CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE

THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CDROM EXIST

  


The second and third CEF surharge on British India stamp were issued

 

British Military PO 1904 KEVII opt C.E.F

 

1904 Postage Due opt

1904
Dr Sun with London Supporters in 1904 (photo).

After organizing the Tung meng Hui in Tokyo, dr Sun toured England,belgium,France and germany in the revolutionary cause.

 

In this year The Qing Imperial Post issued London print coilling dragon surcharge with Postage due and also issue london print 1st blue Postage Due stamp

 

June 1904

Chungking Lunar Date postmark on besect JPC stamp b 2 c with Chngking local stamp destination au.6.1904.

 

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong”

After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904.

“Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

 

1905

(5)1905
(a) Returning to Japan in July of 1905, Dr sun was welcomed by Chinese student. He brought revolutinary organizations together in the Tung meng Hui.
(b)On July.20th.1905, student from 17 Chinese province studying in Japan organized the Tung Meng Hui (Society of Revolutionary Alliance).
Dr Sun addressed the Tokyo meeting on the importance of democratic revolution in China.
In the manifesto issued by the Tung meng hui revolutionaries occured the first mention of the Republic of China as the name for entity to succed the Qing Dynasty. These ideas were precursors of Dr Sun’s three principles of the People (Nationalism,Democracy and Social Welfare) , which provided the guidelines for estabilsment and development of the Republic of China(ROC).
(c)The Qing Imperial Post issued the 1st Express stamps.

 

The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

 

1906

(6)1906
In April 1906, the Changsa Post Office have permission for bisect LCP 2 cent cancelled Changsa Bilingual postmark 10 april 06(1906)

 

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

 

(7)1907
(a)Chiang Kai-shek went to Japan in 1907 to continue his military studies.
(b) Shanglai Local postmark nov 19 o7 on green Shanghai postal stationar card 3rd issue ic.

1908

May 1908


. Shanghai postal stationer postcard 1 c , not clear post mark arrival Canton Bilingual date postmark21.5. 08

november,5th.1908


 Transit Shnaghai Chine cds postmark 5.11-08
(b)In November,14th .1908 the emperor Guangxu was died, and the forensic reported the caused by Acute Arsenic pisoning.


In November ,15th,1908

Cixi having installed Puyi as the new emperor of he qing Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

1908 (15 Nov)

 

PPC Egypt Alexandria to China, franked with Pyramid, tied by Alexandria cds, via Suez, Shanghai, Tangku with transit cds, bottom with Chang Lang Cheng postal agency arrival cds.

During early periods, vessels sailing from England to China had to go around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, and used to take as long as four to six months to get there. Since the completion of the construction of the Suez Canal and its opening in October of 1869, this Sino-England mail route via Suez cut transit time to 40 or 60 days

In November , 16th 1908

Empress dowager Cixi died in the hallof graceful Bird at the middle sea of Zhong nan hoi , her death came only one day after the death of the Guangzu emperor.

 

(c)The Belgian Post Office in China issued surcharge Chine of belgia stamp with their wn postmark

1908
Belgian Post Office in China issued surxharge Chine on Belgian stamps.

 

 

 

 

1909
The fourth CEF surharge on British India stamps were isssued

1909


Temple of Heaven stamp issued by Hsuan Tung

used with Chungking biligual date(BLD) postmsark 25 Nov 1909. and Chungking transit postmark 24 nov 9 and Hankow destination postmark 1 dec 09.

 

1909

 

Temple of Heaven stamp

(1909) Temple of Heaven – Hsuan Tung First Year Commemorative

The first and only Commemorative issue – Special Commemoration Stamps – September 8 1909 Designer and engraver unknown. Printed by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), in two colors and unwatermarked.

 

 

 

there is a controversy on who actually designed and engraved the “Temple of Heaven”. Americans Lorenzo J. Hatch & William Grant have been credited by some for the work, but again it is debated by some.

 

In 1908,

the Imperial Chinese government sent a representative, Chen Chin Tao, to the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany to investigate stamp production styles and to determine which method was least susceptible to counterfeiting.

 

The Chinese government decided that United States’ manufacturing technique was most suitable for its purposes.

The Imperial government asked two Americans, Lorenzo J. Hatch and William A. Grant, to establish a Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Hatch was a renowned artist and engraver whose experience included more than 15 years at the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

 

Hatch had also spent a number of years working at both the Western Banknote Company of Chicago and the International Bank Note Company. After overcoming some initial reluctance, Lorenzo Hatch signed a six-year contract with the Chinese government.

William A. Grant, an engraver and designer, was an expert in creating the lettering, script, vignettes, geometrical lathe work, scrolls and cycloid twirls that filled bank note and stamp backgrounds.

 

A particularly skilled engraver, Grant specialized in detail engraving which helped make bank notes and stamps difficult to counterfeit. Grant was in charge of the engraving room at the American Bank Note Company when he agreed to accompany Hatch to China.

Hatch and Grant established the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1909.

 

They were responsible for the design and production of all the early Chinese Republic issues. The production of the first stamps of the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing was very much a collaborative effort.

 

While Lorenzo Hatch was primarily responsible for the design of the stamp and prepared most of the vignettes, William Grant applied his special skills to reducing the frame and scrollwork, as well doing the lettering and much of the actual engraving.

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set “Temple of Heaven” issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver “Index 1” on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

 

French Indo-Chine 1908

 

Canton surcharge

This set alone costs 233 €, according to my Yvert

 

From left to right, they dipict: a Cambodian, an Annam (Central Vietnam at that time), a Muong (mountainous region of north Vietnam), a Laotian, and a Tonkin (currently northern Vietnam), all in traditional costumes.

Were they not overprinted – valid only in Indochina, the cost is 149 €, with the last 10 Fr stamp alone worth 100 €.

 

 

Compare these two:

 

 

1909

July .15th, 1909,

the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.

China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

 

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

 

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

 

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

 

 

1909,

 

1909 4th Express Delivery stamp

 

…. 3rd section

 

 

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

November,19th.1909

 

Off cover used Temple of Heaven stamps CDS BLD Bilingual Date  Teng Yue 9.Nov.1909(Dr Iwan collections)

1910

1910 (Apr 10)

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500

April,11th.1910

Peking Bilingual Date(BLD) postmark 11 Apr 10 on Temple of Heaven stamp 1 c and 4 cent.

 

In June of 1910

Chiang was initatited into the Tung meng hui and met Dr sun Yat-sen.

 

1910’s Cigarette advertising postcard, f.w CIP opt. “ROC” 1c. Tied by rare postal agent cancel.

1911
The Chinese General post office was formed

 

 

Due to the differences in currency between Tibet and other parts of China, especially the popularity of Indian Rupee in Tibetan commercial market, the I.P.O. finally decided to issue a set of postage stamps in Rupee values and restricted for use in Tibet. A set of 11 values of the CIP coiling dragon stamps were overprinted with Chinese. Issued in March 1911
1911 Cover …. sent Tibet locally, franked Coil Dragon opt Tibet 1/2c & 1c pair, tied by Yatung large dollar cancel, plus double ring arrival cancel

 

Tibet 1911 Coil Dragon otp

feb 4 1911

 

Postal Postage Paid statistical department inspectorate general stationer cover send with shanghai lunar dater postmark

March 27 1911

 

Postally used cover from Kucheng lunar postmark to Tiebet lunar postmark transit Tihua (urumtsi), Transit Peking lunar postmark and peking belingual postmark

 


On March 29,1911,

some of 170 revolutionaries attacked the Kwangtung-Kwangsi Governor’s office in Canton under command of Huang Hsing. they were determined to prevail or die. Although it failed because of lack of reinfrcemetns, the uprising roused the people against the Qing manchu.

 

(cThe March 29

uprising at canton was the 10th under Dr Sun yat-sen’s direct leadership.Although traumatic, it sent out shock waves that rocked qing manchu rule. the do-or-die spirit of these revolutionaries is enshrined in Chinese history.

The remains of 72 martyrs were entobed at Yellow Flower mound in Canton, this site became a shrine of the national Revolution. Eight-six revolutionaries are known to have been killed in the incident and they may have been more,this day later became the martyr Day and the next year as Youth day.

 

Shanghai Postal Commissioner postmark Apr 18 1911.


In September,1911.

the Wuchang revolutinaries rise up and overthrew the Qing dynasty.

 

 

October.10th,1911


The Tung Meng Hui provided leadership for eight uprisings against Qing Dynasty at Huangkang Chaochow ,Huichow,Chinlien,Chennankuan,Shangsu in Chienlien, Hokow in Yunnan,Yellow Flower Mound in Canton and Wuchang.

The last of these on Octber 10.1911

led the dwnfall of the Qing Dymasty and the birth of the ROC. The shot fired at Wuchnag brought an immediate response from Tung meng Hui members in Shanghai under the leadership of Chen Chi-mei. The successive victories of the revolutionaries quickly convinced the Qing Mancus that they could not loner prevail. and the downfall of the Qing dynasty came quickly.

 

In October 13 , 1911.

Chiang leading more than a hundred do-or-die commandos who attacked government office at hangchow and capture the Manchu Governor. Chiang had returned to Shanghai and joined Chen Chi-mai for nanking-Shnaghai-hanchow area. He then hurried to Hangcxhow to head the successful revolutionary attack of October 13.

 

Chinese General Post office were opened, with special postmark another administration pstmarklike registered, revenue etc.

 

 

 

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

 

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

 

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

 

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

 

November,21th.1911

 

1911 (21 Nov) Cover Macau to Hong Kong,

 

 

franked Macau bisect stamp, tied by Macau cds, reverse with Lappa customs transit cds, Hong Kong arrival cancel

 

 

 

December 6th.1911 ,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

 

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

 

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

 

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

 

When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

 

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

Surcharges, 3p – 1r (Scott 1-10. Chan T1-10), a scarce group short only the rare 2r on $2, o.g., F.-V.F Realized HK$ 6,500

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

 

 

Surcharges, 1r on $1 and 2r on $2 key values (Scott 10-11. Chan T10-11), o.g., both trace of hinge mark, clean smooth gum, choice examples, scarce this nice, Very Fine Realized HK$ 22,000

1912

1912 Coil Dragon Waterlow overprint “CHMK”

 

 

 

The revolution of 1911 resulted in overprints on the imperial stamps in 1912; at Foochow to indicate that the post office was effectively a neutral area available to both sides, and at Nanking and Shanghai reading “Republic of China”. An additional set of overprints were produced by Waterlow and Sons in London, and postmasters throughout the country made their own unofficial overprints using the same characters(126)

(6) 1912
The Republic of China (Koumintang) exsitance had already been firmly established .

(12) 1912
The founding Father Dr Sun Yat-sen leaves Shanghai station the morning of the Newyear’s day ,1912 for his Nanking swearing-in as the Republic of China’s provisional President.
Please collectors be patien, this informations still in prcess, the illustration will install one by on

 

Tibet, 1912, Local Issue,

 

1/6t – 1t, five values (Scott 1-5. Chan TL1-TL5), mint, without gum, huge to wide margins all around, good colors, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

 

Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

 

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

1912

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000

January,1st.1912

On January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President.

 

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time.

 

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan’s demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan.

 

February,5th.1912

 

 

1912 (5 FEB) Coil Dragon 3c opt “Provisional Neutrality”. On piece with “Foochow” cancel.

 

 

1912 Anhwei Hochow Local black opt

Coil Dragon 2c in block of 4. tied by Hochow cancel

 

On March. 10th,1912

 

in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

 

A poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen.

The republic that Sun Yat-sen and his associates envisaged evolved slowly.

 

Although there were many political parties each vying for supremacy in the legislature, the revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai began to outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial.

 

May 1912

 

1912 (22 May)

 

 

Registered cover Swatow to Germany, franked Coil Dragon opt “CHMK” stamps x8, total postage 47c, tied by Swatow cds,

 

 

 

with German arrival cds

 

In August 1912,

 

the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded by Song Jiaoren, one of Sun’s associates

.

It was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tong menghui.

 

 

December 1912

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

 

Yuan Shih-kai should request a set of stamps featuring Sun Yat-sen with the inscription “In Commemoration of the Revolution” at the end of 1912.

 

Sun Yat-sen would lead a “second revolution” against Yuan Shih-kai within the year.

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

December,14th 1912

Commemoration the Revolution 1st Design Specimen Set

 

The first new designs of the Republic were two commemorative sets of 12 each,

the first set depicting Sun Yat-sen

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

and

second Yuan Shikai, both issued on 14 December, 1912

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution 2nd Design Set

 

 

 

1st Design and 1st Commemorative of the new republic, President Yuan Shih-Kai December 14th 1912

 

2nd Design of the New Republic Dr. Sun Yat-sen December 14th 1912

The first issues of the new Chinese Republic ran into a few problems. The original design for the first commemorative issue of 1912 displayed a map of China bearing the inscription, “The Republic of China” in English and Chinese. After the design had been approved, the stamps printed and made ready for distribution, President Yuan Shih-kai ordered the stamps destroyed. The original issue depicting the map was burned, but some stamps survived the fire. Three partially burned stamps of the original map issue were part of Grant’s collection and are now in the US National Postal museum.

In their place, President Yuan Shih-kai demanded the creation of a commemorative design baring his portrait and the legend, “In Commemoration of the Republic.” The president also requested a second stamp design. That issue featured a portrait of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with the inscription, “In Commemoration of the Revolution.” Dr. Sun Yat-sen, considered the leader of the first Chinese Revolution, and the provisional President of China, had voluntarily yielded the office to his successor, Yuan Shih-kai.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

China Postage Dues 1912

“Provisional Neutrality” Overprints
Chan D17-D22

 

 

1913

In the national elections held in February 1913

 

for the new bicameral parliament, Song Jiao-ren campaigned against the Yuan Sin-kai administration, whose representation at the time was largely by the Republican Party, led by Liang Qichao.

 

Song Jiao-ren was an able campaigner and the Kuomintang won a majority of seats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China Postage Due 1913 complete set of eight

Overprinted “Specimen” in red

London Printing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1913

1913 (24 Dec)

 

Yuan Shih-Kai colour postal card Jiansu to Shanghai

 

 

 

1914
The Republic of China Postal system formally became a party to the International Postal Convension(UPU)

 

 

British Military PO 1914-22 C.E.F. opt on KGV

 

 

 

 

1915

 

China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post 1915

1921

 

Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.

 

Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.

 

 

 

 

The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

 

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 

1923

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang 

    1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang) 

    Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang. 

    Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China 

    Despite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles. 

    5-8 May 1926 

    With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months. 

    The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army. 

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4]. 

    From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong Press 

    Tan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5]. 

    In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]


Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

 

 

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

__________________
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Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

(8)1917
Italia Post Office in China issued surharge Pechino and Tientsin on Italia stamps.

(9) 1919
US Post office in China issue surchaged Shanghai China stamps

Something a little different. For some time after Outer Mongolia was established, China refused to recognise it, and required Chinese stamps on mail coming across the border. This example was sent from Ulan Bator to Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in Inner Mongolia:

 

 

 

 

1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

The end @ Copyright 2012

Look the another related

Dr Iwan Cd-ROM

The Dai Nippon War In China

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS(CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE,THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CDROM EXIST

 

Tong Bingxue’s Collection

 

 The Original Photo of Jade Tower (翠玉宝塔) in Paris Expo 1937

 

A Panorama of China pavillion in Panama Expo 1915

 

The original stereo photo of China industry model in 1904

 

 

The Exterior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1889

 

The Estampe Featuring A Chinese Writer in Expo 1878 

 

The Interior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1878

 

The Estampe of a Night Show in Chinese Theatre in Paris Expo 1867

 

 

 

 

·         Route de la Reine Le Jour de l’An chinois, à Hong Kong, Chine 1902

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 13:12

 

 

Route de la Reine Le Jour de l’An chinois, à Hong Kong, Chine 1902 Carlton H. Graves

 

L’image a été trouvée dans la Bibliothèque américaine de collecte des Congrès, sous le numéro reproduction LC-USZ62-118528.Un aspect agréable au rythme trépidant de Hong Kong, même à l’époque.

La photographie a été de la moitié droite d’une impression Stereoview.

En outre, il est noté que émulsions de film noir et blanc en ces jours ont été incapables de d’enregistrement de l’extrémité rouge du spectre des couleurs.Par conséquent, certains des panneaux sur les bâtiments à gauche, avaient probablement leurs lettres en rouge, qui a finalement été rendus en noir dans l’image finale, ce qui les rend très difficiles à discerner.En outre, les avoirs CH Grave image de l’Asie ont tous été pensé pour avoir été créé par George Hebert Ponting, le cinéaste célèbre de Scott “Terra Nova” expédition en Antarctique.Ponting au moment voyageait à travers l’Asie et a travaillé sous la rubrique «à louer» des arrangements.Ainsi, un nombre énorme de photos d’époque très bien connu de la Chine, les droits d’auteur à l’époque par divers éditeurs, ont été effectivement créés par Ponting.

 

 

 

 

·         La CITE INTERDITE en 1901

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 12:12

 

 

 

De la Société Hawley C. White et résidant maintenant dans la Bibliothèque du Congrès américain, une image qui fait le pont entre deux cultures, qui ont toutes deux sombré dans l’histoire il ya longtemps (la monarchie chinoise et la dynastie Qing sont tous les deux allés près d’un siècle). Société Hawley C. White ‘s a été l’une des compagnies les plus prolifiques d’image stéréoscopique jamais. Son catalogue aurait recensé plus de 13000 images assorties du monde entier, couvrant la fin des années 1800 grâce à 1915. Par ailleurs, il était capable de produire en masse ses photos par son invention d’un procédé automatisé de chambre noire dans laquelle les négatifs ont été placés sur papier photographique, bien exposé, et ensuite chimiquement développés, tout cela automatiquement par la machine.

 

 

La porte sud de la ville impériale, considérée comme la porte de cérémonie pour la Chine, était resté depuis l’époque Ming.Sous Qing règle, il avait été rebaptisé La Porte des Qing Grande , et également porté son titre public dans une exposition rare de chinois et mandchous texte.Après la chute de la dynastie Qing cependant, la porte a été rebaptisé une fois de plus, d’être appelée la Porte de Chine .Malheureusement, la porte historique lui-même n’est pas tombée aux mains des conquérants, mais à la planification urbaine.Il a été démoli en 1954 afin d’élargir la place Tiananmen, et qui deviendra plus tard le site du mausolée de Mao après sa mort en 1976.

De nombreux bâtiments historiques à Beijing, avaient leur double chinois – signes Manchu remplacés par les chinois après la chute de la dynastie Qing, même si certains peuvent encore avoir à la fois et peut être trouvés si on est assez de persévérance.

Malheureusement aussi, la langue mandchoue est aujourd’hui  s’ éteint de plus en plus, les derniers locuteurs natifs meurent.Cela pose des problèmes uniques pour des Qing historiens comme il n’y a plus personne qui comprend nativement le texte écrit Manchu.

 

 

 

·         Petites filles chinoises kidnappées, pour le travail… en 1904 Fuzhou, Fujian Sheng

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 01:39

 

 

 

L’image a été trouvée dans la collection Edward Bangs Drew tenue à la Bibliothèque de Harvard-Yenching de l’Université Harvard.Les informations qui accompagnent, a déclaré:

“Filles kidnappées, Foochow, trouvé caché dans une poubelle par l’inspecteur des douanes. Ces filles auraient été vendues comme esclaves. Caractères chinois sur le mont, à gauche de l’image.” L’info a également déclaré que la scène  s’est déroulée à Fuzhou, Fujian Sheng, Chine.

Cependant, ces caractères chinois imprimés sur le support de raconter une histoire légèrement différente:

“Kidnapped enfants de sexe masculin et féminin, totalisant 41, qui se tiendra en foyer d’accueil, Lam Hing Lan Compagnie, remis de navires dans les mers ouvertes. Douanes détention de 23 ravisseurs.”

Si l’on examine la photo de près, il devient assez évident que plusieurs des enfants sont en effet, les garçons (par leurs vêtements et coiffures).Seulement 27 des 41 enfants victimes censées apparaître sur l’image.

La vente d’enfants pour  une vie de servitude n’était pas rare en Chine, comme les esclaves étaient détenues par plusieurs familles riches.Les familles pauvres souvent considérées avec un fatalisme c’est bénin comme un enfant vendu en esclavage était encore mieux qu’un enfant affamé à mort. Cependant, quelques personnes peu scrupuleuses ont enlevé des enfants de leur voisin pour alimenter cette économie triste.

L’enlèvement et la vente d’enfants (et même les adultes) continue d’être une activité lucrative en Chine, à ce jour comme dans de nombreux pays..

 

 

 

·         TOMBEAU des MING 1900

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:47

 

 

 

Stèle du Pavillon, SacredWay, Tombeaux des Ming, Pékin, Chine 1900

Le titre original n’est pas connu.Toutefois, l’image est reconnue comme étant celle de la stèle ShenGong ShengDe (inscrit comprimé) Pavillon, qui est une partie intégrante de la Voie Sacrée (alias Spirit Way) de Tombeaux des Ming juste à l’extérieur de Beijing République populaire de Chine.L’image semble avoir été prise C1900, et l’attribution n’est pas connu [RESTAURER].J’ai retouché sur les taches et les défauts évidents, a égalisé le ton du ciel, le contraste et ajuster le ton.

Les Tombeaux des Ming n’ont pas toujours été une attraction très populaire.Pour des centaines d’années, ils ont essentiellement assis avec peu d’intérêt par la population en général.À ce jour, seule l’une des 13 tombes connues a été fouillé (et même qui a été une catastrophe).Sauf pour une Occidentaux passant quelques-uns qui ont pris des photos de la Disney-esque sur les animaux en pierre de taille, l’ensemble du complexe a été largement et généralement ignorée.Si cela n’était pas assez, pendant milieu du 20e siècle, des bouleversements au sein du PRC causé celui connu a ouvert la nécropole souterraine (celle de l’empereur Zhu Yijun Wanli 朱翊 aka) pour être saccagés et presque détruit par l’extrémisme politique.Selon une notation de wiki:

“Dingling (chinois: 定陵; pinyin: Ding Ling, littéralement« Tombeau de stabilité »), l’une des tombes sur le site des tombes Ming, est le tombeau de l’empereur Wanli Il est le seul des Tombes Ming. d’avoir été fouillé. Il reste également la seule tombe impériale ont été fouillés depuis la fondation de la République populaire de Chine, une situation qui est presque une conséquence directe sur le sort qui a frappé Dingling et de son contenu après la fouille.

L’excavation de Dingling a commencé en 1956, après qu’un groupe de savants éminents dirigé par Guo Moruo et Wu Han a commencé à revendiquer la fouille de Changling, le tombeau de l’empereur Yongle, la plus grande et la plus ancienne des Tombes Ming.Bien qu’il ait gagné l’approbation de Premier ministre Zhou Enlai, ce plan a été refusée par les archéologues en raison de l’importance et le profil public de Changling.Au lieu de cela, Dingling, la troisième plus grande Tombeaux des Ming a été choisi comme site d’essai en vue de l’excavation de Changling.Excavation achevée en 1957, et un musée a été créé en 1959.

Les fouilles ont révélé une tombe intacte, avec des milliers d’articles de soie, textiles, bois et porcelaine, et les corps de l’empereur Wanli et ses deux impératrices.Cependant, il n’y avait ni la technologie ni les ressources nécessaires pour conserver adéquatement les artefacts excavé.Après plusieurs expériences désastreuses, la grande quantité de soie et autres textiles étaient simplement entassés dans une salle de stockage qui a fui l’eau et du vent.En conséquence, la plupart des artefacts survivent aujourd’hui sont gravement détériorées, et les répliques sont plutôt exposées dans le musée.Par ailleurs, l’élan politique derrière l’excavation a créé une pression à achever rapidement les travaux d’excavation.La hâte signifiait que la documentation de la fouille était pauvre.Un problème sévère dès frappé le projet, quand une série de mouvements politiques de masse a balayé le pays.Cette escalade dans la Révolution culturelle en 1966.Pour les dix prochaines années, tous les travaux archéologiques a été arrêté.Wu Han, l’un des principaux défenseurs du projet, est devenu la première cible majeure de la Révolution culturelle, et a été dénoncé, et mourut en prison en 1969.Fervent Gardes rouges ont pris d’assaut le musée Dingling, et traîné les restes de l’empereur Wanli et impératrices de la face de la tombe, où ils ont été à titre posthume “dénoncé” et brûlés.Beaucoup d’autres artefacts ont aussi été détruits.

Il a fallu attendre 1979, après la mort de Mao Zedong et la fin de la Révolution culturelle, que les travaux archéologiques repris pour de bon et d’un rapport de fouilles a finalement été préparés par les archéologues qui avaient survécu à la tourmente.Les leçons tirées de l’excavation Ding Ling a conduit à une nouvelle politique de la République populaire de Chine le gouvernement de ne pas fouiller tout site historique, sauf à des fins de sauvetage.En particulier, aucune proposition d’ouvrir un tombeau impérial a été approuvé depuis Dingling, même lorsque l’entrée a été accidentellement révélé, comme ce fut le cas du mausolée Qianling.Le plan original, à utiliser Dingling comme site d’essai pour l’excavation de Changling, a été abandonné. “

Le ShenGong ShengDe Stèle Pavillon (alias le Pavillon Tablet) est la troisième structure que l’on rencontre en entrant dans le tombeau des Ming complexes (le premier étant la pierre commémorative Archway, et la seconde étant la Porte Dahong).Au-delà se trouve la longue promenade avec les célèbres statues d’animaux en pierre et ofiicials Ming.Il est également connu comme le Pavillon des Mérites Stèle divine et de la Vertu Sacrée de Changling.Le pavillon a été achevée en 1435 lors de la 10e année et le dernier règne des Ming empereur Zhu Zhanji 朱瞻基 (1425-1435 statué).Il était à l’origine de la construction bois, mais après un effondrement du toit de la structure a été remplacé par un autre de pierre, réalisée pendant la 52e année de l’empereur Qing Hongli (aka Qianlong) règne, en 1787 (exclu 1735-1796).Le pavillon abrite une stèle de 50 tonnes, avec une inscription composée par l’empereur Zhu Ming Gāochì (aka Renzong, gouverné de 1424 à 1425).Le texte du grand succès, mérites et vertus de son prédécesseur, Empereur Ming Zhu Di 朱棣 Laudes (Yongle aka, gouverné de 1402 à 1424), qui a été enterré dans le tombeau Changling.Le dos et les côtés de la stèle porte également des poèmes de Qing empereurs Hongli et Yóngyǎn (alias Jiaqing, gouverné de 1796 à 1820).Quatre HuaBiaos marbre blanc (c’est à dire les piliers d’ornement) à l’extérieur forment un quadrilatère, le pavillon est situé au milieu des quatre piliers, en ligne directe avec les sept kilomètres long chemin connu sous le nom de la Voie Sacrée ou Esprit.

Heureusement, les gens en Chine et c’est ont réveillé à la valeur de la préservation de son histoire, et les lieux culturels comme les tombes ont été préservés de la décomposition d’autres. Il ya peu d’empressement à ouvrir toutes les autres scellés voûtes souterraines jusqu’au gouvernement de la RPC est assuré que le contenu, une fois retiré, peut être pleinement protégés. Dans un sens, je regrette que je ne serai pas là pour le voir. Mais d’autre part, mes enfants, ou leurs enfants, et en effet, le peuple chinois dans son ensemble, aurait l’avantage d’une culture récupérés qui permettraient de mieux résister aux rigueurs du temps. C’est probablement le meilleur résultat que tout historien peut souhaiter.

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1901 canton

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:20

 

 

 

 

·         CHINATOWN 1909 SAN FRANCISCO

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:17

 

 

 

 

·         Marchand, chanteuse Chine 1901

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:16

 

 

 

 

·         Chanteuses chinoises 1901

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:14

 

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1907

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hankow, 1897 P.P.C. “Pour Prendre Congé” overprint issue complete (Chan LH26-30), full o.g., fresh mint, F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1895, 20¢ blue on buff, Type III (Scott J13. Chan LHD13), used, full margins, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,500.

 

 

 

 

China was not a U.P.U. member in the Ch’ing (Qing) Dynasty. When the Imperial Post Office started operation in 1897,

mail exchange with foreign countries had to rely on so called “Guest Posts” – alien postal organizations set up and operated in China by Western Powers.

In general, each of the foreign offices handled certain area of the world, and the I.P.O. also had preference for transmission. For instense, mail originated from Wenchow and north sent to Shanghai and forwarded to F.P.O., B.P.O. and I.J.P.O. Mail originated from Foochow and south sent through Hong Kong via H.K.P.O.

There were some exception, for example, mail for U.S. originated from Foochow sent to Shanghai I.J.P.O. instead of Hong Kong(126)

 

 

 

Japan print

 

London print

 

The Qing Postmark History

 

Pa kua Tientsin

 

Pa Kua Shanghai

 

Pa Kua Wuhu

 

Dollar date Wuhu

 

Dollar Date Canton

 

Dollar Date Amoy

 

Dollar Date Tientsin

 

Dollar Date Peking

 

Dollar Date Chinkiang

 

Dollar Date Kiukiang

 

Dollar Date Ichang

 

Shanghai official

 

Shanghai Local post

 

S.Custom airmail matter

 

Custom Shanghai

 

Peking 1901

 

BL Chefoo 1901

 

Local Yunnanfu

 

Local Kuling

 

Local Nanchang

 

Local Ningpo

 

BL Kiukiang

 

Local Kaomi

 

Local Kucheng 1911

 

Local Tibet

 

Chnagsitian Tumbstone

 

Japan CPO Shanghai 1897

 

DaiNippon military CPO

 

British PO Shanghai

 

Russian PO

 

Russian CPO

 

French CPO 1897

 

French PO Langson 1902

 

German CPO 1900

 

HS Foochow 1904

 

Local Changsa 1904

 

Bisect 1906

 

Qing Card DD1897

 

Qing Card 1900

 

Qing Card 1907

 

Qing Card 1910

 

Stationer card 1911

 

Postal Commisioner 1911

 

Lunar Date 1911

 

BLD Chungking 1909

 

BLD Peking 1910

 

BLDP Bilingual Date postmark

 

Belgian China P.O.

 

Local Postmark 1894

 

 

1897

January,1st.1897

The Imperial Post Office was planned to inaugurate on January 1st, 1897, and changing the currency used for postage unit from Candarin of Silver to Silver Dollar.

 

Due to some delay on schedule, the Imperial Post Office officially opened

 

on February 20th.1897

 

Initially, Customs issues were overprinted with the new currency until new stamps were issued later that year.

After the Customs Post transformed into Imperial Post, all the Local Post offices closed in 1897 except Shanghai LPO that was absorbed by the I.P.O. The rest of the postal setups still operated until later times.(126)


October 1897

 

The first regular issue – ICP Coiling Dragon – October 1 1897

Since the English inscription on this issue is Imperial Chinese Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue

According to The History of Chinese Postage Stamps Volume II (published December 2004), archives of Imperial Post Office verified that this set of definitives was designed by R. A. de Villard and engraved and printed in Japan by retired Italian artist and master engraver Edoardo Chiossone as a private contractor, and the process employed was typographic not lithographic as its old name suggested.


 

Used One cemt Coilling Dragon brown  postmark  Pa-Kua Beijing

(Dr Iwan collection)

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post, 50¢ blue green, color error (Scott 94b. Chan 100b), clean o.g., scarce shade,very well centered, VF, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), with 8 additional shades, o.g., overall fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), $2, $5 appear to be no gum, others with large part o.g., vivid bright colors throughout, good to well centered, F.-V.F. setRealized HK$ 18,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (May 27) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing blue “Customs 27 May 97 Chungking” handstamp, with Japan 5s Koban tied by Shanghai 11 Jun 97 IJPO cds from China inland Mission corner card with “Hankow” crossed out and replaced by “Chungking”. Reverse shows brown Shanghai large dollar chop date 7 Jun97, Yokohama 17 Jun transit Vancouver JU 30 transit and Philadelphia Jul 7 receiver. Scarce combination of markings, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 8,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 19) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, a lovely cover, with front showing bold, black “Chungking 19 Jun 97 Customes” handstamp, and 5s Japanese Koban, tied by “Shanghai 8 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows a wonderful array of clear markings including brown Shanghai 7 Jul large dollar chop, Yokohama 12 Jul transit, S.F. transit and Philadelphia Aug 9 receiver. Excellent usage, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 13,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jul 5) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, showing on front a lovely strike in black of “Chungking 5 Jul 97 Customs” oval dater along with vertical pair of 5s Japanese Koban which is cancelled “Shanghai 23 July 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse offers a wonderful range of marking including a brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 29 Jul transit and Philadelphia Aug 17 receiver. Atrractive and F-VF, a choice coverRealized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 9) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing nice strike of “Chungking 9 Jun 97 Customs” oval handstamp, along with 5s Japanese Koban, which is cancelled by “Shanghai 21 Jun 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows lovely, brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 26 Jun transit, Tacoma, Wash. Jul 16 transit and Philadelphia July 21 receiver. Lovely usage, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 15,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897 (July 11) cover front from Chinkiang to North Carolina, franked by 5s Japanese Victory issue, tied by clean, “Shanghai 19 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Front shows at lower left a choice strike in brown of Chinkiang small Customs chop and missionary corner card. Very scarce combination, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

(10) 1898

(a)The Local provisional courier stamps from Wei Hai Wei Leased Area were Issued.

(b) German Post office in China issued surgharge China on German stamps.

(c) British Postoffice in China Issued postmark A 11-shanghai used on Hongkong stamps ( also issued postmark from another area like cds shanghai and other area)

.

CIP Coiling Dragon – January 1898

Since the English inscription on this issue is Chinese Imperial Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue.

Designed by R. A. de Villard. Engraved by Rapkin and his son (dragon), A. B. Hill (carp) and Joseph (wild goose) of Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), with and without watermark.

 

 

 
   

 

 

 

 

1898

 

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Apr 18) cover from Shanghai to Wellington, New Zealand, 10¢ rate with large 10 surcharge, franked with “Large Ten” Chinese character surcharge 10¢ on 30¢ QV (Scott 69a, Yang 54b), postmarked Shanghai cds, Ap/18/98, manuscript “Via Hong Kong Sorres Straits” and reverse Hong Kong “D” Ap/22/98 cds transit and Wellington/NZ 26 My 98 cds receiver alongside, “Large Ten” surcharge is rare, used on commercial cover possibly unique, rough opening, not affecting the attractiveness of this rare coverRealized HK$ 4,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Jan 4) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, with front showing Chungking 4 Jan 98 large dollar chop along with two 5s Japanese Kobans, which are tied by “Shanghai 22 Jan IJPO” cds. Reverse shows black Shanghai 22 Jan 98 large dollar chop, Yokohama 27 Jan transit and SF Feb 18 1898 Paid All transit andvery light and indistinct Philadelphia receiver. This cover when compared with the other, surrounding covers from thsi missionary correspondence, shows the transition from the Chungking oval to the large dollar dater. F-VF, a lovely item. Realized HK$ 20,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1898, Chinese Imperial Post, 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢, Waterlow & Sons trial color proof in maroon (Scott 104-106 vars. Chan 110-112 vars.), block of 9, overprinted” Specimen” and security punched, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 20,000

1898 (5 Oct)


 


1st Imperial Postal card Peking to Hungary.

