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Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

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Copyright @ 2013

10th century

When the  Gujerati traders arrived in the 10th Century, many had converted religions already. Champions of Islam were also arriving.

Most notably, was

Syed Bukhari, who smashed his power  on a stone, so that he would not “think evil thoughts”, was one such Champion.

The stone where he smashed his power  can still be viewed in Pariaman, West Sumatera.

The Minangkabau’s are extremely proud of it, although we do not know anyone who has emulated Syed Bukhari recently.

 

Inter-marriages between

 Java and Bali royalty also occurred, as when

 

 king Udayana Warmadewa of

 the Warmadewa dynasty of Bali married a Javanese princess, sister of the Emperor of Java Dharmawangsa.

It is considered that the dynasty was founded by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in the 10th century.

Sri Kesari Warmadewa is the first Balinese king to have left an inscription with his name, on the Belanjong pillar.

The dynasty prospered for several generations, one of its descendant being the famous king Udayana Warmadewa.[1] Udayana Warmadewa was the father of Airlangga, another famous Balinese king,[2]

who also ruled over the island of Java

Their son became the great ruler of East Java

King  Airlangga, who ruled on both Java and Bali.[13]

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8th Century

Archaeological finds of pottery

and

 

other objects

 

confirm that Bali was a port for Chinese and Indian traders as early as the first century CE.

 Hinduism arrived in the eighth century CE, mingling with beliefs in natural gods and ancestor myths, all of which have gone on entwining to the present day

Bali 9th century

Although the rise of

 

 the Sailendra’s

 

 occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion.[3]

Apart from Java itself; an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia has been suggested.

Java

Another theory suggested that Sailendra was a native Javanese dynasty, and there was no such things as

 

 Sanjaya dynasty

 

since Sri Sanjaya and his offsprings belongs to Sailendra family that initially

 

the Shivaist ruler of

Mataram Kingdom.[8]

The association of Sailendra with

Mahayana Buddhism began

after the conversion Panaraban or Panangkaran

to Buddhism.

This theory based on

Carita Parahyangan

that mention about the ailing King Sanjaya ordered his son,

Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to buddhism, because their Shivaistic faith was feared by the people, and in favour to the more pacifist buddhist faith.

 ewad more realted info

Sewu Temple
There are so many temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta. Yet everything is extracted, read, and revealed kesejarahannya background. Wealth of heritage temples suggests that our ancestors in the past has had an advanced civilization.

Unfortunately we are living in today are more civilized than them. And on certain sides of us are even more likely than their uncivilized.

One of the historical relics of the past that we can see is Sewu Bener located in the hamlet, village / Kalurahan Bugisan, Prambanan district, Klaten, Central Java.
At this complex Sewu included in the Prambanan Temple Tourism Park area.
Keletakannya are so close to the DIY as well as assuming the Yogya-Solo made-Sewu Prambanan temple complex is one factor that promotes the DIY tourism. Such Keletakan make the tourism sector can not be managed locally alone.
Sewu complex consists of 1 and 8 of the main temple building temples wedge and 240 ancillary temples, statues Dwarapala 8 pairs facing each other and flanking the entrance to the temple complex.

 

Plan Sewu are concentric, ie candiinduk is in the middle (center) is surrounded by four rows of ancillary temples are placed symmetrically. While the temple is flanked by 8-spouse pairs placed between rows II and III into 4 pairs that flank the entrance to the temple Jalam parent (the main building).
Sewu complexes have been built in the 8th century. This estimate is based on a stone inscription found in the temple complex ever Sewu in 1960.

In the inscription is told about improvements shrine called Manjusrigrha in the year 714 Saka or 792 AD.

The place is called in the tablets was the original name of Sewu. Manjusrigrha can be interpreted as a house or palace Manjusri, which is one god in Buddhism. Based on this it can be concluded that Sewu built by kings of the Ancient Mataram dynasty dynasty who ruled at that time that Pangkaran and Rakai Rakai Panaraban.

A more complete study on Sewu This has been done by the SPSP Central Java since 1981.

The study begins with a feasibility study to prepare for restoration. After that the total restoration of the temple by Project Preservation / Utilization of Historical and Archeological with Fiscal Year 1981/1982 to 1992/1993. The restoration has been done up to 2006 is the main temple building, temple wedge no. 6 and no. 8 and ancillary temples series I no. 3, 7, 20, and 22, series II no ancillary temples. 39, series III no ancillary temples. 49, no ancillary temples IV series. 64 and 8 Dwarapala statues.
Here are photos Sewu contained in the De Oude Ansichten Javaansche Vosrtenlanden published in 1970 in Amsterdam by NV De Bussy Ellerman Harms. It is not known exactly when the photo was taken. Most likely around the year 1914-1918.

.9th Century

Sailendras in Bali

 

Sri Kesari Warmadewa

sei kestari actor at ubud now

was said to be a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[12] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[13]

The Belanjong pillar in Sanur dates to 914 CE, and testifies to the contacts between Bali and the Indian subcontinent.

 

This period is generally closely associated with the arrival and expansion of Buddhism and Hinduism in the island of Bali.

 

The Belanjong pillar (“Prasasti Blanjong”) in southern Sanur was inscribed in 914 with the mention of the reign of the Balinese king Sri Kesari.

It is written in both the Indian Sanskrit language and Old Balinese language, using two scripts, the Nagari script and the Old Balinese script (which is used to write both Balinese and Sanskrit).[9]

The pillar testifies to the connections of Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java.[7] It is dated according to the Indian Shaka calendar.[10]

According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty leading a military expedition,[11] to establish a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[12]

The stone temple of Goa Gajah was made around the same period, and shows a combination of Buddhist and Hindu (Shivaite) iconography.

 

The Belanjong pillar,

also Blanjong pillar (Indonesian: Prasasti Blanjong), is a pillar established in 914 CE in the harbour of Belangong,

 in

 

 

the southern area of Sanur in Bali. 

The alley leading to the Belanjong pillar

in Belanjong temple.

 

Protective enclosure for the Belanjong pillar, in Belanjong temple.

The pillar was established by king Sri Kesari Warmadewa, the first king of the Balinese Warmadewa dynasty and bears a long inscription where the king describes his military campaign in the island. It is located in the Belanjong (Blanjong) Temple, where it is housed under a protective enclosure, and is often decorated and partially covered with devotional cloth.

The inscription is written in both the Indian Sanskrit language and Old Balinese language, using two scripts, the Nagari script and the Old Balinese script (which is used to write both Balinese and Sanskrit).[1]

The Old Balinese in pre-Nagari script in on one side of the pillar, while the Sanskrit inscription in Pallava-derived old Javanese script (also called Kawi script)[2] is on the other side.[3] The mix of language and script suggest that the objective of the inscription was not to communicate locally to the Balinese people, but rather to be established as a symbol of power and authority.[2]

The pillar testifies to the connections of Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java.[4]

According to the inscription,

Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty leading a military expedition,[5] to establish

a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[6]

The inscription also tells about the success of military expeditions of offshore islands,

 

 

either Nusa Penida or faraway Maluku.[2]

 

 

This is the first known inscription in which a Balinese king recorded his name.[3]

Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of

the island.[2]

The pillar is dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in the year 836 saka.[7]

According to French historian

George Coedès:

“These inscriptions reveal a Hindu-Balinese society, independent of Java, making use of a dialect particular to the island, and practicing Hinduism and Buddhism at the same time.”—George Coedès.[2]

The pillar was only discovered in 1932,[8] and has remained where it was initially found And mentioning “Walidwipa”. It was during this time that

 

 the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice.

 

George Coedès (1886-1969),

 doyen of Khmerology, recognized that the Khmer

914 AD

Early Kingdom

There are few written records of Bali and Lombok before the 20th century and none Lombok before 1365, but ancient artifacts tell of Hindu kingdoms and the continuous influence of Java. An inscribe pillar in Belanjong, Sanur, dated to AD 914, implies that relations had been established before that date between Bali and the Buddhist Sanjaya dynasty of Central Java,

 In Central Bali there are relics of a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, dating from the 10th-13th centuries, whose seat was hear today’s Pejeng and Bedulu

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Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

Bali in  5th Century

This temple was built in the 5th century by a monk coming from the east

Other kingdom at south east asia in 6th century

Like srivijaya

Borrobudor (Buddhist) was built n the 6th Century

6th Century Khmer Empire Stone Buddha Head

Compare with

Old African Sculpture from Nigeria

 

 

Angkor (Hindu),

 

was built in the 8th Century.

All these Kingdoms were constantly flipping between Hinduism, and Buddhism.

Depending on the Kings which ruled, their Kingdoms would constantly change from Hinsuism to Buddhism all the time. As such, Temple chandi Prambanan, Chandi Sukkho and Chandi Chetto, and more than 600 Hindu or Buddhist temples were built in Java during the Srivijayan Period alone. The same was true of Angkor.

The Kings often hacked

the statues of Shiva,

Vishnu,

Brahma,

or Ganesan,

and replaced them

 

Buddha

each time the Kings decided to change religions

This situations also happened at Bali until now no evidence found but the ancient bali Art near same with the statue above

Year 618

 

 

Ancient Bali King (modern painting) who sent envoy and tribute to

 

Emperor Qin kwan(Gaozhong) Tang Dynasty.

The first Tang dynasty emperor,

 

 

 

Tang Dynasty Imperial Palace at Xian.

 

 

 

Tang Dynasty Imperial Seals ,

given from Emperor China to his friendly states

-lika Dva-pa-da (Bali) Kingdom.

 This rare Khai Yuan with imperial crecscent moon at the back used at Bali during Dva-Pa.Da (bali) King sent envoy with tribute to Emperor Qin Kwan , the come one coin more bold and withour imperial crescent moon at the back.please comment.

The earliest such Chinese  coins found on the island date to the ninth-century Chinese Tang Dynasty(I ever four Han dnasty Coin at Bali may be repro one,Dr Iwan)

 

Original old History of Tang Dynasty book.

 

Repro Ancient Chinese Map of Dva-Pa.Tan 847 AD vintage Book illustration

( Grooneveldt 1880)

 

 

 

The Chinese Char.

of Dva-pa-Tan

( means Bali)

 

from Vintage book illustration (1880)

 

BALI KINGDOM’S GLORY BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME(3th -13th Century)

From Chinese Sources (ibid .Groeneveldt,1880).

The first China Sailors &  Traders came to Bali

(source :Original Handwritting Old  History of The Tang Dynasty (618-906) Book 197.):

 Ka-Ling (1) means Java Island ( the capital of java Kingdom called Japa-auth) on an island in the southern ocean, it lies on the eastern side of Pa-Li (2) means Sumatra , on the westren sised of Dva-pa-tan(1) means Bali .

( No information about Bali Kingdom and the Date , but at Bali still found Chinese cast coin from Later Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty some original and the other Old Bali mint cast coin. Many Chinese traders in Bali during that times that is why the currency used the Chinese mint aor Bali mint cast coins until 1951 when all Indonesia money changes to the new currency , small money change 100% nominal value and high nominal value from Rp 5.- to Rp.1000 cutting half the left one change with new money an d the rigght side changd with obligations called “sjafruddin -cutting ” Policies.The complete information look at ‘Bali Numismatic History(cash Coin or Gobok) –Dr Iwan)

 The first Bali Kingdom Sent envoy to China Emperor Tang Dynasty

(source : Original Handwritting New History of the Tang Dynasty .Book.222 part 2.):

622-649 AD,

during rhe period Chin-Kwan (627-649) this country (Kaling )

 sent envoys to bring tribute together with those

Dva-ha-la(Lombok)

 and

Dva-pa-tan(Bali) .

The Emperor favoured them with a reply under the great seal and as Dva-ha-la asked  for good horses, these were given to them

BALI KINGDOM’S GLORY BEFORE EUROPEAN CAME(3th -13th Century)

From Chinese Sources (ibid .Groeneveldt,1880).

The first China Sailors &  Traders came to Bali

(source :Original Handwritting Old  History of The Tang Dynasty (618-906) Book 197.):

 Ka-Ling (1) means Java Island ( the capital of java Kingdom called Japa-auth) on an island in the southern ocean, it lies on the eastern side of Pa-Li (2) means Sumatra , on the westren sised of Dva-pa-tan(1) means Bali .

( No information about Bali Kingdom and the Date , but at Bali still found Chinese cast coin from Later Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty some original and the other Old Bali mint cast coin. Many Chinese traders in Bali during that times that is why the currency used the Chinese mint aor Bali mint cast coins until 1951 when all Indonesia money changes to the new currency , small money change 100% nominal value and high nominal value from Rp 5.- to Rp.1000 cutting half the left one change with new money an d the rigght side changd with obligations called “sjafruddin -cutting ” Policies.The complete information look at ‘Bali Numismatic History(cash Coin or Gobok) –Dr Iwan)

The first Bali Kingdom Sent envoy to China Emperor Tang Dynasty

(source : Original Handwritting New History of the Tang Dynasty .Book.222 part 2.):

622-649 AD,

during rhe period Chin-Kwan (627-649) this country (Kaling )

 sent envoys to bring tribute together with those

Dva-ha-la(Lombok)

 and

Dva-pa-tan(Bali) .

