Driwancybermuseum Galery (Continiu )

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

2) Asahan Sultanate and cross straits relationships

The kingdom of Asahan

History Collections

 

Creted by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

 

 

 

source

http://tembakaudeli.blogspot.com/p/sultan-van-asahan.html

1537


Kesultanan Melayu Asahan bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, yaitu ada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.

Ayahnya ialah Sultan Aladdin Mahkota Alam Johan Berdaulat (Sultan Alaiddin Riayat Syah “Al Qahhar”), Sultan Aceh ke XIII yang memerintah sejak tahun 1537 – 1568, sementara ibunya adalah Siti Ungu Selendang Bulan, anak dari Raja Pinang Awan yang bergelar “Marhum Mangkat di Jambu”. (Pinang Awan terletak di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu).

 

 Sebelumnya, Aceh telah menaklukkan negeri-negeri kecil di pesisir Sumatera Utara dan di dalam salah satu pertempuran inilah Raja Pinang Awan terbunuh dan anaknya Siti Ungu dibawa ke Aceh dan menikah dengan Sultan Alaiddin.

Sampai dengan saat ini Kerajaan Asahan telah memiliki 12 orang Sultan yang dihitung menurut Silsilah dan keturunan Raja – raja Asahan,

1612

Perjalanan Sultan Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda, ke Johor dan Melaka tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari sejarah Tanjungbalai. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan sultan beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai yang bernama Asahan. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara Sungai Asahan dengan Sungai Silau, tempat sultan bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang, penguasa setempat. Di tempat itu juga Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan yang dinamakan Tanjungbalai.

 

Posted by Resky Praditiya 14.29, under Kisaran News | No comments

Profile Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan Prop.Sumatera Utara

Nama Resmi : Kabupaten Asahan
Ibukota : Kisaran
Luas Wilayah: 462.441 Ha
Jumlah Penduduk: 935.233 Jiwa (Sensus Penduduk 2003)
Wilayah Administrasi:Kecamatan : 20
Bupati : Drs. H. Risuddin
Wakil Bupati: Drs. H. Taufan Gama Simatupang, MAP
Alamat Kantor: Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 5, Kisaran – Sumatera Utara
Telp. (0623) 41100, 41200 Fax. (0623) 433333
www.pemkab-asahan.go.id

Yi!/Kisaran – Menjaga dan Melestarikan Peninggalan-Peninggalan Bersejarah atau situs-situs bersejarah sangat lah penting. Pada jaman era globalisasi sekarang ini terkadang kita semakin melupakan dan meninggalkan sejarah-sejarah tempat dimana kita tinggal, bukan hanya sejarah yang berbentuk benda (Prasasti), Bangunan (property)bahkan Adat Istiadat yang diturunkan oleh nenek moyang pendiri dari satu kota tersebut semakin hari akan semakin terlupakan. Semua itu akibat dari semakin majunya perkembangan diberbagai bidang termasuk salah satu masuknya tradisi-tradisi modern maupun tradisi-tradisi asing ke wilayah tersebut.

Untuk menjaga sejarah dan budaya yang ada di daerah, kita sebagai putra daerah harus dapat mengajak seluruh elemen masyarakat agar senantiasa mengingat dan melestarikan peninggalan-peninggalan bersejarah yang ada di daerah tersebut.
Pemerintah terkadang bisa melupakan history dari daerah tersebut hanya demi pembangunan, padahal pemerintah sudah menyediakan instansi untuk menjaga dan melestarikan sejarah-sejarah yang ada seperti instansi dari dinas pariwisata, namun akibat dari perkembangan disegala aspek, instansi tersebut dapat melupakan pentingnya history dari satu kota atau daerah demi kepentingan Pembangunan inprastrusktur.

Sejarah Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan

Perjalanan Sultan Aceh Sultan Iskandar Muda ke Johor dan Malaka pada tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari Sejarah Asahan. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan Sultan Iskandar Muda beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai, yang kemudian dinamakan ASAHAN. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah Tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara sungai Asahan dengan sungai Silau, kemudian bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang. Di tempat itu juga, Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai Balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan. Perkembangan daerah ini cukup pesat sebagai pusat pertemuan perdagangan dari Aceh dan Malaka, sekarang ini dikenal dengan Tanjung Balai. Dari hasil perkawinan Sultan Iskandar Muda dengan salah seorang puteri Raja Simargolang lahirlah seorang putera yang bernama Abdul Jalil yang menjadi cikal bakal dari kesultanan Asahan. Abdul Jalil dinobatkan menjadi Sultan Asahan I.

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbnJ7gT

 1630

Pemerintahan kesultanan Asahan dimulai tahun 1630 yaitu sejak dilantiknya Sultan Asahan yang I s.d. XI. Selain itu di daerah Asahan, pemerintahan juga dilaksanakan oleh datuk-datuk di Wilayah Batu Bara dan ada kemungkinan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil lainnya. Tanggal 22 September 1865, kesultanan Asahan berhasil dikuasai Belanda. Sejak itu, kekuasaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh Belanda.

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbyow2u

 

 

27 desember 1672

Perkampungan ini kelak berkembang menjadi Kesultanan Asahan, yang bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, pada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.

 

 

Sejarah Kerajaan Asahan dimulai dengan penobatan raja pertama kerajaan tersebut yang berlangsung meriah disekitar kampung Tanjung. Peristiwa penabalan raja pertama kerajaan Asahan tersebut terjadi tepatnya pada tanggal 27 Desember 1620, dan tanggal 27 Desember kemudian ditetapkan sebagai “Hari Jadi Kota Tanjungbalai” den-gan surat keputusan DPRD Kota Tanjungbalai Nomor : 4/DPRD/TB/1986 Tanggal 25 November 1986.

 


1. Sultan Abdul Jalil
2. Sultan Saidisyah
3. Sultan Muhammad Rumsyah

 

1bad ke 17


4. Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah II (mangkat 1765)
5. Sultan Dewa Syah (1756 – 1805)

 

Abad ke 18

30 september 1867

Kekuasaan pemerintahan Belanda di Asahan/Tanjung Balai dipimpin oleh seorang Kontroler, yang diperkuat dengan Gouverments Besluit tanggal 30 September 1867, Nomor 2 tentang pembentukan Afdeling Asahan yang berkedudukan di Tanjung Balai dan pembagian wilayah pemerintahan dibagi menjadi 3 (tiga) yaitu:
1.Onder Afdeling Batu Bara
2.Onder Afdeling Asahan
3.Onder Afdeling Labuhan Batu.

Kerajaan Sultan Asahan dan pemerintahan Datuk-Datuk di wilayah Batu Bara tetap diakui oleh Belanda, namun tidak berkuasa penuh sebagaimana sebelumnya. Wilayah pemerintahan Kesultanan dibagi atas Distrik dan Onder Distrik yaitu:
1. Distrik Tanjung Balai dan Onder Distrik Sungai Kepayang.
2. Distrik Kisaran.
3. Distrik Bandar Pulau dan Onder Distrik Bandar Pasir Mandoge.Sedangkan wilayah pemerintahan

 

Datuk-datuk di Batu Bara dibagi menjadi wilayah Self Bestuur yaitu:
1. Self Bestuur Indrapura
2. Self Bestuur Lima Puluh
3. Self Bestuur Pesisir
4. Self Bestuur Suku Dua ( Bogak dan Lima Laras ).

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2incDARQF

Onderneming Token

 

 

 

 

Silau  Asahan Tobacco Factory  Token

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token

 

 

 Kuli Tionghoa memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Chinese koelies bij het sorteren van tabak

 

 

Pekerja tembakau deli dan asahan

 

 

Memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Titel: “147. Tabak. Sorteerloods.”
  “Nederlandsch Oost- en West-Indië. 3” en “Suriname en de West-Indische eilanden” (serie 3: plaat 101-150 en serie 4: plaat 151-170)
Schoolplaten: foto’s van Nederlandsch-Indie, Suriname en Nederlandse Antillen, 4 series
Maker:
Trefwoord:
Verv.jaar: ca. 1913
Verv.plaats: Indonesië
Techniek:
Object:
Bron: [A5-3-47], Kerncollectie Fotografie, Museum Volkenkunde
Copyright: Voor meer informatie: Museum Volkenkunde

 

 

 

Beburu gajah di asahan dan deli

 

 Patung orang jawa di asahan

 

Hutaginjang near asahan river

 

 Manager dutch Asahan Tobacco platation

 

 

 

 

Abad 19


6. Sultan Musa Syah (1805 – 1808)
7. Sultan Muhammad Ali Syah (1808 – 1813)


8. Sultan Muhammad Hussein Syah.
9. Sultan Ahmad Syah

 

Abad ke 19

 

 

1895

 

 

Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1895

 

Foto Kota Tanjungbalai di masa lampa, foto di ambil dari udara

 

Foto jembatan sungai silau

 

 

 

Abad ke 20

 

 

Jalan utama kisaran tanjung balai asahan 1900

 

Bandar tanjung balai asahan 1900

27 juni 1917

Setelah dikuasai Belanda, Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi suatu gemeenteberdasarkan Besluit Governeur General tanggal 27 Juni 1917 dengan Stbl. no. 284/1917, sebagai akibat dibukanya perkebunan-perkebunan di derahSumatera Timur, termasuk daerah Asahan, seperti H.A.P.M., SIPEF, London Sumatera (“Lonsum”), dan lain-lain.

 Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi kota pelabuhan dan pintu masuk ke daerah Asahan yang penting artinya bagi lalu-lintas perdagangan Hindia-Bel

 

10. Sultan Muhammad Husein Syah II


11. Sultan Saibun Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah
12. Sultan Kamal Abraham Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah


Tanjung Balai 1900


Istana Kesultanan Asahan di Tanjung Balai. Tinggal Kenangan


TUANKU SULTAN SYAIBUN ABDULJALIL RAHMATSYAH (5 Oktober 1906 – 6 April 1980). PADA PUKUL 11 TGL 19 SYAFAR 1353(15 JUNI 1933), PEDUKO TONGKU BOSAR SYAIBUN DINOBATKAN & DITABALKAN MENJADI SULTAN NEGERI ASAHAN DI ISTANA KOTA RAJA INDRA SAKTI – TANJUNG BALAI. KARENA SULTAN DINOBATKAN PADA HARI KAMIS, MAKA PADA JUM’AH MANIS 16 JUNI 1933, DIADAKAN ACARA DULI TUANKU & TEPUNG TAWAR DI SINGGASANA KESULTANAN ASAHAN.
TENGKU NURULASYIKIN BINTI TENGKU PANGERAN BENDAHARA NEGERI BEDAGAI, ESOKNYA KEHADAPAN BALAI PENGHADAPAN NAIK KE ATAS SINGGASANA LEPAS BERIJAB KABUL & DIDAULAT MENJADI TENGKU PERMAISURI NEGERI ASAHAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laurentius klappert

Assisten Resident Asahan

 

 

Tengku Besar amir

 

 

Para Pendiri HAPM

 

 

 

Sulatan sja’ibun djalil

 

 

 

  Tengku alang jahya regent asahan

 

Jembatan kisaran 1921

 

 

 

Kisaran Asahan Post Office

 

 

 

 

Tanjanungbalai asahan tionghoa temple(klenteng)

Due to Mr Robert Yeap unfo,this mosque built by his grand grand father Khoo Chew tong tke Chinese Kapitan at Tanjung Balai Asahan until 1910,when he was died,hs father move to Penang and merried with the daughter of Kuching Sarawak Chinese Kapitan.

Khoo Cheow Teong, kapitan Cina Asahan ( Tanjong Balai)

Inboxx

Roberty

Nov 12 (5 days ago)to me

 

 

 

 

Hello Dr Iwan,

P.S. my name is Robert Yeap, my maternal side is Khoo:)

Actually my father’s mother is also Khoo. Her father (my great grandfather) is Khoo Hun Yeang, kapitan cina Kuching, Sarawak on Borneo island. So i have 2 kapitan Cina in my ancestors- now that i have retired 2 yrs ago after working 33 years in US multinational companies- electronic sector,

 i can put efforts in my passion- history. I m not a professional historian or even academic- my career is in finance and have been financial controller n Tax etc all this time. So i hope to learn some skills on researching archive and perhaps how to gather artifacts from historical places.

I read that it is easy to locate porcelain shards even today (of Ming dynasty era) in the area around Palembang otherwise San fo chi or Srivijaya… Am also interested in the Chinese Muslim kingdom of  in Java ( Radin) in

Sorry to reply you late….i m rushing to supervise work toRestore 2 house which will be a history museum – whichis one reason of my request to find some details of my great

grandfather – my mother’s father’s father – kapitan cina Asahan.

Best regards, robertY

Hello Dr. Iwan,

Thks for reply. I have booked to stay same hotel – ChinaTown Inn at Petaling St. Booked under name Mr Yeap T.A.

Will advise u Khoo kongsi research when meet, my friend still reference, recently there is a lot of interest in history in PG!

I like to inform more on Khoo Cheow Teong, perhaps the people u meet in Malacca may know him too as

His first wife was eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, famous rice miller in

malacca at that time 1874. In Asahan his business was attended by his eldest son Sian Wei, from 2nd wife ( some say quite useless fella). His second wife was from Penang. Apparently KCTeong donated to build mosque in Asahan.

KCT was also shareholder director of Deli Bank , Medan.

Ok look forward to meet you in KL nov 23-24, this Sat. N Sun, we can go round KL.

 

I have found the pictures of

Kapitan Cina Tanjungbalai asahan

 

Khoo Chew Tong

 

 

 

 

Kunjungan governor general DEI de Fock ke asahan 1925

1930

 

Pasar tanjung balai asahan 1930

 

 

Foto udara Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1930-an

 

 1933

 

Pernikahan tengku sja’ibun dan tengku nurul 1933

 

Kepala Adat Asahan

Duduk T. alang Yahya ,T,Sja’ibun,T.Musa

Berdiri  T.Madjid, T.Dr Mansoer,T.Mohamad noer

 

 Mesjid raya sultan ahmad shah(built by Kpitan Cina Khoo Chew tong info from his grandgrand daughter Robert Yeap now at Penang-Dr Iwan Note)

The complete info look at

Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

The Asahan Kingdom History Collections

Robert Yeap Notes

 Tanjong Balai history-

 will appreciate what u can provide re my

great grandPa Khoo Cheow Teong contributions there – if have Picture of temple or mosque that he build or donate- thks

 

3) Aceh –

The  Aceh History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Zhng He Museum Penang

Copyright @ 2013

Before Aceh War collections

Sultanate Perlak
(9 th century – 13th century)

Peureulak directed to this page. For the district in East Aceh, see Peureulak, East Aceh
Sultanate Peureulak Islamic kingdom in Indonesia is ruling around the Peureulak, East Aceh, Aceh are now between 840 years until the year 1292.
Perlak or Peureulak known as a waterproof timber producing areas, a very good type of wood for shipbuilding, and therefore the area is known as the State Perlak.
Natural products and its strategic position makes Perlak developed as a commercial port developed in the 8th century, visited by ships, among others derived from Arabic and Persian.
This makes the development of Muslim communities in this area, mainly as a result of intermarriage between Muslim merchants with local women
1112 M
Scrolls saga revealed that the spread of Islam in Aceh in northern Sumatra, carried out by a Saudi cleric named Sheikh Abdullah Arif in the year 506 H or 1112 AD
1161 M
Then stand sultanate Peureulak with the first sultannya Alauddin Shah who reigned from 520-544 H or 1161-1186 AD Sultan has found his tomb is Sulaiman bin Abdullah who died in 608 H or 1211 AD [1]
1178 M
Chu-fan-chi, written Chau Ju-kua in 1225, citing record a geographer, Chou Ku-fei, the year 1178 that there is a Muslim country which is just a five-day cruise of Java. [2]


Maybe the country is meant Peureulak, because Chu-fan-chi stated voyage from Java to Brunei to take 15 days.
Existence Peureulak country is strengthened by the famous Venetian traveler, Marco Polo, a century later.
1291
When Marco Polo returned from China by sea in 1291, he stopped in the country Ferlec who have converted to Islam

Development and turbulence
840
Perlak was the first Sultan Syed Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz, a homage to Shiite and Arab descent with a local woman, who founded the Sultanate Perlak on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 AD).
 He changed the name of the capital of the kingdom of Bandar Bandar Perlak became Caliph. Sultan with his wife, Princess Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, then buried in Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, East Aceh
913 M
In the reign of the third sultan, Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Syed Abbas Shah, Sunnis began to enter Perlak. After the death of the sultan in the year 363 H (913 AD), there was a civil war between the Shiites and Sunnis over the next two years so that no sultan.
915 M

Shiites won the war, and in 302 H (915 AD), Sultan Maulana Syed Ali Mughat Alaiddin Shah of Shia flow throne. At the end of his reign happened again the battle between the Shiites and the Sunnis, who this time won by the Sunnis so that subsequent sultans were taken from the Sunnis.

956 M

In the year 362 H (956 AD), after the death of the seventh sultan, Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign, another upheaval for about four years between Shia and Sunni, which ended with a peace and a division of the kingdom into two parts:
986 M

Coastal Perlak (Shiite) led by Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin (986-988)
Perlak Outback (Sunni) led by Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (986-1023)
1006
Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin died while attacking the kingdom of Srivijaya Perlak Perlak and all re-united under the leadership of Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign who continue the struggle against Sriwijaya until the year 1006.
Merger with Ocean Pasai
1230
Sultan-17 Perlak, Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign II (reigned 1230 to 1267) run political friendship with marrying two daughters with neighboring rulers Peureulak:
• Princess Ratna Kamala, mated with King kingdom of Malacca, Sultan Muhammad Shah (Parameswara).
• Algae daughter, married to the King of the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean, Al Malik Al-Saleh.
1267
Sultan last Perlak was the 18th sultan, Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (reigned 1267 to 1292). After he died, Perlak united with the kingdom under the rule of Pasai Ocean Ocean Pasai sultan, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, son of Al Malik Al-Saleh.

List Sultan Perlak
Perlak sultans can be grouped into two dynasties: Maulana Syed Abdul Azis dynasty and Shah dynasty Johan Sovereign. Here’s a list sultan who ruled Perlak.
1. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz (840-864)
2. Alaiddin Sultan Maulana Syed Abdul Rahim Shah (864-888)
3. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abbas (888-913)
4. Maulana Syed Ali Sultan Alaiddin Mughat Shah (915-918)
5. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Abdul Kadir Johan Sovereign (928-932)
6. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign (932-956)
7. Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (956-983)
8. Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign [5] (986-1023)
9. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1023 – 1059)
10. Malik Sultan Mansur Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1059 – 1078)
11. Abdullah Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1078 – 1109)
12. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Ahmad Johan Sovereign (1109 – 1135)
13. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1135 – 1160)
14. Usman Malik Sultan Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1160 – 1173)
15. Malik Sultan Muhammad Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1173 – 1200)
16. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1200 – 1230)
17. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Muhammad Amin Malik Shah II Johan Sovereign (1230 – 1267)
18. Makhdum Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1267 – 1292)

Original info

Kesultanan Perlak

(abad ke-9abad ke-13)

Peureulak diarahkan ke halaman ini. Untuk kecamatan di Kabupaten Aceh Timur, lihat Peureulak, Aceh Timur

Kesultanan Peureulak adalah kerajaan Islam di Indonesia yang berkuasa di sekitar wilayah Peureulak, Aceh Timur, Aceh sekarang antara tahun 840 sampai dengan tahun 1292.

Perlak atau Peureulak terkenal sebagai suatu daerah penghasil kayu perlak, jenis kayu yang sangat bagus untuk pembuatan kapal, dan karenanya daerah ini dikenal dengan nama Negeri Perlak.

Hasil alam dan posisinya yang strategis membuat Perlak berkembang sebagai pelabuhan niaga yang maju pada abad ke-8, disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal yang antara lain berasal dari Arab dan Persia.

Hal ini membuat berkembangnya masyarakat Islam di daerah ini, terutama sebagai akibat perkawinan campur antara saudagar muslim dengan perempuan setempat

1112 M

Naskah Hikayat Aceh mengungkapkan bahwa penyebaran Islam di bagian utara Sumatera dilakukan oleh seorang ulama Arab yang bernama Syaikh Abdullah Arif pada tahun 506 H atau 1112 M.

1161 M

Lalu berdirilah kesultanan Peureulak dengan sultannya yang pertama Alauddin Syah yang memerintah tahun 520–544 H atau 1161–1186 M. Sultan yang telah ditemukan makamnya adalah Sulaiman bin Abdullah yang wafat tahun 608 H atau 1211 M.[1]

1178 M

Chu-fan-chi, yang ditulis Chau Ju-kua tahun 1225, mengutip catatan seorang ahli geografi, Chou Ku-fei, tahun 1178 bahwa ada negeri orang Islam yang jaraknya hanya lima hari pelayaran dari Jawa.[2]

Mungkin negeri yang dimaksudkan adalah Peureulak, sebab Chu-fan-chi menyatakan pelayaran dari Jawa ke Brunai memakan waktu 15 hari.

Eksistensi negeri Peureulak ini diperkuat oleh musafir Venesia yang termasyhur, Marco Polo, satu abad kemudian.

1291

Ketika Marco Polo pulang dari Cina melalui laut pada tahun 1291, dia singgah di negeri Ferlec yang sudah memeluk agama Islam

 

 

 

Perkembangan dan pergolakan

840

Sultan pertama Perlak adalah Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, yang beraliran Syiah dan merupakan keturunan Arab dengan perempuan setempat, yang mendirikan Kesultanan Perlak pada 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M).

Ia mengubah nama ibukota kerajaan dari Bandar Perlak menjadi Bandar Khalifah. Sultan ini bersama istrinya, Putri Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, kemudian dimakamkan di Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, Aceh Timur

913 M

Pada masa pemerintahan sultan ketiga, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah, aliran Sunni mulai masuk ke Perlak. Setelah wafatnya sultan pada tahun 363 H (913 M), terjadi perang saudara antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni sehingga selama dua tahun berikutnya tak ada sultan.

915 M

 

Kaum Syiah memenangkan perang dan pada tahun 302 H (915 M), Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah dari aliran Syiah naik tahta. Pada akhir pemerintahannya terjadi lagi pergolakan antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni yang kali ini dimenangkan oleh kaum Sunni sehingga sultan-sultan berikutnya diambil dari golongan Sunni.

956 M

 

Pada tahun 362 H (956 M), setelah meninggalnya sultan ketujuh, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat, terjadi lagi pergolakan selama kurang lebih empat tahun antara Syiah dan Sunni yang diakhiri dengan perdamaian dan pembagian kerajaan menjadi dua bagian:

986 M

 

Perlak Pesisir (Syiah) dipimpin oleh Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah (986988)

Perlak Pedalaman (Sunni) dipimpin oleh Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat (986 – 1023)

1006

Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah meninggal sewaktu Kerajaan Sriwijaya menyerang Perlak dan seluruh Perlak kembali bersatu di bawah pimpinan Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat yang melanjutkan perjuangan melawan Sriwijaya hingga tahun 1006.

Penggabungan dengan Samudera Pasai

1230

Sultan ke-17 Perlak, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12301267) menjalankan politik persahabatan dengan menikahkan dua orang putrinya dengan penguasa negeri tetangga Peureulak:

1267

Sultan terakhir Perlak adalah sultan ke-18, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12671292). Setelah ia meninggal, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di bawah pemerintahan sultan Samudera Pasai, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, putra Al Malik Al-Saleh.

 

Daftar Sultan Perlak

Sultan-sultan Perlak dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua dinasti: dinasti Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah dan dinasti Johan Berdaulat. Berikut daftar sultan yang pernah memerintah Perlak.

  1. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah (840864)
  2. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Rahim Shah (864888)
  3. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah (888913)
  4. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah (915918)
  5. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Kadir Shah Johan Berdaulat (928932)
  6. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Berdaulat (932956)
  7. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat (956983)
  8. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat [5] (9861023)
  9. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (10231059)

10.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mansur Shah Johan Berdaulat (10591078)

11.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdullah Shah Johan Berdaulat (10781109)

12.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ahmad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11091135)

13.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (11351160)

14.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Usman Shah Johan Berdaulat (11601173)

15.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11731200)

16.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Jalil Shah Johan Berdaulat (12001230)

17.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (12301267)

18.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (12671292)

 

 

Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (abad ke-13abad ke-16)

 

Samudra Pasai, Aceh Darussalam – The First Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia

Maret 7, 2012 — ZULFITRIANSYAH PUTRA

1. History

When the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai can not be ascertained accurately and still be a debate of the historians. However, there is confidence that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai established earlier than the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey which has become one superpower in the world civilization. If the Ottoman Dynasty began to put the power in about the year 1385 AD, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai been spreading its influence in Southeast Asia since 1297 AD.

 


A number of historians and researchers from Europe at the time of Dutch colonial occupation has been some time doing research to reveal the origin of the existence of one of the largest government in Aceh this earth. Some scholars and researchers from the Netherlands, including Snouck Hurgronje, JP Moquette, JL Moens, J. Poll Hushoff, GP Rouffaer, HKJ Cowan, and others, agree on the expectation that the new Sultanate of Samudera Pasai standing in the middle of the 13th century and by putting the name of Sultan Malik Al Salih as its founder (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo, 2006:50). Malik Al Salih own name is known and different writing, including Malik Ul Salih, Malik Al Saleh, Malikussaleh, Malik Al Salih, or Malik Saleh Ul.

a. The Origin of Ocean Pasai Nomination

The full names of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is “Aca Pasai Ocean”, which means “Ocean of good government in the capital Pasai” (HM Zainuddin, 1961:116). Centre of government is now no longer exists but its location is estimated to be around the state Blang Malay. The name “Ocean” that is used as the name of the island is now called Sumatra, as mentioned by the Portuguese. Previously, the name of the region is the island of Perca.

While the rover is coming from China / Chinese call it by name “Chincou”, which means “Island of Gold”, like that known from the writings of I’tsing.Kertanegara King, leader of the famous Singasari Government, saying this area Suwarnabhumi name, which means that it is similar to what is called by the people of China, “The Island of Gold”.

Sultanate of Samudera Pasai an Islamic government, which is located along the coast of northern Sumatra, more or less around the city of Lhokseumawe, North Aceh today. Written records that had been believed by historians to trace the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malay historiography is a three-book saga that King Pasai, Malay History, and thesaga of King Bakoy. Hikayat Raja Pasai give a big influence in efforts to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, although nuances of myth is still a problem in interpreting the truth.

About the name “Ocean” and “Pasai”, appeared a number of opinions that try to parse the origins of the use of the name. One is as set forth by European scholars, JL Moens, who says that the word “Pasai” comes from the term “Persian”. According to Moens, those traders who came from Persia to say the word “Pasai” with the text “Pa’Se.” Moens analysis can be accepted, with a note that since the 7th century AD the merchants who came from Persia has arrived and stopped in an area that later became the place of establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (MD Mansoer, 1963:59).

Opinion Moens received support from several people, including Prof. Gabriel Ferrand, in his work entitled L’Empire (1922), also in the book The Golden Khersonese (1961), written by Assoc. Paul Wheatley. Both work in leveraging data-data on the evidence of the rover from the Middle East to travel to Southeast Asia. Both Gabriel and Paul Wheatley Ferrand alike agree that since the 7th century AD, major ports in Southeast Asia, including in the Malacca Strait, have been visited by people traveling and the merchants who came from West Asia. Also mentioned that in all the cities there were trade-foundation or foundation settlement, the settlement of Muslim traders who stopped and stayed there.

H. Mohammad Said, a journalist as well as writers who dedicated his life to research and publish books events in Aceh, including the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, tend to conclude that the origin of the naming muasal “Pasai” comes from Chinese merchants.According to Said, the term “Po Se” is popularly used in the mid-eighth century AD, as found in the records and reports from the China trip rover, identical and similar to the mention of the word “Pase” or “Pasai” (Said, 1963:2004-205).

There is also an opinion that says that the name “Pasai” comes from the word “tapasai” which means “the sea”. The word “tapa” are frequently found in the Polynesian languages meaning “edge”. The word “Sai” can be interpreted as a “sea”, which is also included in the vocabulary of the Malay-Polynesian continent. The word “Pasai” is a synonym of the word “beach”.Similarly, the word “ocean” which also means “not far from the sea.” So, both “Ocean” or “Pasai” implies more or less the same, that “the country is situated on the sea” (Slamet Muljana, 2005:136).

Name Pasai Ocean and often was mentioned in various sources was found, both from external sources or local sources. The sources from outside the archipelago are often mentioned the existence of a region called the Ocean and Pasai such as reports or notes of the journey, the journey of Chinese origin, Arab, India, and Europe, who had stopped to Pasai Ocean region. The course notes as written by Marco Polo, Odorico, Ibn Batuta, Tome Pires, as well as news from China. While the source of the domestic one, as enshrined in the National Book Kertagama Mpu Prapanca written works within the 13th century until the 14th century AD.

Ibn Batuta, a Muslim traveler from Morocco, Morocco, for example, in a note saying that he had visited in 1345 M. Pasai Ibn Batuta, who stopped at Pasai for 15 days, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai describes as “a country that is green with a large port city and the beautiful.”Ibn Batuta tells, when I arrived in China, he saw the ship Sultan Pasai in the state. Indeed, Chinese sources said that there is a messenger Pasai routinely come to China to deliver the tribute.

Note on the Mongol Dynasty in China showed that some governments in Sumatra, including the Government of the Ocean / Pasai, had established relations with the Mongolian Government was under the command of Kubhilai Khan. Government Ocean / Pasai starting relationship with the Mongol Dynasty in 1282. Government Ocean / Pasai in touch with the great empires in Asia by the Chinese mission that returned from the South Indian Ocean with stops in Pasai. This event is regarded as the initial contact between Ocean Pasai with Chinese / Mongolian (Muhammad Gade Ismail, 1997:23).


Sultan Mausoleum of the First Marine Board Pasai

Other information also mentions that the Sultan had sent envoys Pasai Ocean to Quilon, Western India, in 1282 AD This proves that the Sultanate of Pasai have wide relations with other governments abroad. In addition, the travel notes titled Tuhfat Al-Nazha, Ibn Batuta said, at that time Pasai have transformed the center of Islamic studies in Southeast Asia.

Logging of Portuguese origin who had settled in Malacca in the period 1512-1515, Tomi Pires, said that Pasai is the most important city in time for the whole of Sumatra, because there are no other important places on the island unless Pasai. The name of the city by some people called the Ocean and then stick with the name Ocean Pasai and became a symbol to refer to the island of Sumatra. Pasai City, according to Tomi Pires, assessed a population of not less than 20,000 people (Ismail, 1997:37).

Marco Polo reported that in 1267 AD was established the first Islamic government of the archipelago, which is none other than the Sultanate Pasai. Marco Polo visited Pasai in the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih, exactly in 1292 AD, when the government has not been long standing, but has showed the potential prosperity. Marco Polo stopped the Ocean Pasai in network journey from China to Persia. At that time, Marco Polo from Italy to participate in the delegation who visited Sumatra sepulang attend the invitation of Kublai Khan, the King of the Mongols, who also controls the territory of China.Marco Polo mentions, people in Pasai at that time are still many who have not embraced the religion (Islam), but the community of Arabs, called by the name of Marco Saraceen – have quite a lot and plays an important role in the effort to circumcise the people of Aceh. Marco Polo mentions disinggahinya areas such as “Giava Minor” or “Java Minor” (Mohammad H. Said, 1963:82-83).

Apart from written sources and records in the course of the race rover, other evidence that at least some help to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from the remains of the abandoned civilization, like ancient tombs made of granite or marble and currency- Dirham namedDeureuham or are found in Sub-Ocean, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Time of the death of Sultan Malik Al Salih, the founder of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, knowing from his own writings that appear on a headstone is found in the Blang Me, ie in 697 Hijri or 1297 AD coincided with the years. Meanwhile, when Malik Al Salih was born not found evidence that more clear.


Applicable Currency Pasai Ocean

Pemkot Banda Aceh tutup aktivitas perburuan harta karun

Kamis, 14 November 2013 20:18 WIB | 1568 Views

Pewarta: Azhari

 

Harta Karun Koin Emas Warga memperlihatkan salah satu dari ratusan koin emas bertuliskan huruf arab yang ditemukan di kawasan situs cagar budaya Kerajaan Aceh, Desa Kampung Pande, Kecamatan Kutaraja, Banda Aceh, Selasa (12/11). Koin emas itu awalnya ditemukan oleh pencari tiram di dalam peti berukuran kecil dalam kawasan cagar budaya , namun sebagian koin emas itu tumpah ke sungai. (ANTARA FOTO/Ampelsa)

Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau.”

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Tari Saman nan Rancak

Banda Aceh (ANTARA News) – Pemerintah Kota Banda Aceh memutuskan menutup kawasan alur sungai Kecamatan Kutaraja untuk aktivitas para pemburu harta karun setelah masyarakat menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham dan benda-benda bersejarah lainnya di daerah itu.

“Kawasan Kuala Krueng Geudong, Kecamatan Kutaraja total ditutup dari berbagai aktivitas mencari barang-barang kuno termasuk koin emas,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh, Illiza Saaduddin Djamal di Banda Aceh, Kamis.

Seperti diberitakan sebelumnya, kawasan pinggiran Kota Banda Aceh itu mendadak ramai masyarakat mencari harta karun setelah seorang pencari kerang menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham milik kerajaan Aceh. 

“Kami sudah berkoordinasi dengan berbagai pihak, termasuk TNI dan Polri untuk membantu mengamankan lokasi tersebut,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal.

Sebab, menurut Wakil Wali Kota bahwa jika dibiarkan masyarakat terus mencari koin emas dan barang bersejarah lainnya maka akan merusak tatanan sosial dan bisa berdampak buruk.

Selain itu, katanya mengatakan bahwa jika pemerintah membiarkan warga bebas mencari benda-benda tersebut juga tidak menutup kemungkinan akan terjadi konflik di masyarakat.

Cara-cara pemburuan koin emas yang dilakukan ratusan orang juga sudah merusak kawasan cagar budaya, karena wilayah tersebut terdapat banyak situs sejarah masa kejayaan Aceh tempo dahulu, kata dia menambahkan .

“Bahkan menurut laporan yang kami terima, telah terjadi kerusakan bagian makam para raja dan keluarganya serta makam para ulama yang ada di sekitar tempat tersebut,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh Illiza menjelaskan.

Ia juga mengharapkan bagi yang telah menemukan koin emas segera melapor ke pemerintah kota dalam hal ini Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Banda Aceh.

“Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau. Kami juga meminta para kolektor yang telah membeli dirham itu agar berkoordinasi dengan Pemko Banda Aceh,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal mengharapkan. (A042/N005)

Editor: Tasrief Tarmizi

COPYRIGHT © 2013

 

The sources of the origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai muasal version of Western scholars who formulated the Dutch colonial era was different from what is believed to be leaders of national historians and scholars at the time when Indonesia gained its independence. In the “History of the National Seminar” held in Medan, North Sumatra, on March 17-20, 1963, and the seminar “Entry and Growth of Islam in Aceh”, which was held on July 10-16, 1978 in Banda Aceh, among others was attended by Prof Hamka, Prof. A.Hasjmy, Prof. H. Atjeh Aboe Bakar, H. Mohammad Said, and MD Mansoer, has raised a different perspective in the history of the establishment of the Sultanate of effort menelisik Pasai Ocean.

Based on a number of indicators and sources of more recent, including explanations of Arab travelers on the Southeast Asia as well as two local script is found in Aceh, namely “Idhahul Fi Mamlakatil Peureula Rights” by Abu Ishaq Al Makarany and “Tawarich Kings The Government of Aceh “, the experts concluded that the national history of Islamic government Pasai Ocean has stood since the 11th century, or rather the year 433 Hijri alias of calendar year 1042 AD (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:52).

The location of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, have been also efforts to research and investigation, one of them efforts by the Office of the excavation is done Archeological Department of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. From this research effort found that the location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai located in the area called Pasai, which is now located in the North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

According to GP Rouffaer, one Dutch scholar who seriously investigates the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, said that the first Pasai park on the right of Pasai River, while the Ocean is located on the left side of river.However, over time, both places are collected into one place and then made the establishment of a great kingdom, that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (T. Ibrahim Alfian, 1973:21).

b. Ocean, Pasai, and the influence of Egypt

There are several different views of formulating and interpreting the origin of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. One is the notion that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is a continuation of the history of pre-Islamic kingdoms that have existed previously. In a book entitled “The collapse of the Government and the emergence of Hindu-Javanese Muslim countries in the Archipelago”, Slamet Muljana wrote that Nazimuddin Al Kamil, Navy Admiral Fathimiah Dynasty in Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh and managed to dominate the region fertile Pasai known.Nazimuddin Al-Kamil later founded a kingdom at the mouth of the River Pasai in 1128 AD by the name of Pasai. The reason the government established the dynasty Fathimiah Pasai based on a desire to trade in the eastern coastal area of Sumatra that was very crowded.

Ambition is to soothe inflammation, Dynasty Fathimiah deploy a fleet of war in order to seize the city Kambayat in Gujarat, to open a port city in Pasai, and attacked the pepper producing area that is Right and Kampar Kampar Kiri in Minangkabau. In a military expedition to seize it in the Minangkabau region, Nazimuddin Al-Kamil died and his remains buried in Bangkinang, the Kampar River in 1128 was also the Senior (Muljana, 2005:133). In 1168, Fathimiah Dynasty, which was founded in 976 AD, was defeated by Saladin’s army who profess madzhab Shafi. With the collapse of the dynasty Fathimiah, the relationship with Egypt Pasai automatically disconnected.

In the same sources mentioned that the router Nazimuddin Al-Kamil as ruler of the Kingdom of Samudera Admiral Kafrawi Al-Kamil, but in 1204 AD Pasai power fell into the hands of Admiral of the Island We Johan Jani. Under the control of Admiral Johan Jani who is Persian-breed Indian, Pasai stronger and was transformed into the most powerful maritime nation in the Nusantara (Muljana, 2005:114).

In Egypt, there is a new dynasty to replace Fathimiah Dynasty. New Dynasty Dynasty Mamaluk is living in a time frame from 1285 to 1522. Like its predecessor, Dynasty Mamaluk also want to trade in the Pasai. In the early years of existence, Mamaluk Dynasty sent envoys to Pasai, ie, a preacher of the old Islamic learning in the holy land of Mecca known as Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad, a former scholar of the West Coast of India.

Pasai, the envoy was met with angry embarrassment that when it became a member of the armed forces Pasai. Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad managed to persuade the angry embarrassment for Moslems. Furthermore, with the help of Mamaluk Dynasty in Egypt, they founded the Kingdom of the Ocean as a counterbalance to Pasai. Angry embarrassment crowned the Sultan Government Ocean. Neither the Government nor Pasai Ocean, both located at the mouth of the River Pasai and facing toward the Strait of Malacca.

c. History Samudera Pasai in the saga

Another version of the history and development emerged from the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai which tells the tale of the existence of this government, especially in the saga of King Pasai. According to the narration found in theHikayat Raja Pasai, government, led by Sultan Malik Al Salih was first named the Ocean Kingdom. The Pasai is a new rule and accompanying the subsequent existence of the Government of the Ocean. The origin of the name of the government, there are stories that lie behind them.

In the saga of King Pasai told, the emergence of the name Kingdom of the Ocean began when angry embarrassment while walking with her pet dog named Pasai. When they arrived at a high altitude, a dog belonging hesistate Angry sudden loud barking because it met with a large red ants.Anger and embarrassment to catch the giant ants and then eat it. From here arises ilhamnya to name a new government founded under the name of the Government’s Ocean original language could be interpreted as “a big red ants.”


Copy First Page Masjid Pasai


While the origin of Pasai, the story of the same post, one day, angry that embarrassment when it was called the Sultan Malik Al Salih after leading the Government’s Ocean, with the controller is doing at any hunting dog named Sultan who is also participating Pasai . Occurred a strange incident when Pasai released into the forest and see a deer, two different animal species together with the familiar talking. When Sultan Malik Al Salih want to catch it, the deer ran into the arms of a dog named Sultan Pasai it. In a surprise, Sultan Malik Al Salih was minded to build a state in place.

Once the land is located, by Sultan Malik Al Salih Pasai named, as the name of the dog that inspired the construction of the new state. The dog was alone and dying in the new state. As the representative of Sultan Malik Al Salih is still residing in the Kingdom of the Ocean, then dititahkanlah son named Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul to lead Pasai (Russell Jones [ed.], 1999:23).

Although quite a lot of researchers are leaning Pasai Masjid as a platform source of information to reveal the history and origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, but not least is the dubious validity. This is because the story is not a purely historical range, but many are interspersed with stories which might not have really happened, but not uncommon form of stories and myths that are difficult to accept that logic, the legitimacy of government that existed at the time it.

Cast doubt on the truth contained in the saga of King Pasai such as presented by AD Hill stated that the text of the Hikayat Raja Pasai third part was only just beginning. Similarly, Teuku Ibrahim Alfian disappointed that because of the mention of Masjid Pasai historical data, so it had to take information from other sources. In fact, never mentions that Snouck Hugronje Pasai Masjid was “a fairy story chlidren. Hugronje scathing statement it seems is a peak fatality Pasai Masjid as a source of historical information. These data show that during the literature has been seen in the pragmatic dimension through the study of historical or Filologis (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 2002:36).

d. The existence of Pasai Ocean Journey

Before embracing Islam, the original name of Malik Al Salih was angry embarrassment or Meurah Shiloh. “Meurah” is a call to honor those who exalted rank, while the “Silo” could be perceived as glare or sparkle. Angry embarrassment is a descendant of Imam Four or tribe is often referred to Sukee Imuem Peuet, which is a reference to the four sons of Emperor / Meurah brothers who came from the Mon Khmer (Champa) who is the founder of the first governments in Aceh prior to entry and growth of Islam.

Ancestors who founded the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh is among the Emperor Syahir Po-He-La are building government Peureulak (Po-He-La) in East Aceh, Syahir Tanwi flying the flag of the Government Jeumpa (Champa) in Peusangan ( Bireuen), Syahir Poly (Pau-Ling) who uphold the banner of Indra Government Cooperation in Pidie, as well as trigger the establishment of Syahir Nuwi Indra of the Ancient Kingdom of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar.

In the saga of King Pasai told that Marah Marah berayahkan embarrassment and his mother was daughter Gadjah Sewer. Angry embarrassment to have a brother named Marah Sum. After the death of his parents, two brothers left home and began wandering life. Sum angry then became the ruler of the territory Bieruen, while angry embarrassment on the upper reaches of open land Peusangan located not far from the mouth of the River Pasai until finally it became the throne of the Kingdom of the Ocean.


Batu Nisan Angry embarrassment or Sultan Malik Al Salih

As mentioned earlier, angry embarrassment alias Sultan Malik Al Salih Islam on the blarney Mamaluk Dynasty envoys of Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and Fakir. Angry Islamic embarrassment reaffirmed in the saga of King Pasai to provide records that the Prophet Muhammad has mentioned the name of the Government of the Ocean, and also for people in the government diislamkan by one of the companions of the Prophet, in this case is defined as the Sheikh Ismail. With the entry of this saga, it is possible that the teachings of Islam had entered the territory of Aceh shortly after the Prophet Muhammad died, which is in about the first century of Hijra, or about the 7th century or the AD-8 years. Can be expected is that Islam is brought into Aceh directly from Mecca (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:58-59).

The data on Islam in Masjid Pasai Pasai by showing that Pasai the first place that diislamkan. Apparently, such as written in the saga of King Pasai, Prophet Muhammad (Allah) did that brought Islam to the Ocean / Pasai, was in bed when face to face in the embarrassment the Anger of Allah. Prophet Muhammad was the mensyahdatkan and make angry embarrassment to read the Qur’an as much as 30 juz, which is after the Prophet spat in the mouth angry embarrassment. He also makes angry embarrassment was circumcised. Islamization through a direct role Messenger presumably indicates that the essential process of Pasai. In this process Angry hesistate to stay until the process of Islamization was named to run smoothly (Chamamah, 2002:40).

When Malik Salih Al Sultan was named as the first Government of the Ocean, the coronation ceremony conducted by Arab forces in the Al Salih Malik wore crowned with awards from the government of Mecca. This means, the coronation is in Arabic, not by way of India. This means longer, Malik Al Salih likely have converted to Islam at the time of Sultan Government crowned Ocean. After the coronation ceremony, all the warlords and the people immediately honor and worship them by calling the new sultan: “Long live Daulat Shah Alam Zilluilahi fil-natural.” Mention of honorary degrees to the king is also very closely with Arab names.

In a series of similar ceremonies, were also set two Big Man, as an adviser to Sultan, which is rich and Tun Tun Sri Sri Baba Rich. Aroma Islam more so when the second man was later given the title of an effective Arab, each with the name of Sayid Ali Khiatuddin to Tun Sri Kaya and Sayid Asmayuddin to Tun Sri Baba Rich (Said, 1963:85).

Sultan Malik Al Salih was married to Princess algae Sari, descendants of Sultan Aladdin Muhammad Amin bin Abdul Kadi of Government Perlak. From this marriage, Sultan Malik Al Salih blessed with two sons, namely Muhammad and Abdullah. Later, Muhammad is believed to lead Pasai, called Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul (Sultan Malik Al Tahir), side by side with his father, who still lead the Government’s hefty Ocean. The second son of Sultan Malik Al Salih, Abdullah, to opt out of a large family and Pasai Ocean Government, by establishing self-government Aru Barumun Sultanate in 1295.

Under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Pasai experiencing the success. Ibn Batuta record times achieved a golden era Pasai the reign of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Ibn Batuta recorded that the lands in the region so fertile Pasai. Trade and business activities in the government that was sufficiently advanced, proven to have used the currency, including foreign currencies made of gold, as a means of transaction in the economic life of the people Pasai. In addition to establishing relations with countries from outside the archipelago, the trade relations with merchants from the island of Java was so good. In fact, the merchant Java gets special treatment because they have not collected the tax. Typically, those traders from Java to change the rice with the pepper.


Masjid Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul


Ibn Batuta tells, after sailing for 25 days from Barhnakar (now in the territory of Myanmar), he landed in a place that is very fertile. Ibn Batuta can not cover the taste so kagumnya Pasai centers around the city. He was so amazed to see a very beautiful city surrounded by magnificent walls. Ibn Batuta noted that he had to walk about four miles to ride from the port which he called Sahra to get to the center of town. Government center of the city is big enough and beautiful and comes with a tower-dancing made of solid timber. At the center of the city, writes Ibn Batuta, a place to stay the ruling and aristocratic government. The most important building is the Sultan Palace and Mosque (Ismail, 1997:37).

In the fence that surrounds the city, the residence of the rulers and nobles of the people covered by government outside the fence. All commercial life in the town, the newcomers from the countryside, the strangers, the craftsmen, and all other urban activities located outside the fences around the center of town. Foreign persons are often not allowed to live in a certain distance from the Palace of the Sultan, but sometimes they have to live outside the city.

If the explanation of Ibn Batuta is considered correct, it can be said that the city government center Pasai sultans who ruled in Pasai, in the middle area is a core area which is occupied by the Sultan Palace. The palace has a fence that serves as a boundary that distinguishes the Sultan Palace the market area where trade activities and other activities take place.

According to Ibn Batuta records, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is the figure of a leader who has a passion to learn the high demands of Islamic sciences.Batuta also noted that Islamic studies center that was built within the government into a discussion among scholars and government elites. Ibn Batuta even include the name of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul as one of the seven kings of the world that has tremendous advantages. The seventh king who has the uncanny ability by Ibn Batuta among others, the King of the Malay Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul dinilainya the breadth and depth of knowledge, the King of the Romans are very forgiving, King of Iraq a courteous, very friendly Raja Hindustani, the noble king of Yemen, Turkey mighty king, king of Turkistan, and wise.

Effects of Ibn Batuta the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is so deep.As king, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is a very good, generous, humble, and have noticed the poor. Although he had conquered many kingdoms, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul never be jumawa. Sultan, said Batuta, was a leader of Islamic law is put forward. “Very humble personality. He went to the mosque for Friday prayers on foot. Finished praying, Sultan and his entourage around the city for ordinary people to see the situation, “as Ibn Batuta describes the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Humility is one of the Sultan welcomed the group is shown when Ibn Batuta (Republika, May 21, 2008).

In its golden period, and the Government Pasai Ocean appears to be a center of international trade. Government of the Islamic port was crowded with traders and merchants from different continents such as Asia, Africa, China, and Europe. The region where the Government stands and Pasai Ocean, namely in the Malacca Strait, it is a strategic business areas. At that time, the Malacca Strait is a sea trade route is often the location of the transaction and called on merchants from all corners of the earth, as from Siam (Thailand), China, India, Arabia, to Persia (Iran).


Position Pasai (Pacém) in the Map Trade in Asia

In addition to the trade center, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is also a center of religion and government emerged as the first in Indonesia to follow the teachings of Islam. The success of the Sultanate and the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean, located in Ocean Geudong, Aceh Utara, beginning with the consolidation of small government in the area Perlak, such as Jungle and Seumerlang Jreum. In the period of the 13th century to early 16th-century, Pasai is the area’s leading producer of spices in the world, with pepper as one of the prime commodity. Each year, Pasai able to export pepper with a big production. Not only that, Pasai also a producer of other commodities such as silk, camphor, and gold.

Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul have two sons, namely Malikul Mansur Mahmud and Malikul. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul ultimately died because of illness, the leadership reins temporarily handed Pasai Sultan Malik Al Salih, who also led the Government of the Ocean, because the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul still a very young age. By Sultan Malik Al Salih, the two tribes had been referred to the standard figures that they may well lead the government at a later time. Malikul Mahmud handed over to Sayid Ali Baharuddin, while educated by Sayid Mansur Malikul Semayamuddin.

When the prince is growing up and felt ready to lead the government, the Sultan Malik Al Salih also stepped down from his throne, including the two governments, namely the Government and Pasai Ocean. Instead, according to the agreement, General Persons, lifted the Sultan Mahmud Malikul Pasai, while the Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean Kingdom. However, the harmony of the sultan’s brother and sister did not last long due to the feud between them. The cause is the act of Sultan Mansur who was fond of one of his wife of Sultan Mahmud’s brother is none other than his own. In the end, Sultan Mansur was arrested and expelled from the kingdom until later died in transit. Be Malikul Sultan Mahmud dominated government throne Pasai Ocean and the government to digabungkanlah became the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

Since 1346, the leadership of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malikul under the regime of Sultan Mahmud was succeeded by his son named Ahmad Permadala Permala. Once crowned as the ruler of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, he was awarded honorary degrees by the name of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir. In Hikayat Raja told Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir endowed five children, three of them boys while the rest were two girls. Three sons of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir each named Tun Beraim father, Tun Abdul Jalil, and the Tun Abdul Fadil. While her two daughters are named Tun and Tun Takiah Medam Bitter Virgin.

Had a really embarrassing thing happened on the way the leadership of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, which in turn is closely linked to the image as a bad leader. According to the Hikayat Raja Pasai, The Sultan was put doted on his own two daughters, namely Tun Tun Takiah field and Bitter Virgin.Extreme attitudes of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir is of course raises the wrath of many parties, including Tun Beraim Father who is none other than the eldest son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir.

Tun Beraim Father dear life to protect his sister from the savagery of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir by running them for safekeeping in a place. Feel opposed by his own son, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir get mad and then ordered the guards to kill Tun Beraim Father. Prince should be the crown prince was eventually killed after eating the poison given the messenger of the father (Jones [ed.], 1999:35-56). Not long after, the sister of Father Tun Beraim soon followed his brother to take the same poison.

Terrorism Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir not stop there. The Sultan returned berulah rude when I heard the news that there was a princess of the Majapahit Kingdom, Radin Galuh clang, the two fell in love with the son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, namely Tun Abdul Jalil. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir feel offended because he himself is also put at the heart of the beautiful daughter of the King of Majapahit. And then, as enshrined in thesaga of King Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir again mandated the lives of his men to finish Tun Abdul Jalil, and when the plan is successful, the bodies of Tun Abdul Jalil sunk into the sea. Meanwhile, because love is not unbearable, Radin Galuh clink together Pasai determined to go to the controller to meet Tun Abdul Jalil.

Arriving at Pasai, the delegation of Majapahit was to hear that clink Galuh sweethearts Radin is dead, killed by his own father. The Princess is not the power of rage and then sink yourself into the sea in which the remains were buried Tun Abdul Jalil earlier. The remaining guards who accompanied the delegation Radin Galuh clink right back into Java and report to the King of Majapahit about these tragic events.

The King of course heard the anger and outrage of his daughter’s death was Sultan Pasai, and then immediately ordered the army to prepare to attack Majapahit Pasai. Still time to give the game, battle fleet was superior to the kingdom of Majapahit and succeeded in occupying Pasai. Because of the desperate, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir escape to a place called suspect, which is located about fifteen days journey from the State Pasai.

Meanwhile, after a resounding victory by conquering Pasai, the team began preparing for war Majapahit back to Java after taking the spoils and prisoners of war from Pasai. On the way to Java, the Majapahit soldiers first camp stop at Palembang and Jambi to conquer the land, thus bringing more items to loot. Such is the story of the conquest of the kingdom of Majapahit to Pasai as told in the book saga of King Pasai (Jones [ed.], 1999:57-65).

In the genealogy of the rulers of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai lead, there was a female sultan was enthroned in the great state. Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah) Malikul Zahir reigning from 1420 to 1428, or about eight years.Sultanah Nahrasiyah has named adviser to the title of Emperor Ariya Bakooy Bakooy Ahmad Permala. Ariya Bakooy is actually a controversial figure. It had warned people not to marry his daughter scholar himself, but the warning was ditentangnya. In fact, Ariya Bakooy and even kill the 40 scholars. Ariya Bakooy finally fell to the title of Malik Musthofa Pocut Cindan Node Alam, who is none other than her husband Sultanah Nahrasiyah, with the help of Sultan Mahmud Syah Johan Alaiddin of the Government of Aceh Darussalam (1409-1465).

Sultanah Nahrasiyah a Muslim woman of great spirit. This is evidenced by his home décor is very special. In nisannya, Arabic translation of the letter written citation reads: “This is the tomb of the holy women who shine Dear queen, who departed his sins forgiven, Nahrasiyah, daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, son of Sultan Ahmad, son of Sultan Muhammad, son of Sultan Salih Mailkus. Mercy is poured on them and their sins forgiven. By the grace of God died on Monday, 17-Hijjah 832. “(Pocut Haslinda Hamid Azwar,www.modusaceh-news.com, 2009).


Tomb Complex refurbishment Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah)

e. The remains of civilization collapse and Pasai Ocean

The success of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai begin to experience the threat of the greatest civilizations of Java at that time, from the Majapahit Empire of Gadjah Mada as the most legendary mahapatihnya. Gadjah Mada was appointed as governor in Kahuripan in the period 1319-1321 AD by the King of Majapahit who at that time occupied by Jayanegara. In 1331, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih when promoted to be led by Ratu Majapahit Tribuana Tunggadewi. When the appointment of Gadjah Mada became Mahapatih Majapahit is out with his speech called Palapa Oath, that the Gadjah Mada palapa will not enjoy the fruit before the entire archipelago under the Majapahit Kingdom power.

Gadjah Mada Mahapatih apparently little disturbed to hear the news about the greatness of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai across the sea there.Majapahit concerned about the rapid progress of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Therefore, Gadjah Mada then prepare the plan of attack to conquer the ocean Pasai Majapahit. Rumors about military attacks Majapahit, which Syiwa Hindus, the Muslim government Pasai Ocean Santer heard among the people in Aceh. Expedition Pamalayu war fleet under the command of the Majapahit Kingdom, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih action began in 1350 with several phases.

Initial attack on the border of Majapahit Perlak have failed because the location is heavily guarded by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.However, Gadjah Mada University does not cancel the attack. He retreated to the sea and find the open on the east coast that is not maintained. Elephant River, Gadjah Mada landed troops and establish a fortress on the hill, which until now known as the Hill or Bukit Meutan Gadjah Mada (Muljana, 2005:140).

Furthermore, Gadjah Mada conduct the interrogation of two major attacks, that the department of marine and terrestrial field. The attack was launched on the coast by sea in Lhokseumawe and Jambu Air. While incursions by road is via Paya Gajah located between Perlak and Pedawa. Attack of the land have failed because it is blocked by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. While the attacks are done via the sea route instead to reach the palace.


The power of the Majapahit Empire territories, including the Ocean Pasai

In addition to reasons of political factors, the Ocean Pasai Majapahit attacks also triggered because of the economic interest. Commercial progress and prosperity in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Gadjah Mada had wanted to get of that success. Expansion of Majapahit in order to dominate the region has been repeatedly Pasai Ocean and the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai was still able to hold before it finally began to recede slowly over the strengthening influence of Majapahit in the Strait of Malacca.

Until about the 16th century, Ocean Pasai still able to maintain its role as a city that has commercial activities with foreign countries. The historian who shed his interest in economic development was noted that Pasai occupies a position as an international center of trade activity in the archipelago since the role of Kedah successfully rebutted (Said, 1963:125).

But then, a role previously Pasai extremely important in trade flows in Southeast Asia and the world suffered a decline with the advent of the trading town of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (Ismail, 1997:24). Malaka city soon became the prima donna in the field of trade and began to shift the position of Pasai. Not long after Malacca was built, the city in a short time immediately flooded with immigrants, immigrants from Java.

Due to the rapid advancement of Malacca is obtained, the position and role of Pasai more and more cornered, almost all business activities become loose and eventually broke completely in the hands of Malacca since 1450.Moreover, the ambition plus the arrival of the Portuguese trade in the Malay Peninsula. The Portuguese who in 1521 managed to occupy the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (Rusdi Sufi, 2004:57)

Not only that, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai in Aceh weakened when the government established a pioneering start to a great civilization and progress. The new rule is that the Government of Aceh which was founded by Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam itself built on the ruins of the kingdoms that ever existed in Aceh at the time of pre-Islamic, like the Ancient Kingdom of Indra, Indra Purwa Government, Government Indra Patra, and the Government Indrapura. In 1524, the Government of Aceh under the leadership of Sultan Ali Shah attacked the Sultanate Mughayat Pasai Ocean. Consequently, the greatness of Government prestige Ocean Pasai more completely overcast before the collapse. Since then, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the control of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam.

Traces of the civilization heritage of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai found, in 1913 and 1915 by a Dutch scientist named JJ de Vink, who took the initiative to conduct an inventory of the former omission Pasai Ocean. Then, in 1937 was done in a cemetery restoration efforts sultans Pasai Ocean by the Dutch colonial government. Then, in 1972, 1973, and in 1976 the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai relics found in the Ocean Geudong district, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, has diinventarisasi by the Director General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

Recent developments, in the year 2009 has been found several relics related to the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. In March 2009, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team informed us that they have discovered the tomb of Al Wazir Al Afdal, who served as Prime Minister of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Grave is located in Teupin Ara, Ocean District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

Al Wazir Al Afdhal known to have served as prime minister during the reign of the last regime Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zain al Abidin is also often known by the name of Sultan Zainal Abidin, who ruled for two terms, namely in the period 1477-1500 and 1513-1524 . From the findings obtained evidence that Al Wazir Al Afdal Zulkaedah died on 7 months of 1518 in 923 H or M. In the same year, Sultan Zainal Abidin also died. At the cemetery headstone Al Wazir Al Afdal, there are poems that describe kezuhudan that the world is transient, just like a nest of spiders knit. The same poem was written on the grave of Sultan Malik Al Salih who expressed the sinking of the Ocean civilization Pasai (www.indowarta.com, March 25, 2009).

On the occasion of Meanwhile, the Islamic Cultural History of the Research Team also claimed to have found a stamp or mark the estimated age of 683 years. Stamp of the government that is predicted to belong Malikul Sultan Muhammad Zahir, the second sultan Pasai Ocean, was found not far from the tomb of Abdullah bin Muhammad, in the village of Kuta Krueng, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Abdullah bin Muhammad (died 816 H/1414 M) itself is one of the descendants of the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustanshir Billah, who holds Shadr Al Akabir (leader of the speaker) in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai at that time.

Seals are found to have broken at the handle portion measuring 2 × 1 cm, and apparently made from a type of animal horns. From finding a location in Kuta FORUM, estimated mark was used until the reign of the last leader of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zainal Abidin (www.acehlong.com, March 17, 2009).

Then, in June 2009, the Foundation dedicated team of researchers from Nurul Islam (YWNI) Lhokseumawe announced that they had found the tomb is believed to be the last place persemayaman Kanayan King, a warlord in the reign of Sultan Zain Al-Abidin. Tomb of King Kanayan found in the village of Meunasah Ujoung Blang Me, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Based on the research, it is known that King Kanayan died on Friday, December 3 Sha’ban 872 H or 1468 AD. Thus, King Kanayan have lived during the reign of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai some regimes, and died at the time of Sultan Zainal Abidin.

Besides the tomb of King Kanayan, also found a number of other tombs. In fact, the research team predict there are other tie-tie disappear into the ground at the tomb complex is situated not far from the east bank of the River Pasai it. The new tombs were found is not listed in the inventory of the historical site of Culture (www.waspadaonline.com, June 20, 2009).

Finally, in August 2009, the Research Institute of Islamic History (LePSI) Lhokseumawe revealed that they are reviewing the manuscript letter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, died in 923 Hijri or 1518 AD. The letter was addressed to Captain Moran representatives acting on behalf of the King of Portugal in India. Photographic copies can be seen at the Museum Negeri Aceh, while the original manuscript held in Lisbon, Portugal.

The script provides a lot of historical information about the happenings Pasai Ocean in the early 16th century, especially the last condition that caused the first Islamic kingdom in Southeast Asia, having managed to master the Portuguese of Malacca in 1511 AD. Scripts Arabic letters also indicate the names of some state or government who have a close relationship with the Ocean Pasai so we can know the original spelling of the names of states or governments, among others Nergeri Fariyaman (Pariaman) and Mulaqat (Malacca) (www.waspadaonline. com, August 21, 2009).

2. Genealogy of the Kings

Here the names of the sultan / Sultanah known ever to lead the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai:

1. Sultan Malik al-Salih (1267-1297)
2. Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
3. Sultan Mahmud Malikul
4. Sultan Mansur Malikul
5. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383)
6. Zain Al-Abidin Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (1383-1405)
7. Sultanah Nahrasiyah or Sultanah Nahrisyyah (1420-1428)
8. Sultan Sallah Ad-Din (1402)
9. Sultan Abu Zaid Malik Az-Zahir 1455)
10. Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1455-1477)
11. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1477-1500)
12. Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir (1501-1513)
13. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1513-1524)


Genealogy Sultan / Sultanah Sultanate Masjid Ocean Pasai According Pasai.

Sultan Malik Al Salih lead the Sultanate of Samudera, while his son, Sultan Muhammad Zahir is the ruler of the Sultanate of Malikul Pasai. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul died, the government of the Sultanate of Pasai held by Sultan Malik Al Salih for a while while waiting for the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, namely Malikul and Malikul Mansur Mahmud, was growing up. After the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is considered able to be a leader, Sultan Malik Al Salih resigned from the sultan of the government he leads is.

Furthermore, Sultan Malik Al Salih handed control of the government to the tribes, each of the Sultanate of Pasai Malikul Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Ocean to Malikul. The time period of the reign of the third sultan, that Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Malikul Sultan Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Malikul, deliberately not mentioned because there are some irregularities concerning this matter, including those listed in the saga of King Pasai.

Kesimpang-siuran the period of the reign of each sultan / Sultanah the obstacle, and because of that century years are included in the list above is an interpretation of some information that was found. Similarly, the mention of the name or title of each sultan / Sultanah that we found so many versions. In addition, incomplete information about anyone sultan / Sultanah who ruled the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai a massage and runtut also cause other problems because of not necessarily what is written in the genealogy of the rulers who had recorded all the reign in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

3. Regional Power

In the century to the 14th century, the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already very famous and influential and has a vast territory. The powerful fleet of war is to support the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai to expand its power, both in order to dominate and occupy the territory of another state or by the mission to spread Islam. Pasai Ocean territory of the Sultanate of success lies in an area that is flanked by two large rivers in the North Coast of Aceh, namely the Peusangan and Pasai River. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai territory also includes the Ocean Geudong (Aceh Utara), Meulaboh, Bireuen, and Jungle Jreum and Seumerlang (Perlak).


Power Ocean Territory Pasai

Meanwhile, some are embracing the opinion that the territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai cover a wider area to the south, ie to the mouth of the River Jambu Ayer (Ismail, 1997:7). Clearly, the vast territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai covered along the river upstream of the upstream-derived remote Gayo Highlands, now in the administrative area of Central Aceh District, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai also successfully expanded its territory to the outside of the ground in Aceh. Some rural areas of the state administrations under the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai include Minangkabau, Palembang, Jambi, Patani, Malacca, even to their various governments on the coast of Java (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:61).

4. Governance System

The composition of the community who become citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai show-layered character. According Ayatrohaedi, the layer consists of Sultan and the government of Persons in the top layer to slave on the bottom layer (Ayatrohaedi, 1992). In the group of layers of bureaucracy looks the group of Persons, the prime minister, ministers, soldiers, officers, and other nobles of the kingdom.

The existence of those engaged in commerce, such as those who deal in, the sail, the town, masters, and others. Although the total population of Arabs who live in Pasai not by the people of India, but among the Arabs is very influential in the way of government, even though the policies of Sultan Pasai. This situation is seen since the early formation of the Sultanate of Pasai and lasts a long time until this government changed the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

In the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih as the first ruler of the Sultanate of Pasai, there are a number of Persons in the state, among other things, and Tun Tun Sri Kaya Kaya Baba. The names that clearly indicate their position, called the Great Persons. This is in accordance with the articulation of government Persons in the Malay Peninsula and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as the Rich Man (Ismail, 1997:39).

Second Person of the way the government take control of the Sultanate of Pasai, each was given the title and Sayid Sayid Ali Ghitauddin Asmayuddin, as has been mentioned before in the Islamic Anger or embarrassment Sultan Malik Al Salih. In the story illustrated clearly that Great Persons are mentioned as prime minister, one for the Sultanate of Pasai and another for the Sultanate of Samudera. Their position is very important in there place since the regime of Sultan Malik Al Salih until the era of the reign of his grandson and Malikul Malikul Mahmud Mansur.


One manuscript indicates presence Pasai

In the second grandson of Sultan Malik Al Salih was in power in their government, there is a dispute between them, ie when Malikul Mansur indecent acts against one of his wives Malikul Mahmud. Despicable acts knowing that his brother, Sultan Mahmud had Malikul speech that if he does not respect Asmayuddin Sayid, who is an advisor in the Sultanate of Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean, Malikul Sultan Mahmud would have killed his own brother for acts of contempt are not forgiven. This fragment is sufficient to prove that how strong the effect of the Persons of the wheels of government take control, even to the level of personal and psychological affect Sultan.

In the next era of leadership, which under the regime of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383), the government of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai controlled by four prime ministers, each of which called Tulus Great Tailor Sukara, Baba Mentuha, Solomon Dendang Water and Tun Shah Alam City (Jones [ed.], 1999:36). Still the same as in previous times, the fourth prime minister of the exercise of its functions as an adviser to the Sultan and influenced government policy even though the final decision still remains in the hands of Sultan Pasai Ocean. Social and political life of citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is colored by cultural and religious elements of Islam. His administration is a theocracy (based on the teachings of Islam), and most people embrace Islam

Kesultanan Malaka (abad ke-14abad ke-17)

1402

Kesultanan Malaka (14021511) adalah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan oleh Parameswara, seorang putera Sriwijaya yang melarikan diri dari perebutan Palembang oleh Majapahit. Ibu kota kerajaan ini terdapat di Melaka, yang terletak pada penyempitan Selat Malaka. Kesultanan ini berkembang pesat menjadi sebuah entrepot dan menjadi pelabuhan terpenting di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-15 dan awal 16. Malaka runtuh setelah ibu kotanya direbut Portugis pada 1511.

Kegemilangan yang dicapai oleh Kerajaan Melaka adalah daripada beberapa faktor yang penting. Antaranya, Parameswara telah mengambil kesempatan untuk menjalinkan hubungan baik dengan negara Cina ketika Laksamana Yin Ching mengunjungi Melaka pada tahun 1403. Malah, salah seorang daripada sultan Melaka telah menikahi seorang putri dari negara Cina yang bernama Putri Hang Li Po. Hubungan erat antara Melaka dengan Cina telah memberi banyak manfaat kepada Melaka. Melaka mendapat perlindungan dari Cina yang merupakan sebuah kuasa besar di dunia untuk mengelakkan serangan Siam.

Sejarah

Parameswara pada awalnya mendirikan kerajaan di Singapura pada tahun 1390-an. Negeri ini kemudian diserang oleh Jawa dan Siam, yang memaksanya hijrah lebih ke utara. Kronik Dinasti Ming mencatat Parameswara telah berdiam di ibukota baru di Melaka pada 1403, tempat armada Ming yang dikirim ke selatan menemuinya. Sebagai balasan upeti yang diberikan Kekaisaran Cina menyetujui untuk memberikan perlindungan pada kerajaan baru tersebut. [1]

Parameswara kemudian menganut agama Islam setelah menikahi putri Pasai. Laporan dari kunjungan Laksamana Cheng Ho pada 1409 menyiratkan bahwa pada saat itu Parameswara masih berkuasa, dan raja dan rakyat Melaka sudah menjadi muslim. [2]. Pada 1414 Parameswara digantikan putranya, Megat Iskandar Syah.[1][2]

Megat Iskandar Syah memerintah selama 10 tahun, dan digantikan oleh Muhammad Syah. Putra Muhammad Syah yang kemudian menggantikannya, Raja Ibrahim, tampaknya tidak menganut agama Islam, dan mengambil gelar Sri Parameswara Dewa Syah. Namun masa pemerintahannya hanya 17 bulan, dan dia mangkat karena terbunuh pada 1445. Saudara seayahnya, Raja Kasim, kemudian menggantikannya dengan gelar Sultan Mudzaffar Syah.

Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Mudzaffar Syah Melaka melakukan ekspansi di Semenanjung Malaya dan pantai timur Sumatera (Kampar dan Indragiri). Ini memancing kemarahan Siam yang menganggap Melaka sebagai bawahan Kedah, yang pada saat itu menjadi vassal Siam. Namun serangan Siam pada 1455 dan 1456 dapat dipatahkan.

Di bawah pemerintahan raja berikutnya yang naik tahta pada tahun 1459, Sultan Mansur Syah, Melaka menyerbu Kedah dan Pahang, dan menjadikannya negara vassal. Di bawah sultan yang sama Johor, Jambi dan Siak juga takluk. Dengan demikian Melaka mengendalikan sepenuhnya kedua pesisir yang mengapit Selat Malaka.

Mansur Syah berkuasa sampai mangkatnya pada 1477. Dia digantikan oleh putranya Alauddin Riayat Syah. Sultan memerintah selama 11 tahun, saat dia meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Mahmud Syah. [3]

Mahmud Syah memerintah Malaka sampai tahun 1511, saat ibu kota kerajaan tersebut diserang pasukan Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso de Albuquerque. Serangan dimulai pada 10 Agustus 1511 dan berhasil direbut pada 24 Agustus 1511. Sultan Mahmud Syah melarikan diri ke Bintan dan mendirikan ibukota baru di sana. Pada tahun 1526 Portugis membumihanguskan Bintan, dan Sultan kemudian melarikan diri ke Kampar, tempat dia wafat dua tahun kemudian. Putranya Muzaffar Syah kemudian menjadi sultan Perak, sedangkan putranya yang lain Alauddin Riayat Syah II mendirikan kerajaan baru yaitu Johor.

[sunting] Daftar raja-raja Malaka

  1. Parameswara (1402-1414)
  2. Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)
  3. Sultan Muhammad Syah (1424-1444)
  4. Seri Parameswara Dewa Syah(1444-1445)
  5. Sultan Mudzaffar Syah (1445-1459)
  6. Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477)
  7. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)
  8. Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1528)

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan dari Samudera Pasai yang pada tahun 1360 ditaklukkan oleh Majapahit hingga kemundurannya di abad ke-14. Kesultanan Aceh terletak di utara pulau Sumatera dengan ibu kota Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) dengan sultan pertamnya adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil awal 913 H atau pada tanggal 8 September 1507. Dalam sejarahnya yang panjang itu (14961903), Aceh telah mengukir masa lampaunya dengan begitu megah dan menakjubkan, terutama karena kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan pola dan sistem pendidikan militer, komitmennya dalam menentang imperialisme bangsa Eropa, sistem pemerintahan yang teratur dan sistematik, mewujudkan pusat-pusat pengkajian ilmu pengetahuan, hingga kemampuannya dalam menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain.[1]

Sejarah

Awal mula

Kesultanan Aceh didirikan oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah pada tahun 1496. Diawal-awal masa pemerintahannya wilayah Kesultanan Aceh berkembang hingga mencakup Daya, Deli, Pedir, Pasai, dan Aru. Pada tahun 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah digantikan oleh putera sulungnya yang bernama Salahuddin, yang kemudian berkuasa hingga tahun 1537. Kemudian Salahuddin digantikan oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar yang berkuasa hingga tahun 1568.

Masa kejayaan

Kesultanan Aceh mengalami masa keemasan pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Iskandar Muda (16071636). Pada masa kepemimpinannya, Aceh telah berhasil memukul mundur kekuatan Portugis dari selat Malaka. Kejadian ini dilukiskan dalam La Grand Encyclopedie bahwa pada tahun 1582, bangsa Aceh sudah meluaskan pengaruhnya atas pulau-pulau Sunda (Sumatera, Jawa dan Kalimantan) serta atas sebagian tanah Semenanjung Melayu. Selain itu Aceh juga melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan semua bangsa yang melayari Lautan Hindia. Pada tahun 1586, kesultanan Aceh melakukan penyerangan terhadap Portugis di Melaka dengan armada yang terdiri dari 500 buah kapal perang dan 60.000 tentara laut. Serangan ini dalam upaya memperluas dominasi Aceh atas Selat Malaka dan semenanjung Melayu. Walaupun Aceh telah berhasil mengepung Melaka dari segala penjuru, namun penyerangan ini gagal dikarenakan adanya persekongkolan antara Portugis dengan kesultanan Pahang.

Dalam lapangan pembinaan kesusasteraan dan ilmu agama, Aceh telah melahirkan beberapa ulama ternama, yang karangan mereka menjadi rujukan utama dalam bidang masing-masing, seperti Hamzah Fansuri dalam bukunya Tabyan Fi Ma’rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin ar-Raniry dalam bukunya Sirat al-Mustaqim, dan Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkili dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil.

Kemunduran

Kemunduran Kesultanan Aceh bermula sejak kemangkatan Sultan Iskandar Tsani pada tahun 1641. Kemunduran Aceh disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya ialah makin menguatnya kekuasaan Belanda di pulau Sumatera dan Selat Malaka, ditandai dengan jatuhnya wilayah Minangkabau, Siak, Deli dan Bengkulu kedalam pangkuan penjajahan Belanda. Faktor penting lainnya ialah adanya perebutan kekuasaan diantara pewaris tahta kesultanan.

Traktat London yang ditandatangani pada 1824 telah memberi kekuasaan kepada Belanda untuk menguasai segala kawasan British/Inggris di Sumatra sementara Belanda akan menyerahkan segala kekuasaan perdagangan mereka di India dan juga berjanji tidak akan menandingi British/Inggris untuk menguasai Singapura.

Pada akhir Nopember 1871, lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan Traktat Sumatera, dimana disebutkan dengan jelas “Inggris wajib berlepas diri dari segala unjuk perasaan terhadap perluasan kekuasaan Belanda di bagian manapun di Sumatera. Pembatasan-pembatasan Traktat London 1824 mengenai Aceh dibatalkan.” Sejak itu, usaha-usaha untuk menyerbu Aceh makin santer disuarakan, baik dari negeri Belanda maupun Batavia. Setelah melakukan peperangan selama 40 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh ke pangkuan kolonial Hindia-Belanda. Sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Aceh menyatakan bersedia bergabung ke dalam Republik indonesia atas ajakan dan bujukan dari Soekarno kepada pemimpin Aceh Tengku Muhammad Daud Beureueh saat itu[rujukan?].

Perang Aceh

 

1537

Ottoman Empire Sends War Armada To Help Aceh

Ottoman Empire (Sultan Selim II) which Were made to help the Muslim Sultanates Aceh (Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah)

– 1537-1538,

the Ottoman sent 300 troops to the Acehnese, I don’t know what they were composed of.

– 1558, 400 Turkish artilery had joined with some 15000 Acehnese troops and an armada of 300 vessels in attack Melaka (Malacca) off the hands of the Portuguese albeit only for a month.

– 1562, an Acehnese ambassador had gone to Istanbul to ask for Turkish help. The Ottoman sent some 500 Turks, a number of projectiles with stone bullets, munitions, engineers and people to handle the big weapons.

But what I had in mind was the planned expedition that Selim II wanted to carry out which was to have some 15 war ships and be comandeered by the admiral Kurtoglu. It was also to be helped by the governerships of Yemen, Aden and Mecca, but that one was never carried out.

The Ottoman Turkish empire was a very influential empire, at least as it was the simbol of the Muslim Caliphate. The success of Suleiman the Magnificent was heard loudly in these areas, with the Sultan of Demak, wanting to conquer Java so as be called, as according to the Portuguese, Manuel Pinto, segundo Turco: “the second Turkish King”.

Warga Blang Balok Masih Simpan Meriam “Lada Sicupak” Asal Turki

Peureulak – Không nhiều người biết nếu trong làng Blang Beams Peureulak City East Aceh huyện vẫn còn lưu một khẩu pháo Lada nước Sicupak của Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ. Cannon đo gần hai mét, theo người dân địa phương đến từ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.

Không nhiều người biết lý do tại sao Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ mang súng đến Aceh hiện đang được lưu trữ gọn gàng trong làng Blang Beams khoảng 1,5 km từ cầu đối diện với khung thép Kp Beusa hoặc đường cao tốc Medan – Banda Aceh. Ngay cả người dân địa phương đã được rào chắn pháo để duy trì liên tục và tránh những điều không mong muốn.

Cha Wan, quản lý trang web Sicupak Meriam của Lada hiên hai ngày trước đây nói, đại bác lịch sử vẫn còn quan tâm rằng không có bàn tay ngu dốt phá hủy nó. Nói với cha Wan, người được cho là di tích pháo của nhà nước Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ được đặt tên Meriam Lada Sicupak và phát hiện vào ngày 12 Tháng Mười Hai 1976 lúc 23:30 bởi cuối TGK Muhammad Ben.

Pháo đã từng là một công cụ của chiến tranh sử dụng Commander Mustafa vào năm 1860 cũng là người dân địa phương.

Khẩu pháo được coi cộng đồng địa phương có một phước lành. Điều này là hiển nhiên từ các cuộc xung đột Aceh bị thiệt hại, những khẩu súng không bao giờ tranh cãi. Trong thực tế, có những người cố gắng để di chuyển vị trí của những khẩu súng, không thể để nhấc nó lên, và những người đang cố gắng để di chuyển các pháo vào thời điểm đó, cuối cùng bị một chứng rối loạn tâm thần.

Once upon a time, khẩu pháo sẽ được khai quật được di chuyển bởi một công dân, nhưng sớm người điên, bố nói Wan.

Pháo một lần loại bỏ và chuyển sang đấu trường của Tuần lễ Văn hóa Aceh (PKA), nhưng việc loại bỏ được thực hiện bởi 15 người và được giám sát bởi nhà khảo cổ học.

Mặc dù súng đã không được biết đến rộng rãi công dân, cha Wan không được phép để di chuyển các khẩu pháo. Công chúng sẽ được cho phép nếu chính phủ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ ngay lập tức yêu cầu nhớ pháo là một di sản của đất nước trong quá khứ, vì vậy cha Wan.

Nguồn: “Serambinews”
original info

PEUREULAK – Tak banyak yang tahu jika di Desa Blang Balok Kecamatan Peureulak Kota Aceh Timur kini masih tersimpan sebuah meriam Lada Sicupak asal negara Turki. Meriam yang berukuran hampir dua meter itu, menurut warga setempat berasal dari Turki.

 

 

Tak banyak yang tahu kenapa Turki membawa meriam ini ke Aceh yang kini tersimpan rapi di Desa Blang Balok sekitar 1,5 kilometer dari jembatan rangka baja Kp Beusa Sebrang atau dengan dengan jalan raya Medan – Banda Aceh. Bahkan oleh warga setempat meriam itu telah dipagar untuk menjaga kelestariannya serta menghindari hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan.

Ayah Wan, pengelola lokasi Meriam Lada Sicupak ini kepada Serambi dua hari lalu menceritakan, meriam bersejarah ini tetap dirawat supaya jangan ada tangan-tangan jahil yang merusaknya. Diceritakan Ayah Wan, meriam yang diyakini peninggalan negara Turki itu kini diberi nama Meriam Lada Sicupak dan ditemukan pada tanggal 12 Desember 1976 pukul 11.30 Wib oleh almarhum Tgk Muhammad Ben.

Meriam tersebut dulunya merupakan alat perang yang digunakan Panglima Mustafa pada Tahun 1860 yang juga merupakan warga desa setempat.

Meriam tersebut oleh masyarakat setempat dianggap memiliki keberkahan. Hal itu terbukti sejak Aceh dilanda konflik, keberadaan meriam tidak pernah diganggu gugat. Malah ada warga yang mencoba memindahkan lokasi keberadaan meriam ini, tak sanggup mengangkatnya dan orang yang mencoba memindahkan meriam kala itu, akhirnya menderita gangguan jiwa.

Pernah suatu ketika, meriam tersebut akan digali untuk dipindahkan oleh seorang warga, namun tak lama kemudian warga itu gila, ujar Ayah Wan.

Meriam tersebut dulu pernah diangkat dan dipindahkan untuk arena Pekan Kebudayaan Aceh (PKA), namun pada saat pemindahannya dilakukan oleh 15 orang dengan diawasi oleh ahli purbakala.

Meskipun meriam itu tidak banyak diketahui warga, oleh Ayah Wan tidak diizinkan untuk memindahkan lokasi meriam. Masyarakat akan mengizinkannya bila pemerintah Turki yang langsung memintanya mengingat meriam tersebut merupakan peninggalan negara itu pada masa lampau, demikian Ayah Wan.

Sources : “Serambinews”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aceh unidentief location and date

Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam

 

Oleh: Ameer Hamzah

 

Suara tokek di Meureudu dengan di Pase sangat berbeda. Di Meureudu suaranya  ko’o-ko’o dan di Pase berbunyi e’ee. e’eee. Mengapa? Seorang peneliti suara satwa bertanya kepada orang-orang tua yang ada di Aceh.

Jawabannya, ternyata sa­ngat seragam. Di Meureudu pernah singgah Poteu Meureuhom Iskandar Muda, sedang di Pase tidak. maka suara tokek berbeda. Jawaban seperti itu memang tak dapat dipertanggung jawabkan secara ilmiah, namun dalarn masyarakat telah sangat populer.

Sultan Iskandarmuda me­mang sudah menjadi legendaris. Namanya sangat agung dan hampir tak ada lidah orang Aceh yang tak pernah menyebut nama itu.

Istilah Poteu Meureuhom dalam ungkapan hadih maja, Adat bak Poteu Meureuhom, hukom bak Syiah Kuala. adalah gelar yang disempenakan kepadanya setelah sultan tersebut mangkat.

la seorang sultan terbesar yang pernah dimiliki Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam. Kekuasaannya meluas mencakupi semua wilayah Sumatera sampai ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (M Said: Aceh Sepanjang Abad, halaman 147).

Kerajaan Deli dan Aru ditaklukkannya pada tahun 1612 M. Johor 1613, Pahang, Kedah, Perak,  Singapura dan Batam dalam tahun 1617-1620 M. Pulau Nias, Asahan,  Indragiri dan Jambi 1623-1625 M’ dan menyerang Portugis di Malaka pada tahun 1629 M. Singkat kata, seluruh Sumatera dan Semenanjung Malaya sudah berada di bawah kekuasaannya.

Zamannya adalah zaman kegemilangan dan puncak keemasan bagi Aceh dan daerah taklukannya. Bandar Aceh Darussalam menjadi kiblat ilmu pengetahuan di belahan bumi Asia Tenggara.

Banyak ulama dan sarjana yang datang dari Arab, India, Persia, dan Gujarat untuk bermukim di Aceh. Di sini mereka menjadi guru-guru besar yang mengajar ilmu pengetahuan di Perguruan Tinggi Darusy Syariah Jamiah Baiturrahmam Bandar Aceh Darussalam. Mahasiswa datang dari berbagai penjuru nusantara.

Para pujangga dan penyair, penari dan penyanyi juga mendapat tempat tersendiri dalam istana sultan. Iskandarmuda bagaikan Harun Ar-Rasyid yang pernah berkuasa di Bag­dad.

Petani dan pedagang hidup sejahtera karena hasil yang berlimpahruah. Tak ada orang kaya yang kikir dan orang miskin yang dengki. Aceh masa itu menurut Prof Dr Hamka — benar-benar sudah mencapai, taraf Baldatun Thayyibatun wa Rabbul Ghafuur (Sejarah Umat Islam PT Bulan Bintang, 1977).

Sultan memerintah dengan adil dan bijaksana berdasarkan hukum yang berlaku di zamannya.yakni hukum syariah yang berdasarkan al-Quran, hadits, ijmak, dan qias. Banyak pelaku kejahatan yang mati dibunuh berdasarkan hukum hudud.

Hukum baginya adalah amanah Allah. Karena itu siapa saja yang berbuat melanggar hukum akan menerima risiko hukum, meski anak kandungnya sendiri. Dalam menjalankan hukum tidak pilih kasih. Ini dibuktikan dalam sejarah. Meurah Pupok, putranya yang dipersiapkan untuk menjadi pengganti (putra mahkota) — telanjur berbuat zina dengan isteri seorang menteri. Karena itu baginda sangat murka. Ia memerintahkan serdadu untuk menangkap anaknya itu dan memerintahkan hakim untuk merajamnya sampai mati.

Banyak pembesar istana yang ingin mengesampingkan risiko hukum terhadap putra mahkota. Mereka menggoda baginda supaya membatalkan hukum tersebut. Tapi dengan tegas Iskandarmuda menjawab: Mate aneuek meupat jrat, gadoh adat pat tamita. (Mati anak tinggal kuburan, hilang adat kemana dicari) (Prof A Hasymy: Iskandarmuda Meu kuta Alam). Dalam hal ini ia serupa dengan Umar bin Khattab yang menghukum rajam putranya Abu Syamah karena kasus yang serupa juga.

Sultan Iskandarmuda yang berkuasa sejak tahun 1607-1636 memang tak tertandingi. la seorang penakluk yang sa­ngat berhasil. la menaklukkan tapi bukan untuk menjajah. la seorang negarawan besar yang sangat cinta kepada agama Islam dan saudara serumpunnya di Sumatera dan Semenan­jung Melayu yang sudah dalam cengkeraman penjajah Portugis. Makanya ncgeri-ncgcri yang ditaklukkan tak pernah merasa kecewa, kecuali raja-raja yang hilang kekuasaan.

Rakyat dalam negeri-negeri yang ditaklukkan menganggap Iskandarmuda sebagai pahlawan yang telah membebaskan mereka dari pengaruh kolonialisme Barat. Bahkan kemenangan-kemenangan yang didapatnya bukan semata-mata karena kekuatan pasukan Aceh, melainkan juga karena adanya tentara yang membelot karena benci kepada kolonialisme dan bonekaisme Portugis.

Ketika Iskandarmuda dan angkatan lautnya bertekat untuk membebaskan Tanah Semenanjung Melayu (sekarang Malaysia) dari penjajahan Portugis, banyak cerita yang menarik kita baca dalam buku sejarah.

Sultan Iskandarmuda menerapkan etika perang menurut Islam yang diajarkan Rasulullah SAW. Bila rnusuh dapat dikalahkan jangan disiksa, jangan dirampok hartanya, dan jangan pula diganggu wanitanya. Sebaliknya, bila mati da­lam peperangan adalah syahid. Jangan lari dari medan perang, kecuali untuk mengatur strategi.

Dengan etika perang yang mulia itulah, kejayaan yang dicapai Iskandarmuda hampir serupa dengan kejayaan yang dipcrolehi Abubakar, Umar bin Khattab, Usman, Ali  dan Mu­hammad al-Fateh dari Turki.

Pasukan Aceh (Iskandarmu­da) dengan gemilang berturut-turut dapat menaklukkan selu­ruh negeri  yang ada di Sumatera dan Semenanjung Melayu. Nama beliaupun hidup subur menjadi lagenda di Tanah Se­menanjung.

Belum lama ini. (2/11) penulis berada di Kampong Acheh, Yan Kedah Malaysia. Saya bertanya kepada Ustaz Haji Ibrahim bin Haji Abdurrahman sesepuh masyarakat Aceh di sana. Sejak kapan masyarakat Aceh sudah bermukim di sini? “Sejak Poteu Meureuhom Iskandarmuda menaklukkan Kedah,” jawabnya.

Nama Iskandarmuda, tetap dikenang di sana. Hikayat Malem Dagang yang merupakan kisah Iskandarmuda masih dibaca oleh masyarakat Aceh di Yan. Meski sudah ratusan tahun mereka terpisah dari tanah Aceh, Serambi Makkah. Begitu juga masyarakat Melayu di Pahang. Mereka tidak melupakan jasa Iskandarmuda yang telah memuliakan Putroe Phang

Beliau juga seorang pria yang romantis dan sangat be­sar kasih sayangnya terhadap musuh yang sudah ditawannya. Setelah Pahang menyerah dan menawan anggota kerajaan, ia jatuh cinta kepada putri cantik bernama Kamaliah (Pu­troe Phang). Ia kawin dan memboyongnya ke Aceh.

Untuk mengobat hati putri Pahang yang luka karena ayahnya kalah, maka Sultan Iskan­darmuda membuat sebuah taman yang indah, (Raudhatul Isyqi lengkap dengan tempat permandian, tempat pelipur lara di pinggir Krueng Daroy. Itulah yang kita kenal seka­rang Taman Sari, Taman Pinto Khop dan Gunongan.

Sebenarnya masih sangat banyak yang harus kita tulis tentang orang besar Aceh Ini, sebab ia telah banyak mewariskan pusaka terhadap kita semua. la telah mengangkat harkat dan martabat umat Islam nusantara dari kekejaman kolonialisme Barat. Ia telah berbuat yang beIum dibuat oleh pendahulunya dan oleh sultan-sultan sesudahnya.

Tulisan ini hanya secuil ungkapan rasa bangga dan kesyukuran kita karena Sultan Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam telah disahkan menjadi Pahlawan Naslonal oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Hari Pahlawan Nasional 10 Nevember yang kita peringati hari ini rasanya sangat indah dari yang sudah-sudah, sangat bermakna dari sebelumnya. Seorang pahlawan sejati telah kita beri tempat yang layak untuk dihormati.

Bagi rakyat Aceh Iskandar­muda adalah simbol keadilan, simbol kemakmuran dan kebesaran. Jadi, bukan simbol impian dan nostalgia. Masa lalu adalah masa lain, denting waktu tak mungkin terulang kembali.

Tugas kita sekarang, bukan bernostalgja (cet langet) terhadap prestasi yang diraih Iskandarmuda dan juga pahlawan-pahlawan kita yang lain, tetapi berkarya yang lebih baik lagi dari karya pcndahulu kita. Kalau Iskandarmuda dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dapat mengubah wajah kemiskinan menjadi kemakmuran, rasanya kita juga perlu meniru.

 

Ameer Hamzah, Wartawan Harian Serambi Indonesia

Meriam Lada Sicupak (Aceh)

Meriam Aceh Digunakan Ketika Menentang Portugis dan Belanda

Sultanate Of Aceh Darussalam Flag

(1496 – 1903)

Aceh Flag : Alam Aceh (Atjeh) , Alam Peudeueng , Alam Zulfiqar

 

Cờ của Vương quốc Aceh, tên là ALAM của Zulfiqar Ali Shah Mughayat (vua đầu tiên của Aceh) từ sự lãnh đạo cũ là 916-936 H (1511 đến 1530 AD)
AwangPembela
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:09
Công cụ tuyệt vời, HangPC. Cảm ơn bạn.