Re-direct to Bosnia …. franked with Coil Dragon 1/2 x6.

Tied by Peking large dollar chop, via British PO in China.

Franked with Hong Kong QV 2c x2.

Tied by Shanghai cds.

 

 

 

 

(11) 1899

(a)The Local provisional courier LKT at Wei Hai wei were issued

(b) The first Russia Imperial Post office in China issued the KHTAH(Kitai) surchaged on Russia stamps were issued.

 

1899

 

Chinese imperial picture postcard sent from Tsung base Kiatsou  9n februaty,26th.1899

 

 

In mid-1899

 

a standard circular cancellation was introduced, having the town name in Chinese above and English below.

 

 

Underneath, the date is expressed in the Western calendar.

 

 

 

Early 20th Century

 

 

Puyi

 

Aixinjueluo Puyi (né à Pékin le 7 février 1906 et mort dans la même ville le 17 octobre 1967), connu sous le nom de Puyi (chinois traditionnel : 溥儀, chinois simplifié : , pinyin : Pǔyí), également orthographié Pou-yi ou P’ou-yi mais appelé également de son nom de règne Xuāntǒng, est le douzième et dernier empereur (末代皇帝) issu de la dynastie Qing, la dernière qui régna sur l’Empire chinois. Il est le fils de Zaifeng deuxième prince de Chun, deuxième fils de Yixuan premier prince de Chun, lui-même septième fils de l’empereur Daoguang. Il est né dans la trente-deuxième année du règne de l’empereur Guangxu.

 

Le dernier empereur (1908-1912)

Guangxu étant toujours sans enfant à 30 ans, sa tante Cixi, l’impératrice douairière de Chine et détentrice réelle du pouvoir, nomme par décret Puyi pour assurer sa succession. L’enfant a alors 2 ans et 10 mois.

Au lendemain de cette nomination, Guangxu décède, et, le surlendemain, c’est Cixi elle-même qui rend l’âme.

L’intronisation officielle de Puyi se déroule le 2 décembre 1908, son père assurant la régence.

À l’époque, la Chine connaît de nombreux désordres, et depuis longtemps la dynastie mandchoue est contestée (révolte des Taipings au siècle précédent, révolte des Boxers de 1899 à 1901, mouvements insurrectionnels du Guangdong et du Guangxi entre 1905 et 1911).

Le général Yuan Shikai, nommé pour mater les mouvements de révolte, et notamment le soulèvement de Wuchang du 10 octobre 1911, se retourne contre le pouvoir en place et pousse le jeune empereur à abdiquer le 12 février 1912, mettant fin à la dynastie Qing et à la période féodale.

 

Prisonnier dans la Cité interdite (1912-1924)

Malgré la proclamation de la République de Chine le 1er janvier 1912, donc quelques jours avant sa destitution de jure et selon les huit “Articles veillant au traitement favorable de l’Empereur après son abdication”, arrangement conclus entre la maison impériale Qing et le gouvernement républicain, il reçoit de ce dernier l’autorisation de conserver son titre et de demeurer – et même de fait est obligé de vivre – dans la Cité interdite. Lui et sa famille garderont l’usage de la « cour intérieure » (partie nord de la cité), tandis que la « cour extérieure » (partie sud) revenait aux autorités républicaines. En outre, il bénéficie d’une liste civile conséquente.

 

En 1917, un général conservateur partisan des Qing, le général Zhang Xun, profitant du désaccord du Président de la République et de son Premier ministre quant aux puissances à soutenir dans le conflit européen de la Grande Guerre, envoie ses troupes à Pékin, soit près de 5 000 hommes. Le 1er juillet 1917, il rétablit Puyi dans sa fonction d’empereur, ce qui suscite une réaction unanime des républicains et des seigneurs de guerre. Le 13 juillet suivant, Duan Qirui, le Premier ministre démis, pousse Puyi à abdiquer de nouveau.

 

Dès 1919, Puyi reçoit une éducation occidentale de son précepteur, un Écossais diplômé d’Oxford, Reginald Johnston (en), officier du bureau colonial britannique parlant le mandarin et féru d’histoire ainsi que de poésie chinoise. Johnston n’est pas vraiment un enseignant, mais exerce une grande influence sur Puyi. Sous sa conduite, ce dernier s’intéresse à tout ce qui vient d’Occident. Grâce à lui, il apprend l’anglais dès l’âge de 13 ans, au point de demander à Johnston de l’aider à lui trouver un nom anglais. Parmi la liste des noms de souverains britanniques que lui procure Johnston, Puyi choisit celui de Henry. C’est encouragé par l’éducation de Reginald Johnston que Puyi coupe sa natte, symbole du pouvoir mandchou (voir article sur les Taipings qui coupèrent leur natte en signe de protestation contre le pouvoir en place).


  

Le prince mondain (1924-1932)

En 1924, dans la tourmente qui entoure le renversement du Président de la République Cao Kun, les accords passés sont annulés. Puyi est expulsé de la Cité interdite, enceinte dont il n’était pas sorti depuis 15 ans, par les troupes de Feng Yuxiang. Il retourne dans le palais paternel.

Il tente, par le truchement de Reginald Johnston, de s’expatrier en Angleterre. Mais, pour ne pas froisser la Chine, les Britanniques lui refusent tout visa. Il se tourne alors vers l’Empire du Japon qui, en 1925, accepte de l’accueillir dans l’enclave de Tianjin. Il y mène une vie mondaine dans les milieux occidentaux des concessions.

 

 

Empereur du Mandchoukouo (1932-1945)

Les Japonais convoitent les richesses de la Mandchourie (fer et charbon, notamment), et à ce titre préservent Puyi, en qualité de représentant de la dynastie mandchoue qui avait encore ses fidèles.

En 1931, le Japon fait la conquête de ce territoire, et crée un état fantoche sous le nom de « Grand État mandchou (ou Mandchoukouo) de Chine ». Malgré les protestations du Guomindang auprès de la Société des Nations, et les déclarations de cette dernière qui considérait que le Mandchoukouo faisait partie intégrale de la Chine, les Japonais placent Puyi à sa tête en 1932, mais sans lui donner de pouvoirs réels.

 

 

Le Japon, soucieux de jeter des bases durables sur le sol chinois, met alors en place un vaste plan d’émigration vers le Mandchoukouo de populations japonaises et coréennes – la Corée ayant été annexée par le Japon en 1910 – le but étant de faire venir un million de personnes en 20 ans. Cet afflux de migrants se fait aux dépens des populations locales qui se voient dépossédées de leurs terres.

Fort occupé à combattre l’influence grandissante du Parti communiste chinois de Mao Tsé-toung, le Guomindang finit par signer un cessez-le-feu avec les Japonais en 1931.

En 1932, la Société des Nations module ses positions quant au problème mandchou en déclarant, que « […] le nouvel état créé est un protectorat plutôt qu’un véritable état indépendant », même si elle préconise l’adoption d’un plan d’intervention internationale pour la Mandchourie ; de ce fait, le Japon quitte la SDN le 27 mars 1933.

Puyi veut regagner son titre d’empereur ; c’est une quasi obsession. Aussi, en octobre 1933, quand le Japon en quête d’une image moins conquérante et d’une certaine légitimité lui fait la proposition de reprendre son titre impérial, il accepte, malgré les innombrables victimes de guerre chinoises et la spoliation des terres au bénéfice des immigrants nippons et coréens.

Le 1er mars 1934, Puyi, sous le nom de « Kangdle », est sacré Empereur pour la troisième fois.

Puyi espère que cette intronisation n’est qu’une étape, et qu’une victoire du Japon en fera de nouveau l’Empereur de toute la Chine.

 

Toutefois, les exactions japonaises dans le pays, ainsi que l’influence de celle qui sera sa deuxième concubine, Tan Yuling, une Chinoise d’origine mandchoue, amène Puyi à s’affirmer devant ses « amis » japonais et à s’opposer à eux. Aussi, pour resserrer les liens entre l’Empereur et ses alliés, un mariage est-il célébré en 1938 entre l’un des frères de Puyi, Pujie, et la princesse Hiro Saga, parente de l’Empereur Hirohito. Au cas où Puyi viendrait à disparaître sans descendance, Pujie porterait le titre impérial. Mieux encore, un enfant mâle issu de ce mariage, donc de sang mêlé chinois et nippon, ferait un Empereur idéal pour le Mandchoukouo. Pujie et Hiro Saga ont bien un enfant, mais c’est une fille. Quant à Tan Yuling, elle décède en 1942, à l’âge de 22 ans. Puyi, qui lui portait une réelle affection, aura toujours un doute sur la cause de ce décès puisqu’elle était soignée par un médecin japonais.

 

Puyi et Hiroito

Le Guomindang s’alliant au Parti communiste chinois contre l’envahisseur nippon, Puyi n’a d’autre solution que continuer à appuyer les Japonais. Son sort est lié au leur, et à l’issue de la guerre, non pas celle qui oppose simplement deux pays d’Asie, mais celle qui embrase le monde entier.

 

Le 17 août 1945, deux jours après la capitulation du Japon, Puyi abdique pour la troisième fois.

Afin d’assurer sa sécurité, les Japonais l’invitent à s’envoler pour le Japon. L’avion atterrit à Shenyang et Puyi est arrêté par les Soviétiques. Très probablement a-t-il été livré aux Russes par ses protecteurs, bien que ce point n’ait jamais pu être élucidé.

 

Prisonnier des Soviétiques (1945-1950)

Le 19 août 1945, Puyi se retrouve en résidence surveillée à Tchita, dans le sud de la Sibérie, puis à Khabarovsk.

En août 1946, il est entendu comme témoin au Tribunal militaire international de Tokyo, dont le but est de juger les criminels de guerre en Asie. De témoin à accusé la distance est mince, mais Puyi sait se préserver. À l’issue de son audition, qui dure sept jours, le Guomindang demande son extradition vers la Chine, ce que refuse l’Union Soviétique qui soutient le Parti Communiste Chinois.

En Chine, le conflit qui oppose les nationalistes aux communistes tourne à l’avantage de ces derniers. Pressentant le pire, et craignant pour sa vie s’il devait retourner dans son pays, Puyi demande à Staline à rester définitivement en Union Soviétique, mais sa lettre demeure sans réponse.

La République populaire de Chine est proclamée à Pékin le 1er octobre 1949 par Mao Tsé-toung. Quelques mois plus tard, au début de 1950, Mao en voyage en URSS demande l’extradition vers la Chine de Puyi et des autres dignitaires mandchous exilés avec lui. Staline accepte.

 

La rééducation (1950-1959)

Puyi est transféré dans le « camp de rééducation pour criminels de guerre » de Fushun, sous le matricule 981. La guerre de Corée éclate en septembre 1950. Quelques mois après, et du fait de la proximité de Fushun avec la frontière sino-coréenne, Puyi est transféré dans un autre camp à l’intérieur du pays où il reste deux ans. En 1954, quelques mois après la fin du conflit coréen (27 juillet 1953), il retourne au camp de Fushun.

Une enquête est diligentée sur place en vue d’un procès éventuel. Accablé par les confessions de ses amis et de sa famille, Puyi est reconnu coupable de nombreux crimes contre le peuple chinois et le PCC, au premier chef figurant la conspiration avec le Japon.

Puyi rédige alors une confession dans laquelle il fait amende honorable, ce qui lui vaudra la clémence du « Grand Timonier » qui optera pour sa « rééducation » plutôt que pour son exécution.

Un peu plus tard, en septembre 1959, Mao Tsé-toung décrète l’amnistie de certains criminels de guerre, dont Puyi.

 

Un Chinois comme les autres (1959-1967)

Commence alors une nouvelle vie pour l’ancien empereur. Ainsi, pour le nouvel an de l’année 1960, Zhou Enlai le convoque et, comme le raconte le demi-frère cadet de Puyi, Puren, dans le film “Puyi. The Last Emperor of China” (cf infra), le premier ministre lui suggère d’écrire le livre de sa vie. Il lui trouve également un travail de jardinier au Jardin botanique de Pékin.

 

 

Quelque temps plus tard, c’est Mao Tsé-toung lui-même qui le reçoit, et qui lui conseille également de rédiger son histoire. De plus, il lui préconise de se remarier.

Ces conseils sont suivis. En avril 1962, Puyi épouse une infirmière, Li Shuxian, et la confession de Fushun sert de base au livre qui sort en 1964, sous le titre “La première moitié de ma vie”. Cet ouvrage est traduit dans de nombreuses langues. En France, il est édité par Flammarion sous le titre “J’étais empereur de Chine”. Il faudra attendre 2007 pour que paraisse la version intégrale, la précédente ayant été expurgée de 160 000 mots[réf. nécessaire].

Il devient ensuite bibliothécaire au sein de la Conférence consultative politique du peuple chinois, avec un salaire de 100 yuans par mois, avant de devenir lui-même membre de cette institution en 1964, et ce jusqu’à sa mort.

La Révolution culturelle vient troubler cette quiétude : ses revenus sont réduits, son mobilier en partie confisqué. Mais il évite l’humiliation publique comme la pratiquaient couramment les gardes rouges.

Peu après, ses médecins diagnostiquent un cancer des reins et de la vessie.

 

 

Puyi et Wan Rong, vers 1920.

 

Famille

    • L’Empereur a eu deux épouses :
      • Sa première épouse est Wan Rong (婉容) (1906 – 1946). Ils se marient en 1922, et elle porte le titre d’Impératrice. Capturée par les communistes, elle meurt empoisonnée à la prison de Yanji en 1946.
      • Sa seconde épouse est Li Shuxian (李淑賢) (1925 – 1997). Ils se marient en 1962.
    • Il a eu aussi trois concubines:
      • Sa première concubine est Wen Xiu (淑妃) (1909–1953), qui devient concubine impériale en 1922 jusqu’en 1931, date de son divorce.
      • Sa deuxième concubine est Tan Yuling (谭玉龄) (1920 – 1942), morte dans des conditions non élucidées.
      • Sa troisième concubine est Li Yuqin (李玉琴) (1928-2001) qui n’a que quinze ans à l’époque du mariage en 1943. Elle divorce en 1958.

 

Puyi s’est éteint sans laisser de descendance.

    • Il a eu aussi plusieurs frères dont deux ont joué un rôle dans l’histoire de la Chine :
      • Pujie (1907–1994)
      • Puren (1918 – ) (qui prendra plus tard le nom de Jin Youzhi).

 

 

 

Mariage de PUYI en 1922

 

 

 

 

1900

(1)1900

(a)The first CEF Chine Expedition Force sucharge on British India stamps were Issued.

(b) The Japanese Post Office in China issued surchage China in kanji character on Japan stamps.

2.20th Century

(1) 1900

January 1900

 

1900 (19 Jan) The China Gazette Newspaper Hankow to Switzerland, franked Coil Dragon 2c x2, tied by Hankow cds, via Shanghai franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by PO in Shanghai cds.

 

(a)postally used cover send from Tumbstone postmark changsitien post office on LCP stamp to destination shanghai bilingual date postmark jan.6.1900.

 

(b)In 1900, Cheng shih-liang led another uprising at Huichow. Dr Sun instructed Shih Chien-ju and Teng Yin-nan to provide supportive revolutionary activity in Canton. The uprising at Huichow failed. Shih Chien-ju then decided to assasinate Governur Te Shou. He dug a tunnel t the governr’s ffice from a house nearby and planted explosives. But Te Shou was not killed and Shih Chien-ju was arrest and put to death.

 

1900s Russian Railway Post card

 

(c)Joint Force of the eight great powers entering Beijing in August.1900 during the Boxer incident.
The Boxer uprising broke out in the nothern china ,perhaps fearing futher foreign intervention,Cixi threw in her supprt to then anti foteihn bands.The chinese military was unable to preventing the Allied army from marching on Beijing and seizing the forbidden city.
The Chinese military was under equipped and under funded partly because Cixi had earlier consumed precious funds to build a stone Boat of Purity in the old Summer palace.
The British Expeditionary Force Postal in Beijing issued their stamps surcharge C.E.F on india stamps with their own postmark.

 

 

 

 

 

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Latest News”.

 

(d) The Japan Imperial Post Office in china issued the surcharge China in kanji char on Japan stamps with their own postmark.

 

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Selling Fisches”.

 

 

Look at the front cover of the  postcard

Inside

 


1900s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Crossing the River”.

(e) London coil dragon stamp 2 cent(2x) used Peking Postmark jul.1-1900 , RH Rober Hart postal used Cover.thirteen Hart covers reprt by Sam Chiu (2001), 11 cover recorded by Li Zha-ning, So few Hert cover this day.Hart had ordered hislatter papers and papers printed with initial R.H. (lok at illustration)

 

(f) Postally used cover with Wuchow Bilingual date postmark July14,1900.

 

(g) German post office in china postmark Tsingtau Kiaurshow cds Mar.24.1900 on bloch four china surcharga on german stamp 10 Pf.

October,29th.1900

 

1900 (29 Oct) PPC Shanghai to Germany, franked with Coil Dragon 1/2c, 1c & 2c (2), tied by Shanghai cds, additional franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by French PO in Shanghai cds, boxed No. 8 postal agency cancel under the French stamp

November 1900

 

1900 (3 Nov) Imperial 1st postal card sent to Germany, tied by Germany Military Exposition cancel, boxed blue cachet & Bromberg arrival cds

 

(2)1901

February,1901

 

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

 

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction

( 126,Back O’Bourke,)

Feb 21 1901

 

Peking oval Bilingual Postmark Feb 21 1901 on JCP stamp 2 c and 10 c.

British Post Office Shanghai CDS feb. 21,1901

 

German PO in China 1901 Reichspost opt “China” set

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1901, BRA 5¢ on Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon ½¢ chocolate, green surcharge (Scott 98 var. Chan BRA 1), with usual BRA postmark in blue; odd toning spots, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 700

April,20th.1901

 

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction.

 

June,9th.1901

Why China and Indochina be on this piece:


fragmen cover  with Indochina stamp and china stamps CDS Lung chow 9 jun 1901 and Langson(the border between Vietnam(north) and China south(Kiangshi) 1 jun 1901
If possible, please tell me where Lung Chow is?


‘Longzhou (龙州县; pinyin: LóngzhÅ
u Xiàn) is a county in the Guangxi province of China, near the border with Vietnam (location: 22 21′ N., 106 45′ E.). It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city Chongzuo.

Longzhou lies in a circular valley at the junction of the Xunjiang and Guijiang rivers.’

So this piece may have travelled across the border.

And by the bye, ‘Langson’ looks awfully like a Vietnamese version of the Chinese name. Perhaps a twin town: one on either side of the border?

 

Lạng SÆ¡n (Langson, è«’å±±) has nothing to do with Lung Chow/Longzhou (龍州 / 龙州). I’ve just checked, and Longzhou borders Vietnam’s province of Cao Bằng, not Lạng SÆ¡n.

My guess is that this must be a philatelic item. In 1901, Longzhou and Langson were under the same control of the French in Hanoi, travel from one place to another was therefore fairly easy.


There is something not right about these stamps and postmarks. The placement of one of the Chinese stamps (postmarked 8 June) overlaps the French Indochina stamp (postmarked 1 June). This makes sense. But the 1 June postmark overlaps onto the Chinese stamp postmarked 8 June.

This could only happen if both the Chinese and French Indochinese stamps were already on the cover when the French Indochinese stamp was postmarked. A week later the Chinese stamps were postmarked. Sounds like a philatelic usage to me

the Chinese cancel is 9 June, and the Vietnamese one 10 days later, 19 June.


In that case both the Chinese and French Indochina stamps would still have to have been on the cover before the Chinese stamp was postmarked 9 June because the Chinese stamp overlaps the French Indochina stamp. The French Indochina stamp was then postmarked 19 June with the postmark overlapping onto the China stamp.

An interesting problem.


 

July,16th.1901

 

Chefoo bilingual date post mark 16 jul 01 on LCP stamp.

 

August,16th.1901

 

Imperial 2nd postal card reply portion 1901 (16 Aug) Nanking to Germany, additional franked with Coil Dragon 5c x5, tied by Nanking cds, bottom with German ship cancel & arrival cds

 

Chinese Empire, 1901 (Nov 28) registered combination cover from Chunkiang? to Yokohama, Japan, a neat standard size envelope, franked with pair of 10¢ green coiling Dragon tied by bisected light cds with 10s Kiku Blue offices in China vertical pair alongside tied by dark blue Shanghai IJPO 16 Dec 01 dater. IJPO Shanghai registration label applied with straight Registered handstamp in purple. Large red “R” handstamp in Red alongside, docket 4198 in blue, red wax seals over flap on reverse. A clean neat colorful cover, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,000

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1901 (April 21) picture post card from Chefoo to Italy, franked on front by 4¢ Coiling Dragon tied by Chefoo 4/21 cds, while address side bears pair of 2¢ hong Kong Victoria’s tied by Shanghai Ap 26 01 British PO transit, Shanghai 25 April Chinese PO transit and Roma Jun 28 receiver. neat and Very Fine, nice usageRealized HK$ 1,800

German Offices in China, 1901 (Feb. 2)

 

 

oversized cover from Tsingtau to Germany, franked with 30 pf pair overprinted straight “China” issue, tied with Tseingtau standard German Offices cds alongside bearing small surcharge ½¢ on 3ca Dowager, Coiling Dragon issue ½¢, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢. 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢ lightly postmarked oval “Kiaochow” cancels, due to light cancellations all the stamps further cancelled by blue crayon diagonal strokes, also registered handstamp being crossed out, on reverse oval transit in black and German receiver alongside, a colorful cover with two punched holes on left edge of envelope NOT affecting stamps, a Fine cover. Realized HK$ 1,300

1902

(3)1902
Postally use cover with Franch Indochina Lang Son Tonkin CDS 10 SEp 02 on LCP 2 cent to arrival Hanoi Tonkin CDS on French Indochina stamps

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1902 (Dec 18) First Issue post card usage from Chungking to Philadelphia, 1¢ card uprated by 1¢ and 2¢ Coiling Dragons, all tied by Choice strikes of Kweiyang double-margin tombstone chops. Front additionally shows Chungking 18 Dec 02 cds, Shanghai bilingual 3 Jan 03 cds along with French PO Shang-Hai 3 JANU 03 cds, Nagasaki 6 Jan transit, Yokohama 8 Jan transit and Phila Jan 31 1903 arrivial. A spectacular card with wonderful eye-appeal, F-VF, a beauty! Realized HK$ 15,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 1901, ½¢, 1¢ and 2¢ in ultramarine, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 110, 111, 112 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, unpunched (quite unusual), overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 5,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in blue green, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 116 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at bottom left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, pristine, Very Fine and choiceRealized HK$ 4,500

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in orange brown, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 115 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at top right, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine, scarceRealized HK$ 3,800

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Jumping Carp, 30¢ and 50¢ in violet, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 117, 118, 119 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at lower left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine and choice. Realized HK$ 2,400

 

 

 

 

1902-03 Flying Geese $1

 

 

Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way.

1902 onwards,

a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy.

[ 转自

 

 

 

 

German Offices in China, 1902 (Oct. 2)

 

postcard from Tongku to Germany, German black & white photo postcard, on front franked with 5pf green with straight “China” overprint tied by Tongku/Deutsche post cds 2 Oct/02 with bilingual Tongku bisected postmark and Lwickau/German receiver 10/11/02 alongside on picture side, bearing ICP Coiling Dragon ½¢ brown pair, large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue and 2¢ red Coiling Dragon, tied by bilingual bisected Tongku cds 2/Oct/02. 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue with surcharge shifted to the right, Very Fine, Royal Philatelic Society photo certificate.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

1903

January,10th.1903

 

1903 (10 Jan) post card Shanghai to Cuba, additional franked Coil Dragon 4c, tied by Shanghai cds, alongside with Shanghai French PO cancel, via USA San Francisco transit, with Cuba arrival cds

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1903 & 1906 uprated 1¢ postal card usages to Philadelphia, two 1¢ cards, comprised of Oct 1903 card, uprated by 1¢ & 2¢ marginal coiling Dragons tied by Shanghai cdss to Philadelphia, plus a lovely 1906 1¢ uprated card with lunar cancels and tombstone branch marking to US as well. Interesting pair, F-VFRealized HK$ 7,000

October 1903

Bisect stamps

October,22th.1903

 

A stamp cut into two parts, each part paying postage to the amount of half the face value of the complete stamp. This practice has been authorized to overcome a temporary shortage of certain denominations. The most famous bisect is the Foochow Bisect, popularly called 颶風票 – hurricane stamp or 颱風票 – typhoon stamp by collectors.

On October 22, 1903, because of the shortage of 1 cent stamps, the postmaster of Foochow ordered that the 2 cents red coiling dragon stamps to be bisected diagonally into two halves. Each half stamp was used as 1 cent and handstamped with a specially made boxed “Postage 1 Cent Paid” rubber stamp. This bisect was used from 22 to 24, three days only.

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS(CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE, THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CD-ROM EXIST

 

 

China Pavillion in the First World Expo Ever in London in 1851

 

The Estampe of Sir. Xi Sheng (希生) (the third one from the right)  from Guangdong, London Expo 1851

 

1862

China (French Post Offices)

This refers to general issues for all French and Indo-Chinese offices in China. Various stamps of France or Indo-China were either overprinted or inscribed CHINE. Several offices had individual issues. Prior to 1894, stamps of France were used.

The offices were at Shanghai (opened November 1862), Tientsin (16 March 1889), Chefoo (November 1898), Hankow (1898), Peking (December 1900), Amoy (January 1902), Foochow (1902) and Ningpo (1902). All closed on 31 December 1922

1863

 

Im 1863
The first local Shanghai Port stamps large dragon were issued.

Marvh 1863

 

Foochow, 1863 (March)

cover from US Consulate in Foochow to NJ, forwarded to London, 24¢ Victoria tied on front by B62 killer on cover to Dover, NJ, then onto London. Front shows red london PAID dated 19 May and British Pkt 39 marking dated May 2(?). Reverse shows Hong Kong MR 31 63 cds and lovely, bold red “Consulate USA Foo Chow Foo” and fancy Eagle design handstamp. Slight reduction at left, F-VF, nice usage.
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,000.

 

 

In 1866,

the handling of mails of foreign envoys was reassigned to the Customs. Inspector General of Customs Robert Hart accepted to undertake the duty and set up the “Customs Postal Department” to handle mail delivery. Initially the Customs postal service handled only official documents and private letters for its staff and family members. Since 1866, it began to accept and distribute legation mail pouches. From 1867, it began to accept mail articles from foreign residents to be transmitted by Tientsin-Shanghai steamers. And in 1868, the Tientsin Customs began to accept closed mail from the Tientsin community to be transmitted to Shanghai. (126)

 

1875

In 1875, the Qing government ordered Li to the creation of the Northern Navy, allocated four million taels of silver a year for the training of officers and men, the purchase of warships. In 1881, the Qing government has chosen to build a naval base in Port Arthur and Weihai. December 17, 1888, the Northern Navy was officially inaugurated. Since then, modern China officially has a sixth in the world at the time called Asia’s first naval fleet. The picture shows the custom-made 1880 the Qing government to the German ironclads, the “set” because of heavy tonnage, heavy caliber guns, armor thickness, once known as Asia’s first ship in

 

Northern sailors and more recruitment from coastal Shandong Province, joined the army to accept the strict Western training must learn, in a six month period based on the ship operational knowledge and English. Major warship captain and senior officers of almost all specialized Chuanzheng graduation, students practice and more than once to foreign Naval Academy, the late Qing Dynasty China walk in the forefront of the modernization of the crowd. However, for this reason, the Northern Navy became a stubborn conservative moment of envy, as the target. The picture shows the drilling in Weihai Liugong Island Northern sailors

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

这支效法西方海军,以蒸汽化舰船作为主要装备的舰队,在服装制度上,也一改中国上千年以来延续的号衣样式,开始向近代化方向过渡。尽管当时北洋海军服装的样式仍然是中式,但是服装的颜色搭配、袖口的军衔标识等设计理念,都已开始和欧洲接轨。图为一名北洋海军军官接收军舰期间在欧洲拍摄的一幅照片。

This to follow the example of Western naval steam of the ship as the fleet of major equipment, clothing system, changed the style of the continuation of the “livery” in China since thousands of years, began the transition to the modern direction. Even though the style of the Northern Navy clothing is still Chinese, but the colors of the clothing, cuff rank logo design concepts have begun and European standards. The picture shows a Northern naval officer to receive warships in Europe during the shooting of a photo.

 

Shanghai large dragon

 

Shanghai double dragon

 

 

1877

 

Shanghai, 1877, Small Dragon, 1ca on 3ca and 1ca on 6ca, blue surcharge (Scott 79-80. Chan 65-66), without gum, lovely, nicely centered pair, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.

 

3)1878
The first Large dragon stamps were issued , three types with sane design, green 1 candarin, Red 3 Candarins and yellow 5 Candarins.

 

Large dragon stamp

On March 9, 1878,

Robert Hart entrusted Gustav Detring, then Commissioner of Customs – Tientsin to inaugurate Customs trial-run postal service following example of the Europeans. The beginning of China’s modern post was marked with the opening of the Customs Postal Service for public mailing

on March 23, 1878,

at Peking, Tientsin, Newchwang, Chinkiang and Shanghai with Tientsin Customs as the centre. It was officially named the Customs Post Office later

 

1878

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3), all with o.g., very clean and fresh, sharp rich deep colors, outstanding set, scarce this fine, Very FineRealized HK$ 20,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3); 5 ca couple of short perfs on right side, deep rich colors, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 10,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 1 ca green (Scott 1. Chan 1), with thin gum residue; fresh, slightly wrinkled, otherwise FineRealized HK$ 5,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca green and 3ca brown red, 2 each (Scott 1-2. Chan 1-2), shades, all without gum or small gum residue; small odd tonings on 3ca values, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), used, the former with Customs cds, plus a fake 3ca on card like paper, with trimmed margins all around, fake cancel, 3 itemsRealized HK$ 6,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), both with part seal cancel, deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 5ca orange (Scott 3. Chan 3), used with foreign cancel “Sydney/Australia” and other foreign cancels, three different types; stamp has diagonal crease, most unusual and scarceRealized HK$ 4,000

From 1878

when the Customs Post set up to 1896 when the Imperial Post was established, modern Post of China had experienced many vicissitudes. The number of post offices increased from the original 5 to 24 offices, covered almost all places there were customs houses. A new modern postal system finally held its ground, and laid down foundation for the development of China’s first national postal service – the Imperial Chinese Post.

 

in January 11, 1880.

The Customs Post Office decided to print postage stamps to simplify the postal charge and account settlement. In July 1878, China’s first issue – Customs Large Dragon stamps was released. After Large Dragon, the Customs Post Office issued Small Dragon (1885) and Empress Dowager’s Birthday Commemorative / (1894) stamps.

 

 

1883

 

Chinese Empire, 1883, Large Dragon on thick paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca yellow (Scott 8, 9. Chan 11-12), rough perfs, 3ca with weak inking resulting in hollow “3” and weak frameline, 5ca intensive deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

(4) 1885
The First Small Dragon stamps were issued ,three type with same design, green 1 candarine, Brown violet 3 candarins, and red 5 candarins.

1885

 

Small dragon

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1885-1888, Small Dragons mint group, including rough perfs and perforation varieties (Scott 10//15, Chan 13//21) comprised 1 ca (x6), 3 ca (x3), 5 ca, total 10 examples, some without gum, shades, overall fresh & clean, a nice group, o.g. or without gum, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000.

Chinese Imperial Local Port Stamps

 

Hankow 2 c

 

Hankow 30 c

 

 

 

 

 

Hankow 30 c

 

Foochow port stamp

 

Chinkiang port stamp

 

Kwekiang port stamp

 

Amoy Port Stamp

 

Wuhu Port Stamp

 

Ichang Port stamp

 

Nanking Post Stamp

 

Local Wei Hai Wei stamp

 

Wei Hai We LKT courier stamp

 

China British India stamp

 

China Britishpostmark A11

 

British A11 Shanghai

 

BritishCDS Wei Hai Wei

 

China Russia Postoffice stamp

 

China French Pstoffice stamp

 

China USA postoffice stamp

 

China Japan postoffice stamp

 

China Germanpostoffice stamps

 

China Italia Postoffice stamp

 

China Belgia Post Office stamp

 

Local Amoy Port Stamp 1896

 

Large dragon 1878

1886

 

Shanghai, 1886, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS 117a, 117ci), a lovely mint pair of these eye-catching varieties, o.g., Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

 

Shanghai, 1886-88, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS117a & ci), two lovely used examples showing surcharge inverted and reading from top left to bottom right varieties, Very Fine, scarce pair, each unpriced used.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.

1888

 

 

 

 

Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888

 

Empress Xi Ci Stamp

 

 

 

 

 

CHINESE IMPERIAL POSTAL SEALED

 

Chinese Empire, 1888, Small Dragon, 1ca bright green, perf 11½ (Scott 13. Chan 19), margin block of 4, o.g., very lightly hinged at top, never hinged at bottom, beautiful front & back, a choice block, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,600

 

 

1890

the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise.

 

In 1892,

Robert Hart suggested to Tsungli Yamen to establish a national post office again,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shanghai Local Post Card

1893

 

Shanghai, 1893, Double Dragons, 5¢ carmine pink, left half with inverted surcharge (Chan LS141a), with watermarked paper, Type I with Shanghai double circle postmark in blue, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

1894

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca value color proof on very thin cigarette paper (Scott 16 var.), without gum as issued, complete margins all around, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca orange red, imperf horizontally (Scott 16 var.), vertical pair, used with complete Shanghai seal chop in dark blue; some overall aged toning, stamp Very Fine, rare item. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing, mint group (Scott 16-20,22. Chan 22-26, 28), comprising 1ca(3), 2ca(3), 3ca(3), 4 ca(2), 5ca and 9ca, most with o.g., 12 values, a clean group, generally F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing (Scott 16-18, 20-24. Chan 22-24, 26-30), group of 11 values, comprised 1ca, 2ca, 3ca (2), 5ca, 6ca, 9ca (2), 12ca, 24 ca(2), majority very fine, odd faults on couple of values as expected, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 4,500. Realized HK$ 9,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing,1ca-24ca complete (Scott 16-26. Chan 22-33), neat cancels, very clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 10,000

 

 

 

 

To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894,

the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive

 

The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou.

The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.

 

Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.

 

Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

(5) 1890
The Local Port shinaghai stamps double dragon were issued.

(6) 1893
The Local port stamps were issued from several port : Chefoo, Hankou(Hankow) and Chongqing(Chungqing),

(7) 1894

(a)The Local port stamps were issued from several port :Fuzhou(Foochow) , Zhenjiang(Chinkiang), Wuhu, Yichang(Ichang) and Tianjin(Tientsin).

