplingnya sangat keras , teapi sangat bagus buat latihan belajar mobil , Isteri ,orang Tua dan adik saya belajar menyetir dengan jeep type ini.

(7) 1951
TMC membuat Jeep BJ type B mirip Landrover inggris 1948 tetapi lebih lebar dan pada bulan july 1951 Jeep BJ dipakai sebagai Jeep patroli Polisi nasional Jepang, hal yang sama juag di indonesia pada tahun 1974.

(8) 1953
Toyota jeep BJ mulai diproduksi di Toyota Honsja

(9) 1954
Nama Landscruiser di ciptakan oleh direktur tehnik Hanji Umehara sebagai saingan Landrver Inggris dengan berbagai type BJ-T, BJ-R, BJ-J dan FJ-7.

(10) 1955
TMC meluncurkan mobil Landscruiser Generasi 2 mesin 3900 cc 6 silider type F .dan Toyopet crown.

(11) 1957
Produksi pertama Toyota Corona

(12)1958
Diluncurkan Statin wagon Landscruiser type F

(13) 1960
Diluncurkan Landscruiser generasi ke-3 3900 cc yang sangat terkenal dengan nama Toyota Macho

(14)1966
Produksi pertama Toyota Corolla

(15)1968
Corolla diproduksi di Amerika Serikat

(16)1969
produksi pertama Corona Mark II (anton pernah memiliki mobil ini)

(17)1971
Corrolla denga 5 kecepatan ukuran besar diproduksi di Amerika serikat

(18) 1973
Produksi pertama Toyota Cressida

(19) 1974
Toyota Foundation didirikan

(20) 1978
Toyota Landscruiser Diesel BJ-40 dijual di Jerman

(21) 1981
diciptakan.Toyota Landscruiser BJ4o dengan Discbrake

(22) 1982
TMC dan Toyota Motr Sales merger menjadi Toyta Motor Cooperation.

(23) 1989
Lexus diproduksi di Amerika serikat

(24) 1997
Prius generasi pertama diproduksi

(8) 1952
TMC meluncurkan Toyopet SD dan SF yang berhasil untuk Taxi

III. KOLEKSI MOBIL TOYOTA ASTRA MOBILE (TAM)
(1)1962
Toyota Corolla pertama di Indonesia, import .
Adiks aya memiliki mobil ini.

(2) 1974
Toyota corolla generasi kedua, asembling Toyota Astra Mobil ( CKD+ complete Knock down), saya memiliki mobil ini.

(3) 1977
Toyota Corona 1977 generasi pertama , assembing TAM (CKD) ,saya memiliki mobil ini. da pada tahun ini buat pertamakali TAM menciptakan Toyota Kijang generasi pertama dengan mesin corolla 1200 cc .Toyota Kijang generasi pertama diproduksi dalam bentuk sederhana pickup kotak yang dikenal denagn nama Kijang Buaya.

(4) 1981
Toyta Kijang generasi Kedua mirip generasi pertama, dikenal sebagai Kijang Doyok.

(5) 1983
TAM assemping CKD Toyota Landscrusier BJ-40 diesel.

(6) 1986
TAM produksi Kijang gerenasi 3 dikenal dengan Kijang super, bisa ngangkut banyak orang mulai dari ayah ibu ,anak sampai kakek nenek. Fullpress body
dengan chassis Panjang.

(7) 1989
TAM memproduksi semi assembling dengan campuran produksi lokal Toyota Corolla Twin Cam dan SE.

(8)1990-1999
TAM meluncurkan mobil sedan yang sangat terkenal dan laris saat itu Toyota Great Corolla, selanjutnya corolla SE yang kena korban banjir dan Tyta Capsul chassis panjang dan Pendek yang amsih alris sampai diluncurkan Toyota Innova.

(9) 1999
Corolla Altis

(10) 2000
Toyota Soluna ex Thailand generasi pertama

 

 
1974 UK
Toyota Corolla 1600 Magazine…
 
30550837
1970s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30550836
1979 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30550835
1966 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30550757
1970 USA
Toyota Corona Magazine Advert
 
30550700
1970s UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
 
30539573
2004 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
30535313
2003 UK
Toyota Corolla TV Advert (Grab)
 
30534976
2003 UK
Toyota Vios Magazine Advert
 
30533420
1972 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30533419
1968 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30533418
1978 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30533417
1970s USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30533415
1969 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30533414
1970 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30533413
1960s USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30533412
1960s USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30530050
1990s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30530049
2002 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30524745
2000s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30522945
1990s UK
Toyota Celica Magazine Advert
 