Tôi sẽ khuyên bạn nên có xúc tiến để LaksamanaPC.
Bhaskara
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:29
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!
HangPC2
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:52
QUOTE (Bhaskara @ April 23, 2008, 14:29) [snapback] 3.655.814 [/ snapback]
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!

 

 

original info

 


Bendera Kerajaan Aceh, bernama ALAM ZULFIQAR yang dibuat oleh Ali Mughayat Syah (Raja pertama Aceh) lama kepemimpinannya adalah dari tahun 916 – 936 H (1511 – 1530 M)

AwangPembela

Apr 23 2008, 01:09 AM

Great stuff, HangPC. Thank you.

I’ll recommend ya for promotion to LaksamanaPC.

Bhaskara

Apr 23 2008, 01:29 AM

Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!

HangPC2

Apr 23 2008, 01:52 AM

QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Apr 23 2008, 02:29 PM) [snapback]3655814[/snapback]

Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!

Malay Federation (1948-1950)

 

 

 

1950-1963 – Federation of Malaya

Melaka (Malacca) Negeri Melaka Darul Azim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sultanate Of Johore (Negeri Johor Darul Takzim)

Sultanate Of Kelantan (Negeri Kelantan Dar ul-Naim)

Sultanate Of Selangor (Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan)

Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO)

Greater Patani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya)

Islamic Republic of Patani

Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

DutchEastIndiesMan

Apr 23 2008, 04:00 AM

ahh ok, Good on you HangPC, great ok. I’ve got evidence now.
Awang sorry for dismissing your claim. However I’m still not yet convince completely.

Bhaskara

Apr 23 2008, 09:39 PM

Hah? bukti gmn maksud lo? Hanya krn benderanya mirip? Yaelah, di seluruh dunia jg yg namanya negara Islam ya benderanya pake bulan sabit dan bintang, di mana istimewanya kemiripan antara 2 bendera ini?

DutchEastIndiesMan

Apr 24 2008, 12:06 AM

Well Hang did gave us some evidence,as in the articles and the cannons. Not the flags.. I know almost every Muslim country has that sort of flag, with the crescent and star.

Like I said I’m still not convinced completely…there might been a contact between Ottomans and Acehnese but I still think Awang is still a bit dreaming…

Majapahitans

Apr 24 2008, 05:39 AM

Actually early Islamic chaliphate during Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) era doesn’t associate themself with crescent and star as the emblem of Islam.
But the color green indeed have Islamic association. In Islamic traditions mentioned that the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) bring the heavenly silk green banner for Muhammad’s army during their fights against Meccan pagans. Thus green become Islamic colors.

The emblem of star and crescent probably have more ancient origin. Both are the symbol of celestial or heavenly power since Sumerian and ancient Persian era. Star is symbol of Gods in ancient Babylonian tradition, wheather like it or not Islam sometimes bear more ancient pre-Islamic traditions.
Another theory mentioned that ancient middleeastern tribes often “decorate” their banner’s pole with horn of goat, thus later evolved to “crescent moon” shape made from metal.

Later the Turks made the star and crescent and star as their banner. Ottoman as the largest Islamic empire at that time, also “the heir” of Islamic caliphate make their banner associated with Islam.
So I think Hang PC got his reasons of his opinions. Indeed every Islamic nations that use crescent as their banner in some degree influenced and has bilateral relationship with Turkey Ottoman.

Ralf

Apr 24 2008, 06:37 AM

Little bit off-topic, but when I was in Turkey, I saw the crescent and star symbol in the night sky.
It appeared exactly as it does on the flag

HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF ACHIN, FROM THE PERIOD OF ITS BEING VISITED BY EUROPEANS.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE PORTUGUESE.

The Portuguese, under the conduct of Vasco de Gama, doubled the Cape of Good Hope in the year 1497, and arrived on the coast of Malabar in the following year. These people, whom the spirit of glory, commerce, and plunder led to the most magnanimous undertakings, were not so entirely engaged by their conquests on the continent of India as to prevent them from extending their views to the discovery of regions yet more distant.

They learned from the merchants of Guzerat some account of the riches and importance of Malacca, a great trading city in the farther peninsula of India, supposed by them the Golden Chersonnese of Ptolemy. Intelligence of this was transmitted to their enterprising sovereign Emanuel, who became impressed with a strong desire to avail himself of the flattering advantages which this celebrated country held out to his ambition.

1508.

He equipped a fleet of four ships under the command of Diogo Lopez de Sequeira, which sailed from Lisbon on the eighth day of April 1508 with orders to explore and establish connexions in those eastern parts of Asia.

 

1509.

After touching at Madagascar Sequeira proceeded to Cochin, where a ship was added to his fleet, and, departing from thence on the eighth of September 1509, he made sail towards Malacca; but having doubled the extreme promontory of Sumatra (then supposed to be the Taprobane of the ancients) he anchored at Pidir, a principal port of that island, in which he found vessels from Pegu, Bengal, and other countries. The king of the place, who, like other Mahometan princes, was styled sultan, sent off a deputation to him, accompanied with refreshments, excusing himself, on account of illness,

 

from paying his compliments in person, but assuring him at the same time that he should derive much pleasure from the friendship and alliance of the Portuguese, whose fame had reached his ears. Sequeira answered this message in such terms that, by consent of the sultan, a monument of their amity was erected on the shore; or, more properly, as the token of discovery and possession usually employed by the European nations. He was received in the same manner at a place called Pase, lying about twenty leagues farther to the eastward on the same coast, and there also erected a monument or cross. Having procured at each of these ports as much pepper as could be collected in a short time he hastened to Malacca, where the news of his appearance in these seas had anticipated his arrival. Here he was near falling a sacrifice to the insidious policy of Mahmud, the reigning king, to whom the Portuguese had been represented by the Arabian and Persian merchants (and not very unjustly) as lawless pirates, who, under the pretext of establishing commercial treaties, had, at first by encroachments, and afterwards with insolent rapacity, ruined and enslaved the princes who were weak enough to put a confidence in them, or to allow them a footing in their dominions. He escaped the snares that were laid for him but lost many of his people, and, leaving others in captivity, he returned to Europe, and gave an account of his proceedings to the king.

 

 

 

1510.

A fleet was sent out in the year 1510 under Diogo Mendez to establish the Portuguese interests at Malacca; but Affonso d’Alboquerque, the governor of their affairs in India, thought proper to detain this squadron on the coast of Malabar until he could proceed thither himself with a greater force.

1511.

And accordingly on the second of May 1511 he set sail from Cochin with nineteen ships and fourteen hundred men. He touched at Pidir, where he found some of his countrymen who had made their escape from Malacca in a boat and sought protection on the Sumatran shore. They represented that, arriving off Pase, they had been ill-treated by the natives, who killed one of their party and obliged them to fly to Pidir, where they met with hospitality and kindness from the prince, who seemed desirous to conciliate the regard of their nation. Alboquerque expressed himself sensible of this instance of friendship, and renewed with the sultan the alliance that had been formed by Sequeira. He then proceeded to Pase, whose monarch endeavoured to exculpate himself from the outrage committed against the Portuguese fugitives, and as he could not tarry to take redress he concealed his resentment. In crossing over to Malacca he fell in with a large junk, or country vessel, which he engaged and attempted to board, but the enemy, setting fire to a quantity of inflammable oleaginous matter,

 

he was deterred from his design, with a narrow escape of the destruction of his own ship. The junk was then battered from a distance until forty of her men were killed, when Alboquerque, admiring the bravery of the crew, proposed to them that, if they would strike and acknowledge themselves vassals of Portugal, he would treat them as friends and take them under his protection. This offer was accepted, and the valiant defender of the vessel informed the governor that his name was Jeinal, the lawful heir of the kingdom of Pase; he by whom it was then ruled being a usurper, who, taking advantage of his minority and his own situation as regent, had seized the crown: that he had made attempts to assert his rights, but had been defeated in two battles, and was now proceeding with his adherents to Java, some of the princes of which were his relations, and would, he hoped, enable him to obtain possession of his throne.

1511.

Alboquerque promised to effect it for him, and desired the prince to accompany him to Malacca, where they arrived the first of July 1511. In order to save the lives of the Portuguese prisoners, and if possible to effect their recovery, he negotiated with the king of Malacca before he proceeded to an attack on the place; which conduct of his Jeinal construed into fear, and, forsaking his new friend, passed over in the night to the Malayan monarch, whose protection he thought of more consequence to him. When Alboquerque had subdued the place, which made a vigorous resistance, the prince of Pase, seeing the error of his policy, returned, and threw himself at the governor’s feet,

 

acknowledged his injurious mistrust, and implored his pardon, which was not denied him. He doubted however it seems of a sincere reconciliation and forgiveness, and, perceiving that no measures were taking for restoring him to his kingdom, but on the contrary that Alboquerque was preparing to leave Malacca with a small force, and talked of performing his promise when he should return from Goa, he took the resolution of again attaching himself to the fortunes of the conquered monarch, and secretly collecting his dependants fled once more from the protection of the Portuguese. He probably was not insensible that the reigning king of Pase, his adversary, had for some time taken abundant pains to procure the favour of Alboquerque, and found an occasion of demonstrating his zeal. The governor, on his return from Malacca, met with a violent storm on the coast of Sumatra near the point of Timiang, where his ship was wrecked. Part of the crew making a raft were driven to Pase, where the king treated them with kindness and sent them to the coast of Coromandel by a merchant ship. Some years after these events Jeinal was enabled by his friends to carry a force to Pase, and obtained the ascendency there, but did not long enjoy his power.

Upon the reduction of Malacca the governor received messages from several of the Sumatran princes, and amongst the rest from the king of a place called Kampar, on the eastern coast, who had married a daughter of the king of Malacca, but was on ill terms with his father-in-law.

He desired to become a vassal of the Portuguese crown, and to have leave to reside under their jurisdiction. His view was to obtain the important office of bandhara, or chief magistrate of the Malays, lately vacant by the execution of him who possessed it. He sent before him a present of lignum-aloes and gum-lac, the produce of his country, but Alboquerque, suspecting the honesty of his intentions, and fearing that he either aspired to the crown of Malacca or designed to entice the merchants to resort to his own kingdom, refused to permit his coming, and gave the superintendence of the natives to a person named Nina Chetuan.

1514.

After some years had elapsed, at the time when Jorge Alboquerque was governor of Malacca, this king (Abdallah by name) persisting in his views, paid him a visit, and was honourably received. At his departure he had assurances given him of liberty to establish himself at Malacca, if he should think proper, and Nina Chetuan was shortly afterwards removed from his office, though no fault was alleged against him. He took the disgrace so much to heart that, causing a pile to be erected before his door, and setting fire to it, he threw himself into the flames.*

(*Footnote. This man was not a Mahometan but one of the unconverted natives of the peninsula who are always distinguished from the Moors by the Portuguese writers.)

The intention of appointing Abdallah to the office of bandhara was quickly rumoured abroad,

and, coming to the knowledge of the king of Bintang, who was driven from Malacca and now carried on a vigorous war against the Portuguese, under the command of the famous Laksamana, he resolved to prevent his arrival there. For this purpose he leagued himself with the king of Lingga, a neighbouring island, and sent out a fleet of seventy armed boats to block up the port of Kampar. By the valour of a small Portuguese armament this force was overcome in the river of that name, and the king conducted in triumph to Malacca, where he was invested in form with the important post he aspired to. But this sacrifice of his independence proved an unfortunate measure to him; for although he conducted himself in such a manner as should have given the amplest satisfaction, and appears to have been irreproachable in the execution of his trust, yet in the following year the king of Bintang found means to inspire the governor with diffidence of his fidelity, and jealousy of his power.

1515.

He was cruelly sentenced to death without the simplest forms of justice and perished in the presence of an indignant multitude, whilst he called heaven to witness his innocence and direct its vengeance against his interested accusers. This iniquitous and impolitic proceeding had such an effect upon the minds of the people that all of any property or repute forsook the place, execrating the government of the Portuguese. The consequences of this general odium reduced them to extreme difficulties for provisions, which the neighbouring countries refused to supply them with,

and but for some grain at length procured from Siak with much trouble the event had proved fatal to the garrison.

1516.

Fernando Perez d’Andrade, in his way to China, touched at Pase in order to take in pepper. He found the people of the place, as well as the merchants from Bengal, Cambay, and other parts of India, much discontented with the measures then pursuing by the government of Malacca, which had stationed an armed force to oblige all vessels to resort thither with their merchandise and take in at that place, as an emporium, the cargoes they were used to collect in the straits. The king notwithstanding received Andrade well, and consented that the Portuguese should have liberty to erect a fortress in his kingdom.

1520.

Extraordinary accounts having been related of certain islands abounding in gold, which were reported by the general fame of India to lie off the southern coast of Sumatra, a ship and small brigantine, under the command of Diogo Pacheco, an experienced seaman, were sent in order to make the discovery of them. Having proceeded as far as Daya the brigantine was lost in a gale of wind. Pacheco stood on to Barus, a place renowned for its gold trade, and for gum benzoin of a peculiar scent, which the country produced. It was much frequented by vessels, both from the neighbouring ports in the island, and from those in the West of India, whence it was supplied with cotton cloths.

The merchants, terrified at the approach of the Portuguese, forsook their ships and fled precipitately to the shore. The chiefs of the country sent to inquire the motives of his visit, which he informed them were to establish friendly connexions and to give them assurances of unmolested freedom of trade at the city of Malacca. Refreshments were then ordered for his fleet, and upon landing he was treated with respect by the inhabitants, who brought the articles of their country to exchange with him for merchandise. His chief view was to obtain information respecting the situation and other circumstances of the ilhas d’Ouro, but they seemed jealous of imparting any. At length, after giving him a laboured detail of the dangers attending the navigation of the seas where they were said to lie, they represented their situation to be distant a hundred leagues to the south-east of Barus, amidst labyrinths of shoals and reefs through which it was impossible to steer with any but the smallest boats. If these islands, so celebrated about this time, existed anywhere but in the regions of fancy,* they were probably those of Tiku, to which it is possible that much gold might be brought from the neighbouring country of Menangkabau. Pacheco, leaving Barus, proceeded to the southward, but did not make the wished-for discovery. He reached the channel that divides Sumatra from Java, which he called the strait of Polimban, from a city he erroneously supposed to lie on the Javan shore, and passing through this returned to Malacca by the east; being the first European who sailed round the island of Sumatra. In the following year he sailed once more in search of these islands,

which were afterwards the object of many fruitless voyages; but touching again at Barus he met with resistance there and perished with all his companions.

(*Footnote. Linschoten makes particular mention of having seen them, and gives practical directions for the navigation, but the golden dreams of the Portuguese were never realized in them.)

A little before this time a ship under the command of Gaspar d’Acosta was lost on the island of Gamispola (Pulo Gomez) near Achin Head, when the people from Achin attacked and plundered the crew, killing many and taking the rest prisoners. A ship also which belonged to Joano de Lima was plundered in the road, and the Portuguese which belonged to her put to death. These insults and others committed at Pase induced the governor of Malacca, Garcia de Sa, to dispatch a vessel under Manuel Pacheco to take satisfaction; which he endeavoured to effect by blocking up the ports, and depriving the towns of all sources of provision, particularly their fisheries. As he cruised between Achin and Pase a boat with five men, going to take in fresh water at a river nigh to the latter, would have been cut off had not the people, by wonderful efforts of valour, overcome the numerous party which attacked them. The sultan, alarmed for the consequences of this affray, sent immediately to sue for reconciliation, offering to make atonement for the loss of property the merchants had sustained by the licentiousness of his people, from a participation in whose crimes he sought to vindicate himself.

The advantage derived from the connexion with this place induced the government of Malacca to be satisfied with his apology, and cargoes of pepper and raw silk were shortly after procured there; the former being much wanted for the ships bound to China.

Jeinal, who had fled to the king of Malacca, as before mentioned, followed that monarch to the island of Bintang, and received one of his daughters in marriage. Six or seven years elapsed before the situation of affairs enabled the king to lend him any effectual assistance, but at length some advantages gained over the Portuguese afforded a proper opportunity, and accordingly a fleet was fitted out, with which Jeinal sailed for Pase. In order to form a judgment of the transactions of this kingdom it must be understood that the people, having an idea of predestination, always conceived present possession to constitute right, however that possession might have been acquired; but yet they made no scruple of deposing and murdering their sovereigns, and justified their acts by this argument; that the fate of concerns so important as the lives of kings was in the hands of God, whose vicegerents they were, and that if it was not agreeable to him and the consequence of his will that they should perish by the daggers of their subjects it could not so happen. Thus it appears that their religious ideas were just strong enough to banish from their minds every moral sentiment. The natural consequence of these maxims was that their kings were merely the tyrants of the day; and it is said that whilst a certain ship remained in the port no less than two were murdered, and a third set up:

but allowance should perhaps be made for the medium through which these accounts have been transmitted to us.

The maternal uncle of Jeinal, who, on account of his father’s infirmities, had been some time regent, and had deprived him of the succession to the throne, was also king of Aru or Rou, a country not far distant, and thus became monarch of both places. The caprices of the Pase people, who submitted quietly to his usurpation, rendered them ere long discontented with his government, and being a stranger they had the less compunction in putting him to death. Another king was set up in his room, who soon fell by the hands of some natives of Aru who resided at Pase, in revenge for the assassination of their countryman.

1519.

A fresh monarch was elected by the people, and in his reign it was that Jeinal appeared with a force from Bintang, who, carrying everything before him, put his rival to death, and took possession of the throne. The son of the deceased, a youth of about twelve years of age, made his escape, accompanied by the Mulana or chief priest of the city, and procured a conveyance to the west of India. There they threw themselves at the feet of the Portuguese governor, Lopez Sequeira, then engaged in an expedition to the Red Sea, imploring his aid to drive the invader from their country, and to establish the young prince in his rights, who would thenceforth consider himself as a vassal of the crown of Portugal. It was urged that Jeinal, as being nearly allied to the king of Bintang, was an avowed enemy to that nation,

which he had manifested in some recent outrages committed against the merchants from Malacca who traded at Pase. Sequeira, partly from compassion, and partly from political motives, resolved to succour this prince, and by placing him on the throne establish a firm interest in the affairs of his kingdom. He accordingly gave orders to Jorge Alboquerque, who was then proceeding with a strong fleet towards Malacca, to take the youth with him, whose name was Orfacam,* and after having expelled Jeinal to put him in possession of the sovereignty.

(*Footnote. Evidently corrupted, as are most of the country names and titles, which shows that the Portuguese were not at this period much conversant in the Malayan language.)

When Jeinal entered upon the administration of the political concerns of the kingdom, although he had promised his father-in-law to carry on the war in concert with him, yet, being apprehensive of the effects of the Portuguese power, he judged it more for his interest to seek a reconciliation with them than to provoke their resentment, and in pursuance of that system had so far recommended himself to Garcia de Sa, the governor of Malacca, that he formed a treaty of alliance with him. This was however soon interrupted, and chiefly by the imprudence of a man named Diogo Vaz, who made use of such insulting language to the king, because he delayed payment of a sum of money he owed him, that the courtiers, seized with indignation, immediately stabbed him with their krises, and, the alarm running through the city, others of the Portuguese were likewise murdered.

The news of this affair, reaching Goa, was an additional motive for the resolution taken of dethroning him.

1521.

Jorge d’Alboquerque arrived at Pase in 1521 with Prince Orfacam, and the inhabitants came off in great numbers to welcome his return. The king of Aru had brought thither a considerable force the preceding day, designing to take satisfaction for the murder of his relation, the uncle of Jeinal, and now proposed to Alboquerque that they should make the attack in conjunction, who thought proper to decline it. Jeinal, although he well knew the intention of the enemy, yet sent a friendly message to Alboquerque, who in answer required him to relinquish his crown in favour of him whom he styled the lawful prince. He then represented to him the injustice of attempting to force him from the possession of what was his, not only by right of conquest but of hereditary descent, as was well known to the governor himself; that he was willing to consider himself as the vassal of the king of Portugal, and to grant every advantage in point of trade that they could expect from the administration of his rival; and that since his obtaining the crown he had manifested the utmost friendship to the Portuguese, for which he appealed to the treaty formed with him by the government of Malacca, which was not disturbed by any fault that could in justice be imputed to himself. These arguments, like all others that pass between states which harbour inimical designs, had no effect upon Alboquerque, who, after reconnoitring the ground, gave orders for the attack.

The king was now sensible that there was nothing left for him but to conquer or die, and resolved to defend himself to extremity in an entrenchment he had formed at some distance from the town of Pase, where he had never yet ventured to reside as the people were in general incensed against him on account of the destruction of the late king of their choice; for though they were ever ready to demolish those whom they disliked, yet were they equally zealous to sacrifice their own lives in the cause of those to whom they were attached. The Portuguese force consisted but of three hundred men, yet such was the superiority they possessed in war over the inhabitants of these countries that they entirely routed Jeinal’s army, which amounted to three thousand, with many elephants, although they fought bravely. When he fell they became dispirited, and, the people of Aru joining in the pursuit, a dreadful slaughter succeeded, and upwards of two thousand Sumatrans lay dead, with the loss of only five or six Europeans; but several were wounded, among whom was Alboquerque himself.

The next measure was to place the young prince upon the throne, which was performed with much ceremony. The mulana was appointed his governor, and Nina Cunapan, who in several instances had shown a friendship for the Portuguese, was continued in the office of Shabandar. It was stipulated that the prince should do homage to the crown of Portugal, give a grant of the whole produce of pepper of his country at a certain price, and defray the charges of a fortress which they then prepared to erect in his kingdom, and of which Miranda d’Azeuedo was appointed captain, with a garrison of a hundred soldiers.

The materials were mostly timber, with which the ruins of Jeinal’s entrenchment supplied them. After Alboquerque’s departure the works had nearly fallen into the hands of an enemy, named Melek-el-adil, who called himself sultan of Pase and made several desultory attacks upon them; but he was at length totally routed, and the fortifications were completed without further molestation.

1521.

A fleet which sailed from the west of India a short time after that of Alboquerque, under the command of Jorge de Brito, anchored in the road of Achin, in their way to the Molucca Islands. There was at this time at that place a man of the name of Joano Borba, who spoke the language of the country, having formerly fled thither from Pase when Diogo Vaz was assassinated. Being afterwards intrusted with the command of a trading vessel from Goa, which foundered at sea, he again reached Achin, with nine men in a small boat, and was hospitably received by the king, when he learned that the ship had been destined to his port. Borba came off to the fleet along with a messenger sent by the king to welcome the commander and offer him refreshments for his fleet, and, being a man of extraordinary loquacity, he gave a pompous description to Brito of a temple in the country in which was deposited a large quantity of gold: he mentioned likewise that the king was in possession of the artillery and merchandise of Gaspar d’Acosta’s vessel, some time since wrecked there; and also of the goods saved from a brigantine driven on shore at Daya, in Pacheco’s expedition; as well as of Joano de Lima’s ship,

which he had caused to be cut off. Brito, being tempted by the golden prize, which he conceived already in his power, and inflamed by Borba’s representation of the king’s iniquities, sent a message in return to demand the restitution of the artillery, ship, and goods, which had been unlawfully seized. The king replied that, if he wanted those articles to be refunded, he must make his demand to the sea which had swallowed them up. Brito and his captains now resolved to proceed to an attack upon the place, and so secure did they make themselves of their prey that they refused permission to a ship lately arrived, and which did not belong to their squadron, to join them or participate in the profits of their adventure. They prepared to land two hundred men in small boats; a larger, with a more considerable detachment and their artillery, being ordered to follow. About daybreak they had proceeded halfway up the river, and came near to a little fort designed to defend the passage, where Brito thought it advisable to stop till the remainder of their force should join them; but, being importuned by his people, he advanced to make himself master of the fort, which was readily effected. Here he again resolved to make his stand, but by the imprudence of his ensign, who had drawn some of the party into a skirmish with the Achinese, he was forced to quit that post in order to save his colours, which were in danger. At this juncture the king appeared at the head of eight hundred or a thousand men, and six elephants. A desperate conflict ensued, in which the Portuguese received considerable injury. Brito sent orders for the party he had left to come up, and endeavoured to retreat to the fort, but he found himself so situated that it could not be executed without much loss,

and presently after he received a wound from an arrow through the cheeks. No assistance arriving, it was proposed that they should retire in the best manner they could to their boats; but this Brito would not consent to, preferring death to flight, and immediately a lance pierced his thighs, and he fell to the ground. The Portuguese, rendered desperate, renewed the combat with redoubled vigour, all crowding to the spot where their commander lay, but their exertions availed them nothing against such unequal force, and they only rushed on to sacrifice. Almost every man was killed, and among these were near fifty persons of family who had embarked as volunteers. Those who escaped belonged chiefly to the corps-de-reserve, who did not, or could not, come up in time to succour their unfortunate companions. Upon this merited defeat the squadron immediately weighed anchor, and, after falling in with two vessels bound on the discovery of the Ilhas d’Ouro, arrived at Pase, where they found Alboquerque employed in the construction of his fortress, and went with him to make an attack on Bintang.

STATE OF ACHIN IN 1511.

At the period when Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese Achin and Daya are said by the historians of that nation to have been provinces subject to Pidir, and governed by two slaves belonging to the sultan of that place, to each of whom he had given a niece in marriage. Slaves, it must be understood, are in that country on a different footing from those in most other parts of the world, and usually treated as children of the family. Some of them are natives of the continent of India,

whom their masters employ to trade for them; allowing them a certain proportion of the profits and permission to reside in a separate quarter of the city. It frequently happened also that men of good birth, finding it necessary to obtain the protection of some person in power, became voluntary slaves for this purpose, and the nobles, being proud of such dependants, encouraged the practice by treating them with a degree of respect, and in many instances they made them their heirs. The slave of this description who held the government of Achin had two sons, the elder of whom was named Raja Ibrahim, and the younger Raja Lella, and were brought up in the house of their master. The father being old was recalled from his post; but on account of his faithful services the sultan gave the succession to his eldest son, who appears to have been a youth of an ambitious and very sanguinary temper. A jealousy had taken place between him and the chief of Daya whilst they were together at Pidir, and as soon as he came into power he resolved to seek revenge, and with that view entered in a hostile manner the district of his rival. When the sultan interposed it not only added fuel to his resentment but inspired him with hatred towards his master, and he showed his disrespect by refusing to deliver up, on the requisition of the sultan, certain Portuguese prisoners taken from a vessel lost at Pulo Gomez, and which he afterwards complied with at the intercession of the Shabandar of Pase. This conduct manifesting an intention of entirely throwing off his allegiance, his father endeavoured to recall him to a sense of his duty by representing the obligations in which the family were indebted to the sultan, and the relationship which so nearly connected them.

But so far was this admonition from producing any good effect that he took offence at his father’s presumption, and ordered him to be confined in a cage, where he died.

1521.

Irritated by these acts, the sultan resolved to proceed to extremities against him; but by means of the plunder of some Portuguese vessels, as before related, and the recent defeat of Brito’s party, he became so strong in artillery and ammunition, and so much elated with success, that he set his master at defiance and prepared to defend himself. His force proved superior to that of Pidir, and in the end he obliged the sultan to fly for refuge and assistance to the European fortress at Pase, accompanied by his nephew, the chief of Daya, who was also forced from his possessions.

1522.

Ibrahim had for some time infested the Portuguese by sending out parties against them, both by sea and land; but these being always baffled in their attempts with much loss, he began to conceive a violent antipathy against that nation, which he ever after indulged to excess. He got possession of the city of Pidir by bribing the principal officers, a mode of warfare that he often found successful and seldom neglected to attempt. These he prevailed upon to write a letter to their master, couched in artful terms, in which they besought him to come to their assistance with a body of Portuguese, as the only chance of repelling the enemy by whom they pretended to be invested. The sultan showed this letter to Andre Henriquez,

then governor of the fort, who, thinking it a good opportunity to chastise the Achinese, sent by sea a detachment of eighty Europeans and two hundred Malays under the command of his brother Manuel, whilst the sultan marched overland with a thousand men and fifteen elephants to the relief of the place. They arrived at Pidir in the night, but, being secretly informed that the king of Achin was master of the city, and that the demand for succour was a stratagem, they endeavoured to make their retreat; which the land troops effected, but before the tide could enable the Portuguese to get their boats afloat they were attacked by the Achinese, who killed Manuel and thirty-five of his men.

Henriquez, perceiving his situation at Pase was becoming critical, not only from the force of the enemy but the sickly state of his garrison, and the want of provisions, which the country people now withheld from him, discontinuing the fairs that they were used to keep three times in the week, dispatched advices to the governor of India, demanding immediate succours, and also sent to request assistance of the king of Aru, who had always proved the steadfast friend of Malacca, and who, though not wealthy, because his country was not a place of trade, was yet one of the most powerful princes in those parts. The king expressed his joy in having an opportunity of serving his allies, and promised his utmost aid; not only from friendship to them, but indignation against Ibrahim, whom he regarded as a rebellious slave.

 

 

1523.

A supply of stores at length arrived from India under the charge of Lopo d’Azuedo, who had orders to relieve Henriquez in the command; but, disputes having arisen between them, and chiefly on the subject of certain works which the shabandar of Pase had been permitted to erect adjoining to the fortress, d’Azuedo, to avoid coming to an open rupture, departed for Malacca. Ibrahim, having found means to corrupt the honesty of this shabandar, who had received his office from Alboquerque, gained intelligence through him of all that passed. This treason, it is supposed, he would not have yielded to but for the desperate situation of affairs. The country of Pase was now entirely in subjection to the Achinese, and nothing remained unconquered but the capital, whilst the garrison was distracted with internal divisions.

After the acquisition of Pidir the king thought it necessary to remain there some time in order to confirm his authority, and sent his brother Raja Lella with a large army to reduce the territories of Pase, which he effected in the course of three months, and with the more facility because all the principal nobility had fallen in the action with Jeinal. He fixed his camp within half a league of the city, and gave notice to Ibrahim of the state in which matters were, who speedily joined him, being anxious to render himself master of the place before the promised succours from the king of Aru could arrive. His first step was to issue a proclamation, giving notice to the people of the town that whoever should submit to his authority

within six days should have their lives, families, and properties secured to them, but that all others must expect to feel the punishment due to their obstinacy. This had the effect he looked for, the greater part of the inhabitants coming over to his camp. He then commenced his military operations, and in the third attack got possession of the town after much slaughter; those who escaped his fury taking shelter in the neighbouring mountains and thick woods. He sent a message to the commander of the fortress, requiring him to abandon it and to deliver into his hands the kings of Pidir and Daya, to whom he had given protection. Henriquez returned a spirited answer to this summons, but, being sickly at the time, at best of an unsteady disposition, and too much attached to his trading concerns for a soldier, he resolved to relinquish the command to his relation Aires Coelho, and take passage for the West of India.

1523.

He had not advanced farther on his voyage than the point of Pidir, when he fell in with two Portuguese ships bound to the Moluccas, the captains of which he made acquainted with the situation of the garrison, and they immediately proceeded to its relief. Arriving in the night they heard great firing of cannon, and learned next morning that the Achinese had made a furious assault in hopes of carrying the fortress before the ships, which were descried at a distance, could throw succours into it. They had mastered some of the outworks, and the garrison represented that it was impossible for them to support such another shock without aid from the vessels.

The captains, with as much force as could be spared, entered the fort, and a sally was shortly afterwards resolved on and executed, in which the besiegers sustained considerable damage. Every effort was likewise employed to repair the breaches and stop up the mines that had been made by the enemy in order to effect a passage into the place. Ibrahim now attempted to draw them into a snare by removing his camp to a distance and making a feint of abandoning his enterprise; but this stratagem proved ineffectual. Reflecting then with indignation that his own force consisted of fifteen thousand men whilst that of the Europeans did not exceed three hundred and fifty, many of whom were sick and wounded, and others worn out with the fatigue of continual duty (intelligence whereof was conveyed to him), he resolved once more to return to the siege, and make a general assault upon all parts of the fortification at once. Two hours before daybreak he caused the place to be surrounded with eight thousand men, who approached in perfect silence. The nighttime was preferred by these people for making their attacks as being then most secure from the effect of firearms, and they also generally chose a time of rain, when the powder would not burn. As soon as they found themselves perceived they set up a hideous shout, and, fixing their scaling ladders, made of bamboo and wonderfully light, to the number of six hundred, they attempted to force their way through the embrasures for the guns; but after a strenuous contest they were at length repulsed. Seven elephants were driven with violence against the paling of one of the bastions, which gave way before them like a hedge, and overset all the men who were on it. Javelin

s and pikes these enormous beasts made no account of, but upon setting fire to powder under their trunks they drew back with precipitation in spite of all the efforts of their drivers, overthrew their own people, and, flying to the distance of several miles, could not again be brought into the lines. The Achinese upon receiving this check thought to take revenge by setting fire to some vessels that were in the dockyard; but this proved an unfortunate measure to them, for by the light which it occasioned the garrison were enabled to point their guns, and did abundant execution.

1524.

Henriquez, after beating sometime against a contrary wind, put back to Pase, and, coming on shore the day after this conflict, resumed his command. A council was soon after held to determine what measures were fittest to be pursued in the present situation of affairs, and, taking into their consideration that no further assistance could be expected from the west of India in less than six months, that the garrison was sickly and provisions short, it was resolved by a majority of votes to abandon the place, and measures were taken accordingly. In order to conceal their intentions from the enemy they ordered such of the artillery and stores as could be removed conveniently to be packed up in the form of merchandise and then shipped off. A party was left to set fire to the buildings, and trains of powder were so disposed as to lead to the larger cannon, which they overcharged that they might burst as soon as heated. But this was not effectually executed, and the pieces mostly fell into the hands of the Achinese,

who upon the first alarm of the evacuation rushed in, extinguished the flames, and turned upon the Portuguese their own artillery, many of whom were killed in the water as they hurried to get into their boats. They now lost as much credit by this ill conducted retreat as they had acquired by their gallant defence, and were insulted by the reproachful shouts of the enemy, whose power was greatly increased by this acquisition of military stores, and of which they often severely experienced the effects. To render their disgrace more striking it happened that as they sailed out of the harbour they met thirty boats laden with provisions for their use from the king of Aru, who was himself on his march overland with four thousand men: and when they arrived at Malacca they found troops and stores embarked there for their relief. The unfortunate princes who had sought an asylum with them now joined in their flight; the sultan of Pase proceeded to Malacca, and the sultan of Pidir and chief of Daya took refuge with the king of Aru.

1525.

Raja Nara, king of Indragiri, in conjunction with a force from Bintang, attacked the king of a neighbouring island called Lingga, who was in friendship with the Portuguese. A message which passed on this occasion gives a just idea of the style and manners of this people. Upon their acquainting the king of Lingga, in their summons of surrender, that they had lately overcome the fleet of Malacca, he replied that his intelligence informed him of the contrary; that he had just made a festival and killed fifty goats to celebrate one defeat which they had received,

and hoped soon to kill a hundred in order to celebrate a second. His expectations were fulfilled, or rather anticipated, for the Portuguese, having a knowledge of the king of Indragiri’s design, sent out a small fleet which routed the combined force before the king of Lingga was acquainted with their arrival, his capital being situated high up on the river.

1526.

In the next year, at the conquest of Bintang, this king unsolicited sent assistance to his European allies.

1527.

However well founded the accounts may have been which the Portuguese have given us of the cruelties committed against their people by the king of Achin, the barbarity does not appear to have been only on one side. Francisco de Mello, being sent in an armed vessel with dispatches to Goa, met near Achin Head with a ship of that nation just arrived from Mecca and supposed to be richly laden. As she had on board three hundred Achinese and forty Arabs he dared not venture to board her, but battered her at a distance, when suddenly she filled and sunk, to the extreme disappointment of the Portuguese, who thereby lost their prize; but they wreaked their vengeance on the unfortunate crew as they endeavoured to save themselves by swimming, and boast that they did not suffer a man to escape. Opportunities of retaliation soon offered.

 

1528.

Simano de Sousa, going with a reinforcement to the Moluccas from Cochin, was overtaken in the bay by a violent storm, which forced him to stow many of his guns in the hold; and, having lost several of his men through fatigue, he made for the nearest port he could take shelter in, which proved to be Achin. The king, having the destruction of the Portuguese at heart, and resolving if possible to seize their vessel, sent off a message to De Sousa recommending his standing in closer to the shore, where he would have more shelter from the gale which still continued, and lie more conveniently for getting off water and provisions, at the same time inviting him to land. This artifice not succeeding, he ordered out the next morning a thousand men in twenty boats, who at first pretended they were come to assist in mooring the ship; but the captain, aware of their hostile design, fired amongst them, when a fierce engagement took place in which the Achinese were repulsed with great slaughter, but not until they had destroyed forty of the Portuguese. The king, enraged at this disappointment, ordered a second attack, threatening to have his admiral trampled to death by elephants if he failed of success. A boat was sent ahead of this fleet with a signal of peace, and assurances to De Sousa that the king, as soon as he was made acquainted with the injury that had been committed, had caused the perpetrators of it to be punished, and now once more requested him to come on shore and trust to his honour. This proposal some of the crew were inclined that he should accept,

but being animated by a speech that he made to them it was resolved that they should die with arms in their hands in preference to a disgraceful and hazardous submission. The combat was therefore renewed, with extreme fury on the one side, and uncommon efforts of courage on the other, and the assailants were a second time repulsed; but one of those who had boarded the vessel and afterwards made his escape represented to the Achinese the reduced and helpless situation of their enemy, and, fresh supplies coming off, they were encouraged to return to the attack. De Sousa and his people were at length almost all cut to pieces, and those who survived, being desperately wounded, were overpowered, and led prisoners to the king, who unexpectedly treated them with extraordinary kindness, in order to cover the designs he harboured, and pretended to lament the fate of their brave commander. He directed them to fix upon one of their companions, who should go in his name to the governor of Malacca, to desire he would immediately send to take possession of the ship, which he meant to restore, as well as to liberate them. He hoped by this artifice to draw more of the Portuguese into his power, and at the same time to effect a purpose of a political nature. A war had recently broken out between him and the king of Aru, the latter of whom had deputed ambassadors to Malacca, to solicit assistance, in return for his former services, and which was readily promised to him. It was highly the interest of the king of Achin to prevent this junction, and therefore, though determined to relax nothing in his plans of revenge, he hastened to dispatch Antonio Caldeira, one of the captives, with proposals of accommodation and alliance, offering to restore not only this vessel,

but also the artillery which he had taken at Pase. These terms appeared to the governor too advantageous to be rejected. Conceiving a favourable idea of the king’s intentions, from the confidence which Caldeira, who was deceived by the humanity shown to the wounded captives, appeared to place in his sincerity, he became deaf to the representations that were made to him by more experienced persons of his insidious character. A message was sent back, agreeing to accept his friendship on the proposed conditions, and engaging to withhold the promised succours from the king of Aru. Caldeira, in his way to Achin, touched at an island, where he was cut off with those who accompanied him. The ambassadors from Aru being acquainted with this breach of faith, retired in great disgust, and the king, incensed at the ingratitude shown him, concluded a peace with Achin; but not till after an engagement between their fleets had taken place, in which the victory remained undecided.

In order that he might learn the causes of the obscurity in which his negotiations with Malacca rested, Ibrahim dispatched a secret messenger to Senaia Raja, bandhara of that city, with whom he held a correspondence; desiring also to be informed of the strength of the garrison. Hearing in answer that the governor newly arrived was inclined to think favourably of him, he immediately sent an ambassador to wait on him with assurances of his pacific and friendly disposition, who returned in company with persons empowered, on the governor’s part, to negotiate a treaty of commerce. These, upon their arrival at Achin, were loaded with favours

and costly presents, the news of which quickly flew to Malacca, and, the business they came on being adjusted, they were suffered to depart; but they had not sailed far before they were overtaken by boats sent after them, and were stripped and murdered. The governor, who had heard of their setting out, concluded they were lost by accident. Intelligence of this mistaken opinion was transmitted to the king, who thereupon had the audacity to request that he might be honoured with the presence of some Portuguese of rank and consequence in his capital, to ratify in a becoming manner the articles that had been drawn up; as he ardently wished to see that nation trafficking freely in his dominions.

1529.

The deluded governor, in compliance with this request, adopted the resolution of sending thither a large ship under the command of Manuel Pacheco, with a rich cargo, the property of himself and several merchants of Malacca, who themselves embarked with the idea of making extraordinary profits. Senaia conveyed notice of this preparation to Achin, informing the king at the same time that, if he could make himself master of this vessel, Malacca must fall an easy prey to him, as the place was weakened of half its force for the equipment. When Pacheco approached the harbour he was surrounded by a great number of boats, and some of the people began to suspect treachery, but so strongly did the spirit of delusion prevail in this business that they could not persuade the captain to put himself on his guard. He soon had reason to repent his credulity. Perceiving an arrow pass close by him

, he hastened to put on his coat of mail, when a second pierced his neck, and he soon expired. The vessel then became an easy prey, and the people, being made prisoners, were shortly afterwards massacred by the king’s order, along with the unfortunate remnant of De Sousa’s crew, so long flattered with the hopes of release. By this capture the king was supposed to have remained in possession of more artillery than was left in Malacca, and he immediately fitted out a fleet to take advantage of its exposed state. The pride of success causing him to imagine it already in his power, he sent a taunting message to the governor in which he thanked him for the late instances of his liberality, and let him know he should trouble him for the remainder of his naval force.

Senaia had promised to put the citadel into his hands, and this had certainly been executed but for an accident that discovered his treasonable designs. The crews of some vessels of the Achinese fleet landed on a part of the coast not far from the city, where they were well entertained by the natives, and in the openness of conviviality related the transactions which had lately passed at Achin, the correspondence of Senaia, and the scheme that was laid for rising on the Portuguese when they should be at church, murdering them, and seizing the fortress. Intelligence of this was reported with speed to the governor, who had Senaia instantly apprehended and executed. This punishment served to intimidate those among the inhabitants who were engaged in the conspiracy, and disconcerted the plans of the king of Achin.

This appears to be the last transaction of Ibrahim’s reign recorded by the Portuguese historians. His death is stated by De Barros to have taken place in the year 1528 in consequence of poison administered to him by one of his wives, to revenge the injuries her brother, the chief of Daya, had suffered at his hand. In a Malayan work (lately come into my possession) containing the annals of the kingdom of Achin, it is said that a king, whose title was sultan Saleh-eddin-shah, obtained the sovereignty in a year answering to 1511 of our era, and who, after reigning about eighteen years, was dethroned by a brother in 1529. Notwithstanding some apparent discordance between the two accounts there can be little doubt of the circumstances applying to the same individual, as it may well be presumed that, according to the usual practice in the East, he adopted upon ascending the throne a title different from the name which he had originally borne, although that might continue to be his more familiar appellation, especially in the mouths of his enemies. The want of precise coincidence in the dates cannot be thought an objection, as the event not falling under the immediate observation of the Portuguese they cannot pretend to accuracy within a few months, and even their account of the subsequent transactions renders it more probable that it happened in 1529; nor are the facts of his being dethroned by the brother, or put to death by the sister, materially at variance with each other; and the latter circumstance, whether true or false, might naturally enough be reported at Malacca.

 

1529.

His successor took the name of Ala-eddin-shah, and afterwards, from his great enterprises, acquired the additional epithet of keher or the powerful. By the Portuguese he is said to have styled himself king of Achin, Barus, Pidir, Pase, Daya, and Batta, prince of the land of the two seas, and of the mines of Menangkabau.

1537.

Nothing is recorded of his reign until the year 1537, in which he twice attacked Malacca. The first time he sent an army of three thousand men who landed near the city by night, unperceived by the garrison, and, having committed some ravages in the suburbs, were advancing to the bridge, when the governor, Estavano de Gama, sallied out with a party and obliged them to retreat for shelter to the woods. Here they defended themselves during the next day, but on the following night they re-embarked, with the loss of five hundred men. A few months afterwards the king had the place invested with a larger force; but in the interval the works had been repaired and strengthened, and after three days ineffectual attempt the Achinese were again constrained to retire.

1547.

In the year 1547 he once more fitted out a fleet against Malacca, where a descent was made; but, contented with some trifling plunder,

the army re-embarked, and the vessels proceeded to the river of Parles on the Malayan coast. Hither they were followed by a Portuguese squadron, which attacked and defeated a division of the fleet at the mouth of the river. This victory was rendered famous, not so much by the valour of the combatants, as by a revelation opportunely made from heaven to the celebrated missionary Francisco Xavier of the time and circumstances of it, and which he announced to the garrison at a moment when the approach of a powerful invader from another quarter had caused much alarm and apprehension among them.

Many transactions of the reign of this prince, particularly with the neighbouring states of Batta and Aru (about the years 1539 and 1541) are mentioned by Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; but his writings are too apocryphal to allow of the facts being recorded upon his authority. Yet there is the strongest internal evidence of his having been more intimately acquainted with the countries of which we are now speaking, the character of the inhabitants, and the political transactions of the period, than any of his contemporaries; and it appears highly probable that what he has related is substantially true: but there is also reason to believe that he composed his work from recollection after his return to Europe, and he may not have been scrupulous in supplying from a fertile imagination the unavoidable failures of a memory, however richly stored.

1556.

The death of Ala-eddin took place, according to the Annals, in 1556, after a reign of twenty-eight years.

1565.

He was succeeded by sultan Hussein­shah, who reigned about eight, and dying in 1565 was succeeded by his son, an infant. This child survived only seven months; and in the same year the throne was occupied by Raja Firman-shah, who was murdered soon after.

1567.

His successor, Raja Janil, experienced a similar fate when he had reigned ten months. This event is placed in 1567. Sultan Mansur-shah, from the kingdom of Perak in the peninsula, was the next who ascended the throne.

1567.

The western powers of India having formed a league for the purpose of extirpating the Portuguese, the king of Achin was invited to accede to it, and, in conformity with the engagements by which the respective parties were bound, he prepared to attack them in Malacca, and carried thither a numerous fleet, in which were fifteen thousand people of his own subjects, and four hundred Turks, with two hundred pieces of artillery of different sizes. In order to amuse the enemy he gave out that his force was destined against Java, and sent a letter, accompanied with a present of a kris, to the governor, professing strong sentiments of friendship. A person whom he turned on shore with marks of ignominy, being suspected for a spy, was taken up, and being put to the torture confessed that he was employed by the Ottoman emperor

and king of Achin to poison the principal officers of the place, and to set fire to their magazine. He was put to death, and his mutilated carcase was sent off to the king. This was the signal for hostilities. He immediately landed with all his men and commenced a regular siege. Sallies were made with various success and very unequal numbers. In one of these the chief of Aru, the king’s eldest son, was killed. In another the Portuguese were defeated and lost many officers. A variety of stratagems were employed to work upon the fears and shake the fidelity of the inhabitants of the town. A general assault was given in which, after prodigious efforts of courage, and imminent risk of destruction, the besieged remained victorious. The king, seeing all his attempts fruitless, at length departed, having lost three thousand men before the walls, beside about five hundred who were said to have died of their wounds on the passage. The king of Ujong-tanah or Johor, who arrived with a fleet to the assistance of the place, found the sea for a long distance covered with dead bodies. This was esteemed one of the most desperate and honourable sieges the Portuguese experienced in India, their whole force consisting of but fifteen hundred men, of whom no more than two hundred were Europeans.

1568.

In the following year a vessel from Achin bound to Java, with ambassadors on board to the queen of Japara, in whom the king wished to raise up a new enemy against the Portuguese, was met in the straits by a vessel from Malacca, who took her and put all the people to the sword.

It appears to have been a maxim in these wars never to give quarter to an enemy, whether resisting or submitting.

1569.

In 1569 a single ship, commanded by Lopez Carrasco, passing near Achin, fell in with a fleet coming out of that port, consisting of twenty large galleys and a hundred and eighty other vessels, commanded by the king in person, and supposed to be designed against Malacca. The situation of the Portuguese was desperate. They could not expect to escape, and therefore resolved to die like men. During three days they sustained a continual attack, when, after having by incredible exertions destroyed forty of the enemy’s vessels, and being themselves reduced to the state of a wreck, a second ship appeared in sight. The king perceiving this retired into the harbour with his shattered forces.

It is difficult to determine which of the two is the more astonishing, the vigorous stand made by such a handful of men as the whole strength of Malacca consisted of, or the prodigious resources and perseverance of the Achinese monarch.

1573.

In 1573, after forming an alliance with the queen of Japara, the object of which was the destruction of the European power, he appeared again before Malacca with ninety vessels, twenty-five of them large galleys, with seven thousand men and great store of artillery

. He began his operations by sending a party to set fire to the suburbs of the town, but a timely shower of rain prevented its taking effect. He then resolved on a different mode of warfare, and tried to starve the place to a surrender by blocking up the harbour and cutting off all supplies of provisions. The Portuguese, to prevent the fatal consequences of this measure, collected those few vessels which they were masters of, and, a merchant ship of some force arriving opportunely, they put to sea, attacked the enemy’s fleet, killed the principal captain, and obtained a complete victory.

1574.

In the year following Malacca was invested by an armada from the queen of Japara, of three hundred sail, eighty of which were junks of four hundred tons burden. After besieging the place for three months, till the very air became corrupted by their stay, the fleet retired with little more than five thousand men, of fifteen that embarked on the expedition.

1575.

Scarcely was the Javanese force departed when the king of Achin once more appeared with a fleet that is described as covering the straits. He ordered an attack upon three Portuguese frigates that were in the road protecting some provision vessels, which was executed with such a furious discharge of artillery that they were presently destroyed with all their crews. This was a dreadful blow to Malacca, and lamented, as the historian relates,

with tears of blood by the little garrison, who were not now above a hundred and fifty men, and of those a great part non­effective. The king, elated with his success, landed his troops, and laid siege to the fort, which he battered at intervals during seventeen days. The fire of the Portuguese became very slack, and after some time totally ceased, as the governor judged it prudent to reserve his small stock of ammunition for an effort at the last extremity. The king, alarmed at this silence, which he construed into a preparation for some dangerous stratagem, was seized with a panic, and, suddenly raising the siege, embarked with the utmost precipitation; unexpectedly relieving the garrison from the ruin that hung over it, and which seemed inevitable in the ordinary course of events.

1582.

In 1582 we find the king appearing again before Malacca with a hundred and fifty sail of vessels. After some skirmishes with the Portuguese ships, in which the success was nearly equal on both sides, the Achinese proceeded to attack Johor, the king of which was then in alliance with Malacca. Twelve ships followed them thither, and, having burned some of their galleys, defeated the rest and obliged them to fly to Achin. The operations of these campaigns, and particularly the valour of the commander, named Raja Makuta, are alluded to in Queen Elizabeth’s letter to the king, delivered in 1602 by Sir James Lancaster.

About three or four years after this misfortune Mansur-shah prepared a fleet of no less than three hundred sail of vessels,

and was ready to embark once more upon his favourite enterprise, when he was murdered, together with his queen and many of the principal nobility, by the general of the forces, who had long formed designs upon the crown.

1585.

This was perpetrated in May 1585, when he had reigned nearly eighteen years. In his time the consequence of the kingdom of Achin is represented to have arrived at a considerable height, and its friendship to have been courted by the most powerful states. No city in India possessed a more flourishing trade, the port being crowded with merchant vessels which were encouraged to resort thither by the moderate rates of the customs levied; and although the Portuguese and their ships were continually plundered, those belonging to every Asiatic power, from Mecca in the West to Japan in the East, appear to have enjoyed protection and security. The despotic authority of the monarch was counterpoised by the influence of the orang-kayas or nobility, who are described as being possessed of great wealth, living in fortified houses, surrounded by numerous dependants, and feeling themselves above control, often giving a licentious range to their proud and impatient tempers.

The late monarch’s daughter and only child was married to the king of Johor,* by whom she had a son, who, being regarded as heir to the crown of Achin, had been brought to the latter place to be educated under the eye of his grandfather. When the general (whose name is corruptly written Moratiza) assumed the powers of government,

he declared himself the protector of this child, and we find him mentioned in the Annals by the title of Sultan Buyong (or the Boy).

(*Footnote. The king of Achin sent on this occasion to Johor a piece of ordnance, such as for greatness, length, and workmanship (says Linschoten), could hardly be matched in all Christendom. It was afterwards taken by the Portuguese, who shipped it for Europe, but the vessel was lost in her passage.)

1588.

But before he had completed the third year of his nominal reign he also was dispatched, and the usurper took formal possession of the throne in the year 1588, by the name of Ala-eddin Rayet-shah,* being then at an advanced period of life.

(*Footnote. Valentyn, by an obvious corruption, names him Sulthan Alciden Ryetza, and this coincidence is strongly in favour of the authenticity and correctness of the Annals. John Davis, who will be hereafter mentioned, calls him, with sufficient accuracy, Sultan Aladin.)

The Annals say he was the grandson of Sultan Firman-shah; but the Europeans who visited Achin during his reign report him to have been originally a fisherman, who, having afterwards served in the wars against Malacca, showed so much courage, prudence,

 

and skill in maritime affairs that the late king made him at length the chief commander of his forces, and gave him one of his nearest kinswomen to wife, in right of whom he is said to have laid claim to the throne.

The French Commodore Beaulieu relates the circumstances of this revolution in a very different manner.*

(*Footnote. The commodore had great opportunity of information, was a man of very superior ability, and indefatigable in his inquiries upon all subjects, as appears by the excellent account of his voyage, and of Achin in particular, written by himself, and published in Thevenot’s collection, of which there is an English translation in Harris; but it is possible he may, in this instance, have been amused by a plausible tale from the grandson of this monarch, with whom he had much intercourse. John Davis, an intelligent English navigator whose account I have followed, might have been more likely to hear the truth as he was at Achin (though not a frequenter of the court) during Ala-eddin’s reign, whereas Beaulieu did not arrive till twenty’ years after, and the report of his having been originally a fisherman is also mentioned by the Dutch writers.)

He says that, upon the extinction of the ancient royal line, which happened about forty years before the period at which he wrote, the orang-kayas met in order to choose a king, but, every one affecting the dignity for himself, they could not agree and resolved to decide it by force. In this ferment the cadi or chief judge by his authority

 

and remonstrances persuaded them to offer the crown to a certain noble who in all these divisions had taken no part, but had lived in the reputation of a wise, experienced man, being then seventy years of age, and descended from one of the most respectable families of the country. After several excuses on his side, and entreaties and even threats on theirs, he at length consented to accept the dignity thus imposed upon him, provided they should regard him as a father, and receive correction from him as his children; but no sooner was he in possession of the sovereign power than (like Pope Sixtus the Fifth) he showed a different face, and the first step after his accession was to invite the orang-kayas to a feast, where, as they were separately introduced, he caused them to be seized and murdered in a court behind the palace. He then proceeded to demolish their fortified houses, and lodged their cannon, arms, and goods in the castle, taking measures to prevent in future the erection of any buildings of substantial materials that could afford him grounds of jealousy. He raised his own adherents from the lower class of people to the first dignities of the state, and of those who presumed to express any disapprobation of his conduct he made great slaughter, being supposed to have executed not less than twenty thousand persons in the first year of his reign.

From the silence of the Portuguese writers with respect to the actions of this king we have reason to conclude that he did not make any attempts to disturb their settlement of Malacca; and it even appears that some persons in the character of ambassadors

or agents from that power resided at Achin, the principal object of whose policy appears to have been that of inspiring him with jealousy and hatred of the Hollanders, who in their turn were actively exerting themselves to supplant the conquerors of India.

1600.

Towards the close of the sixteenth century they began to navigate these seas; and in June 1600 visited Achin with two ships, but had no cause to boast of the hospitality of their reception. An attempt was made to cut them off, and evidently by the orders or connivance of the king, who had prevailed upon the Dutch admiral to take on board troops and military stores for an expedition meditated, or pretended, against the city of Johor, which these ships were to bombard. Several of the crews were murdered, but after a desperate conflict in both ships the treacherous assailants were overcome and driven into the water, “and it was some pleasure (says John Davis, an Englishman, who was the principal pilot of the squadron) to see how the base Indians did fly, how they were killed, and how well they were drowned.”* This barbarous and apparently unprovoked attack was attributed, but perhaps without any just grounds, to the instigation of the Portuguese.

(*Footnote. All the Dutchmen on shore at the time were made prisoners, and many of them continued in that state for several years. Among these was Captain Frederick Houtman, whose Vocabulary of the Malayan language was printed at Amsterdam in 1604, being the first that was published in Europe. My copy has the writer’s autograph.)

1600.

In November 1600 Paulus van Caarden, having also the command of two Dutch ships, was received upon his landing with much ceremony; but at his first audience the king refused to read a letter from the Prince of Orange, upon its being suggested to him that instead of paper it was written on the skin of an unclean animal; and the subsequent treatment experienced by this officer was uniformly bad. It appears however that in December 1601 the king was so far reconciled to this new power as to send two ambassadors to Holland, one of whom died there in August 1602, and the other returned to Achin subsequently to the death of his master.

1602.

The first English fleet that made its appearance in this part of the world, and laid the foundation of a commerce which was in time to eclipse that of every other European state, arrived at Achin in June 1602. Sir James Lancaster, who commanded it, was received by the king with abundant ceremony and respect, which seem with these monarchs to have been usually proportioned to the number of vessels and apparent strength of their foreign guests. The queen of England’s letter was conveyed to court with great pomp, and the general, after delivering a rich present, the most admired article of which was a fan of feathers, declared the purpose of his coming was to establish peace and amity between his royal mistress and her loving brother, the great and mighty king of Achin.

He was invited to a banquet prepared for his entertainment, in which the service was of gold, and the king’s damsels, who were richly attired and adorned with bracelets and jewels, were ordered to divert him with dancing and music. Before he retired he was arrayed by the king in a magnificent habit of the country, and armed with two krises. In the present sent as a return for the queen’s there was, among other matters, a valuable ruby set in a ring. Two of the nobles, one of whom was the chief priest, were appointed to settle with Lancaster the terms of a commercial treaty, which was accordingly drawn up and executed in an explicit and regular manner. The Portuguese ambassador, or more properly the Spanish, as those kingdoms were now united, kept a watchful and jealous eye upon his proceedings; but by bribing the spies who surrounded him he foiled them at their own arts, and acquired intelligence that enabled him to take a rich prize in the straits of Malacca, with which he returned to Achin; and, having loaded what pepper he could procure there, took his departure in November of the same year. On this occasion it was requested by the king that he and his officers would favour him by singing one of the psalms of David, which was performed with much solemnity.

Very little is known of the military transactions of this reign, and no conquest but that of Pase is recorded. He had two sons, the younger of whom he made king of Pidir, and the elder, styled Sultan Muda, he kept at Achin, in order to succeed him in the throne. In the year 1603 he resolved to divide the charge of government with his intended heir, as he found his extraordinary age began to render him unequal to the task,

and accordingly invested him with royal dignity; but the effect which might have been foreseen quickly followed this measure. The son, who was already advanced in years, became impatient to enjoy more complete power, and, thinking his father had possessed the crown sufficiently long, he confined him in a prison, where his days were soon ended.

1604.

The exact period at which this event took place is not known, but, calculating from the duration of his reign as stated in the Annals, it must have been early in the year 1604.* He was then ninety-five years of age,** and described to be a hale man, but extremely gross and fat.

(*Footnote. The Dutch commander Joris van Spilbergen took leave of him in April 1603, and his ambassador to Holland, who returned in December, 1604, found his son on the throne, according to Valentyn. Commodore Beaulieu says he died in 1603.)

(**Footnote. According to Beaulieu Davis says he was about a hundred; and the Dutch voyages mention that his great age prevented his ever appearing out of his palace.)

His constitution must have been uncommonly vigorous, and his muscular strength is indicated by this ludicrous circumstance, that when he once condescended to embrace a Dutch admiral, contrary to the usual manners of his country, the pressure of his arms was so violent as to cause excessive pain to the person so honoured. He was passionately addicted to women, gaming, and drink,

his favourite beverage being arrack. By the severity of his punishments he kept his subjects in extreme awe of him; and the merchants were obliged to submit to more exactions and oppressions than were felt under the government of his predecessors. The seizure of certain vessels belonging to the people of Bantam and other arbitrary proceedings of that nature are said to have deterred the traders of India from entering into his ports.

The new king, who took the name of Ali Maghayat-shah, proved himself, from indolence or want of capacity, unfit to reign. He was always surrounded by his women, who were not only his attendants but his guards, and carried arms for that purpose. His occupations were the bath and the chase, and the affairs of state were neglected insomuch that murders, robberies, oppression, and an infinity of disorders took place in the kingdom for want of a regular and strict administration of justice. A son of the daughter of Ala-eddin had been a favourite of his grandfather, at the time of whose death he was twenty-three years of age, and continued, with his mother, to reside at the court after that event. His uncle the king of Achin having given him a rebuke on some occasion, he left his palace abruptly and fled to the king of Pidir, who received him with affection, and refused to send him back at the desire of the elder brother, or to offer any violence to a young prince whom their father loved. This was the occasion of an inveterate war which cost the lives of many thousand people. The nephew commanded the forces of Pidir, and for some time maintained the advantage,

but these, at length seeing themselves much inferior in numbers to the army of Ali-Maghayat, refused to march, and the king was obliged to give him up, when he was conveyed to Achin and put in close confinement.

1606.

Not long afterwards a Portuguese squadron under Martin Alfonso, going to the relief of Malacca, then besieged by the Dutch, anchored in Achin road with the resolution of taking revenge on the king for receiving these their rivals into his ports, contrary to the stipulations of a treaty that had been entered into between them. The viceroy landed his men, who were opposed by a strong force on the part of the Achinese; but after a stout resistance they gained the first turf fort with two pieces of cannon, and commenced an attack upon the second, of masonry. In this critical juncture the young prince sent a message to his uncle requesting he might be permitted to join the army and expose himself in the ranks, declaring himself more willing to die in battle against the Kafers (so they always affected to call the Portuguese) than to languish like a slave in chains. The fears which operated upon the king’s mind induced him to consent to his release. The prince showed so much bravery on this occasion, and conducted two or three attacks with such success that Alfonso was obliged to order a retreat, after wasting two days and losing three hundred men in this fruitless attempt. The reputation of the prince was raised by this affair to a high pitch amongst the people of Achin. His mother, who was an active, ambitious woman, formed the design of placing him on the throne,

and furnished him with large sums of money, to be distributed in gratuities amongst the principal orang cayas. At the same time he endeavoured to ingratiate himself by his manners with all classes of people. To the rich he was courteous; to the poor he was affable; and he was the constant companion of those who were in the profession of arms. When the king had reigned between three and four years he died suddenly, and at the hour of his death the prince got access to the castle. He bribed the guards, made liberal promises to the officers, advanced a large sum of money to the governor, and sending for the chief priest obliged him by threats to crown him. In fine he managed the revolution so happily that he was proclaimed king before night, to the great joy of the people, who conceived vast hopes from his liberality, courtesy, and valour. The king of Pidir was speedily acquainted with the news of his brother’s death, but not of the subsequent transactions, and came the next day to take possession of his inheritance. As he approached the castle with a small retinue he was seized by orders from the reigning prince, who, forgetting the favours he had received, kept him prisoner for a month, and then, sending him into the country under the pretence of a commodious retreat, had him murdered on the way. Those who put the crown on his head were not better requited; particularly the Maharaja, or governor of the castle. In a short time his disappointed subjects found that instead of being humane he was cruel; instead of being liberal he displayed extreme avarice, and instead of being affable he manifested a temper austere and inexorable.

This king, whom the Annals name Iskander Muda, was known to our travellers by the title of sultan Paduka Sri (words equivalent to most gracious), sovereign of Achin and of the countries of Aru, Dilli, Johor, Pahang, Kedah, and Perak on the one side, and of Barus, Pasaman, Tiku, Sileda, and Priaman on the other. Some of these places were conquered by him, and others he inherited.

1613.

He showed much friendship to the Hollanders in the early part of his reign; and in the year 1613 gave permission to the English to settle a factory, granting them many indulgences, in consequence of a letter and present from king James the first. He bestowed on Captain Best, who was the bearer of them, the title of orang kaya putih, and entertained him with the fighting of elephants, buffaloes, rams, and tigers. His answer to king James (a translation of which is to be found in Purchas) is couched in the most friendly terms, and he there styles himself king of all Sumatra. He expressed a strong desire that the king of England should send him one of his countrywomen to wife, and promised to make her eldest son king of all the pepper countries, that so the English might be supplied with that commodity by a monarch of their own nation. But notwithstanding his strong professions of attachment to us, and his natural connexion with the Hollanders, arising from their joint enmity to the Portuguese, it was not many years before he began to oppress both nations and use his endeavours to ruin their trade. He became jealous of their growing power,

and particularly in consequence of intelligence that reached him concerning the encroachments made by the latter in the island of Java.

The conquest of Aru seems never to have been thoroughly effected by the kings of Achin. Paduka Sri carried his arms thither and boasted of having obtained some victories.

1613.

In 1613 he subdued Siak in its neighbourhood. Early in the same year he sent an expedition against the kingdom of Johor (which had always maintained a political connexion with Aru) and, reducing the city after a siege of twenty-nine days, plundered it of everything moveable, and made slaves of the miserable inhabitants. The king fled to the island of Bintang, but his youngest brother and coadjutor was taken prisoner and carried to Achin. The old king of Johor, who had so often engaged the Portuguese, left three sons, the eldest of whom succeeded him by the title of Iang de per-tuan.*

(*Footnote. This is not an individual title or proper name, but signifies the sovereign or reigning monarch. In like manner Rega Bongsu signifies the king’s youngest brother, as Raja Muda does the heir apparent.)

The second was made king of Siak, and the third, called Raja Bongsu, reigned jointly with the first. He it was who assisted the Hollanders in the first siege of Malacca, and corresponded with Prince Maurice. T

he king of Achin was married to their sister, but this did not prevent a long and cruel war between them. A Dutch factory at Johor was involved in the consequences of this war, and several of that nation were among the prisoners. In the course of the same year however the king of Achin thought proper to establish Raja Bongsu on the throne of Johor, sending him back for that purpose with great honours, assisting him to rebuild the fort and city, and giving him one of his own sisters in marriage.

1615.

In 1615 the king of Achin sailed to the attack of Malacca in a fleet which he had been four years employed in preparing. It consisted of above five hundred sail, of which a hundred were large galleys, greater than any at that time built in Europe, carrying each from six to eight hundred men, with three large cannon and several smaller pieces. These galleys the orang kayas were obliged to furnish, repair, and man, at the peril of their lives. The soldiers served without pay, and carried three months provision at their own charge. In this great fleet there were computed to be sixty thousand men, whom the king commanded in person. His wives and household were taken to sea with him. Coming in sight of the Portuguese ships in the afternoon, they received many shot from them but avoided returning any, as if from contempt. The next day they got ready for battle, and drew up in form of a half moon. A desperate engagement took place and lasted without intermission till midnight, during which the Portuguese admiral was three times boarded, and repeatedly on fire.

Many vessels on both sides were also in flames and afforded light to continue the combat. At length the Achinese gave way, after losing fifty sail of different sizes, and twenty thousand men. They retired to Bancalis, on the eastern coast of Sumatra, and shortly afterwards sailed for Achin, the Portuguese not daring to pursue their victory, both on account of the damage they had sustained and their apprehension of the Hollanders, who were expected at Malacca. The king proposed that the prisoners taken should be mutually given up, which was agreed to, and was the first instance of that act of humanity and civilisation between the two powers.

1619.

Three years afterwards the king made a conquest of the cities of Kedah and Perak on the Malayan coast, and also of a place called Dilli in Sumatra. This last had been strongly fortified by the assistance of the Portuguese, and gave an opportunity of displaying much skill in the attack. Trenches were regularly opened before it and a siege carried on for six weeks ere it fell. In the same year the king of Jorcan (a place unknown at present by that name) fled for refuge to Malacca with eighty sail of boats, having been expelled his dominions by the king of Achin. The Portuguese were not in a condition to afford him relief, being themselves surrounded with enemies and fearful of an attack from the Achinese more especially; but the king was then making preparations against an invasion he heard was meditated by the viceroy of Goa. Reciprocal apprehensions kept each party on the defensive.

1621.

The French being desirous of participating in the commerce of Achin, of which all the European nations had formed great ideas, and all found themselves disappointed in, sent out a squadron commanded by General Beaulieu, which arrived in January 1621, and finally left it in December of the same year. He brought magnificent presents to the king, but these did not content his insatiable avarice, and he employed a variety of mean arts to draw from him further gifts. Beaulieu met also with many difficulties, and was forced to submit to much extortion in his endeavours to procure a loading of pepper, of which Achin itself, as has been observed, produced but little. The king informed him that he had some time since ordered all the plants to be destroyed, not only because the cultivation of them proved an injury to more useful agriculture, but also lest their produce might tempt the Europeans to serve him, as they had served the kings of Jakatra and Bantam. From this apprehension he had lately been induced to expel the English and Dutch from their settlements at Priaman and Tiku, where the principal quantity of pepper was procured, and of which places he changed the governor every third year to prevent any connexions dangerous to his authority from being formed. He had likewise driven the Dutch from a factory they were attempting to settle at Padang; which place appears to be the most remote on the western coast of the island to which the Achinese conquests at any time extended.

 

1628.

Still retaining a strong desire to possess himself of Malacca, so many years the grand object of Achinese ambition, he imprisoned the ambassador then at his court, and made extraordinary preparations for the siege, which he designed to undertake in person. The laksamana or commander in chief (who had effected all the king’s late conquests) attempted to oppose this resolution; but the maharaja, willing to flatter his master’s propensity, undertook to put him in possession of the city and had the command of the fleet given to him, as the other had of the land forces. The king set out on the expedition with a fleet of two hundred and fifty sail (forty­seven of them not less than a hundred feet in the keel), in which were twenty thousand men well appointed, and a great train of artillery. After being some time on board, with his family and retinue as usual, he determined, on account of an ill omen that was observed, to return to the shore. The generals, proceeding without him, soon arrived before Malacca. Having landed their men they made a judicious disposition, and began the attack with much courage and military skill. The Portuguese were obliged to abandon several of their posts, one of which, after a defence of fifty days, was levelled with the ground, and from its ruins strong works were raised by the laksamana. The maharaja had seized another post advantageously situated. From their several camps they had lines of communication, and the boats on the river were stationed in such a manner that the place was completely invested. Matters were in this posture

when a force of two thousand men came to the assistance of the besieged from the king of Pahang, and likewise five sail of Portuguese vessels from the coast of Coromandel; but all was insufficient to remove so powerful an enemy, although by that time they had lost four thousand of their troops in the different attacks and skirmishes. In the latter end of the year a fleet of thirty sail of ships, large and small, under the command of Nunno Alvarez Botello, having on board nine hundred European soldiers, appeared off Malacca, and blocked up the fleet of Achin in a river about three miles from the town. This entirely altered the complexion of affairs. The besiegers retired from their advanced works and hastened to the defence of their galleys, erecting batteries by the side of the river. The maharaja being summoned to surrender returned a civil but resolute answer. In the night, endeavouring to make his escape with the smaller vessels through the midst of the Portuguese, he was repulsed and wounded. Next day the whole force of the Achinese dropped down the stream with a design to fight their way, but after an engagement of two hours their principal galley, named the Terror of the World, was boarded and taken, after losing five hundred men of seven which she carried. Many other vessels were afterwards captured or sunk. The laksamana hung out a white flag and sent to treat with Nunno, but, some difficulty arising about the terms, the engagement was renewed with great warmth. News was brought to the Portuguese that the maharaja was killed and that the king of Pahang was approaching with a hundred sail of vessels to reinforce them. Still the Achinese kept up a dreadful fire, which seemed to render the final success doubtful;

but at length they sent proposals desiring only to be allowed three galleys of all their fleet to carry away four thousand men who remained of twenty that came before the town. It was answered that they must surrender at discretion; which the laksamana hesitating to do, a furious assault took place both by water and land upon his galleys and works, which were all effectually destroyed or captured, not a ship and scarcely a man escaping. He himself in the last extremity fled to the woods, but was seized ere long by the king of Pahang’s scouts. Being brought before the governor he said to him, with an undaunted countenance, “Behold here the laksamana for the first time overcome!” He was treated with respect but kept a prisoner, and sent on his own famous ship to Goa in order to be from thence conveyed to Portugal: but death deprived his enemies of that distinguished ornament of their triumph.

1635.

This signal defeat proved so important a blow to the power of Achin that we read of no further attempts to renew the war until the year 1635, when the king, encouraged by the feuds which at this time prevailed in Malacca, again violated the law of nations, to him little known, by imprisoning their ambassador, and caused all the Portuguese about his court to be murdered. No military operations however immediately took place in consequence of this barbarous proceeding.

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1640. 1641.

In the year 1640 the Dutch with twelve men of war, and the king of Achin with twenty-five galleys, appeared before that harassed and devoted city; which at length, in the following year was wrested from the hands of the Portuguese, who had so long, through such difficulties, maintained possession of it. This year was also marked by the death of the sultan, whom the Dutch writers name Paduka Sri, at the age of sixty, after a reign of thirty-five years; having just lived to see his hereditary foe subdued; and as if the opposition of the Portuguese power, which seems first to have occasioned the rise of that of Achin, was also necessary to its existence, the splendour and consequence of the kingdom from that period rapidly declined.

The prodigious wealth and resources of the monarchy during his reign are best evinced by the expeditions he was enabled to fit out; but being no less covetous than ambitious he contrived to make the expenses fall upon his subjects, and at the same time filled his treasury with gold by pressing the merchants and plundering the neighbouring states. An intelligent person (General Beaulieu), who was for some time at his court, and had opportunities of information on the subject, uses this strong expression–that he was infinitely rich. He constantly employed in his castle three hundred goldsmiths. This would seem an exaggeration, but that it is well known the Malayan princes have them always about them in great numbers at this day, working in the manufacture of filigree, for which the country is so famous.

His naval strength has been already sufficiently described. He was possessed of two thousand brass guns and small arms in proportion. His trained elephants amounted to some hundreds. His armies were probably raised only upon the occasion which called for their acting, and that in a mode similar to what was established under the feudal system in Europe. The valley of Achin alone was said to be able to furnish forty thousand men upon an emergency. A certain number of warriors however were always kept on foot for the protection of the king and his capital. Of these the superior class were called ulubalang, and the inferior amba-raja, who were entirely devoted to his service and resembled the janizaries of Constantinople. Two hundred horsemen nightly patrolled the grounds about the castle, the inner courts and apartments of which were guarded by three thousand women. The king’s eunuchs amounted to five hundred.

The disposition of this monarch was cruel and sanguinary. A multitude of instances are recorded of the horrible barbarity of his punishments, and for the most trivial offences. He imprisoned his own mother and put her to the torture, suspecting her to have been engaged in a conspiracy against him with some of the principal nobles, whom he caused to be executed. He murdered his nephew, the king of Johor’s son, of whose favour with his mother he was jealous. He also put to death a son of the king of Bantam, and another of the king of Pahang, who were both his near relations. None of the royal family survived in 1622 but his own son, a youth of eighteen, who had been thrice banished the court,

and was thought to owe his continuance in life only to his surpassing his father, if possible, in cruelty, and being hated by all ranks of people. He was at one time made king of Pidir but recalled on account of his excesses, confined in prison and put to strange tortures by his father, whom he did not outlive. The whole territory of Achin was almost depopulated by wars, executions, and oppression. The king endeavoured to repeople the country by his conquests. Having ravaged the kingdoms of Johor, Pahang, Kedah, Perak, and Dilli, he transported the inhabitants from those places to Achin, to the number of twenty-two thousand persons. But this barbarous policy did not produce the effect he hoped; for the unhappy people, being brought naked to his dominions, and not allowed any kind of maintenance on their arrival, died of hunger in the streets. In the planning his military enterprises he was generally guided by the distresses of his neighbours, for whom, as for his prey, he unceasingly lay in wait; and his preparatory measures were taken with such secrecy that the execution alone unravelled them. Insidious political craft and wanton delight in blood united in him to complete the character of a tyrant.

It must here be observed that, with respect to the period of this remarkable reign, the European and Malayan authorities are considerably at variance, the latter assigning to it something less than thirty solar years, and placing the death of Iskander Muda in December 1636. The Annals further state that he was succeeded by sultan Ala-eddin­Mahayat-shah, who reigned only about four years and died in February 1641. That this is the more accurate account I have no hesitation in believing, although Valentyn,

who gives a detail of the king’s magnificent funeral, was persuaded that the reign which ended in 1641 was the same that began in 1607. But he collected his information eighty years after the event, and as it does not appear that any European whose journal has been given to the world was on the spot at that period, the death of an obscure monarch who died after a short reign may well have been confounded by persons at a distance with that of his more celebrated predecessor. Both authorities however are agreed in the important fact that the successor to the throne in 1641 was a female. This person is described by Valentyn as being the wife of the old king, and not his daughter, as by some had been asserted; but from the Annals it appears that she was his daughter, named Taju al-alum; and as it was in her right that Maghayat-shah (certainly her husband), obtained the crown, so upon his decease, there being no male heir, she peaceably succeeded him in the government, and became the first queen regent of Achin. The succession having thenceforward continued nearly sixty years in the female line, this may be regarded as a new era in the history of the country. The nobles finding their power less restrained, and their individual consequence more felt under an administration of this kind than when ruled by kings (as sometimes they were with a rod of iron) supported these pageants, whom they governed as they thought fit, and thereby virtually changed the constitution into an aristocracy or oligarchy. The business of the state was managed by twelve orang-kayas, four of whom were superior to the rest, and among these the maharaja, or governor of the kingdom, was considered as the chief.

It does not appear, nor is it probable, that the queen had the power of appointing or removing any of these great officers. No applications were made to the throne but in their presence, nor any public resolution taken but as they determined in council. The great object of their political jealousy seems to have been the pretensions of the king of Johor to the crown, in virtue of repeated intermarriages between the royal families of the two countries, and it may be presumed that the alarms excited from that quarter materially contributed to reconcile them to the female domination. They are accordingly said to have formed an engagement amongst themselves never to pay obedience to a foreign prince, nor to allow their royal mistress to contract any marriage that might eventually lead to such a consequence.* At the same time, by a new treaty with Johor, its king was indirectly excused from the homage to the crown of Achin which had been insisted upon by her predecessors and was the occasion of frequent wars.

(*Footnote. However fanciful it may be thought, I cannot doubt that the example of our Queen Elizabeth, whose character and government were highly popular with the Achinese on account of her triumphant contest with the united powers of Spain and Portugal, had a strong influence in the establishment of this new species of monarchy, and that the example of her sister’s marriage with Philip may have contributed to the resolution taken by the nobles. The actions of our illustrious queen were a common topic of conversation between the old tyrant and Sir James Lancaster.)

In proportion as the political consequence of the kingdom declined, its history, as noticed by foreigners, becomes obscure. Little is recorded of the transactions of her reign, and it is likely that Achin took no active part in the concerns of neighbouring powers, but suffered the Hollanders, who maintained in general a friendly intercourse with her, to remain in quiet possession of Malacca.

1643.

In 1643 they sent an ambassador to compliment her upon her accession, and at the same time to solicit payment for a quantity of valuable jewels ordered by the deceased king, but for the amount of which she declined to make herself responsible.

1660.

It is said (but the fact will admit of much doubt) that in 1660 she was inclined to marry one of their countrymen, and would have carried her design into execution had not the East India Company prevented by their authority a connexion that might, as they prudently judged, be productive of embarrassment to their affairs.

1664.

The Dutch however complain that she gave assistance to their enemies the people of Perak, and in 1664 it was found necessary to send a squadron under the command of Pieter de Bitter to bring her to reason. As it happened that she was at this time at war with some of her own dependants

he made himself master of several places on the western coast that were nominally at least belonging to Achin.

1666.

About 1666 the English establishments at Achin and some ports to the southward appear to have given considerable umbrage to their rivals.

1669.

In 1669 the people of Dilli on the north-eastern coast threw off their allegiance, and the power of the kingdom became gradually more and more circumscribed.

1675.

This queen died in 1675, after reigning, with a degree of tranquillity little known in these countries, upwards of thirty-four years.

The people being now accustomed and reconciled to female rule, which they found more lenient than that of their kings, acquiesced in general in the established mode of government.

1677.

And she was immediately succeeded by another female monarch, named Nur al-alum, who reigned little more than two years and died in 1677.

The queen who succeeded her was named Anayet-shah.

1684.

In the year 1684 she received an embassy from the English government of Madras, and appeared at that time to be about forty years. The persons who were on this occasion presented to her express their suspicions, which were suggested to them by a doubt prevailing amongst the inhabitants, that this sovereign was not a real queen, but a eunuch dressed up in female apparel, and imposed on the public by the artifices of the orang kayas. But as such a cheat, though managed with every semblance of reality (which they observe was the case) could not be carried on for any number of years without detection, and as the same idea does not appear to have been entertained at any other period, it is probable they were mistaken in their surmise. Her person they describe to have been large, and her voice surprisingly strong, but not manly.*

(*Footnote. The following curious passage is extracted from the journal of these gentlemen’s proceedings. “We went to give our attendance at the palace this day as customary. Being arrived at the place of audience with the orang cayos, the queen was pleased to order us to come nearer, when her majesty was very inquisitive into the use of our wearing periwigs, and what was the convenience of them; to all which we returned satisfactory answers. After this her majesty desired of Mr. Ord, if it were no affront to him, that he would take off his periwig, that she might see how he appeared without it; which, according to her majesty’s request, he did. She then told us she had heard of our business,

and would give her answer by the orang cayos; and so we retired.” I venture, with submission, to observe that this anecdote seems to put the question of the sex beyond controversy.)

The purport of the embassy was to obtain liberty to erect a fortification in her territory, which she peremptorily refused, being contrary to the established rules of the kingdom; adding that if the governor of Madras would fill her palace with gold she could not permit him to build with brick either fort or house. To have a factory of timber and plank was the utmost indulgence that could be allowed; and on that footing the return of the English, who had not traded there for many years, should be welcomed with great friendship. The queen herself, the orang kayas represented, was not allowed to fortify lest some foreign power might avail themselves of it to enslave the country. In the course of these negotiations it was mentioned that the agriculture of Achin had suffered considerably of late years by reason of a general licence given to all the inhabitants to search for gold in the mountains and rivers which afforded that article; whereas the business had formerly been restricted to certain authorized persons, and the rest obliged to till the ground.

1684.

The court feared to give a public sanction for the settlement of the English on any part of the southern coast lest it should embroil them with the other European powers.*

 

(*Footnote. The design of settling a factory at this period in the dominions of Achin was occasioned by the recent loss of our establishment at Bantam, which had been originally fixed by Sir James Lancaster in 1603. The circumstances of this event were as follows. The old sultan had thought proper to share the regal power with his son in the year 1677, and this measure was attended with the obvious effect of a jealousy between the parent and child, which soon broke forth into open hostilities. The policy of the Dutch led them to take an active part in favour of the young sultan, who had inclined most to their interests and now solicited their aid. The English on the other hand discouraged what appeared to them an unnatural rebellion, but without interfering, as they said, in any other character than that of mediators, or affording military assistance to either party; and which their extreme weakness rather than their assertions renders probable. On the twenty-eighth of March 1682 the Dutch landed a considerable force from Batavia, and soon terminated the war. They placed the young sultan on the throne, delivering the father into his custody, and obtained from him in return for these favours an exclusive privilege of trade in his territories; which was evidently the sole object they had in view. On the first day of April possession was taken of the English factory by a party of Dutch and country soldiers, and on the twelfth the agent and council were obliged to embark with their property on vessels provided for the purpose, which carried them to Batavia. From thence they proceeded to Surat on the twenty-second of August in the following year.

In order to retain a share in the pepper-trade the English turned their thoughts towards Achin, and a deputation, consisting of two gentlemen, of the names of Old and Cawley, was sent thither in 1684; the success of which is above related. It happened that at this time certain Rajas or chiefs of the country of Priaman and other places on the west coast of Sumatra were at Achin also to solicit aid of that court against the Dutch, who had made war upon and otherwise molested them. These immediately applied to Mr. Ord, expressing a strong desire that the English should settle in their respective districts, offering ground for a fort and the exclusive purchase of their pepper. They consented to embark for Madras, where an agreement was formed with them by the governor in the beginning of the year 1685 on the terms they had proposed. In consequence of this an expedition was fitted out with the design of establishing a settlement at Priaman; but a day or two before the ships sailed an invitation to the like purport was received from the chiefs of Bang­kaulu (since corruptly called Bencoolen); and as it was known that a considerable proportion of the pepper that used to be exported from Bantam had been collected from the neighbourhood of Bencoolen (at a place called Silebar), it was judged advisable that Mr. Ord, who was the person entrusted with the management of this business, should first proceed thither; particularly as at that season of the year it was the windward port. He arrived there on the twenty-fifth day of June 1685, and, after taking possession of the country assigned to the English Company, and leaving Mr. Broome in charge of the place, he sailed for the purpose of establishing the other settlements.

He stopped first at Indrapura, where he found three Englishmen who were left of a small factory that had been some time before settled there by a man of the name of Du Jardin. Here he learned that the Dutch, having obtained a knowledge of the original intention of our fixing at Priaman, had anticipated us therein and sent a party to occupy the situation. In the meantime it was understood in Europe that this place was the chief of our establishments on the coast, and ships were accordingly consigned thither. The same was supposed at Madras, and troops and stores were sent to reinforce it, which were afterwards landed at Indrapura. A settlement was then formed at Manjuta, and another attempted at Batang-kapas in 1686; but here the Dutch, assisted by a party amongst the natives, assaulted and drove out our people. Every possible opposition, as it was natural to expect, was given by these our rivals to the success of our factories. They fixed themselves in the neighbourhood of them and endeavoured to obstruct the country people from carrying pepper to them or supplying them with provisions either by sea or land. Our interests however in the end prevailed, and Bencoolen in particular, to which the other places were rendered subordinate in 1686, began to acquire some degree of vigour and respectability. In 1689 encouragement was given to Chinese colonists to settle there, whose number has been continually increasing from that time. In 1691 the Dutch felt the loss of their influence at Silebar and other of the southern countries, where they attempted to exert authority in the name of the sultan of Bantam, and the produce of these places was delivered to the English. This revolution proceeded from the works with which about this time our factory was strengthened.

In 1695 a settlement was made at Triamang, and two years after at Kattaun and Sablat. The first, in the year 1700, was removed to Bantal. Various applications were made by the natives in different parts of the island for the establishment of factories, particularly from Ayer-Bangis to the northward, Palembang on the eastern side, and the people from the countries south of Tallo, near Manna. A person was sent to survey these last, as far as Pulo Pisang and Kroi, in 1715. In consequence of the inconvenience attending the shipping of goods from Bencoolen River, which is often impracticable from the surfs, a warehouse was built in 1701 at a place then called the cove; which gave the first idea of removing the settlement to the point of land which forms the bay of Bencoolen. The unhealthiness of the old situation was thought to render this an expedient step; and accordingly about 1714 it was in great measure relinquished, and the foundations of Fort Marlborough were laid on a spot two or three miles distant. Being a high plain it was judged to possess considerable advantages; many of which however are counterbalanced by its want of the vicinity of a river, so necessary for the ready and plentiful supply of provisions. Some progress had been made in the erection of this fort when an accident happened that had nearly destroyed the Company’s views. The natives incensed at ill treatment received from the Europeans, who were then but little versed in the knowledge of their dispositions or the art of managing them by conciliating methods, rose in a body in the year 1719, and forced the garrison, whose ignorant fears rendered them precipitate, to seek refuge on board their ships. These people began now to feel alarms lest the Dutch, taking advantage of the absence of the English,

should attempt an establishment, and soon permitted some persons from the northern factories to resettle the place; and, supplies arriving from Madras, things returned to their former course, and the fort was completed. The Company’s affairs on this coast remained in tranquillity for a number of years. The important settlement of Natal was established in 1752, and that of Tappanuli a short time afterwards; which involved the English in fresh disputes with the Dutch, who set up a claim to the country in which they are situated. In the year 1760 the French under Comte d’Estaing destroyed all the English settlements on the coast of Sumatra; but they were soon reestablished and our possession secured by the treaty of Paris in 1763. Fort Marlborough, which had been hitherto a peculiar subordinate of Fort St. George, was now formed into an independent presidency, and was furnished with a charter for erecting a mayor’s court, but which has never been enforced. In 1781 a detachment of military from thence embarked upon five East India ships and took possession of Padang and all other Dutch factories in consequence of the war with that nation. In 1782 the magazine of Fort Marlborough, in which were four hundred barrels of powder, was fired by lightning and blew up; but providentially few lives were lost. In 1802 an act of parliament was passed “to authorize the East India Company to make their settlement at Fort Marlborough in the East Indies, a factory subordinate to the presidency of Fort William in Bengal, and to transfer the servants who on the reduction of that establishment shall be supernumerary, to the presidency of Fort St. George.” In 1798 plants of the nutmeg and clove had for the first time been procured from the Moluccas;

and in 1803 a large importation of these valuable articles of cultivation took place. As the plantations were, by the last accounts from thence, in the most flourishing state, very important commercial advantages were expected to be derived from the culture.)

A few years before these transactions she had invited the king of Siam to renew the ancient connexion between their respective states, and to unite in a league against the Dutch, by whose encroachments the commerce of her subjects and the extent of her dominions were much circumscribed. It does not appear however that this overture was attended with any effect, nor have the limits of the Achinese jurisdiction since that period extended beyond Pidir on the northern, and Barus on the western coast.

1688.

She died in 1688, having reigned something less than eleven years, and was succeeded by a young queen named Kamalat-shah; but this did not take place without a strong opposition from a faction amongst the orang kayas which wanted to set up a king, and a civil war actually commenced. The two parties drew up their forces on opposite sides of the river, and for two or three nights continued to fire at each other, but in the daytime followed their ordinary occupations. These opportunities of intercourse made them sensible of their mutual folly. They agreed to throw aside their arms and the crown remained in possession of the newly elected queen. It was said to have been esteemed essential that she should be a maiden, advanced in years,

and connected by blood with the ancient royal line. In this reign an English factory, which had been long discontinued, was reestablished at Achin, but in the interval some private traders of this nation had always resided on the spot. These usually endeavoured to persuade the state that they represented the India Company, and sometimes acquired great influence, which they are accused of having employed in a manner not only detrimental to that body but to the interests of the merchants of India in general by monopolizing the trade of the port, throwing impediments in the way of all shipping not consigned to their management, and embezzling the cargoes of such as were. An asylum was also afforded, beyond the reach of law, for all persons whose crimes or debts induced them to fly from the several European settlements. These considerations chiefly made the Company resolve to reclaim their ancient privileges in that kingdom, and a deputation was sent from the presidency of Madras in the year 1695 for that purpose, with letters addressed to her illustrious majesty the queen of Achin, desiring permission to settle on the terms her predecessors had granted to them; which was readily complied with, and a factory, but on a very limited scale, was established accordingly, but soon declined and disappeared. In 1704, when Charles Lockyer (whose account of his voyage, containing a particular description of this place, was published in 1711) visited Achin, one of these independent factors, named Francis Delton, carried on a flourishing trade. In 1695 the Achinese were alarmed by the arrival of six sail of Dutch ships of force, with a number of troops on board, in their road,

not having been visited by any of that nation for fifteen years, but they departed without offering any molestation.

1699.

This queen was deposed by her subjects (whose grounds of complaint are not stated) about the latter part of the year 1699, after reigning also eleven years; and with her terminated the female dynasty, which, during its continuance of about fifty-nine years, had attracted much notice in Europe.

Her successor was named Beder al-alum sherif Hasham, the nature of whose pretensions to the crown does not positively appear, but there is reason to believe that he was her brother. When he had reigned a little more than two years it pleased God (as the Annals express it) to afflict him with a distemper which caused his feet and hands to contract (probably the gout) and disqualified him for the performance of his religious duties.

1702.

Under these circumstances he was induced to resign the government in 1702, and died about a month after his abdication.

Perkasa-alum, a priest, found means by his intrigues to acquire the sovereignty, and one of his first acts was to attempt imposing certain duties on the merchandise imported by English traders,

who had been indulged with an exemption from all port charges excepting the established complimentary presents upon their arrival and receiving the chap or licence. This had been stipulated in the treaty made by Sir James Lancaster, and renewed by Mr. Grey when chief of the Company’s factory. The innovation excited an alarm and determined opposition on the part of the masters of ships then at the place, and they proceeded (under the conduct of Captain Alexander Hamilton, who published an account of his voyage in 1727) to the very unwarrantable step of commencing hostilities by firing upon the villages situated near the mouth of the river, and cutting off from the city all supplies of provisions by sea. The inhabitants, feeling severely the effects of these violent measures, grew clamorous against the government, which was soon obliged to restore to these insolent traders the privileges for which they contended.

