CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS ONLY SAMPLE WITHOUT ILLUATRATION,THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CD ROM EXIST

The Chinese

History Collections

1800-1914

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2013

 

 

 

The Empress Xuci

 

 

 

Cette peinture a été peinte par Hubert Vos, le peintre hollandais américain, dont la peinture a été présentée à l’Impératrice Cixi au ses soixante et unième anniversaire.Il est maintenant au Palais d’été (Yiheyuan) à Beijing à la Salle des Nuages ​​Dissiper, (PaiyunDian).

La dame représenté ici est connu sous plusieurs noms, parmi lesquels les trois noms les plus connus sont les suivants:

Elle est plus communément connu par son titre, la 
«Impératrice douairière.” Ceci est un titre anglais donné à elle par la presse européenne et américaine il ya 100 ans.

Son nom chinois peut être rendu, ou traduit de deux manières différentes.La nouvelle façon de rendre son nom (par pinyin) est “Cixi”.

.” Le logo en haut de la page contient quatre mots chinois, qui signifie littéralement «Ci Xi impératrice douairière.”

 

 

 

 

 

Elle était très mal perçue par les Han car elle était Mandchoue. A l’école, on m’a enseigné (et donc pas qu’a moi ) qu’elle était une mauvaise impératrice et qu’elle était en partie responsable du désastre qui frappa la chine alors. De plus elle a fuie la capitale, abandonnant le peuple …bref elle n’était vraiment pas bien vu à l’époque et jusqu’à il a peu. Depuis deux ou trois ans les chaines chinoises diffusent des reportages qui réabilitent un peu son image, mais bon ce n’est pas la souveraine la plus populaire de la chine ancienne, loin de là.

 

 

 

 

 

(1800-1915)

·         CHINE 1860

Sélection de prises de vue de la chine ancienne, couvrant approximativement une période de 1860 à 1946 et réalisée par différents photographes. La plupart de ces images ont été retouchées numériquement pour améliorer leurs qualités. Ces photographies, en plus d’offrir une esthétique propre aux monochromes, apportent un témoignage sur l’histoire chinoise à travers ses traditions, ses coutumes et sa culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir la galerie complète : Old China sur Flickr.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectot

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

.Dr IWAN NOTES
In 1974 I have bought a best china imperial stamps from an old chinese overseas at Padang, after that I never found anymore in Indonesia or in China, but in 2008 I have found the Empress Xi Ci Birthday stamps but not complete,and one fake stamps, also one used local Chefoo port stamps and used 1/2 cent japanese print coiling Dragon issued. The postmark special patkwa type.from Beijing and CEF on British India stamps.
The Chinese Imperial stamps became Very difficult to found and the prized very expensived especially postally used one cover. Please the collectors comment and show thei collection of postal used cover .
The chronologic historic china imperial postal history only seen in Beijing Postal History Museum, but different style than mine.

Please remember this collection @copyright Dr iwan S.2012, don’t copy without written permission from the uniquecollection Blog founder

.INTRODUCTIONS


After 36 years research fromthe first time found the Qing Dynasty postmark collections in 1974 , very difficult to found the special catalogue about this type collections.
After the google had the special tools to explored allin informations in the Internet , I found enough information to start to report my reasearch.

During Qing Dynasty, before joined UPU , all the latter send abroad must added the stamps from the country which had joined UPU, because the local stamps didn’t accepted.

After the first local port stamps first issue at Shangai in 1863, the first Local Post Shanghai Postmark were issued and follow by the other Local Port Postmark like Amoy,Foochow, Chinkiang etc.

The first Qing Imperial postmark were the Pa Kua,special chinese characters used five strip, and by cutting one or more line will made the special meaning, every city used this pa kua postmark with meaning the initial of the city.In 2007 I have found the first Pa kua postmark on Japan coil dragon stamps 1 c many Indonesian collectors didn.t want to collect this stamp because they think this postmark was blob and bad.
Pa means five, Kua means line,

In 1896, the Qing emperor issued a special decree giving official recgnation to the European postal syatem and the Ancient I Chan and Manchu Postal system were ended.Many European have their postoffice in China with their own postmark, the first postmaek found was the German pstal Office at Kiatschou. (read the complete history “The Qing Imperial Postal History” in this blog.)

After joined UPU, the Qing postal system issued the internationalpostmark . round bigger like dollar coin, and this postmark called Qing Dollar Post mark, after that many types of postmark like double ring and Belingual postmark were issued.

The last dynasty (emperor Puyi) have issued the special Temple of heaven stamps. Every year the Qing emperor prayed at this temple, and also issued the bilingual Date(BLD) postmark like Foochow, tengyoe ,Peking, Chungking. in 1909-1910, the last year of Qing Dynasty postal service , and after that ROC postal service begun with their own postmark Shanghai Lunar date and official government postage paid stationer postcard of Statistical departement.

This reaseach report, was the first time with chronologic historic postmark , because many auctioner couldn’t gave the exact informations, they only said good Qing Postmark , some writers like Wikipedia have given the best narration f the Postmark , also some e-bay canada auction with the complete informations but many without the exact information, because too difficult to read the chinese characters.
I hope after read and look the illustrations, many collectors begin to understand the Qing Postmark, but stillmany informations need please the specialist collecter comment.
Dr Iwan s. the founder of uniquecolection.wordpress.com Blog.
@ copyright Dr Iwan S 2012.

 

THE CHRONOLOGY HISTORIC COLLECTION

2.1 ANCIENT CHINA

The Chinese books told that the I Chan or Imperial Government courier service and the Minchu or native posting agencies as early as the Chow dynasty in 1122 B.C..

The former,maintained only at the Imperial Palace, ran errands between the State and The provincial authorities, while the later was operated for general public with varying charges paid by the sender and the addressee.

Both the I Chand and the Minchu were well-equipped and efficiently organized, covering the greater parts of Szechwan,Shensi, Kansu and the far West.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2.19TH CENTURY

Early 19th Century

1800

  •  

 

 

Manchu mariée Pékin, Penchilie Province, China [1867] John Thomson

 

·         CHINE 1880

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:43

 

 

·         Femme Manchu de 1869 Pekin

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:55

 

Exemple de Coiffure sur une province tartre ou Manchu Femme, Frontview, Pékin, Petchili, Chine [1869] John Thomson. photographe.

Intitulé: (vue de face) Exemple de Coiffure sur une femme tartare ou mandchous, qui porte une longue robe à manches longues matelassé.Le cheveu est enroulé autour d’une bande plate de bois.Pékin, Petchili Province, China [1869] J Thomson  des travaux de réparation étendue aux manches et au visage, le fond était tout simplement dépouillé, des ajustements dans le contraste et la tonalité.

Voici un autre classique de John Thomson (quoique avec restauration étendue), retrouvée dans la collection fantastique Wellcome de son travail.Thomson a continué de fasciner les gens, après un siècle, son travail a récemment retourné en Chine, où de nombreux Chinois pour la première fois sont de voir l’essence de leurs ancêtres à travers son art éternel.Wellcome Collection de Thomson peut être trouvé ici:

library.wellcome.ac.uk/node267.html

Cette fille fait apparu dans plusieurs des tableaux de Thomson.Il était évident qu’il a passé quelque temps à photographier une équipe de modèles Manchu tant dans leur entoure naturelles et en face d’une toile de fond portable.Essentiellement mon soupçon personnelle est que son processus a été remarquablement similaire à une séance photo des temps modernes.Bien sûr, il n’a pas eu flashs électroniques ou de films numériques, mais avait plutôt de regarder sous un drap noir à l’envers inversé l’image sur une plaque de verre mat DIM.Photographie en ces jours était véritablement une entreprise monumentale.

Comme un historien amateur, je sais que la retouche est un tabou flagrante.Cependant, en tant que photographe et artiste regardant une belle fille, j’ai trouvé l’envie de nettoyer l’image trop grande pour résister.J’ai commencé tout simplement désireux d’enlever la tache grosse de son front, et avant que je le savais, j’étais déjà reconstruire ses manches, LOL …

L’image originale non retouchée peut être vu ici:

www.flickr.com/photos/ralphrepo_photolog/3974179434/

Imaginez que, étant captivé et séduit par une femme qui est sans doute mort depuis plus d’un siècle.Je suppose que certains de beauté est en effet hors du temps.

 

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1860

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:36

Sélection de prises de vue de la chine ancienne, couvrant approximativement une période de 1860 à 1946 et réalisée par différents photographes. La plupart de ces images ont été retouchées numériquement pour améliorer leurs qualités. Ces photographies, en plus d’offrir une esthétique propre aux monochromes, apportent un témoignage sur l’histoire chinoise à travers ses traditions, ses coutumes et sa culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voir la galerie complète : Old China sur Flickr.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

1836

 

Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000

 

1. !9th Century
(1)1851
Cixi entered the forbidden city for allegedly not resisting the Taiping Rebellion in Anhui provinece.
In Sepetember 1851, cixi participated in selection process for concubines for the new Qing emperor Xianfeng with sixty other Manchu girls. This process was supervised by the Kang Ci imperial Dowger consorts, cixi was one of the few girls selected on that occasion and was appointed preparative concubine.

(2)1855
Cixi entering the forbidden city and became pregnant.

(3)1856
April.27th.1856, Cixin gave birth to Tong Zhi , the only male heir of the Xianfeng emperor which led to her eleveation to the rank Consort of the fourth rank.

(4) 1857
When Cixi Son Tong Zhi reach his first year birthday , cixi was elected to a “Noble Imperial Consort Yin” this rank is an imperial consot of the secnd degree after the Empress consort. This rank placed Cixi second only to the Empress Ci’an.

(5)1860
In september 1860, British and French troops attacks Beijing during the closing stage of the second opium war. The attack command by Lord Elgin was mounted in retaliation for the arrest of British diplomatic envoy Harry parkes and the torture and exceution of a member of westrern hostages. The Xianfeng emperor moved to Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Cheng-he ,Hebe).

In October 1860, The emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace had burned to ground. On hearing the news of that destructions the Xianfeng Emperor , who was already showing sign of dementia fell into a depression turned heavily to alcohol and drugs , and became severing ill.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Phu de Phu Hai

 

 

 

Le Quan Bo ou mandarin des finances

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

Le Quan An de Hanoi

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin en costume de ville

 

 

Annam- Huê – Son Excellence le Kinh Luoc Hoang Kao-Kaï

(Hoàng Cao Khai), Vice-Roi du Tonkin

 

 

 

 

un Mandarin

 

 

Un mandarin de Huê

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885) Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Mandarins

 

 

 

Mandarin

 

 

 

 

Un mandarin en costume

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885) Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin en costume de ville

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

Le Tong Doc (Gouverneur général) de Hanoi et sa suite

 

 

 

Ambassadeurs de la Cour de Huê

 

 

Un lettré

 

 

 

Un lettré

 

 

 

Jeune étudiant lettré

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interprètes et lettrés

 

 

Un mandarin, croquis du baron Brossard de Corbigny

 

“Le grand costume de mandarin ne se porte que dans des circonstances solennelles.

“Pour les 4 premiers des neuf grades de la hiérarchie, c’est une grande robe à vastes manches, en soie brodée d’animaux et de dessins fantastiques de toutes couleurs. Dans la robe des civils, se trouvent le dragon, la grue, la tortue. Pour les militaires, c’est le tigre qui étale surtout sa figure farouche. Toutes ces étoffes sont faites en Chine. […] Sur la coiffure, s’étalent deux ailettes étroites et longues d’un pied. Elles sont en gaze, brodées de fils d’or, et ressemblent assez aux ailes lègéres des libellules. […]” (Carnets de l’ambassade à la Cour de Huê de 1875)

 

 

Mandarin de classe inférieure, croquis ambassade de 1875

“Dans les 5 derniers rangs des mandarins, le costume est en soie noire mate. Sur la poitrine, un carré brodé tantôt d’une grue, tantôt un tigre, indique la classe du lettré; le bonnet sans aillettes se rabat en arrière comme un bavolet et ses armements sont argentés. ” (Carnets Ambassade de 1875)

 

 

 

Un mandarin annamite

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un chef de canton des environs de Nam-Dinh

 

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin annamite

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin annamite

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège)

 

 

 

Un mandarin

 

Photo du Docteur Hocquart au Vietnam (1884-1885)

Collection M. Trân Quang Dông (Norvège

 

 

 

SOURCES

MERVEILLEUX BLOG de MONSIEUR ALAIN TRUONG

http://www.alaintruong.com/albums/les_mandarins/photos/3564999-le_phu_de_phuhai.html

 

(6) 1861
in August.21th 1861, The Xianfeng Emperor was died at Rehe Palace . Before his death, the emperor summoned eight of his most prestigiuos menister, headed by Sushan, Zaiyuan and Duan hua and name them the “Eight Regent Menister” to direct and support the future emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future empress dowger CIxi) was only five year old.
On his death bed, The Xianfeng Emperor also summond his Empress Ci’an and Nble consort Cixi, and gave each of them a imperial Stamp, he hped that when his sn ascendede the thrne , his empress and Noble consort Cixi would cooperate in harmony and togetherhelp the yung emperor to grow and mature, it was also meant as a check on the power of the Eight Regent.

By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor ‘s dead. Cixi had become a shrew strategies . In Rehe while waiting for an astrologogy favourable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, cixi plotted to grab the power.When the Emperor funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her Alliance with prince Gng and Prince Chun. they returned to Beijing befre the rest fvthe party, along with Zaiyuan and Duan hua, two of the principal reagent, while Su Shun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession.
Cixi with her Alliances have re-written the History, The reagents were dismissed for having carried out incompetenend negotiation with the “barbarian” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Rehe. .
Among other charges Cixi and Prince Gong produced a document called the “Eight Guilts of Reagent Menisters” which included allegations such as altering the Xianfeng emperor wills causing his death and stealing power from the two Empress dowager(Ci’an and Cixi).
To show the world that Cixi had high mral standards, she executed only three of the Eight Reagent menistries.
This Palace coup is kown as the “Xinyuan Palace coup” in China after the name of the year 1861 in the sexagenary cyclics and Cixi became the first nly Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from”behind the curtains”

A few days following the Coup , Cixi was quick to reward the Prince Gong for his help. he was made heads ofthe general Affairs Office and the Internal Affair office, his daughter was made a Gurun princess, a tittle usually bestowed only on the Empress’sfist born daughter.
In this year Britishman Robert hall started experience Postal service in china by send the letter from beijing to many city in China, some of that collections still exist in the china and foreign collectors collection. ( I have ever made the same experiment in 1979 with send the aerogram to all phillatelic service of Postal menistery of all over the world, and they send the informations stamps issued in the beautiful official or phillatelic covers,only two country cann’t recieve and send back to sender because the country didn’t exist anymore like Sahara africa and Isabela africa. I will put this exciting and rare collections in this blog-auth)

(7) 1862
Cixi decreed the opening of Tongwen Guan, a university -like institution in Beijing that hired foreigners as teacher and specialized in new age topic such as astronomy and methamethics as well as the English, French and Russian languages. The grupof youngboy also sent abroad to USA.

(8) 1863
The first local Shanghai Post stamp and postmark were issued.

(9)1864
Under the command of General Zeng Guofan the victorious Xianfeng army defeated the Taiping army in ahard battle at Tianjing( nor Nanjing) in July 1864.

(10) 1865
China lost in the second Opium war

 

 

 

Île temple sur la rivière Min Proche Foochow, la province de Fukien, en Chine [1870-1871] John Thomson

 

·         Mariée Manchu dans ses vêtements de mariage, Pékin 1871

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1870 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 13:40

 

 

 

Mariée Manchu dans ses vêtements de mariage, Pékin, Petchili Province, China [1871]

John Thomson

 

·         Famille Chinoise en 1875

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1870 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 13:36

I

 

Intitulé de la famille chinoise [c1875].Trouvé dans le visage de la Chine par dix photographes et Travelers 1860-1912, rédigé par L. Carrington Goodrich, avec commentaires historiques par Nigel Cameron (publié en 1978, le livre est encore en version imprimée et est disponible sur Amazon.com).La photo a été retouchée pour éliminer les taches et les rayures, et le contraste a été élevée à améliorer l’impact visuel.

J’adore cette photo.

Ne connaissant rien à l’ensemble des personnes réelles, c’est-à qui ils étaient ni ce que les liens sociaux ou politiques qu’ils avaient, nous ne pouvons que faire des suppositions éduquées et conjectures au sujet de leur milieu, basée sur ce qui est cru ou compris sur la culture chinoise lors de la fin des années 1800 .Dès le départ, le spectateur est particulièrement frappé par l’arrangement plutôt formelle des individus assis, et puis tout de suite relève une incohérence contrastés offerts par le positionnement nettement informel de l’homme à l’arrière gauche.En outre, le réglage lui-même est assez particulière, le nombre de places est positionné directement dans la trajectoire d’une passerelle portes lune, que l’on voit est une partie d’un mur surmonté.On s’aperçoit alors que ce paramètre est à l’extérieur, peut-être situé dans une cour privée, et a probablement été artificiellement organisées dans le but de la photographie.Le sol humide entre les pavés renforce l’idée que le réglage a été à l’extérieur.Il a probablement été choisie parce que l’impact visuel de la porte se prêtait à la réflexion créative du photographe.

Le but de la photographie est une autre question.De nos jours présente, une image en cours d’enregistrement est tellement simple et commun que nous y réfléchir rares.Cependant, nous devons comprendre que les gens de cette époque, en cours d’enregistrement dans une photographie était aussi peu probable et comme une entreprise monumentale pour eux, comme peut-être un tour sur la navette spatiale serait pour nous.Mon hypothèse est que la session photographique a été arrangé pour l’homme dans la photo vers la gauche.À mon avis, il est certainement le maître de cette maison, et les autres dans l’image sont ses épouses et ses enfants.L’occasion de photographie a probablement été initiée comme un effort pour produire un enregistrement de sa famille, comme il est devenu très à la mode pour les Chinois aisés dans la fin des années 1800 pour avoir pris de tels portraits.

 

L’homme est debout à l’arrière (normalement la position d’un serviteur), mais par son attitude nonchalante même, et d’être si proche de la proximité physique, qui est, à près de drapé sur l’une des dames de la maison; révèle clairement qu’il n’est pas un de l’aide ménagère, mais révèle aussi qu’il n’était pas destiné à avoir été dans l’image.Autrement dit, s’il avait été prévu ou aurait été planifiée pour être dans la photo en premier lieu, où doit-on attendre de lui qu’il soit?Je pense qu’il aurait appartenu au centre de la photographie, occupant le poste le plus important de tous, racontant à qui il voit qu’il est le maître de ce paramètre.Donc, sur cette base, je suppose que ce fut d’abord destiné à être une image de seulement les épouses et les enfants, et non de lui à tous.

Donc, si c’était le cas, qu’est-ce donc, ce qu’il fait dans l’image?Son positionnement à l’extrême gauche est révélateur.Mon hypothèse est que, même aux spectateurs les scènes de crime ou d’accident, l’homme était tellement pris dans sa curiosité d’observer qu’il a échoué à réaliser qu’il s’était égaré dans la scène et était devenu une partie de l’événement.Le regard du visage de l’homme suggère fortement qu’il était tellement concentré sur raptly ce que le photographe faisait, qu’il ne savait pas qu’il avait sorti de la touche et s’était mis dans l’image.On peut seulement imaginer que l’homme avait pas été ainsi hypnotiquement distrait d’avoir ainsi entré en scène, combien plus pauvres de l’image aurait été.

Socialement, les meubles, dément une famille de quelque aisance.Les tabourets de bois, à l’époque ont été utilisés non pas pour la hauteur contestée, mais plutôt de fournir une isolation contre le fait de mettre les pieds sur un plancher de froid et non chauffés.L’homme a quatre femmes, qui toutes semblent avoir les pieds liés (sauf pour celui qui a les pieds on ne peut pas voir) bespeaking déjà sa capacité d’un haut degré de sécurité financière.Au centre, la position la plus politiquement puissants dans tous les portraits de famille, est probablement la première femme.Assis à côté d’elle est l’aînée des enfants, probablement la première femme fille.À l’extrême droite est sans doute la seconde épouse basé sur l’apparence de l’âge.A côté d’elle est sans doute son fils, dont l’importance comme héritier mandaté que malgré sa réticence, sa présence dans la photographie a été considérée comme un must.Ceci est démontré par la main contre les notables stabilisation fidgetting, d’une personne hors caméra (probablement une servante) le tenant en position.À l’extrême gauche, les deux femmes assises sont des épouses risquent trois et quatre, avec la femme (probablement) à trois, en tenant la troisième enfant de la maison (à la charge de son), sur ses genoux.La femme reste n’avait pas d’enfant à ce point, mais avait toujours sa jeunesse.Le embroidary amende de leurs vêtements renforce en outre que ces femmes ont été d’importance, ce qui signifie qu’elles ont été toutes les épouses et non accompagnateur d’une femme servante personnelle ou tout autre membre de la classe de service.

 

·         Bateaux fleurs canton 1871-1874

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1870 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:52

 

 

Bateaux fleurs canton 1871-1874

J’ai trouvé cette image dans une page personnelle sur Flickr.Le propriétaire de la page, quelqu’un du nom de Etherflyer, avait apparemment l’image scannée à partir d’un livre appelé la Chine impériale: Photographies de 1850 à 1912.La photo montre plusieurs des bateaux de fleurs nombreuses qui s’étaient postés dans les eaux du vieux canton.Un terme euphémique pour bordel, ces maisons flottantes sont essentiellement de la prostitution qui offrit un dîner, la musique et du divertissement charnelle le long des berges des nombreuses rivières qui coule dans Canton.A un moment, des milliers de ces ornements, des bateaux palais prospéré dans cette ville portuaire animée.D’autres œuvres que des documents du commerce écrit:

«… Les vendeurs en sampan à condition que toutes sortes d’autres services, aussi. Barbiers servi à la fois les Chinois et les Occidentaux. De nombreux bateaux à condition de charbon, charbon de bois et bois de chauffage pour le carburant, tandis que d’autres spécialisés dans les fournitures de navires. Beaucoup d’autres élevaient des canards sur la proximité fermes et des oeufs et de viande de canard fournis aux navires. Le «bateaux de fleurs», ou bordels flottants, étaient également une vue remarquable sur le port. Les femmes sur les bateaux a vécu dans l’esclavage près de leurs proxénètes, qui pourraient être des commerçants ou des compradores Hong qui a payé les fonctionnaires afin de permettre le commerce. Même si il était illégal pour les femmes à entrer dans les usines, compradores pourrait les passer en cachette. Le drapeau sur le bateau coloré en face dit: “Femme céleste», ce qui indique que c’est une fleur ” bordel de bateau »ou flottant. L’église anglicane de premier plan et de l’American paquebot Spark, détenue par Russell et Cie, sont alignés derrière lui. représentants chinois a interdit aux femmes occidentales de l’usine de quarts, mais plusieurs ne organiser des visites secrètes. En attendant, l’étranger et les hommes chinois ont découvert de nombreuses femmes à répondre à leurs besoins dans le port … »

Source: ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/rise_fall_canton_03/cw_es …

En plus des bateaux de fleurs, de petits bateaux et de flotteurs de différentes sortes, impliqués dans une variété de métiers, ont souvent été fouetté ou ancré en étroite collaboration.Cette proximité des quartiers claustrophobes présageait catastrophe, attestée par un passage dans les Mémoires de Robert Dollar [1918] WS Van Cott & Co., San Francisco, Pg 122.Dans ce document, il écrit:

«Quelques jours avant notre arrivée dans le canton il y avait eu un incendie désastreux en ce qu’on appelle les« bateaux de fleurs », qui sont utilisés comme lieux de mauvaise réputation. Il existe un grand nombre d’entre eux fait rapidement en rangs une cinquantaine de pieds de distance, étendre dans l’eau environ deux cents pieds. Les bateaux sont sur la rive bordée et chaque rangée est faite rapidement, côte à côte, le tout sécurisé par des chaînes et ancré sur le côté extérieur pour les maintenir en poste. Une lampe a explosé dans un d’entre eux près de la rive et le feu rapidement se propager. abord le long du rivage, puis, de sorte que les détenus avaient le choix d’être brûlés ou noyés. Il a été rapporté que six cents filles et deux cents hommes ont perdu la vie, mais les corps retrouvés dépassé un millier. Étrange à dire. la police a empêché l’un va à la rescousse et les victimes sont mortes comme des rats dans un piège. Aucun endroit au monde n’a autant de bateaux que de Canton. Le nombre de personnes vivant en eux est estimé actuellement à 750000. Dans la soirée, il ya une masse solide d’entre eux environ deux cents pieds de large et six ou sept miles de long. Chaque petit bateau a une famille d’au moins vivent sur elle, et les grands en ont plusieurs. Chaque moyennes familiales quatre enfants. Les bateaux sont leurs maisons, et ils gagnent leur vie en transportant des passagers et de fret de toutes sortes. Un grand nombre de bateaux sont roues arrière, la force motrice étant des hommes sur un tapis roulant. Ils courent de douze à. Quarante les hommes propulsant chaque bateau, et ils semblent faire sept ou huit miles à l’heure. La rivière est tellement encombré d’embarcations de toutes sortes et des descriptions que c’est avec grande difficulté un étranger peut naviguer à travers eux, mais comme les gens dans une ville surpeuplée de la rue les indigènes se passer de nombreux déboires … »

Une copie du livre (Mémoires d’Dollar Robert [1918]) peut être téléchargé à partir de Google Livres libres:

books.google.com / livres / download / Memoirs_of_Robert_Dollar ….

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(11)1872
When the Tongzhi emperor was 17 years old , under the guidance of empress Ci’an , he was merried to lady alute (her father had been an enemy of empress cixi during Xinyuan coup)
Cixi order Emperor Tongzhi to concentrated on ruling the country but only seventh month , following Cixi order in isolation him at Qianjing palace.

(12)1873
Tongzhi proved to be an incompetence Emperor, but he have made important policy decision during his short stand of rule. He decreed that the Imperial Summer palace would be completely rebuilt after destryed during opium war, under the pretach that it was a gift to empress Ci’an and Cixi. Historian also suggest that it was attempt to drive Cixi from the forbidden palce , so the emperor could rule without interference in Policy or his private affairs.

(13)1874
Feeling a grand scene of loss at court and unable t assist his authority, The Tongzhi emperor return t his former habit. It was runour the emperor caught Syphilis and became vivibiles ill. The doctor spread a rumour that the emperor had caught small pox.