30522880
1995 UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30522878
1990s UK
Toyota Corolla Magazine Advert
 
30566869
2010 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
30566257
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
30566245
2009 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30566244
2000 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30566243
2000 UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
 
30566187
1970s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30566186
1970s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30566152
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
30566149
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
30566148
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
 
30566147
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
30566146
2010 UK
Toyota TV Advert (Grab)
 
 
30514682
2000s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30512235
2000s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
30560865
1971 USA
Toyota Magazine Advert
 
30503600
1990s UK
Toyota Magazine Advert
 

THE COMIC COLLECTIONS

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr IWAN COMIC COLLECTIONS cd-rom

THE COMPLETE COLLECTIONS EXIST,TO GET IT PLEASE SUBSCRIBED AS THE KISI MEMEBER VIA

 email iwansuwandy@gmail.com

 

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5   Next   Last

 

 
30577894
USA
Lovelorn Comic Cover
30577892
USA
Men Comic Cover
30577891
USA
True War Stories Comic Cover
30577888
USA
Crime does not pay Comic Cover
30577887
USA
Gangsters Comic Cover
30577868
Giant Comic USA
Comic Cover
30577867
Illustrations Comic Plate
30577764
1941 UK
The Hotspur Magazine Cover
30577577
1947 USA
Is This Tomorrow Comic Cover
30577576
USA
Anti-Communist Comic Plate
30577573
1961 USA
Atomic War! Comic Cover
30577572
1950s USA
Atomic War! Comic Cover
30577570
USA
Atomic War! Comic Cover
30577569
1951 USA
Weird Science Comic Cover
30577563
USA
Atomic Bomb Comic Plate
30577562
USA
Atomic War! Comic Cover
30577524
2013 UK
TW Steel Magazine Advert
30575953
2012 UK
Nissan Magazine Advert
30575922
1950s UK
The Eagle Comic Plate
30575921
1950s UK
The Eagle Comic Plate
30575585
1980s France
Asterix Comic/ Cartoon Plate
30570616
2000s USA
Got Milk? Magazine Advert
30573777
USA
Walt Disney’s Comics Comic/…
30573776
USA
Walt Disney’s Comics Comic/…
30573770
USA
Mickey Mouse Comic Comic/ Annual…
30573763
USA
Eat It Comic/ Annual Cover
30573762
1960s USA
The Complete Crumb Comics Comic/…
30573761
USA
Arcade Comics Comic/ Annual Cover
30573760
USA
Yellow Dog Comics Comic/ Annual…
30573759
USA
Snatch Comics Comic/ Annual Cover
30549792
1920s USA
Unknown Comic/ Cartoon Plate
30572041
2011 UK
Walkers TV Advert (Grab)
30572040
2011 UK
Walkers TV Advert (Grab)
30572039
2011 UK
Walkers TV Advert (Grab)
30572038
2011 UK
Walkers TV Advert (Grab)
30572037
2011 UK
Walkers TV Advert (Grab)
30572036
2011 UK
Walkers TV Advert (Grab)
30535639
1950s USA
X-Ray Specs Magazine Advert
30571867
1968 USA
Wonder Woman Magazine Advert
30571866
1944 USA
Wonder Woman Comic/ Annual Cover
30571857
1965 USA
Green Lantern Comic/ Annual Cover
30571856
1965 USA
Green Lantern Comic/ Annual Cover
30571855
1960s USA
The Flash Comic/ Annual Cover
30571844
1943 USA
Batman Comic/ Annual Cover
30571843
1939 USA
Detective Comics Comic/ Annual…
30571842
1960s USA
Aquaman Comic/ Annual Cover
30571837
1967 USA
Young Romance Comic/ Annual Cover
30571772
1950s USA
Captain America Comic/ Annual Cover
30571759
1961 UK
Southend on Sea
30571620
1950s USA
Cat-Man Cat Man Comic/ Annual Cover
30571609
1940s USA
Palisades Parks Magazine Advert
30571592
1960s USA
Superman Film Poster
30571566
1940s USA
Mr Thirteen Comic/ Cartoon Plate
30571540
1940s USA
Wonder Stories Comic/ Annual Cover
30571539
1960s USA
Heart Throbs Comic/ Annual Cover
30571536
2000 USA
Batman Comic/ Annual Cover
30571535
1960s USA
Falling in Love Comic/ Annual Cover
30571534
1960s USA
Girls’ Love Comic/ Annual Cover
30571524
1954 USA
Captain America Comic/ Annual…
30571523
1952 USA
Exciting War Comic/ Annual Cover
30571487
1940s USA
Flash Gordon Comic/ Annual Cover