The Emperor favoured them with a reply under the great seal and as Dva-ha-la asked  for good horses, these were given to them

Bali 7th Century

 

 

 the 7th century onwards; the Dragon-like Barong

 

Bali 8th Century

history and art of Bali, with it’s ancient culture basically is the acculturation of local  Indian culture in 8th century

Stupika and artifacts Bali 8th century

 

  • Buddhist model clay stupa (“Stupika“) inside which can be found clay tablets with Buddhist texts and Buddhist images. 8th century Bali.;

    Buddhist model clay stupa (“Stupika“) inside which can be found clay tablets with Buddhist texts and Buddhist images. 8th century Bali.

    8th Century

    Archaeological finds of pottery and other objects confirm that Bali was a port for Chinese and Indian traders as early as the first century CE.

     Hinduism arrived in the eighth century CE, mingling with beliefs in natural gods and ancestor myths, all of which have gone on entwining to the present day

    To be continued

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The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

Bali In 3rd century

 

During this century Greeks built Amphitheater,

 

 And Roman art Mosaic pictures Ulysses and The Sirene ship

 

 

the ruler Itzamna, Mayan, Mexico, 1st-3rd

 what happened In Bali ?

 Until This day we hadn’t found related artifact from this rea. But some art near same with bali like

 

 

Mask In 3rd Century

 

 

Chicken Hanwa(Japan)

 

 

Bali 4th Century

history and art of Bali, with it’s ancient culture basically is the acculturation of local culture since pre-history, contacted with

 Hindu – Javanese local culture around 4th century

 

Celengan Majapahit

the adoption of Hindu-Buddhist culture.

Elephant Cave

It refers to a 1,000-year-old cave excavated here that houses the Hindu

 

Balinese art is art of Hindu-Javanese origin

 

photographed this statue of guardian

in Tirta Empul Temple, Bali.

I was amazed by the details carved on it. Balinese art is art of Hindu-Javanese origin that grew from the work of artisans of the Majapahit Kingdom, with their expansion to Bali in the late 13th century. This is one good sample of stone carvings of Bali.

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The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

 the 1st century AD.

1st Century
History is vague for the first few centuries.

 

 

A number of Hindu artifacts were been found dating back to the 1st century (AD), which suggests that the main religion, around 500 AD, was predominantly

 

Buddhist.

 

Until now I havenot  yet found informations from Bali,

from ist to 8th century.  this time in Euduring Roman emparire ,and somen ancient collections have found like the jewellary

 And statue which made the comparative with Bali if I find the informations from Bali let’s look

Second century

Ancient Jewellery in second century

Ancient gold jewelry: timeless beauty, technical mastery

 

 

.

.

Other collections from second century almost near same with Old Bali statue

 

Old Bali Wooden Carving

 

 

 

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The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THE BALI HISTORY COLLECTIONS

TABLE OF CONTENT

Introductions

Part One

 

The vintage Bali Collections

Part Two

 

 Bali Traditional  pictures

Part Three

Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Classic  Pictures

Part Four

Drie vrouwen waarvan één bezig iets te malen

 

Bali  Native Profile Art Picture

Part Five

 

 Bali Landscape Art Pictures

Part Six

Houten beeld van een demon

 

Wayangfiguur

 

Een verzameling houten gepolychromeerde beelden

Bali Native  Artwork

Part Seven

Jonge vrouw

 

 

 Bali Traditional  Dancer And Drama 

Part Eight

 Bali Local Fauna Flora  

Preface

This special collections dedicated to 

 

Ret.Police Inspecture General Made mangku Pastika, we ever met during the last day of East Timor refendum 2009 at Dili when I cameback before the crucials chaos situations  and now He was the Gouvenor of Bali ,

 also to

 

Ret.Inspedtuer  General Dr Musadeq who have the same duty with me to prepared the health of Indonesia nationalPolice during That refendum , that time he was the chief of Medical Health Indonesian national Police Bali,

 then the Chief of Medical Health center Indonesia national police Headquaters Jakarta (Congratulation for your up rank Inspector General).and now He was retired at Surabaya

 I think both of my collegue ‘s  General will be happy to read this informations and look at the illustration, and the Timor unique collection  informations and illustraion will put the sample of CD-ROM  after this Bali info completely at my Web Blog

Hhtp//www..Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Hhtp//www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

All the  collections were collect from 1957 until now during travelling around Java-Bali 1977,1979,1983, and the last visit Bali 2008

I have made a private  limited E-Book In CD-Rom edition Special foor senior Collectors

Very limited only ten CD-ROM

If some one want this CD-ROM please contact me via the comment at my web blog with send your identity from ID card and short working history info form my security info for protect against the Highjack Internet.

Jakarta January 2013

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

INTRODUCTION

The Bali  History Collections

The History of Bali Kingdom Glory(pre-Euro.came)

Bali was inhabited

by around 2000 BC

by

 

 

Austronesian peoples

 

who migrated originally

from Taiwan through Maritime Southeast Asia.[5]

Stone Age 2500 BC

Although there are no artifacts or records dating back to the Stone Age, it is believed that the first settlers in Bali migrated from China around 2,500 BC,

Bronze era, around 300 BC

 By the Bronze era, around 300 BC, quite an evolved culture existed in Bali. The complex system of irrigation and rice production, still in use today, was established around this time

 

Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are thus closely related to the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Oceania.[6] Stone tools dating from this time

 

have been

found near

the village of Cekik in the island’s west.[7]

In ancient Bali,

nine Hindu sects existed,

namely

Pasupata,

Bhairawa, Siwa Shidanta,

 

Waisnawa,

Bodha,

 

Brahma,

 

 

Resi,

 

Ida Panditha Mpu Budha Mahaseri Alit Parama Daksa, also known as Ida Resi Alit, was born I Komang Widiantri on March 14, 1986,

 in a small farming village in the central highlands of Bali.

 She lived as an ordinary girl for the first twenty years of her life. At the age of 20, due to external events, she fell into a deep depression. Ida Resi Alit’s uncle, a village Mangku, concerned for her wellbeing, introduced her to meditation and yoga to soothe her.

As she started practicing, the girl who had no previous spiritual training or deep desire, began to have out of body experiences and download information during her practice.

She was instructed to perform a special ceremony, the meaning of which she did not understand. At the ceremony she fell into deep unconsciousness.

She stopped breathing and her pulse was gone. Her family wailed, crying and reacting hysterically, scared that she had died.

 Ida Resi Alit has no memory of this time. At 2am she started to regain consciousness, to be able to blink but not to talk. Then she saw a laser, like a bolt of lightning in the sky, and found herself able to fully return to her body. She slept until the afternoon and when she had awakened spiritually. Soon after she was ordained by the highest authority, the Hindu Dharma Council, and she became Bali’s youngest and only High Priestess.

 

This month I-mag traveled to Demulih, Susut, Bangli a second time to have an audience with the high priestess. When we sat down with her on the floor in front of her small personal bale, she talked about wanting to expand, and share her experience of oneness. Right now she is in the beginning stages of sending her energy out in the world.

 

“One day I would like to travel. But right now I want to start here in my home. This place is all from my ancestor. I’ll start from here and maybe expand step by step. I cannot just keep to myself. But I need people to help me how to, share the story, to write, to teach. If my friends want to, to share about everything. I need some people who can help me.”

 

Ida Resi Alit is preparing for the world stage. Other such figures, Thich Nhat Hanh, Vietnamese and of the peace movement, the Dalai Lama of Tibet or Eckhart Tolle, have large groups around them who help spread their teaching and report back to the masters. Ida Resi Alit maintains that all knowledge is available and in every single one of us at any moment, if we so choose to feel it and enjoy our limitless power as we are connected to all.

 

There is no rush, unlike what most of us feel in our daily lives. Resi Alit says, “I will need a long time. A long long time.” Everything takes place in the present moment, even learning from the past and planning for the future. Or worry or being anxious or afraid, if that’s what we choose to do! It is a blessing for us to be able to witness and take part of the growth of a major spiritual leader.

 

“I need some people who can help me. Like disciples. I will keep doing my yoga and everything. Many people teaching yoga, they have the basics. But it is just for excersize. I think I need to teach yoga, and I will teach people who will become yoga teacher, like that. I need people for this positions, that position and so on, then open for others to come in, open for all people, and then the teachers teach other people until then go out, maybe once a week meet me. We make a program, one time we share, I meet them like this.”

 

Ida Resi Alit has not yet started looking for land for her Ashram, but that is the first step. For now she is doing her own practice and the many purification ceremonies and events for the Balinese community.  We took part in another purification ceremony this month. After her sunset prayers, she sat on her knees on the temple bale. Using water exquisitely scented of jasmine and frangipani, that tasted as sweet as it smelled, she doused us with buckets of what felt like icy water. “Whatever you feel, like let it go. Let it all go. If you want to cry, if you want to shout, stomp your feet, whatever.” We both had the experience of hyperventilating despite our tropical setting. Afterwards we both said we felt lighter. I was acutely aware of being in the presence of limitless energy, and felt about as spiritually ready for it as I would be for the Olympic marathon. But after realizing this, it allows some sort of space to let light in. Luckily for us lot, we don’t have to train as hard for a marathon as we do to feel grateful and ready to receive gifts of consciousness. We just have to be humble, ever so slightly willing, and ready.

 

Ida Resi Alit graciously invited us to return in a few days to accompany her to ceremony at her family temple, called Sugihan. The Balinese have three ceremonies to balance the universe; one to balance the relationship between people and people, one to balance the relationship between people and the Gods, and one for the relationship between people and the earth- this last is Sugihan. We arrived at the home of Resi Alit, and traveled in the car with her and her two Mangkus, or priests. When we arrived at the temple complex in Gianyar, Resi Alit took her place atop the platform for prayer in the front of the congregation. She changed into her formal dress and started the bell, the incense, her hand mudras and the mantra. A Balinese women next to me said, “Resi Alit, she is like a miracle. Every ceremony has a different mantra, and she knows them all by heart without ever studying.”

 

Then what took place was without precedence in anything I had ever seen before. Ida Resi Alit, open to the unlimited power and energy of the universe, prayed and chanted, receiving direct information. She would share information with her Mangkus, who would then inform the congregation of her wishes. One Mangku chanted loudly over the PA system. A puppeteer wailing behind us. A topeng dance was taking place in the entrance section of the temple, obscured behind the walls. Children screamed and giggled and women chatted, men sipped coffee.

 

Resi Alit share with us after her ceremony her experience, “In Bali, there are the four directions, north, west, east and south. We must take the energy from each, and balance them. I do this with the ceremony, I feel what must be done, and in this way I communicate with the Mangku, and they tell the community what must be done.”

When she was done we shared a meal of vegetables and babi, or pig. She had a large meeting with the village priests, where they laughed and sipped sugary tea sitting together in a cowd in the shade. On the way home in the car, her priest did voice imitations of puppet shows from the back seat, alternating between the typical low gutteral characters, the jokers and the strange-voiced ladies of the sagas.

 

We giggled on the way home as they went back and forth, Resi Alit singing in a beautiful high wail and the mischevious Mangku producing a sound I’d only ever heard through a loud speaker at a Balinese temple. It felt almost eerie to hear it while driving in a car with friend.

 

A movement has started in Bali. It may take years to manifest, but you’ll hear about it again, in different forms, one way or another. When asked what we should write in the magazine about her message, what people should know, Ida Resi Alit just said, “Whatever you feel, write that.” She then started speaking in astro, a language not English, not Indonesian, not Balinese and not even Ancient Sanskrit, that she uses freely whenever she feel she can’t explain something important properly. It’s in our breath, and from breath, come the voice, and we use it to share and receive. It starts in the stomach, where we usually feel fear and anxiety churning up our breakfast. Every ounce of love and enjoyment in available right now in the moment, to everyone, whether you want it or not. Nothing new, really. Its just a matter of freedom

Sora

and

 

Ganapatya.

The Origin of dates back to at least the fifth century. A specific Ganapatya sect probably began to appear between the 6 and 9 centuries and reached a high point around the 10 centur. Two Sanskrit Purana’s, the Ganesha Purana and the Mudgala Purana, dates from the 12 and 14 centuries respectively. These Purana’s recount and celebrate the myths of Ganesha’s triumphs over demons on behalf of the gods and his devotees and also include instructions for ritual performance and hymns of praise. Since the 17 century there has been a steady flow of devotional literature in both Sanskrit and Marathi.

Their are many temples built dedicated to

Ganesha,

 

the largest of which is said to be the Ucchi Pillayar Koil (the Columns Hall of a Thousand Pillars), on the Rock Fort of Tiruchirapalli in Tamil Nadu, while Ganapatheeshwaram in Tamilnadu hosts the Adi Ganesha, or Naramukha Ganesha (Ganesha with a human face). There is also a cluster of 8 temples – Asta Vinayak in and around the city of Poona (Pune) and the nearby village of Cincvad, associated with Ganesha’s most famous devotee, MorayaGosavi (d.1651)

Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead.[8]

Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture,

 beginning around

 the 1st century AD.

1st Century
History is vague for the first few centuries. A number of Hindu artifacts were been found dating back to the 1st century (AD), which suggests that the main religion, around 500 AD, was predominantly Buddhist.