1704.

Advantage was taken of the public discontents to raise an insurrection in favour of the nephew of the late queen, or, according to the Annals, the son of Beder al-alum (who was probably her brother), in the event of which Perkasa-alum was deposed about the commencement of the year 1704, and after an interregnum or anarchy of three months continuance, the young prince obtained possession of the throne, by the name of Jemal al-alum. From this period the native writers furnish very ample details of the transactions of the Achinese government, as well as of the general state of the country,

whose prosperous circumstances during the early part of this king’s reign are strongly contrasted with the misery and insignificance to which it was reduced by subsequent events. The causes and progress of this political decline cannot be more satisfactorily set forth than in a faithful translation of the Malayan narrative which was drawn up, or extracted from a larger work, for my use, and is distinct from the Annals already mentioned:

When raja Jemal al-alum reigned in Achin the country was exceedingly populous, the nobles had large possessions, the merchants were numerous and opulent, the judgments of the king were just, and no man could experience the severity of punishment but through his own fault. In those days the king could not trade on his own account, the nobles having combined to prevent it; but the accustomed duties of the port were considered as his revenue, and ten per cent was levied for this purpose upon all merchandise coming into the country. The city was then of great extent, the houses were of brick and stone. The most considerable merchant was a man named Daniel, a Hollander; but many of different nations were also settled there, some from Surat, some from Kutch, others from China. When ships arrived in the port, if the merchants could not take off all the cargoes the king advanced the funds for purchasing what remained, and divided the goods among them, taking no profit to himself. After the departure of the vessel the king was paid in gold the amount of his principal, without interest.

His daily amusements were in the grounds allotted for the royal sports.

He was attended by a hundred young men, who were obliged to be constantly near his person day and night, and who were clothed in a sumptuous manner at a monthly expense of a hundred dollars for each man. The government of the different parts of the country was divided, under his authority, amongst the nobles. When a district appeared to be disturbed he took measures for quelling the insurrection; those who resisted his orders he caused to be apprehended; when the roads were bad he gave directions for their repair. Such was his conduct in the government. His subjects all feared him, and none dared to condemn his actions. At that time the country was in peace.

When he had been a few years on the throne a country lying to the eastward, named Batu Bara, attempted to throw off its subjection to Achin. The chiefs were ordered to repair to court to answer for their conduct, but they refused to obey. These proceedings raised the king’s indignation. He assembled the nobles and required of them that each should furnish a vessel of war, to be employed on an expedition against that place, and within two months, thirty large galleys, without counting vessels of a smaller size, were built and equipped for sea. When the fleet arrived off Batu Bara (by which must be understood the Malayan district at the mouth of the river, and not the Batta territory through which it takes its course), a letter was sent on shore addressed to the refractory chiefs, summoning them to give proof of their allegiance by appearing in the king’s presence, or threatening the alternative of an immediate attack. After much division in their councils it was at length agreed to feign submission,

and a deputation was sent off to the royal fleet, carrying presents of fruit and provisions of all kinds. One of the chiefs carried, as his complimentary offering, some fresh coconuts, of the delicate species called kalapa-gading, into which a drug had been secretly introduced. The king observing these directed that one should be cut open for him, and having drunk of the juice, became affected with a giddiness in his head. (This symptom shows the poison to have been the upas, but too much diluted in the liquor of the nut to produce death). Being inclined to repose, the strangers were ordered to return on shore, and, finding his indisposition augment, he gave directions for being conveyed back to Achin, whither his ship sailed next day. The remainder of the fleet continued off the coast during five or six days longer, and then returned likewise without effecting the reduction of the place, which the chiefs had lost no time in fortifying.

About two years after this transaction the king, under pretence of amusement, made an excursion to the country lying near the source of the river Achin, then under the jurisdiction of a panglima or governor named Muda Seti; for it must be understood that this part of the kingdom is divided into three districts, known by the appellations of the Twenty-two, Twenty-six, and Twenty-five Mukims (see above), which were governed respectively by Muda Seti, Imam Muda, and Perbawang­Shah (or Purba-wangsa). These three chiefs had the entire control of the country, and when their views were united they had the power of deposing and setting up kings. Such was the nature of the government.

The king’s expedition was undertaken with the design of making himself master of the person of Muda Seti, who had given him umbrage, and on this occasion his followers of all ranks were so numerous that wherever they halted for the night the fruits of the earth were all devoured, as well as great multitudes of cattle. Muda Seti however, being aware of the designs against him, had withdrawn himself from the place of his usual residence and was not to be found when the king arrived there; but a report being brought that he had collected five or six hundred followers and was preparing to make resistance, orders were immediately given for burning his house. This being effected, the king returned immediately to Achin, leaving the forces that had accompanied him at a place called Pakan Badar, distant about half a day’s journey from the capital, where they were directed to entrench themselves. From this post they were driven by the country chief, who advanced rapidly upon them with several thousand men, and forced them to fall back to Padang Siring, where the king was collecting an army, and where a battle was fought soon after, that terminated in the defeat of the royal party with great slaughter. Those who escaped took refuge in the castle along with the king.

1723.

Under these disastrous circumstances he called upon the chiefs who adhered to him to advise what was best to be done, surrounded as they were by the country people, on

 

whom he invoked the curse of God; when one of them, named Panglima Maharaja, gave it as his opinion that the only effectual measure by which the country could be saved from ruin would be the king’s withdrawing himself from the capital so long as the enemy should continue in its vicinity, appointing a regent from among the nobles to govern the country in his absence; and when subordination should be restored he might then return and take again possession of his throne. To this proposition he signified his assent on the condition that Panglima Maharaja should assure him by an oath that no treachery was intended; which oath was accordingly taken, and the king, having nominated as his substitute Maharaja Lela, one of the least considerable of the ulubalangs, retired with his wives and children to the country of the Four mukims, situated about three hours journey to the westward of the city. (The Annals say he fled to Pidir in November 1723.) Great ravages were committed by the insurgents, but they did not attack the palace, and after some days of popular confusion the chiefs of the Three districts, who (says the writer) must not be confounded with the officers about the person of the king, held a consultation amongst themselves, and, exercising an authority of which there had been frequent examples, set up Panglima Maharaja in the room of the abdicated king (by the title, say the Annals, of Juhar al-alum, in December 1723). About seven days after his elevation he was seized with a convulsive disorder in his neck and died. A nephew of Jemal al-alum, named Undei Tebang, was then placed upon the throne, but notwithstanding his having bribed the chiefs of the Three districts with thirty katties of gold, they permitted him to enjoy his dignity only a few days,

and then deposed him. (The same authority states that he was set up by the chiefs of the Four mukims, and removed through the influence of Muda Seti.)

1724. 1735.

The person whom they next combined to raise to the throne was Maharaja Lela (before mentioned as the king’s substitute). It was his good fortune to govern the country in tranquillity for the space of nearly twelve years, during which period the city of Achin recovered its population. (According to the Annals he began to reign in February 1724, by the title of Ala ed-din Ahmed shah Juhan, and died in June 1735.) It happened that the same day on which the event of his death took place Jemal al-alum again made his appearance, and advanced to a mosque near the city. His friends advised him to lose no time in possessing himself of the castle, but for trifling reasons that mark the weakness of his character he resolved to defer the measure till the succeeding day; and the opportunity, as might be expected, was lost. The deceased king left five sons, the eldest of whom, named Po-chat-au (or Po-wak, according to another manuscript) exhorted his brothers to unite with him in the determination of resisting a person whose pretensions were entirely inconsistent with their security. They accordingly sent to demand assistance of Perbawang-shah, chief of the district of the Twenty-five mukims, which lies the nearest to that quarter. He arrived before morning, embraced the five princes, confirmed them in their resolution, and authorised the eldest to assume the government (which he did, say the Annals,

by the title of Ala ed-din Juhan-shah in September 1735.) But to this measure the concurrence of the other chiefs was wanting. At daybreak the guns of the castle began to play upon the mosque, and, some of the shot penetrating its walls, the pusillanimous Jemal al-alum, being alarmed at the danger, judged it advisable to retreat from thence and to set up his standard in another quarter, called kampong Jawa, his people at the same time retaining possession of the mosque. A regular warfare now ensued between the two parties and continued for no less than ten years (the great chiefs taking different sides), when at length some kind of compromise was effected that left Po-chat-au (Juhan­shah) in the possession of the throne, which he afterwards enjoyed peaceably for eight years, and no further mention is made of Jemal al-alum. About this period the chiefs took umbrage at his interfering in matters of trade, contrary to what they asserted to be the established custom of the realm, and assembled their forces in order to intimidate him. (The history of Achin presents a continual struggle between the monarch and the aristocracy of the country, which generally made the royal monopoly of trade the ground of crimination and pretext for their rebellions).

1755.

Panglima Muda Seti, being considered as the head of the league, came down with twenty thousand followers, and, upon the king’s refusing to admit into the castle his complimentary present (considering it only as the prelude to humiliating negotiation), another war commenced that lasted for two years,

and was at length terminated by Muda Seti’s withdrawing from the contest and returning to his province. About five years after this event Juhan shah died, and his son, Pochat-bangta, succeeded him, but not (says this writer, who here concludes his abstract) with the general concurrence of the chiefs, and the country long continued in a disturbed state.

END OF NARRATIVE.

1760.

The death of Juhan shah is stated in the Annals to have taken place in August 1760, and the accession of the son, who took the name of Ala-eddin Muhammed shah, not until November of the same year. Other authorities place these events in 1761.

1763.

Before he had completed the third year of his reign an insurrection of his subjects obliged him to save himself by flight on board a ship in the road. This happened in 1763 or 1764. The throne was seized by the maharaja (first officer of state) named Sinara, who assumed the title of Beder-eddin Juhan shah, and about the end of 1765 was put to death by the adherents of the fugitive monarch, Muhammed shah, who thereupon returned to the throne.*

(*Footnote. Captain Forrest acquaints us that he visited the court of Mahomed Selim (the latter name is not given to this prince by any other writer) in the year 1764, at which time he appeared to be about forty years of age.

It is difficult to reconcile this date with the recorded events of this unfortunate reign, and I have doubts whether it was not the usurper whom the Captain saw.)

He was exposed however to further revolutions. About six years after his restoration the palace was attacked in the night by a desperate band of two hundred men, headed by a man called Raja Udah, and he was once more obliged to make a precipitate retreat. This usurper took the title of sultan Suliman shah, but after a short reign of three months was driven out in his turn and forced to fly for refuge to one of the islands in the eastern sea. The nature of his pretensions, if he had any, have not been stated, but he never gave any further trouble. From this period Muhammed maintained possession of his capital, although it was generally in a state of confusion.

1772.

“In the year 1772,” says Captain Forrest, “Mr. Giles Holloway, resident of Tappanooly, was sent to Achin by the Bencoolen government, with a letter and present, to ask leave from the king to make a settlement there. I carried him from his residency. Not being very well on my arrival, I did not accompany Mr. Holloway (a very sensible and discreet gentleman, and who spoke the Malay tongue very fluently) on shore at his first audience; and finding his commission likely to prove abortive I did not go to the palace at all. There was great anarchy and confusion at this time; and the malcontents came often, as I was informed, near the king’s palace at night.”

1775.

The Captain further remarks that when again there in 1775 he could not obtain an audience.

1781.

The Annals report his death to have happened on the 2nd of June 1781, and observe that from the commencement to the close of his reign the country never enjoyed repose. His brother, named Ala-eddin (or Uleddin, as commonly pronounced, and which seems to have been a favourite title with the Achinese princes), was in exile at Madras during a considerable period, and resided also for some time at Bencoolen.

The eldest son of the deceased king, then about eighteen years of age, succeeded him on the 16th of the same month, by the title of Ala-eddin Mahmud shah Juhan, in spite of an opposition attempted to be raised by the partisans of another son by a favourite wife. Weapons had been drawn in the court before the palace, when the tuanku agung or high priest, a person of great respectability and influence, by whom the former had been educated, came amidst the crowd, bareheaded and without attendance, leading his pupil by the hand. Having placed himself between the contending factions, he addressed them to the following effect: that the prince who stood before them had a natural right and legal claim to the throne of his father; that he had been educated with a view to it, and was qualified to adorn it by his disposition and talents;

that he wished however to found his pretensions neither upon his birthright nor the strength of the party attached to him, but upon the general voice of his subjects calling him to the sovereignty; that if such was their sentiment he was ready to undertake the arduous duties of the station, in which he himself would assist him with the fruits of his experience; that if on the contrary they felt a predilection for his rival, no blood should be shed on his account, the prince and his tutor being resolved in that case to yield the point without a struggle, and retire to some distant island. This impressive appeal had the desired effect, and the young prince was invited by unanimous acclamation to assume the reins of government.*

(*Footnote. Mr. Philip Braham, late chief of the East India Company’s settlement of Fort Marlborough, by whom the circumstances of this event were related to me, arrived at Achin in July 1781, about a fortnight after the transaction. He thus described his audience. The king was seated in a gallery (to which there were no visible steps), at the extremity of a spacious hall or court, and a curtain which hung before him was drawn aside when it was his pleasure to appear. In this court were great numbers of female attendants, but not armed, as they have been described. Mr. Braham was introduced through a long file of guards armed with blunderbusses, and then seated on a carpet in front of the gallery. When a conversation had been carried on for some time through the Shabandar, who communicated his answers to an interpreter, by whom they were reported to the king, the latter perceiving that he spoke the Malayan language addressed him directly,

and asked several questions respecting England; what number of wives and children our sovereign had; how many ships of war the English kept in India; what was the French force, and others of that nature. He expressed himself in friendly terms with regard to our nation, and said he should always be happy to countenance our traders in his ports. Even at this early period of his reign he had abolished some vexatious imposts. Mr. Braham had an opportunity of learning the great degree of power and control possessed by certain of the orang kayas, who held their respective districts in actual sovereignty, and kept the city in awe by stopping, when it suited their purpose, the supplies of provisions. Captain Forrest, who once more visited Achin in 1784 and was treated with much distinction (see his Voyage to the Mergui Archipelago page 51), says he appeared to be twenty-five years of age; but this was a misconception. Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, who saw him in 1782, judged him to have been at that time no more than nineteen or twenty, which corresponds with Mr. Braham’s statement.)

Little is known of the transactions of his reign, but that little is in favour of his personal character. The Annals (not always unexceptionable evidence when speaking of the living monarch) describe him as being endowed with every princely virtue, exercising the functions of government with vigour and rectitude, of undaunted courage, attentive to the protection of the ministers of religion, munificent to the descendants of the prophet (seiyid, but commonly pronounced sidi) and to men of learning, prompt at all times to administer justice,

and consequently revered and beloved by his people. I have not been enabled to ascertain the year in which he died.

1791.

It appears by a Malayan letter from Achin that in 1791 the peace of the capital was much disturbed, and the state of the government as well as of private property (which induced the writer to reship his goods) precarious.

1805.

In 1805 his son, then aged twenty-one, was on the throne, and had a contention with his paternal uncle, and at the same time his father-in-law, named Tuanku Raja, by whom he had been compelled to fly (but only for a short time) to Pidir, the usual asylum of the Achinese monarchs. Their quarrel appears to have been rather of a family than of a political nature, and to have proceeded from the irregular conduct of the queen-mother. The low state of this young king’s finances, impoverished by a fruitless struggle to enforce, by means of an expensive marine establishment, his right to an exclusive trade, had induced him to make proposals, for mutual accommodation, to the English government of Pulo Pinang.*

 

(*Footnote. Since the foregoing was printed the following information respecting the manners of the Batta people, obtained by Mr. Charles Holloway from Mr. W.H. Hayes, has reached my hands.

 

“In the month of July 1805

an expedition consisting of Sepoys, Malays, and Battas was sent from Tapanuli against a chief named Punei Manungum, residing at Nega­timbul, about thirty miles inland from Old Tapanuli, in consequence of his having attacked a kampong under the protection of the company, murdered several of the inhabitants, and carried others into captivity. After a siege of three days, terms of accommodation being proposed, a cessation of hostilities took place, when the people of each party having laid aside their arms intermixed with the utmost confidence, and conversed together as if in a state of perfect amity. The terms however not proving satisfactory, each again retired to his arms and renewed the contest with their former inveteracy. On the second day the place was evacuated, and upon our people entering it Mr. Hayes found the bodies of one man and two women, whom the enemy had put to death before their departure (being the last remaining of sixteen prisoners whom they had originally carried off), and from whose legs large pieces had been cut out, evidently for the purpose of being eaten. During the progress of this expedition a small party had been sent to hold in check the chiefs of Labusukum and Singapollum (inland of Sibogah), who were confederates of Punei Manungum. These however proved stronger than was expected, and, making a sally from their kampongs, attacked the sergeant’s party and killed a sepoy, whom he was obliged to abandon. Mr. Hayes, on his way from Negatimbul, was ordered to march to the support of the retreating party;

 

but these having taken a different route he remained ignorant of the particulars of their loss. The village of Singapollam being immediately carried by storm, and the enemy retreating by one gate, as our people entered at the opposite, the accoutrements of the sepoy who had been killed the day before were seen hanging as trophies in the front of the houses, and in the town hall, Mr. Hayes saw the head entirely scalped, and one of the fingers fixed upon a fork or skewer, still warm from the fire. On proceeding to the village of Labusucom, situated little more than two hundred yards from the former, he found a large plantain leaf full of human flesh, mixed with lime-juice and chili-pepper, from which he inferred that they had been surprised in the very act of feasting on the sepoy, whose body had been divided between the two kampongs. Upon differences being settled with the chiefs they acknowledged with perfect sangfroid that such had been the case, saying at the same time, “you know it is our custom; why should we conceal it?”)

 

 

 

 

 

1836

 


TEUNGKU CIK DI TIRO
Lahir : Tiro, Pidie, 1836
Wafat : Benteng, Aneuk Galong, Januari 1891

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK kecil, Teungku Cik Di Tiro yang bernama asli Muhammad Saman telah terbiasa tinggal di lingkungan pesantren. Di situ ia banyak menimba ilmu dari beberapa ulama terkenal di Aceh. Setelah merasa cukup berguru, Saman menunaikan ibadah haji ke Mekah sekaligus memperdalam ilmu agamanya.

 

 

Sekembalinya dari Mekah, Saman menjadi guru agama di Tiro hingga kemudian dikenal sebagai Teungku Cik Di Tiro.

Tahun 1873

, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya. Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.

Mei 1881, benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro. Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut. Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh. Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.

Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya. Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.

 

 

1854


TEUKU UMAR
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh. Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.

Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat. Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.

Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.

Tahun 1893,

Teuku Umar tunduk dan bergabung dengan Belanda. Siasat berpura-pura Teuku Umar ini ternyata berhasil. Belanda kemudian mengizinkan Teuku Umar memiliki tentara berkekuatan 250 orang berikut persenjataan lengkap untuk memerangi pejuang-pejuang Aceh yang belum tunduk. Para pejuang Aceh yang akan diperangi pun paham karena telah diberitahu sebelumnya. Semua itu dilakukan Teuku Umar demi mendapatkan senjata dan perbekalan dari pihak VOC Belanda.

Pada tanggal 29 Maret 1896,

Teuku Umar kembali bergabung dengan para pejuang Aceh. Ia berhasil membawa lari senjata, uang sebanyak 800.000 Dollar, dan perlengkapan lain milik Belanda.

Semasa bergabung dengan Belanda, Teuku Umar pernah diberi gelar Teuku Johan Pahlawan dan memimpin 1 legiun tentara berkekuatan 250 orang serdadu. Teuku Umar mampu menghadapi Politik Devide et Empera (“Pecah Belah dan Jajahlah”) Belanda dengan menggunakan kekuatan Belanda sendiri.

Pada Januari 1899,

Belanda merasa tertipu dan amat marah sehingga mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menangkap Teuku Umar di Meulaboh. Teuku Umar akhirnya gugur pada tanggal 11 Februari 1899, dan dimakamkan di Desa Mugo, Aceh.

 

1870

 

 

The poster of atjeh War in 1870

 

1870


Berani Menerjang Peluru

Spoiler for tentang dia


Pameo yang mengatakan wanita sebagai insan lemah dan harus selalu dilindungi tidak selamanya benar. Itu dibuktikan oleh Cut Nyak Meutia, wanita asal Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, yang terus berjuang melawan Belanda hingga tewas diterjang tiga peluru di tubuhnya.

 

Wanita kelahiran Perlak, Aceh, tahun 1870, ini adalah seorang Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional yang hingga titik darah penghabisan tetap memegang prinsip tak akan mau tunduk kepada kolonial.

Sebelum Cut Nyak Meutia lahir, pasukan Belanda sudah menduduki daerah Aceh yang digelari serambi Mekkah tersebut. Perlakuan Belanda yang semena-mena dengan berbagai pemaksaan dan penyiksaan akhirnya menimbulkan perlawanan dari rakyat.

Tiga tahun sebelum perang Aceh-Belanda meletus, ketika itulah Cut Nyak Meutia dilahirkan. Suasana perang pada saat kelahiran dan perkembangannya itu, di kemudian hari sangat memengaruhi perjalanan hidupnya.

Ketika sudah beranjak dewasa, dia menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, seorang pejuang yang lebih terkenal dengan nama Teuku Cik Tunong. Walaupun ketika masih kecil ia sudah ditunangkan dengan seorang pria bernama Teuku Syam Syarif, tetapi ia memilih menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, pria yang sangat dicintainya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tahun 1873

, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya.

 

Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.

 

1873

Perang Aceh dimulai sejak Belanda menyatakan perang terhadap Aceh pada 26 Maret 1873 setelah melakukan beberapa ancaman diplomatik, namun tidak berhasil merebut wilayah yang besar. Perang kembali berkobar pada tahun 1883, namun lagi-lagi gagal, dan pada 1892 dan 1893, pihak Belanda menganggap bahwa mereka telah gagal merebut Aceh.

Dr. Snouck Hurgronje, seorang ahli Islam dari Universitas Leiden yang telah berhasil mendapatkan kepercayaan dari banyak pemimpin Aceh, kemudian memberikan saran kepada Belanda agar serangan mereka diarahkan kepada para ulama, bukan kepada sultan. Saran ini ternyata berhasil. Pada tahun 1898, J.B. van Heutsz dinyatakan sebagai gubernur Aceh, dan bersama letnannya, Hendricus Colijn, merebut sebagian besar Aceh.

 

 

 

 


TEUKU UMAR
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh.

 

 

1873

 

 

The Atjeh War,landing of DEI  Marines at atjeh in 1873

 

 

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. Benting Penajoeng van het KNIL in de noordwesthoek van de kraton te Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie

and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

look the eastren  area above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fort benteng Penajoeng Atjeh in 1873

 

 

 

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. KNIL-artillerie gelegen aan de hoofdweg in bivak Penajoeng bij Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie in 1873

 

 

Look from outside area

 

 

Fist Atjeh Expedition in 1873

 

KOLEKSI PEDANG PANJANG ACEH

Pedang Panjang Aceh Sumatera

Aceh (juga disebut sebagai Aceh, Atjin, Aceh Achin.) Berada di ujung utara Sumatera di Indonesia. Hal ini diyakini menjadi salah satu kerajaan tertua di Indonesia. Hindu dan Budha pengaruh dari India mungkin telah sampai ke Aceh pada awal abad pertama. abad keenam A. D. Tionghoa sejarah. berbicara tentang sebuah kerajaan di ujung utara Sumatera bernama Po-Li. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Islam mungkin pertama kali memasuki kepulauan Indonesia melalui Aceh suatu waktu antara abad ke-8 dan 12. Pada 1292, Marco Polo, pada pelayaran epik dari China mengunjungi Sumatera dalam perjalanan ke Persia dan melaporkan bahwa di bagian utara pulau setidaknya ada enam pelabuhan perdagangan sibuk termasuk Perlak, Samudera dan lambri. Dengan masa lalu seperti ini tidak mengherankan bahwa senjata mereka telah Hindu, Budha, pengaruh Cina dan Islam. Daerah ini memiliki sejarah bela diri yang luas. Pada pertengahan abad ke-14, Pasai diserbu oleh tentara Majapahit dari Jawa. Pada tahun 1523, Sultan Ali menyerang Portugis di Pasai, Portugal menewaskan komandan militer Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali berhasil mengusir pasukan Portugis dari Pasai. Setelah kekalahan ini, Portugal berusaha untuk menaklukkan beberapa kali di Aceh, tanpa keberhasilan. Pada 1873, Belanda menyatakan perang dan menyerang Aceh Darussalam. Tapi Belanda menemukan lebih sulit daripada mereka diharapkan untuk mendapatkan kontrol dari seluruh Aceh. Aceh menolak pendudukan, menyentuh dari Perang Aceh, perang kolonial / ekspedisi terpanjang diperjuangkan oleh lebih dari 10.000 jiwa Belanda dan mengklaim. Aceh-Belanda perang berlarut-larut sampai 1914, resistensi dilanjutkan dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil sampai 1942 ketika Jepang tiba di Hindia Belanda. Sudah sering dikatakan bahwa Kesultanan Aceh dari abad ke-16 pada itu dalam perjuangan terus-menerus. Meskipun banyak senjata bermata digunakan di Aceh ada 3 senjata utama yang telah memainkan peran dalam sejarah Aceh. Mereka adalah rencong, Siwaih (Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) dan peudeueng. Artikel ini akan berurusan dengan peudeueng tersebut. Ketika saya mendapatkan imformation lebih ini akan diperbarui dan jenis pedang yang lebih dapat ditambahkan. Tidak ada dalam ini harus dianggap sebagai pekerjaan baru atau asli di bagian saya. Sebaliknya ini adalah kompilasi dari apa yang begitu banyak orang telah berbaik hati untuk berbagi dengan saya, dan apa yang diterbitkan bahan yang saya telah dapat mengakses. Saya yakin ada ketidakakuratan di sini yang merupakan hasil dari kesalahan yang jujur. Mereka akan dikoreksi karena saya dibuat sadar dari mereka atau mencari informasi yang lebih baik. Itulah salah satu keuntungan besar artikel yang telah berbasis web. Tidak seperti kata dipublikasikan yang hanya dapat sebagai baik sebagai informasi pada saat penerbitan; artikel berbasis web dapat udated dan diubah.

The New York Times, pada 6 Mei 1873, menulis: “Sebuah pertempuran berdarah telah terjadi di Aceh, Kerajaan pribumi menempati bagian utara pulau Sumatra Belanda menyampaikan serangan umum dan sekarang kami memiliki rincian hasilnya. Serangan itu. jijik dengan pembantaian besar. jenderal Belanda tewas, dan tentara-Nya dimasukkan ke penerbangan bencana. Tampaknya, memang, telah harfiah hancur. “

Pedang panjang Aceh disebut peudeung tersebut. Meskipun pedang diberikan ke Aceh itu hampir pasti mereka digunakan juga oleh kelompok-kelompok etnis lain di daerah tersebut. Ada bukti penggunaannya sebagai senjata setidaknya sejauh kembali sebagai abad ke-17. Ini mungkin telah digunakan secara terpisah, dengan pedang ganda atau dengan perisai bulat kecil yang disebut sebuah peurise. Perlu dicatat bahwa pedang ini juga sering disebut dengan nama lain. Dalam buku referensi yang sangat lengkap, SENJATA TRADISIONAL DARI KEPULAUAN INDONESIA. oleh AG Van Zonneveld mereka disebut sebagai “aku Pedang” “Sikin Pasangan” dan “Sikin Panjang” Banyak sumber-sumber lain termasuk situs yang sangat baik Dominique Buttin yang menyebutnya sebagai “Sikin” (Sikim, Sikkim, Sekem). Dalam sebuah korespondensi dengan Dominique Buttin, ia memberitahu bahwa, “Peudeung namanya berarti pedang, yang merupakan arti sama dengan Podang dari Batak atau Pedang dari Jawa.” Sebuah masalah besar dengan memutuskan nama yang akan digunakan untuk ini pedang berasal dari fakta bahwa ada 10 kelompok subethnic dari acehnesse (seperti Aceh, Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban dan Julu) Disini Saya akan menggunakan istilah yang digunakan dalam sebagian besar sumber-sumber Belanda dan itu adalah “Peudeueng”. Sebuah tinjauan literatur tampaknya untuk membagi peudeueng oleh gaya pisau dan jenis jika gagang. Berbilah pedang lurus disebut peudeueng Panjang (sikin Panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh,). Pisau melengkung peudeueng disebut peudeueng Peusangan (peudeueng Pasangan, sikin Peusangan, sikin pasagan, Pedang, poedeung).

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (Hulul Buaya)

 

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

 

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

 

Divisi lain untuk Aceh pedang adalah dengan jenis atau bentuk gagang atau Hulu, Dalam “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta, ia menggambarkan mereka sebagai “gagang seperti ekor kucing”, “gagang seperti mulut buaya”, “gagang seperti tanduk rusa”, “gagang seperti kaki kuda”, dan “gagang seperti ekor bebek” Sementara semua ini dapat ditemukan di Aceh lainnya pedang, saya hanya menemukan 4 jenis Hulu pada peudeueng. Gagang yang terlihat seperti mulut terbuka hewan (atau buaya) disebut Hulu tumpang beunteung di Gayo atau Hulu Buaya di Aceh. Jenis gagang dapat dilihat pada kedua peudeueng Panjang dan peudeueng Peusangan. Dalam salah satu varian dari tips datang bersama-sama sampai mereka hampir menyentuh dengan ujung diratakan. Gaya Saya diberitahu oleh smith Aceh masih disebut Buaya Hulu tetapi beberapa buku juga menyebutnya Peusangan Hulu. Peusangan adalah nama sungai dan nama kecamatan di Bireuen, Aceh Jenis ketiga adalah biasanya terlihat hanya pada Panjang peudeueng disebut Rumpung Hulu.

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

 

dari dekat dari Hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan rumpung Hulu

Keempat jenis gagang yang terlihat pada peudeueng disebut meu APET Hulu (Hulu Muapit di Gayo atau Sukul Mekepit di Alas). Hulu berarti gagang meu adalah kata kerja APET (jaga / kawal) berarti dijaga, maka ini hanya dapat berarti “gagang dijaga”. Beberapa sumber lain menyebutnya gagang Daun Tebu. Duan Daun Tebu Gula Tebu berarti dan ujung gagang ini dikatakan menyerupai tebu tumbuh. Para Hulu meu APET sangat mirip gagang pedang India terlihat pada Khanda dan firangi, tetapi lonjakan akhirnya adalah lebih pendek.

dari dekat dari meu suatu APET Hulu


Baru-baru ini Ariel Barkan, pada forum di http://www.vikingsword.com, menyadari bahwa hal itu juga dipengaruhi oleh gagang Gulabghati India, dinamakan demikian karena disk atasnya memiliki garis-garis konsentris menyerupai bunga mawar, “gulab”. Lebih lanjut tentang ini gaya gagang dapat ditemukan di India dan Armour Senjata oleh GN Celana.

 

suatu Hulu meu APET LANGKA  terlihat dengan tombol pada akhir gagang, ini kadang-kadang disebut meutampoh Peudeueng. Mungkin ini harus dianggap sebagai gaya terpisah dari gagang

 

 

 

 

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld menyatakan dalam bukunya, bahwa Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET sebagian besar pembuatan asing dan tidak mendapatkan bantuan besar. Perasaan adalah bahwa karena itu varian ini mungkin sebagian besar seremonial. Itu mungkin benar hari ini, bagaimanapun,

 

 

foto yang diambil selama perang Belanda-Aceh dapat ditemukan dengan pedang ini digunakan. Sementara spesimen hiasan dapat ditemukan, mayoritas Hulu meu APET saya jumpai atau melihat gambar yang dirancang untuk fungsi dan tidak terlalu banyak hiasan. Para sarung biasanya ditemukan dengan mereka yang juga agak keras. Spesimen dapat ditemukan dengan tanda-tanda kerusakan biasanya berhubungan dengan kerusakan pertempuran. Pedang dengan Hulu meu APET bahkan ditemukan pada beberapa pertempuran bendera. Selain contoh dari pedang dapat ditemukan dengan Azimat di dalamnya atau pada selubung untuk melindungi pembawa dalam pertempuran.

 

Bendera ini – secara harfiah – telah direndam dalam darah: penelitian laboratorium telah mengkonfirmasi bahwa bendera memiliki lubang peluru dan beruang noda darah. Ini mungkin darah CH letnan satu Bischoff. Dialah yang ditangk

 

 

 

Bischoff membayar petualangannya dengan sebelas luka yang ditimbulkan oleh klewangs musuh. Klewang awalnya pedang asli Aceh: ‘gliwang’. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19 itu menjadi fitur karakteristik seragam Belanda Hindia Timur prajurit. Pedang melebar di ujung pisau yang bersama-sama dengan pegangan, f

ORMS garis melengkung .. Dia dibawa terbungkus bendera. Beberapa hari kemudian, pada tanggal 3 Mei 1840, Bischoff meninggal karena luka-lukanya. Sebelum meninggal, ia dipromosikan ke pangkat kapten karena perbuatan heroik.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foto bendera pertempuran di koleksi Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Sarung (Sarung) Para sarung untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET biasanya kayu ditutupi dengan kulit. Beberapa dihiasi dengan perak banding. Sarung pedang untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung dan peudeueng Panjang adalah dari kayu dan dapat ditemukan baik hiasan dan polos

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 

Sebuah sarung untuk Panjang peudeueng

 

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 


 

Pada bulan Maret 2006 terungkap beberapa informasi tentang beberapa dari keyakinan spiritual dan ritual sekitarnya pedang ini. Tampaknya bahwa ada paralel dengan anting (atau anting-anting) yang digunakan pada senjata Filipina. Ini jimat disebut tangkal atau azimat / zimat atau jimat. Jimat ini berisi ayat-ayat pelindung atau ayat-ayat agama dari ayat-ayat Quran (mungkin lagi sebuah sejajar dengan praktek Filipina Oracion). Hal ini terungkap pada thread di Vikingsword.com. Dalam diskusi ini tangkal atau azimat telah diposting yang berasal dari bawah tangan seorang penjaga Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET. Ini adalah area yang saya berharap untuk dapat melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang temuan dan post di sini. Saya terima kasih kepada Fazli Ibrahim untuk membantu saya dengan informasi tentang ini.

Berikut adalah pedang yang azimat itu ditemukan di dalam dan kantong yang berisi hal

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Beberapa gambar dari azimat dalam yang menangani pedang. Bagian antara 2 bintang dikenal sebagai Khatimus Sulaiman;.

Tujuan itu adalah untuk melindungi pemakainya itu terhadap “ilmu hitam” dan roh-roh jahat.

Beberapa Azimat lainnya dari Museum Nasional di Indonesia

Sebuah Azimat tertulis pada selubung dari Pa

njang Peudeung

Beberapa pedang Aceh memiliki motif vegatative di tenggorokan Pucuk Rebung disebut. Berbentuk V Pucuk Rebung bambu tumbuh mewakili
Menurut beberapa acehnesse, jika ada emas di gagang / menangani / sarung pedang hanya dapat dibuat untuk atau dimiliki oleh Panglima (komandan, kepala suku), teungku (noblility) dan sangat dihormati orang lain.

 

 

 

Berikut adalah beberapa foto-foto pejuang Aceh dengan peudeueng tersebut.

 

 

 

 

1880

 

Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.

Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat.

Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.

Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.

 

 

Mei 1881,

benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro.

 

Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut.

Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh.

Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.

Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya.

 

 

 

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

 

 

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

 

 

 

Sebuah foto pejuang Aceh (foto kanan) dengan peudeueng dan rencong dari “Wapens Blanke” oleh JG Dieles. Satu memiliki sebuah Hulu tumpang beunteung (kanan) sebuah lainnya Hulu meu APET (kiri).

Foto di kanan menunjukkan buku sumber.

“Aceh bangsawan” dari: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).

Referensi

1) “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2) “Senjata Tradisional kepulauan Indonesia” oleh Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Buku Seni – Leiden; Musim Semi

3) Blades 2001OLD – Dunia Melayu Senjata beringsut. Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revisi: 2005-04-03

4) “India Senjata dan Armour” oleh Pant GN 1978

5). Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV murah V. Gambar 21 A.

6) Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).
7) Senjata dan Memerangi Seni Indonesia, oleh Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Penerbitan 1972

 

 

 

original info

The Achenese Peudeueng

The Long Sword of Aceh Sumatra

Aceh (also referred to as Atjeh, Atjin, Acheen Achin.) is at the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is believed to be one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia. Hindu and Buddist influence from India may have reached Aceh as early as the first century. sixth century A.D. Chinese chronicles. spoke of a kingdom on the northern tip of Sumatra named Po-Li. It is believed that Islam likely first entered the Indonesian archipelago through Aceh sometime between the 8th and 12th century. In 1292, Marco Polo, on his epic voyage from China visited Sumatra on his way to Persia and reported that in the northern part of the island there were at least six busy trading ports including Perlak, Samudera and lambri. With a past like this it is not surprising that their weapons have Hindu, Buddist, Chinese and Islamic influence. The area has an extensive martial history. In the middle of the 14th century, Pasai was invaded by Majapahit soldiers from Java. In 1523, Sultan Ali attacked the Portuguese in Pasai, killing Portugal military commander Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali managed to drive the Portuguese troops out of Pasai. After this defeat, Portugal attempted to conquer Aceh several times, without success. In 1873, the Netherlands declared war and invaded Aceh Darussalam. But the Dutch found it more difficult than they expected to gain control of the whole of Aceh. The Acehnese resisted the occupation, touching off the Aceh War, the longest colonial/expeditionary war fought by the Dutch and claiming more than 10,000 lives. Aceh-Dutch war dragged on until 1914, resistance continued with smaller groups until 1942 when the Japanese arrived in the Dutch East Indies. It has often been said that the Sultanate of Aceh from the 16th century on was in continual struggle. Although a multitude of edged weapons are used in Aceh there are 3 primary weapons that have played a role in Aceh’s history. They are the rencong, Siwaih ( Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) and peudeueng. This article will deal with the peudeueng. As I gain more imformation this will be updated and more sword types may be added. Nothing in this should be considered new or original work on my part. Instead this is a compilation of what so many people have been kind enough to share with me, and what published material I have been able to access. I am certain there are inaccuracies here that are the result of honest mistakes. They will be corrected as I am made aware of them or find better information. That is one large advantage a web based article has. Unlike the published word wich can only be as good as the information at the time of publishing; the web based article can be udated and changed.

 

THE NEW YORK TIMES, on May 6th, 1873, wrote: “A sanguinary battle has taken place in Aceh, a native Kingdom occupying the Northern portion of the island of Sumatra. The Dutch delivered a general assault and now we have details of the result. The attack was repulsed with great slaughter. The Dutch general was killed, and his army put to disastrous flight. It appears, indeed, to have been literally decimated.”

The Aceh long sword is called the peudeung. While these swords are attributed to the Aceh it is almost certain they were used also by other ethnic groups in the area. There is evidence of its use as a weapon at least as far back as the 17th century. It may have been used singly, with dual swords or with a small round shield called a peurise. It should be noted that these swords are also often called by other names. In the very complete reference book, TRADITIONAL WEAPONS OF THE INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO. by A.G. Van Zonneveld they are referred to as a “Pedang I” “Sikin Pasangan” and” Sikin Panjang” Numerous other sources including Dominique Buttin’s excellent site call it a “Sikin” ( Sikim , Sikkim, Sekem ). In a correspondence with Dominique Buttin, he informed the that, “The name Peudeung means sword, which is the same meaning as Podang from the Batak or Pedang from the Javanese.” A major problem with deciding which name to use for these swords comes from the fact that there are 10 subethnic groups of acehnesse (such as Aceh , Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban and Julu ) Here I will use the term used in the most of the Dutch sources and that is “Peudeueng” . A review of the literature seems to divide peudeueng by blade style and type if hilt. The straight bladed swords are called peudeueng panjang ( sikin panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh, ). Curved blades peudeueng are called peudeueng peusangan ( peudeueng pasangan , sikin peusangan, sikin pasagan, pedang, poedeung ).

 

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

 

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

 

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

The other division for Aceh swords is by type or shape of the hilt or hulu, In “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta she describes them as “hilt like the tail of a cat”, “hilt like the mouth of a crocodile”, “hilt like the horns of a deer”, “hilt like the legs of a horse”, and “hilt like the tail of a duck” While all of these may be found on other Aceh swords; I have only found 4 types of hulu on peudeueng. The hilt that looks like the open mouth of an animal ( or crocodile) is called hulu tumpang beunteung in Gayo or Hulu Buaya in Aceh. This type of hilt can be seen on both peudeueng panjang and peudeueng peusangan. In one variant of this the tips come together till they almost touch with flattened ends. This style I was told by an Acheen smith is still called a hulu Buaya but some books also call it a Hulu Peusangan. Peusangan is the name of a river and the name of a subdistrict in Bireuen, Aceh The third type is usually seen only on the peudeueng panjang is called a Hulu Rumpung.

 

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu rumpung

 

The fourth type of hilt that is seen on peudeueng is called Hulu Meu Apet (Hulu Muapit in Gayo or Sukul Mekepit in Alas). Hulu means hilt Meu is a verb Apet ( jaga / kawal) means guarded ; so this may simply mean “guarded hilt”. Some other sources call this hilt Daun Tebu. Duan Tebu means Sugar Cane Leaf and the end of the hilt on this is said to resemble a sprouting sugar cane. The hulu meu apet strongly resembles Indian sword hilts seen on the khanda and firangi, but the end spike is shorter.

a close up of a a Hulu Meu Apet

 

Recently Ariel Barkan, on the forum at www.vikingsword.com, noticed that it also is influenced by the Indian Gulabghati hilt, named so because its upper disk has concentric lines resembling a rose flower, “gulab”. More on this style of hilt can be found in Indian Arms and Armour by G.N. Pant.

 

 

Rarely a Hulu Meu apet is seen with a knob at the end of the hilt, this is sometimes called a Peudeueng meutampoh. Perhaps this should be considered a separate style of hilt

 

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld states in his book, that the peudeueng peusangan with the Hulu Meu Apet was largely of foreign manufacture and did not gain great favor. His feeling is that because of that this variant may be largely ceremonial. That may be true today, however, photos taken during the Dutch-Aceh war can be found with this sword being used. While ornate specimens can be found; the majority of the hulu meu apet I have encountered or seen pictures of are designed for function and not overly ornate. The scabbards normally found with them are also rather austere. Specimens can be found with signs of damage usually associated with battle damage. The sword with the hulu meu apet was even found on several battle flags. In addition examples of these swords can be found with Azimat in them or on the sheath to protect the bearer in battle.

 

This flag has – literally – been soaked in blood: laboratory research has confirmed that the flag has a bullet hole and bears blood stains. This was probably the blood of first lieutenant C.H. Bischoff. It was he who captured the flag for booty during the storming of a ‘benteng’ (Malay for fort) held by the Achinese enemy in 1840. Bischoff paid for his escapade with eleven wounds inflicted by enemy klewangs. The klewang was originally a native Atjeh sword: ‘gliwang’. Towards the end of the 19th century it became a characteristic feature of the Dutch East Indian soldier’s uniform. The sword widens at the tip of the blade which, together with the handle, f

 

orms a curved line.. He was carried off wrapped in the flag. Several days later, on 3 May 1840, Bischoff died of his wounds. Before passing away, he was promoted to the rank of captain for his heroic deed.

Photo of a battle flag in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam


Scabbards ( Sarung)

The scabbards for the peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet are usually wood covered with leather. Some are adorned with silver banding . Scabbards for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung and the peudeueng panjang are of wood and can be found both ornate and plain

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

 

In March of 2006 some information was revealed about some of the spiritual beliefs and rituals surrounding these swords. It appears that there are parallels to the the anting ( or anting-anting ) used on Philippine weapons. These talismans are called tangkal or azimat/zimat or jimat. These talismans contained protective verses or religious verses from the Quranic verses ( perhaps again a parallel to the Phillipine practice of Oracion ). This came to light on a thread on Vikingsword.com. In this discussion a tangkal or azimat was posted that came from under the hand guard of a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet. This is an area that I hope to be able to do more research on and post the findings here. My thanks to Fazli Ibrahim for helping me with information on this.

Here is the sword that the azimat was found in and the bag that contained it

 


 

Some pictures of the azimat in that sword handle. The portion between the 2 stars is known as Khatimus Sulaiman;.

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Some other Azimat from the National Museum in Indonesia

An Azimat inscribed on the sheath of a Peudeung Panjang

 

Some Aceh swords have a vegatative motif at the throat called Pucuk Rebung. The V shaped Pucuk Rebung represents sprouting bamboo
According to some acehnesse, if there is gold on hilt / handle / scabbard the sword only can be made for or owned by Panglima ( commander , chieftains ), teungku ( the noblility ) and other highly respected persons.

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

 

 

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

 

 

 

“Acehnese noblemen” from: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).

References

1)      “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2)      “Traditional Weapons of the Indonesian Archipelago” by Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Art Books – Leiden; Spring

3)      2001OLD BLADES – Malay World Edged Weapons.  Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revised: 2005-04-03

4)      “Indian Arms and Armour” by GN Pant 1978

5)      . Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV dan V. Gambar 21 A.

6)      Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).
7)      The Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia, by Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Publishing 1972

 

 

 

 

 

1874

 

 

Mrs Teuku Umar in 1874

 

 

Atjeh River’s bridge in 1874

 

 

Atjeh river bridge

 

 

The controleur and Inland chief of Masingit atjeh in 1874

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bras island beach of Atjeh nord Sumatra in 1874(three photos)

 

 

The Gouvenor of Atjeh house at North sumatra in 1874

 

 

The Zinc Roof(atap seng) House at Atjeh in 1874

 

 

The Inland Atjeh tomb cementary  in 1874

 

 

The railways of Koetaradja atjeh in 1874

 

 

 

 

1877

 

 

Controleur of Krueeng  Raba atjeh in 1877

1879

 

 

Bivak Tjoet Basetoel Atjeh in 1879

 

 

 

 

1880

 

 

Gouvenor Atjeh bridge in 1880

 

 

 

The Teuku of West atjeh with his bride,look his revolver and rencong knife  in 1880

 

 

 

The road of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

Controleur of IDI Atjeh in 1880

 

 

The Atjeh Club of Koetaradja during fload in 1880

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Atjeh river of Koetaradja in 1880

 

 

 

The Kraton of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

 

The Kratonlaan(street) of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

The Atjeh women in 1880

 

 

 

The Chief of Tadji atjeh and young women in 1880

 

 

1881

 

 

Baiturahman Mosque Of Koetaradja in 1881

 

 

 

 

1883

 

 

Wonig (House)Atjeh,panted  b Jhr. Josias Cornelis Rappard in deze collectie in alle collecties

1884

 

 

The lithography caricature poster of new toewan besar(Bigger Man) Atjeh during the way to paradise  in 1884

 

 

1888

 

 

The ship at Oleh-leh Atjeh in 1888

 

 

The Gouvenor of Atjeh’s  house(woning)in 1888

 

 

 

 

 

The brige of Koetaraja Chief Atjeh Keraton  in 1888

 

 

Fishing at Masudji Pante Perak(silver beach) Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

 

 

 

 

 

Mesdjid Mosque Raja Koetaradja in 1888

 

 

The train railway at Lamjong Lambaroe Atjeh in 1888

 

 

Kota Petjoet Tomb Of Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

 

 

The European and asian at water reasource building  at sabang Atjeh in 1888

 

 

 

 

1890

 

 

Bivak Tjot Mantjang atjeh in 1890

 

 

 

 

 

1891

 

Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.

 

 

1892

 

The Atjeh Chief of Koetaradja in 1892

Standing from right: Mohammed Arif, hoofddjaksa bij het gerecht te Koetaradja; Teukoe Machmoed van Lamtenga, halfbroer van Teukoe Baid; Ketjiq Oemar van Lampisang, boodschapper van Teukoe Oemar; Hadji Abdoellah, schrijver van de assistent-resident; Teukoe Nja Daoed, hoeloebalang van Bolohan; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, waarnemend hoofd van de IX Moekims; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, inlandse zendeling; assistent-resident H.P.A. Bakker; Hadji Abdoellah, hoofdpenghoeloe; wakil Joesoef van Lohong; adjunct-djaksa Aboe Bakr; schrijver van assistent-resident A.J.C. de Neve; onbekend; controleur J.B. Léon. Siting from right  : Panglima Medsjid Rajah, rijksgrote; vermoedelijk een hoeloebalang van de [?] Moekims; Teukoe Sjech Toenkoep; Teukoe Neq Moeda Setia Radjah; Pangeran Hoesain; Teukoe Njah Bantah van Lamreng, sagihoofd van de XVI Moekims; Teukoe Malikoel Adil, erfelijk opperrechter van Atjeh

 

 

 

 

 

 

The bridge at Koetaradja in 1892

 

 

 

The daughter and son of Teuku Maharadja Atjeh in 1892

 

 

The Resident Scherer in ship at the teloek semelue (sabang) atjeh with atjeh chief of government official in 1892

 

 

Fort benteng Bras island Atjeh in 1892

 

 

 

 

The Aceh War Collections

Aceh War !!

Source

http://www.asiafinest.com/forum/lofiversion/index.php/t16358.html


The invasion of Aceh in 1873 was the brainchild of Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte (1822-1902), Netherlands Minister of Colonies, to prevent encroachment by Britain into Sumatra from British colonies in Malay Peninsula


Van de Putte’s idea was strongly supported by his close friend the Dutch governor-general in Batavia (now Jakarta), James Loudon (1824-1900)


Map of the defeated Dutch first invasion of Aceh in 1873, and successful second invasion in 1874


Optimistic reporting of the first Dutch invasion of Aceh in Java-Bode newspaper, 10 April 1873


Generaal-Majoor JHR Kohler, leader of first Dutch expedition to Aceh. His 2000 soldiers managed to penetrate to the Koetaradja Market and the Baiturrahman Mosque. The Dutch stopped to burn down the mosque, in which courtyard they set up a camp.

On the night of 14 April 1873,

a suicidal Acehnese sneaked into the camp and shot Kohler in the chest. Kohler was killed instantly. The next days, the Dutch faced suicidal Acehnese attacks from all sides.

On 24 April 1873,

they were forced to retreat back to their ships. Dutch casualties were 50 dead (including Kohler) and 500 wounded


Kohler Tree, under which General Kohler was shot dead. Photograph from 1936 Dutch magazine.


Generaal Jan van Swieten (1807-1888),

leader of second Dutch invasion in 1873. Swieten was an experienced soldier, fighting in Java War (1825-1830), Belgian War of Independence (1830), Padri War (1830-1837), Bali Expeditions 1848 and 1849, Bone War 1859.

The second expedition sailed with the force of 18 warships, 7 supply ships, 12 auxillary ships, 2 patrol boats, and 22 transport ships carrying more than 13,000 soldiers.

Landing on 9 December 1873

some distance from Koetaradja, by 24 January 1874 had successfully occupied the capital. The three-year-old Acehnese sultan, Mohammad Daud, was taken to the jungle by his followers to continue guerilla warfare.


Engraving of the deadly fighting during Dutch second expedition.


After successfully occupying the royal palace, van Swieten declared victory and opened up the champagne crates to celebrate. Governor-General Loudon telegramed Minister van de Putte back in The Netherlands, informing him that
“Atjeh is ons”, “Aceh is ours”. According to past experience, other Dutch wars of conquest in Indonesia was usually won by occupying the capital of the particular region to be conquered. This is not the case in Aceh.

After failed attempts to retake Koetaradja, by April 1874 the Acehnese settled to lay siege on the town, cutting all supplies from coming in from the interior. Road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee port, where Dutch supplies came from, was unsafe due to frequent Acehnese attacks. By 1875, 25% of Dutch troops in Koetaradja had been put out of action by disease, hunger, and war wounds.


Coinciding with silver jubilee of King Willem III’s coronation in 1874, Generaal van Swieten received the
Militaire Willemsorde medal above for his “victory” over the Acehnese. However, by 1875, only around 0.1% of Aceh is under Dutch control, which is Koetaradja and the port of Oelee-Lhee.


In May 1875,

Generaal van Swieten, 68 years old and well-above retirement age, turned over command to Generaal-Majoor Pieter Cornelius van Pel (photo and Jakarta grave above).

Van Pel’s tenure saw increasing Acehnese attacks on Dutch-held areas around Koetaradja. The Dutch lost control of Peukan Bada, Blang Kala Pass, Pagar Ajer, and Koetaradja suburbs of Moekim IX and VI. These disastrous losses caused Generaal-Majoor van Pel to be recalled. He sailed for Batavia on June 1877, replaced by one-eyed Generaal Karel van der Heyden


Generaal Karel van der Heyden (1824-1901),

half-Dutch and half-Bugis general who took over command of Aceh troops in 1877.

He was known as generaal een-oog (one-eyed general) by his troops and setan seblah mata (one-eyed demon) by his Acehnese opponents.

He strengthened Koetaradja’s defences and secured the road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee.

On 29 June 1878,

he launced an attack from Koetaradja, successfully capturing strategic Glitaroenpass, leading to the capture of Montasik plains, the stronghold of Acehnese guerilla leader Panglima Polim. By the end of his tenure in 1880, van der Heyden had secured tenuos Dutch control over most of Groot-Atjeh, the area surrounding Koetaradja (now Aceh Besar district).


Among the important leaders of Acehnese resistance in this early part of the war is Tengku Chik di Tiro, an Islamic cleric who led Acehnese contingent from Pidie in the fighting around Koetaradja.

He declared jihad, holy war against infidel Dutch invaders who had burnt the Baiturrahman mosque, centre of Acehnese Islam. He decreed the war a perang sabil, in which Acehnese killed by the Dutch would be assured a place in paradise.

In 1876,

he presided over the re-coronation of the child Sultan Muhammad Daud in Indrapoeri Mosque as symbol of the continuation of Acehnese sultanate.
Militarily, he launched unsuccessful seaborne attacks on Breueh and Nasi islands off Koetaradja

in 1880,

attempting to disturb Dutch sea supply routes. In May 1881, he successfully assaulted the Dutch fort at Lambaro, Groot Atjeh. In 1891, an Acehnese under the pay of the Dutch killed Chik di Tiro by poisoning his food.


Habib Abdoerrachman Al-Zahir, a Turkish cleric, travelled to Turkey to gather support for Aceh from the Ottoman Empire, the chief Muslim state at the time; to Singapore where he met United States consul; and to Penang where he promised the British the island of Sabang if they would help Aceh against the Dutch.
Failing in his efforts, Habib Abdoerrachman surrendered to the Dutch at Koetaradja on July 1878,

secured an annual subsidy of $500 from the Dutch government, then sailed back to Istanbul where he died in 1902.


Tjoet Nja Dhien (1850-1908),

a famous female guerilla leader from Lampisang, just west of Koetaradja. She first led a unit under her father, Nanta Setia and husband, Teuku Ibrahim in the successful fighting in 1870s. In 1881 her husband was killed in a battle, whereby she married her cousin Teuku Umar, another guerilla leader.


Teuku Umar (1854-1899),

leader of contingent from West Aceh in fighting around Koetaradja. His father Mahmoed is the brother of Nanta Setia, father of Tjoet Nja Dhien whom he married in 1884. After ten years as effective guerilla leader against the Dutch, Teuku Umar surrendered to the Dutch on 30 September 1893, receiving the title Teuku Djohan Pahlawan, “Lord Hero-Winner” and substantial amount of guns and ammunition to help the Dutch fight other insurgents.


Teuku Umar (sitting left), partially wearing Dutch uniform.

In 1896, Teuku Umar abandoned the Dutch, carrying off 880 rifles, 25000 bullets, 500 kg of explosives, 5000 kg of lead balls, and $18000 worth of cash back to the jungles.
This extraordinary exploit send shockwaves all the way to The Netherlands. A popular poem was sung by the Dutch:

Teuku Umar die moet hangen
Aan en touw, aan en touw
Teuku Umar en zijn vrouw

meaning
Teuku Umar must be hanged
On the rope, on the rope
Teuku Umar and his wife!

Upon hearing Teuku Umar’s deed, Queen Wilhelmina and Dowager Emma send a telegram to Dutch commander in Koetaradja demanding they recover the lost honour inflicted on the name of The Netherlands.

Three years later,

on 11 February 1899,

Teuku Umar and his 800 men was ambushed by 20 men of special Marechausse troops near Meulaboh, West Aceh. Umar was shot in the chest and died days later in front of his wife, Tjoet Nja Dhien.


Dutch memorial on the site of Teuku Umar’s fall on February 1899


The Dutch Point of View
Throughout the 1880s, Dutch control over Aceh is limited in Koetaradja and its surrounds, while cooperative local rulers allowed the Dutch footholds in Idi, Langsa, Lhokseumawe, Meulaboh, Tapaktuan, and Trumon. The Dutch were unable to contol the rural areas due to its unfamiliarity to guerilla warfare.


To protect Koetaradja from constant Acehnese raids, Generaal van der Heyden decided to establish a line of 16 forts linked with barbed wire, telephone and telegraph lines, and a tramline. This fortification system is called the concentration line (geconcentreerde linie) and was finished in 1884.


Dutch family on the concentration line tramline, 1880s


Damaged tramcar line after Acehnese attack, 1890s


Unable to defeat the Acehnese militarily, the Dutch tried a cultural approach. They asked the advice of Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1933), an expert on Islam who had visited Mecca in 1884 posing as an Arab. His advice was basically to woo the Acehnese nobility (uleebalang) and crush the remaining resistance mercilessly.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 02:08 PM

Aceh War !!


In accordance the advice of Snouck Hurgronje, a Dutch officer named Koloneel, later Generaal Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz (1851-1924) came up with the idea of highly mobile and independent units capable of fighting the Acehnese insurgents deep in the jungles, at the home of the guerillas themselves.


The idea was realised in 1896 with the establishment of Korps Marechausse. Each of its units consisted of 20 native soldiers (due to their natural ability to live in the jungle) led by a Dutch officer and an Ambonese corporal. Each soldier was armed with the new M95 self-loading rifle and a
klewang, a native sword. Their motto was “Berani soempah!” (Dare to swear!)


First commander of the Korps Marechausse, Kapitein Jonkheer GJWCH Graafland


Ceremonial uniform of the Korps Marechausse, worn by a Luitenant Geldorp


The regimental banner of the Korps Marechausse


Generaal van Heutsz (centre) watching the assault on Acehnese fortress Batee Iliek in Tiro, Pidie on 3 February 1901. To his right were Kolonel van Dussen, Majoor Doorman, Kapitein Spruijt, Luitenant Schutstal van Woudenberg, and controleur Frijling. The defeated Acehnese lost 71 men, the Dutch lost 5 killed and 37 wounded.


Van Heutsz was military governor of Aceh fron 1898-1904. He became governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies from 1904-1909. He later returned to Europe and died in Montreux in 1924. Above picture was the Van Heutsz Memorial in Koetaradja in 1932.


Van Heutsz Monument in Batavia (Jakarta), demolished in 1945


Van Heutsz Monument in Vijzelstraat 32 Amsterdam. His son, Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz Jr joined the German army during World War II, reaching the rank SS-Sturmbahnfuhrer der Waffen-SS, and was killed in Russia in 1943.

Van Heutsz is credited as the first person in history to unite the Indonesian Archipelago under one political unit. In his Amsterdam Monument, the epitaph was written:

JB VAN HEUTSZ
GOUVERNEUR-GENERAAL VAN NEDERLANDS-INDIE
1904 TOT 1909
HIJ SCHIEP ORDE, RUST, EN WELVAART
EN HEEFT DE VOLKEN VAN NEDERLANDS-INDIE
TOT EEN EENHEID GESMEED

meaning
JB VAN HEUTSZ
GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF NETHERLANDS INDIES
1904 TO 1909
HE SHAPED ORDER, PEACE, AND WELFARE
AND GUIDE THE PEOPLE OF NETHERLANDS INDIES
TOWARDS THE GATE OF UNITY


Koos Speenhoff and Caesarina Speenhoff-Prinz (1907), anti-war folk singers who specialised in slamming the bloody Dutch war in Aceh.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 06:15 PM

Aceh War !!

Other Dutch generals:


Luitenant-Kolonel HNA Swart (1857-1922), ruthlessly eliminated Acehnese guerillas in Lhokseumawe-Bireuen area, govenor of Atjeh 1908-1912, vice-president of Raad van Indie (Indies Council advising the governor-general) in Batavia till his death in 1922. His governorship on Aceh saw the last guerilla bands destroyed by Marechausse troops, hence he was known as “pacifier of Aceh”.


Luitenant Hendrikus Colijn (1869-1944), adjudant to van Heutsz, the person receiving surrender of Panglima Polim, later Prime Minister of The Netherlands (1925-1926; 1933-1939). Colijn died under German custody in 1944.


Kapitein Heinz Christoffel, organised
Tijger Colonne that devastate the Panton Laboe and Pidie areas, destroying the guerilla’s base there. He received the Militaire Willemsorde and later led the Dutch “pacification” of Flores, Buton, and East Borneo in 1907-1912.


Christoffel leading a
Tijger Colonne in Aceh


Kolonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen (1863-1930), Dutch colonel who devastate the Gayo-Alas area from February-July 1904, subjugating the highland tribes under Dutch rule. His method was known as
van-daal-isme (van-daal-ism).



Remnants of Koeta Reh village in Gayo Highlands after a vist by van Daalen


Van Daalen resting on the hanging cot while leading a patrol into Gayo Highlands in 1904


Men of Korps Marechausse posing after a sucessful operation.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 06:56 PM

Aceh War !!


Korps Marechausse men in their
egelstelling “porcupine formation” in Aceh.


Captured Acehnese guerillas.


Medals given to veterans of Aceh War in 1870s, bearing the likeness of Dutch king Willem III, father of future Queen Wilhelmina


A Surabaya restaurant 1902 menu celebrated recent Dutch victories over Indonesians in Aceh and elsewhere in the archipelago by naming its dishes after vanquished Indonesian cities


Aceh War veterans reunion in 1938.


Toekoe Oemar Spel, a popular children’s game in 1890s Netherlands involving 25 white figurines (Dutch soldiers) chasing one black figure (Teuku Umar)!


Dutch anti-war cartoon from 1900 ridiculing the awarding of
Militaire Willemsorde to “bloodhounds”.


Another cartoon depicting Dutch missionaries spreading the Bible to “pacified” natives.

Click here for detailed history of Aceh War and other events in Netherlands Indies

Nusantara

Aug 31 2004, 10:26 PM

That fu-king dutch troop did genocide to Achehnese Gayo civillian.
The way they won the war by killing all civillian related to Achehnese warrior.
I heard/read somewhere most this barbaric act done by fanatic Cristian Ambonese soldier and some of them also Javanse soldier which Indonesian who fought against dutch called them at that time “black dutch” since Ambonese is black/dark skin typical melanesian. They are more cruel than dutch itself.

QUOTE (purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 07:15 PM)



Remnants of Koeta Reh village in Gayo Highlands after a vist by van Daalen

purnomor

Sep 1 2004, 12:29 PM

Bandung, West Java

The first buildings of Technische Hogeschoole te Bandoeng (THB), now the Institut Tekhnologi Bandung (ITB) when it was opened in 1920. First president Soekarno would later enrolled in the THB in 1924.

Alun-alun (Town Square) and Grand Mosque area in Bandung

Pasteurstraat, showing the current Biofarma building

Bragastraat, the main shopping avenue of Dutch Bandoeng

European residential area

A street in European residential area

Bethel Church, built 1926

Aerial photograph of northern Bandoeng

Welcoming Queen Wilhelmina in Alun-alun area

Black-and-white film of Bandoeng in 1930 and 1912

Black-and-white film of Batavia (Jakarta) in 1919

rasibiduk

Sep 1 2004, 02:22 PM

ohh Bandung, my sweet hometown, it’s much more crowded and hectic but I still love my Bandung. Can’t help to wonder if only we had a better city planning and not destroy some of the beautiful heritage buildings- but it’s quite heart-warming too to see that some of buildings from the movie clip still look exactly the same. Oh and Purnomor, you just posted my grandfather’s old house under “European residential area”. The row of houses on top of the stonewalls, it is Jalan Wastukencana and my grandfather’s house is on the right. He sold the house in the 80’s when my grandmother passed away.

purnomor

Sep 3 2004, 01:39 PM

Civic Heraldry from the Dutch colonial era city authorities

Civic seal of Amboina (Ambon), Maluku

Civic seal of Bandoeng, West Java

Civic seal of Batavia (Jakarta)

Civic seal of Buitenzorg (Bogor), West Java

Civic seal of Tjeribon, West Java

Civic seal of Madioen, East Java

Civic seal of Makassar, South Celebes

Civic seal of Medan, North Sumatera

Civic seal of Malang, East Java

Civic seal of Padang, West Sumatera

purnomor

Sep 3 2004, 01:44 PM


Civic seal of Pekalongan, Central Java

Civic seal of Semarang, Central Java

Civic seal of Tegal, Central Java

Civic seal of Tjiandjoer, West Java


Coat-of-arms of Netherlands East Indies, same with coat-of-arms of The Netherlands

International Civic Heraldry Website

flipcombatmedic

Sep 3 2004, 11:58 PM

some of the pics here looks like the old manila before ww2 when the japanese f’ed it up bad. the rape of manila and the battle of manila really made manila so f’ed up it never recovered. but yeah nice pics really nice. many of them structures still up or what.

purnomor

Sep 4 2004, 01:04 PM

^ yeap, most of ’em still standing

Sody

Sep 21 2004, 03:10 PM

QUOTE (purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 07:56 PM)


Another cartoon depicting Dutch missionaries spreading the Bible to “pacified” natives.


I am so ignorant when it comes to Indonesian history. I wish I knew more, I am learning a lot from reading these forums, it has really broadened my understanding. Can anyone tell me if Christianity was forced upon Indonesians? I hate Christianity. Most of my family are Christian and most of the Indonesians I know here in Canada are as well. It is a dumb fu-king religion that has ruined much of Asian culture throughout many Asian countries. It is a white man’s religion that is detrimental to the Asian way of life as well. Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that in Indonesia Muslims and Christians get along. I wouldn’t have it any other way. But I believe that all people should be able to live together in harmony and not try and influence others to change. I see so many stupid Chinese here in Canada that are so concerned with the White man’s opinion that they naturally turn to Christianity. It is truly sad.

Sody

nama_user

Sep 22 2004, 05:32 AM

No religion should be forced to another, that’s how we should live in a plural country.

gvelde

Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

furansizuka

Mar 20 2005, 05:40 AM

QUOTE (gvelde @ Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM)

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

 


so those are the photos of yours?
Wow! Could you tell me the history of her?

gvelde

Sep 8 2005, 02:53 AM

QUOTE (furansizuka @ Mar 20 2005, 12:40 PM)

QUOTE (gvelde @ Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM)

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

 


so those are the photos of yours?
Wow! Could you tell me the history of her?

 


I am working on a short history of my wife’s family in colonial times. In short, they meant well but not always did. I certainly will post a reference for you guys when it is ready. Maybe you have seen the films? they are on:
http://www.vandervelde.net/familie/fammaier/film00.htm.

furansizuka

Sep 8 2005, 04:17 AM

Thanks for the interesting link!

haqine

Dec 13 2006, 03:44 AM

QUOTE(rasibiduk @ Sep 2 2004, 02:22 AM) [snapback]400665[/snapback]


ohh Bandung, my sweet hometown, it’s much more crowded and hectic but I still love my Bandung. Can’t help to wonder if only we had a better city planning and not destroy some of the beautiful heritage buildings- but it’s quite heart-warming too to see that some of buildings from the movie clip still look exactly the same. Oh and Purnomor, you just posted my grandfather’s old house under “European residential area”. The row of houses on top of the stonewalls, it is Jalan Wastukencana and my grandfather’s house is on the right. He sold the house in the 80’s when my grandmother passed away.

Oh that used to be your grandfather’s house?
I think the house in that area are beautiful !
Had u been there?

BTW, i just know about this thread.
Interesting thread!

alfan

Dec 13 2006, 04:28 AM

@ purnomor, where did you find the infos on indonesia’s history? Were they online somewhere or did you actually went to a library? I’ve tried neither of them however…

santoloco

Dec 13 2006, 11:12 AM

seems like the dutch has been a good time in indonesia.

GluTTony

Dec 13 2006, 11:06 PM

ewww the Indonesian are soo skinny!

yaa_ampyun

Dec 13 2006, 11:33 PM

QUOTE(purnomor @ Aug 29 2004, 05:05 PM) [snapback]395997[/snapback]


His wife, Greta Linda Maier-Goossens (1895-1945), died of dysentry in Japanese concentration camp in Lubuk Linggau, 13 August 1945

http://members.lycos.nl/fammaier/

wahh tempat lahirku

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 14 2006, 01:39 AM

QUOTE(Sody @ Sep 21 2004, 03:10 PM) [snapback]441799[/snapback]


I am so ignorant when it comes to Indonesian history. I wish I knew more, I am learning a lot from reading these forums, it has really broadened my understanding. Can anyone tell me if Christianity was forced upon Indonesians? I hate Christianity. Most of my family are Christian and most of the Indonesians I know here in Canada are as well. It is a dumb fu-king religion that has ruined much of Asian culture throughout many Asian countries. It is a white man’s religion that is detrimental to the Asian way of life as well. Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that in Indonesia Muslims and Christians get along. I wouldn’t have it any other way. But I believe that all people should be able to live together in harmony and not try and influence others to change. I see so many stupid Chinese here in Canada that are so concerned with the White man’s opinion that they naturally turn to Christianity. It is truly sad.

Sody

you will probably never come back, but I am so offended with what you just said up there

http://www.ngw.nl/images/rykswap.gif

nice!

tangawizi

Dec 14 2006, 11:44 PM

QUOTE(purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 09:33 PM) [snapback]399340[/snapback]


Panglima Polim Sri Moeda Perkasa Shah (centre), who had fought the Dutch in Koetaradja since 1873 and was a guerilla leader in Lhokseumawe area, surrendered to the Dutch Kapitein Hendricus Colijn (third from right) in Lhokseumawe in 6 September 1903, together with 150 of his men. He was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of
Nassau-Oranje Orde

Interesting fotos here, pur. Btw, do u know what was the Chinese mandarin doing in the group above (second from right)? Was he the ambassador from China?

QUOTE(purnomor @ Sep 1 2004, 02:15 AM) [snapback]399572[/snapback]



Kolonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen (1863-1930), Dutch colonel who devastate the Gayo-Alas area from February-July 1904, subjugating the highland tribes under Dutch rule. His method was known as
van-daal-isme (van-daal-ism).

Is that how the meaning of the word ‘Vandalism’ came about?

And the following were acts of vandalism by this van Daalen butcher?

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 15 2006, 12:22 AM

^ woahhhhhhh

Kopassus

Dec 15 2006, 02:20 AM

QUOTE(santoloco @ Dec 13 2006, 11:12 AM) [snapback]2566516[/snapback]


seems like the dutch has been a good time in indonesia.


Yes they have….thats why all the Indische Nederlanders desire to “Tempo Doeloe”, they all want to go back to the time that they live in a beautiful country with nice weather where they can suppres the inlanders…

QUOTE(Nusantara @ Aug 31 2004, 10:26 PM) [snapback]399990[/snapback]


That fu-king dutch troop did genocide to Achehnese Gayo civillian.

The way they won the war by killing all civillian related to Achehnese warrior.
I heard/read somewhere most this barbaric act done by fanatic Cristian Ambonese soldier and some of them also Javanse soldier which Indonesian who fought against dutch called them at that time “black dutch” since Ambonese is black/dark skin typical melanesian. They are more cruel than dutch itself.


Yes, they are all warcriminals.
Thanks Pur for all the pictures and info!

Bhaskara

Dec 15 2006, 03:42 AM

Wow, gr8 pics,pur!And rasibiduk, what a shame!I love those houses on Wastukencana. I wonder who owns them nowadays….

purnomor

Dec 16 2006, 07:12 PM

QUOTE(tangawizi @ Dec 14 2006, 11:44 PM) [snapback]2571605[/snapback]


Interesting fotos here, pur. Btw, do u know what was the Chinese mandarin doing in the group above (second from right)? Was he the ambassador from China?

Back in colonial times, the ethnic-Chinese, ethnic-Arab, and other immigrant communities in each Indonesian city was led by a government-appointed officer with honorary ranks of majoor, kapitein, or luitenant (the larger the community, the higher the rank) who functioned as liason officer between the community and the Dutch colonial government. This fellow with the mandarin uniform should be the local Chinese officer of Lhokseumawe who attended the surrender of Panglima Polim in his role as civic dignitary.

QUOTE

Is that how the meaning of the word ‘Vandalism’ came about?

No, “vandalism” came from the Roman Empire period after the name of a particularly destructive barbarian tribe the Vandals. The Dutch press made a pun out of the similarity between the word “vandalism” and the name van Daalen.

QUOTE

And the following were acts of vandalism by this van Daalen butcher?

Yeap, quite a nasty fellow, isn’t he?

bandung

Dec 16 2006, 08:12 PM

^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

purnomor

Dec 16 2006, 08:34 PM

^ That’s a strange thought, considering Indonesia expelled the Dutch government through war of independence, and later on we also expelled 200,000 Dutch settlers in 1957-1958.

I think it is Malaysians who love the British like a puppy loves its master.

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 17 2006, 02:43 AM

I don’t have nothing against the dutch..

tangawizi

Dec 17 2006, 02:49 AM

QUOTE(bandung @ Dec 17 2006, 04:12 AM) [snapback]2576088[/snapback]


^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

I think it’s more like Msian royalty instead who cavorted with the English colonials and tried to imitate their ways – love for horseracing, pre and post prandial cocktails, savoy tailor suits… do u recall your royalty like Tengku Rahman? The likes of him were seen celebrated by the Brits as brown englishmen..

That’s the trouble with the Msian identity crisis since way before colonial times when their ruling houses were running from persecution by the Indonesian ruling houses, they mimicked the Islamic missionaries came later, then the British ruling class. They have been paranoid abt the encroachment of the chinese. Instead of celebrating their common identity with Indonesians, they take pains to distinguish themselves from Indonesia particularly in the areas of wealth & prestige status, and take pleasure in dissing the minority Chinese as a race.

The colonial Englishmen no longer casts a shadow on their elite ruling houses, but the shadow of the Arabs are creeping up on the Msian ruling class big time. Where is the true and authentic Msian identity? Afraid there is none anymore. Their ruling classes are shadow people. Wayang Kulits themselves.

I hope u won’t flame me bandung…it’s juz a neutral observation.

Astromantic

Dec 17 2006, 03:58 AM

QUOTE(bandung @ Dec 17 2006, 02:12 AM) [snapback]2576088[/snapback]


^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

How can you say that we LOVE the Dutch people when they have been torturing us for 350 years? Think before you speak. By the way, I ain’t got no beef with Dutch people… after all I’ve lived there.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 05:57 AM

JOURNEY OF KERLEN FAMILY OF SEMARANG, A TYPICAL DUTCH SETTLER FAMILY IN INDONESIA


Johannes Godfried Kerlen (1850-1927) was born in Zuthpen, Netherlands. He arrived in Indonesia in 1870 as a lieutenant with the KNIL (Royal Netherlands Indies Army). He had a distinguished military career as army engineer, participating in the first and second Aceh invasions of 1873 and 1874, and spending most of the following decades fighting the rebellious Acehnese. He received knighthood with the title ridder 1e klasse in de orde van Nederlandsche Leeuw. He retired as a general, and died in Bandoeng in 1927 aged 77.

In 1878, JG Kerlen married half-Chinese daughter of a German settler, Charlotte Baumgarten. They had five children, Johannes (born 1883), Jopie (born 1884), Greta (born 1885), Milly (born 1886), and Charlotte (born 1887). Charlotte Baumgarten died in Medan soon after giving birth to her fifth child. Afterwards, Johannes Kerlen gave away his three daughters to an orphanage in Batavia, while keeping his two sons. He married again twice, with Hendrika Cornelia Polkijn who died in an 1888 malaria outbreak and Agnes Maria Naessens who died in 1900 due to miscarriage.

Johannes Godfried Kerlen Jr (1883-1940), the eldest son, was born in Bengkalis – Riau. He worked as sugar factory manager in Semarang – Central Java. There, he married daughter of a local Dutch settler, Caroline Juliana van Zanten in 1912. Here Johannes Kerlen Jr posed with his eldest son Hans in 1912.

Here, Johannes Kerlen Jr posed with Hans and newborn second son Ernst, in 1914.

Caroline Juliana van Zanten-Kerlen posing with Hans, Ernst, and newborn baby daughter Marijke in a 1915 letter sent to relatives back in the Netherlands.

Caroline van Zanten-Kerlen with Hans, Ernst, Marijke, and two neighbours’ children in front of their Semarang home in 1918.

Hans, Ernst, and Marijke posing with their mother and three cousins (children of Jopie Kerlen) in 1921.

Ernst, Marijke, and their two cousins in 1921.

Kerlen children playing with the family car

Johannes and Caroline Kerlen with teenage Ernst in 1930

DEL

Dec 17 2006, 06:11 AM

My Indonesian grandfather and Indonesian grandmother got a lot of old pictures like that. I never asked the real reason why they had to leave Indonesia, because i got the feeling it lays deep. I better study some Indonesian history more, since i am learning the language and want to go back to my roots. But i dont want to go to deep in it, because history sharpens up national feelings and hate. I don’t want that, because i am a man of the world and not of a country.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 06:17 AM


Proud grandparents Johannes and Caroline Kerlen with their daughter Marijke, and grandson Mark Lindo (Marijke’s son) in 1937

Comfortable interior of the Kerlen family house in Semarang

The Kerlen house compound, during colonial times on average the annual income of a white settler in Indonesia was 60 times the average income of a native and 10 times the average income of Foreign Orientals (Chinese and Arab settlers).

During World War II, the Kerlen family was imprisoned in Japanese concentration camp. After the war, the first son Hans Kerlen decided to stay in independent Indonesia. He lived in Bandung until he was expelled along with all Dutch citizens in 1956 by Sukarno, upon which he moved to South Africa where he died in 2003. The second son Ernst Kerlen and his wife Lydia de Leeuw emigrated to Australia, a popular destination for Dutch refugees fleeing Indonesian war of independence. Ernst died while in Netherlands in 1991. Marijke Kerlen moved with her family to Netherlands to escape the war of independence, where she died in 1995.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 06:45 AM

QUOTE(DEL @ Dec 17 2006, 06:11 AM) [snapback]2577436[/snapback]


My Indonesian grandfather and Indonesian grandmother got a lot of old pictures like that. I never asked the real reason why they had to leave Indonesia, because i got the feeling it lays deep. I better study some Indonesian history more, since i am learning the language and want to go back to my roots. But i dont want to go to deep in it, because history sharpens up national feelings and hate. I don’t want that, because i am a man of the world and not of a country.

Are they Europeans/Eurasians?

In Indonesia, the people has generally forgotten the past colonial injustices since the Dutch was expelled such a long time ago. Nowadays, most Indonesians view the Dutch just as a European country with no bitterness involved.

Tahun 1893,

Teuku Umar tunduk dan bergabung dengan Belanda. Siasat berpura-pura Teuku Umar ini ternyata berhasil. Belanda kemudian mengizinkan Teuku Umar memiliki tentara berkekuatan 250 orang berikut persenjataan lengkap untuk memerangi pejuang-pejuang Aceh yang belum tunduk. Para pejuang Aceh yang akan diperangi pun paham karena telah diberitahu sebelumnya. Semua itu dilakukan Teuku Umar demi mendapatkan senjata dan perbekalan dari pihak VOC Belanda.

1896

Pada tanggal 29 Maret 1896,

Teuku Umar kembali bergabung dengan para pejuang Aceh. Ia berhasil membawa lari senjata, uang sebanyak 800.000 Dollar, dan perlengkapan lain milik Belanda.

Semasa bergabung dengan Belanda, Teuku Umar pernah diberi gelar Teuku Johan Pahlawan dan memimpin 1 legiun tentara berkekuatan 250 orang serdadu. Teuku Umar mampu menghadapi Politik Devide et Empera (“Pecah Belah dan Jajahlah”) Belanda dengan menggunakan kekuatan Belanda sendiri.

 

 

Read more

1893-1895

Hendrik de Booij, herinneringen aan zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1893-1895

Inhoudsopgave:
1. Inleiding
2. Derde Atjeh oorlog 1884 -1896 (met noot: de krijgsverrichtingen van generaal Vetter en luitenant Colijn in Lombok in 1894)
3. Herinneringen Hendrik de Booy over zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog van 1893-1895
4. Vierde Atjeh oorlog 1898-1918

1. Inleiding

In het hoofdstuk 3  van deze website, heb ik verhaald  over de eerste en tweede Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1873-1879, daarbij heb ik de brieven van Chrétien Jean Gérard de Booy ( de oudste broer van mijn grootvader Hendrik de Booy) aan zijn ouders afgedrukt. Hij heeft deze Atjeh oorlog van nabij meegemaakt. Nu wil het dat mijn grootvader in de derde Atjeh oorlog  heeft meegevochten. De herinneringen van mijn grootvader over de periode van 1867 tot 1901 zijn door mij beschreven in hoofdstuk 1 van deze website. Ik heb daarbij gebruik gemaakt van de selecties, die mijn tante Dr E.P. de Booy (jongste dochter van mijn grootvader), heeft gemaakt uit de herinneringen en dagboeken van mijn grootvader. Bij nadere bestudering van deze herinneringen, die mijn grootvader heeft gebundeld in twee ingebonden exemplaren, blijkt dat mijn tante slechts enkele alinea’s heeft geselecteerd, die gaan over de tijd, dat mijn grootvader betrokken was bij de derde Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1893-1895. De reden waarom mijn tante deze periode zo summier heeft behandeld, is misschien gelegen in het feit, dat de tijdgeest omtrent ons koloniaal verleden en onze krijgsverrichtingen aan het eind van de 19e en begin 20ste eeuw sterk is veranderd. In de tijd van mijn grootvader werden de koloniale oorlogen als rechtvaardig beschouwd, terwijl men in het recente verleden door de vele publicaties en fotomateriaal anders is gaan denken over deze vroegere tijd. Ik ben echter van mening dat het goed is om dit in gedachte een uitgebreidere selectie te maken van de herinneringen van mijn grootvader in deze derde Atjeh oorlog. Evenals in het hoofdstuk 3, dat gaat over de oudste broer (Chrik) van mijn grootvader, zal ik een korte samenvatting geven van de historische gebeurtenissen, nu niet van de eerste en tweede, maar van de derde en de vierde Atjeh oorlogen, die geduurd hebben van 1884-1918, zodat men de herinneringen van mijn grootvader beter in deze tijd weet te plaatsen. In hoofdstuk 6 worden de krijgsverrichtingen in Atjeh van mijn grootvader (van mijn moeders kant) A.F.Gooszen beschreven. Het blijkt dat mijn twee grootvaders tegelijkertijd deel hebben genomen aan een expeditie in november 1893 naar de bovenloop van de Tamiang rivier aan de Oostkust van Sumatra. Ze werden beiden hiervoor  onderscheiden door de Minister van Marine met een ereteken.

2. Derde Atjeh oorlog 1884-1896

De oorlog tegen Atjeh kostte Nederland handen vol geld en het was door de twee gevoerde oorlogen niet gelukt om het Atjehse verzet te breken. Zo besloot de minister van oorlog Weitzel om een andere tactiek in Atjeh toe te passen.

 

Minister van Oorlog A.W.Ph. Weitzel

Allereerst wilde hij een troepen vermindering en een afsluiting van de vesting Kota Radja door middel van een zwaar versterkte linie. Hij wilde op zo’n manier de Atjehers op de knieën brengen. Op 20 augustus 1884 werd onder commando van kolonel H. Demmeni met de aanleg van de Geconcentreerde Linie begonnen.

 

De geconcentreerde linie om Kota Radja gebouwd  in 1884-1885

Zij bestond uit 16 bentengs, met een bezetting variërend van 60-160 man elk. Ze waren met Kota Radja verbonden door middel van telefoon en bereikbaar via een trambaan. Het gebied werd afgeschermd door een hoog ijzeren hek met wachthuisjes op palen. Deze verdedigingslinie moest  de Nederlandse troepen in Atjeh  beveiligen tegen infiltratie van Atjehse vrijheidsstrijders. De verdedigingslinie werd voltooid in maart 1885.

 

Officiers vrouwen gaan op theevisite bij een andere post van de geconcentreerde linie.

Ondertussen werd gezocht naar bondgenoten onder de Atjehse leiders die met Nederland willen samenwerken. Men ging de verdeel en heers politiek toepassen. Er heerste onder de elite van de Atjehers een duidelijke rivaliteit  In januari 1891 stierf Teungkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tirò, een van de belangrijkste verzetstrijders.

 

Teugkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tiro 1836-1891

Hij was de leider van de godsdienst partij. Hij verzond brieven waarin hierin hij de Atjehers opriep om de heilige oorlog volgens de regels van de godsdienst te voeren. Deze geven een goed beeld van hoe men dacht over het Nederlands gezag. (zie achteraan in dit hoofdstuk bij de herinneringen  van mijn grootvader de tekst van zo’n brief). Hij stierf in 1891 evenals panglima Polim, een andere machtige verzetsstrijder.  Er was een andere verzetsstrijder Teukoe Oemar, die na hun dood de kans zag een sultanzetel te verkrijgen. Hij koos daarbij de zijde van de Nederlanders.

 

De verzetstrijder Teukoe Oemar

In januari 1992 werd een nieuwe militaire gouverneur benoemd, het werd  kolonel C. Deijkerhoff (Later tot generaal benoemd). Hij stelde o.a. voor aan de Gouverneur-generaal Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk om Teukoe Oemar te voorzien van wapens. Pijnacker Hordijk stemde daarmee in en heeft zijn opvolger  Gouverneur-generaal Jhr. C.H.A. van Wijck te laten beloven, dat hij generaal Deijkerhoff de vrije hand zou geven om zijn plannen te kunnen uitvoeren.

 

Generaal-majoor  C. Deijkerhoff.

 

Links: Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk, Gouverneur -generaal van 1888-1893. Rechts: Jhr Carel H.A. van der Wijck, Gouverneur-generaal van 1893-1899.

In juli en augustus 1893 is Teukoe Oemar militaire steun verleend gegeven in de strijd tegen de zich verzettende Atjehers in het Moekim gebied. Op 30 december werd hij zelfs aangesteld in Koeta Radja tot panglima prang besar, opperste krijgsheer van het gouvernement. Hij veranderde zijn naam in Teukoe Djohan Pahlawan, wat betekent Johan de Heldhaftige . Op 30 oktober veroverde hij zelfs Anagaloeng, het belangrijkste militaire steunpunt van de vallei. In april 1894 was de actie ten einde en het gehele gebied van de Moekims gezuiverd. Maar er kwam verzet tegen de plannen van Deijkerhoff en en wel door dr C. Snouck Hurgronje.

 

Links: Dr Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (18571936) was een Nederlands arabist en islamoloog. Rechts: majoor J.B. van Heutsz

Hij pleitte voor een goed georganiseerde systematische spionnage in plaats van terreur als middel om het Nederlandse gezag te handhaven. Men moest niet met de Atjehers onderhandelen, zij zwichten alleen voor geweld. Hij raadde de regering aan deze moslimleiders “zeer gevoelig te slaan”. Deijkerhoff had door zijn succes in Atjeh echter het gelijk aan zijn zijde. Snouck wees op het gevaar, dat het monsterverbod met Teukoe Oemar  in hield. Hij stond daarbij niet alleen, ook majoor J. B. van Heutsz had soortgelijke denkbeelden. Dit blijkt uit een in 1893 van zijn hand verschenen brochure getiteld: “Over de onderwerping van Atjeh”.Van Heutsz beschouwde de Atjehers niet als oproerkraaiers, maar als vrijheidsstrijders. Volgens van Heutsz biograaf Witte had de brochure daarnaast nog een verborgen boodschap: ‘hier is van Heutsz, ik durf de Atjehers wel aan, benoem mij maar tot gouverneur van Atjeh’. (Het is hem later ook inderdaad gelukt. In mei 1898 werd hij benoemd als gouverneur van Atjeh)

Over de krijgsverrichtingen in 1893,  waar men grootvader direct bij betrokken was, staan interessante passages in het boek van W.J. Cohen Stuart,  De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 geschreven in 1937:

Het overlopen van Toekoe Oemar
Eenige maanden later had eene groote verandering plaats in de verhouding van Toekoe Oemar tot het Bestuur. De Regeering had gemeend, van den invloed en de voortvarendheid van dezen Atjeher voor het overwinnen van het verzet partij te kunnen trekken door hem aan onze zijde te brengen en blijkbaar had Oemar ook zijn voordeel daarin gezien; in Juli werd hij onze bondgenoot en de “Benkoelen” embarkeerde den 31 en dier maand van Rigaih, Gloempang en Lho Siddoh 137 personen, w.o. 42 vrouwen en kinderen, allen volgelingen van den Toekoe, ten overvoer naar Oeleë Lheuë; zij voerden mede 2 lilla’s, 60 geweren – w.o. 20 achterlaad – (3 Beaumont-geweren werden als afkomstig van de Marine herkend), 116 blanke wapenen, 3000 patronen voor het Beaumont-geweer, 10 kg buskruit, 1000 looden kogels; van de patronen waren sommige door Atjehers gevuld.

De strijd tegen de verzetsstrijder Nja Makam
Het Westelijk deel der Noordkust was meermalen het tooneel van beschieting van schepen en sloepen, vooral bij Koeala Gigieng en Pedropunt, dat aanleiding gaf tot tuchtiging der betrokken kampongs met granaatvuur; bij eene dergelijke gelegenheid werd de Adelborst 1e kl. G. den Berger gewond. Onze post te Sigli stond herhaaldelijk aan aanvallen bloot; de “Lombok”, van een zoeklicht voorzien, kon daardoor, bij het afslaan door de bezetting van nachtelijke aanvallen, goede diensten bewijzen; den 7en Mei wierp dit schip 46 granaten in de schuldige kampongs. Bloedig gevolg had de plotselinge aanval van een met klewang en rent jong gewapenden Atjeher op een detachement van 12 man van de “Lombok” dat aan den wal aan het schijfschieten was; de man wist dadelijk den officier en 2 man te verwonden en toen de Stuurman Prins hem te lijf ging, dezen een doodelijken steek toe te brengen, vóórdat hij afgemaakt werd. De strooptochten van het bendehoofd Nja Makam uitgebroed in het ons steeds vijandige Simpang-Olim, waren oorzaak van krijgsverrichtingen; waaraan de Zeemacht een belangrijk aandeel nam. In Januari 1893 ontving de Commandant van H.M.Raderstoomschip, Sindoro”, de Luitenant ter zee 1 e kl. W. Allirol, ter Oostkust van Atjeh in station, van den Nederlandschen Consul-Generaal te Penang bericht, dat Nja Makam zich Zuidwaarts had begeven en voornemens was, in de residentie Oostkust van Sumatra vijandelijkheden te plegen. De “Sindoro” stoomde dadelijk daarop naar de Tamiang-Rivier en zond eene gewapende sloep onder den Adelborst 1e kl. van Idsinga naar Seroeway om onzen post aldaar te waarschuwen. Ongeveer halverwege, bij Rantau-Pakam, werd de sloep beschoten; bij den terugkeer werd zij gesleept door het van pantserplaten voorziene gewestelijk stoomjacht “Langkat” , waarop de bemanning der sloep was overgegaan, zoodat de beschieting geene verliezen veroorzaakte. Den 25en verscheen Nja Makam’s bende op den rechteroever der rivier nabij ons etablissement Seroeway beschoot den pasar, waarvan het Maleische deel verbrandde en bezette de op den linkeroever gelegen Missisgit van het ons bevriende hoofd Radja Bandahara, welke zij plunderde en daarna in de vlammen deed opgaan

Cohen Stuart geeft vervolgens vele details  over de strijd tegen de troepen van Nja Makam. Ik begin weer met het citeren als blijkt, dat mijn grootvader van mijn moeder kant Luitenant ter zee 2e kl A.F. Gooszen  bij de gevechtshandelingen betrokken is.

