The Medical record History and informations

The Medical Record History

Created by
dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012



Medical record

The terms medical record, health record, and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient‘s medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider’s jurisdiction.[1]. The medical record includes a variety of types of “notes” entered over time by health care professionals, recording observations and administration of drugs and therapies, orders for the administration of drugs and therapies, test results, x-rays, reports, etc. The maintenance of complete and accurate medical records is a fundamental requirement of health care providers and is generally enforced as a licensing or certification prerequisite.

The terms are used for both the physical folder that exists for each individual patient and for the body of information found therein.

Medical records have traditionally been compiled and maintained by health care providers, but advances in online data storage have led to the development of personal health records (PHR) that are maintained by patients themselves, often on third-party websites[2]. This concept is supported by US national health administration entities[3] and by AHIMA, the American Health Information Management Association.[4]

A medical record folder being pulled from the records

Because many consider information in medical records to be sensitive personal information covered by expectations of privacy, many ethical and legal issues are implicated in their maintenance, such as third-party access and appropriate storage and disposal[5]. Although the storage equipment for medical records generally is the property of the health care provider, the actual record is considered in most jurisdictions to be the property of the patient, who may obtain copies upon request. [6].

[edit] Purpose

The information contained in the medical record allows health care providers to determine the patient’s medical history and provide informed care. The medical record serves as the central repository for planning patient care and documenting communication among patient and health care provider and professionals contributing to the patient’s care.

The traditional medical record for inpatient care can include admission notes, on-service notes, progress notes (SOAP notes), preoperative notes, operative notes, postoperative notes, procedure notes, delivery notes, postpartum notes, and discharge notes.

Personal health records combine many of the above features with portability, thus allowing a patient to share medical records across providers and health care systems.[5].

[edit] Auxiliary purpose

In addition, the individual medical record anonymised may serve as a document to educate medical students/resident physicians, to provide data for internal hospital auditing and quality assurance, and to provide data for medical research.

[edit] Contents

A patient’s individual medical record identifies the patient and contains information regarding the patient’s case history at a particular provider. The health record as well as any electronically stored variant of the traditional paper files contain proper identification of the patient[7]. Further information varies with the individual medical history of the patient.

The contents are written by medical providers, and patients until relatively recently had no say in what was contained in it. Recent advances in health care records privacy and access rules have generally provided for a patient’s right to review and have recorded in the medical record objections to the accuracy of certain entries.

[edit] Media applied

Traditionally, medical records were written on paper and maintained in folders often divided into sections for each type of note (progress note, order, test results), with new information added to each section chronologically. Active records are usually housed at the clinical site, but older records are often archived offsite.

The advent of electronic medical records has not only changed the format of medical records but has increased accessibility of files. The use of an individual dossier style medical record, where records are kept on each patient by name and illness type originated at the Mayo Clinic out of a desire to simplify patient tracking and to allow for medical research.

Maintenance of medical records requires security measures to prevent from unauthorized access or tampering with the records.

[edit] Medical history

The medical history is a longitudinal record of what has happened to the patient since birth. It chronicles diseases, major and minor illnesses, as well as growth landmarks. It gives the clinician a feel for what has happened before to the patient. As a result, it may often give clues to current disease states. It includes several subsets detailed below.

Surgical history
The surgical history is a chronicle of surgery performed for the patient. It may have dates of operations, operative reports, and/or the detailed narrative of what the surgeon did.
Obstetric history
The obstetric history lists prior pregnancies and their outcomes. It also includes any complications of these pregnancies.
Medications and medical allergies
The medical record may contain a summary of the patient’s current and previous medications as well as any medical allergies.
Family history
The family history lists the health status of immediate family members as well as their causes of death (if known)[8]. It may also list diseases common in the family or found only in one sex or the other. It may also include a pedigree chart. It is a valuable asset in predicting some outcomes for the patient.
Social history
The social history is a chronicle of human interactions. It tells of the relationships of the patient, his/her careers and trainings, schooling and religious training. It is helpful for the physician to know what sorts of community support the patient might expect during a major illness. It may explain the behavior of the patient in relation to illness or loss. It may also give clues as to the cause of an illness (e.g. occupational exposure to asbestos).
Various habits which impact health, such as tobacco use, alcohol intake, exercise, and diet are chronicled, often as part of the social history. This section may also include more intimate details such as sexual habits and sexual orientation.
Immunization history
The history of vaccination is included. Any blood tests proving immunity will also be included in this section.
Growth chart and developmental history
For children and teenagers, charts documenting growth as it compares to other children of the same age is included, so that health-care providers can follow the child’s growth over time. Many diseases and social stresses can affect growth and longitudinal charting and can thus provide a clue to underlying illness. Additionally, a child’s behavior (such as timing of talking, walking, etc.) as it compares to other children of the same age is documented within the medical record for much the same reasons as growth.

[edit] Medical encounters

Within the medical record, individual medical encounters are marked by discrete summations of a patient’s medical history by a physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant and can take several forms. Hospital admission documentation (i.e., when a patient requires hospitalization) or consultation by a specialist often take an exhaustive form, detailing the entirety of prior health and health care. Routine visits by a provider familiar to the patient, however, may take a shorter form such as the problem-oriented medical record (POMR), which includes a problem list of diagnoses or a “SOAP” method of documentation for each visit. Each encounter will generally contain the aspects below:

Chief complaint
This is the problem that has brought the patient to see the doctor. Information on the nature and duration of the problem will be explored.
History of the present illness
A detailed exploration of the symptoms the patient is experiencing that have caused the patient to seek medical attention.
Physical examination
The physical examination is the recording of observations of the patient. This includes the vital signs , muscle power and examination of the different organ systems, especially ones that might directly be responsible for the symptoms the patient is experiencing.
Assessment and plan
The assessment is a written summation of what are the most likely causes of the patient’s current set of symptoms. The plan documents the expected course of action to address the symptoms (diagnosis, treatment, etc.).

[edit] Orders and prescriptions

Written orders by medical providers are included in the medical record. These detail the instructions given to other members of the health care team by the primary providers.

[edit] Progress notes

When a patient is hospitalized, daily updates are entered into the medical record documenting clinical changes, new information, etc. These often take the form of a SOAP note and are entered by all members of the health-care team (doctors, nurses, physical therapists, dietitians, clinical pharmacists, respiratory therapists, etc.). They are kept in chronological order and document the sequence of events leading to the current state of health.

[edit] Test results

The results of testing, such as blood tests (e.g., complete blood count) radiology examinations (e.g., X-rays), pathology (e.g., biopsy results), or specialized testing (e.g., pulmonary function testing) are included. Often, as in the case of X-rays, a written report of the findings is included in lieu of the actual film.

[edit] Other information

Many other items are variably kept within the medical record. Digital images of the patient, flowsheets from operations/intensive care units, informed consent forms, EKG tracings, outputs from medical devices (such as pacemakers), chemotherapy protocols, and numerous other important pieces of information form part of the record depending on the patient and his or her set of illnesses/treatments.

There are several types of information needed to be recorded while tracing the state of a patient’s daily health:

  • vital signs: body temperature, pulse rate (heart rate), blood pressure and respiratory rate;
  • intake: medication, fluid, nutrition, water and blood, etc.;
  • output: blood, urine, excrement, vomitus, sweat, etc.;
  • observation of pupil size;
  • capability of four limbs of body.

[edit] Administrative issues

Medical records are legal documents, and are subject to the laws of the country/state in which they are produced. As such, there is great variability in rules governing production, ownership, accessibility, and destruction. There is some controversy regarding proof verifying the facts, or absence of facts in the record, apart from the medical record itself.

[edit] Demographics

Demographics include patient information that is not medical in nature. It is often information to locate the patient, including identifying numbers, addresses, and contact numbers. It may contain information about race and religion as well as workplace and type of occupation. It may also contain information regarding the patient’s health insurance. It is common to also find emergency contacts located in this section of the medical chart.

[edit] Production

In the United States, written records must be marked with the date and time and scribed with indelible pens without use of corrective paper. Errors in the record should be struck out with a single line and initialed by the author. Orders and notes must be signed by the author. Electronic versions require an electronic signature.

[edit] Informational self-determination

The informational self-determination is a basic human right. Hence a patient’s record should belong to the patient, but it seldom happens so.

[edit] Ownership for patient’s record

Ownership and keeping of patient’s records varies from country to country.

[edit] US law and customs

In the United States, the data contained within the medical record belongs to the patient[citation needed], whereas the physical form the data takes belongs to the entity responsible for maintaining the record per the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act[9]. Therefore, patients have the right to ensure that the information contained in their record is accurate[citation needed]. Patients can petition their health care provider to remedy factually incorrect information in their records.[citation needed]

[edit] UK law and customs

In the United Kingdom, ownership of the NHS‘s medical records belong to the Department of Health,[10] and this is taken by some to mean copyright also belongs to the authorities.[11]

[edit] German law and customs

In Germany ownership of patient’s records is not explicitly codified. Hence traditional keeping of patient’s records is with the hospitals and the practitioners. There is no comprehensive data set containing all information on one patient in one file defined yet. Since 1995, patients are identified via a health insurance card that includes name and address information as well as an ID assigned by the insurance provider. An upgrade to advanced health insurance cards (Elektronische Gesundheitskarte) that can store additional medical information was planned for 2006. Discussion on the benefit, the associated cost, and on data privacy issues is still ongoing as of 2011.

[edit] Accessibility

In the United States, the most basic rules governing access to a medical record dictate that only the patient and the health-care providers directly involved in delivering care have the right to view the record. The patient, however, may grant consent for any person or entity to evaluate the record. The full rules regarding access and security for medical records are set forth under the guidelines of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). The rules become more complicated in special situations.

When a patient does not have capacity (is not legally able) to make decisions regarding his or her own care, a legal guardian is designated (either through next of kin or by action of a court of law if no kin exists). Legal guardians have the ability to access the medical record in order to make medical decisions on the patient’s behalf. Those without capacity include the comatose, minors (unless emancipated), and patients with incapacitating psychiatric illness or intoxication.
Medical emergency
In the event of a medical emergency involving a non-communicative patient, consent to access medical records is assumed unless written documentation has been previously drafted (such as an advance directive)
Research, auditing, and evaluation
Individuals involved in medical research, financial or management audits, or program evaluation have access to the medical record. They are not allowed access to any identifying information, however.
Risk of death or harm
Information within the record can be shared with authorities without permission when failure to do so would result in death or harm, either to the patient or to others. Information cannot be used, however, to initiate or substantiate a charge unless the previous criteria are met (i.e., information from illicit drug testing cannot be used to bring charges of possession against a patient). This rule was established in the United States Supreme Court case Jaffe v. Redmond[6].

In the United Kingdom, the Data Protection Acts and later the Freedom of Information Act 2000 gave patients or their representatives the right to a copy of their record, except where information breaches confidentiality (e.g., information from another family member or where a patient has asked for information not to be disclosed to third parties) or would be harmful to the patient’s wellbeing (e.g., some psychiatric assessments). Also, the legislation gives patients the right to check for any errors in their record and insist that amendments be made if required.

[edit] Destruction

In general, entities in possession of medical records are required to maintain those records for a given period. In the United Kingdom, medical records are required for the lifetime of a patient and legally for as long as that complaint action can be brought. Generally in the UK, any recorded information should be kept legally for 7 years, but for medical records additional time must be allowed for any child to reach the age of responsibility (20 years). Medical records are required many years after a patient’s death to investigate illnesses within a community (e.g., industrial or environmental disease or even deaths at the hands of doctors committing murders, as in the Harold Shipman case).[12]

[edit] Abuses

  • The outsourcing of medical record transcription and storage has the potential to violate patient-physician confidentiality by possibly allowing unaccountable persons access to patient data.
  • Falsification of a medical record by a medical professional is a felony in most United States jurisdictions.
  • Governments have often refused to disclose medical records of military personnel who have been used as experimental subjects.

[edit] Standardization

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[edit] See also

Electronic health record

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Sample patient record view from an image-based electronic health record (VistA)

An electronic health record (EHR) refers to an individual patient’s medical record in digital format. Electronic health record systems co-ordinate the storage and retrieval of individual records with the aid of computers. EHRs are usually accessed on a computer, often over a network. It may be made up of electronic medical records (EMRs) from many locations and/or sources. Among the many forms of data often included in EMRs are patient demographics, medical history, medicine and allergy lists (including immunization status), laboratory test results, radiology images, billing records and advanced directives.

EHR systems can reduce medical errors.[1] In one ambulatory healthcare study, however, there was no difference in 14 measures, improvement in 2 outcome measures, and worse outcome on 1 measure.[2]

EHR systems are believed to increase physician efficiency and reduce costs, as well as promote standardization of care. Even though EMR systems with computerized provider order entry (CPOE) have existed for more than 30 years, less than 10 percent of hospitals as of 2006 have a fully integrated system.[3]


[edit] Overlap in Terminology

Multiple terms have been used to define electronic patient care records, with overlapping definitions.[4] Both electronic health record (EHR) and electronic medical record (EMR) have gained widespread use, with some health informatics users assigning the term EHR to a global concept and EMR to a discrete localised record. For most users, however, the terms EHR and EMR are used interchangeably. An EHR system is also often abbreviated as EHR or EMR. Information in the section on EMRs electronic medical record may be more relevant to physician offices seeking a less expensive or comprehensive solution.

Health Information Technology is an even broader term that describes any computer-based electronic aid to healthcare delivery.

An electronic health record is a patient’s health record that has been compiled into a digital format.

[edit] Background

In his joint address to Congress in 2009, Obama stated that:

“Our recovery plan will invest in electronic health records and new technology that will reduce errors, bring down cost, ensure privacy, and save lives” [5]

[edit] Categories of information in a patient record

A patient record consists of 4 main categories of information. Some information requires digitization. Other forms of information are by nature digital but require an infrastructure designed for secure access through the EHR.

[edit] Textual information

Textual information in a patient record include notes and individual reports.

[edit] Data for Calculations

Data for calculations or graphing from laboratory reports are included in a patient record. This information is used for searching or decision support.

[edit] Multimedia

Multimedia information in a patient record such as diagnostic images are typically located in various departments in a healthcare facility. The large volume and disparate locations of this data make the electronic health record the only viable way for access.

[edit] Paperwork

Patient records include signed forms, hand drawn figures, photographs of wounds, and other various forms of paper-based documentation.

[edit] Advantages of electronic medical records

There are several benefits to wide scale usage of electronic health records.

[edit] Reduce healthcare costs

One of the major sources of rapid growth in healthcare costs comes from medical imaging. Medicare Part B spending on imaging rose from $6.80 billion in 2000 to $14.11 billion in 2006.[6] Access to a patient’s images in an EHR is an effecive way to avoid duplicating expensive imaging procedures. Other cost savings include the reduction of medical errors that can otherwise lead to further expensive care.

[edit] Improve quality of care

An EHR system can help reduce medical errors by providing healthcare workers with decision support. Fast access to medical literature and current best practices in medicine enable proliferation of ongoing improvements in healthcare efficacy.

[edit] Promote evidence-based medicine

EHRs provide access to unprecedented amounts of clinical data for research that can accelerate the level of knowledge of effective medical practices.

These benefits may be realized in a realistic sense only if the EHR systems are interoperable and wide spread (e.g. national) so that various systems can easily share information. Also, to avoid failures that can cause injury to the patient and violations to privacy, the best practices in software engineering and medial informatics must be deployed.[7]

EHRs also have the advantages of electronic medical records (EMR). In general, medical records may be on “physical” media such as film (X-rays), paper (notes), or photographs, often of different sizes and shapes. Physical storage of documents is problematic, as not all document types fit in the same size folders or storage spaces. In the current global medical environment, patients are shopping for their procedures. Many international patients travel to US cities with academic research centers for specialty treatment or to participate in Clinical Trials. Coordinating these appointments via paper records is a time-consuming procedure.

Physical records usually require significant amounts of space to store them. When physical records are no longer maintained, the large amounts of storage space are no longer required. Paper, film, and other expensive physical media usage (and therefore cost) is also reduced with electronic record storage. When paper records are stored in different locations, furthermore, collecting and transporting them to a single location for review by a healthcare provider is time-consuming. When paper (or other types of) records are required in multiple locations, copying, faxing, and transporting costs are significant, as are the concerns of HIPAA compliance.

In 2004, an estimate was made that 1 in 7 hospitalizations occurred when medical records were not available. Additionally, 1 in 5 lab tests were repeated because results were not available at the point of care. Electronic medical records are estimated to improve efficiency by 6% per year, and the monthly cost of an EMR is offset by the cost of only a few unnecessary tests or admissions.[8][9]

Handwritten paper medical records can be associated with poor legibility, which can contribute to medical errors.[10] Pre-printed forms, the standardization of abbreviations, and standards for penmanship were encouraged to improve reliability of paper medical records. Electronic records help with the standardization of forms, terminology and abbreviations, and data input. Digitization of forms facilitates the collection of data for epidemiology and clinical studies.

In contrast, EMRs can be continuously updated. The ability to exchange records between different EMR systems (“interoperability”[11]) would facilitate the co-ordination of healthcare delivery in non-affiliated healthcare facilities. In addition, data from an electronic system can be used anonymously for statistical reporting in matters such as quality improvement, resource management and public health communicable disease surveillance.[12]

[edit] Lack of adoption of EHRs in the United States

US medical groups’ adoption of EHR (2005)

Outside of the Veterans Health Administration system, the vast majority of healthcare transactions in the United States still take place on paper, a system that has remained unchanged since the 1950s.

As of 2000, adoption of EHRs and other health information technology (HITs) (such as computer physician order entry (CPOE)) was minimal in the United States (outside of the VA system). Less than 10% of American hospitals had implemented HIT,[13] while a mere 16% of primary care physicians used EHRs.[14] In 2001-2004 only 18% of ambulatory care encounters utilized an EHR system.[2][15] In 2005, 25% of office-based physicians reported using fully or partially electronic medical record systems (EMR), an almost one-third increase from the 18.2% reported in 2001.[15] However, less than one-tenth of these physicians actually had a “complete EMR system” (with computerized orders for prescriptions, computerized orders for tests, reporting of test results, and physician notes).[16]

The healthcare industry spends only 2% of gross revenues on HIT, which is meager compared to other information intensive industries such as finance, which spend upwards of 10%.[17][18][19]

The reasons for the lack of adoption of EHRs in the United States include:

[edit] Costly investment for providers

The selection, implementation and usage of an EHR system is expensive, time-consuming and burdensome. The success of the system has a lot of dependencies such as quality IT leadership and product reliability.

Until recently, with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, providers were expected to take the full risk of investing in healthcare IT. Notably, healthcare payers, such as the government through Medicare, also have potential for significant cost savings if providers adopt EHR systems.

[edit] Problems with EHR products on the market today

Physicians find available health IT software frustrating due to its poor usability.[20] Today’s products lack interoperability and capabilities required to experience the benefits that outweight the risks.

[edit] Attempts to facilitate EHR compatibility in the United States

The Veterans Administration health care system in the United States, with over 155 hospitals and 800 clinics, represents one of the largest integrated healthcare delivery systems in the world. It relies on a single EHR system called VistA, which has been in use for years. Data exchange is facilitated by a protocol called BHIE (Bidirectional Health Information Exchange), and the VA healthcare network is being expanded in 2007 to integrate the Department of Defense healthcare facilities using the BHIE networking protocol.

This EHR has been made publicly available for download and has been adapted for use in many non-VA hospitals and healthcare networks. As BHIE becomes more widely available, a national healthcare network will be facilitated.

Outside of the VA’s EHR system, however, there are currently at least 25 major competing vendors of EHR systems, many selling software incompatible with competitors.

This lack of interoperability provides a significant barrier to a “National Health Information Network.”[21] In 2004, President Bush created the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), originally headed by David Brailer. Under the ONC, Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) have been established in many states in order to promote the sharing of health information. The US Congress is currently working on legislation to increase funding to these and similar programs.

[edit] Benefits of EHR standardization / National Healthcare Information Network

[edit] Improved billing accuracy

Although billing is now largely accomplished electronically in the United States, these claims often require additional documentation from a patient’s medical record. This is a tedious task when records are in an electronic format not compatible with the billing program, or when the records are in paper format. An integrated electronic medical record / billing system, therefore, both expedites and makes billing more accurate.

[edit] Reduction in duplication of services

Duplication of lab tests, diagnostic imaging, work-ups, and other services can be prevented by good record-keeping of any type. However, because electronic records can be available at many locations at once, integration of services and awareness of duplication is facilitated.

[edit] Facilitation of clinical trials

Clinicians and researchers suggest benefits to integrating electronic health records with data collection and analysis in clinical trials.[22]

[edit] Improved access to medical records

Records, once a few years old are typically put into long-term storage as records must be kept for as long as 21 years. Electronic medical records enable health organizations to access old records instantly, thereby allowing them to be sent to another health organization in the event of an emergency. Many EHR systems now offer integrated Patient Portal or Personal Health Record systems which allow patients and 3rd parties to access medical records with a secure username and password.

Potential clinical trial participants may be more easily identified, administrative overhead costs may be lessened, data errors may be reduced, and adverse outcomes may be more rapidly identified.[22]

Some institutions have already been partially successful in implementing and integrating co-ordinated data collection and analysis systems. For example, the Shared Pathology Network (SPIN) of the National Cancer Institute has effectively established a web-based network for locating pathological tissue samples at various institutions across the nation.[23] The electronic nature of reports within the system allows the use of search engines to find specific text with the reports, facilitating analysis.[24]

[edit] Organizations to evaluate standardization proposals

Several models of standardization for electronic medical records and electronic medical record exchange have been proposed and multiple organizations formed to help evaluate and implement them.[25][26]

[edit] Organizations

  • CHI (Consolidated Health Informatics Inititiative) – recommends nationwide federal adoption of EHR standards in the United States
  • CCHIT (Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology) – a federally funded, not-for-profit organization that evaluates and develops the certification for EHRs and interoperable EHR networks (USA)
  • IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) – a consortium, sponsored by the HIMSS, that recommends integration of EHR data communicated using the HL7 and DICOM protocols
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) – accredits standards in the United States and co-ordinates US standards with international standards
  • Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) – an international trade organization of health informatics technology providers
  • American Society for Testing and Materials – a consortium of scientists and engineers that recommends international standards
  • openEHR – provides open specifications and tools for the ‘shared’ EHR
  • Canada Health Infoway – a federally funded, not-for-profit organization that promotes the development and adoption of EHRs in Canada
  • World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) – promotes Internet-wide communications standards to prevent market fragmentation
  • Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) – a non-profit organization that develops platform-independent healthcare data standards
  • EHR-Lab Interoperability and Connectivity Standards (ELINCS) – run by the HL7 group to help provide lab data and other EHR interoperability

[edit] Standards

  • ANSI X12 (EDI) – transaction protocols used for transmitting patient data. Popular in the United States for transmission of billing data.
  • CEN‘s TC/251 provides EHR standards in Europe including:Continuity of Care Record – ASTM International Continuity of Care Record standard
    • EN 13606, communication standards for EHR information
    • CONTSYS (EN 13940), supports continuity of care record standardization.
    • HISA (EN 12967), a services standard for inter-system communication in a clinical information environment.
  • DICOM – an international communications protocol standard for representing and transmitting radiology (and other) image-based data, sponsored by NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
  • HL7 – a standardized messaging and text communications protocol between hospital and physician record systems, and between practice management systems
  • ISOISO TC 215 provides international technical specifications for EHRs. ISO 18308 describes EHR architectures

[edit] Barriers to deploying an EHR system

[edit] Difficulty in adding older records to an EHR system

Older paper medical records ought to be incorporated into a patient’s electronic health record.

One method is to merely scan the documents and retain them as images. However, surveys suggest that 22-25% of physicians are less satisfied with records systems that use scanned documents alone rather than fully electronic data-based systems.[27] EHR systems with image archival capability (such as VistA Imaging) are able to integrate these scanned records (along with other types of image-based records) into fully electronic health records systems.

Another method to convert written records (such as notes) into electronic format is to scan the documents then perform optical character recognition. For typed documents, accurate recognition may only achieve 90-95%, though, requiring extensive corrections. Furthermore, illegible handwriting is poorly recognized by optical character readers.

Some states have proposed making existing statewide database data (such as immunization records) available for download into individual electronic medical records.[28]

[edit] Long-term preservation and storage of records

An important consideration in the process of developing electronic health records is to plan for the long-term preservation and storage of these records. The field will need to come to consensus on the length of time to store EHRs, methods to ensure the future accessibility and compatibility of archived data with yet-to-be developed retrieval systems, and how to ensure the physical and virtual security of the archives.

Additionally, considerations about long-term storage of electronic health records are complicated by the possibility that the records might one day be used longitudinally and integrated across sites of care. Records have the potential to be created, used, edited, and viewed by multiple independent entities. These entities include, but are not limited to, primary care physicians, hospitals, insurance companies, and patients. Mandl et al have noted that “choices about the structure and ownership of these records will have profound impact on the accessibility and privacy of patient information.”[29]

The required length of storage of an individual electronic health record will depend on national and state regulations, which are subject to change over time. Ruotsalainen and Manning have found that the typical preservation time of patient data varies between 20 and 100 years. In one example of how an EHR archive might function, their research “describes a co-operative trusted notary archive (TNA) which receives health data from different EHR-systems, stores data together with associated meta-information for long periods and distributes EHR-data objects. TNA can store objects in XML-format and prove the integrity of stored data with the help of event records, timestamps and archive e-signatures.”[30]

In addition to the TNA archive described by Ruotsalainen and Manning, other combinations of EHR systems and archive systems are possible. Again, overall requirements for the design and security of the system and its archive will vary and must function under ethical and legal principles specific to the time and place.

While it is currently unknown precisely how long EHRs will be preserved, it is certain that length of time will exceed the average shelf-life of paper records. The evolution of technology is such that the programs and systems used to input information will likely not be available to a user who desires to examine archived data. One proposed solution to the challenge of long-term accessibility and usability of data by future systems is to standardize information fields in a time-invariant way, such as with XML language. Olhede and Peterson report that “the basic XML-format has undergone preliminary testing in Europe by a Spri project and been found suitable for EU purposes. Spri has advised the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare and the Swedish National Archive to issue directives concerning the use of XML as the archive-format for EHCR (Electronic Health Care Record) information.”[31]

[edit] Synchronization of records

When care is provided at two different facilities, it may be difficult to update records at both locations in a co-ordinated fashion. This is a problem that plagues distributed computer records in all industries.

Two models have been used to satisfy this problem: a centralized data server solution, and a peer-to-peer file synchronization program (as has been developed for other peer-to-peer networks).

In the United States, Great Britain, and Germany, the concept of a national centralized server model of healthcare data has been poorly received. Issues of privacy and security in such a model have been of concern.[32][33]

Synchronization programs for distributed storage models, however, are only useful once record standardization has occurred.

Merging of already existing public healthcare databases is a common software challenge. The ability of electronic health record systems to provide this function is a key benefit and can improve healthcare delivery.[34][35][36]

[edit] Privacy

Privacy concerns in healthcare apply to both paper and electronic records. According to the Los Angeles Times, roughly 150 people (from doctors and nurses to technicians and billing clerks) have access to at least part of a patient’s records during a hospitalization, and 600,000 payers, providers and other entities that handle providers’ billing data have some access also.[37] Recent revelations of “secure” data breaches at centralized data repositories, in banking and other financial institutions, in the retail industry, and from government databases, have caused concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location.[38] Records that are exchanged over the Internet are subject to the same security concerns as any other type of data transaction over the Internet.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was passed in the US in 1996 to establish rules for access, authentications, storage and auditing, and transmittal of electronic medical records. This standard made restrictions for electronic records more stringent than those for paper records. However, there are concerns as to the adequacy of implementation of these standards.

In the European Union (EU), several Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council protect the processing and free movement of personal data, including for purposes of health care.[39]

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) was given Royal Assent in Canada on April 13, 2000 to establish rules on the use, disclosure and collection of personal information. The personal information includes both non-digital and electronic form. In 2002, PIPEDA extended to the health sector in Stage 2 of the law’s implementation.[40] There are four provinces where this law does not apply because its privacy law was considered similar to PIPEDA: Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec.

Privacy and Security of the Electronic Health Record: As the ever-changing healthcare industry evolves, one key topic within the electronic health record (EHR) is privacy. The Federal government has set guidelines that all healthcare organizations will have to comply with in regards to electronic health transactions. Most supporters believe that the EHR will improve care and reduced costs, while transforming the health care system, but whether the privacy of the records will be upheld is yet to be determined. A successful partnership for administrative health data standards can promote the development of clinical data standards and their application in computer based patient record systems.[41]

One major issue that has risen on the privacy of the U.S. network for electronic health records is the strategy to secure the privacy of patients. President Bush calls for the creation of networks, but federal investigators report that there is no clear strategy to protect the privacy of patients as the promotions of the electronic medical records expands throughout the United States. In 2007, the Government Accountability Office reports that there is a “jumble of studies and vague policy statements but no overall strategy to ensure that privacy protections would be built into computer networks linking insurers, doctors, hospitals and other health care providers.”[42]

The privacy threat posed by the interoperability of a national network is a key concern. One of the most vocal critics of EMRs, New York University Professor Jacob M. Appel, has claimed that the number of people who will need to have access to such a truly interoperable national system, which he estimates to be 12 million, will inevitable lead to breaches of privacy on a massive scale. Appel has written that while “hospitals keep careful tabs on who accesses the charts of VIP patients,” they are powerless to act against “a meddlesome pharmacist in Alaska” who “looks up the urine toxicology on his daughter’s fiance in Florida, to check if the fellow has a cocaine habit.”[43] This is a significant barrier for the adoption of an EHR. Accountability among all the parties that are involved in the processing of electronic transactions including the patient, physician office staff, and insurance companies, is the key to successful advancement of the EHR in the U.S. Supporters of EHRs have argued that there needs to be a fundamental shift in “attitudes, awareness, habits, and capabilities in the areas of privacy and security” of individual’s health records if adoption of an EHR is to occur.[44]

According to the Wall Street Journal, the DHHS takes no action on complaints under HIPAA, and medical records are disclosed under court orders in legal actions such as claims arising from automobile accidents. HIPAA has special restrictions on psychotherapy records, but psychotherapy records can also be disclosed without the client’s knowledge or permission, according to the Journal. For example, Patricia Galvin, a lawyer in San Francisco, saw a psychologist at Stanford Hospital & Clinics after her fiance committed suicide. Her therapist had assured her that her records would be confidential. But after she applied for disability benefits, Stanford gave the insurer her therapy notes, and the insurer denied her benefits based on what Galvin claims was a misinterpretation of the notes. Stanford had merged her notes with her general medical record, and the general medical record wasn’t covered by HIPAA restrictions.[45]

Within the private sector, many companies are moving forward in the development, establishment and implementation of medical record banks and health information exchange. By law, companies are required to follow all HIPAA standards and adopt the same information-handling practices that have been in effect for the federal government for years. This includes two ideas, standardized formatting of data electronically exchanged and federalization of security and privacy practices among the private sector.[44] Private companies have promised to have “stringent privacy policies and procedures.” If protection and security are not part of the systems developed, people will not trust the technology nor will they participate in it.[42] So, the private sector know the importance of privacy and the security of the systems and continue to advance well ahead of the federal government with electronic health records.

[edit] Hardware limitations

Computer access is required to use an electronic health record system. A sufficient number of workstations, laptops, or other mobile computers must be available to accommodate the number of healthcare providers at any one facility.[46] EHR software ought to be backwards compatible with older technology so that existing technology infrastructure can be used. Furthermore, most healthcare facilities have at least some degree of existing computerization, whether in the lab or in billing services. EHR systems need to interface with existing systems, again mandating a modular approach.[47]

In the past, poor networking technology was a limiting factor in the adoption of EHR software. There are now solutions which profit from new networking and mobile technology.[48][49]

[edit] Cost Advantages and Disadvantages

Most practitioners and healthcare organizations will agree that both quality healthcare and medical error reduction take precedence over many other healthcare concerns. Common knowledge to most, the U.S. allocates a vast amount of funds towards the health care industry—more than $1.7 trillion per year.[50] Unfortunately, these distributed funds have not significantly improved the U.S.’s quality of healthcare. The implementation of electronic health records (EHR) can help lessen patient sufferance due to medical errors and the inability of analysts to assess quality.[50] Of course, such savings will not occur overnight and will require EHR adoption by most healthcare businesses. Obviously, these savings can lead to healthcare quality promotion. In addition, these savings are not limited to businesses alone: If savings are allocated using the current level of spending from the National Health Accounts, Medicare would receive about $23 billion of the potential savings per year, and private payers would receive $31 billion per year.[50] Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE)—one component of EHR—increases patient safety by listing instructions for physicians to follow when they prescribe drugs to patients. Naturally, CPOE can tremendously decrease medical errors: CPOE could eliminate 200,000 adverse drug events and save about $1 billion per year if installed in all hospitals.[51] Furthermore, If patients are aware of their opportunities, they are more likely to comply with their doctors’ recommendations; thus, reducing future hospital visits and saving money. Despite the advantages, many providers have not adopted EHR due to its expensiveness: The cumulative cost for 90 percent of hospitals to adopt an EHR system is $98 billion [and] $17.2 billion for physicians.[50] The steep price of EHR and provider uncertainty regarding the value they will derive from adoption in the form of return on investment has a significant influence on EHR adoption.[52] In a project initiated by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information (ONC), surveyors found that hospital administrators and physicians who had adopted EHR noted that any gains in efficiency were offset by reduced productivity as the technology was implemented, as well as the need to increase information technology staff to maintain the system.[52] Overall, physicians in the focus groups did not see any financial incentives for adopting an EHR. In other words, if providers do use an EHR system, not only do they have to pay for it, but they also have to pay for the maintenance of the system and classes to train staff. Moreover, technology is not perfect. On occasion, systems crash and experience technical difficulties, which is very costly to repair. Such issues make providers question if EHR is a step they are willing to take. Overall, EHR systems provide more benefits than disadvantages to patients and the economy. These systems can improve savings and the quality of healthcare to a superior level.