 

Until now I havenot  yet found informations from Bali, from ist to 8th century.  this time in Euro during Roman emparire ,and somen ancient collections have found like the jewellary

 And statue which made the comparative with Bali if I find the informations from Bali let’s look

To Be Continued

The Complete Cd-ROM exist, to get it please subscribed with upload your personal identity info  from your ID Card via comment and I will contact you for administration fee

 

koleksi sejarah perang dunia kedua di Euro prolog 1939

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF DrIwan CD-ROM

To be continued in English version only look and click at

hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

The Euro world War II History Collections

Part Prologue 1939

Created By Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright@2013

Prolog 1.939

 

Februari, 15th.1939

Kiessling & Schiefner Dresden

  pada 6 persen Hindenbverg kartupos stasioner dikirim dari Dresden 1939/02/15 kepada Mr L.Christ Neurenberg, dengan  gambar kembali promosi Hus un Kundhegerate Hotelbedarf Aufrag bulu Fa, L.Christ

 3 buah tempat pelayan nomor satu varietas vergoldest, emaeilliert dengan 01:30 sichcherheitsnadel gross hitungan 1-12.
Heil Hitler!
tangan tandatangan stempel  Kiessling & Sciefner cincang pada delcredere tanda Nord Sud eGmbH Dresden gottig nuf untuk delkrendere mentolerir Lieteranten pendapatan 20 RM dan 10 RM

Photo: look the closed up salut heil hitler and local revenue of germany nazi era 1939 pre WW III

tulisan Asli dalam bahasa Jerman

Je 3 terjebak kellner nummern Sorte 1 vergoldest, emaeilliert mit sichcherheitsnadel brutto 1,30 Zahl 1-12.

Heil Hitler!

handSign Kiessling & Sciefner cincang pada Delkredere Wertmarke Nord Sud EGMBH Dresden gottig nuf bulu delkrendere vertrage Lieteranten 10 und 20 RM

menarik

 

Hitler salut Heil Hitler! pada kartu ini

(Courtecy dr Iwan Suwandy, ditemukan di Kotakinibalu sabah (sebelum Yeseltown Kalimantan Utara)

 

 

Kartu Promosi lainnya yang sama pada hindenberg 3 postalsationer persen kirim ke drwsden

 
 

Prolog 1939

February,15th.1939

Kiessling &Schiefner Dresden

 on  6 cent Hindenbverg postal stationer card send from Desden 15.2.1939 to Mr L.Christ  Neurenberg, at back  promotional picture of Hus un Kundhegerate Hotelbedarf Aufrag fur  Fa, L.Christ

Place 3 pieces waiter number one varietal vergoldest, emaeilliert with 1:30 sichcherheitsnadel gross count 1-12.
Heil Hitler!
hand sign Kiessling & Sciefner chopped on delcredere token Nord Sud eGmbH Dresden gottig nuf for delkrendere tolerate Lieteranten revenue 20 RM and 10 RM

Original in germany

Je 3 stuck kellner  nummern sorte 1  vergoldest,emaeilliert mit sichcherheitsnadel  brutto 1.30 Zahl 1-12.

Heil Hitler !

handSign Kiessling & Sciefner chopped on  Delkredere Wertmarke Nord Sud E.G.M.B.H  Dresden gottig nuf fur  delkrendere vertrage Lieteranten 10 und 20 RM

Interesting

 

the Hitler salut Heil Hitler ! on this card

(Courtecy dr Iwan suwandy,found at Kotakinibalu sabah(before Yeseltown North Borneo)

 

 

Other same Promotional card on hindenberg 3 cent postalsationer send to dresden

1939

Photo: this is another germany Bhoeringer Promotional leaflet send to Indonesia in 1939 pre WWII

Langka CFBoeringer & Sohned GmbH, Mannheim-Waldhof promosi (reklame) Perlaten-Kalsium dalam folder klimakterium kartu mengirim dari CD Manheim 10.3.39 khusus cap pos Deutch nazi reich 5 persen menjadi Dr Thung Sin Nio (frist medis Cina docter luar negeri Universitas Indonesia ) Batavia-centrum (sekarang Jakarta Pusat)

(courtecy Dr Iwan ditemukan di Jakarta pada tahun 1994)

Perusahaan farmasi Boehringer Ingelheim didirikan pada tahun 1885 oleh

 

  Albert Boehringer (1861-1939)

di Ingelheim am Rhein.

  Dari awal di 1885 ketika bekerja hanya 28 orang di Nieder-Ingelheim, perusahaan ini telah menjadi perusahaan global.

Sebagai bagian dari kegiatan penelitian dan pengembangan untuk obat inovatif, perusahaan berfokus terutama pada wilayah terapi penyakit jantung, penyakit pernapasan, penyakit pada sistem saraf pusat, penyakit metabolik, penyakit virologi dan onkologi.

Boehringer Ingelheim adalah kelompok global perusahaan merangkul banyak budaya dan masyarakat yang beragam. Pelajari lebih lanjut tentang ikhtisar data keuangan, visi perusahaan, organisasi, Direksi Mengelola dan sejarah perusahaan serta keterlibatan kami untuk tujuan ilmiah, budaya dan lingkungan

 

March, 13th.1939

Ambisi Hitler 

 

Adolf Hitler menginginkan lebih banyak tanah, terutama di timur, untuk memperluas Jerman sesuai dengan kebijakan Nazi lebensraum. Hitler menggunakan keterbatasan keras yang ditetapkan melawan Jerman di Perjanjian Versailles sebagai alasan untuk hak Jerman untuk memperoleh tanah di mana berbahasa Jerman orang hidup. Jerman berhasil menggunakan alasan ini untuk membungkus dua seluruh negara tanpa memulai perang.

 
 
 

March,10th.1939

The rare C.F.Boeringer &Sohned G.m.b.H ,Mannheim-Waldhof  promotional(reclame)  Perlaten-Calcium  in Climacterium card folder send from CDs Manheim  10.3.39 special nazi postmark Deutch reich 5 cent to Dr Thung Sin Nio (the frist Chinese overseas medical docter  of Indonesia University)Batavia-centrum(now Central Jakarta)

(courtecy Dr Iwan found at Jakarta in 1994)

The pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim was founded in 1885 by

 

 Albert Boehringer (1861-1939)

in Ingelheim am Rhein.

 From its beginnings in 1885 when it employed just 28 people in Nieder-Ingelheim, the company has since become a global enterprise.

As part of research and development activities for innovative drugs, the company focuses primarily on the therapeutic areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, diseases of the central nervous system, metabolic diseases, virological diseases and oncology.

Boehringer Ingelheim is a global group of companies embracing many cultures and diverse societies. Learn more about the financial highlights, the corporate vision, the organisation, the Board of Managing Directors and the company’s history as well as our engagement for scientific, cultural and environmental purposes

 

March,13th.1939

Hitler’s Ambitions

 

Adolf Hitler wanted more land, especially in the east, to expand Germany according to the Nazi policy of lebensraum. Hitler used the harsh limitations that were set against Germany in the Versailles Treaty as a pretext for Germany’s right to acquire land where German-speaking people lived. Germany successfully used this reasoning to envelop two entire countries without starting a war.

 

 Invasi Polandia

 

Akhirnya menerima bahwa Jerman tidak bisa ditenangkan Inggris dan Perancis meningkatkan program persenjataan mereka dan memberikan jaminan ke Polandia, target berikutnya Hitler.

Setelah menandatangani pakta non-agresi dengan Soviet, Hitler menuntut konsesi teritorial dari Polandia. Ini ditolak dan Jerman menyerang pada tanggal 1 September 1939. Inggris dan Prancis menyatakan perang dua hari kemudian. Perang Dunia II telah dimulai.

Sebuah pistol anti-pesawat Inggris, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-47

 

 Persemakmuran berperang

 

Pada pecahnya perang pada tahun 1939 Angkatan Darat Inggris terdiri 50 divisi reguler dan Teritorial. Banyak dari tentara ditempatkan di seluruh dunia. Lebih dari 50.000 tentara yang berbasis di India dan garnisun timur dari Suez.

Pasukan Ekspedisi Inggris (BEF) yang dikirim ke Prancis pada tahun 1939 hanya terdiri dari sepuluh divisi. Gaya ini relatif kecil dibandingkan dengan kombatan lainnya. Tapi di samping Angkatan Darat mereka sendiri, Inggris bisa menarik divisi tambahan dari Australia, Kanada, Afrika Selatan, Afrika Barat, Afrika Timur dan Selandia Baru. Ada juga sekitar 200.000 orang tentara India ditempatkan di sub-benua India.

Jenderal Gamelin, Perancis Komandan-in-Chief, memeriksa pasukan Kanada di Aldershot, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-79

 

.

Tentara mengenakan battledress baru dan peralatan yang dikeluarkan untuk semua cabang Angkatan Darat pada tahun 1939.

NAM. 1975-03-63-1-75

 

 

 

Derrick bergabung dengan RAF awal tahun 1939

 

 dan dilatih sebagai Operator nirkabel (Passing keluar pada 06.05.40), kemudian pelatihan kembali sebagai Mechanic Operator nirkabel (Wom) (07.03.41) setelah ia diposting ke No.12 WI (Interception Wireless) Layar

Irlandia Utara di mana ia menempati sebuah pondok pertanian di perbatasan Irlandia Utara dan Eire untuk menjaga pengawasan yang mendengarkan, bersama dengan operator nirkabel RAF dan enam tentara untuk bertindak sebagai penjaga

 (Saya percaya ini menjadi bagian dari layanan “Y”, tapi tidak bisa mendapatkan konfirmasi dari itu), sementara di sini di Irlandia Utara, home base nya RAF Aldergrove, dan itu di salah satu kunjungan rutin untuk mengumpulkan gajinya dia mendengar bahwa karena pengenalan dari empat pembom mesin baru, serta untuk aksi musuh ada kekurangan Gunners Air dan mereka merekrut untuk penggantian, Derrick sukarela dan pada saat diselesaikannya pelatihan (20.07.41) ia akhirnya dipindahkan ke Pesisir Command.

March, 14, 1939

 

 Hitler menjelaskan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk memaksa

 

Pemerintah Cekoslowakia pusat untuk memberikan Slowakia kemerdekaannya, yang akan membuat “pantat” negara Ceko “bahkan lebih lengkap pada belas kasihan kita,” kata Hermann Goering.

Slovakia memang menyatakan “kemerdekaan” nya (pada kenyataannya, ketergantungan terhadap Jerman) pada tanggal 14 Maret 1939, dengan ancaman invasi squelching debat semua dalam provinsi Czech

March, 15th.1939

1.939 Nazi mengambil Cekoslowakia

Pada hari ini, pasukan Hitler menyerbu dan menduduki Cekoslovakia – bangsa dikorbankan di altar Pakta Munich, yang merupakan upaya sia-sia untuk mencegah tujuan kekaisaran Jerman.

Kemudian, pada tanggal 15 Maret 1939, selama pertemuan dengan Presiden Ceko Emil Hacha – seorang pria dianggap lemah, dan bahkan mungkin pikun – Hitler mengancam serangan bom terhadap Praha, ibukota Ceko, kecuali dia diperoleh dari bagian Hacha gratis untuk Jerman pasukan ke perbatasan Ceko.

Dia mendapatkannya. Pada hari yang sama, pasukan Jerman dituangkan ke Bohemia dan Moravia. Dua provinsi yang ditawarkan tidak melawan, dan mereka dengan cepat membuat protektorat Jerman. Menjelang sore, Hitler membuat entri kemenangan ke Praha.

Pakta Munich, yang menurut Perdana Menteri Inggris Neville Chamberlain telah membeli “perdamaian di zaman kita,” sebenarnya taktik negosiasi hanya oleh Hitler, hanya sementara menunda darah Fuhrer

 
 

 Invasion of Poland

 

Finally accepting that Germany could not be appeased Britain and France stepped up their rearmament programmes and gave guarantees to Poland, Hitler’s next target.

After signing a non-aggression pact with the Soviets, Hitler demanded territorial concessions from the Poles. These were refused and the Germans attacked on 1 September 1939. Britain and France declared war two days later. The Second World War had begun.

A British anti-aircraft gun, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-47

 

 Commonwealth at war

 

On the outbreak of war in 1939 the British Army comprised 50 regular and Territorial divisions. Many of these troops were stationed throughout the world. Over 50,000 soldiers were based in India and garrisons east of Suez.

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) that was dispatched to France in 1939 consisted of only ten divisions. This force was relatively small compared with those of other combatants. But in addition to their own Army, the British could draw on additional divisions from Australia, Canada, South Africa, West Africa, East Africa and New Zealand. There were also around 200,000 men of the Indian Army stationed on the Indian sub-continent.

General Gamelin, the French Commander-in-Chief, inspects Canadian troops at Aldershot, 1939.

NAM. 1985-04-49-79

 

.

Soldiers wearing the new battledress and equipment issued to all branches of the Army in 1939.