(b) The French Post Office in Chine issued Chine surharge France stamps .(many types surcharge at many area also issued ,like Mongtse ,Yunnan Fu,Hoi-Hao , Canton,Pac Hoi,Tchong King and Kuong Tcheuo)

(8) 1895
The Local port stamps were issued from Amoy(xianmen) .

and later in 1895

made a 4 chapter, 44 articles of Postal Guide for the modern postal service. In 1896 Robert Hart succeeded in founding the Imperial Post Office and appointed the Inspector General of Posts. Money came from Customs Funds. The innumerable rules, regulations and problems that had to be overcome were legion. He paid attention to every possible matter from opening a new department to the design of a postage stamp.

 

1895

 

Amoy, 1895, First Issue, 2¢ blue, Type 1 (Scott 3. Chan LA3), block of 4, o.g., fresh mint, Very Fine, scarce block.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

 

 

 

 

Chefoo, 1895 (20 July) US – Chefoo combination piece, franked by 5¢ US Grant issue (Scott 270) tied to piece along with Chefoo 1¢ Pagoda by “Chefoo 20 JUL 95 Local Post” cds and 5¢ Grant additionally cancelled by duplex “1” and partial “Postal Agency Jul 31 Shanghai;” nice combination, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,000.

 

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, Overprinted on ½¢ wide spaced (Scott J9, var. Chan LCHD8 & 8di), horizontal 4 stamps used on piece, second stamp showing “U” in “”DUE”” inserted by hand variety, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, 15¢ carmine, black over red overprint, both inverted (Scott J12cd. Chan LCHO24b), horizontal pair, o.g.; fresh, bright pair which is sensibly reinforced, right stamp tiny, pinpoint thin speck, otherwise F.-V.F., striking variety, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,500.

 

 

Hankow, Postage Dues, 1895, Type III complete (Chan LHD11-13), o.g.; 10¢ carmine with shallow thin spot, otherwise F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000. Realized HK$ 7,500

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall

 

  • ·              战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.

 

 

 

 

W. B. Thornhill, Shanghai, 1895 first edition published by Stanley Gibbons, with notes and publishers’ prices, Extremely Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200. Realized HK$ 2,600

 

 

(9) 1896

(a) The Local Port stamps were issued from Nanjing(Nanking)

(b) The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving official recognation to the “European” postals system (knowns as Foreign uniform in China ) and bringing to an end the old I cHan and Minchu Postal service .
This postal system was for many years operated by the Chinese Maritime Custom.

1896

 

Chinkiang, Official, 1896, 15¢ carmine, inverted overprint variety (Scott O8a. Chan LCHO8var), o.g., never hinged, pristine mint, F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 + var. Chan LHD6 + 6a), a lovely vertical strip of 3, top stamp showing large top of left character variety, fresh, Very Fine, scarce multiple.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,600.

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 var. Chan LHD6a), an attractive example, showing large top of left character variety, used, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,400.

1897

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure ½¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 3ca orange, wide spacing, imperf horizontally (Scott 47c. Chan 56eii), vertical strip of 3, o.g., lightly hinged, fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 34,000 – 40,000.

May,5th.1897

 


Off Cover Used surcharge Cixi birthday 1 cent block four CDS custom Hankow Mai 3 1897

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 2nd Printing, 4ca pale rose (Scott 19n. Chan 25S), o.g., fresh and F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,400 – 3,000.

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 1¢ on Empress Dowager 1st Printing 1ca vermilion, wide spacing (Scott 39. Chan 48), o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing, mint group (Scott 47//55, 73-74. Chan 56//64, 82-83), plus re-engraved set, comprised ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢, 8¢, 10¢ and 30¢, re-engraved ½¢ missing corner and 2¢(2), total 14 values, majority clean and fresh overall condition, o.g., F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 6,000 – 7,000. Realized HK$ 11,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, mint group (Scott 28//36), comprising ½¢(4), including pair shifted perfs, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 8¢(2) one with “8” shifted to right, 10¢ on 6¢, 10¢ on 9¢ and 10¢ on 12¢, o.g. on all values, one 8¢ bottom straight edge, clean group, 13 values, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000. Realized HK$ 9,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing (Scott 47-51, 53-55), 8 values without 8¢ on 6ca, but with extra values, comprising ½¢(2), 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢ on 9ca(2), 10¢/12ca and 30¢/24ca, total 11 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Narrow Spacing, mint & used group (Scott 65//71, 73. Chan 74-79, 83), comprised mint ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢, 4¢, 10¢ and used ½¢, 1¢(3), 2¢(2), 10¢ on 9ca, 10¢ on 12ca, minor varieties noted, plus ½¢ on 3ca, total 17 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,500

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, used selection (Scott 28//36), comprised of ½¢(3), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢(4) including pair, 8¢(3), 10¢ on 6ca, 10¢ on 9ca used on piece, 10¢ on 12ca with nearly complete “Tangku” cds in blue, overall F-VF, some faults expected, 18 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,800 – 3,500. Realized HK$ 7,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 30¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 24ca dark red, 2mm spacing (Scott 55a. Chan 64d), o.g., F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000

 

Surcharge Revenue

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), o.g., small hinge remnant, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,400

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., hinge remnant; perfs trimmed close at top, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78), block of 4, part o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 26,000

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), 3 examples, one mint and two used copies, the former has small gum thinned spot, used fine, all with surcharges shifted to the right, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), used, fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,200

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), o.g., clean, exceptionally well centered, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), surcharge slightly shifted to left; small thin top left corner, Fair exampleRealized HK$ 6,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), used, well centered, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), neat large part Customs postmark, good color and centering, Very FineRealized HK$ 19,000

good value as shown by the large surcharge type

 

1897 Red Revenue 4c small type surcharge $US16,000

1897 Red Revenue 4c large type surcharge $US150

 

 

 

 

Please do NOT ask members in general threads like this if items shown are for sale.
Many members show items of interest which they value greatly as part of their collection, not becuase they want to sell them. It is not appropriate to ask that question here and may cause embarrassment to members.

The separate Sales Forum is used by members specifically to list the items they wish to sell, so keep checking there if there is anything anyone is selling that you may wish to buy.
Also, if you are looking for a specific stamp or stamps, you can always start a thread in the Wanted Forum, giving details of what you want and how much you are willing to pay. (Gavin)

Dr Iwan notes, I have ever seen the small overprint from Mr Untung Rahardjo in Jkarata, and I didinot know that the smallest low price, I am lucky I didsinot buy the small overprint from him because I asked him almost 1000 US dollar,be careful to buy this stamps,you must learn the inforemations in this CD-ROM)


 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), o.g., hinge remnant, clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 11,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), has o.g. but used example, neat part Shanghai Dollar chop cancel, good color and superb centering, exceptional beauty, Very FineRealized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 86), regummed, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 38,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 14, surcharge shifted downward, o.g., good color, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 40,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), used, clean, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 7, used with complete strike of Swatow Pakua cancel, good color and centering, Extremely FineRealized HK$ 22,000

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS ONLY SAMPLE WITHOUT ILLUATRATION,THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CD ROM EXIST

The Chinese

History Collections

1800-1914

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2013

 

 

 

The Empress Xuci

 

 

 

Cette peinture a été peinte par Hubert Vos, le peintre hollandais américain, dont la peinture a été présentée à l’Impératrice Cixi au ses soixante et unième anniversaire.Il est maintenant au Palais d’été (Yiheyuan) à Beijing à la Salle des Nuages ​​Dissiper, (PaiyunDian).

La dame représenté ici est connu sous plusieurs noms, parmi lesquels les trois noms les plus connus sont les suivants:

Elle est plus communément connu par son titre, la 
«Impératrice douairière.” Ceci est un titre anglais donné à elle par la presse européenne et américaine il ya 100 ans.

Son nom chinois peut être rendu, ou traduit de deux manières différentes.La nouvelle façon de rendre son nom (par pinyin) est “Cixi”.

.” Le logo en haut de la page contient quatre mots chinois, qui signifie littéralement «Ci Xi impératrice douairière.”

 

 

 

 

 

Elle était très mal perçue par les Han car elle était Mandchoue. A l’école, on m’a enseigné (et donc pas qu’a moi ) qu’elle était une mauvaise impératrice et qu’elle était en partie responsable du désastre qui frappa la chine alors. De plus elle a fuie la capitale, abandonnant le peuple …bref elle n’était vraiment pas bien vu à l’époque et jusqu’à il a peu. Depuis deux ou trois ans les chaines chinoises diffusent des reportages qui réabilitent un peu son image, mais bon ce n’est pas la souveraine la plus populaire de la chine ancienne, loin de là.

 

 

 

 

 

(1800-1915)

·         CHINE 1860

Sélection de prises de vue de la chine ancienne, couvrant approximativement une période de 1860 à 1946 et réalisée par différents photographes. La plupart de ces images ont été retouchées numériquement pour améliorer leurs qualités. Ces photographies, en plus d’offrir une esthétique propre aux monochromes, apportent un témoignage sur l’histoire chinoise à travers ses traditions, ses coutumes et sa culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir la galerie complète : Old China sur Flickr.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectot

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

.Dr IWAN NOTES
In 1974 I have bought a best china imperial stamps from an old chinese overseas at Padang, after that I never found anymore in Indonesia or in China, but in 2008 I have found the Empress Xi Ci Birthday stamps but not complete,and one fake stamps, also one used local Chefoo port stamps and used 1/2 cent japanese print coiling Dragon issued. The postmark special patkwa type.from Beijing and CEF on British India stamps.
The Chinese Imperial stamps became Very difficult to found and the prized very expensived especially postally used one cover. Please the collectors comment and show thei collection of postal used cover .
The chronologic historic china imperial postal history only seen in Beijing Postal History Museum, but different style than mine.

Please remember this collection @copyright Dr iwan S.2012, don’t copy without written permission from the uniquecollection Blog founder

.INTRODUCTIONS


After 36 years research fromthe first time found the Qing Dynasty postmark collections in 1974 , very difficult to found the special catalogue about this type collections.
After the google had the special tools to explored allin informations in the Internet , I found enough information to start to report my reasearch.

During Qing Dynasty, before joined UPU , all the latter send abroad must added the stamps from the country which had joined UPU, because the local stamps didn’t accepted.

After the first local port stamps first issue at Shangai in 1863, the first Local Post Shanghai Postmark were issued and follow by the other Local Port Postmark like Amoy,Foochow, Chinkiang etc.

The first Qing Imperial postmark were the Pa Kua,special chinese characters used five strip, and by cutting one or more line will made the special meaning, every city used this pa kua postmark with meaning the initial of the city.In 2007 I have found the first Pa kua postmark on Japan coil dragon stamps 1 c many Indonesian collectors didn.t want to collect this stamp because they think this postmark was blob and bad.
Pa means five, Kua means line,

In 1896, the Qing emperor issued a special decree giving official recgnation to the European postal syatem and the Ancient I Chan and Manchu Postal system were ended.Many European have their postoffice in China with their own postmark, the first postmaek found was the German pstal Office at Kiatschou. (read the complete history “The Qing Imperial Postal History” in this blog.)

After joined UPU, the Qing postal system issued the internationalpostmark . round bigger like dollar coin, and this postmark called Qing Dollar Post mark, after that many types of postmark like double ring and Belingual postmark were issued.

The last dynasty (emperor Puyi) have issued the special Temple of heaven stamps. Every year the Qing emperor prayed at this temple, and also issued the bilingual Date(BLD) postmark like Foochow, tengyoe ,Peking, Chungking. in 1909-1910, the last year of Qing Dynasty postal service , and after that ROC postal service begun with their own postmark Shanghai Lunar date and official government postage paid stationer postcard of Statistical departement.

This reaseach report, was the first time with chronologic historic postmark , because many auctioner couldn’t gave the exact informations, they only said good Qing Postmark , some writers like Wikipedia have given the best narration f the Postmark , also some e-bay canada auction with the complete informations but many without the exact information, because too difficult to read the chinese characters.
I hope after read and look the illustrations, many collectors begin to understand the Qing Postmark, but stillmany informations need please the specialist collecter comment.
Dr Iwan s. the founder of uniquecolection.wordpress.com Blog.
@ copyright Dr Iwan S 2012.

 

THE CHRONOLOGY HISTORIC COLLECTION

2.1 ANCIENT CHINA

The Chinese books told that the I Chan or Imperial Government courier service and the Minchu or native posting agencies as early as the Chow dynasty in 1122 B.C..

The former,maintained only at the Imperial Palace, ran errands between the State and The provincial authorities, while the later was operated for general public with varying charges paid by the sender and the addressee.

Both the I Chand and the Minchu were well-equipped and efficiently organized, covering the greater parts of Szechwan,Shensi, Kansu and the far West.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2.19TH CENTURY

Early 19th Century

1800

  •  

 

 

Manchu mariée Pékin, Penchilie Province, China [1867] John Thomson

 

·         CHINE 1880

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:43

 

 

·         Femme Manchu de 1869 Pekin

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:55

 

Exemple de Coiffure sur une province tartre ou Manchu Femme, Frontview, Pékin, Petchili, Chine [1869] John Thomson. photographe.

Intitulé: (vue de face) Exemple de Coiffure sur une femme tartare ou mandchous, qui porte une longue robe à manches longues matelassé.Le cheveu est enroulé autour d’une bande plate de bois.Pékin, Petchili Province, China [1869] J Thomson  des travaux de réparation étendue aux manches et au visage, le fond était tout simplement dépouillé, des ajustements dans le contraste et la tonalité.

Voici un autre classique de John Thomson (quoique avec restauration étendue), retrouvée dans la collection fantastique Wellcome de son travail.Thomson a continué de fasciner les gens, après un siècle, son travail a récemment retourné en Chine, où de nombreux Chinois pour la première fois sont de voir l’essence de leurs ancêtres à travers son art éternel.Wellcome Collection de Thomson peut être trouvé ici:

library.wellcome.ac.uk/node267.html

Cette fille fait apparu dans plusieurs des tableaux de Thomson.Il était évident qu’il a passé quelque temps à photographier une équipe de modèles Manchu tant dans leur entoure naturelles et en face d’une toile de fond portable.Essentiellement mon soupçon personnelle est que son processus a été remarquablement similaire à une séance photo des temps modernes.Bien sûr, il n’a pas eu flashs électroniques ou de films numériques, mais avait plutôt de regarder sous un drap noir à l’envers inversé l’image sur une plaque de verre mat DIM.Photographie en ces jours était véritablement une entreprise monumentale.

Comme un historien amateur, je sais que la retouche est un tabou flagrante.Cependant, en tant que photographe et artiste regardant une belle fille, j’ai trouvé l’envie de nettoyer l’image trop grande pour résister.J’ai commencé tout simplement désireux d’enlever la tache grosse de son front, et avant que je le savais, j’étais déjà reconstruire ses manches, LOL …

L’image originale non retouchée peut être vu ici:

www.flickr.com/photos/ralphrepo_photolog/3974179434/

Imaginez que, étant captivé et séduit par une femme qui est sans doute mort depuis plus d’un siècle.Je suppose que certains de beauté est en effet hors du temps.

 

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1860

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:36

Sélection de prises de vue de la chine ancienne, couvrant approximativement une période de 1860 à 1946 et réalisée par différents photographes. La plupart de ces images ont été retouchées numériquement pour améliorer leurs qualités. Ces photographies, en plus d’offrir une esthétique propre aux monochromes, apportent un témoignage sur l’histoire chinoise à travers ses traditions, ses coutumes et sa culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir la galerie complète : Old China sur Flickr.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

1836

 

Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000

 

1. !9th Century
(1)1851
Cixi entered the forbidden city for allegedly not resisting the Taiping Rebellion in Anhui provinece.
In Sepetember 1851, cixi participated in selection process for concubines for the new Qing emperor Xianfeng with sixty other Manchu girls. This process was supervised by the Kang Ci imperial Dowger consorts, cixi was one of the few girls selected on that occasion and was appointed preparative concubine.

(2)1855
Cixi entering the forbidden city and became pregnant.

(3)1856
April.27th.1856, Cixin gave birth to Tong Zhi , the only male heir of the Xianfeng emperor which led to her eleveation to the rank Consort of the fourth rank.

(4) 1857
When Cixi Son Tong Zhi reach his first year birthday , cixi was elected to a “Noble Imperial Consort Yin” this rank is an imperial consot of the secnd degree after the Empress consort. This rank placed Cixi second only to the Empress Ci’an.

(5)1860
In september 1860, British and French troops attacks Beijing during the closing stage of the second opium war. The attack command by Lord Elgin was mounted in retaliation for the arrest of British diplomatic envoy Harry parkes and the torture and exceution of a member of westrern hostages. The Xianfeng emperor moved to Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Cheng-he ,Hebe).

In October 1860, The emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace had burned to ground. On hearing the news of that destructions the Xianfeng Emperor , who was already showing sign of dementia fell into a depression turned heavily to alcohol and drugs , and became severing ill.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Phu de Phu Hai

 

 

 

Le Quan Bo ou mandarin des finances

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

Le Quan An de Hanoi

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin en costume de ville

 

 

Annam- Huê – Son Excellence le Kinh Luoc Hoang Kao-Kaï

(Hoàng Cao Khai), Vice-Roi du Tonkin

 

 

 

 

un Mandarin

 

 

Un mandarin de Huê

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885) Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Mandarins

 

 

 

Mandarin

 

 

 

 

Un mandarin en costume

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885) Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin en costume de ville

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

Le Tong Doc (Gouverneur général) de Hanoi et sa suite

 

 

 

Ambassadeurs de la Cour de Huê

 

 

Un lettré

 

 

 

Un lettré

 

 

 

Jeune étudiant lettré

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interprètes et lettrés

 

 

Un mandarin, croquis du baron Brossard de Corbigny

 

“Le grand costume de mandarin ne se porte que dans des circonstances solennelles.

“Pour les 4 premiers des neuf grades de la hiérarchie, c’est une grande robe à vastes manches, en soie brodée d’animaux et de dessins fantastiques de toutes couleurs. Dans la robe des civils, se trouvent le dragon, la grue, la tortue. Pour les militaires, c’est le tigre qui étale surtout sa figure farouche. Toutes ces étoffes sont faites en Chine. […] Sur la coiffure, s’étalent deux ailettes étroites et longues d’un pied. Elles sont en gaze, brodées de fils d’or, et ressemblent assez aux ailes lègéres des libellules. […]” (Carnets de l’ambassade à la Cour de Huê de 1875)

 

 

Mandarin de classe inférieure, croquis ambassade de 1875

“Dans les 5 derniers rangs des mandarins, le costume est en soie noire mate. Sur la poitrine, un carré brodé tantôt d’une grue, tantôt un tigre, indique la classe du lettré; le bonnet sans aillettes se rabat en arrière comme un bavolet et ses armements sont argentés. ” (Carnets Ambassade de 1875)

 

 

 

Un mandarin annamite

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un chef de canton des environs de Nam-Dinh

 

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin annamite

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin annamite

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin

 

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège

 

 

 

SOURCES

MERVEILLEUX BLOG de MONSIEUR ALAIN TRUONG

http://www.alaintruong.com/albums/les_mandarins/photos/3564999-le_phu_de_phuhai.html

 

(6) 1861
in August.21th 1861, The Xianfeng Emperor was died at Rehe Palace . Before his death, the emperor summoned eight of his most prestigiuos menister, headed by Sushan, Zaiyuan and Duan hua and name them the “Eight Regent Menister” to direct and support the future emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future empress dowger CIxi) was only five year old.
On his death bed, The Xianfeng Emperor also summond his Empress Ci’an and Nble consort Cixi, and gave each of them a imperial Stamp, he hped that when his sn ascendede the thrne , his empress and Noble consort Cixi would cooperate in harmony and togetherhelp the yung emperor to grow and mature, it was also meant as a check on the power of the Eight Regent.

By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor ‘s dead. Cixi had become a shrew strategies . In Rehe while waiting for an astrologogy favourable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, cixi plotted to grab the power.When the Emperor funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her Alliance with prince Gng and Prince Chun. they returned to Beijing befre the rest fvthe party, along with Zaiyuan and Duan hua, two of the principal reagent, while Su Shun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession.
Cixi with her Alliances have re-written the History, The reagents were dismissed for having carried out incompetenend negotiation with the “barbarian” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Rehe. .
Among other charges Cixi and Prince Gong produced a document called the “Eight Guilts of Reagent Menisters” which included allegations such as altering the Xianfeng emperor wills causing his death and stealing power from the two Empress dowager(Ci’an and Cixi).
To show the world that Cixi had high mral standards, she executed only three of the Eight Reagent menistries.
This Palace coup is kown as the “Xinyuan Palace coup” in China after the name of the year 1861 in the sexagenary cyclics and Cixi became the first nly Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from”behind the curtains”

A few days following the Coup , Cixi was quick to reward the Prince Gong for his help. he was made heads ofthe general Affairs Office and the Internal Affair office, his daughter was made a Gurun princess, a tittle usually bestowed only on the Empress’sfist born daughter.
In this year Britishman Robert hall started experience Postal service in china by send the letter from beijing to many city in China, some of that collections still exist in the china and foreign collectors collection. ( I have ever made the same experiment in 1979 with send the aerogram to all phillatelic service of Postal menistery of all over the world, and they send the informations stamps issued in the beautiful official or phillatelic covers,only two country cann’t recieve and send back to sender because the country didn’t exist anymore like Sahara africa and Isabela africa. I will put this exciting and rare collections in this blog-auth)

(7) 1862
Cixi decreed the opening of Tongwen Guan, a university -like institution in Beijing that hired foreigners as teacher and specialized in new age topic such as astronomy and methamethics as well as the English, French and Russian languages. The grupof youngboy also sent abroad to USA.

(8) 1863
The first local Shanghai Post stamp and postmark were issued.

(9)1864
Under the command of General Zeng Guofan the victorious Xianfeng army defeated the Taiping army in ahard battle at Tianjing( nor Nanjing) in July 1864.

(10) 1865
China lost in the second Opium war

 

 

 

Île temple sur la rivière Min Proche Foochow, la province de Fukien, en Chine [1870-1871] John Thomson

 

·         Mariée Manchu dans ses vêtements de mariage, Pékin 1871

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1870 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 13:40

 

 

 

Mariée Manchu dans ses vêtements de mariage, Pékin, Petchili Province, China [1871]

John Thomson

 

·         Famille Chinoise en 1875

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1870 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 13:36

I

 

Intitulé de la famille chinoise [c1875].Trouvé dans le visage de la Chine par dix photographes et Travelers 1860-1912, rédigé par L. Carrington Goodrich, avec commentaires historiques par Nigel Cameron (publié en 1978, le livre est encore en version imprimée et est disponible sur Amazon.com).La photo a été retouchée pour éliminer les taches et les rayures, et le contraste a été élevée à améliorer l’impact visuel.

J’adore cette photo.

Ne connaissant rien à l’ensemble des personnes réelles, c’est-à qui ils étaient ni ce que les liens sociaux ou politiques qu’ils avaient, nous ne pouvons que faire des suppositions éduquées et conjectures au sujet de leur milieu, basée sur ce qui est cru ou compris sur la culture chinoise lors de la fin des années 1800 .Dès le départ, le spectateur est particulièrement frappé par l’arrangement plutôt formelle des individus assis, et puis tout de suite relève une incohérence contrastés offerts par le positionnement nettement informel de l’homme à l’arrière gauche.En outre, le réglage lui-même est assez particulière, le nombre de places est positionné directement dans la trajectoire d’une passerelle portes lune, que l’on voit est une partie d’un mur surmonté.On s’aperçoit alors que ce paramètre est à l’extérieur, peut-être situé dans une cour privée, et a probablement été artificiellement organisées dans le but de la photographie.Le sol humide entre les pavés renforce l’idée que le réglage a été à l’extérieur.Il a probablement été choisie parce que l’impact visuel de la porte se prêtait à la réflexion créative du photographe.

Le but de la photographie est une autre question.De nos jours présente, une image en cours d’enregistrement est tellement simple et commun que nous y réfléchir rares.Cependant, nous devons comprendre que les gens de cette époque, en cours d’enregistrement dans une photographie était aussi peu probable et comme une entreprise monumentale pour eux, comme peut-être un tour sur la navette spatiale serait pour nous.Mon hypothèse est que la session photographique a été arrangé pour l’homme dans la photo vers la gauche.À mon avis, il est certainement le maître de cette maison, et les autres dans l’image sont ses épouses et ses enfants.L’occasion de photographie a probablement été initiée comme un effort pour produire un enregistrement de sa famille, comme il est devenu très à la mode pour les Chinois aisés dans la fin des années 1800 pour avoir pris de tels portraits.

 

L’homme est debout à l’arrière (normalement la position d’un serviteur), mais par son attitude nonchalante même, et d’être si proche de la proximité physique, qui est, à près de drapé sur l’une des dames de la maison; révèle clairement qu’il n’est pas un de l’aide ménagère, mais révèle aussi qu’il n’était pas destiné à avoir été dans l’image.Autrement dit, s’il avait été prévu ou aurait été planifiée pour être dans la photo en premier lieu, où doit-on attendre de lui qu’il soit?Je pense qu’il aurait appartenu au centre de la photographie, occupant le poste le plus important de tous, racontant à qui il voit qu’il est le maître de ce paramètre.Donc, sur cette base, je suppose que ce fut d’abord destiné à être une image de seulement les épouses et les enfants, et non de lui à tous.

Donc, si c’était le cas, qu’est-ce donc, ce qu’il fait dans l’image?Son positionnement à l’extrême gauche est révélateur.Mon hypothèse est que, même aux spectateurs les scènes de crime ou d’accident, l’homme était tellement pris dans sa curiosité d’observer qu’il a échoué à réaliser qu’il s’était égaré dans la scène et était devenu une partie de l’événement.Le regard du visage de l’homme suggère fortement qu’il était tellement concentré sur raptly ce que le photographe faisait, qu’il ne savait pas qu’il avait sorti de la touche et s’était mis dans l’image.On peut seulement imaginer que l’homme avait pas été ainsi hypnotiquement distrait d’avoir ainsi entré en scène, combien plus pauvres de l’image aurait été.

Socialement, les meubles, dément une famille de quelque aisance.Les tabourets de bois, à l’époque ont été utilisés non pas pour la hauteur contestée, mais plutôt de fournir une isolation contre le fait de mettre les pieds sur un plancher de froid et non chauffés.L’homme a quatre femmes, qui toutes semblent avoir les pieds liés (sauf pour celui qui a les pieds on ne peut pas voir) bespeaking déjà sa capacité d’un haut degré de sécurité financière.Au centre, la position la plus politiquement puissants dans tous les portraits de famille, est probablement la première femme.Assis à côté d’elle est l’aînée des enfants, probablement la première femme fille.À l’extrême droite est sans doute la seconde épouse basé sur l’apparence de l’âge.A côté d’elle est sans doute son fils, dont l’importance comme héritier mandaté que malgré sa réticence, sa présence dans la photographie a été considérée comme un must.Ceci est démontré par la main contre les notables stabilisation fidgetting, d’une personne hors caméra (probablement une servante) le tenant en position.À l’extrême gauche, les deux femmes assises sont des épouses risquent trois et quatre, avec la femme (probablement) à trois, en tenant la troisième enfant de la maison (à la charge de son), sur ses genoux.La femme reste n’avait pas d’enfant à ce point, mais avait toujours sa jeunesse.Le embroidary amende de leurs vêtements renforce en outre que ces femmes ont été d’importance, ce qui signifie qu’elles ont été toutes les épouses et non accompagnateur d’une femme servante personnelle ou tout autre membre de la classe de service.

 

·         Bateaux fleurs canton 1871-1874

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1870 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:52

 

 

Bateaux fleurs canton 1871-1874

J’ai trouvé cette image dans une page personnelle sur Flickr.Le propriétaire de la page, quelqu’un du nom de Etherflyer, avait apparemment l’image scannée à partir d’un livre appelé la Chine impériale: Photographies de 1850 à 1912.La photo montre plusieurs des bateaux de fleurs nombreuses qui s’étaient postés dans les eaux du vieux canton.Un terme euphémique pour bordel, ces maisons flottantes sont essentiellement de la prostitution qui offrit un dîner, la musique et du divertissement charnelle le long des berges des nombreuses rivières qui coule dans Canton.A un moment, des milliers de ces ornements, des bateaux palais prospéré dans cette ville portuaire animée.D’autres œuvres que des documents du commerce écrit:

«… Les vendeurs en sampan à condition que toutes sortes d’autres services, aussi. Barbiers servi à la fois les Chinois et les Occidentaux. De nombreux bateaux à condition de charbon, charbon de bois et bois de chauffage pour le carburant, tandis que d’autres spécialisés dans les fournitures de navires. Beaucoup d’autres élevaient des canards sur la proximité fermes et des oeufs et de viande de canard fournis aux navires. Le «bateaux de fleurs», ou bordels flottants, étaient également une vue remarquable sur le port. Les femmes sur les bateaux a vécu dans l’esclavage près de leurs proxénètes, qui pourraient être des commerçants ou des compradores Hong qui a payé les fonctionnaires afin de permettre le commerce. Même si il était illégal pour les femmes à entrer dans les usines, compradores pourrait les passer en cachette. Le drapeau sur le bateau coloré en face dit: “Femme céleste», ce qui indique que c’est une fleur ” bordel de bateau »ou flottant. L’église anglicane de premier plan et de l’American paquebot Spark, détenue par Russell et Cie, sont alignés derrière lui. représentants chinois a interdit aux femmes occidentales de l’usine de quarts, mais plusieurs ne organiser des visites secrètes. En attendant, l’étranger et les hommes chinois ont découvert de nombreuses femmes à répondre à leurs besoins dans le port … »

Source: ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/rise_fall_canton_03/cw_es …

En plus des bateaux de fleurs, de petits bateaux et de flotteurs de différentes sortes, impliqués dans une variété de métiers, ont souvent été fouetté ou ancré en étroite collaboration.Cette proximité des quartiers claustrophobes présageait catastrophe, attestée par un passage dans les Mémoires de Robert Dollar [1918] WS Van Cott & Co., San Francisco, Pg 122.Dans ce document, il écrit:

«Quelques jours avant notre arrivée dans le canton il y avait eu un incendie désastreux en ce qu’on appelle les« bateaux de fleurs », qui sont utilisés comme lieux de mauvaise réputation. Il existe un grand nombre d’entre eux fait rapidement en rangs une cinquantaine de pieds de distance, étendre dans l’eau environ deux cents pieds. Les bateaux sont sur la rive bordée et chaque rangée est faite rapidement, côte à côte, le tout sécurisé par des chaînes et ancré sur le côté extérieur pour les maintenir en poste. Une lampe a explosé dans un d’entre eux près de la rive et le feu rapidement se propager. abord le long du rivage, puis, de sorte que les détenus avaient le choix d’être brûlés ou noyés. Il a été rapporté que six cents filles et deux cents hommes ont perdu la vie, mais les corps retrouvés dépassé un millier. Étrange à dire. la police a empêché l’un va à la rescousse et les victimes sont mortes comme des rats dans un piège. Aucun endroit au monde n’a autant de bateaux que de Canton. Le nombre de personnes vivant en eux est estimé actuellement à 750000. Dans la soirée, il ya une masse solide d’entre eux environ deux cents pieds de large et six ou sept miles de long. Chaque petit bateau a une famille d’au moins vivent sur elle, et les grands en ont plusieurs. Chaque moyennes familiales quatre enfants. Les bateaux sont leurs maisons, et ils gagnent leur vie en transportant des passagers et de fret de toutes sortes. Un grand nombre de bateaux sont roues arrière, la force motrice étant des hommes sur un tapis roulant. Ils courent de douze à. Quarante les hommes propulsant chaque bateau, et ils semblent faire sept ou huit miles à l’heure. La rivière est tellement encombré d’embarcations de toutes sortes et des descriptions que c’est avec grande difficulté un étranger peut naviguer à travers eux, mais comme les gens dans une ville surpeuplée de la rue les indigènes se passer de nombreux déboires … »

Une copie du livre (Mémoires d’Dollar Robert [1918]) peut être téléchargé à partir de Google Livres libres:

books.google.com / livres / download / Memoirs_of_Robert_Dollar ….

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(11)1872
When the Tongzhi emperor was 17 years old , under the guidance of empress Ci’an , he was merried to lady alute (her father had been an enemy of empress cixi during Xinyuan coup)
Cixi order Emperor Tongzhi to concentrated on ruling the country but only seventh month , following Cixi order in isolation him at Qianjing palace.

(12)1873
Tongzhi proved to be an incompetence Emperor, but he have made important policy decision during his short stand of rule. He decreed that the Imperial Summer palace would be completely rebuilt after destryed during opium war, under the pretach that it was a gift to empress Ci’an and Cixi. Historian also suggest that it was attempt to drive Cixi from the forbidden palce , so the emperor could rule without interference in Policy or his private affairs.

(13)1874
Feeling a grand scene of loss at court and unable t assist his authority, The Tongzhi emperor return t his former habit. It was runour the emperor caught Syphilis and became vivibiles ill. The doctor spread a rumour that the emperor had caught small pox.

(14) 1875
On January,13th 1875 the emperor Tongzhi was died.
and Cixi was back into the helmof imperialpolicy.
Emperor Tongzhi died without leaving a male heir, creating an unprecedented successor crisis in the dynasty Qing.
After considerable disagreement between the two dowager (Ci’an and Cixi) , the first born of the first Prince Chun Yixuan and Cixi’s sister, then age four, was became the new emperor.
In 1875, was declared of Guang xu or the reign of glrious Success. The Yun Xetian was tahen from his home and for the remainder of his life would be cut completely ff from his family.

(15) 1877
Cixi forbade construction a railway because too loud and would “disturb the emperor thomb”. When construction went ahead anyway in 1877 under Li Hong Zhong recomendation , Cixi asked that they be pulled by horse-drawn carts .

(16) 1878
The first Qing Imperial stamps large dragon were issued, and also the first Qing imperial Pa Kua postmark.

 

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(17) 1881
The sudden death empress Ci’an in April 1881 brought Cixi a new challange, and she became the only reagentat court.

(18) 1884
The local treaty Post Chungqing issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.

(19) 1886
The German Post office at Kiatshou china issued surcahrge China on German stamp withtheir own postmark.

(20) 1888
The first Local stamp of Taiwan island ere issued.

(20) 1890
The Shanghai Local post office issue the Shanghai local stamps double dragon.

(21) !893
The treaty Port issue the first stamp with their own local post postmark at Chefoo.

(22) 1894
(a)The Hsing Chung Hui came into being at Honolulu on November.24th.1894 after Cina’s defeat by Japan, and was to play an important part in the creation os Asia’s first Republic (ROC).
(b) Dr Sun Yat Sen had petitioned Prime Minister Li Hung-chang for reforms in the Qing government but was no heeded. He then toured the Beijing-Tientsin area to test the strength of the Manchus. Revolutionaries inspired by thhe Hsing chung Hui then rose up in Canton and Huichow. Although unsuccessful, they raised the curtain on the long process of the National revolution.
(c) In this year the first Sino-japanese war.
(d) The qing imperial post issued special commemrative empress cixi birthday stamps.
(e) Local Post treaty port Hankow , Foochow , Chinkiang and Kewkiang issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.
(f) The French China post office issued surchage Chine on French stamps with their own postmark.