The U.S. Congressional Budget Office concluded that the cost savings may only occur only in large integrated institutions like Kaiser Permanente, and not in small physician offices. They challenged the Rand Corp. estimates of savings. “Office-based physicians in particular may see no benefit if they purchase such a product – and may even suffer financial harm. Even though the use of health IT could generate cost savings for the health system at large that might offset the EHR’s cost, many physicians might not be able to reduce their office expenses or increase their revenue sufficiently to pay for it. For example. the use of health IT could reduce the number of duplicated diagnostic tests. However, that improvement in efficiency would be unlikely to increase the income of many physicians.” If a physician performs tests in the office, it might reduce his or her income. “Given the ease at which information can be exchanged between health it systems, patients whose physicians use them may feel that their privacy is more at risk than if paper records were used.”[53]

[edit] Start-up costs and software maintenance costs

In a 2006 survey, lack of adequate funding was cited by 729 health care providers as the most significant barrier to adopting electronic records.[54] At the American Health Information Management Association conference in October 2006, panelists estimated that purchasing and installing EHR will cost over $32,000 per physician, and maintenance about $1,200 per month (including the amortization of startup investment).[55][56][57] Vendor costs only account for 60-80% of these costs.[58]

There are exceptions. A November 2006 survey of a widely available open source EHR reported startup costs of only $1083 – $7500/provider and $67 – $750/month per provider.[59]

Some proponents of EHR systems suggest that startup costs will be recouped within 3 years.[60] A study of the effects of EHRs in primary care settings published in the American Journal of Medicine estimated net benefits from EHR use of over $86,000 per provider over a five-year period.[61]

Some physicians are skeptical of such published cost-savings claims, however. They believe the data is skewed by vendors and by others who have a stake in the success of EHR implementation. Many are resistant to invest in a system which they are not confident will provide them with a return on their investment.[62][63]

Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, estimated it achieved net savings of $5 million to $10 million per year following installation of a computerized physician order entry system that reduced serious medication errors by 55 percent. Another large hospital generated about $8.6 million in annual savings by replacing paper medical charts with EHRs for outpatients and about $2.8 million annually by establishing electronic access to laboratory results and reports.[64]

Furthermore, software technology advances at a rapid pace. Most software systems require frequent updates, often at a significant ongoing cost. Some types of software and operating systems require full-scale re-implementation periodically, which disrupts not only the budget but also workflow. Costs for upgrades and associated regression testing can be particularly high where the applications are governed by FDA regulations (e.g. Clinical Laboratory systems). Physicians desire modular upgrades and ability to continually customize, without large-scale reimplementation.

Training of employees to use an EHR system is costly, just as for training in the use of any other hospital system. New employees, permanent or temporary, will also require training as they are hired.[65]

In the United States, a substantial majority of healthcare providers train at a VA facility sometime during their career. With the widespread adoption of the VistA electronic health record system at all VA facilities, few recently-trained medical professionals will be inexperienced in electronic health record systems. Elderly practitioners who have never used computer-based systems eventually retire.

[edit] Inertia

Most large organizations resist change. The institutional stress of implementing any new large-scale system must be anticipated by management. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality‘s National Resource Center for Health Information Technology, EHR implementations follow the 80/20 rule; that is, 80% of the work of implementation must be spent on issues of change management, while only 20% is spent on technical issues related to the technology itself.

The healthcare industry has more licensed professionals with advanced degrees than any other industry. However, systems analysis and computer science has not, until recently, been an integral part of healthcare training. Most health administrators also lack training in computer science.

[edit] Legal barriers

[edit] Liability barriers

Legal liability in all aspects of healthcare was an increasing problem in the 1990s and 2000s. The surge in the per capita number of attorneys[66] and changes in the tort system caused an increase in the cost of every aspect of healthcare, and healthcare technology was no exception.[67]

Failure or damages caused during installation or utilization of an EHR system has been feared as a threat in lawsuits.[68]

This liability concern was of special concern for small EHR system makers. Some smaller companies may be forced to abandon markets based on the regional liability climate.[69] Larger EHR providers (or government-sponsored providers of EHRs) are better able to withstand legal assaults.

In some communities, hospitals attempt to standardize EHR systems by providing discounted versions of the hospital’s software to local healthcare providers. A challenge to this practice has been raised as being a violation of Stark rules that prohibit hospitals from preferentially assisting community healthcare providers.[70] In 2006, however, exceptions to the Stark rule were enacted to allow hospitals to furnish software and training to community providers, mostly removing this legal obstacle.[71][72]

[edit] Ownership of electronic records

HIPAA standards allow patients the right to review the content of their medical records.

When records are centralized, it is often difficult to determine whose responsibility it is to maintain the records. If a company agrees to manage and maintain records but goes out of business, how does that impact the healthcare provider whose ultimate responsibility it is for record maintenance?

If a healthcare provider retires or goes out of business, what arrangements to convert records to archival formats are available?

If an individual physician and a hospital system share a record database system but then the individual physician leaves that healthcare system, how does she separate her practice’s records from the hospital’s central database to take them with her for archival, as often required by law?

Who determines the frequency of “purging” of records?

A patient may store a portion of his/her health records online or with an independent storage service (in a health record trust), in which case that subset of records is no longer under the control of the healthcare provider. This transfers HIPAA liabilities to the databank that stores the records for the individual. Concerns about loss of data integrity and lessened HIPAA adherence arise, because these records are no longer part of the health record maintained by the healthcare provider.

[edit] Unalterability of records, spurious records, and digital signatures

Medical records must be kept in unaltered form and authenticated by the creator. However, simple mistakes often create spurious documents. How are spurious documents identified so that they do not clutter the medical record without altering or disposing of them illegally?

Most national and international standards now accept electronic signatures.[73] However, a database of electronic signatures must be created as an EHR system is implemented.

[edit] Customization

Each healthcare environment functions differently, often in significant ways. It is difficult to create a “one-size-fits-all” EHR system.

An ideal EHR system will have record standardization but interfaces that can be customized to each provider environment. Modularity in an EHR system facilitates this. Many EHR companies employ vendors to provide customization.

This customization can often be done so that a physician’s input interface closely mimics previously utilized paper forms.[74]

At the same time they reported negative effects in communication, increased overtime, and missing records when a non-customized EMR system was utilized.[75] Customizing the software when it is released yields the highest benefits because it is adapted for the users and tailored to workflows specific to the institution.[76]

Customization can have its disadvantages. There is, of course, higher costs involved to implementation of a customized system initially. More time must be spent by both the implementation team and the healthcare provider to understand the workflow needs.

Development and maintenance of these interfaces and customizations can also lead to higher software implementation and maintenance costs.[77][78]

These hurdles make customizations that can be made publicly available through an open source model more desirable.

[edit] Comparison of EHR software solutions

Basic general information about major software solutions: creator/company, license/price etc., focusing on small-scale practice systems.

Software Name Creator Preferred Vendor Latest stable version Cost (USD) Software license
MedEZ MedEZ/ISS – MedEZ – 954-332-4700 6.0.4 Module Based with Electronic Document Management and Clinical Notes-Customizable Proprietary
Medisoft Clinical EMR McKesson Corp – JB Medical – 877-787-8686 9.3.1 $5480 First Doctor, $3400 Subsequent Proprietary
Unifi-Med Unifi Technologies 4.0 $500/mo Full Suite subscription Web-based service
Iasis Free EMR-ERM Practice Management
Online Doctors Community
Forums,Medical News
V1.0.0.306 $0.0 Freeware -Registration Required-Multi User, Customizable,All Specialties Supported Proprietary
Therapy Office EMR Asmakta Ltd   9.1   Proprietary
Document Busters Document Busters, Inc.   Proprietary
EDrawer LSSP Corporation 4.3.209   Proprietary
Medrecordonline EMR/EHR/PHR built it with medsystemonline Meddserve Ltd 10.1   web-based software as a service
Medsysonline EMR/EHR/PHR built it with medrecordonline Meddserve Ltd 10.1   web-based software as a service
eClinicalWorks eClinicalWorks,
EaseMD Systems, 866-321-2828
8.0 CCHIT Certified – Monthly fee; Direct Purchase: $10,000 for first doc, $5,000 for subsequent Proprietary
ICS National Medical Imaging 2.5 Initial Setup plus a Monthly Fee GNU GPL V2 and Proprietary
ClearHealth ClearHealth Inc. Clearhealth 2.2 EMR Scheduling/ Billing / PM GNU GPL V2
Amazing Charts EHR Jonathan Bertman   4.0 from $995 Proprietary
e-MDs Razor EMR e-MDs   6.3 from $2,995 Proprietary
Sevocity Conceptual MindWorks, Inc.   5.1 from $460 per month Proprietary
Praxis EMR Infor-Med  ? 4  ?
CureMD EMR CureMD Corporation   10 (custom pricing) Proprietary
Medscribbler Scriptnetics Inc.   5 from $2,899.99 (custom pricing) Proprietary
MedicWare EMR MedicWare  ?  ?  ? Proprietary
SOAPware SOAPware, Inc. SOAPware, Inc. 1-800-455-7627 2008.0 from $995.00 Proprietary
NextGen EMR NextGen MMIC Technology Solutions, 1-800-328-5532,  ?  ? Proprietary
SequelMed EHR SequelMed,
Sequel Systems 800-965-2728
7.5 from 5,000.00 Proprietary
MediNotes e EHR MediNotes AutoMED Software 516.369.7091, Medisys 304-204-3400 5.2 from 5,000.00 Proprietary
JonokeMed Jonoke Software Development Inc.   4.05.01  ? Proprietary
HealthHighway EMR HealthHighway Inc.  ? 3.1  ? Proprietary
HARMONY MedTec   5.21  ? Proprietary
OmniMD EMR OmniMD  ?  ? from $325/month (custom pricing) Proprietary
simplifyMD Matt Ethington  ? 3.0 Custom per Practice Proprietary
ICChart InteGreat Concepts, Inc.
6.1 See vendor web-based system
MedTrak MedTrak Systems, Inc. MedTrak Systems Continuously updated (web based system) Transaction based pricing based on type of visit Proprietary
Greenway PrimeSuite Greenway Medical Technologies Mds medical See vendor Proprietary
gGastro / gCardio / gUro gMed gMed ] See vendor Proprietary
Turbo-Doc Turbo-Doc Electronic Medical Records 11x $4000/doctor(associated staff included), Optional $600/yr maintenance/upgrade agreement. Proprietary
Medical and Practice Management Suite LSS Data Systems LSS Data Systems 5.6 See Vendor  
  Creator Preferred Vendor Latest stable version Cost (USD) Software license

Operating system compatibility (* using virtualization):

Client Windows Mac OS X Linux BSD Unix AmigaOS
MedEZ Yes No No No No No
Medisoft Clinical Yes No No No No No
Iasis Free EMR-EHR Practice Management Yes No No No No No
ICS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Amazing Charts Yes Yes* Yes* No No No
e-MDs ‘Razor’ EMR Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
eClinicalWorks EMR Yes No Yes No ? No
SequelMed EHR Yes Yes Yes No No No
Sevocity Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Praxis EMR Yes No No No No No
CureMD EMR Yes No No No No No
Medscribbler Yes No No No No No
MedicWare EMR Yes No No No No No
SOAPware Yes Yes Yes No No No
NextGen EMR Yes No No No No No
MediNotes e EMR Yes No No No No No
JonokeMed Yes Yes No No No No
HealthHighway EMR Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
HARMONY Yes No Yes No Yes No
OmniMD EMR Yes No No No No No
simplifyMD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ICChart Yes No No No No No
Greenway PrimeSuite Yes No No No No No
gGastro / gCardio / gUro Yes No No No No No
MedTrak Yes Yes No No No No
Turbo-Doc Yes No No No No No
Client Windows Mac OS X Linux BSD Unix AmigaOS

[edit] Successful implementations of EHR systems

In the United States, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has the largest enterprise-wide health information system that includes an electronic medical record, known as the Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture or VistA. A key component in VistA is their VistA imaging System which provides a comprehensive multimedia data from many specialties, including cardiology, radiology and orthopedics. A graphical user interface known as the Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) allows health care providers to review and update a patient’s electronic medical record at any of the VA’s over 1,000 healthcare facilities. CPRS includes the ability to place orders, including medications, special procedures, X-rays, patient care nursing orders, diets, and laboratory tests.

The US Indian Health Service uses an EHR similar to VistA called RPMS. VistA Imaging is also being used to integrate images and co-ordinate PACS into the EHR system.

As of 2005, the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom also began an EHR system. The goal of the NHS is to have 60,000,000 patients with a centralized electronic health record by 2010. The plan involves a gradual roll-out commencing May 2006, providing general practitioners in England access to the National Programme for IT (NPfIT).[79]

Australia is dedicated to the development of a lifetime electronic health record for all its citizens. HealthConnect is the major national EHR initiative in Australia, and is made up of territory, state, and federal governments. MediConnect is a related program that provides an electronic medication record to keep track of patient prescriptions and provide stakeholders with drug alerts to avoid errors in prescribing.[80]

The Canadian province of Alberta started a large-scale operational EHR system project in 2005 called Alberta Netcare, which is expected to encompass all of Alberta by 2008.

[edit] Failures in Health Information Technology implementation

In 2002 at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, physician dissatisfaction forced the administration to scrap a proprietary $34 million Central Physician Order Entry system that was developed within the medical center itself. Physicians were reported by nurses as being embarrassed by the number of errors the system caught and corrected, as well as being frustrated by the slow performance of the system.[81] It is notable that the system had never been used or tested outside of Cedars-Sinai.

As many as 30% of EHR implementation attempts have failed over the past few years, according to the National Health Information Network Co-ordinator, David Brailer.[81] Brailer’s Santa Barbara County Care Data Exchange failed for a variety of reasons including poor project management, technical challenges, and a failure to create a compelling business model for the participants.[82]

Advocates of electronic health records hope that product certification will provide US physicians and hospitals with the assurance they need to justify significant investments in new systems. The Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology (CCHIT), a private nonprofit group, was funded in 2005 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to develop a set of standards and certify vendors who meet them. As of October 2006, CCHIT had certified 34 ambulatory EHR products.[83][84]

[edit] Software criteria of interoperability

The Center for Information Technology Leadership described four different categories (“levels”) of data structuring at which health care data exchange can take place.[85] While it can be achieved at any level, each has different technical requirements and offers different potential for benefits realization.

The four levels are:[86]

Level Data Type Example
1 Non-electronic data Paper, mail, and phone call.
2 Machine transportable data Fax, email, and unindexed documents.
3 Machine organizable data (structured messages, unstructured content) HL7 messages and indexed (labeled) documents, images, and objects.
4 Machine interpretable data (structured messages, standardized content) Automated transfer from an external lab of coded results into a provider’s EHR. Data can be transmitted (or accessed without transmission) by HIT systems without need for further semantic interpretation or translation.

[edit] Related and supporting technologies

An unusual form of Health Information Technology is the VeriChip system, an RFID microchip that can be implanted under the skin to give instant access to a patient’s records. The tiny electronic device, produced by Applied Digital Solutions Inc. of Delray Beach, Florida, transmits a unique code to a scanner that allows doctors to confirm a patient’s identity and obtain detailed medical information from a database maintained by Applied Digital. Only the identification is provided by the implant, so the system remains limited to hospitals, doctors and patients having access to the scanner.[87]


[edit] References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ National Institute for Health
  4. ^ American Health Information Management Association
  5. ^ Health Information Privacy
  6. ^ [3]
  7. ^ A Sample Health Record
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^
  10. ^ Moyle R (30 November 1976). “Written Answers (Commons): SOCIAL SERVICES: Medical Records (Ownership and Storage)”. Hansard 921 (c91W). “Personal medical records, including X-rays, in respect of patients treated under the NHS are held to be the property of the Secretary of State. NHS hospital medical records are stored in premises designated by the appropriate health authority. Access to a patient’s medical records is governed in the patient’s interest by the ethics of the medical and allied professions.” 
  11. ^ “Policy and Procedure For Records: Retention & Disposal” (PDF). Mersey Care NHS Trust. December 2003. Retrieved 2008-07-05. “ownership and copyright in these records as a rule is with the NHS Trust or Health Authority, not with any individual employee or contractor.” 
  12. ^ “Government ‘Breached Ex-Soldier’s Human Rights'”. The Guardian. October 20, 2004.,11816,1331784,00.html

News from the International

Medical Informatics


IFHIMA Congress and Global News; AHIMA Changes

and Congress

The International Federation of Health Information Management (IFHIMA –,

formerly known as IFHRO, has announced that their next triennial Congress will be held in Montreal,

Canada on


May 13-15, 2013


. Full information will become available in due course at


IFHIMA supports national associations and health record professionals to implement and improve


health records, and the systems which support them.


IFHIMA’s “Global News” newsletter (current and past issues) is available at http://www.ifhima.


org/news.aspx). The latest issue (August 2011) contains a range of articles relating to health records/


information management in different countries.


IFHIMA is an Affiliate Member of IMIA and is entitled to be represented at the IMIA General Assembly.


The American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) has recently appointed a


new CEO,





Lynne Thomas Gordon


, MBA, RHIA, FACHE. Full information on the full Board of Directors

of AHIMA is at The 83rd AHIMA Convention &


Exhibit finished in Salt Lake City, USA (see


Reports from the event are at


AHIMA is a Corporate Institutional Member of IMIA




3rd Annual Innovations in Healthcare Management and

Informatics Conference – Bangkok, Thailand, March 2012

The 3rd Annual Innovations in Healthcare Management and Informatics Conference, organised by

IQPC Worldwide Pte. Ltd., will take place on


13-15 March 2012


in Bangkok, Thailand. Full information

is available on the event website at there is also a


downloadable pdf version of the information.


The 3rd HIT 2012 brings together an international gathering of over 30 healthcare leaders and informatics


experts to present latest case studies and implementation experience from Europe, US,


Australia and Asia. One focus will be on gaining insights on the Thai government’s National Public


Health Information Reform experience.


Among the many speakers who will be known to IMIA members are:





Prof. Michael Legg


, Professorial Fellow, Centre for Health Informatics and e-Health Research,

University of Wollongong





Mike Bainbridge


, Clinical Architect, NHS Connecting for Health, UK




Prof. Jim Warren


, Professor and Chair in Health Informatics, University of Auckland




Yu-Chuan (Jack) Li


, Professor and Dean, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei

Medical University





Dr. Chun Por Wong


, Chief of Integrated Medical Services, Ruttonjee Hospital of Cataract and Refractive

Surgery, & International Council, International Society of Refractive Surgery





Pekka Ruotsalainen


, Research Professor, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and

Adjunct Professor, University of Tampere




© 2011 published: October 26, 2011

© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association




Applied Clinical Informatics





Prof. Michio Kimura


, Professor of Radiology, Hamamatsu Medical University, Japan




Dr. S. B. Gogia


, President, Society of Administration of Telemedicine and Healthcare Informatics,



IMIA members can enjoy an exclusive 15% discount when they register for the conference. A special


pricing for hospitals is also available through contacting the organisers directly to find out more at


+65 6722 9388 or · Contact: +65 6722 9388 /




Establishing an evidence base for e-health: WHO Bulletin –

Call Closes 20 November

The open call for contributions to a Special Theme Issue of the Bulletin, on the theme “Establishing

an evidence base for e-health” closes on


20 November, 2011


. We encourage all IMIA members and

colleagues to publicise this as widely as possible to their members, contacts, networks, etc. We also ask


all IMIA members and friends, especially those in low and middle income countries, to consider contributing


to this call.


The Editorial/Call can be found at (HTML


version) or downloadable PDF file at Manuscripts


should respect the Guidelines for contributors and mention the call for papers in a covering


letter. All submissions will go through the Bulletin’s peer review process. Please submit to:


IMIA President





Antoine Geissbuhler and Najeeb Al Shorbaji


(WHO Department of Knowledge

Management and Sharing) published the Editorial and Call for Papers in the June 2011 edition of the


Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Titled “Establishing an evidence base for e-health: a call


for papers”, the editorial is an open call for contributions to a Special Theme Issue of the Bulletin.


This is part of a joint project between IMIA and, among others, a range of US government agencies


(including PEPFAR, CDC, and USAID), IDRC, as well as the Global Health Informatics Partnership


(GHIP). In addition to the open call, commissioned papers on specific topics from within IMIA and


from among the wider global health informatics community are being developed.


As Antoine and Najeeb note: “Evidence is needed to promote equity of access to information and


health services, and to strengthen activities and programmes that support local, regional, national


and global health communities. There is a critical need to communicate evidence and to provide


examples of best practice in the development of effective and efficient solutions to major health challenges.”


The objectives of the theme issue of the Bulletin are


1. to provide an authoritative, critical and independent overview of knowledge about the appropriate,


transdisciplinary methods and applications in e-health;


2. to include contributors from developing countries who typically do not have the opportunity to


publish in international journals; and


3. to disseminate the key findings of this theme issue to high-level decision-makers, to promote a


stronger commitment on e-health interoperability issues and its wider application.


The Bulletin, one of the world’s leading public health journals, is a peer-reviewed monthly with a


special focus on developing countries. The Bulletin is one of the top 10 public and environmental


health journals. It is essential reading for all public health decision-makers and researchers who


require its special blend of research, well-informed opinion and news.


IMIA is a Non Government Organization (NGO) in special relationship with the World Health


Organization (WHO).




Turning Scientific Knowledge into Effective Action for Health

– PAHO/WHO Webinar, Nov. 3

The latest in the series of PAHO/WHO monthly live webinars on Equity and Health – Access to Information,

titled “Turning Scientific Knowledge into Effective Action for Health”, will be offered on



3rd November 2011


, from 10:00 AM to 12:30 PM WDC time (check the local time in your

own town at


With a hands-on approach, this two-hour online workshop will train participants on how to use


the online tools available through the Virtual Health Library (VHL), as well as from the National Library


of Medicine (NLM) Online Databases, effectively. Furthermore, this online workshop will


highlight other Web resources tailored to the public health workforce. Participants will be able to:







Identify resources to support public health programs and activities






Retrieve information in support of evidence-based public health






Obtain data sets and statistics relevant to public health on state, local, national, regional and world








Identify resources available to stay informed of developments related to public health and environmental








Lorely Ambriz Irigoyen


, M.S.I.S , PAHO/WHO U.S.-Mexico Border Office Knowledge

Management & Communications


The event is free, and no prior registration is required. To log in, simply type your name and


organization) of participants at


PAHO/WHO Webinars are free and open to interested people. You may attend virtually from your


personal or work computer anywhere in the world. In addition to watching live presentations, you


will have the option to ask questions and provide comments. You just need a computer, internet connection,


speakers and a mic/headphone. You will also be able to write comments and continue the


discussion after the webinar.


For additional information, please contact AnaLucia Ruggiero




HIMSS12 Keynote Speakers

HIMSS12, the Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Healthcare Information and Management

Systems Society, (HIMSS – will be held on


February 20-24, 2012


in Las

Vegas, Nevada, USA (Monday to Friday – note, this is a change from the schedule of previous years).


HIMSS12 will be held at the Sands Expo and Convention Center, adjacent to the Venetian and the Palazzo


hotels, Las Vegas. Full information about the event is at and


will be updated in coming months.


Symposia and Pre-Conference Workshops are being held on Monday, a day later than usual; the


Exhibits will be open on Tuesday – Thursday, and the Education Sessions will be on Tuesday – Friday.


HIMSS12 expects to offer more than 400 educational opportunities on hot topics and in excess


of 1,000 exhibits with cutting edge product solutions. Keynote presenters announced so far include:





Biz Stone


– co-founder, Twitter




Farzad Mostashari


, MD, ScM – National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, Office

of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, US Department of Health and


Human Services





Donna Brazile


– Political Strategist and Commentator, Vice Chair of Voter Registration and Participation,

Democratic National Committee





Dana Perino


– Political Commentator and Former White House Press Secretary




Dan Buettner


– Founder of Blue Zones and World Renowned Explorer.

IMIA is pleased to be a Conference Collaborator, supporting the event (see http://www.himssconfer and will have a booth at HIMSS12.







Applied Clinical Informatics




© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association

Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Conference:

October 31 – November 02, 2011

VI Jornadas Universitarias de Sistemas de Información en Salud

The Department of Health Informatics at Hospital Italiano is celebrating it’s 10th anniversary and

the creation of the Medical Informatics Residency Training program. In order to continue sharing

the advances in the development of Health Information Systems in the Latin american region, the

department is organizing the Sixth Conference of Health Information Systems (VI Jornadas Universitarias

de Sistemas de Información en Salud) together with HL7 Argentina on




October 31, 1 and

November 2, 2011







at Hospital Italiano (Peron 4190, Buenos Aires, Argentina). The Conference is free

but requires previous registration and it will be available online.


Information about the event (in Spanish) is available at


fomed/index.php?contenido=ver_curso.php&id_curso=9435. Keynote Speakers:





W. Ed Hammond


, PhD, Director, Duke Center for Health Informatics at Duke University.

– Interoperability: bringing all the pieces together, what would be required, and what would be







Dean Sittig


, PhD, Professor, Biomedical Informatics at The University of Texas Health Science

Center at Houston.


– Monitoring EHRs to Ensure Safe and Effective Use: An Overview of What is Required. Rights


and duties of users of an EHR





Fernán González Bernaldo de Quirós


, MD MSc, Vice Director of Strategic Planning, Hospital

Italiano de Buenos Aires.


– Continuous Improvement Process, Quality and Information Systems


Panels will address issues including Security in Health Information Systems; Digital Agendas in Latin


America; HL7 and its relationship with the National Digital Agendas; Usability: an aspect to consider


in Information Systems; Education in Health Informatics; Clinical terminologies; Implementations


of Health Information Systems; Open Source Tools in Clinical Information Systems


Workshops will address issues including Lessons Learned; Grid Computing; Introduction to


health information systems; IT Project Management; Italica Project; HL7 (V2.CDA)


International Speakers will include





Alvaro Margolis (EviMed – Uruguay);


Carlos Arteta Molina



(Fundación Cardioinfantil – Colombia);


Claúdio Giulliano Alves da Costa


(SBIS & HL7 – Brasil);



Fernando Portilla



(HL7 – Colombia); Gabriela Villarreal (HL7 – México);


José Florez Arango


(Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe – Colombia);


Maurizio Mattoli (ACHISA – Chile);


Selene Indarte



(HL7 – Uruguay);


Sergio Konig


(HL7 – Chile)

National Speakers (from Argentina) will include





Alejandro López Osornio (TermMed SA);








(Hospital Italiano); Carlos Otero (Hospital Italiano); Cesar Moreno (Griensu);








(Hospital Italiano); David Aguirre (Municipio de Benito Juárez); Diego Kaminker





Fernán González Bernaldo de Quirós



(Hospital Italiano); Fernando Campos


(Hospital Italiano);


Fernando Plazzotta



(Hospital Italiano); Humberto Mandirola (Biocom); Jorge Rodríguez




Martín Degreef



(Municipio de Benito Juárez); Martin Díaz (Hospital Alemán);


Myrna C.





(OPS); Pablo Guccione (Hospital Escuela de Agudos Dr. Ramón Madariaga);


Paula Otero



(Hospital Italiano);


Sergio Epstein (Ministerio de Salud Pública de Tucumán);


Sergio Montenegro



(Hospital Escuela de Agudos Dr. Ramón Madariaga).

More information at In person registration


Online registration:


Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires is an Academic Institutional Member of IMIA.




Applied Clinical Informatics




© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association

Call for Abstracts: Rutgers 30th Annual International

Interdisciplinary Technology Conference

On the 30th anniversary of its Annual International Nursing Technology Conference, the Rutgers

College of Nursing Center for Professional Development, in collaboration with other departments,

are organising a special interdisciplinary and international event, to reflect the Rutgers University

themes of ‘New Jersey Roots – Global Reach ‘ and ‘Technologies Without Borders’.

With the theme ‘Using Technology to Improve Healthcare Globally’, the Call for Abstracts invites

cutting edge presentations that document how technology has or will impact the safety and quality

of healthcare globally. Further information is at including

links to submission site and the Call for Abstracts.

The event will be held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA on





April, 2012










HINZ 2011 Conference and Exhibition – Auckland, Nov. 23-25

The HINZ (Health Informatics New Zealand) Annual Conference and Exhibition will be held at the

Aotea Centre, Auckland, New Zealand on


23-25 November, 2011



conference). With the conference theme “Working together … working smarter”, among the international


guest speakers this year will be Dr.





David Blumenthal, Prof. Enrico Coiera, Prof.








, Dr. Susan Newbold, Andrew Howard, and Baldhur Johnsen



The event features workshops on intelligent data analysis, and interoperability reference architecture,


while other sessions will include a broad set of topics, including health IT evaluation (













), mobile health (Robyn Whittaker), virtual health records (Tom Bowden


), post-Christchurch

earthquake emergency responses, and nurses’ electronic access to evidence.


A key feature of the event will be the ‘Clincians’ Challenge’ – an opportunity for clinicians and


vendors to work together to use information technology to solve an important and recurring problem


that health professionals face in their ‘day-to-day” practice (


conference-2011-challenge). Clinicians have presented the challenge by putting forward 56


problems they face in their day-to-day practice that the innovative use of information technology


could help solve. HINZ have chosen the three most interesting; now is the opportunity for vendors


to respond. Vendors are invited to choose one of these three challenges and describe their concept or


solution to solve the problem. All vendors are invited to participate. Submissions can be made by individual


vendors or groups. Submissions should be a Word document, no longer than 8 pages. Please


e-mail it to by





3pm on 31 October 2011


. There will be no extensions.

The winning problem case in 2010 came from a colorectal cancer care nursing service that ‘wants


to ensure a seamless and timely interface between hospital and community-based continued care


and social support systems’. The winning vendor, Orion Health, is working with the clinician to develop


a system and expects to have it completed by the end of this year.


HINZ is a Member Society of IMIA (




IMIA Yearbook 2011

Welcome to the 400th post since we moved IMIA News to this new format. It is appropriate that we

use this post to publicise one of IMIA’s most important products, the IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics.

With the theme “Towards Health Informatics 3.0, the 2011 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics


2011.html) is the latest edition on the series that started in 1992. Some of the material in

the IMIA Yearbook is available as free download, whilst other is pay-per-view for individual items.

You can also order the Yearbook in paper and electronic format. The Paper Version includes online

access to the complete Full Electronic Version. Single copies can be ordered from Schattauer Verlag.

© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association




Applied Clinical Informatics




They are available at a reduced rate for members of IMIA’s Member Societies, and to subscribers of

Methods of Information in Medicine.

Several IMIA Member Societies (including AMIA, COACH, FDH, FinnSHIA, HISI and HINZ)

subscribe to full (free) electronic access for their members as part of member benefits, and the Yearbook

is also included as a member benefit to Academic and Corporate Institutional Members of


The objectives of the IMIA Yearbook




To present an overview of the most original, excellent state-of-the-art research in the area of

health and biomedical informatics of the past year.







To provide surveys about the recent developments, and comprehensive reviews on relevant topics

in this field.







To provide information about IMIA.



The target audience




Health and biomedical informatics scientists in research, education, and practice worldwide






Health care professionals interested in current health and biomedical informatics research results.






Health and biomedical informatics students and postgraduates.






Scientists and professionals with shared interests in biomedical informatics.



Among freely available papers in the IMIA Yearbook 2011 are




President’s Statement – IMIA 3.0: Connecting and Sharing Knowledge






Editorial: Towards Health Informatics 3.0






IMIA Award Editorial: Back to the Future: What Have We Failed to Learn? How Does the Future








Information on IMIA






Information on IMIA Regions.

IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics : Editors: Geissbuhler A, Kulikowski C ISSN 0943–4747,


ISBN-13 978–3–7945–2651–2 (see also for more information






ACI eJournal is Seeking International Contributions

ACI, the official eJournal of IMIA (, is inviting INTERNATIONAL contributions

in its core editorial subject matters: clinical information systems (including electronic

medical records and systems, personal health records, physician/provider order entry, electronic prescribing,

clinical decision support, nursing information systems, patient scheduling and tracking

tools, lab information systems, radiology information systems, PACS, GP information systems), administrative

and management systems, eHealth systems, information technology development, deployment,

and evaluation, socio-technical aspects of information technology and health IT training.

Contributions from all parts of the world, and from international teams of authors, are sought.

The target group of ACI is an international and potentially very influential readership, e.g.: chief

information officers, chief executive officers, chief financial officers, medical informatics researchers,

nurse informaticians, consultants, public health officials, vendors, IT safety healthcare

providers, informatics trainees as well as organizations such as IMIA, AMDIS, AMIA, and HIMSS.

For further information on writing for this online journal, please contact the editor in chief,

Christoph U. Lehmann




, M.D., clehmann(at) – see also and in

particular the instructions for authors at








Applied Clinical Informatics




© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association

2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium

(IHI 2012) – January 28-30, Miami

The 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium (IHI 2012) will be held on





28-30, 2012







in Miami, Florida, USA. Full information is available at


 (mirror site:

IHI 2012 is the flagship symposium on health informatics promoted by the newly formed Association


for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Health Informatics (ACM SIGHIT). IHI


is designed to run as an annual showcase for exciting and innovative research on techniques and


technologies developed in universities, hospitals, research labs, and companies all over the world.


IHI 2012 will feature about 130 contributions from 37 countries, including keynote speeches,


regular papers, short papers, demonstrations, free tutorials, panels, extended abstracts, and doctoral


consortium. Selected regular papers and short papers will be presented in oral sessions. Other


papers and demos will be presented by the authors in an open setting, specifically designed to encourage


conversation and discussion. The symposium will cover the breadth of problems faced by


the community: health informatics education, telemedicine, systems for decision support, humancentered


design, information retrieval techniques for health applications, accessibility to personalized


predictive modeling techniques, and so on.


Online registration is now available at the conference website (,


mirror site: Staying at the conference hotel, pre-negotiated


conference rates are available. A direct link to the Miami Beach Resort and Spa hotel reservation


system is available at the conference website




3rd International eHealth Conference, Lahore, Pakistan;

January 21-22, 2012 – Call for Papers

eHealth Association of Pakistan (eHAP – http// will host its Third International

eHealth Conference 2012 with the main theme of “Road to National eHealth strategy for Pakistan”

to be held at Lahore on


21-22 January, 2012


. The aim of the conference is to identify and prioritize

areas of eHealth development in Pakistan that could lead to the formation of a National eHealth


Strategy for Pakistan. The deadline for the Call for submission of scientific abstracts is







15 November,









Interested researchers, graduates and scholars from universities, research institutes and industry


are invited to submit abstracts on the following themes:







Benefits of eHealth for developing world






Scalable eHealth Applications & Technologies






Planning & Managing eHealth in a Developing Country






Health Information and its Management through ICTs






eHealth in Health Systems Improvement






Importance of Policy and strategy for eHealth

Abstracts for the Conference will be selected for oral or poster presentation depending on the evaluation


of Scientific Committee. Authors should specify their preference of oral or poster presentation.


(PDF download of Call – conference website link)


Countries around the world are turning to eHealth to enhance service delivery in every aspect of


life. Developing countries like Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India, Kenya and Rwanda have taken


bold steps towards revolutionizing their Health Sector with use of eHealth. Pakistan has built experience


with eHealth applications, but requires commitment and direction from all the stakeholders to


move this forward. The efforts for development of a National eHealth strategy come at an important


time when Pakistan is developing its new Health Policy. The Conference will build understanding on


the importance of eHealth strategy, and suggest a roadmap to achieve this endeavor by sharing the


knowledge and experience of eHealth experts and researchers.







Applied Clinical Informatics




© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association




Applied Clinical Informatics




© 2011 published: October 26, 2011 News from the International Medical Informatics Association


International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA)

Head Office:

81 Boulevard de la Cluse

1205 Geneva



Dr. Peter J. Murray

E-mail: imia@imia-


Kisah Princess Korea Terakhir Deokhye

Princess Korea Terakhir





Dr Iwan suwandy









 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM







Deokhye, Princess of Korea






Princess Deokhye



Count Sō Takeyuki


Countess Sō Masae


Gojong of Korea


Lady Bongnyeong


25 May 1912(1912-05-25)
Changdeok Palace, Seoul


21 April 1989(1989-04-21) (aged 76)
Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, Republic of Korea


Hongryureung, Namyangju, Republic of Korea


Deokhye, Princess of Korea





Revised Romanization

Deokhye Ongju


Tŏkhye Ongju

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.KISAH  PRINCESS TERAKHIR DEOKHYE DARI KOREA

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA
Private Limited Edition Dalam CD-ROM
Copyright @ 2012





Gojong dan Kekaisaran Korea
26 raja dari Dinasti Joseon, Raja Gojong,
pindah ke istana pada tahun 1897,
dimana dia memproklamirkan Kekaisaran Korea Agung dalam upaya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan bangsa dari China, Jepang, dan Rusia. Namun, bukan benar-benar memperkuat militer negara itu, Kaisar Gojong (1852-1919) malah akan menghabiskan banyak waktu dan energinya merenovasi dan memperluas istana ini.
Dia tinggal di sini sampai turun tahta kepada putranya, Kaisar Sunjong, pada tahun 1907, saat istana ini berganti nama Doeksugung. Ketika pendudukan Jepang dimulai pada tahun 1910, Kaisar Gojong dikenakan tahanan rumah di Doeksugung, di mana ia akhirnya meninggal pada tahun 1919.
Kaisar Gwangmu
Kita kembali empat generasi karena kematian keluarga kerajaan Korea bisa dibilang dimulai pada tahun 1907. Sementara Korea secara resmi menghilang pada tahun 1910, dalam kepraktisan Korea hilang adalah kedaulatan pada tahun 1905, ketika Jepang-Korea Perjanjian tahun 1905 disepakati. Di bawah perjanjian itu, Korea menjadi Jepang “protektorat”, dan kehilangan kemampuan untuk melakukan urusannya sendiri asing. Seorang gubernur dari Jepang dikirim ke Korea untuk melakukan urusan luar negeri Korea gantinya. Tak perlu dikatakan bahwa perjanjian itu tidak masuk ke dalam dengan cara yang adil – puluhan tentara Jepang yang bersenjata menatap kaisar dan para pejabat ketika perjanjian itu ditandatangani.



Emperor Gwangmu


Kaisar Gwangmu
Kaisar Gwangmu (juga dikenal sebagai Gojong) Korea dengan jelas bisa melihat di mana pembicaraan ini. Meskipun Perjanjian 1905 dilucuti kemampuannya untuk melakukan urusan luar negeri, kaisar mengirim utusan rahasia untuk 17 negara besar, termasuk Inggris, Perancis dan Jerman, untuk memprotes penandatanganan paksa Perjanjian 1905. Puncak dari usaha ini adalah pada tahun 1907, ketika tiga utusan Korea dikirim ke Konvensi Perdamaian Internasional Kedua di Den Haag. Meskipun Jepang membekukan keluar utusan dari menghadiri konvensi tersebut, Yi Wi-Jong, salah satu dari tiga utusan, berhasil memberikan pidato memohon bantuan dalam konferensi terpisah. (
Susah Pidato karena telinga tuli.)




Tiga rahasia utusan ke Den Haag:
Yi Sang-Seol, Yi Joon, Yi Wi-Jong
Meskipun upaya kaisar tidak menciptakan hasil, Imperial Jepang tidak menyukai aktivitas ekstrakurikuler Kaisar Gwangmu, dan menuntut agar ia melepaskan tahtanya. Kaisar setuju, memberikan cara untuk putranya, Kaisar Yunghui (juga dikenal sebagai Soonjong) – yang akan menjadi kaisar terakhir dari Kekaisaran Korea. Mantan Kaisar Gwangmu meninggal pada 1919. Meskipun hal ini tidak tertentu, ada begitu banyak bukti bahwa ia diracun.

Generasi Kedua: Kaisar Yunghui, Raja Euichin, Raja Yeongchin, Putri Deokhye
Kaisar Gwangmu memiliki 13 anak, tetapi hanya empat hidup hingga dewasa – tiga putra dan seorang putri. Dan mereka yang selamat dalam arti sebenarnya. Bahkan sebagai kekaisaran berada dalam kemunduran terjal, intrik istana tidak berhenti. Putra Kaisar Gwangmu tertua, lahir dari istri ketiganya, dikabarkan telah diracuni oleh Ratu Ibu Suri, istri utama kaisar. Putra kedua, lahir dari Ratu Ibu Suri, mati muda.

Sang ayah Kaisar mungkin telah meracuni dia. Putra mahkota – anak ketiga yang akan menjadi Kaisar Yunghui-juga diracun di masa mudanya, tapi hampir tidak selamat. Ada rumor bahwa karena efek tersisa dari keracunan, putra mahkota tidak memiliki kapasitas mental penuh.



Keluarga kerajaan terakhir.

 Dari kiri: Raja Euichin, Kaisar Yunghui,
Raja Yeongchin, Kaisar Gwangmu, dengan Putri Deokhye di depan
Pada tahun 1910, Kaisar Yunghui ditandatangani di atas kerajaannya ke Imperial Jepang, mengakhiri dinasti 600 tahun dipimpin oleh keluarganya. Kaisar Yunghui diturunkan untuk seorang raja, bawahan kepada kaisar Jepang. Keluarga kerajaan Korea secara keseluruhan menjadi bangsawan Jepang. Kebijakan Kekaisaran Jepang terhadap keluarga kerajaan Korea jelas: keluarga kerajaan akan bisa jadi telah berasimilasi atau dibunuh. Yang pertama pergi adalah Gwangmu Kaisar, seperti dijelaskan di atas. Kaisar Yunghui tidak berlangsung lebih lama lagi – dia meninggal pada tahun 1926, pada usia 53.
Mungkin tokoh paling menarik dalam drama ini adalah Yi Gang (juga dikenal sebagai Raja Euichin,) kedua yang masih hidup anak Gwangmu. Yi Gang belajar di Roanoke College di Virginia dan seorang perwira militer kekaisaran Korea ketika kakaknya ditandatangani di atas kekaisaran. Yi Gang diam-diam membantu gerakan kemerdekaan Korea, menandatangani petisi dan mengirim dana untuk mendukung pejuang kemerdekaan Korea dan sekolah. Dia berusaha melarikan diri Korea dan bergabung dengan pemerintahan sementara di Shanghai, tapi ditangkap dalam proses dan kehilangan status bangsawan itu. Sejak itu, ia menghindari pengawasan Imperial Jepang dengan terlibat dalam melacur berlimpah boozing dan sambil terus mendukung gerakan kemerdekaan. Selama gerakan kemerdekaan, ia menyatakan bahwa ia akan melepaskan statusnya kerajaan dan tunduk pada aturan pemerintah demokratis. Dia memimpin hidup tenang setelah kemerdekaan, dan meninggal pada tahun 1955 pada usia 79.
Kaisar Yunghui meninggal tanpa anak, dan Raja Euichin tidak disukai oleh orang Jepang karena keterlibatannya dalam gerakan kemerdekaan Korea. Oleh karena itu, putra bungsu Gwangmu yang masih hidup, Raja Yeongchin, berhasil takhta. Yi Eun, juga dikenal sebagai Raja Yeongchin, lahir pada tahun 1897. Pada usia sepuluh, ia dibawa ke Jepang untuk “belajar” di bawah perlindungan Gubernur Jepang Korea – dasarnya ditahan sebagai sandera. Sebagai bangsawan Jepang kontemporer lakukan, Eun Yi terpaksa menghadiri akademi militer. Ia menjadi pejabat militer Jepang, dan dipaksa untuk Masako Nashimotonomiya menikah, seorang anggota keluarga kerajaan Jepang. Ia menjadi raja Korea setelah ayahnya meninggal pada tahun 1926, tetapi hanya mengunjungi Korea sebentar untuk menerima mahkota. Ia menjadi seorang jenderal dari tentara Jepang pada tahun 1938. Dia akan melihat akhir Perang Dunia II di Jepang.




Young Yi Eun with his Japanese “patron,”

Governor-General Ito Hirobumi




Setelah perang, Yi Eun kehilangan status bangsawan,

 yang mendorong keluarganya ke dalam kemiskinan yang parah. Dia akan mengikis oleh dengan bantuan keuangan dari kaum royalis yang tersisa sangat sedikit Korea. Istrinya juga harus bekerja, meskipun status keluarga kerajaan itu. Ia berusaha untuk kembali ke Korea, tapi ditolak – bahwa ia bertugas di militer Jepang dan menikah dengan keluarga kerajaan Jepang tidak bermain dengan baik dengan pemerintah Korea yang baru didirikan. Dia menderita stroke pada tahun 1961 di Hawaii saat mengunjungi putranya, ia diizinkan untuk kembali ke Korea pada tahun 1963, dan tinggal di Istana Changdeok dengan bibinya. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1970.
Ini adalah ironi yang kejam dari sejarah bahwa satu-satunya orang yang keluar dari drama ini dengan sedikit pun martabat adalah istri Eun Yi, Masako. Setelah kembali ke Korea pada tahun 1963, ia mengganti namanya menjadi nama Korea-gaya Yi Bang-Ja dan terfokus energinya pada kegiatan amal, mendirikan sekolah untuk anak cacat meskipun hidup dari pensiun pemerintah sedikit. Ia menerima medali banyak dan penghargaan untuk pekerjaan relawan. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1989.

Putri Deokhye,

putri Gwangmu bungsu yang lahir pada tahun 1912,

 mungkin adalah tokoh yang paling tragis.

Dia dipaksa pindah ke Jepang ,pakaian yang dikenakan saat dibawa ke Jepang masih ada dimueum Jepang lihat illustrasi.



dan menghadiri universitas, di mana dia mengembangkan skizofrenia. Pada tahun 1931, ia menikah dengan seorang bangsawan Jepang di perjodohan, dan memiliki seorang putri.

 Dia selamat perang, namun kalah putri satu-satunya dalam proses. Dia ditinggalkan oleh suaminya pada tahun 1953 sebagai skizofrenia memburuk. Untuk sembilan tahun ke depan, dia akan pergi dari rumah sakit jiwa ke rumah sakit jiwa di Jepang.

Pemerintah Korea mendengar tentang dirinya pada tahun 1962. dan Presiden Park Chung-Hee lulus hukum untuk menyediakan pensiun bagi mantan keluarga kerajaan di respon. Putri Deokhye kembali ke Korea, dan tinggal di Istana Changdeok sampai 1989 ketika dia meninggal.
Ketiga dan Keempat Generasi: Gu Yi dan 21 Raja Euichin Anak-anak
Yi Eun dan Masako memiliki dua putra, tetapi anak yang lebih tua meninggal kurang dari satu tahun. Pejabat putra mahkota terakhir dari keluarga kerajaan Korea Yi Gu, lahir pada tahun 1931. Dia telah menghabiskan seluruh hidupnya di Jepang, dan dia bekerja sebagai juru tulis untuk sebuah perusahaan di Tokyo setelah Perang Dunia II. Pada tahun 1953, ia pindah ke luar negeri untuk belajar di MIT, dan bertemu dengan calon istrinya – seorang wanita kulit putih Amerika bernama Julia Murlock. Gu Yi menikah Murlock pada tahun 1959 di New York, dan dia bekerja untuk perusahaan arsitektur IM Pei.
Dia juga diizinkan kembali ke Korea pada tahun 1963, dan kuliah arsitektur di universitas. Tapi ia tidak bisa menyesuaikan diri dengan kehidupan di Korea. Meskipun Korea tidak lagi monarki, Yi Jeonju (Lee) masyarakat keturunan mengambil (dan masih membutuhkan) garis keluarga kerajaan yang sangat, sangat serius. Gu Yi menerima tekanan sebagai putra mahkota dalam keluarganya, dan bahwa ia menikah dengan seorang wanita kulit putih yang tidak bisa hamil hanya mengintensifkan tekanan. Gu Yi dipisahkan dari Murlock pada tahun 1977, dan kembali ke Jepang pada 1979. Ia akan mengunjungi Korea dari waktu ke waktu, tetapi menolak untuk menetap di Korea. Dia meninggal sendirian pada tahun 2005 di sebuah hotel di Tokyo, ternyata Yi Gu disukai hotel karena diabaikan tempat kelahiran lamanya. Dia dikuburkan dalam pakaian kerajaan; pemakamannya dihadiri oleh perdana menteri Korea (setara dengan wakil presiden Amerika) dan 1.000 orang.



Yi Gu’s funeral


Pemakaman Yi Gu

Pemakaman Yi Gu Ini berarti bahwa keluarga kerajaan hanya hidup di Korea adalah keturunan Raja Euichin, pangeran pemberontak. Hebatnya, ia memiliki 12 putra dan 9 putri dari 13 perempuan berbeda – sejauh yang kami tahu. Nasib tidak baik kepada mereka juga. Sebagai contoh, Yi Geon, putra tertua Raja Euichin, menjadi warga negara naturalisasi Jepang pada tahun 1947 dan memutuskan hubungan dengan Korea sepenuhnya. Kabarnya, sebelum ia naturalisasi, ia membawa semua nya (langkah-) saudara-saudara bersama-sama dan meminta mereka semua untuk melupakan fakta bahwa mereka milik keluarga kerajaan. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1991. Wu Yi, anak kedua, meninggal di Hiroshima sebagai petugas militer Jepang ketika kota dilanda bom nuklir. Sisanya tersebar ke Korea dan Amerika, dan menjalani kehidupan biasa-biasa saja lebih atau kurang. Dari 21 anak Raja Euichin, sepuluh (empat putra, enam putri) masih hidup. Mereka tinggal di Korea, New York, Los Angeles dan San Jose. Setelah Gu Yi meninggal, Jeonju Yi garis keturunan masyarakat yang didirikan putra putra kesembilan Raja Euichin untuk menjadi putra mahkota – seorang pria bernama Yi Sang-Hyup, 50 tahun.
Apa Korea kontemporer berpikir tentang keluarga kerajaan? Kematian Yi Gu pada tahun 2005 menjabat sebagai pengingat bagi orang Korea bahwa Korea sebenarnya memiliki keluarga kerajaan. Ini bertindak sebagai katalis untuk iseng keluarga kerajaan di Korea. Dalam survei yang dilakukan pada tahun 2006, 54,4% yang mengabulkan gugatan “memulihkan keluarga kerajaan,” meskipun tidak ada orang di Korea yang tahu pasti apa artinya. Dalam survei yang dilakukan pada tahun 2010, jumlahnya menurun tajam menjadi 40,4% mendukung, tetapi masih melampaui 23,4% terhadap. Tapi akan lebih bijaksana untuk tidak menempatkan saham terlalu banyak angka-angka, karena pemulihan keluarga kerajaan adalah mimpi pipa seperti yang sekarang. Angka-angka kemungkinan akan berubah secara dramatis ketika orang mulai berpikir tentang rincian beton – misalnya, akan keluarga kerajaan memiliki jenis kekuasaan politik? Apakah mereka akan mengambil kembali sebagian dari harta mereka sebelumnya luas seluruh bangsa?

Joseon Modernisasi
 Korea Pertama Eclectic
§ Lampu
Lampu listrik pertama Korea itu menyala di Geoncheonggung itu, Gyeongbokgung Palace pada tahun 1887 [18].


Korea’s first electric lamp by Edison Electric Light Company (Mar., 1887)

  • Newspapers

A newspaper advertisement for Rohan Bank (Mar., 15th, 1898. The Independent)



















Joseon people

Prince Yi Woo (1912-1945) Princess Deokhye






Life of Joseon’s Last Princess Revisite



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Tahun ini menandai peringatan 100 tahun

 aneksasi Jepang terhadap Korea.

 Korban tak bersalah yang tak terhitung jumlahnya dan pejuang heroik yang menderita kekejaman kolonial Jepang diingat pada kesempatan ini, dan begitu juga keluarga naas kerajaan Kerajaan Joseon (1392-1910).

Raja Yeongchin (Putra Mahkota Uimin),

anak ketujuh dari Raja Gojong, dibawa ke Jepang dengan dalih belajar di usia 11 tahun, dan menikah secara wajib Putri Masako Nashimotonomiya. Dia hanya bisa kembali ke Korea lama setelah pembebasan dan hanya ketika dia berada di tahun-tahun terakhirnya.

Putri Deokhye (1912-1989),

 sang putri terakhir dari Kerajaan Joseon, juga salah satu ahli waris kerajaan yang menentukan tapi lupa dalam memori rakyat.
Kisah hidup yang tragis dan tak terhitung nya datang ke dalam sorotan dalam novel baru “Putri Deokhye” yang ditulis oleh Kwon Bi-muda.
Penulis naik terinspirasi untuk menulis tentang nasib sedih setelah ia mengunjungi Pulau Tsushima di mana sang putri lalu menikah Hitungan Jadi Takeyuki, pewaris klan Jadi yang nenek moyangnya telah memerintah pulau untuk waktu yang lama.
Cerita dimulai dengan adegan di mana Bok-sun, pengadilan wanita sang putri, dibantu oleh beberapa aktivis independen Korea, membantu pelarian Deokhye dari rumah sakit jiwa Jepang ke Korea.
Deokhye lahir pada tahun 1912 di Istana Changdeok di Seoul sebagai putri bungsu dari Raja Gojong dan selir. Dia sangat dicintai oleh ayahnya yang berusia 60 tahunan ketika dia lahir.
Ia mendirikan TK Deoksu Palace untuknya di Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong Aula untuk melindunginya dari yang dikirim ke Jepang seperti saudara-saudaranya.
Untuk menyelamatkannya dari skema Jepang untuk memutuskan garis pewaris kerajaan, Raja Gojong memiliki putrinya diam-diam bertunangan dengan Kim Jang-han, keponakan Kim Hwang-jin, seorang bendahara pengadilan.
Tetapi raja tiba-tiba dan tak berdaya curiga meninggal dan dia dibawa ke Jepang dengan alasan untuk melanjutkan studinya.
Di Jepang, putri muda mengalami pengucilan dari kaum bangsawan Jepang dan Count bahkan tanpa sadar menikah Jadi Takeyuki yang sama sekali tidak kuat atau berpengaruh.
Pernikahan ini menunjukkan bahwa royalti Korea jatuh ke tingkat yang sama dengan aristokrasi lokal Jepang dan Japanization dari royalti mantan bawah pengawasan yang ketat, sebagai pemerintah kolonial takut bahwa keluarga kerajaan Joseon bisa menjadi fokus bagi gerakan independen.
Takeyuki bagus dan lembut padanya tapi ia tidak membuka hatinya sebagai kesehatan mentalnya terluka parah oleh kesunyian, dan kerinduan untuk tanah airnya.
Takeyuki adalah seorang penulis dari banyak puisi yang didedikasikan untuk istri dan putrinya Korea dan seorang guru berbakat dan populer.
Meskipun ia sudah berusaha untuk membuat pernikahan yang baik, dia akhirnya mengembangkan penyakit mental dan didiagnosa Tapi “dewasa sebelum waktunya demensia.” Di tengah ini, ia melahirkan seorang putri yang bernama Masae, atau Jeonghye di Korea, pada tahun 1932.
Deokhye bermimpi membawa putrinya kembali ke Korea dan meningkatkan sebagai Korea dia tidak Jepang. Tapi seperti anak itu dewasa, dia menderita krisis identitas – menjadi setengah marah setengah Korea dan Jepang dan memendam terhadap ibunya.
Pada tahun 1945, akhirnya pembebasan datang dan ambisi kekaisaran Jepang hancur. Tapi penderitaan Jeonghye dan trauma mencengkeram Deokhye yang obsesi dengan putrinya semakin kuat.
Suaminya mengirimnya ke sebuah “rumah sakit jiwa” dan putrinya hilang setelah meninggalkan catatan mengisyaratkan ia bunuh diri. Setelah pernikahan yang tidak bahagia, kesedihan meledak dengan kematian putri satu-satunya. Kemudian, kondisinya memburuk, dan akhirnya dia bercerai dengan suaminya pada tahun 1953.
Sementara terjebak di rumah sakit selama 15 tahun, Deokhye menjadi tidak ada, wanita sengsara lupa peduli atau diakui. Tapi anak tunangannya, Jang-han, pergi untuk menyelamatkannya dengan bantuan wanita-wanita menunggu di-, Bok-matahari.
Akhirnya, 37 tahun setelah meninggalkan Korea, ia kembali ke rumah atas undangan pemerintah Korea pada tahun 1962. Dia menangis ketika dia tiba di tanah air nya, dan meskipun kondisi tidak stabil mentalnya, ia secara akurat ingat sopan santun pengadilan.
Sang putri tinggal di Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace dan meninggal di Sugang Balai pada tanggal 21 April 1989, juga di istana.
cerita tentang Deokhye begitu aku mengenalnya. Aku tidak bisa berhenti berpikir tentang putri yang lahir dari klan kerajaan tapi tidak bisa hidup mulia dan dilupakan dalam sejarah, “kata penulis dalam bukunya.
Kwon mengatakan bahwa hanya ada satu buku tentang sang putri yang diterjemahkan dari Jepang ke Korea.
“Pembaca dapat menemukan sang putri yang berusaha keras untuk tidak kehilangan identitas kerajaan dan bangsanya dan mengalami semua penindasan dan penghinaan tapi tidak kehilangan martabat sebagai putri terakhir dari Joseon. Kata-kata terakhir Deokhye itu, ‘saya tidak terjawab saya ibu pertiwi bahkan saat saya berada di negara saya, “mengatakan segalanya,” kata penulis.
“Dia terlalu cerdas dan memendam kerinduan terlarang baginya ibu pertiwi sebagai putri negeri. Sekarang dia adalah seorang wanita lupa dan bahkan bangsanya telah mengabaikan sementara dia menderita di kamar rumah sakit dingin. Siapa yang ingat namanya? “Kata dia.
Penulis menambahkan elemen dramatis untuk beberapa karakter di sekitar sang putri sambil menjaga keseimbangan antara fiksi dan fakta sejarah.
Novel ini tampaknya lebih memilukan karena dia benar-benar hidup seperti kerinduan hidup sengsara untuk negaranya.
Buku ini menduduki puncak daftar terlaris selama empat minggu berturut-turut di toko buku besar, mendorong “1Q84” oleh Haruki Murakami, yang telah berada di atas daftar selama 19 minggu berturut-turut, ke tempat ketiga.
Panjang terlarang untuk umum, permata Changdeokgung Palace baru dibuka menyoroti ke akhir dynastyPhotographs oleh Ryu Seunghoo
Changdeokgung, yang dibangun tahun 1405 sebagai istana sekunder di sebelah timur Gyeongbokgung (Palace), ini terkenal karena arsitektur yang menarik tdk simetris dan Secret Garden, salah satu pengaturan yang paling mempesona di Seoul. Untuk menambah daya tarik, pintu Nakseonjae, suatu senyawa dalam istana kerajaan, dibuka untuk umum untuk pertama kalinya lebih dari sebulan lalu.
Nakseonjae (Mansion of Joy dan Kebaikan) pertama kali dibangun pada tahun 1847 atas perintah Raja Heonjong, raja ke-24 dari Dinasti Joseon (1392-1910) selama empat belas tahun Kim gundik Gyeongbin. Pada saat itu, Raja Heonjong, yang meninggal di dua puluh dua tahun 1849, menikah dengan istri keduanya, Ratu Hon. Rupanya dia tidak tergila-gila dengan dia, karena Nakseonjae dibangun untuk
Selir Kim



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Bangunan-bangunan elegan gamblang tentang Nakseonjae, Seokbokheon dan Sugangjae disusun dari barat ke timur, dan tempat hamba panjang ‘bertindak sebagai dinding, kolektif membentuk daerah Nakseonjae. Gema Diam dan peninggalan sejarah adalah link hanya tersisa antara Korea progresif modern dan Dinasti Joseon mengesankan. Legenda-sarat, mereka memperkenalkan pengunjung untuk kepribadian kerajaan terkemuka yang hidupnya dipenuhi dengan cinta, tragedi dan nostalgia.
Seokbokhyeon dibangun sebagai tempat tinggal untuk Kim Gyeongbin dengan harapan bahwa ia akan menanggung keturunan untuk Raja Heonjong. “Seokbok” menyampaikan bahwa jika ratu memerintah rumahnya tegak, langit akan melimpahkan dia dengan putra mahkota diisi dengan bakti. Tempat tinggal ini karena itu terletak antara Raja Heonjong itu kamar tidur, Nakseonjae, dan kamar tidur neneknya, Sugangjae, agar Kim dapat menunggu pada raja dengan ibunya pada jarak dekat sehingga untuk memenuhi tugasnya dengan baik.
Pagar kayu Seokbokhyeon yang menampilkan ukiran labu melambangkan kemakmuran keturunan itu. Ironisnya, satu-satunya anak Raja Heonjong miliki adalah dengan selir lain, Kim Suk-ui. Anak perempuan ini meninggal di awal tahun.



terus digunakan oleh ratu kemudian dari Dinasti Joseon. Ratu Yun, istri Sunjong, raja terakhir dari Dinasti Joseon, tinggal di Seokbokhyeon sampai kematiannya pada 1966. Edward B. Adams menggambarkan Ratu Yun sebagai “intelektual dan siap” di Istana Seoul: Istana Dinasti Yi di Ibukota Korea. Sebagai ratu masa depan, ia mengambil hanya dua puluh hari untuk belajar tentang protokol pengadilan dan seni feminin tentang bagaimana merayu raja. Cerita tentang penderitaan heroik ia melahirkan selama Perang Korea dan pertempuran kesepian yang dihadapinya dengan 1947 pemerintah Korea untuk menjaga Nakseonjae ketika monarki dihapuskan menggambarkan jiwanya berani dan berani.
Tidak seperti Nakseonjae dan Seokbokhyeon, Sugangjae dihiasi dalam berbagai warna. “Sugang” berarti berunding kebahagiaan dari umur panjang dan kesejahteraan pada rakyat. Tulisan perayaan untuk menyelesaikan kerangka Sugangjae penuh dengan keinginan baik untuk Ratu Sunwon, nenek Raja Heonjeong, yang diberikan urusan negara dari belakang tirai. Pintu gerbang belakang tempat tinggal ini memiliki desain yang mencolok yang menggambarkan anggur ini kerinduan untuk prosperousness.
Putri Deokhye,
 putri bungsu Raja Gojang, raja 26 dari Dinasti Joseon, juga tinggal di Sugangjae.
 Dia dibawa pergi ke Jepang pada tahun 1925 pada usia dua belas, dan dipaksa untuk menikah dengan seorang bangsawan Jepang pada tahun 1928.
Pada tahun 1962
Putri Deokhye diberi izin untuk kembali ke Korea. Setelah menderita depresi, ia menemukan kedamaian di Nakseonjae, di mana ia menghabiskan tahun-tahun yang tersisa sampai 1989.
Dalam otobiografinya, “adalah Dunia Satu,” berhubungan Putri Lee Bang-ja (Masako) bagaimana, sebagai seorang putri Jepang, ia terbangun suatu pagi untuk membaca di koran bahwa dia menikah dengan putra mahkota terakhir dari Korea, Pangeran Lee Eun, yang lebih muda saudara tiri Raja Sunjong. Keinginan Pangeran Lee terbesar adalah untuk kembali ke tanah airnya dan pada tahun 1963 ia menetap di di Nakseonjae dengan keluarganya.
Tragisnya, kembali Pangeran Lee ke Korea terlambat. Dia adalah seorang yang tidak valid dan menghabiskan tujuh tahun berikutnya di rumah sakit. Beberapa jam sebelum kematiannya pada tanggal 1 Mei 1970 Putra Mahkota dibawa ke Nakseonjae. Pada usia delapan puluh dua, Putri Bang-ja masih mempromosikan pendidikan kejuruan di antara cacat fisik negaranya diadopsi. Dia meninggal pada 1989 di Nakseonjae, bangunan terakhir yang digunakan dalam Chandeokgung.
Di taman ke bagian belakang Nakseonjae, paviliun Chwiunjeong dan Sangnyangjeong, dan Hanjeongdang lampiran disusun selaras dengan topografi. Flowerbeds bertingkat menstabilkan lingkungan dan ruang antara teras dan gedung-gedung penuh dengan pot batu, batu berbentuk aneh dan cerobong asap. Banyak buku ditemukan pada tahun 1969 di perempat utara Nakseonjae, di belakang Sangnyangjeong. Tempat ini mungkin di mana penduduk diizinkan untuk membaca buku dan lukisan menarik, yang disimpan di sini.
Menurut Kim Jin-suk, panduan dan penerjemah bahasa Inggris, “membangkitkan Nakseonjae perasaan unik yang tidak dapat dibandingkan dengan sisa Changdeokgung.” Para kepolosan dan kerenikan dari kamar kayu dan kertas dan pola banyak di ubin dinding dan bingkai pintu berbicara tentang era ketika kebaikan adalah kode moral. “Saya menyukai sejarah kerajaan,” tambah Kim. “Ini sangat menarik, namun sedih pada saat yang sama.”
Drama di balik dinding Nakseonjae belum akan berhenti. Kita sekarang bisa bernapas dan menghidupkan kembali lagi








Korea under Japanese rule (1910-1945)










Seoul 1938 (in Color), and Korea 1899



Pictures by Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956)

! Gambar oleh Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956)
! Karya-karya oleh Elizabeth Keith berada di bawah domain publik di Republik Korea (Korea Selatan) karena masa tugasnya hak cipta telah berakhir di sana.
Dikutip dari wikipedia:
Menurut Artikel 39-44 dari Undang-Undang Hak Cipta Republik Korea, di bawah yurisdiksi Pemerintah Republik Korea semua karya cipta memasuki domain publik 50 tahun setelah kematian sang pencipta (karena beberapa pencipta, pencipta yang meninggal terakhir) atau 50 tahun setelah publikasi ketika dipublikasikan atas nama organisasi.