NAM. 1975-03-63-1-75

 

 

 

Derrick joined the RAF early in 1939

 

 and trained as a Wireless Operator (Passing out on 06.05.40), later retraining as a Wireless Operator Mechanic (Wom) (07.03.41) after which he was posted to No.12 WI (Wireless Interception) screen

Northern Ireland where he was to occupy a farm cottage on the border of Northern Ireland and Eire to maintain a listening watch, along with another RAF wireless operator and six soldiers to act as guards

 (I believe this to be part of the “Y” service but cannot get confirmation of it), whilst here in Northern Ireland, his home base was RAF Aldergrove, and it was on one of his regular visits to collect his pay he heard that due to the introduction of the new four engine bombers, as well as to enemy action there was a shortage of Air Gunners and they were recruiting for replacements, Derrick volunteered and on completion of his training (20.07.41) he was eventually transferred to Coastal Command.

March, 14, 1939

 

 Hitler menjelaskan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk memaksa

 

Pemerintah Cekoslowakia pusat untuk memberikan Slowakia kemerdekaannya, yang akan membuat “pantat” negara Ceko “bahkan lebih lengkap pada belas kasihan kita,” kata Hermann Goering.

Slovakia memang menyatakan “kemerdekaan” nya (pada kenyataannya, ketergantungan terhadap Jerman) pada tanggal 14 Maret 1939, dengan ancaman invasi squelching debat semua dalam provinsi Czech

March, 15th.1939

1.939 Nazi mengambil Cekoslowakia

Pada hari ini, pasukan Hitler menyerbu dan menduduki Cekoslovakia – bangsa dikorbankan di altar Pakta Munich, yang merupakan upaya sia-sia untuk mencegah tujuan kekaisaran Jerman.

Kemudian, pada tanggal 15 Maret 1939, selama pertemuan dengan Presiden Ceko Emil Hacha – seorang pria dianggap lemah, dan bahkan mungkin pikun – Hitler mengancam serangan bom terhadap Praha, ibukota Ceko, kecuali dia diperoleh dari bagian Hacha gratis untuk Jerman pasukan ke perbatasan Ceko.

Dia mendapatkannya. Pada hari yang sama, pasukan Jerman dituangkan ke Bohemia dan Moravia. Dua provinsi yang ditawarkan tidak melawan, dan mereka dengan cepat membuat protektorat Jerman. Menjelang sore, Hitler membuat entri kemenangan ke Praha.

Pakta Munich, yang menurut Perdana Menteri Inggris Neville Chamberlain telah membeli “perdamaian di zaman kita,” sebenarnya taktik negosiasi hanya oleh Hitler, hanya sementara menunda darah Fuhrer

 

July,14th.1939

 

 Photo: this is another Nazi Promotional postmark of Merz Jodo Muc,all collections look at with click hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

The Fragment postal used cover with Promotion Machinal postmark  Merz  Jodo Muc  der sanitarer in der Westentasche  deutch reichpost 0.65 CDS Frankfurt(mann.) stadt des Deutchen Handwerks14.7.39 n red ink

 

Agustus 1939

 

Messerschmitt 110

The Messerschmitt 110 pada awalnya dirancang sebagai pesawat tempur bermesin kembar. The Messerschmitt 110 terbang pertama Mei 1936 dan pada bulan Agustus 1939, Luftwaffe memiliki 159 110Cs tersedia untuk serangan blitzkrieg di Polandia.
Me 110 terbukti pesawat berharga untuk Luftwaffe dalam kampanye Polandia Aa, ¬ “meskipun itu melawan pejuang kuno di Angkatan Udara Polandia.

Tentara Jerman yang menyeberang ke Polandia pada tanggal 1 September

 

 

 dengan itu memiliki lebih dari 200 Ju87s untuk dukungan, dan tahun antara Perang Saudara Spanyol dan invasi Polandia disediakan Richthofen sekarang Jenderal dengan waktu untuk bereksperimen dengan teknik-teknik baru untuk mengendalikan misi dukungan udara dekat.

Bernama “udara komandan untuk tujuan khusus,” adalah kontribusi utama untuk pengembangan CAS penciptaan empat Detasemen Khusus Air. Bepergian dengan komandan divisi tentara dan menggunakan mobil lapis baja, unit-unit ini dikirim ke Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Jenderal von Reichenau untuk bereksperimen memanggil serangan udara presisi.

Bila tidak digunakan untuk pekerjaan dukungan langsung, stukas digunakan selama kampanye untuk menyerang jembatan, benteng, dan lainnya “keras” target. Beberapa pelajaran awal kerentanan operasi Stuka saja bisa telah diajarkan telah Polandia menggunakan perintah, terpadu koheren untuk angkatan udara mereka.

Mereka tidak. Bertentangan dengan sebagian besar laporan, Angkatan Udara Polandia TIDAK hancur di tanah di hari pertama, melainkan dikirim ke bidang penyebaran, di mana interaksi dengan unit udara yang lebih besar sulit di terbaik.

 

Angkatan Udara Polandia itu karena itu tidak dapat menghentikan serangan luas oleh stukas karena mereka dilindungi panggul tentara Jerman dan target jahanam di atau dekat garis depan. Sementara serangan terhadap Polandia sering dianggap sebagai Blitzkrieg nyata pertama,

itu adalah serangan yang jauh lebih tradisional. Poin resistensi yang cukup dilewati, perdagangan jarak untuk segalanya. Air listrik diawetkan sisi-sisi kemajuan Jerman dan membeku unit Polandia, yang biasanya menemukan diri mereka dikelilingi oleh tentara Jerman di saku besar.

Ketika Tentara Polandia akhirnya meluncurkan serangan balasan besar di sisi-sisi dari tentara Jerman yang bergerak cepat, mereka menjadi martir awal untuk efektivitas kekuatan udara. Pada tanggal 9 September, sekitar 170.000 pasukan Polandia berkumpul dan menyerang pasukan Jerman dekat Poznan. Serangan itu sekilas mirip itu akan berhasil, memotong Angkatan Darat ke-10 off dari jejak logistik.

Sayangnya untuk Polandia, tanggal 10 adalah unit dengan Detasemen Khusus von Richthofen Udara. Cepat, Polandia menyerang menemukan diri mereka di bawah layu menyelam-bom dari stukas dan pemberondongan konstan oleh Hs123 biplanes (Hs123 itu premier tanah Jerman itu strafer serangan untuk beberapa tahun pertama perang). Namun, itu bukan hanya bomber menyelam dan aset serangan darat dari Luftwaffe yang digunakan.

Setiap pesawat yang tersedia di teater itu dikirim untuk plug kesenjangan. Kuda, masih penting untuk pasukan darat Polandia dan Jerman, panik di bawah serangan udara; pasukan mereka melakukan sedikit lebih baik. Stukas telah dilengkapi dengan sirene pada sayap mereka, dan mesin Hs123 terdengar seperti senapan mesin itu sendiri keras di ketinggian rendah. Efek pada tentara Polandia segar, yang pernah berada di bawah serangan udara, adalah total. Itu adalah rute mengucapkan, dan 1.700 sorti kemudian, Luftwaffe telah efektif menghancurkan serangan balik Polandia.

 

Jendral Polandia  Kutrzeba menggambarkan adegan:

“Menjelang pukul sepuluh, serangan udara marah dibuat di penyeberangan sungai dekat Witkovice – yang untuk jumlah pesawat yang bergerak, kekerasan serangan mereka, dan berani akrobatik pilot mereka, pasti belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya Setiap saat,. setiap konsentrasi pasukan, setiap baris muka, berada di bawah pemboman dari udara penghancuran Itu hanya neraka di bumi.. The jembatan hancur, penyeberangan diblokir, dan kolom menunggu laki-laki hancur. “

Meskipun pertempuran untuk Polandia dengan mudah dimenangkan oleh Jerman, teori kekuatan udara seperti von Richthofen masih melihat banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Berbagai isu yang timbul dari aplikasi yang sebenarnya dari teori Lampiran Udara Khusus. Perwira Angkatan Darat tidak merasa perlu untuk memanggil serangan udara sebanyak yang mereka bisa, dan ada yang tak terelakkan snafus frekuensi radio dan identifikasi sasaran.

Fakta bahwa kampanye Polandia benar-benar lebih merupakan pertempuran pengepungan daripada serangan armor benar terkonsentrasi juga sangat membebani. Sebagian besar bebas dari serangan terkonsentrasi, stukas digunakan untuk melindungi sisi-sisi unit Jerman dan menyerang sasaran titik.

 

Doktrin  Operasional
Banyak dari doktrin operasional didasarkan pada perencanaan strategis Perancis yang oleh akhir 1930-an itu tidak memadai untuk menangani Germanyââ, ¬ ™ s perang mekanik (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991).
Setiap tentara diberi jatah unit udara sendiri, biasanya terdiri dari dua skuadron dari P.7 pejuang atau p.12 pertahanan udara / pesawat serangan darat.
Selain satu skuadron pengintai terdiri dari delapan sampai sepuluh hal.23 Karas pembom ringan dan satu atau dua skuadron pengamatan terdiri atas Lotnictwo lampiran Wojskowe kepada tentara.

Sementara Polandia memiliki sekitar 300 pejuang (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) hanya 10% berada dalam kondisi tempur. Sisanya adalah baik dalam peran pelatihan atau menjalani perbaikan sebelum pecahnya perang.
Para pembom Karas berjumlah sekitar 240 dan tidak pernah benar-benar memenuhi perannya sebagai bomber ringan atau pesawat serangan darat.
Pembom hal.37 Los lebih maju dalam desain, tetapi hanya 75 yang tersedia untuk tugas tempur pada tahun 1939.

Perang di Udara
Banyak penulis (Davies, 1981, Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki sejarah mitos seputar peran Wojskowe Lotnictwo. Angkatan Udara tidak hancur pada lapangan udara pada tanggal 1 September 1939.
Sebagian besar pesawat tersebar ke lapangan udara rahasia dan Luftwaffe terutama menembak-up dan membom airfileds kosong tertutup oleh kabut pagi. Pertahanan udara terkonsentrasi di sampul udara di atas Warsawa sebagai tujuan utama yang memungkinkan keunggulan Luftwaffe udara untuk mengganggu mobilisasi tentara.
Komando tertinggi militer meminta tingkat rendah serangan pada memajukan kolom Jerman yang terbukti sangat boros dalam pesawat. Sementara unit udara paling cepat mundur ke jantung Polandia, suku cadang dan bahan bakar menjadi masalah yang meningkat.
Komunikasi antara unit dan tentara rusak dan dalam beberapa kasus unit diminta untuk melaksanakan dukungan taktis melawan tentara yang bisa outgun mereka atau mengambil pada angkatan udara unggul.
Pilot dan tanah-kru berjuang heroik dengan sumber daya terbatas dan sering ditemukan Aa, ¬ Ëœfriendly-fireââ, ¬ ™ adalah sebagai mematikan seperti mengambil musuh (Zamoyski, 1995). Sebagai pesawat pindah dari lapangan terbang ke lapangan udara, kru darat berjuang untuk pertemuan dan cukup sering menjadi terpisah sampai tiga hari sebelum bergabung kembali skuadron mereka.
Ini pengalaman kebijakan taktis berbentuk yang dimasukkan untuk efek yang baik, tapi tidak dalam teater perang.

PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade” j=” PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade ” g=”PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade”><span> PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade </ span>

Di seterusnya September 3

semua unit yang mundur ke tenggara Polandia dalam rangka re-group. Semua personil dan cadangan yang sekarang dipanggil.
Pada 5 September, intervensi fisik oleh Inggris dan Prancis tidak terwujud dan Angkatan Udara telah kehilangan 30% dari pesawatnya. Zamoyski, (1995) menunjukkan bahwa 14 Badai dan 36 Fairey Pertempuran telah dimuat di atas kapal di Liverpool menuju Gdynia yang dialihkan ke pelabuhan Rumania dari Galti di Laut Hitam sekali permusuhan dimulai.
Pada tanggal 10 September

200 pilot dan staf teknis diperintahkan untuk Rumania untuk mengumpulkan mesin pengganti. Sayangnya, Rumania di bawah tekanan Jerman membatalkan aliansi dengan Polandia dan menjadi netral, sementara 6.000 personel Angkatan Udara berkumpul di perbatasan.
Kapal yang membawa kargo berharga berlalu Gibraltar Rumania netralitas diumumkan dan diketahui oleh Polandia, kapal itu sekali lagi kembali diarahkan.
Dari seterusnya 16 September

 memerangi korban ke pesawat dan personil meningkat dengan skuadron yang dimusnahkan atau hanya kehabisan bahan bakar dan suku cadang.
Pada 17 September

100 pesawat tempur dan 50 pesawat sipil terbang ke Rumania ke lapangan terbang di Galati. Para kru tiba-tiba menyadari perang usai dan bahwa Rumania, Inggris dan Perancis tidak mendukung mereka di saat mereka membutuhkan.
Kebanyakan penerbang cukup diperlakukan dengan baik. Polandia unit tentara mulai menyeberangi perbatasan Rumania tak lama kemudian.
Dalam Eastern Poland, tentara Polandia dan Angkatan Udara yang terlibat baik Jerman dan Soviet dan terus berjuang keras hingga tanggal 6 Oktober.