(23)1895
After organizing the Hsing Chung Hui, Dr Sun went to Hongkong in January 1895 to establish a party chapter, then revolutionaries then decided to spark an uprising in Canton and Dr Sun,Lu Hao-tung and Chen Shao went there to make preparations. They decided to adopt the white Sun-Blue sky Flag designed by Lu Hao-Tung as their revolutionary standard.
Empress Cixi unsatisfied with her tomb, rdered its destruction and reconstructed in 1895
For her Sixtieth birthday in 1895, Empress Cixi was given ten million taels of silver which many believed was used to furnish her summer palace
In this year the local treaty port Amoy,Wuhu and Ichang issued the fist stamps and their own local postmark.

(24)1896
The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving fficial recognation to the “European” Postal System, and the Foreign Postoffice postmark also issued.and the ancient postal systems Ichanl and Minchu were end and the new postal system under the Chinese Marine Custom were opened. with their custom postmark.
In this year tearty port Nanking issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.

(25) 1897
(a)In this year all cixi birthday stamps and revenue were surcharge with china characters and new value , why ? I Think after the end of Ancient postal system Ichan and Minchu were end, the new system under The Chinese marine custom were made special surcharge with new nominal value to control the portunity of using the old stamps and the new system also issued the japanese print coilling dragon issue.
What about the Pa kua and Local postmark, we will analisys the used stamp in this year and after. and our conclusian Pakua postmark and kocal postmark still used, because i found Kiu Kinang Pa Kua postmark on surcharge Cixi birthday stamp with KiuKiang Customs date postmark date May.6.97.
(b)Paking Dollar date postmark 6 sept 1897 on surcharge Cixi birthday stamp.
(c) Chefoo Dollar Postmark date 10 Aug 87 on surchage 10 cent cixi birthday stamp
(d) Franch Post office in china Shanghai postmark on surcharge Chine on Franch stamp 20 cent,date 13 Aout -97
(e) Postally used cover from Kiu Kiang Dollar date postmark June 22,1897 on surcgarge red revenue stamp to Shanghai.
(f) Postally used cover from Chinkiang Dollar date postmark August 27,1897 on surcharge 2 cents on red revenue to Shanghai.
(g) October 1,1897 London coiling lithograped dragon stamp were issued. design by R.A. de Villard(ill.his profile)
(h) Postally used cover from Nanking Dollar date September 15,1897 to surcharge 2 cent red revenue (block 4) ,transit shanghai Frech P.O. postmark 17 sep 97 to germany Nurenburg CDS
(i) postally used cover from Peking Dolar date postmark 17 nov 97 n Japan coil dragon 2 cent stamp.trasit village postmark to Tientsin dollar
date 18 nov 97.
(j) Postally used cover from Amoy Dollar Date postmark Dec1,1897 n Japan coil dragon stamp 2 cent to Hongkong.
(k) Postally used cover Japan Cill Printing(JPC) 1 c from cancalled by Shanghai Pa Kua to destination Shanghai Local Post postmark cds Dec 3 1897.
(l) Tientsin Pa kau postmark on JCP 2c, with French China 5 cent CDS Dec,8,97
(m) Stampless cover with bilingual PAID postmark and handwritten 10.
(k) Custom Shanghai Postmark Mar 1 1897.
(n) Canton Dollar Date postmark 24 Aug 97
(o) Custom Hankow postmark Apr 29 , 1897.
(p) German Post Office in China Shanghai post mark 13.8.97 on surcharge China on GERMAN STAMP 20 PF.
(q) jAPAN pOST OFFICE IN cHINA sHANGHAI jAPAN P.O.POSTMARK 12 OCT 97
(r) Shnaghai Dollar date pst mark 20 oct 97 on SHANGHAI POSTA STATIONER POSTCARD.

(26) 1898
(a)Jan.1898 issued London Coiling dragon disign by A.B.hill(carp) and Josep (wild goosed) line -engrave print Stamp
(b)Postally used cover Shanghai Dollar date Postmark 12 Jan 98 on JPC 2 cent to Shanghai destination Loca Post cds Ja 18 98.
(c)Tientsin Pa Kua post mark on JPC4 cent
(c) Shanghai Pakua post mark on JPC 2 cet with destination Shanghai Local Post june 9,1898..
(d)In September 21th 1898, Coup d’etat carried ut by General Ronghi, the Guangxu emperor was taken to Ocean Terrace, a small palace on an island in the middle of Zhongnan has linked to the rest of forbidden city with only a controlled causeway.Empress Cixi would follow with an edict dictating the Guangxu emperor the disgrace and the Guangxu emperor ‘s reign had effectively came to end end. After that the emperor lost all honours,respect,power and previllage including his freedom of movement.
(e)In this year The Qing imperial post issued London print cilling dragon stamp.
(f)In this year Wei Hai Wai leased area issuee the provisional Courier post stamps and their own postmark.
(g) Postally used cover from Ichang Dollar date postmak 18.may.98 on surcharge cixi birthday stamp to Shanghai.
(h) Postally used cover with Kiukang Dollar date postmark August 27,1898 on surcharge i c on cixi birthday stamp 1 c.
(i) Postally used cover with Tientsin Pa Kua Postmark on surcharge 2 cent on cixi birthday 2 c stamp
(j) Postally used cover from Wuhu Dollar date postmark 13 nov 98 n JPC stamp 4 cent and R postmark on JPC 2 c
(k) Guard against theft private postmark on JPC stamp 1c with Pa Kua postmark
(l) Japan Post office in China postmark CDS Shanghai 18 Apr 98 on JCP 5 c (2 x)

(27) 1899
(a)The Wei Hai Wei Lease area issue the firs stamp of provisional courier Post LKT and their own postmark.
(b)The Russian imperial Post at China issued the surcharge KHTAH on russia stamsp with their own postmark.
(c) Tientsin Pa Kua post mark on LCP 1/2 cent. with Tientsen Custom CDS May 25 99.
(d) Wuchow Pstmark 22 Oct 99 and Postage 1 cent port on bisect JPC 2 cent. stamp.
(e) handwritten Foochow postmark 11-6/99

e

 

1850

 

 

 

1851

 

Chinese Empire, 1851 stampless folded letter from Shanghai to Kingston MA, reverse with Hong Kong and London transits, New York receiver, ms “45” rate, 11 page letter, describes in detail life in China, scarce, Fine. Realized HK$ 2,800

 

 

 

1853

 

Chinese Empire, 1853 (Feb 8) stampless folded letter from Canton to Boston, front re-rated twice with manuscript “via Marseilles” and crossed out “via southampton”. Reverse shows Hong Kong 10 FE 1853 transit and red blurred AP 2 1853 British (?) transit. Interesting and unusual usage, F-VFRealized HK$ 3,200

 

Chinese Empire, 1853 stampless folded letter from Canton to Middletown CT USA, Hong Kong and London transits on reverse, “75” rate with complete “New-York Am Pkt/APR/17” cds, manuscript “via Marsailles”, discusses rebels heading northward, levelying captured towns and heading for Nanking, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500

1854

 

Chinese Empire, 1854 (Sep 23) stampless folded letter from Canton to New York, via Marseilles with back showing Hong Kong and London transits, front has corrected rate of “53” with complete “New York Br Pkt/NOV/29” cds, letter on tea trade, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

 

 

 

 

Late 19th Century

1856

Imperial Chinese Post

After the Second Opium War (1856-1860),

 

under the “Treaty of Tientsin” the diplomatic envoys and attaches of Britain, France, Russia, US and other countries were entitled the rights of free travel and running postal service in Chinese territory, and the Chinese government was responsible for their safety. At that time, foreign envoys in China asked the Chinese government’s Tsungli Yamen / (Office of Foreign Affairs) to run postal service on their behalf and Tsungli Yamen assigned ICHAN (the government operated courier stations) to deliver mails for the envoys between Shanghai and Peking.

 

1861

in 1861

Sir Robert Hart, then the Acting Inspector General of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs who had the ambition to organize a modern national postal system in China emulating that of the Westerns, suggested to Tsungli Yamen that it would be to China’s advantage that a national post office be founded. But Tsungli Yamen turned it down because it would have brought him into conflict with some powerful private vested interests.(126. BACK O BOURKEstampboard)

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CDROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST

Anti-Japanese War sino-Japanese War

In July 1937

 

after the customs in the district of CPC Committee, Publicity Department of CPC triangular partition (Ning District) Committee, secretary of the Trilateral Security Command Cavalry Division Chief of Staff,

 

 

Brutal Japanese: Rape Of Nanking 1937

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, is a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000–80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.

 

 

HOW IT HAPPENED

 

In August 1937,

the Japanese army invaded Shanghai and there they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China.

 

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew the fall of Nanking would be simply a matter of time. He and his staff realized that he could not risk annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Chiang Kai-shek’s strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China’s vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China.

 

Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan, where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938.

 

In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation.

 

The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe.

 

The defense plan fell apart quickly. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai, running from the advancing Japanese army. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders.

 

 

The Japanese army enters Nanking

 

Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, arson, and other war crimes. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm, including the diaries of German John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of the Nanking Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese), as well as the field diaries of military personnel. An American missionary, John Magee, stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre.

A group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city, where the population numbered from 200,000 to 250,000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. C. Smythe, secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking, recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy.

 

Japanese tanks enter Nanking

 

 

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly. A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped. The women were often killed immediately after the rape, often through explicit mutilation or by stabbing a bayonet, long stick of bamboo, or other objects into the vagina.

On 19 December 1937, Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary:

I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet … People are hysterical … Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.

On March 7, 1938, Robert O. Wilson, a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone, wrote in a letter to his family, “a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms”.


Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family:

 

The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.

 

Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped. Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8,000 people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. I think he will live.


In his diary kept during the aggression to the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe, wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities. For the 17th December:

 

Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital … Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they’re shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.


There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest. Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women.

 


On 13 December 1937, John Rabe wrote in his diary:

It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (…) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel’s hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road.


On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin.

 

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese …. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.

 

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha’s death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet.

 

Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia’s parents, aged 76 and 74, and. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha’s two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.


Pregnant women were a target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army’s systematic mass killings, testified:

The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely …

 

The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.

 

 

 

According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani,

«The Army used a trumpet sound that meant “Kill all Chinese who run away”». Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the “Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch”, a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide.

Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims.

 

On August 6, 1937, Hirohito had personally ratified his army’s proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term “prisoner of war”.

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Many were taken to the Yangtze River, where they were machine-gunned. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns, and opened fire at them. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop, and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. It is estimated that at least 57,500 Chinese POWs were killed.

The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets.

F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele, American news correspondents, reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north. Durdin, who was working for the New York Times, made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Two days later, in his report to the New York Times, he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies, including women and children.

According to a testimony made by missionary Ralph L. Phillips to the U.S. State Assembly Investigating Committee, he was “forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier” and “roasted his heart and liver and ate them”

 

HOW LONG DID THE MASSACRE LAST?


The Battle of Nanking ended on December 13, when the divisions of the Japanese Army entered the walled city of Nanking.

The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing six weeks. More conservative estimates say the massacre started on December 14, when the troops entered the Safety Zone, and that it lasted for six weeks.

 

The roots of the agressive China of today perhaps lies partly in the Nanking Massacre in 1937.

 

 


VODEO: BLACK SUN MASSACRE

 

 

VIDEO;Nanking Massacre-Japanese Atrocities filmed by John Magee

 

 

 

 


Chinese being buried alive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto during the Nanking Massacre.

 

 

One of articles on the “Contest to kill 100 people using a sword” published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, “‘Incredible Record’ (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings”

 

 

The sheer volume of murdered civilians posed a formidable logistical challenge when it came to disposing of the bodies. Many Chinese were conscripted into “burial teams

 

 

 

Read more info

 

Original info source in Turkish language


Nankin Kalesi’nin kuşatılması ve Çin Ordusu’nun başarasızlığı


9 Aralık’ta Japon Ordusu Nankin Kalesi’ni kuşatarak ertesi gün öğle vaktine kadar teslim olmalarını istedi. Çin Ordusu bunu reddedince 10 Aralık’ta Japon Ordusu genel

Castle siege of Nanjing and the Chinese Army başarasızlığı

December 9 1937

Nanjing Japanese Army laid siege to the castle wanted them to be delivered by noon the next day.

Chinese Army rejected it on 10 December the Japanese Army general

 


attacked, Nanjing Castle fell on December 13.

 

Nankin’de Chinese prisoners

Text Source

Nature of the massacre

 

  1. 1.   

 

 

Top of Form

• 16 Divisional Commander Lieutenant General Nakajima log Kesago, according to the principle will not be applied and cleaning campaign in captive soldiers who want to be delivered killed.
• Located in the north Nankin’in ‘Yamada’ battalion (65th Regiment basic units) of the 14 000 prisoners are said to kill. Pier near the Yangtze River in the dead who have been booted Shaakan is not less than the number of witnesses.
• 114 Division 66 1st Regiment Report of the prisoners killed by order of the brigade combat Battalion written.
• Criminal Tribunal for the Far East International Military Commander Gen. Iwane Matsui” period” Central China Front önlemeyerek Crimes, criminals were executed on the grounds cezalandırmaması. Unfortunately, the number Matsui Japanese Army in China were friendly.
• the period of Nanjing Military Court 6 Sumio Division Commander Lieutenant General Tani was tried and executed. Lieutenant General Tani müdafasında katliâmın Nakajima associations (16.Tümen) occurred in and 6.Tümen ‘s is irrelevant, he argued.
• In addition, Osaka Mainichi Shimbun” and” Tokyo Nichinichi Simbu””” Hyakunin papers written by fitting it in order to encourage the nation to war Nin Giri (100 Person Cutting Competition)” series writing heroes, Lieutenant Takeshi Noda, Lieutenant Gunkichi Tanaka, Tabloid news Toshiaki Mukai sword of Lieutenant spend 300 civilians were executed on the grounds.
• Prince Asaka, the American 5-star General Douglas MacArthur because of the principle of the free trial ever prosecuted for the members of the Japanese dynasty.

Japanese soldiers “contest” the sword used in the military museum of the Republic of China,
Taipei, Taiwan, are available.

  1. 1.   

 

  1. 1.   

 Nanjing Japanese Army troops participating in Operation in the
and Commanders

 

 


general Iwane Matsui

 

Şangai Sefer Ordusu : Korgeneral Prens Asaka =
Asakanomiya Yasuhiko


 

İstihbarattan sorumlu baş kurmay: Isamu Chō

 

 

  • 3. Tümen Öncü Birliği (Alay Komutan Albay Takashi Takamori)

 

 

  • 9. Tümen general Ryoosuke Yoshizumi)
  • 16. Tümen (general Kesago Nakajima)
  • ‘Yamada’ müfrezesi =
  • 103. Piyade Tugayı general Senji Yamada)

 

general Heisuke Yanagawa

 

 

16. Tümen: Korgeneral Kesago Nakajima

 

  1. 1.   

 

  • 6. Tümen (Korgeneral Hisao Tani)

 

Mitsuru Ushijima

  • 18. Tümen (Korgeneral Sadao Ushijima)

 

. General 末松 Suematsu

 

  • 114. Tümen (Korgeneral Shigeharu Suematsu)
  • ‘Kunisaki’ müfrezesi = 5. Tümen 9. Piyade Tugayı (Tümgeneral Noboru Kunisaki)

 

  1. 1.    Katliamdan Fotoğraflar
     

 

  1. 1.   

 

 

 

  1. 1.     

 

 

   
  1. 1.    Japon askerlerinin Süngü uygulamasın için kullandıkları
    canlı esirler 

 

  1. 1.   


Etrafta yayılmış olan cesetleri toplayan gönüllüler

Yangtze Nehrine atılmış cesetler

Kafası kesilecek olan Çinli sivil

 

 


Canlı olarak gömülmeyi bekleyen Çinli siviller

 

  1. 1.     

 

 

 

 

Katliamda öldürülen bebekler

 

   

 

 

 

VIDEO: RAPE OF NANKING

Source: Nanking-massacre.com

 

——————————————————-

GREAT DVDS

 

 

 

Filmmaker Bill Guttentag takes a closer look at the atrocities committed by the Japanese after Nanking fell to the Imperial Japanese Army in 1937 with this documentary that was inspired by Iris Chang’s novel The Rape of Nanking. Compiled from over 700 hours of footage including news-reel footage, interviews with survivors and soldiers, and staged readings, Nanking was financed in large by millionaire Ted Leonsis, who had read Chang’s obituary and subsequently been prompted to read the author’s best-selling account of the massacre.

TRAILER



——–————————————————-

 

MORE DVDS ON THE RAPE OF NANKING

 

 

 

He Yingqin (simplified Chinese: 应钦; traditional Chinese: 何應欽; pinyin: Hé Yìngqīn; April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987), also spelled Ho Ying-chin, was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek

 

Rise and fall in the Kuomintang

 

 

In 1924, Chiang Kai-shek made preparation for the establishment of Whampoa Military Academy under the authorization of Sun Yat-sen. Chiang knew He’s talent and recommend him to Sun. Sun sent a telegraph asking He to Guangzhou for the job. He accepted the offer and was appointed as the General Instructor of the academy.

In the course of the academy’s establishment, He supported Chiang and won Chiang’s appreciation. In the war against the local warlord Chen Jiongming, students training in the academy were grouped into two regiments. He was appointed as a colonel of one regiment. In the war, He proved his courage and military talent by winning several battles although he had just recovered from an illness, his performance made a deep impression on both Chiang and the Soviet Union’s military advisor Vasily Blyukher (General Galen). Galen sent his sword to He as a gift after this war.

In July of the same year, the National Revolutionary Army was set up. The students of the academy were grouped into the 1st Army Corps, Chiang as the commander, He Yingqin as commander of one division, Zhou Enlai as the party representative of He’s division. In September, Chen masterminded another commotion. Chiang led the war to put down this revolt, in which He demonstrated his military talent again.

During the Northern Expedition in 1926, He Yingqin succeeded Chiang as commander of the 1st Army Corps and led his army marching into Guangdong and Fujian provinces. After He controlled the whole area of Fujian, he conquered Zhejiang as well. When Chiang began to confront the Communists He supported Chiang as well. In 1927 He’s army and Bai Chongxi‘s army launched a massacre on CCP members in Shanghai, which announced the end of first alliance of KMT-CCP.

When Chiang took power, the tension between him and Wang Jingwei, the New Guangxi Clique led by Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi rose day by day. Wang sent a statement to ask Chiang to resign, with the support from Li and Bai. Under these circumstances, He thought Chiang had made himself a public enemy and was destined to fail, so he supported Chiang’s opponents activities secretly. In the meeting to decide Chiang’s future, when Bai asked Chiang to resign, Chiang turned to He for support. He said nothing, which hurt Chiang’s heart deeply and then Chiang left the meeting and announced his resignation in sorrow. Later when Chiang recalled this event, he said “Had He given me one word of support, I would not have been forced to resign.”

Chiang soon regained his power due to the incompetence of Wang and his allies in controlling the situation. After Chiang’s restoration, he took over He’s military command and made himself commander. After He was sacked by Chiang, he went to Hangzhou for relieving his discontent. Chiang knew He’s protest and came to meet with He. Chiang told He, “Without you, I can still take power, but without me, you will be nothing.” After careful consideration, He had to reconcile with Chiang.

He was appointed as chief of staff of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), and training supervisor for the NRA. During his term, He spared no effort to train armies for Chiang and crack down on warlords by regrouping their armies into Chiang’s own armies. When the war between Chiang and alliance of the New Guangxi Clique, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, He commanded the army even when his father was dead. Chiang sent his condolence, which deeply impressed He.

In 1930, He was appointed as Minister of Military Administration Department of the Nationalist (KMT) government, of which he held for over a decade. During his term, He made great contributions to military service, logistics, defense construction of KMT, and his probity and cleanness won him great reputation.

In 1931, He was appointed as commander to lead Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet, but his troops suffered great losses, which was the beginning of the end of his reputation as a skillful commander.

In the same year, the Mukden Incident took place in Manchuria. Chiang regarded the CCP as his archrival and placed priority on the suppression of CCP forces, the Japanese should be dealt with by compromises instead of war. Thus, He was sent to Northern China to handle these tough issues because of his friendly way to the Japanese. In 1933, Japanese armies invaded Rehe and broke through the KMT defense along the Great Wall. He Yingqin replaced Zhang Xueliang as chairman of the Beijing Military Committee, which was the supreme organ in charge of the military forces of Northern China. He advocated no direct confrontation with the Japanese troops, and signed the Tanggu Cease-Fire Accord with Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次), who was deputy chief of staff of Kantogun at that time.

After that, He Yingqin opposed campaigns and efforts against the Japanese, and disarmed Feng Yuxiang’s anti-Japanese army. In 1935, Japanese troops started several incidents. When the Blue Shirts Society, the secret organization of the Whampoa Clique of the KMT, and a firm anti-Japanese group fought back with assassination and other violent activities, the Japanese argued that it was violation of the Tanggu Accord signed between China and Japan which was to keep the status quo of Northern China. Under the name of Yoshijirō Umezu, who was commander of Japanese troops in Northern China at that time, the Japanese spy agency under the direction of Kenji Doihara provided an investigation of the BSS as appendix of a memo. He agreed with all issues proposed by Japanese in this memo, which later was called He-Umezu Agreement. According to this accord, all forces having relations with the BSS inclusive of military police, regular forces such as 2nd Division and 25th Division should be evacuated from Beijing and out of Hebei province. The BSS had to retreat from Beijing in humiliation.

With KMT forces out of Northern China, He Yingqin had little room for maneuver. Then, he returned to Nanjing to do his job as minister. In Dec 1936, the Xian Incident broke out, Chiang was taken into custody by Zhang Xueliang’s army. There were disagreements among the KMT leaders on how to handle this incident. Chiang’s wife Soong May-ling was afraid of Chiang being killed and urged peace negotiations. He’s role was quite controversial. He was voted as acting commander to lead the KMT armies to the rescue of Chiang. Historians used to say that He strongly supported the need to solve this incident by force, for which reason He contacted Wang Jingwei and asked him back to China to take charge of the KMT, and sent two armies marching to Xian to fight against Zhang’s army. There was a saying when Soong May-ling came to He and asking for peaceful solution, He refuted her as a woman knowing little of politics should leave state issues alone. However, new evidence showed that actually it was the Whampoa clique especially those young and extremist officers of the Blue Shirts Society that launched the military attack against Zhang, and He even rejected their request for a supporting army.

Soong came to Xian for peace talks and did succeed in rescuing Chiang. When Chiang came back, he distrusted He again. Nonetheless, He still held his position of minister but with little real power.

When the Chinese anti-Japanese war turned into a general war after the occurrence of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, He Yingqin was appointed as chief of staff and worked with Chiang for drafting military plans. In 1944, when his title of Minister of War was taken over by Chiang’s favorite, Chen Cheng, He was appointed as General Commander of the Chinese Military Area, which was an honorable title instead of real power, and was sent to Yunnan to train the Chinese Expeditionary Army, which was set up under the proposal of Joseph Stilwell, for assisting in the ally force’s operation in Southeast Asia.

 

 

Commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army Yasuji Okamura presenting the Japanese Instrument of Surrender to He Yingqin in Nanjing on 9 September 1945.

In August 1945, when Japan announced its unconditional surrender, He was appointed as representative of both the Chinese Government and the Southeast Asia Ally Forces to host the surrender of Japanese troops in China. On Sept 9th, He accepted the statement of surrender submitted by Yasuji Okamura, who was General Commander of Japanese troops in China at that time. This historic moment put He under the spotlight of the world, and was the peak of his career.

In 1946, the KMT government set up the Defense Department to take charge of the military attack against CCP forces in the Chinese Civil War, but He lost the race with Chen Cheng and Bai, who were appointed as Chief of Staff and Defense Minister respectively. He was sent to the United Nations Security Council as director of the Chinese military delegation. One year later, He was called back to be a senior military advisor, and regained the position of Defense Minister in 1948 witnessing the collapse of KMT power.

In 1949, Chiang had to resign for the third time, when Li Zongren was voted as acting president. In order to contain Li’s power and influence, Chiang asked He to take the job of speaker and later the head of the Executive Yuan of Li’s cabinet, and was also named as acting Defense Minister. He took the job and proposed the plan of cease-fire first and peace negotiation later, for KMT to win time for its governance in China. The Communists exploited the military victory and crossed the Yangtze River conquering Nanjing, the capital of KMT government. Although the nationalists still had huge number of troops and there were good possibilities of turning the tide on paper, the United States refused to supply any more military aid and thus the troops were poorly armed and equipped and thus no longer had the combat power to turn the tide. Song Xilian, deputy commander-in-chief of Central China, had a heated argument with He over the telephone when He shouted that as the defense minister commanding all the forces, Song must obey his order, but Song arrogantly replied that he did not even know what was the defense minister and the head of Executive Yuan, and then simply hung up. He Yingqin consequently went to Li Zongren to complain, and claimed that he had never been humiliated like this in his life but Li was unable to help. In May, He resigned with his cabinet members in Guangzhou.

 

 

Later years

When He came to Taiwan, he said he would leave politics for introspection of the failure of the KMT. When Chiang was reelected as president of the Republic of China in 1950, he lost his election as member of the central committee of the KMT, and only gained the honorary title of senior advisor.

He took charge of several clubs and associations working for the KMT, and spent most of his time playing sports, bridge, and planting. In 1986 He suffered from apoplexy and was sent to a hospital, where, after several months treatment, he died on October 21, 1987. With the nickname of Lucky General, he survived battles and campaigns, and lived longer than most of the patriarchs of KMT inclusive of Chiang. His remains are interred at Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery in Taiwan

 

 

a japanese naval landing force soldier holding a chinese mortar shell that failed to explode (shanghai 1937)

 

 

a type 89 medium tank supporting two japanese soldiers (china 1937)

 

commander of the naval landing force wearing a dark blue uniform (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese naval landing force officer reading letter send by Lt. Cdr. Uroku Hashimoto after successful operations during the battle of shanghai, 1937

 

 

 

 

officer of the kwantung army using heavy winter uniform (manchuria 1937)

 

 

soldier of a cavalry unit of the kwantung army armed with a type 44 carbine rifle (manchuria 1937)

 

 

a wounded soldier of the kwantung army using crutches (manchuria 1937)

 

 

an officer of a cavalry unit of the japanese kwantung army using sun glasses (manchuria, 1937)

 

 

 

japanese soldiers entering in peking (july 1937)

 

japanese army war veteran private Yoshida Shusuke with his type 11 light machine gun, he fought in china from 1937 to 1942 and retired from military service

 

 

two japanese war veterans showing their weapons, corporal Sasaki Tokuji on right fought in china from 1937 to 1941 and later retired from military service

 

 

japanese navy troops using motorcycle armed with a type 11 light machine gun (shanghai 1937)

 

Shanghai DN Naval PC in 1937 send to korea

 

 

 

a soldier of the special naval landing force posing with his Type 11 light machine gun (shanghai 1937)

 

 

a commander of the special naval landing force in shanghai, 1937

 

 

 

 

special naval landing force officer using a katana sword (shanghai 1937

 

 

japanese navy troops armed with nambu pistols (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese marine troops armed with mp-34 smgs and type 11 lmgs (shanghai 1937)

 

a chinese kid playing with a type 11 light machine gun while two japanese marines slimes at the background (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese navy troops passing by a ruined building (shanghai 1937)

 

soldiers of the Special Guard Corps of the Manchukuo Imperial Guards patterned after the Imperial Guard of Japan officer

 

special naval landing force officer in shanghai (1937

 

 

japanese navy pilots wearing hachimaki headbands during heavy air war battles around shanghai (august 1937)

 

 

 

Colonel Sugimoto Goro

was a japanese army officer and buddhist philosopher, he was killed in combat during the Battle of Taiyuan in sept 1937,

Sugimoto was a very pure imperialist, when he was shot he moved his sword to the left hand and gave a salute to the direction of the imperial palace,

after his dead his friends and family decided to publish a posthumous book called Great Duty (Taigi) and became especially popular among japanese army officers and soldiers, 1,200,000 copies were sold from 1938 to 1945, in his book he said: The reason that Zen is necessary for soldiers is that all Japanese, especially soldiers, must live in the spirit of the unity of the sovereign and subjects, eliminating their ego and getting rid of their self. It is exactly the awakening to the nothingness (mu) of Zen that is the fundamental spirit of the unity of sovereign and subjects. Through my practice of Zen I am able to get rid of my self. In facilitating the accomplishment of this, Zen becomes, as it is, the true spirit of the imperial military…

 

japanese soldier and fellow soldier admiring his wife photograph (manchuria 1937)

 

 

happy soldiers of the IJA 18th Division on the train-station ready to go the front (1937)

 

 

A Japanese Army officer standing in front of a captured Chinese Panzer-Ia.JPG

 

 

soldiers of the japanese army 1st Independent Mixed Brigade smiling for the camera before the invasion of peking (july 1937)

 

 

japanese navy special naval landing force commanders looking at a destroyed chinese tank after the battle of shanghai (1937)

 

japanese army reporter looking at a shot down chinese fighter (shanghai 1937)

 

 

 

general Sakai Koji (center) celebrating victory with troops of the IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade after the captured of peking (1937)

 

Type 92 Battalion Gun crew man in action (peking 1937)

 

 

japanese soldiers in the great wall (1937)

 

 

japanese soldiers rescuing a chinese baby during Operation Chahar (manchuria 1937)

 

 

 

japanese officer overlooking the recently conquered city of peking (1937)

 

 

 

japanese officer posing with a guardian lion statue also called Fu (Foo) Lions at the forbidden city imperial , lions of Buddha in japanese occupied peking (1937)

 

japanese army officer shaking hands with a chinese civilian (peking 1937)

 

 

 

 

survivors of the combat around Luodian in downtown Shanghai surrendering to a japanese soldier,German adviser Alexander von Falkenhausen told Chiang Kai-shek that the town of Luodian had to be held at all costs. The carnage and intensity of the resulting battle earned the fight for Luodian the nickname “grinding mill of flesh and blood”

 

 

soldiers of the special naval landing force being departed to shanghai (1937)

 

 

japanese soldier using a German Shepherd dog during urban fighting during the battle of shanghai (1937)

 

special naval landing force officers (shanghai 1937)

In the middle is Rear Admiral Denshichi Okawachi, commander of the Navy Special Landing Forces at Shanghai, China.

 

 

japanese navy type 92 armored cars supporting japanese marines during the invasion of hainan island

 

ruins

 

japanese sniper using wall for cover (shanghai 1937

 

 

Chinese Panzer-Ia light tanks were captured by Japanese troops during the battle of Nanking, Dec.1937

 

 

Chinese Panzer-Ia light tank was captured by Japanese troops during the battle of Nanking, Dec.1937

 

 

 

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First World War In Brief For Beginners

 

小小的日本国,小小的岛屿,小小的民族,非要什么都要带一个字,大日本,大和民族!全世界表面上最有礼貌的人应该就是日本人,见面三鞠躬,好话说尽,一转身就随地小便,在战争中是最没有人性的军队!没有办法,小日本人在海外孤岛上生存了几千年,全体没有安全感,造就了这变态的民族

 

 

日本投降后,美国军队进驻日本,小日本民族的本质立刻就显现出来了,对美国占领军卑躬屈膝,奴才相全部显现,在二战中表现出了野蛮,杀戮,不要命的假相顷刻之间全无,做了美国顺从的小奴才!这就是小日本,所谓大和名族的本性!这也就决定了日本人的军队是一支虚张声势,怕死的部队

而我们伟大是中国人民解放军从诞生起,就是一支勇敢的,不怕死的军队!永远是一支攻无不克,战无不胜是伟大军队!!

After Japan surrendered, the U.S. military stationed in Japan, the nature of the small Japanese nation is immediately apparent, groveling to the U.S. occupation forces, I phase all appear in World War II showed the barbaric killings, lives the illusion of instant noU.S. submissive I! This is the nature of the small Japan, the so-called Japanese family name! This also determines the Japanese army is a bluff, the fear of death forces!
Our great People’s Liberation Army since its birth, is a brave, not afraid of death army! Will always be an all-conquering, invincible is a great army! ! !

 

写道这里,我突然发现我错了,和这样的变态民族比较,简直是对我们伟大的中华民族的侮辱

在我们几千年的历史里,小日本一直是落后我们,一直是我们身边是小国家,小附属,只不过是在近代靠投机比我们先进了几十年,我相信用不了多长时间,小日本国,小大和名族还会被我们打回原形!还像以前一样,悄悄地,乖乖地,永远臣服于我们中华民族脚下!

 

Wrote here, I suddenly found I was wrong, and this metamorphosis nation, is simply an insult to our great Chinese nation!
Thousands of years of our history, the small in Japan has been behind us, around us is a small country, small subsidiary, is only in modern times by speculation ahead of us for decades, I believe that will not take long. Little Japan, the Japanese family name will be their colors! As before, quietly, obediently, never to submit to our nation at the foot! !

 

 

 

武汉发现日本屠城庆功旗 写有四座城市名字(图)

2012-08-09 07:44:18 张勇军 武汉晚报

Wuhan found that the Japanese massacre celebration flag to write four city name (Figure)
2012-08-09 07:44:18 Zhang Yongjun Wuhan Evening News

 

汉发现日本屠城庆功旗写有四座城市名字(). 军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市

Wuhan found that the Japanese massacre celebration flag written four city name (Figure).

The four corners of the flag write the Japanese occupation of China four cities
Flag corners of written Japanese occupation, the names and schedules of the four cities in China

军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市的名称和时间表

Reporter Zhang Yongjun intern Wang Shan Mo Shu-one)

occupied Shanghai, Huzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou,

he wrote on the flag, which is naked to show off.