Kehidupan akhir Joseon Putri Deokhye mengungkapkan
Dia lahir kerajaan,
korban sejarah dan meninggal dalam kesunyian – kehilangan negaranya dan kisah hidup sanity.The dari Deokhye (1912 – 1989)
, Sang putri terakhir Dinasti Joseon, adalah tragedi yang mencerminkan nasib celaka monarki terakhir Korea. Lebih dari 20 tahun setelah kematiannya, hidupnya, sekali ditulis dalam sejarah, adalah membuat cerdas dalam berbagai bentuk ,

National Research Institute Warisan Budaya menerbitkan sebuah buku mencatat sekitar 50 potong pakaian dan barang-barang pribadi yang dikenakan oleh Putri, bersama dengan 150 kostum Korea lainnya dari 19-an sampai pertengahan abad 20. Potongan-potongan yang saat ini dimiliki oleh Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum di Tokyo, potongan Japan. dan artefak termasuk pakaian bayi hanbok kerajaan, berdiri berpakaian, banyak pasangan sendok perak, kantong keberuntungan berlapis emas dan sepasang shoes.It hak tinggi adalah Kim Young-sook, seorang sarjana kostum tradisional, yang pertama kali mengidentifikasi bahwa potongan dulu milik Deokhye ketika ia mengunjungi museum Jepang pada tahun 1982 sebagai bagian dari penelitian pribadinya. “Saya mengenali potongan antara tumpukan kostum dikumpulkan lain dari seluruh dunia; staf museum tidak tahu di mana potongan-potongan berasal dari,”

kata Kim The Korea Herald. “Itu luar biasa menarik dan menyentuh untuk melihat pakaian bayi kerajaan bahwa Putri mengenakan sebagai seorang anak. Aku langsung tahu mereka adalah miliknya – mereka bahkan dicocokkan dengan foto dia, “83 tahun sarjana said.Though Kim mempresentasikan temuan-nya di sebuah forum akademik pada tahun 1980 – sementara menginformasikan museum Jepang sama – tidak banyak diperhatikan. Setelah menjaga penelitiannya bersifat pribadi selama lebih dari 25 tahun, Kim akhirnya bertanya Administrasi Warisan Budaya Korea untuk dukungan beberapa tahun yang lalu, secara resmi melaporkan kepada mereka tentang sang putri dan item nya di Bunka Gakuen. Laporan pakaian Deokhye dan barang-barang adalah hasil kolaborasi dua tahun bersama antara Kim dan pemerintah.




okDeokhye muda,

Putri terakhir Dinasti Joseon,

berpose dengan pakaian Kimono.

Dia terpaksa meninggalkan Joseon untuk Jepang pada usia 12.tahun

kehidupan Najin dan perluasan penindasan dari Korea
pada saat yang sama. Kekristenan berkembang populer di Korea, jadi Najin bisa pergi ke salah satu sekolah misi dan menerima pendidikan yang langka di zamannya. Dia menghindari pernikahan dini, di mana ayahnya telah memutuskan tanpa izin, dengan mencari tempat di istana kerajaan
sebagai pendamping untuk Putri Deokhye
dan dengan terus pendidikan di waktu yang sama. Sang putri memiliki kepribadian melankolis dan Najin cerah hidupnya dimanja dan terlindung. Saudara Deokhye itu, Putra Mahkota Eun Yi (Euimin) telah dikirim ke Jepang ketika dia hanya 10 tahun, diduga untuk studinya.
Menurut Donald Keene di Kaisar Jepang: Meiji dan World Nya 1952-1912,
“Meskipun dia tidak pernah begitu dijelaskan, sang pangeran menjabat sebagai sandera [untuk Jepang], sebagai Kaisar Korea direalisasikan.”
Putri Deokhye juga dikirim ke Jepang melawan keinginannya untuk menikah dengan Jepang, setelah Korea kaisar meninggal secara misterius.
Sebuah puncak upacara (dangui) dikenakan oleh Putri Deokhye sebagai anak dan baru ditemukan di Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum di Jepang / Courtesy of National Research Institute Warisan Budaya
Setelah sang putri meninggalkan istana, Najin kembali ke rumah.
Pada titik ini penindasan terhadap warga Korea yang meningkat ketika penjara dan pajak meningkat dan koran Korea dihentikan. Semua warga negara Korea harus berbicara bahasa Jepang.
Pada tahun 1943,
pemerintah militer Jepang mengirim ratusan ribu warga Korea ke Jepang sebagai calon tentara atau sebagai buruh di pertambangan dan perusahaan, ditambah ribuan wanita muda dibawa ke tumbuh ke depan perang di Asia untuk mengikuti pasukan Sebagai sejarawan sebagai “wanita penghibur.” Andrew C Nahm berhubungan, “berubah Korea banyak selama periode ini, tetapi nasionalisme Korea tidak berkurang dan keinginan untuk bebas dari penjajahan Jepang tetap bertahan.”
Dasan Buku
“Saya menghargai bantuan mereka sangat banyak,” kata Kim. “Itu tidak akan mungkin terjadi dengan anggaran yang terbatas dan sumber daya. Pekerjaan telah sangat berarti. “Park Dae-nam,
peneliti senior dari National Research Institute Warisan Budaya, mengatakan barang-barang milik Putri diyakini telah disumbangkan oleh saudara tiri nya, Imperial Putra Mahkota Uimin, dan istrinya Putri Mahkota Yi Bangja. “Diharapkan pasangan kerajaan menderita secara finansial,” kata Park The Korea Herald. “Mereka bahkan menyumbangkan buah kerajaan sendiri mereka pakaian ke
Museum Nasiona Tokyo



Princess Deokhye’s infant hanbok jeogori (bottom) and dressing stand are currently owned by Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan.


Pakainan Bayi  Putri Deokhye hanbok jeogori (bawah) dan barang yang berdiri saat ini dimiliki oleh Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum di Jepang

Selain dari laporan yang diterbitkan,
Kim Young-sook telah mempersiapkan sebuah buku non-fiksi sendiri,
dikumpulkan dari  semua  penelitian pribadinya secara luas tentang Princess Deokhye.

Buku ini akan mencakup puisi dan lagu yang Putri tulis saat dia bersekolah di Tokyo, yang Kim diperoleh selama melakukan penelitian yang panjang di Jepang. “Putri Deokhye sangat hebat dalam bidang menulis – dia adalah seorang mahasiswa yang sangat cerdas,” kata Kim The Korea Herald. “Sebagian besar potongan nya sekitar negara asalnya dan istana kerajaan, dan betapa ia merindukan mereka,” added.Last dia tahun, “Putri Deokhye,”




Bagian dalam Seokjojeon dapat dilihat di atas kiri, dengan Putra Mahkota Yeongchin, Sunjong, Gojong, Eombi (salah satu istri Gojong) dan Putri Deokhye, duduk dari kiri ke kanan. Diperoleh dari perpustakaan  Universitas Myongji




bagian pertama dari fiksi yang pernah ditulis pada mendiang Putri, diterbitkan pada 14 Desember.
Novel historis telah melakukan dengan sangat baik, menjual lebih dari 500.000 kopi dalam delapan bulan terakhir. Itu adalah peringkat sebagai buku terlaris teratas di setiap toko buku kembali diakui pada bulan Januari.

“Bagian penelitian sangat sulit karena ada hampir nol sumber daya yang tersedia,” kata Kwon Bi-muda, penulis buku, The Korea Herald. “Saya senang bahwa informasi lebih lanjut tentang Putri sedang dirilis. Pada saat yang sama, meskipun, saya masih sedih dengan kehidupan yang Deokhye harus hidup “Putri Deokhye lahir pada tahun 1912.,
dua tahun setelah Joseon dianeksasi oleh Jepang. Dipuja dan sangat menyayanginya oleh ayahnya, Kaisar Gojong, putri bungsu dari keluarga kerajaan menghadiri TK di Deoksu Palace, didirikan khusus untuk dia. Pada usia 12, namun hanya enam tahun setelah kematian Gojong itu, Deokhye dibawa ke Jepang dan bersekolah di Tokyo. Di sana, dia menderita bullying dan usia differences.At budaya 19,
ia dipaksa menikah Hitungan Jepang Jadi Takeyuki. Sementara yang menderita penyakit mental dan pernikahan yang tidak bahagia, ia melahirkan putrinya, Masae, pada tahun 1932. Kehidupan sang putri mengambil lagi gilirannya tragis ketika putrinya hilang, dan kondisi kesehatannya memburuk. Dia dikirim ke rumah sakit jiwa, dan akhirnya bercerai dengan suaminya di 1953.She kembali ke Korea atas undangan pemerintah Chung-hee Park di tahun 1962.



Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung


Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung Palace
Nakseonjae was the residence of Princess Deokhye and Yi Bang-ja, queen of King Yeong until she passed away in 1989


Nakseonjae di Istana Changdeokgung
Nakseonjae adalah kediaman Putri Deokhye dan Yi Bang-ja, ratu dari Raja Yeong sampai dia meninggal pada tahun 1989

Deokhye memimpin hidup terisolasi di Nakseon Hall,
Changdeok Palace, sampai low-profile kematiannya pada tahun 1989
Putri deukhye dan takeyuki , 1931.JPG





Coronation of Korea’s new empress leads to royal family controversy

[IHT] 입력 2006.10.22 20:23 / 수정 2006.10.23 20:09

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Yi Hae-won, who was recently restored as the new empress of Korea. By Choi Jae-young

Penobatan Pemaisuri Korea Yang baru Menimbulkan Kontraversi dalam Kelaurga Kerajaan
입력 2006/10/22 20:23 / 수정 2006/10/23 20:09
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Yi Hae-won, yang baru-baru dikembalikan sebagai permaisuri baru dari Korea. Oleh Choi Jae-muda
Penobatan Korea “baru permaisuri” pada 29 September disampaikan oleh pendukung-nya sebagai alat untuk mempersatukan keturunan kerajaan menyebar di seluruh negeri dan Apa hal itu bukan adalah untuk mengatur anggota keluarga terhadap satu sama lain karena mereka “berbicara dalam satu suara.” sengketa tidak hanya garis keturunan tetapi juga legitimasi dari organisasi swasta yang bernama Yi Hae-won sebagai permaisuri dari Korea Selatan.
Pertemuan Ms Yi sendiri cukup latihan. Pada hari pertemuan, juru bicara dari Asosiasi Keluarga Kekaisaran Daehanjeguk (Kekaisaran Korea) ditunda wawancara selama dua jam, di sebuah tempat tersebut Harian JoongAng diminta untuk tidak mengungkapkan “untuk alasan keamanan,” dan reporter memiliki menunggu dua jam sampai permaisuri tiba. The 88-tahun hanya sekitar 1,3 meter (4 kaki, 3 inci) dan sedikit bungkuk, tapi wanita kecil di hijau hanbok giok tampak tenang dan ulet.
Setelah Ms Yi tiba dan duduk untuk wawancara, organisasi juru bicara Lee Seong-joo meminta wartawan dan beberapa pria yang menemaninya untuk tunduk pada empat kali, membungkuk dari pinggang untuk membuat hampir sudut kanan. “Itu cara yang tepat untuk menyapa seorang permaisuri di kerajaan adat,” katanya. Orang-orang lain di ruangan itu semua diklaim sebagai klan Lee, seperti kaisar pertama dari dinasti Joseon. (Yi dan Lee adalah ejaan berbeda dari nama keluarga yang sama.) Orang-orang tinggal sepanjang wawancara singkat, menyela dan menjawab pertanyaan yang ditujukan kepada Ibu Yi, seperti yang dilakukan juru bicara itu.
“Saya yang sah, tidak peduli siapa mengatakan apa,” kata permaisuri, mengacu pada oposisi terhadap gugatan, terutama dari Jeonju Lee Kerajaan Anggota Family Foundation



Yi Won, front, and Yi Seok, back, at the funeral of Yi Ku on July 24, 2005. By Choi Jae-young

Yi Won, depan, dan Yi Seok, punggung, di pemakaman Yi Ku pada tanggal 24 Juli 2005. Oleh Choi Jae-Young

Dia mengatakan adalah anak tertua dari Pangeran Uichin (1877-1955), putra kelima dari Kaisar Gojong (1852-1919). Catatan resmi menunjukkan bahwa Pangeran Uichin ayah 12 putra dan sembilan putri.
“Saya lahir ke istri disetujui Pangeran Uichin,” lanjut Ms Yi, “Aku akan mengembalikan budaya kekaisaran.”
Tanggal 10 orang anak, adik Ibu Yi Yi Seok, berpikir adiknya dibujuk untuk mengambil judul oleh sekelompok anggota keluarga Lee karena hidup sulit itu.
Setelah pembebasan Korea dari Jepang, pemerintah baru dinasionalisasi nasib kerajaan dan menggulingkan keluarga dari istana. Ibu Yi mengangkat tiga putra dan seorang putri sendirian setelah suaminya diculik dan dibawa ke Utara selama Perang Korea. Dia bilang dia tidak tahu apakah suaminya masih hidup, dan putrinya meninggal pada usia 47 tahun. Dua orang putranya tinggal di Amerika Serikat, di mana dia juga tinggal selama 10 tahun sampai 2002. Sejak itu, Ms Yi, yang menghabiskan 15 tahun pertamanya di istana, telah tinggal di 13,2 meter persegi (142 kaki persegi) ruang di Hanam, Gyeonggi provinsi, dengan anaknya yang kedua.




Top of Form

Ratu Yi Hae-won pernikahan di 19 sampai Lee Seung-gyu. Diperoleh dari Keluarga Kekaisaran Asosiasi Daehanjeguk

“Saya tidak keberatan jika adikku [Yi Hae-won] mengambil kursi permaisuri atau tidak,” kata Yi Seok. “Namun, anggota keluarga dalam garis langsung tidak menyetujui seperti upacara. Saya diundang untuk penobatan, tapi saya tidak hadir karena saya tidak tahu siapa [anggota asosiasi tersebut]. ”
Apa yang dia lakukan pikiran, dan apa terangsang beberapa kontroversi dalam masyarakat Korea, adalah cara Nn Yi bernama permaisuri. Tidak ada diskusi publik sebelumnya tentang status sebuah kerajaan atau keluarga kekaisaran di Korea, meskipun jajak pendapat Agustus oleh Realmeter, sebuah perusahaan riset, aku masih juga bertanya apa yang orang Korea berpikir tentang memiliki keluarga kerajaan simbolis. Dari 460 warga Korea berusia 19 atau lebih tua yang disurvei, hanya di bawah 55 persen yang mendukung gagasan itu.
“Harus sudah terlebih dahulu menjadi diskusi yang cukup untuk mendapatkan persetujuan masyarakat,” kata Yi Seok. “Ketika saya memberikan kuliah tentang sejarah keluarga kerajaan Korea, saya melihat banyak orang yang kehilangan kekaisaran.” Dia menambahkan, “Saya berencana untuk mengumpulkan tanda tangan dari orang dan jika lebih dari 1 juta ingin mengembalikan kerajaan, bahkan meskipun itu hanya simbolis, saya akan menyajikan daftar itu kepada Presiden dan meminta dia untuk mengembalikan budaya kekaisaran dan memungkinkan beberapa keturunan tinggal di istana Gyeongbok atau Changdeok. ”
Anggota Keluarga Jeonju Lee Anggota Kerajaan Foundation mengatakan keluarga telah terpilih yang harus berhasil Yi Ku terlambat, pewaris langsung terakhir ke tahta dan anak dari Putra Mahkota Yeongchin, anak ketujuh dari Kaisar Gojong.
“[Memiliki permaisuri] tidak masuk akal sama sekali,” kata Lee Jeong-jae, seorang pejabat dari yayasan, dengan kemarahan yang jelas. “Ketika Yi Ku meninggal dunia pada bulan Juli tahun lalu, kami memilih Yi Won sebagai penggantinya,” katanya. Yi Won adalah putra dari Yi Chung-gil, putra kesembilan yang bertahan dari Pangeran Uichin. “Seperti [restorasi] upacara hanya akan membingungkan rakyat Korea,” tambah Lee Yong-kyu, wakil ketua yayasan. “Korea adalah bukan monarki konstitusional, peran keturunan kerajaan terbatas pada bahwa dari seorang imam dan peran wasit yang berkuasa telah dihapus sejak lama,” katanya. Di custom Konghucu, seorang wanita tidak dapat memimpin sebuah ritual untuk menghormati leluhur.

“Keturunan langsung dari kekaisaran mengadakan pertemuan keluarga tepat setelah berita bahwa Yi Ku meninggal dunia, dan memutuskan untuk memiliki Yi Won masuk dalam daftar keluarga Yi Ku sebagai anak,” kata wakil ketua. “Kami hanya mengikuti keputusan mereka.”
Pertemuan keluarga itu sendiri kontroversial. Wakil ketua mengatakan bahwa baik Ms Yi dan adiknya, anggota keluarga kekaisaran, menghadiri pertemuan tersebut. Yi Seok dan Yi Hae-won, bagaimanapun, mengatakan kepada JoongAng Daily bahwa bukan saja mereka tidak pada pertemuan tersebut, mereka bahkan tidak menyadarinya. “Mengadopsi anak setelah kematian tidak masuk akal,” kata Yi Seok marah melalui telepon.
“Saya mendengar bahwa Putri Mahkota Yi Bang-ja [istri dari Putra Mahkota Yeongchin] menulis surat wasiat sebelum meninggal, dan di dalamnya dia menamakan saya sebagai penerus pertama,” tambahnya. Dia kata Kim Sang-Ryeol, yang dekat dengan Crown Princess, adalah dalam kepemilikan yang akan. Kim, bagaimanapun, menolak untuk mengkonfirmasi apa yang akan berisi, tapi mengatakan ia berencana untuk mengungkapkan isinya ke suatu hari nanti publik.
Ditambahkan ke semua pertikaian ini, legitimasi mereka menyebut diri mereka Asosiasi Keluarga Kekaisaran Daehanjeguk tidak jelas. Meskipun anggotanya mengatakan bahwa mereka adalah kerabat dekat keluarga kerajaan, mereka tidak tercantum dalam catatan keluarga langsung kekaisaran.
Asosiasi ini sedang mempersiapkan tempat tinggal dan kantor untuk Ms Yi dalam sebuah bangunan dekat Seoul Station, menggunakan dua lantai dengan luas total sekitar 396 meter persegi. Juru bicara itu mengatakan bahwa pemilik bangunan juga merupakan anggota organisasi, dan mendukung Kekaisaran Korea.
“Kami tidak meminta pemerintah untuk mendukung keuangan kita. Kami akan mengumpulkan dana dari para pendukung keluarga kerajaan, “kata Mr Lee. “Tapi sebagai permaisuri sudah tua, kita tidak punya banyak waktu untuk mengembalikan tradisi kerajaan dan legitimasi, yang akan memberikan kontribusi pada perkembangan sejarah Korea dan budaya,” tambahnya.
Kata-kata terakhir permaisuri berbicara selama wawancara hanya ditambahkan ke pertanyaan orang mungkin memiliki sekitar asosiasi. “Mereka memperlakukan saya seperti boneka,” katanya sambil mengambil cuti nya.

Akar dari perseteruan keluarga saat ini kembali ke zaman kaisar Gojong, yang kehilangan kekuasaan diplomatik pada tahun 1905 oleh Jepang sebelum dijajah Korea pada 1910. Kaisar Gojong memiliki sembilan putra dan empat putri, tetapi hanya empat hidup cukup lama untuk menikah: Kaisar Sunjong, Pangeran Uichin, Putra Mahkota dan Putri Yeongchin Deokhye. Pangeran Uichin sebagai anak tertua kedua, adalah di baris berikutnya, tetapi karena ia berpartisipasi dalam gerakan kemerdekaan Korea, pemerintah Jepang memaksa Kaisar Sunjong, yang tidak memiliki anak, untuk meninggalkan judul untuk Pangeran Yeongchin.
Ito Hirobumi, jenderal penduduk selama dinasti Joseon, mengambil putra mahkota ke Jepang pada usia 11 untuk dididik sana, di mana dia menikah dengan Masako Nashimotonomiya, lebih dikenal sebagai Putri Mahkota Yi Bang-ja, yang adalah anggota Jepang keluarga kerajaan. Sang putri mahkota, yang seorang kandidat untuk menjadi permaisuri Jepang, bercerita dalam otobiografinya bahwa ia telah dipilih sebagai istri Pangeran Yeongchin dalam upaya untuk mengakhiri garis Joseon kerajaan, sebagai dokter Jepang telah didiagnosa dia sebagai subur. Namun, ia melahirkan dua putra, Jin dan Ku. Jin meninggal pada usia delapan bulan, meninggalkan Ku, sebagai anak hanya bertahan dari putra mahkota terakhir, di jalur utama keturunan.
Yi Ku, yang lulus dari Institut Teknologi Massachusetts dan menikahi seorang Amerika Julia Mullock, tidak punya anak. Dia meninggal tahun lalu di sebuah kamar hotel di Jepang, tanpa meninggalkan pengganti yang jelas.
Seni Fotografi











Eight of Prince Uichin’s children , his first wife, Kim Deok-soo, center front, and two court ladies behind her. Second from the right is Yi Hae-won. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk


Prince Uichin. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk

The Last Princess Deokhye Of Korea Art Photography







 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM





Emperor Gojong

Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th king of the Joseon Dynasty, King Gojong,

moved into the palace in 1897,

where he proclaimed the Great Korean Empire in an effort to assert the nation’s independence from China, Japan, and Russia. However, rather than actually strengthening the nation’s military, Emperor Gojong (1852-1919) would instead spend much of his time and energy renovating and expanding this palace.

He resided here until abdication to his son, Emperor Sunjong, in 1907, when the palace was renamed Doeksugung. When the Japanese occupation began in 1910, Emperor Gojong was placed under house arrest in Doeksugung, where he eventually died in 1919.

Emperor Gwangmu

We go back four generations because the demise of Korea’s royal family arguably starts in 1907. While Korea officially disappeared in 1910, in practicality Korea lost is sovereignty in 1905, when the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905 was entered into. Under the treaty, Korea became Japan’s “protectorate,” and lost the ability to conduct its own foreign affairs. A governor from Japan was sent to Korea to conduct Korea’s foreign affairs instead. It goes without saying that the treaty was not entered into in a fair manner — dozens of armed Japanese soldiers were staring down the emperor and the officials when the treaty was signed.

Emperor Gwangmu

Emperor Gwangmu (also known as Gojong) of Korea could plainly see where this was going. Although the 1905 Treaty stripped his ability to conduct foreign affairs, the emperor sent secret envoys to 17 major powers, including United Kingdom, France and Germany, to protest the forcible signing of the 1905 Treaty. The highlight of this effort was in 1907, when three Korean envoys were sent to the Second International Peace Convention at the Hague. Although Japan froze out the envoys from attending the convention, Yi Wi-Jong, one of the three envoys, managed to give a speech imploring for help in a separate conference. (The speech fell on deaf ears.)

The three secret envoys to the Hague: 
Yi Sang-Seol, Yi Joon, Yi Wi-Jong

Although the emperor’s efforts did not create any result, Imperial Japan did not take kindly to Emperor Gwangmu’s extracurricular activity, and demanded that he abdicate his throne. The emperor acquiesced, giving way to his son, Emperor Yunghui (also known as Soonjong) — who would become the last emperor of Korean Empire.  Former Emperor Gwangmu died in 1919. Although this is not certain, there are ample indications that he was poisoned.

More after the jump.

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Second Generation:  Emperor Yunghui, King Euichin, King Yeongchin, Princess Deokhye

Emperor Gwangmu had 13 children, but only four survived into adulthood — three sons and a daughter. And they were survivors in the truest sense. Even as the empire was in precipitous decline, the palace intrigue did not stop. Emperor Gwangmu’s oldest son, born from his third wife, is rumored to have been poisoned by Empress Myeongseong, the emperor’s main wife. The second son, born from Empress Myeongseong, died young. The Emperor’s father may have poisoned him. The crown prince — the third son who would become Emperor Yunghui– was also poisoned in his youth, but barely survived. It was rumored that because of the lingering effects of the poisoning, the crown prince did not have full mental capacity.

The last royal family. From the left: King Euichin, Emperor Yunghui, 
King Yeongchin, Emperor Gwangmu, with Princess Deokhye in front

In 1910, Emperor Yunghui signed over his empire to Imperial Japan, ending the 600-year dynasty headed by his family. Emperor Yunghui was demoted to a king, subordinate to the Japanese emperor. Korea’s royal family as a whole became Japanese nobility. The policy of Imperial Japan toward Korea’s royal family was clear: the royal family will be either assimilated or killed. The first to go was the Emperor Gwangmu, as described above. Emperor Yunghui did not last much longer — he died in 1926, at age 53.

Perhaps the most interesting figure in this drama is Yi Gang (also known as King Euichin,) second surviving son of Gwangmu. Yi Gang studied in Roanoke College in Virginia and was an officer of Korean imperial military when his older brother signed over the empire. Yi Gang silently assisted Korea’s independence movement, signing petitions and sending funds to support Korean independence fighters and schools. He attempted to flee Korea and join the provisional government in Shanghai, but was arrested in the process and lost his nobility status. Since then, he evaded Imperial Japan’s surveillance by engaging in profuse boozing and whoring while continuing to support the independence movement. During the course of his independence movement, he expressed that he would abdicate his royal status and submit to the rule of the democratic government. He led a quiet life after the independence, and died in 1955 at age 79.

Emperor Yunghui died without a son, and King Euichin was not favored by the Japanese because of his involvement in Korea’s independence movement. Therefore, Gwangmu’s youngest surviving son, King Yeongchin, succeeded the throne. Yi Eun, also known as King Yeongchin, was born in 1897. At age ten, he was taken to Japan to “study” under the patronage of the Japanese governor of Korea — essentially being held as a hostage. As the contemporary Japanese nobility did, Yi Eun was forced to attend the military academy. He became an officer of the Japanese military, and was forced to married Nashimotonomiya Masako, a member of the Japanese royal family. He became the king of Korea after his father died in 1926, but only visited Korea briefly to accept the crown. He became a general of the Japanese army in 1938. He would see the end of World War II in Japan.

Young Yi Eun with his Japanese “patron,”
Governor-General Ito Hirobumi
After the war, Yi Eun lost his nobility status, which pushed his family into dire poverty. He would scrape by with the financial help from the very few remaining Korean royalists. His wife also had to work, notwithstanding her royal family status. He attempted to return to Korea, but was rebuffed — that he served in the Japanese military and married a Japanese royal family did not play well with the newly established Korean government. He suffered a stroke in 1961 in Hawaii while visiting his son; he was allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lived in the Changdeok Palace with his aunt. He passed away in 1970.
It is a cruel irony of history that the only person who came out of this drama with a shred of dignity was Yi Eun’s wife, Masako. After returning to Korea in 1963, she changed her name to a Korean-style name Yi Bang-Ja and focused her energy on charity work, establishing schools for children with disabilities despite living off the meager government pension. She received numerous medals and awards for her volunteer work. She passed away in 1989.

Princess Deokhye, Gwangmu’s youngest daughter who was born in 1912, is probably the most tragic figure. She was forcibly moved to Japan and attended a university, where she developed schizophrenia. In 1931, she married a Japanese nobleman in an arranged marriage, and had a daughter. She survived the war, but lost her only daughter in the process. She was abandoned by her husband in 1953 as her schizophrenia worsened. For the next nine years, she would go from mental hospital to mental hospital in Japan. Korean government heard about her in 1962. and President Park Chung-Hee passed the law providing for pension for the former royal family in response. Princess Deokhye returned to Korea, and lived in Changdeok Palace until 1989 when she passed away.

Third and Fourth Generations: Yi Gu and King Euichin’s 21 Children

Yi Eun and Masako had two sons, but the older son died at less than one year old. The last official crown prince of Korean royal family is Yi Gu, born in 1931. He had spent his entire life in Japan, and he worked as a clerk for a company in Tokyo after World War II. In 1953, he moved abroad to study in MIT, and met his future wife — a white American woman named Julia Murlock. Yi Gu married Murlock in 1959 in New York, and he worked for the architectural company of I.M. Pei.

He was also allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lectured architecture in universities. But he could not adjust to the life in Korea. Although Korea was no longer a monarchy, the Jeonju Yi (Lee) lineage society took (and still takes) its royal family line very, very seriously. Yi Gu received pressure as a crown prince within his family, and that he married a white woman who could not get pregnant only intensified the pressure. Yi Gu separated from Murlock in 1977, and returned to Japan in 1979. He would visit Korea from time to time, but refused to settle down in Korea. He died alone in 2005 in a hotel in Tokyo; apparently Yi Gu favored the hotel because it overlooked his old birthplace. He was buried in a royal garb; his funeral was attended by the prime minister of Korea (equivalent to American vice president) and 1,000 people.

Yi Gu’s funeral

This means that the only surviving royal family in Korea are the descendants of King Euichin, the rebel prince. Remarkably, he had 12 sons and 9 daughters from 13 different women — as far as we know. Fate was not kind to them either. For example, Yi Geon, the oldest son of King Euichin, became a naturalized Japanese citizen in 1947 and severed his ties with Korea completely. Reportedly, before he naturalized, he brought all of his (step-)brothers and sisters together and asked them all to forget about the fact that they belong to the royal family. He died in 1991. Yi Wu, the second son, died in Hiroshima as the officer of the Japanese military when the city was hit by the nuclear bomb. The rest scattered into Korea and America, and led more or less unremarkable lives. Out of the 21 children of King Euichin, ten (four sons, six daughters) are still alive. They live in Korea, New York, Los Angeles and San Jose. After Yi Gu passed away, the Jeonju Yi lineage society established the son of King Euichin’s ninth son to be the crown prince — a man named Yi Sang-Hyup, 50 years old.

*                *               *
What do contemporary Koreans think about the royal family? Yi Gu’s death in 2005 served as a reminder to Korean people that Korea in fact had a royal family. This acted as a catalyst for the royal family fad in Korea. In a survey conducted in 2006, 54.4% was in favor of “restoring the royal family,” although no one in Korea is quite sure what that means. In a survey conducted in 2010, the number dropped significantly to 40.4% in favor, but still outpaced the 23.4% against. But it would be wise not to put too much stock in those numbers, because the restoration of the royal family is a pipe dream as of now. The numbers will likely change dramatically when people start thinking about the concrete details — for example, will the royal family have any kind of political power? Will they take back any part of their formerly vast property around the nation?

Junghwajeon, the throne hall of Deoksugung Palace. The building burned during the great fire of 1904, and was completely rebuilt in 1906.