Setelah kejadian itu, ternyata sejumlah besar personil militer telah melarikan diri dan memulai kampanye mereka di pengasingan. Angkatan laut telah melarikan diri dan Polandââ, ¬ ™ s cadangan emas juga berkat

 

 perencanaan Jenderal Rayski.

900 personel Angkatan Udara telah membuat jalan mereka ke Hungaria dan sekitar 1.000 ke Amerika Baltik Latvia dan Lithunia. Lain 1.500 telah ditangkap oleh Soviet dan dikirim ke gulag Aa, ¬ “

banyak yang tidak bertahan hidup (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Keamanan di kamp-kamp interniran miskin dan narapidana terlalu tertarik untuk sampai ke Prancis dan Inggris untuk melawan sementara di pengasingan. 90.000 personil militer Polandia itu harus sembunyi-sembunyi dihapus dari Balkan melalui jaringan bawah tanah.
Inggris adalah akut kekurangan penerbang terlatih yang diberi prioritas bersama-sama dengan unsur-unsur bahan Enigma decoding Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 

 

Pesawat kamuflase 1939 kampanye

 

Sejak 1937 Angkatan skema Polandia kamuflase Air standar pada semua pesawatnya. Ada empat skema dasar:
Atas permukaan sayap dan elevator dan pesawat di seluruh Khaki. Rendah sayap dan permukaan lift di Blue Light. Skema yang paling banyak digunakan.
Atas permukaan disamarkan dalam tiga warna: Olive Light, Dark Olive, Khaki. Rendah permukaan Sliver atau Blue Light untuk tempur. Warna berbulu atau pecah tepi.
Trainer pesawat dicat keseluruhan Khaki. Secara keseluruhan Sliver atau keseluruhan Gading Putih.
Laut pesawat dicat Green Light-Grey di atas dan perak pada permukaan bawah dan mengapung.
Umumnya semua pesawat yang diproduksi oleh PZL dan LWS membawa skema no. 1. Skema no. 2 adalah khas untuk Lublin R-XIII.

 
 
 

March ,14th, 1939

 

 Hitler made it clear that he intended to force

 

the central Czechoslovakian government to give Slovakia its independence, which would make the “rump” Czech state “even more completely at our mercy,” remarked Hermann Goering.

Slovakia indeed declared its “independence” (in fact, complete dependence on Germany) on March 14, 1939, with the threat of invasion squelching all debate within the Czech province

March ,15th.1939

1939 Nazis take Czechoslovakia


On this day, Hitler’s forces invade and occupy Czechoslovakia–a nation sacrificed on the altar of the Munich Pact, which was a vain attempt to prevent Germany’s imperial aims.


Then, on March 15, 1939, during a meeting with Czech President Emil Hacha–a man considered weak, and possibly even senile–Hitler threatened a bombing raid against Prague, the Czech capital, unless he obtained from Hacha free passage for German troops into Czech borders.

He got it. That same day, German troops poured into Bohemia and Moravia. The two provinces offered no resistance, and they were quickly made a protectorate of Germany. By evening, Hitler made a triumphant entry into Prague.

The Munich Pact, which according to British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain had purchased “peace in our time,” was actually a mere negotiating ploy by the Hitler, only temporarily delaying the Fuhrer’s blood

 

 

August 1939

 

Messerschmitt 110

The Messerschmitt 110 was originally designed as a twin engined fighter. The Messerschmitt 110 first flew in May 1936 and by August 1939, the Luftwaffe had 159 110Cs available for the blitzkrieg attack on Poland.
The Me 110 proved a valuable plane to the Luftwaffe in the Polish campaign — though it was up against old fashioned fighters in the Polish Air Force.

The German Army that crossed into Poland on September 1st

 

 

 had with it more than 200 Ju87s for support, and the years between the Spanish Civil War and the Poland invasion provided now-General Richthofen with time to experiment with new techniques for controlling close air support missions.


Named the “air commander for special purposes,” his main contribution to the development of CAS was the creation of four Special Air Detachments. Traveling with army division commanders and using armored cars, these units were sent to General von Reichenau’s Tenth Army to experiment calling in precision air strikes.

When not being used for direct support work, Stukas were used throughout the campaign to attack bridges, fortifications, and other “hard” targets. Some early lessons in the vulnerability of the Stuka operating alone could have been taught had the Poles used a unified, coherent command for their air force.

They did not. Contrary to most reports, the Polish Air Force was NOT destroyed on the ground in the first day, but rather sent to dispersal fields, where interaction with larger air units was difficult at best.

 

The Polish Air Force was therefore unable to stop the widespread attacks by the Stukas as they protected the German army’s flanks and blasted targets at or near front lines. While the attack on Poland is often considered the first real Blitzkrieg,

it was a far more traditional attack. Points of resistance were simply bypassed, trading distance for all else. Air power preserved the flanks of the German advances and froze Polish units, who usually found themselves surrounded by the German army in large pockets.

When the Polish Army finally launched a major counteroffensive on the flanks of the fast-moving German army, they became early martyrs to the effectiveness of airpower. On September 9, about 170,000 Polish forces gathered and attacked German forces near Poznan. The attack briefly looked like it would work, cutting the 10th Army off from its logistics trail.

Unfortunately for the Poles, the 10th was the unit with von Richthofen’s Special Air Detachments. Quickly, the attacking Poles found themselves under withering dive-bombing from Stukas and constant strafing by Hs123 biplanes (the Hs123 was the German’s premier ground attack strafer for the first several years of the war). However, it wasn’t just the dive bomber and ground attack assets of the Luftwaffe that were used.

Any available aircraft in the theater was sent to plug the gap. Horses, still crucial to both Polish and German ground forces, panicked under the air attacks; their troops did little better. Stukas had been fitted with sirens on their wings, and the Hs123’s engine sounded like a loud machine gun itself at low altitude. The effect on the fresh Polish troops, who had never come under air attack, was total. It was an utter route, and 1,700 sorties later, the Luftwaffe has effectively crushed the Polish counterattack.

 

Polish General Kutrzeba described the scene:

“Towards ten o’clock, a furious air assault was made on the river crossings near Witkovice – which for the number of aircraft engaged, the violence of their attack, and the acrobatic daring of their pilots, must have been unprecedented. Every moment, every troop concentration, every line of advance, came under pulverizing bombardment from the air. It was just hell on earth. The bridges were destroyed, the fords blocked, and the waiting columns of men decimated.”

Although the battle for Poland was handily won by the Germans, air power theorists such as von Richthofen still saw much room for improvement. A wide range of issues had arisen from the actual application of the theory of the Special Air Attachments. Army officers didn’t feel the need to call in air strikes as much as they could have, and there were the inevitable SNAFUs of radio frequencies and target identification.

The fact that the Polish campaign really was more a battle of encirclement rather than a true concentrated armor attack also weighed heavily. Largely free of concentrated attacks, the Stukas were used to protect the flanks of German units and strike point targets.

 

Operational Doctrine
Much of the operational doctrine was based upon French strategic planning which by the late 1930s was inadequate to deal with Germany’s mechanized war (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).
Each army was allotted its own air units, usually made up of two squadrons of P.7 fighters or P.12 air defence/ ground attack aircraft.
In addition one reconnaissance squadron made up of eight to ten P.23 Karas light bombers and one or two observation squadrons made up the Lotnictwo Wojskowe attachments to the army.

While Poland had some 300 fighters (Zaloga and Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) only 10% were in combat condition. The remainder were either in a training role or undergoing repair prior to the outbreak of war.
The Karas bombers numbered around 240 and never really fulfilled its role as a light bomber or ground attack aircraft.
The P.37 Los bomber was more advanced in design, but only 75 available for combat duty in 1939.

War in the Air
Numerous authors (Davies, 1981, Zaloga and Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) have attempted to correct historical myth surrounding the role of the Lotnictwo Wojskowe. The airforce was not destroyed on the airfields on the 1st September 1939.
Most aircraft were dispersed to secret airfields and the Luftwaffe primarily shot-up and bombed empty airfileds obscured by early morning mist. Air defences concentrated on air cover over Warsaw as the prime objective that enabled the Luftwaffe air superiority to disrupt mobilization of the army.
The military high command requested low-level raids on advancing German columns that proved to be very wasteful in planes. While most air units quickly retreated into the heartland of Poland, spares and fuel became an increasing problem.
Communication between units and the army broke down and in some cases units were requested to carry out tactical support against an army which could outgun them or take on a superior airforce.
Pilots and ground-crew fought heroically with limited resources and often found ‘friendly-fire’ was as lethal as taking on the enemy (Zamoyski, 1995). As planes moved from airfield to airfield, ground crews struggled to rendezvous and quite often became separated for up to three days before rejoining their squadrons.
These experiences shaped tactical policy which were put to good effect, but not in this theatre of the war.

<span>PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade</span>

On the 3rd September onwards

all units were to withdraw to southeastern Poland in order to re-group. All personnel and reservists had by now been called up.
By the 5th September, the physical intervention by Britain and France had not materialized and the airforce had lost 30% of its aircraft. Zamoyski, (1995) pointed out that 14 Hurricanes and 36 Fairey Battles having being loaded aboard ships in Liverpool bound for Gdynia were rerouted to the Rumanian port of Galti on the Black Sea once hostilities commenced.
On the 10th September

200 pilots and technical staff were ordered to Rumania to collect replacement machines. Unfortunately, Rumania under German pressure rescinded its alliance with Poland and became neutral while 6,000 airforce personnel massed on the border.
The ship carrying its valuable cargo had passed Gibraltar as Rumanian neutrality was announced and unknown to the Poles, the ship was once again re-routed.
From the 16th September onwards,

 combat casualties to aircraft and personnel escalated with squadrons being annihilated or simply running out of fuel and spares.
On the 17th September

100 war planes and 50 civilian aircraft flew into Rumania to an airfield at Galati. The crews suddenly realized the war was over and that Rumania, Britain and France had not supported them in their hour of need.
Most airmen were reasonably well treated. Polish army units began to cross the Rumanian border shortly afterwards.
In Eastern Poland, the Polish army and airforce were engaging both the German and Soviets and continued to fight hard until 6th October.

In the aftermath, it appeared significant numbers of military personnel had escaped and started their campaign in exile. The navy had escaped and Poland’s gold reserves too thanks to

 

 the planning of General Rayski.


900 airforce personnel had made their way to Hungary and approximately 1,000 to the Baltic States of Latvia and Lithunia. Another 1,500 had been captured by the Soviets and sent to the gulags —

many did not survive (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Security at the internment camps was poor and the inmates too keen to get to France and Britain to fight while in exile. 90,000 Polish military personnel were to be clandestinely removed from the Balkans through an underground network.
Britain was acutely short of trained airmen who were given priority together with the elements of the Enigma decoding material Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 

 

Aircraft camouflage of 1939 campaign

 

Since 1937 Polish Air Force standardised camouflage schemes on all of its aircraft. There were four basic schemes:
Upper surfaces of wings and elevators and entire fuselage in Khaki. Lower wing and elevator surfaces in Light Blue. The most used scheme.
Upper surfaces camouflaged in three colors: Light Olive, Dark Olive, Khaki. Lower surfaces Sliver or Light Blue for fighter. Color edges feathered or splintered.
Trainer aircraft were painted overall Khaki. Overall Sliver or Overall Ivory White.
Sea aircraft were painted Light Green-Grey on the upper and Silver on the lower surfaces and floats.
Generally all aircraft produced by PZL and LWS carried scheme no. 1. Scheme no. 2 was typical for Lublin R-XIII.

 

Tentara Jerman yang menyerang  ke Polandia

pada tanggal 1 September

 

 

 dengan itu memiliki lebih dari 200 Ju87s untuk dukungan, dan tahun antara Perang Saudara Spanyol dan invasi Polandia disediakan Richthofen sekarang Jenderal dengan waktu untuk bereksperimen dengan teknik-teknik baru untuk mengendalikan misi dukungan udara dekat.

Bernama “udara komandan untuk tujuan khusus,” adalah kontribusi utama untuk pengembangan CAS penciptaan empat Detasemen Khusus Air. Bepergian dengan komandan divisi tentara dan menggunakan mobil lapis baja, unit-unit ini dikirim ke Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Jenderal von Reichenau untuk bereksperimen memanggil serangan udara presisi.

Bila tidak digunakan untuk pekerjaan dukungan langsung, stukas digunakan selama kampanye untuk menyerang jembatan, benteng, dan lainnya “keras” target. Beberapa pelajaran awal kerentanan operasi Stuka saja bisa telah diajarkan telah Polandia menggunakan perintah, terpadu koheren untuk angkatan udara mereka.

Mereka tidak. Bertentangan dengan sebagian besar laporan, Angkatan Udara Polandia TIDAK hancur di tanah di hari pertama, melainkan dikirim ke bidang penyebaran, di mana interaksi dengan unit udara yang lebih besar sulit di terbaik.

 

Angkatan Udara Polandia itu karena itu tidak dapat menghentikan serangan luas oleh stukas karena mereka dilindungi panggul tentara Jerman dan target jahanam di atau dekat garis depan. Sementara serangan terhadap Polandia sering dianggap sebagai Blitzkrieg nyata pertama,

itu adalah serangan yang jauh lebih tradisional. Poin resistensi yang cukup dilewati, perdagangan jarak untuk segalanya. Air listrik diawetkan sisi-sisi kemajuan Jerman dan membeku unit Polandia, yang biasanya menemukan diri mereka dikelilingi oleh tentara Jerman di saku besar.