(14) 1875
On January,13th 1875 the emperor Tongzhi was died.
and Cixi was back into the helmof imperialpolicy.
Emperor Tongzhi died without leaving a male heir, creating an unprecedented successor crisis in the dynasty Qing.
After considerable disagreement between the two dowager (Ci’an and Cixi) , the first born of the first Prince Chun Yixuan and Cixi’s sister, then age four, was became the new emperor.
In 1875, was declared of Guang xu or the reign of glrious Success. The Yun Xetian was tahen from his home and for the remainder of his life would be cut completely ff from his family.

(15) 1877
Cixi forbade construction a railway because too loud and would “disturb the emperor thomb”. When construction went ahead anyway in 1877 under Li Hong Zhong recomendation , Cixi asked that they be pulled by horse-drawn carts .

(16) 1878
The first Qing Imperial stamps large dragon were issued, and also the first Qing imperial Pa Kua postmark.

 

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(17) 1881
The sudden death empress Ci’an in April 1881 brought Cixi a new challange, and she became the only reagentat court.

(18) 1884
The local treaty Post Chungqing issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.

(19) 1886
The German Post office at Kiatshou china issued surcahrge China on German stamp withtheir own postmark.

(20) 1888
The first Local stamp of Taiwan island ere issued.

(20) 1890
The Shanghai Local post office issue the Shanghai local stamps double dragon.

(21) !893
The treaty Port issue the first stamp with their own local post postmark at Chefoo.

(22) 1894
(a)The Hsing Chung Hui came into being at Honolulu on November.24th.1894 after Cina’s defeat by Japan, and was to play an important part in the creation os Asia’s first Republic (ROC).
(b) Dr Sun Yat Sen had petitioned Prime Minister Li Hung-chang for reforms in the Qing government but was no heeded. He then toured the Beijing-Tientsin area to test the strength of the Manchus. Revolutionaries inspired by thhe Hsing chung Hui then rose up in Canton and Huichow. Although unsuccessful, they raised the curtain on the long process of the National revolution.
(c) In this year the first Sino-japanese war.
(d) The qing imperial post issued special commemrative empress cixi birthday stamps.
(e) Local Post treaty port Hankow , Foochow , Chinkiang and Kewkiang issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.
(f) The French China post office issued surchage Chine on French stamps with their own postmark.

(23)1895
After organizing the Hsing Chung Hui, Dr Sun went to Hongkong in January 1895 to establish a party chapter, then revolutionaries then decided to spark an uprising in Canton and Dr Sun,Lu Hao-tung and Chen Shao went there to make preparations. They decided to adopt the white Sun-Blue sky Flag designed by Lu Hao-Tung as their revolutionary standard.
Empress Cixi unsatisfied with her tomb, rdered its destruction and reconstructed in 1895
For her Sixtieth birthday in 1895, Empress Cixi was given ten million taels of silver which many believed was used to furnish her summer palace
In this year the local treaty port Amoy,Wuhu and Ichang issued the fist stamps and their own local postmark.

(24)1896
The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving fficial recognation to the “European” Postal System, and the Foreign Postoffice postmark also issued.and the ancient postal systems Ichanl and Minchu were end and the new postal system under the Chinese Marine Custom were opened. with their custom postmark.
In this year tearty port Nanking issued the first stamps with their own local postmark.

(25) 1897
(a)In this year all cixi birthday stamps and revenue were surcharge with china characters and new value , why ? I Think after the end of Ancient postal system Ichan and Minchu were end, the new system under The Chinese marine custom were made special surcharge with new nominal value to control the portunity of using the old stamps and the new system also issued the japanese print coilling dragon issue.
What about the Pa kua and Local postmark, we will analisys the used stamp in this year and after. and our conclusian Pakua postmark and kocal postmark still used, because i found Kiu Kinang Pa Kua postmark on surcharge Cixi birthday stamp with KiuKiang Customs date postmark date May.6.97.
(b)Paking Dollar date postmark 6 sept 1897 on surcharge Cixi birthday stamp.
(c) Chefoo Dollar Postmark date 10 Aug 87 on surchage 10 cent cixi birthday stamp
(d) Franch Post office in china Shanghai postmark on surcharge Chine on Franch stamp 20 cent,date 13 Aout -97
(e) Postally used cover from Kiu Kiang Dollar date postmark June 22,1897 on surcgarge red revenue stamp to Shanghai.
(f) Postally used cover from Chinkiang Dollar date postmark August 27,1897 on surcharge 2 cents on red revenue to Shanghai.
(g) October 1,1897 London coiling lithograped dragon stamp were issued. design by R.A. de Villard(ill.his profile)
(h) Postally used cover from Nanking Dollar date September 15,1897 to surcharge 2 cent red revenue (block 4) ,transit shanghai Frech P.O. postmark 17 sep 97 to germany Nurenburg CDS
(i) postally used cover from Peking Dolar date postmark 17 nov 97 n Japan coil dragon 2 cent stamp.trasit village postmark to Tientsin dollar
date 18 nov 97.
(j) Postally used cover from Amoy Dollar Date postmark Dec1,1897 n Japan coil dragon stamp 2 cent to Hongkong.
(k) Postally used cover Japan Cill Printing(JPC) 1 c from cancalled by Shanghai Pa Kua to destination Shanghai Local Post postmark cds Dec 3 1897.
(l) Tientsin Pa kau postmark on JCP 2c, with French China 5 cent CDS Dec,8,97
(m) Stampless cover with bilingual PAID postmark and handwritten 10.
(k) Custom Shanghai Postmark Mar 1 1897.
(n) Canton Dollar Date postmark 24 Aug 97
(o) Custom Hankow postmark Apr 29 , 1897.
(p) German Post Office in China Shanghai post mark 13.8.97 on surcharge China on GERMAN STAMP 20 PF.
(q) jAPAN pOST OFFICE IN cHINA sHANGHAI jAPAN P.O.POSTMARK 12 OCT 97
(r) Shnaghai Dollar date pst mark 20 oct 97 on SHANGHAI POSTA STATIONER POSTCARD.

(26) 1898
(a)Jan.1898 issued London Coiling dragon disign by A.B.hill(carp) and Josep (wild goosed) line -engrave print Stamp
(b)Postally used cover Shanghai Dollar date Postmark 12 Jan 98 on JPC 2 cent to Shanghai destination Loca Post cds Ja 18 98.
(c)Tientsin Pa Kua post mark on JPC4 cent
(c) Shanghai Pakua post mark on JPC 2 cet with destination Shanghai Local Post june 9,1898..
(d)In September 21th 1898, Coup d’etat carried ut by General Ronghi, the Guangxu emperor was taken to Ocean Terrace, a small palace on an island in the middle of Zhongnan has linked to the rest of forbidden city with only a controlled causeway.Empress Cixi would follow with an edict dictating the Guangxu emperor the disgrace and the Guangxu emperor ‘s reign had effectively came to end end. After that the emperor lost all honours,respect,power and previllage including his freedom of movement.
(e)In this year The Qing imperial post issued London print cilling dragon stamp.
(f)In this year Wei Hai Wai leased area issuee the provisional Courier post stamps and their own postmark.
(g) Postally used cover from Ichang Dollar date postmak 18.may.98 on surcharge cixi birthday stamp to Shanghai.
(h) Postally used cover with Kiukang Dollar date postmark August 27,1898 on surcharge i c on cixi birthday stamp 1 c.
(i) Postally used cover with Tientsin Pa Kua Postmark on surcharge 2 cent on cixi birthday 2 c stamp
(j) Postally used cover from Wuhu Dollar date postmark 13 nov 98 n JPC stamp 4 cent and R postmark on JPC 2 c
(k) Guard against theft private postmark on JPC stamp 1c with Pa Kua postmark
(l) Japan Post office in China postmark CDS Shanghai 18 Apr 98 on JCP 5 c (2 x)

(27) 1899
(a)The Wei Hai Wei Lease area issue the firs stamp of provisional courier Post LKT and their own postmark.
(b)The Russian imperial Post at China issued the surcharge KHTAH on russia stamsp with their own postmark.
(c) Tientsin Pa Kua post mark on LCP 1/2 cent. with Tientsen Custom CDS May 25 99.
(d) Wuchow Pstmark 22 Oct 99 and Postage 1 cent port on bisect JPC 2 cent. stamp.
(e) handwritten Foochow postmark 11-6/99

e

 

1850

 

 

 

1851

 

Chinese Empire, 1851 stampless folded letter from Shanghai to Kingston MA, reverse with Hong Kong and London transits, New York receiver, ms “45” rate, 11 page letter, describes in detail life in China, scarce, Fine. Realized HK$ 2,800

 

 

 

1853

 

Chinese Empire, 1853 (Feb 8) stampless folded letter from Canton to Boston, front re-rated twice with manuscript “via Marseilles” and crossed out “via southampton”. Reverse shows Hong Kong 10 FE 1853 transit and red blurred AP 2 1853 British (?) transit. Interesting and unusual usage, F-VFRealized HK$ 3,200

 

Chinese Empire, 1853 stampless folded letter from Canton to Middletown CT USA, Hong Kong and London transits on reverse, “75” rate with complete “New-York Am Pkt/APR/17” cds, manuscript “via Marsailles”, discusses rebels heading northward, levelying captured towns and heading for Nanking, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500

1854

 

Chinese Empire, 1854 (Sep 23) stampless folded letter from Canton to New York, via Marseilles with back showing Hong Kong and London transits, front has corrected rate of “53” with complete “New York Br Pkt/NOV/29” cds, letter on tea trade, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

 

 

 

 

Late 19th Century

1856

Imperial Chinese Post

After the Second Opium War (1856-1860),

 

under the “Treaty of Tientsin” the diplomatic envoys and attaches of Britain, France, Russia, US and other countries were entitled the rights of free travel and running postal service in Chinese territory, and the Chinese government was responsible for their safety. At that time, foreign envoys in China asked the Chinese government’s Tsungli Yamen / (Office of Foreign Affairs) to run postal service on their behalf and Tsungli Yamen assigned ICHAN (the government operated courier stations) to deliver mails for the envoys between Shanghai and Peking.

 

1861

in 1861

Sir Robert Hart, then the Acting Inspector General of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs who had the ambition to organize a modern national postal system in China emulating that of the Westerns, suggested to Tsungli Yamen that it would be to China’s advantage that a national post office be founded. But Tsungli Yamen turned it down because it would have brought him into conflict with some powerful private vested interests.(126. BACK O BOURKEstampboard)

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CDROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST

Anti-Japanese War sino-Japanese War

In July 1937

 

after the customs in the district of CPC Committee, Publicity Department of CPC triangular partition (Ning District) Committee, secretary of the Trilateral Security Command Cavalry Division Chief of Staff,

 

 

Brutal Japanese: Rape Of Nanking 1937

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, is a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000–80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.

 

 

HOW IT HAPPENED

 

In August 1937,

the Japanese army invaded Shanghai and there they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China.

 

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew the fall of Nanking would be simply a matter of time. He and his staff realized that he could not risk annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Chiang Kai-shek’s strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China’s vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China.

 

Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan, where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938.

 

In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation.

 

The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe.

 

The defense plan fell apart quickly. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai, running from the advancing Japanese army. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders.

 

 

The Japanese army enters Nanking

 

Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, arson, and other war crimes. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm, including the diaries of German John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of the Nanking Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese), as well as the field diaries of military personnel. An American missionary, John Magee, stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre.

A group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city, where the population numbered from 200,000 to 250,000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. C. Smythe, secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking, recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy.

 

Japanese tanks enter Nanking

 

 

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly. A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped. The women were often killed immediately after the rape, often through explicit mutilation or by stabbing a bayonet, long stick of bamboo, or other objects into the vagina.

On 19 December 1937, Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary:

I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet … People are hysterical … Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.

On March 7, 1938, Robert O. Wilson, a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone, wrote in a letter to his family, “a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms”.


Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family:

 

The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.

 

Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped. Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8,000 people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. I think he will live.


In his diary kept during the aggression to the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe, wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities. For the 17th December:

 

Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital … Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they’re shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.


There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest. Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women.

 


On 13 December 1937, John Rabe wrote in his diary:

It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (…) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel’s hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road.


On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin.

 

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese …. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.

 

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha’s death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet.

 

Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia’s parents, aged 76 and 74, and. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha’s two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.


Pregnant women were a target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army’s systematic mass killings, testified:

The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely …

 

The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.

 

 

 

According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani,

«The Army used a trumpet sound that meant “Kill all Chinese who run away”». Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the “Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch”, a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide.

Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims.

 

On August 6, 1937, Hirohito had personally ratified his army’s proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term “prisoner of war”.

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Many were taken to the Yangtze River, where they were machine-gunned. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns, and opened fire at them. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop, and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. It is estimated that at least 57,500 Chinese POWs were killed.

The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets.

F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele, American news correspondents, reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north. Durdin, who was working for the New York Times, made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Two days later, in his report to the New York Times, he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies, including women and children.

According to a testimony made by missionary Ralph L. Phillips to the U.S. State Assembly Investigating Committee, he was “forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier” and “roasted his heart and liver and ate them”

 

HOW LONG DID THE MASSACRE LAST?


The Battle of Nanking ended on December 13, when the divisions of the Japanese Army entered the walled city of Nanking.

The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing six weeks. More conservative estimates say the massacre started on December 14, when the troops entered the Safety Zone, and that it lasted for six weeks.

 

The roots of the agressive China of today perhaps lies partly in the Nanking Massacre in 1937.

 

 


VODEO: BLACK SUN MASSACRE

 

 

VIDEO;Nanking Massacre-Japanese Atrocities filmed by John Magee

 

 

 

 


Chinese being buried alive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto during the Nanking Massacre.

 

 

One of articles on the “Contest to kill 100 people using a sword” published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, “‘Incredible Record’ (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings”

 

 

The sheer volume of murdered civilians posed a formidable logistical challenge when it came to disposing of the bodies. Many Chinese were conscripted into “burial teams

 

 

 

Read more info

 

Original info source in Turkish language


Nankin Kalesi’nin kuşatılması ve Çin Ordusu’nun başarasızlığı


9 Aralık’ta Japon Ordusu Nankin Kalesi’ni kuşatarak ertesi gün öğle vaktine kadar teslim olmalarını istedi. Çin Ordusu bunu reddedince 10 Aralık’ta Japon Ordusu genel

Castle siege of Nanjing and the Chinese Army başarasızlığı

December 9 1937

Nanjing Japanese Army laid siege to the castle wanted them to be delivered by noon the next day.

Chinese Army rejected it on 10 December the Japanese Army general

 


attacked, Nanjing Castle fell on December 13.

 

Nankin’de Chinese prisoners

Text Source

Nature of the massacre

 

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Top of Form

• 16 Divisional Commander Lieutenant General Nakajima log Kesago, according to the principle will not be applied and cleaning campaign in captive soldiers who want to be delivered killed.
• Located in the north Nankin’in ‘Yamada’ battalion (65th Regiment basic units) of the 14 000 prisoners are said to kill. Pier near the Yangtze River in the dead who have been booted Shaakan is not less than the number of witnesses.
• 114 Division 66 1st Regiment Report of the prisoners killed by order of the brigade combat Battalion written.
• Criminal Tribunal for the Far East International Military Commander Gen. Iwane Matsui” period” Central China Front önlemeyerek Crimes, criminals were executed on the grounds cezalandırmaması. Unfortunately, the number Matsui Japanese Army in China were friendly.
• the period of Nanjing Military Court 6 Sumio Division Commander Lieutenant General Tani was tried and executed. Lieutenant General Tani müdafasında katliâmın Nakajima associations (16.Tümen) occurred in and 6.Tümen ‘s is irrelevant, he argued.
• In addition, Osaka Mainichi Shimbun” and” Tokyo Nichinichi Simbu””” Hyakunin papers written by fitting it in order to encourage the nation to war Nin Giri (100 Person Cutting Competition)” series writing heroes, Lieutenant Takeshi Noda, Lieutenant Gunkichi Tanaka, Tabloid news Toshiaki Mukai sword of Lieutenant spend 300 civilians were executed on the grounds.
• Prince Asaka, the American 5-star General Douglas MacArthur because of the principle of the free trial ever prosecuted for the members of the Japanese dynasty.

Japanese soldiers “contest” the sword used in the military museum of the Republic of China,
Taipei, Taiwan, are available.

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 Nanjing Japanese Army troops participating in Operation in the
and Commanders

 

 


general Iwane Matsui

 

Şangai Sefer Ordusu : Korgeneral Prens Asaka =
Asakanomiya Yasuhiko


 

İstihbarattan sorumlu baş kurmay: Isamu Chō

 

 

  • 3. Tümen Öncü Birliği (Alay Komutan Albay Takashi Takamori)

 

 

  • 9. Tümen general Ryoosuke Yoshizumi)
  • 16. Tümen (general Kesago Nakajima)
  • ‘Yamada’ müfrezesi =
  • 103. Piyade Tugayı general Senji Yamada)

 

general Heisuke Yanagawa

 

 

16. Tümen: Korgeneral Kesago Nakajima

 

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  • 6. Tümen (Korgeneral Hisao Tani)

 

Mitsuru Ushijima

  • 18. Tümen (Korgeneral Sadao Ushijima)

 

. General 末松 Suematsu

 

  • 114. Tümen (Korgeneral Shigeharu Suematsu)
  • ‘Kunisaki’ müfrezesi = 5. Tümen 9. Piyade Tugayı (Tümgeneral Noboru Kunisaki)

 

  1. 1.    Katliamdan Fotoğraflar
     

 

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  1. 1.    Japon askerlerinin Süngü uygulamasın için kullandıkları
    canlı esirler 

 

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Etrafta yayılmış olan cesetleri toplayan gönüllüler

Yangtze Nehrine atılmış cesetler

Kafası kesilecek olan Çinli sivil

 

 


Canlı olarak gömülmeyi bekleyen Çinli siviller

 

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Katliamda öldürülen bebekler

 

   

 

 

 

VIDEO: RAPE OF NANKING

Source: Nanking-massacre.com

 

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GREAT DVDS

 

 

 

Filmmaker Bill Guttentag takes a closer look at the atrocities committed by the Japanese after Nanking fell to the Imperial Japanese Army in 1937 with this documentary that was inspired by Iris Chang’s novel The Rape of Nanking. Compiled from over 700 hours of footage including news-reel footage, interviews with survivors and soldiers, and staged readings, Nanking was financed in large by millionaire Ted Leonsis, who had read Chang’s obituary and subsequently been prompted to read the author’s best-selling account of the massacre.

TRAILER



——–————————————————-

 

MORE DVDS ON THE RAPE OF NANKING

 

 

 

He Yingqin (simplified Chinese: 应钦; traditional Chinese: 何應欽; pinyin: Hé Yìngqīn; April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987), also spelled Ho Ying-chin, was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek

 

Rise and fall in the Kuomintang

 

 

In 1924, Chiang Kai-shek made preparation for the establishment of Whampoa Military Academy under the authorization of Sun Yat-sen. Chiang knew He’s talent and recommend him to Sun. Sun sent a telegraph asking He to Guangzhou for the job. He accepted the offer and was appointed as the General Instructor of the academy.

In the course of the academy’s establishment, He supported Chiang and won Chiang’s appreciation. In the war against the local warlord Chen Jiongming, students training in the academy were grouped into two regiments. He was appointed as a colonel of one regiment. In the war, He proved his courage and military talent by winning several battles although he had just recovered from an illness, his performance made a deep impression on both Chiang and the Soviet Union’s military advisor Vasily Blyukher (General Galen). Galen sent his sword to He as a gift after this war.

In July of the same year, the National Revolutionary Army was set up. The students of the academy were grouped into the 1st Army Corps, Chiang as the commander, He Yingqin as commander of one division, Zhou Enlai as the party representative of He’s division. In September, Chen masterminded another commotion. Chiang led the war to put down this revolt, in which He demonstrated his military talent again.

During the Northern Expedition in 1926, He Yingqin succeeded Chiang as commander of the 1st Army Corps and led his army marching into Guangdong and Fujian provinces. After He controlled the whole area of Fujian, he conquered Zhejiang as well. When Chiang began to confront the Communists He supported Chiang as well. In 1927 He’s army and Bai Chongxi‘s army launched a massacre on CCP members in Shanghai, which announced the end of first alliance of KMT-CCP.

When Chiang took power, the tension between him and Wang Jingwei, the New Guangxi Clique led by Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi rose day by day. Wang sent a statement to ask Chiang to resign, with the support from Li and Bai. Under these circumstances, He thought Chiang had made himself a public enemy and was destined to fail, so he supported Chiang’s opponents activities secretly. In the meeting to decide Chiang’s future, when Bai asked Chiang to resign, Chiang turned to He for support. He said nothing, which hurt Chiang’s heart deeply and then Chiang left the meeting and announced his resignation in sorrow. Later when Chiang recalled this event, he said “Had He given me one word of support, I would not have been forced to resign.”

Chiang soon regained his power due to the incompetence of Wang and his allies in controlling the situation. After Chiang’s restoration, he took over He’s military command and made himself commander. After He was sacked by Chiang, he went to Hangzhou for relieving his discontent. Chiang knew He’s protest and came to meet with He. Chiang told He, “Without you, I can still take power, but without me, you will be nothing.” After careful consideration, He had to reconcile with Chiang.

He was appointed as chief of staff of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), and training supervisor for the NRA. During his term, He spared no effort to train armies for Chiang and crack down on warlords by regrouping their armies into Chiang’s own armies. When the war between Chiang and alliance of the New Guangxi Clique, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, He commanded the army even when his father was dead. Chiang sent his condolence, which deeply impressed He.

In 1930, He was appointed as Minister of Military Administration Department of the Nationalist (KMT) government, of which he held for over a decade. During his term, He made great contributions to military service, logistics, defense construction of KMT, and his probity and cleanness won him great reputation.

In 1931, He was appointed as commander to lead Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet, but his troops suffered great losses, which was the beginning of the end of his reputation as a skillful commander.

In the same year, the Mukden Incident took place in Manchuria. Chiang regarded the CCP as his archrival and placed priority on the suppression of CCP forces, the Japanese should be dealt with by compromises instead of war. Thus, He was sent to Northern China to handle these tough issues because of his friendly way to the Japanese. In 1933, Japanese armies invaded Rehe and broke through the KMT defense along the Great Wall. He Yingqin replaced Zhang Xueliang as chairman of the Beijing Military Committee, which was the supreme organ in charge of the military forces of Northern China. He advocated no direct confrontation with the Japanese troops, and signed the Tanggu Cease-Fire Accord with Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次), who was deputy chief of staff of Kantogun at that time.

After that, He Yingqin opposed campaigns and efforts against the Japanese, and disarmed Feng Yuxiang’s anti-Japanese army. In 1935, Japanese troops started several incidents. When the Blue Shirts Society, the secret organization of the Whampoa Clique of the KMT, and a firm anti-Japanese group fought back with assassination and other violent activities, the Japanese argued that it was violation of the Tanggu Accord signed between China and Japan which was to keep the status quo of Northern China. Under the name of Yoshijirō Umezu, who was commander of Japanese troops in Northern China at that time, the Japanese spy agency under the direction of Kenji Doihara provided an investigation of the BSS as appendix of a memo. He agreed with all issues proposed by Japanese in this memo, which later was called He-Umezu Agreement. According to this accord, all forces having relations with the BSS inclusive of military police, regular forces such as 2nd Division and 25th Division should be evacuated from Beijing and out of Hebei province. The BSS had to retreat from Beijing in humiliation.

With KMT forces out of Northern China, He Yingqin had little room for maneuver. Then, he returned to Nanjing to do his job as minister. In Dec 1936, the Xian Incident broke out, Chiang was taken into custody by Zhang Xueliang’s army. There were disagreements among the KMT leaders on how to handle this incident. Chiang’s wife Soong May-ling was afraid of Chiang being killed and urged peace negotiations. He’s role was quite controversial. He was voted as acting commander to lead the KMT armies to the rescue of Chiang. Historians used to say that He strongly supported the need to solve this incident by force, for which reason He contacted Wang Jingwei and asked him back to China to take charge of the KMT, and sent two armies marching to Xian to fight against Zhang’s army. There was a saying when Soong May-ling came to He and asking for peaceful solution, He refuted her as a woman knowing little of politics should leave state issues alone. However, new evidence showed that actually it was the Whampoa clique especially those young and extremist officers of the Blue Shirts Society that launched the military attack against Zhang, and He even rejected their request for a supporting army.

Soong came to Xian for peace talks and did succeed in rescuing Chiang. When Chiang came back, he distrusted He again. Nonetheless, He still held his position of minister but with little real power.

When the Chinese anti-Japanese war turned into a general war after the occurrence of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, He Yingqin was appointed as chief of staff and worked with Chiang for drafting military plans. In 1944, when his title of Minister of War was taken over by Chiang’s favorite, Chen Cheng, He was appointed as General Commander of the Chinese Military Area, which was an honorable title instead of real power, and was sent to Yunnan to train the Chinese Expeditionary Army, which was set up under the proposal of Joseph Stilwell, for assisting in the ally force’s operation in Southeast Asia.

 

 

Commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army Yasuji Okamura presenting the Japanese Instrument of Surrender to He Yingqin in Nanjing on 9 September 1945.

In August 1945, when Japan announced its unconditional surrender, He was appointed as representative of both the Chinese Government and the Southeast Asia Ally Forces to host the surrender of Japanese troops in China. On Sept 9th, He accepted the statement of surrender submitted by Yasuji Okamura, who was General Commander of Japanese troops in China at that time. This historic moment put He under the spotlight of the world, and was the peak of his career.

In 1946, the KMT government set up the Defense Department to take charge of the military attack against CCP forces in the Chinese Civil War, but He lost the race with Chen Cheng and Bai, who were appointed as Chief of Staff and Defense Minister respectively. He was sent to the United Nations Security Council as director of the Chinese military delegation. One year later, He was called back to be a senior military advisor, and regained the position of Defense Minister in 1948 witnessing the collapse of KMT power.