  The royal throne inside Junghwajeon. Behind the throne is a screen painting that features five mountain peaks, the sun, and the moon. The painting reinforces the idea that the king is central to the connections between the heaven and the earth and creating a balanced universe. Gilt dragons in the roof above the throne in Junghwajeon. Screens on the windows of Junghwajeon. The back side of Junghwajeon. Junmyeongdang on the left and Jeukjodang on the right. Junmyeongdang was used as a kindergarten for Princess Deokhye (1912-1989). Both buildings were destroyed in a fire in 1904 and rebuilt by Emperor Gojong.
  Seogeodang was the only two story building in Doeksugung Palace until the construction of Seokjojeon. The original Seogeodang building was used as the residence of King Seonjo (1552-1608, reigned 1567-1608) for 16 years following the Japanese invasion of 1592. It is one of the least decorated building in any Korean royal palace, and was intentionally kept that way to remind the kings of the sacrifices suffered by King Seonjo. Deokhongjeon was used as a reception hall for guests of the royal household. Like many other buildings, it burned in 1904 and was only rebuilt in 1911. A gate in one of the interior walls inside Deoksugung Palace. Details on ceiling tiles and support beams above a gate inside the palace. A gnarled old tree.
  Chimneys that vent the underfloor ondol house heating systems in the palace buildings. Hamnyeongjeon, the building where Emperor Gojong lived until his death in 1919. Unlike most traditional Korean buildings, Hamnyeongjeon was L-shaped. Like most of the other palace buildings, it was burned in the 1904 fire and rebuilt soon after. Seokjojeon is a large, three-story stone building built in a western style by Emperor Gojong and used to receive foreign envoys. Construction on the building began in 1900 and was completed in 1909. Following liberation from the Japanese in 1945, Seokjojeon was used by the US-USSR Joint Commission before the country’s partition into two separate governments. The building was later was used to house both the National Museum and then the Royal Museum before they were moved to other locations. Today, it houses government records offices and is not open to the public.     These are the remnants of Borugak Jagyeongnu, one of the world’s oldest water clocks. Water flowed from basin to basin in such a precise way as to be able to strike a bell on the hour. It was built in 1434 during the reign of King Sejong (1397-1450, reigned 1418-1450), and was fine-tuned in 1536 during the reign of King Jungjong (1488-1544, reigned 1506-1544). The water clock was used at night, when sundials were not available.
  This large bell was originally in the Heungcheonsa Temple in Seoul, one of the temples favored by Joseon Dynasty royalty, and was used in Buddhist religious ceremonies. The bell was cast in 1462.
  The Singijeon carriage is the world’s oldest multi-rocket launcher for which original schematics remain intact. Each tube in the carriage could launch a rocket, and all the rockets were launched at the same time. The first Singijeon was made by Choe Museon in 1377, who independently invented gunpowder from indigenous materials after being frustrated by efforts of the Chinese to keep it a secret.
  At noon, the palace has a changing of the guards ceremony at Daehanmun Gate. Ceremonial palace guards just inside Daehanmun, the main gate into Doeksugung Palace. The weapons these guards are carrying are probably not very dangerous. A traditional martial band is marching across the wide sidewalk in front of the gate. Across the street is Seoul Plaza, and in the background are some of the modern office buildings of downtown Seoul.
  The band, marching by a Dunkin’ Donuts store.


Joseon’s Modernization

  • Korea’s First Electic Lamp

Korea’s first electric lamp was lighted in the Geoncheonggung, Gyeongbokgung palace in 1887[18].

Korea's first electric lamp by Edison Electric Light Company (Mar., 1887)
Korea’s first electric lamp by Edison Electric Light Company (Mar., 1887)
  • Newspapers
A newspaper advertisement for Rohan Bank (Mar., 15th, 1898. The Independent)
A newspaper advertisement for Rohan Bank (Mar., 15th, 1898. The Independent)

Joseon people

Last_Prince_of_Joseon.jpg Prince_Yi_Woo.jpg Last_Princess_of_Joseon.jpg
Prince Yi Woo (1912-1945) Princess Deokhye
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Life of Joseon’s Last Princess Revisited This year marks the 100th anniversary of Japan’s annexation of Korea. Countless innocent victims and heroic fighters who suffered Japanese colonial atrocities are remembered on this occasion, and so is the ill-fated royal family of the Joseon Kingdom (1392-1910).King Yeongchin (Crown Prince Uimin), the seventh son of King Gojong, was taken to Japan on the pretext of studying at the age of 11, and obligatorily married Princess Nashimotonomiya Masako. He was only able to return to Korea long after the liberation and only when he was in his later years.

Princess Deokhye (1912-1989), the last princess of the Joseon Kingdom, was also one of the fateful royal heirs but forgotten in the people’s memory.

Her tragic and untold life story comes into the spotlight in the new novel “Princess Deokhye” written by Kwon Bi-young.

The rising author was inspired to write about her sad fate after she visited Tsushima Island where the last princess married Count So Takeyuki, the heir to the So clan whose ancestors had ruled the island for a long time.

The story begins with a scene in which Bok-sun, the princess’ court lady, assisted by some Korean independent activists, helped Deokhye escape from a Japanese mental hospital to Korea.

Deokhye was born in 1912 in Changdeok Palace in Seoul as the youngest daughter of King Gojong and his concubine. She was particularly beloved by her father who was in his 60s when she was born.

He established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong Hall in order to protect her from being sent to Japan like her brothers.

To save her from the Japanese scheme to sever the line of royal heirs, King Gojong had his daughter secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwang-jin, a court chamberlain.

But the powerless king suddenly and suspiciously died and she was taken to Japan with the excuse of continuing her studies.

In Japan, the young princess suffered ostracism from the Japanese nobility and even involuntarily married Count So Takeyuki who was by no means powerful or influential.

The marriage demonstrates that Korean royalty fell to the same level as the local Japanese aristocracy and the Japanization of the ex-royalty under close supervision, as the colonial government was afraid that the Joseon royal family could become a focus for the independent movement.

Takeyuki was nice and gentle to her but she didn’t open her heart as her mental health was seriously hurt by the solitude, and the homesickness for her homeland.

Takeyuki was an author of numerous poems dedicated to his Korean wife and their daughter and a gifted and popular teacher.

Despite his efforts to make a good marriage, she finally developed a mental illness and was diagnosed with “precocious dementia.” But amid this, she gave birth to a daughter who was named Masae, or Jeonghye in Korean, in 1932.

Deokhye dreamed of bringing her daughter back to Korea and raising her as Korean not Japanese. But as the daughter grew up, she suffered from an identity crisis ― being half Korean and half Japanese and harbored anger against her mother.

In 1945, finally the liberation came and Japan’s imperial ambitions were shattered. But Jeonghye’s agony and trauma gripped Deokhye whose obsession with her daughter grew stronger.

Her husband sent her to a “mental hospital” and her daughter went missing after leaving a note hinting she committed suicide. After an unhappy marriage, her grief exploded with the death of her only daughter. Then, her condition deteriorated, and she finally divorced her husband in 1953.

While trapped in the hospital for 15 years, Deokhye became a miserable, forgotten woman nobody cared about or recognized. But her childhood fiance, Jang-han, went to save her with help of her lady-in-waiting, Bok-sun.

At last, 37 years after leaving Korea, she returned home at the invitation of the Korean government in 1962. She cried when she arrived in her motherland, and despite her unstable mental condition, she accurately remembered court manners.

The princess lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace and died in Sugang Hall on April 21, 1989, also in the palace. 

the story about Deokhye once I knew her. I couldn’t stop thinking about the princess who was born to a royal clan but couldn’t live a noble life and was forgotten in history,” the author says in her book.

Kwon said that there is only one book about the princess that was translated from Japanese into Korean.

“Readers can find the princess who struggled not to lose her royal identity and her nation and endured all the repression and humiliation but didn’t lose her dignity as the last princess of Joseon. Deokhye’s last words, ‘I missed my motherland even while I was in my country,’ say everything,” the author said.

“She was too smart and harbored a forbidden longing for her motherland as the princess of the country. Now she is a forgotten woman and even her nation had neglected her while she suffered in the cold hospital room. Who remembers her name?” she said.

The writer adds dramatic elements to some characters around the princess while keeping a balance between fiction and historical facts.

The novel seems to be more tear-jerking because she actually lived such a miserable life longing for her country.

The book has topped the best-selling list for four consecutive weeks in major bookstores, pushing “1Q84”by Haruki Murakami, which had been on the top of the list for 19 consecutive weeks, to the third spot.

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Here is what Yi royal clan used to owned in Japan.
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Reliving Korea’s Last Royalty at Nakseonjae

Long off limits to the public, Changdeokgung Palace’s recently opened gem sheds light onto end of a dynastyPhotographs by Ryu SeunghooChangdeokgung, which was built in 1405 as a secondary palace to the east of Gyeongbokgung (Palace), is renowned for its attractive dissymmetrical architecture and Secret Garden, one of the most enchanting settings in Seoul. To add to its allure, the doors of Nakseonjae, a compound within the royal palace, were opened to the public for the first time just over a month ago.Nakseonjae (Mansion of Joy and Goodness) was first constructed in 1847 by order of King Heonjong, the 24th king of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) for his fourteen-year-old concubine Kim Gyeongbin. At the time, King Heonjong, who died at twenty-two in 1849, was married to his second wife, Queen Hon. Apparently he was not infatuated with her, since Nakseonjae was built for the concubine Kim.

The elegantly stark buildings of Nakseonjae, Seokbokheon and Sugangjae are arranged from west to east, and long servants’ quarters acts as a wall, collectively forming the Nakseonjae area. Silent echoes and historical remains are the only remaining links between modern progressive Korea and the impressive Joseon Dynasty. Legend-laden, they introduce visitors to prominent royal personalities whose lives were filled with romance, tragedy and nostalgia.Seokbokhyeon was built as the residence for Kim Gyeongbin with the hope that she would bear offspring for King Heonjong. “Seokbok” conveys that if the queen rules her home upright, the heavens will bestow her with a crown prince filled with filial piety. The residence was therefore situated between King Heonjong’s bedchamber, Nakseonjae, and his grandmother’s bedchamber, Sugangjae, so that Kim could wait on the king with his mother at a close distance so as to fulfill her duty well.Seokbokhyeon’s wooden railings feature calabash carvings symbolizing offspring’s prosperity. Ironically, the only child King Heonjong had was by another concubine, Kim Suk-ui. This daughter died in her early years.

Nakseonjae continued to be used by the later queens of the Joseon Dynasty. Queen Yun, wife of Sunjong, the last king of the Joseon Dynasty, lived in Seokbokhyeon until her death in 1966. Edward B. Adams describes Queen Yun as “intellectual and poised” in Palaces of Seoul: Yi Dynasty Palaces in Korea’s Capital City. As future queen, she took only twenty days to learn about court protocol and the feminine art of how to woo a king. The story of the heroic hardships she bore during the Korean War and the lonely battle she fought with Korea’s 1947 government to keep Nakseonjae when the monarchy was abolished portrays her brave and courageous spirit.Unlike Nakseonjae and Seokbokhyeon, Sugangjae is adorned in various colors. “Sugang” means conferring bliss from longevity and welfare upon the people. The celebratory writing for the completion of the framework of Sugangjae is full of good wishes for Queen Sunwon, the grandmother of King Heonjeong, who administered state affairs from behind the curtain. The rear gate of this residence features a striking grape design depicting these longings for prosperousness.Princess Deokhye,

 the youngest daughter of King Gojang, the 26th king of the Joseon Dynasty, also resided at Sugangjae.

 She was taken away to Japan in 1925 at the age of twelve, and forced to marry a Japanese aristocrat in 1928.

In 1962

Princess Deokhye was given permission to return to Korea. After suffering from depression, she found peace at Nakseonjae, where she spent her remaining years until 1989.

In her autobiography, “The World is One,” Princess Lee Bang-ja (Masako) relates how, as a Japanese princess, she woke up one morning to read in the papers that she was to marry the last crown prince of Korea, Prince Lee Eun, younger half-brother of King Sunjong. Prince Lee’s greatest desire was to return to his homeland and in 1963 he settled in at Nakseonjae with his family.

Tragically, Prince Lee’s return to Korea was too late. He was an invalid and spent the next seven years in hospital. A few hours before his death on May 1, 1970 the Crown Prince was taken to Nakseonjae. At the age of eighty-two, Princess Bang-ja was still promoting vocational education among the physically handicapped of her adopted country. She passed away in 1989 at Nakseonjae, the building last used in Chandeokgung.

In the garden to the rear of Nakseonjae, the pavilions Chwiunjeong and Sangnyangjeong, and the annex Hanjeongdang are arranged in harmony with the topography. Terraced flowerbeds stabilize the environment and the spaces between the terraces and buildings are filled with stone pots, oddly shaped stones and chimneys. Many books were discovered in 1969 at Nakseonjae’s northern quarters, behind Sangnyangjeong. This place is presumably where the residents were allowed to read books and draw paintings, which were kept here.

According to Kim Jin-suk, guide and English interpreter, “Nakseonjae evokes unique feelings that can’t be compared to the rest of Changdeokgung.” The plainness and delicateness of the wood-and-paper rooms and the numerous patterns on the wall tiles and door frames speak of an era when goodness was the moral code. “I love the royal history,” Kim adds. “It’s fascinating, yet sad at the same time.”

The drama behind the walls of Nakseonjae has not come to a halt. We are now able to breathe and relive it again

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Photo of Yi Hong, one of last imperial family member that lives in Seoul as actress & model.Source:

현재 생존해 계시는 우리나라의 마지막 공주로 알려진
“이홍 공주님”
1.공주마마의 존함: 이홍 공주마마. (마지막황태자 이석전하의 따님이자 공주)2. 생년월일: 1980년 5월 14일 출생. 올해 28살, 스물여덟 소녀.3. 한국황실의 지위: 대한민국의 공주.4. 결혼유무: 미혼

5. 직업: 영화배우, CF모델

6. 학력: 정신여고 – 한성대 산업디자인과 – 이화여대 국어국문학과 2005년 졸업.

7. 가족관계: 14남 1녀중 장녀.

8. 공주마마의 부친: 마지막 황태자 이석전하(정실부인1명 첩 5명)

9. 공주마마의 모후: 마지막 황태자비 독고정희님(1940년생 68세)

10. 공주마마의 출생지: 대한민국 서울

11. 태어나신 곳: 창덕궁 낙선재에서 출생(2004년 25살때까지 창덕궁 낙선재에서 기거하심)

12. 공주마마의 본적: 서울특별시 경복궁.

13. 공주마마의 증조할아버지: 고종황제 (1852~1919)

14. 공주마마의 증조할머니: 명성황후 (1851~1895)

15. 공주마마의 큰할아버지: 순종황제 (1874~1926)

16. 공주마마의 큰할머니: 순정효황후 (1894~1994)

17. 공주마마의 작은할아버지: 영친왕 전하 (1897~1980)

18. 공주마마의 작은할머니: 이방자 여사 (1901~1989)

19. 공주마마의 친할아버지: 의친왕 전하 (1877~1995)

*공주마마의 첫째남동생: 마지막황태손 이종훈 (1981년생 27세)
*공주마마의 둘째남동생: 이지민왕자 (1983년생 25세)
*공주마마의 셋째남동생: 이민우왕자 (1984년생 24세)
*공주마마의 넷째남동생: 이용훈왕자 (1986년생 22세)
*공주마마의 다섯째남동생: 이영훈왕자 (1987년생 21세)
*공주마마의 여섯째남동생: 이장훈왕자 (1989년생 19세)
*공주마마의 일곱째남동생: 이 민왕자 (1991년생 17세)
*공주마마의 여덟째남동생: 이 희왕자 (1993년생 15세)
*공주마마의 아홉째남동생: 이 용왕자 (1994년생 14세)
*공주마마의 열번째남동생: 이 영왕자 (1995년생 13세)
*공주마마의 열한번째남동생: 이 정왕자 (1996년생 12세)
*공주마마의 열두번째 남동생: 이 기왕자 (1998년생 10세)
*공주마마의 열세번째 남동생: 이 준왕자 (1999년생 9세)
*공주마마의 열네번째 남동생: 이 진왕자 (2000년생 8세)

With her father Yi Seok


KS Admin
“Let He Who Is Without Sin Cast The First Stone”

Korea under Japanese rule (1910-1945)


Seoul 1938 (in Color), and Korea 1899
korean-nobleman.jpg daughter-min.jpg korean-boy-birthday-dress.jpg
korean-children.jpg gossip.jpg new-years.jpg
wedding-guest.jpg country-wedding.jpg
Pictures by Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956)

! These works by Elizabeth Keith are under public domain in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) because its term of copyright has expired there.
Quoted from wikipedia:
According to Articles 39 to 44 of the Copyright Act of the Republic of Korea, under the jurisdiction of the Government of the Republic of Korea all copyrighted works enter the public domain 50 years after the death of the creator (there being multiple creators, the creator who dies last) or 50 years after publication when made public in the name of an organization.

Late Joseon Princess Deokhye’s life revealed


She was born royal,
 victimized by history and died in solitude ― having lost her country and sanity.The life story of Deokhye (1912 – 1989)
, the last princess of the Joseon Dynasty, is a tragedy that reflects the wretched fate of Korea’s last monarchy. More than 20 years after her death, her life, once written out of history, is making a comeback in different forms and ways.On Thursday, the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage published a book chronicling about 50 pieces of clothing and personal belongings worn by the Princess, along with 150 other Korean costumes from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The pieces are currently owned by Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Tokyo, Japan.The pieces and artifacts include royal infant hanbok garments, a dressing stand, many pairs of silver spoons, a gilded fortune pocket and a pair of high heel shoes.It was Kim Young-sook, a traditional costume scholar, who first identified that the pieces once belonged to Deokhye when she visited the Japanese museum in 1982 as part of her personal research. “I recognized the pieces among piles of other collected costumes from all over the world; the museum staff had no idea where the pieces were from,” Kim told The Korea Herald. “It was amazingly fascinating and touching to see the royal infant clothes that the Princess wore as a child. I knew right away they were hers ― they even matched with her photos,” the 83-year-old scholar said.Though Kim had presented her findings at an academic forum in the 1980s ― while informing the Japanese museum of the same ― not many paid attention. After keeping her research strictly personal for more than 25 years, Kim finally asked the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea for support a few years ago, formally reporting to them about the princess and her items at Bunka Gakuen. The report on Deokhye’s clothes and belongings is the result of a two-year joint collaboration between Kim and the government. 
Young Deokhye, the last Princess of the Joseon Dynasty, poses in a Kimono. She was forced to leave Joseon for Japan at age 12.                                                         

the life of Najin

and the expansion of oppression of the Koreans

at the same time. Christianity was growing popular in Korea, so Najin was able to go to one of the mission schools and received an education that was rare in her time. She avoided an early marriage, upon which her father had decided without her permission, by finding a place in the royal palace

as a companion to Princess Deokhye

and by continuing her education at the same time. The princess had a melancholy personality and Najin brightened up her coddled and sheltered life. Deokhye’s brother, Crown Prince Yi Eun (Euimin) had been sent to Japan when he was only 10 years old, allegedly for his studies.

According to Donald Keene in The Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World 1952-1912,

“Although he never was so described, the prince served as a hostage [for Japan], as the Korean Emperor realized.”

Princess Deokhye was also sent to Japan against her wishes to marry a Japanese, after the Korean emperor died mysteriously.

File:Princess dukhye and takeyuki so, 1931.JPG

A ceremonial top (dangui) worn by Princess Deokhye as a child and recently discovered at the Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan /Courtesy of the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage
A ceremonial top (dangui) worn by Princess Deokhye as a child and recently discovered at the Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan /Courtesy of the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage

After the princess left the palace, Najin returned home .

At this point the oppression towards the Koreans was heightened when imprisonment and taxes were increased and the Korean newspapers were stopped. All Korean citizens had to speak Japanese.

By 1943,

 the Japanese military government sent hundreds of thousands of Koreans to Japan as army recruits or as laborers in mines and companies, plus thousands of young women were taken to the growing to war front in Asia to follow the troops as “comfort women.” As historian Andrew C Nahm relates, “Korea changed much during this period, but Korean nationalism did not diminish and the desire to be free from Japanese colonialism persisted.”

 Dasan Books

“I appreciate their help very much,” Kim said. “It wouldn’t have been possible with my limited budget and resources. The work has been very meaningful.”Park Dae-nam,
 senior researcher of the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, said the belongings of the Princess are believed to have been donated by her half-brother, Imperial Crown Prince Uimin, and his wife Crown Princess Yi Bangja. “It is expected that the royal couple was suffering financially,” Park told The Korea Herald. “They even donated their own royal pieces of clothing to Tokyo National Museum.”

Princess Deokhye’s infant hanbok jeogori (bottom) and dressing stand are currently owned by Bunka Gakuen Costume Museum in Japan.
Apart from the published report,
 Kim Young-sook has been preparing a non-fiction book of her own, assembling all of her personal, extensive research on Princess Deokhye. The book will include poems and songs that the Princess wrote while she was attending school in Tokyo, which Kim obtained during her long research stay in Japan. “Princess Deokhye was extremely talented in writing ― she was a very smart student,” Kim told The Korea Herald. “Most of her pieces were about her home country and the royal palace, and how much she missed them,” she added.Last year, “Princess Deokhye,”

  The inside of Seokjojeon can be seen above left, with Crown Prince Yeongchin, Sunjong, Gojong, Eombi (one of Gojong’s wives) and Princess Deokhye, seated from left to right. Provided by Myongji University-LG Yeonam Library
 the first piece of fiction ever written on the late Princess, was published on Dec. 14.
 The historical novel has been doing extremely well, selling over 500,000 copies in the past eight months. It was ranked as the top bestseller in every recognized bookstore back in January.
 “The research part was very difficult because there were almost zero resources available,” Kwon Bi-young, the author of the book, told The Korea Herald. “I’m glad that more information about the Princess is being released. At the same time, though, I am still saddened by the life that Deokhye had to live.”Princess Deokhye was born in 1912,
two years after Joseon was annexed by Japan. Adored and doted on by her father, Emperor Gojong, the youngest daughter of the royal family attended a kindergarten at Deoksu Palace, established exclusively for her. At age 12, however, only six years after Gojong’s death, Deokhye was taken to Japan and went to school in Tokyo. There, she suffered from bullying and cultural differences.At age 19,
 she was forced to marry Japanese Count So Takeyuki. While suffering from mental illness and an unhappy marriage, she gave birth to her daughter, Masae, in 1932. The princess’ life took another tragic turn when her daughter went missing, and her health condition worsened. She was sent to a mental hospital, and finally divorced her husband in 1953.She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Park Chung-hee government in 1962.
Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung
Nakseonjae in Changdeokgung Palace
Nakseonjae was the residence of Princess Deokhye and Yi Bang-ja, queen of King Yeong until she passed away in 1989
 Deokhye led an isolated life in Nakseon Hall,
Changdeok Palace, till her low-profile death in 1989

Princess dukhye and takeyuki so, 1931.JPG

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Coronation of Korea’s new empress leads to royal family controversy

[IHT] 입력 2006.10.22 20:23 / 수정 2006.10.23 20:09

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Yi Hae-won, who was recently restored as the new empress of Korea. By Choi Jae-young

The crowning of Korea’s “new empress” on Sept. 29 was presented by her backers as a means to unite royal descendants spread across the country and “speak as one voice.” What it did instead was to set family members against each other as they dispute not only the line of descent but also the legitimacy of the private organization that named Yi Hae-won as empress of South Korea.
Meeting Ms. Yi was itself quite an exercise. The day of the meeting, a spokesman from the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk (the Empire of Korea) postponed the interview for two hours, at a venue the JoongAng Daily was asked not to reveal “for reasons of security,” and the reporter had to wait another two hours until the empress arrived. The 88-year-old is only about 1.3 meters tall (4 foot, 3 inches) and a little stooped, but the small woman in a jade green hanbok looked composed and tenacious.
Once Ms. Yi arrived and settled herself for the interview, organization spokesman Lee Seong-joo asked the reporter and a handful of men who accompanied her to bow to her four times, bending from the waist to make almost a right angle. “That’s the right way to greet an empress in the royal custom,” he said. The other men in the room all claimed to be of the Lee clan, as was the first emperor of the Joseon dynasty. (Yi and Lee are different spellings of the same family name.) The men stayed throughout the short interview, interrupting and answering questions addressed to Ms. Yi, as did the spokesman.
“I am legitimate, no matter who says what,” the empress declared, referring to opposition to her claim, particularly from the Jeonju Lee Royal Family Members Foundation.

Yi Won, front, and Yi Seok, back, at the funeral of Yi Ku on July 24, 2005. By Choi Jae-young

She said is the oldest surviving child of Prince Uichin (1877-1955), the fifth son of Emperor Gojong (1852-1919). Official records show that Prince Uichin fathered 12 sons and nine daughters.
“I was born to the approved wife of Prince Uichin,” Ms. Yi continued, “I will restore the imperial culture.”
The 10th of those sons, Ms. Yi’s younger brother Yi Seok, thinks his sister was persuaded to take the title by a group of Lee family members because of her difficult life.
After Korea’s liberation from Japan, the new government nationalized the royal fortune and ousted the family from its palaces. Ms. Yi raised three sons and a daughter by herself after her husband was kidnapped and taken to the North during the Korean War. She said she doesn’t know if her husband is still alive, and her daughter died at the age of 47. Two of her sons live in the United States, where she also lived for 10 years until 2002. Since then, Ms. Yi, who spent her first 15 years in a palace, has lived in a 13.2-square-meter (142 square-foot) room in Hanam, Gyeonggi province, with her second son.

Empress Yi Hae-won’s wedding at 19 to Lee Seung-gyu. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk

“I don’t mind if my sister [Yi Hae-won] takes the empress seat or not,” Yi Seok said. “However, the family members in direct line didn’t approve such a ceremony. I was invited to the coronation, but I didn’t attend because I didn’t know who [the association members are].”
What he does mind, and what aroused some controversy in Korean society, is the way Ms. Yi was named empress. There was no prior public discussion on the status of an empire or the imperial family within Korea, although an August poll by Realmeter, a research company, did ask what Koreans thought about having a symbolic royal family. Of the 460 Koreans aged 19 or older who were polled, just under 55 percent supported the idea.
“There should have first been enough discussion to get public approval,” said Yi Seok. “When I give lectures on the history of the Korean royal family, I see a lot of people who miss the empire.” He added, “I plan to collect signatures from people and if more than 1 million want to restore the empire, even though it’s just symbolic, I will present that list to the president and ask him to restore the imperial culture and allow some descendants to live in Gyeongbok or Changdeok palaces.”
Members of the Jeonju Lee Royal Family Members Foundation said the family had already selected who should succeed the late Yi Ku, the last direct heir to the throne and the son of Crown Prince Yeongchin, the seventh son of Emperor Gojong.
“[Having an empress] doesn’t make any sense at all,” said Lee Jeong-jae, an official of the foundation, with obvious anger. “When Yi Ku passed away in July of last year, we selected Yi Won as his successor,” he said. Yi Won is a son of Yi Chung-gil, the surviving ninth son of Prince Uichin. “Such [a restoration] ceremony will only confuse the Korean people,” added Lee Yong-kyu, the vice chairman of the foundation. “Korea is not a constitutional monarchy, the royal descendant’s role is limited to that of an officiating priest and his ruling role was removed a long time ago,” he said. In Confucian custom, a woman cannot lead a ritual to honor ancestors.


“The direct descendants of the empire had a family meeting right after the news that Yi Ku passed away, and decided to have Yi Won entered in the family register of Yi Ku as a son,” said the vice chairman. “We just followed their decision.”
That family meeting is in itself controversial. The vice chairman said that both Ms. Yi and her younger brother, as imperial family members, attended the meeting. Yi Seok and Yi Hae-won, however, told the JoongAng Daily that not only were they not at the meeting, they were not even aware of it. “Adopting a son after death doesn’t make any sense,” Yi Seok said angrily by phone.
“I heard that Crown Princess Yi Bang-ja [the wife of Crown Prince Yeongchin] wrote a will before she died, and in it she named me as first successor,” he added. He said Kim Sang-ryeol, who was close to the Crown Princess, is in possession of that will. Mr. Kim, however, refused to confirm what the will contained, but said he plans to reveal its contents to the public someday.
Added to all the infighting, the legitimacy of those calling themselves the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk is unclear. Although its members say that they are close relatives of the royal family, they are not listed in the direct imperial family records.
The association is now preparing a residence and office for Ms. Yi in a building near Seoul Station, using two floors with a total area of about 396 square meters. The spokesman said that the building owner is also a member of the organization, and supports the Empire of Korea.
“We’re not asking the government to financially support us. We’ll raise funds from supporters of the royal family,” Mr. Lee said. “But as the empress is old, we don’t have much time to restore the royal tradition and legitimacy, which will contribute to the development of Korea’s history and culture,” he added.
The last words the empress spoke during the interview only added to the questions one might have about the association. “They treat me like a puppet,” she said as she took her leave.


The root of the current family feud goes back to the time of Emperor Gojong, who was deprived of diplomatic power in 1905 by Japan before it colonized Korea in 1910. Emperor Gojong had nine sons and four daughters, but only four lived long enough to marry: Emperor Sunjong, Prince Uichin, Crown Prince Yeongchin and Princess Deokhye. Prince Uichin as the second-eldest son, was next in line, but as he participated in Korea’s independence movement, the Japanese government forced Emperor Sunjong, who had no children, to leave the title to Prince Yeongchin.
Hirobumi Ito, the resident general during the Joseon dynasty, took the crown prince to Japan at the age of 11 to be educated there, where he was married to Masako Nashimotonomiya, better known as Crown Princess Yi Bang-ja, who was a member of Japan’s royal family. The crown princess, who was a candidate to become Japan’s empress, recalled in her autobiography that she was chosen as Prince Yeongchin’s wife in an attempt to end the Joseon royal line, as Japanese doctors had diagnosed her as infertile. However, she gave birth to two sons, Jin and Ku. Jin died at the age of eight months, leaving Ku, as the only surviving son of the last crown prince, in the main line of descent.
Yi Ku, who graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and married an American Julia Mullock, had no children. He died last year in a hotel room in Japan, leaving no clear successor.

Art Photography



Eight of Prince Uichin’s children , his first wife, Kim Deok-soo, center front, and two court ladies behind her. Second from the right is Yi Hae-won. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk

Prince Uichin. Provided by the Imperial Family Association of Daehanjeguk



the end@copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2012


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Koleksi Uang Kertas Indonesia (Javasche Bank) Pertama abad ke-19



De Javasche Bank 1864-1895

Januari 1864 – April 1895, dicetak oleh Yoh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sumber: Rob Huisman

 Pada tahun 1863, De Javasche Bank, didirikan pada tahun 1828, merupakan bank sirkulasi di Hindia Belanda. Satu akan berharap untuk menjadi lembaga yang mapan kolonial, namun sebaliknya adalah benar. Penelitian di arsip Yoh printer. Enschede en Zonen di Haarlem Museum di Enschede, Belanda, menunjukkan gambaran yang sama sekali berbeda. Dewan dan khususnya Presiden De Javasche Bank secara langsung terlibat secara detail dalam segala hal operasional terkait dengan desain dan memesan uang kertas mereka

Bagian 4, Januari 1864 – April 1895, dicetak oleh Yoh. Enschede en Zn.

Pada tahun 1863,

De Javasche Bank, didirikan pada tahun 1828, merupakan bank sirkulasi di Hindia Belanda.
Satu akan berharap untuk menjadi lembaga yang mapan kolonial, namun sebaliknya adalah benar.
Penelitian di arsip Yoh printer. Enschede en Zonen di Haarlem Museum di Enschede,
Belanda, menunjukkan gambaran yang sama sekali berbeda. Dewan dan khususnya Presiden De
Javasche Bank secara langsung terlibat dalam rinci dalam segala hal operasional terkait dengan desain dan
memesan uang kertas mereka.

Membaca melalui semua korespondensi cermat disimpan dan diatur antara Javasche Bank
dan perusahaan percetakan di tanah air, seseorang dapat merasakan suasana modern
kewirausahaan start-up perusahaan. Presiden (CEO) E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) dan
penggantinya Wiggers van Kerchem, menulis surat kepada Yoh. Enschede en Zn. (Kemudian disebut “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) secara teratur untuk memesan uang kertas baru, mengomentari kualitas dan pelaksanaan
perintah, mengeluh tentang keterlambatan pengiriman, dan sering menggarisbawahi kebutuhan mendesak untuk persediaan baru untuk
mereka terpencil wilayah.

Paling mencolok adalah bahwa mereka sering menyebutkan bahwa biaya adalah membatasi maksimal
penting. Surat-surat yang ditulis dengan kaligrafi yang indah dan menggunakan cara-cara sopan dan politik yang benar
mengeluh, mendesak, komentar dan mengkritik. Kata-kata seperti “khawatir”, “kecewa”, “mengusulkan” dan
“Suka” yang digunakan secara teratur dan sering saran dan proposal yang diajukan dengan pernyataan menyelesaikan

 “Namun kita bergantung pada keahlian anda dalam hal ini dan percaya Anda akan membuat keputusan yang tepat”.
E. Francis (ia menandatangani surat-suratnya dengan M. Francis), Presiden ketiga dari Javasche Bank, dimulai sebagai sebuah
pegawai di 1815 dan meniti karier dalam layanan pemerintah untuk akhirnya menjadi sipil atas
tersedia untuk Komisaris Jenderal hamba. Dari 1848 hingga 1850 Francis adalah Inspektur Keuangan
dan pada 1851 ia diberhentikan dengan hormat dari layanan pemerintah. Selanjutnya, Francis diangkat
kepada Presiden dari Javasche Bank berdasarkan keputusan tanggal 4 Maret 1851. Pada awal tahun enam puluhan abad ke-19,
De Javasche Bank mulai menyiapkan emisi baru lengkap uang kertas Hindia Belanda. Dalam
kerjasama dengan Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank adalah menunjuk ke arah Belanda
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (sekarang dikenal sebagai Yoh. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Keamanan)) untuk memiliki
uang kertas baru yang dirancang dan diproduksi. Francis pribadi terlibat dalam proses dan
berkomunikasi dengan printer secara teratur. Sayangnya Fransiskus tidak tinggal di kantor untuk melihat
hasil usahanya. Atas permintaan sendiri Francis diberhentikan dengan hormat per 1 Juli 1863
Keputusan per 20 April 1863. Pada tahun 1864 Fransiskus menerbitkan buku “De regerings-beginselen van
Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, mengungkapkan nya
ketidakpuasan dengan penerapan sistem ekonomi baru di Hindia Belanda dan
mengusulkan penyelidikan oleh komite independen. Pada tahun 1869 Fransiskus diterbitkan permintaan ke
Parlemen Belanda tentang hak terkenal nya untuk pembayaran pensiun menjadi pegawai negeri sipil pensiunan
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Tanggapan ini proposal dan permintaan tidak ditemukan, mengarah ke
percaya bahwa Francis diabaikan oleh pembentukan dan harus berjuang untuk itu percaya dan pensiun
membayar pada hari-hari tuanya.
Dalam surat dari Francis tanggal 31 Januari 1863, dengan pengelolaan Nederlandsche Bank, yang
penerimaan catatan bukti telah dikonfirmasi dan bukti-bukti telah disetujui. Dalam surat yang sama Francis
mengangkat beberapa komentar bahwa ia ingin ke alamat:
– Ukuran catatan: DJB lebih memilih perbedaan dalam ukuran untuk menjadi antara catatan dari 100 dan 50
gulden. Ini berarti bahwa catatan dari 1000,, 500 300, 200 dan 100 akan menjadi besar dan catatan
dari 50, 25 dan 10 akan ukuran kecil. DJB disebutkan bahwa jika De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) berpikir
yang membagi harus antara 25 dan 10 gulden, DJB juga akan setuju.
– Karakter nilai di sudut catatan harus lebih besar.
– Singa pada 10 catatan gulden memiliki ekspresi, terkejut hampir ketakutan. DJB akan seperti
singa untuk memiliki ekspresi yang lebih santai melambangkan kekuatan.