Ketika Tentara Polandia akhirnya meluncurkan serangan balasan besar di sisi-sisi dari tentara Jerman yang bergerak cepat, mereka menjadi martir awal untuk efektivitas kekuatan udara. Pada tanggal 9 September, sekitar 170.000 pasukan Polandia berkumpul dan menyerang pasukan Jerman dekat Poznan. Serangan itu sekilas mirip itu akan berhasil, memotong Angkatan Darat ke-10 off dari jejak logistik.

Sayangnya untuk Polandia, tanggal 10 adalah unit dengan Detasemen Khusus von Richthofen Udara. Cepat, Polandia menyerang menemukan diri mereka di bawah layu menyelam-bom dari stukas dan pemberondongan konstan oleh Hs123 biplanes (Hs123 itu premier tanah Jerman itu strafer serangan untuk beberapa tahun pertama perang). Namun, itu bukan hanya bomber menyelam dan aset serangan darat dari Luftwaffe yang digunakan.

Setiap pesawat yang tersedia di teater itu dikirim untuk plug kesenjangan. Kuda, masih penting untuk pasukan darat Polandia dan Jerman, panik di bawah serangan udara; pasukan mereka melakukan sedikit lebih baik. Stukas telah dilengkapi dengan sirene pada sayap mereka, dan mesin Hs123 terdengar seperti senapan mesin itu sendiri keras di ketinggian rendah. Efek pada tentara Polandia segar, yang pernah berada di bawah serangan udara, adalah total. Itu adalah rute mengucapkan, dan 1.700 sorti kemudian, Luftwaffe telah efektif menghancurkan serangan balik Polandia.

 

Polandia Umum Kutrzeba menggambarkan adegan:

“Menjelang pukul sepuluh, serangan udara marah dibuat di penyeberangan sungai dekat Witkovice – yang untuk jumlah pesawat yang bergerak, kekerasan serangan mereka, dan berani akrobatik pilot mereka, pasti belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya Setiap saat,. setiap konsentrasi pasukan, setiap baris muka, berada di bawah pemboman dari udara penghancuran Itu hanya neraka di bumi.. The jembatan hancur, penyeberangan diblokir, dan kolom menunggu laki-laki hancur. “

Meskipun pertempuran untuk Polandia dengan mudah dimenangkan oleh Jerman, teori kekuatan udara seperti von Richthofen masih melihat banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Berbagai isu yang timbul dari aplikasi yang sebenarnya dari teori Lampiran Udara Khusus. Perwira Angkatan Darat tidak merasa perlu untuk memanggil serangan udara sebanyak yang mereka bisa, dan ada yang tak terelakkan snafus frekuensi radio dan identifikasi sasaran.

Fakta bahwa kampanye Polandia benar-benar lebih merupakan pertempuran pengepungan daripada serangan armor benar terkonsentrasi juga sangat membebani. Sebagian besar bebas dari serangan terkonsentrasi, stukas digunakan untuk melindungi sisi-sisi unit Jerman dan menyerang sasaran titik.

 

Operasional Ajaran
Banyak dari doktrin operasional didasarkan pada perencanaan strategis Perancis yang oleh akhir 1930-an itu tidak memadai untuk menangani Germanyââ, ¬ ™ s perang mekanik (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991).
Setiap tentara diberi jatah unit udara sendiri, biasanya terdiri dari dua skuadron dari P.7 pejuang atau p.12 pertahanan udara / pesawat serangan darat.
Selain satu skuadron pengintai terdiri dari delapan sampai sepuluh hal.23 Karas pembom ringan dan satu atau dua skuadron pengamatan terdiri atas Lotnictwo lampiran Wojskowe kepada tentara.

Sementara Polandia memiliki sekitar 300 pejuang (Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) hanya 10% berada dalam kondisi tempur. Sisanya adalah baik dalam peran pelatihan atau menjalani perbaikan sebelum pecahnya perang.
Para pembom Karas berjumlah sekitar 240 dan tidak pernah benar-benar memenuhi perannya sebagai bomber ringan atau pesawat serangan darat.
Pembom hal.37 Los lebih maju dalam desain, tetapi hanya 75 yang tersedia untuk tugas tempur pada tahun 1939.

Perang di Udara
Banyak penulis (Davies, 1981, Zaloga dan Madej, 1991; Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) telah berusaha untuk memperbaiki sejarah mitos seputar peran Wojskowe Lotnictwo. Angkatan Udara tidak hancur pada lapangan udara pada tanggal 1 September 1939.
Sebagian besar pesawat tersebar ke lapangan udara rahasia dan Luftwaffe terutama menembak-up dan membom airfileds kosong tertutup oleh kabut pagi. Pertahanan udara terkonsentrasi di sampul udara di atas Warsawa sebagai tujuan utama yang memungkinkan keunggulan Luftwaffe udara untuk mengganggu mobilisasi tentara.
Komando tertinggi militer meminta tingkat rendah serangan pada memajukan kolom Jerman yang terbukti sangat boros dalam pesawat. Sementara unit udara paling cepat mundur ke jantung Polandia, suku cadang dan bahan bakar menjadi masalah yang meningkat.
Komunikasi antara unit dan tentara rusak dan dalam beberapa kasus unit diminta untuk melaksanakan dukungan taktis melawan tentara yang bisa outgun mereka atau mengambil pada angkatan udara unggul.
Pilot dan tanah-kru berjuang heroik dengan sumber daya terbatas dan sering ditemukan Aa, ¬ Ëœfriendly-fireââ, ¬ ™ adalah sebagai mematikan seperti mengambil musuh (Zamoyski, 1995). Sebagai pesawat pindah dari lapangan terbang ke lapangan udara, kru darat berjuang untuk pertemuan dan cukup sering menjadi terpisah sampai tiga hari sebelum bergabung kembali skuadron mereka.
Ini pengalaman kebijakan taktis berbentuk yang dimasukkan untuk efek yang baik, tapi tidak dalam teater perang.

PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade” j=” PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade ” g=”PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade”><span> PZL Los B, Bomber Brigade </ span>

Di seterusnya September 3

semua unit yang mundur ke tenggara Polandia dalam rangka re-group. Semua personil dan cadangan yang sekarang dipanggil.
Pada 5 September, intervensi fisik oleh Inggris dan Prancis tidak terwujud dan Angkatan Udara telah kehilangan 30% dari pesawatnya. Zamoyski, (1995) menunjukkan bahwa 14 Badai dan 36 Fairey Pertempuran telah dimuat di atas kapal di Liverpool menuju Gdynia yang dialihkan ke pelabuhan Rumania dari Galti di Laut Hitam sekali permusuhan dimulai.
Pada tanggal 10 September

200 pilot dan staf teknis diperintahkan untuk Rumania untuk mengumpulkan mesin pengganti. Sayangnya, Rumania di bawah tekanan Jerman membatalkan aliansi dengan Polandia dan menjadi netral, sementara 6.000 personel Angkatan Udara berkumpul di perbatasan.
Kapal yang membawa kargo berharga berlalu Gibraltar Rumania netralitas diumumkan dan diketahui oleh Polandia, kapal itu sekali lagi kembali diarahkan.
Dari seterusnya 16 September

 memerangi korban ke pesawat dan personil meningkat dengan skuadron yang dimusnahkan atau hanya kehabisan bahan bakar dan suku cadang.
Pada 17 September

100 pesawat tempur dan 50 pesawat sipil terbang ke Rumania ke lapangan terbang di Galati. Para kru tiba-tiba menyadari perang usai dan bahwa Rumania, Inggris dan Perancis tidak mendukung mereka di saat mereka membutuhkan.
Kebanyakan penerbang cukup diperlakukan dengan baik. Polandia unit tentara mulai menyeberangi perbatasan Rumania tak lama kemudian.
Dalam Eastern Poland, tentara Polandia dan Angkatan Udara yang terlibat baik Jerman dan Soviet dan terus berjuang keras hingga tanggal 6 Oktober.

Setelah kejadian itu, ternyata sejumlah besar personil militer telah melarikan diri dan memulai kampanye mereka di pengasingan. Angkatan laut telah melarikan diri dan Polandââ, ¬ ™ s cadangan emas juga berkat

 

 perencanaan Jenderal Rayski.

900 personel Angkatan Udara telah membuat jalan mereka ke Hungaria dan sekitar 1.000 ke Amerika Baltik Latvia dan Lithunia. Lain 1.500 telah ditangkap oleh Soviet dan dikirim ke gulag Aa, ¬ “

banyak yang tidak bertahan hidup (Anders, 1949; Zamoyski, 1995).
Keamanan di kamp-kamp interniran miskin dan narapidana terlalu tertarik untuk sampai ke Prancis dan Inggris untuk melawan sementara di pengasingan. 90.000 personil militer Polandia itu harus sembunyi-sembunyi dihapus dari Balkan melalui jaringan bawah tanah.
Inggris adalah akut kekurangan penerbang terlatih yang diberi prioritas bersama-sama dengan unsur-unsur bahan Enigma decoding Zamoyski, 1995:39).

 
 

August,22th.1939

 

 

1939, Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression pact, stunning the world, given their diametrically opposed ideologies. But the dictators were, despite appearances, both playing to their own political needs.

After Nazi Germany’s invasion of Czechoslovakia, Britain had to decide to what extent it would intervene should Hitler continue German expansion. Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, at first indifferent to Hitler’s capture of the Sudetenland, the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, suddenly snapped to life when Poland became threatened. He made it plain that Britain would be obliged to come to the aid of Poland in the event of German invasion. But he wanted, and needed, an ally. The only power large enough to stop Hitler, and with a vested interest in doing so, was the Soviet Union. But Stalin was cool to Britain after its effort to create a political alliance with Britain and France against Germany had been rebuffed a year earlier. Plus, Poland’s leaders were less than thrilled with the prospect of Russia becoming its guardian; to them, it was simply occupation by another monstrous regime.

Hitler believed that Britain would never take him on alone, so he decided to swallow his fear and loathing of communism and cozy up to the Soviet dictator, thereby pulling the rug out from the British initiative. Both sides were extremely suspicious of the other, trying to discern ulterior motives. But Hitler was in a hurry; he knew if he was to invade Poland it had to be done quickly, before the West could create a unified front. Agreeing basically to carve up parts of Eastern Europe-and leave each other alone in the process-Hitler’s foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, flew to Moscow and signed the non-aggression pact with his Soviet counterpart, V.M. Molotov (which is why the pact is often referred to as the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact). Supporters of bolshevism around the world had their heretofore romantic view of “international socialism” ruined; they were outraged that Stalin would enter into any kind of league with the fascist dictator

   

   

   

  On August 23, 1939,

     

 the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression treaty which contained an additional secret protocol with maps, in which a demarcation line through Eastern Europe was drawn, dividing it into the German and Soviet interest zones. Bessarabia was among the regions assigned to Soviet sphere of interest by the Pact. Article III of its Secret Additional Protocol states:

With regard to Southeastern Europe attention is called by the Soviet side to its interest in Bessarabia. The German side declares its complete political disinterestedness in these areas

 

 August,27th.1939

‘Not Forgotten’, the 1939 IRA bomb attack – by Simon Shaw

John Corbett Arnott aged 15.
Elsie Ansell aged 21.
Rex Gentle aged 30.
Gwilym Rowlands aged 50.
James Clay aged 82.

On 12th January 1939 the Irish Republican Army, claiming to be the “Government of the Irish Republic”, issued an ultimatum to the British Government. It gave them four days to withdraw all British armed forces stationed in Ireland and declare that they would renounce all claims to interfere in Irish domestic policy. If they received no response, they said they would be compelled to intervene actively in the military and commercial life of Great Britain. Four days passed with no reply so a campaign known as the “S-Plan” was launched against Britain. This mainly involved bombing commercial premises, sabotaging electricity supplies, blowing up telephone kiosks, public lavatories, mail boxes and railway stations. Coventry was mentioned by name in the I.R.A. plans, which had singled out its electricity supply as a prime target. Civilians were not supposed to be targeted.

Remains of the bicycle in Little Park Street Police Museum, Coventry The remains of the bicycle, now in Coventry’s Police Museum, Little Park Street.
(Photograph by Simon Shaw with permission of West Midlands Police. Unauthorised reproduction may result in prosecution.)

Unless you have a reasonably good knowledge of local history the five names at the start of this article will probably not be familiar to you. They are the forgotten victims of the worst terrorist attack Coventry has ever suffered. On 25th August 1939 all of them had the misfortune to be in Broadgate. It was a busy Friday lunchtime. Elsie Ansell, a shop assistant at Millet’s in nearby Cross Cheaping, was on her lunch break and looking at jewellery in the H Samuel shop. She was due to be married a fortnight later. Gwilym Rowlands, known as Bill, was a road sweeper. He and his colleague (John Worth) were working outside Astley’s and Burton’s shops. John Arnott and Rex Gentle both worked at W H Smiths and were returning after their lunch break. Rex had changed his lunch hour so he could spend it with John. James Clay had left a meeting at a nearby cafe with a business friend earlier than usual due to not feeling well. This was the first time in six years the two friends had not left at the same time. Around 2:30 pm these people and many others were in the vicinity of Astley’s shop when the normal hustle and bustle of the city centre was shattered by an I.R.A. bomb.