In 1949, Chiang had to resign for the third time, when Li Zongren was voted as acting president. In order to contain Li’s power and influence, Chiang asked He to take the job of speaker and later the head of the Executive Yuan of Li’s cabinet, and was also named as acting Defense Minister. He took the job and proposed the plan of cease-fire first and peace negotiation later, for KMT to win time for its governance in China. The Communists exploited the military victory and crossed the Yangtze River conquering Nanjing, the capital of KMT government. Although the nationalists still had huge number of troops and there were good possibilities of turning the tide on paper, the United States refused to supply any more military aid and thus the troops were poorly armed and equipped and thus no longer had the combat power to turn the tide. Song Xilian, deputy commander-in-chief of Central China, had a heated argument with He over the telephone when He shouted that as the defense minister commanding all the forces, Song must obey his order, but Song arrogantly replied that he did not even know what was the defense minister and the head of Executive Yuan, and then simply hung up. He Yingqin consequently went to Li Zongren to complain, and claimed that he had never been humiliated like this in his life but Li was unable to help. In May, He resigned with his cabinet members in Guangzhou.

 

 

Later years

When He came to Taiwan, he said he would leave politics for introspection of the failure of the KMT. When Chiang was reelected as president of the Republic of China in 1950, he lost his election as member of the central committee of the KMT, and only gained the honorary title of senior advisor.

He took charge of several clubs and associations working for the KMT, and spent most of his time playing sports, bridge, and planting. In 1986 He suffered from apoplexy and was sent to a hospital, where, after several months treatment, he died on October 21, 1987. With the nickname of Lucky General, he survived battles and campaigns, and lived longer than most of the patriarchs of KMT inclusive of Chiang. His remains are interred at Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery in Taiwan

 

 

a japanese naval landing force soldier holding a chinese mortar shell that failed to explode (shanghai 1937)

 

 

a type 89 medium tank supporting two japanese soldiers (china 1937)

 

commander of the naval landing force wearing a dark blue uniform (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese naval landing force officer reading letter send by Lt. Cdr. Uroku Hashimoto after successful operations during the battle of shanghai, 1937

 

 

 

 

officer of the kwantung army using heavy winter uniform (manchuria 1937)

 

 

soldier of a cavalry unit of the kwantung army armed with a type 44 carbine rifle (manchuria 1937)

 

 

a wounded soldier of the kwantung army using crutches (manchuria 1937)

 

 

an officer of a cavalry unit of the japanese kwantung army using sun glasses (manchuria, 1937)

 

 

 

japanese soldiers entering in peking (july 1937)

 

japanese army war veteran private Yoshida Shusuke with his type 11 light machine gun, he fought in china from 1937 to 1942 and retired from military service

 

 

two japanese war veterans showing their weapons, corporal Sasaki Tokuji on right fought in china from 1937 to 1941 and later retired from military service

 

 

japanese navy troops using motorcycle armed with a type 11 light machine gun (shanghai 1937)

 

Shanghai DN Naval PC in 1937 send to korea

 

 

 

a soldier of the special naval landing force posing with his Type 11 light machine gun (shanghai 1937)

 

 

a commander of the special naval landing force in shanghai, 1937

 

 

 

 

special naval landing force officer using a katana sword (shanghai 1937

 

 

japanese navy troops armed with nambu pistols (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese marine troops armed with mp-34 smgs and type 11 lmgs (shanghai 1937)

 

a chinese kid playing with a type 11 light machine gun while two japanese marines slimes at the background (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese navy troops passing by a ruined building (shanghai 1937)

 

soldiers of the Special Guard Corps of the Manchukuo Imperial Guards patterned after the Imperial Guard of Japan officer

 

special naval landing force officer in shanghai (1937

 

 

japanese navy pilots wearing hachimaki headbands during heavy air war battles around shanghai (august 1937)

 

 

 

Colonel Sugimoto Goro

was a japanese army officer and buddhist philosopher, he was killed in combat during the Battle of Taiyuan in sept 1937,

Sugimoto was a very pure imperialist, when he was shot he moved his sword to the left hand and gave a salute to the direction of the imperial palace,

after his dead his friends and family decided to publish a posthumous book called Great Duty (Taigi) and became especially popular among japanese army officers and soldiers, 1,200,000 copies were sold from 1938 to 1945, in his book he said: The reason that Zen is necessary for soldiers is that all Japanese, especially soldiers, must live in the spirit of the unity of the sovereign and subjects, eliminating their ego and getting rid of their self. It is exactly the awakening to the nothingness (mu) of Zen that is the fundamental spirit of the unity of sovereign and subjects. Through my practice of Zen I am able to get rid of my self. In facilitating the accomplishment of this, Zen becomes, as it is, the true spirit of the imperial military…

 

japanese soldier and fellow soldier admiring his wife photograph (manchuria 1937)

 

 

happy soldiers of the IJA 18th Division on the train-station ready to go the front (1937)

 

 

A Japanese Army officer standing in front of a captured Chinese Panzer-Ia.JPG

 

 

soldiers of the japanese army 1st Independent Mixed Brigade smiling for the camera before the invasion of peking (july 1937)

 

 

japanese navy special naval landing force commanders looking at a destroyed chinese tank after the battle of shanghai (1937)

 

japanese army reporter looking at a shot down chinese fighter (shanghai 1937)

 

 

 

general Sakai Koji (center) celebrating victory with troops of the IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade after the captured of peking (1937)

 

Type 92 Battalion Gun crew man in action (peking 1937)

 

 

japanese soldiers in the great wall (1937)

 

 

japanese soldiers rescuing a chinese baby during Operation Chahar (manchuria 1937)

 

 

 

japanese officer overlooking the recently conquered city of peking (1937)

 

 

 

japanese officer posing with a guardian lion statue also called Fu (Foo) Lions at the forbidden city imperial , lions of Buddha in japanese occupied peking (1937)

 

japanese army officer shaking hands with a chinese civilian (peking 1937)

 

 

 

 

survivors of the combat around Luodian in downtown Shanghai surrendering to a japanese soldier,German adviser Alexander von Falkenhausen told Chiang Kai-shek that the town of Luodian had to be held at all costs. The carnage and intensity of the resulting battle earned the fight for Luodian the nickname “grinding mill of flesh and blood”

 

 

soldiers of the special naval landing force being departed to shanghai (1937)

 

 

japanese soldier using a German Shepherd dog during urban fighting during the battle of shanghai (1937)

 

special naval landing force officers (shanghai 1937)

In the middle is Rear Admiral Denshichi Okawachi, commander of the Navy Special Landing Forces at Shanghai, China.

 

 

japanese navy type 92 armored cars supporting japanese marines during the invasion of hainan island

 

ruins

 

japanese sniper using wall for cover (shanghai 1937

 

 

Chinese Panzer-Ia light tanks were captured by Japanese troops during the battle of Nanking, Dec.1937

 

 

Chinese Panzer-Ia light tank was captured by Japanese troops during the battle of Nanking, Dec.1937

 

 

 

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小小的日本国,小小的岛屿,小小的民族,非要什么都要带一个字,大日本,大和民族!全世界表面上最有礼貌的人应该就是日本人,见面三鞠躬,好话说尽,一转身就随地小便,在战争中是最没有人性的军队!没有办法,小日本人在海外孤岛上生存了几千年,全体没有安全感,造就了这变态的民族

 

 

日本投降后,美国军队进驻日本,小日本民族的本质立刻就显现出来了,对美国占领军卑躬屈膝,奴才相全部显现,在二战中表现出了野蛮,杀戮,不要命的假相顷刻之间全无,做了美国顺从的小奴才!这就是小日本,所谓大和名族的本性!这也就决定了日本人的军队是一支虚张声势,怕死的部队

而我们伟大是中国人民解放军从诞生起,就是一支勇敢的,不怕死的军队!永远是一支攻无不克,战无不胜是伟大军队!!

After Japan surrendered, the U.S. military stationed in Japan, the nature of the small Japanese nation is immediately apparent, groveling to the U.S. occupation forces, I phase all appear in World War II showed the barbaric killings, lives the illusion of instant noU.S. submissive I! This is the nature of the small Japan, the so-called Japanese family name! This also determines the Japanese army is a bluff, the fear of death forces!
Our great People’s Liberation Army since its birth, is a brave, not afraid of death army! Will always be an all-conquering, invincible is a great army! ! !

 

写道这里,我突然发现我错了,和这样的变态民族比较,简直是对我们伟大的中华民族的侮辱

在我们几千年的历史里,小日本一直是落后我们,一直是我们身边是小国家,小附属,只不过是在近代靠投机比我们先进了几十年,我相信用不了多长时间,小日本国,小大和名族还会被我们打回原形!还像以前一样,悄悄地,乖乖地,永远臣服于我们中华民族脚下!

 

Wrote here, I suddenly found I was wrong, and this metamorphosis nation, is simply an insult to our great Chinese nation!
Thousands of years of our history, the small in Japan has been behind us, around us is a small country, small subsidiary, is only in modern times by speculation ahead of us for decades, I believe that will not take long. Little Japan, the Japanese family name will be their colors! As before, quietly, obediently, never to submit to our nation at the foot! !

 

 

 

武汉发现日本屠城庆功旗 写有四座城市名字(图)

2012-08-09 07:44:18 张勇军 武汉晚报

Wuhan found that the Japanese massacre celebration flag to write four city name (Figure)
2012-08-09 07:44:18 Zhang Yongjun Wuhan Evening News

 

汉发现日本屠城庆功旗写有四座城市名字(). 军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市

Wuhan found that the Japanese massacre celebration flag written four city name (Figure).

The four corners of the flag write the Japanese occupation of China four cities
Flag corners of written Japanese occupation, the names and schedules of the four cities in China

军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市的名称和时间表

Reporter Zhang Yongjun intern Wang Shan Mo Shu-one)

occupied Shanghai, Huzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou,

he wrote on the flag, which is naked to show off.

“Yesterday, from the 67th anniversary of the victory of the war 7 days, Wuhan War collectors Xu Yibing, in Hankou the Chongren Lu antique market to showcase his collection of part of the Japanese invasion of incriminating evidence. The special aspect of the Japanese massacre celebration flag (see above), another new evidence of Japanese atrocities.
This side of the Japanese sun flag of about one square meter. Common the Japanese flag this side of the flag corners of written Japanese occupation, the names and schedules of the four cities in China, Shanghai on the land, Showa on November 26, 2003; Huzhou into the city, In 1937 10 February 7; into the city of Nanjing, December 15; In 1937, Hangzhou into the city, Showa

December 26, 2003. “flag just below the eye-catching at, there is a Temple in Hangzhou dragon seal.
Xu Yibing said 2010 Friends of Tibet in the online auction this side of the Japanese flag, he immediately spent thousands of dollars to be photographed. He also learned that this side of the flag is the Friends of Tibet, brought back from Japan.
“Record of aggression against track on the Japanese flag, why?” Two years ago, Xu Yibing has been studying the surface of the flag, he is very obvious the Japanese show off their exploits, but why the flag on a Temple of the Dragon India? This seems a mystery.
Xu Yibing found online and read the data, in 1937, Hangzhou fall, the influx Temple, “the abbot Quefei Jackson to see the Japanese bullying, the temple can not maintain the status quo, then a temporary refuge in Shanghai.” Japan is also a Buddhist countries will not be the Japanese take away the Temple seal? However, Xu Yibing of this speculation, there is no evidence. Reporter Yu Zhiyong photo
• Related reports:
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• Professor of Shanghai: China should also “comfort women” was renamed the “sex slaves”
• Nanjing Massacre survivors of the bloody memory: full of dead stink
• Japanese confidential documents admit: the war of aggression against China caused by a virgin in China rarely
• 89-year-old memory for the Japanese invaders dragged: up to a day to lift 20 body
• World War II, Japanese troops recalled to eat the dead carcasses of meat circumstances: from the hip to eat
• beautify the Japanese invasion of China should pay the price
• Guangzhou CPPCC members said the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese “liberation of Nanjing”

本报讯(记者张勇军 实习生王珊 莫淑壹) “占领上海、湖州、南京、杭州,还要写在军旗上,这是赤裸裸地炫耀。”昨天,离抗战胜利67周年纪念日还有7天,武汉抗战收藏爱好者许一兵,在汉口崇仁路古玩市场展示他收藏的部分日军侵华罪证。其中一面特殊的日军“屠城庆功旗”(见上图),成为日军暴行又一新证。

这面日军太阳旗约一平方米。与常见日军军旗不同的是,这面军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市的名称和时间表,“上海上陆,昭和十二年十一月二十六日;湖州入城,昭和十二年十二月七日;南京入城,昭和十二年十二月十五日;杭州入城,昭和十二年十二月二十六日。”在军旗的正下方醒目处,还有一枚杭州灵隐寺的龙纹大印。

许一兵说,2010年,发现有藏友在网上拍卖这面日军军旗,他当即花费数千元钱将其拍下。他还了解到,这面军旗是藏友从日本带回。

“日军军旗上为何记录侵华轨迹?”两年来,许一兵一直在研究这面军旗,他认为,很明显日军在炫耀自己的“战功”,但为何军旗上还有一枚灵隐寺的龙印?这似乎成谜。

许一兵上网查看资料发现,1937年,杭州沦陷,大量难民涌入灵隐寺,“当时的住持却非禅师看到日军的强横霸道,寺院无法维持现状,遂暂时避居上海。”日本也是信仰佛教国家,会不会是日军夺走了灵隐寺大印?然而,许一兵的这种猜测,尚无证据证实。  记者喻志勇摄

September 18 Incident,
The Japanese government to achieve a permanent occupation of northeast China’s ambitions in the military power it difficult to reach rural, began to plan to output armed militias, trying to aggressive activities by large-scale immigration, assimilation Manchuria, the Japanese moved into Manchuria, northeast China become an extension of Japanese territory. Japanese immigrants moved to the northeast China to open up group of three types: Group Development Team, a collection of pioneering mission and dispersion of the pioneering group.

Group to develop groups of Japanese immigration to explore the group’s main purpose is the construction of rural collaborative body, culture to open up China’s stronghold, the scale of 200-300 households, to the Association as the main body is divided into several tribes. Each tribe by the
20-30 households composed of 10 tribes formed an immigrant village. Each tribe has its Japanese name, and not subject to the jurisdiction of the local grass-roots puppet regime.

Open up the group initially to the group, and later to the village as a unit, composed of agricultural portfolio in the field of production, distribution, consumption, etc., to pilot joint management. Develop within the Mission a complete set of institutions to manage immigration, and have their own armed, as if the “state within a state. According to records, the the Sanjiang Province, the company town village of Japanese immigrants – Yae village, the village tribal organization discipline, based consumer Ministry of trafficking Department, Ministry of the package and Industry, the cause of brewing, as well as from the Extension Ministry collar salaries of physicians, a midwife. Daily production of Japanese immigrants, the needs of institutions, everything. Other things, to make such a life is also in the rural areas of the Japanese mainland. The village of paddy fields and fertile fields, In addition to the production of milled rice, barley, wheat, soybeans, corn and other crops, where the Japanese mainland grown vegetables, nor do not have …

Therefore, when the comment was made that Yasaka village “scale very ambitious, such as counties and cities in general, daily necessities, foodstuffs can be self-made, schools, hospitals, etc. all have a clothing class appliances also increased from pioneering the business of the corporation run by cooperatives, as good as the Japanese domestic village to move to Manchuria, equipment surpasses it and also pioneering group established a shrine to the Orient House, Tetsuo explore the father of the ritual. Immigrant members are required sooner or later, the Emperor of the East Sunday, and compliance with the Covenant, “we are not married should extend the kingdom of God mission forward …” Thus, the Japanese immigrants attempt by family or cite village migration, settle, through the integration of the daily production and life, penetration, to achieve the purpose of national aggression.

According to the distribution of Japanese immigrants, “it reads, 1932,
Advance of the Japanese armed settlers, is just the puppet Manchukuo implementation of the law and order in Gansu is the occasion of five-year plan. In this context, the five tests ,1932-1936 immigrants, all of it into the “Frontier Strip and the military along the railway line. Therefore, most people believe that Manchuria moved to defense immigrants. This record has been clearly demonstrated ancient Haizhong confession “from Manchuria to open up policy making since maintained a close relationship and the military aggression of Japanese imperialism …… of Manchukuo about to open up all kinds of policy, not only by the Japanese Extension Ministry of Justice, but also by the Kwantung Army spy involved in the development … an attempt to forcibly occupied northeast land with a large number of armed immigrant group, as the rear positions of the Japanese imperialist aggression against China and the Soviet Union. large group of Japanese immigrant group are armed. its members in Japan within the original training after a year of soldiers, farmers training, the majority of the locations of the immigrant group to select the rear of the important military area in Sanjiang, Dongan, Mudanjiang and Heihe, these locations are decided by the Kwantung Army “. Japanese immigrants, “is the use of the apartment soldiers in the agricultural policy of aggression”.

 

九一八事变后,

日本政府为实现永久占领中国东北的野心,在军力一时难以到达的农村,开始有计划地输出武装民,试图通过大规模移民侵略活动,“同化满洲”、“将日本搬入满洲”,把中国东北变成日本领土的延伸。移入中国东北的日本移民开拓团有三种类型:集团开拓团、集合开拓团和分散开拓团。

  集团开拓团作为日本移民开拓团的主体,目的是“建设农村协同体,培养开拓民的据点”,规模以200—300户为标准,以同乡为主体分成若干部落。每一部落由

20—30户组成,10个部落形成一个移民村。每个部落都有日本名字,不受当地基层伪政权管辖。

  开拓团最初以团,后来以村为单位,组成农业组合,在生产、流通、消费等领域,全面试行共同经营。开拓团内部有一套完整机构来管理移民事务,并有自己的武装,俨然是“国中之国”。据资料记载,三江省永丰镇第一个日本移民村——弥荣村,村内部落组织井然,设消费部、贩卖部、利用部、包工部、事业酿造部等,还有从拓务省领薪俸之医师、产婆。日本移民日常生产、生活所需机构,应有尽有。而其他各事,尽如在日本内地之农村生活同样。村中有水田与良田,除产精米、大麦、小麦、大豆、玉米等作物外,凡日本内地种植之菜蔬,亦无所不有……

  因此,当时有人评论说,弥荣村“规模极宏大,如县市一般,日用品食料均能自造,学校医院等无不具备,而衣类用具亦由开拓团自办的合作社经营,不啻为日本国内村庄移至满洲,其设备之完备有过之无不及也。开拓团立有神社,以东宫铁男为开拓之父而祭祀之”。移民团员早晚须向东方礼拜天皇,并遵盟约,“吾等并非出嫁人,应向延长神国使命方面迈进……”由此可见,日本移民企图通过举家或举村迁移、定居的方式,通过日常生产和生活的融合、渗透,达到民族侵略目的。

  据《日本移民的分布》记载,1932年,

日本武装移民推进时,恰是伪满洲国实施治安肃正五年计划之际。在此背景下,1932—1936年的五次试验移民,全部移入“国境”地带和军用铁路沿线。所以,一般人们都认为满洲移入的是国防移民。此记载也得到古海忠之供述的印证,“从满洲开拓政策制定的时候起,就和日本帝国主义的军事侵略保持着密不可分的关系……伪满有关开拓的各种政策,不仅是由日本拓务省,也是由关东军特务部参与制定的……它企图用大量武装移民团强占东北土地,以此作为日本帝国主义侵略中国和苏联的后方据点。日本移民团都是武装起来的大集团,它的成员在日本内原训练所经过一年的兵农训练,移民团的地点多数选择三江、东安、牡丹江、黑河等重要军事地区后方,而这些地点都是由关东军决定的”。日本移民“是采用寓兵于农的侵略政策”。

 

 

 

 

1937

 

193711月,国民革命军在淞沪会战中失利,上海被日本占。中国方面就此开始准

关于南京保卫战,我们通常声讨日本南京大屠杀的罪恶,这没有错。但是,人们通常忽视了国民党军队的战略失误。

[ 转自铁血社区 http:.tiexIn November 1937,the defeat of the National Revolutionary Army

in the Battle of Shanghai,

Shanghai was occupied by Japan. China begins to prepare …
About the Battle of Nanjing, we usually denounce the evils of the Nanjing Massacre in Japan, it is not wrong. However, people often ignore the strategic mistake of the Kuomintang army
ue.net/ ]

1937年11月,

November 1937,
The defeat of the National Revolutionary Army in the Battle of Shanghai, Shanghai was occupied by Japan. China begins to prepare in more than 300 kilometers west of Shanghai, Nanjing, the capital to defend the combat. December 1st, the Japanese issued a combat command to attack Nanjing, the beginning of the Battle of Nanjing. Tang Sheng-chih any of the Nanjing garrison commander of the command 150 000 Guojun resistance to combat. KMT authorities there have been significant errors in the organization and command of the battle. Before the war, not for the meticulous arrangements, and finally decided to break through Shiyou not develop well-conceived evacuation plans, but not through the General Staff operations, causing the defenders to break through the autocorrelation trampling, competing cries, particularly residual weight loss, the military’s resistance As collapse. December 13, Nanjing fall to less than five million Japanese troops into the city, which began more than eight consecutive months on the massacre of more than three hundred thousand prisoners of war civilians that shocked the world

国民革命军淞沪会战中失利,上海被日本占领。中国方面就此开始准备在上海以西仅300余千米的首都南京的保卫作战。12月1日,日军下达进攻南京的作战命令,南京保卫战开始。唐生智任南京卫戍司令长官,指挥15万国军抵抗作战。国民党当局在战役组织指挥上出现了重大错误。战前未作周密部署,最后决定突围时又未拟定周密的撤退计划,更没有经过参谋作业,致使守军在突围中,自相践踏,争相夺路,损失特别残重,国军的抵抗就此瓦解。12月13日,南京沦陷,不足五万人的日军入城,由此开始了连续八个多月对三十多万战俘平民震惊世界的大屠杀。

1937年12月1日,

December 1, 1937
Stronghold of Japan issued the “eighth continent command” command: CCAA commander to be synergistic with the Navy, and capture the enemy capital, Nanjing. The detailed deployment of the command to do the “chief of staff instructions. Invasion of Nanjing, the Japanese forces in the Battle of Shanghai was the varying degrees of damage, most of the will after the war to return home and rest, and only three division scrambling to kill to Nanjing. According to this standard projections, about 50,000, about 20,000 people to move back from Nanjing peripheral, a total of about 70,000 people from the frontal attack of the Japanese in Nanjing

日本大本营下达了《大陆命令第八号》“命令:中支那方面军司令官须与海军协同,攻克敌国首都南京”。详细部署则命令按“参谋总长指示”办。进攻南京的日军部队在淞沪会战中遭到不同程度的损伤,在会战后大部回国休整,只有三个师团争先恐后地杀向南京。若按这一标准推算,从正面进攻南京的日军约有5万人,从南京外围迁回的约有两万多人,共约七万多人。

 

 

曾6赴台湾搜集史料的杨天石介绍,目前保存在台湾且比较重要的史料包括:国民党党史馆保存的国防最高委员会的档案、国民党中央常务委员会中央全会和常务委员会的速记录,还有台湾“国史馆”保存的蒋介石个人档案,共有30万卷,按照“九一八事变”“七七事变”“淞沪会战”……整理好分成几十个专题。此外还有蒋介石日记的摘录(原件寄存在胡佛研究所),摘录分5种,全部对外开放,其中1937年到1943年部分是非常重要的研究抗战的史料。

Yang Shijie Shao, had six to go to Taiwan to collect historical data stored in Taiwan and the more important historical materials, including: KMT Party History Museum to save the files of the Supreme National Defense Council, the speed record of the plenary session and Standing Committee of the KMT Central Standing Committee of the Central TaiwanChiang Kai-shek’s personal files, the Academia Historica saved a total of 30 rolls, in accordance with the “September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident” Battle of Shanghai “…… finishing well is divided into dozens of topics. In addition to the Chiang Kai-shek’s diary excerpts (original storage at the Hoover Institution), extract of five kinds, all opening to the outside world, of which part of the 1937 to 1943 is very important to study the war’s historical

 

 

In 1937 after the defeat of the Battle of Shanghai,

Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek Why knowing Nanjing restrain, had once advocated stick Nanjing? Yang Tianshi found a hidden reason in the historical materials on Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek hope to stick to a few months will be able to wait until the Soviet troops in Nanjing

在1937年上海淞沪会战失利之后,蒋介石为什么明明知道南京守不住,还一度主张坚守南京?杨天石在台湾史料中发现了一个隐秘的原因,就是蒋介石寄望于在南京坚守几个月就能等到苏联出兵。

International powers, the Soviet Union is only willing to actively support China’s country. In November 1937, the Soviet party and state leaders Voroshilov Marshal told the Chinese military delegation in Moscow: in the Chinese war of resistance to reach the life and death, the Soviet Union when the troops, and never sit back and watch. November 30, Chiang Kai-shek call Voroshilov and Stalin expressed his thanks: for national survival and international obligations and China has done all its final maximum force men, and to have been forced to retreat Nanjing, but to be allies the Soviet Union strength. should aid, even look, act decisively and the the HUNTER Xingshi.
[Transfer from Jagged community

当时在国际列强中,苏联是唯一表示愿积极支持中国的国家。1937年11月,苏联党和国家重要领导人伏罗希洛夫元帅告诉在莫斯科的中国军事代表团:在中国抗战到达生死关头时,苏联当出兵,决不坐视。11月30日,蒋介石致电伏罗希洛夫及斯大林表示感谢:“中国今为民族生存与国际义务已竭尽其最后、最大之力量矣,且已至不得已退守南京,惟待友邦苏俄实力之应援,甚望先生当机立断,仗义兴师。”

International powers, the Soviet Union is only willing to actively support China’s country. In November 1937, the Soviet party and state leaders Voroshilov Marshal told the Chinese military delegation in Moscow: in the Chinese war of resistance to reach the life and death, the Soviet Union when the troops, and never sit back and watch. November 30, Chiang Kai-shek call Voroshilov and Stalin expressed his thanks: for national survival and international obligations and China has done all its final maximum force men, and to have been forced to retreat Nanjing, but to be allies the Soviet Union strength. should aid, even look, act decisively and the the HUNTER Xingshi.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

 

 

At that time, Chiang Kai-shek sent troops to the Soviet Union

as the only hope to save a critical situation. Jiang had power to make the newly appointed commander of the Nanjing garrison Executive Tang Sheng-chih: “If more than keep the 1st, that is the nation an additional layer of luster if it could keep a half or more, the internal and external situation will be a drastic change, and I field army can also be scheduled to should the encirclement of suffering from the enemy, not now! “Jiang said inside and outside the situation will be a big change.” and “outside”, including the Soviet Union sent troops to account. Chiang Kai-shek’s life relying on foreigners to eat, and the Battle of Shanghai is not using to hit you, I hit my “preserving oneself and destroying the enemy’s tactics, but a suicide subjugation detract from the array to cater to the Japanese bombing. Is such as to Guolian ocean big people every boots scratching towards Japan condemned, this Nanjing Battle again by the Soviet Union to interfere in

当时,蒋介石将苏联出兵看成挽救危局的唯一希望。蒋曾电令新任命的南京卫戍司令长官唐生智:“如能多守一日,即民族多加一层光彩。如能再守半月以上,则内外形势必一大变,而我野战军亦可如期来应,不患敌军之合围矣!”蒋所说的“内外形势必一大变”的“外”,包含苏联出兵在内。蒋介石一生倚仗洋人吃饭,与淞沪会战一样不是采用“你打你的,我打我的”保存自己消灭敌人的战法,而是用一种自杀亡国式的堂堂之阵来迎合日军轰炸。为的就是等来国联洋大人们隔靴挠痒的对日谴责,这次南京保卫战又把靠苏联干涉。

 

67年前的19371213日,日本侵略领中国南京。

67 years ago December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China67年前的1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。逝者如斯,但留在中华民族心中的伤痛是永远的。今天,日本仍有一小撮人在为军国主义招魂,企图篡改历史。但历史的真相是不能改变的,中日两国人民应当永志不忘那30万遇难者的冤魂,为世界的持久和平而努力,让自己的后代子孙不再生活在阴影之中。     图为在南京大屠杀中,日军把300多名无辜的中国人反绑双臂枪杀后,掷入城郊池塘。        新华社发

67 years ago December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. The pain of lost time is, but to remain in the hearts of the Chinese nation is forever. Today, a handful of people in Japan still militarism Evocation, an attempt to distort history. But the historical truth can not be changed, and Japanese people should never forget the innocent people of the 300,000 victims, for a lasting world peace and efforts to make their descendants no longer live in the shadows. The picture shows the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese tied behind his arms shot and killed more than 300 innocent Chinese people, thrown into the suburban pond. Xinhua News Agency issued

“否认大屠杀历史的情况下何谈‘友好城市’?