“Yesterday, from the 67th anniversary of the victory of the war 7 days, Wuhan War collectors Xu Yibing, in Hankou the Chongren Lu antique market to showcase his collection of part of the Japanese invasion of incriminating evidence. The special aspect of the Japanese massacre celebration flag (see above), another new evidence of Japanese atrocities.
This side of the Japanese sun flag of about one square meter. Common the Japanese flag this side of the flag corners of written Japanese occupation, the names and schedules of the four cities in China, Shanghai on the land, Showa on November 26, 2003; Huzhou into the city, In 1937 10 February 7; into the city of Nanjing, December 15; In 1937, Hangzhou into the city, Showa

December 26, 2003. “flag just below the eye-catching at, there is a Temple in Hangzhou dragon seal.
Xu Yibing said 2010 Friends of Tibet in the online auction this side of the Japanese flag, he immediately spent thousands of dollars to be photographed. He also learned that this side of the flag is the Friends of Tibet, brought back from Japan.
“Record of aggression against track on the Japanese flag, why?” Two years ago, Xu Yibing has been studying the surface of the flag, he is very obvious the Japanese show off their exploits, but why the flag on a Temple of the Dragon India? This seems a mystery.
Xu Yibing found online and read the data, in 1937, Hangzhou fall, the influx Temple, “the abbot Quefei Jackson to see the Japanese bullying, the temple can not maintain the status quo, then a temporary refuge in Shanghai.” Japan is also a Buddhist countries will not be the Japanese take away the Temple seal? However, Xu Yibing of this speculation, there is no evidence. Reporter Yu Zhiyong photo
• Related reports:
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• Professor of Shanghai: China should also “comfort women” was renamed the “sex slaves”
• Nanjing Massacre survivors of the bloody memory: full of dead stink
• Japanese confidential documents admit: the war of aggression against China caused by a virgin in China rarely
• 89-year-old memory for the Japanese invaders dragged: up to a day to lift 20 body
• World War II, Japanese troops recalled to eat the dead carcasses of meat circumstances: from the hip to eat
• beautify the Japanese invasion of China should pay the price
• Guangzhou CPPCC members said the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese “liberation of Nanjing”

本报讯(记者张勇军 实习生王珊 莫淑壹) “占领上海、湖州、南京、杭州,还要写在军旗上,这是赤裸裸地炫耀。”昨天,离抗战胜利67周年纪念日还有7天,武汉抗战收藏爱好者许一兵,在汉口崇仁路古玩市场展示他收藏的部分日军侵华罪证。其中一面特殊的日军“屠城庆功旗”(见上图),成为日军暴行又一新证。

这面日军太阳旗约一平方米。与常见日军军旗不同的是,这面军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市的名称和时间表,“上海上陆,昭和十二年十一月二十六日;湖州入城,昭和十二年十二月七日;南京入城,昭和十二年十二月十五日;杭州入城,昭和十二年十二月二十六日。”在军旗的正下方醒目处,还有一枚杭州灵隐寺的龙纹大印。

许一兵说,2010年,发现有藏友在网上拍卖这面日军军旗,他当即花费数千元钱将其拍下。他还了解到,这面军旗是藏友从日本带回。

“日军军旗上为何记录侵华轨迹?”两年来,许一兵一直在研究这面军旗,他认为,很明显日军在炫耀自己的“战功”,但为何军旗上还有一枚灵隐寺的龙印?这似乎成谜。

许一兵上网查看资料发现,1937年,杭州沦陷,大量难民涌入灵隐寺,“当时的住持却非禅师看到日军的强横霸道,寺院无法维持现状,遂暂时避居上海。”日本也是信仰佛教国家,会不会是日军夺走了灵隐寺大印?然而,许一兵的这种猜测,尚无证据证实。  记者喻志勇摄

September 18 Incident,
The Japanese government to achieve a permanent occupation of northeast China’s ambitions in the military power it difficult to reach rural, began to plan to output armed militias, trying to aggressive activities by large-scale immigration, assimilation Manchuria, the Japanese moved into Manchuria, northeast China become an extension of Japanese territory. Japanese immigrants moved to the northeast China to open up group of three types: Group Development Team, a collection of pioneering mission and dispersion of the pioneering group.

Group to develop groups of Japanese immigration to explore the group’s main purpose is the construction of rural collaborative body, culture to open up China’s stronghold, the scale of 200-300 households, to the Association as the main body is divided into several tribes. Each tribe by the
20-30 households composed of 10 tribes formed an immigrant village. Each tribe has its Japanese name, and not subject to the jurisdiction of the local grass-roots puppet regime.

Open up the group initially to the group, and later to the village as a unit, composed of agricultural portfolio in the field of production, distribution, consumption, etc., to pilot joint management. Develop within the Mission a complete set of institutions to manage immigration, and have their own armed, as if the “state within a state. According to records, the the Sanjiang Province, the company town village of Japanese immigrants – Yae village, the village tribal organization discipline, based consumer Ministry of trafficking Department, Ministry of the package and Industry, the cause of brewing, as well as from the Extension Ministry collar salaries of physicians, a midwife. Daily production of Japanese immigrants, the needs of institutions, everything. Other things, to make such a life is also in the rural areas of the Japanese mainland. The village of paddy fields and fertile fields, In addition to the production of milled rice, barley, wheat, soybeans, corn and other crops, where the Japanese mainland grown vegetables, nor do not have …

Therefore, when the comment was made that Yasaka village “scale very ambitious, such as counties and cities in general, daily necessities, foodstuffs can be self-made, schools, hospitals, etc. all have a clothing class appliances also increased from pioneering the business of the corporation run by cooperatives, as good as the Japanese domestic village to move to Manchuria, equipment surpasses it and also pioneering group established a shrine to the Orient House, Tetsuo explore the father of the ritual. Immigrant members are required sooner or later, the Emperor of the East Sunday, and compliance with the Covenant, “we are not married should extend the kingdom of God mission forward …” Thus, the Japanese immigrants attempt by family or cite village migration, settle, through the integration of the daily production and life, penetration, to achieve the purpose of national aggression.

According to the distribution of Japanese immigrants, “it reads, 1932,
Advance of the Japanese armed settlers, is just the puppet Manchukuo implementation of the law and order in Gansu is the occasion of five-year plan. In this context, the five tests ,1932-1936 immigrants, all of it into the “Frontier Strip and the military along the railway line. Therefore, most people believe that Manchuria moved to defense immigrants. This record has been clearly demonstrated ancient Haizhong confession “from Manchuria to open up policy making since maintained a close relationship and the military aggression of Japanese imperialism …… of Manchukuo about to open up all kinds of policy, not only by the Japanese Extension Ministry of Justice, but also by the Kwantung Army spy involved in the development … an attempt to forcibly occupied northeast land with a large number of armed immigrant group, as the rear positions of the Japanese imperialist aggression against China and the Soviet Union. large group of Japanese immigrant group are armed. its members in Japan within the original training after a year of soldiers, farmers training, the majority of the locations of the immigrant group to select the rear of the important military area in Sanjiang, Dongan, Mudanjiang and Heihe, these locations are decided by the Kwantung Army “. Japanese immigrants, “is the use of the apartment soldiers in the agricultural policy of aggression”.

 

九一八事变后,

日本政府为实现永久占领中国东北的野心,在军力一时难以到达的农村,开始有计划地输出武装民,试图通过大规模移民侵略活动,“同化满洲”、“将日本搬入满洲”,把中国东北变成日本领土的延伸。移入中国东北的日本移民开拓团有三种类型:集团开拓团、集合开拓团和分散开拓团。

  集团开拓团作为日本移民开拓团的主体,目的是“建设农村协同体,培养开拓民的据点”,规模以200—300户为标准,以同乡为主体分成若干部落。每一部落由

20—30户组成,10个部落形成一个移民村。每个部落都有日本名字,不受当地基层伪政权管辖。

  开拓团最初以团,后来以村为单位,组成农业组合,在生产、流通、消费等领域,全面试行共同经营。开拓团内部有一套完整机构来管理移民事务,并有自己的武装,俨然是“国中之国”。据资料记载,三江省永丰镇第一个日本移民村——弥荣村,村内部落组织井然,设消费部、贩卖部、利用部、包工部、事业酿造部等,还有从拓务省领薪俸之医师、产婆。日本移民日常生产、生活所需机构,应有尽有。而其他各事,尽如在日本内地之农村生活同样。村中有水田与良田,除产精米、大麦、小麦、大豆、玉米等作物外,凡日本内地种植之菜蔬,亦无所不有……

  因此,当时有人评论说,弥荣村“规模极宏大,如县市一般,日用品食料均能自造,学校医院等无不具备,而衣类用具亦由开拓团自办的合作社经营,不啻为日本国内村庄移至满洲,其设备之完备有过之无不及也。开拓团立有神社,以东宫铁男为开拓之父而祭祀之”。移民团员早晚须向东方礼拜天皇,并遵盟约,“吾等并非出嫁人,应向延长神国使命方面迈进……”由此可见,日本移民企图通过举家或举村迁移、定居的方式,通过日常生产和生活的融合、渗透,达到民族侵略目的。

  据《日本移民的分布》记载,1932年,

日本武装移民推进时,恰是伪满洲国实施治安肃正五年计划之际。在此背景下,1932—1936年的五次试验移民,全部移入“国境”地带和军用铁路沿线。所以,一般人们都认为满洲移入的是国防移民。此记载也得到古海忠之供述的印证,“从满洲开拓政策制定的时候起,就和日本帝国主义的军事侵略保持着密不可分的关系……伪满有关开拓的各种政策,不仅是由日本拓务省,也是由关东军特务部参与制定的……它企图用大量武装移民团强占东北土地,以此作为日本帝国主义侵略中国和苏联的后方据点。日本移民团都是武装起来的大集团,它的成员在日本内原训练所经过一年的兵农训练,移民团的地点多数选择三江、东安、牡丹江、黑河等重要军事地区后方,而这些地点都是由关东军决定的”。日本移民“是采用寓兵于农的侵略政策”。

 

 

 

 

1937

 

193711月,国民革命军在淞沪会战中失利,上海被日本占。中国方面就此开始准

关于南京保卫战,我们通常声讨日本南京大屠杀的罪恶,这没有错。但是,人们通常忽视了国民党军队的战略失误。

[ 转自铁血社区 http:.tiexIn November 1937,the defeat of the National Revolutionary Army

in the Battle of Shanghai,

Shanghai was occupied by Japan. China begins to prepare …
About the Battle of Nanjing, we usually denounce the evils of the Nanjing Massacre in Japan, it is not wrong. However, people often ignore the strategic mistake of the Kuomintang army
ue.net/ ]

1937年11月,

November 1937,
The defeat of the National Revolutionary Army in the Battle of Shanghai, Shanghai was occupied by Japan. China begins to prepare in more than 300 kilometers west of Shanghai, Nanjing, the capital to defend the combat. December 1st, the Japanese issued a combat command to attack Nanjing, the beginning of the Battle of Nanjing. Tang Sheng-chih any of the Nanjing garrison commander of the command 150 000 Guojun resistance to combat. KMT authorities there have been significant errors in the organization and command of the battle. Before the war, not for the meticulous arrangements, and finally decided to break through Shiyou not develop well-conceived evacuation plans, but not through the General Staff operations, causing the defenders to break through the autocorrelation trampling, competing cries, particularly residual weight loss, the military’s resistance As collapse. December 13, Nanjing fall to less than five million Japanese troops into the city, which began more than eight consecutive months on the massacre of more than three hundred thousand prisoners of war civilians that shocked the world

国民革命军淞沪会战中失利,上海被日本占领。中国方面就此开始准备在上海以西仅300余千米的首都南京的保卫作战。12月1日,日军下达进攻南京的作战命令,南京保卫战开始。唐生智任南京卫戍司令长官,指挥15万国军抵抗作战。国民党当局在战役组织指挥上出现了重大错误。战前未作周密部署,最后决定突围时又未拟定周密的撤退计划,更没有经过参谋作业,致使守军在突围中,自相践踏,争相夺路,损失特别残重,国军的抵抗就此瓦解。12月13日,南京沦陷,不足五万人的日军入城,由此开始了连续八个多月对三十多万战俘平民震惊世界的大屠杀。

1937年12月1日,

December 1, 1937
Stronghold of Japan issued the “eighth continent command” command: CCAA commander to be synergistic with the Navy, and capture the enemy capital, Nanjing. The detailed deployment of the command to do the “chief of staff instructions. Invasion of Nanjing, the Japanese forces in the Battle of Shanghai was the varying degrees of damage, most of the will after the war to return home and rest, and only three division scrambling to kill to Nanjing. According to this standard projections, about 50,000, about 20,000 people to move back from Nanjing peripheral, a total of about 70,000 people from the frontal attack of the Japanese in Nanjing

日本大本营下达了《大陆命令第八号》“命令:中支那方面军司令官须与海军协同,攻克敌国首都南京”。详细部署则命令按“参谋总长指示”办。进攻南京的日军部队在淞沪会战中遭到不同程度的损伤,在会战后大部回国休整,只有三个师团争先恐后地杀向南京。若按这一标准推算,从正面进攻南京的日军约有5万人,从南京外围迁回的约有两万多人,共约七万多人。

 

 

曾6赴台湾搜集史料的杨天石介绍,目前保存在台湾且比较重要的史料包括:国民党党史馆保存的国防最高委员会的档案、国民党中央常务委员会中央全会和常务委员会的速记录,还有台湾“国史馆”保存的蒋介石个人档案,共有30万卷,按照“九一八事变”“七七事变”“淞沪会战”……整理好分成几十个专题。此外还有蒋介石日记的摘录(原件寄存在胡佛研究所),摘录分5种,全部对外开放,其中1937年到1943年部分是非常重要的研究抗战的史料。

Yang Shijie Shao, had six to go to Taiwan to collect historical data stored in Taiwan and the more important historical materials, including: KMT Party History Museum to save the files of the Supreme National Defense Council, the speed record of the plenary session and Standing Committee of the KMT Central Standing Committee of the Central TaiwanChiang Kai-shek’s personal files, the Academia Historica saved a total of 30 rolls, in accordance with the “September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident” Battle of Shanghai “…… finishing well is divided into dozens of topics. In addition to the Chiang Kai-shek’s diary excerpts (original storage at the Hoover Institution), extract of five kinds, all opening to the outside world, of which part of the 1937 to 1943 is very important to study the war’s historical

 

 

In 1937 after the defeat of the Battle of Shanghai,

Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek Why knowing Nanjing restrain, had once advocated stick Nanjing? Yang Tianshi found a hidden reason in the historical materials on Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek hope to stick to a few months will be able to wait until the Soviet troops in Nanjing

在1937年上海淞沪会战失利之后,蒋介石为什么明明知道南京守不住,还一度主张坚守南京?杨天石在台湾史料中发现了一个隐秘的原因,就是蒋介石寄望于在南京坚守几个月就能等到苏联出兵。

International powers, the Soviet Union is only willing to actively support China’s country. In November 1937, the Soviet party and state leaders Voroshilov Marshal told the Chinese military delegation in Moscow: in the Chinese war of resistance to reach the life and death, the Soviet Union when the troops, and never sit back and watch. November 30, Chiang Kai-shek call Voroshilov and Stalin expressed his thanks: for national survival and international obligations and China has done all its final maximum force men, and to have been forced to retreat Nanjing, but to be allies the Soviet Union strength. should aid, even look, act decisively and the the HUNTER Xingshi.
[Transfer from Jagged community

当时在国际列强中,苏联是唯一表示愿积极支持中国的国家。1937年11月,苏联党和国家重要领导人伏罗希洛夫元帅告诉在莫斯科的中国军事代表团:在中国抗战到达生死关头时,苏联当出兵,决不坐视。11月30日,蒋介石致电伏罗希洛夫及斯大林表示感谢:“中国今为民族生存与国际义务已竭尽其最后、最大之力量矣,且已至不得已退守南京,惟待友邦苏俄实力之应援,甚望先生当机立断,仗义兴师。”

International powers, the Soviet Union is only willing to actively support China’s country. In November 1937, the Soviet party and state leaders Voroshilov Marshal told the Chinese military delegation in Moscow: in the Chinese war of resistance to reach the life and death, the Soviet Union when the troops, and never sit back and watch. November 30, Chiang Kai-shek call Voroshilov and Stalin expressed his thanks: for national survival and international obligations and China has done all its final maximum force men, and to have been forced to retreat Nanjing, but to be allies the Soviet Union strength. should aid, even look, act decisively and the the HUNTER Xingshi.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

 

 

At that time, Chiang Kai-shek sent troops to the Soviet Union

as the only hope to save a critical situation. Jiang had power to make the newly appointed commander of the Nanjing garrison Executive Tang Sheng-chih: “If more than keep the 1st, that is the nation an additional layer of luster if it could keep a half or more, the internal and external situation will be a drastic change, and I field army can also be scheduled to should the encirclement of suffering from the enemy, not now! “Jiang said inside and outside the situation will be a big change.” and “outside”, including the Soviet Union sent troops to account. Chiang Kai-shek’s life relying on foreigners to eat, and the Battle of Shanghai is not using to hit you, I hit my “preserving oneself and destroying the enemy’s tactics, but a suicide subjugation detract from the array to cater to the Japanese bombing. Is such as to Guolian ocean big people every boots scratching towards Japan condemned, this Nanjing Battle again by the Soviet Union to interfere in

当时,蒋介石将苏联出兵看成挽救危局的唯一希望。蒋曾电令新任命的南京卫戍司令长官唐生智:“如能多守一日,即民族多加一层光彩。如能再守半月以上,则内外形势必一大变,而我野战军亦可如期来应,不患敌军之合围矣!”蒋所说的“内外形势必一大变”的“外”,包含苏联出兵在内。蒋介石一生倚仗洋人吃饭,与淞沪会战一样不是采用“你打你的,我打我的”保存自己消灭敌人的战法,而是用一种自杀亡国式的堂堂之阵来迎合日军轰炸。为的就是等来国联洋大人们隔靴挠痒的对日谴责,这次南京保卫战又把靠苏联干涉。

 

67年前的19371213日,日本侵略领中国南京。

67 years ago December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China67年前的1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。逝者如斯,但留在中华民族心中的伤痛是永远的。今天,日本仍有一小撮人在为军国主义招魂,企图篡改历史。但历史的真相是不能改变的,中日两国人民应当永志不忘那30万遇难者的冤魂,为世界的持久和平而努力,让自己的后代子孙不再生活在阴影之中。     图为在南京大屠杀中,日军把300多名无辜的中国人反绑双臂枪杀后,掷入城郊池塘。        新华社发

67 years ago December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. The pain of lost time is, but to remain in the hearts of the Chinese nation is forever. Today, a handful of people in Japan still militarism Evocation, an attempt to distort history. But the historical truth can not be changed, and Japanese people should never forget the innocent people of the 300,000 victims, for a lasting world peace and efforts to make their descendants no longer live in the shadows. The picture shows the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese tied behind his arms shot and killed more than 300 innocent Chinese people, thrown into the suburban pond. Xinhua News Agency issued

“否认大屠杀历史的情况下何谈‘友好城市’?

 

“Denial of the Holocaust history, what about the ‘friendly city’?”

Kawamura Takayuki, Mayor of Nagoya, Japan on the 20th to receive the delegation from sister city Nanjing, China actually alleging: “The Nanjing Massacre did not happen.” Remark a public outcry. Chinese media in recent days been reports of anti-Japanese messages, Nanjing, the evening of 21 suddenly announced the suspension of the exchange with Nagoya City. Two cities in the establishment of sisterhood relationship in 1978, 34 years of friendly exchanges. Coupled with China and Japan over the Diaoyu Islands (Japan said the sovereignty dispute over the Senkaku Islands) recent resurgence, leading This year marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries’ relations in trouble.

Met the delegation led by Kawamura Takayuki Nanjing Municipal Committee Liu Zhiwei, said: “Indeed there is a conventional fighting behavior, but I think that the massacre did not happen.” He asked: “When the war ended in 1945, my father soldiers in Nanjing, the local Chinese people’s hospitality. the event of the massacre how could this happen? “he added:” If Nanjing seminars, I am willing to participate. ”

The remarks angered the Chinese masses. 22, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said at a news conference: “China has publicly stated the solemn position, while the Japanese side proposed to negotiate serious concerns that the Nanjing made ​​the decision to suspend official contacts with the Nagoya City, we are expressed understanding and support and we will pay close attention to the situation. “Hong Lei also said that on the 21st:” the Nanjing Massacre committed by Japanese militarism in the war of aggression against the atrocities of evidence, the international community has also been conclusion. Japan, certain people should correctly understand and treat that period of history, and earnestly draw lessons from history. “Beijing News” wrote in an editorial on the same day: “Kawamura Takayuki before this openly denied the Nanjing Massacre, but actually on official occasions in front of the sister city delegation, denied that the facts of the Holocaust, there is a ‘provocation’ means that are too difficult to tolerate. “


日本名古屋市长河村隆之20日接待来自姊妹城市中国南京市的访问团时竟称:“南京大屠杀事件并未发生过。”此言一出,舆论哗然。中国媒体连日来不断报道反日消息,南京市21日晚还突然宣布暂停同名古屋市之间的交流。两座城市1978年建立姊妹关系后,34年来一直进行友好交流。再加上中日两国围绕钓鱼岛(日本称尖阁列岛)的主权纠纷最近再度抬头,导致今年迎来建交40周年的两国关系陷入困境。

河村隆之与南京市委常委刘志伟率领的访问团会面时表示:“的确存在常规的战斗行为,但我认为大屠杀事件并未发生过。”他反问道:“1945年战争结束时,我父亲作为日本士兵在南京得到当地中国人的热情招待。如果发生大屠杀事件怎么会这样呢?”他还说:“如果南京市举行讨论会,我愿意参加。”

这番言论激怒了中国群众。中国外交部发言人洪磊22日在新闻发布会上表示:“中方已公开表明严正立场,同时向日方提出交涉表明严重关切。 南京市做出暂停与名古屋市官方交往的决定,我们对此表示理解和支持。我们将密切关注有关事态。”洪磊21日也曾表示:“南京大屠杀是日本军国主义在侵华战争中犯下的残暴罪行,铁证如山,国际社会对此也早有定论。日方某些人士应该正确认识和对待那段历史,切实汲取历史教训。”《新京报》当天在社论中写道:“河村隆之在这之前也公开否认过南京大屠杀,但这次居然在官方场合、当着友好城市访问团的面,否认大屠杀事实,有一种‘挑衅’的意味,实在过分,难以容忍。”

 

南京大屠杀事件是指中日战争期间的193712月,占领中国时首都南京的日本军人

Nanjing Massacre refers to December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War,

Japanese military occupation of China was in Nanjing, the capital o Incident was in December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War,
Occupation of China was the capital of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers killed 300,000 massacre of the Chinese army captured and the public. Photo = Baidu network
The Nanjing Massacre refers to December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War, the occupation of China was the capital city of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers use of fire, arson, buried alive, such as the massacre of 300,000 killed by the Chinese army captured and the public. Japanese ultra-right forces in this proposition “does not exist killings”, the Japanese scholars recognize the massacre that killed the number of 50000-20 000. Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Fujimura repair 22 on the Nanjing Massacre, said: “The existence of non-combatants, killing, looting and other acts, which can not be denied.”

The East China Sea sovereignty dispute over the flames of war. 19,
Japan Coast Guard tracking ship in the waters near the Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea to probe the seabed crustal structure, due to “violation of Chinese territorial waters” was the suppression of the Chinese maritime surveillance vessels. Chinese media reported that Chinese maritime surveillance vessels to stop the measurement of activities of the Japanese tracking ship, the rising of the bilateral territorial dispute in 2010, two years for the first time

事件是指中日战争期间的1937年12月,

占领中国当时首都南京的日本军人杀害中国军队俘虏和市民等30万人的屠杀事件。照片=百度网

南京大屠杀事件是指中日战争期间的1937年12月,占领中国当时首都南京的日本军人利用扫射、放火、活埋等方式杀害中国军队俘虏和市民等30万人的屠杀事件。日本极右势力对此主张“不存在屠杀行为”,承认屠杀的日本学者也认为杀害人数在5万至20万人。日本官房长官藤村修22日就南京大屠杀问题表示:“存在对非战斗人员的杀害、掠夺等行为,这不能否认。”

中国东海的主权纠纷也点燃战火。19日,

日本海上保安厅的测量船在中国东海钓鱼岛附近海域探测海底地壳结构时,因“侵犯中国领海”而遭到中国海上监视船的制止。中国媒体报道称,中国海上监视船制止日本测量船的测量活动,是2010年两国领海纠纷高涨后两年来第一次。

 

 

 

The conscienceless Japan right-wing film deny the Nanjing Massacre
January 25, 2007 11:43:54 Source: WASHINGTON

丧尽天良 日本右翼要拍电影否认南京大屠杀

2007年01月25日 11:43:54  来源:中新网

 

 

南京大屠杀是铁的事实,1937年,在南京被侵华日军杀害的中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人

The Nanjing massacre is a hard fact, in 1937,

 

the Chinese civilians and captured soldiers killed by Japanese invaders in Nanjing over 30 million


December 13, 1937,

the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned tragic, bloody massacre of up to more than 40 days.


The killing of Chinese civilians and captured soldiers in Nanjing over 30 million people. The pain of lost time is, but to remain in the hearts of the Chinese nation is forever. Today, a handful of people in Japan still militarism Evocation, an attempt to distort history. But the historical truth can not be changed, and Japanese people should never forget the innocent people of the 300,000 victims, for a lasting world peace and efforts to make their descendants no longer live in the shadows.
This is the Nanjing Massacre survivors Luo Jin, Xuan Wu risked his life to the preservation of photographs of the Japanese shot killing of Chinese civilians. The picture shows Japanese troops in Nanjing buried alive by our countrymen. Xinhua News Agency issued
 
December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. This is a massacre, a suburb of Nanjing, littered with corpses. Xinhua News Agency issued
Japanese right-wing plans to shoot a deny the 1937 Nanjing Massacre film, the film program will be completed in August this year.
This movie called “Nanjing truth” to get the support of right-wing politicians in Japan, including Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara.
“Truth” of Nanjing director Mizushima told Reuters in a telephone interview, said that currently busy to collect the information of the film. Mizushima said, the film will quote from the conversation of the Japanese soldiers, archives and documents “as”
Does not exist to prove that the Nanjing Massacre.
December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese mass shootings, buried alive, knifed,
Fire and other brutal methods, the bloody massacre of more than 40 days,
The killing of Chinese civilians and captured soldiers in Nanjing over 30 million people. This is after the massacre, numerous bones fill the gully. Xinhua News Agency issued
 
Japanese 65 Wing, the massacre of Chinese prisoners of war.

 

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,

在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。逝者如斯,但留在中华民族心中的伤痛是永远的。今天,日本仍有一小撮人在为军国主义招魂,企图篡改历史。但历史的真相是不能改变的,中日两国人民应当永志不忘那30万遇难者的冤魂,为世界的持久和平而努力,让自己的后代子孙不再生活在阴影之中。

这是南京大屠杀的幸存者罗瑾、吴璇冒死保存下来的日军自己拍摄的残杀中国平民的照片。图为日军在南京活埋我国同胞。 新华社发

 

December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. This is a massacre, a suburb of Nanjing, littered with corpses. Xinhua News Agency issued
Japanese right-wing plans to shoot a deny the 1937 Nanjing Massacre film, the film program will be completed in August this year.
This movie called “Nanjing truth” to get the support of right-wing politicians in Japan, including Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara.
“Truth” of Nanjing director Mizushima told Reuters in a telephone interview, said that currently busy to collect the information of the film. Mizushima said, the film will quote from the conversation of the Japanese soldiers, archives and documents “as”

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。这是大屠杀后,南京郊外尸横遍野。 新华社发

日本右翼计划拍摄一部否认有1937年南京大屠杀事件的电影,该片计划将于今年8月完成。

这部名为《南京的真相》的电影获得日本右翼政治人物的支持,包括东京都知事石原慎太郎。

《南京的真相》的导演水岛在接受路透社的电话访问时说,目前在忙着收集拍电影的资料。水岛说,电影将引述日本老兵的谈话、档案资料和文件“作为根据”,

以证明南京大屠杀事件不存在。

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、

火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,

在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。这是大屠杀后,累累尸骨填满沟壑。  新华社发

 

日军第65联队屠杀中国战俘。

 

 

Japanese 65 Wing, the massacre of Chinese prisoners of war.

 

 

 

日本移民开拓团是负有侵略使命的特殊村落

Japanese immigrants to open up the group is a special village to bear the mission of aggression
August 11, 2011 Source: Social Sciences “August 9, 2011 212: Shujuan browser:
 22 I want to comment font size:

2011年08月11日 来源:《中国社会科学报》2011年8月9日第212期作者:李淑娟 浏览:

22 我要评论 字号:

 

 

 

soldiers of the 1st infantry Division guarding the manchurian border with russia (1937)


japanese soldier giving candy to chinese childrens (peking 1937)

 

 

japanese navy Mitsubishi A5M fighter aircraft pilots smiling after another successful combat mission against the Chinese Air Force (china 1937)

 

 

A Japanese doctor preforming a vivisection on a conscious Chinese man at Unit 731

 

 

从1937年起,

From 1937 onwards,
One million Japanese immigration program was implemented, and begun to implement the first five-year plan.

 

With the puppet Manchukuo by the “law and order in Gansu are” getting into “industrial development” mainly to open up China moved into the purpose of gradually turned to “open up the land, the revitalization of industry and fight for the hearts and minds of Aborigines”.

 

Since then, open up China from the early to ensure law and order for the purpose of “industrial development” and “national harmony” new aggression stage.

 

 

1938

The summer of 1938, my grandmother took the children removed Hong Kong also went to the rear area

 

Since 1938 backDuring the war,

health heart, such as the word “provisional capital” KMT government designated as the Speaker of the Senate of Chongqing, then allegedly circulated that he invented. Kang heart of the long-son-in-law, Zhang Ping group served as the KMT’s Consul General in New York, the second daughter Kang Daisha participated in the leadership of the Communist revolution in 1938.

After doing secret work for the Communist Party in Chongqing. During which she twice received the spies threatening letter, after being kidnapped into prison. His life, my grandfather Li Zhaofu (Bo Shen) she was released on bail (Note 2).

the Li has been no money to buy a house, has staying rental Kang Heart (in Chongqing the consular Lane), Hu Ziang, the preacher of righteousness (located in Chengdu auspicious Street), Zhang Qun Tang style compliance house, living sources mainly rely Li Zhaofu do judge wage, resigned from the judges after his grandfather served as Kang Heart hosted by the president of the National Gazette and the Tang Dynasty style compliance run Nanlin, Dean, Fu Shing Law School professor. Sichuan is about to change hands, Chiang Kai-shek came to Sichuan, appointed Li Zhaofu for the very members of the Committee of the Kuomintang very, but Li Zhaofu refused to work. Chiang Kai-shek and also he went to Taiwan, he refused even to avoid Runan Lin Institute. He also refused to speak the anticommunist broadcast KMT wanted him to do. Later CC camp had sent surveillance Li Zhaofu rumored also to assassinate him.

Sichuan changed hands, the grandfather is still staying home Down compliance. One day home to two people, one of them my father called Lvwu Bo Bo. Lvwu Bo brother Lu Chao, who the KMT join the army long equivalent to Chiang Kai-shek’s largest adjutant, Lvwu Bo’s daughter is the underground Communist party members. Come Lizhao Fu said Liu Bocheng would like to meet with him.

Grandfather answered: “Liu Bocheng Communist Party, the KMT, although I am not Chiang Kai-shek that faction, but, after all, the KMT. Communist Party to see me, your reputation is not good.”

Come to exhort a while, but the grandfather or rejected. Later, Liu Bocheng brought the letter to Li Zhaofu go leather large learning. Lizhao Fu said: “I do not leather, I’m not in politics. Anti-Japanese, my politics, I will not be in politics after the victory in the War of Resistance, or when a university professor or a lawyer, or running a newspaper.”

By marriage Kang Heart moved to Beijing when his grandfather said: “I have porridge, you bowl.” but Li Zhaofu still decided to stay in Sichuan, although he once said: “Which Revolutionary Party, the start was not very good, there are changes then slowly look at ten In two decades, decades to see if it will become like the KMT. “

After the Communist Party seized power in Sichuan,

Hu Ziang do the vice mayor of Chongqing, and Cao Diqiu is secretary. Was not CPPCC National People’s Congress, a meeting to attend as a local squire invited Li Zhaofu. The meeting finished, grandfather to go home to my father and said: “Today I am wrong word, I said that the alliance with Russia,

 

Accommodate, assist the workers and peasants.” Sun Yat-sen’s policy was originally alliance with Russia, Accommodate, assist the workers and peasants, was changed to the associated Russia cooperate to assist the workers and peasants. The next day the newspaper published grandfather’s speeches, has also been changed to the “total”. I

n addition, the grandfather at home, and rarely participate in political activities. Hu Ziang and our family relatives, my grandfather, when the Secretary-General had invited him to do construction director.

But Hu made the official face on some, and later on in the grandfather of the apprehension, was conjecture over the role he played, and the some Sichuan elderly, such as Mao heart, Deng tin Hou, Liu Wenhui mutual affection of my grandfather is still deposit. Tang Dynasty style combat death of compliance with the Communist Party, the grandfather’s house staying to be confiscated, Lijia had moved to the Yu interpersonal Church home. Yu interpersonal Church, but Mao the heart, Deng tin-designate Liu Wenhui and others see Lijia no house to live, have been willing to chip in to help buy a house.

The day my father came home, saw two People’s Liberation Army stood in the doorway. The nominally the confiscation of the property of the Tang Dynasty compliance, but also copied my home. They took away two contacts, old books, there is one to be appointed Li Zhaofu “the very members” the letter. At this point the authorities are no longer able to tolerate Li Zhaofu uncooperative.( du xinxin)

 

The spring of 1939,

Shichang suffering from cystitis, doctors recommend the treatment to Beijing, Shichang due to fear of abduction of Japanese, insist not, then died. Age of 85. At that time the national government ordered the compliment: Shichang, country Nestor, hope re-group ethics. Bugnein break of in Tianjin, a leisurely Road, Su. Kou Pro North, despite repeated threats and inducements think, succeed chisel conspiracy, independence can be unyielding, stern sobriety light wind section, the know with the Chin … …

Looking Shichang life, he is certainly not a revolutionary, political character is also not perfect, but he inherited the fine traditional intellectual spirit, knowledgeable, and the implementation of the New Deal, who loves his country, uphold peace and respect for nature, neither general politicians can be boring after more non-acquisitiveness Dong mind that the soldier dead weight, disastrous than the old warlords

In 1939,

 

Li Zhaofu was elected provisional Parliament Speaker of Sichuan Province, in 1940 he was named Secretary General of the Sichuan Provincial Government. His re-designated as a story.

 

The War of Resistance Against Japan,

 

the KMT retreated to Sichuan. Initial Sichuan local forces, the KMT central potential micro Chiang Kai-shek pro Chairman of Sichuan Province. Later, Chiang’s forces gradually increases, then resigned as governor of the province. The local forces of the Kuomintang central Sichuan is still not assured,

 

then Chief Dean Chang Chun Chiang Kai-shek on the delegate to serve as governor of the province. Sichuan warlord Zhang Qun said: “If you want me to do the governor of the province, we must Libo Shen when the Secretary-General, otherwise clash.

 

The Chiang Kai Li Zhaofu hit three telegraph last a very blunt. The telegram said party elder, alliance members, what you can mention, now is the people of the War of Resistance Against Japan, you do not come out inappropriate. So Li Zhaofu promised coming out, but made it clear beforehand: “as long as the end of the war, I will resign.”

 

Was Sichuan Province, both negative base for the war, the soldiers, the amount of food is more important than the provinces, “Li Zhaofu addition to strong coordination of the relationship between the central government and the provincial government at the time, also in February 1940, jointly with representatives of the gentry grain Yan Chang-ling et al call at that time the highest departments of Sichuan and the provincial government budget year more than $ 100 million protested.