Ironically, in the city that is regarded as its British birthplace, a bicycle played an instrumental part in the mass murder and carnage that shocked the nation.

Broadgate in 1939. A typical Broadgate day in 1939 – just as it would have appeared shortly before the tragic event of August the 25th.

On Tuesday 22nd August 1939 James McCormick (alias James Richards), the leader of the I.R.A. unit operating in Coventry, and another unknown I.R.A. man visited the shop of the Halford Cycle Company in Smithford Street, where McCormick purchased a Halford ‘Karriwell’ – a tradesman type cycle built for Halford by the Birmingham Bicycle Company which had a carrier basket to the front of the handlebars. He gave a false name and address – Mr Norman, 56 Grayswood Avenue, Allesley Old Road, Coventry – and paid a deposit of £5 – pledging to pay the remaining 19s 6d on collection, which would be either Friday or Saturday. On the morning of Thursday 24th August 1939 another unknown I.R.A. man began constructing the bomb at 25 Clara Street, Stoke, Coventry. The house was being rented from Loveitt & Sons by Joseph Hewitt who lived there with his wife Mary, their baby child Brigid Mary and his mother-in-law, Brigid O’Hara. After marrying his wife at St. Peter’s Cathedral, Belfast, in August 1935, Hewitt came to Coventry in 1936 to find work. His wife and mother-in-law soon followed. Their baby was born in Coventry in 1938. They moved to Clara Street from Meadow Street, Spon End in June 1939. James McCormick lodged with them. It was effectively a ‘safe-house’ for the I.R.A. where McCormick had constructed a concrete storage pit under the stairs a few weeks earlier to store explosives, but the Hewitt’s were not part of the organisation. That evening, at around 7:00 pm, a Transport Officer in the I.R.A. called Peter Barnes arrived at the house from London. He had travelled by train and brought with him potassium chlorate to be used as the explosive in the device. Barnes’ role in the I.R.A. was to ferry explosives from their main ammunition dumps in Liverpool and Glasgow to their operatives across the country. He left later in the evening and returned to London.

The unknown bomb maker completed his task the following morning. It was a 5lb device with an alarm clock used as the timer. The bicycle was collected from Halford’s by McCormick at 12:30 pm and left in the back lane (known as a jetty) at the rear of the house around 1:10 pm. By this stage the bomb had been parcelled up in a box that was wrapped in brown paper and tied with a string. The bomb maker placed it in the carrier basket and began his journey into town. Sometime between 1:30 and 1:45 pm the bicycle with its deadly cargo was left standing against the kerb outside Astley’s shop where it was to shortly explode with such devastating consequences.

Many victims of terrorism or political conflict are totally forgotten about once the initial outrage or shock has died down. Just a week or so after the Coventry bomb, Great Britain declared war on Germany, and a year or so later our city was to suffer carnage on a much greater scale with the blitz of 14th November 1940. Perhaps these events helped play a part in effectively ‘burying’ the tragedy that took place in August 1939?

* * * * *

Part of the carrier cycle lying in front of the damaged car Part of the carrier cycle lying in front of the damaged car.

An excellent book called “Lost Lives” was first published in 1999. It attempts to record all those who died in the Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ from the 1960’s through to the ceasefires of the 1990’s and beyond. It is an incredibly poignant and moving book which had me in tears on several occasions. Below I give a few details of Coventry’s “Lost Lives” which were gleaned from contemporary newspaper reports and kindly provided by relatives:

Elsie Ansell, (also called Laura in Newspaper reports) from Clarendon Street, Earlsdon, died instantly. Her face was blown away and her body terribly mutilated. She could only be identified by her engagement ring and clothing. Instead of being married at St. Barbara’s Church to her fiancé Harry Davies her funeral service took place there instead on August 30th. On top of her coffin was a wreath of cream roses from Harry. The coffin bearers were from the nearby Albany Social Club. A crowd of 600 to 700 people were at London Road cemetery to see her laid to rest. She was buried in her wedding dress.

John Corbett Arnott, from Daimler Road in Radford, was the youngest victim of the atrocity. After leaving Radford School he went to work for W H Smith in town. With his curly hair and glasses he was a familiar face to many Coventrians through selling newspapers and magazines at the store. At first it was thought his body was actually that of a Mr Hollander of Coundon Road as young John had a bill in his pocket for this man which he was due to deliver. He was buried at London Road cemetery on August 29th with around 100 mourners in attendance. On August 30th the Midland Daily Telegraph published this letter from John’s mother:

Dear Mr Editor

Will you please print my thanks where you will, but I feel I would like to put into print my thoughts as well. The doctors and nurses tried to save my boy’s life but God said “No.”

The kind thoughts of the people go to help me bear my cross. We all have a cross to bear, and when I look at others plight, I feel my cross is only light.

To the kind nurses who took me to kiss him “Good-bye” thanks, and I’ll always remember the youngest nurse’s sweet face. God gave me these words in the loneliness of the night when his little sister was sleeping by my side. Once again thanks for all your kindness, I’ll never forget.

Rex Gentle Rex Gentle

Rex Gentle was born on 3rd April 1909 in Newtown, Montgomeryshire in Wales. He was an identical twin. He left Newtown, where he was engaged to May Hart, to do relief work at W. H. Smith. While in Coventry he lodged with the Arnott family in Daimler Road. Rex had only been in the city for a couple of weeks.

On the day of the explosion, his twin brother Jack was working in Newtown. In the afternoon he was sent home from work suffering from a severe headache. It is often said that when one identical twin suffers pain the other can feel it – Rex had indeed suffered severe head injuries.

After the explosion, word reached the Gentle family in Wales that Rex had been badly injured in an incident in Coventry. His parents could not travel so his twin brother Jack and his wife Rene made the unenviable journey to Coventry. On the train, Jack turned to his wife and told her that he knew his brother, who he was very close to, was dead – again, when he said this it turned out to be almost to the minute that Rex did pass away. When the couple arrived in Coventry a trial blackout was in operation in preparation for the probable forthcoming war with Germany. They could not find the hospital so approached a policeman, who, knowing about the bomb, took them there. Jack was needed to identify his brother but apparently passed out, so his wife Rene carried out the traumatic task. The body was covered in bandages and she identified Rex by his mouth. While they were at the hospital the manager of W.H. Smith paid a visit and had an almighty shock when he saw Rex’s identical twin brother Jack – he thought it was Rex! The same thing happened when a sister of the twins in Birmingham was visited. Jack and Rene called on her to break the bad news. She opened the door with, “Hello Rex! What are you doing back here?” Jack explained that he wasn’t Rex and informed her of what had happened in nearby Coventry.

Jack and Rene Gentle returned to Birmingham for the trial of those charged with murdering Elsie Ansell. The Coroner’s report of the injuries suffered by the victims was so bad that Rene arranged for their relatives to be able to choose to leave the court room while it was read out. She stayed in the room and Jack left. Despite asking her about what she heard she never told him – the injuries being so horrific.

In 1966 the husband of Jack Gentle’s daughter Marie was shown round the police museum at Little Park Street where the remains of the bicycle and some of the evidence gathered during the investigation are kept in a simple glass cabinet. It must have been an upsetting experience to say the least.

Rex Gentle, who was much loved by his family and fondly remembered by them to this day, was buried in Newtown after a service at the local Baptist church.

Gwilym Rowlands, of Poole Road, Radford, worked for the Highways Department of the Coventry Corporation. His wife Mary Ann had the grim task of identifying his body at the public mortuary at 5:00pm on the day of the explosion. His funeral service took place at St. Nicholas Church and he was buried in the adjacent graveyard. A large crowd of mourners were in attendance and the wreaths included one from the Radford Social Club and another from the Transport & General Workers Union, Cheylesmore branch.

James Clay, the eldest victim, was Coventry born and bred but lived at Clarendon Road, Kenilworth. A widower and a grandfather, he was a former President of the Coventry & District Co-operative Society and was working as a Confidential Clerk for C.A. Gray & Son, Printers, of Broadgate. James was a trained printer who took a keen interest in education, being a member of the old Coventry school board, founding the P.S.A. movement in Coventry and also was secretary of the Co-operative Society educational classes. He was also associated with Sunday school work at Warwick Road Church. His burial took place at Kenilworth cemetery on the August 30th and was well attended.

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In addition to the dead some 70 others were injured including 12 seriously. Most were treated at the Coventry & Warwickshire Hospital. Twelve blood donors were called on following the explosion and were praised for their quick attendance at the hospital. Extensive damage was caused to 43 business premises in Broadgate and nearby streets. Astley’s and its adjacent shops – Burton and Manfields – were hit badly as was Sketchley’s directly across the road.

Alexander Ballinger was the manager of Astley’s at the time. When the bomb went off he was standing near the front window. The whole frontage of the shop was blown inside and he was blown off his feet suffering several cuts to his knee, right hand, nose and head. He was clearly lucky to survive.

Robert Kinsella was another who had a lucky escape. He was walking past Burton’s towards Astley’s when the bomb exploded. He described what happened:

The scene of the explosion directly after the occurrence The scene of the explosion directly after the occurrence.

“There was a violent explosion that threw me to the ground. I picked myself up and I could see there had been terrible damage done. There were a lot of people lying about on the ground, but the first person I went to was, I believe, old James Clay, whom I picked up; I could see from his injuries he was almost dead. Of course, I then found I was bleeding very badly myself, and I went to the hospital.” (He had suffered injuries to his shoulder, feet, stomach and leg.)

John Worth was sweeping the gutter outside Burton’s while his colleague Bill Rowlands was sweeping the pavement outside Astley’s. John was at the back of the parked saloon car (see picture) when the explosion occurred. He escaped with injuries to both arms and a thigh.

Youngsters Ian Adams and his cousin were on a bus in Corporation Street when they heard a loud boom. They were on their way to see Will Hay in a film called “Oh Mr Porter!”. Reaching Broadgate minutes later, they were stopped by a police officer and discovered that what they had heard on the bus was actually a bomb going off. The road was closed and the policeman directed them via a different route to the cinema. After the film the two lads returned via Broadgate where the debris was still being cleared up. Much of it was dumped at a tip on Four Pounds Avenue. (When Ian grew up he served in the Special Branch and in early 2010 his excellent book about this I.R.A. campaign and the reaction to it, called “The Sabotage Plan”, was published.)

Prior to this attack the I.R.A. had carried out numerous missions in Coventry. These included bombing telephone inspection chambers, public toilets and commercial premises. In The Sabotage Plan, Ian Adams details several attacks carried out on a single day in the spring of 1939:

On 23rd of March, there were four explosions in underground telephone inspection chambers. The first explosion, at 7.15am was in the Cheylesmore area, and shattered the glass in numerous windows. The bomb blew heavy pieces of metal into a nearby engineering works, and damaged telephone lines, lampposts, and surrounding houses. Three hours later, there was a similar explosion in a telephone junction box in Quinton Road which hurled fragments of the iron box and pieces of concrete paving over a wide area, and through the glass roof of a nearby factory. During the lunch hour there was a third explosion, in an inspection chamber of the electric transformer station at Gosford Green. John Martin, a passer-by, was injured. A fourth explosion in the afternoon, in Coundon Road, hurled a heavy iron manhole cover through the roof of St. Osburg’s Roman Catholic presbytery, the church my parents and I often attended, and a Corporation bus was damaged, but nobody was injured. Balloons filled with nitric acid detonated all the bombs. The explosions disrupted many telephone lines.

In June an unexploded bomb was found near a petrol dump. They also bombed the cloakroom at Coventry Rail Station. The device exploded at 6:45 am on July 2nd. Refreshment staff had bedrooms directly above the cloakroom and eight of them had a lucky escape as fortunately the building did not collapse. They were severely shaken but escaped injury. A couple of weeks before the deadly attack on Broadgate an allotment at the rear of Armfield Street was rocked by an explosion leaving a crater two feet deep and three feet wide. A shed was blown to smithereens and two men were seen running from the scene onto Bell Green Road where they boarded a tram and escaped. The local I.R.A. unit stored explosives here and due to carelessness accidentally ignited them. This explains why the explosive used on August 25th was brought to Coventry from Liverpool via London. Up until this point the police believed that an I.R.A. unit operating from Birmingham was carrying out attacks in Coventry.

The aftermath of the Broadgate bomb led to tension between locals and the Irish community in Coventry. It was estimated that over 2,000 Irish people were working in Coventry’s factories at the time. There were calls for all Irish workers to be sacked and on the day that inquests began into the deaths, 2,000 workers at Armstrong Whitworth in Baginton downed tools at lunchtime and marched to Pool Meadow to protest against the I.R.A., stressing that the protest was “not directed against peaceful Irishmen.” From Pool Meadow they marched through the city centre and held a rally at Market Square where their numbers swelled to 3,000 with shoppers and other workers joining them. A deputation of four then met the Lord Mayor, Sidney Stringer. Many Irish left their lodgings in the city and others were asked to leave. Such was the bad feeling that the Chief Constable of Coventry Police, Captain S.A. Hector, (who was from Somerset) had to deny rumours that he was Irish.