Luitenant der zee 2e klasse A.F. Gooszen gaat met mee met de expeditie stroomopwaarts van de rivier Tamiang

Na deze voorvallen werd tot eene nieuwe expeditie besloten. H.M. stoomjacht “Koerier” werd met het oog op het bevaren der rivier gewapend met 4 kanonnen van 3,7 cm, een op den bak, een op de kampanje en twee op de brug; een kraaiennest voor 4 scherpschutters werd aan den fokkemast aangebracht, de kwetsbare punten werden met zware planken geblindeerd; ook bevestigde men voor het verbreken van versperringen een ijzeren schoen met kettingen aan den voorsteven en bracht door het lossen van steenkolen den diepgang tot 18 dm terug.

Den 30en, nadat des morgens ten l0u met hoog water de “Koerier” de ondiepte had gepasseerd, stoomde de geheele macht in alarmstelling de rivier op; de versterkingen bij Rantau-Pakam bleken niet bezet te zijn, doch bij Pasir Poetih stuitte men op twee versperringen, bestaande uit niboengstammen, hout en bamboe, door dwarslatten met pen en gat verbonden, en waartusschen zich een staaldraadtros van 50 mm bevond. De versperringen gingen op den rechteroever van één punt uit, maar aangezien de rivier aldaar een scherpe bocht maakt, maakten zij een hoek met elkander en hadden op den linkeroever een onderlingen afstand van ongeveer 25 m. Hier lagen een tweetal geschutstellingen, bovendien verkende men aan den overkant der ladang eenige versterkingen; uit al deze verdedigingswerken werd het vuur geopend toen de “Koerier”, aan het hoofd der flottille stoomende, ten 2u15m tot 250 à 300 m genaderd was. Dit vuur beantwoordende, stoomde de “Koerier”, den rechteroever houdende, zoo normaal mogelijk op de eerste versperring in; deze werd verbroken, doch door de vermindering in vaart gelukte het niet, de tweede stuk te varen; de Commandant van de “Koerier”, de Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. J. F. B. van Dijk, kreeg hierbij een schampschot in de zijde door een lilla-kogel, die tegen de bescherm plaat van het aan bakboordzijde op de brug staande kanon van 3,7 cm ricocheteerde; hij bleef echter het schip besturen. Het schip stoomde nu achteruit en daarna volle kracht vooruit op de tweede versperring in, die daarvoor bezweek; het voorschip liep echter hierbij aan den linkeroever in de modder en daar volle kracht achteruitslaan niet voldoende was om het schip achteruit tc krijgen, werd de bemanning naar het achterschip gezonden; zij kwam daardoor echter een oogenblik buiten de blindeering van planken, kooien en ijzeren platen, en kreeg door ‘s vijands vuur drie gewonden; het schip kwam vlot, en verdreef door vuur uit de gevechtsmars en aan het dek, de Atjehers uit de geschutstellingen aan den oever, waarna de officieren Mensert en Noordhoek Hegt met een klein detachement van de “Koerier” twee lilla’s daaruit haalden; de versperringen werden latere door de sloepen opgeruimd. Inmiddels waren, op een punt, ongeveer 500 m benedenstrooms van Pasir Poetih, de beide colonnes der Infanterie met een deel der landingsdivisie op den linkeroever geland en rukten door de ladang, die, pas aangelegd, een zeer moeilijk terrein bleek te zijn, tegen de meest Noordelijk gelegen versterking op; de tegenstand, hier door den vijand geboden, bezorgde aan de Infanterie een gesneuvelde en vier gewonden; uit de overige bentings vluchtte de vijand. Eene compagnie bleef in de genomen versterkingen achter om die den volgenden dag te slechten, daarna werd het overige der gelande troepen geëmbarkeerd en ten 7u30m bereikte de flotille Seroeway, waar den 31 en de gewonden per particulieren stoomer naar Deli werden geëvacueerd, de colonne van Pasir Poetih afgehaald en overigens gerust werd.

Den 2en des morgens ten 6u werd door de sloepen aangevangen met het overzetten der colonnes en den trein, en ten 7u45m werd de marsch aanvaard; de landingsdivisie werd, om haar een vermoeiende marsch te besparen, door de “Anna” en “Slamat” overgevoerd naar een punt, tegenover Oud-Seroeway gelegen, waar zij ten 8u30m aankwam en in afwachting van de komst der colonne, naar den rand der sawah oprukte, vanwaar de ligging van een viertal vijandelijke versterkingen op ongeveer 700 m afstand, werd waargenomen; weldra kwam nu ook de colonne, onder bevel van den Majoor Meuleman, die het voetpad langs de rivier had gevolgd, op het terrein aan, en nadat de landingsdivisie hare plaats in den hoofdtroep had ingenomen werd even vóór 9u op de sawah gedeboucheerd; de sterkte van den troep bestond op dit oogenblik uit 9 officieren en 307 minderen der Infanterie, aan wie toegevoegd waren 1 officier en 19 mariniers, Marine-landingsdivisie 5 officieren en 73 matrozen 8 mariniers, artillerie 1 officier en 24 minderen met 3 getrokken bronzen kanonnen van 8 cm en een Coehoorn-mortier. Nadat tot ongeveer 650 pas van de vijandelijke stelling voortgerukt was, terwijl eene sectie infanterie bij het landingspunt achtergelaten was om de ageerende troepenmacht in den rug te dekken en de verbinding met de vaartuigen te onderhouden, kwam ten ongeveer 9u15m de artillerie in batterij en richtte haar vuur met granaten en granaatkartetsen achtereenvolgens op de vijandelijke versterkingen, terwijl door den troep beurtelings pelotons-  en sectiesgewijze salvovuur werd afgegeven; men kreeg vuur niet alleen uit de bentings maar ook van een 200-tal Atjehers, die nabij de meest Noordelijk gelegen versterking eene schietstelling hadden ingenomen, waardoor de rechtervleugel onzer linie bedreigd werd; het detachement van Seroeway, met eene sectie infanterie versterkt, hiertegen afgezonden, slaagde erin, dat vuur tot zwijgen tebrengen.

Inmiddels had de Commandant der Landingsdivisie bevel ontvangen, om de bovengenoemde benting op den linkervleugel van ‘s vijands linie gelegen, te nemen. Zij rukte in vier tempo’s vooruit, op de halten salvo’s afgevend; door het zeer moeilijke terrein, eene sawah, met riet of zwaar hard gras ter hoogte van 1,5 m begroeid, waarvan bovendien de bodem glibberig was en vele kuilen en nagenoeg onbegaanbare galangans opleverde, kwam men slechts langzaam vooruit en leed reeds eenige verliezen; op ongeveer 200 pas van het doel werd daarom de order tot stormloopen tegen de Noord-Oostelijke face gegeven.Men kwam vóór eene omheining van aangepunte bamboe waarachter eene drooge gracht, gevuld met bamboedoerie, om het buitentalud te bereiken, moest eene tweede omheining van bamboe doorbroken worden; men trachtte nu, door kappen en snijden, openingen te maken. Het gelukte Commandant en Officieren op enkele plaatsen de borstwering te bereiken, doch de Commandant, de Luitenant ter zee 1 e kl. Mensert, werd door een schot in het hoofd zwaar gewond, zoodat hij het bevel aan den Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. C.W. Broers moest overgeven. Terzelfder tijd was het detachement van Seroeway, waarbij, zooals reeds vermeld, 20 man van het Korps Mariniers waren ingedeeld, na het vermeesteren der bovengenoemde schietstelling, tegen de Vester- en Zuiderfacen der benting opgerukt, en werd getracht, de poort der versterking te forceeren; hierbij sneuvelde de Korporaal der Mariniers Viergever, terwijl de Commandant van de troep, de 1 e Luitenant der Infanterie C. van der Schroeff, bij het beklimmen der borstwering doodelijk gewond werd.

Intusschen was tot steun dezer actie eene groep infanterie van eene der andere collones afgezonden geworden, en gelukte het aan eenige manschappen dezer groep, met den Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. A. F. Gooszen en 4 mariniers, in de binnenruimte der versterking te springen, op hetzelfde oogenblik, dat het forceeren der poort gelukte; hiermede was de versterking in ons bezit. Reeds bij het oprukken had de Landingsdivisie 6 gewonden gekregen, waaronder de Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. J. H. Zeeman; bij het stormen sneuvelden met inbegrip van de bij het detachement Seroeway ingedeelde mariniers, vier man en werden, behalve de Luitenant ter zee 1e kl. Mensert, drie man gewond. (…)

Nadat alle versterkingen genomen waren, stoomde de “Koerier” nog hooger de rivier op en verjoeg met eenige schoten uit de kanons van 3,7 cm de nog standhoudende Atjehers uit een versterkt huis in de kampong Loeboek Batil. De veroverde versterkingen werden voor den nacht door de Landmacht bezet en daags daarna geslecht. Nog in den namiddag van den 2en April werden de lijken der gesneuvelden de gewonden en de landingsdivisie door de “Koerier” en de sloepen naar Seroeway overgevoerd; aldaar was de Kapitein ter zee Stokhuyzen, Commandant der vereenigde scheepsmacht in de wateren van Atjeh, per stoomschip “Kinta” aangekomen; hij begaf zich, vergezeld van den Kapitein-Luitenant ter zee van den Pauvert, leider van het nautische gedeelte der expeditionnaire macht, per stoomsloep naar het gevechtsterrein; vandaar terugkeerende, kreeg de sloep door een geweerschot een lek, waarin den volgenden dag, door haar op eene droogte te zetten, kon worden voorzien. Den 3en werden de gewonden door de gewestelijke stoomjachten, onder geleide van eene stoombarkas, naar de reede vervoerd en had in den namiddag de plechtige ter aarde-bestelling der gesneuvelden plaats. Op den 5en keerden alle schepelingen naar hunne respectieve bodems terug, terwijl de “Koerier” met eene stoombarkas op de rivier bleef.

Nu aan Nja Makam’s aanhangers belangrijke verliezen waren toegebracht, was de toestand in het Tamiangsche aanmerkelijk verbeterd; niettemin werd voorloopig de aanwezigheid van een oorlogsvaartuig op de rivier noodig geacht; toen dan ook in Mei de “Koerier” naar Penang moest om te dokken, werd het Gouvernements-stoomschip  “Indragiri”, met een Marine-detachement aan boord, ter vervanging aangewezen. Verder werd de toegankelijkheid van de “Tamiang-Rivier bevorderd door de opname van de Panaga-geul en de bebakening der monding van de Soengei Ijoe, welke dieper was dan de Tamianggeul.

Hendrik de  Booij gaat als commandant van gewapende sloepen op patrouille om de bovenloop van de rivier Tamiang  te verkennen

In de tweede helft van October werd door de “Koerier” op last van den Commandant der Zeemacht de poging herhaald, om den bovenloop der rivier te verkennen. Begunstigd. door hoogen waterstand tengevolge van bandjirs, vertrok men den 28e van Seroeway, vergezeld van eene stoombarkas en met een detachement als bovengenoemd aan boord, en bereikte den volgenden dag Karang, ruim 5 km bovenstrooms van Koeala Simpang, waar men vuur kreeg uit eene benting van Radja Silang, welk vuur door het geschut tot zwijgen werd gebracht. Terwijl men zich voor de landing gereed maakte, kwam met de “Anna” de Kapitein van Polanen Petel van Seroeway aan, vergezeld van 10 man Infanterie; deze als dekking der ambulance aanwendende, rukte nu het landingsdetachement onder den Luitenant der Mariniers G. Faassen tegen de benting op, welke overhaast verlaten bleek te zijn; daags daarna werd zij verbrand. Verder opstoomen werd voor de “Koerier” niet raadzaam geacht, zoodat, nadat met de stoom barkas eenige verkenningen waren verricht en een bezoek was gebracht aan bet ons bevriende Tandjong Mandang,aan de SimpangKiri, de “Koerier” den 2e November met krabbend anker de rivier afzakte, daar het stoomen wegen de vele afdrijvende boomen te gevaarlijk was. Terwijl de “Koerier” nog te Koeala Sim pang vertoefde, kwam aldaar den 9en November de Gewestelijk Militair Commandant per “Alllla”, in prauwen eene halve compagnie Infanterie sleepende ; den volgenden dag werd de tocht vervolgd, waaraan door de gewapende stoombarkas en een 20-tal mariniers werd deelgenomen; men bereikte de Kampong Loeboek Sidoep, ongeveer 18 km boven Koeala Sim pang en deed haar in vlammen opgaan.

Inmiddels had de Oudst-aanwezend Zeeofficier ter Oostkust eene flottille gewapende sloepen van de “Merapi” en drie andere schepen samengesteld en voer daarmede den 9en de rivier op; men bereikte een punt nog bijna 20 km voorbij Loeboek Sidoep en bevond alles rustig; den 12e was men aan boord der schepen terug.

Nog werd door de Mariniers met de landingsdivisie van de “Koerier” deelgenomen aan een marsch van de Infanterie van Koeala Simpang uit, ter opsporing van eene in de nabijheid gesignaleerde, 200 man sterke, bende Atjehers; de vermoeiende marsch leverde geene ontmoeting met den vijand op. Intusschen had de “Sindoro”, waarvan brug en ketelkap van eene doelmatige blindeering waren voorzien geworden, terwijl met eigen middelen een kanon van 3,7 cm in den top van den fokkemast was geplaatst, den gen October met de “Koerier” een tocht op de Ara Koendoe-rivier gemaakt. Toen de rivier te bochtig werd voor de “Sindoro”, stoomde de “Koerier” verder op, voorafgegaan door de stoomsloep, en kwam men tot het eilandje Leboni. Op de hoogte van Blang-Ni gekomen, kreeg de stoomsloep uit een loopgraaf een salvo, dat echter niemand kwetste; toen de “Koerier” het vuur opende, vluchtte de vijand.

Einde citaten uit het boek van Cohen Stuart . De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915

Begin 1896 kwam een nieuwe commandant luitenant-kolonel F.W. Bisschoff van Heemskerk. Hij zag dat de politiek van Deijkerhoff steeds minder goed ging functioneren. De posten  van de linie werden steeds meer beschoten, vooral vanuit de gebieden buiten de linie, die met hulp van Teukoe Oemar waren gezuiverd. Deijkerhoff wilde geen patrouilles buiten de linie, dat moest worden gewaarborgd door Teukoe Oemar. Maar Bisschoff van Heemskerk gaf desondanks het bevel om eens per maand een demonstratieve patrouille te houden in het gebied buiten de linie. Op 7 maart 1896 was kapitein Blokland met 92 man op patrouille gegaan. Direct al werden zij onder vuur genomen. Na afloop telde men negen doden en 22 gewonden. Deijkerhoff verlangde van Teukoe Oemar, dat hij de orde in de buiten gebieden ging herstellen, maar deze eiste van Deijkerhoff meer wapens en munitie. Maar al spoedig bleek,dat hij van plan was over te lopen. Hij weigerde in eerste instantie de orders van Deijkerhoff op te volgen. Teukoe Oemar ging vervolgens over, dankbaar gebruik makend van de wapens, die hij van Deijkerhoff had gekregen, door de Nederlandse troepen aan te vallen. Het verraad was al lang van te voren door hem gepland. 29 maart werden de Nederlandse posten buiten de linie ingesloten. Zo ontstond er een totaal nieuwe situatie. Deijkerhoff had zichtbaar gefaald en werd ontslagen. Generaal Vetter * ) werd benoemd als regeringscommissaris. Er werd nu korte metten gemaakt en een groot offensief gestart, waarop Snouck Hurgronje steeds had aangedrongen. Wie ook mee deed aan dit offensief was luitenant-kolonel J.B. van Heutsz (die al driemaal in Atjeh had gediend). Eveneens was  luitenant H. Colijn van de partij. Op 5 april 1896 schreef Colijn in de Nederlander): ‘De geest onder de troep is uitstekend. Er heerst spannende geestdrift. En wanneer het aan ons en aan onze soldaten ligt, geen rijsthalmpje, ja geen grassprietje in het gebied der IV Moekims (Oemars kerngebied) zal ongeschonden blijven. Hij heeft het gewild, dat de oorlogsfakkel branden zou! Het zij zoo!’.
8 april 1896 begon een offensief, onder leiding van kolonel J.W. Stemfort, met colonne van duizend man met als doel om de belegerde posten te ontzetten. De Atjehers boden fel verzet. De vallei werd door de Nederlandse troepen bezet en vele posten van de Atjehers werden vernietigd, zo ook de geboorteplaats van Teukoe Oemar in mei 1896. Koningin Wilhelmina zond een telegram om de colonne, die onder commandant van van Heutsz stond, te feliciteren met de verovering van Lam Pisang op 24 mei. Daarna werd de kampong Lamasang met de grond gelijk gemaakt. Alle bomen gekapt en de grafheuvels afgegraven. Tijdens deze zware gevechten vielen vele doden aan beiden zijde. Colijn schrijft over deze ‘heldhaftige’ gebeurtenis in de Nederlander van 22 juli : ‘ De vallei van Lam Pisang bevat 30-tal welvarende dorpen (kampongs). In die vallei raast de rook: een 30-tal kampongs ging in vlammen op en zijn van dit aardsche schouwspel verdwenen. De geheele rijke vallei is één onafzienbare smeulende vlakte, talrijk goed gevulde voorraadschuren van Oemar – zoomede zijn eigen prachtige woning- deelden in het lot van al het overige’.  Zo kwam er een einde aan de derde Atjeh oorlog.

Dit betekende niet het einde, want er volgden nog vele oorlogen, niet alleen in Atjeh maar ook in andere gebieden van Nederlandsch Indië. Het onderstaande kaartje laat zien deze zogenaamde pacificaties van Indië.

 

 

Pacificatie van Indië door de Nederlanders

Generaal Vetter en luitenant Colijn, die deelnamen aan de derde Atjeh oorlog, hebben een paar jaar daarvoor in 1894 een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de verovering van Lombok. Hieronder volgt een korte samenvatting van deze krijgsverrichting.

 

 

Links: Luitenant H. Colijn. Rechts: Generaal  J.A. Vetter.

Het ten oosten van Bali gelegen eiland Lombok is lang buiten de Nederlandse invloedsfeer gebleven. Het eiland werd bestuurd door 2 vorstenfamilies uit het oosten van Bali, het huis van Karangasem-Mataram. Het Balische vorstenbewind bestuurde zowel het eigen gebied op Bali als het gehele eiland Lombok. Eind 19e eeuw was dit geslacht van radja’s(vorsten) op het toppunt van hun macht. Zij bouwden paleizen en tempels op beide eilanden. Er bestonden spanningen tussen de oorspronkelijke moslimbevolking op Lombok, de Sasaks en de hindoeistische radja’s van Bali. Vooral het autocratische bewind van de Balische vorsten leidde tot opstanden op Lombok. Bestuur en belastingheffing waren in handen van deze vorsten. In de jaren negentig brak op Lombok een opstand uit tegen de op Lombok regerende Balinese vorsten. Vooral de vorst Anak Agoeng Madé was berucht om zijn wreedheden t.o.v. de plaatselijke bevolking, de Sasaks. Batavia werd door enkele Sasaks voormannen gevraagd om hulp tegen hun Balinese onderdrukkers en dan vooral hulp voor de strijd tegen de vorst Anak Agoeng Madé. In deze periode was het zo dat de Balinese radja van Lombok leenheer was van de vorsten op Bali en verschillende Balinese leenmannen kwamen vanuit Bali hun leenheer op Lombok te hulp. Een gecompliceerde situatie en dat dus midden in de niet zo succesvol verlopende eerste Atjeh pacificaties. Er ontstond een hele diskussie : wel ingrijpen of niet, of misschien toch wel….De nieuwe gouverneur-generaal van der Wijck hakte de knoop door : we doen het wel en dus landde in maart 1894 een expeditieleger o.l.v. generaal Vetter op de kust van Lombok.

 

Invasie op Lombok aan het strand bij Ampenan

Tijdens de opmars naar Mataram pleegde de Balinese vorst Anak Agoeng Madé, die de Sasaks bevolking het meest had onderdrukt, zelfmoord en dus was eigenlijk de directe aanleiding verdwenen. De verdere onderhandelingen met de Balinese radja van Lombok liepen ogenschijnlijk voorspoedig, want de overmacht van de Nederlandse koloniale troepen was natuurlijk overweldigend. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radja van Lombok

Ook de uit Bali overgekomen hulptroepen wisten, dat zij militair t.o.v de Nederlanders niets voorstelden. Maar, zoals gebruikelijk in die dagen, moesten nog wel alle kosten van de invasie worden betaald. De kosten van deze expeditie werden geschat op één miljoen gulden : voor die tijd en natuurlijk speciaal voor de Balinese radja, een krankzinnig hoog bedrag. In de loop van de maand augustus was echter al een kwart bijeen gebracht. Generaal Vetter legerde in deze periode zijn troepen verdeeld over het eiland. En toen ging het mis. De Balische vorsten kregen het (terechte) vermoeden dat, na betaling van de opgelegde schatting, de Nederlanders wel eens niet zouden kunnen vertrekken en dat op zijn minst nieuwe eisen zouden worden gesteld. Langzamerhand brak het besef door dat het Sasakse verzoek om hulp alleen maar had gediend als aanleiding voor Batavia om eindelijk heel Lombok te ‘pacificeren’, ook zij wisten natuurlijk wat er in Atjeh gaande was. Men besloot zich tot het uiterste te verzetten .En dus gebeurde het dat plotseling op een nacht de Nederlandse troepen, zonder waarschuwing vooraf, werden aangevallen : er vielen bijna 100 doden (w.o. de Generaal-Majoor van der Ham) en ruim 250 gewonden : de grootste nederlaag die de Nederlandse koloniale troepen tot nu toe in de 19e eeuw hadden geleden.

 

Generaal-majoor P.P.M. van der Ham, gedood op Lombok 26 augustus 1894

Ook de reeds verkregen oorlogsschatting waren de Nederlanders weer kwijt. M.b.v. vers aangevoerde troepen werd Lombok, met meer dan grof geweld, gepacificeerd, want kostte wat het kost, het verraad van Lombok moest worden gebroken. De verwoestingen waren enorm : eerst werd alles tussen Ampenan en Mataram door de artillerie kapot geschoten en vervolgens werd dat wat er nog overbleef, nagenoeg met de grond gelijk gemaakt. Van zowel Ampenan als Mataram, bleef nauwelijks iets over. De verwoestingen waren zo grondig dat sommigen in de pers zich afvroegen “wat heeft het voor zin om alles zo te vernietigen, waarover men later gezag wil uitoefenen ?” Ook op Lombok werden de slachtoffers onder de bevolking nauwelijks geteld, want “het verzet moest worden gebroken”. Toch werd er nog geaarzeld om Tjakranegara, waar de radja woonde, aan te vallen. Men wachtte totdat er bijna 10.000 man waren : alles tussen Mataram en Tjakranegara werd omgehakt c.q. afgebroken : de artillerie wilde een vrij schootsveld hebben. De radja stuurde een smeekbrief, daarop werd, op direct bevel van G.G van der Wijck, door Generaal Vetter geantwoord met granaten. De radja betoogde dat hij niets wist van de nachtelijke aanval op de Nederlanders, hij had toch niet voor niets al zoveel geld betaald ? Het mocht allemaal niet baten. Tjakranegara werd massaal bestormd en veroverd, de radja wist te ontvluchten en gaf zich later over en werd verbannen naar Batavia.

 

De bestorming van Tjakranegara

De laatste overgebleven vorsten pleegden zelfmoord via een Perang Poepoetan: mannen, vrouwen en kinderen stortten zich in witte kleren op de verbaasd toekijkende en continu schietende Nederlanders. Een van de vele Poepoetans tijdens de pacificaties in de 19e eeuw. Tijdens de ‘akties’ werd door de Nederlanders op Lombok een grote buit veroverd : zilveren en gouden sieraden en wapens : de zogenaamde schatten van Lombok. De schatten van Lombok werden jarenlang tentoongesteld in het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Een gedeelte werd omgesmolten (!), pas in 1977 werd het grootste deel teruggeschonken aan Indonesië en een gedeelte bleef achter in Nederland en ligt nog steeds, naar men zegt, opgeslagen in de kluizen van de Nederlandse bank.

Uit de twee biografieën van Hendrik Colijn, die bij de invasie op Lombok heeft meegestreden, blijkt hoe men vroeger en tegenwoordig dacht over de oorlogen in Nederlandsch Indië. Het is interessant hoe de tijdgeest sterk is veranderd. Allereerst geef ik enkele citaten  uit de levensschets van Hendrik Colijn geschreven door Rullmann in 1933.  Hieruit blijkt hoe men in die tijd stond tegen over de krijgsverrichtingen van Colijn. De toon is, zoals we later zullen zien in de biografie van Herman Langeveld geschreven 65 jaar later in 1998  wel geheel anders dan die van Rullmann.

Rullmann pagina 12 “November 1894 werd hij geroepen deel te nemen aan de bekende Lombok-expeditie. Op den 18den van die maand, bij de bestorming van Tjakra Negara, onderging hij den vuurdoop. Zijn militaire bekwaamheden werden toen erkend met het ridderkruis 4e klasse van de Militaire Willemsorde, omdat zijn afdeeling van de Noordelijke troepen het eerst was doorgedrongen in de poeri van den vorst, gelijk de afdeeling van luitenant Van der Heyden bij de Zuidelijken.
In 1895 nam hij, op zijn verzoek overgeplaatst naar Atjeh, deel aan de krijgsverrichtingen in dat gewest. In datzelfde jaar noopte een ernstige ziekte hem naar Java terug te keeren. Maar na herstel daarvan vertrok hij met bekwamen spoed weer naar Atjeh en onderscheidde zich buitengewoon in de krijgsverrichtingen tegen Toekoe Oemar. Krijgsmakkers van Colijn uit die dagen hebben verklaard, dat hij een schitterend soldaat was, onverschrokken, koelbloedig, vasthoudend, onvermoeid, beslist, humaan tegenover den overwonnen en onderworpen inlander en goed voor zijn soldaten. Eens zag hij een gewonden soldaat in de wildernis halfdood liggen. Hij ging niet, gelijk de priester en de leviet, tegenover hem voorbij, maar kwam als de barmhartige Samaritaan tot hem, verbond zijn wonden, en droeg hem 2 uur ver naar het naastbij gelegen bivak ter verpleging. In 1925 heeft hij dien ouden strijdmakker nog eens ontmoet”..

De citaten uit de biografie van Colijn van Herman Langeveld in 1998 geven wel een heel ander beeld over Hendrik Colijn tijdens zijn krijgsverrichtingen in Lombok.

Langeveld p. 57-61:   “Colijn die ingedeeld was bij de derde compagnie, onder leiding van kapitein C.F. van den Ende schreef over deze zelfmoord het volgende aan zijn resp. zijn vrouw en ouders : 24 november 1894 ‘Ik heb er een gezien die, met een kind van ongeveer 1/2 jaar op den linkerarm, en een lange lans in de rechterhand op ons aanstormde. Een kogel van ons doodde moeder en kind.’ Dan volgt een onheilspellende zin, gevolgd door een volledige beschrijving van het onheil. ‘We mochten toen geen genade meer geven. Ik heb 9 vrouwen en 3 kinderen, die genade vroegen, op een hoop moeten zetten en ze zoo dood laten schieten. Het was onaangenaam werk, maar ‘t kon niet anders. De soldaten regen ze met genot aan hun bajonetten. ‘t Was een verschrikkelijk werk. Ik zal er maar over eindigen.’ (In een ander handschrift – zo goed als zeker dat van Colijns vrouw in de marge :”Hoe vreeselijk!”).

In de brief (17 december 1894) aan zijn ouders gaf Colijn een iets andere beschrijving van deze gruweldaden. ‘Zelfs jonge, schoone vrouwen met zuigelingen op den arm streden mee en wierpen uit de daken stukken lood op ons, terwijl anderen zelfs de lans hanteerden. Gelukkig stonden mijn dappere Amboneezen als een muur. Na den 8en aanval bleven nog eenige weinigen over, die genade vroegen, ik geloof 13. De soldaten keken mij vragend aan. Een 30-tal mijner manschappen was dood of gewond. Ik keerde mij naar achteren om een sigaar op te steken. Eenige hartverscheurende kreten klonken en toen ik mij weer omdraaide waren ook die 13 dood.
Hiervoor is reeds de grotere betrouwbaarheid van de brief aan zijn vrouw ten opzichte van die aan zijn ouders aangetoond, maar zelfs als deze laatste lezing de juiste is en Colijn geen expliciet bevel tot doden gegeven zou hebben, dan nog was hij als bevelvoerend officier ten volle verantwoordelijk voor het executeren van vrouwen en kinderen die om genade smeekten.

De vraag rijst hoe Colijn een dergelijke handelwijze voor zichzelf gerechtvaardigd heeft. In de geciteerde passages zit iets van een rechtvaardiging, namelijk daar waar Colijn vermeldt dat een dertigtal van zijn mannen gedood of gewond was. Het is natuurlijk een uiterst primitieve en harteloze redenering, maar iets dergelijks bleek ook toen Colijn, de balans van de gevechten opmakend, van tot honderd vijf door zijn compagnie gedode Baliërs, onder wie zestien vrouwen. ‘Ik verloor echter 1 officier, wiens vrouw in diepe droefheid eerstdaags de geboorte van een kleine tegemoet ziet’. (brief aan zijn ouders van 17 december 1894). Het heeft iets van tegen elkaar wegstrepen: één gedode officier met een vrouw die in verwachting is rechtvaardigt zestien gedode vrouwen.

Het vraagstuk heeft echter nog een andere dimensie. Bestond er voor Colijn geen tegenstelling tussen zijn christelijke levensovertuiging en de door hem gevolgde handelwijze? Leverde die geen conflict op met zijn door het christendom gevormde geweten? Daarvan blijkt in deze brieven niets, wat overigens niet wil zeggen dat het godsdienstig element er geheel in ontbreekt. Aan zijn vrouw schreef hij: ‘Danken we, mijn lieveling, den Heere onzen God voor zijne weldaden en zegeningen. Hij heeft ons in de ure des gevaars bewaard. Zij hij ons ook verder nu nabij!’ (brief van 23 november 1894).  En aan zijn ouders: ‘Ik gaf mijn leven in de hand van Hem, die alom regeert en ik dankte den Heere voor ‘t geluk, dat hij mij gegeven had in mijn vrouwtje.'(brief 17 december 1894). Maar van de genoemde tegenstelling lijkt Colijn zich in het geheel niet bewust geweest te zijn. Blijkbaar achtte hij de christelijke ethiek niet van toepassing op het terrein van de oorlog. Anders gezegd: in de oorlog was volgens Colijn alles geoorloofd. ‘[ … ] in den oorlog kan men geen jonge juffrouwen gebruiken. Voor de ijzeren wet der noodzakelijkheid zwijgt alles’. (brief van 17 december)

Toch is de conclusie dat Colijn in ‘de oorlog’ alles geoorloofd achtte, waarschijnlijk te globaal, omdat daarbij geen onderscheid wordt gemaakt tussen koloniale oorlogen en oorlogen tussen westerse, zo men wil christelijke naties onderling. Vooropgesteld moet worden dat een dergelijk onderscheid in de uitlatingen van Colijn zelf niet voorkomt. Dat wil echter nog niet zeggen dat hetgeen rol heeft gespeeld, want het kan zeer wel onderdeel uitgemaakt hebben van de ‘unspoken assumptions’, de onuitgesproken veronderstellingen, van zijn tijd. In het algemeen werd de tijd van het moderne imperialisme gekenmerkt door westers of blank superioriteitsgevoel. Ook zonder dat er van geprononceerd rasdenken sprake hoefde te zijn, kon dit er gemakkelijk toe leiden dat het leven van een niet-blanke minder waard geacht werd dan dat van een blanke. Het moderne imperialisme als zodanig ging uit van een ‘recht’ dat Europa zou hebben om de Derde Wereld in bezit te nemen; als de inheemse bevolking zich daar dan tegen verzette, had zij haar ondergang aan zichzelf te wijten. Zonder dat dergelijke redeneringen bij Colijn aanwijsbaar zijn, hebben zij, waarschijnlijk eerder onbewust dan bewust, mede zijn optreden op Lombok bepaald. Een zijdelingse aanwijzing voor dit soort redeneringen in verband met de Lombokexpeditie is te vinden in het boek van Cool uit 1896, dat achterin wel een lijst van ‘Europese’ gesneuvelde officieren en minderen heeft, maar daarbij in een noot slechts vermeldt: ‘Over de opgave van de [gesneuvelde] niet-Europese mindere militairen kon niet beschikt worden.’. En dat gold dan nog de ‘eigen’ soldaten”.

Einde citaten uit de biografie van Colijn door Herman Langeveld

Colijn kreeg voor zijn heldendaden het ridderschap van de militaire Willemsorde 4e klasse.

Langeveld, pagina 78:  In zijn Atjeh-brieven in De Nederlander ging Colijn niet in op de vraag naar de rechtmatigheid van de Nederlandse oorlog tegen Atjeh; impliciet blijkt wel dat hij hier geen probleem zag. In een brief van juli 1896 aan Van der Veen, antirevolutionair als hijzelf, voelde hij zich gedrongen wel nadrukkelijk bij die vraag stil te staan. Hij achtte deze van beslissende betekenis. ‘Is de oorlog noodig en billijk, dan zij er ook oorlog, oorlog, oorlog! Men breke dan met elk half-systeem. Is de oorlog onbillijk, men verlate Atjeh!’ Colijn kwam nu tot de conclusie dat de Atjeh-oorlog  ‘in oorsprong rechtvaardig’ was. De antirevolutionaire pers, die blijkbaar nog steeds het tegendeel verkondigde dwaalde zijns inziens ‘grovelijk’, waarbij hij verwees naar het  dat van Kuyper afwijkende standpunt van Elout van Soeterwoude. Colijn had zich dus terdege verdiept in de geschiedenis van het antirevolutionaire standpunt inzake de Atjeh-oorlog, en dacht van mening te verschillen met de almachtige partijleider Kuyper. Het zou tot 1904 duren voor hij in de gelegenheid was Kuyper in een persoonlijk gesprek zijn zienswijze te ontvouwen.

3. Herinneringen van Hendrik de Booy over zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog van 1893-1895

 

Luitenant ter Zee der 2e klasse Hendrik de Booy oud 26 jaar in Atjeh

In januari 1893 ontving onze Marine bericht dat het bekende bendehoofd Nja Makam ( later tijdens de vierde Atjeh oorlog zal hij sneuvelen) voornemens was vijandelijkheden te plegen in de residentie Oostkust van Sumatra en wel in het bijzonder bij de rivier van Tamiang waaraan onze post Seroeway gelegen was. Marine en Landmacht namen krachtige maatregelen om daartegen op te treden. Het werd een belangrijke onderneming. Wij hadden een aantal flottielje vaartuigen aan de kust waarvan verscheidene naar de rivier Tamiang kwamen voor het vormen van een divisie gewapende sloepen en een landingsdivisie onder bevel van den luitenant ter zee 1e klasse D. A. Mensert. De “Koerier” werd ook aangewezen,  gewapend met licht geschut. Het nautische deel van onze macht was in zijn geheel onder bevel van overste van den Pauvert. Er moesten versperringen in de rivier opgeruimd worden, bentengs worden veroverd en het geschiedde.

 

Benteng (vesting)

Ook de Landmacht gaf haar deel en vervulde haar taak. Over overste van den Pauvert, die zich voor deze gelegenheid had gewapend met een Japans zwaard van grote afmeting  was een verhaal in omloop dat hij, zich bevindende aan boord van de “Koerier” toen hem werd gerapporteerd “versperring vooruit”, de ontvangst van dit bericht erkende met de woorden: “dank U, waarschuw wanneer wij ‘m dwars hebben”. Wat er geschiedde, het staat alles beschreven in de Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 in 2 gedeelten door W. J. Cohen Stuart , dat ik leende van de heer Cox, directeur van het Historisch Scheepvaartkundig Museum ( Uit dit boek heb ik reeds de belangrijks passages betreffende de krijgsverrichtingen die mijn grootvader in 1893-1895 heeft meegemaakt geciteerd). Nja Makam en zijn volgelingen hadden een nederlaag geleden, maar een toestand van rust en veiligheid was niet bereikt. Uit het bovenstaande zal blijken waarom ik Mensert, mijn 1e officier aan boord “Matador”en “Panter” bij mijn opname in het hospitaal te Weltevreden daar aantrof. De verwonding welke hij ontving waarbij de kogel tot de hersenen doordrong betekende voor hem verlies van een oog. Hij ontving de hoge onderscheiding te worden benoemd tot Ridder van de Militaire Willemsorde.

Mijn bestemming was op 31 mei 1893 mij te bevinden aan boord van het ramtorenschip” Koning der Nederlanden”, Stationsschip van de Zeemacht op de kust van Atjeh, liggende ter reede van Olehleh. Hier bevond ik mij dus op de plaats waar in 1873 de eerste expeditie landde onder generaal Köhler, en nabij die waar generaal van Swieten landde voor de tweede expeditie in 1874.

 

Het landingshoofd Oleh-Leh en het strand in 1893

De Kraton was door ons genomen. De Missigit ((Moskee) werd door ons herbouwd. In 1884 kwam de geconcentreerde postenstelling tot stand. Het huis van Teukoe Ne Radja Moeda Setia, hoofd van de grote Moekim, die gedurende de 1ste en 2de expeditie onze zijde had gekozen en ons herhaaldelijk goede raad had gegeven zagen we dichtbij. Ook konden wij wijzen op de Atjeh tram. (…) Het zou niet lang meer duren namelijk minder dan 2 maanden na mijn komst als zou blijken of wederom zou blijken, dat Atjeh nog niet tot rust gekomen gebied geworden was. Op 20 juli 1893 namelijk was de stoomsloep van Hr Ms “Madura” nabij Diamant punt op brandwacht toen lichtsignalen onder de wal werden gezien. Met den dag zag men top van “Madura” de twee masten van een op het strand zittend stoomschip dat bleek te zijn de “Rayah Kongsie Atjeh” varende onder Nederlandsche vlag. Aan boord vond men een bloedbad, slechts twee van de europese machinisten, die zich hadden schuil gehouden, waren ontkomen. Tenslotte bleek, dat vijf Atjehers, die te Lhos Seumawè aan boord waren gekomen, nadat de controlerende politie-oppasser van boord was gegaan en die rentjongs (Atjehse kris)  in hun kussen verborgen hadden meegebracht gedurende de vaart den Engelschen kapitein, die op de brug lag te slapen, dodelijk verwond en den wachthebbende stuurman gedood hadden. Daarna hadden zij de bemanning en de passagiers, voor zo ver deze zich verzetten hetzelfde lot doen ondergaan en het schip den wal opgestuurd, zodat het ten 9.30 ‘s avonds even benoorden de Koela belas aan den grond liep. Daarna hadden zij met de drie sloepen de geldkist, de post , 2 Snider geweren en al wat zij geroofd hadden, benevens 4 Atjehers als gevangenen en 5 vrouwen aan wal gebracht. Toen de rovers tegen middernacht van boord waren gegaan, waren de machinisten te voorschijn gekomen en hadden enige vuurpijlen afgestoken. De bemanning van de “Madura”vond 24 lijken van passagiers en 12 gewonden; het bleek voorts dat 18 personen verdronken waren bij een poging om met de nog overgebleven sloep, die lek was, het schip te verlaten. De “Madura”nam maatregelen om het schip te bewaken en te beletten, dat het verder op den wal zou slaan, begroef de doden en verbonden de gewonden. Op de 25ste juli Juli sleepte de “Sindow” het schip vlot en werd het daarna met bewaking van de Marine aan boord onder geleide van het gouverments-stoomschip “Havik” naar Penang gebracht en overhandigd aan de eigenaars.(mijn grootvader heeft deze gebeurtenis geput uit het reeds genoemde  werk van de gepensioneerd kapitein ter zee, oud- Minister van Marine W.J.Cohen Stuart )

Op 17 november 1893 heeft kapitein ter zee F.J. Stokhuyzen het bevel over de Zeemacht in de wateren van Atjeh overgegeven aan den kapitein ter zee F.K. Engelbracht. Door  mijn plaatsing aan boord  “Batavia”heb ik van die overdracht niets gemerkt. Op 28 december 1893 heeft een zestal sloepen van “Merapi”en “Batavia op verzoek van het Binnenlandsch Bestuur de rivier  van Modjopahit opgevaren  waar de controleur van Idi werd aangetroffen, die met een bevolkings patrouille daarheen was opgerukt. Blijkbaar was enig machtsvertoon gewenst (..) In 1893 kwam op last van onze Regering het beroemde werk van Dr Snouck Hurgronje uit. De schrijver was van 1992-1893 in Atjeh teneinde over den politieke toestand van advies te dienen. Hij raadde nergens met den vijand te onderhandelen, hem alleen te slaan en nooit de gelegenheid geven zich te herstellen. Sinds een tiental jaren had het bendehoofd Teukoe Oemar het ons lastig gemaakt. Hij had door zijn persoonlijkheid op vele Atjehers invloed en hiervan wilde de toenmalige Gouverneur partij trekken door, na zijn onderwerping hem zijn vertrouwen schenken. Deze Teukoe werd Atjehs generaal in onze dienst, toegerust met onze wapens en voorzien van ons geld tot het onderhouden van een kleine legerafdeling. Een centraal , krachtig inlands gezag hebben wij in Atjeh nooit gekend. Oelemas hielden door hartstochtelijke zendbrieven den oorlogsgeest bij d bevolking wakker. Onder die oelamas ((godsdienstige leiders) was die in Atjeh steeds als autoriteit golden op het gebied van den godsdienst, die Teukoe werden genoemd was Tjèh Thanam di Tirò, een der ijverigste. Ik geef hier de vertaling van een van zijn zendbrieven.

“In handen te stellen van Teukoe Lamreng en Panglima II Moekins en Lamkapang en alle Moslims tot aan Lamthoes en Lampoelan. Laat deze op iedere plaats goed bekende brief niet verloren gaan. Wie hem doet verdwijnen wachte zich voor ongeluk Zo Allah wil!”
Lof zij Allah!
Van fakir, die op hulp hoopt van Allah, den Almachtige. Moge hij dezen brief doen geworden aan alle Moslimse broeders in de kampongs die door de Hollanders, de vervloekten, zijn overweldigd. Zo Allah de Verhevene wil en door zijn bestuur en Zijne kracht zullen deze en alle andere gelovigen nog overwonnen en wij Moslims door Hem ondersteund worden, zoals Allah, de Verhevene, heeft beloofd. En geopenbaard is het teeken der overwinning door het terugtrekken der ongelovigen. Hoevele sterke stellingen hebben de Moslims genomen, hoevele sterke wapenen reeds buitgemaakt. En om deze reden vermeerdert hunne volharding. De zekerheid dat de Moslims moedig zijn vermeerdert de vrees, de schuwheid en de kommer der ongelovigen en renegaten. Een duidelijk teken daarvan is, dat door paggers omgeven versterkingen willen maken en wachten plaatsen van Lam Bengkos tot aan Lambara, vandaar tot aan Geutapan Doea em Peukan Badas tot aan Koeala Tjangkool. Doch meer openbaar is het bewijs van hun kommer daar zij den vrede, van ons, Moslims, afvragen en Teukoe Basét opgedragen is geworden te verzoeken het geweervuur tussen Amagaloeng en Lambaro gedurende 15 dagen te staken. Allah! Allah! Gij lieden, onze broeders, die gevestigd zijt onder het bestuur der ongelovigen, wij zouden wensen, dat de ongelovigen en renegaten nog meer bevreesd werden. De Imam Mahdi heeft zich reeds in de Soedan en Egypte geopenbaard en hij beoorlogt die landen.(De mahdi is een persoon van wie in sommige
islamitische stromingen verwacht wordt dat hij volgens profetieën aan het einde van de tijden komt. De komst van de mahdi is het belangrijkste dat er op de dag des oordeels zal gebeuren).  Hoevele rijken hebben zich reeds aan hem onderworpen en hoevele millioenen ongelovigen en renegaten zijn reeds door de de krijgers van den Mahdi gedood. Aldus het is het ware en duidelijke bericht dat reeds alom bekend is te Mekka en te Constantinopel en in Engeland en dat ook voorkomt in de overleveringen en verhalen van de vrienden des Profeet en de uitspraken der schriftgeleerden. inderdaad zal een heilige uit één der kleinzonen, afstammelingen van den Profeet geboren worden ten tijde der verwarring in goddeloze landen, die de goddelijke wet verwerpen waar nieuwe ketterijen het hoofd opsteken. Die tijd is nu aangebroken. Allen die zich aan de zijde der gelovigen scharen, die onze broeders in de Godsdienst zijn, wilt toch den Godsdienst verheffen, het Goede doen en het Kwade nalaten en de ongelovigen bestrijden, zij zijn de vijanden van Allah, den Verhevene en  de vijanden van ons, Moslims. Ook worden door U bestraft de afvalligen met duidelijke tekenen en bewijzen, terwijl gij lieden moet overleggen en beraadslagen om den godsdienst bij de renegaten versterken door ongelovigen te doden, hunne goederen te roven, bij hun te plunderen, hen te beliegen en te bedriegen en te verschalken, zoveel als in uw vermogen is, opdat gijlieden werkelijk volgens de Islamietischen Godsdienst onze broeders wordt terwijl het U hiernamaals niet als zonden zal worden aangerekend. De ongelovigen, zoals Allah wil, overwonnen en verdreven worden, zoals de heer, de Verhevene. heeft beloofd. Twijfelt gij lieden niet, wie twijfelt is niet de broeder van de Moslims. Inderdaad van den afvallige staat geschreven: Zij dragen U een kwaad hart toe en door Allah en den Profeet is ons opgedragen hen te belagen en ons te bestendigen, terwijl wij zullen gesteund worden door de kracht des Profeets, onzen voorganger Mohammed denalwetende Profeet, aan wien en aan wiens vrienden Allah barmhartigheid schonk.
16 Rabiak Achin 1302  (Adòë Mòslöt)  Deze brief is geschreven na de concentratielinie werd ingesteld in 1884.

(Bij het lezen van deze brief zou men kunnen denken dat zij geschreven is door de tegenwoordige Jihadstrijders)

In het boek van mijn grootvader is een pas voor een vissersvaartuig dat hij voor 40 gulden kocht van de Atjeher Masiad, zie hieronder

 

Pas voor vissersvaartuig dat mijn grootvader van de Atjeher Masiad voor f 40 gulden had gekocht

Ik vervolg weer met passages uit het boek met de herinneringen van mijn grootvader:

Wanneer ik nu, na zovele jaren, terugdenk aan de omstandigheden waaronder wij leefden aan boord van een klein schip dat meestal ten anker lag voor de kust van het ons als regel vijandige Atjeh, dan moet ik constateren dat wij tevreden waren, in weerwil van de warmte in de kleine hut en de aanwezigheid van kakkerlakken, die zich des nachts te goed deden aan vocht dat zij vonden in de mondhoeken van den slapende zeeman. Soms moest zo een slapende man de kooi (het bed) voor vier uur verlaten en in dien tijd zorgdragen voor de veiligheid van de een honderd en vier mensen, waarvan de meerderheid slapende was en ieder zijn eigen dromen droomde en een minderheid, gewapende aan dek in wakende staat, een marinier met geladen geweer op de brug de wacht hield. En lag ons scheepje niet ver van een post van de Landmacht, die last ondervond van nachtelijke beschietingen door den vijand, dan gebeurde het dat op verzoek van de Commandant van die Post, het op zijn station voor anker liggende schip elk uur van de nacht een schot loste met een der kanonnen van 12 cm, op de kampong waartoe de mensen behoorden, die de nachtelijke beschietingen voerde. Ik denk nu aan de Post Sigli op de Noordkust. Wij brachten een bezoek aan deze Post en werden door de Commandant op de hoogte gesteld van de nachtelijke beschietingen door volk van de kampong Lho Soekoen, waarna de regeling tot stand kwam van de nachtelijke beschieting van elk uur een projectiel van 12 cm op de genoemde kampong. De post Sigli had een hoge, ijzeren uitkijktoren. Ik vroeg den commandant van de post Sigli mij toe te staan den toren te beklimmen, wat hij toestond maar, voegde hij er aan toe: “u moet het mij niet kwalijk nemen als ze op u schieten terwijl U naar boven klimt”. Een ijzeren trap voerde naar boven, boven was men beschut. Naar boven klimmende hoorde ik beneden mij een geluid, zoiets als ‘ klets’ van ijzer op ijzer, dat op mij de indruk maakte, dat ik was beschoten. Bij het afdalen heb ik het niet gehoord. Ik heb omtrent de nachtelijk paraatheid van ons schip nog niet medegedeeld, dat volgens een vaststaande regel de stoomsloep met een gewapende bemanning op brandwacht voer. Hoelang de brandwachtsloep uitbleef herinner ik mij niet meer. Wel herinner ik mij dat een lid der bemanning zorgde voor een zeer op prijs gestelde  kop koffie waarbij naar ik geloof een primus dienst deed. Ik zal nu nog herinneringen opschrijven zonder precies dat te vermelden maar wel met de wetenschap dat ze verband hebben met de “Batavia” en gebeurtenissen welke plaatsvonden in 1893 en wel een tweede tocht met gewapende sloepen naar de bovenloop van de rivier van Tamiang. Deze rivier heeft haar bestaan te danken aan twee andere machtige rivieren, de Simpang kanan en de Simpang kiri (kanan en kiri zijn maleise woorden en betekenen rechts en links). Na vereniging van die twee rivieren heet de rivier verder Tamiang en valt in Noordoostelijke richting stromende in de straat van Malakka. Ik heb reeds verteld dat wij – de Hollanders – den Atjehsen bendeleider der Nja Makan een ernstige nederlaag hadden bezorgd. Toch kon de streek waar hij zich ophield niet als kalm worden beschouwd zoals uit berichten bleek. De “Koerier” bevond zich nog daar in de bovenloop van de Tamiang rivier met haar flinke commandant luitenant ter zee 2e klasse J.F.B.van Dijk en op het zelfde schip  bevond zich ook de commandant van de gehele expeditie de overste H van den Pauvert, met zijn japanse slagzwaard.

 

 

De Koerier””  voor de expeditie Tamiang 1893 bevorderd en in staat gebracht tot krijgsverrichtingen. De beschermde marsen zijn voorzien van snelvuur kanonnen tot krijgsverrichtingen.

Nu werd weder een nieuwe sloepen flottielje gevormd met de bedoeling dat die gewenst zou blijken, aan den wal zou optreden. De “Batavia” zou gewapende sloepen leveren en niet alleen de “Batavia”, maar ook verscheidende andere schepen en ik zou commandant zijn van één van die sloepen. Verscheidende schepen leverden ook één of twee sloepen door en begeleid en gesleept door stoomsloepen en stoombarkassen verzamelden wij ons tot een sloepenmacht, waarvan ieder sloepscommandant zijn best had gedaan bemanning en commandant op de beste wijze doormiddel, van kooien (hangmatten compleet) te beschermen tegen geweervuur van den vijand.

 

Gewapende sloepen op de rivier Tamiang. De tocht vond plaats van  9 t/m 12 november 1893

Op mijn plaats achteruit had ik den indruk in Abrahams schoot te verkeren. Zo bereikten wij dan Seroeway op den eersten dag, een sterke Hollandse post aan de rechteroever van de rivier. Ik had in mijn hut aan boord  een briefje achtergelaten, waarop vermeld stond wat ik zou wensen dat met mijn eigendommen zou geschieden ingeval ik zou sneuvelen. In Seroeway sliepen wij aan den wal, wat niet et letterlijk moet worden opgevat daar slapen bijna onmogelijk werd gemaakt door de talloze muskieten, die zich verheugden in onze aanwezigheid. Den volgende dag vervolgden wij onze tocht. De stemming was best. Zo waren wij nu op die machtige stroom tussen twee dichte oerwouden. Soms liet ik, als  gelegenheid ons te beschieten mij voor den vijand gunstig scheen  mijn bemanning gereed zijn om te vuren van achter hun kooien. Maar van een beschieting door den vijand bleek niets en ook wij deden niets. Wij passeren een benting en stelden vast, dat het een verlaten vijandelijke benting was vlak bij de rivier waarin wij nog een oude lilla vonden, welke wij in de rivier wierpen en waarin een vermagerd katje in de benting werd aangetroffen, dat wij een naam gaven ( naam is ergens in die 66 jaren blijven hangen) en meenamen bevorderden tot kat van de “Batavia”. Eindelijk bereikten wij de “Koerier”een mooi gezicht die Hollandse vlag op die machtige rivier.(…) Ik herinner mij van het bezoek aan de “Koerier”slechts dat ik, na de overste van den Pauvert met zijn Japanse slagzwaard eerbiedig te hebben begroet een zittende houding te hebben aangenomen, onmiddellijk in een diepe slaap viel, waaruit ik eerst ontwaakte toen men mij mededeelde dat onze gewapende sloepenmacht nog hoger op moest. De “:Koerier” kon niet hoger op wegens haar diepgang en nu zouden wij een kijkje gaan nemen (..) Wij gingen dus verder de rivier op en zagen toen plotseling na het passeren van een bocht een grote hoeveelheid mensen, die zich op een plek bevonden waar geen bomen stonden. Deze mensen waren Atjehers , die geen vijandige houding aannamen. Ik schat het aantal op iets minder dan honderd. Hadden wij vertegenwoordigers van ons Binnenlandsch Bestuur bij ons en kwamen deze in gesprek met  een  aantal van deze Atjehers? Ik heb den indruk behouden dat wij niet voldoende voorzichtig ware. maar er gebeurde niets. De volgende dag vertrokken wij met onze gewapende sloepen voorstrooms naar de schepen, ieder naar zijn eigen schip, wat mij betreft de “Batavia “. En ons katje van die Atjehse benting voelde zich ‘senang’ onder de  hollandse vlag.

 

Aantekeningen 1893 van Hendrik de Booy van de expeditie Tamiang rivier:

Wij waren vijf dagen en nachten (met muskieten) afwezig geweest en hadden het een vermoeiende tocht gevonden. Nu konden wij weder genieten van de gemakken welke ons goede scheepje de  “Batavia” ons kon bieden. Zo iets als wat wij in die vijf dagen hadden doorleefd, het was niet zo bijzonder belangrijk maar het was toch een avontuur en zulke avonturen zijn, nu wij geen oostindiesche koloniën beheren dan – (tijdelijk) Nieuw Guinea, niet langer in ons bereik en dat is een gemis en doet ons gevoelen dat wij, wat onze positie onder de naties betreft, zijn gedaald tot van landen als Zwitserland, Denemarken en dergelijke. Maar wij kunnen ons troosten met het feit dat denkbeelden welke behoren bij den tijd waarin wij leven bezig zijn zich te voltrekken en alle naties zullen ondervinden. Later ontving ik een onderscheidingsteken, het ereteken voor krijgsverrichtingen met de gesp Tamiang 1893, ook al waren die krijgsverrichtingen niet belangrijk, toch denk ik gaarne aan dien tijd terug.

Bij mijn komst aan boord van de “Batavia”had onze Commandant mij opgedragen eenmaal in de week te oefenen met het kanon van 18 cm dat op het voorschip stond. In verband met deze opdracht begaf ik mij op zekeren voormiddag naar het voorschip waar het kanon van 18 cm A mij met zijn bemanning van 10 man afwachtte. De exercitie met dit kanon doorlopende, viel het mij op dat bij het vele baksen ( het geschut in de gewenste positie stellen) waarbij verscheidene kampongs schijnbaar onder vuur werden genomen mijn bemanning de zwaarte van het kanon als een groot beletsel ondervond tegen een snel veranderen van vuurrichting. Er werd veel gezucht en weinig vriendelijke namen werden het kanon gegeven terwijl niet de aanwezige lichaamskrachten genoeg werden gebruikt. Ik zeide, dat, al was ik met de bemanning de mening toegedaan dat het kanon een pestbuil is, dit daarvoor niet verantwoordelijk is, zijnde het als zodanig geboren. Beter dan op het kanon te schelden ware het daarom alle kracht aan te wenden. Het baksen ging daarna beter en toen enige weken later den Commandant een oefening kwam bij wonen ging alles best en zeide na afloop. dat hij de oefening met genoegen had bijgewoond.(…)

In maart 1894 werd ik over geplaatst a/b van Hr. Ms. Ramtorenschip “Koning der Nederlanden”. Nadat Kapitein ter zee Stokhuyzen op 17 november 1893 het commando over de “Koning” en de in de wateren van Atjeh aanwezige Nederlandse scheepsmacht had overgegeven aan Kapitein ter zee F.K. Engelbrecht had het niet lang geduurd of deze had op het schip waarop wij dienden zijn stempel gedrukt. Het duurde ook niet lang of ik had een naam bedacht, die goed bij hem paste. Deze naam was “Radja Brul”, een naam waaronder hij weldra op onze gehele vloot bekend was, en die hij tot zijn dood behield, ja zelfs daarna. Hij was de door allen erkende “radja” op het schip dat “Koning” heette en de toevoeging Brul hield verband met zijn alle scheepsruimten doordringende stem. Bij de overdracht aan hem van het commando over een van onze grote schepen met een bemanning van 300 man zeide hij: “Ik heb van mijn voorganger gehoord, dat gij niet een gemakkelijke bemanning zijt en ook aan de wal wel eens aanleiding geeft tot klachten. Welnu, ik waarschuw u, als daarvan iets blijkt, zal ik u in veertien dagen zó tam maken, dat gij gort komt eten uit mijn hand.” Wat hij tot de bemanning zeide werd zeer bewonderd.

Ik persoonlijk herinner mij, in de vroege morgen de wacht hebbende, aan dek geluid te horen van een menselijke stem, komende uit het achterschip, een geluid, aanzwellende tot een geluid dat het best kan worden vergeleken, al heb ik het nog nooit gehoord, met het geluid van de ontwakende leeuw, de koning der dieren. Dan een hofmeester van Europees ras, doodsbleek, die aan dek verschijnt, bedreigd wordende door die menselijke stem met het indraaien met een schroef in, ja waarin, ik weet het niet. Wij noemden zulk een vertoning “réveil du lion” en zorgden er voor een der torens van ons schip tussen onze commandant en ons te hebben als, na de doodsbleke hofmeester, de commandant op het halfdek verscheen. Het gebeurde wel eens, dat ik, op snippenjacht lang in de tropenzon gelopen hebbende, met een paar dagen koorts aan boord terug kwam en dan geen dienst kon doen. Ik was toen 26 jaar. Toen, nadat zo iets had plaats gehad, ik weer onderweg was met het voornemen snippen te schieten en op een afstand van zowat honderd meter van het schip was, hoorde ik mijn naam en, omkijkende, zag ik Radja Brul, staande op het achterschip, die mij toeriep: “denk eraan de Booy, je lichaam hoort niet aan je zelf maar aan het schip. En ik heb: “Jawel commandant” geroepen. Velen aan boord zullen zijn stem gehoord en verstaan en begrepen hebben wat hij zeide. Dat elke opvarende de plicht had mede te werken tot de goede naam van het schip, waarop hij dient en zodoende tot de goede naam van onze marine, was een gedachte die onze commandant gemeengoed wenste en die ook tegenover de Atjeher moest worden geëerbiedigd.

Als er te Kota Radja iets bijzonders gebeurde als de benoeming van een nieuwe, met ons bevriende Radja van Edi, waartoe de generaal Deijkerhoff ons uitnodigde, dan trok ik zelf mijn  mooie bullen aan, lange jas met sabel en epauletten en ging er heen met de tram want in de gouverneurswoning was dan iets te zien, vele Hoofd – en andere Officieren en bevriende Atjehse  hoofden vooral den nieuw te benoemen Radja van Edi  en ook  den sluwen Teukoe Oemar en wij vergaten dan tijdelijk dat wij (de Marine) het getikte blaadje, dat de Gouverneur  ons geregeld toezond, misschien onverdiend, altijd bestempelde met den naam Blauwe Leugen. Wij oordeelden misschien ten onrechte , dat de toestand van rust en veiligheid daarin al te gunstig werd geschilderd.

 

Inhuldiging van de nieuwe Radja van Edi. V.l.n r Radja van Edi , x,  Generaal Deijkerhoff (met tafeltje met glazen voor hem), x ,x,Overste Siekens commandant dan 2e van links van de witte pilaar er achter zittende Teukoe Oemar, geheel rechts zittend Luitenant ter zee H. de Booy

Op 19 juli 1894 kwam een eind aan een periode van mijn dienst tijd bij de Marine waaraan ik gaarne terugdenk. Behalve met het gewone clubje bezocht ik ook enige kampongs in de geconcentreerde stelling met Alfred Boissevain (later na het huwelijk van mijn grootvader met Hilda Boissevain zijn zwager) dien ik op het instituut had leren kennen als adelborst van het jongste jaar. Met dit afscheid op 19 juli 1894  van een periode waaraan ik met genoegen terugdenk ben ik te vlug geweest. Immers werd ik op dien datum geplaatst aan boord van H.M. “Benkoelen” welk schip ik eerst op 18 oktober 1895 zou verlaten na 1 jaar en 3 maanden en er is geen reden waarom ik niet met genoegen ook aan dien tijd terugdenk.

De tijd dat mijn grootvader op het schip de “Benkoelen” heeft doorgebracht aan de kustwateren van Atjeh heeft hij weinig krijgsverrichtingen moet doen. Ik laat nog enkele passages uit deze tijd volgen.

 

H.M. “Benkoelen “, bemanning 77 Europeanen 28 inlanders

Wij doorzochten veel zeilprauwen die beantwoorden aan de voorschriften van de Scheepvaartregeling, waren in station aan Noord – en Oostkust, ik bezocht met een stoombarkas een in het binnenland gevestigde militaire post van het N.I. leger. Volgens mijn herinnering was de `Benkoelen” gedurende den tijd van een jaar en ongeveer drie maanden, de duur van mijn verblijf aan boord vaak aan de westkust, ook aan de Noordkust soms op de rede van Oelee Lheue voor het voorgeschreven bezoek aan het hoofdstation en ook geruimen tijd bezig aan de opname van het eiland Simaloer, een groot eiland aan de Westkust. Ik kan mij echter niet herinneren, wanneer wij aan de Noordkust gestationeerd waren wanneer aan de Westkust waar wij vele malen met de landingsdivisie den wal opgingen ook schijf te schieten en wanneer  wij het eiland Simaloer opnamen.

 

De landingsdivisie van H.M. “Benkoelen”op Poeloe Rajah, Westkust van Atjeh

 

De landingsdivisie van H.M. ” Benkoelen”versterkt door een deel van de bezetting van de post Lho Theumawe oefenden aan de wal 1895 Geheel links staat ergens luitenant ter zee H. de Booy

Een  gebeurtenis vol spanning was het omslaan van onze vlet in de branding, de landing op een eiland van de bemanning van inbegrip van onze dokter v.d. Sande.  Verder mag niet onvermeld blijven dat de “Benkoelen” werkzaam aan de Westkust, even op een koraal rif stootte . Alles samen genomen, is het voor ons, koloniale mogendheid , een groot verlies, dat wij dit werk zo radicaal hebben moeten opgeven (..)

 

Hospitaal Pantei Perak bij Kota Radja

De photo hierachter (zie bovenstaande foto) stelt het grote militair hospitaal Pantei Perak bij Kota Radja voor waar ik enigen tijd met koorts verpleegd werd. De photo toont vooral den langen middenweg die vertakkingen heeft naar zijwegen rechts en links waaraan de kamers van de verpleegden zich bevinden. Achteruit die kamer keek men op het uitgebreide terrein van de geconcentreerde postenlinie vanwaar geluid van geschutvuur kwam en vooral in de avond van Vrijdag het geluid van godsdienstoefening in de kampongs. Op gewone avonden vaak het gegil van Atjehers. ‘s Avonds langs de middenweg dwangarbeiders die gestorven patiënten naar het lijkhuis brengen. In het hospitaal een Hoofdofficier van gezondheid ontmoet die (misschien) Rutgers van der Loeff heet en die zegt dat “de Booij “een goed ras is. Ik vind in het hospitaal ook ter Cock , de officier van administratie van de “Flores”, die met zijn sloepen langzij “Benkoelen” liggende zware brandwonden heeft gekregen door onachtzaamheid van onze machine kamer, die niet heeft gewaarschuwd dat er zou worden gebreind, waardoor ter Cock dit breinwater, dat naar ik meen 40 graden celcius heeft, over zich heeft gekregen. Voornamelijk armen en benen getroffen..

 

Werpen van mortier te Lhos Theumawe 1895

Ten anker liggende voor de kust van Atjeh bevindt zich gedurende den nacht steeds een gewapende marinier op de brug. Zijn Beamont geweer is geladen en draagt een sabelbajonet. Wij weten wat wij van den Atjeher kunnen verwachten op een donkeren nacht. Als hij wordt afgelost ontlaadt de afgeloste zijn geweer en neemt de sabelbajonet af. Nu was dat afnemen van de sabelbajonet door den afgeloste marinier wat onhandig geschied want de sabelbajonet viel in zee en wat erger is voor een bekwaam, goed oppassend marinier, vader van driekinderen in Holland, drukt deze zijn gevoelens uit wijzende naar de plek waar zijn sabelbajonet in de zee verdween: “daar leit het pestijzer”. Ik maakte dadelijk het plan er over te schrijven aan des mariniers hoogste chef in de wateren van Atjeh doch voor dien brief als briefschrijven te nemen (zonder zijn medeweten) den marinier Middendorp “capitain d’armes “aan boord. H.M. “Benkoelen”, een man, beantwoordend , wat zijn karaktertrekken betreft, aan de strengste eisen welke het Korps voorschrijft.

 

De marinier Middendop, “capitaine d’armes “aan boord H.M. “Benkoelen”op de kust van Atjeh. Hij schreef (zonder zijn medeweten ) een brief met een klacht aan zijn hoogste chef (zie tekst)

Bekendheid met wat er omgaat in het hoofd van den Marinier stelde mij in staat aan dien brief de vereiste vorm een inhoud te geven, ook wanneer dit hoofd staat voor de beoordeling van andere moeilijkheden van het verhinderen van het opschuiven van de stropdas. Hoe die brief luidde, er zijn sedert zestig jaren verlopen en mijn herinneringenvermogen is ontoereikend. Wel herinner ik mij dat een man, die later mijn schoonbroeder werd, dien brief las en gedurende een tijdelijke aanwezigheid aan boord van H.M. ” Koning der Nederlanden” mij zeide dat hij er met genoegen van had kennis genomen. Die man was de luitenant ter zee 2 e klasse Abraham van Stockum.( een volle neef van Hendrik de Booy). Wat zou de ontvanger van den brief,  luitenant G. Faassen doen.. Wat hij deed had ik niet verwacht. Hij schreef aan de Commandant van d e “Benkoelen” van Rossum. Wat hij schreef weet ik niet en wist ik zestig jaren geleden ook niet. De heer van Rossum, commandant van H.M.”Benkoelen” bezat verscheidene  lofwaardige eigenschappen doch hield niet van zulk soort aardigheden. Wat zou hij doen. Misschien had hij het briefje van G. Faassen, dat waarschijnlijk niet geheel vrij van een geestigheid zal zijn geweest op een dergelijke wijze hebben kunnen beantwoorden maar hij deed het best wat hij kon doen “niet”  en liep een week rond met de gelaatsuitdrukking welke lezer van het leven van Koningin Victoria bekend is, die van “we are not amused”.

Daar mijn doel is het opschrijven van herinneringen mag ik geen herinneringen verzwijgen tenzij dit gewenst is. Op en neer wandelen op het half dek met onze commandant (luitenant ter zee 1e klasse J.P. van Rossum en sprekend over koetjes en kalfjes, zeide hij plotseling,  de Booy zeide hij  onze tweede Machinist wil bevorderd worden tot een hogere rang. Volgens de  bepalingen moet hij daarvoor examen afleggen en heb ik besloten U te  belasten met het afnemen van dat examen. Het gaat om  Natuurkunde, wel te weten de beginselen. En wanneer zal dit examen worden afgenomen, vroeg ik “Morgen “antwoordde de  Commandant. De marine is vol verassing.. Het ene ogenblik ben je de gast van een rijke Arabier het volgende sla ik om met een sloep; wat mij altijd treft als ik thuis kom in het ouderlijk huis te Haarlem dat de kruidenier van Veen terwijl ik in grillige lijnen den aardbol heb omcirkeld nog altijd bezig is met het afwegen van een of ander vocht zoals stroop of het afmeten van iets anders als ik uit  de tram, die mij naar huis brengt, hem met de hand groet, want ik ken dien man. Vaak heeft mijn Moeder mij opgedragen, toen ik nog een jongetje was, iets bij Veen te kopen,. maar deze verrassing gaat te ver. Als de Commandant mij in kennis brengt met deze benoeming herinner ik mij niets van de beginselen van Natuurkunde.  Er zal dus een leerboek nodig zijn om het geheugen op te frissen. veel meer dan iemand die her examen afneemt gevoel ik mij als iemand die examen aflegt. Maar ik had dien nacht de Hondenwacht en friste met een leerboek dat ik vond het vroeger geleerde op. Den volgende morgen zat ik met den machinist en de Commandant aan een tafeltje aan dek. De machinist kwam door zijn examen en ik door het mijne.
Mijn tijd dienende in de wateren van Atjeh liep ten einde. Op 18 october 1895 werd ik overgeplaatst in de rol van  H.M “Gedeh”, het wachtschip in de haven van Tandjong Priok. Op 2 november melde ik mij aan boord van dit schip na een voorspoedige reis met de Westboot van de K.P.M. Ik nam afscheid van de “Benkoelen” en van mijn vrienden te Oleë Lheuë. In mijn atjehsen tijd had ik veel gelezen in het boek van Snouck Hurgronje en had ik getracht met behulp van de atjehse taal te leren. De gedachte was bij mij opgekomen afscheid te nemen van de  Marine en in dienst te komen bij het Binnenlands Bestuur. Toen het feit dat ik hierover ernstig nadacht en er over sprak met een assistent resident ter ore kwam van mijn ouderen vriend Frits Bauduin, schreef deze mij verscheidende brieven, minstens drie, waarin hij ten sterkste afraadt het plan dat ik heb, uit te voeren onder aanvoering van de grote nadelen en er aan verbonden waartoe dan ook behoort dat ik ten slotte dan zal trouwen met de “snaar” ,die zo trouw voor mij gezorgd heeft.  Hij wijst ook op de nadelen verbonden aan het op mijn leeftijd in dienst komen als controleur. Intussen, begrijpende dat ik bij de overgang naar het binnenlands bestuur zou moeten kunnen  beschikken over de kennis welke door aanstaande controleurs gedurende een studie van een aantal jaren te Leiden is verkregen of over een deel ervan, ben ik begonnen met het lezen van maleise hikajats in arabiesch schrift. Wij ontvingen op het Instituut van de Marine reeds onderricht in die richting van den heer Derx.  Het was mijn plan te Batavia te wenden tot een heer, die Margadant heette en die zonder twijfel bereid zou zijn mijn kennis in het lezen van hikajats te onderzoeken en beoordelen. (Later in Batavia heeft de heer Margadant zijn vaardigheid in het lezen van maleise hikajats in arabisch schrift niet voldoende gevonden wat mijn grootvader niet verwonderde)

 

H. de Booy in de kleding van een atjees hoofd (oeloebalang)

Op den dag van vertrek besteeg ik de Westboot, aan boord waarvan groet drukte heerste. Er waren vele militairen aan boord en daarbij behorende vrouwen en kinderen. Op het grootluik zat een figuur, dien ik dadelijk herkende als een Atjeher. Hij was met een dun touwtje verbonden aan een politieoppasser, een inlander, die rustig sliep. Vrouwen van militairen brachten den gevangen Atjeher seroetos (inlandse cigaretten) dat hij dankbaar ontving. Ik vroeg hem in de Atjehse taal van waar hij kwam en hij vertelde mij dat hij kwam van de kampong Lho Soekoen bij Sigli; dat Atjehers de boot van het binnenlandsch bestuur, die onder de brug lag in de hollandse benting Sigli hadden geroofd en dat een atjehs oeloebalang de dader had aangewezen en uitgeleverd, echter werd de boot, naar ik meen, een stoomsloep, niet uitgeleverd en ontkende deze atjeher dat hij had deelgenomen aan de roof, maar oeloebalangs zijn en toen volgde een woord, dat waarschijnlijk vertaald in de hollandse taal “smeerlappen” betekent. Sigli is de ons welbekende post, welks militair commandant ons een bezoek bracht en met onze commandant een afspraak maakte welke inhield dat hij hulp nodig hebbende die vuurpijlen zou tonen. Hij zou, het was avond, na terugkomst op zijn Post, ook vuurpijlen omhoog schieten, maar deze zouden dienen om te zien, dat die vuurpijlen goed zichtbaar waren, niet als een verzoek om hulp. De Commandant van Sigli verzocht onzen Commandant de bemanning een extra oorlam te geven schenken en dit verzoek willigde onzen Commandant in.

 

Extra oorlam bij de gelegenheid van het bezoek van de Commandant van Sigli

Daarna vertrok hij. Wij lichten daarna het anker en gingen onder stoom naar onze plaats door onze commandant opgegeven. Ik had de wacht en onder stoom zijnde stond ik op de brug. Toen zag ik drie vuurpijlen omhoog gaan boven Sigli, wat ik den Commandant rapporteerde, die mij mededeelde dat deze vuurpijlen geen andere betekenis hadden, dan dat ze gezien waren wat wij nog door het oplaten  van een vuurpijl bevestigden.

De Atjeher van het groot luik zeide te behoren tot de kampong Lko Soekoen van waar Sigli vaak beschoten werd en die wij dan beschoten met granaten. Na aankomst in Tandjong Priok gingen al die militairen en ook de Atjeher  van het grootluik van boord. Enige dagen, misschien een week later, te Tandjong Priok geland zijnde met de bedoeling naar Batavia te gaan zag ik een troepje dwangarbeiders op de gebruikelijke wijze  onder geleide  van een inheemse politieoppasser gekleed in een tenue dat hem het voorkomen geeft van een gekleed aapje. Een dun touw omgeeft zijn gehele troepje. De twee einden zijn aan elkaar geknoopt en dan heeft de politieoppasser het in de hand. Een van de dwangarbeiders steekt een arm  in de hoogte . Ik herken hem, al is zijn lange haar geknipt, den Atjeher aan boord van de Westboot. Ik vraag hen naar het oordeel van het binnenlands bestuur en hij zegt mij dat hij 20 jaar dwangarbeid heeft gekregen. Ik herinner mij dat hij er “soesah tehat”aan toevoegde. Toen kwam het troepje in beweging, ik denk naar de pakketboot die een lange reis zal maken naar een plaats in het oosten van ons eilandenrijk. Er waren vele mensen, een van die mensen scheen mij toe ietwat verbaasd te zijn over mijn spreken met een dwangarbeider.. Het was een ambtenaar van het BB een resident of assistent-resident.

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Voor de expeditie naar de Tamiang rivier van 5-12 november 1893 heeft Hendrik de Booij van de Minister van Marine Jjhr H.W. van der Wijck een oorkonde  gekregen dd 30 november 1894

 

:
Oorkonde voor Hendrik de Booij, Luitenant ter Zee der 2e Klasse, . ( De naam van de Booij wordt nu terecht met een lange ij geschreven). De tekst van deze oorkonde luidt: De Minister van  Marine,  Gezien het Koninklijk Besluit van den 19 Februari 1869 no 13 waarbij een eerteken is ingesteld voor hen, die deelgenomen hebben aan belangrijke krijgsbedrijven, verklaart dat de Luitenant ter Zee der 2e klasse H. de Booij gerechtigd is tot het dragen van het voormeld eereteken met gesp, hebbende hij als Luitenant ter Zee der 2e Klasse deelgenomen aan de expeditie naar de Tamiang-rivier ( Oostkust van Sumatra) 1893.  ‘s-Gravenhage den 30 november 1894. De Minister voornoemd  Van der Wijck

Opmerkelijk genoeg  bestaat er een direct verband tussen mijn twee grootvaders, voordat mijn ouders geboren waren. Wat wil namelijk het geval. Zoals we al hebben kunnen lezen waren zij aan boord van de gewapende sloepen, die een verkenningsexpeditie uitvoerden op de bovenloop van de Rivier Tamiang aan de Oostkust van Atjeh. Zowel mijn grootvader Gooszen als mijn grootvader de Booij krijgen  voor deze krijgsverrichtingen een ereteken van de Minister van Marine. Uit de oorkonde, die daarbij werd vergezeld gaat heeft de zelfde tekst voor beide grootsvaders, uiteraard waren de namen van hen op de oorkonde verschillend. De dagtekening was ook het zelfde: 30 november 1994.  De oorkonde was getekend door  Jhr  H.M. van der Wijck, de Minister van Marine.

 

Oorkonde voor Antonie Frederik Gooszen, Luitenant ter Zee 2e klasse. De tekst van deze oorkonde is identiek aan die van Antonie Frederik Gooszen. Uiteraard verschilt de naam die bij de oorkonde is ingevuld

4. Vierde Atjeh oorlog 1898-1918

De vierde Atjeh oorlog duurde van 1998-1918. Mijn grootvader is reeds, zoals we al gezien hebben in 1895 uit Atjeh vertrokken Hij is in begin 1900 weer naar Indië teruggekeerd. Hier werd hij benoemd als adjudant van de Gouverneur-generaal W. Rooseboom

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Willem Rooseboom ,Gouverneur-generaal 1899-1904. Mevrouw Rooseboom-Pit

Door deze functie was hij indirect op een bepaalde manier betrokken bij deze vierde Atjeh oorlog. Rooseboom was van huis uit een beroepsmilitair.  Bij zijn ontslag uit de militaire dienst in 1899 werd hij bevorderd tot luitenant-generaal. Roosebooms ontslag hing samen met zijn benoeming tot gouverneur-generaal van Nederlandsch-Indië. Men mag aannemen, dat deze benoeming het werk is geweest van de minister van Koloniën J.Th. Cremer, die Rooseboom uit de tijd van diens kamerlidmaatschap goed kende. Dat de keuze op een militair viel – voor het eerst in bijna zestig jaar na het overlijden van gouverneur-generaal D.J. de Eerens in 1840 – was op zichzelf niet zo verwonderlijk. De gebrekkige staat van de Indische defensie baarde bij het opdringen van Japan en het verlies van de Philippijnen door Spanje aan de Verenigde Staten grote zorgen. Rooseboom leek de geschikte man om Indië in een betere staat van tegenweer te brengen bij een onverhoopte aanval van een buitenlandse vijand. In de Indische pers vond Roosebooms benoeming echter geen onverdeeld gunstig onthaal, vanwege zijn onbekendheid met Indië waarvoor hij in het verleden nooit enige belangstelling had getoond. Hij volgde in oktober 1899 de Gouverneur-generaal Jhr C.H.A. van der Wijck op. Hij steunde van Heutsz met volle overtuiging in zijn strijd tegen de Atjehers om het Nederlands gezag te vestigen. Als gouverneur-generaal, heeft Rooseboom niet geheel aan de verwachtingen ten opzichte van de door hem te ondernemen reorganisatie van de Indische defensie beantwoord. Met de minister van Koloniën lag hij dikwijls overhoop. Zo bood Rooseboom in december 1903 zijn ontslag aan, omdat hij door gewapend ingrijpen een einde wilde maken aan de in het rijkje Tabanan op Bali bestaande weduwen verbranding, terwijl minister Idenburg van een dergelijk ingrijpen niet wilde weten.

 

Willem Frederik Idenburg , Minister van Oorlog

Het conflict kon worden bijgelegd doordat de raja van Tabanan zich in het begin van 1904 naar de wensen van de Ned.-Indische regering schikte.(Zoals we later zullen zien, bij de memoires van mijn oom James Marnix de Booy, is het plan van Rooseboom toch uitgevoerd in 1906 toen Bali werd veroverd. Mijn oom heeft als zeeofficier meegedaan met deze verovering). Op 1 oktober 1904 gaf Rooseboom het bestuur over aan zijn opvolger, de pacificator van Atjeh, J.B. van Heutsz.

 

Hendrik de Booij adjudant van de Gouverneur-generaal van Nederlandsch Indië V.r.n.l: H. de Booij, zijn vrouw Hilda, Holle, vrouw van de Gouverneur Generaal Rooseboom-Pit,, Gouverneur-generaal Rooseboom, Regent van Bandoeng, Nederburg, De Lannoy, assistent resident Maurenborcher.

De tuchtiging van de opstandige Atjehers, aan het einde van de derde Atjeh oorlog heeft een onbeschrijfelijke verwoesting aangericht. Groot Atjeh was vrijwel geheel ontvolkt, de bevolking was weggetrokken naar andere gebieden zoals Malakka . Hoe diep de moraal van de troepen was gezonken laat een passage uit het boek van Paul van ‘t Veer over de Atjeh oorlog zien:

pagina 232: “De mate van verwildering wordt treffend geïllustreerd door een trofee die in 1897 op de achtergalerij van het militair hospitaal te Koetaradja was tentoongesteld. Het was een grote stopfles gevuld met alkohol waarin het opgezwollen hoofd dreef van teukoe Nja Makan. ( over deze man verhaalt mijn grootvader in zijn herinneringen). Deze verzetsleider was in juli 1896 ernstig ziek aangetroffen in kampong Lamnga even buiten de linie. Hij werd op een tandoe gelegd en met zijn gezin naar de colonnecommandant overste Soeters gebracht. Die liet hem van de tandoe gooien en ter plaatse doodschieten. In aanwezigheid van Makans vrouwen en kinderen werd zijn hoofd afgehakt. Kolonel Stemfoort liet het als trofee tentoonstellen. Een niet teerhartige ooggetuige schreef: ‘Deze en soortgelijke barbaarsheden hebben de onderwerping en pacificatie van Atjeh niet in de hand gewerkt, tegendeel, zij hebben ons duizenden en duizenden onverzoenlijke vijanden bezorgd.’  (Later kreeg deze Stemfoort de Militaire Willemsorde 3e klasse).

Generaal van Heutsz was de leider van de Pedir expeditie in 1989. Uit Selimoen en Sigli vertrokken twee collones van 75-100 man. Snouck Hurgronje was ook weer van  de partij en had een groot aandeel, samen met van Heutsz, gehad om de voorbereiding van deze expeditie. Hun grootste tegenstander was niet minder dan de Teukoe Oemar, die we al eerder hebben leren kennen.

 

Bivakfoto Pedir expeditie  olv. generaal van Heutsz. Hij zit achter de tafel links op een stoel. De man uiterst links in de witte jas is Snouck Hurgronje

Op 10 februari 1899 viel het leger het kamp van Teukoe Oemar binnen. Hij had er echter lucht van gekregen en trok op tijd weg en viel met zijn mannen de plaats Meulaboh aan. Er waren nog maar weinig mensen op deze post achter gebleven. Maar van Heutsz had toch rond de post een hinderlaag gelegd met in zijn achterhoofd de gedachte : “Je kunt maar nooit weten”. Er ontstond een heftige strijd. De troepen van Oemar raakten in paniek, maar ook de troepen van van Heutsz onder leiding van Verbrugh moesten zich terugtrekken.  De volgende ochtend bleek dat onder de gesneuvelden Teukoe Oemar zelf  en verscheidene van de bekendste panglima’s.

 

Commandant J. J. Verbrugh

De volgende expeditie, die geleid werd door van Heutsz, is in 1901 tegen de bergstelling Batoe Iliq. In 1880 heeft Generaal van der  Heijden tot driemaal tevergeefs  geprobeerd deze vesting te veroveren. Nu lukt het wel met verlies van 5 doden en 27 gewonden en71 doden aan de kant van de Atjehers.

 

Van Heutsz bij de aanval op Batè Ilië op 3 februari 1901. Geheel links staat een afdeling infanterie voor dekking van de staf. Achter Van Heutsz v.l.n.r. kolonel Van Dussen, majoor Doorman, kapitein Spruijt, achter de kapitein luitenant Schutstal van Woudenberg en de controleur (inlandse bestuurder) Frijling

 

Bivak Tripa. De expeditie nam de familie van Panglima Polim in gijzeling en dwong hierdoor Panglima Polim zich over te geven. Colijn omcirkeld.

Door al deze militaire acties werd het verzet van vele feodale hoofden en hun legertjes gebroken. De sultan van Kota Radja en zijn volgelingen waren in 1874 uit hun stad verdreven en gaven zich na een kwart eeuw over op 10 februari 1903. Even later door Panglima Polim, die een grote  rol heeft gespeeld in de guerrilla strijd tegen het Nederlandse gezag.

 

Panglima Polim, de verzetsstrijder die zich in 1903 overgaf aan het Nederlands gezag

Top of Form

Pang Polim, the resistance fighter who in 1903 surrendered to the Dutch authority


The time of Heutsz from 1899 to 1909

were the ten years of all Aceh bloodiest wars.

 

The climax was the expedition of 8 February to 23 July 1904,

 

which was led by captain GCE Van Dalen. His right hand was 2nd Lt. Christopher. He accompanied Daalen of the journey through the Atlas Gajo and areas in the south of Aceh. In the five months in 2092 Acehnese were slain by 26 killing the forces of Van Dalen. Yet there but actually ten days fierce fighting
Again let me van ‘t Veer in his book Aceh war on this expedition From Daalen the word. On page 270 we read:


“The villagers had themselves with shock and stabbing weapons and some old-fashioned muzzle loading rifles entrenched behind earthworks with thorn bushes.

 

They were in no way match for the military police with their modern repeating rifles. The attackers were able to kampong model drawing, got the signal Attacks and stormed the earthworks.

That was always a perilous moment, the only one, and it lasted only briefly. soon as the soldiers on shore stood, they stopped systematically down everything what is behind it was.

Sometimes it took the shooting fifteen minutes or half an hour , sometimes it took a few hours before the village was conquered and the entire population killed. In one case lasted for a quarter past nine in the morning till a quarter past four in the afternoon.

Never give anyone surrendering. Never thought Van Daalen to another tactics than the total eradication. Prisoners he could not make. What had he to them should do Who’d they have to monitor or drains? T

ime for sieges wanted or he could not take. He was in a hurry. He wanted to set examples. His tactic was complete surrender or complete death. It was a massacre unprecedented, of which the photos sixty years later without disqualification can view.

From Daalen was not at all embarrassed about his performance, rather proud of his success, he made lieutenant Neeb after the assaults the piles of corpses photographed, the triumphant military police next.
The right hand of Van Daalen on asset boss still in cruelty. From Daalen wrote in his report that Christopher always first started shooting and finished last and here, Van Daalen hate, that do not shoot, but that Christopher had already started before he, Van Daalen, had given the order.

 

After the command “cease Vuuren ‘shot Christopher with his men still go through .. Also van’ t Veer know some examples of the occurrence of these Lieutenant Christopher to recover:


Page 266:

“The division that Christopher under his command had himself may compose Ambonese, Menadonese and Javanese veterans,

 

was no ordinary trooper. It was the column mat Jan, ‘the tiger column, whose troops as extra-ornament a red scarf wearing. When one of the old brigade commanders on those days speaks, writes Zentgraaff, “he raises his hands defensively briefly, he wants nothing more to say.”

 

An example of Christoffels performance style from another source: He had to put an end to the breakup of the tram, one of the most common acts of resistance. He checked overnight kampong houses along the road.

 

Was the man absent, was at the door a cross drawn with chalk. early the next morning were ticked houses again checked. Could the man in the opinion of Christopher no good explanation for his nightly absence, he was immediately shot dead. ”
Especially these activities he became the most decorated officer of the KN.IL: Military Order of William 3rd and 4th class, Knight Dutch Lion etc.

 

The whole expedition is recorded in the book: The journey of Commander Of Daalen by Gajo, and Alas- and Batak. 8 February to 23 July 1904 by J.C.J. Kempees first Lute of Art. and fungeerend Adjutant of the Colonne Commander. Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer in 1905, 265 pp. 28 photos of J.Neeb (to be purchased for 350 euros at the antiquarian Gemilang)

De tijd van van Heutsz van 1899 tot 1909 waren de tien bloedigste jaren van alle Atjeh oorlogen. Het toppunt was wel  de expeditie van 8 februari  tot 23 juli 1904, die onder leiding stond van overste G.C.E. Van Dalen. Zijn  rechterhand was 2e luitenant Christoffel. Hij vergezelde van Daalen op de tocht door de Gajo en Atlas gebieden in het zuiden van Atjeh. In de vijf maanden werden 2092 Atjehers gedood tegen 26 doden van de troepen van Van Dalen. Toch werd er maar eigenlijk een tiental  dagen heftig gevochten

Ook hier laat ik van ‘t Veer in zijn boek Atjeh oorlog over deze expeditie van Van Daalen aan het woord. Op pagina 270 lezen we:

“De  dorpelingen hadden zich met slag- en steekwapens en wat ouderwetse tromplaadgeweren verschanst achter aarden wallen met doornstruiken. Zij waren in geen enkel opzicht partij voor de marechaussees met hun moderne repeteergeweren. De aanvallers konden zich voor   de kampong model opstellen, kregen het signaal Aanvallen en bestormden de aarden wallen. Dat was altijd een hachelijk moment, het enige, en het duurde slechts kort. Zodra de soldaten op de wal stonden, schoten zij systematisch alles neer wat zich daarachter bevond. Soms duurde de schietpartij een kwartier of een half uur, soms duurde het een paar uur eer de kampong veroverd was en de complete bevolking afgemaakt. In één enkel geval duurde het van kwart over negen’s morgens tot kwart over vier ‘s middags. Nimmer gaf iemand zich over. Nimmer dacht Van Daalen aan een andere tactiek dan de totale uitroeiing. Gevangenen kon hij niet maken. Wat had hij met hen moeten doen? Wie had hen moeten bewaken of afvoeren? Tijd voor belegeringen wilde of kon hij niet nemen. Hij had haast. Hij wilde voorbeelden stellen. Zijn tactiek was complete overgave of complete dood. Het werd een moordpartij zonder weerga, waarvan men de foto’s zestig jaar na dato niet zonder ontzetting kan bekijken. Van Daalen was allerminst beschaamd over zijn optreden, veeleer trots op zijn succes, hij liet luitenant Neeb na afloop van de bestormingen de stapels lijken fotograferen, de triomfantelijke marechaussees ernaast.

De rechterhand van Van Daalen overtroef zijn baas nog in wreedheid. Van Daalen schreef in zijn verslag, dat Christoffel altijd als eerste begon te schieten en als laatste eindigde en hier had Van Daalen een hekel aan, niet aan dat schieten, maar dat Christoffel al begon voordat hij, Van Daalen, het bevel had gegeven. Na het bevel ‘staakt het vuuren’ schoot Christoffel met zijn mannen nog altijd even door..Ook van ‘t Veer weet enkele staaltjes van het optreden van deze luitenant Christoffel te verhalen:

Pagina 266: “De divisie die Christoffel onder zijn commando zelf had mogen samenstellen uit Ambonese, Menadonese en Javaanse veteranen, was dan ook geen gewone marechaussee. Het was ‘de colonne mat jan,’ de tijgercolonne, waarvan de manschappen als extra-ornament een rode halsdoek droegen. Als men een van de oude brigadecommandanten over die dagen spreekt, schrijft Zentgraaff, ‘heft hij afwerend de handen even op; hij wil er niets meer van zeggen.’ Een voorbeeld van Christoffels manier van optreden uit andere bron: Hij moest een eind maken aan het opbreken van de trambaan, een der meest voorkomende verzetsdaden. Hij controleerde ‘s nachts de kamponghuizen langs de baan. Was de man afwezig, dan werd op de deur met krijt een kruis getekend. De volgende ochtend vroeg werden de aangekruiste huizen weer nagelopen. Kon de man naar het oordeel van Christoffel geen goede verklaring geven van zijn nachtelijke afwezigheid, dan werd hij meteen doodgeschoten”.

Vooral deze activiteiten werd hij de meest gedecoreerde officier van het KN.I.L.: Militaire Willemsorde 3e en 4e klasse, Ridder Nederlandse Leeuw etc. De hele expeditie is vastgelegd in het boek: De tocht van Overste Van Daalen door de Gajo-, en Alas- en Bataklanden. 8 februari tot 23 Juli 1904 door J.C.J. Kempees 1e Luit der Art. en fungeerend Adjudant van de Colonne Commandant. Uitgegeven te Amsterdam door J.C. Dalmeijer in  1905, 265 pp 28 foto’s van J.Neeb (aan te schaffen voor 350 euro’s bij het antiquariaat Gemilang)

.