 

The requirements of the central body China sufferings, verify austerity budget, explicitly dismiss all a matter of no great urgency, to serve traumatic deep river of people have been slightly Su respite. (H) In the meantime, his grandfather also have a number of part-time when most people chief part-time salary, but he not only refused to part-time, and obligations of individual companies in Sichuan Province Aviation Construction Committee and chairman.
Grandfather served as Provincial Secretary-General, Zhang Qun encountered a tricky thing to let him come forward to deal with.(Du Xinxin)

 

 

 

   

In the final stage (1944-1945),

the United States provided massive assistance to Nationalist China, but the Chongqing government, weakened by inflation, impoverishment of the middle class, and low troop morale was unable to take full advantage of it. Feuds among the KMT generals and between Chiang and his United States military adviser, General Joseph Stilwell, further hampered the KMT. (The Photo is of the Marco Polo Bridge)

    When Japanese defeat became a certainty in the spring of 1945, the Communists seemed in a better position to take over from the Japanese garrisons than the KMT, which was far away in the rear of the formation. A United States airlift of KMT troops enabled them to occupy many cities, but the countryside stayed with the Communists.

By the end of October 1944,

the the Chengdu downtown student protests. Chengdu Mayor Yu Zhongying send police station rectangular ultra personally led the police to the repression and the wounding of more than thirty students, arresting more than forty.

 

November 11,

 

Chengdu broke out parade of students thousands of people to protest against government atrocities. Zhang Qun afraid to meet with students, and then send the grandfather go. Said that his car passed, the student said: “Li old man’s car, do not stand in his.”

 

Then Sichuan to open Parliament left, right, some Kuomintang rightists often provocative oppress NLD, as Speaker of the Li Zhaofu often requirements to protect the leftist, restrained by the rightists.

 

The Li Gongpu and smell more than one memorial service on behalf of Li Zhaofu Zhang Qun to attend. Said Xu Qi Mullington spies mixed with the venue to collect blacklist and wounded Zhang Lan memorial service, and therefore subject to social pressure. Lee Xu Qi, Xu uses the “central directives to stall and asked his grandfather managed to” resting flat on the matter questioned. Li Zhaofu in office, had to bail Kang Daisha released from prison, and Ying Yang Shuming, and Luo Yuhan request personal bail Luo Guangbin call to the authorities. Yan’an Kang Daisha was released from prison after the Go. CCP has after she was working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in Cambodia and Romania.

    After the end of World War II in Europe

in May 1945,

the Allied war effort moved to the east. The Soviet Union joined the war against Japan at the end of July. On August 6 and 9 the United States dropped the world’s first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On Aug. 14, 1945, the Japanese surrendered. In China, however, civil war raged over who should take charge of the Japanese arms and equipment. At the end of August an agreement was reached in Chongqing between a CCP delegation and the KMT, but the truce was brief.

    In January 1946 a cease-fire was negotiated by United States General George C. Marshall. The Nationalist government returned to Nanjing, and China was recognized by the new United Nations as one of the five great powers. The United States supplied the Chiang government with an additional $2 billion ($1.5 billion had been spent for the war). Although the KMT’s dominance in weapons and supplies was enormous, it was kept under guard in the cities, while the Communists held the surrounding countryside. As inflation soared, both civilians and the military became demoralized. The CCP, sensing the national mood, proposed a coalition government. The KMT refused, and fighting erupted again.

The short and decisive civil war that followed was resolved in two main places: Manchuria and the Huai River area. Despite a massive airlift of KMT forces by the United States, Manchuria was lost in October 1948 after 300,000 KMT forces surrendered to the CCP. By the end of 1948 the KMT had lost over half a million men, more than two thirds of whom had defected. In April 1949 the Communists moved south of the Yangtze. (Photo: The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City; the imposing structure directly faced the Presidential Building, was seen as a symbol of the party’s wealth and dominance.)

After the fall of Nanjing and Shanghai, KMT resistance evaporated. By the autumn, the Communists had taken all mainland territories except Tibet. Chiang Kai-shek and a number of his associates fled to the island of Taiwan, where they set up what they claimed was the rightful government of China.

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS ( CONTINIU)

THIS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CDROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

1930

2 August 1930
Mukden
Republic of China

Colonel Seishiro Itagaki and Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara had spent a long time planning this and tonight it would come to fruition, they had no choice but to act. Itagaki had received word that the Minister for War, Jiro Minami had dispatched a general to curb what he called ‘insubordination and militarist behaviour’ of the Kwangtung Army. The irony of it was that both of them considered themselves true patriots. Both of them had put a great deal of planning into this. A secret artillery bunker had been constructed over the last several months and disguised to look like a swimming complex, so that when the time came they could initiate a fire fight with Chinese troops and make it seem as if they were the aggressors. As both of the plotters waited at the officer’s club where the artillery was hidden, another soldier who believed in their cause was planting the explosives that would start everything off.

Lieutenant Hiro Sakamoto of the 29th Infantry Regiment had just finished placing the last of the explosives that would hopefully start the chain reaction needed for Japan to seize Manchuria. Hiro stood back and examined them for several seconds to make sure everything was ready. He had placed the explosives near to a small Japanese barracks and he had also placed the first set near the tracks of the South Manchuria Railway. He had placed them far away enough so that no real damage would occur and by the morning the Chinese would hopefully be under attack.

As he turned around to walk to his place to detonate them someone called out “Who’s there?” in Japanese.
Hiro froze, unsure what to do. It was clearly a soldier from the barracks and his discovery next to the explosives would be hard to explain. He thought as fast as he could and then decided. In the dark the soldier didn’t see him draw out his knife and he responded in a friendly voice.
The other soldier stepped forward when he realised it was another of his own and Hiro stabbed him as quickly as he could several times. The man dropped to the ground, with no sound but a quiet gurgling which soon stopped after half a minute. Hiro ran towards the detonation point as quickly as he could. If anything the dead soldier would simply add believability to the story that the Chinese had attacked the barracks. Hiro reached his destination and slammed his hand down on the detonator.
[1]


Seishiro Itagaki and Kanji Ishiwara, the instigators of the Manchurian Incident.


Site of the explosion at the South Manchuria Railway, which provided the spark for the invasion of Manchuria.

From ‘The Complete Second World War, Volume 1: The Opening Moves, From Manchuria to Yugoslavia’
By Robert Keegan
© 1985, Coleman Publishing Group, St Louis, USA

Japan’s desire for land and resources would have to come at the expense of a weaker nation, and China had become that nation in the eyes of most Japanese militarists. Despite the size of the Chinese armies and the advances that had come in Kuomintang military they were still far behind Japan, whose own forces were the most advanced in Asia. This was well known in Japan and combined with the historical victory they had achieved in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1896, led many Japanese officers to believe that China would not put up much of a fight for Manchuria. The IJA was eager to flex its muscles and there was much contempt among the army for the government of Hamaguchi Osachi, which had failed to manage the hardships brought on by the Great Depression and also faced accusations of selling national security by agreeing to the London Naval Treaty. Osachi continued to oppose the militarists, but his assassination on 27 June 1930 put the final nail in the coffin for Japanese diplomacy and peace.

Despite the close timing of the assassination to the Manchurian Incident, they were not part of any elaborate conspiracy, although the soldiers involved in both shared similar views. Osachi’s assassin, Inichi Hosukawa, was a member of Aikoku-sha, one of the many nationalist secret societies that had sprung up among the Japanese armed forces (others included the Black Dragon Society, the Cherry Blossom Society and the Double Leaf Society) while the Manchurian instigators were not part of these societies, simply radical members of the Kwantung Army. Theses plotters had been planning an incident near Mukden for some time, in order to seize Manchuria for Japan, and with Hamguchi’s assassination they simply moved up their timetable as the opportunity had presented itself. After all they could not be sure if his successor would curb their activities or not. Carrying out the incident earlier than planned had two important effects, one it meant that the forces for invading Manchuria were not as prepared as they would have been and this gave Zhang Xueliang time to concentrate his units that were stationed north of the Great Wall. It also ensured that there was less time to woo certain Northeastern Army generals to the Japanese side. This meant that Zhang Xueliang was able to mount a stubborn, if short resistance and he made the Japanese pay in lives for every inch of Manchuria they took.


Hamaguchi Osachi, the confusion following his assassination allowed the Kwangtung Army free reign in Manchuria

6 August 1930
Mukden

Zhang Xueliang angrily slammed down the phone, almost breaking it in the process. Major General Feng Zhanhai flinched slightly as he did so, but calmly asked “Sir, what are Nanjing’s orders?”
“Those weak shit heads want me to ‘withdraw’ to a secure, defensive position” said Zhang shaking his head. “To hell with that” he said defiantly “they may have flashier force than ours, but I’m going to make them pay hell for invading us. If they want Manchuria they’ll have to pay for it dearly.”
Zhang Xueliang wasn’t going to retreat. His father hadn’t retreated in battle and he wouldn’t either. If the Japanese wanted a fight he would give it to them

 

 

Headline from Central Daily News
Nanjing, 12 September 1930

 

Young Tiger [2] Lives Up To Father’s Legacy,
Stalls Japanese Army At Mukden.



General Zhang Xueliang, the ‘Young Tiger’, disobeyed orders and fought the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

[1] Jiro Minami was appointed as War Minister earlier than OTL due to butterflies and Itagaki and Ishiwara have correspondingly taken action about a year earlier. In OTL Minami sent Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to counter the independent ambitions of the Kwantung Army in 1931 but he was slack and was in an alcohol-induced sleep when the railway explosion of the Mukden Incident happened. Despite the change of timing and exact circumstances the officers were fanatics prepared to do anything they could to bring Manchuria under Japanese rule, so an incident is still likely to happen.

[2] In OTL Zhang was in Beijing at the time of the incident, helping refugees from the Yangtze River floods and he obeyed Nanjing’s orders to not offer the Japanese resistance. This earned him the nickname ‘General Nonresistance’ in the newspapers and among the populace

 

A Crouching Tiger.

 

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15 September 1930
Mukden
Republic of China

Lieutenant Bei Xing ducked as another rattle of bullet fire rang out. He was the last survivor of his unit. The Japanese had finally penetrated the last area of the city held by the Chinese and they would now have no choice but to retreat. An exploding artillery shell nearby, almost knocked him off his feet and he was showered with dust. He looked up above the makeshift barrier to see Japanese soldiers advancing through the street. With only himself left, there was no chance on stopping the Japanese from marching straight to General Zhang’s command further behind him, he needed to get back and warn them!

But from behind him he heard shouts and the sounds of running boots. He turned his head briefly to see the general’s personal guard unit coming down the street and start firing at the Japanese. Bei was deeply encouraged by this sight and he joined them, coming out from his cover and fired his rifle off at the now scattering Japanese soldiers. After some time most of the soldiers had been driven back and a few were left injured on the ground. The artillery fire had ceased as well, indicating that the Japanese had slowed down their offensive in this part of the city.
As he looked up he saw a car approaching the battle site. It was General Zhang! The car slowed down and Bei could see that it had mounted guns on the side. Even when traveling it seemed the general was prepared for fighting! It stopped as it reached the soldiers and the general spoke to his men.
“You did well here, that will buy us some time, but we can’t hold the city any longer. The Japanese have overrun our positions on both the eastern and western sides of the city, we can’t hold it any longer. I’m going to personally order the remaining positions to pull back and we’re going to join General Ma’s force further south.”
Then the car left and the men started clearing the sit in an orderly manner.
“Soldier?”
“Uh…yes” said Bei somewhat in a daze as his mind processed everything.
“Thank you for your help. Where’s the rest of your unit?”
“All dead sir.”
“I see. Well you best report to Colonel Wujiang at the Southern command centre, I’m sure he’ll be able to assign you a unit. It’s only a few streets that way” and the man pointed behind Bei, who nodded.
“Best hurry though, they’ll begin evacuating soon and you don’t want to be caught in the city when the Japanese finally take it over.”
Bei saluted the man and started making his way through the now mostly empty streets. He could hardly believe he had seen the Young Tiger up close. Just the feeling of that had reinvigorated him, he felt like he could face the Japanese again, with General Zhang on their side, they would eventually push them out of Manchuria.


Japanese troops at the Battle of Mukden.

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

While the Japanese soldiers that prepared for the invasion of Manchuria had planned well for some time, there were certain aspects of the suspected ‘walkover’ campaign that they had overlooked. They had fully expected to drive the Chinese garrison at Mukden out immediately, and that the Chinese would rapidly flee before them without putting up much resistance. Initially it may seem ludicrous that less than a thousand Japanese soldiers could make several thousand of the enemy retreat, but this assessment had some merit, as the Nanking government did initially decide not to resist the Japanese invasion, but this policy was reversed when General Zhang Xueliang made the decision to fight for Mukden. Secondly, even if the Japanese could not push occupy Mukden quickly the Kwantung Army was ready to be transported there by rail, and reinforcements began arriving at the city by the 10 August. The Japanese also had much knowledge of the Northeastern Army, due to Zhang Zuolin’s ties to Japan and many of the Chinese forces in Manchuria were underequipped, poorly trained and lacking in loyalty and morale, while the Kwantung Army was one of the best that Japan could field.

But General Zhang’s resistance decision, threw a wrench into their plans for a quick taking of Mukden to secure a stable base for the rest of the invasion. Zhang had fortunately been in Mukden at the time of the incident and seeing the Japanese invade what had been his father’s land for so long was too much for him to run from. He ignored his orders from Li Zongren on the morning of 3 August, 1930. He organised his troops as the Japanese began moving into the city and with his sheer presence of personality, encouraged his soldiers to fight as hard as they could. He had no air force to call on though, it had been relatively small and Japanese planes had taken out the airfield long before he could issue any orders to it. His army held the Japanese in position for several days until Japanese reinforcements started arriving from Korea and they pushed further into the city. Zhang decided to make the battle for Manchuria hinge on Mukden and concentrated his forces there, even removing some form northern Manchuria. This made him a hero in the eyes of most Chinese, as he was successfully holding the Japanese invasion back, eventually President Wang ordered that more troops should be sent to support his forces. While this may have made things seem rosy the reality was different from the perception. The Northeastern Army had been holding back the Japanese at Mukden at a huge cost in casualties and supplies, in fact several units had begun running out of ammunition. Additionally Zhang’s concentration of forces at Mukden had led to Japanese seizures of many of the outlying areas of Manchuria. By early September the Kwantung Army reinforcements had taken the Liaodong Peninsula and most of the main rail lines giving them the advantage of being able to transport their forces faster. In the north several Chinese generals decided to rebel against the Republican government and collaborate with the Japanese, Xi Qia and Zhang Jinghui [1]. The IJA 7th Infantry Division and these rebel Chinese forces quickly took many of the towns in the north and east and then prepared to march on Harbin.

Eventually even Zhang had to admit that Mukden could no longer be held and pulled the last units out on 16 September, making a retreat to Harbin. In the north General Ma Zhanshan had been fighting a retreat back to Harbin and he arrived there a few days after Zhang where consolidated there forces and prepared to make another stand against the Japanese. The Japanese were rapidly marching through Manchuria and taking most of the small towns, but were constantly besieged by the members of the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, who were conducting guerrilla warfare against them. By the time the Defence of Harbin had begun the total casualties for both sides were: China: 17,890, Japan: 4990, and the Japanese had begun to become weary of fighting of what they called ‘bandits’, they were eager to engage the bulk of the Chinese armies at Harbin. Harbin was the final stand for the Chinese forces, thought it was a battle that would last for nearly three months and require more of the Chosen Army to be brought in from Korea. The IJA 2nd Division’s aggressive tactics were what finally pushed the Chinese out of Harbin and a good deal of the defenders were encircled and trapped in the city to end up as prisoners [2], many of them fated to end up in the infamous Unit 891 [3].

-Timeline of the Invasion of Manchuria

 

By the mid-1930s

the Japanese had seized Inner Mongolia and parts of northeastern China and had created the North China Autonomous Region with no resistance from the Nationalists. Anti-Japanese sentiment mounted in China, but Chiang ignored it and in 1936 launched yet another extermination campaign against the Communists in Shaanxi. Chiang was forced to give up the anti-Communist drive when his troops mutinied and arrested him as he arrived in Xi’an in December 1936 to plan strategy. He was released after he agreed to form a united front with the CCP against the Japanese, who were making steady inroads into China.

1930
2 August
Mukden Incident-explosion set by radical Japanese soldiers gives the IJA a pretext to begin an invasion of Manchuria, General Shigeru Honjo, commander of the Kwantung Army, tacitly approves it.

3 August
General Zhang Xueliang disobeys orders and begins fighting the Japanese. Battle of Mukden begins as the IJA 2nd Division attacks Chinese forces in Mukden.

6 August
Stubborn Chinese resistance, prompts call of reinforcements to Mukden

10 August
Kwantung and Chosen Army reinforcements arrive at Mukden.

20 August-8 September
The Kwangtung Army marches through Manchuria seizing Liaoning and many of the towns in eastern Manchuria.

16 September
Zhang Xueliang’s forces retreat from Mukden as the Japanese finally seize the city.

3 October
General Xi Qia defects to Japan and seizes towns in Heilongjiang province, his forces clash with those of General Ma Zhanshan.

26 October
Ma Zhanshan finally begins retreating after fighting back numerous Japanese and Chinese troops, he makes for Harbin to join with Zhang Xueliang.

18 November
Battle of Harbin begins

28 November
The League of Nations proposes a ceasefire and a neutral zone in Manchuria. Both sides agree to talks, but fighting at Harbin continues.

10 December
The Japanese government is in crisis and Prime Minster Wakatsuki resigns. His replacement is Sadao Araki, who managed to manipulate the crisis to his advantage. He breaks off talks with the Kuomintang government and sends additional reinforcements to Manchuria.

1931

1931

 

29 January
General Zhang Xueliang retreats from Harbin, his army pursued by Japanese aircraft.

4 February
The League of Nations issues the Jones Report [4], following which the Japanese officially withdraw from the League of Nations.

12 February
Zhang Xueliang is given a hero’s welcome in Nanjing. The Nanjing government has decided to discontinue fighting the Japanese in Manchuria, although they refuse to recognise any puppet government.

23 February
The independent state of Manchukuo is declared, with former emperor Puyi, declared head of state, though he has little real power.


Statue of General Zhang Xueliang in Harbin (1984), the Republic of China’s first recipient of the newly created Order of Blue Sky and White Sun [5].

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young Tiger [2] Lives Up To Father’s Legacy,
Stalls Japanese Army At Mukden.



General Zhang Xueliang, the ‘Young Tiger’, disobeyed orders and fought the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

 

japanese army officer being transported by motorcycle (manchuria 1931)

 

japanese soldiers in under roof of a burning house (manchuria 1931)


[1] Jiro Minami was appointed as War Minister earlier than OTL due to butterflies and Itagaki and Ishiwara have correspondingly taken action about a year earlier. In OTL Minami sent Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to counter the independent ambitions of the Kwantung Army in 1931 but he was slack and was in an alcohol-induced sleep when the railway explosion of the Mukden Incident happened. Despite the change of timing and exact circumstances the officers were fanatics prepared to do anything they could to bring Manchuria under Japanese rule, so an incident is still likely to happen.

[2] In OTL Zhang was in Beijing at the time of the incident, helping refugees from the Yangtze River floods and he obeyed Nanjing’s orders to not offer the Japanese resistance. This earned him the nickname ‘General Nonresistance’ in the newspapers and among the populace

Japanese troops entering Changchun.

[1] Zhang Haipeng also collaborated in OTL in return for military supplies, but here the lack of a Central Plains War has meant that he has far more military supplies and Zhang Xueliang’s resistance has convinced him to remain with the Kuomintang government.

[2] Somewhat like a mini-version of Stalingrad, thought the roles are reversed with the invaders being the ones who manage the encirclement and the defenders running out of food, ammo and supplies.

[3] TTL Unit 731.

[4] Similar to OTL Lytton Report.

[5] This is a military award established in 1929. Although in TTL it is the highest military order that can be given out as opposed to becoming the second highest to the Order of National Glory.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

I wonder–could that be his late father’s custom-made Packard, which came with side-mounted machine guns?

 

After Japan’s defeat,

the U.S. military has become the occupation forces in Japan, the Emperor of Japan from God to fight back who tore off the mask of the Emperor, breaking Japan’s Emperor of monotheism. Control of U.S. occupation troops, after decades of rapid development, Japan, became an economic power, all the small Japanese words providers do business, own army can only be called Self-Defense Forces.
So-called Japanese, the so-called Japanese family name is to survive on a desert island for thousands of years, bully, with duplicity, selfish and hypocritical, submissive servility serious speculative psychological metamorphosis of the nation!

 

11. White Sun Politicians.

 

 

 

1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100


March,31th/1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931 (Mar.) printed Japanese postal card posted on sea voyage, from Tsingtau to address in Osaka, franked with 2¢ yellow green Junk issue postmarked Shimonoseki/Japan Mar 1931 with “Paquebot” enclosed in wavy line cancel, with oblong frame handstamp “Received dated and numbered #1275”, unusual, F.-V.F Realized HK$ 2,400

April,14th. 1931

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1931 (Apr 14) incoming airmail cover from Berlin to Peiping, bearing German airmail issues Scott C28, C29 and C31 with Peiping receiver alongside, lightly toned. Realized HK$ 3,400

 

15 July 1931
Nanjing
Republic of China

Four of the most important and powerful men in China were gathered together in a lavish room. Wang Jingwei, President of the Republic was seated in a chair at one end of the room next to a large fireplace.
“How can we continue to oppose them? Zhang fought as best as he could but even outnumbering them didn’t help. We have to face it, the Japanese military is far more advanced than any of our forces, in both tactics and technology” he stated.
General Li Zongren, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, bristled at the implication of the quality of his forces but he knew he the president wasn’t wrong. Standing next to him was the Premier Sun Fo, the son of Sun Yat-Sen, Wang had asked him to attend the meeting anyway since he wanted his input. The title of premier meant that Sun was head of the Executive Yuan, which in theory made him the head of government, but in reality Wang had taken over much of the affairs of that branch in his capacity as president and this meant the government was now leaning more towards a presidential republican system, with the president acting as head of state and head of government in the one role [1].

Sun tried to counter Wang’s argument.
“But the people are demanding we take action. The newspapers are still lauding Zhang as a hero and some of the northern towns [2] are half empty from volunteers joining the resistance army. How can we do nothing?”
“I know, but aside from keeping the resistance as well supplied as we can there’s not much else I can think of until we hear back from Koo. Unless you have any suggestions general?” said Wang turning to Li.

Li rubbed his chin and said “The Japanese have control of the major cities everywhere east of a rough line from Jinzhou to Daqing. Zhang pulled his army back to Shanhaiguan [3] and ordered General Wan Fulin to hold as long as he can if the Japanese advance any further while he is here. For now it seems as if the Japanese are not intending on pushing to take any more of Manchuria. Personally I think they’re on the brink of overstretching themselves with what they have and they’re trying to solidify their hold on it. But that isn’t to say they can’t bring in more reinforcements from Korea and their home islands, if we decided to retake our territory. I’ve had a few reports that General Chao has managed to beat back several Japanese attacks near Songyuan, but he wasn’t able to hold the city. Further north General Ma is waging a guerrilla war and gathering as many of the volunteers as he can. Zhang is planning on sending in more troops and supplies to support him. Mr President I believe the best action we can take is to drain the Japanese armies in a slow fight, exactly what is beginning to happen now. If we move any conventional forces north they may declare a complete war and attack us with everything they have.”
“And you think we couldn’t beat them?” asked Kong Xiangxi, or H H Kung as he was known to his Western friends, the Minister of Industry [4], Kong was high in the Kuomintang government, but his world view was based on money matters, not military and so it was only natural for him to simply look at the numbers and assume China had the advantage.
“At the moment we’re still dealing with communist forces in the countryside, not to mention the two regions under their control. To fight them and the Japanese at the same time would stretch the our forces to the breaking point” replied Li. “The best thing I can think of is to send some of the more experienced intelligence troops to join up with Ma and Chao in order to help train their forces and coordinate supplies to move north.”
Wang said “I agree general. Despite the advances we’ve made on the last few years, our army is not ready to take on a foreign power, some of the more independent minded governors would probably keep their forces in their own region, under the guise of protecting it from any Japanese incursions.”
Damned warlords thought Li Zongren. Despite most of the issues between the Kuomintang and the former warlords being settled, they were still very independent minded and ruled over their assigned provinces with complete authority. While this meant that there was rarely trouble in those regions, the government could not always count on them to provide the soldiers that might be needed for operations.
Still thought Li better to keep them happy than order them around until they decided to fight back.

Things had almost reached that point a few years ago, but a series of meetings and agreements between Wang and the warlords had prevented an actual war from breaking out. Once that had been settled Li focused on fighting the communists, but they were hard to eliminate. The bulk of them were holed up in mountainous strongholds and even a large enough army would have trouble dislodging them, while the rest were scattered across the entire country in guerrilla bands that were difficult to catch. The German trained military intelligence had been very useful in tracking many of them down, but they always somehow managed to find new recruits amongst the peasant and farmers. Li was concerned that the communists in the north would get even more recruits because of the Japanese which is why he wanted to send Colonel Lin Jiazhou there. He was his best intelligence officer and would ensure the insurgency against the Japanese would be a Kuomintang driven one rather than communist driven.

Wang continued “I am still concerned about the communists, which is why I don’t want to order a full campaign to retake Manchuria. So until we hear back from-“
There was a knock at the door and Wang said “Come in.”
Wang’s assistant opened the door and held it aside for Gu Weijun [5] to enter. Gu had adopted the Western name of Wellington, since he spent much of his time in other nations and had been involved in the formation of the League of Nations, whose decision Gu had been waiting to hear about before he attended the current meeting.
He placed his hat on the rack next to the door and slowly walked towards the other four men. Wang could tell the outcome by the look on Gu’s face.

Gu shook his head and said “It’s no good Jingwei. Aside from military action against Japan, which is not going to happen, there is little they can or will do. By rights they should have put sanctions on them, but even if they did it would matter little to Japan, since they have now withdrawn from the League themselves.”
Wang shook his head “We have to face it. They don’t care about problems.
“Oh they all care! They care so much, they’ll debate it for hours and hours, but never actually do anything!” shouted Sun.
Wang let him calm down for a few seconds before continuing “Li we’ll implement your plan for placing intelligence soldiers in Manchuria. Make sure you get Bauer’s input on the operation, after all his men trained those soldiers. In the mean time I am ordering the current north-eastern forces to maintain position, if we can’t push the Japanese back, we can make damned sure they don’t progress any further.”
There was another knock at the door, this time it sounded far more urgent. Wang told whoever it was to enter. It was his assistant again.
“Sorry to interrupt sir, but there is urgent news. The Japanese have landed troops near Shanghai and sent the city’s mayor an ultimatum”
Wang frowned, Shanghai had become a hotbed since the invasion of Manchuria, with numerous incidents reported against Japanese citizens. He turned to General Li.
“General I want you to head to Shanghai personally, if this gets out of hand I need you there.”
“Yes sir” replied Li “I’ll take the 3rd Army with me.” The others knew what that meant Li had formed the 3rd Army himself from a solid core of German-trained troops and Guangxi Clique veterans, if any force could stop an invasion of Shanghai it would be that one.


Key figures in the Kuomintang government-1931, from left to right; Premier Sun Fo, Minister of Industry H. H. Kung and Minister of Foreign Affairs Wellington Koo.

Part of President Wang Jingwei’s famous Nanjing Address of

20 July 1931.

“At this great turning point in history, the National Government should make clear to the people of China and of the whole world the main objectives in its policy of realizing national independence and completing the National Revolution. We shall then be able to co-operate more wholeheartedly and fulfill our mission more effectively. We fervently hope that security in China and peace in the world may be permanently established. With this thought in mind I today make the following statement.

The aim of our National Revolution is two-fold. In our relations with other nations we seek national independence and freedom. Within the nation we seek equality for all racial groups. For forty years we have faced the ever-growing menace of Japanese aggression. Therefore the main emphasis of our national revolutionary movement is upon consolidating the strength of all our racial groups. We knew that we must unite in resisting foreign aggression if we are to attain national independence and freedom.

We have three most important goals and the attainment of these constitute our most urgent tasks.
First, we must continue the National Revolution as the legacy handed down to us by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
Second, we have to regain our sovereign rights in the Northeastern Provinces and re-establish territorial and administrative integrity there.
And third, we must continue to resist aggression against our nation in all of its forms. While a specific example is the aggression of the Empire of Japan in our province of Manchuria and intimidations near Shanghai, this includes any other form of aggression against our rightful government. The communist bandits that seek to destabilise the nation we have been building and their Soviet backers [6], as well as the Western nations that think we must still accept their demands in our cities, when our people are under attack [7].


Wang shortly after the 20 July Nanjing Address, he dressed in uniform to inspire the crowd.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria and new puppet nation of Manchukuo had divided the Kuomintang government. Whilst a majority of them wanted to bring the army north in order to push the Japanese out of rightful Chinese territory, many realised that it was easier said than done. The Japanese were looking for any excuse to launch more attacks at China and the Shanghai Incident is a reflection of this. President Wang spoke several times to crowds after the invasion of Manchuria, the general population had a n angry attitude towards Japan and he wanted to prevent anything happening in Shanghai, but his words were not enough to calm things down.
Wang sent reinforcements to the 6th and 88th Army stationed near the city under the command of Li Zongren himself, after hearing of Japan’s landing of forces. Despite wanting to avoid any further expansion of conflict, Wang had some hopes that the Japanese would launch an attack, since it would mean they would be seen in an even worse light than they already were by the rest of the world. Things eventually came to a head on the 27 July 1931.

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, by Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House, Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The Battle of Shanghai (1931), also known as the Shanghai Incident began on the 27 July. Japanese troops attacked various targets just before dawn as well as bombing parts of Shanghai with naval planes. In response Li Zongren ordered the 3rd Army and the 19th Route Army to counter-attack the Japanese, while he kept the 5th Army in defensive positions inside the centre of the city. The fierce fighting soon spread to most of the eastern parts of Shanghai and the stubborn resistance prompted the Japanese to bring in reinforcements. Two weeks later the Japanese had landed two more divisions, bringing their troop numbers up to 100,000 and nearly 100 ships as well as a substantial air force. Li requested for China’s meagre air force to be brought in to support the infantry, which Wang quickly authorised.

The Japanese infantry forces managed to penetrate into the city as a far as and stopped when they were attacked by the entrenched Special Brigade commanded by General Hu. Intense fighting in the district lasted for six days before the Japanese withdrew, when they were in danger of running out of ammunition. After another week of fighting around the city General Shirakawa finally called back all forces under direct orders from Prime Minister Araki. Though neither side had really won, the Chinese had pushed the Japanese from Shanghai, albeit at a great cost, the 3rd had borne the brunt of the fighting and some of it’s units had taken more than sixty percent casualties. Li Zongren’s precious hardened core of the NRA was decimated.

The Incident is noteworthy because it marked one of the few occasions during the Second Sino-Japanese War that Chinese numbers were lower than the Japanese and they were able to achieve victory [8].

Fig. 9. Order of Battle during the Shanghai Incident 1931.

Japan
Shanghai Expeditionary Army – Gen. Yoshinori Shirakawa
Lieutenant- Gen. Kanichiro Tashiro – Chief of Staff

Army Troops:
Mixed Regiment Medium Artillery –
3 Batteries 150mm Howitzers, 12 guns, horse drawn.
2 Batteries 100mm guns, 8 guns, horse drawn.

Army Air Service:
3 Bomber Squadrons
1 Pursuit Squadron (Nieuports)
1 Reconnaissance Squadron

24th Mixed Brigade –
2nd Battalion / 14th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 24th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 46th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 48th Infantry Regiment
2nd Battalion / 3rd Independent Mountain Gun Regiment
2nd Company / 18th Engineer Battalion

9th Division – General Uyeda
2nd Independent Tank Company – Captain Shigemi
5 Type 89 Medium Tanks, 10 Renault NC27 Tanks
Cavalry Detachment
Battalion 150mm Howitzers
Heavy Siege Gun Unit, (6 150mm Mortars)
6th Infantry Brigade
7th Infantry Regiment
35th Infantry Regiment
18th Infantry Brigade
19th Infantry Regiment
36th Infantry Regiment
9th Mountain Artillery Regiment
9th Cavalry Regiment

11th Division – General Koto
10th Infantry Brigade
12th Infantry Regiment
22nd Infantry Regiment
22nd Infantry Brigade
43rd Infantry Regiment
44th Infantry Regiment
11th Mountain Artillery Regiment
11th Cavalry Regiment
11th Engineer Regiment
11th Army Service Detachment

14th Division – General Matsuki
27th Infantry Brigade
2nd Infantry Regiment
59th Infantry Regiment
28th Infantry Brigade
15th Infantry Regiment
50th Infantry Regiment
20th Field Artillery Regiment
18th Cavalry Regiment
14th Engineer Regiment
14th Battalion of Army Service Corps

3rd Fleet – Vice Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura
34 warships including:
Kirishima, Kongō class battlecruiser
Yura, Nagara class cruiser
Tenryū, Tenryū class cruiser
Mutsuki, Mutsuki class destroyer
1st Koku-sentai (Carrier Division)
Carrier Kaga (flagship)
Nakajima A1N fighters
Mitsubishi B1M bombers
Carrier Hōshō
9 Nakajima A1N2 fighters
3 Mitsubishi B2M bombers
3 Mitsubishi C1M Type 10 reconnaissance aircraft
Shanghai SNLF (Captain Samejima) *[2000men]
1st Battalion (Including Sasebo 1st SNLF)
2nd Battalion (Former Kure 1st SNLF)
3rd Battalion (Former Sasebo 2nd SNLF)
4th Battalion (Former Sasebo 3rd SNLF)
5th Battalion (Former Yokosuka 1st SNLF)
7th Battalion (Former Yokosuka 2nd SNLF)
Armed reservists and Ronin, agents 3000 men
Total Naval forces in Shanghai 5000 men

China

Shanghai Front – Commander in Chief, Gen. Li Zongren

3rd Army – Gen. He Yingqin
38th Division –
75th Brigade
Special Brigade – Gen. Hu Wei-an
50th Division – Gen. Li Bao
109th Brigade
110th Brigade
55th Division – Gen. Ma Changbo
114th Brigade
115th Brigade

19th Route Army – Gen. Chiang Kuang-Nai
60th Division – Gen. Shen Kwan-han
119th Brigade
120th Brigade
61st Division – Gen. Mao Weh-hsu
121st Brigade
122nd Brigade
78th Division – Gen. Shu Zu-nien
155th Brigade
156th Brigade
3 Chinese armored trains (500men)
Woosung Forts Garrison (2,000 men)

5th Army – Gen. Chang Chih-chung
87th Division – Gen. Lau Ching-yueh
174th Brigade
175th Brigade
88th Division – Gen. Yu Tsi-shih
176th Brigade
177th Brigade
Independent Brigade – Gen. Wang Ken


Chinese soldiers during the Shanghai Incident.

[1] Kuomintang government positions and who had authority are somewhat of a headache. In OTL Chiang changed positions numerous times, due to disagreements and being force to reisgn and then being brought back. he alternated between premier and president along with other figures though power tended to be in his hands regardless of his actual position. Here Tan Yankai remained as premier and Wang became president during the Northern Expedition. Since Tan was a fairly weak figure, Wang became more powerful and authority has slowly moved into the presidential position. By the time Tan died in 1930, premier was a role only indicating the head of the Executive Yuan that was answerable to the president and Wang appointed Sun to replace Tan.