 

“Denial of the Holocaust history, what about the ‘friendly city’?”

Kawamura Takayuki, Mayor of Nagoya, Japan on the 20th to receive the delegation from sister city Nanjing, China actually alleging: “The Nanjing Massacre did not happen.” Remark a public outcry. Chinese media in recent days been reports of anti-Japanese messages, Nanjing, the evening of 21 suddenly announced the suspension of the exchange with Nagoya City. Two cities in the establishment of sisterhood relationship in 1978, 34 years of friendly exchanges. Coupled with China and Japan over the Diaoyu Islands (Japan said the sovereignty dispute over the Senkaku Islands) recent resurgence, leading This year marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries’ relations in trouble.

Met the delegation led by Kawamura Takayuki Nanjing Municipal Committee Liu Zhiwei, said: “Indeed there is a conventional fighting behavior, but I think that the massacre did not happen.” He asked: “When the war ended in 1945, my father soldiers in Nanjing, the local Chinese people’s hospitality. the event of the massacre how could this happen? “he added:” If Nanjing seminars, I am willing to participate. ”

The remarks angered the Chinese masses. 22, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said at a news conference: “China has publicly stated the solemn position, while the Japanese side proposed to negotiate serious concerns that the Nanjing made ​​the decision to suspend official contacts with the Nagoya City, we are expressed understanding and support and we will pay close attention to the situation. “Hong Lei also said that on the 21st:” the Nanjing Massacre committed by Japanese militarism in the war of aggression against the atrocities of evidence, the international community has also been conclusion. Japan, certain people should correctly understand and treat that period of history, and earnestly draw lessons from history. “Beijing News” wrote in an editorial on the same day: “Kawamura Takayuki before this openly denied the Nanjing Massacre, but actually on official occasions in front of the sister city delegation, denied that the facts of the Holocaust, there is a ‘provocation’ means that are too difficult to tolerate. “


日本名古屋市长河村隆之20日接待来自姊妹城市中国南京市的访问团时竟称:“南京大屠杀事件并未发生过。”此言一出,舆论哗然。中国媒体连日来不断报道反日消息,南京市21日晚还突然宣布暂停同名古屋市之间的交流。两座城市1978年建立姊妹关系后,34年来一直进行友好交流。再加上中日两国围绕钓鱼岛(日本称尖阁列岛)的主权纠纷最近再度抬头,导致今年迎来建交40周年的两国关系陷入困境。

河村隆之与南京市委常委刘志伟率领的访问团会面时表示:“的确存在常规的战斗行为,但我认为大屠杀事件并未发生过。”他反问道:“1945年战争结束时,我父亲作为日本士兵在南京得到当地中国人的热情招待。如果发生大屠杀事件怎么会这样呢?”他还说:“如果南京市举行讨论会,我愿意参加。”

这番言论激怒了中国群众。中国外交部发言人洪磊22日在新闻发布会上表示:“中方已公开表明严正立场,同时向日方提出交涉表明严重关切。 南京市做出暂停与名古屋市官方交往的决定,我们对此表示理解和支持。我们将密切关注有关事态。”洪磊21日也曾表示:“南京大屠杀是日本军国主义在侵华战争中犯下的残暴罪行,铁证如山,国际社会对此也早有定论。日方某些人士应该正确认识和对待那段历史,切实汲取历史教训。”《新京报》当天在社论中写道:“河村隆之在这之前也公开否认过南京大屠杀,但这次居然在官方场合、当着友好城市访问团的面,否认大屠杀事实,有一种‘挑衅’的意味,实在过分,难以容忍。”

 

南京大屠杀事件是指中日战争期间的193712月,占领中国时首都南京的日本军人

Nanjing Massacre refers to December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War,

Japanese military occupation of China was in Nanjing, the capital o Incident was in December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War,
Occupation of China was the capital of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers killed 300,000 massacre of the Chinese army captured and the public. Photo = Baidu network
The Nanjing Massacre refers to December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War, the occupation of China was the capital city of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers use of fire, arson, buried alive, such as the massacre of 300,000 killed by the Chinese army captured and the public. Japanese ultra-right forces in this proposition “does not exist killings”, the Japanese scholars recognize the massacre that killed the number of 50000-20 000. Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Fujimura repair 22 on the Nanjing Massacre, said: “The existence of non-combatants, killing, looting and other acts, which can not be denied.”

The East China Sea sovereignty dispute over the flames of war. 19,
Japan Coast Guard tracking ship in the waters near the Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea to probe the seabed crustal structure, due to “violation of Chinese territorial waters” was the suppression of the Chinese maritime surveillance vessels. Chinese media reported that Chinese maritime surveillance vessels to stop the measurement of activities of the Japanese tracking ship, the rising of the bilateral territorial dispute in 2010, two years for the first time

事件是指中日战争期间的1937年12月,

占领中国当时首都南京的日本军人杀害中国军队俘虏和市民等30万人的屠杀事件。照片=百度网

南京大屠杀事件是指中日战争期间的1937年12月,占领中国当时首都南京的日本军人利用扫射、放火、活埋等方式杀害中国军队俘虏和市民等30万人的屠杀事件。日本极右势力对此主张“不存在屠杀行为”,承认屠杀的日本学者也认为杀害人数在5万至20万人。日本官房长官藤村修22日就南京大屠杀问题表示:“存在对非战斗人员的杀害、掠夺等行为,这不能否认。”

中国东海的主权纠纷也点燃战火。19日,

日本海上保安厅的测量船在中国东海钓鱼岛附近海域探测海底地壳结构时,因“侵犯中国领海”而遭到中国海上监视船的制止。中国媒体报道称,中国海上监视船制止日本测量船的测量活动,是2010年两国领海纠纷高涨后两年来第一次。

 

 

 

The conscienceless Japan right-wing film deny the Nanjing Massacre
January 25, 2007 11:43:54 Source: WASHINGTON

丧尽天良 日本右翼要拍电影否认南京大屠杀

2007年01月25日 11:43:54  来源:中新网

 

 

南京大屠杀是铁的事实,1937年,在南京被侵华日军杀害的中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人

The Nanjing massacre is a hard fact, in 1937,

 

the Chinese civilians and captured soldiers killed by Japanese invaders in Nanjing over 30 million


December 13, 1937,

the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned tragic, bloody massacre of up to more than 40 days.


The killing of Chinese civilians and captured soldiers in Nanjing over 30 million people. The pain of lost time is, but to remain in the hearts of the Chinese nation is forever. Today, a handful of people in Japan still militarism Evocation, an attempt to distort history. But the historical truth can not be changed, and Japanese people should never forget the innocent people of the 300,000 victims, for a lasting world peace and efforts to make their descendants no longer live in the shadows.
This is the Nanjing Massacre survivors Luo Jin, Xuan Wu risked his life to the preservation of photographs of the Japanese shot killing of Chinese civilians. The picture shows Japanese troops in Nanjing buried alive by our countrymen. Xinhua News Agency issued
 
December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. This is a massacre, a suburb of Nanjing, littered with corpses. Xinhua News Agency issued
Japanese right-wing plans to shoot a deny the 1937 Nanjing Massacre film, the film program will be completed in August this year.
This movie called “Nanjing truth” to get the support of right-wing politicians in Japan, including Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara.
“Truth” of Nanjing director Mizushima told Reuters in a telephone interview, said that currently busy to collect the information of the film. Mizushima said, the film will quote from the conversation of the Japanese soldiers, archives and documents “as”
Does not exist to prove that the Nanjing Massacre.
December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese mass shootings, buried alive, knifed,
Fire and other brutal methods, the bloody massacre of more than 40 days,
The killing of Chinese civilians and captured soldiers in Nanjing over 30 million people. This is after the massacre, numerous bones fill the gully. Xinhua News Agency issued
 
Japanese 65 Wing, the massacre of Chinese prisoners of war.

 

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,

在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。逝者如斯,但留在中华民族心中的伤痛是永远的。今天,日本仍有一小撮人在为军国主义招魂,企图篡改历史。但历史的真相是不能改变的,中日两国人民应当永志不忘那30万遇难者的冤魂,为世界的持久和平而努力,让自己的后代子孙不再生活在阴影之中。

这是南京大屠杀的幸存者罗瑾、吴璇冒死保存下来的日军自己拍摄的残杀中国平民的照片。图为日军在南京活埋我国同胞。 新华社发

 

December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. This is a massacre, a suburb of Nanjing, littered with corpses. Xinhua News Agency issued
Japanese right-wing plans to shoot a deny the 1937 Nanjing Massacre film, the film program will be completed in August this year.
This movie called “Nanjing truth” to get the support of right-wing politicians in Japan, including Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara.
“Truth” of Nanjing director Mizushima told Reuters in a telephone interview, said that currently busy to collect the information of the film. Mizushima said, the film will quote from the conversation of the Japanese soldiers, archives and documents “as”

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。这是大屠杀后,南京郊外尸横遍野。 新华社发

日本右翼计划拍摄一部否认有1937年南京大屠杀事件的电影,该片计划将于今年8月完成。

这部名为《南京的真相》的电影获得日本右翼政治人物的支持,包括东京都知事石原慎太郎。

《南京的真相》的导演水岛在接受路透社的电话访问时说,目前在忙着收集拍电影的资料。水岛说,电影将引述日本老兵的谈话、档案资料和文件“作为根据”,

以证明南京大屠杀事件不存在。

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、

火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,

在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。这是大屠杀后,累累尸骨填满沟壑。  新华社发

 

日军第65联队屠杀中国战俘。

 

 

Japanese 65 Wing, the massacre of Chinese prisoners of war.

 

 

 

日本移民开拓团是负有侵略使命的特殊村落

Japanese immigrants to open up the group is a special village to bear the mission of aggression
August 11, 2011 Source: Social Sciences “August 9, 2011 212: Shujuan browser:
 22 I want to comment font size:

2011年08月11日 来源:《中国社会科学报》2011年8月9日第212期作者:李淑娟 浏览:

22 我要评论 字号:

 

 

 

soldiers of the 1st infantry Division guarding the manchurian border with russia (1937)


japanese soldier giving candy to chinese childrens (peking 1937)

 

 

japanese navy Mitsubishi A5M fighter aircraft pilots smiling after another successful combat mission against the Chinese Air Force (china 1937)

 

 

A Japanese doctor preforming a vivisection on a conscious Chinese man at Unit 731

 

 

从1937年起,

From 1937 onwards,
One million Japanese immigration program was implemented, and begun to implement the first five-year plan.

 

With the puppet Manchukuo by the “law and order in Gansu are” getting into “industrial development” mainly to open up China moved into the purpose of gradually turned to “open up the land, the revitalization of industry and fight for the hearts and minds of Aborigines”.

 

Since then, open up China from the early to ensure law and order for the purpose of “industrial development” and “national harmony” new aggression stage.

 

 

1938

The summer of 1938, my grandmother took the children removed Hong Kong also went to the rear area

 

Since 1938 backDuring the war,

health heart, such as the word “provisional capital” KMT government designated as the Speaker of the Senate of Chongqing, then allegedly circulated that he invented. Kang heart of the long-son-in-law, Zhang Ping group served as the KMT’s Consul General in New York, the second daughter Kang Daisha participated in the leadership of the Communist revolution in 1938.

After doing secret work for the Communist Party in Chongqing. During which she twice received the spies threatening letter, after being kidnapped into prison. His life, my grandfather Li Zhaofu (Bo Shen) she was released on bail (Note 2).

the Li has been no money to buy a house, has staying rental Kang Heart (in Chongqing the consular Lane), Hu Ziang, the preacher of righteousness (located in Chengdu auspicious Street), Zhang Qun Tang style compliance house, living sources mainly rely Li Zhaofu do judge wage, resigned from the judges after his grandfather served as Kang Heart hosted by the president of the National Gazette and the Tang Dynasty style compliance run Nanlin, Dean, Fu Shing Law School professor. Sichuan is about to change hands, Chiang Kai-shek came to Sichuan, appointed Li Zhaofu for the very members of the Committee of the Kuomintang very, but Li Zhaofu refused to work. Chiang Kai-shek and also he went to Taiwan, he refused even to avoid Runan Lin Institute. He also refused to speak the anticommunist broadcast KMT wanted him to do. Later CC camp had sent surveillance Li Zhaofu rumored also to assassinate him.

Sichuan changed hands, the grandfather is still staying home Down compliance. One day home to two people, one of them my father called Lvwu Bo Bo. Lvwu Bo brother Lu Chao, who the KMT join the army long equivalent to Chiang Kai-shek’s largest adjutant, Lvwu Bo’s daughter is the underground Communist party members. Come Lizhao Fu said Liu Bocheng would like to meet with him.

Grandfather answered: “Liu Bocheng Communist Party, the KMT, although I am not Chiang Kai-shek that faction, but, after all, the KMT. Communist Party to see me, your reputation is not good.”

Come to exhort a while, but the grandfather or rejected. Later, Liu Bocheng brought the letter to Li Zhaofu go leather large learning. Lizhao Fu said: “I do not leather, I’m not in politics. Anti-Japanese, my politics, I will not be in politics after the victory in the War of Resistance, or when a university professor or a lawyer, or running a newspaper.”

By marriage Kang Heart moved to Beijing when his grandfather said: “I have porridge, you bowl.” but Li Zhaofu still decided to stay in Sichuan, although he once said: “Which Revolutionary Party, the start was not very good, there are changes then slowly look at ten In two decades, decades to see if it will become like the KMT. “

After the Communist Party seized power in Sichuan,

Hu Ziang do the vice mayor of Chongqing, and Cao Diqiu is secretary. Was not CPPCC National People’s Congress, a meeting to attend as a local squire invited Li Zhaofu. The meeting finished, grandfather to go home to my father and said: “Today I am wrong word, I said that the alliance with Russia,

 

Accommodate, assist the workers and peasants.” Sun Yat-sen’s policy was originally alliance with Russia, Accommodate, assist the workers and peasants, was changed to the associated Russia cooperate to assist the workers and peasants. The next day the newspaper published grandfather’s speeches, has also been changed to the “total”. I

n addition, the grandfather at home, and rarely participate in political activities. Hu Ziang and our family relatives, my grandfather, when the Secretary-General had invited him to do construction director.

But Hu made the official face on some, and later on in the grandfather of the apprehension, was conjecture over the role he played, and the some Sichuan elderly, such as Mao heart, Deng tin Hou, Liu Wenhui mutual affection of my grandfather is still deposit. Tang Dynasty style combat death of compliance with the Communist Party, the grandfather’s house staying to be confiscated, Lijia had moved to the Yu interpersonal Church home. Yu interpersonal Church, but Mao the heart, Deng tin-designate Liu Wenhui and others see Lijia no house to live, have been willing to chip in to help buy a house.

The day my father came home, saw two People’s Liberation Army stood in the doorway. The nominally the confiscation of the property of the Tang Dynasty compliance, but also copied my home. They took away two contacts, old books, there is one to be appointed Li Zhaofu “the very members” the letter. At this point the authorities are no longer able to tolerate Li Zhaofu uncooperative.( du xinxin)

 

The spring of 1939,

Shichang suffering from cystitis, doctors recommend the treatment to Beijing, Shichang due to fear of abduction of Japanese, insist not, then died. Age of 85. At that time the national government ordered the compliment: Shichang, country Nestor, hope re-group ethics. Bugnein break of in Tianjin, a leisurely Road, Su. Kou Pro North, despite repeated threats and inducements think, succeed chisel conspiracy, independence can be unyielding, stern sobriety light wind section, the know with the Chin … …

Looking Shichang life, he is certainly not a revolutionary, political character is also not perfect, but he inherited the fine traditional intellectual spirit, knowledgeable, and the implementation of the New Deal, who loves his country, uphold peace and respect for nature, neither general politicians can be boring after more non-acquisitiveness Dong mind that the soldier dead weight, disastrous than the old warlords

In 1939,

 

Li Zhaofu was elected provisional Parliament Speaker of Sichuan Province, in 1940 he was named Secretary General of the Sichuan Provincial Government. His re-designated as a story.

 

The War of Resistance Against Japan,

 

the KMT retreated to Sichuan. Initial Sichuan local forces, the KMT central potential micro Chiang Kai-shek pro Chairman of Sichuan Province. Later, Chiang’s forces gradually increases, then resigned as governor of the province. The local forces of the Kuomintang central Sichuan is still not assured,

 

then Chief Dean Chang Chun Chiang Kai-shek on the delegate to serve as governor of the province. Sichuan warlord Zhang Qun said: “If you want me to do the governor of the province, we must Libo Shen when the Secretary-General, otherwise clash.

 

The Chiang Kai Li Zhaofu hit three telegraph last a very blunt. The telegram said party elder, alliance members, what you can mention, now is the people of the War of Resistance Against Japan, you do not come out inappropriate. So Li Zhaofu promised coming out, but made it clear beforehand: “as long as the end of the war, I will resign.”

 

Was Sichuan Province, both negative base for the war, the soldiers, the amount of food is more important than the provinces, “Li Zhaofu addition to strong coordination of the relationship between the central government and the provincial government at the time, also in February 1940, jointly with representatives of the gentry grain Yan Chang-ling et al call at that time the highest departments of Sichuan and the provincial government budget year more than $ 100 million protested.

 

The requirements of the central body China sufferings, verify austerity budget, explicitly dismiss all a matter of no great urgency, to serve traumatic deep river of people have been slightly Su respite. (H) In the meantime, his grandfather also have a number of part-time when most people chief part-time salary, but he not only refused to part-time, and obligations of individual companies in Sichuan Province Aviation Construction Committee and chairman.
Grandfather served as Provincial Secretary-General, Zhang Qun encountered a tricky thing to let him come forward to deal with.(Du Xinxin)

 

 

 

   

In the final stage (1944-1945),

the United States provided massive assistance to Nationalist China, but the Chongqing government, weakened by inflation, impoverishment of the middle class, and low troop morale was unable to take full advantage of it. Feuds among the KMT generals and between Chiang and his United States military adviser, General Joseph Stilwell, further hampered the KMT. (The Photo is of the Marco Polo Bridge)

    When Japanese defeat became a certainty in the spring of 1945, the Communists seemed in a better position to take over from the Japanese garrisons than the KMT, which was far away in the rear of the formation. A United States airlift of KMT troops enabled them to occupy many cities, but the countryside stayed with the Communists.

By the end of October 1944,

the the Chengdu downtown student protests. Chengdu Mayor Yu Zhongying send police station rectangular ultra personally led the police to the repression and the wounding of more than thirty students, arresting more than forty.

 

November 11,

 

Chengdu broke out parade of students thousands of people to protest against government atrocities. Zhang Qun afraid to meet with students, and then send the grandfather go. Said that his car passed, the student said: “Li old man’s car, do not stand in his.”

 

Then Sichuan to open Parliament left, right, some Kuomintang rightists often provocative oppress NLD, as Speaker of the Li Zhaofu often requirements to protect the leftist, restrained by the rightists.

 

The Li Gongpu and smell more than one memorial service on behalf of Li Zhaofu Zhang Qun to attend. Said Xu Qi Mullington spies mixed with the venue to collect blacklist and wounded Zhang Lan memorial service, and therefore subject to social pressure. Lee Xu Qi, Xu uses the “central directives to stall and asked his grandfather managed to” resting flat on the matter questioned. Li Zhaofu in office, had to bail Kang Daisha released from prison, and Ying Yang Shuming, and Luo Yuhan request personal bail Luo Guangbin call to the authorities. Yan’an Kang Daisha was released from prison after the Go. CCP has after she was working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in Cambodia and Romania.

    After the end of World War II in Europe

in May 1945,

the Allied war effort moved to the east. The Soviet Union joined the war against Japan at the end of July. On August 6 and 9 the United States dropped the world’s first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On Aug. 14, 1945, the Japanese surrendered. In China, however, civil war raged over who should take charge of the Japanese arms and equipment. At the end of August an agreement was reached in Chongqing between a CCP delegation and the KMT, but the truce was brief.

    In January 1946 a cease-fire was negotiated by United States General George C. Marshall. The Nationalist government returned to Nanjing, and China was recognized by the new United Nations as one of the five great powers. The United States supplied the Chiang government with an additional $2 billion ($1.5 billion had been spent for the war). Although the KMT’s dominance in weapons and supplies was enormous, it was kept under guard in the cities, while the Communists held the surrounding countryside. As inflation soared, both civilians and the military became demoralized. The CCP, sensing the national mood, proposed a coalition government. The KMT refused, and fighting erupted again.

The short and decisive civil war that followed was resolved in two main places: Manchuria and the Huai River area. Despite a massive airlift of KMT forces by the United States, Manchuria was lost in October 1948 after 300,000 KMT forces surrendered to the CCP. By the end of 1948 the KMT had lost over half a million men, more than two thirds of whom had defected. In April 1949 the Communists moved south of the Yangtze. (Photo: The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City; the imposing structure directly faced the Presidential Building, was seen as a symbol of the party’s wealth and dominance.)

After the fall of Nanjing and Shanghai, KMT resistance evaporated. By the autumn, the Communists had taken all mainland territories except Tibet. Chiang Kai-shek and a number of his associates fled to the island of Taiwan, where they set up what they claimed was the rightful government of China.

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS ( CONTINIU)

THIS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CDROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

1930

2 August 1930
Mukden
Republic of China

Colonel Seishiro Itagaki and Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara had spent a long time planning this and tonight it would come to fruition, they had no choice but to act. Itagaki had received word that the Minister for War, Jiro Minami had dispatched a general to curb what he called ‘insubordination and militarist behaviour’ of the Kwangtung Army. The irony of it was that both of them considered themselves true patriots. Both of them had put a great deal of planning into this. A secret artillery bunker had been constructed over the last several months and disguised to look like a swimming complex, so that when the time came they could initiate a fire fight with Chinese troops and make it seem as if they were the aggressors. As both of the plotters waited at the officer’s club where the artillery was hidden, another soldier who believed in their cause was planting the explosives that would start everything off.

Lieutenant Hiro Sakamoto of the 29th Infantry Regiment had just finished placing the last of the explosives that would hopefully start the chain reaction needed for Japan to seize Manchuria. Hiro stood back and examined them for several seconds to make sure everything was ready. He had placed the explosives near to a small Japanese barracks and he had also placed the first set near the tracks of the South Manchuria Railway. He had placed them far away enough so that no real damage would occur and by the morning the Chinese would hopefully be under attack.

As he turned around to walk to his place to detonate them someone called out “Who’s there?” in Japanese.
Hiro froze, unsure what to do. It was clearly a soldier from the barracks and his discovery next to the explosives would be hard to explain. He thought as fast as he could and then decided. In the dark the soldier didn’t see him draw out his knife and he responded in a friendly voice.
The other soldier stepped forward when he realised it was another of his own and Hiro stabbed him as quickly as he could several times. The man dropped to the ground, with no sound but a quiet gurgling which soon stopped after half a minute. Hiro ran towards the detonation point as quickly as he could. If anything the dead soldier would simply add believability to the story that the Chinese had attacked the barracks. Hiro reached his destination and slammed his hand down on the detonator.
[1]


Seishiro Itagaki and Kanji Ishiwara, the instigators of the Manchurian Incident.


Site of the explosion at the South Manchuria Railway, which provided the spark for the invasion of Manchuria.

From ‘The Complete Second World War, Volume 1: The Opening Moves, From Manchuria to Yugoslavia’
By Robert Keegan
© 1985, Coleman Publishing Group, St Louis, USA

Japan’s desire for land and resources would have to come at the expense of a weaker nation, and China had become that nation in the eyes of most Japanese militarists. Despite the size of the Chinese armies and the advances that had come in Kuomintang military they were still far behind Japan, whose own forces were the most advanced in Asia. This was well known in Japan and combined with the historical victory they had achieved in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1896, led many Japanese officers to believe that China would not put up much of a fight for Manchuria. The IJA was eager to flex its muscles and there was much contempt among the army for the government of Hamaguchi Osachi, which had failed to manage the hardships brought on by the Great Depression and also faced accusations of selling national security by agreeing to the London Naval Treaty. Osachi continued to oppose the militarists, but his assassination on 27 June 1930 put the final nail in the coffin for Japanese diplomacy and peace.