 

Links: Overste Van Daalen. Rechts: zijn rechterhand Luitenant Christoffel

Left: Commander Of Daalen. Right: his right Lieutenant Christopher

 

De kampong Koeto Reh in de Alas landen in Atjeh op 11 juni 1904 veroverd door een marechaussee colonne onder commando van overste Van Daalen. Geheel links staande: overste Van Daalen. Foto genomen door J. Neeb

The kampong Koeto Reh in Alas countries in Aceh on 11 June 1904 conquered by a military police convoy under the command of captain Van Daalen. Far left standing: Commander Of Daalen. Photo taken by J. Neeb

 

Massagraf in de kampong Koeto Reh

Mass Grave in the kampong Koeto Reh

 

 

 

1892 (16 March).

2c / 3c stat card used from Indonesia. Atjeh – Netherlands. Via Penang (20 March). + arrival on front. Fine + scarce.[ 536460]

Bid Info: Price: $ 650.00

 

Breast Badge, silver (Dutch hallmarked, sword), named on reverse to “3t. B. / F. Lammel / E.F. / te / Atjeh”, with original suspension ring and ribbon with 30 bars (BALI1846, BALI1848, BALI1849, BORNEO18501854, BONI1859, BORNEO18591863, GUINEA18691870, DELI 1872, ATJEH 18731874, ATJEH 18731876, ATJEH 18731880, SAMALANGAN 1877, ATJEH 18961900, DJAMBI 19011904, KORINTJI 1903, GAJO en ALASLANDEN 1904, KLEINE SOENDEN EILANDEN 1905 – 1909, ATJEH 19061910, N.GUINEA 190715, ATJEH 191114, TIMOR 191117, W.AFD.BORNEO 191214, CERAM 1915, W.KUST ATJEH 19251927, ATJEH 18731885, TIMOR 1942, “ZUIDCELEBES” 19051908, ATJEH 19011905, “MIDDENSUMATRA” 19031907, TAMIANG 1893) and halfsized miniature in silver with 2 bars (MIDDENSUMATRA 19031907, 14 SEPT.27OCT. BALI 1906). Superb collector’s presentation in excellent condition, of high rarity! I RR!

La Galerie Numismatique Orders and Medals auction XVII

 

Nederland – Atjeh- of Kraton medaille 1873-1874 (MMW47, Bax51), ingesteld in 1874 – VZ Portret Willem III n.r. / KZ Atjeh binnen lauwer- en eikenkrans – verguld bronzen miniatuur 13,5 mm met blauw lint – PR

 

Nederland – Kruis voor Krijgsverrichtingen (MMW41/42, Bax50) – Vierarmig kruis met medaillon Willem III, met gespen ‘Atjeh 1873-74′ en ’14 Sept. 27 Oct. Bali 1906’ (voor een expeditie van de gesp Kleine Soenda-Eilanden 1905-1909) – Berlin-zilveren miniatu

Munten- en Postzegel Organisatie Numismatic Auction on

Closing: May 23 – May 26, 2012

Bid Info: Price: € 25.00

 

Indonesien; Sultana Atjeh, Tadj Al-Alam 1641-1675, Gold-Coupang
(1/4 Mas) o.J., beiderseits arab. Schrift SELTEN[Mitch. 3083, Millies 138 vz]

 

Mutsuhito. 1867-1912, Ni-Bu Ban Kin o.J. (3,0 g; 223 fein); dazu Indien – Travancore. Fanam o. J. 0,31 g) und Sumatra – Sultanat Atjeh. 1 Mas o. J. (19. Jh; 0,61 g). Fr. 22, 1400, 16. 3 St. G O L D vz

 

1875, Ganzsachenkarte 5 cent lila König Wilhelm III, entwertet mit „VELDPOSTK. ATJEH No.1 10.11.1875” und Punktstempel „66” auf Wertstempel, außerdem Handstempel „SPECIMEN” als portofreie Feldpost nach Batavia, Ankunftstempel „WELTEVREDEN 21.11.1875”, reiner Bedarf. Catalog Price 200,00

 

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1899 (July 24). 12½c. grey postal stationery envelope used to Havre, France; up-rated with 1870-88 12½c. slate grey tied by ´Kotia Radja´ squared circle datestamp in black. Octagonal French Paquebot datestamp ´Ligne N-Paq.Fr.No.8´ on front (Aug 4) and reverse with arrival cds (Aug 30). Scott 10.

 

1893. Kotaradja – local stat env. addressed to Military.[ 529007]

 

 

 

1893. Loembed Nonegko – Krota Pradja. 5c stat with 6 diff cds + transits incl box name town. VF.[ 528982]

 

 

 

 

 

1893

 

 

The KPM ship Reael at Atjeh in 1893

 

 

1894

 

 

Dutch Marine at atjeh in 1894

 

 

Weh Island Atjeh in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kroeng Atjeh of Kotaradja in 1894

 

 

Simeleu island west coast atjeh in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

The Landing devisi at Atjeh by Hr MS Benkoelen in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

1896

 

 

Finally! The solution to the Aceh question in 1896

Eindelijk! De oplossing van het Atjeh-Vraagstuk in 1896

1897

 

 

The caricature Of Deputy Mrs Col Cs at Atjeh  in 1897

 

1898

 

 

DEI KNIL Cavalary at Atjeh in 1898

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1899

 

Pada Januari 1899,

Belanda merasa tertipu dan amat marah sehingga mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menangkap Teuku Umar di Meulaboh. Teuku Umar akhirnya gugur pada tanggal 11 Februari 1899, dan dimakamkan di Desa Mugo, Aceh.

 

Read more

Mijn Nederlands Indie

 

Colijn

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

 


• Colijn
And yes, the later Prime Minister here in this hall of fame should not be missed.

Colijn was adjutant of Van Heutsz and pulled himself out with his men. Colijn was responsible for the capture of the women and children of Panglima Polem. Panglima Polem was thus forced to abandon his opposition.

During his trips he turned but if something horrible had to be executed and then stuck a cigar

Colijn wrote a letter to his wife, asking for: “I have seen a woman with a child of about 1/2 years in the left arm, and a long spear in his right hand on our storming. A bullet killed our mother and child. We could then give no more grace. I have 9 women and 3 children, who asked for mercy, to have put a lot, and so dead drop. It was unpleasant work, but it could not be otherwise. The soldiers rain them with pleasure to their bayonets. It was a terrible job. I will just about finish. ” His wife wrote in the margin: “How awful!”

….. Shocking that Colijn (a second lieutenant in the infantry) one hundred years ago in the tropics could learn a cigar, only to discover that his troops elated twelve or thirteen women and children were slain and …… man who later became Prime Minister and received course something like the Military Order of William.

Our late Prime Minister was later also to pacify been to Lombok, but not in Bali.

Colijn’s great merit was, according to Van Heutsz, writing thick reports, which nobody understood anything and just assumed everything would be as it Colijn suggested because Colijn was “very conscientious” and moreover Reformed. When Van Heutsz and Colijn, after leave in the Netherlands, returned to India, Van Heutsz Colijn on Sunday and Monday. What he has done on Sundays in Aceh, tells the story not


 

  • ·  Colijn

En ja, de latere Minister-President mag hier in deze eregalerij natuurlijk niet ontbreken.

Colijn was adjudant van Van Heutsz en trok er ook zelf op uit met zijn mannen. Colijn was verantwoordelijk voor de gevangenneming van de vrouwen en kinderen van Panglima Polem. Panglima Polem werd zo gedwongen zijn verzet te staken.

Tijdens zijn tochten draaide hij zich maar om als er iets gruwelijks uitgevoerd moest worden en stak daarna een sigaar op

Colijn schreef een brief aan zijn vrouw, waarin o.m. : ‘Ik heb er een vrouw gezien die, met een kind van ongeveer 1/2 jaar op den linkerarm, en een lange lans in de rechterhand op ons aanstormde. Een kogel van ons doodde moeder en kind. We mochten toen geen genade meer geven. Ik heb 9 vrouwen en 3 kinderen, die genade vroegen, op een hoop moeten zetten, en zoo dood laten schieten. Het was onaangenaam werk, maar ‘t kon niet anders. De soldaten regen ze met genot aan hun bajonetten. ‘t Was een verschrikkelijk werk. Ik zal er maar over eindigen.’ Zijn vrouw schreef in de marge: ‘Hoe vreeselijk!!

…..schokkend dat Colijn (een tweede luitenant van de infanterie) honderd jaar geleden in de tropen een sigaar kon opsteken, om vervolgens te ontdekken dat zijn soldaten opgetogen twaalf of dertien vrouwen en kinderen hadden gedood……en die man werd later Minister-President en ontving uiteraard ook zo iets als de Militaire Willemsorde.

Onze latere Minister-President is later ook nog aan het pacificeren geweest op Lombok , maar niet op Bali.

Colijns grote verdienste was, volgens Van Heutsz, het schrijven van dikke rapporten, waar niemand iets van begreep en maar aannam dat het allemaal goed zou zijn, zoals Colijn het voorstelde, want Colijn was ‘zeer plichtsgetrouw’ en bovendien Gereformeerd. Toen Van Heutsz en Colijn, na verlof in Nederland, terug gingen naar Indië vertrok Van Heutsz op zondag en Colijn op maandag. Wat hij zondag’s in Atjeh heeft gedaan, vertelt de geschiedenis niet….

 

 

 

 

Top of Form

All you need to do for a Military Order of William?

The Military Order of William, for courage, Policy and Trouw was never issued to natives.
Natives received a medal for courage and loyalty, they were deemed not to enter Policy.

Colijn had the following awards:
• Knight fourth class Military William Order, August 1895, whatever it may be ……
• Endowed with the honorary saber participants for their bravery, 1900, whatever it may be ……
• Knight third class Military William Order, 1902, notes: by promoting
• Knight Order of the Dutch Lion, 1905
• Grand Cross Order of the Dutch Lion, December 23 1,936

Let us once again just browse on the internet and in my books: through this link and this book I have compiled a chronological summary of Colijns career course with emphasis on its activities and serving the Dutch East Indies, and of course with comments and photos:

Of course it is my choice to only certain aspects of Colijns career stories …………..
– Was in his youth also Driekus and Hein called
and pseudonyms and aliases
– Dixie, notes: pseudonym in the Dutch East Indies
birth place and date
– Burgerveen (N. H.), note: avg. Haarlemmermeer, June 22, 1869
death date and place
– Ilmenau (Dld.), Sept. 18. 1944, notes: heart attack
– Dutch East Indies, from 25 October 1893 to October 1,909
– London, circa 1920-1922
relevant foreign travel
– Journey through Siberia to China and the Dutch East Indies, from sept. 1913 to 23 feb. 1,914
philosophy
– Chr. separated church
– Reformed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

military career


– Training in the instruction battalion in Kampen, 24 Febr. 1886-1890
– Corporal third regiment of infantry in Bergen op Zoom, from November 1886-1888
– Sergeant third regiment of infantry in Bergen op Zoom, from 1888 to 1890
– Main course instruction battalion camps from 1890 to August 1892
officer ranks
– Second lieutenant of infantry, of 15 December 1892-1896
– First lieutenant of infantry, from 1896 to August 20, 1901
– Captain of Infantry, from 21 aug. 1901-1907
– Major of infantry titular, 1907
career
– Auxiliary teacher (volunteer) to New Vennep, from 1 October 1884 to Febr. 1,886
– Second lieutenant of infantry KNIL, of 15 December 1892-1896
– First lieutenant of infantry KNIL, from 1896 to June 1897
– Military commander and civil governor to Pulu Weh (Aceh, DEI), from June 1897 to November 1,897
– Military commander and civil governor to Lamb Djamoe (Aceh, DEI), from November 1897 to November 1,898
– Civil governor departments Indrapoeri and Selimoen (Aceh, DEI), from November 1898 to May 1899
– Officer-civil governor of Tapa Tuan (Aceh, DEI), from May 1899 to Sept. 1,901
– From Heutsz adjutant Governor of Aceh, on Sept. 4. 1901-1904
– Adjutant Governor-General Van Heutz from 1904-1907
– Advisor for administrative affairs of foreign possessions, from October 1904 to October 1,909
– Member of the House of Representatives, for constituency Sneek, from November 9 1909 tot January 4 1,911
– Minister of War, of January 4 1911 tot 29 August 1913
– Minister of Marine ad interim, of 14 May 1912 tot 29 August 1913
– Director Batavian Petroleum Company, of 9 May. 1914 tot April 1 1,922
etc etc
– Minister of Colonies ad interim, of 4 aug. 1925-26 Sept. 1,925
– Minister of Colonies of 26 May 1933 tot 24 June 1937
other positions
– Military correspondent and employee ‘The Standard’, circa 1904-1909
– Director Netherlands Indies Land Syndicate, from June 1910 to January 1,911
– Vice-Chairman State Committee for the defense of the Netherlands East Indies

from May 1912 to June 1913


– Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, 1926

 

 

 


– His father was a farmer in Haarlemmermeer
– In 1894 compagnies commander in Lombok
– In 1902 temporary commander and lieutenant governor to Lhok Seumane (east coast of Aceh)
– In 1904, charged with safeguarding the passage at the northern tip of Sumatra
– From 1904 responsible for overseeing the heads of the Gajo and Alaslanden
– In 1906 functions in Sumatra and New Guinea
– Voerde in 1924 a tax on bicycles
– Has passed in 1931 for the post of Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
– Personification of the bezuiningspolitiek (“Adaptation”) of the Thirties
– Wild on May 13, 1940 the Dutch people speak over the radio, but he was banned by General Winkelman
publications
– “Rock and the Free University” (1905)
– “Der Fathers inheritance” (1922)
– “For the preservation of property” (1925)
– “Colonial issues of today and tomorrow” (1928)
– “The Father Ghetrouwe Lands” (1933)
– “General Van Heutz: Créateur the Valeurs” (1935)
– “Dispereert not … Commemorative speech about JP Coen” (1937)
Well, then I have certainly a much larger portion omitted

 

Wat moet je allemaal doen voor een Militaire Willemsorde ?


De Militaire Willemsorde, voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw werd nooit uitgereikt aan inlanders.
Inlanders kregen een medaille voor Moed en Trouw, zij werden geacht geen Beleid te voeren.

Colijn had de volgende onderscheidingen :

  • ·  Ridder vierde klasse Militaire Willems Orde, aug. 1895, wat het ook zijn mag……
  • ·  Begiftigd met de ere-sabel voor betoonde dapperheid, 1900, wat het ook zijn mag……
  • ·  Ridder derde klasse Militaire Willems Orde, 1902, toelichting: bij bevordering
  • ·  Ridder Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, 1905
  • ·  Grootkruis Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, 23 dec. 1936

    Laten we maar weer eens even neuzen op het internet en in mijn boeken : via deze link en dit boek heb ik een chronologische samenvatting samengesteld van Colijns carriere met natuurlijk de nadruk op zijn bezigheden in en t.b.v. Nederlands-Indië en dat natuurlijk voorzien van commentaar en foto’s :

    Uiteraard is het mijn keuze om alleen over bepaalde aspekten uit Colijns loopbaan te verhalen…………..

Werd in zijn jeugd ook wel Driekus en Hein genoemd

pseudoniemen en bij- en schuilnamen

Dixie, toelichting: pseudoniem in Ned.-Indië

geboorteplaats en -datum

Burgerveen (N.H.), toelichting: gem. Haarlemmermeer, 22 juni 1869

overlijdensplaats en -datum

Ilmenau (Dld.), 18 sept. 1944, toelichting: hartaanval

 

Ned.-Indië, van 25 okt. 1893 tot okt. 1909

 

Londen, omstreeks 1920 tot 1922

relevante buitenlandse reizen

reis via Siberië naar China en Ned.-Indië, van sept. 1913 tot 23 febr. 1914

levensbeschouwing

Chr. afgescheiden kerk

 

Gereformeerd

militaire carriere

opleiding bij het instructiebataljon te Kampen, van 24 febr. 1886 tot 1890

 

korporaal derde regiment der infanterie te Bergen op Zoom, van nov. 1886 tot 1888

 

sergeant derde regiment der infanterie te Bergen op Zoom, van 1888 tot 1890

 

hoofdcursus instructiebataljon te Kampen, van 1890 tot aug. 1892

officiersrangen

tweede luitenant der infanterie, van 15 dec. 1892 tot 1896

 

eerste luitenant der infanterie, van 1896 tot 20 aug. 1901

 

kapitein der infanterie, van 21 aug. 1901 tot 1907

 

majoor der infanterie titulair, 1907

loopbaan

hulp-onderwijzer (volontair) te Nieuw-Vennep, van 1 okt. 1884 tot febr. 1886

 

tweede luitenant der infanterie K.N.I.L., van 15 dec. 1892 tot 1896

 

eerste luitenant der infanterie K.N.I.L., van 1896 tot juni 1897

 

militair commandant en burgerlijk gezaghebber te Poeloe Weh (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van juni 1897 tot nov. 1897

 

militair commandant en burgerlijk gezaghebber te Lam Djamoe (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van nov. 1897 tot nov. 1898

 

civiel gezaghebber afdelingen Indrapoeri en Selimoen (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van nov. 1898 tot mei 1899

 

officier-civiel gezaghebber van Tapa Toean (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van mei 1899 tot sept. 1901

 

adjudant Gouverneur Van Heutsz van Atjeh, van 4 sept. 1901 tot 1904

 

adjudant Gouverneur-Generaal Van Heutz, van 1904 tot 1907

 

adviseur voor bestuurszaken der buiten-bezittingen, van okt. 1904 tot okt. 1909

 

lid Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, voor kiesdistrict Sneek, van 9 nov. 1909 tot 4 jan. 1911

 

minister van Oorlog, van 4 jan. 1911 tot 29 aug. 1913

 

minister van Marine ad interim, van 14 mei 1912 tot 29 aug. 1913

 

directeur Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, van 9 mrt. 1914 tot 1 apr. 1922

enz enz

minister van Koloniën ad interim, van 4 aug. 1925 tot 26 sept. 1925

 

minister van Koloniën van 26 mei 1933 tot 24 juni 1937

nevenfuncties

correspondent en militair medewerker “De Standaard”, omstreeks 1904 tot 1909

 

directeur Nederlandsch-Indisch Land Syndicaat, van juni 1910 tot jan. 1911

 

ondervoorzitter Staatscommissie inzake de verdediging van Nederlandsch-Indisch van mei 1912 tot juni 1913

 

Gouverneur-Generaal van Ned.-Indië, 1926

 

Zijn vader was boer in de Haarlemmermeer

 

In 1894 compagnies-commandant te Lombok

 

In 1902 tijdelijk commandant en gezaghebber te Lhok Seumane (oostkust Atjeh)

 

In 1904 belast met het vrijwaren van de doorvaart bij de noordpunt van Sumatra

 

Vanaf 1904 belast met het toezicht op de hoofden van de Gajo- en Alaslanden

 

In 1906 functies op Sumatra en Nieuw-Guinea

 

Voerde in 1924 een belasting op rijwielen in

 

Werd in 1931 gepasseerd voor de functie van Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie

 

Verpersoonlijking van de bezuiningspolitiek (“Aanpassing”) van de jaren dertig

 

Wilde op 13 mei 1940 het Nederlandse volk via de radio toespreken, maar dit werd hem door generaal Winkelman verboden

publicaties

“Indie en de Vrije Universiteit” (1905)

 

“Der Vaderen erfdeel” (1922)

 

“Om de bewaring van het pand” (1925)

 

“Koloniale vraagstukken van heden en morgen” (1928)

 

“Het Vaderlandt Ghetrouwe” (1933)

 

“Generaal Van Heutz: Createur de Valeurs” (1935)

 

“Dispereert niet…Herdenkingsrede over J.P. Coen” (1937)

Nou, en dan heb ik nog zeker een veel groter deel weggelaten…………….

 

Colijn op Lombok

Top of Form

Colijn on Lombok

As a young lieutenant in 1893 by the Chief Kampen Course delivered Colijn went to the Dutch East Indies. It was in the days when there really was fought, and dangerous expeditions deep into the interior, took place.
In November 1894 he was called to take part in the famous Lombok expedition. On the 18th of that month, at the storming of Tjakra Negara, he underwent the baptism of fire. His military abilities were recognized with the Knight’s Cross 4th class of the Military Order of William, since his department of the Northern troops was first penetrated the Puri of the prince, as the division of Lieutenant Van der Heyden the Confederates *


In 1895,

he, at his request, transferred to Aceh, part in the military operations in that region. In the same year a serious illness forced him to return to Java. But after recovery thereof he left with due speed back to Aceh and distinguished himself exceedingly in the military operations against Toekoe Umar.
Get Mates of Colijn from those days have stated that he was a brilliant soldier, fearless, cool-headed, tenacious, tireless, definitely, humane towards the vanquished and subjected native and good for his soldiers.
Once he saw a wounded soldier in the wilderness half dead. He did not, like the priest and the Levite, opposite him over, but as the good Samaritan came to him and bandaged his wounds, and bore him two hours far Representing the closest camp to nursing.

 

In 1925

he that old comrade again met.
On one of his posts he spread among his men “the good news”. And then they were taking more times a piece of cheese from him. A sergeant, who also have a piece of cheese pleased, pretending …. and asked him seemingly heilbegeerig to “the good news”. Colijn had by him immediately and said: A “glad tidings” you can get, but you get no piece of cheese.

Als jong luitenantje in 1893 door den Hoofdcursus te Kampen afgeleverd, ging Colijn naar Nederlandsch-Indie. ‘t Was in de dagen, dat er nog werkelijk gevochten werd, en gevaarlijke expedities, diep de binnenlanden in, plaats hadden.
In November 1894 werd hij geroepen deel te nemen aan de bekende
Lombok-expeditie. Op den 18den van die maand, bij de bestorming van TJakra Negara, onderging hij den vuurdoop. Zijn militaire bekwaamheden werden toen erkend met het ridderkruis 4e klasse van de Militaire Willemsorde, omdat zijn afdeeling van de Noordelijke troepen het eerst was doorgedrongen in de poeri van den vorst, gelijk de afdeeling van luitenant Van der Heyden bij de Zuidelijken*
In 1895 nam hij, op zijn verzoek overgeplaatst naar
Atjeh, deel aan de kriJgsverrichtingen in dat gewest. In datzelfde jaar noopte een ernstige ziekte hem naar Java terug te keeren. Maar na herstel daarvan vertrok hij met bekwamen spoed weer naar AtJeh en onderscheidde zich buitengewoon in de kriJgsverrichtingen tegen Toekoe Oemar.
Krijgsmakkers van Colijn uit die dagen hebben verklaard, dat hij een schitterend soldaat was, onverschrokken, koelbloedig, vasthoudend, onvermoeid, beslist, humaan tegenover den overwonnen en
onderworpen inlander en goed voor zijn soldaten.
Eens zag hij een gewonden soldaat in de wildernis halfdood liggen. Hij ging niet, gelijk de priester en de leviet, tegenover hem voorbij, maar kwam als de barmhartige
Samaritaan tot hem, verbond zijn wonden, en droeg hem 2 uur ver naar het naastbij gelegen bivak ter verpleging. In 1925 heeft hij dien ouden strijdmakker nog eens ontmoet.
Op een zijner posten verspreidde hij onder zijn manschappen “
de blijde boodschap“. En dan kregen ze daarbij meermalen een stukje kaas van hem. Een sergeant, die ook wel een stukje kaas lustte, deed alsof…. en vroeg hem schijnbaar heilbegeerig om een “de blijde boodschap“. Colijn had hem aanstonds door en zei : Een “de blijde boodschap” kan je krijgen, maar je krijgt geen stukje kaas.

 

Een nog zeer jonge Colijn is te zien op deze foto gemaakt in het bivak Tripa op Atjeh:

A very young Colijn is seen in this photo taken at the bivouac Tripa in Aceh

 

Colijn was the man who “a decisive blow inflicted on the Acehnese resistance”, in current Dutch: Colijn took the family of Panglima Polem hostage and forced this Panglima Polem to surrender. Today we this reprehensible method that absolutely no longer be tolerated by the UN tribunal in The Hague ………

What quotes from my Tjoetnjadin page about the Aceh National Heroes during the Dutch war of aggression against Aceh:

Now all the forces were concentrated on arresting Polem.
On the 24th January 1903 overtook the Lieutenant Christopher shelter of the great resistance leader, with books, letters and preciosa fell into our hands. Polem escaped narrowly.
On the night of 21 to 22 May of the same year were Major Van der Maaten, Polem’s mother, his wives, Potjoet Boeleuën and some relatives in our hands.
In June d.a.v. Colijn captain knew the hands on Polem’s first wife, Tengkoe Ra’ana.
Thereafter him some heavy losses inflicted so he finally the 6th of September 1903 the head in the lap and put himself, his intention already expressed before the execution, with 150 followers Lho * Seumawe came register


Colijn was de man die “
een beslissende slag toebracht aan het Atjehse verzet“, in huidig Nederlands: Colijn nam de familie van Panglima Polem in gijzeling en dwong hierdoor Panglima Polem zich over te geven. Tegenwoordig zouden we dit een afkeuringswaardige methode vinden die absoluut niet meer getolereerd zou worden volgens het VN tribunaal in Scheveningen………

Wat citaten uit mijn Tjoetnjadin pagina over de Atjehse Nationale Helden tijdens de Nederlandse agressie oorlog tegen Atjeh:

Nu werden alle krachten geconcentreerd op het arresteeren van Polem.
Den 24sten Januari 1903 overviel de Onderluitenant
Christoffel een schuilplaats van den grooten verzetsleider, waarbij boeken, brieven en preciosa in onze handen vielen. Polem ontkwam op het nippertje.
In den nacht van 21 op 22 Mei van hetzelfde jaar vielen Majoor Van der Maaten, Polem’s moeder, een zijner vrouwen, Potjoet Boeleuën en eenige familieleden in onze handen.
In Juni d.a.v. wist kapitein Colijn de hand te leggen op Polem’s eerste echtgenoote, Tengkoe Ra’ana.
Daarna werden hem nog eenige zware verliezen toegebrachte zoodat hij eindelijk den 6den September 1903 het hoofd in de schoot legde en zich, aan zijn reeds te voren geuit voornemen gevolg gevend, met 150 volgelingen te Lho* Seumawé kwam melden.

 

Panglima Polem zit links van Colijn

Panglima Polem is left of Colijn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

:

 

Another picture of the house: the surrender of Panglima Polem to Colijn:

Nog een foto voor het huis : de overgave van Panglima Polem aan Colijn

Top of Form

The second officer from the right is the future Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Colijn

According to many Colijn looks like he daily surrendering Panglima Polems receives, he seems to do nothing ….

The significance of the surrender of Panglima Polem was stretching knew nature. By submission of this sagihoofd was the Aceh War actually decided. Numerous gang heads came in the following months reporting and many refugees, whose number is estimated at 2000, returned to their villages.

From Panglima Polem can be testified that his word of allegiance to the Dutch Government in the most loyal manner has kept its obligations to the Geumpenie always as a man of honor is fulfilled.

 

The powerful political leader of yesteryear now sits quietly to the XXII Moekims, where he Geumpenie as a key driver has served.

Ais orthodox Muslim, he scrupulously the law and the commandments. In the whole population of Aceh, he enjoys a certain reverence, not only “for the sake of old memories”, but also to his righteous way of life.
We saw how an old and reputable for its stiffness Atjehsch head was bowed humbly on his hand.
Panglima Polem makes a boy and vieven impression. That old Aceh Serbian head said to us: “Panglima Polem is older than I am, but he will always remain young to see, because he’s a saint.”
It is unfortunate that the condition of his eyes is very bad and he gradually approaching blindness.

His knowledge of the area is huge! We heard how a young officer told him a record-patrol of five days in the Pedirsche. It was as if the shadow of a smile on Polem’s face slipped and behind his thick glasses with eyes flashing he said: You had previously trek in three days to make, when the bed of such and such aloer (brook) was followed. ”

Teukoe Panglima Polem Sri Moeda Perkasa Mohamad Daud was endowed in 1928 in the Knight’s Cross of Orange-Nassau-order. In 1929 he received from His Excellency, the Governor-General, a precious golden betel leaf as a gift and in 1932 he was the satisfaction of the Government expressed for the way he has also worked on the return to their homes in the February of that year OeIeë-Gle (Samalanga) pulled people. ‘

The second officer from the right is the future Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Colijn

Original info

Volgens velen kijkt Colijn net alsof hij dagelijks zich overgevende Panglima Polems ontvangt, het lijkt hem niets te doen….


De beteekenis van de overgave van Panglima Polem was van vérstrekkenden aard. Door de onderwerping van dit sagihoofd was de Atjehoorlog eigenlijk beslist. Tal van bendehoofden kwamen zich in de volgende maanden melden en vele uitgewekenen, welker getal wel op 2000 wordt geschat, keerden naar hun dorpen terug.

Van Panglima Polem kan worden getuigd, dat hij zijn woord van trouw aan het Nederlandsche Gouvernement op de meest loyale wijze heeft gehouden en zijn verplichtingen tegenover de Geumpenie steeds als man van eer is nagekomen. De machtige politieke aanvoerder van weleer zetelt thans rustig m de XXII Moekims, waar hij de Geumpenie als bestuurder zeer belangrijke diensten heeft bewezen.

Ais orthodox islamiet houdt hij nauwgezet de wet en de geboden. Bij de bevolking van geheel Atjeh geniet hij een zekere vereering, niet alleen “for the sake of old memories”, maar ook om zijn rechtschapen levenswandel.
Wij zagen eens hoe een oud en om zijn stugheid bekend staand Atjehsch hoofd zich ootmoedig over zijn hand boog.
Panglima Polem maakt nog een jongen en vieven indruk. Dat oude Atjehsche hoofd verklaarde ons : “Panglima Polem is ouder dan ik ben, maar hij zal er altijd jong uit blijven zien, want hij is een heilige”.
Het is jammer, dat de toestand zijner oogen zeer slecht is en hij langzamerhand de blindheid nadert.

Zijn terreinkennis is enorm! Wij hoorden hoe een jong officier hem vertelde van een record-patrouille van vijf dagen in het Pedirsche. Het was of de schaduw van een glimlach over Polem’s gelaat gleed en achter zijn dikke brilleglazen met de oogen knipperend sprak hij: U had dien tocht in drie dagen kunnen maken, wanneer u de bedding van die en die aloer (beek) had gevolgd.”

Teukoe Panglima Polem Sri Moeda Perkasa Mohamad Daoed werd in 1928 begiftigd met het ridderkruis der Oranje-Nassau-orde. In 1929 ontving hij van Zijne Excellentie, den Gouverneur-Generaal, een kostbaar gouden sirih-blad ten geschenke en in 1932 werd hem de tevredenheid der Regeering betuigd voor de wijze, waarop hij heeft medegewerkt aan den terugkeer naar hun woonplaatsen van de in Februari van dat jaar uit OeIéë-Glé (Samalanga) weggetrokken lieden. ‘

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

1900

 

Perang terhadap pendudukan Belanda terus berkobar seakan tidak pernah berhenti. Cut Nyak Meutia bersama suaminya Teuku Cik Tunon langsung memimpin perang di daerah Pasai. Perang yang berlangsung sekitar tahun 1900-an itu telah banyak memakan korban baik dari pihak pejuang kemerdekaan maupun dari pihak Belanda.

Pasukan Belanda yang mempunyai persenjataan lebih lengkap memaksa pasukan pejuang kemerdekaan yang dipimpin pasangan suami istri itu melakukan taktik perang gerilya. Berkali-kali pasukan mereka berhasil mencegat patroli pasukan Belanda. Di lain waktu, mereka juga pernah menyerang langsung ke markas pasukan Belanda di Idie.

Sudah banyak kerugian pemerintahan Belanda baik berupa pasukan yang tewas maupun materi diakibatkan perlawanan pasukan Cut Nyak Meutia. Karenanya, melalui pihak keluarga Meutia sendiri, Belanda selalu berusaha membujuknya agar menyerahkan diri. Namun Cut Nyak Meutia tidak pernah tunduk terhadap bujukan yang terkesan memaksa tersebut.

Bersama suaminya, tanpa kenal takut dia terus melakukan perlawanan. Namun naas bagi Teuku Cik Tunong, suaminya. Suatu hari di bulan Mei tahun 1905, Teuku Cik Tunong berhasil ditangkap pasukan Belanda. Ia kemudian dijatuhi hukuman tembak.

Berselang beberapa lama setelah kematian suaminya, Cut Nyak Meutia menikah lagi dengan Pang Nangru, pria yang ditunjuk dan dipesan suami pertamanya sebelum menjalani hukuman tembak. Pang Nangru adalah teman akrab dan kepercayaan suami pertamanya, Teuku Cik Tunong. Bersama suami keduanya itu, Cut Nyak Meutia terus melanjutkan perjuangan melawan pendudukan Belanda.

Di lain pihak, pengepungan pasukan Belanda pun semakin hari semakin mengetat yang mengakibatkan basis pertahanan mereka semakin menyempit. Pasukan Cut Meutia semakin tertekan mundur, masuk lebih jauh ke pedalaman rimba Pasai.

Di samping itu, mereka pun terpaksa berpindah-pindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lain untuk menyiasati pencari jejak pasukan Belanda. Namun pada satu pertempuran di Paya Cicem pada bulan September tahun 1910, Pang Nangru juga tewas di tangan pasukan Belanda. Sementara Cut Nyak Meutia sendiri masih dapat meloloskan diri.

Kematian Pang Nangru membuat beberapa orang teman Pang Nangru akhirnya menyerahkan diri. Sedangkan Meutia walaupun dibujuk untuk menyerah namun tetap tidak bersedia. Di pedalaman rimba Pasai, dia hidup berpindah-pindah bersama anaknya, Raja Sabil, yang masih berumur sebelas tahun untuk menghindari pengejaran pasukan Belanda.

 

 

 

 

1900

 

 

Atjeh arm bracelets  collections in 1900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Atjeh Jewellary collections in 1900

 

 

The Atjeh beatlle nut (kapur sirih) collections in 1900

 

 

Kain Tenun Sarong plakat(doek) of atjeh in 1900

 

 

Young atjeh women in 1900

 

 

 

 

Two pictures of  KNIL ceremony during Queen day  at Blangkajeren Atjeh in 1900

1901

But back to Colijn:

In 1901,

Colijn adjutant From Heutsz, this was not without a struggle. From Heutsz had originally objected to Colijn: “From Colijn I know only that he prayed, but not that he can fight. Fighters And I need”
When Van Heutsz more information about Colijn had received was: “Now I see that you work with prayer unites, I can use”
Colijn to 1909 From Heutsz faithfully served. Colijn on its part had yet some drawbacks: dancing and cards did not Colijn and Van Heutsz well, especially during the tour (a euphemism for a military expedition)
Of these objections Heutsz waved away immediately and spoke the famous words: “It was not my intention to encourage you in choosing to wear due skill in dancing or card game”

One of the tasks of Colijn was the “political reorganization of the outer possessions” or the final establishment of the Dutch authority in areas where until that time actually rare Dutch came.

The country was first “pacified” (by Christopher to) and then the board “reorganized” by Colijn.

But back to Colijn :

In 1901 Colijn aide Heutsz was this was not without a struggle . Heutsz had initially objected to Colijn : ” From Colijn I just know that he is praying , but he can also fight and fighters I need . ”
When Heutsz more information about Colijn had received was : ” Now I see that you work with the prayer unites , I can use ”
Colijn has served faithfully until 1909 Heutsz . Colijn had his hand still some drawbacks : dancing and cards Colijn and did not Heutsz well, especially during the tour ( a euphemism for a military draft)
Heutsz these concerns waved away immediately and spoke the famous words : ” It was not my intention to encourage you to choose to wear because of skill in dancing or card game ”

One of the tasks of Colijn was the ” political reorganization of the outer possessions ” or the final establishment of Dutch authority in areas where at that time is actually rare Dutch arrived .

The land was first ” pacified ” (due to Christopher ) and then the board was ” reorganized” by Colijn .
Source
http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

1903

Sultan M. Dawud akhirnya meyerahkan diri kepada Belanda pada tahun 1903 setelah dua istrinya, anak serta ibundanya terlebih dahulu ditangkap oleh Belanda. Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh seluruhnya pada tahun 1904. Saat itu, hampir seluruh Aceh telah direbut Belanda.

Sultan Aceh

Sultan Aceh merupakan penguasa / raja dari Kesultanan Aceh, tidak hanya sultan, di Aceh juga terdapat Sultanah / Sultan Wanita. Daftar Sultan yang pernah berkuasa di Aceh dapat dilihat lebih jauh di artikel utama dari Sultan Aceh.

Tradisi kesultanan

Gelar-Gelar yang Digunakan dalam Kerajaan Aceh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1905


Tjoet Nja Dhien and Pang Laot after her capture.
Tjoet Nja Dhien continued guerilla warfare in West Aceh area, assited by Pang Laot. Years of living in the jungle caused her to go blind and she also suffered rheumatism, yet she refused to surrender.

 

 

 

On 16 October 1905,
Just let Pang, unable to let Tjoet Nha Dhien Suffered anymore, led a Dutch Marechausse squad under Lieutenant Van Vuuren to her hideout. She was arrested and exiled to West Java, where she died in 1908.

1903

After 30 years of endless warfare without prospect of recovery, Acehnese guerrilla leaders started to surrender.
On 5 January 1903,
Sultan Mohammad Daoud, now 33 years old, surrendered in Sigli after living in the jungle for 30 years!


Sultan Mohammad Daoed swore oath of loyalty to the portrait of Queen Wilhelmina in Atjeh governor’s office on February 1903.


Sultan Mohammad Daoed on January 1903 after his surrender in Sigli, Pidie. He abdicate from the throne, and acknowledged the suzerainity of Queen Wilhelmina over his former sultanate of Atjeh. He spend his days under Dutch house-arrest in Koetaradja and died there in 1928.


Panglima Polim Sri Moeda Perkasa Shah (centre), who had fought the Dutch in Koetaradja since 1873 and was a guerilla leader in Lhokseumawe area, surrendered to the Dutch Kapitein Hendricus Colijn (third from right) in Lhokseumawe in 6 September 1903, together with 150 of his men.

 

 

 

 

1906

 

 

Aceh Peace or The People magazine cover in 1906

Vrede Atjeh of  Het Volk magazine cover  in 1906

 

Christopher with the long stick, on tour, as it was called

Christoffel met de lange stok, op excursie, zoals dat toen genoemd werd

In 1907,

this was described as follows:

“No war, but termination of any war, no correction of foreign tribes, but the submission to a regular state of all, under the Dutch flag standing peoples of the archipelago, in the public interest, which is the goal”

You just raises, the country is now under Dutch rule, because there’s ever been a Dutchman, and so we have the moral sovereignty of this country, because we are much more developed. Then go to those nations with violence explain why they now stand among civilized Dutch rule …….. and it is in their own interest!

Colijn with family for his house with nameplate in Buitenzorg

 

 

 

In 1907 it was described as follows:

“No war, but termination of any war, no correction of foreign tribes, but the submission to a controlled state of all, under the Dutch flag standing peoples of the archipelago, in the public interest, which is the goal”

You just call, the country is now under Dutch rule, as there has ever ever been a Dutchman, and so we have the moral sovereignty over this country, because after all, we are much more developed. Then go to the nations by force to explain why they are …….. among civilized Dutch government now and in their own interest!

Colijn with family to his home with nameplate in Buitenzorg:
Source
http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

1908

 

 

The Atjeg women asking Young man to dance 8in 1908

1908

 

The group of Whatley after the conquest of the kampong Koeto Reh. Behind boulder chief Whatley. Photo J. Neeb


The group of Whatley after the conquest of the kampong Koeto Reh. Behind boulder captain Whatley. Photo J. Neeb


In mid 1908,

 Whatley succeeded by the then Lieutenant-Colonel HNA Swart. From 1910 Whatley was appointed commander of the army in the Dutch East Indies. From Whatley left the military service in 1914.
Whatley was followed in mid 1908 by the then Lieutenant Colonel HNA Swart. Whatley was in 1910 was appointed commander of the army in the Dutch East Indies. Whatley left military service in 1914.

 

 

 

1908

 

Luitenant-kolonel H.N.A. Swart, ‘pacificator’ van Atjeh

LieutenantColonel H.N.A. Swart, “pacifier” of Aceh
From 1908-1918 Swart acted as governor of Aceh. His pacification of Aceh involves many bloody battles. In the Gayo highlands were still under Dutch estimates 5-6000 Acehnese, who were willing to fight to the death they were animated by the Teungku Di Tiro, the sons and grandsons of Teungku Tjèh Thaman di Tiro. (About this resistance fighter I have already written) .. The trooper pulled the rough highlands and gave chase. Exhausted by the constant raids saw some opposition leaders Atjeese no alternative but to surrender. Lieutenant H. J. Schmidt was commissioned in 1909 to devote themselves entirely to disable the last Teungku Di Tiro, located in the mountains near Tangse had entrenched.

Van 1908 tot 1918 trad Swart op als gouverneur van Atjeh. Zijn pacificatie van Atjeh gaat gepaard met vele bloedige veldslagen. In de Gajo-hooglanden waren volgens Nederlandse schattingen nog vijf tot zesduizend Atjehers, die bereid waren  zich dood te vechten Ze werden bezield door de Teungkoe Di Tiro, de zonen en de kleinzonen van Teungkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tiro. (Over deze verzetstrijder heb ik al eerder geschreven).. De marechaussee trok de ruwe hooglanden in en zette de achtervolging in. Uitgeput door de voortdurende klopjachten zagen sommige Atjeese verzetsleiders geen andere uitweg dan zich over te geven.  Luitenant H.J. Schmidt kreeg in 1909 de opdracht zich geheel te wijden aan het uitschakelen van de laatste Teungkoe Di Tiro, die zich in de bergen in de omgeving van Tangsé hadden verschanst.

 

 

1910

However pursuit intensive Dutch troops could make no escape anymore. Uncovered secret hiding place. In a neat and tight siege on October 24, 1910, Tjut Nyak Meutia found.

Although the Dutch armed forces complete but that does not make him squirm.
It with a dagger in hand, he maintained resistance.
But three Dutch soldiers fired close to him.
He was killed after a bullet hit his head and the other two on his chest.

Nyak Cut Meutia fall as defenders of the nation’s warriors. For the services and sacrifices, by country name has been named as a National Hero authorized by Presidential Decree 107 of 1964, dated May 2, 1964

 

 

 

 

 

In May 1910,

he finally figured out where a shelter was and managed to kill him. In 1911 Schmidt knew more relatives of

 

 

 

the Di Tiro’s killing.

 

Thus came to an end the pacification of Aceh. (Later Schmidt chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina, with the exclusive task as a financial watchdog Prince Henry to shadows and for new loans to save).

 

In 1918

Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired. On August 12, 1918 appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

This concludes the summary of the fourth Aceh war of the period 1989-1918.
Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war, I would make the following comments. It is good to read the text keeping in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. So it is understandable that the soldiers have received high awards and even by Queen Wilhelmina were congratulated for their military operations.

 

 

To this spirit a good example, I quote the beginning of the book of Lieutenant-General Jan van Swieten, the truth about our branch in Aceh. He has during the second Aceh war a very important role, as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy.
“Colonial powers can rarely langdurigen in a state of calm delight. Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership is not high concept, they are by provocatien, not infrequently by deeds from violence, – as men and beach robbery on hull types and expiration of commercial vessels, armed raids, constant disputes wrapped, leading to hostilities skip, and finally, in order to avoid repetition, force the borders to move and the area extending ‘
Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan at war with the Taliban guerrilla forces. Through the media we are told that there is again much Talibans by our troops are slain. But I wonder whether, why we only get messages about the killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians, wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we take in Uruzgan. Just as the Aceh war, this war mission by our parliament approved and considered as a legitimate struggle. It might sometimes happen that the spirit of this war as will change as the Aceh war. Time will tell.
Used Literature
Cohen Stuart., W. J. (1937) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts. Hague-Algemeene National Printing
Croo, M. H. Du (1943) General Swart pacifier of Aceh. Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees, J.C.J. (1905) The journey of Commander Of Daalen by Gajo, and Alas and Batak. Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld, Herman (1998) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944, part one 1869-1944. Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep., Jelte (1996) Aceh, Aceh!. Publishing the Prom Baarn. ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullman, Dr. J. C. (1933) Dr. H. Colijn. Leiden, A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Publishing Company N.V.
Spring, Paul van ‘t (1969) The Aceh War. Amsterdam. Publishing the Arbeiderspers
Too much information on the Internet about Aceh and Lombok found and used.

 

 

 

 

They were considered the most dangerous opponents of the Dutch authorities . Schmidt left with two brigades . He tried to win anywhere information ( Schmidt spoke fluent Achinese ) , but no one said a word about the whereabouts of the Di Tiro ‘s .

 

 In May 1910 ,

he finally found out where a shelter was and managed to kill him.

 

 In 1911,

Schmidt was able to kill even more. Relatives of Di Tiro ‘s Thus came an end to the pacification of Aceh . ( Later, Schmidt became chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina , with the exclusive mandate to shadows as a financial watchdog Prince Henry and new loans to save ) . In 1918, Swart was retired with the rank of lieutenant general . On August 12, 1918 appointed vice – president of the Council of India until 1922 . He received his military operations , the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm
This summary of the fourth Aceh War of 1989-1918 period ends.

Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war , I would make the following comments . It is good to read bearing in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. Text So it is understandable that the soldiers involved have received very high honors and even were congratulated for their military operations .

 

 By Queen Wilhelmina To give a good example of this spirit , I quote the beginning of the book by Lieutenant – General Jan van Swieten , the truth about our office in Aceh . He has played a very important role during the Second Aceh war , as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy .
“Colonial powers can rarely in a protracted state of calm delight . Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership are not high concept , they are by provocatien , often by acts of violence – just as men and beach robbery , immersive men and lapses of commercial vessels , armed raids , constantly wrapped in disputes skip to hostilities , and finally , in order to prevent recurrence , forcing to move the borders and expand the area of ”
Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan war wound with the Taliban guerrilla forces . Through the media, we are told that there will be as many Talibans by our troops are slain . However, I question whether , why do we only get messages about the number of killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians , wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we do in Uruzgan . Just as the Aceh war , this war mission approved by our parliament and considered a legitimate struggle . It might sometimes happen that the spirit will change as the Aceh war happened. About this war as Time will tell.
used Books
Stuart Cohen . , W. J. (1937 ) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts . Hague – Common uses National Printing
Croo , M. H. Du (1943 ) General Swart pacifier of Aceh . Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees , J.C.J. ( 1905) The journey of Commander Whatley by the Gayo , and Alas and Batak . Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld , Herman (1998 ) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944 , part one 1869-1944 . Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep. Jelte (1996 ) Aceh , Aceh ! . Publisher Prom Baarn . ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullmann , Dr. J. C. (1933 ) Dr. H. Colijn . Leiden , A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V.
Feather, Paul van ‘t (1969 ) The Aceh War . Amsterdam . Publisher Arbeiderspers
Too much information about Aceh and Lombok found on the Internet and used

 

1913

 

 

Goldsmith atjeh in 1913

Source: CVNL search memory of the Netherlands

 

 

In 1914

Colijn wrote a brochure on the occasion of the opening of the Hague Peace Palace (!)the ordinary power imperialism was no longer justified, the cultural imperialism is a calling of a higher order

Under cultural imperialism understood Colijn (and many were to agree with) the desire to own knowledge and power serviceable to the culture of other nations, which, left to itself, prey remain in a state of disorder, injustice and profound ignorance which prevented them the blessings of Western civilization to acquire.

 

One has the primitive peoples to educate such there degree of social, political and economic development that they are able to administer its own affairs in accordance with the generally accepted principles in civilized states.

 

 

Netherlands has callings in the East Indian archipelago. (But there is still a venomous tail :) by the possession of the insular territory to the Motherland more than a privilege, it is an economic issue life (and that’s the natural order)

Because also in 1914

Colijn in the oil, as it was called, he was director of the BPM who had major interests in Sumatra. After this period he was financially independent. Contemporaries thought then that he had compromised and not as an independent politician could occur especially not Dutch Indies.

Colijn was also the man who ordered the bombing of the Seven Provinces to as the mutiny on the ship to suppress.

On the said Colijn, insolent parliamentary questions from Mr. Rustam Effendi:
1. Will the Government explain why it was passed to limit the right to attend meetings of various political unions in Indonesia and why they are a series of other measures have been taken to further the freedom of press and assembly for the Indian population limit?
2. Will the Government inform the reasons that on the night of August 1 jl led to the arrest in Batavia Ir Soekarno?
3. If the Government does not consider that the above measures by the free expression of the Indonesian population is more oppressed?
4. Are these measures relating to the trials of the crew of the Seven Provinces?
5. Is the Government prepared to take measures which immediately above repressions be undone?

Colijn was the same in his office as Minister of Colonies replied:
1. Since the Indian Government the foregoing necessary
2. Since the Indian Government a thing necessary
3. No
4. Unknown
No

On this very curt reply from the Government showed Tribune is outraged:

At the most trivial vraagjes civil MPs is extensively and completely to the form answer to a representative of 50 million people, who groan under the yoke of imperialism eight Dutch Colijn not even need to answer

 

 

They were considered the most dangerous opponents of the Dutch authorities . Schmidt left with two brigades .

He tried to win anywhere information ( Schmidt spoke fluent Achinese ) , but no one said a word about the whereabouts of the Di Tiro ‘s . In May 1910 , he finally found out where a shelter was and managed to kill him.

In 1911,

Schmidt was able to kill even more. Relatives of Di Tiro ‘s Thus came an end to the pacification of Aceh . ( Later, Schmidt became chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina , with the exclusive mandate to shadows as a financial watchdog Prince Henry and new loans to save ) . In 1918, Swart was retired with the rank of lieutenant general .

 

On August 12, 1918

 appointed vice – president of the Council of India until 1922 . He received his military operations , the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm
This summary of the fourth Aceh War of 1989-1918 period ends.

Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war , I would make the following comments . It is good to read bearing in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. Text So it is understandable that the soldiers involved have received very high honors and even were congratulated for their military operations .

 

By Queen Wilhelmina To give a good example of this spirit , I quote the beginning of the book by Lieutenant – General Jan van Swieten , the truth about our office in Aceh . He has played a very important role during the Second Aceh war , as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy .


“Colonial powers can rarely in a protracted state of calm delight . Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership are not high concept , they are by provocatien , often by acts of violence – just as men and beach robbery , immersive men and lapses of commercial vessels , armed raids , constantly wrapped in disputes skip to hostilities , and finally , in order to prevent recurrence , forcing to move the borders and expand the area of ”

Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan war wound with the Taliban guerrilla forces . Through the media, we are told that there will be as many Talibans by our troops are slain . However, I question whether , why do we only get messages about the number of killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians , wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we do in Uruzgan . Just as the Aceh war , this war mission approved by our parliament and considered a legitimate struggle . It might sometimes happen that the spirit will change as the Aceh war happened. About this war as Time will tell.
used Books
Stuart Cohen . , W. J. (1937 ) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts . Hague – Common uses National Printing
Croo , M. H. Du (1943 ) General Swart pacifier of Aceh . Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees , J.C.J. ( 1905) The journey of Commander Whatley by the Gayo , and Alas and Batak . Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld , Herman (1998 ) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944 , part one 1869-1944 . Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep. Jelte (1996 ) Aceh , Aceh ! . Publisher Prom Baarn . ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullmann , Dr. J. C. (1933 ) Dr. H. Colijn . Leiden , A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V.
Feather, Paul van ‘t (1969 ) The Aceh War . Amsterdam . Publisher Arbeiderspers
Too much information about Aceh and Lombok found on the Internet and used.

 

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

1918

In 1918  Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired.

 

On August 12, 1918

appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

 

 

 

The end of atjeh war,the meeting between Panglima Polim and Zgeneral van Heutz

1920

 

 

 

Drinks at the inauguration of a new bridge. For this occasion, senior military guests at the military police of Blangkedjerèn. The marks on the collar of the policemen are “blood fingers” called

Borrel bij de inwijding van een nieuwe brug. Voor deze gelegenheid zijn hoge militairen te gast bij de marechaussees van Blangkedjerèn. De kentekenen op de kraag van de marechaussees worden ‘bloedvingers’ genoemd.

 

 

 

 

 

1926

 

 

KNIL at atjeh in 1926

 

 

Marsose at blangkajeren atjeh in 1926

 

 

 

Blangkajeren  Atjeh 1926

Blangkajeren Aceh 1926
Festive inauguration of a Model T Ford. The priest pours holy water in the radiator of the car while the present policemen watch. Ford has put together after he disassembled state by carriers on a footpath through the mountains to the tangsi is charged. The man in the white left of the Ford is the mechanic. Guitar Music and beer will be the party complete. The newly captured elephant May on the photo.
Festive inauguration of a Model T Ford. The priest pours holy water in the radiator of the car while the policemen present watch. The Ford was put together after he was charged. Disassembled by carriers on a footpath through the mountains to the tangsi The man in white to the left of the Ford is the mechanic. Guitar music and beer will be the party complete. Also, the newly captured elephant may in the picture.

 

1927

 

 

KNIL officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1927

1928

Panglima  Polim  was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of Nassau-Oranje Orde


Old Panglima Polim, raja of Sigli, wearing medal of The House of Orange in 1938, one year before his death.

1931

 

 

KNIl officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1931

1941

 

1.THE MILITARY SENCORED KUTARAJA ACEH AND MEDAN 1941

 

 

 

kabandjahe

 

Dai Nippon Occupation Aceh

 

1942-1945

 

Atjeh ster in rood op 2 cent Moehammadijah, vrijwel pracht ex. (iets tropisch), cat.w. 90

Corinphila veilingen 211 Part II

 

 

 

 

Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

4) Palembang –

 

 

God Shiva’s Mount Nandi Indonesia Central Java 9th …

 

 

 

 

824

Sailendras in Java

 

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world.

The Sailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra. For instance,

Samaratungga married Dewi Tara, a daughter of Srivijayan maharaja Dharmasetu.

The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Sailendra had access to the international market.

 

 

Borobudur temple stupa

 

 

Detail of Borobudur temple

 

 

 

9th  century Buddhism sculptured  relief at  Borobudur temple

 

 

 

Indonesian ship relief of borobudur temple

Karangtengah inscription dated 824

mentioned about the sima (tax free) lands awarded by Çrī Kahulunan (Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.[9] Kamūlān itself from the word mula which means ‘the place of origin’, a sacred building to honor the ancestors.

This findings suggested that either the ancestors of the Sailendras were originated from Central Java, or as the sign that Sailendra have established their holds on Java. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra which in Sanskrit means “The mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood“, was the original name of Borobudur.[10]

about 825

 

Sailendra King Samaratunga, grandson of Vishnu, finishes Borobudur.

 

Borobudur
Borobudur is a huge Buddhist monument covering a volcanic hill a few miles between present-day Magelang and Yogyakarta. It is in levels representing the stages to enlightenment. The large central stupa is empty. The many beautiful relief sculptures may have been used to educate young monks.

 

825

The received version holds that the Sailendra dynasty existed next to

the Sanjaya dynasty in Java.

Much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated.

830

The decline of the Sailendras began around 830 A.D.

culminating with their ouster,

835

about 835

 

Patapan of Sanjaya takes Sailendra throne, replaces Buddhism on Java with Hinduism.

King Balitung rules in central Java.

By this time, Buddhist culture had spread as far east as Lombok.

 

Around 850 A.D.,

a prince of Sanjaya dynasty,

Rakai Pikatan

married a Sailendran princess and seized control of central Java.

about 850

 

Balaputra, claimant to Sailendra throne, takes power in Srivijaya.

New Sanjaya king Daksa in central Java begins building Hindu temples at Prambanan.

King Warmadewa rules on Bali.

From about this time we have a version of the Ramayana epic in the Old Javanese language. The work is sophisticated, and there were probably many earlier such works in Old Javanese that have not survived.

 

 

in 856 A.D.,

by a descendant of Sanjaya.

Apparently the Sanjayan line of kings ruled continuously over outlying areas of the realm as vassals of the Sailendras, and during this time they built many

Hindus temples in remote areas of Java such as the Dieng Plateau and Mt. Ungaran (south of Semarang).

 

The Sailendras fled to Sriwijaya,

where they prospered and successfully blocked all Javanese shipping in the South China Sea for more than a century.

Sailendras in Sumatra

After 824,

there are no more references to the Sailendra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record.

By 850,

the Medang kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire

Around 852

the Sanjaya ruler Pikatan had defeated Balaputra,

the offspring of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara.

 

This ended the Sailendra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[11]

Around 860

the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription in India.

According to the text, the local king had granted

‘Balaputra, the king of Suvarna-dvipa’ (Sumatra)

the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Sailendra dynasty and grandson of the king of Java.[14]

From Sumatra, the Sailendras also maintained overseas relations with

the Chola kingdom in India,

as shown by several south Indian inscriptions.

 

 

860:

 

Balaputra the Maharaja of Suvarnadvipa and the ruler of Srivijaya, construct the buddhist temple and

 

Sumatra

Other scholars hold that the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java.[7] Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Sailendra’s inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections.

Java

Another theory suggested that Sailendra was a native Javanese dynasty, and there was no such things as Sanjaya dynasty since Sri Sanjaya and his offsprings belongs to Sailendra family that initially the Shivaist ruler of Mataram Kingdom.[8] The association of Sailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory based on Carita Parahyangan that mention about the ailing King Sanjaya ordered his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to buddhism, because their Shivaistic faith was feared by the people, and in favour to the more pacifist buddhist faith.

 

Sailendras in Bali

Sri Kesari Warmadewa was said to be a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[12] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[13]

11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

suddenly the capital was transferred to east java

around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash

932

Kerajaan Sunda adalah kerajaan yang pernah ada antara tahun 932 dan 1579 Masehi di bagian Barat pulau Jawa (Provinsi Banten,Jakarta, Jawa Barat, dan sebagian J…awa Tengah sekarang).

Kerjaan ini bahkan pernah menguasai wilayah bagian selatan Pulau Sumatera. Kerajaan ini bercorak Hindu dan Buddha, kemudian sekitar abad ke-14 diketahui kerajaan ini telah beribukota di Pakuan Pajajaran serta memiliki dua kawasan pelabuhan utama di Kalapa dan Banten.

1579

Kerajaan Sunda runtuh setelah ibukota kerajaan ditaklukan oleh Maulana Yusuf pada tahun 1579. Sementara sebelumnya kedua pelabuhan utama Kerajaan Sunda itu juga telah dikuasai oleh Kerajaan Demak pada tahun 1527, Kalapa ditaklukan oleh Fatahillah dan Banten ditaklukan oleh Maulana Hasanuddin.

*Catatan sejarah
Meskipun nama Sunda disebutkan dalam prasasti, naskah-naskah kuno, dan catatan sejarah dari luar negeri, Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro dan Nugroho Notosusanto menyatakan bahwa belum begitu banyak prasasti yang ditemukan di Jawa Barat dan secara jelas menyebutkan nama kerajaannya, walau dalam berbagai sumber kesusastraan, secara tegas Sunda merujuk kepada nama kawasan. Diduga sebelum keruntuhannya tahun 1579, Kerajaan Sunda telah mengalami beberapa kali perpindahan pusat pemerintahannya, dimulai dari Galuh dan berakhir di Pakuan Pajajaran.

*Berdirinya kerajaan Sunda
Berdasarkan Prasasti Kebonkopi II, yang berbahasa Melayu Kuno dengan tarikh 932, menyebutkan seorang “Raja Sunda menduduki kembali tahtanya”.[8]

 

 

Hal ini dapat ditafsirkan bahwa Raja Sunda telah ada sebelumnya Sementara dari sumber Tiongkok pada bukuZhufan Zhi yang ditulis pada tahun 1178 oleh Zhao Rugua menyebutkan terdapat satu kawasan dari San-fo-ts’i yang bernama Sin-tokemudian dirujuk kepada Sunda.

Menurut

 

Naskah Wangsakerta,

naskah yang oleh sebagian orang diragukan keasliannya serta diragukan sebagai sumber sejarah karena sangat sistematis, menyebutkan Sunda merupakan kerajaan yang berdiri menggantikan kerajaan Tarumanagara.

Kerajaan Sunda didirikan oleh Tarusbawa pada tahun 669 (591 Saka). Kerajaan ini merupakan suatu kerajaan yang meliputi wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Provinsi Banten, Jakarta, Provinsi Jawa Barat, dan bagian barat Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Sebelum berdiri sebagai kerajaan yang mandiri, Sunda merupakan bawahan Tarumanagara. Raja Tarumanagara yang terakhir, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (memerintah hanya selama tiga tahun, 666-669 M), menikah dengan Déwi Ganggasari dari Indraprahasta. Dari Ganggasari, beliau memiliki dua anak, yang keduanya perempuan. Déwi Manasih, putri sulungnya, menikah dengan Tarusbawa dari Sunda, sedangkan yang kedua, Sobakancana, menikah dengan Dapunta Hyang Sri Janayasa, yang selanjutnya mendirikan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Setelah Linggawarman meninggal, kekuasaan Tarumanagara turun kepada menantunya, Tarusbawa. Hal ini menyebabkan penguasa Galuh, Wretikandayun (612-702) memberontak, melepaskan diri dari Tarumanagara, serta mendirikan Kerajaan Galuh yang mandiri. Tarusbawa juga menginginkan melanjutkan kerajaan Tarumanagara, dan selanjutnya memindahkan kekuasaannya ke Sunda, di hulu sungai Cipakancilan dimana di daerah tersebut sungai Ciliwung dan sungai Cisadane berdekatan dan berjajar, dekat Bogor saat ini. Sedangkan Tarumanagara diubah menjadi bawahannya. Beliau dinobatkan sebagai raja Sunda pada hari Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, bulan Yista, tahun 519 Saka (kira-kira 18 Mei 669 M). Sunda dan Galuh ini berbatasan, dengan batas kerajaanya yaitu sungai Citarum (Sunda di sebelah barat, Galuh di sebelah timur).

 

 

 

 

 

990

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa

 

990

 

Dharmavamsa and Mataram send an army overseas to attack Srivijaya and take Palembang, but fail

 

 

992

destructive raids  srivijaya from Java in 992.

10th century

The Medang or Mataram Kingdom

was a HinduBuddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries CE.

It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the founder of the Sanjaya dynasty, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra and Sanjaya families.

By 850,

the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire.

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : KUBERA
Era : Abad Ke-
9/10, Kerajaan Singhasari
Material : Perunggu
Asal : Jawa Timur

An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera
INDONESIA, 9TH/10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera
Indonesia, 9th/10th Century
Seated on a circular pillow over a stepped plinth supported by two lions, with his right hand in varada mudra and holding the mongoose in his left, wearing long flowing robes richly adorned with jeweled armlets and necklaces, his face with a serene expression with wide open eyes surmounted by a conical headdress, the throneback modeled as a gateway flanked by leogryphs mounted on elephants in openwork, all supporting a flaming nimbus, the pinth centered by a cluster of jewels, with a deep brown patina overall 13¾ in. (34.8 cm.) high

This bronze figure of Kubera is among the very few comparatively large Indonesian bronze figures recorded in public and private collections; another figure of Kubera is in the collection of the Musée Guimet, see A. Le Bonheur, La sculpture indonesienne au Musee Guimet, 1971, cat. no. 3 814, p. 182f. In its general concept, it follows contemporary Indian prototypes created in Nalanda, Bihar; Compare a related example in Inde, Cinq Mille Ans d’Art, Paris, Musee du Petit Palais, 1978/79, cat. no. 97, from the National Museum, New Delhi. The proximity in style is indicative of the direct exchange of Indian bronzes to the South-East Asian region at that time, likely by sea, disseminating Pala style and fueling further regional stylistic evolution.

 

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : GANESHA
Era : Abad Ke-10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

Dilelang terbuka oleh :

CHRISTIE’S New York Saleroom
20 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10020

Dengan Data :

A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha
INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha
Indonesia, circa 10th Century
Seated in svastikasana on a round cushion over a rectangular plinth, with four arms, holding a mala, a sweet, and his broken tusk, wearing a serpent brahmanical thread, ornate jatamukuta, and arm ornaments, his elephant trunk unfurling into his right hand
3¾ in. (9.6 cm.) high

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : VAJRASATTVA
Era : Abad Ke-10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva
INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva
Indonesia, circa 10th Century
Finely cast seated in ‘Royal Ease’ on a round lotus base, a lotus stem rising up to his left shoulder supporting a vajra, with a flaming arched mandorla surmounted by a parasol, with an attractive silvery green patina overall
5¾ in. (14.6 cm.) high

 

10th century

 

They Mysterious Move to East Java

 

Rakai Pikatan commemorated his victory

by erecting the splendid temple complex at Prambanan,

 

which can be considered a Hindu counterpart of Buddhist Borobudur. Both are terraced an ancestor sanctuaries, highly elaborate versions of those constructed by Indonesian rulers in prehistoric times.

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

then suddenly the capital was transferred to east java around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash.

A partially completed temple has been unearthed at Sambisar, near Prambanan, from under five metres of volcanic debris. Then, too there is the possibility of epidemics and of mass migrations to the more fertile lands of East Java.

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire prospered in the 10th Century and actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

 

Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa,

 

and splintered the realm into numerous petty fiefdoms.

It took nearly 20 years for the next great king, Airlangga, to fully restore the empire.

Airlangga was King Dharmawangsa’s nephew

and he succeded to the throne in 1019

after the Sriwijayan forces had departed. With the help of loyal followers and advisors he reconquered the realm and restored its prosperity. He is best known, though, as a patron of the arts and as an ascete. Under his rule the Indian classics were translated from Sanskrit into Javanese, thus marking the flowering of indigenous Javanese arts..

 

abad ke-7 hinga ke-15,

 

yaitu Sriwijaya di Sumatera dan Majapahit di Jawa.

Keduanya adalah kerajaan Hindu-Budha. Kerajaan Sriwijaya merupakan salah satukerajaan pantai yang kekuatan ekonominya bertumpu pada perdaganganinternasional. Sriwijaya berhubungan dengan jalan raya perdagangan internasionaldari Cina ke Eropa melalui Selat Malaka.

 

 

 

 

Pada abad ke-7 hingga ke-13 kerajaan tersebut tumbuh dan berkembang menjadipusat perdagangan di wilayah Indonesia Barat, terutama setelah berhasil menguasaidan mengamankan jalur perdagangan di sekitar Selat Malaka. Sriwijaya mewajibkansetiap kapal dagang yang lewat Selat Malaka untuk singgah ke pelabuhan Sriwijaya.

 

Oleh karena itu, kerajaan tersebut sering dikunjungi para pedagang dari Persia,Arab, India, dan Cina untuk memperdagangkan barang-barang dari negerinya ataunegeri-negeri yang dilaluinya. Barang-barang tersebut antara lain berupa tekstil,kapur barus, mutiara, kayu berharga, rempah-rempah, gading, kain katun dansengkelat, perak, emas, sutera, pecah belah serta gula.

 

:

2

Selain sebagai pusat perdagangan, Sriwijaya juga mempunyai kapal-kapal sendiriuntuk perniagaannya. Pelayaran kapal-kapal niaga Sriwijaya meliputi Asia Tenggarasampai India, bahkan hingga Madagaskar. Dominasi perdagangan Sriwijaya mulaimengalami masa surut ketika mendapat serangan dari kerajaan Cola, India padaabad ke-11

 

An 11th century inscription

 

mentioned the grant of revenues to

 

a local Buddhist sanctuary, built in 1005

by the king of the Srivijaya.

 

In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had

broken out in 1025.[15]

Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century.

 

 

 

 

1025

destructive raid on srivijaya from the Chola rulers of southern India in 1025

Rajendra Chola of southern India takes Malay peninsula from Srivijaya for twenty years.

Airlangga extends the power and influence of Kahuripan as Srivijaya is weakened.
Around this time, Tumasik was a small kingdom on the site of today’s Singapore. It may have been influenced by the newcomers from southern India.

Also around this time, the Panai kingdom was flourishing in the Batak areas of northern Sumatra

1045

Airlangga divides Kahuripan into two kingdoms, Janggala (around today’s Malang) and Kediri, for his two sons, and abdicates to live the life of an ascetic. He passes away a year later

1049

Shotly before his death in 1049,

Airlangga changed his name and became an ascetic without, however, abdicating.

To appease the ambitions of his two sons he then divided his empire into two equal halves,

Kediri and Janggala(or Daha and Koripan).

Kediri became the more powerful of the two, and it is remembered now as the source of numerous works of Old Javanese literature-mainly adaptations of the Indian epics in a Javanese poetic form known as the kekawin.

 

 

(A sculpture of Ken Dedes, the wife of Ken Arok, representing her as a goddess)

 

Singhasari and MajapahitIn subsequent centuries Java prospered as never before. The rulers of successive east Javan empires were able to combine the benefits of a strong agricultural economy with income from a lucrative overseas trade. In the process, the Javanesse became the master shipbuilders and mariners of Southeast Asia.

 

1068

Vira Rajendra, king of Coromandel, conquers Kedah from Srivijaya

 

In 1090

 

a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary

 

(it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Sailendras).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kediri or Kadiri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.

Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature.[1] Mpu Sedah’s Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh’s Gatotkacasraya, and Mpu Dharmaja’s Smaradhana blossomed in this era. The kingdom’s capital is believed to be established on west part of Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency. Other than Kadiri, its capital was also often referred to as Daha or Dahana.

 

 

Uang Krishnala, Kerajaan Jenggala (1042-1130 M)

 

1128

Islamic Shia  from Aceh to the Minangkabau,  began spreading in 1128.
  At that time, Al-Kamil admiral Nazimudin military maneuver of the coast of Aceh to

 

Muara takus  temple at  the side of  the Right  Kampar river Riau.

 

the Kampar river Right and Left, to control the results of pepper in the area.

Nazimudin fall when the expedition in 1128.


Aceh coin during this time

Read the complete info at dr Iwan CD Rom

The Aceh History collection or The Indonesia Precolonial History


  Kampar river area occupied by foreign merchants  who from Islamic Shiite, and supported by Fathimiah dynasty in Egypt.

 

They want to monopolize the results of pepper. Results pepper Perlak was transported to the airport, continues to be brought to market Gujarat.

 

 

Read more info

 

The Largest Ancient Brick Building

This is the site of the remains of an ancient Buddhist temple, located 200 km from Pekanbaru at a point where the Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri river tributaries meet.

It is believed to have been built in the 7th century because of certain similarities with the Kalasan temple near Yogyakarta.

 

candi mahligai – mi’s

 

Muara Takus, an ancient temple complex close to the bank of the river Kampar Kanan. Standing in a remote area amid Sumatra’s tropical forest, the temple is a mysterious entity.

Archeological experts have not yet been able to confirm when the temple has been built.

Short inscriptions found among the ruins point to a date in the 11th or 12th century.

Other relate the complex to the Buddhist empire of Srivijaya Budhist empire , which ruled in Sumatra in the 8th through 10th century.

. Some opinions go even back to the 4th century.
The temple complex is the largest ancient brick building in Sumatra. The tall stupa, known as Candi Mahligai, has the unusual shape of a tower, rather than the squat bell-shape normally associated with Buddhist architecture.

Several other foundations can be seen nearby, like the Candi Bungsu, a platform on which once stood two stupas, and the Candi Tua, originally the largest structure of all, with two stairways leading up to yet another stupa.

Candi Tua

 

candi tua – mi’s

 

Muara Takus Temple That So exotist


 Muara takus temple | 13 koto kampar | At Rantau Berangin, 15 kilometers after Bangkinang, the roads splits and turn left, entering Bukit Barisan range, which borders Riau province. The road climbs up and reaches the recently finished hydroelectric dam of Koto Panjang.

Near Muaramahat, some 122 km west of Pekanbaru off the main road to Bukittinggi, are the ruins of Muara Takus, an ancient temple complex close to the bank of the river Kampar Kanan.

 

 

Standing in a remote area amid Sumatra’s tropical forest, the temple is a mysterious entity.

 

.

a picture see from the road

 

 

 

picture take in front of the temple,

 

 

 

Dr Iwan Notes

 

 

In 1988 I have ever visit this temple with my son Albert, we must cross the right Kampar river by car crossing boat(pelayangan) , not so far we met this temple,not many informations found there

 

The defeat of Sriwijaya in the attack had ended Rajendra Coladewa Sailendra dynasty rule over the island of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula since 1025 . Some time later emerged a new dynasty took over the role of Sailendra Dynasty , which is called by the name of House of Mauli .
The oldest inscription ever found in the name of the king is the inscription Grahi Mauli year 1183 . The inscription contains the command Maharaja Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Grahi Warmadewa the regents named Mahasenapati Galanai that make a Buddha statue weighing 1 bhara 2 tula with gold values ​​10 Tamlin . Which makes the task of the statue named Mraten Sri Nano .
The second inscription later more than a century later , the inscription Padangroco in 1286 . This inscription mentions the existence of a king named Maharaja Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa . He got a shipment Amoghapasa statue of his superiors , namely Kertanagara Singhasari king kingdom in Java . The statue is then placed in the town Dharmasraya .
Dharmasraya in Pararaton called by the name of Malay . Thus , Tribhuwanaraja can also be referred to as the king of Malayu . Tribhuwanaraja itself is most likely descended from Trailokyaraja . Therefore , Trailokyaraja can also be regarded as the king of Malay , although inscriptions Grahi not call clearly .
What is interesting here is Trailokyaraja territory in 1183 has reached Grahi , which is located on the border of Cambodia . That means , after the defeat of Srivijaya , Malay rose again as the ruler of the Malacca Strait . However , when the resurrection would begin is uncertain , because the king of Jambi in 1082 still be subordinate Rajendra family .
The term Srimat found in front of the name and Tribhuwanaraja Trailokyaraja derived from Tamil language meaning ” lord priest ” . Thus , the revival of Malay Kingdom pioneered by the pastor . However , it is not clear whether the leaders of the revival is Srimat Trailokyaraja , or king before him , because until now have not found Mauli dynasty inscriptions older than the inscription Grahi

1222

Ken Angrok founds the Singhasari kingdom.

Putri Dedes was the wife of Ken Angrok. She was the daughter of a Buddhist priest who was stolen away by the governor of Tumapel on Java. Ken Angrok himself stole Putri Dedes away from her first husband to be his wife, but she was already pregnant, and her son (later King Anusapati) was actually the son of the governor, Tunggul Ametung. Eventually Ken Angrok conspired to have Tunggul Ametung killed so that he could become ruler of Tumapel.

Tumapel paid tribute to Kediri until Ken Angrok became powerful enough to conquer Kediri for himself in 1222. The last ruler of Kediri, Kertajaya, was considered cruel and overbearing.

Putri Dedes was long remembered as the mother of the royal line of Singhasari, and later Majapahit, Mataram, Yogya and Solo

1222

KERAJAAN SINGASARI

Kerajaan Singasari (1222-1293) adalah salah satu kerajaan besar di Nusantara vang didirikan oleh Ken Arok pada 1222. Kerajaan Singasari mencapai puncak kejayaan ketika dipimpin oleh Raja Kertanegara (1268-1292) yang bergelar Maharajadhiraja Kertanegara Wikrama Dharmottunggadewa

.

Ken Arok merebut daerah Tumapel, salah satu wilayah Kerajaan Kediri yang dipimpin oleh Tunggul Ametung, pada 1222. Ken Arok pada mulanya adalah anak buah Tunggul Ametung, namun ia membunuh Tunggul Ametung karena jatuh cinta pada istrinya, Ken Dedes. Ken Arok kemudian mengawini Ken Dedes. Pada saat dikawini Ken Arok, Ken Dedes telah mempunyai anak bernama Anusapati yang kemudian menjadi raja Singasari (1227-1248). Raja terakhir Kerajaan Singasari adalah Kertanegara.

Ken Arok

Ketika di pusat Kerajaan Kediri terjadi pertentangan antara raja dan kaum Brahmana, semua pendeta melarikan diri ke Tumapel dan dilindungi oleh Ken Arok.

Pada 1222, para pendeta Hindu kemudian menobatkan Ken Arok sebagai raja di Tumapel dengan gelar Sri Ranggah Rajasa Bhatara Sang Amurwabhumi. Adapun nama kerajaannya ialah Kerajaan Singasari. Berita pembentukan Kerajaan Singasari dan penobatan Ken Arok menimbulkan kemarahan raja Kediri, Kertajaya. la kemudian memimpin sendiri pasukan besar untuk menyerang Kerajaan Singasari. Kedua pasukan bertempur di Desa Ganter pada 1222. Ken Arok berhasil memenangkan pertempuran dan sejak itu wilayah kekuasaan Kerajaan Kediri dikuasai oleh Singasari.

 

1225

: Quanzhou’s commissioner of foreign trade noted a Chinese court order banning trade with Java, as the import of pepper was causing excessive outflow of copper cash; Javanese traders avoided the ban by calling their country Sukadana (Su-ki-tan).
Kenneth Hall, Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia, p.244, citing F. Hirth & W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua: his work on the Chinese and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, St Petersburg, 1911.

 

 

 

1225

: Quanzhou’s commissioner of foreign trade noted a Chinese court order banning trade with Java, as the import of pepper was causing excessive outflow of copper cash; Javanese traders avoided the ban by calling their country Sukadana (Su-ki-tan).
Kenneth Hall, Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia, p.244, citing F. Hirth & W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua: his work on the Chinese and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, St Petersburg, 1911.

1227

Ken Angrok dies, and is succeeded by Anusapati.

By now, Jambi was an independent kingdom on Sumatra1227

 

Kertanegara

Ken Arok memerintah Kerajaan Singasari hanya lima tahun. Pada 1227 ia dibunuh oleh Anusapati, anak tirinya (hasil perkawinan Tunggul Ametung dan Ken Dedes). Sepuluh tahun kemudian Anusapati dibunuh oleh saudara tirinya, Tohjaya (putra Ken Arok dengan Ken Umang). Kematian Anusapati menimbulkan kemarahan Ranggawuni, putra Anusapati. Ranggawuni langsung menyerang Tohjaya. Pasukan Tohjaya kalah dalam pertempuran dan meninggal dunia dalam pelarian. Pada 1248 Ranggawuni menjadi raja Singasari bergelar Sri Jaya Wisnuwardhana. Ranggawuni memerintah Kerajaan Singasari selama 20 tahun (1248-1268) dan dibantu oleh Mahisa Cempaka (Narasingamurti). Ranggawuni wafat pada 1268 dan digantikan oleh putranya, Kertanegara. la memerintah Kerajaan Singasari selama 24 tahun (1268-1292).

1230

Penggabungan dengan Samudera Pasai

Sultan ke-17 Perlak, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12301267) menjalankan politik persahabatan dengan menikahkan dua orang putrinya dengan penguasa negeri tetangga Peureulak:

  • 1247
  • Anusapati dies after a peaceful 20-year reign. Tohjaya, son of Ken Angrok by a concubine, becomes king of Singhasari.
  • Tradition says that the kings of Singhasari during this period were all murdered by their successors, as part of the feud arising from Ken Angrok stealing away Putri Dedes. 1247:
  • A fleet from Ligor under Candrabhanu attacked Sri Lanka from Kedah (and again in 1270).
    http://www.sabrizain.demon.co.uk/malaya/hindu.htm
  • 1250
  • Tohjaya is killed in a rebellion and replaced as king by by Wisnuwardhana, son of Anusapati
  • 1267
  • Sultan terakhir Perlak adalah sultan ke-18, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12671292). Setelah ia meninggal, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di bawah pemerintahan sultan Samudera Pasai, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, putra Al Malik Al-Saleh.
  •  
  • Daftar Sultan Perlak
  • Sultan-sultan Perlak dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua dinasti: dinasti Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah dan dinasti Johan Berdaulat. Berikut daftar sultan yang pernah memerintah Perlak.
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah (840864)
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Rahim Shah (864888)
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah (888913)
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah (915918)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Kadir Shah Johan Berdaulat (928932)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Berdaulat (932956)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat (956983)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat [5] (9861023)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (10231059)
  • 10.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mansur Shah Johan Berdaulat (10591078)
  • 11.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdullah Shah Johan Berdaulat (10781109)
  • 12.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ahmad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11091135)
  • 13.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (11351160)
  • 14.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Usman Shah Johan Berdaulat (11601173)
  • 15.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11731200)
  • 16.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Jalil Shah Johan Berdaulat (12001230)
  • 17.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (12301267)
  • 18.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (12671292)
  • Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (abad ke-13abad ke-16)
  • 1268
  • Ketika Singasari berada di bawah pemerintahan Kertanegara (1268-1292), terjadilah pergolakan di dalam kerajaan. Jayakatwang, raja Kediri yang selama ini tunduk kepada Singasari bergabung dengan Bupati Sumenep (Madura) untuk menjatuhkan Kertanegara.
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 1268

1268

 

King Wisnuwardhana of Singhasari dies, and is succeeded by Kertanegara. Kertanegara promotes a mixture of Hinduism and Buddhism.

 
  • 1270
  • In 1270 something,
  • the Mongols were also wreaking havoc on the Islamic headquarters in Baghdad and many Islamic intellectuals and elites became refugees and came to India in droves.

    During this period, there were campaigns in India where Ghorids and later the Mughal invaders were establishing the faith of Islam over the subcontinent. It was during the Mongol assault on Islamic empire that the legends of Alladin were forged in India.. Alladin was in fact an islamic conqueror who campaigned in India and got alot of booty from the rich Hindu kings and their princesses…

    Southern India had its Dravidian Chola empire later Vijayanagar empire that kept contacts with Southeast Asian indic kingdoms. And in the face of the encroachment of Islam, they were in a burst of energy to build Hindu / Buddhist monuments all over the place. I wonder if that is why they sent their masons and builders to Southeast Asia to build those glorious candis and temples in Java (Dieng), Champa (Angkor Wat) and Burma (Bagan)? It was said that instead of gathering their best builders to build defence fortresses to hold back the Ghorids and Mughals, they went on an overdrive to glorify their faith and deities in the bid that such meritorious acts would save their empires..

    I think Indian didn’t sent their builder, mason, worker, etc to Southeast Asia. Instead the local southeast asian people (kings and commoners) whom build the temple. Theyadopt Indic art, architecture and philosophy, and merge it with late megalithic traditions that already established in archipelago

  •  
  • c.1272:
  • An Odd Ball was made at the Chinese court, with representations of land, rivers, oceans, and a grid of lines… latitude & longitude?
    http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-Asia&month=0511&week=a&msg=x515H1jaKh6%2b9FvwTswQ9Q&user=&pw, citing the Yuan shi 48:999
  •  
  • c.1272:
  • An Odd Ball was made at the Chinese court, with representations of land, rivers, oceans, and a grid of lines… latitude & longitude?
    http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-Asia&month=0511&week=a&msg=x515H1jaKh6%2b9FvwTswQ9Q&user=&pw, citing the Yuan shi 48:999
  • 1273:
  • Yuan China sent the first of four missions to Sri Lanka (Kublai Khan declared himself emperor of China in 1271, although the southern Song were finally defeated only in 1279); the dates were 1273, 1284, 1291 and 1293. In 1293, Sri Lanka sent one mission back.
    Prof W.I. Siriweera,
    http://lakdiva.net/coins/media/cdn_1998.06.21_china_trade.htm
  • 1273:
  • Yuan China sent the first of four missions to Sri Lanka (Kublai Khan declared himself emperor of China in 1271, although the southern Song were finally defeated only in 1279); the dates were 1273, 1284, 1291 and 1293. In 1293, Sri Lanka sent one mission back.
    Prof W.I. Siriweera,
    http://lakdiva.net/coins/media/cdn_1998.06.21_china_trade.htm
  • 1274:
  • Kublai Khan sent a fleet with 23-28,000 men from Korea to attack Japan, after earlier requests for tribute were refused. The fleet looted Hakata (Fukuoka), but withdrew with heavy losses after a great storm. The locals then built a 20km defensive wall, parts of which have been excavated.
    http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,61-545301,00.html; defensive wall http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/university/english/living/mongol/genko.htm
  •  
  • 1274:
  • Kublai Khan sent a fleet with 23-28,000 men from Korea to attack Japan, after earlier requests for tribute were refused. The fleet looted Hakata (Fukuoka), but withdrew with heavy losses after a great storm. The locals then built a 20km defensive wall, parts of which have been excavated.
    http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,61-545301,00.html; defensive wall http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/university/english/living/mongol/genko.htm
  • 1275

1275

 

Kertanegara conquers the Melayu kingdom around Jambi on Sumatra

 
  •  
  • 1275-76:
  • The Mongols, with unbeatable cavalry but initially inferior seapower, recruited Song traitors to help them capture port towns. By 1275 they controlled the Yangzi and had confiscated 3,000 boats. Two opportunistic Song merchants supplied a further 500 boats and several thousand crew for the assault on Hangzhou, which fell in 1276; the boy emperor Gongzong was captured.
    Louise Levathes, When China ruled the seas, p.48
  •  
  • 1275
  • The Pararaton goes on to tell of
  •  
  • Ken Arok’s successors, particularly of the last king of the Singhasari line, Kertanegara. .
  • Kertanegara was an extraordinary figure, a scholar as well as a statesman, who belonged to the Tantric Bhairawa sect of Buddhism.
  •  
  • 1275
  • Ekspedisi Pamalayu
  • Kertanegara terus memperluas pengaruh dan kekuasaan Kerajaan Singasari. Pada 1275 ia mengirim pasukan untuk menaklukkan Kerajaan Sriwijaya sekaligus menjalin persekutuan dengan Kerajaan Campa (Kamboja). Ekspedisi pengiriman pasukan itu dikenal dengan nama Pamalayu. Kertanegara berhasil memperluas pengaruhnya di Campa melalui perkawinan antara raja Campa dan adik perempuannya. Kerajaan Singasari sempat menguasai Sumatera, Bakulapura (Kalimantan Barat), Sunda (Jawa Barat), Madura, Bali, dan Gurun (Maluku).
  •  
  •  
  • In 1275
  •  
  •  
  • and again in 1291
  • Kertanegara  sent successful naval expeditions against Sriwijaya thus wresting control of the increasingly important maritime trade.
  •  
  • 1276-1279:
  • The Song emperor was dethroned and captured, and replaced by his half brother Duanzong who had been sent to Fujian for safety. The entire court took to the sea, moving gradually southwards as the Mongols advanced. After capturing Guangzhou, the Mongols launched a naval attack, forcing the court further out to sea. The emperor’s ship sank in a hurricane; Duanzong was rescued, but died after a further attack (possibly at Lantau island, home to Hong Kong airport); his younger brother became the emperor Bing Di. In 1279 the Mongols again attacked and drove the court to sea. A three week battle ensued. More than 1000 Chinese ships had been chained together line-abreast; over 800 were captured, and 100,000 men died. Bing Di was drowned. 16 Chinese ships escaped, carrying the dowager empress Yang, who drowned herself from grief and was later worshipped as a goddess.
    Ann Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese emperors, p146-7.


Model of the Quanzhou ship

  • 1274-77:
  • tentative date of the Song dynasty ship found at Quanzhou, a three-masted compartmentalized 34-metre vessel with bamboo sails and rope made of palm, bamboo, rattan and flax. She was returning from Southeast Asia with sandalwood and other fragrant woods, medicinal products (2.4 tonnes in these categories), jewellery, peppercorns, areca nuts, frankincense, ambergris, tortoise shell, coral, copper coins, money cowries, bamboo, and wooden tags tied to the cargo with the name & address of each merchant, including one ‘Ali’.
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sultan/archeology.html; Wang Lianmao (ed), Return to the City of Light, p.74-80; Quanzhou ship museum artefacts & captions.
  •  
  • 1275-76:
  • The Mongols, with unbeatable cavalry but initially inferior seapower, recruited Song traitors to help them capture port towns. By 1275 they controlled the Yangzi and had confiscated 3,000 boats. Two opportunistic Song merchants supplied a further 500 boats and several thousand crew for the assault on Hangzhou, which fell in 1276; the boy emperor Gongzong was captured.
    Louise Levathes, When China ruled the seas, p.48
  • 1276-1279:
  • The Song emperor was dethroned and captured, and replaced by his half brother Duanzong who had been sent to Fujian for safety. The entire court took to the sea, moving gradually southwards as the Mongols advanced. After capturing Guangzhou, the Mongols launched a naval attack, forcing the court further out to sea. The emperor’s ship sank in a hurricane; Duanzong was rescued, but died after a further attack (possibly at Lantau island, home to Hong Kong airport); his younger brother became the emperor Bing Di. In 1279 the Mongols again attacked and drove the court to sea. A three week battle ensued. More than 1000 Chinese ships had been chained together line-abreast; over 800 were captured, and 100,000 men died. Bing Di was drowned. 16 Chinese ships escaped, carrying the dowager empress Yang, who drowned herself from grief and was later worshipped as a goddess.
    Ann Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese emperors, p146-7.


Model of the Quanzhou ship

  • 1274-77:
  • tentative date of the Song dynasty ship found at Quanzhou, a three-masted compartmentalized 34-metre vessel with bamboo sails and rope made of palm, bamboo, rattan and flax. She was returning from Southeast Asia with sandalwood and other fragrant woods, medicinal products (2.4 tonnes in these categories), jewellery, peppercorns, areca nuts, frankincense, ambergris, tortoise shell, coral, copper coins, money cowries, bamboo, and wooden tags tied to the cargo with the name & address of each merchant, including one ‘Ali’.
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sultan/archeology.html; Wang Lianmao (ed), Return to the City of Light, p.74-80; Quanzhou ship museum artefacts & captions.
  • 1280s:
  • After capturing Quanzhou, the Yuan emperor despatched envoys overseas ten times. Yang Tingbi was sent in 1280 and 1282 to Quilon in Malabar, receiving promises of support from Egyptian traders and Muslim chieftains, and went on to Kenya. By 1286, ten states in Malaya, Sumatra, India and Africa had sent envoys back.
    Shen Fuwei, Cultural flow between China and the outside world, p.158
  •  
  • 1280

1280

 

A group of Javanese from Kediri, unhappy with Kertanegara, settle around Kutai in Kalimantan

 
  •  
  • 1280s:
  • After capturing Quanzhou, the Yuan emperor despatched envoys overseas ten times. Yang Tingbi was sent in 1280 and 1282 to Quilon in Malabar, receiving promises of support from Egyptian traders and Muslim chieftains, and went on to Kenya. By 1286, ten states in Malaya, Sumatra, India and Africa had sent envoys back.
    Shen Fuwei, Cultural flow between China and the outside world, p.158.