[2] When Sun says ‘northern towns’ here, he means the towns north of the Yellow River and Beijing, not Manchurian towns.

[3] Also known as Shanhai Pass, it has been used numerous times in Chinese history to defend against attacks form Manchuria.

[4] This Minister position presides over a combination of what is usually the Ministry of Economic Affairs and some of the areas of Ministry of the Interior.

[5] This is the pinyin version of Wellington Koo’s name.

[6] Not actually true, but a belief amongst many in China at the time.

[7] Rioting in Shanghai has become routine particularly between Chinese and Japanese citizens and the other nations in the international sections of the city are pressuring the Chinese to stop it.

[8] This statement does not include guerrilla actions, only large scale battles.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

12. Once Upon A Time In Manchuria.

9 March 1931
Xingshan Township, Kirin Province
Manchuria
Republic of China
(Manchukuo, as recognised by Japan)

The last Japanese soldier fell down dead next to his compatriots, his body riddled with bullets. Tang Juwu ordered his men to cease firing the precious M1917 heavy machine gun. He ordered them to pack up the gun and get ready to move out, this town had been cleared, but they had much work to do.
“Thank you general” said the leader of the town “we are eternally grateful to you.”
Tang nodded, this man had lost his entire family to the brutal Japanese soldiers that had occupied his town, killing them had been the least he could for him.
“Make sure you are ready to defend yourselves if you have to” said Tang “but don’t try to provoke them too much. If you do, they’ll send in an entire unit to wipe out the town, hopefully though we’ll be keeping them busy. Alright, set the bodies alight and get ready to move out, we’ve got work to do elsewhere.”
One of Tang’s scouts came up while they were moving the bodies into a pile.
“Sir the Japanese are sending a brigade past the river, it should be passing south in the next half hour.”
Tang smiled “Excellent, we’ll show these bastards they can’t do what they like in our country.” Tang began giving orders to move towards the river and set up an ambush for the Japanese brigade. He hoped this would be the first of many steps towards threatening Mukden.

Taken from Tang Juwu: The Hero of Manchuria, by Chen Jisheng, © 1985 Dragon Breath Publishing House, Shanghai, Republic of China, Translated to English by Carl Hamilton

Chapter 2.

Tang’s service time in the army since 1915 had taught him discipline, honour and most importantly loyalty. The disbanding of his regiment in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion left him grieving for his homeland until he escaped internment.
The deplorable conditions in the prison camp were harsh and many the Japanese guards were brutal to anyone who stepped out of line. Tang kept himself out of trouble for one week and waited for the Japanese to drop their guard.
On the night of November 18 an opportunity presented itself. Tang had noted that certain parts of the camp went unwatched for some time as the guards deemed those areas unimportant. When he was coming back from the outhouse he stabbed a soldier in the neck with a sharpened piece of wood and strangled another with wire. Thus he was able to make it to the unwatched sections without anyone hearing anything. He quickly made his way over the fence and was a mile away before anyone at the camp became suspicious.

Tang met up with other soldiers that avoided internment or had hidden and he was appointed commander of the Anti-Japanese Resistance Army, which he built up with his extensive contacts throughout north east Manchuria. This army comprised of former soldiers, bandits, militias and self defence peasant groups. By the time Tang decided to go on the offensive his army was 30,000 strong. In June of 1931 Tang led his army into Liaoning from the north east and engaged the Kwangtung Army garrison at Fushun. He beat back the Japanese forces and continued advancing west until he army was savaged at Dengta, by several Japanese and Manchukuo brigades. After this he turned his army towards the guerrilla warfare for which he became famous for, to both the Chinese public and the infuriated Japanese commanders that tired to capture him and his men.


Tang Juwu

From “A Tour Of International Cinema, Part 12”, by Kevin Raines, © July 1990, American Journal of Motion Picture, Volume 37, California Film Centre, Los Angeles, USA

Dumpling Westerns.
The name Dumpling Western was first coined to describe director Chang Cheh’s [1] film The Lone Soldier, about the guerrilla war led by Tang Juwu, which was not the most historically accurate film and made Tang out to be more of a folk hero than a disciplined soldier, but it did well nonetheless and with it came a surge of Chinese films set in the same period. The film depicted Tang during his time before he formed his large guerrilla army and saving a small town from a garrison of Japanese soldiers intent on ruling over it. The inaccuracies are fairly obvious, no group of Japanese soldiers ever set themselves up as rulers of a Manchurian town and Tang only spent a few weeks in the wilderness before meeting with the leaders of the Manchurian rebellion, doubtful he would have had time to have saved a town. But Chang took much inspiration from the Western genre and much as the Italian made Spaghetti Westerns his film was dubbed a ‘Dumpling Western’ and would be followed by several more. This would soon follow with a slew of Dumpling Westerns being made in Shanghai and Hong Kong, with many of them becoming the second major Chinese genre to make it to American and European theatres after kung fu films.
The Lone Soldier also ignited the early careers of several actors who would continue in Dumpling Westerns and become famous for them, as well as branching into the more traditional Chinese stories of wuxia [2].

The important difference between Spaghetti and Dumpling Westerns is that the Italian ones were still set in the American West and Mexico while the Chinese films have a Chinese setting and this distinction has become clear over time. Spaghetti Westerns tended to die off around the early 1980s, though many are still revered today, as Italian cinema changed course away from westerns. But Dumpling Westerns maintained a strong presence in China and in the United States, this was likely due to the fact that several prominent American directors tried their hand at a Dumpling Western and several of them went on to have great success at the box office, Stanley Kubrick’s Fire On The Yangtze River being the most widely known and watched.
Today Dumpling Westerns still enjoy a strong market in China and any Chinese historical film from set roughly in the period 1911-1940 with a certain style is considered to be a Dumpling Western.


Actors from The Lone Soldier who became famous in the Dumpling Western genre; left to right, Zheng Pei-pei, Cheung Ying Choi and John Wang.

Notable Dumpling Westerns (in order of release)

The Lone Soldier (1965)
Gold Lust (1966)
Bandits, Bullets and Beans (1966)
Wayward Cause (1968)
Race To Wu’s Treasure (1968)
The Horseman and the Thief (1969)
In the Shadow of the Mountain (1970)
1001 Thieves (1970)
Showdown in Arun (1971)
Gunman Jiaxing (1972)
Bounty’s Rest (1972)
Drifting Through Liaoning (1973)
Land of Loss (1974)
The Road To Shanghai (1975)
Where the Soldiers Won’t Go (1976)
Seven Man Army (1976) [3]
Bullets Don’t Lie (1978)
Cold Heart (1980)
Warlord Zhou (1981)


Posters from some Dumpling Westerns

[1] Chang was one of the most famous and prolific directors of Hong Kong cinema and Shaw Brother’s Studio, much of his work OTL was influenced by spaghetti westerns, so here he has simply taken that inspiration one step further and created a new type of western.

[2] Chinese historical martial arts films.

[3] Similar to the OTL film of the same name but with differences like being set in the Battle of Shanghai of 1931 rather than in the defence of the Great Wall and more of a Western style to it.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

13. Brotherhood Of Resistance.

From ‘The Complete Second World War, Volume 1: The Opening Moves, From Manchuria to Yugoslavia’
By Robert Keegan
© 1985, Coleman Publishing Group, St Louis, USA

The main armies of the NRA had finally been forced to pull back from Manchuria in early 1932 and the Chinese government decided to abandon its policy of direct engagement, as there were other pressing issues including a long overdue fixing of the economy and the resurgence of the communists. In fact there was some decision that allowing the Japanese to temporarily have Manchuria may in fact wipe out the difficult to remove communist guerrillas under Mao.
While the decision to do this was not politically easy, given the public’s anti-Japanese stance, it was done in such a way as to portray the government as still fighting without actually carrying out military operations. Many advisors and supplies were sent to aid the ‘freedom armies’ which had formed in the wake of the invasion (dubbed as ‘bandits’ by the IJA)
Japan meanwhile was trying to ease its conquest and occupation by creating the new nation of Manchukuo, under the Manchu heir Henry Puyi, though it was not recognised by any other nations [1].

Manchuria, with the dark red showing the initial territory of Manchukuo.

The Jilin and Liaoning provinces were the most important areas where the resistance operated, in Jilin General Ting Chao was operating his Jilin Self-Defence Army, which managed to hold Harbin form three major assaults by Japanese and Manchukuoan troops, until they were finally forced to abandon the city and spread out into the countryside, several resistance armies operated here for the next three years under Ting and generals, Li Du, Feng Zhanhai and Wang Delin as the harassed the IJA between Harbin and the Soviet border. In the northwest the cavalry general Ma Zhanshan, who had at first joined Manchukuo and Japan only to betray them and seize arms and supplies to use against them caused so much trouble, including attacking Changchun in November of 1931 that the Japanese concentrated their forces there giving the other generals a free hand.
After several fierce battles in the summer of 1932, Ma’s forces were finally forced into retreat and he was captured near the town of Jiwen along with several thousand of his men. The remainder of them escaped to the Soviet Union or fled west, some of them joining the communist resistance. Ma had forced three times as many men as he had to chase him for more than a year and Ting’s armies made good use of this, establishing themselves throughout most of the small towns in the north east and they held out until 1934, when the Japanese finally brought in overwhelming numbers to defeat them, though many continued to operate in very small units and many of the generals managed to make their way south to Chinese controlled territory.

Further south in Liaoning, General Tang Juwu led an incredible guerrilla campaign, and his forces swelled with volunteers, including some Korean resistance members led by future politician Kim Il-Sung. This further delayed the Japanese operations against the NRA and the Jilin Army and the Japanese were continually frustrated by Tang’s elusiveness. In fact he became so troublesome that IJA intelligence officer, Colonel Kenji Doihara put up a $1,000,000 sum in gold for his capture or death [2].

Resistance fighters in Manchuria

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The Imperial Army’s impressive war machine, which had done an incredible job at taking Manchuria, was however not quite as capable as holding the territory which it had captured. Continual resistance in the north-west plagued the Japanese and the Kwangtung forces were still fighting some active NRA units west of Liaoning. The Chinese government had stepped back from direct engagement and limited itself to defence in the south while continuing to ship advisors and supplies into Manchuria.
After finally destroying many of the larger bandit armies, the IJA was ready to expand Manchukuo to ensure that support to the remaining resistance was cut off. To this end, the overall commander of the Kwantung Army, Baron Shigeru Honjo [3], decided to seize Rehe province from the Kuomintang government in order to seal off Manchuria.

On Nov. 1, 1931,

they proclaimed the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic in the southeastern province of Jiangxi, with Mao Zedong as chairman. Here the first units of the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army were formed. While conducting guerrilla warfare in these regions, the soldiers carried out an agrarian revolution that was based on Mao’s premise that the best way to win the conflict was to isolate the cities by gaining control of the countryside and the food supply. (The Photo is of Mao in 1931)

1932

1932

Yunnan, 1932,

 

 

 

London Overprints on Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Type II (single circle) (Scott 36//42 vars. Chan Y36-Y42), nicely canceled, clean, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 20,000 – 24,000

 

1933

4 May 1933
Rehe Province
Republic of China

A scan of the horizon revealed, small wisps of dust and smoke from the approaching army. The observer put down the binoculars and handed them back to Zhang Xueliang, they had originally belonged to his father, a gift from a Japanese nobleman before they had decided to invade China.
“Well?” asked Zhang.
“No doubt about it sir, the Japanese have finally decided to come west.”
Zhang simply nodded in acknowledgement. He turned his head to his officers.
“I’m not going to lie to any of you, we’re in for one hell of a fight. They may have been savaged over the last few years by the brave men in the north, but they wouldn’t come unless they were fairly confident of taking the province. The president wants us to stand here and I intend to do so. Whether we win or lose it has been an honour serving with each of you. You have all shown incredible dedication and patriotism in this war. I can only pray to Heaven that this will be the last battle of it. Luck by with you all.”
And with that his men gave a cheer and saluted him.

The Japanese attacked near dawn the next day. They had seized the small towns in the east of the province first and then proceed on a south-west direction towards the Great Wall and Zhang intended on stopping them from reaching it.
He had positioned his army in and around Changde. Zhang commanded his forces from the city hall in the south of the metropolitan district as the Japanese advanced up towards the city, their constant artillery fire ravaging the buildings and defences.
After two days the Japanese had reached the edge of the city and Zhang was getting reports of lines being broken. He had just ordered the bulk of his forces back into the city when an aide ran up and delivered him an intelligence message.
Further Japanese reinforcements were arriving from the north-about two divisions.
He crumpled the paper in frustration and placed his hands on the table, closing his eyes and calming his thoughts. Two more divisions was too much, there were barely holding on as it was, the Japanese were going to crush them. Perhaps it was finally time to surrender and ask for terms?
No, it was too soon, how could look at his men in the face after surrendering so quickly. He would fight until the city was no longer defendable and only then surrender.

The next day, fully expecting the Japanese reinforcements to begin penetrating the north he was surprised to get reports of Chinese troops marching in from the north instead! He couldn’t get a clear message so he decided to find out what was going on in person and ran down to his car.
“Drive north Wu!” he said “I need to know what is happening”.
His driver nodded and made the journey as quickly as he could reaching the northern outskirts within twenty minutes.
Zhang got out of the vehicle and approached one of his Tang Yelin, who was conversing with several others, poorly dressed, but tough looking individuals.
“What is going on?” asked Zhang.
“General, sir!” said Tang, this Wang Delin and Feng Zhanhai. They bring a message from General Tang Juwu.”
Wang said “General Tang says do not worry, the Japanese reinforcements have been dealt with and it is Changde which will be receiving reinforcement, from the Anti-Japanese Brotherhood Army”
Zhang looked at them in amazement “You’re still out there fighting!”
“Yes” replied Wang “and the Japanese made a fatal mistake in ignoring us to attack you. Tang has a trap ready fro the Japanese in the east, he is simply waiting for them to spring it with a little help from us of course.”
Zhang nodded and smiled “This is wonderful. Of course, if Tang has a plan then let me hear it and after this battle I must invite him to have a drink with me!”


Soldiers from Tang Juwu’s army, waiting to ambush the Japanese

[1] At its creation it was not, but within a few years, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Italy and the Soviet Union gave defacto diplomatic recognition to Manchukuo, despite the official League of Nations declaration that Manchuria was rightfully part of China.

[2] If this seems outrageously large, in OTL Doihara made a $3,000,000 offer to General Ma to defect from the resistance to Manchukuo due to his fame.

[3] Honjo was put in command slightly later than OTL, Hishikari was not replaced until after his failure to crack down on the resistance, and he remains in command rather than being relieved for insubordination due to his connections to Prime Minister Araki.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

14. Reflections.

16 August 1931
Tokyo
Empire of Japan

Prime Minister Sadao Araki let his hand barely touch the surface of the koi pond, the small fish darting away from the ripples his hand was making. He had a difficult decision to make and being in his small garden helped to calm his thoughts and sort things out clearly. Things had not been progressing well in the war. The Chinese had managed to stunt the Imperial Army at Shanghai and forced them to withdraw five months ago. Since then Manchuria and slowly come under control of the Imperial Army, but the losses were quickly mounting upwards. Guerrillas were picking away at the soldiers and the units were forced to march back and forth chasing the small groups of bandits.

It went against everything he believed, but he was seriously considering the offer that had been made by China via the League of Nations for a negotiated settlement. Not just himself, but everyone in his political faction and hundreds of army officers did not want to negotiate with China. But Araki thought that he could bring the Chinese to terms in an acceptable fashion. He would concede in some areas, but the one exception was Manchuria. That had to be Japanese, there was no question. Obtaining it was critical to the eventual war that with the Soviet Union that he knew was necessary.
He stepped back from the pond having made his decision. It was time to contact the League of Nations and start talking with the Chinese foreign minister.

 

 

 


Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The failure of Japanese army to hold fast against the overwhelming Chinese forces led to a political and military stalemate in the Japanese government. The diminishing influence of moderate civilian government under Araki’s regime had led to much more radical military power. But that power had been shown to be mistaken after retreating from Shanghai and the attacks of the 19th Route Army. The military was self-deluded and did not want to admit that the attack on Shanghai was a mistake, but the few realists quickly realised, that an escalation into outright war was not in their best interest right now. Araki in particular was far more interested in securing Manchuria, which was become a meat grinder for the IJA. He had long looked towards the north and the threat of the Soviet Union and in his mind, securing Manchuria first was a necessary step in an eventual victory against the Soviets [1]. He was able to push through a ceasefire against the wishes of many in his faction, by arguing that they needed to focus on Manchuria instead of whittling away at Chinese cities. The attempted assassination of General Ueda Kenkichi in Shanghai by the Korean nationalist Yoon Bong-Gil in late August [2], helped to sway the reluctant officers that Manchuria and Korea were the prime areas for Japan to exert absolute control over, before gong to war with another nation. The Chinese were reluctant to sign a ceasefire, the ongoing fighting in Manchuria was very much in the public mind and was what had led to the anti-Japanese riots in Shanghai, but this problem was avoided as the ceasefire agreement only dealt with Shanghai and made no mention of NRA or IJA actions anywhere else.


Soldiers of the 19th Route Army engaging in one of the final fire fights in Shanghai.


Taken from “The Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan”, by Christopher Lloyd, © 1985, Davidson Historical Books.

The aftermath of the Battle of Shanghai (1931) must also be discussed. This was essentially the first time Japanese soldiers had retreated from battle with Chinese soldiers and though small, its effects marked an important step in the militarisation of the Japanese government and the eventual path to its downfall.

The Japanese civilian government succeeded in negotiating with China, but at extreme cost to its own prestige. Prime Minister Araki, despite advocating an aggressive stance could see that securing Manchuria was a priority rather than being involved in an all out shooting war with the largest nation in Asia. His back stepping from what the militarists had seen as the correct course angered many of the more fanatical officers in the IJA and Araki would soon pay the price for his realism and negotiation.

After the agreed negotiation between the two countries, the Japanese civilian government was nearly at a standstill, Araki considered resigning but Baron Hiranuma Kiichiro convinced him that it was better for him to remain there to help control the more radical urges of the army factions. Several ministers did resign in protest at the agreement however and Jinzaburo Masaki pitched Araki to replace them with other members, but ones who shared Masaki’s views, so they would have even more power. The loss of these key military figures in the government caused such commotion in Japan, that for a while the war in Manchuria took a backseat in the newspapers to the government crisis. The political situation in Japan had finally reached a critical point and it would not be long before action was taken on the part of those who felt betrayed by Araki and the government.

The men who came into the government now, Heisuke Yanagawa, Tomoyuki Yamashita and Kuniako Koiso [3], were all part of Araki’s Imperial Way Faction, but not only that they were heavily intertwined into the radical secret societies that wanted to reshape Japan and destroy what they thought of as corrupt government form the bottom up and bring what the called ‘state socialism’ with more direct rule under the Emperor.


The new military figures in the Japanese government Yanagawa, Yamashita and Koiso.

[1] Araki was leader of the faction which advocated the ‘Imperial Way Faction’ which saw the Soviet Union as the biggest threat to Japan’s future.

[2] OTL Yoon assassinated General Yoshinori Shirakawa, commander of the IJA in Shanghai, during the battle of 1932. The earlier occurrence of the battle means he didn’t have the opportunity to get to Shanghai, so he targeted a general in Manchuria.

[3] With no Imperial Colours Incident, Koiso is still very involved in the Sakurakai and thus has become closer to the Imperial Way Faction than the Control faction.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

15. Currency Affairs

‘Wealth does not pass three generations’-Chinese proverb.
1932

 

Rare Manchukuo, 1932, First Definitive Series complete (Scott 1-18. JSDA 1-18), an incredible rare complete set of imprint blocks, an occasional perf or gum tone speck, largely irrelevant, mostly fresh and well-centered, imprint blocks of 4, o.g., never hinged, Very Fine, a showpiece set!

 

Manchukuo, 1932, First Definitive Series, 1½f-50f, 9 values (Scott 3//17. JSDA 3//17), imprint blocks of 4, o.g., never hinged; scarce group, some slight perf or gum tone specks, still generally F.-V.F.

 

1933

   

A military man by temperament and training, Chiang sought to eliminate the Communists by force. He defined his anti-Communist drive as “internal pacification before resistance to external attack,” and he gave it more importance than opposition to the increasingly aggressive Japanese. With arms and military advisers from Nazi Germany, Chiang carried out a series of “extermination campaigns” that killed about a million people between 1930 to 1934. Chiang’s fifth campaign, involving over half a million troops, almost annihilated the Communists. Faced with the dilemma of being totally destroyed in Jiangxi or attempting an almost impossible escape, the Communists decided to risk the escape.

October 1933

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1933 (Oct 4) Sven Hedin set on registered cover to Sweden, the complete set, tied by Peiping 4.10.33 cds’s, with 20¢ reaper and 10¢ martyr on reverse. Boldly signed “Sven Heden Peiping” on reverse, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 3,800

 

On Oct. 15, 1934,

they broke through the tight KMT siege. Over 100,000 men and women set out on the Long March of about 6,000 miles (9,600 kilometers) through China’s most rugged terrain to find a new base in the northwest. (The Photo is of Chiang Kai-shek)

   

(Photo – Chiang Kai-shek (right) with future Japanese Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai (center), Pan-Asianist leader Tōyama Mitsuru (left) in Japan 1929.)

In the meantime, the Japanese had made steady inroads into China. The Mukden Incident of 1931,

through which Mukden was occupied by the Japanese, was initiated by Japanese officers stationed along the South Manchurian Railway. This was followed by the occupation of Manchuria and the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932.

 

Probably in 1933 or 1934,

the Mid-Autumn Festival, Li Xian Jing was arrested for engaging in the student movement. When he was arrested, surnamed Chen, lesbians come home to inform their bed with two baskets of the Communist Party’s propaganda material.

 

The grandmother quickly find the maid to transfer them out, and then personally uncle Paul. Paul came out of the night to the uncle, grandmother makeup, he dressed up as an old man, and then with his arm in arm out of the house, and took the train to Tianjin. Grandfather, then in Shanghai, he saw in the newspaper uncle news of the arrest, it was decided to let the uncle and aunt went to Shanghai. The grandfather said: “I do not oppose your revolution, nor against the Communist Party, but ye first the school.”

The father every time Beijing will see the old house of West Fourth. In 2004, we visited again the old home, hospital or high threshold, but the hospital has changed dramatically. Concierge and long corridors are turned into housing, small kitchen covered the entire yard and winding walkways cutting. Although the old residents still clearly remember with floral glass corridors, acacia, wisteria tree, the moon gate, fish pond rockery been no trace. We are allowed to enter the floor of the North Building of the Eastern Hospital, the indoor can see carved on the ceiling, but also because of the compartment is divided. Initially households thought we were to ask for the old house, when we told the house early in 1935 to sell, they said in unison: “selling well, otherwise will be the demolition has been removed to the front of the alley.”
Although the house has long been non-Lee all but see the loss to defeat this point, is still ahead of the game. Left, I counted the door of the court meter, a total of 16 names, it is estimated that the hospital at least three fifty people lived.
Second, the

Why Lijia to sell patrimony? The main reason is that grandfather Li Zhaofu unwilling official, in order to support the family and moved to Shanghai to do a practicing lawyer.

Lizhao Fu was born in 1887. It is set out in his “wind nine Christian Yan, Chao Fu was ordered dimension honor, since childhood, Xiao Wen entering the private school, grow older avid reader of the classics, history, disdain regulatory rules in the imperial examination industry. Western learning, more domestic Translation by Day Chao-fu for hidden learning, especially steeped in the law books, that the reform of political primordial non-advocate of no Jianxin state also. “(a) 1905, Li Zhaofu obtain to the official fee hygiene enter Tokyo, Japan’s Meiji University Law .

On August 20 of the same year, the United League was established to be a hundred people. According to Huang Fusheng recalls: “Mr. Sun return from Europe and America, the organization United League in Tokyo, opened the General Assembly on red Osaka District of Hope South Sakamoto I Chuan person participants XIONG Jun Jin Fan Ke Wu, Huang Junwen piano pet Zhang, Li Junbo Shenzhao Fu (when the name on the pass)).”

Sun Yat-sen at the July 30 meeting in Akasaka district-juniper-cho three banchi within Tianliang Ping house, the Huangxing the drafting of the United Democrats of the Articles of Association, and the development of members on the spot. Infer Li Zhaofu may then joined League, and United League was established as members to participate, and Liao Zhongkai and Hu Hanmin September 1 of the same year.

My grandmother Jumbo luan (word for wear) Anhui Huizhou Renshi, her father and my great-grandfather the same in Shandong government officials understand that rank higher than the great-grandfather, great-grandfather is said to fancy Li Zhaofu talents daughter.

 

Until into the bridal chamber, my grandmother did not go to Japan, returning home to get married grandfather grandmother before seen grandfather wearing a fake braids, thereby guess he’s Revolutionary Party. Grandmother grandfather was described as a very pale and bald scholar. It is said that grandfather also go back and get married the great-grandfather said: “I put the hair back to you.” He meant “I leaned back to the parents, I went to the revolution”.

 

 

Many years later, my father said: “our revolution was also the head do belt shop, the revolution is always the dead, such as Shandong Jining government to the Huanghuagang shipped arms and other Communist Party came to me how I do not know since I have time to be a revolution are not afraid of death, is nothing to fear now. ”
Grandfather served as secretary of the Enforcement Division joined the United League, and later served as the person in charge of the Sichuan branch of the United League. According to the United League of data, Li Zhaofu worked in the secretary of the Bureau of the alliance headquarters

Probably in 1933 or 1934,

the Mid-Autumn Festival, Li Xian Jing was arrested for engaging in the student movement. When he was arrested, surnamed Chen, lesbians come home to inform their bed with two baskets of the Communist Party’s propaganda material.

 

The grandmother quickly find the maid to transfer them out, and then personally uncle Paul. Paul came out of the night to the uncle, grandmother makeup, he dressed up as an old man, and then with his arm in arm out of the house, and took the train to Tianjin. Grandfather, then in Shanghai, he saw in the newspaper uncle news of the arrest, it was decided to let the uncle and aunt went to Shanghai. The grandfather said: “I do not oppose your revolution, nor against the Communist Party, but ye first the school.”

The father every time Beijing will see the old house of West Fourth. In 2004, we visited again the old home, hospital or high threshold, but the hospital has changed dramatically. Concierge and long corridors are turned into housing, small kitchen covered the entire yard and winding walkways cutting. Although the old residents still clearly remember with floral glass corridors, acacia, wisteria tree, the moon gate, fish pond rockery been no trace. We are allowed to enter the floor of the North Building of the Eastern Hospital, the indoor can see carved on the ceiling, but also because of the compartment is divided. Initially households thought we were to ask for the old house, when we told the house early in 1935 to sell, they said in unison: “selling well, otherwise will be the demolition has been removed to the front of the alley.”
Although the house has long been non-Lee all but see the loss to defeat this point, is still ahead of the game. Left, I counted the door of the court meter, a total of 16 names, it is estimated that the hospital at least three fifty people lived.
Second, the

Why Lijia to sell patrimony? The main reason is that grandfather Li Zhaofu unwilling official, in order to support the family and moved to Shanghai to do a practicing lawyer.

Lizhao Fu was born in 1887. It is set out in his “wind nine Christian Yan, Chao Fu was ordered dimension honor, since childhood, Xiao Wen entering the private school, grow older avid reader of the classics, history, disdain regulatory rules in the imperial examination industry. Western learning, more domestic Translation by Day Chao-fu for hidden learning, especially steeped in the law books, that the reform of political primordial non-advocate of no Jianxin state also. “(a) 1905, Li Zhaofu obtain to the official fee hygiene enter Tokyo, Japan’s Meiji University Law .

On August 20 of the same year, the United League was established to be a hundred people. According to Huang Fusheng recalls: “Mr. Sun return from Europe and America, the organization United League in Tokyo, opened the General Assembly on red Osaka District of Hope South Sakamoto I Chuan person participants XIONG Jun Jin Fan Ke Wu, Huang Junwen piano pet Zhang, Li Junbo Shenzhao Fu (when the name on the pass)).”

Sun Yat-sen at the July 30 meeting in Akasaka district-juniper-cho three banchi within Tianliang Ping house, the Huangxing the drafting of the United Democrats of the Articles of Association, and the development of members on the spot. Infer Li Zhaofu may then joined League, and United League was established as members to participate, and Liao Zhongkai and Hu Hanmin September 1 of the same year.

My grandmother Jumbo luan (word for wear) Anhui Huizhou Renshi, her father and my great-grandfather the same in Shandong government officials understand that rank higher than the great-grandfather, great-grandfather is said to fancy Li Zhaofu talents daughter.

 

Until into the bridal chamber, my grandmother did not go to Japan, returning home to get married grandfather grandmother before seen grandfather wearing a fake braids, thereby guess he’s Revolutionary Party. Grandmother grandfather was described as a very pale and bald scholar. It is said that grandfather also go back and get married the great-grandfather said: “I put the hair back to you.” He meant “I leaned back to the parents, I went to the revolution”.

 

 

 

Many years later, my father said: “our revolution was also the head do belt shop, the revolution is always the dead, such as Shandong Jining government to the Huanghuagang shipped arms and other Communist Party came to me how I do not know since I have time to be a revolution are not afraid of death, is nothing to fear now. “


Grandfather served as secretary of the Enforcement Division joined the United League, and later served as the person in charge of the Sichuan branch of the United League. According to the United League of data, Li Zhaofu worked in the secretary of the Bureau of the alliance headquarters.

 

 

 

1 March 1934
Central Bank of China, Shanghai Office
Republic of China

Each piece of ledger was beginning to blur his eyes. Soong Ziwen put down his pen and closed his eyes, rubbing his head. The government of the Republic of China had come a long way since the overthrow of the Qing, but its finances were still in a quagmire, much of which was due to the Warlord Era. But Premier Wang had managed to settle things on that front for the most part and with the exception of the Japanese invading Manchuria he was able to concentrate on domestic affairs, one of which was economic reform.
Wang had appointed Soong Minister of Finance, a portfolio which had previously been held by his brother-in-law Kung. He now had to find a way to properly balance the budget and get the government debt under control. Completely changing the currency had certainly helped matters-the old notes were not worth the paper they were printed on thanks to the excesses and corrupted economy of the old warlord regimes.
But more was needed, the warlord era had not only inflated the currency but put assets into the hands of individuals who hoarded it. Seizing those assets was possible, even if it cost the government some allies, but public opinion had never been better thanks to the ongoing resistance in Manchuria and the destruction of the communist armies in the west.
He would make recommendations to that effect to Wang, but for now he wanted to start work on the new note designs. Dr Sun Yat-Sen’s face would of course be on one side, but the other, well that was between him and the design artist. He rang his bell to summon his servant to find an artist for him.

“Golden Dragons: An Economic History Of China” by Jeffrey Finley, Manchester University Press , United Kingdom, © 1972.

20. New Economics in the Republic

Despite the depression and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, these events had not greatly affected the economy of the heartland of the nation. Industrial output was on the rise and much of the previous corruption and inflation form the warlord era and been stamped out, thanks to the efforts of the NRA in fighting corruption in the more rural provinces. These provinces had taken big hits from the depression, with a fall in agricultural prices and the import of foreign goods, but TV Soong soon changed this. His power as Finance Minister was large and he turned the entire economy around in less than 2 years. He scrapped the gold and silver standards that China had been operating on and introduced an entirely new currency and a new economic policy to go with it [2]. Importantly Soong made sure to stress that while the government had control of the money that didn’t mean that it could print money to solve any of its problems as this would only make things worse.

He was proved right when the new currency spread and things began to stabilise. Where communists and rebels refused to use the new currency, the KMT government used military force to back up the policy. There were several more outbreaks and revolts, some of it linked to the new economic policies as the government tried to concentrate the industry and urged farmers not overproduce. The NRA was able to prevent most of the revolts from becoming serious and the new economy of China was soon reaching the level it had been before the depression [3].


Currency notes of China introduced in 1934, in circulation until 1970.

“The Royalty of Modern China”, by Carl Wolfe, University of California Press, © 1990.

The Soong family became one of the most prominently in China and the KMT despite the previous split between Sun Yat-Sen and patriarch Charlie Soong. Wang Jing-wei and Soong’s children had no problem getting past this dispute as Wang valued their influence, Western ties and money far too much to let it be an issue and T.V. Soong (Song Ziwen in modern Chinese [1]) had already been instrumental in governing the Central Bank of China when Wang came to power. The other Soong siblings also had prominent positions in the upper echelons of the Republic of China.
Ai-ling was married to H. H. Kung, Wang’s Minister of Industry and one of the richest men in China, and had previously worked for Sun Yat-Sen as a secretary, a job which her sister Qing-ling followed her in.
Qing-ling had married to Sun Yat-Sen despite her parents objections and thus carried great influence, particularly with the left-wing of the KMT . She was unhappy with the treatment of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1920’s, but eventually sided with President Wang as they had similar views on many issues [4].

The youngest sister, Mei-ling had met Chiang Kai-Shek back in 1920 and they had been interested in each other, despite Chiang already being married, in fact there were rumours that had been planning to divorce Chen Jieru and marry Mei-ling, but after his assassination it was not wise to speak poorly of the KMT martyr, so the rumours stayed behind closed doors.

At the time of his rise to leadership Wang was close to Qing-ling but did not have many other ties to the rest of the family, something he soon fixed as he saw that there would be a need to secure support from them. He placed Ai-ling’s husband in his administration, first as minister of finance, then as minister of industry. He then invited T.V. to assume the position of Finance Minister, after his work running the Central Bank. Finally he encouraged meetings between Mei-ling and his new intelligence chief Chen Guofu [5]. And thus the positions of Industry, Finance and Intelligence became the most influential and powerful positions in China


The three Soong sisters at a young age, they went on to become three of the most influential women in modern Chinese history.

[1] Modern Chinese is slightly similar to OTL simplified Chinese and pinyin.

[2] Something similar happened in OTL but the government printed too much mone resulting in rampant inflation. With no Central Plains War there is more foreign investment and Soong has taken advice from external economists.

[3] These revolts are a somewhat smaller level of the CPC-KMT encirclement campaigns.

[4] OTL Qingling exiled herself to Moscow after Chiang’s communist purge. Wang’s rise to leadership and both the left and right of the KMT rather than splitting has led her to remain with the party, though she came close to leaving during Wang’s communist purge, she was convinced that it was necessary as the assassination of Chiang and other small incidents were portrayed as ‘communist chaos’.

[5] Chen’s CC Clique and the Blue Shirt Society were merged in 1930 and Chen was given total command of both the party administraion and the secret police, the Central Investigation Bureau. The Blueshirts never became as prominent as OTL, as Wang aligned himself with the Chen brothers early on, thus Dai Li is not in charge of his own separate secret police.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have to had to take a “big” big in Japan, Japan


Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have had to take a “big” word, the Japanese, Japanese national The most polite people in the world on the surface is the Japanese, to meet the three bows, good words spoken, turned around to urinate anywhere, in the war is the most human army. There is no way a small Japanese island abroad survived for thousands of years, all insecure, created a metamorphosis of the nation!