Despite the close timing of the assassination to the Manchurian Incident, they were not part of any elaborate conspiracy, although the soldiers involved in both shared similar views. Osachi’s assassin, Inichi Hosukawa, was a member of Aikoku-sha, one of the many nationalist secret societies that had sprung up among the Japanese armed forces (others included the Black Dragon Society, the Cherry Blossom Society and the Double Leaf Society) while the Manchurian instigators were not part of these societies, simply radical members of the Kwantung Army. Theses plotters had been planning an incident near Mukden for some time, in order to seize Manchuria for Japan, and with Hamguchi’s assassination they simply moved up their timetable as the opportunity had presented itself. After all they could not be sure if his successor would curb their activities or not. Carrying out the incident earlier than planned had two important effects, one it meant that the forces for invading Manchuria were not as prepared as they would have been and this gave Zhang Xueliang time to concentrate his units that were stationed north of the Great Wall. It also ensured that there was less time to woo certain Northeastern Army generals to the Japanese side. This meant that Zhang Xueliang was able to mount a stubborn, if short resistance and he made the Japanese pay in lives for every inch of Manchuria they took.


Hamaguchi Osachi, the confusion following his assassination allowed the Kwangtung Army free reign in Manchuria

6 August 1930
Mukden

Zhang Xueliang angrily slammed down the phone, almost breaking it in the process. Major General Feng Zhanhai flinched slightly as he did so, but calmly asked “Sir, what are Nanjing’s orders?”
“Those weak shit heads want me to ‘withdraw’ to a secure, defensive position” said Zhang shaking his head. “To hell with that” he said defiantly “they may have flashier force than ours, but I’m going to make them pay hell for invading us. If they want Manchuria they’ll have to pay for it dearly.”
Zhang Xueliang wasn’t going to retreat. His father hadn’t retreated in battle and he wouldn’t either. If the Japanese wanted a fight he would give it to them

 

 

Headline from Central Daily News
Nanjing, 12 September 1930

 

Young Tiger [2] Lives Up To Father’s Legacy,
Stalls Japanese Army At Mukden.



General Zhang Xueliang, the ‘Young Tiger’, disobeyed orders and fought the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

[1] Jiro Minami was appointed as War Minister earlier than OTL due to butterflies and Itagaki and Ishiwara have correspondingly taken action about a year earlier. In OTL Minami sent Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to counter the independent ambitions of the Kwantung Army in 1931 but he was slack and was in an alcohol-induced sleep when the railway explosion of the Mukden Incident happened. Despite the change of timing and exact circumstances the officers were fanatics prepared to do anything they could to bring Manchuria under Japanese rule, so an incident is still likely to happen.

[2] In OTL Zhang was in Beijing at the time of the incident, helping refugees from the Yangtze River floods and he obeyed Nanjing’s orders to not offer the Japanese resistance. This earned him the nickname ‘General Nonresistance’ in the newspapers and among the populace

 

A Crouching Tiger.

 

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15 September 1930
Mukden
Republic of China

Lieutenant Bei Xing ducked as another rattle of bullet fire rang out. He was the last survivor of his unit. The Japanese had finally penetrated the last area of the city held by the Chinese and they would now have no choice but to retreat. An exploding artillery shell nearby, almost knocked him off his feet and he was showered with dust. He looked up above the makeshift barrier to see Japanese soldiers advancing through the street. With only himself left, there was no chance on stopping the Japanese from marching straight to General Zhang’s command further behind him, he needed to get back and warn them!

But from behind him he heard shouts and the sounds of running boots. He turned his head briefly to see the general’s personal guard unit coming down the street and start firing at the Japanese. Bei was deeply encouraged by this sight and he joined them, coming out from his cover and fired his rifle off at the now scattering Japanese soldiers. After some time most of the soldiers had been driven back and a few were left injured on the ground. The artillery fire had ceased as well, indicating that the Japanese had slowed down their offensive in this part of the city.
As he looked up he saw a car approaching the battle site. It was General Zhang! The car slowed down and Bei could see that it had mounted guns on the side. Even when traveling it seemed the general was prepared for fighting! It stopped as it reached the soldiers and the general spoke to his men.
“You did well here, that will buy us some time, but we can’t hold the city any longer. The Japanese have overrun our positions on both the eastern and western sides of the city, we can’t hold it any longer. I’m going to personally order the remaining positions to pull back and we’re going to join General Ma’s force further south.”
Then the car left and the men started clearing the sit in an orderly manner.
“Soldier?”
“Uh…yes” said Bei somewhat in a daze as his mind processed everything.
“Thank you for your help. Where’s the rest of your unit?”
“All dead sir.”
“I see. Well you best report to Colonel Wujiang at the Southern command centre, I’m sure he’ll be able to assign you a unit. It’s only a few streets that way” and the man pointed behind Bei, who nodded.
“Best hurry though, they’ll begin evacuating soon and you don’t want to be caught in the city when the Japanese finally take it over.”
Bei saluted the man and started making his way through the now mostly empty streets. He could hardly believe he had seen the Young Tiger up close. Just the feeling of that had reinvigorated him, he felt like he could face the Japanese again, with General Zhang on their side, they would eventually push them out of Manchuria.


Japanese troops at the Battle of Mukden.

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

While the Japanese soldiers that prepared for the invasion of Manchuria had planned well for some time, there were certain aspects of the suspected ‘walkover’ campaign that they had overlooked. They had fully expected to drive the Chinese garrison at Mukden out immediately, and that the Chinese would rapidly flee before them without putting up much resistance. Initially it may seem ludicrous that less than a thousand Japanese soldiers could make several thousand of the enemy retreat, but this assessment had some merit, as the Nanking government did initially decide not to resist the Japanese invasion, but this policy was reversed when General Zhang Xueliang made the decision to fight for Mukden. Secondly, even if the Japanese could not push occupy Mukden quickly the Kwantung Army was ready to be transported there by rail, and reinforcements began arriving at the city by the 10 August. The Japanese also had much knowledge of the Northeastern Army, due to Zhang Zuolin’s ties to Japan and many of the Chinese forces in Manchuria were underequipped, poorly trained and lacking in loyalty and morale, while the Kwantung Army was one of the best that Japan could field.

But General Zhang’s resistance decision, threw a wrench into their plans for a quick taking of Mukden to secure a stable base for the rest of the invasion. Zhang had fortunately been in Mukden at the time of the incident and seeing the Japanese invade what had been his father’s land for so long was too much for him to run from. He ignored his orders from Li Zongren on the morning of 3 August, 1930. He organised his troops as the Japanese began moving into the city and with his sheer presence of personality, encouraged his soldiers to fight as hard as they could. He had no air force to call on though, it had been relatively small and Japanese planes had taken out the airfield long before he could issue any orders to it. His army held the Japanese in position for several days until Japanese reinforcements started arriving from Korea and they pushed further into the city. Zhang decided to make the battle for Manchuria hinge on Mukden and concentrated his forces there, even removing some form northern Manchuria. This made him a hero in the eyes of most Chinese, as he was successfully holding the Japanese invasion back, eventually President Wang ordered that more troops should be sent to support his forces. While this may have made things seem rosy the reality was different from the perception. The Northeastern Army had been holding back the Japanese at Mukden at a huge cost in casualties and supplies, in fact several units had begun running out of ammunition. Additionally Zhang’s concentration of forces at Mukden had led to Japanese seizures of many of the outlying areas of Manchuria. By early September the Kwantung Army reinforcements had taken the Liaodong Peninsula and most of the main rail lines giving them the advantage of being able to transport their forces faster. In the north several Chinese generals decided to rebel against the Republican government and collaborate with the Japanese, Xi Qia and Zhang Jinghui [1]. The IJA 7th Infantry Division and these rebel Chinese forces quickly took many of the towns in the north and east and then prepared to march on Harbin.

Eventually even Zhang had to admit that Mukden could no longer be held and pulled the last units out on 16 September, making a retreat to Harbin. In the north General Ma Zhanshan had been fighting a retreat back to Harbin and he arrived there a few days after Zhang where consolidated there forces and prepared to make another stand against the Japanese. The Japanese were rapidly marching through Manchuria and taking most of the small towns, but were constantly besieged by the members of the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, who were conducting guerrilla warfare against them. By the time the Defence of Harbin had begun the total casualties for both sides were: China: 17,890, Japan: 4990, and the Japanese had begun to become weary of fighting of what they called ‘bandits’, they were eager to engage the bulk of the Chinese armies at Harbin. Harbin was the final stand for the Chinese forces, thought it was a battle that would last for nearly three months and require more of the Chosen Army to be brought in from Korea. The IJA 2nd Division’s aggressive tactics were what finally pushed the Chinese out of Harbin and a good deal of the defenders were encircled and trapped in the city to end up as prisoners [2], many of them fated to end up in the infamous Unit 891 [3].

-Timeline of the Invasion of Manchuria

 

By the mid-1930s

the Japanese had seized Inner Mongolia and parts of northeastern China and had created the North China Autonomous Region with no resistance from the Nationalists. Anti-Japanese sentiment mounted in China, but Chiang ignored it and in 1936 launched yet another extermination campaign against the Communists in Shaanxi. Chiang was forced to give up the anti-Communist drive when his troops mutinied and arrested him as he arrived in Xi’an in December 1936 to plan strategy. He was released after he agreed to form a united front with the CCP against the Japanese, who were making steady inroads into China.

1930
2 August
Mukden Incident-explosion set by radical Japanese soldiers gives the IJA a pretext to begin an invasion of Manchuria, General Shigeru Honjo, commander of the Kwantung Army, tacitly approves it.

3 August
General Zhang Xueliang disobeys orders and begins fighting the Japanese. Battle of Mukden begins as the IJA 2nd Division attacks Chinese forces in Mukden.

6 August
Stubborn Chinese resistance, prompts call of reinforcements to Mukden

10 August
Kwantung and Chosen Army reinforcements arrive at Mukden.

20 August-8 September
The Kwangtung Army marches through Manchuria seizing Liaoning and many of the towns in eastern Manchuria.

16 September
Zhang Xueliang’s forces retreat from Mukden as the Japanese finally seize the city.

3 October
General Xi Qia defects to Japan and seizes towns in Heilongjiang province, his forces clash with those of General Ma Zhanshan.

26 October
Ma Zhanshan finally begins retreating after fighting back numerous Japanese and Chinese troops, he makes for Harbin to join with Zhang Xueliang.

18 November
Battle of Harbin begins

28 November
The League of Nations proposes a ceasefire and a neutral zone in Manchuria. Both sides agree to talks, but fighting at Harbin continues.

10 December
The Japanese government is in crisis and Prime Minster Wakatsuki resigns. His replacement is Sadao Araki, who managed to manipulate the crisis to his advantage. He breaks off talks with the Kuomintang government and sends additional reinforcements to Manchuria.

1931

1931

 

29 January
General Zhang Xueliang retreats from Harbin, his army pursued by Japanese aircraft.

4 February
The League of Nations issues the Jones Report [4], following which the Japanese officially withdraw from the League of Nations.

12 February
Zhang Xueliang is given a hero’s welcome in Nanjing. The Nanjing government has decided to discontinue fighting the Japanese in Manchuria, although they refuse to recognise any puppet government.

23 February
The independent state of Manchukuo is declared, with former emperor Puyi, declared head of state, though he has little real power.


Statue of General Zhang Xueliang in Harbin (1984), the Republic of China’s first recipient of the newly created Order of Blue Sky and White Sun [5].

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young Tiger [2] Lives Up To Father’s Legacy,
Stalls Japanese Army At Mukden.



General Zhang Xueliang, the ‘Young Tiger’, disobeyed orders and fought the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

 

japanese army officer being transported by motorcycle (manchuria 1931)

 

japanese soldiers in under roof of a burning house (manchuria 1931)


[1] Jiro Minami was appointed as War Minister earlier than OTL due to butterflies and Itagaki and Ishiwara have correspondingly taken action about a year earlier. In OTL Minami sent Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to counter the independent ambitions of the Kwantung Army in 1931 but he was slack and was in an alcohol-induced sleep when the railway explosion of the Mukden Incident happened. Despite the change of timing and exact circumstances the officers were fanatics prepared to do anything they could to bring Manchuria under Japanese rule, so an incident is still likely to happen.

[2] In OTL Zhang was in Beijing at the time of the incident, helping refugees from the Yangtze River floods and he obeyed Nanjing’s orders to not offer the Japanese resistance. This earned him the nickname ‘General Nonresistance’ in the newspapers and among the populace

Japanese troops entering Changchun.

[1] Zhang Haipeng also collaborated in OTL in return for military supplies, but here the lack of a Central Plains War has meant that he has far more military supplies and Zhang Xueliang’s resistance has convinced him to remain with the Kuomintang government.

[2] Somewhat like a mini-version of Stalingrad, thought the roles are reversed with the invaders being the ones who manage the encirclement and the defenders running out of food, ammo and supplies.

[3] TTL Unit 731.

[4] Similar to OTL Lytton Report.

[5] This is a military award established in 1929. Although in TTL it is the highest military order that can be given out as opposed to becoming the second highest to the Order of National Glory.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

I wonder–could that be his late father’s custom-made Packard, which came with side-mounted machine guns?

 

After Japan’s defeat,

the U.S. military has become the occupation forces in Japan, the Emperor of Japan from God to fight back who tore off the mask of the Emperor, breaking Japan’s Emperor of monotheism. Control of U.S. occupation troops, after decades of rapid development, Japan, became an economic power, all the small Japanese words providers do business, own army can only be called Self-Defense Forces.
So-called Japanese, the so-called Japanese family name is to survive on a desert island for thousands of years, bully, with duplicity, selfish and hypocritical, submissive servility serious speculative psychological metamorphosis of the nation!

 

11. White Sun Politicians.

 

 

 

1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100


March,31th/1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931 (Mar.) printed Japanese postal card posted on sea voyage, from Tsingtau to address in Osaka, franked with 2¢ yellow green Junk issue postmarked Shimonoseki/Japan Mar 1931 with “Paquebot” enclosed in wavy line cancel, with oblong frame handstamp “Received dated and numbered #1275”, unusual, F.-V.F Realized HK$ 2,400

April,14th. 1931

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1931 (Apr 14) incoming airmail cover from Berlin to Peiping, bearing German airmail issues Scott C28, C29 and C31 with Peiping receiver alongside, lightly toned. Realized HK$ 3,400

 

15 July 1931
Nanjing
Republic of China

Four of the most important and powerful men in China were gathered together in a lavish room. Wang Jingwei, President of the Republic was seated in a chair at one end of the room next to a large fireplace.
“How can we continue to oppose them? Zhang fought as best as he could but even outnumbering them didn’t help. We have to face it, the Japanese military is far more advanced than any of our forces, in both tactics and technology” he stated.
General Li Zongren, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, bristled at the implication of the quality of his forces but he knew he the president wasn’t wrong. Standing next to him was the Premier Sun Fo, the son of Sun Yat-Sen, Wang had asked him to attend the meeting anyway since he wanted his input. The title of premier meant that Sun was head of the Executive Yuan, which in theory made him the head of government, but in reality Wang had taken over much of the affairs of that branch in his capacity as president and this meant the government was now leaning more towards a presidential republican system, with the president acting as head of state and head of government in the one role [1].

Sun tried to counter Wang’s argument.
“But the people are demanding we take action. The newspapers are still lauding Zhang as a hero and some of the northern towns [2] are half empty from volunteers joining the resistance army. How can we do nothing?”
“I know, but aside from keeping the resistance as well supplied as we can there’s not much else I can think of until we hear back from Koo. Unless you have any suggestions general?” said Wang turning to Li.

Li rubbed his chin and said “The Japanese have control of the major cities everywhere east of a rough line from Jinzhou to Daqing. Zhang pulled his army back to Shanhaiguan [3] and ordered General Wan Fulin to hold as long as he can if the Japanese advance any further while he is here. For now it seems as if the Japanese are not intending on pushing to take any more of Manchuria. Personally I think they’re on the brink of overstretching themselves with what they have and they’re trying to solidify their hold on it. But that isn’t to say they can’t bring in more reinforcements from Korea and their home islands, if we decided to retake our territory. I’ve had a few reports that General Chao has managed to beat back several Japanese attacks near Songyuan, but he wasn’t able to hold the city. Further north General Ma is waging a guerrilla war and gathering as many of the volunteers as he can. Zhang is planning on sending in more troops and supplies to support him. Mr President I believe the best action we can take is to drain the Japanese armies in a slow fight, exactly what is beginning to happen now. If we move any conventional forces north they may declare a complete war and attack us with everything they have.”
“And you think we couldn’t beat them?” asked Kong Xiangxi, or H H Kung as he was known to his Western friends, the Minister of Industry [4], Kong was high in the Kuomintang government, but his world view was based on money matters, not military and so it was only natural for him to simply look at the numbers and assume China had the advantage.
“At the moment we’re still dealing with communist forces in the countryside, not to mention the two regions under their control. To fight them and the Japanese at the same time would stretch the our forces to the breaking point” replied Li. “The best thing I can think of is to send some of the more experienced intelligence troops to join up with Ma and Chao in order to help train their forces and coordinate supplies to move north.”
Wang said “I agree general. Despite the advances we’ve made on the last few years, our army is not ready to take on a foreign power, some of the more independent minded governors would probably keep their forces in their own region, under the guise of protecting it from any Japanese incursions.”
Damned warlords thought Li Zongren. Despite most of the issues between the Kuomintang and the former warlords being settled, they were still very independent minded and ruled over their assigned provinces with complete authority. While this meant that there was rarely trouble in those regions, the government could not always count on them to provide the soldiers that might be needed for operations.
Still thought Li better to keep them happy than order them around until they decided to fight back.

Things had almost reached that point a few years ago, but a series of meetings and agreements between Wang and the warlords had prevented an actual war from breaking out. Once that had been settled Li focused on fighting the communists, but they were hard to eliminate. The bulk of them were holed up in mountainous strongholds and even a large enough army would have trouble dislodging them, while the rest were scattered across the entire country in guerrilla bands that were difficult to catch. The German trained military intelligence had been very useful in tracking many of them down, but they always somehow managed to find new recruits amongst the peasant and farmers. Li was concerned that the communists in the north would get even more recruits because of the Japanese which is why he wanted to send Colonel Lin Jiazhou there. He was his best intelligence officer and would ensure the insurgency against the Japanese would be a Kuomintang driven one rather than communist driven.

Wang continued “I am still concerned about the communists, which is why I don’t want to order a full campaign to retake Manchuria. So until we hear back from-“
There was a knock at the door and Wang said “Come in.”
Wang’s assistant opened the door and held it aside for Gu Weijun [5] to enter. Gu had adopted the Western name of Wellington, since he spent much of his time in other nations and had been involved in the formation of the League of Nations, whose decision Gu had been waiting to hear about before he attended the current meeting.
He placed his hat on the rack next to the door and slowly walked towards the other four men. Wang could tell the outcome by the look on Gu’s face.

Gu shook his head and said “It’s no good Jingwei. Aside from military action against Japan, which is not going to happen, there is little they can or will do. By rights they should have put sanctions on them, but even if they did it would matter little to Japan, since they have now withdrawn from the League themselves.”
Wang shook his head “We have to face it. They don’t care about problems.
“Oh they all care! They care so much, they’ll debate it for hours and hours, but never actually do anything!” shouted Sun.
Wang let him calm down for a few seconds before continuing “Li we’ll implement your plan for placing intelligence soldiers in Manchuria. Make sure you get Bauer’s input on the operation, after all his men trained those soldiers. In the mean time I am ordering the current north-eastern forces to maintain position, if we can’t push the Japanese back, we can make damned sure they don’t progress any further.”
There was another knock at the door, this time it sounded far more urgent. Wang told whoever it was to enter. It was his assistant again.
“Sorry to interrupt sir, but there is urgent news. The Japanese have landed troops near Shanghai and sent the city’s mayor an ultimatum”
Wang frowned, Shanghai had become a hotbed since the invasion of Manchuria, with numerous incidents reported against Japanese citizens. He turned to General Li.
“General I want you to head to Shanghai personally, if this gets out of hand I need you there.”
“Yes sir” replied Li “I’ll take the 3rd Army with me.” The others knew what that meant Li had formed the 3rd Army himself from a solid core of German-trained troops and Guangxi Clique veterans, if any force could stop an invasion of Shanghai it would be that one.


Key figures in the Kuomintang government-1931, from left to right; Premier Sun Fo, Minister of Industry H. H. Kung and Minister of Foreign Affairs Wellington Koo.

Part of President Wang Jingwei’s famous Nanjing Address of

20 July 1931.

“At this great turning point in history, the National Government should make clear to the people of China and of the whole world the main objectives in its policy of realizing national independence and completing the National Revolution. We shall then be able to co-operate more wholeheartedly and fulfill our mission more effectively. We fervently hope that security in China and peace in the world may be permanently established. With this thought in mind I today make the following statement.

The aim of our National Revolution is two-fold. In our relations with other nations we seek national independence and freedom. Within the nation we seek equality for all racial groups. For forty years we have faced the ever-growing menace of Japanese aggression. Therefore the main emphasis of our national revolutionary movement is upon consolidating the strength of all our racial groups. We knew that we must unite in resisting foreign aggression if we are to attain national independence and freedom.

We have three most important goals and the attainment of these constitute our most urgent tasks.
First, we must continue the National Revolution as the legacy handed down to us by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
Second, we have to regain our sovereign rights in the Northeastern Provinces and re-establish territorial and administrative integrity there.
And third, we must continue to resist aggression against our nation in all of its forms. While a specific example is the aggression of the Empire of Japan in our province of Manchuria and intimidations near Shanghai, this includes any other form of aggression against our rightful government. The communist bandits that seek to destabilise the nation we have been building and their Soviet backers [6], as well as the Western nations that think we must still accept their demands in our cities, when our people are under attack [7].


Wang shortly after the 20 July Nanjing Address, he dressed in uniform to inspire the crowd.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria and new puppet nation of Manchukuo had divided the Kuomintang government. Whilst a majority of them wanted to bring the army north in order to push the Japanese out of rightful Chinese territory, many realised that it was easier said than done. The Japanese were looking for any excuse to launch more attacks at China and the Shanghai Incident is a reflection of this. President Wang spoke several times to crowds after the invasion of Manchuria, the general population had a n angry attitude towards Japan and he wanted to prevent anything happening in Shanghai, but his words were not enough to calm things down.
Wang sent reinforcements to the 6th and 88th Army stationed near the city under the command of Li Zongren himself, after hearing of Japan’s landing of forces. Despite wanting to avoid any further expansion of conflict, Wang had some hopes that the Japanese would launch an attack, since it would mean they would be seen in an even worse light than they already were by the rest of the world. Things eventually came to a head on the 27 July 1931.

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, by Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House, Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The Battle of Shanghai (1931), also known as the Shanghai Incident began on the 27 July. Japanese troops attacked various targets just before dawn as well as bombing parts of Shanghai with naval planes. In response Li Zongren ordered the 3rd Army and the 19th Route Army to counter-attack the Japanese, while he kept the 5th Army in defensive positions inside the centre of the city. The fierce fighting soon spread to most of the eastern parts of Shanghai and the stubborn resistance prompted the Japanese to bring in reinforcements. Two weeks later the Japanese had landed two more divisions, bringing their troop numbers up to 100,000 and nearly 100 ships as well as a substantial air force. Li requested for China’s meagre air force to be brought in to support the infantry, which Wang quickly authorised.

The Japanese infantry forces managed to penetrate into the city as a far as and stopped when they were attacked by the entrenched Special Brigade commanded by General Hu. Intense fighting in the district lasted for six days before the Japanese withdrew, when they were in danger of running out of ammunition. After another week of fighting around the city General Shirakawa finally called back all forces under direct orders from Prime Minister Araki. Though neither side had really won, the Chinese had pushed the Japanese from Shanghai, albeit at a great cost, the 3rd had borne the brunt of the fighting and some of it’s units had taken more than sixty percent casualties. Li Zongren’s precious hardened core of the NRA was decimated.

The Incident is noteworthy because it marked one of the few occasions during the Second Sino-Japanese War that Chinese numbers were lower than the Japanese and they were able to achieve victory [8].

Fig. 9. Order of Battle during the Shanghai Incident 1931.

Japan
Shanghai Expeditionary Army – Gen. Yoshinori Shirakawa
Lieutenant- Gen. Kanichiro Tashiro – Chief of Staff

Army Troops:
Mixed Regiment Medium Artillery –
3 Batteries 150mm Howitzers, 12 guns, horse drawn.
2 Batteries 100mm guns, 8 guns, horse drawn.

Army Air Service:
3 Bomber Squadrons
1 Pursuit Squadron (Nieuports)
1 Reconnaissance Squadron

24th Mixed Brigade –
2nd Battalion / 14th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 24th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 46th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 48th Infantry Regiment
2nd Battalion / 3rd Independent Mountain Gun Regiment
2nd Company / 18th Engineer Battalion

9th Division – General Uyeda
2nd Independent Tank Company – Captain Shigemi
5 Type 89 Medium Tanks, 10 Renault NC27 Tanks
Cavalry Detachment
Battalion 150mm Howitzers
Heavy Siege Gun Unit, (6 150mm Mortars)
6th Infantry Brigade
7th Infantry Regiment
35th Infantry Regiment
18th Infantry Brigade
19th Infantry Regiment
36th Infantry Regiment
9th Mountain Artillery Regiment
9th Cavalry Regiment

11th Division – General Koto
10th Infantry Brigade
12th Infantry Regiment
22nd Infantry Regiment
22nd Infantry Brigade
43rd Infantry Regiment
44th Infantry Regiment
11th Mountain Artillery Regiment
11th Cavalry Regiment
11th Engineer Regiment
11th Army Service Detachment

14th Division – General Matsuki
27th Infantry Brigade
2nd Infantry Regiment
59th Infantry Regiment
28th Infantry Brigade
15th Infantry Regiment
50th Infantry Regiment
20th Field Artillery Regiment
18th Cavalry Regiment
14th Engineer Regiment
14th Battalion of Army Service Corps

3rd Fleet – Vice Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura
34 warships including:
Kirishima, Kongō class battlecruiser
Yura, Nagara class cruiser
Tenryū, Tenryū class cruiser
Mutsuki, Mutsuki class destroyer
1st Koku-sentai (Carrier Division)
Carrier Kaga (flagship)
Nakajima A1N fighters
Mitsubishi B1M bombers
Carrier Hōshō
9 Nakajima A1N2 fighters
3 Mitsubishi B2M bombers
3 Mitsubishi C1M Type 10 reconnaissance aircraft
Shanghai SNLF (Captain Samejima) *[2000men]
1st Battalion (Including Sasebo 1st SNLF)
2nd Battalion (Former Kure 1st SNLF)
3rd Battalion (Former Sasebo 2nd SNLF)
4th Battalion (Former Sasebo 3rd SNLF)
5th Battalion (Former Yokosuka 1st SNLF)
7th Battalion (Former Yokosuka 2nd SNLF)
Armed reservists and Ronin, agents 3000 men
Total Naval forces in Shanghai 5000 men

China

Shanghai Front – Commander in Chief, Gen. Li Zongren

3rd Army – Gen. He Yingqin
38th Division –
75th Brigade
Special Brigade – Gen. Hu Wei-an
50th Division – Gen. Li Bao
109th Brigade
110th Brigade
55th Division – Gen. Ma Changbo
114th Brigade
115th Brigade

19th Route Army – Gen. Chiang Kuang-Nai
60th Division – Gen. Shen Kwan-han
119th Brigade
120th Brigade
61st Division – Gen. Mao Weh-hsu
121st Brigade
122nd Brigade
78th Division – Gen. Shu Zu-nien
155th Brigade
156th Brigade
3 Chinese armored trains (500men)
Woosung Forts Garrison (2,000 men)

5th Army – Gen. Chang Chih-chung
87th Division – Gen. Lau Ching-yueh
174th Brigade
175th Brigade
88th Division – Gen. Yu Tsi-shih
176th Brigade
177th Brigade
Independent Brigade – Gen. Wang Ken


Chinese soldiers during the Shanghai Incident.