Mongol ship, landing craft & water carrier: drawing in the Takashima museum


Mongol ship, landing craft & water carrier: drawing in the Takashima museum

1281

 

Muslims from Jambi send an embassy to Kublai Khan

 
  •  
  •  
  • 1282:
  • Mongol general Toa Do (Gogetu) landed in Champa; he seized the capital in 1283, but encountered fierce resistance. In 1285 Mongols took control of the Red River delta, but were evicted.
    Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.45-48.
  • 1282:
  • Mongol general Toa Do (Gogetu) landed in Champa; he seized the capital in 1283, but encountered fierce resistance. In 1285 Mongols took control of the Red River delta, but were evicted.
    Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.45-48.
  •  
  • -1284:
  • A Chinese celadon bowl and two white Ding bowls were found at Yapahuwa in Sri Lanka, which was destroyed and abandoned in 1284.
    John Carswell, Blue & White: Chinese porcelain around the world, p.63, citing Carswell, ‘China & Islam in the Maldive islands’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 1978, p.128.
  • 1284

1284

 

Kertanegara takes Bali for Singhasari

 
  • -1284:
  • A Chinese celadon bowl and two white Ding bowls were found at Yapahuwa in Sri Lanka, which was destroyed and abandoned in 1284.
    John Carswell, Blue & White: Chinese porcelain around the world, p.63, citing Carswell, ‘China & Islam in the Maldive islands’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 1978, p.128.
  • 1288:
  • A new Mongol fleet was defeated in the Bach Dang river by Tran Hung Dao, using metal-tipped stakes just as 350 years earlier. 30,000 Mongols died; 100 of their ships were destroyed, and 400 captured. Archaeologists have found wooden stakes of both periods, but as yet no ships.
    Le Ti Lien et al,’Understanding the Bach Dang Battlefield from Recent Research Results’,
    www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1266; www.themua.org/vietnam/bdp.php; Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.49-50; Hanoi History Museum captions; Dr Trinh Cao Tuong, Institute of Archaeology, personal conversation; Mark Staniforth, ‘The lost fleet of Kublai Khan’, http://www.latrobe.edu.au/news/articles/2011/podcasts/the-lost-fleet-of-kublai-khan/transcript.
  •  
  •  
  • 1288:
  • A new Mongol fleet was defeated in the Bach Dang river by Tran Hung Dao, using metal-tipped stakes just as 350 years earlier. 30,000 Mongols died; 100 of their ships were destroyed, and 400 captured. Archaeologists have found wooden stakes of both periods, but as yet no ships.
    Le Ti Lien et al,’Understanding the Bach Dang Battlefield from Recent Research Results’,
    www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1266; www.themua.org/vietnam/bdp.php; Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.49-50; Hanoi History Museum captions; Dr Trinh Cao Tuong, Institute of Archaeology, personal conversation; Mark Staniforth, ‘The lost fleet of Kublai Khan’, http://www.latrobe.edu.au/news/articles/2011/podcasts/the-lost-fleet-of-kublai-khan/transcript.
  •  
  •  
  • 1289

1289

 

Kublai Khan sends messengers to Singhasari to demand tribute; Kertanegara slashes their faces and sends them home

 
  •  
  • 1289
  • Serangan Pasukan Mongol
  • Pasukan Pamalayu dipersiapkan Kertanegara untuk menghadapi serangan kaisar Mongol, Kubilai Khan, yang berkuasa di Cina. Utusan Kubilai Khan beberapa kali datang ke Singasari untuk meminta Kertanegara tunduk di bawah Kubilai Khan.
  • Apabila menolak maka Singasari akan diserang. Permintaan ini menimbulkan kemarahan Kertanegara dengan melukai utusan khusus Kubilai Khan, Meng Ki, pada 1289.
  • Kertanegara menyadari tindakannya ini akan dibalas oleh pasukan Mongol. la kemudian memperkuat pasukannya di Sumatera.
  • 1290
  • On the northern coast of Sumatra, several small trading states,
  • Aru, Tamiang, Perlak, Pasai, Samudra and Lamuri now came to prominence.
  • These states were the first in Indonesia to convert to Islam,
  • Perlak
  • probably being the earliest in about 1290.
  • In central Sumatra, the Buddhist kingdom of the Minangkabau, sometimes called Pagarruyung after its capital, emerged in about 1250
  • and extended its hegemony down into the coastal regions facing the strait. Palembang and Jambi, however, declined in importance, though they remained significant regional ports.
  • 1290
  • After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java altogether in 1290,
  •  
  • the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute.
  • Kertanegara, last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a massive 1000 ship expedition which arrived off the coast of Java
  •  
  •  
  • 1290

1290

 

Kertanegara conquers Srivijaya

 
  •  
  • 1291-1292:
  • Kublai Khan despatched a princess as replacement bride for the Persian king Arghun, by sea since she had encountered problems on the land journey – escorted by the three Polos, returning home after almost two decades, with messages from the khan for the pope and the kings of Christendom.
    Marco Polo, The Travels, p.42-43. (See also Frances Wood, Did Marco Polo go to China? She argues that the whole account, supposedly dictated in Genoa in 1298, was largely invented. In any case a lot of information came into European circulation, albeit partially garbled.)
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 1293

1293

 

Vijaya forms alliance with Mongol forces against remainder of Singhasari in Kediri, led by Jayakatwang.

March Combined force of Mongol/Chinese soldiers and Majapahit takes Kediri.

Vijaya returns to Trowulan, then attacks Mongols in a surprise attack. Mongols retreat and leave Java.

November Vijaya is enthroned as king Kertarajasa Jayawardhana of new Majapahit.


Vijaya being crowned the king of Majapahit, in a sculpture from that time.

Vijaya married all four daughters of the former king Kertanegara

  •  
  • The Hindu Majapahit Empire
  • (1293–1520 AD)
  • on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343.
  • When the empire declined, there was an exodus of intellectuals, artists, priests, and musicians from Java to Bali in the 15th century
  • Uang Gobog Wayang, Kerajaan Majapahit (Abad k-13)
  • Pada zaman Majapahit, keping koin ini dikenal atau disebut sebagai “Gobog Wayang”, dimana untuk pertama kalinya diperkenalkan oleh Thomas Raffles, dalam bukunya The History of Java.
  • Majapahit Soldier
  • Bentuknya bulat dengan lubang kotak ditengah karena pengaruh dari koin cash dari Cina ataupun koin-koin serupa lainnya yang berasal dari Cina atau Jepang.
  • Koin Gobog Wayang adalah asli buatan lokal, namun tidak digunakan sebagai alat tukar (hanya sebagai koin token).
  • Sebenarnya koin-koin ini digunakan untuk persembahan di kuil-kuil seperti yang dilakukan di Cina ataupun di Jepang sehingga disebut juga sebagai “koin-koin kuil”.
  • Setelah redup dan runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit di Jawa Timur pada sekitar tahun 1528, maka mulai muncul kerajaan Banten di Jawa bagian barat. Kerajaan Banten dikenal juga sebagai kerajaan dengan ibukota dagangnya yang semakin ramai.
  • 5. Uang Dirham, Kerajaan Samudera Pasai (1297 M)
  • Kesultanan Pasai, juga dikenal dengan Samudera Darussalam, atau Samudera Pasai, adalah kerajaan Islam yang terletak di pesisir pantai utara Sumatera, kurang lebih di sekitar Kota Lhokseumawe dan Aceh Utara, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia.
  • Belum begitu banyak bukti arkeologis tentang kerajaan ini untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan kajian sejarah. Namun beberapa sejarahwan memulai menelusuri keberadaan kerajaan ini bersumberkan dari Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai, dan ini dikaitkan dengan beberapa makam raja serta penemuan koin berbahan emas dan perak dengan tertera nama rajanya.
  • Mata uang emas dari Kerajaan Samudera Pasai untuk pertama kalinya dicetak oleh Sultan Muhammad yang berkuasa sekitar tahun 1297-1326 Masehi.
  • Mata uangnya disebut “Dirham” atau “Mas” dan mempunyai standar berat 0,60 gram (berat standar Kupang).
  • Namun ada juga koin-koin Dirham Pasai yang sangat kecil dengan berat hanya 0,30 gram (1/2 dari Kupang atau 3 kali Saga). Uang Mas Pasai mempunyai diameter 10–11 mm, sedangkan yang 1/2 Mas berdiameter 6 mm.
  • Pada hampir semua koinnya ditulis nama Sultan dengan gelar “Malik az-Zahir” atau “Malik at-Tahir”. Nama dirham menunjukkan pengaruh kuat pedagang Arab dan budaya Islam di kerajaan tersebut
  •  
  •  
  • 1292

1292

 

Marco Polo visits Sumatra and Java.

Kublai Khan prepares invasion fleet of 1000 ships to take Java.

Kertanegara killed in court rebellion; son-in-law Vijaya retreats and founds new court at Majapahit (today Trowulan), with the help of Arya Wiraraja, local ruler of Madura.

Bali breaks away from Singhasari under Pejeng kings at Ubud.

November Mongol fleet leaves for Java; lands at Tuban.

Majapahit was one of the few countries of that time to defeat a Mongol invasion, along with Japan and Egypt. However, the Mongol fleet was hit by a typhoon along the way, and was refused permission to land in Champa (in today’s Vietnam) to take on supplies. By the time the fleet reached Tuban, the army was sickened and weak

1293

 

Vijaya forms alliance with Mongol forces against remainder of Singhasari in Kediri, led by Jayakatwang.

March Combined force of Mongol/Chinese soldiers and Majapahit takes Kediri.

Vijaya returns to Trowulan, then attacks Mongols in a surprise attack. Mongols retreat and leave Java.

November Vijaya is enthroned as king Kertarajasa Jayawardhana of new Majapahit.


Vijaya being crowned the king of Majapahit, in a sculpture from that time.

Vijaya married all four daughters of the former king Kertan

  •  
  •  
  • 1291-1292:
  • Kublai Khan despatched a princess as replacement bride for the Persian king Arghun, by sea since she had encountered problems on the land journey – escorted by the three Polos, returning home after almost two decades, with messages from the khan for the pope and the kings of Christendom.
    Marco Polo, The Travels, p.42-43. (See also Frances Wood, Did Marco Polo go to China? She argues that the whole account, supposedly dictated in Genoa in 1298, was largely invented. In any case a lot of information came into European circulation, albeit partially garbled.)
  • 1292-1293:
  • Kublai Khan sent 1000 ships to attack Java. Hit by a typhoon, and refused permission to land in Champa, the fleet arrived enfeebled. Vijaya, the ruler of Majapahit, joined the Mongols to attack Kediri, and then launched a surprise attack on the Mongols, who withdrew.
    http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/Indonesia/100.htm
  • 1292:
  • Queen The Return Nata Pali I
  • ruled the Kingdom of Hedgehog, West Kalimantan.

  • 1292
  • Kertanegara  was eventually murdered in 1292 by the king of Kediri

  • So powerful did become, in fact, that Kublai Khan,
  • the Mongol emperor of China sent ambassador, a gesture which so enraged
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 1292
  • Akhirnya pada tahun 1292 Jayakatwang berhasil mengalahkan Kertanegara dan membangun kembali kejayaan Kerajaan Kediri.
  • 1292
  • Pengelana Venesia Marco Polo (1292)[6][7] yang singgah di Sumatera menulis bahwa penduduk pedalaman pada umumnya masih belum beragama Islam
  •  
  • 1292
  • Para geografer muslim abad ke-9 dan 10, seperti Ibnu Khurdadzbih dan Al Biruni, menuliskan bahwa Sumatera (yang mereka sebut Zabaj) adalah bagian rute perdagangan mereka menuju Cina.[5]
  • Pengelana Venesia Marco Polo (1292)[6][7] yang singgah di Sumatera menulis bahwa penduduk pedalaman pada umumnya masih belum beragama Islam
  •  
  • Mystery 13th Century eruption traced to Lombok, Indonesia
  • By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News
  • The bowl that is today Segara Anak Crater Lake formed after the eruption
  • Continue reading the main story
  • Related Stories
  • ‘World’s largest volcano’ discovered
  • Volcanic ‘scream’ precedes eruption
  • Volcano catastrophe idea ‘dismissed’
  • Scientists think they have found the volcano responsible for a huge eruption that occurred in the 13th Century.
  • The mystery event in 1257 was so large its chemical signature is recorded in the ice of both the Arctic and the Antarctic.
  • European medieval texts talk of a sudden cooling of the climate, and of failed harvests.
  • In the PNAS journal, an international team points the finger at the Samalas Volcano on Lombok Island, Indonesia.
  • Little remains of the original mountain structure – just a huge crater lake.
  • The team has tied sulphur and dust traces in the polar ice to a swathe of data gathered in the Lombok region itself, including radiocarbon dates, the type and spread of ejected rock and ash, tree-rings, and even local chronicles that recall the fall of the Lombok Kingdom sometime in the 13th Century.
  • “The evidence is very strong and compelling,” Prof Clive Oppenheimer, from Cambridge University, UK, told the BBC’s Science In Action programme.
  • Co-worker Prof Franck Lavigne, from the Pantheon-Sorbonne University, France, added: “We conducted something similar to a criminal investigation.
  •  
  •  
  • in 1293.
  •  
  • By that time, a rebel from Kediri, Jayakatwang had usurped and killed Kertanagara.
  • 1293
  • Runtuhnya Kediri
    Setelah berhasil mengalah kan Kertanegara, Kerajaan Kediri bangkit kembali di bawah pemerintahan Jayakatwang. Salah seorang pemimpin pasukan Singasari, Raden Wijaya, berhasil meloloskan diri ke Madura.
  • Karena perilakunya yang baik, Jayakatwang memperbolehkan Raden Wijaya untuk membuka Hutan Tarik sebagai daerah tempat tinggalnya. Pada tahun 1293, datang tentara Mongol yang dikirim oleh Kaisar Kubilai Khan untuk membalas dendam terhadap Kertanegara.
  • Keadaan ini dimanfaatkan Raden Wijaya untuk menyerang Jayakatwang. Ia bekerjasama dengan tentara Mongol dan pasukan Madura di bawah pimpinan Arya Wiraraja untuk menggempur Kediri. Dalam perang tersebut pasukan Jayakatwang mudah dikalahkan.
  • Setelah itu tidak ada lagi berita tentang Kerajaan Kediri.
  • Atas: Arca Syiwa ini dibangun pada masa Kerajaan Kediri yang bercorak Hindu sebagai persembahan kepada Dewa Syiwa.
  • Kiri atas :
  • Kerjasama tentara Mongol dan pasukan Arya Wiraraja dapat mengalahkan pasukan Kediri di bawah pimpinan Jayakatwang.
    Sumber : Syukur, Abdul, Ensiklopedi Umum untuk Pelajar , Jilid 5, Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve, 2005. Halaman 115.
  • 1293
  • Pada 1293 pasukan Mongol menyerang Kerajaan Singasari. Namun Kertanegara telah dibunuh oleh raja Kediri, Jayakatwang, setahun sebelumnya. Singasari kemudian dikuasai oleh Jayakatwang
  • .
  • Atas: Arca Dwarapala merupakan salah satu peninggalan Kerajaan Singasari.
  •  
  • Atas : Candi Kidal dibangun di Rejokidal, Tumpang, Malang, yang dipersembahkan kepada Anusapati, raja kedua dan anak tiri Ken Arok.
  • Sumber : Syukur, Abdul, Ensiklopedi Umum untuk Pelajar , Jilid 9, Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve, 2005. Halaman 110.
  • 1293
  • Majapahit’s empire on Java
  • Intro
  • Sejarah Ringkas Kerajaan Majapahit
  • ( Junus Satrio,2010)
  • Setelah raja Kertanegara  gugur, kerajaan Singpsari  berada di bawah kekuasaan raja Jayakatwang dari Kadiri. Salah satu keturunan penguasa Singosari, yaitu Raden Wijaya, kemudian berusaha merebut kembali kekuasaan nenek moyangnya.
  • Ia adalah keturunan Ken Angrok, raja Singosari pertama dan anak dari Dyah Lembu Tal.
  • Ia juga dikenal dengan nama lain, yaitu Nararyya Sanggramawijaya. Menurut sumber sejarah, Raden Wijaya sebenarnya adalah mantu Kertanegara yang masih terhitung keponakan.
  •  
  • Kitab Pararaton menyebutkan bahwa ia mengawini dua anak sang raja sekaligus, tetapi kitab Negarakertagama menyebutkan bukannya dua melainkan keempat anak perempuan Kertanegara dinikahinya semua. Pada waktu Jayakatwang menyerang Singosari , Raden Wijaya diperintahkan untuk mempertahankan ibukota di arah utara.
  • Kekalahan yang diderita Singosari  menyebabkan Raden Wijaya mencari perlindungan ke sebuah desa bernama Kudadu, lelah dikejar-kejar musuh dengan sisa pasukan tinggal duabelas orang.
  • Berkat pertolongan Kepala Desa Kudadu, rombongan Raden Wijaya dapat menyeberang laut ke Madura dan di sana memperoleh perlindungan dari Aryya Wiraraja, seorang bupati di pulau ini. Berkat bantuan Aryya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya kemudian dapat kembali ke Jawa dan diterima oleh raja Jayakatwang. Tidak lama kemudian ia diberi sebuah daerah di hutan T?rik untuk dibuka menjadi desa, dengan dalih untuk mengantisipasi serangan musuh dari arah utara sungai Brantas. Berkat bantuan Aryya Wiraraja ia kemudian mendirikan desa baru yang diberi nama Majapahit. Di desa inilah Raden Wijaya kemudian memimpin dan menghimpun kekuatan, khususnya rakyat yang loyal terhadap almarhum Kertanegara yang berasal dari daerah Daha dan Tumapel. Aryya Wiraraja sendiri menyiapkan pasukannya di Madura untuk membantu Raden Wijaya bila saatnya diperlukan. Rupaya ia pun kurang menyukai raja Jayakatwang.
  • Tidak terduga sebelumnya bahwa pada tahun 1293 Jawa kedatangan pasukan dari Cina yang diutus oleh Kubhilai Khan untuk menghukum Singhas?ri atas penghinaan yang pernah diterima utusannya pada tahun 1289. Pasukan berjumlah besar ini setelah berhenti di Pulau Belitung untuk beberapa bulan dan kemudian memasuki Jawa melalui sungai Brantas langsung menuju ke Daha. Kedatangan ini diketahui oleh Raden Wijaya, ia meminta izin untuk bergabung dengan pasukan Cina yang diterima dengan sukacita. Serbuan ke Daha dilakukan dari darat maupun sungai yang berjalan sengit sepanjang pagi hingga siang hari. Gabungan pasukan Cina dan Raden Wijaya berhasil membinasakan 5.000 tentara Daha. Dengan kekuatan yang tinggal setengah, Jayakatwang mundur untuk berlindung di dalam benteng. Sore hari, menyadari bahwa ia tidak mungkin mempertahankan lagi Daha, Jayakatwang keluar dari benteng dan menyerahkan diri untuk kemudian ditawan oleh pasukan Cina.
  • Dengan dikawal dua perwira dan 200 pasukan Cina, Raden Wijaya minta izin kembali ke Majapahit untuk menyiapkan upeti bagi kaisar Khubilai Khan. Namun dengan menggunakan tipu muslihat kedua perwira dan para pengawalnya berhasil dibinasakan oleh Raden Wijaya. Bahkan ia berbalik memimpin pasukan Majapahit menyerbu pasukan Cina yang masih tersisa yang tidak menyadari bahwa Raden Wijaya akan bertindak demikian. Tiga ribu anggota pasukan kerajaan Yuan dari Cina ini dapat dibinasakan oleh pasukan Majapahit, selebihnya melarikan dari keluar Jawa dengan meninggalkan banyak korban. Akhirnya cita-cita Raden Wijaya untuk menjatuhkan Daha dan membalas sakit hatinya kepada Jayakatwang dapat diwujudkan dengan memanfaatkan tentara asing. Ia kemudian memproklamasikan berdirinya sebuah kerajaan baru yang dinamakan Majapahit. Pada tahun 1215 Raden Wijaya dinobatkan sebagai raja pertama dengan gelar ?ri K?rtar?jasa Jayawardhana. Keempat anak Kertanegara dijadikan permaisuri dengan gelar ?ri Parame?wari Dyah Dewi Tribh?wane?wari, ?ri Mah?dewi Dyah Dewi Narendraduhit?, ?ri Jayendradewi Dyah Dewi Prajny?paramit?, dan ?ri R?jendradewi Dyah Dewi Gayatri. Dari Tribh?wane?wari ia memperoleh seorang anak laki bernama Jayanagara sebagai putera mahkota yang memerintah di Kadiri. Dari Gayatri ia memperoleh dua anak perempuan, Tribh?wanottunggadewi Jayawisnuwardhani yang berkedudukan di Jiwana (Kahuripan) dan R?jadewi Mah?r?jasa di Daha. Raden Wijaya masih menikah dengan seorang isteri lagi, kali ini berasal dari Jambi di Sumatera bernama Dara Petak dan memiliki anak darinya yang diberi nama Kalag?m?t. Seorang perempuan lain yang juga datang bersama Dara Petak yaitu Dara Jingga, diperisteri oleh kerabat raja bergelar ‘dewa’ dan memiliki anak bernama Tuhan Janaka, yang dikemudian hari lebih dikenal sebagai Adhityawarman, raja kerajaan Malayu di Sumatera. Kedatangan kedua orang perempuan dari Jambi ini adalah hasil diplomasi persahabatan yaang dilakukan oleh K?rtan?gara kepada raja Malayu di Jambi untuk bersama-sama membendung pengaruh Kubhilai Khan. Atas dasar rasa persahabatan inilah raja Malayu, ?rimat Tribh?wanar?ja Mauliwarmadewa, mengirimkan dua kerabatnya untuk dinikahkan dengan raja Singhas?ri. Dari catatan sejarah diketahui bahwa Dara Jingga tidak betah tinggal di Majapahit dan akhirnya pulang kembali ke kampung halamannya.
  • Raden Wijaya wafat pada tahun 1309 digantikan oleh Jayan?gara. Seperti pada masa akhir pemerintahan ayahnya, masa pemerintahan raja Jayan?gara banyak dirongrong oleh pemberontakan orang-orang yang sebelumnya membantu Raden Wijaya mendirikan kerajaan Majapahit. Perebutan pengaruh dan penghianatan menyebabkan banyak pahlawan yang berjasa besar akhirnya dicap sebagai musuh kerajaan. Pada mulanya Jayan?gara juga terpengaruh oleh hasutan Mah?pati yang menjadi biang keladi perselisihan tersebut, namun kemudian ia menyadari kesalahan ini dan memerintahkan pengawalnya untuk menghukum mati orang kepercayaannya itu. Dalam situasi yang demikian muncul seorang prajurit yang cerdas dan gagah berani bernama Gajah Mada. Ia muncul sebagai tokoh yang berhasil mamadamkan pemberontakan Kuti, padahal kedudukannya pada waktu itu hanya berstatus sebagai pengawal raja (b?k?l bhayangk?ri). Kemahirannya mengatur siasat dan berdiplomasi dikemudian hari akan membawa Gajah Mada pada posisi yang sangat tinggi di jajaran pemerintahan kerajaan Majapahit, yaitu sebagai Mahamantri kerajaan.
  • Pada masa Jayan?gara hubungan dengan Cina kembali pulih. Perdagangan antara kedua negara meningkat dan banyak orang Cina yang menetap di Majapahit. Jayan?gara memerintah sekitar 11 tahun, pada tahun 1328 ia dibunuh oleh tabibnya yang bernama Tanca karena berbuat serong dengan isterinya. Tanca kemudian dihukum mati oleh Gajah Mada.
  • Karena tidak memiliki putera, tampuk pimpinan Majapahit akhirnya diambil alih oleh adik perempuan Jayan?gara bernama Jayawisnuwarddhani, atau dikenal sebagai Bhre Kahuripan sesuai dengan wilayah yang diperintah olehnya sebelum menjadi ratu. Namun pemberontakan di dalam negeri yang terus berlangsung menyebabkan Majapahit selalu dalam keadaan berperang. Salah satunya adalah pemberontakan Sad?ng dan Keta tahun 1331 memunculkan kembali nama Gajah Mada ke permukaan. Keduanya dapat dipadamkan dengan kemenangan mutlak pada pihak Majapahit. Setelah persitiwa ini, Mahapatih Gajah Mada mengucapkan sumpahnya yang terkenal, bahwa ia tidak akan amukti palapa sebelum menundukkan daerah-daerah di Nusantara, seperti Gurun (di Kalimantan), Seran (?), Tanjungpura (Kalimantan), Haru (Maluku?), Pahang (Malaysia), Dompo (Sumbawa), Bali, Sunda (Jawa Barat), Palembang (Sumatera), dan Tumasik (Singapura). Untuk membuktikan sumpahnya, pada tahun 1343 Bali berhasil ia ditundukan.
  • Ratu Jayawisnuwaddhani memerintah cukup lama, 22 tahun sebelum mengundurkan diri dan digantikan oleh anaknya yang bernama Hayam wuruk dari perkawinannya dengan Cakradhara, penguasa wilayah Singh?sari. Hayam Wuruk dinobatkan sebagai raja tahun 1350 dengan gelar ?ri Rajasan?gara. Gajah Mada tetap mengabdi sebagai Patih Hamangkubh?mi (mah?patih) yang sudah diperolehnya ketika mengabdi kepada ibunda sang raja. Di masa pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk inilah Majapahit mencapai puncak kebesarannya. Ambisi Gajah Mada untuk menundukkan nusantara mencapai hasilnya di masa ini sehingga pengaruh kekuasaan Majapahit dirasakan sampai ke Semenanjung Malaysia, Sumatera, Kalimantan, Maluku, hingga Papua. Tetapi Jawa Barat baru dapat ditaklukkan pada tahun 1357 melalui sebuah peperangan yang dikenal dengan peristiwa Bubat, yaitu ketika rencana pernikahan antara Dyah Pitalok?, puteri raja Pajajaran, dengan Hayam Wuruk berubah menjadi peperangan terbuka di lapangan Bubat, yaitu sebuah lapangan di ibukota kerajaan yang menjadi lokasi perkemahan rombongan kerajaan tersebut. Akibat peperangan itu Dyah Pitalok? bunuh diri yang menyebabkan perkawinan politik dua kerajaan di Pulau Jawa ini gagal. Dalam kitab Pararaton disebutkan bahwa setelah peristiwa itu Hayam Wuruk menyelenggarakan upacara besar untuk menghormati orang-orang Sunda yang tewas dalam peristiwa tersebut. Perlu dicatat bawa pada waktu yang bersamaan sebenarnya kerajaan Majapahit juga tengah melakukan eskpedisi ke Dompo (Padompo) dipimpin oleh seorang petinggi bernama Nala.
  • Setelah peristiwa Bubat, Mah?patih Gajah Mada mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya karena usia lanjut, sedangkan Hayam Wuruk akhirnya menikah dengan sepupunya sendiri bernama P?duka ?ori, anak dari Bhre W?ngk?r yang masih terhitung bibinya.
  • Di bawah kekuasaan Hayam Wuruk kerajaan Majapahit menjadi sebuah kerajaan besar yang kuat, baik di bidang ekonomi maupun politik. Hayam Wuruk memerintahkan pembuatan bendungan-bendungan dan saluran-saluran air untuk kepentingan irigasi dan mengendalikan banjir. Sejumlah pelabuhan sungai pun dibuat untuk memudahkan transportasi dan bongkar muat barang. Empat belas tahun setelah ia memerintah, Mah?patih Gajah Mada meninggal dunia di tahun 1364. Jabatan patih Hamangkubh?mi tidak terisi selama tiga tahun sebelum akhirnya Gajah Enggon ditunjuk Hayam Wuruk mengisi jabatan itu. Sayangnya tidak banyak informasi tentang Gajah Enggon di dalam prasasti atau pun naskah-naskah masa Majapahit yang dapat mengungkap sepak terjangnya.
  • Raja Hayam Wuruk wafat tahun 1389. Menantu yang sekaligus merupakan keponakannya sendiri yang bernama Wikramawarddhana naik tahta sebagai raja, justru bukan Kusumawarddhani yang merupakan garis keturunan langsung dari Hayam Wuruk. Ia memerintah selama duabelas tahun sebelum mengundurkan diri sebagai pendeta. Sebelum turun tahta ia menujuk puterinya, Suhita menjadi ratu. Hal ini tidak disetujui oleh Bhre Wirabh?mi, anak Hayam Wuruk dari seorang selir yang menghendaki tahta itu dari keponakannya. Perebutan kekuasaan ini membuahkan sebuah perang saudara yang dikenal dengan Perang Par?gr?g. Bhre Wirabhumi yang semula memperoleh kemenanggan akhirnya harus melarikan diri setelah Bhre Tumap?l ikut campur membantu pihak Suhita. Bhre Wirabh?mi kalah bahkan akhirnya terbunuh oleh Raden Gajah. Perselisihan keluarga ini membawa dendam yang tidak berkesudahan. Beberapa tahun setelah terbunuhnya Bhre Wirabh?mi kini giliran Raden Gajah yang dihukum mati karena dianggap bersalah membunuh bangsawan tersebut.
  • Suhita wafat tahun 1477, dan karena tidak mempunyai anak maka kedudukannya digantikan oleh adiknya, Bhre Tumap?l Dyah K?rtawijaya. Tidak lama ia memerintah digantikan oleh Bhre Pamotan bergelar ?ri R?jasawardhana yang juga hanya tiga tahun memegang tampuk pemerintahan. Bahkan antara tahun 1453-1456 kerajaan Majapahit tidak memiliki seorang raja pun karena pertentangan di dalam keluarga yang semakin meruncing. Situasi sedikit mereda ketika Dyah S?ryawikrama Giri?awardhana naik tahta. Ia pun tidak lama memegang kendali kerajaan karena setelah itu perebutan kekuasaan kembali berkecambuk. Demikianlah kekuasaan silih berganti beberapa kali dari tahun 1466 sampai menjelang tahun 1500. Berita-berita Cina, Italia, dan Portugis masih menyebutkan nama Majapahit di tahun 1499 tanpa menyebutkan nama rajanya. Semakin meluasnya pengaruh kerajaan kecil Demak di pesisir utara Jawa yang menganut agama Islam, merupakan salah satu penyebab runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit. Tahun 1522 Majapahit tidak lagi disebut sebagai sebuah kerajaan melainkan hanya sebuah kota. Pemerintahan di Pulau Jawa telah beralih ke Demak di bawah kekuasaan Adipati Unus, anak Raden Patah, pendiri kerajaan Demak yang masih keturunan Bhre Kertabh?mi. Ia menghancurkan Majapahit karena ingin membalas sakit hati neneknya yang pernah dikalahkan raja Girindrawarddhana Dyah Ranawijaya. Demikianlah maka pada tahun 1478 hancurlah Majapahit sebagai sebuah kerajaan penguasa nusantara dan berubah satusnya sebagai daerah taklukan raja Demak. Berakhir pula rangkaian penguasaan raja-raja Hindu di Jawa Timur yang dimulai oleh Keng Angrok saat mendirikan kerajaan Singh?sari, digantikan oleh sebuah bentuk kerajaan baru bercorak agama Islam.
  • Ironisnya, pertikaian keluarga dan dendam yang berkelanjutan menyebabkan ambruknya kerajaan ini, bukan disebabkan oleh serbuan dari bangsa lain yang menduduki Pulau Jawa.
  • (Sumber : http://www.majapahit-kingdom.com)
  •  
  • Kertanegara’s assertiveness
  • brought him into conflict with the new Mongol rulers of China,
  • who objected to his attempts to establish hegemony over the southern approaches to the Melaka Strait.
  • The Mongol emperor Kublai Khan then sent envoys to Java to demand Kertanegara’s formal submission;
  • he responded by mutilating and sending them back.
  • The angry Khan then sent a military expedition to punish the Javanese,
  • but by the time it arrived Kertanegara had been killed in a rebellion.
  • 1293
  • In a piece of deft diplomacy, Kertanegara’s son-in-law,
  • Kertarajasa,
  • enlisted the help of the Mongol troops to overthrow the usurper before turning on the Mongols and driving them out in 1293.
  • The empire which he founded, Majapahit, became the most powerful of all the early Javanese kingdoms. The 14th century chronicle, Nagarakertagama (now known as the Desawarnyana), gives a detailed insight into life in Majapahit.
  •  
  •  
  • the great Khan that in 1293
  • he sent a powerful fleet to Java to avenge the insult.
  • The fleet landed only to discover that Kartanegara had already died at the hands of Jayakatwang, one of his vassals.The Chinese remained on Javanese soil for about a year just long enough to defeat the muderous Jayakatwang.
  • Battles raged back and forth across the Brantas valley for many months,
  • eventually producing victory for Kertanegara’s son-in-low, Wijaya, and his Chinese allies.
  • In the end Wijaya entrapped the Mongol generals and chased the foreign troops back to their ships.
  • The Chinese fleet returned to China, and its commanders were severely punished by the great Khan for their failure to subdue Java
  • .Wijaya married four of Kertanegara’s daughters
  • and established a new capital in 1294 on the bank of the Brantas River between Kediri and the sea (near present-day Trowulan). This was an area known for its pahit (bitter) maja fruits, and
  • the new kingdom became known as Majapahit.
  • The capital citu was constructed entirely of red bricks, only the foundations of which now remain. Aerial photographs reveal that the city had an extensive system of canals and barges were probably used to transport rice and other trade goods down the river from Majapahit to the seaport as the mouth of the Brantas.

Raden Wijaya is the name commonly applied by historians to refer to the founder of Majapahit Kingdom. This name is contained in Pararaton written around the end of the 15th century. Somepermanences Pararaton then wrote it in full, namely Raden Harsawijaya. Yet according to the memorial statue grow up, during the life Wijaya (Century 13 or 14) use raden fee simple has not been in good odor.

Nagarakretagama written in the intermediatory of the 14th century called the founder of Majapahit named Dyah Wijaya. Dyah cryptonym is a denominate of brilliance that congregational at that omnisciency and became the forerunners of the drop head Raden. Raden own terms is estimated to under construction from the word Dyah or Ra Ra Ra Dyan or Hadyan.

The character name of the founder of Majapahit the most confiscate is Nararya Sanggramawijaya, because this name is contained in the epitaph Kudadu issued by Wijaya himself in 1294. Nararya canon is in addition a cognomen of high life, although the MBA Dyah more frequently misspent.
 
Origins
According
Pararaton, Raden Wijaya was the son Mahisa Campaka, a prince of the kingdom Singhasari.

According to Reader Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Raden Wijaya was the son of the couple Rakeyan Jayadarma and Dyah Ox Tal. His father was the son of King Master Darmasiksa, king of the Kingdom of Sunda Galuh, while his mother was the daughter of the Kingdom Singhasari Mahisa Campaka. After Rakeyan Jayadarma died poisoned enemy, Ox-Tal returned to Singhasari bring Wijaya. Thus, Raden Wijaya is a mix of Sundanese and Javanese blood.

The story above is similar to the Babad Tanah Jawi who called the founder of the kingdom of Majapahit named Jake Sesuruh son of King Sri Pamekas king Pajajaran Kingdom, which is also located in the Sunda region. Jake Sesuruh fled to the east because the defeated his half-brother named Siyung Vanara. He then built the Kingdom of Majapahit and turned to quell Siyung Vanara.

News at the top as opposed to calling Dyah Nagarakretagama Ox-Tal was a man, son Narasinghamurti. This text Ox-Tal praised as a courageous officer Yuda and was the father of Dyah Wijaya.

Pedigree in the family
Raden Wijaya the inscription Balawi in 1305 declared himself as a member of the House of Rajasa. According Nagarakretagama, Wijaya was the son Dyah Ox-Tal, the son Narasinghamurti. According Pararaton, Narasinghamurti nom de plume Mahisa Campaka Mahisa Wonga is the son of Ken Arok son of the founder teleng Wangsa Rajasa.

According to the inscription Balawi and Nagarakretagama, Raden Wijaya married with four daughters Kertanagara, the last king of the Kingdom of Singhasari, namely Tribhuwaneswari, Narendraduhita, Jayendradewi, and Gayatri. Meanwhile, according Pararaton, he only married two daughters Kertanagara only, and a daughter of the Malay kingdom called Dara Petak.

According to the inscriptions and inscriptions Sukamerta Balawi, Raden Wijaya had a son from Tribhuwaneswari named Jayanagara. Meanwhile, according Pararaton Jayanagara is the son of Dara Petak, and according to Nagarakretagama is the son Indreswari. Meanwhile, the Gayatri was born two daughters named Dyah Gitarja and Dyah Wiyat.

However there is also another opinion, which also took Dara Raden Wijaya who was also one of Orange’s daughter as his wife in addition to Malay kingdom of Dara Petak, because Dara Orange is also known to have called sira alaki dewa – he’s a married man who holds the deity.

Establish Village Majapahit
According to the Greek badge of office Kudadu, uprisings occurred in 1292 Bracelet-Bracelet Jayakatwang regent of the kingdom of power Singhasari. Raden Wijaya was appointed Kertanegara to quell Bracelet-Bracelet armed force who attacked wizard the north Singhasari. Wijaya managed to cold-shoulder the contrary. However, a larger rebel forces coming wizard the eastland and successfully killed Kertanagara.

Realizing this, Raden Wijaya fail refuge to escape to the north Singhasari Eggplant. However, due to hold off to be being chased by the enemies he chooses to go to the landmass. With the help of suburban heads Kudadu, he managed to avellan azure the Strait of Madura to be exposed to Arya Wiraraja Songeneb ruler (the old name Sumenep).

Together Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya figured airborne tactics to reextort the loo withdrawn the hands Jayakatwang. Wijaya promised, if he managed to beat Jayakatwang, the territory will be divided by two for himself and Wiraraja. The eminent maneuver was brought about. At eminent place, delivered the news to Jayakatwang Wiraraja Wijaya stated that knuckle. Jayakatwang who has resmelted his mother country, namely the kingdom of Kadiri accept it gladly. He plus sent a Pheidippides to pick up at the behavior Jungbiru Wijaya.

The juxtapositional tactic, Wijaya put in for Pull national protection scrub Eastern Hemisphere of Kadiri to be put together as a cast abouting tourism. Wijaya authority to ache to to settle there. Jayakatwang who likes to explore up at once grant it without wink. Wiraraja inter alia fire people to help Wijaya Songeneb open chase. According to Panji Wijayakrama Song, one of Madura achieve maja dyke that tastes bitter. Therefore, the duchy settlements categorically true Wijaya was vet given the name of Majapahit.

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  • Becoming the King of Majapahit
    Note the Yuan Dynasty in the year 1293 tells the Mongol army of 20,000 men led by Ike Mese landed in Java to punish Kertanagara, because in the year 1289 Kertanagara take off hurt the messenger who delivered the Mongol tickled Kublai Khan.

    Raden Wijaya take break no bones of the stack up of the Mongol army was to destroy Jayakatwang. He altogether invited Ike Mese to let you transmission that he is heir Kertanagara already dead. Wijaya astake-charge for help to regain power from the hands Jayakatwang Java Island, and after that he was unrefusing to declare swot to the Mongols.

    Jayakatwang hear comradery Wijaya and Ike Mese Kadiri immediately sent troops to bruise higher-ups. But the forces that just defeated by the Mongols. Furthermore, the compound of the Mongolian army and Majapahit and moves to attack Daha Madura, the cash of the chieftainry of Kadiri. Jayakatwang inconsequence gave up and taken prisoner in Mongol ship.

    After Jayakatwang defeated, Wijaya ask permission to go back to the Majapahit ghost surrender himself. Ike Mese allow it without suspicion. Arriving in Majapahit, Wijaya bowdlerize the Mongol soldiers who escorted him. He primeval led a attack in the hand in which the Mongol army Daha having a Conservative Party go. Sudden attack that made Ike Mese bygone ample soldiers and cramped to withdraw its forces to execute a will Java.

    Wijaya hereat crowned himself plastichearted of Majapahit. According to Song of Harsha Wijaya, the coronation took place on the 15th month in 1215 Karttika Saka, or coincides with 12 November 1293.

    The Government
    In the talk into of Majapahit, Wijaya crane his followers who had been faithful in the struggle. Nambi was appointed as governor of Majapahit, Ox-Sora as governor Daha, Arya Wiraraja and Ranggalawe as pasangguhan. In 1294 Wijaya also give gifts to the citified leader who expended to protect it just the same Kudadu escape to the island of Madura.

    In 1295 a wily advocating nominated Mahapati Ranggalawe inciting to rebellion. The taking off was triggered by Nambi incumbency as governor, and became the first civil war that hit the Majapahit. After Ranggalawe killed, Wiraraja archaic from his affirmation as pasangguhan. He promises Wijaya budget on territorial division of the pyramid. Wijaya grant it. So, since late, the series was only a half, where the east led by Wiraraja symposium the head in Lamajang (old name Lumajang).

    In the term 1300 occurred the stand over Ox-Sora, uncle Ranggalawe. In rebellion Ranggalawe, Sora impartial Majapahit. However, howbeit Ranggalawe cruelly ill-contrived by Kebo Anabrang, Sora goods not stay in hiding and turn clockwise to kill Anabrang. This decathlon Mahapati prying them bob up and down by the atmosphere, causing a wrench. At its peak, Sora and his companions, the Blue Elephant and Jurudemung Nambi lever were massacred in the courtyard.

    End of Life


  • According Nagarakretagama, Raden Wijaya died in 1309. He is buried in Antahpura and dicandikan in Simping as Harihara, or a combination of Vishnu and Shiva.

    Wijaya replaced Jayanagara as the next king.

  •  
  • 1293:
  • The establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit in the long run influence covers the whole of Borneo.
  •  
  • 1293
  • the majapahit empire:
  • The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500
  • 1293
  •  
  • The Majapahit founder,
  • after a brief exile in the favor of the Regent (Bupati) Arya Wiraraja of Madura, allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once Jayakatwang was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw from the isle after he launched a surprise attack. The huge Mongol Army in confusion had to withdraw as they were in hostile land and it was the last time for the monsoon sea-wind to depart for home, otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a totally hostile island.
  •  
  • Then, Wijaya ascended the throne as the first king of Majapahit on 1293 AD.
  • 1293
  • the majapahit empire:
  • The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 1293
  •  
  • The Majapahit founder,
  • after a brief exile in the favor of the Regent (Bupati) Arya Wiraraja of Madura, allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once Jayakatwang was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw from the isle after he launched a surprise attack. The huge Mongol Army in confusion had to withdraw as they were in hostile land and it was the last time for the monsoon sea-wind to depart for home, otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a totally hostile island.
  •  
  • Then, Wijaya ascended the throne as the first king of Majapahit on 1293 AD.
  •  
  • In the Lands of Tarik he built a strong hold, and the capital was named Majapahit also, after the bitter (pahit) maja fruit, a sort of tree which grew in abundance in that area.
  • His formal name was Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana.
  •  
  • But the newborn empire was not without challenge. Some of his most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi set several rebellion against the king, but they all died in misery.
  •  
  • It was suspected that mahapati Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of his opponents in order to gain the highest position in the government. But following the death of the last rebel Kuti, mahapati was captured and jailed for his tricks, and was sentenced to death
  • 1292-1293:
  • Kublai Khan sent 1000 ships to attack Java. Hit by a typhoon, and refused permission to land in Champa, the fleet arrived enfeebled. Vijaya, the ruler of Majapahit, joined the Mongols to attack Kediri, and then launched a surprise attack on the Mongols, who withdrew.
    http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/Indonesia/100.htm
  • C12th-13th:
  • tentative date of the Korang Cina wreck in Indonesia, and the North Palawan, Bolinao I, and San Antonio wrecks in the Philippines.
    Roxanna Brown, ‘History of shipwreck excavation in Southeast Asia’, 2004,
    http://nsc.iseas.edu.sg/documents/belitung/The%20Belitung%20Wreck/02_brown_040to055.pdf
  • C13th:
  • tentative date of a Chinese wreck found at Kota Cina in Medan Marelan, Sumatra.
    http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/ancient-trinkets-unearthed-in-medan/500412; http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/02/24/relics-shipwreck-found-medan.html
  • C13th:
  • Vietnam’s external trade was tightly controlled; goods were exchanged in designated places at ports and border towns. Chinese fabrics were traded for essential oils, ivory, salt and minerals. Javanese and Siamese vessels called at Van Don port. The shipbuilding industry was growing, producing ships with up to 100 oars.
    Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.36-38.
  • C13th:
  • Tentative date of a 25m ship among other balangay vessels of this date found at Butuan in Mindanao.
    http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/321334/scitech/science/massive-balangay-mother-boat-unearthed-in-butuan
  • mid to late C13th:
  • tentative date of wreck found in the Java Sea with 190 tonnes of iron (cast iron cauldrons and wrought iron bars), Chinese ceramics, Thai kendis, ivory and aromatics. The ship is of Indonesian wood, and possibly lash-lugged construction, but the cargo appears to have been divided by bulkheads.
    Michael Flecker, ‘The thirteenth-century Java Sea wreck: a Chinese cargo in an Indonesian ship’,
    http://www.maritime-explorations.com/Java Sea MM.pdf; http://maritime-explorations.com/java%20sea.htm
  • mid to late C13th:
  • tentative date of the Breaker Reef junk off NW Palawan in the Philippines, carrying ceramics from Fujian virtually identical to those of the Java Sea wreck, and copper items. The date was originally estimated by the excavators as late 11th/early 12th century, but has been assessed to C13th on the ceramic evidence.
    National Museum of the Filipino People, Manila, artefacts and caption; Southeast Asian Ceramics Museum newsletter III/7, Dec 06; Roxanna Brown, ‘History of shipwreck excavation in Southeast Asia’, 2004,
    http://nsc.iseas.edu.sg/documents/belitung/The%20Belitung%20Wreck/02_brown_040to055.pdf
  • late C13th:
  • tentative date of Investigador Shoal Junk wreck, at Kalayaan, Palawan, Philippines. The cargo included celadon and qingbai ceramics, and a large jar with 54kg bronze bracelets under a layer of tea, suggesting illicit trade. China had banned export of all metal.
    National Museum of the Filipino People, Manila, artefacts and caption.
  • 1297
  •  
  • Since the 13th century AD,
      Minangkabau society has undergone a series of shocks and social change, which basically has affected the value system and the institutional order of society based Minangkabau villages.
  • Hindu-Buddhist religion professed by the royal family, the old Minangkabau kingdom for many centuries since the 13th century was not much affect the Minangkabau people, who stick to traditional Minangkabau, which is guided by the teachings of nature Alam  takambang be a teacher.

  • Top of Form
  • 1275
    Pamelayu expedition sent by King Kertanegara of Singosari the Malay kingdom located or Damasraya dihulu Batanghari river. Damasraya namaya king and kingdom that ruled Mauliwarman once part of the kingdom of Srivijaya, which annexed the Malay kingdom.

  • 1295
    After  twenty years, in 1295 the army returned to Java Singosari among other things to bring the two daughter of King Muliawarman jinga blood and blood brother since both plots are very beautiful daughter. So that got the first mate of the Majapahit kingdom and his son later became King
    The oldest (blood orange) married a lady of high rank in the palace (the minister), his son Adityawarman, so he was the king’s grandson who was raised in the Kingdom Muliawarman Majpahit.
    The 14th and 15th Century
    Minangkabau kingdom developed around the 14th century and 15, Srivijaya kingdom had been through the following account after its heyday.

  •  
  •  
  • 1293
  • Sepasang Putri Malayu
  • Naskah Pararaton dan Kidung Panji Wijayakrama menyebutkan bahwa pasukan Kebo Anabrang kembali ke Jawa tahun 1293 membawa dua orang putri Malayu bernama Dara Jingga dan Dara Petak. Keduanya dipersembahkan kepada Raden Wijaya menantu Kertanagara. Kertanagara sendiri telah meninggal setahun sebelumnya.
  • Raden Wijaya merupakan raja pertama Kerajaan Majapahit. Ia mengambil Dara Petak sebagai istri yang kemudian melahirkan Jayanagara, raja kedua Majapahit. Sementara itu, Dara Jingga diserahkan kepada seorang “dewa”. Ia kemudian melahirkan Tuan Janaka yang kelak menjadi raja Malayu bergelar Mantrolot Warmadewa. Namun ada kemungkinan lain bahwa Raden Wijaya juga mengambil Dara Jingga sebagai istri, karena hal ini lumrah sebab Raden Wijaya pada waktu itu telah menjadi raja serta juga memperistri semua anak-anak perempuan Kertanagara. Dan ini dilakukan untuk menjaga ketentraman dan kestabilan kerajaan setelah peralihan kekuasaan di Singhasari.
  • Mantrolot Warmadewa identik dengan Adityawarman Mauli Warmadewa, putra Adwayawarman. Nama Adwayawarman ini mirip dengan Adwayabrahma, yaitu salah satu pengawal arca Amoghapasa dalam prasasti Padangroco tahun 1286. Saat itu Adwayabrahma menjabat sebagai Rakryan Mahamantri dalam pemerintahan Kertanagara. Jabatan ini merupakan jabatan tingkat tinggi. Mungkin yang dimaksud dengan “dewa” dalam Pararaton adalah tokoh ini. Dengan kata lain, Raden Wijaya menikahkan Dara Jingga dengan Adwayabrahma sehingga lahir Adityawarman.
  • Adityawarman sendiri menggunakan gelar Mauli Warmadewa. Hal ini menunjukkan kalau ia adalah keturunan Srimat Tribhuwanaraja. Maka, dapat disimpulkan kalau Dara Jingga (dan juga Dara Petak) adalah putri dari raja Dharmasraya tersebut. Sumber lain menyebutkan bahwa keduanya lahir dari permaisuri raja Malayu bernama Putri Reno Mandi.Dharmasraya Zaman Majapahit
  •  
  •  
  • MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
  • Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM
  • THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
  • MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
  • DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
  • PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
  • THE FOUNDER
  • Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
  • WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
  • SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
  • The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum
  • (Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
  • Showroom :
  •  
  • Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum
  • The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525
  • Based on
  • Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections
  • Edited By
  • Dr Iwan Suwandy
  • Limited Private Publication
  • special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011
  • ___________________________________________
  • TABLE OF CONTENT
  • 1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)
  • 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)
  • 3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389
  • 4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476
  • 5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525
  • _______________________________________________________________
  • THE MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM DURING WAR AND PEACE PART ONE 1293-1309
  • THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM(TIMBULNYA KERAJAAN MAJAPAHIT)
  • PREFACE
  • Until  this day I have never seen a book about the kingdom of Majapahit which arranged in chronological order with the relevant illustrations, such as coins, ceramics and other artifacts. As an example of a brief article below
  • Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains,[7] and some details of the history are rather abstract.[8] The main sources used by historians are: the Pararaton (‘Book of Kings’) written in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in Old Javanese.[9] Pararaton is focused upon Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk after which some events are covered narratively.[8] There are also some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese.
  • The Javanese sources incorporate some poetic mythological elements, and scholars such as C. C. Berg, a Dutch nationalist, have considered that the entire historical record to be not a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined.[10] Despite Berg’s approach, most scholars do not accept this view, as the historical record corresponds with Chinese materials that could not have had similar intention. The list of rulers and details of the state structure, show no sign of being invented.[8]
  • Ming Dynasty admiral Zheng He visited Majapahit. Zheng He’s translator Ma Huan wrote a detailed description about Majapahit and where the king of Java lived.[11] New findings in April 2011, indicate the Majapahit capital was much larger than previously believed after some artifacts were uncovered.[12]
  • History
  • Formation
  • The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar and the statue is now preserved at National Museum of Indonesia.
  • After defeating Melayu Kingdom[13] in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the region. Kublai Khan, the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and the Emperor of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute, insulted the Mongol envoy and challenged the Khan instead. As the response, in 1293, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java.
  • By that time, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura’s regent, Arya Wiraraja; Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, was given the land of Tarik timberland. He then opened that vast timberland and built a new village there. The village was named Majapahit, which was taken from a fruit name that had bitter taste in that timberland (maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter). When the Mongolian Yuan army sent by Kublai Khan arrived, Wijaya allied himself with the army to fight against Jayakatwang. Once Jayakatwang was destroyed, Raden Wijaya forced his allies to withdraw from Java by launching a surprise attack.[14] Yuan’s army had to withdraw in confusion as they were in hostile territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds home; otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a hostile island.
  • In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14] Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.
  • According to tradition, Wijaya’s son and successor, Jayanegara was notorious for immorality. One of his sinful acts was his desire on taking his own stepsisters as wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or “weak villain”. Approximately during Jayanegara’s reign, the Italian Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited Majapahit court in Java. In AD 1328, Jayanegara was murdered by his doctor, Tanca. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to replace him, but Rajapatni retired from court to become a Bhikkhuni. Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni’s auspices. Tribhuwana appointed Gajah Mada as the Prime Minister in 1336. During his inauguration Gajah Mada declared his Sumpah Palapa, revealing his plan to expand Majapahit realm and building an empire. During Tribhuwana’s rule, the Majapahit kingdom grew much larger and became famous in the area. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of her mother in AD 1350. She abdicated the throne in favour of her son, Hayam Wuruk.
  • Golden age
  • The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as “the golden age” of the archipelago.
  • The terracotta portrait of Gajah Mada. Collection of Trowulan Museum.
  • Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in AD 1350–1389. During this period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of prime minister, Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada’s command (AD 1313–1364), Majapahit conquered more territories and become the regional power. According to the book of Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.
  • Next to launching naval and military expeditions, the expansion of Majapahit Empire also involved diplomacy and alliance. Hayam Wuruk decided, probably for political reasons, to take princess Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) of neighboring Sunda Kingdom as his consort.[15] The Sundanese took this proposal as an alliance agreement. In 1357 the Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit, to accompany and marry his daughter with Hayam Wuruk. However Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda’s submission to Majapahit overlordship. The skirmish between the Sunda royal family and the Majapahit troops on Bubat square were unevitable. Despite the courageous resistance, the royal family were overwhelmed and decimated. Almost whole of the Sundanese royal party were viciously massacred.[16] Tradition mentioned that the heartbroken Princess committed suicide to defend the honour of her country.[17] The Pasunda Bubat tragedy become the main theme of Kidung Sunda, also mentioned in Pararaton, however it was never mentioned in Nagarakretagama.
  • The Nagarakertagama, written in 1365 depict a sophisticated court with refined taste in art and literature, and a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts in more or less legendary form from 14th century Majapahit’s power. Majapahit’s direct administration did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit’s claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses.[18]
  • In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada’s death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against a rebellion in Palembang,[4] contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada’s other renowned general was Adityawarman[citation needed], known for his conquest in Minangkabau.
  • The nature of the Majapahit empire and its extent is subject to debate. It may have had limited or entirely notional influence over some of the tributary states in included Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia over which of authority was claimed in the Nagarakertagama.[19] Geographical and economic constraints suggest that rather than a regular centralised authority, the outer states were most likely to have been connected mainly by trade connections, which was probably a royal monopoly.[4] It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.[4]
  • Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area.
  • Sampai hari ini saya belum pernah melihat buku tentang Kerajaan Majapahit yang disusun secara kronologis dengan illustrasi yang terkait seperti koin
  • ,keramik
  • , dan artefak lain . Sebagai contoh suatu artikel yang singkat dibawah ini.
  • Tetap masih sedikit bukti fisik terkait KerajaanMajapahit , [7] dan beberapa rincian sejarah agak abstrak [8] Sumber utama yang digunakan oleh sejarawan adalah: Pararaton (‘Kitab Raja-raja’) ditulis dalam bahasa Kawi dan Nagarakertagama dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno.. [9] Pararaton berfokus pada Ken Arok (pendiri Singhasari) tetapi mencakup beberapa fragmen cerita pendek mengenai terbentuknya Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, adalah sebuah puisi epik tua Jawa ditulis pada masa keemasan Majapahit di bawah pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk setelah beberapa peristiwa dilindungi naratif. [8] Ada juga beberapa prasasti dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno dan Cina.Sumber Jawa menggabungkan beberapa unsur mitologis puitis, dan sarjana seperti CC Berg, seorang nasionalis Belanda, telah mempertimbangkan bahwa seluruh catatan sejarah tidak akan catatan masa lalu, tetapi sebuah sarana supranatural dimana masa depan dapat ditentukan. [10 ] Meskipun pendekatan Berg, kebanyakan sarjana tidak menerima pandangan ini, sebagai catatan sejarah Cina sesuai dengan bahan yang tidak bisa memiliki niat serupa. Daftar penguasa dan rincian struktur negara, tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda yang diciptakan. [8]Laksamana Dinasti Ming Zheng He mengunjungi Majapahit. Zheng penerjemah Ma Huan Dia menulis sebuah deskripsi rinci tentang Majapahit dan di mana raja Jawa tinggal [11] Temuan baru pada bulan April 2011., Menunjukkan modal Majapahit jauh lebih besar dibandingkan sebelumnya percaya setelah beberapa artefak yang ditemukan. [12] Sejarah
    PembentukanPatung Harihara, dewa gabungan Siwa dan Wisnu. Itu adalah penggambaran didewakan kamar mayat dari Kertarajasa. Awalnya berlokasi di Candi Simping, Blitar dan patung sekarang diawetkan di Museum Nasional Indonesia.Setelah mengalahkan Kerajaan Melayu [13] di Sumatra pada 1290, Singhasari menjadi kerajaan paling kuat di wilayah ini. Kubilai Khan, Khan Besar Kekaisaran Mongol dan Kaisar Mongol Dinasti Yuan, ditantang Singhasari dengan mengirim utusan menuntut upeti. Kertanegara, penguasa terakhir Singhasari, menolak untuk membayar upeti, menghina utusan Mongol dan menantang Khan sebagai gantinya. Sebagai respon, pada 1293, Kubilai Khan mengirim ekspedisi besar-besaran dari 1.000 kapal ke Jawa.Pada saat itu, Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) dari Kediri, sebuah negara bawahan Singhasari, telah merebut dan membunuh Kertanegara. Setelah diampuni oleh Jayakatwang dengan bantuan dari bupati Madura’s, Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara anak-in-hukum, diberi tanah hutan Tarik. Dia kemudian membuka tanah hutan yang luas dan membangun sebuah desa baru di sana. Desa itu dinamai Majapahit, yang diambil dari nama buah yang memiliki rasa pahit di hutan yang (maja adalah nama buah dan pahit berarti pahit). Ketika tentara Mongol Yuan dikirim oleh Kubilai Khan tiba, Wijaya bersekutu dengan tentara untuk melawan Jayakatwang. Setelah Jayakatwang dihancurkan, Raden Wijaya memaksa sekutu-sekutunya untuk mundur dari Jawa dengan meluncurkan serangan mendadak tentara [14] Yuan sudah. ​​Untuk menarik dalam kebingungan ketika mereka berada di wilayah bermusuhan. Itu juga kesempatan terakhir mereka untuk menangkap angin monsun rumah, jika tidak, mereka akan harus menunggu selama enam bulan di sebuah pulau yang bermusuhan.Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14] Wijaya dirinya. Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.Menurut tradisi, putra dan penerus Wijaya, Jayanegara itu terkenal imoralitas. Salah satu tindakan berdosa sedang keinginannya pada stepsisters sendiri sebagai istri. Ia berhak Kala Gemet, atau “penjahat lemah”. Sekitar selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, para Pastor Italia Odoric dari Pordenone mengunjungi pengadilan Majapahit di Jawa. Di AD 1328, Jayanegara dibunuh oleh dokternya, Tanca. Ibu tirinya, Gayatri Rajapatni, seharusnya menggantikannya, tetapi Rajapatni pensiun dari pengadilan untuk menjadi bhikkhuni. Rajapatni menunjuk anak perempuannya, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, atau dikenal dalam nama resmi dirinya sebagai Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, sebagai ratu Majapahit di bawah naungan Rajapatni’s. Tribhuwana ditunjuk Gajah Mada sebagai Perdana Menteri di 1336. Selama pelantikannya Gajah Mada menyatakan Sumpah Palapa-nya, mengungkapkan rencananya untuk memperluas wilayah Majapahit dan membangun sebuah imperium. Selama pemerintahan Tribhuwana itu, kerajaan Majapahit berkembang jauh lebih besar dan menjadi terkenal di daerah tersebut. Tribhuwana menguasai Majapahit sampai kematian ibunya pada tahun AD 1350. Dia turun tahta takhta demi anaknya, Hayam Wuruk.Golden usia
  • The Bidadari anggun Majapahit, Bidadari langit emas dalam gaya Majapahit sempurna menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai “zaman keemasan” Nusantara.
    Potret terakota Gajah Mada. Koleksi Museum Trowulan.Hayam Wuruk, juga disebut Rajasanagara, memerintah Majapahit di AD 1350-1389. Selama periode ini, Majapahit mencapai puncaknya dengan bantuan perdana menteri, Gajah Mada. Di bawah komando Gajah Mada’s (AD 1313-1364), Majapahit menaklukkan wilayah lebih dan menjadi kekuatan regional. Menurut kitab Nagarakertagama Pupuh (canto) XIII dan XIV disebutkan beberapa negara bagian di Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, kepulauan Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, New Guinea, dan beberapa bagian pulau Filipina sebagai wilayah Majapahit di bawah kekuasaan. Sumber disebutkan ekspansi Majapahit telah menandai semaksimal kerajaan Majapahit.Next untuk meluncurkan ekspedisi angkatan laut dan militer, perluasan Kerajaan Majapahit juga terlibat diplomasi dan aliansi. Hayam Wuruk memutuskan, mungkin untuk alasan politik, untuk mengambil putri Citra Rashmi (Pitaloka) dari tetangga Kerajaan Sunda sebagai permaisuri nya [15]. Orang Sunda mengambil proposal ini sebagai perjanjian aliansi. Pada 1357 raja Sunda dan keluarga kerajaan-Nya datang ke Majapahit, untuk menemani dan menikahi putrinya dengan Hayam Wuruk. Namun Gajah Mada melihat acara ini sebagai kesempatan untuk menuntut penyerahan Sunda ke Majapahit penguasa atasan. Ini pertempuran antara keluarga kerajaan Sunda dan pasukan Majapahit di alun-alun Bubat adalah unevitable. Meskipun perlawanan berani, keluarga kerajaan kewalahan dan hancur. Hampir seluruh pihak kerajaan Sunda yang kejam dibantai. [16] Tradisi menyebutkan bahwa bunuh diri patah hati Putri berkomitmen untuk membela kehormatan negaranya [17] Tragedi Bubat Pasunda menjadi tema utama Kidung Sunda, juga disebutkan dalam Pararaton,. namun tidak pernah disebutkan dalam Nagarakretagama.The Nagarakertagama, yang ditulis pada 1365 menggambarkan pengadilan yang canggih dengan cita rasa halus dalam seni dan sastra, dan sistem yang kompleks ritual keagamaan. Penyair menggambarkan Majapahit sebagai pusat mandala raksasa yang membentang dari New Guinea dan Maluku ke Sumatra dan Semenanjung Melayu. tradisi lokal di banyak bagian Indonesia mempertahankan rekening dalam bentuk yang lebih atau kurang legendaris dari kekuasaan Majapahit abad ke-14. administrasi langsung Majapahit tidak melampaui Jawa Timur dan Bali, tapi tantangan untuk mengklaim Majapahit penguasa atasan di pulau-pulau terluar menarik tanggapan kuat. [18]Pada 1377, beberapa tahun setelah kematian Gajah Mada’s, Majapahit mengirim menghukum serangan laut terhadap pemberontakan di Palembang, [4] memberikan kontribusi ke ujung kerajaan Srivijayan. umum lainnya yang terkenal adalah Gajah Mada Adityawarman [rujukan?], yang dikenal karena penaklukannya di Minangkabau.Sifat dari kerajaan Majapahit dan luasnya adalah subjek untuk diperdebatkan. Ini mungkin memiliki pengaruh yang terbatas atau seluruhnya nosional atas beberapa negara jajahan di termasuk Sumatera, Semenanjung Melayu, Kalimantan dan Indonesia timur di mana wewenang diklaim dalam Nagarakertagama [19]. Geografis dan kendala ekonomi menunjukkan bahwa lebih dari biasa otoritas terpusat, negara-negara luar yang paling mungkin telah terhubung terutama oleh hubungan perdagangan, yang mungkin sebuah monopoli kerajaan. [4] Ia juga menyatakan hubungan dengan Champa, Kamboja, Siam, Birma bagian selatan, dan Vietnam, dan bahkan mengirim misi ke Cina. [4]Walaupun penguasa Majapahit diperpanjang kekuasaan atas pulau-pulau lain dan menghancurkan kerajaan tetangga, fokus mereka tampaknya telah pengendalian dan mendapatkan bagian yang lebih besar dari perdagangan komersial yang melewati nusantara. Tentang waktu Majapahit didirikan, pedagang Muslim dan proselytizers mulai memasuki daerah tersebut
  • Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas saya berusaha menyusun suatu buku yang menarik secara kronologis dengan illustarsi yang langka agar lebih menarik untuk dibaca oleh generasi muda yang sudah mulai banyak yang lupa dengan Kerajaan Majaphit yang sangat populer baik didalam maupun diluar negeri.Karya tulis ini masih banyak kekurangnya,oleh karena itu koreksi,saran dan tambahan informasi sangat diharapkan,atas eprhatiannya saya ucapkan terima kasih.
  • Jakarta Mei 2011
  • Dr Iwan Suwandy
  • THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS
  • A.PROLOG
  • 1266
  • year’s King of the kingdom Singosari Kertanegara have created the  inscription (discovered in 1911 in Pakis Kedu area) which contains writings in  Kawi language Pada tahun ini Raja Kertanegara dari kerajaan Singosari membuat prasasti (ditemukan tahun 1911 di Pakis daerah Kedu) yang berisi tulisan dalam bahasa kawi  1269
  • In 1269 the king kertanagara make seven pieces of inscriptions found in 1898 on the slopes of Mount Wilis, this inscription dating back to Kertanegara still in power at Singosari Kingdom.
  • Pada tahun 1269 raja kertanagara membuat 7 keping prasasti yang ditemukan tahun 1898 di lereng gunung Wilis, prasasti ini berasal dari zaman Kertanegara masih berkuasa di singosari.
  • .
  • 1289
  • (1) Padang Roco Statue Inscription
  • Padang Roco Inscription
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  • The statue of Amoghapasa on top of the inscription.
  • The Padang Roco Inscription, in Indonesian Prasasti Padang Roco, is an inscription dated 1286 CE, discovered near the source of Batanghari river, Padangroco temple complex, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia.
  • Pagaruyung Kingdom
  • Main Article: Rumah Gadang
  • Minangkabau royal seal from
    the 19th century.
  • Pagaruyung (also Pagarruyung and Pagar Ruyung) was the seat of Minangkabau kings, though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.
  • History
  • Adityawarman statue in the
    National Museum of Indonesia
  • Adityawarman is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra region between 1347 and 1375, most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artifacts recovered from Adityawarman’s reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues. Some of these items were found at Bukit Gombak, a hill near modern Pagarruyung, and it is believed a royal palace was located here.Collectively they were called the Kings of the Three Seats (Rajo Tigo Selo).
  • An inscribed stone from
    Adityawarman’s kingdom
  • The above information was inaccurate, because according to a report from Prof. Dr. Arlo Griffiths from Ecole institutions’ Francaise D’Extreme-Orient, published in the Jakarta newspaper Kompas, 1 June 2011, are as follows:
    Adityawarman has a son named Ananggawarman, padalah according to the reading of Griffith on the inscriptions found in the District Danah Army in 1900, it Ananggawarman ayng emeiliki ana named Aditywarman. Ananggawarman likelihood of having another name that is Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma who is known sebayai Adityawarman father. According to experts from mingkabau Budi, Adityawarman’s mother was a Malay princess named Dara Orange with a father named Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma. Dara Orange is one of the daughters of other Malays who with daughter Dara Petak Malay King submitted that time domiciled in Calendar, western Sumatra, from Singasari, east Java now. Submission melayu daughter was related to the transfer Amongphasa statue to be placed in Dhamasraya of the kingdom under King Kertanegara Singosari in Pamalayu expedition. Later, Dara Petak married to Raden Wijaya (In laws Kertanegara) and then Dara Petak Jaynegara birth who later became king of Majapahit replace Raden wijaya. Also important findings by Griffiths is the mention of the name Melayupura which has been commonly used in archaeological treasures, it turns out after re-read selbai Melayupura. One expert from West Sumatra alone, which is already 18 years Bob served in the BP3 Batusangkar say, a figure known to be King Malay Adityawarman Dhamasraya based watershed Batanghari. The county is now included in West Sumatra region Sijunjung District. According to Budi, Adityawarman who called himself as Sri Maharaja Royal was in power between the years 1347-1375, covering the area that is now called Calendar, flat land, up to Pasaman Sumabr. He added, “so far that has not been widely accepted is the fact bhwqa no direct relationship between Adityawarman with Pagaruyung kingdom which is also located in Tanah Datar. So far Adityawarman always regarded as the founder of the Kingdom Pagaruyung, whereas between Adityawarman and royal Pagaruyung no relationship. arkeologisnya yet discovered facts, at least until today, “said Budi
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  •  
  • PRASATI PADANG ROCO
  • Prasasti Padang Roco, dalam Bahasa Indonesia Prasasti Padang Roco, adalah prasasti 1286 Masehi, ditemukan di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, kompleks candi Padangroco, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung, Kabupaten Dharmasraya, Sumatra Barat, Indonesia.Prasasti ini ditemukan pada tahun 1911 di dekat sumber sungai Batanghari, Padangroco. prasasti ini diukir pada empat sisi dari batu berbentuk persegi panjang disajikan sebagai dasar patung Amoghapasa. Di sisi belakang patung ukiran prasasti disebut prasasti Amoghapasa dari periode kemudian di 1347 CE (NBG 1911: 129, 20e). Prasasti diukir dalam huruf Jawa kuno, menggunakan dua bahasa (bahasa Melayu Kuno dan Sansekerta) (Krom 1912, 1916, Moens 1924; dan Pitono 1966). Saat ini prasasti tersebut disimpan di Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan nomor kode inventaris D.198-6468 (dasar atau bagian prasasti) dan D.198-6469 (bagian patung)
  •  
  • .Pada Tahun 1930,Patung tersebut dipindahkan ke Kebun Binatang di Bukittinggi,lihatlah foto ibu saya dan ibu mertua Dr Ronny Handoko ahli kulit terkenal duduk dikaki patung tersebut.
  • kemudian patung dipindahkan ke Museum Gajag(museum pusat Jakarta),lihatlah kartu pos bergambar yang dieterbitkan Museum tersebut tahun 1940
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  • bandingkan dengan foto dibawahn ini dalam posisi berbeda,saya sudah mnelihatnya,dipahanya ada tanda bekas tergeser lama, menurut ceritanya dulu saat patung ada didalam sungai,diperguankan bagian paha tersebut untuk mencuci karena bagian lain tidak kelihatan karena terbenam dalam sungai.(apakah hal ini benar,harap konfirmasi dari para ahli arkeologi Indonesia,)
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  • Patung Adityawarman di
    Museum Nasional Indonesia
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  • Adityawarman diyakini telah mendirikan kerajaan dan memimpin wilayah Sumatera tengah antara 1347 dan 1375, kemungkinan besar mengendalikan perdagangan emas lokal. Beberapa artefak pulih dari pemerintahan Adityawarman’s termasuk jumlah batu yang mengandung prasasti, dan patung. Beberapa item ditemukan di Bukit Gombak, sebuah bukit dekat Pagaruyung modern, dan diyakini sebuah istana kerajaan yang terletak di sini.
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  • Informasi diatas ternyata kurang tepat sebab berdasarkan laporan dari Prof Dr Arlo Griffith dari lembaga Ecole’ Francaise D’Extreme-Orient Jakarta yang dimuat dalam surat kabar Kompas,1 juni 2011,adalah sebagai berikut:
  • Adityawarman memiliki anak bernama Ananggawarman, padalah menurut pembacaan Griffith pada prasasti yang ditemukan di Kabupaten danah Darat  tahun 1900, justru  Ananggawarman ayng emeiliki ana yang bernama Aditywarman. Ananggawarman kemungkina besar memiliki nama lain yaitu Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma yang selama ini diketahui sebayai ayah Adityawarman. Menurut Pakar dari mingkabau Budi, ibunda Adityawarman adalah seorang putri Melayu bernama Dara Jingga dengan ayah bernama Rakryan Adhwaya Brahma. Dara Jingga adalah salah satu putri Melayu yang bersama putri lainya Dara Petak yang diserahkan Raja Melayu waktu itu berkedudukan di Kabupaten Dharmasraya,Sumatera barat, dari Singasari,Jawa timur sekarang. Penyerahan putri melayu itu terkait dengan pengiriman Arca Amongphasa untuk ditempatkan di Dhamasraya dari kerajaan singosari dibawah Raja kertanegara dalam ekspedisi Pamalayu . Kelak, Dara Petak menikah dengan Raden Wijaya(Menantu Kertanegara) dan kemudian Dara Petak melahirkan Jaynegara yang kemudian menjadi raja Majapahit mengantikan Raden wijaya. Selain itu temuan penting oleh Griffiths ialah penyebutan nama Melayupura yang selama ini lazim digunakan dalam khazanah arkeologis, ternyata setelah dibaca ulang selbai Melayupura. Salah sorang pakar dari sumatera barat,yaitu Budi yang sudah 18 tahun bertugas di BP3 Batusangkar mengatakan, sosok Adityawarman diketahui menjadi Raja Melayu Dhamasraya yang berpusat di daerah aliran sungai Batanghari. Wilayah itu kini termasuk dalam kawasan Kabupaten Sijunjung Sumbar. Menurut Budi, Adityawarman yang menyebut dirinya sebagai Sri Maharaja Diraja itu berkuasa antara tahun 1347-1375, meliputi kawasan yang sekarang dinamakan Kabupaten Dharmasraya,Tanah datar, hingga Pasaman Sumabr. Ia menambahkan,”sejauh ini yang belum pernah diterima secara luas ialah fakta bhwqa tidak adanya hubungan langsung antara Adityawarman dengan kerajaan Pagaruyung yang juga berada di Kabupaten Tanah Datar. Sejauh ini Adityawarman selalu dianggap sebagai pendiri Kerajaan Pagaruyung,padahal antara Adityawarman dan kerajaan Pagaruyung tidak ada hubungannya. Belum ditemukan fakta arkeologisnya,setidaknya sampai hari ini”, kata Budi
  • (2)Pertulisan Kertanegara Pada patung Joko Dolok
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  •  Joko Dolog Statue
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Arca Joko Dolog

  • One of the heritage which is also a place that often visit or as tourist attractions. Because of that  Indonesia that is why very importon to  write the information  about one of heritage in the center of Surabaya, precisely in Apsari Park, near Grahadi and Tunjungan Building Plaza, which is in the area Embong Trengguli Road near the school building Petra Christian Junior High 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy is a statue of Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas, called the Holy Land Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG.. Maybe this is not one interesting sights for someone who didnot now history , but it can make a tour to the historian who wants to know the historical developments in Indonesia, especially Java island. From the statue’s why we included Joko Dolog as one international destination on the island of Java, Indonesia. In accordance with the topic of Java Indonesia International Destination.
  • Holy Land called Abhirati) better known by the name JOKO DOLOG. There is an inscription on the lapiknya a poem, using the ancient Javanese characters, and the Sanskrit language. In the inscription is mentioned a place called Wurare, so called by the name prasastinya inscription Wurare. Joko Dolog  is known by locals as the “fat boy” or “fat boy”.
 

Joko Dolog

  • Mahasobya Buddha statue is from the Cage Gajak. In 1817 moved to Surabaya by Resident de Salis. Elephant stables area was once a Kedoeng Wulan area, the area under the power of Majapahit. In the Dutch colonial period included in Surabaya residency, while the present including rural areas Bejijong, Trowulan Sub-district, Mojokerto – East Java. There are also saying that this Dolog Joko statue came from Candi Jawi notes related to the Buddha statue is missing Akshobya in the Temple. Mahasobya Buddha statue, made famous by the name of this Dolog Joko, now visited by many people who beg a blessing. But if you see lapiknya, called prasati Wurare, very interesting because it contains some historical data in the past.
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  • Arca Joko Dolog
  • Salah satu warisan yang juga merupakan tempat yang sering dikunjungi atau sebagai tempat wisata. Karena itu perlu ditulis informasi dari  tentang salah satu warisan di pusat kota Surabaya, tepatnya di Taman Apsari, dekat Grahadi dan Gedung Tunjungan Plaza, yang berada di kawasan Jalan Embong Trengguli dekat gedung sekolah SMP Kristen Petra 2 (Embong Wungu) . Legacy adalah patung Buddha Mahasobya (Akshobya – salah satu dari Lima Dhyani Buddha, yang disebut Tanah Suci Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG .. Mungkin ini bukan merupakan salah satu pemandangan yang menarik bagi  pribadi yang tidk mengerti sejarah , tetapi bisa membuat tur ahli sejarah yang ingin mengetahui perkembangan sejarah di Indonesia, khususnya pulau Jawa. Dari patung sebabnya aku termasuk Joko Dolog sebagai salah satu tujuan internasional di pulau Jawa, Indonesia. Sesuai dengan topik Jawa Indonesia Internasional Destination.Holy Tanah disebut Abhirati) lebih dikenal dengan nama JOKO DOLOG. Ada sebuah prasasti di lapiknya puisi, menggunakan karakter Jawa kuno, dan bahasa Sansekerta. Dalam prasasti tersebut disebutkan tempat yang bernama Wurare, sehingga disebut dengan nama prasasti Wurare prasastinya. Joko Dolog ini dikenal oleh penduduk setempat sebagai “fat boy” atau “fat boy”.
     

  • 1294
  • Pertulisan Kertarajasa Gunung Butak Mojokerto
  • B.THE RISING OF MAJAPAHIT KINGDOM
  • 1292 Tentara Jayakatong Kediri meruntuhkan Tumapel(SingasarI)
  • 1293
   

The Mongol (Yuan) invasion of Java in 1293 crushed the Hindu Kingdom of Singhasari, which only recently in 1290 by a victory over Srivijaya had become the foremost political power in the Malay Archipelago. In 1293 the Hindu Majapahit Empire, capital Trowulan, was established; it grew to become the dominant political power in eastern and central Java. According to the Nagarakertagama much of the Malay archipelago was recognizing the suzerainty of Majapahit