 

Japanese Soldiers on the March in Manchuria, 1931

 

Utilizing the ‘Knee-Mortar’, Unknown Theater


 

Japanese Infantry operating in South China

 

Lying in Wait, Unknown Theater


 

Imperial Troops advancing up a hill, unknown theater

 

The sun gives it’s light to the Hinomaru, unknown theater

 

1932

1932-The Year Of Change

From “Yomiori” Tokyo, Empire of Japan
27 February 1932

Naval Officers Assassinate Naval Minister Kiyokazu Abo and Injure Prime Minister Sadao Araki

Yesterday at approximately 4pm, Prime Minister Araki and Naval Minister Abo were exiting the Naval Office together and were ambushed by nine young men in military uniforms. They drew pistols and opened fire on the two men before running off to attempt more sabotage. Abo was killed by at least ten bullets, while Araki was only hit by three bullets, two in his right arm and on in his right leg. It is believed that the Naval Minister was the target and when the men saw that the prime minister had also been shot they stopped and moved on. Over the next few hours they proceeded to attack several other government offices, but thankfully there were no further casualties.
Prime Minister Araki made a statement this morning “While I understand the patriotic minds of young soldiers such as them, we cannot let our passions overcome rational judgements [1].”
It is believed that the men were acting against the government due to the recent ceasefire with China and the signing of the London Naval Treaty, which has upset many in the navy.

 

 

From “The Times” London, UK
9 April 1932

NEW LEADER FOR JAPAN

Prime Minister Araki stepped down yesterday in favour of Heisuke Yanagawa. Araki cited his injuries and the reduction in popular support that he has suffered since preventing war with China. He stated that he would also be retiring from the military in order to “heal the rift that has occurred between our government and our young officers. My presence in either government or army would only exaggerate that rift.”
Yanagawa promised to bring Japan peace back to both China in Japan, but also said that Japan could not stand by idly while chaos continued in China. He also said that Manchukuo “is now under control and peace should bring about order there”. Despite this fighting still continues in north east China, as Chinese guerrillas continue to resist the Imperial Japanese Army. Replacing Yanagawa as War Minister is General Jinzaburo Masaki [2], a prominent Araki supporter.


Prime Minister Araki, recovering from his injuries.

From “The Middletown Times” Middletown, New York, USA
18 July 1932

WAR SPIRIT RIFE AS PARAGUAYANS CLAIM A VICTORY
Annihilation of the Fourteenth Bolivian Infantry Regiment was claimed by Paraguayan forces today as thousands of troops battled fiercely for possession of Fort Boqueron the scene of several days fighting in the disputed Gran Chaco Announcement of the victory was made soon after midnight. It was cheered by thousands in the streets.

An earlier communique from the War Department said that fighting continues in the vicinity of Fort Boqueron. Public excitement was high. Mobs paraded singing the national anthem. On Sunday morning a two minute period of silence was observed in honor of Paraguayans killed in the fighting.

An alleged description of the first air battle of the campaign was carried in the newspaper El Diaro led by the chief of the Paraguayan air force Lieutenants Rocholl and Garcia pilot and observer of a bombing plane carrying 12 bombs flew over Fort Boqueron. They were attacked by three Bolivian planes Lieutenant Rocholl was wounded in the arm but he put the Bolivian planes to rout dropped the bombs on the fort and returned to his base. The plane was hit by 30 bullets.
[3].


Region of war between Bolivia and Paraguay.


Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The death of Ma Zhongying and the retreat of his force left the Kumuliks and the forces of Jin Shuren to continue fighting each other until the governor’s troops eventually managed to force the rebels into surrender. This came just after another, separate rebellion had started further south. These Uyghurs were now fighting for full independence and on 9 October 1932 they seized the city of Kashgar and declared the East Turkestan Republic.


The leaders of the Uyghur rebellion.
August 1932

August,23th.1932

 

Manchukuo, 1932 (Aug. 23) “Postal War” combination cover from Mukden, Manchukuo to Petaiho, China, franked with Manchukuo 4 fen Pagoda (Scott 5) and China 1c Junk pair, 3c single (Scott 249, 252) tied by Chinese PO ‘Shenyang (Mukden)’ postmarks with Year altered from ’21’ to ‘1’. Accepted by the Chinese Post Office without further postage due charge. Bkstpd ‘Peiping’ (Aug. 27) and ‘Petaiho Beach’ (Aug. 28). Attractive usage shortly after Manchukuo’s first stamps were issued.

Taken from “Hitler And The Third Reich, Volume 2: The Rise To Power”
By Verne Masters, Cougar Historicals, (c) 1981, Boston, USA

Hitler’s first taste of real political power came with the German federal election of 6 November 1932. The National Socialists support had increased since the last election in response to the increased support the KPD had received under Ernst Meyers moderate leadership.

The Nazi vote actually decreased since the election in July, though they remained the largest party, albeit without the majority required to govern as had happened in the last election.

 

The parliament had been dissolved by Hindenberg on von Papen’s request and the German government appeared to be at a standstill. Hitler refused to negotiate with Papen and realising he could not remain in control he resigned. Kurt von Schliecher then stepped into the vacuum of government.

 

He tried negotiating with Gregor Strasser in order to split the NSDAP and gain a majority coalition. Hitler and Strasser were now in a fight for leadership of their party.

 

 

Hitler at first seemed to have the upper hand,

 

his speeches won over many, but Strasser also made ground, by repeating that the party would never get into government because of the stubbornness of one man [4]. For almost three weeks they tried to gain follower in each side of the party and this could have well resulted in completely splitting the party, but for a small accident.

 

 

 

 

September 1932

September,20th.1832

 

Manchukuo, 1932 (Sept 28) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, Intercompany Carlowitz and Co. usage, franked on reverse by pair of Japan 3s definitives and 10s Nagoya Castle, tied by violet IJPO cds’s. Front shows 4¢ SYS vertical strip of 3 added, along with three 1¢ postage dues, all tied by Shanghai Oct 4 cds’s. Reverse also shows 1st and 2nd “Notice sent on” boxed handstamps, nice usage,

 

September.23th.1932

Manchukuo, 1932 (Sept 28)

“Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, Intercompany Carlowitz Company cover, franked on reverse by vertical pair of 4s orange Japan Fuji issue, tied by dual moukden IJPO cds’s. Front carries pair of 4¢ SYS, plus two 1¢ postage dues, each tied by Shanghai Oct 1 cds’s. Reverse shows 1st and 2nd Notice Sent handstamps, nice usage, scarce,

 

On December 7,

Strasser was crossing the street and was hit by a drunk driver.

 

The speed at which he was hit was not great and he might have survived, but he hit his head against a lamp post form the impact, which resulted in irreversible brain damage and he died the next day. Numerous historians and conspiracy

 

theorists have claimed that Hitler had Strasser killed, but the evidence does not support this, especially since if Hitler had planned on having someone killed,

 

he would not likely have relied on the chances of a drunk driver. In any case, Strasser’s death meant Hitler was undisputed master of the party and Schleicher was left to govern with Papens’ leftovers.

 

This government would only last for three more months in any case and the November election would be the last set of free elections in Germany for 18 years and the last election held by the Weimar government.

 

Results for the November 1932 German Federal Election from Interpedia [5].


Taken from “A History of Presidential Elections”, By Geoff Kane, University of Chicago Press, (c) 1990, Chicago, USA

The election of 1932 reflected an America that was hungry for change. The Great Depression and Hoover’s inadequate policies in handling its effects had profoundly eroded much of the Republican’s support, to the point where even during the campaign period it was fairly obvious who the more popular candidate was, Hoover having objects thrown at him, while Roosevelt had numerous crowds greet him and his song became incredibly popular. The election was a landslide for the Roosevelt-Ritchie ticket [7], with them carrying all but 5 states [8] and winning 58.25% of the popular vote, the largest vote ever cast for a presidential election up until that time.
A time of progressive change was about to hit the USA, the end of the Prohibtion Era, Roosevelts’ progressive policies and the slow ending of isolation, Roosevelt’s acceptance speech reflected this with his promise of ‘a new deal for all Americans.’

[1] In OTL Araki was Minister of War and showed support to the conspirators of the May 15 movement, however his time as prime minister has shown him the realities of making war in China and dealing with international politics thus while he retains his radical politics, he has a greater sense of realism and thus some young officers thought he had betrayed their beliefs.

[2] Araki’s time as prime minister means that the ‘Imperial Way Faction’, has far more influence. He is able to step down and his faction is able to remain in power over the ‘Control’ group. This also means that the officers and secret societies with radical views are better represented in the government and civilian control has slipped much faster than in OTL.

[3] The Chaco War has started up about two months earlier than OTL

[4] Strasser did not decide to resign from the party as per OTL.

[5] Due to butterflies Ernst Meyer was able to take control of the KPD over the extremists led by Thalman [6], the party is slightly more moderate than OTL, resulting in slightly better election results, though this has also pushed the NSDAP vote up in response.

[6] Thalman was killed during a KPD-BSA brawl in July of 1929.

[7] Roosevelt had greater support than OTL and Garner gave up his campaign much earlier in exchange for the position of Attorney General, Albert Ritchie accepted the offer to be Roosevelt’s running mate.

[8] Hoover’s support is even worse than OTL and Connecticut went to Roosevelt.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

 

 

日本战败后,美国军队成了日本的占领军,把小日本的天皇从神打回了人,撕下了天皇的假面具,打破了小日本的天皇神论。在美国占领军的控制下,经过几十年的快速发展,小日本竟然成了经济大国,全体小日本人言商经商,自己的军队只能叫成自卫队

谓日本人,所谓大和名族,是一个在孤岛上生存了几千年,欺软怕硬,带表里不一,虚伪自私,顺从奴性,投机心理严重的变态的民族

After Japan’s defeat,

the U.S. military has become the occupation forces in Japan, the Emperor of Japan from God to fight back who tore off the mask of the Emperor, breaking Japan’s Emperor of monotheism. Control of U.S. occupation troops, after decades of rapid development, Japan, became an economic power, all the small Japanese words providers do business, own army can only be called Self-Defense Forces.
So-called Japanese, the so-called Japanese family name is to survive on a desert island for thousands of years, bully, with duplicity, selfish and hypocritical, submissive servility serious speculative psychological metamorphosis of the nation!

 

 

小小的日本国,小小的岛屿,小小的民族,非要什么都要带一个字,大日本,大和

Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have to had to take a “big” big in Japan, Japan


Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have had to take a “big” word, the Japanese, Japanese national The most polite people in the world on the surface is the Japanese, to meet the three bows, good words spoken, turned around to urinate anywhere, in the war is the most human army. There is no way a small Japanese island abroad survived for thousands of years, all insecure, created a metamorphosis of the nation!

Manchukuo issued its first postage stamps

on July 28, 1932.

A number of denominations existed, with two designs: the pagoda at Liaoyang and a portrait of Puyi.

     

Originally the inscription read (in Chinese) “Manchu State Postal Administration”;

Sinkiang, Airmail, 1932-33,

 

First Issue complete (Scott C1-4. Chan PSA1-4), o.g., 10¢ & rare 15¢ values never hinged, others lightly hinged, brilliant colors, scarce, Very Fine, all signed F.Z. Chan except 10¢Realized HK$ 24,000

 

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932 engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays

 

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932 engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays.

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932

engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

japanese infantryman supported by a type 89 tank (Nanchang)

 

 

a naval landing force officer armed with a nambu pistol and a katana sword (shanghai 1932)

 

 

 

japanese soldier using a Type 89 grenade discharger (shanghai 1932)

 

japanese navy soldier guarding a chinese prisoner (shanghai, 1932)

 

japanese soldiers using camouflage nets during the january 28 incident (shanghai 1932)

 

 

infantryman of the naval landing force in the ruins of shanghai (1932)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1933

1933

 

 

japanese soldier with his family one last time before leaving for the front in manchuria (1933)

 

 

russian mercenaries of the japanese controlled Manchukuo Imperial Army inside a trench during the japanese invasion of the great wall in 1933

 

japanese army soldiers using a ZB vz. 26 light machine gun (manchuria 1933)

 

Szechuan, 1933-1934,

 

 

complete selection of mint sets (Scott 1-23. Chan SC1-23), composed of 23 stamps, plus a couple duplicates and 2 used with anti-bandit chops. You will also fine 8¢ New Peking block of 4 NH and a unfinished proof of the 1897 CIP $5. F-VF many regummed. Realized HK$ 3,000

April 1933

 

Manchukuo, 1933 (April) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, a lovely cover originating at the Carlowitz firm at Mukden originally framked by 4s Japan Fuji definitive (Scott 172) in a horizontal strip of 3, cancelled violet, Moukden 4.33 IJPO cds’s. pair of 4¢ SYS definitive pasted over the Japanese issues and cancelled at Shanghai, with front showing additional pair of 2¢ orange postage dues cancelled Shanghai 29.4.33 cds, along with “Shanghai T” due handstamp. Marvelous example of the postal war period,

 

 

August 1933

 

Manchukuo, 1933 (August) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, lovely cover used between Carlowitz firms, franked on back by vertical strip of 4 of 4s orange Fuji definitive, tied by dual, violet “Moukden 8.33 IJPO” strikes. Reverse also shows 2 Shanghai security cds chops, plus a 10¢ martyr and 1¢ on 4¢ Junk surcharge, 6 copies, all tied by Shanghai August 24 cds’s. Lovely and scarce combination

in 1934,

September 1934

 

Manchukuo, 1934 (Sept. 9) red band cover from Tengtien/Manchukuo to Tientsin, franked on reverse by Japanese Tazawa 2 s. red tied by standard Japanese trisected postmark 9/9/5, when cover arrived in Tientsin, postage due was applied as the Chinese government had no postal treaty with Manchukao, hence additional postage charged, 5¢ orange was added and cancelled by bilingual Tientsin September 10th, on front circle “T” “Postage due/Tientsin” indicated to collect postage due, a Very Fine cover with historical significance

 

1934

1935

In 1935, the great-grandmother died, my grandfather ordered to Beijing real estate all betrayed, the family moved to Shanghai. During this time, Li Zhaofu addition to a lawyer, he also went to Hong Kong and Zhao Tieqiao make doing business. Zhao Tieqiao any Hong Kong investment promotion director, while his grandfather, and he was ready to buy a boat, Chiang Kai-shek’s assassination Zhao Iron Bridge.Third, the

The jointly organized LLP Location Lizhao Fu and Zhang Yao Zeng, Shen Junru is in the British Concession in Shanghai Schoenberg Road Chase. According to the father recalled, although his grandfather was a lawyer, but he, unlike general lawyer, he does not answer unconscionable lawsuit. Once a rogue lose the lawsuit, vowed a vow, saying things, give you a garden house, but his grandfather did not answer.

 

Lijia in Shanghai is renting an apartment, grandmother, grandfather refused that case complained. For another example, the divorce, my grandfather, the total first advised and. Day of the end of 1936, my grandfather came home, the whole family was already seated waiting for his dinner. He came in, put the briefcase edge edge grandmother said: “Today’s case.” My grandmother asked: “with which to fight you?” He replied: “with Chiang Kai-shek.” That lawsuit is the history of China’s seven The gentleman the case(du xin xin)

1935

1935 Postal Saving Certificate





10x10c Junk stamps optd with “Limited for Saving Only”
Additional optd with violet “Shanghai”. Shanghai Postal Saving cds.
Shanghai anti-bandit control on the first postal savings issue of 1919.


September,8th.1935

 

ROC resistent war 1935

 

Taiwan, 1935 FFC Taiwan/Taihoku to Foochos, 11/19/35, franked with 2 s. red Tazawa issue tied by Taihoku/Taiwan/Japan with receiver Minhow/Foochoos same date cds on reverse, only 60 covers flown, scarce thus, Very Fine.

 

 

 

 

1936

 

 

Guo Bingkun colonel

he was forty red twenty-six Army division political commissar of a regiment,

in September 1936,

he was off in the Military commander, led his troops to participate in the direct rho, Eastern Campaign and other battles. September, he served as the CPC Shaanxi-Gansu border the Southern District Committee Propaganda Department, Red Army seventy-eight fifth division two hundred thirty-two general branch secretary the CPC group. Red Army Long March to the northern Shaanxi, he served as Army General Political Department of the CPC in the recorder off the rank of vice minister of the military, for the creation of the Northwest Soviet contributed.

a new issue read “Manchu Empire Postal Administration”. An orchid crest design appeared in 1935, and a design featuring the Sacred White Mountains in 1936.

     
     

 

 

 

18/2/1936 first flight  cover from canton to USA via Hanoi

 

Both covers same flight, depatched 6.3.1936 and delayed due to whether condition, with instructional cachet. Both covers are 1936 Canton to Honoi first flight covers

 

 

In China, World War II broke out

on July 7, 1937,

with a seemingly insignificant little battle between Chinese and Japanese troops near Peking, called the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Within a few days, the Japanese had occupied Peking, and the fighting spread rapidly. The war in China fell into three stages.

The Seven Gentlemen arrested, escorted to Suzhou. ZHANG Yao had diary recalls,

April 5, 1937,

 

Zhang Yao had forenoon to the firm, Hou Bo Shen not to afternoon before they may be energized, please visit Hengshan its generation of more than Soviet Union to talk about defense thing. Primary application fast Connaught friend adversity catching flu also write a letter to shore caused Hengshan (Shen Junru). “Li Zhaofu few people on the day went to Suzhou visitation Shen Junru. Shen Junru in the April 9 letter to Shen Qian said, “to come with the 5th Bo Shen-kai Zhang, Yu, Tang three lawyers and carrying Mr. Rong West letter, with views are Szczecin want. Was there that day several decided …… my defense counsel except rong West, Bo Shen, has agreed to appoint Liu Chongyou, Qin Liankui two lawyers are already very mature Friends of. Shen Junru four defense lawyers, ZHANG Yao has ranked top, but play a major role in the actual defense Lizhao Fu, Qin Liankui (Note 7).

Zhang Yuanji diary also mentioned the Marco Polo Bridge Incident before and after, he Lizhao Fu Shen Junru Gongpu people often have dinner, and to discuss the affairs of state, such as the gathering on September 3, 1937 for Li Zhaofu plays host to a total of thirteen people. ”

 

Thirteen, eight

• Japanese occupation of the Chinese city of Shanghai, and grandfather left Shanghai at the end of 1937 returned to Sichuan(du xinxin)

The first (1937-1939)

was characterized by the phenomenally rapid Japanese occupation of most of China’s east coast, including such major cities as Shanghai, Nanjing, and Canton. The Nationalist government moved to the interior, ultimately to Chongqing in Sichuan, and the Japanese established puppet governments in Peking in 1937 and in Nanjing in 1940. The second stage (1939-1943) was a period of waiting, as Chiang blockaded the Communists in the northwest (despite the united front) and waited for help from the United States, which had declared war on Japan in 1941. (The Photo is of the Marco Polo Bridge)

1937 “77″ Incident,

Shichang very concerned about the prospect of the nation, one day, visiting old friends Cao Rulin. Turning to the current political situation in question, Cao Rulin said: “Anglo-American School of Nanjing government in power, to suppress the Japanese forces in China, so Japan’s loss of rights in China, Japan forced choice but to send troops and fight in China. President (referring to Shichang) at this time as can out of the mountains, with Japan Goodwill Treaty, the Japanese can withdraw troops. “hearing these words, Shichang understand Cao Rulin is for the Japanese aggressors as lobbyists, to persuade himself as a traitor, came forward to maintain the situation in China under Japanese rule. He could not angry, flatly refused: “The old and useless over 80, frail and sick, have long asked the government affairs, however, have no interest in it you find smb. Better qualified”. Cao Rulin had a hard-hitting nails, had to leave crestfallen leave. Shichang immediately ordered the porter: “If you come back after Cao Rulin, said I was not home. “Since then, Hsu said the disease, behind closed doors, thank-you.

At this time, Japan is the northern invaders into account Shichang veteran, high qualifications, but also served as president, the rich political experience, was appointed head of the puppet regime in North China the best candidate, so determined to continue to fight for him. Thus, the Japanese intend to Shichang the Neizhi Xu from the body up to find a breakthrough.

Xu was in Beijing to work one up. Pseudo-Mayor of Tianjin Panyu Gui sent his secretary KE Chang Xu Si to Beijing to lobby for a tat. KE Chang Xu Si on a-tat said: Shichang as the Japanese military would like to invite the leaders of North China. If Shichang promise out of the mountains, took the post of mayor of Beijing arrangements for Xu 1 up. Like uncle, like a reach with patriotic Xu, KE Chang Si politely rejected the request, and forwarded to the uncle of this situation. Xu Shichang on a patriotic move up quite appreciated, and told him immediately to avoid the Beijing-Tianjin area, to avoid being the Japanese hostage, then, under the Shanghai Xu 1 Danan, and lived in Shanghai for over a year.

However, the “patient’s” still insists on dragging the Japanese aggressors Shichang water. Early 1938, the Japanese invaders Itagaki, head and big secret division chief Kenji Doihara Colonel, invite Shichang were met, but Shichang was not plead illness. Helpless, the Japanese also sent Shichang the disciples and others to lobby the gold beam. Gold beam is were the main members of the Socialist Party, served in Manchukuo. They carried out of the last emperor Pu Yi Shichang succumb to oppression. Kim Shichang living room to meet with the teacher, the urgent advice: “The Order of division heads and Dohihara Colonel Itagaki was sent to audience with the teacher, asked the teacher to become the first North leaders. Once the deployment is ready, then please go to Beijing is emperor Xuantong position, the teacher should never lose this golden opportunity. “

Shichang senior official who is the Qing Dynasty, Emperor has been on the Xuantong great respect. After the emperor to abdicate in Xuantong he Qing court funding, treatment, etc. has been taken care of. Therefore, survivors of the Qing Dynasty, he called the “feel nostalgic old master” in the name. However, at this moment, Shichang clearly recognize that this is related to national interests, national sovereignty and personal names section of the major problems, their plans must not only be loyal to former team for the slightest concession. Therefore, he solemnly declined: “I am old and can not energy poor, never again coming out of the like!” Golden beam raised her voice to persuade: “We came here not for the other, but to the teacher later section . everyone has a later section, also hope the teachers understand this. “Shichang angry already has, lips trembling, snapped:” You know what’s later? greedy interests of the individual moment, betraying the nation, contrary to Tianliliangxin, which be considered later years? Do you too Hun! “he finished, stormed upstairs.

Since then, the Japanese aggressors Shichang not resort to the idea.

1937

 

 

1937 First Flight cover China-USA from Shanghai

Franked with 3x$1 Airmail stamps

If you fall off the eastern edge of the Himalayan mountains, the first major city (population 4.1 million) that you come to is Chengdu, in China’s Sichuan province. You’ve heard of it from the spicy Chinese food, called “Szechuan” in the west.

Rosemary and I spent 5 or 6 days based around there. A few of those were visiting a Buddhist holy mountain, and the largest Buddha in the world – I’ll write about them in another post.

Chengdu itself was like every other large Chinese city – endless streets with few distinguishing features. My fault for hoping it might be a bit better than that. It has some super parks, but you have to deliberately go to them, you couldn’t stumble upon them by accident.

We saw real Giant Pandas at the breeding centre outside town – they’re super cute, mainly because they have a sixth thumb-like finger so they look like people as they eat bamboo. The Red Pandas are even better. I hope somebody domesticates some soon. They were running round playing, happy like dogs, but cute like cats.

The surprise attraction in Chengdu itself was Du Fu’s “cottage”. Really a whole complex of buildings and gardens (photo right), originally where an 8th century poet lived in a thatched house. There was lots of good bonsai trees, and also calligraphy of Du Fu’s poems. Those are the two arts which I’ve seen that are both still practiced properly in China, and are uniquely Chinese

From google exploration I found information from Szecuan during Dai Nippon Occupation below

Dari eksplorasi Google ditemukan info tentang kampong Szechuan masa perang dunia kedua

Needham Photographs – Wartime China, 1942-1946

Northwest Journey 西北之旅

Photographs taken by Joseph Needham on the long expedition to the northwest from Chongqing to Jiayuguan in Gansu province and back, via Chengdu, Lanzhou and many other places. Note that on this journey he travelled beyond Jiayuguan to the Buddhist caves at Qianfodong near Dunhuang in Gansu, the photographs for which are in CFT. The Northwest journey was undertaken from 7th August – 14th December 1943, but there are also a few photographs taken before and after the journey on rolls NW2 and NW6. On the outward leg of the journey to Lanzhou, Needham was accompanied by SBSCO staff members H.T. Huang 黃興宗 and Liao Hongying 廖鴻英, as well as Edward Beltz, an American oil geologist, and a young scientist Chen Zixin 陳自信. In another truck travelled the famous explorer Sir Eric Teichman (1884-1944). From Lanzhou to Qianfodong and back he was accompanied by H.T. Huang (who travelled back to Lanchow separately), Rewi Alley (1897-1987), Sun Guangjun 孫光俊 and Wang Wansheng 王萬盛, two boys from the Lanzhou Bailie School, the painter Wu Zuoren 吳作人, as well as a driver, Kuang Wei 鄺威, and a mechanic from Lanzhou, Yu Dexin 俞德新. The photographs have been rearranged from their original sequence into chronological order.

照片是李约瑟先生在从重庆到甘肃省嘉峪关往返的漫长途中拍摄的,期间他还经过了成都市,兰州市和其它许多地方。需要指出的是在这次旅行中,他还参观了甘肃敦煌的千佛洞,那部分的照片请参看CFT。西北之旅的照片是在194387号到1214号之间拍摄的,但NW2NW6胶卷上也有少量照片是在之前和之后拍摄的。在去兰州旅行的途中,陪同李约瑟先生的有中英科学合作馆的黄兴宗和廖鸿英,还有美国石油质学者 Edward Beltz 和青年科学家陈自信。在另外一个卡车上旅行的有著名的探险家 Eric Teichman 爵士。从兰州到千佛洞往返的途中,陪同的有黄兴宗 (兰州回来时他独自返回),路易艾黎 Rewi Alley (1897-1987),孫光俊和王萬盛, 来自兰州培黎学校的两个男孩, 画家吳作人,司机鄺威,还有来自兰州的机械师余德新。照片已按照年代顺序重新进行排列

 

 

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTION (CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE  OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CD ROM,

THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

1925

After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925,

he Tingling the Beijing Xishan, shift Ling

In 1925,

Duan Regent, decided to convene the aftermath of the meeting. Segment on the matter on January 1, please call Sun Yat-sen, Li Yuan-hung, the same day electric Shanghai branch caused Tang Shaoyi, Zhang Binglin, Cen Chunxuan another electrical Li Zhaofu (primary application).

 

This just goes to show that his grandfather was practicing in Shanghai, is still home to Beijing. Memories of his father also confirmed that,

 

in Beijing when he was three, pneumonia was the the He Xiangning just to stopping by to see his father a high fever, and immediately hold him to the hospital opened by the German father remember the doctor’s name is Corey. Since then, He Xiangning become my father Ganniang. In Shanghai the Li Zhaofu and He Xiangning, Song Qingling, Huangyanpei close relationship. In 1932, he organized and Huangyanpei, Zhang Yao had a new China Construction Association, published in the “renaissance” monthly.

In 1925,

Duan Regent, decided to convene the aftermath of the meeting. Segment on the matter on January 1, please call Sun Yat-sen, Li Yuan-hung, the same day electric Shanghai branch caused Tang Shaoyi, Zhang Binglin, Cen Chunxuan another electrical Li Zhaofu (primary application).

 

This just goes to show that his grandfather was practicing in Shanghai, is still home to Beijing. Memories of his father also confirmed that,

 

in Beijing when he was three, pneumonia was the the He Xiangning just to stopping by to see his father a high fever, and immediately hold him to the hospital opened by the German father remember the doctor’s name is Corey. Since then, He Xiangning become my father Ganniang. In Shanghai the Li Zhaofu and He Xiangning, Song Qingling, Huangyanpei close relationship. In 1932, he organized and Huangyanpei, Zhang Yao had a new China Construction Association, published in the “renaissance” monthly.(Di Xinxin)

1926
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang

    1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang)

    Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang.

    Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China

    Despite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles.

    5-8 May 1926

    With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months.

    The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army.

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4].

    From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong Press

    Tan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5].

    In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]

Yunnan, 1926, Junk Issue,

 

 

½¢-$5 complete (Scott 1-20. Chan 1-20), limited for use in th Province of Yunnan, complete set of 20, all values expertly regummed, overall brilliant colors, fine appearance, clean set, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 3,800

Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

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Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

 

 

 

in July 1926.

since 1927,

establish a capital of the Nationalist government in Nanjing military authorities more than the Shiu just old friends, when multiplied by the official reached, a breeze. Care each about public office, Noir to frail numerous fan drama resigned. “Why refuse him not official? He died long gone, no one can see their mentality, I guess he saw the darkness of political and democratic retrogression.(Du Xinxin)

1927

 

Manchurian Provinces, 1927,

 

 

 

Junk Issue, ½¢-$5 complete (Scott 1-20. Chan KH1-20), set of 20, limited for use in Manchuria District, all values expertly regummed, clean fresh appearance, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,800

 

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition

 

brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

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Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

 

The Nationalist army met little resistance and

by April 1927

had reached the lower Yangtze. Meanwhile, Chiang, claiming to be a sincere follower of Sun Yat-sen, had broken with the left-wing elements of the KMT. After the Nationalist forces had taken Shanghai, a Communist-led general strike was suppressed with bloodshed. Following suppressions in other cities, Chiang set up his own government at Nanjing on April 18, 1927. He professed friendship with the Soviet Union,

but by July 1927

he was expelling Communists from the KMT. Some left-wingers left for the Soviet Union.

(Photo – Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Wen Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida, and Bai Chongxi.)

 

The northern expedition was resumed,

1927

since 1927,

establish a capital of the Nationalist government in Nanjing military authorities more than the Shiu just old friends, when multiplied by the official reached, a breeze. Care each about public office, Noir to frail numerous fan drama resigned. “Why refuse him not official? He died long gone, no one can see their mentality, I guess he saw the darkness of political and democratic retrogression

 

 

in 1928

Chiang took Peking. China was formally unified. Nationalist China was recognized by the Western powers and supported by loans from foreign banks. (The Photo is of Dr Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek)

The Nationalist Era

(1928-1937)

   

The Nationalist period began with high hopes and much promise. More could have been accomplished had it not been for the problems of Comintern corruption and Japanese aggression. In his efforts to combat them both, Chiang neglected the land reform needed to improve the lives of the peasants. Driven from the cities, the Communists concentrated on organizing the peasants in the countryside.

 

1928

 


1928 Peking to France taxed Postcard


 

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

1929

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

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Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Chapter 5. Disputes

With most of the main communist forces defeated (except for the fortified enclaves in Manchuria and Tibet) China had now finally been properly unified under the Kuomintang National Government. But with unification came the need for the central government, which had been relocated to Nanjing, to reorganise things. First and foremost was the army. While the NRA made up the bulk of the armed forces, the warlords still retained significant numbers under arms, that answered directly to them, so the appearance of unity was not always there. Wang Jing-wei was tempted to try to reorder the armies in, but the warlords would be resistant as it would mean giving up the personal power they had over their regions. Fortunately General Li Zongren and the German military advisor Max Bauer were able to advise Wang on the best course of action, to retain the loyalty of the warlords. Bauer had originally advocated a corps professional army and many local militia forces when he first came to China, but at the time Chiang Kai-Shek had not wanted to implement this.

But since the end of the Northern Expedition Bauer had been working with Li to make this plan a reality. Bauer had brought thirty German officers to train troops at Whampoa and in particular develop a military intelligence branch. Some of these soldiers would be placed alongside the various clique armies in the spirit of cooperation and the clique leaders would retain leadership over their own militia forces and direct as they saw fit, providing that the declared themselves and their provinces as part of the central government. There was some discourse over the mixing of the armies, but Li Zongren smoothed things out, by meeting with the leaders and explaining to them that they would not be bearing any of the costs for the German trained troops, but still receive their aid as well as potential training for their own men. The so called Clique Crisis had not lasted long and there was still ongoing discussions but for the most part the warlords found the new order acceptable, though Zhang Xueliang is one notable exception to this. For President Wang he scored big political points by securing relations with the warlords, particularly since his military background was severely lacking. Though many have pointed out that the placement of these forces had a hidden purpose. Since many of the NRA soldiers in the provinces had been trained in military intelligence at Whampoa they would also be able to track down communists and their sympathisers amongst the militia forces, but they would also be able to keep track of the warlord forces to see that they maintained their loyalty to Nanjing and could report back of any dissent amongst the warlords.


Max Bauer from his early days in China, when he first met Chiang Kai-Shek and became involved with the Kuomintang. Bauer would continue as a military adivsor in China until his death in 1937.

[1] ATL brother to Hong Kong actor Andy Lau.

[2] By damage, this mostly means fallout that hit these countries due to weather patterns, although the one like Korea that had actual alliances with either of the two sides did take some hits from nuclear weapons.

[3] I hardly think this one needs explanation .

[4] A film depicting the Battle of Gettysburg

trouble North

“Frivolous thinking is due to foreign thought. Japan must no longer let the impudence of the white peoples go unpunished. It is the duty of Japan to fulfil her natural destiny, to cause China to respect the Japanese, to expel Chinese influence from Manchuria, and to follow the way of imperial destiny.”
-General Sadao Araki of the Imperial Army of Ja

Nanjing in 1929.

Shift Ling, Li Zhaofu one held Rare. My father still remembers. He said the grandfather wearing a top hat, wearing a tuxedo, the coffin of the Sun is a red envelope with ROC, two long black satin. It was reported that sixty-four people surrounded the coffin, including carry coffins held Rare by. Held Rare among Wu Yuzhang, Xie immeasurable, Zhao Tie bridges, the three men with Li Zhaofu are relatively close. I the father also remember flying painting of Zhang Shanzai and Xie Wuliang limerick home.

According to my grandmother recalled after the death of Sun Yat-sen, Wang Ching-wei and Chiang Kai-shek had asked the grandfather went to Beihai Park, Fangshan dinner, to be his grandfather out an official, but he declined to Dingfu worry “(his father died). Quit politics, Li Zhaofu still be treated as “Xunlao in national qualifications

Nanjing in 1929.

Shift Ling, Li Zhaofu one held Rare. My father still remembers. He said the grandfather wearing a top hat, wearing a tuxedo, the coffin of the Sun is a red envelope with ROC, two long black satin. It was reported that sixty-four people surrounded the coffin, including carry coffins held Rare by. Held Rare among Wu Yuzhang, Xie immeasurable, Zhao Tie bridges, the three men with Li Zhaofu are relatively close. I the father also remember flying painting of Zhang Shanzai and Xie Wuliang limerick home.

According to my grandmother recalled after the death of Sun Yat-sen, Wang Ching-wei and Chiang Kai-shek had asked the grandfather went to Beihai Park, Fangshan dinner, to be his grandfather out an official, but he declined to Dingfu worry “(his father died). Quit politics, Li Zhaofu still be treated as “Xunlao in national qualifications.

 

 

(du xinxin)