[1] Kuomintang government positions and who had authority are somewhat of a headache. In OTL Chiang changed positions numerous times, due to disagreements and being force to reisgn and then being brought back. he alternated between premier and president along with other figures though power tended to be in his hands regardless of his actual position. Here Tan Yankai remained as premier and Wang became president during the Northern Expedition. Since Tan was a fairly weak figure, Wang became more powerful and authority has slowly moved into the presidential position. By the time Tan died in 1930, premier was a role only indicating the head of the Executive Yuan that was answerable to the president and Wang appointed Sun to replace Tan.

[2] When Sun says ‘northern towns’ here, he means the towns north of the Yellow River and Beijing, not Manchurian towns.

[3] Also known as Shanhai Pass, it has been used numerous times in Chinese history to defend against attacks form Manchuria.

[4] This Minister position presides over a combination of what is usually the Ministry of Economic Affairs and some of the areas of Ministry of the Interior.

[5] This is the pinyin version of Wellington Koo’s name.

[6] Not actually true, but a belief amongst many in China at the time.

[7] Rioting in Shanghai has become routine particularly between Chinese and Japanese citizens and the other nations in the international sections of the city are pressuring the Chinese to stop it.

[8] This statement does not include guerrilla actions, only large scale battles.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

12. Once Upon A Time In Manchuria.

9 March 1931
Xingshan Township, Kirin Province
Manchuria
Republic of China
(Manchukuo, as recognised by Japan)

The last Japanese soldier fell down dead next to his compatriots, his body riddled with bullets. Tang Juwu ordered his men to cease firing the precious M1917 heavy machine gun. He ordered them to pack up the gun and get ready to move out, this town had been cleared, but they had much work to do.
“Thank you general” said the leader of the town “we are eternally grateful to you.”
Tang nodded, this man had lost his entire family to the brutal Japanese soldiers that had occupied his town, killing them had been the least he could for him.
“Make sure you are ready to defend yourselves if you have to” said Tang “but don’t try to provoke them too much. If you do, they’ll send in an entire unit to wipe out the town, hopefully though we’ll be keeping them busy. Alright, set the bodies alight and get ready to move out, we’ve got work to do elsewhere.”
One of Tang’s scouts came up while they were moving the bodies into a pile.
“Sir the Japanese are sending a brigade past the river, it should be passing south in the next half hour.”
Tang smiled “Excellent, we’ll show these bastards they can’t do what they like in our country.” Tang began giving orders to move towards the river and set up an ambush for the Japanese brigade. He hoped this would be the first of many steps towards threatening Mukden.

Taken from Tang Juwu: The Hero of Manchuria, by Chen Jisheng, © 1985 Dragon Breath Publishing House, Shanghai, Republic of China, Translated to English by Carl Hamilton

Chapter 2.

Tang’s service time in the army since 1915 had taught him discipline, honour and most importantly loyalty. The disbanding of his regiment in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion left him grieving for his homeland until he escaped internment.
The deplorable conditions in the prison camp were harsh and many the Japanese guards were brutal to anyone who stepped out of line. Tang kept himself out of trouble for one week and waited for the Japanese to drop their guard.
On the night of November 18 an opportunity presented itself. Tang had noted that certain parts of the camp went unwatched for some time as the guards deemed those areas unimportant. When he was coming back from the outhouse he stabbed a soldier in the neck with a sharpened piece of wood and strangled another with wire. Thus he was able to make it to the unwatched sections without anyone hearing anything. He quickly made his way over the fence and was a mile away before anyone at the camp became suspicious.

Tang met up with other soldiers that avoided internment or had hidden and he was appointed commander of the Anti-Japanese Resistance Army, which he built up with his extensive contacts throughout north east Manchuria. This army comprised of former soldiers, bandits, militias and self defence peasant groups. By the time Tang decided to go on the offensive his army was 30,000 strong. In June of 1931 Tang led his army into Liaoning from the north east and engaged the Kwangtung Army garrison at Fushun. He beat back the Japanese forces and continued advancing west until he army was savaged at Dengta, by several Japanese and Manchukuo brigades. After this he turned his army towards the guerrilla warfare for which he became famous for, to both the Chinese public and the infuriated Japanese commanders that tired to capture him and his men.


Tang Juwu

From “A Tour Of International Cinema, Part 12”, by Kevin Raines, © July 1990, American Journal of Motion Picture, Volume 37, California Film Centre, Los Angeles, USA

Dumpling Westerns.
The name Dumpling Western was first coined to describe director Chang Cheh’s [1] film The Lone Soldier, about the guerrilla war led by Tang Juwu, which was not the most historically accurate film and made Tang out to be more of a folk hero than a disciplined soldier, but it did well nonetheless and with it came a surge of Chinese films set in the same period. The film depicted Tang during his time before he formed his large guerrilla army and saving a small town from a garrison of Japanese soldiers intent on ruling over it. The inaccuracies are fairly obvious, no group of Japanese soldiers ever set themselves up as rulers of a Manchurian town and Tang only spent a few weeks in the wilderness before meeting with the leaders of the Manchurian rebellion, doubtful he would have had time to have saved a town. But Chang took much inspiration from the Western genre and much as the Italian made Spaghetti Westerns his film was dubbed a ‘Dumpling Western’ and would be followed by several more. This would soon follow with a slew of Dumpling Westerns being made in Shanghai and Hong Kong, with many of them becoming the second major Chinese genre to make it to American and European theatres after kung fu films.
The Lone Soldier also ignited the early careers of several actors who would continue in Dumpling Westerns and become famous for them, as well as branching into the more traditional Chinese stories of wuxia [2].

The important difference between Spaghetti and Dumpling Westerns is that the Italian ones were still set in the American West and Mexico while the Chinese films have a Chinese setting and this distinction has become clear over time. Spaghetti Westerns tended to die off around the early 1980s, though many are still revered today, as Italian cinema changed course away from westerns. But Dumpling Westerns maintained a strong presence in China and in the United States, this was likely due to the fact that several prominent American directors tried their hand at a Dumpling Western and several of them went on to have great success at the box office, Stanley Kubrick’s Fire On The Yangtze River being the most widely known and watched.
Today Dumpling Westerns still enjoy a strong market in China and any Chinese historical film from set roughly in the period 1911-1940 with a certain style is considered to be a Dumpling Western.


Actors from The Lone Soldier who became famous in the Dumpling Western genre; left to right, Zheng Pei-pei, Cheung Ying Choi and John Wang.

Notable Dumpling Westerns (in order of release)

The Lone Soldier (1965)
Gold Lust (1966)
Bandits, Bullets and Beans (1966)
Wayward Cause (1968)
Race To Wu’s Treasure (1968)
The Horseman and the Thief (1969)
In the Shadow of the Mountain (1970)
1001 Thieves (1970)
Showdown in Arun (1971)
Gunman Jiaxing (1972)
Bounty’s Rest (1972)
Drifting Through Liaoning (1973)
Land of Loss (1974)
The Road To Shanghai (1975)
Where the Soldiers Won’t Go (1976)
Seven Man Army (1976) [3]
Bullets Don’t Lie (1978)
Cold Heart (1980)
Warlord Zhou (1981)


Posters from some Dumpling Westerns

[1] Chang was one of the most famous and prolific directors of Hong Kong cinema and Shaw Brother’s Studio, much of his work OTL was influenced by spaghetti westerns, so here he has simply taken that inspiration one step further and created a new type of western.

[2] Chinese historical martial arts films.

[3] Similar to the OTL film of the same name but with differences like being set in the Battle of Shanghai of 1931 rather than in the defence of the Great Wall and more of a Western style to it.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

13. Brotherhood Of Resistance.

From ‘The Complete Second World War, Volume 1: The Opening Moves, From Manchuria to Yugoslavia’
By Robert Keegan
© 1985, Coleman Publishing Group, St Louis, USA

The main armies of the NRA had finally been forced to pull back from Manchuria in early 1932 and the Chinese government decided to abandon its policy of direct engagement, as there were other pressing issues including a long overdue fixing of the economy and the resurgence of the communists. In fact there was some decision that allowing the Japanese to temporarily have Manchuria may in fact wipe out the difficult to remove communist guerrillas under Mao.
While the decision to do this was not politically easy, given the public’s anti-Japanese stance, it was done in such a way as to portray the government as still fighting without actually carrying out military operations. Many advisors and supplies were sent to aid the ‘freedom armies’ which had formed in the wake of the invasion (dubbed as ‘bandits’ by the IJA)
Japan meanwhile was trying to ease its conquest and occupation by creating the new nation of Manchukuo, under the Manchu heir Henry Puyi, though it was not recognised by any other nations [1].

Manchuria, with the dark red showing the initial territory of Manchukuo.

The Jilin and Liaoning provinces were the most important areas where the resistance operated, in Jilin General Ting Chao was operating his Jilin Self-Defence Army, which managed to hold Harbin form three major assaults by Japanese and Manchukuoan troops, until they were finally forced to abandon the city and spread out into the countryside, several resistance armies operated here for the next three years under Ting and generals, Li Du, Feng Zhanhai and Wang Delin as the harassed the IJA between Harbin and the Soviet border. In the northwest the cavalry general Ma Zhanshan, who had at first joined Manchukuo and Japan only to betray them and seize arms and supplies to use against them caused so much trouble, including attacking Changchun in November of 1931 that the Japanese concentrated their forces there giving the other generals a free hand.
After several fierce battles in the summer of 1932, Ma’s forces were finally forced into retreat and he was captured near the town of Jiwen along with several thousand of his men. The remainder of them escaped to the Soviet Union or fled west, some of them joining the communist resistance. Ma had forced three times as many men as he had to chase him for more than a year and Ting’s armies made good use of this, establishing themselves throughout most of the small towns in the north east and they held out until 1934, when the Japanese finally brought in overwhelming numbers to defeat them, though many continued to operate in very small units and many of the generals managed to make their way south to Chinese controlled territory.

Further south in Liaoning, General Tang Juwu led an incredible guerrilla campaign, and his forces swelled with volunteers, including some Korean resistance members led by future politician Kim Il-Sung. This further delayed the Japanese operations against the NRA and the Jilin Army and the Japanese were continually frustrated by Tang’s elusiveness. In fact he became so troublesome that IJA intelligence officer, Colonel Kenji Doihara put up a $1,000,000 sum in gold for his capture or death [2].

Resistance fighters in Manchuria

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The Imperial Army’s impressive war machine, which had done an incredible job at taking Manchuria, was however not quite as capable as holding the territory which it had captured. Continual resistance in the north-west plagued the Japanese and the Kwangtung forces were still fighting some active NRA units west of Liaoning. The Chinese government had stepped back from direct engagement and limited itself to defence in the south while continuing to ship advisors and supplies into Manchuria.
After finally destroying many of the larger bandit armies, the IJA was ready to expand Manchukuo to ensure that support to the remaining resistance was cut off. To this end, the overall commander of the Kwantung Army, Baron Shigeru Honjo [3], decided to seize Rehe province from the Kuomintang government in order to seal off Manchuria.

On Nov. 1, 1931,

they proclaimed the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic in the southeastern province of Jiangxi, with Mao Zedong as chairman. Here the first units of the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army were formed. While conducting guerrilla warfare in these regions, the soldiers carried out an agrarian revolution that was based on Mao’s premise that the best way to win the conflict was to isolate the cities by gaining control of the countryside and the food supply. (The Photo is of Mao in 1931)

1932

1932

Yunnan, 1932,

 

 

 

London Overprints on Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Type II (single circle) (Scott 36//42 vars. Chan Y36-Y42), nicely canceled, clean, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 20,000 – 24,000

 

1933

4 May 1933
Rehe Province
Republic of China

A scan of the horizon revealed, small wisps of dust and smoke from the approaching army. The observer put down the binoculars and handed them back to Zhang Xueliang, they had originally belonged to his father, a gift from a Japanese nobleman before they had decided to invade China.
“Well?” asked Zhang.
“No doubt about it sir, the Japanese have finally decided to come west.”
Zhang simply nodded in acknowledgement. He turned his head to his officers.
“I’m not going to lie to any of you, we’re in for one hell of a fight. They may have been savaged over the last few years by the brave men in the north, but they wouldn’t come unless they were fairly confident of taking the province. The president wants us to stand here and I intend to do so. Whether we win or lose it has been an honour serving with each of you. You have all shown incredible dedication and patriotism in this war. I can only pray to Heaven that this will be the last battle of it. Luck by with you all.”
And with that his men gave a cheer and saluted him.

The Japanese attacked near dawn the next day. They had seized the small towns in the east of the province first and then proceed on a south-west direction towards the Great Wall and Zhang intended on stopping them from reaching it.
He had positioned his army in and around Changde. Zhang commanded his forces from the city hall in the south of the metropolitan district as the Japanese advanced up towards the city, their constant artillery fire ravaging the buildings and defences.
After two days the Japanese had reached the edge of the city and Zhang was getting reports of lines being broken. He had just ordered the bulk of his forces back into the city when an aide ran up and delivered him an intelligence message.
Further Japanese reinforcements were arriving from the north-about two divisions.
He crumpled the paper in frustration and placed his hands on the table, closing his eyes and calming his thoughts. Two more divisions was too much, there were barely holding on as it was, the Japanese were going to crush them. Perhaps it was finally time to surrender and ask for terms?
No, it was too soon, how could look at his men in the face after surrendering so quickly. He would fight until the city was no longer defendable and only then surrender.

The next day, fully expecting the Japanese reinforcements to begin penetrating the north he was surprised to get reports of Chinese troops marching in from the north instead! He couldn’t get a clear message so he decided to find out what was going on in person and ran down to his car.
“Drive north Wu!” he said “I need to know what is happening”.
His driver nodded and made the journey as quickly as he could reaching the northern outskirts within twenty minutes.
Zhang got out of the vehicle and approached one of his Tang Yelin, who was conversing with several others, poorly dressed, but tough looking individuals.
“What is going on?” asked Zhang.
“General, sir!” said Tang, this Wang Delin and Feng Zhanhai. They bring a message from General Tang Juwu.”
Wang said “General Tang says do not worry, the Japanese reinforcements have been dealt with and it is Changde which will be receiving reinforcement, from the Anti-Japanese Brotherhood Army”
Zhang looked at them in amazement “You’re still out there fighting!”
“Yes” replied Wang “and the Japanese made a fatal mistake in ignoring us to attack you. Tang has a trap ready fro the Japanese in the east, he is simply waiting for them to spring it with a little help from us of course.”
Zhang nodded and smiled “This is wonderful. Of course, if Tang has a plan then let me hear it and after this battle I must invite him to have a drink with me!”


Soldiers from Tang Juwu’s army, waiting to ambush the Japanese

[1] At its creation it was not, but within a few years, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Italy and the Soviet Union gave defacto diplomatic recognition to Manchukuo, despite the official League of Nations declaration that Manchuria was rightfully part of China.

[2] If this seems outrageously large, in OTL Doihara made a $3,000,000 offer to General Ma to defect from the resistance to Manchukuo due to his fame.

[3] Honjo was put in command slightly later than OTL, Hishikari was not replaced until after his failure to crack down on the resistance, and he remains in command rather than being relieved for insubordination due to his connections to Prime Minister Araki.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

14. Reflections.

16 August 1931
Tokyo
Empire of Japan

Prime Minister Sadao Araki let his hand barely touch the surface of the koi pond, the small fish darting away from the ripples his hand was making. He had a difficult decision to make and being in his small garden helped to calm his thoughts and sort things out clearly. Things had not been progressing well in the war. The Chinese had managed to stunt the Imperial Army at Shanghai and forced them to withdraw five months ago. Since then Manchuria and slowly come under control of the Imperial Army, but the losses were quickly mounting upwards. Guerrillas were picking away at the soldiers and the units were forced to march back and forth chasing the small groups of bandits.

It went against everything he believed, but he was seriously considering the offer that had been made by China via the League of Nations for a negotiated settlement. Not just himself, but everyone in his political faction and hundreds of army officers did not want to negotiate with China. But Araki thought that he could bring the Chinese to terms in an acceptable fashion. He would concede in some areas, but the one exception was Manchuria. That had to be Japanese, there was no question. Obtaining it was critical to the eventual war that with the Soviet Union that he knew was necessary.
He stepped back from the pond having made his decision. It was time to contact the League of Nations and start talking with the Chinese foreign minister.

 

 

 


Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The failure of Japanese army to hold fast against the overwhelming Chinese forces led to a political and military stalemate in the Japanese government. The diminishing influence of moderate civilian government under Araki’s regime had led to much more radical military power. But that power had been shown to be mistaken after retreating from Shanghai and the attacks of the 19th Route Army. The military was self-deluded and did not want to admit that the attack on Shanghai was a mistake, but the few realists quickly realised, that an escalation into outright war was not in their best interest right now. Araki in particular was far more interested in securing Manchuria, which was become a meat grinder for the IJA. He had long looked towards the north and the threat of the Soviet Union and in his mind, securing Manchuria first was a necessary step in an eventual victory against the Soviets [1]. He was able to push through a ceasefire against the wishes of many in his faction, by arguing that they needed to focus on Manchuria instead of whittling away at Chinese cities. The attempted assassination of General Ueda Kenkichi in Shanghai by the Korean nationalist Yoon Bong-Gil in late August [2], helped to sway the reluctant officers that Manchuria and Korea were the prime areas for Japan to exert absolute control over, before gong to war with another nation. The Chinese were reluctant to sign a ceasefire, the ongoing fighting in Manchuria was very much in the public mind and was what had led to the anti-Japanese riots in Shanghai, but this problem was avoided as the ceasefire agreement only dealt with Shanghai and made no mention of NRA or IJA actions anywhere else.


Soldiers of the 19th Route Army engaging in one of the final fire fights in Shanghai.


Taken from “The Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan”, by Christopher Lloyd, © 1985, Davidson Historical Books.

The aftermath of the Battle of Shanghai (1931) must also be discussed. This was essentially the first time Japanese soldiers had retreated from battle with Chinese soldiers and though small, its effects marked an important step in the militarisation of the Japanese government and the eventual path to its downfall.

The Japanese civilian government succeeded in negotiating with China, but at extreme cost to its own prestige. Prime Minister Araki, despite advocating an aggressive stance could see that securing Manchuria was a priority rather than being involved in an all out shooting war with the largest nation in Asia. His back stepping from what the militarists had seen as the correct course angered many of the more fanatical officers in the IJA and Araki would soon pay the price for his realism and negotiation.

After the agreed negotiation between the two countries, the Japanese civilian government was nearly at a standstill, Araki considered resigning but Baron Hiranuma Kiichiro convinced him that it was better for him to remain there to help control the more radical urges of the army factions. Several ministers did resign in protest at the agreement however and Jinzaburo Masaki pitched Araki to replace them with other members, but ones who shared Masaki’s views, so they would have even more power. The loss of these key military figures in the government caused such commotion in Japan, that for a while the war in Manchuria took a backseat in the newspapers to the government crisis. The political situation in Japan had finally reached a critical point and it would not be long before action was taken on the part of those who felt betrayed by Araki and the government.

The men who came into the government now, Heisuke Yanagawa, Tomoyuki Yamashita and Kuniako Koiso [3], were all part of Araki’s Imperial Way Faction, but not only that they were heavily intertwined into the radical secret societies that wanted to reshape Japan and destroy what they thought of as corrupt government form the bottom up and bring what the called ‘state socialism’ with more direct rule under the Emperor.


The new military figures in the Japanese government Yanagawa, Yamashita and Koiso.

[1] Araki was leader of the faction which advocated the ‘Imperial Way Faction’ which saw the Soviet Union as the biggest threat to Japan’s future.

[2] OTL Yoon assassinated General Yoshinori Shirakawa, commander of the IJA in Shanghai, during the battle of 1932. The earlier occurrence of the battle means he didn’t have the opportunity to get to Shanghai, so he targeted a general in Manchuria.

[3] With no Imperial Colours Incident, Koiso is still very involved in the Sakurakai and thus has become closer to the Imperial Way Faction than the Control faction.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

15. Currency Affairs

‘Wealth does not pass three generations’-Chinese proverb.
1932

 

Rare Manchukuo, 1932, First Definitive Series complete (Scott 1-18. JSDA 1-18), an incredible rare complete set of imprint blocks, an occasional perf or gum tone speck, largely irrelevant, mostly fresh and well-centered, imprint blocks of 4, o.g., never hinged, Very Fine, a showpiece set!

 

Manchukuo, 1932, First Definitive Series, 1½f-50f, 9 values (Scott 3//17. JSDA 3//17), imprint blocks of 4, o.g., never hinged; scarce group, some slight perf or gum tone specks, still generally F.-V.F.

 

1933

   

A military man by temperament and training, Chiang sought to eliminate the Communists by force. He defined his anti-Communist drive as “internal pacification before resistance to external attack,” and he gave it more importance than opposition to the increasingly aggressive Japanese. With arms and military advisers from Nazi Germany, Chiang carried out a series of “extermination campaigns” that killed about a million people between 1930 to 1934. Chiang’s fifth campaign, involving over half a million troops, almost annihilated the Communists. Faced with the dilemma of being totally destroyed in Jiangxi or attempting an almost impossible escape, the Communists decided to risk the escape.

October 1933

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1933 (Oct 4) Sven Hedin set on registered cover to Sweden, the complete set, tied by Peiping 4.10.33 cds’s, with 20¢ reaper and 10¢ martyr on reverse. Boldly signed “Sven Heden Peiping” on reverse, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 3,800

 

On Oct. 15, 1934,

they broke through the tight KMT siege. Over 100,000 men and women set out on the Long March of about 6,000 miles (9,600 kilometers) through China’s most rugged terrain to find a new base in the northwest. (The Photo is of Chiang Kai-shek)

   

(Photo – Chiang Kai-shek (right) with future Japanese Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai (center), Pan-Asianist leader Tōyama Mitsuru (left) in Japan 1929.)

In the meantime, the Japanese had made steady inroads into China. The Mukden Incident of 1931,

through which Mukden was occupied by the Japanese, was initiated by Japanese officers stationed along the South Manchurian Railway. This was followed by the occupation of Manchuria and the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932.

 

Probably in 1933 or 1934,

the Mid-Autumn Festival, Li Xian Jing was arrested for engaging in the student movement. When he was arrested, surnamed Chen, lesbians come home to inform their bed with two baskets of the Communist Party’s propaganda material.

 

The grandmother quickly find the maid to transfer them out, and then personally uncle Paul. Paul came out of the night to the uncle, grandmother makeup, he dressed up as an old man, and then with his arm in arm out of the house, and took the train to Tianjin. Grandfather, then in Shanghai, he saw in the newspaper uncle news of the arrest, it was decided to let the uncle and aunt went to Shanghai. The grandfather said: “I do not oppose your revolution, nor against the Communist Party, but ye first the school.”

The father every time Beijing will see the old house of West Fourth. In 2004, we visited again the old home, hospital or high threshold, but the hospital has changed dramatically. Concierge and long corridors are turned into housing, small kitchen covered the entire yard and winding walkways cutting. Although the old residents still clearly remember with floral glass corridors, acacia, wisteria tree, the moon gate, fish pond rockery been no trace. We are allowed to enter the floor of the North Building of the Eastern Hospital, the indoor can see carved on the ceiling, but also because of the compartment is divided. Initially households thought we were to ask for the old house, when we told the house early in 1935 to sell, they said in unison: “selling well, otherwise will be the demolition has been removed to the front of the alley.”
Although the house has long been non-Lee all but see the loss to defeat this point, is still ahead of the game. Left, I counted the door of the court meter, a total of 16 names, it is estimated that the hospital at least three fifty people lived.
Second, the

Why Lijia to sell patrimony? The main reason is that grandfather Li Zhaofu unwilling official, in order to support the family and moved to Shanghai to do a practicing lawyer.

Lizhao Fu was born in 1887. It is set out in his “wind nine Christian Yan, Chao Fu was ordered dimension honor, since childhood, Xiao Wen entering the private school, grow older avid reader of the classics, history, disdain regulatory rules in the imperial examination industry. Western learning, more domestic Translation by Day Chao-fu for hidden learning, especially steeped in the law books, that the reform of political primordial non-advocate of no Jianxin state also. “(a) 1905, Li Zhaofu obtain to the official fee hygiene enter Tokyo, Japan’s Meiji University Law .

On August 20 of the same year, the United League was established to be a hundred people. According to Huang Fusheng recalls: “Mr. Sun return from Europe and America, the organization United League in Tokyo, opened the General Assembly on red Osaka District of Hope South Sakamoto I Chuan person participants XIONG Jun Jin Fan Ke Wu, Huang Junwen piano pet Zhang, Li Junbo Shenzhao Fu (when the name on the pass)).”

Sun Yat-sen at the July 30 meeting in Akasaka district-juniper-cho three banchi within Tianliang Ping house, the Huangxing the drafting of the United Democrats of the Articles of Association, and the development of members on the spot. Infer Li Zhaofu may then joined League, and United League was established as members to participate, and Liao Zhongkai and Hu Hanmin September 1 of the same year.