  • 1. The Tartar Army Landed At Java Beach which bring the imperial ceramic for the General
  • Tentara Tartar mendarat Di pantai Pulau Jawa yang membawa keramik kerajaan untuk para jendral.
  • (1) Prasati indonesia
  • Landing troops Kublai Khan begins with a poklamation  which states that the purpose of landing soldiers  that Java island  is going to punish premises avenge the insult kepad a Kertanegara Ambassador of China (China) in 1289 due to chopping (tattoos) Mengki face (Men-chi), in accordance international law , proklamation  it is around declaration stating reasons why the weapons removed from the sovereignty violated and declared war.Raden Wijaya run tactics by sending a first ministers (prime minister) of the Majapahit kingdom as his envoy to the Headquarters of the Chinese troops who landed, so Majapajit became companion in arms with the army to overthrow the kingdom of Kublai Kan Jayakatong in Kediri sehngga Tartar army gives recognition to the minister who was sent Wijaya. After the confession were traveling siasast armed conflicts to destroy the power of mid Brantas river flow with the help of foreign armed forces (tartar), and this pekrjaan successful, so after that stay clean majapahit area of ​​influence of Tartars who many times deceived anymore, so finally at the beginning of the year 1294 only there is a power that is in East Java that is Majapahit.Penyusunan powers initially took place within the borders keuasaan Jayakatong, then nexus of power anatar majapahit with Daha decided by way of rebellion took up arms. Tentaraa Pemberontakn with the help of foreigners, who then destroyed as well. There are two events that took place when tenatara Tartar landed on the shore of Java and this incident raises concerns for the study of communication between Asian countries during the 13th century.Ratification of the Majapahit Kingdom can be read in its charter, written on 11 September 1294 (Saka 1216), in which rewarded the village charter Kudadu, when read carefully:(1) The first in when before the king is still named Naraya Sanggramawijaya (2) Series bagimnda has now become king,  as descended guardian  from heaven to earth , (3) Rise of penance became King of Majapahit as mentioned in the inscription Butak: “After the King Jayakatong die face of the earth became bright kembali.Pada saka year-arja 1216nmaka Nara became Queen, and the ruling dipura majapahit, loved (the people) and above all musuhnya.Sebagai king Jaya Seri Baginda called “Queen Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. On 11 September 1294 according to the inscription Butaki, he already holds biseka (ie rajahbiseka = rose nobat be a king) and was named King with the official
  • Pendaratan tentara Kubilai Khan dimulai dengan suatu poklamasi yang menyatakan bahwa maksud tentara mendarat  kepulau Jawa itu ialah hendak menghukum denga membalas dendam kepad a Kertanegara  yang menghina Duta Tiongkok(Cina)  pada tahun 1289 karena mencacah(mentatto) wajah Mengki(Men-chi) ,sesuai hukuj internasional ,proklamsi ini adaalh pernyataan yang berisi sebab -sebab mengapa senjata diangkat akibat kedaulatan dilanggar dan memaklumkan perang.
  • Raden Wijaya menjalankan siasat dengan mengirim seorang menteri pertama(perdana Menteri) dari Kerajaan Majapahit sebagai utusannya ke Markas Besar tentara  Tiongkok yang mendarat, sehingga Majapajit menjadi teman seperjuangan dengan Tentara Kublai Kan untuk meruntuhkan kerajaan Jayakatong di Kediri sehngga tentara Tartar memberikan pengakuan kepada menteri yang diutus Wijaya. Setelah pengakuan itu berjalanlah siasast perperangan untuk menghancurkan kekuasaan dipertengahan aliran sungai Brantas dengan bantuan angkatan bersenjata asing (tartar), dan pekrjaan ini berhasil ,sehingga sesudah itu tinggal membersihkan daerah majapahit dari pengaruh Tartar yang sekian kalinya tertipu lagi, sehingga akhirnya pada permulaan tahun 1294 hanya ada satu kekuasaan yang ada di jawa Timur yaitu Majapahit.Penyusunan kekuasaan mula-mula berlangsung didalam perbatasan keuasaan Jayakatong,kemudian perhubungan anatar kekuasaan majapahit dengan DAHA diputuskan dengan jalan pemberontakan mengangkat senjata. Pemberontakn dengan bantuan tentaraa asing,yang kemudian dihancurkan pula. Ada dua peristiwa yang berlangsung ketika tenatara Tartar mendarat dipantai Jawa dan peristiwa ini menimbulkan perhatian bagi orang penelitian perhubungan antar negara asia pada abad 13.
  • Pengesahan Kerajaan Majapahit dapat dibaca dalam Piagam yang ditulis tanggal 11 September 1294(saka 1216) ,dalam piagam yang menghadiahkan desa Kudadu, bila dibaca secara saksama :
  • (1)Yang dahulu pada ketika sebelum menjadi raja masih bernama Naraya Sanggramawijaya(2) Seri bagimnda kini telah menjadi raja,sehimngga sebagai turun dari kayangan menjadi eplindung bumi,(3) Naik tobat jadi Prabu Majapahit seperti tersebut dalam prasasti Butak :” Setelah Raja Jayakatong meninggal muka bumi menjadi terang benderang kembali.Pada tahun saka 1216nmaka Nara-arja menjadi Ratu, dan berkuasa dipura majapahit,disayangi(rakyat) dan Jaya atas segala musuhnya.Sebagai raja Seri Baginda bernama “Ratu Kertarajasa Jayawardana”. Pada tanggal 11 September 1294 menurut prasasti Butaki, beliau sudah bergelar biseka(yaitu rajahbiseka=naik nobat jadi raja) dan sudah bernama prabu dengan resmi.
  • (2)China Source(Dokumen Tiongkok)(a) History of the Yuan Dynasty 1280-1367 book 210
  • Pada bulan kedua tahun 1292, kaisar mengeluarkan perintah untuk gubernur Fu-Kien, mengarahkan dia untuk mengirim Shi-pi, Ike Mase dan Kau Hsing di perintah tentara untuk menaklukkan Jawa, untuk mengumpulkan tentara dari Fukien, Kiangsi dan Hukuang dengan jumlah 20000, untuk menunjuk Komandan Wing kanan dan salah satu Waktu, serta Empat Komandan Sepuluh Ribu, untuk mengirim seribu kapal serta melengkapi mereka dengan ketentuan selama satu tahun dan dengan empat puluh ribu batang Silver.
  • Kaisar lebih lanjut memberikan lencana sepuluh harimau, lencana emas dan seratus empat puluh lencana perak bersama-sama dengan sepotong seratus sutra, bordir dengan emas, untuk tujuan merit bermanfaat.
  • Ketika Ike Mese dan associetes temannya penonton terakhir mereka, kaisar berkata kepada mereka: “Ketika Anda tiba di Jawa Anda jelas harus menyatakan kepada tentara dan rakyat negeri itu, bahwa Pemerintah Kekaisaran telah dulunya punya hubungan  dengan Jawa oleh utusan dari kedua belah pihak dan telah selaras baik dengan itu, tetapi bahwa mereka memiliki akhir-akhir ini memnyayat (codet)  wajah utusan Imperial Me’ng Chi dan bahwa Anda telah datang untuk menghukum mereka untuk itu “
  • Pada bulan kesembilan beberapa tentara dikumpulkan pada Chingyuan (nama lama Ning Po), Shi-pi dan Ike Mese pergi dengan tentara darat untuk Chuan-chou (Tjiang Tjioe), sementara Kau Hsing membawa bagasi dengan kapal. Dalam rangka 11 bulan pasukan dari tiga provinsi Fukien, Kiangsi dan Hukuang semua berkumpul di Chuan-Chou dan pada bulan berikutnya ekspedisi menaruh ke laut. Pada bulan pertama tahun 1293 mereka tiba di pulau lan Ko’-(Billiton) dan ada dibahas rencana mereka kampanye.
  • Pada bulan kedua Ike Mese dan salah satu komandan bawahannya membawa dengan mereka sekretaris dan didampingi oleh tiga petugas dari Kantor Pengamanan, yang dibebankan untuk mengobati Wirth Jawa dan countrtries lain, dan oleh Komandan Sepuluh Ribu, yang memimpin 500 laki-laki dan 10 kapal, masuk terlebih dahulu untuk membawa commandands Kaisar ke negara ini. Tubuh tentara diikuti untuk Karimon (Karimon Jawa) dan dari sini ke sebuah tempat di Jawa disebut tsuh Tu–ping (Tuban) dimana Shi-pi dan Kau Hsing bertemu Ike Mese lagi dan ditentukan, bersama dengan para pemimpin lain, bahwa setengah tentara harus dikirim ke darat dan setengah lainnya proceeed pada saat yang sama di pi-ships.Shih pergi melalui laut ke mulut sungai Sugalu (Sedayu) dan dari sana ke sungai kecil Pa-tsieh (Kali Mas) . Di sisi lain Kau Hsing dan Ike Mese memimpin sisa pasukan, cavalary sedang dan infanteri, dan berbaris dari tsuh Tu-ping-darat (Tuban), salah satu Komandan Sepuluh Ribu memimpin officiers unggul vanguard.Three dikirim di kapal cepat dari Sugalu (Sedayu), dengan perintah untuk pergi dulu ke jembatan mengambang Majapahit dan kemudian bergabung kembali tentara dalam perjalanan ke sungai Pa tsueh kecil (Kali Mas).
  • Para petugas dari Kantor Pacifications segera melaporkan bahwa anak-dalam-hukum pangeran Jawa, yang disebut Tuhan Pidjaya (Raden Wijaya) ingin membuat negaranya submit, tetapi karena ia tidak bisa meninggalkan pasukannya, orxder diberikan kepada tiga petugas untuk pergi dan membawa perdana menteri nya ch’aya Sih-la-nan-da dan empat belas orang lain, yang ingin datang dan menerima tentara Kaisar.
  • Pada hari 1 bulan ke-3, pasukan berkumpul di sungai Pa kecil-Tsieh (Kali Mas). Sungai ini telah di udik nya istana raja Tumapan (Tumapel) dan disxcharged dirinya ke laut yang disebut Pou-pa’n (laut Selatan Madura), adalah pintu masuk ke Jawa dan tempat yang mereka bertekad untuk melawan. Oleh menteri pertama dari kuan, Jawa Hi-ning-, tetap dalam sebuah perahu untuk melihat bagaimana peluang untuk melawan pergi, dia Ewas memanggil berulang kali, tapi tidak akan menyerah.
  • Para komandan tentara kerajaan (Tartar ) membuatbuat sebuah kamp dalam bentuk bulan sabit di tepi sungai dan meninggalkan feri memimpin sebuah komandan  Sepuluh Ribu, armada di sungai dan cavalary dan Infanteri di pantai kemudian maju bersama dan Hining-kuan melihat ini, meninggalkan perahu dan melarikan diri dimana semalam lebih dari seratus kapal-kapal besar, dengan kepala-setan   tertangkap.
  • Diperintah agar menyusun  kekuatan yang kuat untuk menjaga muara sungai Pa-Tsieh (Klai Mas) dan Badan pasukan  tentara kemudian maju.
  • Utusan yang  berasal dari Tuhan Pidjaya (Raden Wijaya), mengatakan bahwa Raja Kalang telah mengejarnya sejauh Majapahit dan meminta pasukan untuk rpotect dia, Ike Mese dan salah satu letnannya bergegas kepadanya, dalam rangka untuk mendorong dia dan petugas lain diikuti dengan tubuh pasukan untuk Chnag-ku, dengan tujuan untuk membantu mereka. Kau Hsing maju ke Majapahit, tapi mendengar bahwa itu tidak diketahui apakah prajurit Kalang jauh atau dekat, jadi ia kembali ke sungai tsueh Pe-(Kalia Mas), akhirnya ia mendapat informasi dari Ike Mese bahwa musuh akan tiba malam itu dan diperintahkan untuk kembali ke Majapait.
  • Pada hari ke-7 tentara Kalang tiba dari tiga sisi untuk menyerang Tuan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) dan pada hari ke-8, pagi-pagi, Ike Mese parert memimpin pasukan untuk terlibat musuh di selatan-timur dan membunuh beberapa ratusan dari mereka, sementara sisanya lari ke mountains.Towards tengah hari musuh datang juga dari barat-Selatan, Kau Hsing bertemu mereka lagi dan menjelang malam mereka kalah.
  • Pada tanggal 15 tentara dibagi menjadi tiga badan, dalam rangka untuk menyerang Kalang, disepakati bahwa pada hari ke-19 mereka harus bertemu di Taha (Daha) dan memulai pertempuran di mendengar suara p’au tersebut. Terlepas dari pasukan naik sungai, Ike Mese berjalan dengan jalan eastren dan Kau Hsing mengambil westren itu, sementara Raden Wijaya dengan tentara membawa Facebook rear.On yang ke-19 mereka tiba di Taha mana pangeran dari Kalang membela diri dengan lebih kemudian seorang tentara seratus ribu. Pertempuran berlangsung dari 6 pagi sampai 14:00 dan tiga kali diperbaharui menyerang, ketika musuh dikalahkan dan flef, beberapa ribu memadati ke sungai dan tewas di sana, sedangkan lebih dari 5000 telah disembelih, Raja beristirahat   ke dalam kota, yang segera dikelilingi oleh tentara kita dan raja dipanggil untuk menyerah, pada malam hari raja yang bernama Haji katang (Jayakatong atau Jayakatwang) keluar dari benteng dan menawarkan penyampaian nya, atas perintah kaisar yang dikirim ke dia dan dia diberitahu untuk kembali.
  • Pada hari ke-2 bulan Tuahn ke Piajaya (Raden Wijaya) dikirim kembali ke kerajaan-nya dalam rangka untuk membuat persiapan untuk mengirim upeti, dua perwira dan 200 prajurit pergi dengan dia sebagai pendamping. Pada Pijaya Tuhan 19 diam-diam meninggalkan tentara kita dan menyerang mereka dengan yang eto seluruh partai cam kesedihan.
  • Pada hari ke  24 tentara kembali, mengambil isteri  dengan  anak-anak dan petugas Haji katang (Jayakatong), sama sekali lebih dari seratus orang, mereka membawa juga peta negara, register penduduk dan surat dalam tulisan emas disajikan oleh raja.
  • In the second month of the year 1292 , the emperor issued an order to governor of Fu-kien, directing him to send Shi-pi,Ike Mase and Kau Hsing in command of an army to subdue Java, to collect soldiers from Fukien,Kiangsi and Hukuang to the number of 20000, to appoint a Commander of the right Wing and one of the Left, as well as Four Commander of Ten Thousand, to send out a thousand ships and to equip them with provisions for a year and with forty thousand bars of Silver.
  • The emperor futher gave ten tiger badges,forty golden badges and a hundred silver badges together with a hundred piece of silk,embroidered with gold , for purpose of rewarding merit.
  • When Ike Mese and his associetes had their last audience, the emperor said to them :” When you arrive at Java you must clearly proclaim to the army and the people of that country, that the Imperial Government has formerly had intercouse with Java by envoys from both sides and has been in good harmony with it,but that they have lately cut the face of the Imperial envoy Me’ng Ch’i  and that you have come to punish them for that”
  • In the ninth month some troops were collected at Chingyuan (old name of Ning Po) ,Shi-pi and Ike Mese went with the soldiers overland to Chuan-chou(Tjiang Tjioe),whilst Kau Hsing brought the baggage with ships. In the course of the 11th month the troops from the three province of Fukien,Kiangsi and Hukuang were all assembled at Chuan-Chou and in the next month the expeditions put to the sea. In the first month of the year 1293 they arrived at the island Ko’-lan (Billiton) and there deliberated on their plan of campaign.
  • In the second month Ike Mese and one of his subordinate commanders taking with them their secretaries and accompanied by three officers of the Office of Pacification, who were charged to treat wirth Java and the other countrtries, and by a Commanders of Ten Thousand, who led 500 men and 10 ships , went first in order to bring the commandands of the Emperor to this country. The body of the army followed to Karimon(Karimon Java) and from here to a place on Java called Tu-ping-tsuh(Tuban) where Shi-pi and Kau Hsing met Ike Mese again and determined, together with the other leaders,that half the army should be sent ashore and the other half proceeed at the same time in the ships.Shih-pi went by sea to the mouth of the river Sugalu(Sedayu) and from there to the small river Pa-tsieh(Kali Mas). On the other hand Kau Hsing and Ike Mese led the rest of the troops,being cavalary and infantry, and marched from Tu-ping-tsuh(Tuban)  overland, one of the Commanders of Ten Thousand leading the vanguard.Three superior officiers were sent in fast boats from Sugalu(Sedayu) , with the order to go first to the floating bridge of Majapahit and then to rejoin the army on its way to the small river Pa-tsueh(Kali Mas) .
  • The officers of the Office of Pacifications soon reported that the son-in-law of the prince of Java,called Tuhan Pidjaya(Raden Wijaya) wished to make his country submit,but as he could not leave his army, orxder was given to three officers to go and bring his prime minister Sih-la-nan-da ch’aya and fourteen others ,who wanted to come and recieve the army of the Emperor.
  • On the 1st day of the 3rd month,the troops were assembled at the small river Pa-Tsieh(Kali Mas) . This river has at its upper course the palace of the king of Tumapan(Tumapel) and disxcharged itself into the sea called Pou-pa’n (the sea South of Madura),it is the entrance to Java and a place for which they were determined to fight. Accordingly the first minister of the Javanese ,Hi-ning-kuan, remained in a boat to see how the chances to the fight went, he ewas summoned repeatedly, but would not surrender.
  • The commanders of the Imperial army made a camp in the form of a crescent on the bank of the river and left the ferry in charge of a Commnder of Ten Thousand, the fleet in the river and the cavalary and Infantry on shore then advanced together and Hining-kuan seeing this, left his boat and fled overnight whereupon more that a hundred large ships,with devil-heads on the stem were captured.
  • Order was now given tp a strong force to guard the  mouth of the river Pa-Tsieh(Klai Mas)  and the body of the army then advanced.
  • Messengers came from Tuhan Pidjaya(Raden Wijaya) , telling that the King of Kalang had pursued him as far as Majapahit and asking for troops to rpotect him, Ike Mese and one of his lieutenants hastened to him, in order to encourage him and another officer followed with a body of troops to Chnag-ku, for the purpose of assisting them. Kau Hsing advanced to Majapahit, but heard that it was not known whether the soldiers of Kalang were far or near, so he went back to the river Pe-tsueh(Kalia Mas) , at last he got information from Ike Mese that the enemy would arrive that night and was ordered to again to Majapait.
  • On the 7th day the soldiers of Kalang arrived from three sides to attack Tuan Pijaya(Raden wijaya) and on the 8th day, early in the morning, Ike Mese led parert of the troops to engage the enemy in the south-east and killed several hundreds of them ,whilst the remainder fled to the mountains.Towards the middle of the day the enemy arrived also from the South-west,Kau Hsing met them again and towards evening they were defeated.
  • On the 15th the army was divided into three bodies, in order to attack Kalang, it was agreed that on the 19th day they should meet at Taha(Daha) and commence the battle on hearing the sound of the p’au. Apart of the the troops ascended the river,Ike Mese proceeded by the eastren road and Kau Hsing took the westren,whilst Raden Wijaya with his army brought up the rear.On the 19th they arrived at Taha where the prince of Kalang defended himself with more then a hundred thousand  soldier. The battle lasted from 6 AM till 2 PM and three times the attacked was renewed,when the enemy was defeated and flef, several thousand thronged  into the river and perished there,whilst more than 5000 were slain,The King retired into the inner city,which was immediately surrounded by our army and the king summoned to surrender, in the evening the king whose name was Haji Katang(Jayakatong or jayakatwang) came out of the fortress and offered his submission, on the orders of the emperor were delivered to him and he was told to go back.
  • On the 2nd day of the  th month Tuahn Piajaya(Raden Wijaya) was sent back to his dominions in order to make preparation for sending tribute, two officers and 200 soldiers went with him as an escort. On the 19th Tuhan Pijaya secretly left our soldier and attacked them by which the whole party cam eto a grief.
  • On the 24th the army went back,taking with it the children and officers of Haji Katang(Jayakatong), altogether more than a hundred persons, they brought also a map of the country, aregister of the population and a letter in golden characters presented by the king.
  • (b)Account of Shi-pi.History of Yuan Dynasty book 162
  • Pada saat itu Jawa dilakukan pada perseteruan lama dengan negara tetangga Kalang, dan raja Jawa, haji Ka-ta-na-ka-la (Kertanegara) nbeen telah dibunuh oleh para pangeran dari Kalang haji disebut katang (Jayakatong atau Jayakatwang ), Anak-in-hukum mantan Tuan Raja Pijaya (Wijaya raden) telah menyerang Haji katang, tapi tidak bisa mengatasinya, ia telah Majapahit sehingga retiredento dan ketika ia mendengar bahwa Shi-pi dengan pasukannya telah tiba, ia mengirim utusan dengan sebuah akun sungai dan xeaports dan peta dari negara Kalang (Kediri), menawarkan submisssion dan meminta bantuan.
  • Shi-pi kemudian maju dengan seluruh pasukannya, menyerang tentara Kalang dan diarahkan sepenuhnya, di mana Haji katang melarikan diri kembali ke dominons nya. Kau Hsing sekarang berkata: “Meskipun Java telah menyampaikan, masih jika keputusan bertobat dan bersatu dengan Kalang, armynmight kami berada dalam posisi yang sangat sulit dan kita tidak tahu apa yang mungkin terjadi” Shi-pi kemudian membagi pasukannya menjadi tiga bagian. , himsels, Kau Hsing dan Ike Mese mendarat divisi masing-masing dan berbaris untuk menyerang Kalang. Ketika mereka tiba di kota berbenteng Daha, lebih dari seratus ribu prajurit dari Kalang datang foward untuk menahan mereka. Mereka berjuang dari pagi sampai tengah hari, ketika tentara Kalang itu dialihkan dan pensiun ke kota untuk menyelamatkan dirinya sendiri. Tentara Cina mengepung kota dan segera Haji katang datang foward untuk menawarkan pengiriman, istrinya, anak-anaknya dan petugas diambil ny para pemenang yang kemudian kembali.
  • Tuah n Pijaya (raden wijaya) meminta izin untuk kembali ke negaranya untuk mempersiapkan surat baru diserahkan kepada Kaisar hinese dan untuk mengambil barang berharga miliknya untuk mengirimkan mereka ke pengadilan. Shi-pi dan Ike Mese setuju untuk ini dan mengirim dua perwira dengan 200 laki-laki untuk pergi dengan him.Tuahan Pijaya membunuh dua petugas di perjalanan dan memberontak lagi, setelah itu ia penarikan diri dari keadaan yang wasreturming yhe tentara, untuk menyerang dari kedua sisi. Shi-pi berada di belakang dan terputus dari seluruh tentara, ia terpaksa berjuang jalan untuk 300 li (km) sebelum ia tiba di kapal, akhirnya ia memulai lagi dan mencapai Chuan-chou setelah suatu perjalanan 68 hari. Dari tentara yang lebih dari 3000 orang telah meninggal. perwira kaisar membuat daftar berharga, dupa, perfumeries, textureds, dll yang ia membawa dan menemukan mereka bernilai lebih dari 500.000 tail perak. Dia juga dibawa ke huruf di cgaracters emas dari negara Muli (atau Buli) dengan barang emas dan perak, badak-tanduk, gading, dan hal lainnya. Untuk lebih khusus lihat artikel tentang Kau Hsing dan di Jawa.
  • Pada rekening-nya telah kehilangan begitu banyak pria, kaisar memerintahkan Shi-pi untuk menerima enam belas kali  cambukan dan menyita sepertiga dari hartanya.Pada tahun 1295, ia dibesarkan lagi ke kantor dan peringatan telah disampaikan kepada Kaisar, menunjukkan bahwa Shi-pi dan gelar yang terkait telah pergi ke laut untuk jarak 25.000 li, telah memimpin pasukan ke negara-negara yang belum pernah dicapai dalam berlangsung memerintah, telah memikat seorang raja dan kagum menjadi tunduk negara-negara tetangga yang lebih kecil, dan bahwa , untuk alasan ini, rahmat harus ditampilkan untuk him.TKaisar  kemudian memulihkian  kembali barang-barangnya yang telah disita dan meningkatkan kariernya  secara bertahap ke peringkat tertinggi, sampai ia meninggal pada usia 86 tahun.
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  • At that time Java carried on an old feud with the neighbouring country Kalang, and the king of Java, haji Ka-ta-na-ka-la(Kertanegara) had already nbeen killed by the prince of Kalang called haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jayakatwang) , The son-in-law of the former King Tuan Pijaya(raden Wijaya)  had attacked Haji Katang, but could not overcome him, he had therefore retiredento Majapahit and when he heard that Shi-pi with his army had  arrived, he sent envoy with an account of his rivers and xeaports and a map of the country Kalang(kediri) , offering his submisssion and asking for assistance.
  • Shi-pi then advanced with all his forces, attacked the army of Kalang and routed it completely, on which Haji Katang fled back to his dominons. Kau Hsing now said:” Though Java has submitted, still if it repents its decision and unites with Kalang , our armynmight be in a very difficult position and we do not know what might happen”.Shi-pi therefore divided his army into three parts, himsels,Kau Hsing and Ike  Mese  each landing a division and marched to attack Kalang. When they arrived at the fortified town Daha, more than a hundred thousand soldier of Kalang came foward to withstand them. They fought from morning till noon, when the army of Kalang was routed and retired into town to save itself. The Chinese army surrounded the town and soon Haji Katang came foward to offer his submission, his wife,his children and officer were taken ny the victors who then back.
  • Tuan Pijaya(raden wijaya) asked permission to return to his country in order to prepare a new letter of submission  to the chinese Emperor and to take the precious articles in his possession for sending them to court. Shi-pi and Ike Mese consented to this and sent two officers with 200 men to go with him.Tuahan Pijaya killed the two officers on the way and revolted again, after which he availed himself of the circumstance that yhe army wasreturming, to attack it from both sides. Shi-pi was behind and was cut off from the rest of the army, he was obliged to fight his way for 300 li(km)  before he arrived at the ship, at last he embarked again and reached Chuan-chou after a voyage of 68 days.  Of his soldiers more than 3000 men has died. The emperor’s officers made a list of the valuable, incenses,perfumeries,textureds,etc which he brought and found them worth more than 500.000 taels of silver. He also brought to the letter in golden cgaracters from the country Muli(or Buli) with golden and silver articles,rhinoceros -horns , ivory,and other thing. For more particular see the articles on Kau Hsing and on Java.
  • On account of his having lost so many men, the emperor ordered Shi-pi to recieve seventeen lashes and confiscated a third of his property.In the year 1295 , he was raised again to office and a memorial was presented to the Emperor , pointing out that Shi-pi and his associated  had gone over the sea to a distance of 25.000 li , had led the army to countries which had never been reached in the lasts reigns,had captivated a king and awed into submission the neighbouring smaller countries, and that,for these reasons , mercy should be shown to him.The emepror then restored his goods which has been confiscated and reised him gradually to the highest ranks,until he died at the age of 86 years.
  • (c)Account of Kau Hsing.History of the Yuan dynasty book 162
  • Kau Hsing styled Kung-chi was a man from Ts’ai-chou. When he returned of the fortified town Daha(Taha) , Shi-pi and Ike Mese had already allowed tuhan pijaya(raden Wijaya to go back to his country, but Kau Hsing had taken no part  in this decision, after killef Haji Katang(Jayakatong or Jaya Katwang)  and his son , he return to China.
  • By on imperial decree  Kau Hsing  rewarde by emperor with 50 tael of gold, he didbnot punished like Shi-pi and Ike Messse because he had taken no part in the decision to allow Tuhan Pijaya (Raden wijaya)  to go back to his own country.
  • Kau Hsing gaya Kung-chi adalah seorang manusia dari Ts’ai-chou. Ketika ia kembali dari kota dibenteng Daha (Taha), Shi-pi dan Ike Mese sudah mengizinkan Tuhan pijaya (raden Wijaya untuk kembali ke negaranya(keputusan keliru karena raden wijaya meniounya dan membunuh pengawal dari tentara Tartar serta menyerang pasukan Kublaikan yang menimbulkan banyak korban-Dr Iwan)) , tetapi Kau Hsing tidak  ambil bagian dalam keputusan ini, setelah  Haji katang (Jayakatong atau Jaya Katwang) dan anaknya dibunuh , ia kembali ke Cina.
  • Oleh pada dekrit kaisar Kau Hsing dihargai oleh kaisar dengan 50 tael emas, ia tidak bicara dihukum seperti Shi-pi dan Ike Messse karena ia tidak ambil bagian dalam keputusan untuk mengizinkan Tuhan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) dan setelah selesai bertugas kembali ke tanah airnya .
  • (d) Account of Ike Mese.History of the Yuan dynasty book 131.
  • Ike mese was a man from the land of Uigurs.
  • Ike Messe and Shih-pi had allowed Tuan Pijaya(Raden Wijaya) to go back to his country after returned at the fortified towb Taha(Daha), the wrong decision which made many Kublaikan Soldier died, the empror of china punished him.It became Raden wijaya turn to pay for the srvices which the Mongol army had rendered him , as however, his opponent was dead and the force of his country broken, he did not require these services any more and sought to avoid  his obligations. He therefor pretexted that he had to go back to his capital  i n oder to prepare adequate present for teh  Emperor andthat was why he was aloowed  to depart for this propose , escorted by few Chinese troops. On his way he trew  of the mask. The Chines escort was treacherously massacred and he at once began hostilities against his former allied. By rthis time the Mongol generals had found out how difficult it was to carry on war in these parts, they did not think it advisable to begin a new struggle and taking with them the more important prisoners from Daha and whatever treasure they could collectt, they retunred to their ships and left the island after a stay of about four month,(In Indonesian information that some of the chinese soldier didnot want to beack home because thay afraid to punished by the emperor, and they landed at West Borneo, near Kupang City, at Pawan River, because we found some imperiar Yuan Ceramic here ,may be they stay there, and also teh Majapahit statue also found there  , Buddhist eathenware -gerabah there may be bring by the Majapahit sldiers and Gnenarals or prince, this fact mus be search more -Dr Iwan)
  • In the year 1265 he entered the office of the night guard. In the year of 1272 he was s ent by the Emperor across the sea  as an envoy to the kingdom Pa-lo-pei, he come back in 1274 bringing with him people of this country,who carried precious articles and a letter of tribute. The emperor praised him and gave him a golden tiger badge. In the year 1275 he went again to some country and brought back a functionary who offered a famous medicine to the emperor on this occasion he got again most valuable present. In 1277 he became a vice president of the board of war,in 1261 Resident of King-hu and Champa, in 1284  he was sent as envoy to Ceylon, In 1285 after came back from Ceylon he was appointent as resident at the court of the king of Chin-nan. In 1281 he was sent to the kingdom of Mapar, next in 1292  he was appointed as the gouvernor of Chang-Chou which therte he made the army for Fukien with Ike Mese and Kau Hsing  got the command with him.
  • Ike mese  adalah seorang jendral Mongol yang berasal  dari tanah Uigurs.
  • Ike Messe dan Shih-pi telah membiarkan Tuan Pijaya (Raden Wijaya) untuk kembali ke negaranya setelah kembali di towb yang Taha diperkaya (Daha), keputusan yang salah yang membuat banyak Kublaikan Soldier meninggal, empror dari him.It cina dihukum menjadi Raden wijaya gilirannya untuk membayar srvices yang tentara Mongol telah diberikan kepadanya, seperti Namun, lawannya telah mati dan kekuatan negaranya rusak, ia tidak memerlukan layanan ini lagi dan berusaha untuk menghindari kewajibannya. Dia penyemprot pretexted bahwa ia harus kembali ke ibukota di oder untuk mempersiapkan persembahan, hal ini cukup alsan mengapa  para jendral Tartar   memberi  ia izinkan untuk berangkat , dikawal oleh pasukan Cina sedikit. Dalam perjalanan ia Trew dari topeng. Pengawalan Chines adalah setia dibantai dan ia sekaligus memulai permusuhan terhadap mantan nya bersekutu. Pada saat rthis para jenderal Mongol telah mengetahui betapa sulitnya untuk melakukan perang di daerah ini, mereka tidak berpikir itu dianjurkan untuk memulai sebuah perjuangan baru dan mengambil dengan mereka para tahanan lebih penting dari Daha dan apa saja harta mereka bisa collectt, mereka retunred untuk kapal mereka dan meninggalkan pulau itu setelah tinggal sekitar empat bulan, (Dalam informasi Indonesia yang beberapa didnot prajurit cina ingin beack Thay rumah karena takut dihukum oleh kaisar, dan mereka mendarat di Kalimantan Barat, dekat Kota Kupang , di Sungai Pawan, karena kami menemukan beberapa imperiar Yuan Keramik di sini, mungkin mereka tinggal di sana, dan juga patung Majapahit juga ditemukan di sana, Buddha eathenware-gerabah mungkin ada membawa oleh sldiers Majapahit dan Gnenarals atau pangeran, fakta ini akan mus pencarian yang lebih-Dr Iwan)
  • Pada tahun 1265 ia masuk kantor penjaga malam. Pada tahun 1272 ia dikirim oleh Kaisar melintasi laut sebagai utusan ke kerajaan Pa-pei-lo, dia datang kembali pada tahun 1274 membawa bersamanya rakyat negeri ini, yang membawa barang berharga dan surat upeti. Kaisar memuji dia dan memberinya lencana emas harimau. Pada tahun 1275 ia pergi lagi ke beberapa negara dan membawa kembali pejabat yang menawarkan obat terkenal untuk kaisar pada kesempatan ini dia kembali hadir paling berharga. Pada 1277 ia menjadi wakil presiden dewan perang, dalam 1261 Resident Raja-hu dan Champa, pada 1284 ia dikirim sebagai utusan ke Sri Lanka, Pada 1285 setelah kembali dari Ceylon ia appointent sebagai penduduk di pelataran raja Chin-nan. Pada 1281 ia dikirim ke kerajaan Mapar, berikutnya pada tahun 1292 ia ditunjuk sebagai gouvernor Chang-Chou yang therte ia membuat tentara untuk Fukien dengan Ike Mese dan Kau Hsing mendapat perintah dengan dia.
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  •  
  • 2.Raden wjaya founded Majapahit Kingdom.
  • 1.In AD 1293, Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana
  • Pada 1293 Masehi, Raden Wijaya mendirikan sebuah benteng dengan Majapahit modal. Tanggal yang tepat digunakan sebagai kelahiran kerajaan Majapahit adalah hari penobatan itu, tanggal 15 bulan Kartika pada tahun 1215 menggunakan kalender Çaka Jawa, yang setara dengan November 10, 1293. Selama penobatannya ia diberi nama resmi Kertarajasa Jayawardhana.
  • 2.At saka year 1297, within months Asjwina, on a good day when a full moon, then arrange the powers of government This is the end rakawi which made  people happy under the Majesty (Deca Wardana Prapanca). So in this paradise region tersebutlah the land (Deca)and the  King (narendra), powers that be happy (kadigwijayan) (Dr. iwan notes:the government of the People’s welfare by government sources that are true and correct in compliance with the terms of a complete political organizations, such as praised in the phrase “iti Negarakrtagama Samapta, contains the history of greatness or grandeur Majapahit state)
  • Pada tahun saka 1297 ,dalam bulan Asjwina,pada hari baik waktu bulan purnama penuh ,maka tamatlah rakawi mengarangkan kekuasaan pemerintah  membahagiakan rakyat dibawah sang prabu (deca wardana prapanca).Maka dalam surga ini tersebutlah anazir daerah tanah(deca) raja(narendra) ,kekuasaan yang berbahagia (kadigwijayan) (catatn Dr iwan: pelaksaaan pemerintahan atas Rakyat  yang sumber sejahtera oleh pemerintah yang benar dan betul tersebut telah memenuhi dengan  lengkaplah syarat-syarat suatu organisasi politik, seperti dipujikan dalam kalimat “iti Negarakertagama samapta ,berisi sejarah kebesaran atau kemegahan negara Majapahit)
  • 1294
  • (1) Majapahit Faced Challenges
  • 1.The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa’s most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king’s opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[14]
  • Kerajaan yang baru menghadapi tantangan. Beberapa pria yang paling terpercaya Kertarajasa, termasuk Ranggalawe, Sora, dan Nambi memberontak terhadap dia, meskipun tidak berhasil. Diduga bahwa (setara dengan perdana menteri) mahapati Halayudha mengatur persekongkolan untuk menggulingkan semua lawan raja, untuk mendapatkan posisi tertinggi dalam pemerintahan. Namun, setelah kematian pemberontak terakhir Kuti, Halayudha ditangkap dan dipenjara selama trik, dan kemudian dihukum mati [14].
  • Rangalawe Story(Kisah Rangalawe)
  • (1)Pinten Ing Warsa kaduemanggalan in rat
  • This is the second part of the first sharp double kidung gesecheiden and the reader in a completely different environmentally moved. Wiajaya the battlefields of the Krtarajasa of the audience hall became combative and companions have become fashionable empire great. Nambi is patih become Wiraraja Aryadhikara and Lawe-Nagara Amanca of Tuban and Adhipati of Dataran. Of the other great empire, the following lists (VII.65-169): Tuan Wiraraja was ready with its preparatory maatragelen come quantile with his troops and with all its seams to Majapahit, Wijaya took himself off in Wirasabha. On the first sitting following Wiraraja audience of the outcome of his efforts to the Emperor of China. He was just so brutal it was the two princesses of Tumapel, who were renowned for her beauty, to offer, which the Chinese had promised to Waicakha Java will come, no deer came out so nicely with Wijaya’s plans. Lawe suggested the army in two groups divide, the one group would be along the northern route go up on the highway, through Linggasana, the other along along the southern route, via Singasari, Siddhabhawana and Lawor, on the same road so, Kebo-Mundarang at the time that had followed. The two groups would meet again Barebeg then take (?). Wiraraja could unite with this plan. Wijaya entrusted Wiraraja in command of the Northern Army and asked him also oderweg messengers to send to the coast to the Chieesen upon their arrival in luicten about the situation, to Wiraraja he added the Majapahitsche mantri’s Jagawastra, Wirasanta, Sura-Sampana and Rara -Sindura. Since Rent Egen, the twins (Singhanuwuk and Singhandaka), Kapal-Acoka, Caritangca, Jajaka-Pidikan, Wiro and Parijata under command of Wijaya the Southern Army Command honor Zoo was agreed and so pass also when to Jaya-Katong message was that he Wijayas and Wiraraja attacked, he called dadelilk his native male’s meeting with them to discuss what to do stand.De King was really the case, shy and under his mantri’s deigde it a twist to come, Tuan Kebo-Rubuh the blame for everything Sagara-Winotan gave, which had provided false information about Majapahit and thereby betrayed had committed against the Koning.Winotan bleediging not let himself this pleasure and drew his sword, but the king knew them came sussen.Plotseling akuwu of Tuban make his debut and he brought the Bricht that Chineesenche Emperor, Taru-Laksana, had arrived with a great army, which has already landed a part in Dataran wqas, and it was rumored that he had come at the instigation of wijatya and Wiraraja. The troops were landed along the coast and had to blaze destroyed Tuban, whose inhabitants had fled in fear, Jaya-Katong realized that there was not postponed worden.Hij Dahasche army he divided into three sections: a Northern Front, with Mahisantaka Bowong to senapati and a Southern Front, Kebo-Mundarang with Pangelet to senapati, or they had to fight. against the Chinese. Wiraraja and Wijaya. Soon the troops marched out, unfavorable omens foretold Jaya Katong-certain defeat (VII 0.18 to 38)
  • Ini adalah bagian kedua dari dua kidung yang tajam dan pembaca di lingkungan bergerak geheeel lain. Medan perang Wijaya  dari Krtarajasa dari balairung menjadi agresif dan sahabat telah menjadi kerajaan besar modis. Patih Nambi adalah menjadi Wiraraja Aryadhikara dan Lawe-Nagara Amanca Tuban dan Adhipati dari Dataran. Dari kerajaan besar lainnya, daftar berikut (VII.65-169): Tuan Wiraraja sudah siap dengan persiapan maatragelen berasal kuantil bersama pasukannya dan dengan semua lapisan untuk Majapahit, Wijaya membawa dirinya pergi di Wirasabha. Pada penonton duduk pertama Wiraraja berikut hasil usahanya untuk Kaisar Cina. Dia begitu brutal dia telah Tumapel dua putri, yang terkenal karena kecantikannya, untuk menawarkan, yang Cina telah berjanji untuk Waicakha Java akan datang, tidak ada rusa keluar begitu baik dengan rencana Wijaya. Lawe menyarankan tentara membagi dalam dua kelompok, satu kelompok akan sepanjang jalur utara naik di jalan raya, melalui Linggasana, yang lain sepanjang sepanjang rute selatan, melalui Singasari, Siddhabhawana dan Lawor, di jalan yang sama begitu, Kebo-Mundarang pada waktu yang telah diikuti. Kedua kelompok akan bertemu lagi Barebeg kemudian mengambil (?). Wiraraja bisa bersatu dengan rencana ini. Wijaya dipercayakan Wiraraja dalam komando Angkatan Darat Utara dan menanyakan juga oderweg utusan untuk dikirim ke pantai ke Chieesen pada saat kedatangan mereka di luicten tentang situasi, untuk Wiraraja ia menambahkan Jagawastra, Wirasanta, mantri Majapahitsche’s Sura-Sampana dan Rara -Sindura. Sejak Sewa Egen, si kembar (Singhanuwuk dan Singhandaka), Kapal-Acoka, Caritangca, Jajaka-Pidikan, Wiro dan Parijata bawah komando Wijaya Angkatan Darat kehormatan Komando Selatan Zoo disepakati dan begitu lulus juga saat pesan Jaya-Katong adalah bahwa dia Wijayas dan Wiraraja menyerang, ia memanggil dadelilk pertemuan laki-laki asli-nya dengan mereka untuk membahas apa yang harus dilakukan Raja stand.De benar-benar kasus, pemalu dan di bawah deigde mantri nya itu twist untuk datang, Tuan Kebo-Rubuh menyalahkan untuk segalanya Sagara-Winotan memberi, yang telah memberikan informasi palsu tentang Majapahit dan dengan demikian mengkhianati telah melakukan terhadap bleediging Koning.Winotan tidak membiarkan dirinya kesenangan ini dan menghunus pedangnya, tetapi raja itu tahu mereka datang sussen.Plotseling akuwu Tuban membuat debutnya dan dia membawa Bricht yang Chineesenche Kaisar, Taru-Laksana, telah tiba dengan pasukan besar, yang sudah mendarat bagian dalam wqas Dataran, dan itu desas-desus bahwa dia datang atas prakarsa wijatya dan Wiraraja. Pasukan yang mendarat di sepanjang pantai dan harus nyala hancur Tuban, yang penduduknya telah melarikan diri dalam ketakutan, Jaya-Katong menyadari bahwa tidak ada tentara ditunda worden.Hij Dahasche ia dibagi menjadi tiga bagian: sebuah Front Utara, dengan Mahisantaka Bowong untuk Senapati dan Front Selatan, Kebo-Mundarang dengan Pangelet untuk Senapati, atau mereka harus berjuang. terhadap orang Cina. Wiraraja dan Wijaya. Segera pasukan berbaris keluar, pertanda kurang baik menubuatkan kekalahan Jaya Katong-tertentu (VII ,18-38)
  • and very comprehensive report giving an Strid is a habit of kidungdichter, which we will follow at least not since. gevecten of a mass hero against hero described, of which only a few our particular attention. So being told that Gajah-Pagon, Wiajya that at the time of his flight from Tumapel injured in Pandakan hat left, now back on the srijdtooneel appeared, with the village chief and his son Macan_Kuping Chevrotains-Bang. it was a waste of time for Mother Nature to Gajah-Pagon in the heart of the wilderness back to kanappen, because soon after his comeback joyeuse he was a heroic battle with many opponents afgemaaks. Having Pang was slain by nambi, Mahisa Rubuh-by-Mahisa Wagal. Sora had a very bad moment in a fight and Mundarang Drawalika together, but finally wewrd Mundarang but to flee. This all happened on the South Front, where the army Dahasche ba Mandurang’s flight was utterly defeated. Also on the Osstelijk front achieved the Allies victory after a span fiery battle between Lawe and Sagara-Winotan which Lawe his horse Anda-Wesi on Winotan’s car jumped and finally Winotan on the bank of his own car had slain him so toonend, whatever Madhureezen do konden.terwijl so too the Dahasche army was defeated and the Tropic of Wiajaya and Wiarraja were able to unite, put Kebo-Mundareang, due meanwhile back mantri and troops gathered around and had to the North Front pulled was, standing there, the Javanese and Chinese fearsome losses. When the Majapahit mantris, here’s defeated, it was worthless Chinese people on foot, and it soon began to withdraw. The Chinese leaders were patih’s Jana Pati and Taru-Janaka, are held with some Javaneb, Dahasche the attack the troops, which Katong self-Jaya participated very actively against. In the ensuing battles killed the Chineeche patih and the Javanese mantri’s, so that finally the king of Daha against the Emperor of China came to stand. The outcome of this struggle was that Jaya-Katong was seized and that the Emperor ordered him imprisoned for the time being, he wanted him to surrender and then Wiraraja time for his reward, the two princesses Tumapellsche, vragen.Ook Patih Mundarang had to be at finally give up the struggle, he fled and was chased by Sora in the gorge (or on the plain) Trini-Panti ingehaald.Mundarang asked for their lives and promised his daughter, Sora, but Sora did not doodle ham and entreated, That was In the battle geendigd Wijaya’s advantage (VII 35-111)
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  •  
  • dan laporan yang sangat komprehensif memberikan Strid adalah kebiasaan kidungdichter, yang kita akan mengikuti paling tidak sejak. gevecten seorang pahlawan massa terhadap pahlawan dijelaskan, yang hanya beberapa perhatian khusus kami. Jadi diberitahu bahwa Gajah-Pagon, Wiajya bahwa pada saat terbang dari Tumapel terluka di topi Pandakan kiri, sekarang kembali pada srijdtooneel muncul, dengan kepala desa dan putranya Macan_Kuping Chevrotains-Bang. itu buang-buang waktu untuk Ibu Alam untuk Gajah-Pagon di jantung padang gurun kembali ke kanappen, karena segera setelah joyeuse comeback ia adalah pertempuran heroik dengan afgemaaks banyak lawan. Memiliki Pang dibunuh oleh Nambi, Mahisa Rubuh-oleh-Mahisa Wagal. Sora sempat sangat buruk dalam perkelahian dan Mundarang Drawalika bersama-sama, tapi akhirnya  melarikan diri ke Mandurang . Ini semua terjadi di Front Selatan, di mana tentara Daha benar-benar dikalahkan saat  melarikan diri   ke Mandurang . Juga pada bagian depan sekutu  mencapai kemenangan  setelah pertempuran span berapi-api antara Lawe dan Sagara-Winotan yang Lawe kudanya Andari-Wesi di kendaraan  Winotan melonjak dan akhirnya Winotan di tepi kendaraan  sendiri telah membunuh begitu toonend, apapun orang Madura melakukan  demikian juga sehingga  tentara Daha  dikalahkan dan  Wiajaya dan Wiraraja mampu bersatu, menempatkan Kebo-Mundareang, sedangkan pasukan kembali mantri dan karena berkumpul sekitar dan harus Front menarik Utara itu, berdiri di sana, kerugian yang menakutkan Jawa dan Cina. Ketika mantris Majapahit, inilah dikalahkan, itu adalah orang Tionghoa berharga dengan berjalan kaki, dan segera mulai menarik. Para pemimpin Cina patih’s Jana Pati dan Taru-Janaka, diadakan dengan beberapa Javaneb, serangan pasukan daha ,Partisipasi  perlawanan Jaya Katong sendiri  sangat aktif . Dalam pertempuran berikutnya membunuh patihTionghoa  dan mantri Jawa, sehingga akhirnya raja Daha terhadap Kaisar Cina datang untuk berdiri. Hasil dari perjuangan ini adalah bahwa Jaya-Katong ditangkap dan bahwa Kaisar memerintahkan dia dipenjarakan untuk sementara waktu, ia ingin dia untuk menyerah dan kemudian waktu Wiraraja untuk upahnya diminta  dua putri Tumapel , kendatipun  Akhirnyna Pejuang Patih Mundarang  harus  menyerah , ia melarikan diri dan dikejar oleh Sora di ngarai (atau di dataran) Trini-Panti ingehaald.Mundarang meminta kehidupan mereka dan berjanji menyerahkan putrinya Sora, namun Sora tidak setuju dengan permohonan  Itu , Dalam pertempuran geendigd keunggulan Wijaya (VII 35-111)
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  • In the himself  time was around the time of the Service Master troops that were sent earlier to the Nusantara, who had been successful, and brought Grost treasures, testimonials of vanquished princes, returned home. Their leader was given the title name Mahisa-Anabrang Ooki and other mantri’s. omderscheiden who had been elevated in rank and otherwise rewarded. Of the two princesses, who came along to Majapahit, married the eldest, Jinggå-dara, with a dewa, tewrwijl the youngest-Dara Petak, the third wife of Wijaya was Wiraraja not returned back to Madura, he established itself in Tuban and given the name Aryadhikara. PanjiWijayakrama was gehuidig ​​as monarch and his kingdom was blessed by the priests, he was a prince wereldbeheerschend, spared by the Nusantara (VII, 147-155)
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  • Dalam Dirinya sendiri  saat itu sekitar waktu pasukan Pelayan Pemimpin  yang dikirim sebelumnya ke Nusantara, yang telah berhasil, dan membawa banyak harta , testimonial para pangeran kalah,  kembali ke rumah. Pemimpin mereka diberi judul nama Mahisa-Anabrang Ooki dan lainnya mantri’s. omderscheiden yang telah meningkat pada peringkat dan sebaliknya dihargai. Dari dua putri, yang datang ke Majapahit, menikah, tertua Jingga-dara, dengan dewa yang, tewrwijl para-bungsu Dara Petak, istri ketiga Wijaya Wiraraja tidak kembali ke Madura, ia mendirikan sendiri di Tuban dan diberi nama Aryadhikara. PanjiWijayakrama adalah gehuidig ​​sebagai raja dan kerajaannya diberkati oleh imam, ia adalah seorang wereldbeheerschend pangeran, terhindar oleh Nusantara (VII, 147-155)
  • (2) RANGGA LAWE
  • Ing Ing Pinte’n Warsa Kadurmangallan Rat. With these words, the second part of the double kidung focus of the first separated and d elezer moved in an entirely different environment. The Wijaya of the battlefields, the Krtarajasa of the audience hall now, and the difficult struggle for dignified companions werworden great empire. Nambi is patih become Wiraraja Aryadhikare and Lawe-Nagara amnfica of Ruban and adhipati of Dataran. Of the other great empire, the following lists (VII 165-169)
  • Ing Ing Pinte’n Tikus Warsa Kadurmangallan. Dengan kata-kata ini, bagian kedua dari fokus kidung ganda pertama dipisahkan dan d elezer bergerak dalam suatu lingkungan yang sama sekali berbeda. The Wijaya dari medan perang, yang Krtarajasa dari balairung sekarang, dan perjuangan sulit bagi rekan yang bermartabat werworden kerajaan besar. Patih Nambi adalah menjadi Wiraraja Aryadhikare dan Lawe-Nagara amnfica dari Ruban dan adhipati dari Dataran. Dari kerajaan besar lainnya, daftar berikut (VII 165-169)
  • ZANG VIII
  • NOW IT WAS RANGGA Lawe AGAINST CASES IS NOT HE OR SORA BUT NAMBI MANGKU-Bhumi BECAME: HE FELT THAT, WHICH IS THE WAR THE MEET DESERVING HAD ALSO THE FIRST TIME FOR COATING HOOGE POSITIONS ACCOUNT HAD COME.
  • Convinced him that the prince did this injustice, though in other things he had shown his favor, he once went to Majapahit to audience of Tuban and had soon occasion to show his discontent. First he broke Nambi, who are now in peacetime played the great lord, but in war the Lawe had had affairs refurbishing. Then he tried to make demands for Sora, which reach a protesteerde.Ten Finally he spat on his hole and all challenged Nambi into a showdown, how, when and where Nambi wanted. Nambi was violently angry, and just today the hero of the prince prevented him Lawe to answer, as he wanted. Also Kebo-Anabrang could only with difficulty restrain his anger. Sat konig the case with the severely confused. The hofkapelaan (Brahmaraja) Lawe tried to reason and found while most mantri’s consent. Lawe but remained angry at his own bravery and bluster continued on asfgeven Nambi, when he and Sora were not there, how soon would it be done with Majapahit! When was Kebo-Anabrang himself no longer, walked off deigend on Lawe, and defied him but once his men to call and show what he could. Lawe stood up and withdrew without pamit, while on their thighs hit. He went to the bale scared, close to the Pasir-Pasiran, hung his clothes on a boomtsk and was waiting Nambi (VIII 1-41)
  • Lawe’s departure after the raadpleedde konig Sora omtent against the Lawe to follow the geragslijn.Maar Sora strongly advised him to make sense, because in the first place would be a precedent, and second, it would be a recognition that the other’s mantri, Nambi, Kebo-Anabrang and himself, who nevertheless were able Lawe under the dune was asked what their attitude in this case was the me’esten the arches, but all admitted that he was wrong and had the cheeky gehanded.Nambi raade konig in any case not to act hastily, and Kebo-Anabrang and the others agreed with him (VIII 1941-1949)
  • SEKARANG TERHADAP KASUS  RANGA LAWE BUKAN DIA ATAU SORA TETAPI  YANG MENJADI  MANGKU-BHUMI ADALAH BUKAN NAMBI  : DIA YANG DIRASAKAN PANTAS MERAIH POSISI LAPISAN ATAS KARENA   IA YANG PERTAMA KALI  PERANG
  • Untuk Meyakinkannya bahwa penunjukan pangeran itu  adalah tidak adil, meskipun dalam hal-hal ini yang  lainnya   telah berusaha  menyejukkan hati, ia harus segera  pergi ke Majapahit dari Tuban  untuk menunjukkan ketidakpuasan nya. NAMBI Pertama dia patah , yang sekarang di masa damai bermain tuan besar, tetapi dalam perang Lawe punya merenovasi urusan. Lalu ia mencoba untuk membuat tuntutan untuk Sora, yang mencapai protes. Akhirnya ia meludah di lubang dan  Nambi menantang ke pertarungan, bagaimana, kapan dan di mana Nambi inginkan. Nambi sangat marah , dan hanya hari ini para pangeran pahlawan mencegah dia agar tuntutan  Lawe  dijawab, seperti yang diinginkannya. Juga Kebo-Anabrang hanya bisa dengan susah payah menahan kemarahannya. Hal ini membuat Raja  sangat bingung. Kepala Vihara (Brahmaraja) Lawe mencoba untuk mecari  alasan dan ditemukan pada saat persetujuan dari kebanyakan  mantri. Lawe tapi tetap marah pada keberaniannya sendiri dan nambi  marah-marah terus  , ketika ia dan Sora itu tidak ada, bagaimana hal itu akan segera dilakukan dengan Majapahit! Kapan-Kebo Anabrang  berjalan pergi kepada Lawe, dan menantang dia tapi sekali anak buahnya untuk memanggil dan menunjukkan apa yang dia bisa. Lawe berdiri dan pergi tanpa pamit, sementara di paha mereka hit. Dia takut  pergi ke bale , dekat dengan Pasir-Pasiran, menggantungkan pakaiannya di atas gantungan dan menunggu Nambi (VIII 1-41)
  • keberangkatan Lawe’s setelah raadpleedde Konig omtent Sora terhadap Lawe untuk mengikuti Sora geragslijn.Maar sangat anjurnya  masuk akal, karena di tempat pertama akan menjadi preseden, dan kedua, itu akan menjadi pengakuan bahwa mantri lain, Nambi, Kebo-Anabrang dan dirinya sendiri, yang tetap berada Lawe bertahan dalam gundukan itu ditanya apa sikap mereka dalam hal ini adalah me’esten lengkungan, tapi semua mengakui bahwa dia salah dan memiliki raade gehanded.Nambi cheek Raja  dalam hal apapun untuk tidak bertindak tergesa-gesa, dan Kebo-Anabrang dan yang lainnya setuju dengan dia (VIII 1941-1949)
  • ZANG IX
  • After the audience’s mantri remained together in the carangcang Kawat. There ontsatond after a time a nervous mood, since he was rumored that Lawe, who are still on the bale was scared, wanted to run amuck on the puri. Sora took the view that Nambi, for whom this conflict had arisen, with zigzag charge of the arrangements are agreed to moest.Nambi risking his life for the vorat and Kebo-Anabrang wanted to go there but pull . Pmandana held them back, and pointed out that it was not so desirable to seal the craton to provoke a fight. Singhacardula gave finally the best advice that Sora, Lawe’s best friend, to him was going to try to convince him peaceably away gaan.Sora went and Pangrupak, Sad0-Bhaya and Tanjek-Areneng have him as a guide added (IX 1-11)
  • Lawe was alarmed when he saw them coming Sora, he stopped everything to small store, which came oder his reach, and asked him to kill Sora, now so far had come with him. Sora is not wanted, Lawe exhorted to think of the past, the many favors that he had received the Prince and told him quietly to Tuban and returning the case to his father to leggen.Tewn Finally he succeeded Lawe so moving.
  • A funny interlude, a sce’ne, which would be in a banolan lakon. Parangpak that first great boasted had his heroism, thirst, the conversation between Sora and Lawe not just around the corner to watch, when Lawe him sarcatisch asked if he could sent out was to kill him, and him uitnoodigde it’s getting closer to recover, his heart sank into the shoes and thirst he did not even reply, so Tanjek_Areneng even the word for him to do
  • Lawe LEFT THE KRATON, ZOO GREAT THREAT THAT MANY OF THE FRIGHTENING TO HIT THE HEART AND MANY CONSIDERED THAT YOU HAVE HAD Lawe PREFER untouched, because the evil consequences were not inevitable. The alarm was beaten but kuta and troops were called on to go belegeren.Tosan Tuban, Kidang-Galatik, Siddhi, Cek Muringang and Kala-Bang-Curing Lawe joined in, besides the whole Noordhoek Mbang Lor. (XI 11 – 36)
  • When the rumor spread themselves Tuban, Tuban LWam to the Lawe, was Adhikara (Wiraraja) tegenmoet.Al him soon he saw that his son something was wrong, and inquired about the reason there van.Toen Lawe him everything had told him more silent hij.Zijn son was dear to the king, but he had an open eye for the difficulties which now awaited Lawe, and advised him to prefer not to act recklessly and zig to abide by its obligations as a citizen, there was heavy penalty of treason in the hereafter and in the Weser births. Lawe felt that his father was right, but his pride prevented him now to back out and confront his father, the onbetemelijk for heroes was to depart, when danger loomed. it went for him for his rep [utatie that he and Sora the bravest hero of Mjapahit region was high houden.Zijn goal was not even now zig heroic deeds or rights to mitigate the prince, he just wanted to sacrifice his life in future existences the position to preserve that he had.Zijn father, who saw nutttelooze further argue, Lawe had now been further ahead but go, although he was sorry that his son hit his advice in the wind (IX, 36-54)
  • Lawe cried his native male’s together: but his mantri’s pura, Garangang and Tambak-Wisti (T_Bhaya) came from the Akuwu and the mantri’s Tuban on; Dhemang WiraPramoda, Tumengung Wyaghranggarit, Gelap_Angampar, Prabhongcara the nghabehi, Jaga Rudi (t) Tameng-Gita, Wira-Prabhongcara, Anapak-Bhaya, Sawung-Indra, Salam Dhemang WiraPrahara, rangga Suranggana, Jaran-Pikatan, rangga Dadali the kanuruhan, tumenggung Katiga-Barat, Gereh-Kasapta, rangga Sapu-Jagat, tumenggung Puspalaya, Dhemang Wulung-Rat, and Lang Lang-Bhuwånå. They all promise him faithfully even unto death will be, and the general desire was that the Nambi Majapahitsche troops could aanvoren, because then he would lusten.Nadat Lawe of the usual dispenser provisions (of clothes) was held, he returned to home needed to prepare to go to take the expected hostilities (IX 0.54 to 70)
  • In Tambak-Beras, on the eastern bank of the river to the quantitative measures between between the forces of the Majapahit Nambi and supporters of Lawe. Tuban they had to reach the river, but could not because it just came flooding was.Zoo that Nambi who chased them with a great force majeure, overtook and attacked them there. In the battle, which follow and which the outcome had no other choice than a destruction of the followers of Laqwe, fell to the Majapahit side Medang, while the other group Siddhi and chitosan were killed, Kala Bang Muringang seriously wounded fled and thus only Kidang-Gelatik overbleef.Toen it from all sides into a corner and with broken arms, by Jaran-wahan would be attacked, Nambi took this back and asked for their lives and offered his submission to. Jaran-wahan suggested that one Gelatik would give an opportunity to show that he sincerely believed by him to contribute his two wounded comrades Kelabang gun and go kill Muringang. Indeed Gelatik Nambi gave that command and Gelatik accepted them. He went to his two comrades, exhausted and bleeding on the stones were, leaning against a panda tree, surrounded by their troops, which were hurt When they come konigde Gelatik them, that he desire for self-preservation had undertaken them dooden.Kelabang Muringang and he thought well, gave up their swords and let themselves with perfect indolence death.Hun men fled in Tuban and swim across the river drowned many. The troops of Majapahit were, at sunset when the tide arose, without any difficulty to cross the river (IX 0.70 to 91)The next morning was to Tuban known that Lawe’ Majapahit’s  friends at Tambak-Beras (here Wosi T) are outdated and were slain, and that the enemy crossed the river was. Garangangan Tambak and went Bhaya-impart the message to Lawe, who thereupon ordered all ready to come out (IX.101-104)
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  • Versi Indonesia:
  • Setelah audiensi ,mantri tetap bersama di Kawat carangcang. Ada ontsatond setelah waktu suasana hati yang gelisah, karena ia adalah desas-desus bahwa Lawe, yang masih di bale takut, ingin lari mengamuk di puri. Sora mengambil pandangan bahwa Nambi, untuk siapa konflik ini telah muncul, dengan zigzag bertanggung jawab atas pengaturan yang setuju untuk moest.Nambi mempertaruhkan nyawanya untuk vorat dan Kebo-Anabrang ingin pergi ke sana tetapi menarik . Pamandana menahan mereka kembali, dan menunjukkan bahwa itu tidak begitu diinginkan untuk menutup Kraton untuk memprovokasi perkelahian. Singhacardula akhirnya memberi nasihat terbaik yang Sora, Lawe sahabat terbaik, dia akan mencoba meyakinkan dia untuk pergi damai .Sora pergi dan Pangrupak, Sad0-Bhaya dan Tanjek-Areneng memiliki dia sebagai panduan tambah (IX 1-11)
  • Lawe terkejut ketika melihat mereka datang Sora, ia berhenti di toko kecil  segalanya , yang datang perintah sesuai  jangkauannya, dan memintanya untuk membunuh Sora, sekarang jadi jauh telah datang dengan dia. Sora tidak diinginkan, Lawe mendesak untuk memikirkan masa lalu, banyak nikmat yang ia telah terima dari  Pangeran dan menyuruhnya diam-diam ke Tuban dan menyampaikan  kasus kepada ayahnya untuk dimaklumi .Akhirnya ia berhasil MENGERAKAN Lawe
  • Sebuah selingan lucu, sebuah sce’ne, yang akan berada dalam lakon banolan. Parangpak yang pertama yang membual telah kepahlawanan nya, haus, percakapan antara Sora dan Lawe bukan hanya sekitar hal yang  menonton, ketika Lawe   bertanya secara sakarstik , apakah ia bisa dikirim keluar untuk membunuh dia, dan dia uitnoodigde itu semakin dekat untuk memulihkan,Bahkan  dia tak menjawab karena hatinya kering dan  tenggelam dalam sepatu dan haus ,  bahkan Tanjek_Areneng  berkata padanya  ,apa yang dia harus  lakukaN.
  • LAWE  MENINGGALKAN   KRATON, HATINYA TAKUT ATAS  ANCAMAN BESAR DAN BANYAK DIANGGAP TERSENTUH BAHWA IA TELAH MEMILIH  , karena akibat buruk tidak terhindarkan.
  • Alarm dipukuli tetapi kuta dan pasukan yang dipanggil untuk pergi Tuban .Tosan, Kidang-Galatik, Siddhi, Cek Muringang dan Kala-Bang-BERGABUNG DENGAN LAWE, selain Mbang  seluruh PENJURU UTARA  Lor (XI 11. – 36)
  • Ketika rumor menyebar dengan sendirinya di  Tuban, sampai ke Lawe bahwa  Adhikara (Wiraraja) tegenmoet. Segera ia melihat bahwa sesuatu yang salah pada anaknya, dan bertanya tentang alasan van.Toen segalanya ada Lawe dia telah mengatakan kepadanya anak hij.Zijn lebih diam adalah sayang kepada raja, tetapi ia memiliki mata terbuka untuk kesulitan yang sekarang ditunggu Lawe, dan menyarankan dia untuk memilih untuk tidak bertindak sembarangan dan zig mematuhi nya kewajiban sebagai warga negara, ada hukuman berat pengkhianatan di akhirat dan di kelahiran Weser. Lawe merasa bahwa ayahnya benar, tapi harga dirinya dicegah dia sekarang untuk mundur dan menghadapi ayahnya, onbetemelijk untuk pahlawan adalah untuk berangkat, ketika bahaya menjulang Ia pergi. bagi dia untuk reputasinya , bahwa tujuannya ialah  ia dan Sora adalah  pahlawan paling berani di daerah Majapahit .Bahkan  tingginya  tidak seperti sekarang dengan  perbuatan heroik atau hak untuk mengurangi pangeran, ia hanya ingin mengorbankan hidupnya dalam masa keberadaannya posisi untuk mempertahankan bahwa ia had. ayahnya , yang melihat nutttelooze lebih lanjut berpendapat, Lawe kini telah lebih jauh ke depan, tetapi pergi, meskipun ia menyesal bahwa anaknya memperlakukan sarannya seperti  pukulan  angin saja (IX, 36-54)
  • Serunya Lawe bersama-sama   laki-laki asli : tapi mantri nya dipura, Garangang dan Tambak-Wisti (T_Bhaya) datang dari akuwu dan mantri’s Tuban ; Dhemang WiraPramoda, Tumengung Wyaghranggarit, Gelap_Angampar, Prabhongcara nghabehi itu, Jaga Rudi (t) Tameng-Gita, Wira-Prabhongcara, Anapak-Bhaya, Sawung-Indra, Salam Dhemang WiraPrahara, rangga Suranggana, Jaran-Pikatan, rangga Dadali kanuruhan itu, Tumenggung Katiga-Barat, Gereh-Kasapta, rangga Sapu-Jagat, Tumenggung Puspalaya, Dhemang Wulung-Tikus, dan Lang Lang-Bhuwana. Mereka semua berjanji dengan akan setia bahkan sampai mati , dan keinginan umum adalah bahwa pasukan Nambi dari Majapahit bisa aanvoren, karena dengan begitu ia akan lusten.Nadat Lawe ketentuan dispenser biasa (pakaian) diadakan, ia kembali ke rumah yang dibutuhkan untuk mempersiapkan diri untuk pergi untuk mengambil permusuhan yang diharapkan (IX,54-70)
  • Pada Tambak-Beras, di tepi timur sungai untuk secara kuantitatif antara antara pasukan Nambi Majapahit dan pendukung Lawe. Tuban mereka harus mencapai sungai, tapi tidak bisa karena hanya datang banjir was.Zoo bahwa Nambi yang mengejar mereka dengan force majeure besar, menyalip dan menyerang mereka di sana. Dalam pertempuran, yang mengikuti dan yang hasilnya tidak memiliki pilihan lain dari penghancuran pengikut Laqwe, jatuh ke sisi Medang Majapahit, sementara kelompok lain Siddhi dan kitosan tewas, Kala Bang Muringang luka parah melarikan diri dan dengan demikian hanya Kidang-Gelatik overbleef.Toen dari semua pihak ke sudut dan dengan lengan yang patah, oleh Jaran-wahan akan diserang, Nambi mengambil kembali ini dan meminta kehidupan mereka dan menawarkan pengiriman ke. Jaran-wahan menyarankan bahwa satu Gelatik akan memberikan kesempatan untuk menunjukkan bahwa ia tulus dipercaya oleh dia untuk memberikan kontribusi dua sahabat terluka Kelabang pistol dan pergi membunuh Muringang. Memang Gelatik Nambi memberi perintah itu dan Gelatik menerima mereka. Dia pergi ke dua sahabat, kelelahan dan pendarahan pada batu itu, bersandar pohon panda, dikelilingi oleh pasukan mereka, yang terluka Ketika mereka datang konigde Gelatik mereka, bahwa ia keinginan untuk pemeliharaan diri telah dilakukan mereka dooden.Kelabang Muringang dan dia berpikir dengan baik, pedang mereka menyerah dan membiarkan diri mereka dengan laki-laki dooden.Hun kelambanan sempurna melarikan diri di Tuban dan berenang menyeberangi sungai tenggelam banyak. Pasukan Majapahit itu, saat matahari terbenam ketika pasang timbul, tanpa kesulitan untuk menyeberangi sungai (IX ,70-91)
  • Keesokan paginya adalah Tuban diketahui bahwa teman-teman  Lawe dari Majapahi berada  di Tambak-Beras (di sini Wosi T) sudah ketinggalan jaman dan dibunuh, dan bahwa musuh menyeberangi sungai itu. Garangangan Tambak dan pergi Bhaya-menyampaikan pesan ke Lawe, yang kemudian memerintahkan semua siap untuk keluar (IX.101-104)
  • ZANG X
  • Lawe HERSELF SAYING GOODBYE TO HIS TWO WIFES, MRTARAGA (AMRTARAGA AMPRTAWATI) AND TIRTHAWATI, AND FOR GOOD.
  • In sinoms is now told of the despair and the wails of women and of Lawe’s attempts to appease them to sterken.Mrtaraga begged him not to leave anyway, because she had that night get  a dream. They both were in her dream Lawe went into the garden to pick flowers and had picked the flowers in a kortje done. Suddenly there was a crow perched on, the kortje had fallen, the flowers were fallen  and consumed to ashes. Lawe now knew that his death was inevitable. Nevertheless he was not influenced by the dream, nor its subsequent lamentations. Finally, let the women out Lawe calm, they were reconciled to her fate and decided Lawe, he could die in the death zollegen follow. Lawe then went to toilet, and when he had finished, he took leave of his wives and ordered his son-Kuda Afijampyani, Dena rmen​​, now his father would forever be left in her love. The boy began to huit, when he saw his mother so sad, when a IFIA Tirthawati to order him to the palace of his grandfather to bring. Father, so are soothed the boy, his appearance make him the king of Majapahit, when he returned, he would bring him a little golden carriage, drawn by the Kuda Sembrani, the flying horse. So let it kindf to spawn, and Ina took him away. For the last time exchanged Lawe and women can Sirihpruim. Repeatedly he kissed heathen. Then he went away, slowly and conspicuously always looking back, decayed with compassion at the sight of his wives and burdened by love (X 0.1 to 31)
  • VERSI INDONESIA
  • Lawe SENDIRI PERIBAHASA GOODBYE ATAS DUA ISTERINYA, MRTARAGA (AMRTARAGA AMPRTAWATI) DAN TIRTHAWATI, DAN UNTUK BAIK.
  • Dalam sinomstropen sekarang menceritakan keputusasaan dan meraung perempuan dan upaya Lawe untuk menenangkan mereka untuk sterken.Mrtaraga memohon tidak meninggalkan pula, karena dia punya mimpi  malam. Mereka berdua dalam mimpinya Lawe pergi ke taman untuk memetik bunga dan telah memilih bunga dalam kortje dilakukan. Tiba-tiba ada burung gagak bertengger dan  kortje telah jatuh, bunga-bunga itu juga jatuh  dan dikonsumsi untuk abu. Lawe sekarang tahu bahwa kematiannya tak terhindarkan. Namun demikian ia tidak dipengaruhi oleh mimpi itu, atau keluhan berikutnya. Akhirnya, membiarkan wanita keluar tenang Lawe, mereka telah dirujuk ke nasib dan memutuskan Lawe, ia bisa mati dalam kematian zollegen ikuti. Lawe kemudian pergi ke toilet, dan ketika dia telah selesai, ia meninggalkan istri-istrinya dan memerintahkan anak-Kuda nya Afijampyani,  ​​Dena, sekarang ayahnya selamanya akan tertinggal di mencintainya. Anak itu mulai huit, ketika ia melihat ibunya begitu sedih, ketika Tirthawati IFIA untuk memesan dia ke istana kakeknya untuk membawa. Bapa, begitu juga ditenangkan anak itu, penampilannya membuat dia raja Majapahit, ketika ia kembali, ia akan membawa dia  emas kereta yang kecil , ditarik oleh Kuda Sembrani, kuda terbang. Jadi biarkan  untuk bertelur, dan Ina membawanya pergi. Untuk terakhir kalinya ditukar Lawe dan perempuan dapat Sirihpruim. Berulang kali dia mencium kafir. Kemudian ia pergi, perlahan dan mencolok selalu melihat ke belakang, dan membusuk dengan belas kasihan saat melihat istri-istrinya  dibebani oleh kasih (X ,1-31)
  •  
  • ZANG XI.
  • De talrijke tweegevechten, die de tekst uitvoerig vermeldt, kunnen we hier overslaan. Lawe reed vechtend over het slagveld rond zijn paard Nilambara. Toen de koning hem daar zag, week zijn toorn en werd hij neerslachtig , daar hij bedacht, welk zwaar verlies Majapahit zou lijden door Lawe’s dood; dam zou ook hem hel leven niets meer waard zijn. Niettemin gaf hij Sora verlof, op diens verzoek, om Lawe te bestrijden. Sora organiseerde den strijd aldus; Kebo Anabrang in het Oosten,Gagak Carkara in het Westen en Mayang Mekar in het Noorden. De beslissende strijd werd gestreden tusschen Lawe en K_Anabrang. Lang streden ze met elkaar. een oogenblik was het, alsof K_Anabrang het verliezen zou; zijn paard werd onder hem gedood en hij viel op den grond.Tevergeefs probeerde hij Lawe’s paard te krissen en Lawe zelf voordeel geen goed gebruik,want ze raakten toen weer een poosje van elkaar gescheiden. Voor den tweeden keer ontmoetten ze elkaar aan den oever van de rivier.K_Anabrang stond in het water en verfrischte zich na de hitte van den strijd. Zonder zich te bedenken sprong Lawe ook in het water zijn tegenstander daar te bestrijden.Eerst wist Lawe K_Anabrang onder water te duwen,maar deze kon ten slotte weer overeind komen en doodde Lawe’s paard.Lawe sprong op een rots en vocht in het water staande verder.Maar in dezen waterstrijd was K-Anabrang de meerdere en na veel moeite wist hij Lawe te dooden.Op dat oogenblik kwan Sora aanrijden,en toen hij zag, wat er gebeurd was,doodle hij op zijn beurt K_Anabrang, meegesleept door zijn toorn(XI,170-234)
  • Their commander with spiritual passion and with various expressions of militancy. Lawe set them up in the battle “with gapendem crocodile jaws. ” At the moment of departure came one of Lawe’s fathers, kyayi Ge’ng Palandongan ing, another scrub trying to move him from his intention to abandon, but Lawe stuck to his decision. Soon after leaving they met the Majapahit troops, a wild fight broke out, which many dead vielen.Het climax of the battle he was fighting between Lawe, seated on his stridros Megha-Lamat, and Nambi, Nambi which conquered and put to flight werd.Toen were hunted Majapahittters defeated and chased back across the river, where many tengelam(verdronken).Lawe she would have gone Tambak Be’ras-chase, but his comrades ontrieden him because he would be in hostile territory, and moreover Not all troops Mjapahitsche hatched waren.Lawe concurred. When night fell and the fight moost provisionally discontinued (XI 0.1-67)
  • Told then that the next morning in Majapahit audience was. Had just Sora reported that the troops a victory had to Tambak-Osi (T. Wosi, T_beras), the river had gone and at that moment might Tuban already reach had when Hangsa Terik bin nine was worn and the unfavorable state of unreported . The king was angry and wanted to raise them immediately Tuban vermoesten, but Sora and Ke’bo Anabrang allowed to advise it on the ground that the troops were too tired. The king vowed that if Lawe was not slain, himself a jungle of Majapahit would maken.Daarop he sent Kalangerak, Setan Kobar, Butangasag Juru_Ptakoca go  and the fleeing troops back to collect for the state to take in information and win for the enemy. With 800 men they went to Majapahit  road.Intusschen were provisions for a second campaign. With 10,000 men marched on the king himself. When they arrived on the plain Wirakrama waren.Their  reported that a large part of the Majapahit troops first expedition was still found across various villages, where they had fled, and the Tuba troops were ready to resume the struggle (XI 0.67 to 121)
  • The numerous duels, the text mentions in detail, we can skip. Lawe fighting rode his horse around on the battlefield Nilambara. When the king saw him, his wrath week and was depressed because he invented, which would suffer heavy losses Majapahit Lawe’s death, his dam would also no longer worth living hell. Nevertheless he gave Sora leave, at his request, to Lawe combat. Sora battle so organized, Kebo Anabrang in the East, Gagak Carkara Mayang each other in the West and in the North. The decisive battle was fought between Lawe and K_Anabrang. Long competed with each other. one moment it was as if K_Anabrang would lose, his horse was slain under him and he fell to the grond.Tevergeefs he tried Lawe Lawe’s horse daggers and benefit themselves not a good use, because a while back when they were separated. For the second time they met on the banks of the rivier.K_Anabrang stood in the water and refreshed after the heat of battle. Without thinking Lawe also jumped into the water as his opponent managed to bestrijden.Fisrt  Lawe K_Anabrang underwater to push, but it could finally come up again and killed Lawe’s paard.Lawe jumped on a rock and fluid in the water standing on . But in this water fight was the K-Anabrang more and after much effort he managed to Lawe dooden.Op that moment Sora kwan drove, and when he saw what had happened, he doodle K_Anabrang in turn, carried away by his anger (XI 0.170 to 234)
  •  
  • Versi Indonesia:
  • Daerah tropis komandan mereka disambut dengan gairah spiritual dan dengan berbagai ekspresi militansi. Lawe mengaturnya dalam pertempuran “dengan rahang buaya gapendem.” Pada saat keberangkatan datang salah satu bapak Lawe’s, kyayi Ge’ng ing Palandongan, gosok lain mencoba untuk memindahkan dia dari niatnya untuk meninggalkan, tetapi Lawe menempel keputusannya. Segera setelah meninggalkan mereka bertemu pasukan Majapahit, pertempuran pecah liar, yang banyak klimaks vielen.Het mati peperangan dia pertempuran antara Lawe, duduk di stridros nya Megha-Lamat, dan Nambi, Nambi yang menaklukkan dan dihukum penerbangan werd.Toen diburu Majapahittters dikalahkan dan mengejar kembali menyeberangi sungai, di mana banyak verdronken.Lawe dia akan pergi Tambak Be’ras-mengejar, tapi rekan-rekannya ontrieden dia karena dia akan berada di wilayah bermusuhan, dan terlebih lagi Tidak semua waren.Lawe pasukan Mjapahitsche menetas setuju. Ketika malam tiba dan memerangi moost dihentikan sementara (XI 0,1-67)
  • Diceritakan kemudian bahwa pagi berikutnya di penonton Majapahit. Baru saja Sora melaporkan bahwa pasukan kemenangan harus Tambak-Osi (T. Wosi, T_beras), sungai telah pergi dan pada saat yang mungkin Tuban sudah mencapai miliki ketika Hangsa bin Terik sembilan dipakai dan keadaan yang tidak menguntungkan dari tidak dilaporkan . Raja marah dan ingin membesarkan mereka segera vermoesten Tuban, namun Sora dan Ke’bo Anabrang diizinkan untuk memberikan saran itu dengan alasan bahwa pasukan terlalu lelah. Raja Lawe bersumpah bahwa jika tidak dibunuh, dirinya sebagai hutan Majapahit akan maken.Daarop dia mengirim Kalangerak, Setan Kobar, Butangasag uiy Juru_Ptakoca dan pasukan melarikan diri kembali untuk mengumpulkan bagi negara untuk menerima informasi dan menang musuh. Dengan 800 laki-laki mereka pergi ke weg.Intusschen Majapahit adalah ketentuan untuk kampanye kedua. Dengan 10.000 orang berbaris pada raja sendiri. Ketika mereka tiba di dataran Wirakrama waren.Zij melaporkan bahwa sebagian besar pasukan Majapahit ekspedisi pertama masih ditemukan di berbagai desa, di mana mereka telah melarikan diri, dan pasukan Tuban siap untuk melanjutkan perjuangan (XI,67-121)
  • Teks secara detail menyebutkan bahwa kita akan melalui banyak duel.  Lawe mengendarai kudanya bertempur  di medan perang Nilambara. Ketika raja melihatnya, ia  murka dan merasa tertekan karena ia ikut menciptakan Majapahit , dan Majapahit yang akan menderita kerugian besar  atas kematian  Lawe, bendungan itu akan juga tidak lagi layak hidup dalam neraka . Namun demikian ia  atas permintaan  meninggalkan Sora, untuk Lawe bertempur.
  • Begitu Sora mengorganisir  pertempuran , Kebo Anabrang di Timur, Gagak Carkara Mayang sama lain di Barat dan di Utara. Pertempuran yang menentukan terjadi antara Lawe dan K_Anabrang. Mereka  bersaing satu sama lain. satu saat itu seolah-olah K_Anabrang akan kehilangan, kudanya terbunuh di bawah dan dia jatuh ketanah .Tevergeefs ia mencoba belati kuda Lawe Lawe dan keuntungan sendiri bukan menggunakan baik, karena beberapa waktu lalu ketika mereka dipisahkan. Untuk kedua kalinya mereka bertemu di tepi sungai .K_Anabrang berdiri dalam air dan segar setelah panas pertempuran. Tanpa berpikir Lawe juga melompat ke dalam air sebagai lawannya berhasil bestrijden.Eerst Lawe K_Anabrang bawah air untuk mendorong, tapi akhirnya bisa datang lagi dan membunuh paard.Lawe melonjak di atas batu dan cairan dalam air berdiri Tapi dalam perang air. adalah K-Anabrang lebih dan setelah banyak usaha ia berhasil Lawe dooden.Op saat kwan Sora mengemudi, dan ketika ia melihat apa yang terjadi, ia doodle K_Anabrang pada gilirannya, pergi jauh terbawa oleh amarahnya (XI,170-234)
  • ___________________________________________________________
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  • BUTAK INSCRIPTION

  • •Mpu Prapanca have writiing in Negarakertagama book in1365 bahwa Majapahit about Majapahit from Butak Inscriptions 1294.
  • This inscription contains the history of how the collapse of empire and how Wijaya forming Singasari Majapahit kingdom was written in the emakai chronicle prassati 1294. This paper trays dinamakn Mount Butak charter, because it was found that name dicelah mountain, located south west of the town of Mojokerto or poor. So when the charter was written in the memories of all who suffered in the years 1292-1293 are still diinagt by sipendengar.Sebagian of the text has been copied by Dr. Brandes kedealam belands language, such as being read in the book Pararaton pages 94-100. The translation is as follows:
  • A. AD Year: 1294
  • Selamatlah! at saka tahubn 1216, in Badrapada, on five months of being down, on the day Harjang, Umanis, sjanesjcara (according to days and weeks five, six and seven) at the time Madankungan, when the stars still shining moon disebellah southeast diperumahan Rohini with the Hiang Prajapati as eplindungnya and entered the circle mandala Mahendra, when Joga Siddhi and at Weraja, protected as a protective perbulanan Jama, on the day because the named Tetila and starred in when the virgin constellations.
  • B. Edict PRABU
  • then in command of the Series went down that day the king, that is the only king who can be praised highly bersifatnkepahlawanan, king of a very noble and brave, which destroy the enemy-mus bertentara great kings, who snagat diberkatai and have the disposition, energy, kindness, smartness and a sense of responsibility, the ruler of the region Jawadiwipa, protector of all rights of good people, a derivative family which stores Sari Narasimha rights obligations of countries, son of Narasimha sebading derivatives; happy married daughter in-law because Labour and the title as king Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya Rakrian it is accepted by all three ministers of the three Katrini mahamenteri, Ino, pestle and Sirikan. Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang” ae=”meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and emnetri zSirikan> Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously in the middle of  war-center jobs meteri Ino, Pamasi gift, minister zlu Diah Sinlar and menteri Sirikan Diah Palisir that three of them accompanied by a mengetarkan mentyeri rakrian enemy in World War I and a very filial virtue, named Paranaraja, rakrian minister who behaved courageously ditenagh war-center jobs , rakrian menterui mus in the region of desolation and the bersemanagt nusnatara hard, named Aria Adikara. rakrian ministers preceded by the supreme head of all the heroes who gain the trust of friends, and have compassion for all people, named Aria Wiraraja, which presumably can dianamkan Baginda Seri Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya
  • ISIH Edict
  • The command of His Majesty Maharaja is derived for the benefit of the hovel bernua Kudadu as darma area named Kle’me, a decision which stamped king Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu and in copper, that are stored by the village head Kudadu, which will define freedom Swatantra hovel continent Kudadu , therefore has dijadsikan check by Series king, together with the fields above and dibaruh, mountains and valleys, and shall cease to be part Le’me darma area, for designation Kudadu village chief, to be held down temruun until extended to the cucnya, either now or ternus again incessantly.
  • CAUSE ANUGRAH
  • As for the cause it is the behavior Kudau village headman who once gave a place to hide carefully to the Majesty the King, when he became king and still have not named Naraja sanggrawijaya, on when he was in trouble heading Kudadu. hunted by the enemy by being chased in a state like berfikut: Seri Baginda Kertanegara former Maharaja became King and meninggakan the mortal world and entered the world an immortal in sjiwabudalaya when he was attacked by a series Jayakatong king of the rings with an enemy force as a shameful thing to do and treason to friends and violate perseujuan, because the king wished XSeri undermine the bersemayan Kertanegara Tumapel.Setelah known in the state of an army bahea Series Jayakatong king had to de Jasun Wungkal, then send Sei Kertanegara Majesty Majesty (The King now) and Ardaraja against Sri Sire Jayakatong. The Ardaraja and series Majesty King-in-law both adalh Series Kertnegara king, but as became known Ardaraja is also the son of the king Jayakatong Series.
  • After Sri king Prabu and Ardaraja leave Tumapel and until Kedung Hug, then Sei Bagindalah the very first meeting with musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda fighting, and msusuhpun defeated and fled, with a big defeat.
  • After that then the army moved into the valley Seri Baginda, but there has not encountered the enemy. After that keep moving towards the West, from the valley to the bars, and the front of the king Sei meet again with some of the enemy, who withdrew without fighting back. After meliwati Trunk, lalyu Majesty came to Pulungan, the king’s army to fight anymore Series Kapulungan west and defeat the enemy, and running in a really difficult situation with the suffering losses. large. Demikinalah circumstances, when the army Seri Baginda forward again and get to Rabut nozzle, while not how long the enemy came from the west, then Sei King fought with all the power and tenataranya, the enemy fled after receiving heavy losses, and it seems as if running for ever . But in such circumstances, the state of the east Hanyiru stump melambailambaikan enemy flag, red and white flag, and when I saw the stump was then Ardaraja then holstered his gun, apply a very embarrassing and ran towards Kapulungan with malicious intent. Therefore the army musnahlah Sei king, but tetapetia Majesty the king Kertanegara series, which is why the series King lived in Rabut Carat, and after that the next go-apajeg Pamwatan northward toward the north side of Sungei.
  • Sei Banginda the part at that time there were about six hundred oramng. (Soul). The next day after sunrise, the enemy came following a series baginda.tentara Seri Baginda backwards to meet them and he broke away, but even so the army has been greatly reduced Seri Baginda, kiarena already there who ran to hide himself and left him, sehimngga anxiety arises without a weapon nothing. Afterwards Majesty negotiate with those who are in Him. According pedapatnya Eggplant he should go to in order to negotiate with it there akuwu., Rakrian Wuru Agraja name who was appointed by King Kertanegara Kuwu, so he was willing to assist Series Banginda gather all the people on the Northeast Terung.Semuanya agree with it, and after day night, then Sei Majesty through KUlawan anxious lest the enemy followed very much.
  • In KUlawan meet again with the enemy, he was chased by them, but to escape by going towards the north, so if possible will run to the Flower essence, there tetapijuga meet again with the enemy is chasing him and when it alrilah he shared with them all the existing , seceapt besarf as possible across the river moving towards north. When it multiply that sank and others were hunted by the enemy and killed with spears, and who can be helped run divorced kegelaa temapt apart. Seri Baginda who lived only a dozen people.
  • Seri Baginda accident is very great indeed, but when he reached the village Kududu village, the headman was received with earnest heart and feel sorry for Beals, such as providing food and beverages as well as rice, and the Seri Baginda provided a hiding place and tried to correct for king ZSeri goal is reached, so belaiau orang.apabila do not find the enemy looking for him. After that he was shown the way and diiringkan until kedaerah Apex, in order to rid themselves Sei king to the island of Madura as he wanted.
  • So the first time the Series was brought to the king-Kudadu in difficult circumstances, and village heads were really true force and received the king with pity Beals, and the circumstances that cause liver gratitude aksih in his soul.
  • Seri Baginda (now) become king, so  earth’s guardian who descended from Heaven, so therefore fitting yourmajesty  repay good and made happy the people who have done good to him.
  • And so on (keswatentaraan, Money Indigenous, Perwatasan Kudadu, Prohibition, Crime, Money Offering, Strengthening Keeaktian, I swear, Lost.)
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  • Prasasti Gunung Butak
  • Prasasti gunung butak tahun 1294. Prasasti itu menuliskan pemberontakan Kediri melawan SingasariSaat itu Kediri mengibarkan bendera merah putih.

  • •Mpu Prapanca mencatat dalam kitab Negarakertagama pada tahun 1365 bahwa Majapahit adalah keraton merah putih.
  • prasasti ini berisi riwayat bagaimana runtuhnya kerajaan Singasari dan bagaimana Wijaya membentuk kerajaan Majapahit merupakan tulisan dalam prassati yang emakai tarikh 1294. Tulisan loyang ini dinamakn piagam Gunung Butak,karena ditemukan dicelah gunung yang bernama demikian,terletak disebelah selatan Mojokerto atau sebelah barat kota malang. Jadi piagam itu ditulis pada ketika kenang-kenangan terhadap segala yang dialami dalam tahun 1292-1293 masih diinagt oleh sipendengar.Sebagian dari tulisan itu telah disalin oleh DR Brandes kedealam bahasa belands, seperti yang dibaca dalam kitab Pararaton halaman 94-100. Terjemahannya adalah sebagai berikut:
  • A. Tahun Masehi : 1294
  • Selamatlah! pada tahubn saka 1216 ,pada bulan Badrapada ,pada tanggal lima bulan sedang turun,pada hari Harjang,Umanis,sjanesjcara(menurut pekan berhari lima,enam dan tujuh) pada waktu Madankungan,ketika bintang tetap bersinar disebellah tenggara diperumahan rembulan Rohini dengan sang Hiang Prajapati sebagai eplindungnya dan masuk lingkaran mandala Mahendra ,ketika Joga Siddhi dan pukul Weraja ,dilindungi Jama sebagi pelindung perbulanan ,pada hari karena bernama Tetila dan pada ketika rasi bertanda bintang perawan.
  • B.TITAH RPABU
  • maka pada hari itu turunlah titah Seri baginda,yaitu satu-satunya raja yang dapat dipujikan sangat bersifatnkepahlawanan ,raja yang sangat mulia dan berani, yang memusnahkan musuh-mush raja-raja bertentara besar,yang snagat diberkatai dan mempunyai tabiat ,tenaga,budi,kebagusan dan rasa tangung jawab,penguasa seluruh daerah Jawadiwipa,pelindung segala hak orang-orang baik,turunan keluarga narasinga yang menyimpan Sari hak-hak kewajiban negara,putera turunan yang sebading narasinga; menantu karena berbahagia beristeri puteri Kartanegara dan yang sebagai raja bergelar Kertarajasa Jayawardana. Titahnya itu diterima oleh Rakrian menteri yang bertiga yaitu mahamenteri bertiga Katrini, Ino ,alu dan Sirikan . meteri Ino,diah Pamasi, menteri zlu Diah Sinlar dan emnetri zSirikan >Diah Palisir yang ketiga-tiganya diiringi oleh rakrian mentyeri yang mengetarkan musuh dimedan perang dan yang sangat berbakti keutamaan, bernama Paranaraja, rakrian menteri yang bertingkah laku penuh keberanian ditenagh-tengah pekerjaan perang,rakrian menterui yang membinasakan mush di daerah nusnatara dan yang bersemanagt keras,bernama Aria Adikara. didahului oleh rakrian menteri kepala tertinggi pada segala pahlawan yang mendapatkan kepercayaan berbagai teman,serta mempunyai belas kasihan kepada segala orang,bernama Aria Wiraraja,yang kiranya dapat dianamkan Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara. dstnya
  • ISIH TITAH
  • Adapun titah seri baginda Maharaja diturunkan untuk kepentingan teratak bernua Kudadu yang menjadi sebagai daerah darma bernama Kle’me,berupa keputusan raja yang dibubuhi cap Kertarajasa Jayawardana, dibatu dan di tembaga, supaya disimpan oleh kepala desa Kudadu,yang akan menetapkan kebebasan Swatantra teratak benua Kudadu, oleh karena telah dijadsikan periksa oleh Seri baginda,bersama-sama dengan ladang diatas  dan dibaruh,gunung dan lembah, dan harus berhenti menjadi bagian daerah  darma Le’me, bagi peruntukan kepala desa Kudadu, yang akan dimiliki turun temruun sampai keanak-cucnya,baik kini ataupun ternus menerus tak putus-putusnya.
  • SEBAB ANUGRAH
  • Adapun yang menyebabkan itu ialah tingkah laku lurah desa Kudau yang dahulu memberi tempat bersembunyi dengan hati-hati kepada Seri Baginda Sang Prabu,ketika beliau belum menjadi raja dan masih bernama Naraja sanggrawijaya,pada ketika beliau dalam kesusahan menuju  Kudadu. diburu oleh musuh dengan dikejar-kejar dalam keadaan seperti berfikut : Seri Baginda Maharaja Kertanegara yang dahulu menjadi Prabu dan meninggakan dunia yang fana dan memasuki dunia yang baka di sjiwabudalaya ketika diserang oleh Seri baginda Jayakatong dari gelang-gelang dengan berlaku sebagai musuh mengerjakan benda yang memalukan serta berkhianat kepada teman dan melanggar perseujuan ,karena berkeinginan meruntuhkan XSeri baginda Kertanegara yang bersemayan didalam negara Tumapel.Setelah diketahui bahea sepasukan tentara Seri baginda Jayakatong sudah sampai de Jasun Wungkal, lalu Seri Baginda Kertanegara mengirimkan Sei Baginda(Sang Prabu sekarang) dan Ardaraja melawan Sri Baginda Jayakatong. Adapun Ardaraja dan seri Baginda Sang Prabu keduanya adalh mantu Seri baginda Kertnegara,tetapi seperti diketahui orang Ardaraja adalah pula putera Seri baginda Jayakatong.
  • Setelah Sri baginda Prabu dan Ardaraja meninggalkan Tumapel dan sampai Kedung Peluk, maka Sei Bagindalah yang mula-mula sekali bertemu dengan musuh.Tentara Seri Baginda berkelahi,dan msusuhpun kalah dan melarikan diri , dengan menderita kekalahan besar.
  • Sesudah itu lalu tentara Seri Baginda bergerak ke lembah, tetapi disana tidak ditemui musuh. Setelah itu terus bergerak kearah Barat ,dari lembah menuju Batang, dan bagian depan Sei baginda bertemu lagi dengan beberapa musuh, yang menarik diri mundur tanpa berkelahi. Setelah meliwati Batang,lalyu Seri Baginda sampailah ke Pulungan, maka tentara Seri baginda bertempur lagi disebelah barat Kapulungan dan musuh menderita kekalahan , dan berlari-lari dalam keadaan susah benar dengan menderita kerugian. besar. Demikinalah keadaannya, ketika tentara Seri Baginda maju lagi dan sampai ke Rabut Curat, sedangkan tak berapa lamanya datanglah musuh dari arah barat, maka Sei Baginda berperang dengan segala tenaga dan tenataranya, musuh lari setelah mendapat kerugian besar, dan rupanya seolah-olah lari untuk selamanya.Tetapi dalam keadaan demikian,keadaan sebelah timur Hanyiru tunggul bendera musuh melambailambaikan , merah dan putih benderanya, dan ketika melihat tunggul itu maka Ardaraja lalu menyarungkan senjatanya,berlaku yang sangat memalukan dan lari kearah Kapulungan dengan maksud jahat. Oleh sebab itu maka musnahlah tentara Sei baginda, tetapi Seri Baginda tetapetia kepada seri baginda Kertanegara, itulah sebabnya maka seri Baginda tinggal di Rabut Carat , dan setelah itu selanjutnya pergi keutara menuju Pamwatan-apajeg disebelah utara diseberang sungei.
  • Dipihak Sei Banginda pada waktu itu masih ada kira-kira enam ratus oramng.(jiwa). Keesokan harinya setelah matahari terbit, maka musuh datang menyusul seri baginda.tentara Seri Baginda menyongsong mereka dan beliau mundur memisahkan diri,tetapi walaupun begitu tentara Seri Baginda sudah sangat berkurang, kiarena sudah ada yang lari menyembunyikan diri dan meninggalkan beliau, sehimngga timbullah kecemasan tanpa senjata apa-apa. Setelah itu Seri Baginda berunding dengan mereka yang ada pada Beliau. Menurut pedapatnya beliau harus  pergi ke Terung supaya berunding dengan Akuwu disana itu.,rakrian Wuru Agraja namanya yang diangkat menjadi Kuwu oleh Prabu Kertanegara, supaya ia bersedia membantu Seri Banginda mengumpulkan segala orang-orang disebelah Timur laut Terung.Semuanya menyetujui pendapat itu,dan setelah hari malam, maka Sei Baginda melalui KUlawan cemas kalau-kalau diikuti musuh yang sangat banyak.
  • Di KUlawan bertemu lagi dengan musuh, beliau dikejar oleh mereka, tetapi dapat melepaskan diri dengan pergi kearah utara,supaya apabila mungkin akan lari ke Kembang sari, tetapijuga disana bertemu lagi dengan musuh yang mengejar beliau dan ketika itu alrilah beliau bersama mereka sekalian yang ada dengannya, seceapt-cepatnya menyeberang sungai besarf menuju kearah utara. Ketika itu banyaklah yang tenggelam  dan yang lainnya diburu oleh  musuh dan dibunuh dengan tombak, dan yang dapat tertolong lari bercerai-berai kegelaa temapt. Yang tinggal hanya Seri Baginda  dengan belasan orang saja.
  • Kecelakaan yang menimpa Seri Baginda sungguhlah sangat hebat, tetapi ketika beliau sampai ke Kelurahan desa Kududu, maka lurah itu menerima dengan sungguh-sungguh hati dan berasa beals kasihan seperti menyediakan makanan dan minuman serta nasi, dan  kepada Seri Baginda diberikan tempat bersembunyi dan berusaha benar agar tujuan ZSeri baginda tercapai ,supaya belaiau jangan ditemukan orang.apabila musuh mencarinya. Setelah itu beliau ditunjukkan arah jalan dan diiringkan sampai kedaerah Rembang, agar Sei baginda dapat menyingkirkan diri ke pulau Madura seperti yang diinginkannya.
  • Demikianlah waktu dahulu Seri baginda dibawa ke-Kudadu dalam keadaan yang sukar,dan kepala desa itu berlaku sungguh-sungguh benar dan menerima raja dengan beals kasihan,dan keadaan itu menimbulkan rasa terima aksih dalam hati sanubarinya.
  • Sei baginda(kini) menjadi raja,jadi pelidung bumi yang turun dari Kayangan,sehingga oleh sebab itu patutlah belaiu membalas budi baik dan menyenangkan (mengirangkan) orang yang telah berbuat baik kepada beliau.
  • DAN SETERUSNYA (keswatentaraan,Uang Adat,Perwatasan Kudadu,Larangan,Kejahatan,Uang Persembahan,Penguatan Keeaktian,Sumpah,Hilang. )
  • 1296.
  • Inscription Kertarajasa OR PENANGUNANGAN’s CHARTER 1296
  • FOUND THIS inscriptions DICELAH DILERENG STONE MOUNTAIN PEAK BETWEEN PENANGUNANGAN Northside GAJAGMUNGKAR WITH BE’KE’L, south MOJOKERTO, BENYAKNYA 11 pieces.
  • This 1296 inscription besama together with the inscription Kertarajasa 1924.1305 and others with information about the Majapahit, which among other things sebbagai follows
  • PRASASTI KERTARAJASA ATAU PIAGAM PENANGUNANGAN 1296
  • PRASATI INI DITEMUKAN DICELAH BATU DILERENG GUNUNG PENANGUNANGAN SEBELAH UTARA ANTARA PUNCAK GAJAGMUNGKAR DENGAN BE’KE’L, DISEBELAH SELATAN MOJOKERTO , BENYAKNYA 11 KEPING .
  • Prasasti 1296 ini besama-sama dengan prasasti Kertarajasa 1924,1305 dan lain-lainnya berisi informasi tentang Majapahit, isinya antara lain sebbagai berikut:
  • 1.Year 1296 AD
  • Blessed! At saka year 1218, the month Kartika (October-November), on the day kedu moonlight, Tungle, Kaliwon, Saturday, the town brass, fixed stars are on the south, home-bulanya aArdra, divine partner, mandala, Baruna, Atiganda, Wairaja a master at buhur astrology, Kubera, because, lucky sign, the scorpion
  • Tahun Masehi 1296
  • Berbahagialah ! Pada tahun saka 1218,pada bulan Kartika (oktober-Nopember) ,pada hari kedu ketika bulan terang ,Tungle,Kaliwon,Sabtu, pekan kuningan,bintang tetap sedang disebelah selatan, rumah-bulanya aArdra,dewata mitra ,mandala,Baruna,Atiganda,pukul Wairaja yang menguasai buhur perbintangan,Kubera,karana,tanda rasi,kalajengking.
  • 2.Lowering the Edict which Jayawardana Kertarajasa
  • At that time His Majesty Maharaja series decree ordering the globe reduce the power of Java correspond with the melodious name, which is the desire trees (fruiting), courage and power that no blemish fennel, which dianatara kesatriannya families and nations can be compared with the full moon surrounded by stars-the stars are not cloudy. Who became a hero in the midst of struggle, with courage to overcome the other heroes, who destroy all enemy kings of the world, such as poison sjiwa Mahadeva, which split the head of prominent people who ignored orders.
  • THAT CAUSE ANY ENEMY BE ENTIRELY WAN and perish, DEVELOPING HEART THAT ANY GOOD PEOPLE-GOOD, LIKE THE SUN. Which became an umbrella for the poor-poor and wise and who love the land of Java, which became rakrian minister named Abiseka Sanggrana Wijaya with the Kingdom of Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardana
  • Yang Menurunkan Titah Kertarajasa Jayawardana
  • Pada waktu itulah seri Baginda Maharaja menurunkan titah yang memerintahkan buana Jawa yang kekuasaannya berpadanan dengan namanya yang merdu, yang menjadi pohon keinginan (berbuah) , keberanian dan kekuasaan yang tidak adas cacatnya, yang dianatara keluarga dan bangsa  kesatriannya dapat dibandingkan dengan bulan purnama dikelilingi bintang-bintang dilangit yang  tidak berawan. Yang menjadi pahlawan ditengah-tengah perjuangan, dengan mengatasi keberanian pahlawan-pahlawan lainnya, yang memusnakan segala raja-raja musuh dunia, seperti racun mahadewa sjiwa , yang mengeping kepala orang-orang trekemuka yang tidak mengacuhkan perintahnya.
  • YANG MENYEBABKAN SEGALA MUSUH MENJADI PUCAT DAN HILANG LENYAP SELURUHNYA, YANG MENGEMBANGKAN JANTUNG SEGALA ORANG BAIK-BAIK,SEPERTI SANG MATAHARI. Yang menjadi payung bagi orang papa-miskin dan bijaksana serta yang mencintai tanah Jawa, yang menjadi rakrian menteri Sanggrana Wijaya dengan bernama Abiseka Kerajaan Sri Kertarajasa Jayawardana
  • 3.Four Queens
  • He has four brothers in Queens. in decreasing order permassiusrinya he is assisted by four brothers. Altogether the princess Kertanegara, all the daughters of Sri him Kertanegara planted in Sjiwa-Huda. They are: Sri Parama Isjwari, Diah Teribuawana-Isjwari, Sri Mahadewi, Diah Dahita Nara Indera, Sri Jaya Indera goddess, Diah Prajayaparamida, King Indera Dewi Sri, Gayatri Diah.
  • new iformation from Prof. Dr Arlo Griffith,Ecole de Francaice D’Extreme Orient Jakarta (2011) :Malay princess Submission associated with shipping arca Amongphasa to be placed in the kingdom Singosari Dhamasraya under King Kertanegara. Later, Darah Petak  married to Raden Wiajaya plot which gave birth to the king of Majapahit Jayanegara as a substitute Raden wiajaya
  • Empat Permaisuri
  • Beliau mempunyai empat bersaudara  sebagai  Permaisuri. dalam menurunkan perintah beliau dibantu oleh permassiusrinya empat bersaudara. Seluruhnya para puteri Kertanegara, yang semuanya para puteri Sri baginda Kertanegara yang ditanam ditempat Sjiwa-Huda. Mereka itu ialah : Sri Parama Isjwari, Diah Teribuawana-Isjwari, Sri Mahadewi,Diah Nara Indera Dahita, Sri Jaya Indera dewi , Diah Prajayaparamida, Sri Raja Indera Dewi, Diah Gayatri.
  • 4.CROWN SON(PRINCE) Jayanegara
  • Malay princess Submission associated with shipping arca Amongphasa to be placed in the kingdom Singosari Dhamasraya under King Kertanegara. Later, Darah Petak  married to Raden Wiajaya plot which gave birth to the king of Majapahit Jayanegara as a substitute Raden wiajaya (Kompas, 1 June 2011, testimony of Prof. Dr. Arlo Griffiths from Ecole D’Extreme-Orient Franaise representative Jakarta)please compare the different with the Penangungan with inscription below:
  • He was followed by her Son of the empress, the king of Sri Parama Isjwari( this qoeen may be same with Dara Petak princess from Dhamasraya-Dr Iwan ) young cadet to have signs of a good body, the young queen as king Kertanegara Sri grandchildren, great-grandson both young queen-derived Jaya Sri Wisnuwardana which has brought strength since birth and that does not exist disability, and can be compared with a thousand rays of light the new rising sun, which has boosted the queen by the name Abiseka Daha land as Queen of the Kingdom of the Young by the name of His Majesty Jayanegara.
  • PUTERA MAHKOTA JAYANEGARA
  • Penyerahan putri Melayu terkait dengan pengiriman arca Amongphasa untuk ditempatkan di Dhamasraya dari kerajaan singosari dibawah Raja Kertanegara. Kelak , dara petak menikah dengan Raden Wiajaya yang kemudian melahirkan Jayanegara sebagai raja Majapahit penganti Raden wiajaya(Kompas,1 juni 2011,keterangan Prof Dr Arlo Griffiths dari Ecole Franaise D’extre Orien perwakilan Jakarta)
  • Beliau diikuti oleh Puteranya dari permaisuri Sri Parama Isjwari (sesuai penemuan Prof.Dr Arlo, 2011, permaisuri ini sma dengan Dara Petak,putri dari Damasraya)yaitu raja muda teruna dengan memiliki tanda-tanda badan yang baik,ratu muda sebagai cucu Sri baginda Kertanegara, ratu muda cicit baik turunan Jaya-Sri Wisnuwardana yang memiliki kekuatan yang dibawanya sejak lahir dan yang tidak ada cacatnya, dan dapat dibandingkan dengan seribu sinar cahaya Matahari yang baru terbit, yang telah dikuatkan menjadi ratu tanah Daha dengan nama Abiseka Kerajaan sebagai Ratu Muda dengan nama Sri Baginda Jayanegara.
  • 5.Kertarajasa
  • Maharajapun King, a knight this part to Dewaan down from heaven in the form of the king’s son with signs of a good torso. Convincing proof that it is, that he has the nature of courage, the creator of truth, gentle, good tempered, sharp-witted, friend of man, gallant officer in perjuanagn, he has thousands of followers dang good soldier, he has the wealth, particularly gold, all of it is nature which states that he is the god of Human Regulated.
  • and then he experienced as a protection of life, kindness of the late Sri maharajah Kertanegara, namely that her name Sanggerama wijaya insightful as Diamond manikam.
  • The events that he destroy the enemy in the fight is because it is caused by the late Sri Kertanegara, because he was not such a boon, a King of the Almighty and Supreme Isjwara of all other kings, not just the only controlled the island of Java, but also throughout the archipelago will not give effect anything. The reason is that he is the Queen (King) of the Kings in Java and later also King of the archipelago.
  • At one time Sri Kertarajasa go kedaerah wicked lie criminals who defected to the late Sri Kertanegara and Panji PatiPati inevitably miss too, after Sri Kertarajasa get there, then the evident force of nature deity Sri Baginda, mkaa msusuhpun dead scared and shocked and helpless again. Sehelia menjatukhan meraka no hair on the side of Sri Kertarajasa, musuhpun been destroyed, the soldiers were killed, captured his queen, pulled his wife and children deprived of their possessions.
  • The enemy was wiped out, until no trace again, destroyed to ashes, there was no difference sunguhlah his actions with deeds young Krishna who killed the King Kangsa.
  • Similarly, the young cadet the king’s son was picking winning preformance struggle, when he reached the point, he is crowned king, wearing royal ornaments, and sitting upon the throne of gold and jewel encrusted throne. It was then that he began to become King (king), he was assisted by his own power. All the people say, that he made himself King (king).
  • As he was human egala Bagis grieve by wicked wicked adalag as if the water-life, obtained because the ocean is stirred by the mountain Mandara, therefore it so happens, then people feel really glad to be his people, with joy and open the  proud heart king Maharaja sri, Shebaniah is because once covered entirely by his wicked wicked. Therefore His Majesty Maharaja remain that way, then he is like  new sun rising and develop all the flowers, which dampened by the dew of Kembang island, filled with puspa (flower) various kinds. this is how he opened the hearts of the people and it is fun of all the situation  to the  people for being of his men.
  • KERTARAJASA
  • Sri Baginda Maharajapun , seorang satria bagaian ke Dewaan turun dari surga berbentuk putra raja dengan tanda-tanda batang tubuh yang baik. Tanda bukti yang meyakinkan hal itu ialah, bahwa beliau mempunyai sifat keteguhan hati, pencipta kebenaran, lemah lembut, berwatak baik, berotak tajam, teman manusia, gagah perwira dalam perjuangan, beliau mempunyai beribu-ribu prajurit dang pengikut yang baik, beliau mempunyai kekayaan, terutama sekali emas, semuanya itu ialah sifat yang menyatakan beliau itu adalah Dewa Berbadan Manusia.
  • dan selanjutnya beliau mengalami  sebagai perlidungan kehidupan ,kebaikan hati almarhum Sri maharaja Kertanegara, yaitu namanya Sanggerama wijaya yang baginya dipandang berarti sebagai Intan manikam.
  • Peristiwa bahwa ia memusnahkan musuh dalam perjuangan adalah karena disebabkan oleh almarhum Sri kertanegara, karena bukanlah anugerah seorang seperti beliau , seorang Prabu yang Mahakuasa dan Maha Isjwara dari segala raja-raja lain, tidaklah saja yang hanya menguasai pulau Jawa, melainkan juga seluruh Nusantara tidak akan memberi akibat apa-apa. Sebabnya ialah bahwa beliau adalah Ratu(raja) dari segala Raja di pulau Jawa dan selanjutnya juga Raja Nusantara.
  • Pada suatu kali Sri Kertarajasa pergi kedaerah orang penjahat dusta durjana yang berkhianat kepada almarhum Sri Kertanegara dan Panji Patipati tak urung ketinggalan pula, setelah Sri Kertarajasa sampai kesana, maka terbuktilah berlakunya sifat-sifat kedewaan Sri Baginda, maka musuhpun mati ketakutan dan terkejut serta tak berdaya lagi. Meraka tak menjatuhkan sehelia rambutpun pada pihak Sri kertarajasa, musuhpun habis dimusnahkan, para prajurit tewas, ratunya ditawan,anak-isterinya ditarik dan harta bendanya dirampas.
  • Musuh disapu bersih, sampai tak bersisa lagi, hancur lebur menjadi abu, sunguhlah tak ada beda perbuatannya dengan perbuatan pemuda Krisna yang membunuh sang Prabu Kangsa.
  • Demikian pula putera raja yang muda teruna itu memetik kemenangan dalm perjuangan, Ketika ia mencapai maksudnya, maka ia dinobatkan  menjadi raja,memakai hiasan kerajaan,serta duduk diatas tahta singasana bertatahkan emas dan permata. Pada waktu itulah ia mulai menjadi Prabu(raja) ,ia dibantu oleh tenaga sendiri. Seluruh rakyat mengatakan, bahwa ia mengangkat dirinya menjadi Prabu(raja).
  • Adapun ia itu bagis egala manusia yang bersedih hati oleh orang jahat durjana adalag seolah-olah sang air-hidup ,didapat karena lautan diaduk dengan gunung Mandara, Oleh karena hal itu sedemikian jadinya,maka rakyat berasa bersenang hati benar menjadi anak buahnya, dengan gembira dan bangga terbulah hati sri baginda Maharaja, sebanya ialah karena dahulu hatinya tertutup seluruhnya oleh orang jahat durjana. Oleh karena itu Sri Baginda Maharaja  tetap demikian itu,maka ia adalhs eperti matahari yang baru terbit dan mengembangkan segala bunga, yang dibasahi oleh embun pemberian dipulau  Kembang, penuh dengan puspa (bunga) berbagai ragam. demikianlah caranya ia membuka hati sanubari selruh rakyat dan kleadaan itu menyenangkan(mengirangkan) rakyat karena menjadi anak buahnya.
  • 1309
  • 1.Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.
  • Wijaya  Meninggal pada tahun 1309 AD.
  • Please read the next chapter :” The Glory Of Majapahit Kingdom” as the second part of The Majapahit Kingdom during War and Peace.
  • the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011
  •  

Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

  • The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum
  • (Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
  • Showroom :
  •  
  • Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum
  • The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525
  • Based on
  • Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections
  • Edited By
  • Dr Iwan Suwandy
  • Limited Private Publication
  • special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011
  • ___________________________________________
  • TABLE OF CONTENT
  • 1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)
  • 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)
  • 3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389
  • 4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476
  • 5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525
  •  
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  • Sumatra and the Malay peninsula,
  • ·         13th century
  • Kertanegara appears to have attacked Jambi in 1275,
  • and his quarrel with Kublai Khan a few years later was partly over who was to receive tribute from Palembang.
  • On the Malay Peninsula, too, numerous small states emerged, notably Kedah, which had had a long history as one of Srivijaya’s less tractable vassals. The most northerly of the peninsular states, Tambralinga and Langkasuka, however, found themselves under increasing pressure in this era from the Thai state of Sukhotai and its successor Ayutthaya. There is even some evidence of a seaborne raid on Jambi by forces from Ayutthaya at the end of the 13th century.
  • The civil war in Java which ended Kertanegara’s rule, and the Mongol invasion which followed, ended Javanese intervention in Sumatra for some decades. By the middle of the 14th century, however, the Javanese empire of Majapahit claimed suzerainty over the whole of Sumatra and over the peninsula as far north as Langkasuka. It is unlikely that this suzerainty translated anywhere into direct rule from Java, but local Sumatran courts, especially in the southern half of the island, certainly paid homage to Majapahit and modelled the ceremony and culture in their own courts on the greater splendour of the Javanese capital.
  • Majapahit’s most important rival for influence in Sumatra may have been the Minangkabau kingdom, which evidently included Jambi and other east-coast ports in its sphere of influence in the middle of the century. Minangkabau itself, however, was claimed by Majapahit as a vassal and its greatest ruler, Adityavarman, may have been part-Javanese.
  • In about 1377, the ruler of Jambi apparently asserted his independence from Java and sought formal investiture by the Chinese emperor. Majapahit reacted brutally: the envoys sent from China to conduct the ceremony were waylaid and killed, and Javanese forces attacked and sacked Jambi itself. Palembang suffered a similar fate about a decade later. Believing that the death of the Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk gave an opportunity for greater independence, the ruler of Palembang repudiated Javanese domination in 1389. In retaliation his city was destroyed, and the administration of what remained came into the hands of local Chinese merchants.
  • 14th century
  • The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 14th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate,
  • Datuk Perpatih nan Sebatang pada zaman dahulu konon kabarnya sudah pernah berlayar dan sampai ke Melaka serta singgah di Negeri Sembilan.
    • C13th:
  • tentative date of a Chinese wreck found at Kota Cina in Medan Marelan, Sumatra
    • Medan – Tim arkeologi Indonesia dan Prancis menemukan berbagai artefak penting dari penggalian di situs Kota Cina, di Kelurahan Paya Pasir, Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Medan, Sumatera Utara (Sumut). Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena lahan masyarakat belum juga dibebaskan.