Of course, the vast majority of Irish people in the city were just as appalled by the bombing as everyone else. The attack was condemned during Mass at all Catholic churches in the city the following Sunday. Father Simpson at St. Osburg’s denounced the bombers as “fanatics discrediting and dishonouring Ireland” and reminded worshippers that the penalty for belonging to secret societies and plotting to destroy the state or church was ex-communication. The Midland Daily Telegraph was inundated with letters from Irish people living in Coventry expressing their disgust and horror at the attack. Some suggested forming an “Irish Union” pledging that they were ‘loyal’ and promising to inform the authorities about I.R.A. activity. (Thousands of Irish people continued to work in the factories of Coventry during World War Two – providing an invaluable contribution to the war effort when most young British men had been called up for military service.)

View of Broadgate after the explosion View of Broadgate after the explosion.

A couple of days after the attack “BUSINESS AS USUAL” signs were up in Broadgate, and though many windows were boarded up the shops were open. Of course, it would never be “business as usual” for the dead and their families. The Lord Mayor launched a relief fund for victims of the bombing which by the end of September had raised the substantial sum of £800.

After initially issuing press appeals saying they wished to interview Dominic Adams about the attack, (Dominic Adams was the Uncle of current Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams and suspected of being a senior member of the I.R.A. during this period) the police investigation soon led to Clara Street following the arrest of Peter Barnes in London on the same night of the bombing. An attempt to plant a further three ‘bicycle bombs’ in the capital city had been thwarted in the morning. At 8:50 pm Barnes arrived home to find Detective Sergeant William Hughes and some of his colleagues from the Special Branch at Scotland Yard waiting for him. They were there because of the attempted attacks in London, but when Detective Sergeant Hughes and the officers with him searched the building at 176 Westbourne Terrace, they found incriminating evidence linking him to Coventry, which understandably raised their suspicions considering what had happened earlier in the afternoon 100 miles away.

Barnes had called at Clara Street previously on August 21st to acquaint himself with McCormick and discuss the role he would play in the imminent bombing mission. During this visit, McCormick asked Brigid O’Hara to buy a suitcase for Barnes and also asked Mary Hewitt to buy two empty flour sacks. The flour sacks were purchased from Celia’s on Walsgrave Road but had to be returned as they were the wrong type. Both women returned them. The suitcase was brought from Forey’s Ironmongers. For reasons known only to himself – perhaps he had to account to the I.R.A. for his expenses? – Peter Barnes kept the receipts at his lodgings in London where they were found by the police and were to prove crucial in the Coventry investigation. (The owner of Celia’s was able to give a very accurate description of Brigid O’Hara. It is believed the flour sacks were to be used for holding the Potassium Chlorate.)

Chief Inspector Cyril George Boneham of the Coventry City Police led the local investigation. He and his team were assisted by Special Branch detectives. On August 28th, Chief Inspector Boneham and Detective Inspector Sydney Barnes of Special Branch led a search of 25 Clara Street. Tools suitable for bomb making, screws, bolts, insulating tape, labels from a battery and crucially a brass setter for the back of an alarm clock were found. This setter, or key, appeared to be new and did not fit any clock in the house. The occupants were detained and initially released while deportation orders were applied for. On September 2nd they were arrested under the Prevention of Violence (Temporary Provisions) Act. As the investigation proceeded and clear evidence of bomb making at the house emerged those being held were then charged under the Explosive Substances Act, 1883. Later that month, on the 27th, after a thorough police investigation and careful consideration, the Public Prosecutor decided that the facts justified a charge of murder against all five people being held. The charge was limited to the murder of Elsie Ansell and not the other four victims.

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The trial began on Monday 11th of December at the Warwick Assizes, Victoria Courts, Birmingham. One crucial person was missing – the man who actually built and planted the bomb. He was never captured. It was acknowledged that those in the dock – James McCormick, Peter Barnes, Joseph Hewitt, Mary Hewitt and Brigid O’Hara – had not made or planted the bomb, but as it was believed they had all played an active part in a conspiracy that could clearly endanger life it was a murder charge they faced, and consequently the hangman’s noose if found guilty. On Friday 14th December, McCormick, who was tried under his alias of James Richards, and Peter Barnes were found guilty by the jury and convicted of murder. After the guilty verdicts were passed, James McCormick gave this response:

“My lord, before you pass sentence I have something to say. I wish to state, my lord, before you pass sentence of death on me, I wish to thank sincerely the gentlemen who have defended me during my trial and I wish to state that the part I took in these explosions since I came to England I have done for a just cause. As a soldier of the Irish Republican Army I am not afraid to die, as I am doing it for a just cause. I say in conclusion, God bless Ireland and God bless the men who have fought and died for her. Thank you, my lord.”

Peter Barnes said:

“I would like to say as I am going before my God, as I am condemned to death, I am innocent, and later I am sure it will come out that I had neither hand, act or part in it. That is all I have to say.”

The Hewitt’s and Brigid O’Hara were acquitted – they were later charged with the murder of the other four people who were killed and five counts under the Explosive Substances Act and all three pleaded not guilty. No evidence was offered by the prosecution on the murder charge and the judge ordered the jury to return a formal verdict of not guilty. The women were discharged while Joseph Hewitt was remanded in custody. At the Old Bailey in London on 6th February 1940 he was charged with maliciously causing an explosion and having explosive substances in his possession. No evidence was offered by the prosecution and after a verdict of not guilty by the jury he was discharged. The following day, the guilty pair – Peter Barnes and James McCormick – were executed at Winson Green Prison. An appeal against their convictions had been dismissed in January. In the very same week of the hangings the mother of Elsie Ansell died at the early age of 49. Laura Ansell was being cared for by the mother of Harry Davies, her late daughter’s fiancé. Mrs Davies said that she never recovered from the loss of Elsie and died of a broken heart.

The hangings of McCormick and Barnes caused outrage in Ireland and other parts of the world. It was felt unjust that as they had not planted the bomb they should die because of the actions of another person. Appeals for clemency were ignored. Public mourning was observed and flags flew at half-mast in Ireland on the day of the executions.

A crowd gathers to see the aftermath of the incident A crowd gathers in Broadgate soon after the incident. The actual site of the bomb is just out of shot to the left.
For those unfamiliar with the pre-war street scene, we are facing the west side of Broadgate, and stretching to the north in the distance is Cross Cheaping, Burges and Bishop Street respectively. The small street on the left just after Boots is Market Place, and the tall building just visible on the far right of the picture is the original Owen Owen store; itself bombed in November the following year.

It has been suggested that the real target for the bomb was an electricity generating station and this is where McCormick and Barnes believed the bomber was cycling to. Some people claim that a faulty timer (the alarm clock) on the bomb caused the bomber to abandon the bicycle in Broadgate while en-route to the real target, but a leading author on Irish Republicanism describes the bomber as a ‘psychopath’ and as it was placed outside Astley’s an hour before it exploded it would seem this was an intentional act by the bomber. Even if the timer was faulty, it would have been a strange decision to abandon the bomb in the busiest shopping street in Coventry which obviously put civilians at risk of death contrary to I.R.A. instructions. Just why he chose to do this we will probably never know.

This particular badly timed and ill-judged I.R.A. campaign against Britain is often said to have petered out following the carnage in Coventry, but in fact there were a further 42 incidents attributed to the I.R.A., with the last bomb exploding on a rubbish dump in London on 18th March 1940.

After their acquittals, the Hewitt’s and Brigid O’Hara were deported from England and presumably went back to Belfast. The remains of James McCormick and Peter Barnes were moved from the grounds of Winson Green prison and re-interred in Ballyglass cemetery, Mullingar, Westmeath, Ireland in 1969. 15,000 people attended. Both men continue to be remembered by the Republican movement in Ireland with yearly parades and speeches at their graveside.

In Coventry, no memorial plaque or sculpture marks the spot where the bomb exploded killing five innocent people and devastating families across the city and further afield. There is not even an annual memorial service in any of Coventry’s churches. The excellent Police Museum in the basement of Little Park Street Police Station houses the remains of the bicycle and some of the evidence gathered after the explosion. With the kind permission of its curator, Tony Rose, I was able to photograph the remains of the bicycle in June 2010. The handlebars, front wheel and carrier basket are missing but remarkably, much of the rest of it is still intact. Some parts are dented, rusted, scratched and mangled but others bits are unscathed and look nearly new. When Mr Rose opened the cabinet I was hit by the smell of rubber and explosive. It was very sad gazing at this unwitting instrument of death and destruction and my thoughts turned to the victims and their families. I am very grateful to Mr Rose, who is an expert on the history of policing in Coventry, for sharing his knowledge of the incident with me and allowing me to take pictures. The image at the start of this article is copyright of the Coventry Police Museum and is not to be reproduced elsewhere – anyone doing so is liable to prosecution.

Thanks to the Luftwaffe and various town planners, Broadgate has changed almost beyond recognition from that fateful day. I believe the present day location of the explosion lies between the Lady Godiva statue and the entrance to the Cathedral Lanes shopping centre – see below for Rob Orland’s comparison of contemporary and modern maps. Next time you pass this spot spare a thought for John, Elsie, Gwilym, Rex and James. May they Rest in Peace.

* * * * *

Below is a 1937 map showing the spot where the bomb detonated.
Clicking on the map will reveal where it occurred on a modern-day aerial view (courtesy of Google Maps).

 August,28th.1939

1939:

The Heinkel He 178,

 

the first jet-plane takes to the air with Erich Warsitz at the controls.

Just five days before the German attack on Poland, and the beginning of WWII the tiny plane lifts off the airfield of Rostock-Marienehe.
The story of this airplane is not just about building the aircraft as well as the constructing of the engine to power it.


Heinkel received a letter of Proff. Robert W. Pohl from the Göttingen University in March 1936.

In it he explained that there was a young student by the name of Pabst Von Ohain who was working on the principle of jet propulsion and who needed the necessary funds to continue his research.

Heinkel was very busy creating ever faster airplanes and was interested. He invited Von Ohain on March 17th 1936 to explain his ideas.

 


Soon after, Von Ohain and his mechanic Max Hahn were working at the Heinkel plant on his He S 2. (together with a few men from the Heinkel factory under guidance of Dipl-Ing. Wilhelm Gundermann). The He S 2 ran on hydrogen and was only build to demonstrate the idea. This engine ran in March or April 1937. ( On April 12th ’37 Frank Wittle undertook his first test-run in England).
The engine for the He 178 however was the He S 3 wich was ready for flight-testing in the summer of 1938 (He S 3A). This engine was tested in the air whilst hanging under a He 119 dive-bomber prototype. After several test-flights the jet-engine is destroyed in a fire because of leaking fuel-line. The experiences lead to the He S 3B engine, and it is this engine that ends up in the He 178. It has a thrust of about 450kg.

At the same time as Ohain starts to develop his engine a team of Heinkel employees was set to work on developing the airplane that was to be powered by the new jet-engine.
A mock-up was build and ready on August the 8th 1938. Some of the developers were: Karl Schwarzler ( head of construction) and the brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther (aerodynamics). A second prototype was constructed either at the same time or a little later. This plane was pretty much the same as the first one although it had a bigger wing and a retractable undercarriage.

First prototype during rolling.

Second prototype.

The pilot Erich warsitz was chief pilot at the Peenemunde experimental rocket station and was on loan to Heinkel.(on June 20th he flew the first rocket plane, the He 176).

He had flown with the He 119 airplane to find out the handling of the jet-engine and was the only flier involved to make the flight in the first jet-plane.
During the first flight a speed of 600 km/h was reached and the flight lasted some 7 minutes. On finals Warsitz notices that one fuel-pump has stopped working but it doesn’t affect the flight. After landing mechanics lift Proff. Ernst Heinkel on there shoulders as everybody present cheers

 

 

 

August,31th.1939

The Excuse


After Germany having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia,

 

 

Hitler

 

 

was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain and France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union – the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.)

So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for entering/attacking Poland.

It was

 

Heinrich Himmler

 

who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code named Operation Himmler.

 

On the night of August 31, 1939,

Nazis took

 

an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps, dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to

 

 

the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him.

 

The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station.

Hitler used the staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland.

August,31th.1939

The Excuse
After having gained both Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler was confident that he could again move east, this time acquiring Poland without having to fight Britain and France. (To eliminate the possibility of the Soviet Union fighting if Poland were attacked, Hitler made a pact with the Soviet Union – the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.)
So that Germany did not officially seem the aggressor (which it was), Hitler needed an excuse for entering/attacking Poland. It was Heinrich Himmler who came up with the idea; thus the plan was code named Operation Himmler.

On the night of August 31, 1939,

Nazis took an unknown prisoner from one of their concentration camps,

 

dressed him in a Polish uniform, took him to the town of Gleiwitz (on the border of Poland and Germany), and then shot him. The staged scene with the dead prisoner dressed in a Polish uniform was supposed to appear as a Polish attack against a German radio station.


Hitler used the staged attack as the excuse to invade Poland.

Blitzkrieg


At 4:45 on the morning of September 1, 1939

(the morning following the staged attack),