My grandmother Jumbo luan (word for wear) Anhui Huizhou Renshi, her father and my great-grandfather the same in Shandong government officials understand that rank higher than the great-grandfather, great-grandfather is said to fancy Li Zhaofu talents daughter.

 

Until into the bridal chamber, my grandmother did not go to Japan, returning home to get married grandfather grandmother before seen grandfather wearing a fake braids, thereby guess he’s Revolutionary Party. Grandmother grandfather was described as a very pale and bald scholar. It is said that grandfather also go back and get married the great-grandfather said: “I put the hair back to you.” He meant “I leaned back to the parents, I went to the revolution”.

 

 

Many years later, my father said: “our revolution was also the head do belt shop, the revolution is always the dead, such as Shandong Jining government to the Huanghuagang shipped arms and other Communist Party came to me how I do not know since I have time to be a revolution are not afraid of death, is nothing to fear now. ”
Grandfather served as secretary of the Enforcement Division joined the United League, and later served as the person in charge of the Sichuan branch of the United League. According to the United League of data, Li Zhaofu worked in the secretary of the Bureau of the alliance headquarters

Probably in 1933 or 1934,

the Mid-Autumn Festival, Li Xian Jing was arrested for engaging in the student movement. When he was arrested, surnamed Chen, lesbians come home to inform their bed with two baskets of the Communist Party’s propaganda material.

 

The grandmother quickly find the maid to transfer them out, and then personally uncle Paul. Paul came out of the night to the uncle, grandmother makeup, he dressed up as an old man, and then with his arm in arm out of the house, and took the train to Tianjin. Grandfather, then in Shanghai, he saw in the newspaper uncle news of the arrest, it was decided to let the uncle and aunt went to Shanghai. The grandfather said: “I do not oppose your revolution, nor against the Communist Party, but ye first the school.”

The father every time Beijing will see the old house of West Fourth. In 2004, we visited again the old home, hospital or high threshold, but the hospital has changed dramatically. Concierge and long corridors are turned into housing, small kitchen covered the entire yard and winding walkways cutting. Although the old residents still clearly remember with floral glass corridors, acacia, wisteria tree, the moon gate, fish pond rockery been no trace. We are allowed to enter the floor of the North Building of the Eastern Hospital, the indoor can see carved on the ceiling, but also because of the compartment is divided. Initially households thought we were to ask for the old house, when we told the house early in 1935 to sell, they said in unison: “selling well, otherwise will be the demolition has been removed to the front of the alley.”
Although the house has long been non-Lee all but see the loss to defeat this point, is still ahead of the game. Left, I counted the door of the court meter, a total of 16 names, it is estimated that the hospital at least three fifty people lived.
Second, the

Why Lijia to sell patrimony? The main reason is that grandfather Li Zhaofu unwilling official, in order to support the family and moved to Shanghai to do a practicing lawyer.

Lizhao Fu was born in 1887. It is set out in his “wind nine Christian Yan, Chao Fu was ordered dimension honor, since childhood, Xiao Wen entering the private school, grow older avid reader of the classics, history, disdain regulatory rules in the imperial examination industry. Western learning, more domestic Translation by Day Chao-fu for hidden learning, especially steeped in the law books, that the reform of political primordial non-advocate of no Jianxin state also. “(a) 1905, Li Zhaofu obtain to the official fee hygiene enter Tokyo, Japan’s Meiji University Law .

On August 20 of the same year, the United League was established to be a hundred people. According to Huang Fusheng recalls: “Mr. Sun return from Europe and America, the organization United League in Tokyo, opened the General Assembly on red Osaka District of Hope South Sakamoto I Chuan person participants XIONG Jun Jin Fan Ke Wu, Huang Junwen piano pet Zhang, Li Junbo Shenzhao Fu (when the name on the pass)).”

Sun Yat-sen at the July 30 meeting in Akasaka district-juniper-cho three banchi within Tianliang Ping house, the Huangxing the drafting of the United Democrats of the Articles of Association, and the development of members on the spot. Infer Li Zhaofu may then joined League, and United League was established as members to participate, and Liao Zhongkai and Hu Hanmin September 1 of the same year.

My grandmother Jumbo luan (word for wear) Anhui Huizhou Renshi, her father and my great-grandfather the same in Shandong government officials understand that rank higher than the great-grandfather, great-grandfather is said to fancy Li Zhaofu talents daughter.

 

Until into the bridal chamber, my grandmother did not go to Japan, returning home to get married grandfather grandmother before seen grandfather wearing a fake braids, thereby guess he’s Revolutionary Party. Grandmother grandfather was described as a very pale and bald scholar. It is said that grandfather also go back and get married the great-grandfather said: “I put the hair back to you.” He meant “I leaned back to the parents, I went to the revolution”.

 

 

 

Many years later, my father said: “our revolution was also the head do belt shop, the revolution is always the dead, such as Shandong Jining government to the Huanghuagang shipped arms and other Communist Party came to me how I do not know since I have time to be a revolution are not afraid of death, is nothing to fear now. “


Grandfather served as secretary of the Enforcement Division joined the United League, and later served as the person in charge of the Sichuan branch of the United League. According to the United League of data, Li Zhaofu worked in the secretary of the Bureau of the alliance headquarters.

 

 

 

1 March 1934
Central Bank of China, Shanghai Office
Republic of China

Each piece of ledger was beginning to blur his eyes. Soong Ziwen put down his pen and closed his eyes, rubbing his head. The government of the Republic of China had come a long way since the overthrow of the Qing, but its finances were still in a quagmire, much of which was due to the Warlord Era. But Premier Wang had managed to settle things on that front for the most part and with the exception of the Japanese invading Manchuria he was able to concentrate on domestic affairs, one of which was economic reform.
Wang had appointed Soong Minister of Finance, a portfolio which had previously been held by his brother-in-law Kung. He now had to find a way to properly balance the budget and get the government debt under control. Completely changing the currency had certainly helped matters-the old notes were not worth the paper they were printed on thanks to the excesses and corrupted economy of the old warlord regimes.
But more was needed, the warlord era had not only inflated the currency but put assets into the hands of individuals who hoarded it. Seizing those assets was possible, even if it cost the government some allies, but public opinion had never been better thanks to the ongoing resistance in Manchuria and the destruction of the communist armies in the west.
He would make recommendations to that effect to Wang, but for now he wanted to start work on the new note designs. Dr Sun Yat-Sen’s face would of course be on one side, but the other, well that was between him and the design artist. He rang his bell to summon his servant to find an artist for him.

“Golden Dragons: An Economic History Of China” by Jeffrey Finley, Manchester University Press , United Kingdom, © 1972.

20. New Economics in the Republic

Despite the depression and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, these events had not greatly affected the economy of the heartland of the nation. Industrial output was on the rise and much of the previous corruption and inflation form the warlord era and been stamped out, thanks to the efforts of the NRA in fighting corruption in the more rural provinces. These provinces had taken big hits from the depression, with a fall in agricultural prices and the import of foreign goods, but TV Soong soon changed this. His power as Finance Minister was large and he turned the entire economy around in less than 2 years. He scrapped the gold and silver standards that China had been operating on and introduced an entirely new currency and a new economic policy to go with it [2]. Importantly Soong made sure to stress that while the government had control of the money that didn’t mean that it could print money to solve any of its problems as this would only make things worse.

He was proved right when the new currency spread and things began to stabilise. Where communists and rebels refused to use the new currency, the KMT government used military force to back up the policy. There were several more outbreaks and revolts, some of it linked to the new economic policies as the government tried to concentrate the industry and urged farmers not overproduce. The NRA was able to prevent most of the revolts from becoming serious and the new economy of China was soon reaching the level it had been before the depression [3].


Currency notes of China introduced in 1934, in circulation until 1970.

“The Royalty of Modern China”, by Carl Wolfe, University of California Press, © 1990.

The Soong family became one of the most prominently in China and the KMT despite the previous split between Sun Yat-Sen and patriarch Charlie Soong. Wang Jing-wei and Soong’s children had no problem getting past this dispute as Wang valued their influence, Western ties and money far too much to let it be an issue and T.V. Soong (Song Ziwen in modern Chinese [1]) had already been instrumental in governing the Central Bank of China when Wang came to power. The other Soong siblings also had prominent positions in the upper echelons of the Republic of China.
Ai-ling was married to H. H. Kung, Wang’s Minister of Industry and one of the richest men in China, and had previously worked for Sun Yat-Sen as a secretary, a job which her sister Qing-ling followed her in.
Qing-ling had married to Sun Yat-Sen despite her parents objections and thus carried great influence, particularly with the left-wing of the KMT . She was unhappy with the treatment of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1920’s, but eventually sided with President Wang as they had similar views on many issues [4].

The youngest sister, Mei-ling had met Chiang Kai-Shek back in 1920 and they had been interested in each other, despite Chiang already being married, in fact there were rumours that had been planning to divorce Chen Jieru and marry Mei-ling, but after his assassination it was not wise to speak poorly of the KMT martyr, so the rumours stayed behind closed doors.

At the time of his rise to leadership Wang was close to Qing-ling but did not have many other ties to the rest of the family, something he soon fixed as he saw that there would be a need to secure support from them. He placed Ai-ling’s husband in his administration, first as minister of finance, then as minister of industry. He then invited T.V. to assume the position of Finance Minister, after his work running the Central Bank. Finally he encouraged meetings between Mei-ling and his new intelligence chief Chen Guofu [5]. And thus the positions of Industry, Finance and Intelligence became the most influential and powerful positions in China


The three Soong sisters at a young age, they went on to become three of the most influential women in modern Chinese history.

[1] Modern Chinese is slightly similar to OTL simplified Chinese and pinyin.

[2] Something similar happened in OTL but the government printed too much mone resulting in rampant inflation. With no Central Plains War there is more foreign investment and Soong has taken advice from external economists.

[3] These revolts are a somewhat smaller level of the CPC-KMT encirclement campaigns.

[4] OTL Qingling exiled herself to Moscow after Chiang’s communist purge. Wang’s rise to leadership and both the left and right of the KMT rather than splitting has led her to remain with the party, though she came close to leaving during Wang’s communist purge, she was convinced that it was necessary as the assassination of Chiang and other small incidents were portrayed as ‘communist chaos’.

[5] Chen’s CC Clique and the Blue Shirt Society were merged in 1930 and Chen was given total command of both the party administraion and the secret police, the Central Investigation Bureau. The Blueshirts never became as prominent as OTL, as Wang aligned himself with the Chen brothers early on, thus Dai Li is not in charge of his own separate secret police.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have to had to take a “big” big in Japan, Japan


Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have had to take a “big” word, the Japanese, Japanese national The most polite people in the world on the surface is the Japanese, to meet the three bows, good words spoken, turned around to urinate anywhere, in the war is the most human army. There is no way a small Japanese island abroad survived for thousands of years, all insecure, created a metamorphosis of the nation!

 

Japanese Soldiers on the March in Manchuria, 1931

 

Utilizing the ‘Knee-Mortar’, Unknown Theater


 

Japanese Infantry operating in South China

 

Lying in Wait, Unknown Theater


 

Imperial Troops advancing up a hill, unknown theater

 

The sun gives it’s light to the Hinomaru, unknown theater

 

1932

1932-The Year Of Change

From “Yomiori” Tokyo, Empire of Japan
27 February 1932

Naval Officers Assassinate Naval Minister Kiyokazu Abo and Injure Prime Minister Sadao Araki

Yesterday at approximately 4pm, Prime Minister Araki and Naval Minister Abo were exiting the Naval Office together and were ambushed by nine young men in military uniforms. They drew pistols and opened fire on the two men before running off to attempt more sabotage. Abo was killed by at least ten bullets, while Araki was only hit by three bullets, two in his right arm and on in his right leg. It is believed that the Naval Minister was the target and when the men saw that the prime minister had also been shot they stopped and moved on. Over the next few hours they proceeded to attack several other government offices, but thankfully there were no further casualties.
Prime Minister Araki made a statement this morning “While I understand the patriotic minds of young soldiers such as them, we cannot let our passions overcome rational judgements [1].”
It is believed that the men were acting against the government due to the recent ceasefire with China and the signing of the London Naval Treaty, which has upset many in the navy.

 

 

From “The Times” London, UK
9 April 1932

NEW LEADER FOR JAPAN

Prime Minister Araki stepped down yesterday in favour of Heisuke Yanagawa. Araki cited his injuries and the reduction in popular support that he has suffered since preventing war with China. He stated that he would also be retiring from the military in order to “heal the rift that has occurred between our government and our young officers. My presence in either government or army would only exaggerate that rift.”
Yanagawa promised to bring Japan peace back to both China in Japan, but also said that Japan could not stand by idly while chaos continued in China. He also said that Manchukuo “is now under control and peace should bring about order there”. Despite this fighting still continues in north east China, as Chinese guerrillas continue to resist the Imperial Japanese Army. Replacing Yanagawa as War Minister is General Jinzaburo Masaki [2], a prominent Araki supporter.


Prime Minister Araki, recovering from his injuries.

From “The Middletown Times” Middletown, New York, USA
18 July 1932

WAR SPIRIT RIFE AS PARAGUAYANS CLAIM A VICTORY
Annihilation of the Fourteenth Bolivian Infantry Regiment was claimed by Paraguayan forces today as thousands of troops battled fiercely for possession of Fort Boqueron the scene of several days fighting in the disputed Gran Chaco Announcement of the victory was made soon after midnight. It was cheered by thousands in the streets.

An earlier communique from the War Department said that fighting continues in the vicinity of Fort Boqueron. Public excitement was high. Mobs paraded singing the national anthem. On Sunday morning a two minute period of silence was observed in honor of Paraguayans killed in the fighting.

An alleged description of the first air battle of the campaign was carried in the newspaper El Diaro led by the chief of the Paraguayan air force Lieutenants Rocholl and Garcia pilot and observer of a bombing plane carrying 12 bombs flew over Fort Boqueron. They were attacked by three Bolivian planes Lieutenant Rocholl was wounded in the arm but he put the Bolivian planes to rout dropped the bombs on the fort and returned to his base. The plane was hit by 30 bullets.
[3].


Region of war between Bolivia and Paraguay.


Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The death of Ma Zhongying and the retreat of his force left the Kumuliks and the forces of Jin Shuren to continue fighting each other until the governor’s troops eventually managed to force the rebels into surrender. This came just after another, separate rebellion had started further south. These Uyghurs were now fighting for full independence and on 9 October 1932 they seized the city of Kashgar and declared the East Turkestan Republic.


The leaders of the Uyghur rebellion.
August 1932

August,23th.1932

 

Manchukuo, 1932 (Aug. 23) “Postal War” combination cover from Mukden, Manchukuo to Petaiho, China, franked with Manchukuo 4 fen Pagoda (Scott 5) and China 1c Junk pair, 3c single (Scott 249, 252) tied by Chinese PO ‘Shenyang (Mukden)’ postmarks with Year altered from ’21’ to ‘1’. Accepted by the Chinese Post Office without further postage due charge. Bkstpd ‘Peiping’ (Aug. 27) and ‘Petaiho Beach’ (Aug. 28). Attractive usage shortly after Manchukuo’s first stamps were issued.

Taken from “Hitler And The Third Reich, Volume 2: The Rise To Power”
By Verne Masters, Cougar Historicals, (c) 1981, Boston, USA

Hitler’s first taste of real political power came with the German federal election of 6 November 1932. The National Socialists support had increased since the last election in response to the increased support the KPD had received under Ernst Meyers moderate leadership.

The Nazi vote actually decreased since the election in July, though they remained the largest party, albeit without the majority required to govern as had happened in the last election.

 

The parliament had been dissolved by Hindenberg on von Papen’s request and the German government appeared to be at a standstill. Hitler refused to negotiate with Papen and realising he could not remain in control he resigned. Kurt von Schliecher then stepped into the vacuum of government.

 

He tried negotiating with Gregor Strasser in order to split the NSDAP and gain a majority coalition. Hitler and Strasser were now in a fight for leadership of their party.

 

 

Hitler at first seemed to have the upper hand,

 

his speeches won over many, but Strasser also made ground, by repeating that the party would never get into government because of the stubbornness of one man [4]. For almost three weeks they tried to gain follower in each side of the party and this could have well resulted in completely splitting the party, but for a small accident.

 

 

 

 

September 1932

September,20th.1832

 

Manchukuo, 1932 (Sept 28) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, Intercompany Carlowitz and Co. usage, franked on reverse by pair of Japan 3s definitives and 10s Nagoya Castle, tied by violet IJPO cds’s. Front shows 4¢ SYS vertical strip of 3 added, along with three 1¢ postage dues, all tied by Shanghai Oct 4 cds’s. Reverse also shows 1st and 2nd “Notice sent on” boxed handstamps, nice usage,

 

September.23th.1932

Manchukuo, 1932 (Sept 28)

“Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, Intercompany Carlowitz Company cover, franked on reverse by vertical pair of 4s orange Japan Fuji issue, tied by dual moukden IJPO cds’s. Front carries pair of 4¢ SYS, plus two 1¢ postage dues, each tied by Shanghai Oct 1 cds’s. Reverse shows 1st and 2nd Notice Sent handstamps, nice usage, scarce,

 

On December 7,

Strasser was crossing the street and was hit by a drunk driver.

 

The speed at which he was hit was not great and he might have survived, but he hit his head against a lamp post form the impact, which resulted in irreversible brain damage and he died the next day. Numerous historians and conspiracy

 

theorists have claimed that Hitler had Strasser killed, but the evidence does not support this, especially since if Hitler had planned on having someone killed,

 

he would not likely have relied on the chances of a drunk driver. In any case, Strasser’s death meant Hitler was undisputed master of the party and Schleicher was left to govern with Papens’ leftovers.

 

This government would only last for three more months in any case and the November election would be the last set of free elections in Germany for 18 years and the last election held by the Weimar government.

 

Results for the November 1932 German Federal Election from Interpedia [5].


Taken from “A History of Presidential Elections”, By Geoff Kane, University of Chicago Press, (c) 1990, Chicago, USA

The election of 1932 reflected an America that was hungry for change. The Great Depression and Hoover’s inadequate policies in handling its effects had profoundly eroded much of the Republican’s support, to the point where even during the campaign period it was fairly obvious who the more popular candidate was, Hoover having objects thrown at him, while Roosevelt had numerous crowds greet him and his song became incredibly popular. The election was a landslide for the Roosevelt-Ritchie ticket [7], with them carrying all but 5 states [8] and winning 58.25% of the popular vote, the largest vote ever cast for a presidential election up until that time.
A time of progressive change was about to hit the USA, the end of the Prohibtion Era, Roosevelts’ progressive policies and the slow ending of isolation, Roosevelt’s acceptance speech reflected this with his promise of ‘a new deal for all Americans.’

[1] In OTL Araki was Minister of War and showed support to the conspirators of the May 15 movement, however his time as prime minister has shown him the realities of making war in China and dealing with international politics thus while he retains his radical politics, he has a greater sense of realism and thus some young officers thought he had betrayed their beliefs.

[2] Araki’s time as prime minister means that the ‘Imperial Way Faction’, has far more influence. He is able to step down and his faction is able to remain in power over the ‘Control’ group. This also means that the officers and secret societies with radical views are better represented in the government and civilian control has slipped much faster than in OTL.

[3] The Chaco War has started up about two months earlier than OTL

[4] Strasser did not decide to resign from the party as per OTL.

[5] Due to butterflies Ernst Meyer was able to take control of the KPD over the extremists led by Thalman [6], the party is slightly more moderate than OTL, resulting in slightly better election results, though this has also pushed the NSDAP vote up in response.

[6] Thalman was killed during a KPD-BSA brawl in July of 1929.

[7] Roosevelt had greater support than OTL and Garner gave up his campaign much earlier in exchange for the position of Attorney General, Albert Ritchie accepted the offer to be Roosevelt’s running mate.

[8] Hoover’s support is even worse than OTL and Connecticut went to Roosevelt.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

 

 

日本战败后,美国军队成了日本的占领军,把小日本的天皇从神打回了人,撕下了天皇的假面具,打破了小日本的天皇神论。在美国占领军的控制下,经过几十年的快速发展,小日本竟然成了经济大国,全体小日本人言商经商,自己的军队只能叫成自卫队

谓日本人,所谓大和名族,是一个在孤岛上生存了几千年,欺软怕硬,带表里不一,虚伪自私,顺从奴性,投机心理严重的变态的民族

After Japan’s defeat,

the U.S. military has become the occupation forces in Japan, the Emperor of Japan from God to fight back who tore off the mask of the Emperor, breaking Japan’s Emperor of monotheism. Control of U.S. occupation troops, after decades of rapid development, Japan, became an economic power, all the small Japanese words providers do business, own army can only be called Self-Defense Forces.
So-called Japanese, the so-called Japanese family name is to survive on a desert island for thousands of years, bully, with duplicity, selfish and hypocritical, submissive servility serious speculative psychological metamorphosis of the nation!

 

 

小小的日本国,小小的岛屿,小小的民族,非要什么都要带一个字,大日本,大和

Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have to had to take a “big” big in Japan, Japan


Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have had to take a “big” word, the Japanese, Japanese national The most polite people in the world on the surface is the Japanese, to meet the three bows, good words spoken, turned around to urinate anywhere, in the war is the most human army. There is no way a small Japanese island abroad survived for thousands of years, all insecure, created a metamorphosis of the nation!

Manchukuo issued its first postage stamps

on July 28, 1932.

A number of denominations existed, with two designs: the pagoda at Liaoyang and a portrait of Puyi.

     

Originally the inscription read (in Chinese) “Manchu State Postal Administration”;

Sinkiang, Airmail, 1932-33,

 

First Issue complete (Scott C1-4. Chan PSA1-4), o.g., 10¢ & rare 15¢ values never hinged, others lightly hinged, brilliant colors, scarce, Very Fine, all signed F.Z. Chan except 10¢Realized HK$ 24,000

 

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932 engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays

 

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932 engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays.

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932

engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

japanese infantryman supported by a type 89 tank (Nanchang)

 

 

a naval landing force officer armed with a nambu pistol and a katana sword (shanghai 1932)

 

 

 

japanese soldier using a Type 89 grenade discharger (shanghai 1932)

 

japanese navy soldier guarding a chinese prisoner (shanghai, 1932)

 

japanese soldiers using camouflage nets during the january 28 incident (shanghai 1932)

 

 

infantryman of the naval landing force in the ruins of shanghai (1932)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1933

1933

 

 

japanese soldier with his family one last time before leaving for the front in manchuria (1933)

 

 

russian mercenaries of the japanese controlled Manchukuo Imperial Army inside a trench during the japanese invasion of the great wall in 1933

 

japanese army soldiers using a ZB vz. 26 light machine gun (manchuria 1933)

 

Szechuan, 1933-1934,

 

 

complete selection of mint sets (Scott 1-23. Chan SC1-23), composed of 23 stamps, plus a couple duplicates and 2 used with anti-bandit chops. You will also fine 8¢ New Peking block of 4 NH and a unfinished proof of the 1897 CIP $5. F-VF many regummed. Realized HK$ 3,000

April 1933

 

Manchukuo, 1933 (April) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, a lovely cover originating at the Carlowitz firm at Mukden originally framked by 4s Japan Fuji definitive (Scott 172) in a horizontal strip of 3, cancelled violet, Moukden 4.33 IJPO cds’s. pair of 4¢ SYS definitive pasted over the Japanese issues and cancelled at Shanghai, with front showing additional pair of 2¢ orange postage dues cancelled Shanghai 29.4.33 cds, along with “Shanghai T” due handstamp. Marvelous example of the postal war period,

 

 

August 1933

 

Manchukuo, 1933 (August) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, lovely cover used between Carlowitz firms, franked on back by vertical strip of 4 of 4s orange Fuji definitive, tied by dual, violet “Moukden 8.33 IJPO” strikes. Reverse also shows 2 Shanghai security cds chops, plus a 10¢ martyr and 1¢ on 4¢ Junk surcharge, 6 copies, all tied by Shanghai August 24 cds’s. Lovely and scarce combination

in 1934,

September 1934

 

Manchukuo, 1934 (Sept. 9) red band cover from Tengtien/Manchukuo to Tientsin, franked on reverse by Japanese Tazawa 2 s. red tied by standard Japanese trisected postmark 9/9/5, when cover arrived in Tientsin, postage due was applied as the Chinese government had no postal treaty with Manchukao, hence additional postage charged, 5¢ orange was added and cancelled by bilingual Tientsin September 10th, on front circle “T” “Postage due/Tientsin” indicated to collect postage due, a Very Fine cover with historical significance

 

1934

1935

In 1935, the great-grandmother died, my grandfather ordered to Beijing real estate all betrayed, the family moved to Shanghai. During this time, Li Zhaofu addition to a lawyer, he also went to Hong Kong and Zhao Tieqiao make doing business. Zhao Tieqiao any Hong Kong investment promotion director, while his grandfather, and he was ready to buy a boat, Chiang Kai-shek’s assassination Zhao Iron Bridge.Third, the

The jointly organized LLP Location Lizhao Fu and Zhang Yao Zeng, Shen Junru is in the British Concession in Shanghai Schoenberg Road Chase. According to the father recalled, although his grandfather was a lawyer, but he, unlike general lawyer, he does not answer unconscionable lawsuit. Once a rogue lose the lawsuit, vowed a vow, saying things, give you a garden house, but his grandfather did not answer.

 

Lijia in Shanghai is renting an apartment, grandmother, grandfather refused that case complained. For another example, the divorce, my grandfather, the total first advised and. Day of the end of 1936, my grandfather came home, the whole family was already seated waiting for his dinner. He came in, put the briefcase edge edge grandmother said: “Today’s case.” My grandmother asked: “with which to fight you?” He replied: “with Chiang Kai-shek.” That lawsuit is the history of China’s seven The gentleman the case(du xin xin)

1935

1935 Postal Saving Certificate





10x10c Junk stamps optd with “Limited for Saving Only”
Additional optd with violet “Shanghai”. Shanghai Postal Saving cds.
Shanghai anti-bandit control on the first postal savings issue of 1919.


September,8th.1935

 

ROC resistent war 1935

 

Taiwan, 1935 FFC Taiwan/Taihoku to Foochos, 11/19/35, franked with 2 s. red Tazawa issue tied by Taihoku/Taiwan/Japan with receiver Minhow/Foochoos same date cds on reverse, only 60 covers flown, scarce thus, Very Fine.