      Kepala Pusat Studi Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Sejarah (Pussis) Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) Ichwan Azhari menyatakan, situs Kota Cina merupakan situs yang penting di Sumut. Temuan terbaru yakni struktur bangunan dari bata yang diduga candi kuno di lokasi ini, menunjukkan kualitas situs itu tersebut.

      Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena areal yang akan digali terbentur dengan permukiman masyarakat. Rumah-rumah baru terus bertambah di sekitar situs. Akibatnya tim kesulitan bekerja untuk mengungkap catatan sejarah yang ada di sana.

      “Sejak lama kita harapkan Pemerintah Kota Medan untuk membebaskan lahan masyarakat di sini, tetapi harapan ini belum juga dipenuhi,” kata Ichwan Azhari kepada wartawan, Rabu (20/3/2013) di lokasi penggalian di Paya Pasir.

      Disebutkan Azhari, temuan terbaru tim arkeologi yakni struktur bangunan yang diduga candi, semakin membuktikan situs Kota Cina dulunya merupakan kota perdagangan internasional sekitar abad 12 hingga 16 Masehi. Tetapi kalangan sejarahwan merasa heran dengan lambannya jajaran pejabat pemerintahan Pemkot Medan dalam menyelamatkan situs yang potensial menjadi situs kelas dunia ini.

      “Setahun sejak wali kota meninjau kawasan situs Kota Cina, Februari 2012 lalu, belum nampak kehadiran Pemkot Medan menyelamatkan kawasan ini. Situs Kota Cina semakin terancam dengan semakin banyaknya rumah warga yang didirikan di atas situs,” tukas Azhari.

      Pada Rabu siang Wali Kota Rahudman Harahap menyempatkan diri meninjau temuan struktur bangunan yang diduga candi tersebut. Azhari berharap, kunjungan kali ini akan menjadi titik penting dalam upaya membebaskan lahan masyarakat di situs penting tersebut.

      Tim arkeolog dari Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient (EFEO/Pusat Penelitian Timur Jauh Perancis), dan Pusat Arkeologi Nasional menemukan struktur bangunan kuno setelah melakukan penggalian selama 14 hari, yang berakhir Rabu sore. Struktur ini ditemukan di kedalaman sekitar dua meter. Susunan bata yang menjadi dinding bangunan itu tebalnya sekitar 40 cm, sedangkan panjang dan struktur utuhnya belum bisa diketahui karena berada di dalam tanah dan tembus ke lantai rumah warga.

  • Seorang pengemis di Jakarta Selatan mampu kumpulkan Rp 25 juta hanya dalam 15 hari. Nantikan informasi selengkapnya di “Reportase Sore” Trans TV pukul 16.45 WIB

    (rul/mok)

    • CHINESE CITY FIELD SITE
      Medan – Indonesia and French archaeological team discovered a variety of important artifacts from excavations at the site of China town , in the village of Paya Pasir , District Marelan Medan , Medan , North Sumatra ( North Sumatra ) . Unfortunately excavation can not be done freely for the public land has not been released .

      Head of the Center for the Study of Social Science and History ( Pussis ) State University of Medan ( Unimed ) Ichwan Azhari said China City site is an important site in North Sumatra . Recent findings that the structure of the brick building that allegedly ancient temples in this location , it shows the quality of the site .

      Unfortunately excavation can not be done freely since the area to be excavated settlements hit with the public . New homes continues to grow around the site . As a result, the team worked hard to uncover the historical record is there .

      ” Since long we expect the Government to acquire land Medan people here , but this expectation has not been fulfilled , ” said Ichwan Azhari told reporters on Wednesday ( 20/03/2013 ) at the excavation site in Paya Pasir .

      Mentioned Azhari , recent findings archaeological team suspected that the structure of the temple , the site proves Chinese city was once the international trade city of about 12 to 16 century AD . But the historian was surprised by the slow ranks of government officials in the city government of Medan potential rescue sites into this world -class site .

      ” A year since the mayor’s reviewing City site region of China , February 2012 , not yet visible field presence of the municipal government to save the region . Increasingly threatened China City Site with the increasing number of houses built on the site , ” said Azhari .

      On Wednesday afternoon the mayor took Rahudman Harahap review the findings of the alleged structure of the temple . Azhari hope this visit will be an important point in an effort to free up community land in the important sites .

      The team of archaeologists from the Ecole Francaise d’ Extreme – Orient ( EFEO / Far East Research Center of France ) , and the National Archaeological Center discover an ancient structure after digging for 14 days , which ended on Wednesday afternoon . This structure is found at a depth of about two meters . Brick wall of the building which is approximately 40 cm thick , while the length and structure intact can not be known because it was on the ground floor and breaks into houses .

      A beggar in South Jakarta is able to collect U.S. $ 25 million in just 15 days . Stay tuned for more information on ” Reporting Afternoon ” Trans TV at 16:45 pm

      ( RUL / mok )
      FIELD – The presence of Chinese City Marelan site is not so familiar to the public field , but not for the people of the world history lovers . The historical sites , listed in the references archaeologist world .

      Even people ketidakakraban field with even this archaeological site is recognized by the Mayor of Medan , Rahudman Harahap . Mayor explained , ” The Story of Chinese website in this Marelan long I heard , but only this time there is no time to review it , even this story has been recorded in the area of international archeology , one of the French archaeological evidence of someone who has done research in that location , ” he said today.

      Rahudman admitted even if the government is ignoring the historical sites . ” Today we review the areas that were neglected during this , the government never gave full attention to the region ‘s history . Somehow we seen archaeologists the world , if the roads we build on the historical heritage sites . Our expectations as the city of Medan how to make this area as one of the archaeological tourist destination , ” he said .

      Rahudman even ordered the Department of Tourism to promote the region Medan in Medan travel maps . ” We will strive to improve infrastructure leading to the region , in order to more easily reach travelers , ” Rahudman promise .

       Meanwhile , Daniel Perret as penilit history of the French new research reveals an early penilitian , and make sure this site is the site of City of China , so research conducted years ago and this year it was clear this kawasn interesting to do further research . Next year will be held larger study than this year .

       According to the results of this study in accordance with the historical evidence , it is likely the site of China ‘s cities in the 11th century until the 14th century . According to the results of research in the field Lawas and balls were in the 9th century . The possibility of this region according penelitiani years ago the site of about 20 to 25 acres . ” We are not yet sure whether the location of a kingdom , but this is a place kawasn residential community in ancient China , ” said Daniel .

      Editor : ANGGRAINI LUBIS
      FIELD – World China Town in District Marelan Medan , Medan be studied comprehensively , following the preliminary studies that have been done two foreign archaeologist Daniel McKinnon Perret and at the end of February 2011 .

      Historian University of Medan ( Unimed ) Erond Damanik in Medan , this afternoon said , 22-25 February 2011 two foreign nationals archaeologists have done preliminary research in China City Site , Medan Marelan .

      Perret is a researcher of the Ecole Francaise D’ Extreme Orient ( EFEO ) France and McKinnon is a British researcher . The study was conducted by involving students Unimed as field workers .

      The purpose of the study was to conduct a survey of the surface trace of the international trade that never existed in China Town as fragments of ceramics , pottery , and currency which explains the existence of the site in the 12th century until the 14th century AD , he said .

      ” The results of the preliminary or pre- study will be used as a reference or guideline to conduct a comprehensive research or excavation of the Chinese city which is planned for April 2011 , ” he said .

      Staff researcher at the Centre for Historical Studies and Social Sciences ( Pussis ) Unimed said , if such a comprehensive study be done , then it will support the research that has been done previously by McKinnon in 1972 to 1978 .

      According to him , as proposed McKinnon in his dissertation on international trade in the East Coast of North Sumatra , that the City of China from 12 to 14 century AD and visited various nationalities such as Chinese , Arabic , Vietnam , Thailand , Burma and Aceh .

      ” Thus , the government should provide an appreciation of Medan same or funded research conducted by local research such as the Institute for Archaeology Field to research information about City of China remains the property of the Indonesian people , ” he said .

      Earlier, Chief Pussis Unimed Dr. Phill Ichwan Azhari said , a team of archaeologists from France and the UK in the first study on the site managed to get the new findings in the form of building structures measuring 2×3 meters kono expected once the remains of sacred buildings .

      Then also discovered two statues whose condition is no longer intact . The study lasted 22 to 25 February 2011 for mapping and identification of the site . Furthermore, in April 2011 excavation will be carried out by a team of archaeologists more intensively .
      Editor : WAKE SASTROY
      The archaeological site is located in the Chinese city of Medan , North Sumatra feared would soon disappear . Because the important research fields of international class has not yet been released by the government.
       
      One of the researchers from the National Archaeology ( Arkenas ) conducted research on extracting box located in the Chinese city site in Medan , North Sumatra .
       
      French researchers , Daniel Perret ( right ) of the Ecole Francaise d’ Extreme – Orient closes the box excavation in China City Site , Medan , following completion of the study .
       
      The findings were successfully raised , among others , shards of pottery and pottery from China and other countries , beaded south Indian origin , ancient Chinese money 13th century , bones , ancient glass , shellfish and other cultural objects .
       
      Excavation is done at this time , a second -year excavation funded EFEO . The excavation results corroborate evidence that the area north of Medan store traces of ancient international city the 12th century until the 16th , which continues to be noted international scientists .
       
      In contrast to the attention of scientists over the historical legacy of Medan , Medan Pemko not yet succeeded in acquiring land sites for research purposes . It is feared that this site will be destroyed before they could be studied thoroughly

    • original info
    • SITUS KOTA CINA MEDAN
  • Medan – Tim arkeologi Indonesia dan Prancis menemukan berbagai artefak penting dari penggalian di situs Kota Cina, di Kelurahan Paya Pasir, Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Medan, Sumatera Utara (Sumut). Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena lahan masyarakat belum juga dibebaskan.

    Kepala Pusat Studi Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Sejarah (Pussis) Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) Ichwan Azhari menyatakan, situs Kota Cina merupakan situs yang penting di Sumut. Temuan terbaru yakni struktur bangunan dari bata yang diduga candi kuno di lokasi ini, menunjukkan kualitas situs itu tersebut.

    Sayangnya penggalian tidak bisa dilakukan secara leluasa karena areal yang akan digali terbentur dengan permukiman masyarakat. Rumah-rumah baru terus bertambah di sekitar situs. Akibatnya tim kesulitan bekerja untuk mengungkap catatan sejarah yang ada di sana.

    “Sejak lama kita harapkan Pemerintah Kota Medan untuk membebaskan lahan masyarakat di sini, tetapi harapan ini belum juga dipenuhi,” kata Ichwan Azhari kepada wartawan, Rabu (20/3/2013) di lokasi penggalian di Paya Pasir.

    Disebutkan Azhari, temuan terbaru tim arkeologi yakni struktur bangunan yang diduga candi, semakin membuktikan situs Kota Cina dulunya merupakan kota perdagangan internasional sekitar abad 12 hingga 16 Masehi. Tetapi kalangan sejarahwan merasa heran dengan lambannya jajaran pejabat pemerintahan Pemkot Medan dalam menyelamatkan situs yang potensial menjadi situs kelas dunia ini.

    “Setahun sejak wali kota meninjau kawasan situs Kota Cina, Februari 2012 lalu, belum nampak kehadiran Pemkot Medan menyelamatkan kawasan ini. Situs Kota Cina semakin terancam dengan semakin banyaknya rumah warga yang didirikan di atas situs,” tukas Azhari.

    Pada Rabu siang Wali Kota Rahudman Harahap menyempatkan diri meninjau temuan struktur bangunan yang diduga candi tersebut. Azhari berharap, kunjungan kali ini akan menjadi titik penting dalam upaya membebaskan lahan masyarakat di situs penting tersebut.

    Tim arkeolog dari Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient (EFEO/Pusat Penelitian Timur Jauh Perancis), dan Pusat Arkeologi Nasional menemukan struktur bangunan kuno setelah melakukan penggalian selama 14 hari, yang berakhir Rabu sore. Struktur ini ditemukan di kedalaman sekitar dua meter. Susunan bata yang menjadi dinding bangunan itu tebalnya sekitar 40 cm, sedangkan panjang dan struktur utuhnya belum bisa diketahui karena berada di dalam tanah dan tembus ke lantai rumah warga.


    • Seorang pengemis di Jakarta Selatan mampu kumpulkan Rp 25 juta hanya dalam 15 hari. Nantikan informasi selengkapnya di “Reportase Sore” Trans TV pukul 16.45 WIB

      (rul/mok)

    • MEDAN – Keberadaan situs Kota Cina Marelan memang tidak begitu akrab bagi masyarakat Medan, namun tidak bagi masyarakat pecinta sejarah dunia. Situs  sejarah tersebut, tercatat dalam referensi arkeolog dunia.

      Bahkan ketidakakraban masyarakat Medan dengan situs arkeologi inipun diakui oleh Walikota Medan, Rahudman Harahap.  Walikota menjelaskan, “Cerita tentang situs Cina di Marelan ini sudah lama saya dengar, namun baru kali ini ada waktu untuk meninjaunya, bahkan ceritanya kawasan ini sudah tercatat di arkeologi internasional, salah satu bukti ada seseorang arkeologi Perancis yang telah melakukan penilitian di lokasi itu,” ujarnya, hari ini.

      Rahudman bahkan mengakui jika pemerintah memang mengabaikan situs sejarah ini. “Hari ini kita meninjau kawasan yang terabaikan selama ini, pemerintah tidak pernah memberikan perhatian terhadap kawasan yang penuh sejarah ini. Entah bagaimana kita dipandang  arkeolog dunia, kalau jalan-jalan kita bangun diatas situs-situs peninggalan sejarah. Harapan kita sebagai masyarakat kota Medan bagaimana menjadikan kawasan ini sebagai salah satu tempat tujuan wisata arkeologi,” ungkapnya.

      Rahudman bahkan memerintahkan kepada Dinas Pariwisata Kota Medan untuk mensosialisasikan kawasan ini dalam peta wisata Medan. “Kita akan berusaha untuk memperbaiki infrastruktur menuju ke kawasan ini, agar wisatawan lebih mudah menjangkaunya,” janji Rahudman.

       Sementara itu, Daniel Perret sebagai penilit sejarah dari perancis mengungkapkan penelitian ini baru merupakan penilitian awal, dan memastikan situs ini adalah situs Kota Cina,  jadi penelitian yang dilaksanakan tahun yang lalu dan tahun ini sudah jelas kawasn ini menarik sekali untuk dilakukan penelitian selanjutnya. Tahun depan akan dilaksanakan penelitian yang lebih besar dibandingkan tahun ini.

       Menurutnya hasil penelitian ini sesuai dengan bukti-bukti sejarah, kemungkinan situs kota cina ini pada abad ke 11 sampai abad ke 14. Menurut hasil penelitian di padang Lawas dan barus itu pada abad ke 9. Kemungkinan kawasan ini sesuai penelitiani tahun yang lalu situsnya sekitar 20 sampai 25 hektar.   “Kami belum pastikan apakah lokasi  ini suatu kerajaan, akan tetapi kawasn ini adalah suatu tempat hunian masyarakat Cina jaman dulu,” ujar Daniel.  

      Editor: ANGGRAINI LUBIS

  • MEDAN – Situs Kota Cina di Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Kota Medan akan diteliti secara komprehensif, menyusul penelitian pendahuluan yang telah dilakukan dua arkeolog asing Daniel Perret dan McKinnon pada akhir Februari 2011.

    Sejarawan Universitas Negeri Medan (Unimed) Erond Damanik di Medan, siang ini mengatakan, pada 22-25 Februari 2011 dua orang arkeolog berkebangsaan asing telah melakukan penelitian pendahuluan di Situs Kota Cina, Medan Marelan.

    Perret adalah peneliti dari Ecole Francaise D`Extreme Orient (EFEO) Prancis dan McKinnon merupakan peneliti berkebangsaan Inggris. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melibatkan mahasiswa Unimed sebagai tenaga lapangan.

    Tujuan penelitian tersebut adalah untuk melakukan survey permukaan terhadap jejak perdagangan internasioal yang pernah eksis di Kota Cina seperti fragmen keramik, tembikar, dan mata uang yang menjelaskan eksistensi dari situs tersebut pada abad ke-12 hingga abad 14 Masehi, katanya.

    “Hasil penelitian pendahuluan atau pra penelitian tersebut nantinya akan dijadikan sebagai rujukan atau pedoman untuk melakukan penelitian komprehensif atau ekskavasi terhadap Kota Cina yang direncanakan berlangsung April 2011 mendatang,” katanya.

    Staf peneliti di Pusat Studi Sejarah dan Ilmu-ilmu Sosial (Pussis) Unimed ini mengatakan, jika penelitian secara komprehensif tersebut jadi dilakukan, maka hal itu akan mendukung penelitian yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya oleh McKinnon pada 1972 hingga 1978.

    Menurut dia, sebagaimana yang dikemukakan McKinnon dalam disertasinya tentang perdagangan internasional di Pantai Timur Sumatera Utara, bahwa Kota Cina berasal dari abad 12 hingga 14 Masehi dan ramai dikunjungi berbagai bangsa seperti dari China, Arab, Vietnam, Thailand, Burma dan Aceh.

    “Dengan demikian, pemerintah Kota Medan seharusnya memberikan apresiasi yang sama atau mendanai penelitian yang dilakukan oleh penelitian lokal seperti Balai Arkeologi Medan sehingga informasi penelitian tentang Kota Cina tetap menjadi milik bangsa Indonesia,” katanya.

    Sebelumnya, Kepala Pussis Unimed Dr Phill Ichwan Azhari mengatakan, tim arkeolog dari Perancis dan Inggris tersebut dalam penelitian awalnya di situs itu berhasil mendapatkan temuan baru berupa struktur bangunan kono seluas 2×3 meter yang diperkirakan dulunya merupakan sisa-sisa bangunan suci.

    Kemudian juga ditemukan dua arca yang kondisinya tidak lagi utuh. Penelitian tersebut berlangsung 22-25 Februari 2011 untuk pemetaan dan identifikasi situs. Selanjutnya bulan April 2011 mendatang akan dilakukan eskavasi oleh tim arkeolog secara lebih intensif.

  • Editor: SASTROY BANGUN
  • Situs arkeologi Kota China yang berada di Medan, Sumatera Utara dikhawatirkan akan segera hilang. Pasalnya, lahan penelitian penting berkelas internasional tersebut masih belum dibebaskan pemerintah.
  • Salah seorang peneliti dari Arkeologi Nasional (Arkenas) melakukan penelitian di kotak penggalian yang berada di situs Kota China di Medan, Sumatera Utara.
  • Peneliti asal Prancis, Daniel Perret (kanan) dari Ecole Francaise d’Extreme-Orient menutup kotak penggalian di Situs Kota China, Medan, setelah selesai melakukan penelitian.
  • Temuan yang berhasil diangkat antara lain, pecahan keramik dan tembikar dari China dan negara-negara lain, manik-manik asal India selatan, uang kuno China abad 13, tulang belulang, kaca kuno, kerang-kerangan dan benda-benda budaya lainnya.
  • Eskavasi yang dilakukan saat ini, merupakan eskavasi tahun kedua yang didanai EFEO. Hasil eskavasi ini menguatkan bukti bahwa wilayah sebelah utara Kota Medan menyimpan jejak kota internasional kuno abad ke-12 hingga ke-16, yang terus diperhatikan ilmuwan internasional.
  • Berbeda dengan perhatian ilmuwan atas warisan sejarah Kota Medan ini, Pemko Medan belum juga berhasil membebaskan lahan situs untuk kepentingan penelitian. Dikhawatirkan situs ini akan musnah sebelum sempat dipelajari secara tuntas
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Foto  Temuan Situs Kota cIna

 

 

Rober Yeap Notes

grand eunuch Wang ( deputy of Adm ChengHo)

died in San Fo Chi ( Palembang) n his tomb still exist- is possible

for someone there to confirm it n take photo?

 

 

Driwancybermsueum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

5) Kuching,

Borneo history 1905-1917,

The Borneo

History collections

Part One

The Sarawak Historic Collection

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

This book grew from five Oldies Indonesian collections between 1973-2000 and the new finding during travel around Sarawak in 1993,1994 and 2007. The first visit to Kuching during Motocarrelly Pontianak to Kuchin 1973,and for the first time I found the Rajah Brooke stamps and revenue,and I am starting to complete the info of this white Rajah.

 


Before I have only Sarawak Stamps , and after found some postally used covers and revenue in 1994 I have started to collect antiquarian books , anykind document and related area postal history like west kalimantan, brunei and North Borneo.

Very difficult to find Sarawak postal used cover before 1950 , but I have found some interesting covers . During my last visit to Sarawak, I have met Senior Sarawak from Sarawak Phillatelic association Mr Chan Kee Tex, he was very kind man , took my around Kuching and introduce me to Kuching Phillatelist like Dr Francis H.H.Ngu , they have gave me permission to used their information in this book , for that Thank You very much.
After one years preparation with many Indonesian phillatelist who help me to find new Sarawqak Information like Mr Hengky, Ir Untung and Mr Herry Hutabarat, this book finish in Mei 2009 and the resume will put in my internet Blokker .
I will contact Mr Chan and Dr F.H.H.Ngu via e –mail to send a correction , suggestion and more informations,
I want an apologize to Mr Chan and Dr Ngu because I am very late for my last promise not in time, because many areal situation probelems and after this I will on time.
I still need more informations and corrections from everybody who interest about this topics to make this unique book “The Unique Sarawak documet and Postal History will be the best book about The Raqjah Brooke administration in Sarawak.
Dr Iwan S.

 

 

 

 

 

THE SARAWAK UNIQUE COLLECTION FOUND DURING TRAVELLING 2008

Posted on July 15, 2010 by iwansuwandy

, @copyright Dr IWAN S 2012,

 

During my adventure at Borneo in 2008, I took a flight from Jakarta to Pontianak, and with the haelping of my ex officer Dr Sugeng and his new chief Dr Priok, I could arrange my adventure at night by bus from Pontinak to Kuching Sarwak, after that with the helping of My Friend Mr Kee Tex,Chan I have trevelling around Kuching, and at night in the second day by Bus to Miri,and from here  in the morning of the third day I went bu private Toyota Kijang to Brunei and take around  until 12.00 am, I went to Labuan from the Muara Port Sri Bengawan Brunei   by shipboat about one hours, and the nex day with boat about hree hour to Sabah (before North Borneo ) to KK (kota Kinibalu,befor Jessel town ) .two days there and back to Kucing by plane,and one day in Kuching, back to Pontianak by Bus and to Jakarta by aeroplane. (read the complete story in The adventure of Dr IWAN s)

During this adventure I found some rare collections:

1) The Charles Brooke document. at Kuching

 

 

Sarawak coat of arm

 

 

 

Rajah autography

2. RARE JAMES BROOKE COINS

 

MALAYSIA, SARAWAK, JAMES BROOKE TOKEN KEPING, AH 1247 (1841 AD). Copper. KM# Tn1! Sch.# 1007! SC1. Obv. : A badger to left, below J.B. Sept 24, 1841. Rev. : 1 Keping AH 1247. Minted in a private mint in Birmingham. Weight 1.89 gm! Diameter 21 mm. Small greenish encrusted on badger left! otherwise Very Fine. EXTREMELY RARE.*) Note : The date Sept 24, 1841 is his accession as Rajah of Sarawak, and the badger is the crest on the coat of arms of the Brooke family.
Limit price :   Rp.  18,000,000

 

1) HALF CENT IN FINE CONDITION(,ILLUSTRATION TAIL-SIDE)

 

rare half cent J.Brooke

2. JAMES BROOKE 1 CENT ( ILL  HEADSIDE AND TAILSIDE)

 

James Brooke

 

One cent J.Brooke

3. C(CHARLES) BROOKE  HAL CENT (ILL HEAD-SIDE AND TAIL-SIDE)

 

Charles Brooke

 

half cent C.Brooke

4. SARAWAK POSTAL HISTORY

 

rare postal history

 

5. RARE LIMITED C BROOKE POSTAGE REVENUE  ONE DOLLAR STAMP

 

Rare limited edition

Malaysia

 

 

 

1886 3¢ on 4¢ pink Coat of Arms provisional surcharged “3 CENTS” SG Type 7, VARIETY – small “3” (row 3, pos:1, 4, and 7), perf 14, very scarce and undercatalogued, seldom offered, few known, only exists mint, fresh, well centered, OG-HR F-VF …

$8,000.00

 

1892 6¢ on 8¢ green Coat of Arms surcharged SG Type 22, the key major rarity to the country!, perfectly centered, OG,HR XF (Scott Retail $9,000.00)

$13,950.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. RARE PUNCHHOLED SARAWAK REVENUE

 

Dai Nippon Revenue

 

Colony punchhole revenue

 

 

 

 

5.. THE PICTURE PHOTO  OF KUCHING TEMPLE

 

 

Kuching Temple

Kuching is a city in Sarawak, a state in Malaysia that is on the northern coast of the island of Borneo. The geography is a bit confusing. Borneo is a huge island divided among Indonesia (the state of Kalimantan), Malaysia (two states), and the small country of Brunei. Kuching is the capital of one of the two Malaysian states, Sarawak.

Kuching. Kuching is a great city. Malaysian Borneo seems very wealthy, maybe more so than the rest of Malaysia (which is quite wealthy in general). Kuching is a city of around 600,000. It’s clean, green, calm, quiet, wealthy, orderly, uncrowded, and great for strolling. Pretty much the opposite of my experiences in India.

Even the weather here seems noticeably different from South India. Yes, it’s tropical rainforest weather here. But 95 with 100% humidity feels downright temperate after India. There’s a big difference between 95 (Borneo) and 105+ (South India). It’s quite comfortable here compared to India, even though it’s like the heat of summer at home.

Kuching has a superb waterfront boardwalk. It’s really, really nice, as nice a boardwalk as I’ve ever seen. It runs along the tropical river that goes through Kuching, and everyone comes


Mom and Baby, Closeup


Semenggoh National Park

out and strolls along the waterfront as the sun sets. The sunsets over the river are incredible. Every night is a perfect summer evening. It’s a fine place to be.

Kuching seems to be more of a Chinese city than many cities in Malaysia. The downtown center is really one big Chinatown, and Chinese seem to outnumber both Malays and indigenous Borneo peoples. There aren’t many Indians here at all, unlike cities like Kuala Lumpur and Georgetown. In some ways, Kuching seems less diverse than most other Malaysian cities, at least the larger cities on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia. It has a mostly Chinese feel.

Kuching and Sarawak have an unusual history. They were a territory of the Sultan of Brunei, but he granted Kuching (and eventually all of Sarawak) to an Englishman named James Brooke after Brooke helped him quell uprisings in the area. James Brooke and his family ruled Sarawak as “White Rajahs” from 1842 until the Japanese took Sarawak in 1942. After World War II, the Brooke family gave Sarawak to the English; it became part of Malaysia when it became independent of England in 1963.

So basically Sarawak was built, developed,


River Taxi and Mountains


The mountains in the background of this picture are where Kubah National Park is.

and modernized over a hundred years by three generations of this one English family, the Brookes – and by the Chinese folks that the Brooke family brought in. The descendants of these Chinese settlers make up much of Kuching today. What an odd history.

Visiting the orangutans. Kuching is a delightful city, but the main reason I came is that it has several interesting, easily-accessible daytrips around it. These daytrips were excellent.

My favorite daytrip was to a place called Semenggoh National Park, where they have an organgutan rehabilitation center. The orangutans there are half-wild. They live in the forest, but they’re not scared of people. They do feedings twice a day for tourists (mostly Malaysian tourists, but plenty of white tourists too).

I pictured this place being way out in the deep forest, but it’s not. You drive past a never-ending strip of car lots, schools, restaurants, housing developments, malls, and supermarkets. Then you turn off onto a little road, and after a mile and half there is the national park.

At the park, the orangutans come crashing through the rainforest, swinging from tree to tree to get to the feeding platform. It’s a unique


Rainforest Tangles


This photo gives a sense of how in the rainforest, plants and vines just sort of grow, everywhere, all on top of each other. Kubah National Park.

experience. It’s very touristy, but the orangutans are definitely not zoo animals.

And there are a ton of them; I probably saw 20 orangutans. Two pairs of moms with babies strolled right down the middle of the lawn of the national park headquarters, just walking through all the tourists, five feet from me.

It was all pretty fascinating. I liked it a lot. I looked at it as a tourist experience rather than a wilderness experience, more like a zoo than really seeing orangutans in the wild. But it’s an excellent, fun, enthralling tourist experience. It’s a hoot. I went there twice, I liked it so much.

Visiting the rainforest. I also took two daytrips to rainforest national parks, Kubah National Park and Bako National Park. I liked them both a lot.

Kubah National Park was my favorite of the rainforest parks. It was classic “jungle” rainforest, as you can see from the photos. Borneo’s rainforests are the most biologically diverse places in the world.

I took a four-hour hike through the forest, and I didn’t really see anybody else the whole time. There were Malaysians cooling off and relaxing at a waterfall, but mostly


On the Waterfront


This captures well how pleasant and lovely Kuching’s waterfront boardwalk is.

I was alone with the sights and sounds of the forest.

Even though I was out there by myself, I felt totally safe. The trails in Malaysia are clearly marked, and I had checked in with a park ranger before going out. It’s an easy, accessible way to experience the rainforest.

I really enjoy hiking in the rainforest. It’s so deeply green, and the growth is so rampant. Plants grow on top of plants, which are growing on top of other plants. Green growth is everywhere, even covering all of the rocks. And the sounds are fascinating – the constant twitter of cricket-sounding insects, and intermittent bird calls, and rustling through the greenery as squirrels or monkeys move from tree to tree.

Hiking through the forest is hard, though. I hiked for four hours, and it poured – buckets – for the last two hours of the hike. I was soaked to the bone, and chilled despite the tropical heat. It got dark in the forest, and the trail got slippery, and I had to be careful even though I was trying to move quickly to get back. The next day I was stiff and sore. I


Astana at sunset


This was a colonial building across the river, now used as state government offices. And a really pretty sky, again, from the waterfront in Kuching.

think maybe I’m getting too old for rainforest adventuring.

I also visited Bako National Park. It was good too. The trail at Bako wasn’t as rainforest-y as Kubah National Park, but it ended up on a cliff overlooking a gorgeous beach. I hiked with two other folks from the US, and we spent a few hours on the beach, which was as tropical-postcard-pretty as any I’ve ever seen.

A walking, talking history lesson. Actually, my fellow hikers at Bako National Park were more interesting than the hike. One of them was a young Vietnamese-American woman from San Diego, now teaching in an international school in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), in Vietnam. She was on a week vacation from her school, using Air Asia’s flights (the same ultra-affordable airline that I’ve been using) to take a short break.

When she was three months old, her family left Vietnam, just after the Vietnam War (or the American War, as the Vietnamese call it). Her father was a pilot in the South Vietnamese army, and he had been put in a “re-education” camp after the war, and they were afraid he was going to be persecuted further by


Pretty Old Shophouse


This store is very typical of the Chinese shophouses in Kuching. People have their shop downstairs, and live upstairs.

the Vietnamese government. So they left.

It’s a bit of a long story, but they ended up on a boat without a working motor, drifting about for ten days in the middle of the South China Sea. They ran out of food and water. Her mother had no breast-milk to feed her. She was listless, limp, not moving. They were hundreds of miles from land. They were sure they were going to die.

They were rescued by a boat owned by a nonprofit called World Vision. Legally, World Vision was supposed to give them food, water, and medicine, but not take them aboard or tow them to shore. World Vision realized that if they left them at sea, they would all surely die. They took them to Singapore, and confronted the US embassy there, and the US agreed to take them in as refugees.

She recently saw an old World Vision video of herself coming off the boat when she was three months old. She said she could tell it was her, because she saw a special hat that her grandmother had knit her. It gave me chills, listening to her talk about it.

She said


River Taxi at Dusk


From Kuching’s waterfront boardwalk

that 500,000 Vietnamese died on boats in the South China Sea, trying to escape Vietnam after the war. She and her family were obviously lucky.

When I first started talking with her, she seemed like a typical smart, interesting, lively, engaging young Asian-American woman. But then she told me her story. It was riveting. She really made history come alive for me. Getting to know her made me feel, deep in my bones, a part of US history that is definitely worth remembering.

Anyway, I enjoyed her company. She also said that teaching elementary school in Vietnam was excellent. She really sold me on how good a setup teaching in Asia can be. Hmmm….

Visiting the headhunters. Well, I didn’t actually visit the headhunters. There used to be headhunters in Borneo, among many of the native groups, but James Brooke made head-hunting illegal in the mid-1800s when he became White Rajah.

I did visit a place called Sarawak Cultural Village, outside of Kuching. Sarawak Cultural Village is a beautifully-manicured tropical garden where they have built, using traditional methods and native expertise, seven different long-houses representing the major native ethnic groups in Borneo. It’s a “living museum,”


On the Cliff


Above the beach, Bako National Park

sort of like Williamsburg, but for native Borneo peoples. It was slightly cheesy, but it was also fairly authentic-feeling and interesting.

The long-houses were beautiful, and they were set up like the “real” long-houses deep in the rainforest. Members of the various tribes were in each long-house, and they would explain how things worked, how people lived. They were often demonstrating some skill (using a blow-pipe) or cooking something. There were old heads in one of the long-houses. The guy there explained the role that head-hunting used to play in that tribe’s culture.

It was totally set up for tourists, but it was well-done and felt respectful. It wasn’t spectacular, but I’m definitely glad I went. I learned a good bit about long-house life, and I didn’t really have any interest in visiting an actual long-house, so I wouldn’t have learned about this part of Borneo without visiting here.

Kuching’s waterfront. The best thing about Kuching is its waterfront. I’ve mentioned this above. The photos give a sense of it, but it’s much nicer than I could capture in a photo. It’s a long stretch of attractive cobblestones, maybe an hour’s stroll right along the river. It’s


Kolo Mee


This is a dish specific to Kuching. I eat it every day. The tea is great too – honey teh bunga, iced green tea with honey.

all shaded by beautiful tropical trees, with flowers and carefully-manicured lawns all along. The river too is gorgeous, a lazy-feeling tropical river with deep green jungly banks and little river taxis puttering back and forth across it.

Sunsets over the river are stunning. Evenings on the waterfront, as the sun goes down, are fabulous. Everyone is out strolling and chatting, and there are snacks all along the waterfront, and the sun goes down slowly and just takes your breath away. It’s a bit cooler in the dusk, and there’s a breeze off the river. Every night is perfect. Truly.

Kuching’s food. Malaysian food is my favorite. There’s a huge variety of delicious things to eat, and it’s all so tasty, so affordable, and so everywhere. One day I ate three lunches, because I kept coming across places selling food I’d never eaten, and they were all full of obviously happy eaters. I couldn’t pass them up.

There are dishes here that I haven’t seen in other parts of Malaysia. Kolo Mee is my favorite Kuching dish. Mostly it’s fresh Chinese egg noodles, but they’re so good – sort of like the difference between fresh pasta and dried

 

 

 

 

Kangchu System at  Sarawak

 

The first Chinese immigrants settled along the coastal regions of Sarawak in significant numbers from the 18th century onwards and were engaged in the metal mining industry, mainly for gold and bauxite. As the supply of gold became exhausted from the 1820s onwards, the Chinese miners gradually turned to trade and agriculture. The Chinese of Teochew and Hakka heritage established gambier and pepper plantations in the 1870s and 1880s,[44] and the White Rajah of Sarawak began to organise an administrative system for these plantations similar to the Kangchu system in Johor.

The Kangchu of each plantation was appointed by the Charles Brooke, the then-White Rajah. Each Kangchu was given responsibilities to oversee the operations of the plantations under his jurisdiction and the welfare of the coolies living there. In 1875, the British promulgated a set of laws which defined the roles and responsibilities of the Kangchu; they were modelled very closely to the Kanun Kangchu that was introduced by Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor in 1873.[45]

Charles Brooke encouraged the immigration of the Chinese coolies, beginning in the 1860s, to expand the state’s gambier and pepper industry. Chinese settlers in neighbouring Sabah and Pontianak also established gambier and pepper plantations, although they existed as independent fiefdoms. These plantations rose to become one of the state’s major industries as worldwide prices for gambier went up during 1880s and 1890s. In the 20th century, as worldwide gambier prices took a dive, the Kangchu channelled their efforts into pepper and opium cultivation in the state.[46] Sarawak’s Kangchu system fell into obscurity in the 1920s, as the opium trade with Hong Kong steadily declined during the course of the decade

Kuching – A cultural experience

 

Located in the north-western tip of Borneo, this capital city of Sarawak, is like a sleepy town which acts as the window to the hidden treasures and adventures of the primary Borneo jungle. Though the majority of the population is made up of Chinese, the influence of the ethnic races (ranging from the Bidayuhs, the Ibans, The Penans, The Orang Ulu, and The Melanaus) is felt strongly even in the city center itself.

The city centre consists of mainly 2-3 stories old shophouses, with a sprinkling of tall buildings which are either hotels of commercial buildings. The historical buildings are located mainly at the Waterfront where you can see Old State Colonial Centre, Square Tower, Round Tower, The Astana, Charles Brooke Memorial, Law Court, Fort Margherita, China Town.

Some Cultural attractions in Kuching
1. Sarakraft – This chinese-colonial style mansion houses a workshop where a wide range of traditional crafts are demonstrated by the ethnic people. There is also quite a good range of authentic Sarawak handicraft up for sale.

 

2. Sarawak Museum – The oldest museum in Borneo, it houses and displays local native arts and crafts and collections of local animals, including reptiles, mammals, birds etc. The models of longhouses of the various ethnic groups in Sarawak, musical instruments, various kinds of fish and animal traps, handicrafts, models of boats and others can also be found here.

3. Cat Museum – The people in Kuching are crazy about cats, hence it is also known fondly as “the Cat City”. Huge, colorful cat statues dominate the town, while the fishing cats dominate the centre square, the beckoning cat stands at the crossroads and the smiling cat stands guard at roundabouts. Hence it is not too surprising to find the world’s first Cat Museum right here in Kuching. Cat lovers will find a wide range of exhibits, photos, feline art and cat souvenirs.

4. Sarawak Cultural Village – This is a must-go place which depicts the heritage of the major racial groups of Sarawak and portrays their lifestile amidst 17 acres of vegetation.

 

 

Learn about these groups, their handicraft, their replica housings, with a “story-teller” describing and interpreting traditional cultures and lfie-styles for you. Do learn also the head-hunting habits of some of these ancient groups! Finish the tour of the village with a wonderful multi-cultural dance and songs performance.

5. Anah Rais Bidayuh Longhouse – Located in the hill slopes of Padawan district, this Bidayuh (or Land Dayak community) is accessible by road about 1 hour’s drive from city center. Here you can find the longhouse where all the villagers living under one roof, though this particular longhouse is already pretty modernized with television, proper toilets facilities, running water. This location though is most suited for those who do not have ample time to spare as the really traditional longhouses will require at least 1 night’s stay due to the long travelling distance required.

 

Adventure attractions in Kuching: Most of the surrounding areas of Kuching are primary rainforest, with a with land that is rich in both flora and fauna. Here is home to the rare proboscis monkey, long-tailed macaque monkeys, Orang utans, huge sea turtles, the hornbills, the giant Rafflesia flowers and many more species.

  1. 1.      Semenggoh Orang Utan Sanctuary – Currently, there are about 26 Orang Utans in this 740 acre sanctuary, moving freely around and usually gathering back to be fed by the park’s rangers. Do note that the daily feeding time is from 0900hrs–1000hrs in the mornings and 1500hrs–1530hrs in the afternoons. It is a brilliant time to see these huge animals up close and personal.

 

 

 

 

 

 the Serikei Official Stamped on CV Broke Stamp used as Revenue

1..RAJAH JAMES BROOKE

THE REVENUE DURING RAJAH J.BROOKE VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND ESPECIALLY IN 19TH CENTURY,IF SOME ONE HAVE PLEASE SEND THE INFO VIA COMMENT. IHAVE ONLY FOUND SOME HIS RARE COINS HALF CENT AND ONE CENT BUT THE CONDITION NOT VERY FIND ,ALTHOUGH IN THIS VERY GOOD CONDITION STILL DIFFICULT TO FOUND IN SARAWAK,IHAVE FOUND IN PONTIANAK CIRCA 1991, DURING MY LAST VISIT 2007 NO MORE EXIST,PLEASE LOOK AT THE RARE JAMES ROOKE COINS BELOW.

 

2. RAJAH CHARLES  BROOKE REVENUES

DURING THE RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE, SARAWAK ISSUED SPECIAL REVENUE STAMPS, ALTHOUGH THE FIRST CV BROOKE POTAGE AND REVENUE STAMPS COULD USED TOO AS REVENUE, BUT TO FOUND THIS LIMITED EDITON USED AS REVENUE IN COMPLETE DOCUMENT VERY DIFFICULT, i HAVE SOME , AND THE SPECIAL c.bROOKE REVENUE I FOUND DURING MY VISIT SARAWAK DURING PONTIANAK-KUNCHING AUTOMOBILE RACE I FOUND COMPLETE USED REVENUE, AND ONLY ONE IN DOCUMENT USED AFTER DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION DUE TO DIFFICULT TO FOUND THE REVENUE THAT TIME LOOK AT POST WW II COLLECTIONS.

THE COMPLETE COLLEC TION OF USED C.BROOKE REVENUE:

(1) THE HIGHEST NOMINAL 10$,5$ AND 4$.

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $4,$5 and $10.. One type revenue not illustrated because I don’t found until this day R overprint on Postage revenue stamps. Charles Brooke revenue used until Dai Nippon Occupation L.T. Ong report, Dr Francis H.H.Ngu report bigger block 12 rveneue               $10. Please choose the best revenue, and if someone have R overprint please show in this blog send to my e.mail.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

(2)Used Sarawak cv brooke 3$ and 1$ revenue

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $3 and $1

(3) sarawak c.brooke low nominal revenue

 

Rajah Charles Brooke revenue 3,5 and 50 cent

3.SARAWAK CHARLES VYNER BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

(1) SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS LOW NOMINAL USED AS REVENUE

 

Rajah CV Brooke 20 cent UAR

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 25 cent UAR

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 30 and 50 cent UAR

SARAWAK CV BROOKE HIGH NOMINAL STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR

 

1

5.9.1931 Rajah CV Brooke $1 UAR.

 

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 revenue

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 and $3 used as revenue (UAR) with Serikei Inland Dept. official chop in violet.

SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE ON COMPLETE DOCUMENT.

 

 

20.11.34 Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent used As revenue(UAR) on Identity document.

 

1

 

1.8.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 3 cent used as revenue on arabic written Document.

 

                                                       

1.10.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent on the arabic written Recieved Document.

 

Dai Nippon Occupation

.
Today I received a number of interesting old photos from Nick Chin. He seems to have established a very good source somewhere in Satok. Thanks Nick. Keep ’em coming.

Anyway, I found that many of them relate to different forms of transportation. So different from what we see today. Anyway transportation is the theme of today’s posting. See if any of the photos jog any memories. Or trigger in your mind something that certain elders in your family might have mentioned.

 

 

 


There were once three trains plying the Kuching to10th Mile route. The engines were named Bintang, Bulan and Jean. The train service was started in 1916 by the 2nd Rajah, Sir Charles Brooke, shortly before he handed over the the 3rd Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke. The train station or terminus in Kuching was in front of the mosque (where there’s now a car park), facing the Brooke Dockyard. Jalan Keretapi is so named because the railway  track actually went along it. There was no road back then, just the rail track.

Some time before the Japanese Occupation, the train service was discontinued by the British, and for a while the trains were kept in the terminus area (just over the fence from Lillian theatre). But during the Occupation, the Japanese restarted the train service for a while, and it was used to bring POWs to work (mainly around the 7th Mile area). Then they stopped this – probably thinking the POWs had too easy a life. Eventually the Japanese shipped the trains back to Japan for scrap iron.

 

 

 


I read somewhere that rickshaws first reached Kuching in 1895. Prior to that, there were only pony traps and bullock carts. There were never more than 50 to 60 rickshaws in Kuching, mostly pulled by Chinese men, and many of the pullers tended to be of the Henghua dialect.

 

My father told me that he noticed that sometimes on a steeper hill, the passengers had to get down and walk, as it was too much strain on the puller.All the rickshaws tended to be independent endeavours, but their machines tended to be serviced by a few “repair shops”, who seemed to have some control over them (perhaps they provided loans?).

 

 

 


The history of Kuching airport goes back to the years after the Second World War when the British started planning an airport for the town. The airport at the 7th Mile was eventually opened on 26th September1950 by the British Governor Sir Anthony Abell. Judging from the many automobiles and crowd, it was quite a big occasion.

 

The ship “Rajah Brooke” usually plied the Kuching-Singapore route. It had 1st and 2nd Class cabins. Before it sailed, there was usually a party held on board, for people (mainly the Europeans in those days) to socialise and get to know each other.The trip from Kuching to Singapore normally took 2 days and 1 night.

 

Besides the “Rajah Brooke”, there were other ships, with names like Marudu, Kajang, Darvel and Kimanis. This ship owners were either Sarawak Steamship, or later Straits Steamship. Besides Singapore, some of the ships, eg. Darvel and Marudu, sailed to British North Borneo (now Sabah)..

 


I don’t have much to comment about this last photo, except that this building appears to me to be the Police Station (I might be wrong but it sure looks similar). Anyway I included the photo above because it shows two other forms of transportation – automobile and bicycles.

 

Well, over to you guys for more comments.

Dai Nippon Occupations Borneo and

Sarawak

Introduction

Apparently, Great Britain suddenly became aware that another European Power could easily take Sarawak for themselves.

This is the reason why the British finally offered Sarawak protection. Under the 1888 agreement, negotiated by Sir Charles Anthony Brooke, 2nd Rajah of Sarawak, all the foreign affairs of Sarawak were to the responsibility of British Government. Internal affairs remained the responsibility of the Brooke Rajahs.

In accordance with this 1888 Agreement, Great Britain despatched troops and material to bolster the defences of Sarawak

during the 1930s.

During the late 1930s

the Royal Air Force based 205th RAF Squadron at Kuching. This was a seaplane squadron consisting of Walrus Flying Boats.

.

Realizing that war was imminent, the Brooke Government, under Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, conducted preliminary work to establish airstrips at selected locations throughout the country.

These airstrips would be located at Kuching, Oya, Mukah, Bintulu, and Miri.

By 1938

work was completed on all the airstrips except Bintulu, which was discontinued

in October 1938

due to financial reasons.

On 26 September 1938,

the Kuching Airstrip was opened. It was situated at the 7th Mile (Bukit Stabar) and measured 700 meters long by 300 meters wide.

Only in late 1940

did Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham order the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to be positioned at Kuching.

They numbered about 1,050 men. In addition, the Brooke White Rajah government also organised the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 men who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen. Altogether these forces were commanded by British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane and was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

However, despite the modern air facilities available, the RAF stationed no aircraft in Sarawak

during 1941

. In addition, the Royal Navy withdrew from Sarawak, and the British Protectorates of Labuan and North Borneo in 1940.

However, this Royal air Forces Squadron at Kuching was withdrawn in 1941 and returned to Singapore

After having heard of the attack on Pearl Harbor,

on 8 December 1941,

the Brooke government instructed that the oilfields at Miri and Seria and refinery at Lutong be quickly demolished

Capt J.F. Read,

moved to the Northern Territory, and embarked for Timor

on 7 December 1941

‘with much enthusiasm’

after three and a half months of fatigue duties and training at Darwin

 

Officers of the 2/21st Battalion take a break in Darwin before embarking

and

 

Noonomah.

 

In view of the precariousness of the defensive positions Read was obliged to effect a supply plan based on a series of dumps,

the establishment of which occupied the detachment until the invasion.

 

.

 

 

 

Duty  at Ambon

As part of the military agreement made by the governments of Australia and the NEI in 1941, AIF troops were sent to help garrison the island of Ambon, which lies just south of the larger island of Ceram. Ambon was an important air and sea link between Australia, New Guinea, and the northern NEI.

The airfield at Laha, and the harbours of Ambon and Binnen Bays, were considered to be of vital significance to the Allies.

Accordingly, an Australian battalion (the 2/21st), with supporting units and a detachment of Lockheed Hudson bombers from No. 13 Squadron, RAAF, was landed at Ambon in mid-December 1941.

This combined unit, known as “Gull Force”, reinforced the existing local garrison of 2,600 men, and was placed under the overall command of Dutch Lieutenant Colonel J.R.L. Kapitz

 

Australian Military Forces “Passed By Censor”postal used cover

Read the Driwan’s

E-BOOK In CD-ROM

“Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia”

PROLOG

 

 

 

With no air or sea forces stationed in or around Sarawak, the British government encouraged the Brooke Regime to adopt a “scorched earth policy” in the event of a Japanese attack.

The Singapore Conference of October 1940

further presented the dismal defence situation of Sarawak by stating that without command of the sea or air, it would be pointless to defend Sarawak and the other British colonies in the area.

An alternative plan was proposed by Air Vice-Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham which suggested that 200 RAF and Royal Dutch Aircraft be used to defend the territories of Sarawak, Labuan, Brunei, and British North Borneo. Brooke-Popham stated that this should be sufficient to defend the territories against any Japanese attack. His request for such an outrageous amount of aircraft was declined by the British and Dutch governments on the grounds that they were simply not available.

Later, it was proposed to develop a Denial Scheme. Returning to the “scorched-earth” policy mentioned earlier, Denial Schemes were in place to destroy the oil installations at Miri and Lutong. In addition, the Bukit Sabir Airfield (11 km south of Kuching, the capital of Sarawak), was to be held as long as possible, then would be destroyed.

 

The prelude to the war

The island of Borneo is a land of primeval jungle. The coasts are fringed with mangrove and swamp, and over nine-tenths of the interior is covered with thick evergreen forests.

In 1941

the population was small – that of the whole island was estimated at less than three million – and there were less than a dozen settlements large enough to be called towns.

There were few roads and only one short railway; communication was by the many waterways or by narrow jungle paths. Much of the interior was unexplored, or very inadequately known. It was rich in oil and other raw materials.

The island was partly Dutch and partly British. British Borneo lay along its northern seaboard and comprised the two states of British North Borneo and Sarawak, the small protected State of Brunei, and the Crown Colony of Labuan Island.

Borneo occupies a position of great strategic importance in the south-west Pacific. It lies across the main sea routes from the north to Malaya and Sumatra on the one hand, and Celebes and Java on the other. Strongly held, it could have been one of the main bastions in the defence of the Malay barrier, but neither the Dutch nor the British had the necessary resources to defend it.

The available forces had to be concentrated further south for the defence of Singapore and Java, and all that could be spared for Borneo and the outlying Dutch islands were small detachments at important points which it was hoped might prove a deterrent to attack.

To gain control of the oilfields, to guard the flank of their advance on Malaya and to facilitate their eventual attack on Sumatra and western Java, the Japanese decided, as a subsidiary operation to their Malayan campaign, to seize British Borneo. This operation was launched by Southern Army eight days after the initial attack on Malaya.

The oilfields in British Borneo lay in two groups: one at Miri close to the northern boundary of Sarawak, and the other thirty-two miles north, at Seria in the State of Brunei. The crude oil was pumped from both fields to a refinery at Lutong on the coast, from which loading lines ran out to sea.

Landings were possible all along the thirty miles of beach between Miri and Lutong and there was, with the forces available, no possibility of defending the oilfields against determined attacks. Plans had therefore been made for the destruction of the oil installations. Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, Commander-in-Chief Far East, decided it would be prudent to honor the 1888 defence agreement with Sarawak.

 

Consequently, in late 1940,

he ordered the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to proceed to Kuching (British North Borneo).

In December 1940

a company of 2/15th Punjab was sent to Miri for the protection of the demolition parties, and

in May 1941

the rest of 2/15th Punjab was sent there to provide a garrison. This lone battalion consisted of approximately 1,050 soldiers under the command of Major C.M. Lane. For the defence of Sarawak region, it was deployed as follows:

At Miri was deployed a force of 2 officers, and 98 other ranks:
• 1 Infantry Company from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
• 6″ Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery Battery
• 1 Platoon of Royal Engineers
These troops were entrusted with the destruction of Miri Oil Fields. It was to be known as the Miri Detachment.

At Kuching was deployed a force of 1 officer, and 52 other ranks:
• 6 Platoons of infantry from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
These troops were to conduct a delaying action at the Bukit Stabar Airfield outside of Kuching. They were to be known as the Kuching Detachment. The other troops from the 2/15 Punjab were to be deployed piecemeal at the other airfield and oil facilities in Sarawak.

In addition, the Brooke Government mobilized the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 troops who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen trained in the art of jungle warfare led by the European Civil Servants of the Brooke Regime. British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane who commanded the battalion was placed in charge of all forces in Sarawak, which included the native Volunteer Corps, Coastal Marine Service, the armed police and a body of native troops known as the Sarawak Rangers. Collectively, this force of 2,565 troops was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

In August 1941

a partial denial scheme, which reduced the output of oil by seventy per cent, was put into effect. It was also decided that no attempt should be made to defend British North Borneo, Brunei or Labuan, and

 

the Governor of North Borneo, Mr. Robert Smith,

was informed that the Volunteers and police were to be used solely for the maintenance of internal security. It was however decided to defend Kuching because of its airfield, and because its occupation by the enemy would give access to the important Dutch airfield at Singkawang II, sixty miles to the southwest and only some 350 miles from Singapore.

Order of Battle for British forces
Sarawak, December 1941

Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane (commander)

2nd Battalion of 15th Punjab Regiment

heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery

detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers)

Sarawak Rangers

Coastal Marine Service

plus other native troops

The country between Kuching and the sea is roadless, but is intersected by a number of winding waterways which flow through mangrove swamps to the sea. There are two main approaches to the town: the first by the Sarawak River, which is navigable by vessels up to sixteen foot draught; and the second by the Santubong River, which will take vessels up to twelve foot draught. The roads from Kuching run east to Pending, north-west to Matang, and south to Serian a distance of forty miles from Kuching. The airfield lay seven miles south of the town on the Serian road. At the airfield a road branched off to the west; after crossing the Sarawak River at Batu Kitang, where there was a vehicular ferry, it terminated at Krokong fifteen miles short of the Dutch frontier.

There were two plans of defence that were proposed- Plan A and Plan B.
Plan A called for a mobile defence. The objective was to hold the Bukit Stabar Airfield as long as possible. Further delaying actions were also to be conducted so as to allow for the proper execution of the denial schemes. If enemy resistance was such that it could not be delayed, then the airfield would be destroyed and the entire force would retreat into the mountains and jungles in small parties and fight as a guerrilla force for as long as possible. Unfortunately, at

 

the Anglo-Dutch Military Conference

during September 1941 held in Kuching,

it was pointed out that Plan A could not be carried out if the Japanese landed 3,000 to 5,000 men with air and sea support. J.L. Noakes, the defeatist Sarawak Secretary for Defence, had continued to argue the inadequacy of SARFOR and that it had no hope against the Japanese if they landed in force.

His idea was to take a ‘wait and see’ attitude and continue to appeal to Singapore for more troops and equipment.

In the event that this was not forthcoming, Sarawak should surrender so as to prevent any bloodshed. Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, was completely against this defeatist talk and vehemently argued that Sarawak should put up a fight, a fight to maintain the honor of the Brooke Raj. At the end it was decided that the town could not be defended against the weight of attack which was to be expected, and the plan was reluctantly changed to one of static defence of the airfield.

During late November 1941,

Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival, GOC Malaya Command, took a 2-day tour of Sarawak to assess the adequacy of its defence preparations. He summarized the situation as follows: “Nobody could pretend that this was a satisfactory situation, but at least it would make the enemy deploy a larger force to capture Sarawak than would have been necessary if it had not been defended at all and that, I think, is the true way to look at it…the best I could do was to promise to send them a few anti-aircraft guns and too tell them of the arrival of Prince of Wales and Repulse, which were due at Singapore in a few days…not that I expected anit-aircraft guns to be of much practical value. But I felt that the moral effect of their presence there would more than counterbalance some slight dispersion of force”.

As a result of Percival’s assessment of Sarawak’s defences, an alternative plan of action was proposed, Plan B. This was based on static defence. All available troops and supplies were to be concentrated within a 5.5 kilometer perimeter of the Bukit Stabar Airfield to ensure that its destruction was not interfered with. The rationale for Plan B was presented by Brooke-Popham as follows: “The only place which it was decided to hold was Kuching, the reason for this being not only that there was a modern airfield at this location, but that its occupation by the enemy might give access to the Dutch airfields in Borneo, furthermore, it would also give the enemy access to Singapore. Being only some 350 miles from said place”.

Further orders were issued by Vyner Brooke that all the Civil Servants not assigned to the Sarawak Rangers were to remain at their posts. No thought must be given to the abandonment of the native population by any European officer of the Brooke Raj.

The Brooke Government which had already heard of

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

 

(on 7 December 1941)

quickly ordered the complete and total destruction of the oil fields and airfields at Miri and Seria. Orders for the demolition of the refinery at Lutong and the denial of the oilwells reached the officer commanding at Miri

on the morning of the 8th December,

and by the evening of the same day the task was completed.

On the following day the landing ground there was made unfit for use, and on the 13th the Punjabis and the oil officials left by sea for Kuching. The destruction of the oilfields had been completed none too soon.

 

 

 

 

(Japanese troops advancing through Malaya)

 

Throughout much of World War II,  British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.

The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with

 

The Japanese  invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan

on 8 December 1941 at 00:25,

about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7 December Hawaii time, or 01:48 on 8 December Malayan time.

 

 

They then invaded the island of Borneo in mid December 1941,

 

 

landing on the west coast near Miri in Sarawak; invasion was completed by 23 January 1942

when they landed at Balikpapan in Dutch Borneo on the east coast. During the occupation an estimated 100,000 people were killed.

 

Defence in Sarawak and North Borneo

The main objectives were the oilfields at Miri in Sarawak region and Seria in Brunei.

 

The oil was refined at Tutong near Miri. Despite rich oil supplies, the Sarawak region had no air or sea forces to defend it.

 

.

 

Japanese landing and the battle

The main Japanese force, led by

 

Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi,

 

consisted of units from Canton, southern China:

  • 35th Infantry Brigade Headquarters
  • 124th Infantry Regiment from Japanese 18th Division
  • 2nd Yokosuka Naval Landing Force
  • 4th Naval Construction Unit
  • 1 platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
  • 4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
  • 1 unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

 

 

(The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942)

 

On 13 December 1941,

the Japanese invasion convoy

 

left Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina,

 

 

Invasion of French Indochina

with an escort of

 

the cruiser Yura

 

(Rear-Admiral Shintaro Hashimoto)

with the destroyers of the 12th Destroyer Division,

 

Murakumo,

 

Shinonome,

 

Shirakumo

And

 

Usugumo,

submarine-chaser Ch 7 and

 

 

the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru.

Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of

 

Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi.

The Support Force consisted of

 

Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita

 

with the cruisers Kumano

 

and Suzuya

and

 

the destroyers Fubuki

 

and Sagiri.

 

The AASC element commanded by Capt J.R. Burns had been cobbled together with transport, supply, bakery and butchery elements totalling 40 members in Sydney in July, moved to Darwin

and dispatched to

 

Ambon

on 14 December 1941.

 

Ambon December 1941

The main supplies and ammunition stocks were held

 

at Laha Airfield Ambon,

defended by two infantry companies, while immediate stocks, bakery and butchery were initially positioned at Galala.

Read more

Massacre at Ambon

As part of the military agreement made by the governments of Australia and the NEI in 1941, AIF troops were sent to help garrison the island of Ambon, which lies just south of the larger island of Ceram. Ambon was an important air and sea link between Australia, New Guinea, and the northern NEI. The airfield at Laha, and the harbours of Ambon and Binnen Bays, were considered to be of vital significance to the Allies.

Accordingly, an Australian battalion (the 2/21st), with supporting units and a detachment of Lockheed Hudson bombers from No. 13 Squadron, RAAF, was landed at Ambon in mid-December 1941.

This combined unit, known as “Gull Force”, reinforced the existing local garrison of 2,600 men, and was placed under the overall command of Dutch Lieutenant Colonel J.R.L. Kapitz.

 

The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching and nearby airfields.

The convoy proceeded without being detected and,

at dawn on 15 December 1941,

two landing units secured Miri and Seria with only very little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured as well.

19 December 1941

 

Japanese troops take cover behind steam engines at the Johor railway station in the final stages of their advance down the Malayan peninsula which culminated in the surrender of all British forces, and the occupation of the British naval base on Singapore island.

Meanwhile, on 31 December 1941,

the force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy Brunei, Labuan Island, and Jesselton (now called Kota Kinabalu).

After securing the oilfields, on 22 December,

the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching.

The Japanese airforce bombed

 

Singkawang airfield

to prevent a Dutch attack. A

fter a battle between the Japanese fleet and a Dutch submarine, the fleet approached

the mouth of

 

the Santubong river on 23 December 1941

 

The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang and the troops in twenty transport ships, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka,’’

 

Japanese invasion fleet off Kuching, British Borneo, 23 December, 1941.

landed at 04:00, 24 December.

Although 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment resisted the attack, they soon became out-numbered and retreated up the river.

 

 

By the afternoon, Kuching was in the hands of Japanese forces.

 

At about 16:40 on 25 December,

the Japanese troops successfully captured

Kuching airfield.

 

Kuching airfield after thw WW II in 1950

 

The Punjab regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area.

After Singkawang was secured as well on 29 December,

the rest of the British and Dutch troops retreated further into the jungle southward trying to reach Sampit and Pangkalanbun, where a Dutch airfield at Kotawaringin was located. South and central Kalimantan were taken by the Japanese Navy following attacks from east and west. After ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, the Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942. Lastly, Sarawak fell into the hands of The Empire of Sun.

 

 

(Hinomaru Yosegaki – Japanese WWII Good Luck Flag)

 

 

On 1 January 1942,

two infantry platoons commanded by a company commander landed on Labuan Island, capturing the British Resident, Hugh Humphrey who later recalled: “I was repeatedly hit by a Japanese officer with his sword (in its scabbard) and exhibited for 24 hours to the public in an improvised cage, on the grounds that, before the Japanese arrived, I had sabotaged the war effort of the Imperial Japanese Forces by destroying stocks of aviation fuel on the island”. [1]

 

On 8 January,

Kawaguchi proceeded to

 

Jesselton

 

Now Kota Kinibalu

and having occupied that town and

 

Beaufort,

 

where he disarmed the small police unit. Using ten small fishing boats, two infantry companies (minus two platoons), commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe, captured

 

Sandakan,

the seat of government of British North Borneo, and rescued the 600 interned Japanese citizens.

On the morning of the 19th January,

 

the Governor Robert Smith surrendered the State

 

handed to him by the Governor of North Borneo

and, refusing to carry on the administration under Japanese control, was interned with his staff.

This unit then captured

 

Tawau and

 

Lahad Datu

on the 24th and 31st respectively.

This time they freed a further 1,500 Japanese citizens. The Japanese forces suffered no combat casualties during this operations.

The convoy which left

 

Miri

on the 22nd of December

was escorted by

 

the cruiser Yura,

 

 

the destroyers Murakumo,

 

Shirakumo and

 

 

Usugumo,

the minesweepers W 3 and W 6 and

 

the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru.

Covering Force was consisted of

 

cruisers Kinu,

 

Kumano and

 

Suzuya,

with

 

the destroyers Fubuki

and

 

Sagiri.

West of Covering Force was the 2nd Division of the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Mikuma and Mogami) with

 

The Hatsuyuki class destroyers are optimized for the anti-ship and anti-submarine roles

 

destroyer Hatsuyuki.

It was sighted and reported to Air Headquarters, Far East, by Dutch reconnaissance aircraft

on the morning of the 23rd,

when it was about 150 miles from Kuching.

At 11.40 that morning

twenty-four Japanese aircraft bombed

 

Singkawang II airfield, so damaging the runways that a Dutch striking force which had been ordered to attack the convoy was unable to take off with a bomb load.

Despite the critical situation the Dutch authorities urged the transfer of their aircraft to Sumatra.

Air Headquarters, Far East, agreed

and during the afternoon of the 24th

the aircraft were flown to Palembang.

The convoy did not however escape unscathed.

On the evening of the 23rd

it was first attacked by Dutch submarine K-XIV (Lt.Cdr. C.A.J. van Well Groeneveld) sank two enemy ships and damaged two others,

and the following night of 23/24 December 1942

another Dutch submarine K-XVI (Lt.Cdr. L.J. Jarman) torpedoed the IJN destroyer Sagiri (1,750 tons) near Kuching, Sarawak.

Their own torpedoes caught on fire and the ship simply blew up, killing immediately 121 officers and men.

The IJN destroyer Shirakumo and minesweeper W 3 rescued 120 survivors. The K-XVI was herself sunk by Japanese submarine I-66 (Cdr. Yoshitome) on her way back to Soerabaja.

Five Bristol Blenheims of 34th (B) RAF Squadron from Singapore, at almost extreme range, bombed the ships at anchor the same evening, but did little damage.

The convoy was seen at 6 p.m. on the 23rd

 

approaching the mouth of the Santubong River. Two hours later Colonel Lane received orders from Singapore to destroy the airfield.

It was too late to change back to mobile defence and, as there seemed to him no point in attempting to defend a useless airfield, he asked General Percival for permission to withdraw as soon as possible into Dutch north-west Borneo.

While awaiting a reply Lane concentrated his battalion at the airfield, with forward detachments in the Pending area east of the town and on the roads to the north of it, 18-pounder gun and 3-inch mortar detachments covering the river approaches, and a Punjabi gunboat platoon, working with

the Sarawak Rangers and the Coastal Marine Service, patrolling north of Kuching.

 

 

 

 

Sarawak Rangers

 

 

Fort Margherita, named after his wife Ranee Margaret, the wife of Rajah Charles.

The Sarawak Rangers were a para-military force founded in 1872 by the second Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. They evolved from the fortmen which were raised to defend Kuching in 1846. The Sarawak Rangers were commanded by a former British Army Officer, Sir William Henry Rodway, and were highly skilled in jungle warfare and general policing duties, being equipped with various western rifles, cannons and native weaponry. This small force also manned a series of forts around the country, performed ceremonial duties and acted as the Rajahs’ personal guard.

Aside from protecting Sarawak’s borders, they were used to fight any rebels and were engaged in a number of campaigns during their history. The Sarawak Rangers were disbanded for a few years in the 1930s, only to be reformed and mobilised for the Second World War in which they attempted to defend Sarawak from Japanese invasion in 1942 at the start of the Pacific War..

 

The convoy proceeded westward, arriving at a point,

 

east of Cape Sipang

at 0300 on the 24th. At 0120,

the IJN transport Nichiran Maru with Colonel Akinosuke Oka arrived at the prearranged anchorage off the mouth of the Santubong River.

At 0400,

the unit aboard the IJN transport Nichiran Maru, commanded by Colonel A. Oka, completed its transfer to landing barges and proceeding west of Cape Sipang.

At about 9 a.m.

twenty enemy landing craft were observed approaching the shore.

The small Punjabi gunboat platoon, hopelessly outnumbered, withdrew up the river without loss.

At 11 a.m.

as they neared the town the landing craft were engaged by the gun and mortar detachments, who sank four before themselves being surrounded and killed. During the afternoon three more craft were sunk by gunfire, but the remainder were able to land their troops on both sides of the river,

and by 4.30 p.m.

the town was in Japanese hands.

Meanwhile Lane had been instructed by Percival to hold the Japanese for as long as possible and then act in the best interests of west Borneo as a whole.

Since the capture of the town threatened to cut off the forward troops, Lane ordered them to withdraw to the airfield.

The Japanese followed up and before dark  made contact with the airfield defences.

Throughout the night

sporadic firing went on as they felt their way round the perimeter.

\

General kawaguchi briefing japanese officers before attack

Major-General Kawaguchi

 

received a report from his intelligence officer that there was approximately 400-500 British troops in the vicinity of

 

 

the Kuching airfield.

 

December,25th.1941

As Christmas Day dawned,

firing temporarily ceased and advantage was taken of the lull to send the hospital detachment with the women and children on ahead into Dutch Borneo.

During the morning

the Japanese encircling movement continued, and a company was sent to hold the ferry crossing at

 

Batu Kitang

 

 

so as to keep the road clear for escape.

A general withdrawal into Dutch Borneo was ordered to start at dusk, but heavy firing was heard to the north of Batu Kitang shortly after noon and, fearing that his line of retreat would be cut, Lane decided on immediate withdrawal.

The enemy, reinforced by the 2nd Yokosuka SNLF, soon aware of his intention, launched a full-scale attack on the two Punjabi companies forming the rearguard.

Of these two companies only one platoon succeeded in rejoining the main body. The remainder, totaling four British officers and some 230 Indian troops, were cut off and either killed or captured.

At about 1640 on the 25th,

the Japanese troops completely secured the Kuching airfield. The Japanese losses during this operation (including those at sea) were about 100 killed and 100 wounded. The rest of the battalion reached Batu Kitang without loss to find the village deserted and the ferry unattended.

They had great difficulty in crossing the river, but by dark all except the covering force were over. Most of the transport had to be left behind.

. From the 26th

‘Sarfor’ ceased to exist as a combined Indian and State Force, and the Punjabis, much reduced in strength, carried on alone

 

December,27th.1941

Following the capture of Kuching airfield, the Detachment commander ordered Colonel Oka to secure the strategic area around Kuching with the main force of the 124th Infantry Regiment, while he with one infantry battalion (excluding two companies)

left Kuching on the 27th and returned back to Miri.

The main body made its way to

Krokong.

There the road ended, and the remaining vehicles and heavy equipment had to be abandoned. There, too, the Sarawak State Forces, in view of their agreement to serve only in Sarawak, were released to return to their homes

 

.

On the morning of the 27th

the column crossed the border into Dutch Borneo and two days later arrived at Singkawang II airfield where there was a garrison of 750 Dutch troops.

 

It was realized at Headquarters, Malaya Command, that the Punjabis would be urgently in need of food and ammunition

Sarawak Postal history

Dai Nippon Occupations Borneo Postal history Collections

North Borneo’

North Borneo:

 

 

 

 

 

The depiction of the Jesselton Railway Station and the Vulcan-engine train in several North Borneo stamps signify the great importance of the transportation service to the country at that time. In fact, for many years the country has been craving for roads and North Borneo might have been described as the land without a road and as Owen Rutter puts it “…and a land in that condition is as little likely to grow as a plant without water…”. Apart from a few miles of metalled road in Jesselton, Kudat and Sandakan, there wasnt a single Government highway in the country.

During the war in 1940s, the Jesselton railway station was bombed and demolished by the Japanese army under the command of Lt. General Masao Baba. This has resulted in an interruption to the railway service in North Borneo and was virtually paralysed between 1944 – 1945. Because of its vital impartance, the railway system was targeted by the Japanese and later liberated by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). Now what we see in the stamps above is no longer exist which is sad because this is one of only two depiction of building in the whole North Borneo stamps (the other being the Jesselton clock tower).Today, the steam train has been ressurected for tourism purposes and is due to open for visitors again very soon as the Sabah State Government is upgrading the railway.

[a] [b]
[a]South Road with the bomb damaged Jesselton Railway Station on the right. (Photographer Sgt. F. A. C. Burke)
[b]Beaufort area 01-07-1945. The railway engine captured by the member of 2/32 Infantry Battalion. Manned by members of 2/16 Field Company, RAE. It is now ready to move out of the yardsfor the Beaufort – Weston run

 

During the Japanese occupation of South East Asia (incl British Borneo) in 1942-1945, British Borneo was put under one administration. Previous stamps issues under British administration of North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei were used with the Japanese overprints. That’s why North Borneo, Brunei or Sarawak stamps may be used in any parts of this territory:


Brunei and North Borneo stamps used in Kuching, Sarawak 1944


Japanese-issued North Borneo stamps used in Sibu, Sarawak


The Japanese occupation also produced some of the rarest and expensive Brunei stamp. For example this one with 2 Japanese overprints on it. The first horizontal overprint became faded over time, prompted the second overprint:

 


source: Marcel,

Sarawak

 
       

 

Lot 2548

Japanese Occupation of North Borneo, 1943 (Feb. 1) Official cover franked with two Japan 2 sen Showa pairs, canceled by complete ‘Sibu Borneo’ postmark in violet.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

 

Realized HK$ 13,000

 

 

 

 

Sibu based Sarawak Coastal Ships

 

 

Dai Nippon occupation borneo definitive stamps FDC send to sibu Sarawak CDS Sibu 18.4.29 (April,29th.1943(

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
       

 

Lot 2549

Japanese Occupation of North Borneo, 1943 (May 17) cover franked with Japan 5 sen Showa pair tied by complete ‘Kuching Borneo’ postmark, in violet. Sarawak Military Censor’s circular cachet in orange.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

 

Realized HK$ 13,000

 

 

Dai Nippon Occupation Sarawak revenue history

 

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent(2x) bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint”recieved inwar” with Squqred court chop in red on fragment Deposit Document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1(2x) with Bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint “Recieved Inward” with Square court chop in red on fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 with violet Dai Nippon revenue overprint “Recieve in ward ” and Square court Chop in Red ,fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 + $1 overprint red Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward” with Dai Nippon squared court choped on fragment Deposit document.

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent with unidentified Black round overprint (Private or official Dai Nippon ? please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent with unidenytified hanchoped (private or Dai Nippon Official revenue Handchope?please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1 with double Dai Nippon overprint thin red “recived inaward” and violet sarawak Dai nippron yubin Kyoku (not clear official or private handchoped ,please comment)

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $1 overprint thin violet Dai Nippon Revenue “Recieved inward’

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $2 overprint thin violet Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward”

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint thin violet Dainippon revenue overprint”Recieved Inward”

 

 

1945- Rajah CV Brooke $2 (2x) with red Dai Nippon “Recieved Inward” overprint on the Land’s Change of Name certificate issued at Sibu.

 

 

 

 

Sarawak revenue History

 

2.11.1941. Rajah CV brooke 3 cent UAR n the recieved fro Sime Darby & Co Ltd sign by Alan Dant (courtesy PSKS,Hong Ming Yong,photocopy) III. DURING BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK

 

 

Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown $5 (UAR)

 

 

 

14.1.1949.Rajah CV brooke 8 cent overprint Crown used as renenue ( UAR) on the recieved of buying gun at Hong Joo Company 3,Gambier road,Kuching .Sarawak.

 

 

1.10.1949 Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown 6 cent Used as revenue on The recieved of buying Guns at Kuching Gun Shop.

 

 

22.11.1945 the bigger block ever seen , Block six Rajah CV brooke overprint crown $5 , the disposal stamp with puched hole used as revenue(UAR),please comment.

 

 

26.8.1949. Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint crown (2x) added CV Brooke $1 with punch hole disposal stamps Used As Revenue(UAR) , rare combination from two era before the wW II and after Dai Nippon Occupation (British Colony), emergency used because during Sarawak British Colony no reveneu issue and disposal punche hole old stamps UAR , and after that regualr Stamp without punched hole also used, see below.

 

 

10.4.1950. Block six Rajah CV Brooke $4 overprint Crown , the disposal punch hole stamps Use As Revenue(UAR), only one exist,please comment.

 

 

King G-V 50 cent and $2 UAR(used as Revenue)

 

 

King G-V $1 Used As Revenue(UAR)

 

 

 

Queen E-II $1 and $2 used as revenue(UAR) THE END @copy right Dr iwan S 2010.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com blog

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sarawak Postal History after WWII

charge@COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010

This story dedicated to my Sarawak stamps and revenue collectors which I had met and made a restaurant meeting in September 2007,especially my medical doctor health administrators friend who have the same age,profession,and family name DR FRANCIS NGU .also for my Indonesian collectors Mr Herry H, and Mr Aris.

 

NO.S-POSTWWII 001British colony sarawak postally used cover with CV Brooke stamps over print crown sent from kuching to surabaya Indonesia, send by the ex Sime Darby ,famous expatiat factory in Sarawak,some of my friend found the sime darby reciept with sarawak stamp used as revenue before WW II, and I looked in TV this factory still exist now.Very interseting postal history,one of my best and rare collections. look at the back of this cover with sime darby name but have change with only Sarawak and Malaya  was off by pen and added the anme of sander Sim Thian Peck Borneo,who know him please give info trough comment (Dr Iwan S.)

 

CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS
Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.
When he was announced by the king as the chief of Sarawak state delegations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.
In July 1945 the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th September 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formal surrender from the japanese soldiers.Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.
IN 28th February 1945, Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.
In 6th February 1946, GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah”present , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power.

The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint

 

 

THE BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK KING  G V AND E II STAMPS ALSO USED AS REVENUE WIHTOUT PUCH

 

In 1948 the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding, and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.

 

1962

 

General Introduction

The history of all Dayak Ibans and other Dayak communities (Dayaklama and/or Dayakbaru) of Sarawak. The Dayaks (Dayak Iban, Dayak Bidayuh and Dayak Orang Ulu), in Sarawak may not have 20 points like State of Sabah but we extremely have at least 21 points agreement prior to the formation of the “Federation of Malaysia”.

“Kapit Resolution 1962”

was the key treaty and/or agreement mooted by the native Ibans with regard to the proposal of the “Federation of Malaysia” via the Malaysia Plan “Aum” 1962.

 

47 years of independence, Malaysia and/or the Federation of Malaya (promoted by UMNO) had failed to safeguard the natives’ rights and/or privileges and had also failed to accelerate efforts to improve the economics future of the natives in Sarawak.

Our history began here in 1962

The Ibans form the largest single group of the population and by far the largest native group.

Ibans are primarily country people and few take to town life. Although they are to be found throughout the country, nearly 75% of their total number live in the Second and Third Divisions.

Special Privileges for Natives Sarawak

Groups from all natives populations expressed a general desires;

a. The Head of State should be a native of Sarawak.

b. That special privileges should be given to the natives. They were extremely anxious that their position in the new Federation should be analogous to that of the Malays in the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya.

c. There was a general agreement that economic development should be accelerated and increased attention paid to education, in particular reference to the needs of the natives;

d. That the land, forestry and agriculture should be subjected to be controlled by the State Government. Great emphasis was also laid on the need to safeguard customary rights and practices.

e. Customary land and other native rights should be protected.

General natives’ opinions toward the formation of “The Federation of Malaysia”

On a number of other points there are also some differences in opinions:

a. Some elements favor the arrangement that the Head of State of Sarawak should also be eligible to be the Head of the Federation of Malaysia, while others, a smaller element, favor a popularly elected of the Federation.

b. There were differences in attitude towards the acceptance of Islam as the national religions for Malaysia as a whole, and towards its particular application to Sarawak.

c. There were similar differences in attitude towards Malay as the national language for Malaysia as a whole and towards its application to Sarawak; and also as to official languages for Sarawak

d. There was conflict regarding the Constitutional allocation of the legislative powers between the Federal and the State Governments in the new Federation, to which is related the question of a formula for representation in the new Federal Parliament.

e. The immigration into Sarawak from other territories of the proposed Federation should be under the control of the State authorities. This springs from the fear that, on the establishment of “Malaysia”, the people of Malaya and Singapore in particular would migrate in large numbers to Sarawak to take advantage of the land and opportunities available, to the detriment of the people of Sarawak themselves. Coupled with this general anxiety, there is particular concern about the possible entry of undesirable elements from “outside”

f. There should also be no rapid change in the administrative arrangements affecting the daily life of the people or in such matters as taxation.

g. Rural development should be accelerated as it has been in the Federation of Malaya so that the general standard of living could be raised as soon as possible.

“Aum Kapit” Malaysia Plan 1962

 

 

“Aum” in Iban herein referred to as “conference”.

The most important single center of the Ibans is at Kapit in the Third Division. A conference (or “aum”) of 51 elected Chiefs (Pengarahs and Penghulus) had been held there on the 15th February, 1962, to discuss the proposals for a “Federation of Malaysia” set out in the Sarawak Government’s Paper.

KAPIT RESOLUTIONS 1962

The Iban conference @Aum reached their general agreement that the “scheme” should be supported, subject to certain conditions, and their resolutions  when the Cobbold Commission visited Kapit on the 19th March 1962.

The “Kapit Resolutions 1962” were as follows:

1. Head of Sarawak State: The Head of the State of Sarawak to be a native of Sarawak.

Some groups expressed a wish that he should be elected by the people. Some would like him to have the title of Rajah and to be an Iban.

In either case, it was held that he should be eligible, with the Heads of other States in the new Federation, for the post of Head of the Federations. One or two groups asked that, during the initial period, a British Governor should be retained.

2. Head of State of Malaysia: The Head of each State in the Federation of Malaysia to be eligible in due course to be the Head of the Federation of Malaysia.

Some Ibans asked that he should be given the title of President as the title Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Malay, and is not acceptable.

3. Tradition Custom: “Adat Lama” to remain under the control of the Government of the State of Sarawak as it has until to-day.

4. Sarawak Land: Land to be under the control of the State including the existing rights of the natives of Sarawak in such matters as land.

5. National language: There was some difference of opinion. Some groups suggested that there should be no national language; others wanted it to be Iban. Still others were willing to have Malay or Iban.

6. Official Language: English to remain the official language of the State of Sarawak and to continue to be one of the official languages of Malaysia.

There was agreement among groups that English should be retained either indefinitely or for at least fifteen (15) years as the official language, not only in Sarawak but in the new Federation as well. Some groups wished Iban as well as English to be an official language.

7. Religion: Freedom in religious worship

8. Federal Representation: There is to be adequate representation for Sarawak in the Federal Government.

A number of groups asked that this should be worked out on a combined population and areas basis and that, within the number of seats allocated to Sarawak in the House of Representatives, the Ibans should have equal representation with the Malays and the Chinese.

9. Native Employment: British officers to remain until replaced by properly qualified local people. Natives to have a fair share of Government employment.

10. Native Privileges and Status: Sarawak natives to enjoy the same status and privileges as Malays in Malaya.

11. Education: Education to be a Federal subject and to be equalized throughout Malaysia as soon as possible. Sarawak natives to have a fair share of overseas scholarships.

12. Medium of instruction in schools: English should be retained as the medium of instruction, but Iban should be taught as a subject.

13. Immigration: Immigration to remain under the control of the State of Sarawak.

14. State Powers: Powers reserved in the Constitution to a State may not be changed without the agreement of the State.

15. Development: Development in Sarawak to be accelerated.

16. Religion: Much emphasis was placed on the need for freedom of religion as there is at present, i.e., freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.

There was a general feeling that Sarawak should be a secular State and the suggestion was made that if Muslims were given assistance from Federal funds, other religions – Christianity was specially mentioned – should enjoy similar treatment.

17. Name of the new Federation: There was dislike of the name “MALAYSIA” and hope that some other name could be devised. Many alternatives were suggested.

18. Armed Forces: The Ibans are anxious to have a fair chance of service in the Federation’s armed forces.

19. Sarawak State: A number of groups wanted to be sure that they could have a sep