– DJB lebih suka bahwa tanda tangan ditempatkan di bawah kata-kata “Sekretaris” dan “Presiden” dan permintaan
kata-kata yang akan dicetak di bawah tanggal setinggi mungkin.
– DJB lebih suka bahwa tanggal dicetak pada printer bukan itu yang diterapkan di (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB setelah kedatangan. Dalam kasus printer mencetak tanggal, Fransiskus menunjukkan memilih kencan tidak menjadi
Kristen hari libur atau Minggu dan sekitar 6 bulan setelah tanggal keberangkatan diharapkan dari
uang kertas.
– DJB menyatakan bahwa mereka menghitung 6 bulan untuk durasi perjalanan dan menerapkan angka dan
tanda tangan untuk jumlah uang kertas yang diperlukan untuk pertukaran uang kertas yang beredar saat ini.
Pada awal pengiriman DJB tahun 1870-an permintaan untuk dikirim melalui Terusan Suez baru dibuka, mengurangi
waktu tempuh dengan lebih dari 50%.

Presiden keempat De Javasche Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, mengambil kantor pada 1 Juli
1863 dan melanjutkan proses pemesanan isu-isu baru uang kertas.
Selama periode Januari 1864 – April 1895, nomor seri dan tanda tangan di bagian depan dan
tanda kontra di sebaliknya dicetak secara lokal oleh Javasche Bank di Hindia Belanda pada
selesai catatan yang dikirim dari printer di Belanda. Para Javasche Bank juga
memesan peralatan penomoran dan tanda tangan prangko dari printer dan beberapa perangko tanda tangan kosong
dalam kasus penandatangan akan berubah, memungkinkan mereka untuk mengukir tanda tangan baru di prangko
lokal sendiri. Bersama dengan urutan pertama 1864 uang kertas baru, Javasche Bank
memerintahkan montir untuk menemani mesin penomoran dan mengurus mengambil mesin menjadi
produksi. Willem Hooij dikontrak oleh Yoh. Enschede en Zonen untuk bepergian ke Batavia dalam
Hindia Belanda dan menginstal mesin. Dalam sebuah surat dari Hooij ke Yoh. Enschede en Zonen tanggal
12 Agustus 1864, ia menulis tentang Presiden sabar dari Javasche Bank yang membuat
kesulitan karena Hooij tidak mendapatkan mesin yang diinstal dalam satu hari. Wiggers van Kerchem
mengundang printer lokal berkenalan dan bersama-sama mereka meremehkan Hooij.
161a – dari koleksi pribadi, dengan Contra Mark dicetak di pojok kanan bawah sebaliknya.
Semua uang kertas yang dikeluarkan oleh De Javasche Bank di Hindia Belanda selama periode 1864 sampai 1931
dan dicetak oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen, membawa tanda kontra, dicetak di sudut kanan bawah atau
pusat lebih rendah sebaliknya. Sebuah kode yang dicetak hitam di cap elips dengan bentuk segitiga
mengarah keluar dan memiliki hingga 5 nomor. Negara lebih rendah catatan denominasi dikeluarkan selama ini
periode tidak memiliki tanda ini.

Kolektor yang akrab dengan Hindia Belanda uang kertas dari
periode ini mungkin akan menyadari bahwa ada hubungan antara tanggal penerbitan dan kontra
tanda. Meskipun terlihat seperti tanggal kemudian semakin tinggi angkanya, dalam kenyataannya hal ini tidak selalu
Dalam rangka untuk mengetahui aplikasi yang tepat dari tanda kontra, saya mengumpulkan informasi tentang lebih
dari 150 catatan mulai 1864-1931. Ketika mengatur dan mengorganisir semua informasi yang relevan
seperti tanggal, nomor serial dan kontra, saya mengamati hal berikut:
– Salah satu tanda yang unik kontra selalu terhubung dengan hanya satu tanggal khusus masalah
– Salah satu tanggal tertentu terjadi masalah dengan kode keamanan yang berbeda, namun kode keamanan yang dekat
– Ketika catatan lebih dari masalah yang sama terjadi dengan tanggal yang sama dan kode keamanan, catatan memiliki
kombinasi karakter yang sama dalam nomor seri
– Ketika tanggal terjadi dengan lebih dari satu kontra menandai setiap tanda kontra yang unik terjadi dengan berbagai
kombinasi karakter dalam nomor seri dari masalah tertentu atau tanda kontra terhubung ke
denominasi lain yang dikeluarkan
– Banyak yang melewatkan tanggal, ada kesenjangan banyak hari atau minggu antara satu dan yang kontra berikutnya tanda
– Catatan dengan denominasi yang berbeda diterbitkan pada tanggal yang sama dengan tanda yang berbeda kontra
– Tampaknya satu rentang nomor urut digunakan untuk tanda kontra yang mencakup semua catatan yang dikeluarkan
dari seluruh periode
– Ada beberapa pengecualian di mana nanti tanggal rendah memiliki nomor kontra tanda
– Tidak ada kombinasi karakter yang berbeda nomor seri dari sebuah denominasi tertentu dengan
sama kontra tanda.
– Perubahan dari 4 sampai 5 angka terjadi dalam perjalanan tahun 1918
– Catatan CONTOH sering memiliki tanda menyimpang kontra yang tidak cocok kenaikan sekuensial yang biasa
kontra tanda dan tanggal.
Jelas Bank dikelola Belanda akan menyimpan catatan rinci tentang kode keamanan dan
tanggal dan nomor seri dari semua uang kertas yang dikeluarkan. Tidak diketahui apakah catatan ini De Javasche
Bank masih ada di arsip di suatu tempat hari ini, meskipun ada rumor bahwa catatan ini masih
hadir dalam arsip Bank Indonesia di Jakarta.
Berdasarkan “Catatan oleh PJ Soetens, mantan konservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), arsip
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, Belanda “, saya menyimpulkan bahwa De Javasche Bank digunakan tanda kontra
nomor untuk mengidentifikasi batch terpisah uang kertas yang belum selesai yang diangkut antara
berbagai departemen, di mana mereka dicetak dengan nomor seri dan tanda tangan, dan akhirnya
disimpan di lemari besi kasir sebelum sirkulasi
Arsip dari Enschede Museum mengandung banyak perintah asli, catatan produksi,
pengiriman informasi dan juga surat-surat dari Batavia di mana Javasche Bank menegaskan penerimaan
pengiriman. Penulis membuat ikhtisar dari semua data ini dan mampu menetapkan jumlah yang tepat dari
menerbitkan wesel untuk setiap tanggal penerbitan. Jumlah catatan yang dikeluarkan disebutkan dalam ikhtisar di bawah ini
harus dianggap sebagai minimum. Ada bukti kuat bahwa angka-angka benar-benar dikeluarkan.
Meskipun ada kemungkinan bahwa lebih banyak catatan diterbitkan, kesempatan – sementara tidak ada yang berbeda
catatan rinci menyebutkan mereka – sangat kecil.
Berikut ini adalah ikhtisar dari uang kertas yang berbeda dan varietas mereka yang tercetak di Johan
Enschede en Zonen di Haarlem, Belanda yang akan dikeluarkan oleh De Javasche Bank di Batavia,
Hindia Belanda. Meskipun ada rumor tentang tanggal lain dari masalah dan kombinasi tanda tangan,
Ikhtisar di bawah ini hanya berisi daftar uang kertas mereka dan varietas yang penulis memiliki bukti yang cukup bahwa
mereka benar-benar ada.
Katalog Lelang Jawa (7), Kuki (15) dan Mevius (16) menyebutkan Van Duyn sebagai penandatangan, namun
tidak ada orang dengan nama ini adalah bagian dari dewan DJB selama periode tersebut. Tampaknya tanda tangan
dari H.P.J. van den Berg (Sekretaris dari 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) telah keliru seperti yang terlihat seperti
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, saudara dari Presiden masa lalu dari Javasche Bank NP van den Berg,
diangkat sebagai penerus Presiden Groeneveld yang pada tanggal 17 Januari 1899, namun meninggal pada 9 Februari 1899
di Nice, sebelum benar-benar memulai jabatan barunya.

5 Gulden

160 – 1 Oktober 1866
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 100,000
Watermark: “Javasche Bank” dan dua kali angka “5” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks pada sebaliknya dalam 4 bahasa dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. tidak dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 1 karakter, 4 angka (misalnya, R xxxx), tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem
(Presiden), Diepenheim (Sekretaris), tidak ada tanda kontra di sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka (misalnya, IB xxxx), tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem
(Presiden), Diepenheim (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di pojok kanan bawah di sebaliknya
c. dikeluarkan, seperti b, tetapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
d. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
e. belum selesai, seperti d, tapi dengan perforasi spesimen
f. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), pada berbagai jenis kertas dan kadang-kadang hanya
dicetak pada bagian depan
160a – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2053 27 / 3)
160c – Gedenkboek van de Javasche Bank
160d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2057 27 / 7)

161 – 5 April 1895
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: tidak diketahui
Watermark: “Javasche Bank” dan dua kali angka “5” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya diperbarui dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, IV 0xxxx atau KY 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: Groenenveld (Presiden), H.P.J. van den Berg (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di kanan bawah
sudut di sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
c. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan perforasi “NIETIG BT”
d. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
e. belum selesai, seperti d, tapi dengan mencetak di spesimen
f. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), pada berbagai jenis kertas dan kadang-kadang hanya
dicetak pada bagian depan
161a – dari koleksi pribadi
161d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2063 27/13)

10 Gulden

163 – 1 Februari 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 350.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden),
Hoeven (Sekretaris), “Uitgevoerd bij Yoh Enschede EN ZONEN, te Haarlem..” dicetak di bawah
kanan bawah teks pidana di balik, kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
c. belum selesai, seperti b, tetapi dengan perforasi spesimen
d. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
163d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2083 27/33)

164 – 1 Februari 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 150.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh
(Sekretaris), “Uitgevoerd bij Yoh Enschede EN ZONEN, te Haarlem..” dicetak di bawah hak
pidana bawah teks pada sebaliknya, kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

165 – 1 Februari 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 230,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya diperbarui dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, PC 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya
b. diterbitkan. seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan perforasi “NIETIG BT”
166 – 1 Februari 1879
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 709,375
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, TX 0xxxx, tanda tangan:
N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya

167 – 1 Februari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 406,620
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “10” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, XK 0xxxx, XL 0xxxx
atau XM 0xxxx, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah pada
b. dikeluarkan, seperti a. namun dibatalkan oleh perforasi “NIETIG BT”
c. dikeluarkan, seperti a. tetapi dengan mencetak di “CONTOH” diagonal pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya

25 Gulden

168-1 Agustus 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 120.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka (nomor pertama selalu 0), tanda tangan: Wiggers van
Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai)
c. belum selesai, seperti b, tetapi dengan perforasi spesimen
d. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
e. bukti, seperti d, tapi hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
f. bukti, seperti e, dengan kesalahan watermark “JAV. BANK” di pusat yang lebih rendah dan dua kali angka “200”
di sebelah kiri dan kanan
168d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2089 27/39)

169-1 Agustus 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 33,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter, 4 angka (nomor pertama selalu 0), tanda tangan: Mees
(Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah di sebaliknya
170 – 1 Maret 1876
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 24.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya diperbarui dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di bawah
pusat di sebaliknya

171 – 1 Maret 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 70.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah
di sebaliknya

172 – 1 Maret 1879
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 263,963
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di bawah
pusat di sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tapi dengan tanda air baru

173 – 1 Maret 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 150.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “25” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah pada
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
173b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2091 27/41)

50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
Ditarik awal 1872 karena pemalsuan beredar
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 40.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali jumlah “50” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, misalnya, CB xxxx, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem
(Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti a. tapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
c. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai), dengan spesimen perforasi
d. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
e. bukti, seperti d, tapi hanya pada bagian depan dicetak
f. pemalsuan, pemalsuan kontemporer ditemukan di sebuah rumah judi China di 1871
174b – Gedenkboek van de Javasche Bank
174d – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2099 27/49)
174e – dari koleksi pribadi
174f – Pemalsuan nomor, Serial CB 7305, kontra 84 tanda di sebaliknya, koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2100 27/50)
175 – 15 Oktober 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 43,319
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di bawah
pusat di sebaliknya
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan

175b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2153 28/26)

176 – 15 Februari 1876

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 56,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, SD 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti a. tapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
176b – Gedenkboek van de Javasche Bank

177 – 15 Februari 1879

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 65,192
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, SG 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda di tengah lebih rendah pada
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dibatalkan dengan prangko “VERNIETIGD” (hancur) pada bagian depan
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), di atas kertas watermark, hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
177c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2160 28/33)
178 – 15 Februari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 31,382
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 5 nomor (angka pertama selalu 0), misalnya, SG 0xxxx,
tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kode administrasi), di atas kertas dengan tanda air, hanya dicetak
pada bagian depan

100 Gulden

179 – 1 Maret 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 60.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden),
Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kode administrasi), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
d. bukti, seperti c, tapi tanpa teks hukum di sebaliknya
179d – dari koleksi pribadi

179c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2112 27/62)
180 – 1 Maret 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 10.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

181 – 1 Maret 1874
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

182 – 1 Februari 1876
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 9,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

183 – 1 Februari 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 30.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
184 – 1 Juli 1877
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 30.000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Buijskes (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

185-15 January1879

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 81,240 (yang 11,866 dengan air baru dan nomor baru)
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dengan air baru dan nomor baru, dikirim oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen di
6 Mei 1886
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
185c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2105 27/55)
186 – 15 Januari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 50,000
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “100” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
200 Gulden


187 – 1 Januari 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
187c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2127 27/77)
188 – 1 Januari 1872

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 2.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

189 – 1 Januari 1874

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
190 – 15 Januari 1876
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 6.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
191 – 15 Januari 1879
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 23,367 (3,367 yang memiliki watermark baru)
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, tetapi dengan air baru, pengiriman diterima di De Javasche Bank pada 25 Januari 1885
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
191c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2124 27/74)
192 – 15 Januari 1890
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 25.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1866, 1870 dan 1872
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “200” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Zeverijn (Presiden), Groeneveld (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 6.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kode administrasi), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
193c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2134 28 / 7)

194 – 2 Mei 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 1.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
195 – 2 Mei 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 2.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
196 – 2 Mei 1874
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 6,148
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “300” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. bukti, (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
196b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2132 28 / 5)

500 Gulden

197 – 1 Juni 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 15.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “500” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden), Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. belum selesai (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai), dengan spesimen perforasi
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 2.000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “500” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
199 – 1 Juni 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “500” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, tanda tangan: N.P. van den Berg (Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), hanya dicetak pada bagian depan
199b – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2141 28/14)
200 – 1884
Diketahui yang tanggal dicetak di catatan
Jumlah catatan dikirim: 10,640
Dikirimkan oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen pada 13 Oktober 1884
201 – 1889
Diketahui yang tanggal dicetak di catatan
Jumlah catatan dikirim: 3.000
Dikirimkan oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen pada 21 November 1889
202 – 1890
Diketahui yang tanggal dicetak di catatan
Jumlah catatan dikirim: 8,560
Dikirimkan oleh Johan Enschede en Zonen pada 30 Januari 1890

1000 Gulden


203 – 1 Juli 1864
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 14,998
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “1000” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, tanda tangan: Wiggers van Kerchem (Presiden),
Hoeven (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. tidak digunakan (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tandai) dengan perforasi spesimen
c. bukti (tidak ada nomor seri, tanda tangan dan kontra tanda), dicetak pada bagian depan dan sebaliknya
203c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2148 28/21)
204 – 1 Juli 1872
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 4,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “1000” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, tanda tangan: Mees Alting (Presiden), Versteegh
(Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
205 – 1 Juli 1873
Jumlah catatan diterbitkan: 14,000
Hukum pidana teks dalam 4 bahasa di sebaliknya dengan tanggal 1817, 1822 dan 1859
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” Dan dua kali angka “1000” di sisi kanan dan kiri
a. dikeluarkan, nomor seri: 2 karakter dan 4 angka, misalnya, HC xxxx, Signatures: NP van den Berg
(Presiden), Versteegh (Sekretaris), kontra tanda pada sebaliknya
b. dikeluarkan, seperti, namun dibatalkan oleh prangko “VERNIETIGD” pada bagian depan


The Silent Film and Early Film Historic Collections 1877-1930

The Silent film Historic Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited Private E-book In CD-ROM

Please look The Sample below and The complete CD-ROM only for premium member,please subscribed via comment)

This book dedicated

 to my grandgrandpa Tan G.L.who built  the first silent film cinema Scalabio at Padang City West Sumatra Indonesia and My Friend Ang T.L(Wirako) who Grandpa also built the silent and first speaking film Cinema at the same city.



Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, pantomime and title cards.

Chronologic Historic Collections





 Muybridge’s initial attempts failed and it wasn’t until 1877



The first projected sequential proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge some time between 1877 and 1880



. The first narrative film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888.

  The first narrative film was created by Louis

It was a two-second film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden, entitled Roundhay Garden Scene.[1]

Roundhay Garden Scene 1888, the first known celluloid film recorded.



 West Orange, New Jersey, used December 1892

Edison Studios were first in West Orange, New Jersey (1892),


The Black Maria, Edison's first motion picture studio

The Black Maria, Edison's first motion picture studio
The Black Maria, Edison’s First Motion Picture Studio,
West Orange, New Jersey,
used between December 1892 and January 1901.
Inventing Entertainment: the Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies

Edison and Dickson continued to experiment with motion pictures in the late 1880s and into the 1890s. Dickson designed the Black Maria, the first movie studio, which was completed in 1893. The name was derived from the slang for the police paddy wagons that the studio was said to resemble. Between 1893 and 1903, Edison produced more than 250 films at the Black Maria, including many of those found in the Edison Motion Pictures collection of the Library of Congress. Most of the films are short, as it was believed that people would not stand the “flickers” for more than ten minutes.

Turn-of-the-century copyright law provided protection for photographs but not for motion pictures. Therefore, a number of early film producers protected their work by copyrighting paper contact prints (paper prints) of the film’s individual frames.


Edison Kinetoscopic Recording of a Sneeze
Edison Kinetoscopic Recording of a Sneeze,
copyright January 9, 1894.
American Treasures of the Library of Congress

View the film which was reconstructed from the paper print.
Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze
by W. K. L. Dickson, one of Edison’s assistants,
January 7, 1894.



Thomas Edison with his Home Kinetoscope, introduced 1912




Scene from Broken Blossoms starring Lilian Gish and Richard Barthelmess, an example of sepia-tinted print.

With the lack of natural color processing available, films of the silent era were frequently dipped in dyestuffs and dyed various shades and hues to signal a mood or represent a time of day. Blue represented night scenes, yellow or amber meant day. Red represented fire and green represented a mysterious mood. Similarly, toning of film (such as the common silent film generalization of sepia-toning) with special solutions replaced the silver particles in the film stock with salts or dyes of various colors. A combination of tinting and toning could be used as an effect that could be striking.

Some films were hand-tinted, such as Annabelle Serpentine Dance (1894), from Edison Studios. In it, Annabelle Whitford,[13] a young dancer from Broadway, is dressed in white veils that appear to change colors as she dances.



Georges Méliès, the first truly great director in movie

Hand coloring was often used in the early “trick” and fantasy films of Europe, especially those by Georges Méliès.



 The art of motion pictures grew into fullShowings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the pianist at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris.[4]



Edison Receives Patent for Kinetographic Camera

On August 31, 1897, Thomas Edison received a patent for the kinetographic camera, “a certain new and useful Improvement in Kinetoscopes,” the forerunner of the motion picture film projector. Edison and his assistant, W. K. L. Dickson, had begun work on the project—to enliven sound recordings with moving pictures—in hopes of boosting sales of the phonograph, which Edison had invented in 1877. Unable to synchronize the two media, he introduced the kinetoscope, a device for viewing moving pictures without sound—on which work had begun in 1889. Patents were filed for the kinetoscope and kinetograph in August 1891.

The kinetoscope (viewer), which Edison initially considered an insignificant toy, had become an immediate success about a decade earlier. The invention was soon replaced, however, by screen projectors that made it possible for more than one person to view the novel silent movies at a time.



sample frames from Edison film 'Three acrobats'
Three Acrobats,
Thomas A. Edison, Inc.,
copyright March 20, 1899.
The American Variety Stage: Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment, 1870-1920


Unidentified silent film 1910



By the time that the law was amended in 1912, some 3,500 paper prints had been deposited for copyright registration. This practice proved fortuitous, as many early films have been lost due to disintegration and the high combustibility caused by early film’s nitrate base. Many of these paper contact prints were converted back to film in the 1950s, and hundreds were digitized in the 1990s.

, 1933-Present to see photos and written historical and descriptive data of the Edison’s laboratories in New Jersey.




A film of a re-enactment of a naval battle, depicting Russians firing at a Japanese ship with a cannon

An early film, depicting a re-enactment of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay (Film produced in 1904 by Edison Studios)



 Early studios

The early studios were located in the New York City area.

In December 1908,

 Edison led the formation of the Motion Picture Patents Company in an attempt to control the industry and shut out smaller producers. The “Edison Trust,” as it was nicknamed, was made up of Edison, Biograph, Essanay Studios, Kalem Company, George Kleine Productions, Lubin Studios, Georges Méliès, Pathé, Selig Studios, and Vitagraph Studios, and dominated distribution through the General Film Company.


From the beginning, music was recognized as essential, contributing to the atmosphere and giving the audience vital emotional cues. (Musicians sometimes played on film sets during shooting for similar reasons.) Small town and neighborhood movie theatres usually had a pianist. Beginning in the mid-1910s, large city theaters tended to have organists or ensembles of musicians. Massive theater organs were designed to fill a gap between a simple piano soloist and a larger orchestra. Theatre organs had a wide range of special effects; theatrical organs such as the famous “Mighty Wurlitzer” could simulate some orchestral sounds along with a number of percussion effects such as bass drums and cymbals and sound effects ranging from galloping horses to rolling thunder.Film scores for early silent films were either improvised or compiled of classical or theatrical repertory music. Once full features became commonplace, however, music was compiled from photoplay music by the pianist, organist, orchestra conductor or the movie studio itself, which included a cue sheet with the film. These sheets were often lengthy, with detailed notes about effects and moods to watch for


By the beginning of the 1910s, with the onset of feature-length films, tinting was used as another mood setter, just as commonplace as music. The director D. W. Griffith displayed a constant interest and concern about color, and used tinting as a special effect in many of his films. His 1915 epic, The Birth of a Nation, used a number of colors, including amber, blue, lavender, and a striking red tint for scenes such as the “burning of Atlanta” and the ride of the Ku Klux Klan at the climax of the picture. Griffith later invented a color system in which colored lights flashed on areas of the screen to achieve a color effect.


Lillian Gish was a major star of the silent era with one of the longest careers, working from 1912


The Motion Picture Patents Co. and the General Film Co. were found guilty of antitrust violation in October 1915, and were dissolved.

1892 -1906

Edison Studios were first in West Orange, New Jersey (1892), they were moved to the Bronx, New York (1907). Fox (1909) and Biograph (1906) started in Manhattan, with studios in St George Staten Island. Others films were shot in Fort Lee, New Jersey. The first westerns were filmed at Scott’s Movie Ranch. Cowboys and Indians galloped across Fred Scott’s movie ranch in South Beach, Staten Island), which had a frontier main street, a wide selection of stagecoaches and a 56-foot stockade. The island provided a serviceable stand-in for locations as varied as the Sahara desert and a British cricket pitch. War scenes were shot on the plains of Grasmere, Staten Island. The Perils of Pauline and its even more popular sequel The Exploits of Elaine were filmed largely on the island. So was the 1906 blockbuster Life of a Cowboy, by Edwin S. Porter. Companies and filming moved to the west coast around 1911.


 Starting with the mostly original score composed by Joseph Carl Breil for D. W. Griffith‘s groundbreaking epic The Birth of a Nation (USA, 1915) it became relatively common for the biggest-budgeted films to arrive at the exhibiting theater with original, specially composed scores.[5]

When organists or pianists used sheet music, they still might add improvisatory flourishes to heighten the drama onscreen. Even when special effects were not indicated in the score, if an organist was playing a theater organ capable of an unusual sound effect, such as a “galloping horses” effect, it would be used for dramatic horseback chases.

By the height of the silent era, movies were the single largest source of employment for instrumental musicians (at least in America). But the introduction of talkies, which happened simultaneously with the onset of the Great Depression, was devastating to many musicians.



Silent film actors emphasized body language and facial expression so that the audience could better understand what an actor was feeling and portraying on screen. Much silent film acting is apt to strike modern-day audiences as simplistic or campy. The melodramatic acting style was in some cases a habit actors transferred from their former stage experience. The pervading presence of stage actors in film was the cause of this outburst from director Marshall Neilan in 1917: “The sooner the stage people who have come into pictures get out, the better for the pictures.”[8]


 The visual quality of silent movies—especially those produced in the 1920s—was often high. However, there is a widely held misconception that these films were primitive and barely watchable by modern standards.[3] This misconception comes as a result of silent films being played back at wrong speed and their deteriorated condition. Many silent films exist only in second- or third-generation copies, often copied from already damaged and neglected film stock.[2

As motion pictures eventually increased in length, a replacement was needed for the in-house interpreter who would explain parts of the film. Because silent films had no synchronized sound for dialogue, onscreen intertitles were used to narrate story points, present key dialogue and sometimes even comment on the action for the cinema audience. The title writer became a key professional in silent film and was often separate from the scenario writer who created the story. Intertitles (or titles as they were generally called at the time) often became graphic elements themselves, featuring illustrations or abstract decoration that commented on the action. 



Unidentified silent film


Silent film Metropolis and  Abel Gance‘s Napoléon


maturity in the “silent era”(1894-1929) before silent films were replaced by “talking pictures” in the late 1920s. Many film scholars and buffs argue that the aesthetic quality of cinema decreased for several years until directors, actors, and production staff adapted to the new “talkies“.[2]


Interest in the scoring of silent films fell somewhat out of fashion during the 1960s and 1970s. There was a belief in many college film programs and repertory cinemas that audiences should experience silent film as a pure visual medium, undistracted by music. This belief may have been encouraged by the poor quality of the music tracks found on many silent film reprints of the time. More recently, there has been a revival of interest in presenting silent films with quality musical scores, either reworkings of period scores or cue sheets, or composition of appropriate original scores. A watershed event in this context was Kevin Brownlow‘s 1980 restoration of Abel Gance‘s Napoléon (1927) featuring a score by Carl Davis. Brownlow’s restoration was later distributed in America re-edited and shortened by Francis Ford Coppola with a live orchestral score composed by his father Carmine Coppola.

In 1984, a restoration of Metropolis (1927) with new score by producer/composer Giorgio Moroder was another turning point in modern day interest in silent films. Although the contemporary score, which included pop songs by Freddy Mercury of Queen, Pat Benatar and Jon Anderson of Yes was controversial, the door had been opened for a new approach to presentation of classic “silent” films.

Music ensembles currently perform traditional and contemporary scores for silent films. Purveyors of the traditional approach include organists and pianists such as Dennis James, Rick Friend, Chris Elliott, Dennis Scott, Clark Wilson and Jim Riggs. Orchestral conductors such as Gillian B. Anderson, Carl Davis, Carl Daehler, and Robert Israel have written and compiled scores for numerous silent films. In addition to composing new film scores, Timothy Brock has restored many of Charlie Chaplin‘s scores.

Contemporary music ensembles are helping to introduce classic silent films to a wider audience through a broad range of musical styles and approaches. Some performers create new compositions using traditional musical instruments while others add electronic sounds, modern harmonies, rhythms, improvisation and sound design elements to enhance the film watching experience. Among the contemporary ensembles in this category are Alloy Orchestra, Club Foot Orchestra, Silent Orchestra, Mont Alto Motion Picture Orchestra and The Reel Music Ensemble. Alloy Orchestra, which began performing in 1990, is among the first of the new wave of silent film music ensembles.



The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, synchronized dialogue was only made practical in the late 1920s with the perfection of the audion amplifier tube  and  introduction of the Vitaphone system.


1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.


After the release of The Jazz Singer in 1927, “talkies” became more and more commonplace. Within a decade, popular production of silent films had ceased.

 In other cases, directors such as John Griffith Wray required their actors to deliver larger-than-life expressions for emphasis. As early as 1914, American viewers had begun to make known their preference for greater naturalness on screen.[8]

In any case, the large image size and unprecedented intimacy the actor enjoyed with the audience began to affect acting style, making for more subtlety of expression. Actresses such as Mary Pickford in all her films, Eleonora Duse in the Italian film Cenere (1916), Janet Gaynor in Sunrise, Priscilla Dean in Outside the Law and The Dice Woman and Lillian Gish and Greta Garbo in most of their performances made restraint and easy naturalism in acting a virtue.[8] Directors such as Albert Capellani (a French director who also did work in America directing Alla Nazimova films) and Maurice Tourneur insisted on naturalism in their films; Tourneur had been just such a minimalist in his prior stage productions. By the mid-1920s many American silent films had adopted a more naturalistic acting style, though not all actors and directors accepted naturalistic, low-key acting straight away; as late as 1927 films featuring expressionistic acting styles such as Metropolis were still being released. Some viewers liked the flamboyant acting for its escape value, and some countries were later than the United States in embracing naturalistic style in their films. In fact today the level of naturalism in acting varies from film to film and our favourites may not be the most naturalistic. Just as today, a film’s success depended upon the setting, the mood, the script, the skills of the director, and the overall talent of the cast.[8]


Projection speed

Until the standardization of the projection speed of 24 frames per second (fps) for sound films between 1926


Some countries devised other ways of bringing sound to silent films. The early cinema of Brazil featured fitas cantatas: filmed operettas with singers performing behind the screen.[6] In Japan, films had not only live music but also the benshi, a live narrator who provided commentary and character voices. The benshi became a central element in Japanese film, as well as providing translation for foreign (mostly American) movies.[7] The popularity of the benshi was one reason why silent films persisted well into the 1930s in Japan.

Few film scores survive intact from this period, and musicologists are still confronted by questions when they attempt to precisely reconstruct those that remain. Scores can be distinguished as complete reconstructions of composed scores, newly composed for the occasion, assembled from already existing music libraries, or even improvised.


silent films were shot at variable speeds (or “frame rates“) anywhere from 12 to 26 fps, depending on the year and studio.[9] “Standard silent film speed” is often said to be 16 fps as a result of the Lumière brothers’ Cinematographé, but industry practice varied considerably; there was no actual standard. Cameramen of the era insisted that their cranking technique was exactly 16 fps, but modern examination of the films shows this to be in error, that they often cranked faster. Unless carefully shown at their intended speeds silent films can appear unnaturally fast. However, some scenes were intentionally undercranked during shooting to accelerate the action—particularly for comedies and action films.[9]

Slow projection of a cellulose nitrate base film carried a risk of fire, as each frame was exposed for a longer time to the intense heat of the projection lamp; but there were other reasons to project a film at a greater pace. Often projectionists received general instructions from the distributors on the musical director’s cue sheet as to how fast particular reels or scenes should be projected.[9] In rare instances, usually for larger productions, cue sheets specifically for the projectionist provided a detailed guide to presenting the film. Theaters also—to maximize profit—sometimes varied projection speeds depending on the time of day or popularity of a film,[10] and to fit a film into a prescribed time slot.[9]

By using projectors with dual- and triple-blade shutters the projected rate was multiplied two or three times higher than the number of film frames—each frame was flashed two or three times on screen. Early studies by Thomas Edison determined that any rate below 46 images per second “will strain the eye.”[9] A three-blade shutter projecting a 16 fps film would slightly surpass this mark, giving the audience 48 images per second. A 35 mm film frame rate of 24 fps translates to a film speed of 456 millimetres (18.0 in) per second.[11] One 1,000-foot (300 m) reel requires 11 minutes and 7 seconds to be projected at 24 fps, while a 16 fps projection of the same reel would take 16 minutes and 40 seconds; 304 millimetres (12.0 in) per second.[9]


Top grossing silent films in the United States

The following are the silent films that earned the highest ever gross income in film history, as calculated by Variety magazine in 1932. The dollar amounts are not adjusted for inflation.[14]

  1. The Birth of a Nation (1915) – $10,000,000
  2. The Big Parade (1925) – $6,400,000
  3. Ben-Hur (1925) – $5,500,000
  4. Way Down East (1920) – $5,000,000
  5. The Gold Rush (1925) – $4,250,000
  6. The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) – $4,000,000
  7. The Circus (1928) – $3,800,000
  8. The Covered Wagon (1923) – $3,800,000
  9. The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) – $3,500,000
  10. The Ten Commandments (1923) – $3,400,000
  11. Orphans of the Storm (1921) – $3,000,000
  12. For Heaven’s Sake (1926) – $2,600,000
  13. Seventh Heaven (1926) – $2,400,000
  14. Abie’s Irish Rose (1928) – $1,500,000

 During the sound era


Although attempts to create sync-sound motion pictures go back to the Edison lab in 1896, the technology became well-developed only in the early 1920s. The next few years saw a race to design, implement, and market several rival sound-on-disc and sound-on-film sound formats, such as Photokinema (1921), Phonofilm (1923), Vitaphone (1926), Fox Movietone (1927), and RCA Photophone (1928).

Although the release of The Jazz Singer (1927) by Warner Brothers marked the first commercially successful sound film, silent films were the majority of features released in both 1927 and 1928, along with so-called goat-glanded films: silents with a section of sound film inserted. Thus the modern sound film era may be regarded as coming to dominance beginning in 1929.

For a listing of notable silent era films, see list of years in film for the years between the beginning of film and 1928. The following list includes only films produced in the sound era with the specific artistic intention of being silent.


In the 1950s,

 many telecine conversions of silent films at grossly incorrect frame rates for broadcast television may have alienated viewers.[12] Film speed is often a vexed issue among scholars and film buffs in the presentation of silents today, especially when it comes to DVD releases of restored films; the 2002 restoration of Metropolis (Germany, 1927) may be the most fiercely debated example.


 Later homages

Several filmmakers have paid homage to the comedies of the silent era, including Jacques Tati with his Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot (1953) and Mel Brooks with Silent Movie (1976). Taiwanese director Hou Hsiao-Hsien‘s acclaimed drama Three Times (2005) is silent during its middle third, complete with intertitles; Stanley Tucci‘s The Impostors has an opening silent sequence in the style of early silent comedies. Brazilian filmmaker Renato Falcão’s Margarette’s Feast (2003) is silent. Writer / Director Michael Pleckaitis puts his own twist on the genre with Silent (2007). While not silent, the Mr. Bean TV show and movies have used the title character’s non-talkative nature to create a similar style of humor.

The 1999 German film Tuvalu is mostly silent; the small amount of dialog is an odd mix of European languages, increasing the film’s universality. Guy Maddin won awards for his homage to Soviet era silent films with his short The Heart of the World after which he made a feature-length silent, Brand Upon the Brain! (2006), incorporating live Foley artists, narration and orchestra at select showings. Shadow of the Vampire (2000) is a highly fictionalized depiction of the filming of Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau‘s classic silent vampire movie Nosferatu (1922). Werner Herzog honored the same film in his own version, Nosferatu: Phantom der Nacht (1979).

Some films draw a direct contrast between the silent film era and the era of talkies. Sunset Boulevard shows the disconnect between the two eras in the character of Norma Desmond, played by silent film star Gloria Swanson, and Singin’ in the Rain deals with the period where the people of Hollywood had to face changing from making silents to talkies. Peter Bogdanovich‘s affectionate 1976 film Nickelodeon deals with the turmoil of silent filmmaking in Hollywood during the early 1910s, leading up to the release of D. W. Griffith‘s 1915 epic The Birth of a Nation.

In 1999, the Finnish filmmaker Aki Kaurismäki produced Juha, which captures the style of a silent film, using intertitles in place of spoken dialogue.[15] In India, the 1988 film Pushpak,[16] starring Kamal Hassan, was a black comedy entirely devoid of dialog. The 2007 Australian film Dr Plonk, was a silent comedy directed by Rolf de Heer. Stage plays have drawn upon silent film styles and sources. Actor/writers Billy Van Zandt & Jane Milmore staged their Off-Broadway slapstick comedy Silent Laughter as a live action tribute to the silent screen era.[17] Geoff Sobelle and Trey Lyford created and starred in All Wear Bowlers (2004), which started as an homage to Laurel and Hardy then evolved to incorporate life-sized silent film sequences of Sobelle and Lyford who jump back and forth between live action and the silver screen.[18] The 1940 animated film Fantasia, which is eight different animation sequences set to music, can be considered a silent film, with only one short scene involving dialogue. The 1952 espionage film The Thief has music and sound effects, but no dialogue.

In 2005, the H.P. Lovecraft Historical Society produced a silent film version of Lovecraft’s story The Call of Cthulhu. This film maintained a period-accurate filming style, and was received as both “the best HPL adaptation to date” and, referring to the decision to make it as a silent movie, “a brilliant conceit.” [19]

The 2011 French film The Artist, directed by Michel Hazanavicius, plays as a silent film and is set in Hollywood during the silent era. It also includes segments of fictitious silent films starring its protagonists.[20]

Preservation and lost films


Many early motion pictures are lost because the nitrate film used in that era was extremely unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video. It has often been claimed that around 75% of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data.[21] Major silent films presumed lost include Saved from the Titanic (1912);[22] The Apostle, the world’s first animated feature film (1917); Cleopatra (1917);[23] Arirang (1926); Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1927);[24] The Great Gatsby (1926); and London After Midnight (1927). Though most lost silent films will never be recovered, some have been discovered in film archives or private collections.

In 1978 in Dawson City, Yukon, a bulldozer uncovered buried reels of nitrate film during excavation of a landfill. Dawson City was once the end of the distribution line for many films. The retired titles were stored at the local library until 1929 when the flammable nitrate was used as landfill in a condemned swimming pool. Stored for 50 years under the permafrost of the Yukon, the films turned out to be extremely well preserved. Included were films by Pearl White, Harold Lloyd, Douglas Fairbanks, and Lon Chaney. These films are now housed at the Library of Congress.[25] The degradation of old film stock can be slowed through proper archiving, or films can be transferred to CD-ROM or other digital media for preservation. Silent film preservation has been a high priority among film historians.[26]

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Funeral ceremony of Kim Yong Il

<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />

2 days ago
  at the Kumsusan Memorial Palace in Pyongyang


 a glass coffin a memorial palace in Pyongyang


Kim Jong-il dies aged 69: December 19 as it happened

World leaders call for reform after Kim Jong-il, the leader of North Korea, dies of a heart attack on a train in Pyongyang.

North koreans cry and scream in a display of mourning for their leader Kim Jong II

North Koreans cry and scream in a display of mourning for their leader Kim Jong-
North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has died, Pyongyang announced.

A nation in tears:

SEOUL, South Korea – North Korea announced the death of supreme leader Kim Jong Il and urged its people to rally behind his young son and heir-apparent Monday, while the world watched warily for signs of instability in a nation pursuing nuclear weapons.

South Korea, anxious about the untested, 20-something Kim Jong Un after his father’s 17-year rule, put its military on high alert against the North’s 1.2 million-strong armed forces. President Barack Obama agreed by phone with South Korean President Lee Myung-bak to closely monitor developments.

People on the streets of the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, wailed in grief, some kneeling on the ground or bowing repeatedly as they learned the news that their “dear general” had died of heart failure Saturday at age 69 while carrying out official duties on a train trip.

North Koreans mourn the death of Kim Jong Il… as West fears show of strength from nuclear state’s new leader

  • Kim Jong Il died on a train on Saturday morning of heart attack
  • Came into power in 1994, succeeding his father, Kim Il Sung
  • Third son, Kim Jong Un, unveiled as successor in September 2010
  • His uncle Jang Song Thaek expected to rule behind the scenes as he trains on the job
  • South Korean and Japanese militaries on ‘high alert’
  • North Korea today test-fires short-range missile on eastern coast
  • Fears of behind-the-scenes power struggle which could destabilise region
  • Funeral planned for December 28 in capital of Pyongyang
Kim Jong Il, N. Korea's 'Dear Leader' Dictator, Dead

Kim Jong Il, N. Korea’s ‘Dear Leader’ Dictator, Dead

Dec. 19 (Bloomberg) — Kim Jong Il, the second-generation North Korean dictator who defied global condemnation to build nuclear weapons while his people starved, has died, state media reported. A government statement called on North Koreans to “loyally follow” his son, Kim Jong Un. Rishaad Salamat reports on Bloomberg Television’s “Asia Edge.” (Source: Bloomberg) (/Bloomberg) Correction: Clarification:


North Korean leader Kim Jong Il is dead, according to state television from Pyongyang. There are currently no independent reports confirming his death.

“Our great leader Comrade Kim Jong-il passed away at 8:30 a.m. on Dec. 17,” Korean Central TV reported.

North Korea’s state-run television announced Kim died on Saturday of “physical and mental overwork,” the BBC reported. The AFP said his death was from a heart attack. He reportedly died while traveling.

The world’s only inherited communist ruler, Kim was reported to have been battling health issues that left him further isolated from the outside world.


August ,24th.2011

Kim jong il is dead 2011

North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-Il peers out of a car window after a meeting with Russian officials on August 24, 2011.


North Korean leader Kim Jong Il has been dead for years and replaced by a number of look-alikes, a Japanese academic claims.

One of Kim Jong Il’s doubles in 2008 (left) and the real Kim in 2003

and the information in 2009

Dead body of North Korea’s Kim Jong-Il turns 67


PYONGYANG — Droves of jubilant North Koreans took to the streets nationwide today to celebrate the 67th birthday of North Korean dictator and Great Leader Kim Jong-Il’s dead body.

“We are overjoyed to see the magnificence of our Dear Leader,” emaciated peasant Gwok Shi-Mon said. “He may not be as sprightly as he once was, but his strength and wisdom still show through that glass, coffin-like box in which he sleeps every night.”

Although North Korea denies that Kim, who apparently died last year, is dead, South Korean and U.S. sources said the Kim Jong-Il encased in glass in the rotunda of the reclusive country’s capitol building is indeed the leader’s dead, embalmed body.

“He’s not been seen in public in months,” South Korean Gen. Kai Vi-Tam said from Seoul. “The footage the state-run news agency plays of him is the same every time. It’s of Kim drinking a can of Tab while standing on a balcony waving to an adoring throng of people. At one point Kim picks up a copy of Michael Jackson’s ‘Thriller’ album, and then kills a low-level soldier for accidentally scratching the record while putting the needle on it so the crowd could dance to ‘Beat it’”

Even though Kim lay motionless as hundreds of thousands of North Koreans filed past him, laying crudely wrapped birthday presents in front of the glass box as they passed, His people said they took great comfort in knowing the Dear Leader is close by.

“I could tell the Great Leader was thinking about me as I placed a festively wrapped package of my last pack of cigarettes by his feet,” steel worker Xi Hun-Don said. “I would yank out my own eyeballs with an ax should the Dear Leader deem my cigarettes worthy enough to smoke. That would be a birthday present to me

North Korea expert Professor Toshimitsu Shigemura, a professor of international relations, says Kim died of diabetes in 2003 and has been substituted by up to four body doubles ever since.

Driven by a fear of assassination, Kim allegedly trained his doppelgangers — one of whom underwent plastic surgery — to attend public appearances.

“Scholars don’t trust my reasoning but intelligence people see the possibility that it will turn out to be accurate,” Fox News reported Professor Shigemura as saying.

“I have identified and pinned down every source.”

Kim, 66, has not appeared in public for three weeks amid rumours he is seriously unwell and look Kim in 2004

While Seoul intelligence officials have said they believe he has diabetes and heart problems, they do not think he is near death.

But Professor Shigemura, from Tokyo’s respected Waseda University, believes that Kim actually died sometime during a 42-day absence from public in September 2003.

He claims that whenever anyone is granted a face-to-face meeting with today’s Kim, a senior official is always by his side “like a puppet master”.

Professor Shigemura’s claims, outlined in his book The True Character of Kim Jong-il, have been disputed by North Korean officials.

November 10 2008

Pyongyang, North Korea – With reports of a severe illness having debilitated the North Korean leader, the spin machine in the isolated nation has been working in overdrive. From constant denials to apparently doctored photographs, the government has been doing everything it can to show the world that the ‘Dear Leader’ is alive and well. Now, Kim has appeared on national television to prove he is alive and well, and made a shocking change in the political and social climate of the entire jong-il hip hop master

“We have long been an isolated country, we have long been at odds with our neighbours and the rest of the world but that all changes today,” said Kim in a speech. “I have taken time in isolation and come to the conclusion that the best way for the Korean people to move forward is through music. North Korea will eschew communism and become a hip-hop nation effective immediately. Bling will be issued to every resident starting tomorrow.”

While few details have been released on how the new government will be organized, one immediate change will be the national anthem. Replacing the decades old anthem will be Afrika Bambaataa’s ‘Looking for the Perfect Beat’ (here) and will play in all government offices and schools starting Monday. A redesign of the flag is also on tap, as well as a top down renovation of the schooling system.

“Children will be taught the way of Hip-Hop. Not only the grand history, but also the culture,” continued Kim. “Children must be taught the path, and through the path they will find freedom. It will take a nation of millions to hold us back from our destiny.”

Kim, long an admirer of western culture, has been rumoured to be a lifelong hip-hop fan which in part stemmed from his love of Basketball. In 2000 Former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright presented the leader with a basketball signed by Michael Jordan at the conclusion of a summit between the US and North Korea. He also reportedly uses pure silver chopsticks and has a massive fleet of Mercedes Benz S500’s at his disposal, putting him in line with the upper end of American hip-hop culture.

“From what I’ve heard he’s an old school guy. Grandmaster Flash, Bambaataa, Fab Five Freddy, those kinds of guys, apparently though he’s always got Wu-Tang Clan playing on his iPod. Supposedly his guilty pleasure is Lil Wayne and he shuts it off every time someone walks into the room,” said Scrape TV North Korean analyst Lee Joo-Chan. “That’s great and all but I don’t see how you can translate your hobby and musical taste into a political system. George Bush made a diligent effort in turning the US into a nation of country bumpkins but failed. It’s an interesting experiment but one that may be doomed to failure.”

Many are looking to Kim to implement the changes much like his father, Kim Il-sung, did when the North was driven into communism. While the younger Kim has been looked at as more of an eccentric rather than formidable leader, some believe that he may still have some of the drive and smarts that his father had.wu tang north korea logo

“He is a little funny in the head, everyone knows that, but he’s got the same blood coursing through his veins and that may serve him well in the transition,” continued Lee. “But we need to see details. In a nation where millions of people are starving do they really need to be putting money into breakdancing lessons? Military service or turntable lessons? I don’t see how hip-hop culture lends itself to Socialism so it’s going to be a hard time getting people to see their country in a new way. More power to him, but it’s going to be tough. Word.”

September 9 2008

Pyongyang, North Korea –Rumours are abound that Kim Jong-il, notorious dictator of South Korea has either died, fallen severely ill, or even passed away years ago and has been replaced by lookalikes ever since. His failure to appear at ceremonies marking the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of North Korea has caused even more of a stir in the intelligence community.

kim jong-il smilingTalk that Kim had died many years ago started to surface in August after an article published in the Japanese newspaper Shukan Gendai. Circumstantial evidence seemed to back up the claim, though no hard evidence was presented. The latest talk of a possible stroke would seem to put a damper on the theory, but would likely result in the same outcome.

“If Kim did in fact die five years ago and was replaced by lookalikes, it would hardly be surprising,” said Scrape TV North Korean analyst Lee Joo-Chan. “If that is untrue and he has just recently become ill or died, it’s likely the regime would implement this procedure in order to cover it up. Whether the original story spawned the idea or vice-versa is an intellectual debate. I have little doubt that they would cover up his death whenever it happens. I wouldn’t be surprised if he’s around in one form or another for many years to come.”

North Korea is of course extremely closed and isolated from the rest of the world, so uncovering reliable information concerning any goings-on in the country is extremely difficult. That process is even more complicated when it comes to information about the “Dear Leader” whose face is plastered across the country and is revered in some ways close to a God.   

“Kim is more than a leader, he has positioned himself as the life blood of the people and it would be incumbent on the government to maintain his existence whether it was fact or not. Kim has thrived on misinformation for many years and this would be no different,” continued Lee. “I think the more interesting talk would be how many people in the country could emulate him. The bouffant hairdo is hard to come by these days and even in North Korea I can’t imagine a whole lot of people lining up to double for a pudgy delusional midget. Of course they may not have a choice.”kim jong-il puppet

The other option of course would be using stock footage of the dictator for public appearances and limit meetings with foreign dignitaries. There is at least one instance of footage being used in place of a live appearance, wherein footage from the movie ‘Team America: World Police’ was accidently broadcast across the country. That film features a literal puppet of Kim. The footage was quickly pulled and seems to have had no ill effects on the leader’s reputation.

“Kim is a very unique person to say the least, and I think it would be very difficult to replace him,” concluded Lee. “Of course with the way North Korea is run, fooling the people wouldn’t be an issue. I hope the South Park guys kept their puppets, they may come in handy again.”   

Neither Matt Stone, Trey Parker, nor the North Korean government had any comment


The Pediatrician And Pediatric science




Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

special for my lovng wife Lily W.,MM,

and Grandchild Cessa,celin and antoni


Pediatrician History

Jeffrey Baker

Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Director, History of Medicine Program, Trent Center for Bioethics, Humanities, and History of Medicine

B.S. Duke University
M.D. Duke University School of Medicine
Pediatrics, University of Colorado
Ambulatory Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center
Ph.D. Duke University

Dr. Baker’s is an academic pediatrician and historian whose scholarship has focused on medical technology, ethics and child health. He has lectured and written extensively on the evolution of premature infant technology. Much of this work is synthesized in his comparative history of neonatal medicine in France and the United States, The Machine in the Nursery: Incubator Technology and the Origins of Newborn Intensive Care (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996). His more recent work has examined childhood vaccine controversies in the United States and Great Britain. He has also written and edited a history of 20th century American pediatrics commemorating the 75th year anniversary of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Dr. Baker directs the Medical History Program of the Trent Center for Bioethics, Humanities, and History of Medicine, in which capacity he teaches at all levels of undergraduate and graduate medical education. He has taught undergraduate courses addressing the historical aspects of medical ethics, technology, reproductive medicine, and genetics; currently Dr. Baker directs the Prospective Health Care series within Duke’s Focus program for first-year undergraduate students. Previous responsibilities at Duke have included serving as Interim Director of the Trent Center and Director of the AB Duke Scholarship Program (both between 2005-6), and Medical Director of the Duke Health Center at Southpoint (1999-2003). Dr. Baker practices general pediatrics and serves on the advisory committee for the Pediatric History Center for the American Academy of Pediatrics

1968 – Hattie Elizabeth Alexander died.

Hattie Elizabeth Alexander and Sadie Carlin - 1926
Alexander was a pediatrician and microbiologist who developed the study of antibiotic resistant strains of viruses and pathogens. She developed the first antibiotic treatment for infant meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Her treatment significantly reduced the mortality rate of the disease. She became one of the first women to head a major medical association when she was the president of the American Pediatric Society in 1964. The photograph is of Miss Alexander (sitting on lab bench) and Sadie Carlin (right) before she received her medical degree

Pediatric University History
Yale Medical University

Department of Pediatrics, 1921-22

The Department of Pediatrics was organized on a full-time basis in 1921 with the appointment of Edwards Park, formerly at Johns Hopkins, as Chairman.Top row: Ernest Caulfield, John C.S. Battey (?), Frank L. Babbot, Joseph Weiner.
Bottom row: Ruth A. Guy, Ethel C. Dunham, Grover F. Powers, Edwards Park, Alfred Theodore Shohl, Martha M. Eliot, Marian C. Putnam.Women were on the faculty of the Medical School from the 1920s on — Martha Eliot and Ethel Dunham had distinguished careers at Yale and at the U.S. Children’s Bureau — but no women were made full professors until 1965.

Pediatric science History

Your Baby’s Eye Exam

The best way to protect your baby’s eyes is through regular professional examinations. Certain infectious, congenital, or hereditary eye diseases may be present at birth or develop shortly thereafter. Yet, when diagnosed early, their impact may be greatly minimized.

So have your baby’s eyes examined – by a licensed eye doctor – before six months of age (or sooner if recommended by your pediatrician) and regularly throughout his or her life.

How Can I Prepare For My Baby’s Eye Exam

Chances are your pediatrician will examine your baby’s eyes in one of your first few visits. The pediatrician will review your baby’s health and family health history. You can prepare for your baby’s appointment using our Eye Exam Checklist. Be sure to tell the pediatrician about any eye health issues in your family, as many of these can be inherited.

How Will the Doctor Test My Baby’s Eyesight?

The pediatrician may use toys and lights to determine your baby’s ability to focus, recognize colors, and perceive depth or dimension. Here are some things you may see during the exam:

  • Alignment Using toys that make noises (or are otherwise intriguing) the pediatrician will cover and quickly uncover each eye to test for a dominant eye
  • Ability to fixate Your pediatrician will move an object in front of your baby’s eyes to see if the eyes can watch and follow the object.
  • Coordination of eye muscles The pediatrician will move a light or some interesting toys in a set pattern to test your baby’s ability to see sharply and clearly at near and far distances.
  • Pupil response to light The pediatrician will shine a small light (a penlight, for example) in your baby’s eye and watch the pupil’s reaction. The pupil normally would get smaller very quickly in response to light.
  • Eyelid health and function The pediatrician will examine each eyelid to be sure it is functioning normally.  This includes a check for drooping eyelid, inflammation, and any other indications that your baby’s eyes need greater attention.

If your pediatrician sees anything out of the ordinary, you’ll be advised to make an appointment with a licensed eye doctor who will perform a more comprehensive evaluation of your baby’s eyes.

What Does a Comprehensive Eye Exam Involve

Babies should have their first comprehensive eye exam by a licensed eye doctor at six months. A licensed eye doctor will perform additional tests that the pediatrician does not.  This is essential if there are any major vision issues that run in your family, as they may have been inherited.   

Your eye doctor will conduct some of the same tests you saw in your pediatrician’s office, but with some important additions:

  • Vision correction The eye doctor will use eye drops to help your baby’s pupils dilate, creating a better window to the back of your baby’s eyes.  This dilation allows your doctor to check for Nearsightedness (myopia), Farsightedness (hyperopia) and Astigmatism.  The drops take about 45 minutes to work, and will blur your baby’s vision and cause a little light sensitivity for a few hours. Using a retinoscope, the doctor will move the light to see it reflected in the pupil.  The shape of the reflection helps the doctor determine if your baby has vision issues that require correction.
  • The interior and back of the eye After dilating your baby’s eyes and dimming the lights, the doctor will use a special instrument called an ophthalmoscope to see through to the retina and optic nerve at the back of the eye. This is where clues to many eye diseases first show up.
  • Tests for a specific issue Be sure to discuss any other concerns you have about your baby’s eyes such as crossed eyes and nystagmus, so your doctor can do the appropriate tests and advise you on the action required.

What If I Can’t Afford to Have My Baby’s Eyes Examined?

Not everyone can afford the preventive health care their babies need – so the American Optometric Association (AOA) has a special program designed to help parents.

Parents can get a FREE comprehensive eye examination for their baby during the first year of the baby’s life. It’s called InfantSee, and the AOA provides the information you need to find a participating eye care professional in your area

Vivian Riggs and Andrew Stella-Vega, both in the USF Health Information Systems department, designed an online preadmission testing history and physical form that not only provides pertinent information ahead of scheduled surgeries, but the information perfectly interfaces with existing patient record and scheduling software (GE’s Perioperative).

2.The pre-admission testing online health history has improved workflow, reduced waste, and improved continuity

Andrew Stella-Vega (left) and Vivian Riggs earned GE’s top award.

This integration has several benefits, chief among them saving time for both patients and nurse schedulers. In addition, the new program – with the checks-and-balances aspect of its targeted medical questions – means fewer same-day cancellations, which cause holes in the surgery schedule that could otherwise be filled with another patient and, many times, waste supplies that are opened in the prepared operating room but need to be discarded because they are exposed and no longer usable.

“The pre-admission testing online health history has improved workflow, reduced waste, and improved continuity,” said Adele Emery, RN, director of the USF Health Ambulatory Surgery Center (ASC).

“The development of the USF online patient health history questionnaire is a major improvement in the preoperative evaluation process,” said Ward Longbottom, MD, who has been the co-medical director and director of anesthesiology at the USF Morsani surgery center since its opening and has been instrumental in the development of the online questionnaire. “It is highly efficient and cost effective along with being a huge patient satisfier. No more lengthy  telephone assessments or inconvenient unnecessary preoperative visits. With the online health history, we’ve seen decreases and hope to eliminate the number of phone calls to patients just to get their health histories. And the ease of integrating this information into our electronic patient records means it can be easily reviewed by the entire health team instantaneously.”

With the new program, patients fill out the easy-to-use, secure online form (created by application developer Stella-Vega) at their convenience prior to surgery. Through an interface program (created by Perioperative System Manager Riggs) the information carries over into the patients’ EMR and the ASC’s scheduling.

GE’s first-place award went to the USF Health IS team.

Previous to the new program, lengthy phone calls between nurse coordinators and patients, excess paperwork in the world of electronic medical records, and miscues in communication between patient and medical personnel were the norm, Riggs said.

“This program definitely streamlined the process for the ASC,” Riggs said. “Preadmission testing nursing labor hours have been cut by 66 percent for patients opting to use the online form. Anesthesiologists reported only positive outcomes and improvement in their patient workflow. And patients seem to really like the process, too. The feedback has been great.”

Stella-Vega said that the next step is to build the tracking programs.

“We’re building the business and number-crunching side of the program now,” he said. “But it’s pretty much unlimited what we can do with this.”

“Vivian and Andrew created a very innovative solution to a basic need at the ASC,” said Sidney Fernandes, interim chief information officer and director of the Application Development for USF Health Information Systems. “This is an ideal project on several levels: it showed good teamwork, it is patient-centered, and it offers great system and workflow improvements.”

The integrated form is one of several projects the USF Health IS department has spearheaded that has benefitted clinical and academic departments throughout USF Health, Fernandes said.

How unique is this new program? Two things hint that the program is significant.

First, Riggs and Stella-Vega earned GE’s 2011 Customer Innovation Award for their work. GE Healthcare provides the awards to recognize organizations that have implemented its GE Centricity Perioperative software in ways that result in marked improvements in clinical efficiency and financial performance. They accepted the first-place award at the GE Healthcare Perioperative conference in early September.

And second, Riggs has received calls from several hospitals and medical facilities asking about the program.

“We built this program from the ground up with input from our anesthesiologist expert, Dr. Ward Longbottom, the Preadmission Testing Nurses, and GE” Riggs said. “Paperwork has begun for the patent.”

Story by Sarah A. Worth, photos by Eric Younghas, USF Health Office of Communications

3.Pediatric Anamnesa (History)

Pediatric History chaudhary photo

The pediatric history, though essentially similar to that for adults, should contain certain information usually not recorded for the older patient.  In addition, some areas of the history require greater or lesser emphasis.  These notes are not intended to define the entire pediatric history, but rather to emphasize the main differences from the history for adults.




  • Identifying
  • The
  • Chief
  • Patient
  • Medical
  • Review of

Identifying Information

The age and sex of every patient, at the beginning, are essential for orderly consideration.  These facts must be included at the beginning of every write-up.

The Informant

One of the most important aspects of the pediatric history is that it is usually obtained from a person other than the patient.  Thus, identification of the source of the information and an estimate of the reliability of that individual are extremely important.  Information may be exaggerated, minimized or withheld by the parent or other individual providing the history.  Since the history is usually taken while the child is present, it is appropriate to turn to him/ her occasionally (provided that he/she is old enough to respond) and seek confirmation of the complaint by asking direct questions, such as “Can you show me where it hurts?”  For the older child, differences between the parent’s assessment of the situation and the child’s version may become apparent.  This type of information can be very useful to the examiner in his/her evaluation of the family, as can other observations of the interaction of patient and child (excessive dependency, unusual degrees of permissiveness or discipline).

Chief Complaint

This is the primary reason why the patient or parent(s) is seeking medical aid and should be in his/her own words.  Remember that the reason stated by the parent for bringing the child to medical care may not be the real one.  The mother who just wants her child to “have a thorough check-up” actually may be seeking help with behavioral problems, school difficulties or other complaints that are uncomfortable for her to discuss.

Patient Profile

The “work” of the young child is play, and that of the older child is school.  Questions about these activities should therefore replace those relating to work and life style for the adult.

Past Medical History

The past medical history of the child should begin with the pregnancy which results in his birth, with particular attention to its length, any significant illnesses or bleeding, the adequacy of prenatal care, and exposure to any drugs or irradiation.  The length of labor, the type of delivery, and the birth weight should be recorded if known.  Problems during the neonatal course, such as the need for being in an incubator, of receiving oxygen, or the presence of “mucus”, jaundice, or cyanosis should be identified.  If the mother’s recollection is hazy (which is frequent for this kind of information), two useful clues may be obtained by determining whether the infant was brought to the mother early and regularly, and whether he went home on schedule with her.  If a Cesarean section was done, indicate why.

For children in the first two or three years of life, information about early feeding patterns can be important, and should therefore be obtained regularly.  Was the infant breast or bottle fed; when were solid foods such as cereal begun; were vitamins or iron given; when was the child weaned from the breast or bottle?

The history regarding communicable diseases is particularly important in children, since the lifelong immunity conferred by most of these diseases is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis in a child with an acute infection.  For similar reasons, the immunization status in regard to diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, varicella, poliomyelitis, hemophilus influenza Type B, hepatitis B, rubeola, rubella mumps, and stretococcal pneumoniae should be obtained for each patient.  Some patients may have been immunized against influenza, typhoid or other conditions, particularly if they have underlying heart problems or have been abroad.

Family Medical History

A question about congenital anomalies is warranted, particularly if the patient is being evaluated for an anomaly.  ANY DISEASE WHICH IS SUSPECTED IN THE PATIENT MAY NEED TO BE SOUGHT IN THE FAMILY.  Remember – This should be reported from the standpoint of the patient.  (eg. mom may state that her dad has hypertension but you would write: paternal grandfather with hypertension.)

Review of Systems

The systemic review must be tailored to the age and primary complaints of the patient.  A question about urinary or fecal incontinence has little meaning for the small infant!  On the other hand, the occurrence of bedwetting after age five years would be of significance and should be recorded.  Similarly, subtle complaints such as palpitations or parethesias may not be readily recognized or interpreted by a child.

An extremely important aspect of the review of systems in childhood relates to growth and development.  When possible, it is desirable to obtain previously recorded growth data, as are often available from physician’s instruction booklets or from baby books kept by the parents;  these data may be compared with those obtained at the time of the present evaluation.  It is sometimes useful to compare the growth of an individual child with that of his siblings.

Development data may be more difficult to obtain, particularly as children become older; again, baby books may be helpful.  Though information about all of the aspects of development (motor, adaptive, language and personal/social) is desirable, it is often difficult to ascertain the precise ages at which the child achieved a specific milestone.  Recollections about the following tend to be reasonably accurate:

     1.  Motor – age when walked alone, rode a tricycle

     2.  Adaptive – age when learned to button up

     3.  Language – first words and use of words as short sentences

     4.  Personal/Social – age when toilet trained

It is also important to develop some understanding regarding the personality and behavior of the child.  Inquiry should be made regarding the child’s relationship with adults, siblings, and peers.  Patients should be asked about overall behavioral patterns, such as “nervousness,” hyperactivity, or a tendency to become upset with light provocation.  Habits such as thumbsucking, nail biting, and pica should be asked about, as should the common behavioral problems like temper tantrums, sleep disturbances and unusual fears.  It is desirable to get information about whether the child is easy or difficult to discipline, and who in the family is responsible for most punishment.  Detailed discussions about behavior problems should not, of course, be conducted in the child’s presence.


Burnout, Injuries & the Over Trained School Athlete

November 8, 2011 By 3 Comments

The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the importance of physical exercise and the potential for school athletics to provide a structured regular form of physical activity for kids.  In an attempt to keep children safe, the AAP makes recommendations regarding the prevention and management of concussions, little league elbow, and various other medical conditions, from bleeding disorders to playing with a single functioning eye or kidney.  The guidelines while helpful do not address each clinical scenario.

In the last 6 weeks, the following children were seen in my office**:

  • 16 yo volleyball player with a history of a fractured spine who trains 5 days a week year round in only one sport
  • 15 yo healthy appearing wrestler with a BMI at the 50% who wants to lose 10 pounds
  • A seventh grader with two days of persistent headache after head trauma during a basketball game
  • Soccer player with one kidney 
  • An obviously anxious 12 yo straight A student with chest pain at every football practice despite a completely negative medical work up for lung and heart problems
  • 17 yo who plays 3 different sports not because he enjoys them but because “he needs to keep his options open for college.”  His practices leave no time for family meals.                                 (**Stories changed slightly to protect identities)

Parents and athletes who present for sport physicals are not interested in modifying their training, changing sports, or slowing down.  Parents expect my signature and clearance, and if I don’t provide it, they can go to the local retail clinic, seek care at another office practice or from a specialty physician.

30-45 million children 6-18yo participate in some type of athletics.  Although exercise is essential to good health, participation in school athletics often results in injury.  For instance, according to the Center for Disease Control, high school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually.

The CDC funded a study in 2005-06 that included a representative sample of high school athletes from across the nation.  Athletic trainers at the schools tracked injuries (occurred while practicing or playing a game, required medical attention from the trainer or a physician and kept the athlete out of activity for at least one day beyond the injury) and entered them into a internet surveillance system.  They tracked 4.2 million athletes playing football, wrestling, basketball, soccer, baseball, softball and volleyball (see the table below).  Injury rates were highest for football, wrestling and soccer with competition more likely to cause injury than practice.   80% of the 1.4 million injuries were new not recurrent problems.

TABLE. Sport-specific injury rates* in practice, competition,

and overall — High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance

Study, United States, 2005–06 school year


Sport                       Practice               Competition         Overall

Boys’ football         2.54                           12.09                          4.36

Boys’ wrestling      2.04                           3.93                            2.50

Boys’ soccer           1.58                            4.22                            2.43

Girls’ soccer           1.10                            5.21                             2.36

Girls’ basketball    1.37                           3.60                            2.01

Boys’ basketball     1.46                          2.98                             1.89

Girls’ volleyball     1.48                           1.92                             1.64

Boys’ baseball        0.87                          1.77                             1.19

Girls’ softball         0.79                          1.78                              1.13

Total                       1.69                         4.63                            2.44

* Per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions).

Although this study included common sports, there are roughly 30 different options for high school athletics.  If parents and athletes knew the injury rates of various sports upfront would that influence their choice of sport?  The injury rates of junior high, middle school and even elementary school children were not addressed in this study.  However, we do know that the age at which kids play competitively is decreasing and thus injuries are increasing in this younger group.  Maybe our youngest kids should only practice and not compete as that nearly doubles the risk of injury.

The AAP recommends that children be at least 6 years old before playing team sports.  Furthermore the clinical report that addresses injuries and overtraining in athletes encourages pediatricians to:

  1. Encourage athletes to strive to have at least 1 to 2 days off per week from competitive athletics, sport-specific training and competitive practice (scrimmage) to allow them to recover both physically and psychologically. 
  2. Advise athletes that the weekly training time, number of repetitions, or total distanceshould not increase by more than 10% eachweek (eg, increase total running mileage by 2 miles if currently running a total of 20 miles per week). 
  3. Encourage the athlete to take at least 2 to 3 months away froma specific sport during the year. 
  4. Emphasize that the focus of sports participation should be on fun, skill acquisition, safety, and sportsmanship. 
  5. Encourage the athlete to participate on only 1 team during aseason. If the athleteis also a member of a traveling or select team, then that participation time should be incorporated into the aforementioned guidelines. 
  6. If the athlete complains of nonspecific muscle or joint problems, fatigue, or poor academic performance, be alert for possible burnout. Questions pertaining to sport motivation may be appropriate. 
  7. Advocate for the development of a medical advisory board for weekend athletic tournaments to educate athletes about heat or cold illness, overparticipation, associated overuse injuries, and/or burnout. 
  8. Encourage the development of educational opportunities for athletes, parents, and coaches to provide information about appropriate nutrition and fluids, sport safety, and the avoidance of overtraining to achieve optimal performance and good health. 
  9. Convey a special caution to parents with younger athletes who participate in multigame tournaments in short periods oftime. 



Genetic Dysfunction found in Non-neuronal cells for Neurological Disorders

La Jolla, November 9, 2011 – Al La Spada, MD, PhD, et al, used a variety of transgenic mouse models to show that SCA7 results from genetic dysfunction in associated non-neuronal support cells to affected neurons. In collaboration with researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine and University of Washington, the findings were published in the November 9 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.
Kawasaki Disease Triggers May Be Wind-Borne

La Jolla, November 10, 2011 – In an issue of Scientific Reports published on November 10, 2011, Prof. Jane Burns et al suggest large-scale wind currents from Asia to Japan and across the North Pacific may be linked to Kawasaki Disease (KD).
Third Annual Pediatrics Translational Research Symposium at Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, 2011

October 25th, 2011 – UC San Diego’s Department of Pediatrics and Rady Children’s Hospital proudly hosted the third annual Pediatric Translational Research Symposium on Advanced Genomics and Personalized Medicine. Held at the Acute Care Pavilion at Rady Children’s Hospital, the Symposium was well-attended, with over 100 attendees.

Faculty, Fellows, Residents, and Clinicians invited to our Annual 2011 Pediatric Translational Research Symposium that will be held: Tuesday, October 25, 2011, Acute Care Pavilion Conference Room, Rady Children’s Hospital Campus (Kearny Mesa) from 8:30 am – 4:15 pm; *Breakfast, Lunch, & Refreshments will be provided; * Parking Validation Available
Gahagan named Chief of New Pediatrics Division at UC San Diego

September 26th, La Jolla – Sheila Gahagan, M.D., M.P.H., Professor of Clinical Pediatrics and Division Chief of Child Development and Community Health, has been recently appointed as Division Chief of Academic General Pediatrics, joining this group with the Division of Child Development and Community Health.
Dr. Mark Sawyer Interviewed by Infectious Diseases in Children

In an interview with Infectious Diseases in Children, Dr. Mark Sawyer says vaccination rates are not as strong as they should be, and young babies are at the highest risk for pertussis, a whooping cough that is nearly as contagious as chickenpox.
Obese kids may face social, emotional woes

Dr. Jeffrey Schwimmer, a pediatric gastroenterologist and an associate professor of pediatrics at UCSD and RCHSD, said the physical health risks of obesity in childhood can have lifelong consequences. Those include sleep apnea and fatty liver disease, which can, over time, cause irreversible damage to the liver, diabetes and high blood pressure.
Sivagnanam Receives 2011 NASPGHAN Young Faculty Investigator Award

September 19, 2011, La Jolla, CA – Dr. Mamata Sivagnanam, Asst. Professor and physician-scientist in the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition at UC San Diego and Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, was awarded this year’s NASPGHAN Young Faculty Investigator Award.
What’s in a kids meal? Not Happy News, Researchers Find

The study of data compiled by Dr. Kerri Boutelle et al. in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California, San Diego, appearing this week in the new journal Childhood Obesity, showed that convenience resulted in lunchtime meals that accounted for between 36 and 51 percent of a child’s daily caloric needs.
Sander Receives 3 Transformative Collaborative Project Awards from Beta Cell Biology Consortium (BCBC)

August 24, 2011, La Jolla, CA – Dr. Maike Sander, Associate Professor in Pediatrics and Cellular & Molecular Medicine, was awarded over $2M collectively in 3 Transformative Collaborative Project Awards from the Beta Cell Biology Consortium (BCBC).
Meet UC San Diego’s New Pediatric Chief Residents, 2011-2012

August 21st, 2011, La Jolla, CA – UC San Diego’s Department of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine, welcomes 3 new Chief Residents for the 2011-2012 academic year – Drs. Megan Browning, Monique Mayo, and Tina Udaka.
UC San Diego’s Alysson Muotri named 2011 Poptech Science Fellow

Dr. Alysson Muotri, Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics/Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego has been named a 2011 PopTech Science and Public Leadership Fellow. Muotri’s work is currently using stem cells to study possible causes – and cures – for autism and other mental disorders.
UC San Diego School of Medicine Names Feldstein as New Division Chief for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

July 1st, La Jolla, CA – The Department of Pediatrics, UC San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, names Ariel Feldstein, MD, as the Division Chief for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Feldstein joins the Department of Pediatrics from the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio, where he was the Director of Research for the Pediatric Institute.
Low VAPB Protein Levels May Be Cause for Inherited ALS

Published in the June, 2011 issue of Human Molecular Genetics, Alysson R. Muotri, Ph.D. Assistant Professor at UC San Diego’s Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, reported evidence of reduced levels of the VAPB protein which may play a central role in causing inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
NEURON: La Spada et al. Discovers Regulators and Noncoding RNA Role in Neurodegenerative Disorders

NEURON, June 22, 2011: Dr. Albert La Spada – Division Chief of Genetics in UC San Diego’s Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, and Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, recently identified the mechanism contributing to the transcriptional dysregulation in Spinocerebellar ataxia 7, an inherited neurological disorder.
Sander elected to American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2011

Dr. Maike Sander, associate professor in pediatrics and cellular & molecular medicine, was elected to the America Society for Clinical Investigation. Dr. Sander joins 62 other UC San Diego faculty members who have been elected to the Society since the inception of the UC San Diego School of Medicine.
Immunity: Nizet et al Discovers How Immune System Fights Anthrax Infections

June 22, 2011 – Scientists in collaboration with Dr. Nizet at the School of Medicine and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences have uncovered how the body’s immune system launches its survival response to the notorious and deadly bacterium anthrax. Published in the June 22 issue of the journal Immunity, the research describes key emergency signals the body sends out when challenged by a life-threatening infection.
TIME: Parent-Only Education Helps Children Lose Weight

Current treatment programs generally require participation by both parents and children in a plan that combines nutrition education and exercise with behavior therapy techniques.Kerri N. Boutelle, PhD, associate professor of pediatrics and psychiatry at UC San Diego and Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, demonstrated that parent-only groups are an equally viable method for weight loss.
Anders Receives 2011 Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Faculty Award

May 31, 2011, La Jolla – Dr. Bronwen Anders, professor of pediatrics at UC San Diego, was awarded the prestigious peer-nominated Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award presented by the Arnold P. Gold Foundation. In addition to peer-nominations, Dr. Anders was selected by a subcommittee of the School’s Faculty Council as the faculty recipient of the award.
Tremoulet et al finds Filipino Children at Higher Risk in KD

May 6, 2011, Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: Tremoulet et al. at UC San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, finds that Filipino children with KD are at a higher risk for inflammation of the blood vessels of the heart than those of other Asian and non-Asian backgrounds.
King Receives $1.3 Million CIRM Award for Type 1 Diabetes Stem Cell Research

Dr. C.C. King, Associate Research Scientist, in the Pediatric Diabetes Research Center, UC San Diego, has been awarded $1,313,649 to understand the role of microRNAs in the stem cell differentiation process pertaining to insulin-producing cells and possible treatments for type 1 diabetes. The proposed research may provide critical insight to the regulatory mechanisms of cell differentiation and create opportunities to better control differentiation of hESCs into insulin-producing cells.
UC San Diego Pediatrics Group Works To Get San Diego Kids Fully Immunized

Dr. Mark Sawyer is a pediatrician in infectious diseases at UCSD, Rady Children’s Hospital. “We need to help protect others who can’t be immunized, either because their immune system is compromised, or they’re too young. The only way to protect everybody is to get everyone immunized.”
Itkin-Ansari and Tremoulet Receive Prestigious Hartwell Biomedical Research Awards

April 6, 2011 – Pamela Itkin-Ansari, PhD and Adriana Tremoulet, MD, assistant professors in the Department of Pediatrics, UC San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, are two among twelve recipients of the Hartwell Individual Biomedical Research Awards, honoring researchers whose work contributes to the advancement of children’s health.
NATURE: Structure Formed by Strep Protein can Trigger Toxic Shock

Dr. Partho Ghosh, professor of chemistry and biochemistry, and Dr. Victor Nizet, professor of pediatrics, have collaborated to show how a bacterial protein called M1 combines with human fibrinogen, forming a complex that activates white blood cells to provoke uncontrolled inflammation and shock during severe strep infections.
Stucky Fisher Receives Highest Honor from Society of Hospital Medicine

March 31st, 2011 – Dr. Erin Stucky Fisher, Vice Chair of Clinical Affairs, Professor of Clinical Pediatrics and Hospitalist at UC San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, was one of four hospitalists to receive the highest honor as a Master of Hospital Medicine (MHM) by the Society of Hospital Medicine this year.

The Department of Pediatrics at UC San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital-San Diego, congratulates incoming interns for Fall 2011. During the three years of consecutive training, the resident will evolve progressively with increasing knowledge and responsibility to all aspects of general pediatric medicine.
UC San Diego Pediatricians talk about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on KPBS Radio Show

“Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of birth defects.”Drs. Kenneth Lyons Jones, Doris Trauner, and Christina Chambers talk about the characteristics and prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome on KPBS radio.



 23rd Annual Graduate French and Italian Symposium

Forming and De-forming the human body

April 16-17, 2010

Keynote Presentation by
Walton O. Schalick, III, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medical History, Rehabilitation Medicine,
History of Science and Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison

23rd Annual Graduate French and Italian Symposium

Forming and De-forming the human body

April 16-17, 2010

Keynote Presentation by
Walton O. Schalick, III, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medical History, Rehabilitation Medicine,
History of Science and Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2010 Symposium website

Keynote Speaker: Walton O. Schalick, III, MD, PhD

We are delighted to have Walton O. Schalick, III, MD, PhD give this year’s keynote address,“‘Caveat corpus:’ Disabled Bodies and the Medical Marketplace in Medieval and Nineteenth-century France.

Walt is Assistant Professor of Medical History, Rehabilitation Medicine, History of Science and Pediatrics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Walt’s research embraces a triptych of: the history of medieval medicine and pharmacology, the history of children with physical disabilities in 19th- and 20th-century Europe and the US, and the practical ethics of pediatric emergency research, some of which has appeared in articles and chapters and the balance of which is pending in two monographs. He is Associate Editor for the five-volume, Encyclopedia of Disability (2005), which won Best Reference Award from the Library Journal and an Outstanding Award from the American Library Association’s Booklist Journal.

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Mission statement of the GAFIS symposium

The Graduate Student Symposium of GAFIS, now in its 23rd year, provides a forum for intellectual and scholarly exchange in a positive collegial atmosphere. Interdisciplinary in nature, this national event gives future colleagues the chance to meet each other and to hear about current issues in upcoming research. Excellence and pertinence are assured through an anonymous and peer juried selection process.

Basic criteria for the selection process:

  • Presentations must address the topic of the symposium, respecting all constraints given in the call.
  • Presentations should be innovative, problematizing the chosen issue within a theoretical framework.
  • Presentations should be organized into focused panels that clearly complement each other.

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Call for papers
Abstract deadline February 1, 2010

The body is a big sagacity,
a plurality with one sense,
a war and a peace,
a flock and a shepherd.
– Friedrich Nietzsche

The human body has continued to captivate intellectuals of the arts and sciences throughout history, whether through an aesthetic or physiological study of its structural form and internal mechanisms or in an attempt to comprehend the complexities of the mind that reside within the biological machine. Literature, art, music, film, and storytelling often turn our attention to these ideas of the body, and their inquiries into the physical body and the mind have framed our universal conceptions of health and disease while also giving rise to myriad variations on the notions of bodily normality and abnormality. The body becomes a receptacle for our non-corporeal collective and individual identities, divisions, and prejudices. Sick or well, beautiful or ugly, powerless or powerful, the body is the site of competing visions that structure our perceptions of its physical form and its philosophical and social signification. While we frequently favor the “normal” and thereby reject the “abnormal”, it is the bodily abnormalities that best explore and question our definitions and interpretations of the body. Reflection on these bodily deviations not only elucidates what we consider to be normal and why, but it also destabilizes conventional distinctions between the typical and the atypical, between conformity and deviancy.

The 23rd Annual Symposium of the Graduate Association of French and Italian Students seeks to investigate various representations of the deformed or deviant body in order to explore what constitutes our formulation of health (normality) and disease (abnormality).

We welcome submissions from all applicable disciplines that shed light on the ways in which we can “reform” our general conceptions of the body through the lens of the deviant or otherwise “deformed” body.

Suggested topics include, but are not limited to:

The Sick Body:

  • Physical illnesses, epidemics, disabilities, doctors and medicine
  • Mental illnesses, neuroses, psychoses, the mentally ill as Other, treatment, therapy, the fragmentation of the self
  • Medical or societal definitions of the healthy and unhealthy human body

The Ugly Body:

  • Aesthetic conceptions of the body in artistic, visual, literary and cinematographic forms
  • Physical deformities, monstrosities, the grotesque
  • Fragmentation, bodily manipulation or transformation

The Sexual Body:

  • Queer studies and the queering of the body, sexuality, transsexuality
  • Gender studies, Woman as Other, masculinities and feminities, social or physical gendered roles
  • Eroticism, fetishism, masochism

The Powerless Body:

  • Crimes against the individual, crimes against humanity, genocide, persecution, destruction of the body
  • Politics, authority, regulation of the body
  • Effects of colonialism, occupation, wars on the body

We invite abstracts in English ranging from 200 – 250 words that relate to or expand upon the topics suggested above. Papers will be limited to 20 minutes and must be presented in English. In your abstract, please include name, email address, academic affiliation, and AV requests. Along with your abstract submission, please suggest the category or categories to which you feel your submission is best suited.

Please address inquiries and abstract submissions to Theresa Pesavento and Tina Petraglia at“>. Abstracts must be received no later than February 1, 2010. For further information, please visit our official GAFIS symposium website listed below.






















Physical Examination of the Infant and Child

  • Introduction
  • Approach to
    the Child
  • Vital Signs
    and Measurements
  • Head to
  • H&P Tips


Many students, and experienced physicians, approach the examination of the infant and child with trepidation and lack of confidence.  In actuality, the thorough examination of a pediatric patient can be accomplished in only a few minutes if the examiner takes the time to establish rapport with his patient, approaches the task in an organized and logical way, and is familiar with the normal variations in pediatric patients.  You are encouraged to use every opportunity for examining the infant or child, for only with experience will you be able to accomplish the task easily and interpret the findings accurately.

Approach to the Child

The normal apprehension of the young patient can often be alleviated by a gentle and friendly approach.  Most physicians develop a few “tricks” that fit their style and personality, and help them to achieve a satisfactory examination.  It may be useful to allow an infant to have his bottle or a pacifier.  An older infant or a young child is often best examined on his mother’s lap.  Allowing the child to touch or play with the examination instruments may relieve his fear of them.  It is often helpful to establish physical contact with the child prior to the examination, such as handing him a toy or even playing with him gently.  Above all, carry out first those parts of the examination that would be most interfered with by crying, such as auscultation of the heart or palpation of the abdomen; examination of the ears, eyes, and throat or a rectal examination should be deferred until last!  If all else fails, and using a kind and understanding attitude, restrain the child firmly but gently, and get the examination done as expeditiously as possible despite his apprehension and resistance. 












Vital Signs and Measurements

The temperature of infants and pre-school children child is best taken rectally since most younger children cannot be trusted to hold the thermometer under the tongue without biting or dropping it.  The heart rate of young infants is often easiest to measure by auscultation at the cardiac apex.  The respiratory rate should always be counted, especially in infants, since tachypnea may not be appreciated otherwise. Length is recorded for infants and toddlers less than 3 years while supine; height is recorded for the older child who is measured while standing.  Measurement of head circumference is done at the time of each visit during the first two years of life, but usually only on the first visit thereafter, unless apparently abnormal.

Head to Toe Exam

  • Lymph
  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Mouth and
  • Chest
  • Abdomen
  • Extremities

Lymph Tissues

The findings of nodes up to one centimeter in diameter in the anterior cervical and inguinal regions is common in children, and of itself should not be considered to be significant.  We reiterate strongly the notation in your text regarding the frequency with which normal children have normally large tonsils.


Lack of cooperation of the patient discourages routine funduscopic examination in infants and young children, but at least the presence of a red reflex should be determined.  The early diagnosis of strabismus, if present, is essential, and should be determined by identifying an asymmetric reflection of a bright light in the eyes, or by the use of the “cover test.”  (Cover one eye at a time, and observe for shifts of the uncovered eye, or of the covered one after the cover is quickly removed.)


Otoscopic examination is an essential part of every pediatric evaluation.  In the infant, the canal is directed upward, so the auricle should be pulled downward to view the drum, rather than upward and back as in the older child and adult.

Mouth and Throat

This phase of the examination is usually best left until last; even some very “good” children become upset when approached by a physician with a light in one hand and a tongue blade in the other.  Every child should be given the opportunity of opening his mouth and extruding his tongue without “assistance”; it is often possible to visualize all structures down to and including the epiglottis in this way.  If the child is uncooperative and resistant, assistance of the mother or nurse should be obtained so that the examination can be conducted as expeditiously as possible; the hands and head can be immobilized at the same time for example by “pinning” the raised arms of the supine child against the side of his head.

The most common health problem of children is dental caries; inspection of the teeth and gums should be a routine part of each examination.


During early infancy, and especially in premature infants, respiratory movement may be irregular, intermittent and variable in rate and depth.  Pauses between breaths up to 10 seconds, in the absence of cyanosis or other indicators of respiratory distress, are common in normal infants during sleep.  Breathing during infancy and early childhood is characteristically abdominal or diaphragmatic in appearance.  Thoracic movements with breathing become more predominant around age 7-8 years and older.  The normal range of respiratory rates, sleeping and awake is found in your references.

Slight retractions with inspiration are commonly observed, especially during infancy.  More pronounced retractions, especially when associated with tachypnea, are seen with important pulmonary disease.

Percussion is performed in infants and children in much the same manner as for adult patients.  Auscultation requires a stethoscope with small enough bell or diaphragm to fit closely over the interspaces.  In infancy and through age 5-6 years, breath sounds are relatively louder and harsher compared with those in adults.  Classify breath sounds as:

Vesicular (loud during inspiration, medium-to-high pitched, and long duration; heard best over the upper lung fields and into the axillae).

Tracheal (heard over the trachea / upper sternal region;  more tubular and higher pitched than vesicular breath sounds).

Bonchovesicular (longest during expiration, with high pitch and increased amplitude compared to inspiratory phase sounds; heard best between scapulae and parasternal anteriorly).

Rhonchi (musical continuous sounds; includes categories of wheezing and vibrations).

Rales (crackling or bubbling; fine versus coarse).

Rubs (grating, jerky, leathery, creaking, rubbing sounds which can be intensified with increased pressure on the chest wall with the stethoscope).

Heart and Blood Pressure

Examination of the heart begins with inspection for the normal apical impulse as well as any unusual precordial impulses.  These may be difficult to palpate in infants, but by age 4-7 years most children will have a palpable apical impulse in the 5th to 6th interspace within the mammary line.  It is best palpated with the child sitting and leaning forward.  During this portion of the cardiac exam, it is important to palpate for pathological thrills associated with the louder (grade 4 and louder) murmurs.  The determination of heart size by percussion is of limited accuracy for most examiners (malposition of the apical impulse is usually a better indicator of possible cardiac enlargement).

The resting pulse rate should be recorded for comparison with reference values.  The normal range of resting heart rates for infants and children is found in your references.

In sinus arrhythmia the pulse rate increases during inspiration and slows during expiration.  This is a normal finding in most children above age three.  A slow heart rate (relative to the ranges described above) is frequently noted in healthy trained athletes. 

Palpation of the femoral pulses should be routinely performed to detect possible coarctation of the aorta, however presence of a normal femoral pulse does not exclude coarctation.

The preferred stethoscope for cardiac auscultation in children is one with a combined bell (for low frequency sounds) and small diameter diaphragm (for mid-to-high frequency sounds).  Examine heart sounds with the patient in the following positions:  supine, left lateral decubitus, sitting, leaning forward, and standing.  In most normal children, S1 is louder than S2 near the apex, and the converse is true near the base.  Splitting of S2 is best appreciated using the diaphragm near the base of the heart.  The sounds split during inspiration and are almost synchronous during expiration.  In the newborn, S2 is either a single sound or minimally split due to the normally high neonatal pulmonary arterial resistance and afterload, plus the relatively fast heart rates in this age group.  An apical S3 is often heard during diastole in normal children.  When an S3 is present in a tachycardic patient or with other findings suggesting heart disease, it is more appropriate to label it as a gallop rhythm.  S4 diastolic sounds are never normal.

Heart murmurs are present in around 50% of children, while the incidence of congenital heart disease is slightly less than 1% in the general population.  Clearly therefore, most murmurs will turn out to be innocent.  Determining whether a murmur is normal (innocent) or pathological requires more than simply listening to heart sounds.  This assessment includes relevant past and family history, other aspects of the physical examination, occasionally laboratory testing (e.g., chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and/or echocardiography), and is frequently made clear simply on the basis of follow-up.

Describe murmurs on the basis of:

Position in the cardiac cycle (e.g., systolic, diastolic, continuous).

Either ejection or regurgitant in character.  Ejection murmurs are generally heard over the base and are frequently normal or innocent.  Regurgitant systolic murmurs are always pathological, and are heard closer to the apex.  Regurgitant diastolic murmurs are also always pathological in origin.

Transmission (i.e., where does the murmur radiate).

Duration (e.g., early systolic, holosystolic, early diastolic).

Quality (e.g., blowing, rasping, rumbling, etc.)

Pitch (e.g., high pitch or frequency heard best with the diaphragm versus low-pitch heard best with the bell).

Intensity (i.e., grade 1-6)

Response to exercise and/or change of position (e.g., loudest while supine).

Blood pressure determination in the arms and legs should be included in routine well-baby and well-child examinations.  Except for infants, the BP should be taken while the child is sitting.  Blood pressures recorded with an inappropriately small cuff will be too high, and those with too large a cuff may be falsely low.  The proper cuff has a width which is approximately 40% the circumference of the extremity where it is placed.  The two measurement methods in most widespread clinical use are sphygmomanometric and oscillometric (e.g., the Dynamap automated BP device).  The normal range for blood pressure varies depending upon age, size (e.g., height), and sex of the patient.  Tables of normal blood pressures are found in your references.


The liver edge in the infant is often palpable one to three centimeters below the right costal margin; apparent hepatomegaly may be the result of depression of the diaphragm (e.g. due to a lower respiratory infection or asthma) –appreciation of the normal consistency and edge of the liver will help in identifying this problem.  The spleen tip may also be palpable in normal young children.  Palpation of the femoral pulse should be a routine part of the examination of the young infant, since it may lead to the diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta.

The presence of an inguinal hernia may be detected in the infant and young child by palpating over the inguinal canal for the presence of the sac which is manifested by thickening of the cord structures and sometimes by the sensation of a “silk-glove” beneath the examining finger.  A hernia in a female may contain the ovary which can be identified as a small mass within the protruding sac.

Genitalia: Male

The urinary meatus should always be inspected; a tiny round opening instead of the normal slit may indicate the presence of stenosis.  Because of the very active cremasteric reflex, small children may appear to have cryptorchidism; if the hands are warm and gentle, the apparently undescended testis can often be milked down the canal and into the scrotum to confirm its normal location.

Tanner staging is important.

Genitalia: Female

Adhesions of the labial mucosa are fairly common in young girls, and probably require no treatment if not extensive.  A white discharge is often seen in normal girls during the year or so preceding the onset of menstruation.  Inspection of the vaginal orifice for foreign bodies, or the obtaining of vaginal material for laboratory examination, is sometimes facilitated by placing the child in the knee-chest position.  Digital or instrumental examinations of the vagina are not done routinely in children, but only on specific indication.  Tanner staging is important.

Anus and Rectum

Rectal examinations are not done routinely in children, but should certainly be performed on the slightest indication, including some of those complaints for which a pelvic examination would be done in the adult female.  Rectal exam may be helpful in identifying the presence of a vaginal foreign body.  INSPECTION IS MANDATORY IN ANY EVENT.


The shape of the legs and feet of infants and young children is determined to some extent by the intrauterine position.  Some degree of bowing and inward rotation is common, but external rotation may occur.  The foot of the infant tends to appear flat, and the pre-school child’s foot is often pronated.  In the latter circumstance, having the child stand on his toes may reassure the examiner of the normalcy of the longitudinal arch.  Mild degrees of knock-knee and bow-legs are not significant in young children.

The ability of the thigh to be abducted at the hip should be tested throughout infancy, since inability to abduct is the commonest presenting finding in infants with congenital hip dysplasia.













Robert E. Merrill, M.D.
Former Assistant Editor ofThe Journal of Pediatrics


Perhaps the second most difficult area in the entire process is spelling.  We hold to the notion that those who have at least one college degree and will soon have another, should be able to use English with reasonable facility.  Some common errors, along with notes of explanation follow.  Please understand that this list barely scratches the surface.

Mucous This is the adjective and is not to be confused with:
Mucus  This is the noun.  They are not interchangeable.  Nouns are things which adjectives modify.
Funduscopic The only correct way, believe it or not.
Inflammation There are 2 “m’s” in this word.
Inflamed There is only 1 “m” here, so save them.
Vomiting Save your “t’s”, they also may become valuable some day.
Enfamil A proprietary milk product.
Organomegaly One “l” is enough.
Microcephalic With 2 “l’s” it becomes an outrageous pun.

Words to be Avoided and Words to be Used Correctly

There are many lay terms that have no place in a medical document.  Others are not words at all and should never be used anywhere.  Some of these are:

Mucousy The word you are looking for us mucoid.
Pussy Here the word is purulent.  No further comment seems advisable.
Temperature We all have a temperature; some of us have a fever.
Phlegm The word is mucus, not to be confused with mucous.
To seize Meaning to have a seizure.  To seize is to grab.
Matter A lay term if it means pus in the eye.
Stomach Meaning abdomen.
  There is no such thing as an acute abdomen.  There may be an acutely inflamed abdomen.

Strictly avoid the apothecary system at all costs.  The most confusing term is grains which may be abbreviated gr. and which in turn may be confused with grams.  To protect yourself and to protect your patients, never use this term.  Absolutely.  It is not difficult to remember that 65 mg = one of those things.  Other units in the apothecary system are even more archaic.


Don’t use them!


The organization of your write up should be constructed with the following thoughts in mind.

Please remember that the chief complaint is exactly that–not a complete history.

The present illness should contain all of the information which is germane to the problem which brought the patient into the hospital.  This must include both positive findings and pertinent negatives.  The review of systems must contain all of the remaining points which may be germane to the case.  For example, if the patient is thought to have asthma, then you will wish to include some comments in the present illness or review of systems in regard to symptoms of cystic fibrosis, which always is part of the differential of asthma.  But not both.  Relative importance is the determining factor; there are no absolute rules.  Repeat nothing.  Once you have mentioned it once in the history, please feel free to reference it throughout.  Always time everything in relation to admission in chronological order.  Absolute times and dates are worthless.

Omit nothing in the physical examination.  Those parts of the body which you do not invade must still be viewed and described.  Specifically, this refers to ear drums, fundi, breasts, genitalia, and the remainder of the perineum.  Always fully describe every abnormality.  Size, shape, tenderness, color, and so on.

If you admit a patient who has been in several times for the same problem (for example, a patient with a malignancy, hemophilia, myelomeningocele, or some other chronic condition), you may limit your write up to a review of all available information succinctly presented, a description of the present illness or present episode which brought the patient to the hospital, and the usual complete physical examination.

In the family history, be sure that the facts are related to the suspected diagnosis.  This will demand a  knowledge of genetic patterns which are to be found in textbooks.  For example, the questions to be asked, if you suspect hemophilia or cystic fibrosis must be quite specific and different.


The conclusions which you reach are the most important part of the entire write up and of course the conclusions must be based on what has gone before.  In other words, the findings should logically lead to the conclusions.  You are entitled to at least  one diagnosis.  Avoid even a very short list of “rule-outs.”  We wish to know what you think the patient has, not what he does not have and we wish to know why you reached a certain conclusion.  The diagnosis is meant to explain the chief complaint, which was the primary reason for admission to the hospital.  In every instance where an etiology can be suspected, it must be indicated.  Using the term virus or some other generality is not acceptable.  When you write out the  plan for the patient, do not include any order with which you do not agree.   Anything which you think should be done and is not ordered should be listed with the reason given.  Do not lump chemistries; do not indicate a  “CMP.”.  Rather, designate those portions of that study which are indicated in this instance.  Always explain any order which is in any way debatable, indicating why you think that order should be written or that study requested.

Please review this paper carefully.  If you will adhere to these suggestions, you will find that there will be much more time for advanced learning.



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