 

 

 

 

1936

 

 

Guo Bingkun colonel

he was forty red twenty-six Army division political commissar of a regiment,

in September 1936,

he was off in the Military commander, led his troops to participate in the direct rho, Eastern Campaign and other battles. September, he served as the CPC Shaanxi-Gansu border the Southern District Committee Propaganda Department, Red Army seventy-eight fifth division two hundred thirty-two general branch secretary the CPC group. Red Army Long March to the northern Shaanxi, he served as Army General Political Department of the CPC in the recorder off the rank of vice minister of the military, for the creation of the Northwest Soviet contributed.

a new issue read “Manchu Empire Postal Administration”. An orchid crest design appeared in 1935, and a design featuring the Sacred White Mountains in 1936.

     
     

 

 

 

18/2/1936 first flight  cover from canton to USA via Hanoi

 

Both covers same flight, depatched 6.3.1936 and delayed due to whether condition, with instructional cachet. Both covers are 1936 Canton to Honoi first flight covers

 

 

In China, World War II broke out

on July 7, 1937,

with a seemingly insignificant little battle between Chinese and Japanese troops near Peking, called the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Within a few days, the Japanese had occupied Peking, and the fighting spread rapidly. The war in China fell into three stages.

The Seven Gentlemen arrested, escorted to Suzhou. ZHANG Yao had diary recalls,

April 5, 1937,

 

Zhang Yao had forenoon to the firm, Hou Bo Shen not to afternoon before they may be energized, please visit Hengshan its generation of more than Soviet Union to talk about defense thing. Primary application fast Connaught friend adversity catching flu also write a letter to shore caused Hengshan (Shen Junru). “Li Zhaofu few people on the day went to Suzhou visitation Shen Junru. Shen Junru in the April 9 letter to Shen Qian said, “to come with the 5th Bo Shen-kai Zhang, Yu, Tang three lawyers and carrying Mr. Rong West letter, with views are Szczecin want. Was there that day several decided …… my defense counsel except rong West, Bo Shen, has agreed to appoint Liu Chongyou, Qin Liankui two lawyers are already very mature Friends of. Shen Junru four defense lawyers, ZHANG Yao has ranked top, but play a major role in the actual defense Lizhao Fu, Qin Liankui (Note 7).

Zhang Yuanji diary also mentioned the Marco Polo Bridge Incident before and after, he Lizhao Fu Shen Junru Gongpu people often have dinner, and to discuss the affairs of state, such as the gathering on September 3, 1937 for Li Zhaofu plays host to a total of thirteen people. ”

 

Thirteen, eight

• Japanese occupation of the Chinese city of Shanghai, and grandfather left Shanghai at the end of 1937 returned to Sichuan(du xinxin)

The first (1937-1939)

was characterized by the phenomenally rapid Japanese occupation of most of China’s east coast, including such major cities as Shanghai, Nanjing, and Canton. The Nationalist government moved to the interior, ultimately to Chongqing in Sichuan, and the Japanese established puppet governments in Peking in 1937 and in Nanjing in 1940. The second stage (1939-1943) was a period of waiting, as Chiang blockaded the Communists in the northwest (despite the united front) and waited for help from the United States, which had declared war on Japan in 1941. (The Photo is of the Marco Polo Bridge)

1937 “77″ Incident,

Shichang very concerned about the prospect of the nation, one day, visiting old friends Cao Rulin. Turning to the current political situation in question, Cao Rulin said: “Anglo-American School of Nanjing government in power, to suppress the Japanese forces in China, so Japan’s loss of rights in China, Japan forced choice but to send troops and fight in China. President (referring to Shichang) at this time as can out of the mountains, with Japan Goodwill Treaty, the Japanese can withdraw troops. “hearing these words, Shichang understand Cao Rulin is for the Japanese aggressors as lobbyists, to persuade himself as a traitor, came forward to maintain the situation in China under Japanese rule. He could not angry, flatly refused: “The old and useless over 80, frail and sick, have long asked the government affairs, however, have no interest in it you find smb. Better qualified”. Cao Rulin had a hard-hitting nails, had to leave crestfallen leave. Shichang immediately ordered the porter: “If you come back after Cao Rulin, said I was not home. “Since then, Hsu said the disease, behind closed doors, thank-you.

At this time, Japan is the northern invaders into account Shichang veteran, high qualifications, but also served as president, the rich political experience, was appointed head of the puppet regime in North China the best candidate, so determined to continue to fight for him. Thus, the Japanese intend to Shichang the Neizhi Xu from the body up to find a breakthrough.

Xu was in Beijing to work one up. Pseudo-Mayor of Tianjin Panyu Gui sent his secretary KE Chang Xu Si to Beijing to lobby for a tat. KE Chang Xu Si on a-tat said: Shichang as the Japanese military would like to invite the leaders of North China. If Shichang promise out of the mountains, took the post of mayor of Beijing arrangements for Xu 1 up. Like uncle, like a reach with patriotic Xu, KE Chang Si politely rejected the request, and forwarded to the uncle of this situation. Xu Shichang on a patriotic move up quite appreciated, and told him immediately to avoid the Beijing-Tianjin area, to avoid being the Japanese hostage, then, under the Shanghai Xu 1 Danan, and lived in Shanghai for over a year.

However, the “patient’s” still insists on dragging the Japanese aggressors Shichang water. Early 1938, the Japanese invaders Itagaki, head and big secret division chief Kenji Doihara Colonel, invite Shichang were met, but Shichang was not plead illness. Helpless, the Japanese also sent Shichang the disciples and others to lobby the gold beam. Gold beam is were the main members of the Socialist Party, served in Manchukuo. They carried out of the last emperor Pu Yi Shichang succumb to oppression. Kim Shichang living room to meet with the teacher, the urgent advice: “The Order of division heads and Dohihara Colonel Itagaki was sent to audience with the teacher, asked the teacher to become the first North leaders. Once the deployment is ready, then please go to Beijing is emperor Xuantong position, the teacher should never lose this golden opportunity. “

Shichang senior official who is the Qing Dynasty, Emperor has been on the Xuantong great respect. After the emperor to abdicate in Xuantong he Qing court funding, treatment, etc. has been taken care of. Therefore, survivors of the Qing Dynasty, he called the “feel nostalgic old master” in the name. However, at this moment, Shichang clearly recognize that this is related to national interests, national sovereignty and personal names section of the major problems, their plans must not only be loyal to former team for the slightest concession. Therefore, he solemnly declined: “I am old and can not energy poor, never again coming out of the like!” Golden beam raised her voice to persuade: “We came here not for the other, but to the teacher later section . everyone has a later section, also hope the teachers understand this. “Shichang angry already has, lips trembling, snapped:” You know what’s later? greedy interests of the individual moment, betraying the nation, contrary to Tianliliangxin, which be considered later years? Do you too Hun! “he finished, stormed upstairs.

Since then, the Japanese aggressors Shichang not resort to the idea.

1937

 

 

1937 First Flight cover China-USA from Shanghai

Franked with 3x$1 Airmail stamps

If you fall off the eastern edge of the Himalayan mountains, the first major city (population 4.1 million) that you come to is Chengdu, in China’s Sichuan province. You’ve heard of it from the spicy Chinese food, called “Szechuan” in the west.

Rosemary and I spent 5 or 6 days based around there. A few of those were visiting a Buddhist holy mountain, and the largest Buddha in the world – I’ll write about them in another post.

Chengdu itself was like every other large Chinese city – endless streets with few distinguishing features. My fault for hoping it might be a bit better than that. It has some super parks, but you have to deliberately go to them, you couldn’t stumble upon them by accident.

We saw real Giant Pandas at the breeding centre outside town – they’re super cute, mainly because they have a sixth thumb-like finger so they look like people as they eat bamboo. The Red Pandas are even better. I hope somebody domesticates some soon. They were running round playing, happy like dogs, but cute like cats.

The surprise attraction in Chengdu itself was Du Fu’s “cottage”. Really a whole complex of buildings and gardens (photo right), originally where an 8th century poet lived in a thatched house. There was lots of good bonsai trees, and also calligraphy of Du Fu’s poems. Those are the two arts which I’ve seen that are both still practiced properly in China, and are uniquely Chinese

From google exploration I found information from Szecuan during Dai Nippon Occupation below

Dari eksplorasi Google ditemukan info tentang kampong Szechuan masa perang dunia kedua

Needham Photographs – Wartime China, 1942-1946

Northwest Journey 西北之旅

Photographs taken by Joseph Needham on the long expedition to the northwest from Chongqing to Jiayuguan in Gansu province and back, via Chengdu, Lanzhou and many other places. Note that on this journey he travelled beyond Jiayuguan to the Buddhist caves at Qianfodong near Dunhuang in Gansu, the photographs for which are in CFT. The Northwest journey was undertaken from 7th August – 14th December 1943, but there are also a few photographs taken before and after the journey on rolls NW2 and NW6. On the outward leg of the journey to Lanzhou, Needham was accompanied by SBSCO staff members H.T. Huang 黃興宗 and Liao Hongying 廖鴻英, as well as Edward Beltz, an American oil geologist, and a young scientist Chen Zixin 陳自信. In another truck travelled the famous explorer Sir Eric Teichman (1884-1944). From Lanzhou to Qianfodong and back he was accompanied by H.T. Huang (who travelled back to Lanchow separately), Rewi Alley (1897-1987), Sun Guangjun 孫光俊 and Wang Wansheng 王萬盛, two boys from the Lanzhou Bailie School, the painter Wu Zuoren 吳作人, as well as a driver, Kuang Wei 鄺威, and a mechanic from Lanzhou, Yu Dexin 俞德新. The photographs have been rearranged from their original sequence into chronological order.

照片是李约瑟先生在从重庆到甘肃省嘉峪关往返的漫长途中拍摄的,期间他还经过了成都市,兰州市和其它许多地方。需要指出的是在这次旅行中,他还参观了甘肃敦煌的千佛洞,那部分的照片请参看CFT。西北之旅的照片是在194387号到1214号之间拍摄的,但NW2NW6胶卷上也有少量照片是在之前和之后拍摄的。在去兰州旅行的途中,陪同李约瑟先生的有中英科学合作馆的黄兴宗和廖鸿英,还有美国石油质学者 Edward Beltz 和青年科学家陈自信。在另外一个卡车上旅行的有著名的探险家 Eric Teichman 爵士。从兰州到千佛洞往返的途中,陪同的有黄兴宗 (兰州回来时他独自返回),路易艾黎 Rewi Alley (1897-1987),孫光俊和王萬盛, 来自兰州培黎学校的两个男孩, 画家吳作人,司机鄺威,还有来自兰州的机械师余德新。照片已按照年代顺序重新进行排列

 

 

CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTION (CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE  OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CD ROM,

THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

1925

After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925,

he Tingling the Beijing Xishan, shift Ling

In 1925,

Duan Regent, decided to convene the aftermath of the meeting. Segment on the matter on January 1, please call Sun Yat-sen, Li Yuan-hung, the same day electric Shanghai branch caused Tang Shaoyi, Zhang Binglin, Cen Chunxuan another electrical Li Zhaofu (primary application).

 

This just goes to show that his grandfather was practicing in Shanghai, is still home to Beijing. Memories of his father also confirmed that,

 

in Beijing when he was three, pneumonia was the the He Xiangning just to stopping by to see his father a high fever, and immediately hold him to the hospital opened by the German father remember the doctor’s name is Corey. Since then, He Xiangning become my father Ganniang. In Shanghai the Li Zhaofu and He Xiangning, Song Qingling, Huangyanpei close relationship. In 1932, he organized and Huangyanpei, Zhang Yao had a new China Construction Association, published in the “renaissance” monthly.

In 1925,

Duan Regent, decided to convene the aftermath of the meeting. Segment on the matter on January 1, please call Sun Yat-sen, Li Yuan-hung, the same day electric Shanghai branch caused Tang Shaoyi, Zhang Binglin, Cen Chunxuan another electrical Li Zhaofu (primary application).

 

This just goes to show that his grandfather was practicing in Shanghai, is still home to Beijing. Memories of his father also confirmed that,

 

in Beijing when he was three, pneumonia was the the He Xiangning just to stopping by to see his father a high fever, and immediately hold him to the hospital opened by the German father remember the doctor’s name is Corey. Since then, He Xiangning become my father Ganniang. In Shanghai the Li Zhaofu and He Xiangning, Song Qingling, Huangyanpei close relationship. In 1932, he organized and Huangyanpei, Zhang Yao had a new China Construction Association, published in the “renaissance” monthly.(Di Xinxin)

1926
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang

    1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang)

    Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang.

    Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China

    Despite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles.

    5-8 May 1926

    With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months.

    The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army.

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4].

    From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong Press

    Tan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5].

    In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]

Yunnan, 1926, Junk Issue,

 

 

½¢-$5 complete (Scott 1-20. Chan 1-20), limited for use in th Province of Yunnan, complete set of 20, all values expertly regummed, overall brilliant colors, fine appearance, clean set, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 3,800

Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

 

 

 

in July 1926.

since 1927,

establish a capital of the Nationalist government in Nanjing military authorities more than the Shiu just old friends, when multiplied by the official reached, a breeze. Care each about public office, Noir to frail numerous fan drama resigned. “Why refuse him not official? He died long gone, no one can see their mentality, I guess he saw the darkness of political and democratic retrogression.(Du Xinxin)

1927

 

Manchurian Provinces, 1927,

 

 

 

Junk Issue, ½¢-$5 complete (Scott 1-20. Chan KH1-20), set of 20, limited for use in Manchuria District, all values expertly regummed, clean fresh appearance, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,800

 

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition

 

brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

__________________
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Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

 

The Nationalist army met little resistance and

by April 1927

had reached the lower Yangtze. Meanwhile, Chiang, claiming to be a sincere follower of Sun Yat-sen, had broken with the left-wing elements of the KMT. After the Nationalist forces had taken Shanghai, a Communist-led general strike was suppressed with bloodshed. Following suppressions in other cities, Chiang set up his own government at Nanjing on April 18, 1927. He professed friendship with the Soviet Union,

but by July 1927

he was expelling Communists from the KMT. Some left-wingers left for the Soviet Union.

(Photo – Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Wen Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida, and Bai Chongxi.)

 

The northern expedition was resumed,

1927

since 1927,

establish a capital of the Nationalist government in Nanjing military authorities more than the Shiu just old friends, when multiplied by the official reached, a breeze. Care each about public office, Noir to frail numerous fan drama resigned. “Why refuse him not official? He died long gone, no one can see their mentality, I guess he saw the darkness of political and democratic retrogression

 

 

in 1928

Chiang took Peking. China was formally unified. Nationalist China was recognized by the Western powers and supported by loans from foreign banks. (The Photo is of Dr Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek)

The Nationalist Era

(1928-1937)

   

The Nationalist period began with high hopes and much promise. More could have been accomplished had it not been for the problems of Comintern corruption and Japanese aggression. In his efforts to combat them both, Chiang neglected the land reform needed to improve the lives of the peasants. Driven from the cities, the Communists concentrated on organizing the peasants in the countryside.

 

1928

 


1928 Peking to France taxed Postcard


 

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

1929

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Chapter 5. Disputes

With most of the main communist forces defeated (except for the fortified enclaves in Manchuria and Tibet) China had now finally been properly unified under the Kuomintang National Government. But with unification came the need for the central government, which had been relocated to Nanjing, to reorganise things. First and foremost was the army. While the NRA made up the bulk of the armed forces, the warlords still retained significant numbers under arms, that answered directly to them, so the appearance of unity was not always there. Wang Jing-wei was tempted to try to reorder the armies in, but the warlords would be resistant as it would mean giving up the personal power they had over their regions. Fortunately General Li Zongren and the German military advisor Max Bauer were able to advise Wang on the best course of action, to retain the loyalty of the warlords. Bauer had originally advocated a corps professional army and many local militia forces when he first came to China, but at the time Chiang Kai-Shek had not wanted to implement this.

But since the end of the Northern Expedition Bauer had been working with Li to make this plan a reality. Bauer had brought thirty German officers to train troops at Whampoa and in particular develop a military intelligence branch. Some of these soldiers would be placed alongside the various clique armies in the spirit of cooperation and the clique leaders would retain leadership over their own militia forces and direct as they saw fit, providing that the declared themselves and their provinces as part of the central government. There was some discourse over the mixing of the armies, but Li Zongren smoothed things out, by meeting with the leaders and explaining to them that they would not be bearing any of the costs for the German trained troops, but still receive their aid as well as potential training for their own men. The so called Clique Crisis had not lasted long and there was still ongoing discussions but for the most part the warlords found the new order acceptable, though Zhang Xueliang is one notable exception to this. For President Wang he scored big political points by securing relations with the warlords, particularly since his military background was severely lacking. Though many have pointed out that the placement of these forces had a hidden purpose. Since many of the NRA soldiers in the provinces had been trained in military intelligence at Whampoa they would also be able to track down communists and their sympathisers amongst the militia forces, but they would also be able to keep track of the warlord forces to see that they maintained their loyalty to Nanjing and could report back of any dissent amongst the warlords.


Max Bauer from his early days in China, when he first met Chiang Kai-Shek and became involved with the Kuomintang. Bauer would continue as a military adivsor in China until his death in 1937.

[1] ATL brother to Hong Kong actor Andy Lau.

[2] By damage, this mostly means fallout that hit these countries due to weather patterns, although the one like Korea that had actual alliances with either of the two sides did take some hits from nuclear weapons.

[3] I hardly think this one needs explanation .

[4] A film depicting the Battle of Gettysburg

trouble North

“Frivolous thinking is due to foreign thought. Japan must no longer let the impudence of the white peoples go unpunished. It is the duty of Japan to fulfil her natural destiny, to cause China to respect the Japanese, to expel Chinese influence from Manchuria, and to follow the way of imperial destiny.”
-General Sadao Araki of the Imperial Army of Ja

Nanjing in 1929.

Shift Ling, Li Zhaofu one held Rare. My father still remembers. He said the grandfather wearing a top hat, wearing a tuxedo, the coffin of the Sun is a red envelope with ROC, two long black satin. It was reported that sixty-four people surrounded the coffin, including carry coffins held Rare by. Held Rare among Wu Yuzhang, Xie immeasurable, Zhao Tie bridges, the three men with Li Zhaofu are relatively close. I the father also remember flying painting of Zhang Shanzai and Xie Wuliang limerick home.

According to my grandmother recalled after the death of Sun Yat-sen, Wang Ching-wei and Chiang Kai-shek had asked the grandfather went to Beihai Park, Fangshan dinner, to be his grandfather out an official, but he declined to Dingfu worry “(his father died). Quit politics, Li Zhaofu still be treated as “Xunlao in national qualifications

Nanjing in 1929.

Shift Ling, Li Zhaofu one held Rare. My father still remembers. He said the grandfather wearing a top hat, wearing a tuxedo, the coffin of the Sun is a red envelope with ROC, two long black satin. It was reported that sixty-four people surrounded the coffin, including carry coffins held Rare by. Held Rare among Wu Yuzhang, Xie immeasurable, Zhao Tie bridges, the three men with Li Zhaofu are relatively close. I the father also remember flying painting of Zhang Shanzai and Xie Wuliang limerick home.

According to my grandmother recalled after the death of Sun Yat-sen, Wang Ching-wei and Chiang Kai-shek had asked the grandfather went to Beihai Park, Fangshan dinner, to be his grandfather out an official, but he declined to Dingfu worry “(his father died). Quit politics, Li Zhaofu still be treated as “Xunlao in national qualifications.

 

 

(du xinxin)

chinese history collections (continiu)

FHIS THE SAMPLE OF DR IEAN EBOOK IN CD ROM WITHOUT ILLUSTRATION THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST,PLEASE ASK VIA COMMENT TO GET IT

on January 1, 1912,

 

but, according to the provisional the government memorandum stipulates that the interim government has only been in place for five Ministry, Yushaosengduo, How can accommodate so many people want an official? At this time, there is a man named Li Zhaofu the alliance members at the presidential palace secretariat, he born in bureaucratic families know how the old-style official set of organizations, so he proposed a way to expand government organizations, almost all people are settling down, so we are very satisfied with this interim government, both constitutional party , bureaucratic warlords revolutionaries occupied a major position. “the General team leader (Note 3)

 

Later, Wu Yuzhang to succeed Li Zhaofu resigned the post. According to the memories of my cousin, relationship between Li Zhaofu and Wu Yuzhang quite close. Wu to Li, straight into my grandmother’s bedroom, and opened a drapery, shouting “Lijiang Bo Luan. According to the information I found, regardless of political attitudes,

then the parties have praised my grandfather incorruptible government man noble. Of course there are exceptions, and later developed a close relationship with my grandfather, my grandfather was quite disrespectful, a wide face change, it seems the norm mentioned in his memoirs.

 

Later, I listen to the cousin said the man had prostitutes in Japan, and, therefore, to find my grandfather for money.
Another unofficial, the United Democrats of plotting to assassinate were Socialist Party leader, cleared Praetorian Guard first co military system counseling so Liangbi the original plan to send my grandfather to go, but it was Li Zhaofu no descendants. At this time, Peng Jiazhen stood up and said: “My wife has been pregnant,” January 26, 1912, Peng Xiangliang Bute dropping bombs on the spot sacrifice, Liangbi was bombed and severely wounded after. Dying ago, lamented: “kill me good hero also, truth and I!” “I was dead, the Qing court also will perish also.”

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

第二次世界大战前夕,日本占领中国的东北数年,德国也占领了匈牙利和捷克斯洛伐克,并没有引起国际社会的多大反应,那个时候主要的大国是不会为了这些而彼此翻脸的,而且西方国家还指望着希特勒和斯大林的对打。但是,如果这个时候,德国和日本能够及时收手,享受既得利益,和世界上主要的大国形成战略平衡或者是结成利益集团,也许就没有第二次世界大战,世界上很多国家的历史和命运都要被改写了。

中国,很可能是东北三省尽失去,还有宝岛台湾,也许日本会和苏联达成某种协约来瓜分东北和朝鲜,无休止的民间抵抗是不会改变被占领的基础的,而同化随着时间的延长而慢慢深入人心。况且国内国共还要内战,不管谁胜谁负,恐怕那个时候都没有力量去收复东北,时间长了就成为下一个《中俄条约》,现在俄国不是还占领中国数百万平方公里的领土吗?。。。美国也不会下那么大力气和日本对着干,冷战可能是会有的,谁都防着谁,日本控制东北亚,美国控制西亚和美洲,德国雄霸中东欧洲,取代英国成为欧洲的领袖,成为反俄的前哨。大国之间只会形成暗战和代理战争,各自维持着各自的利益圈,形成三角鼎立的局面。而广大的亚非拉小国,也许还是大国的附属或者殖民地,帝国主义国家对待这个问题是高度一致的。

历史不会这么简单的进行,而统治者的贪欲也使理性成为不可能,大国之间为了谁当领袖而不惜一切的彼此毁灭着,完全没有达成势力平衡的想法。于是乎,大国之间的力量消耗着,发展中国家才可能崛起。而那些打架的大国发现已经控制不住了局势,于是就结成了现代的军事和利益同盟,北约

[

918起中国就注定了要和日本再次一,应该说蒋介石还是很重承诺的,12变以后中国陆军开始了大规模整训,日本由于害怕中国的报复才先下手为强。中国2战的导火索是918,直接原因是双12事件以后中国舆论和政府行为的重大转向,77变只是一个早晚会来的必然事件。至于说战争的结果日本注定会失败,中国太大了日本根本不可能进行直接有效的统治。中国人的大一统思想太重了,即便日本不动手,在中国政府实现完全统一以后必然会发起对东北的统一战争。楼住可以翻翻历史书本,只要汉人不是统治在一个政府的治下中国都会出现各种各样的南征或者北伐。日本人可以同化东北但要让东北人都说日本话,怎么着也得3代人,中国政府有足够多的时间去凝聚力量。如果日本不对中国37年开始的大规模反日行为作出回应,日本经济在失去中国这个大市场后将遭受重创,而中国在反日旗帜的凝聚下不出20年定能培养出一只足够与日本一战的军队,结果是中日两败具伤,日本失去世界二等强国的地位,这是日本所绝对不能容忍的
奥地利是德意志的一部分,到现在我仍然这么认为!俾斯麦允许奥地利分裂只是因为当时力量不足的妥协手段,希特勒合并奥地利是正确的,而且奥地利人也支持的。这个不算侵略

中国的抗日战争应从九一八算起,纵使日本不扩张 中国一天也没有停止抗日
德国入侵捷克、奥匈到有点不同 战过去只有20 们还没有忘记当年奥匈帝国的辉煌 许多人看到被德国吞并感动的热泪盈眶 在梦想重建昔日奥匈帝国的

说的有些勉强.德国前期站了上,你也要知道,很多利益也是被瓜分了。比如,实德国打波兰是有苏联的合作的.只是我们的教科书上没有提到罢了.德国一开始的发动战争的最终目标就是苏联.一但开始就不会终止.而日本在亚洲的行动完全漠视美英战略利益,所以美国参战也是迟早的事.过是因为美国封锁日本还上航线直接导致了战争进程加速而已.

不是那么回事的。日本和德国各有其特殊的情况。德国在世界大战爆发之后迅速占了上风,但是希特勒确实希望结束战争(他是个赢了一大笔钱的赌徒,唯一想的就是赶快离开赌桌”——齐亚诺),但是英国不会允许这个赢了钱的人离开赌桌(那就真输光了),而且斯大林以罗马尼亚问题发难,希特勒也是忍无可忍了。日本在二次大战中战略混乱,没有一个核心的策略,主要是因为军队于政府的对立,海军与陆军的矛盾,以及军队内部复杂的关系,九一八事变、七七事变、八一三事变都在这样的背景下发生,天皇和政府都认为没有和中国爆发全面战争的必要,但是陆军的利益集团根本不听他们的指挥。意大利只是跟错了人而已。这都不是贪心的问题,而是无可奈何

时候是后全球性金融危机时期,都需要转移国内矛盾,像日本德国那样的国家光占领几个地区根本解决不了国内的矛盾,只能继续打不停地

哪有这么容易停下,分法西斯是要当政侵略就不可能停止,就像当时的日本,战争的决定甚至不是政治家决定的,而是由军人(甚至是中低级军官)决定,而当政的内阁也只好下台,由支持侵略中国的军人执政。纳粹如果不继续扩张,等待他们的只能是下台,并由一个主张继续扩张的政党当政。历史的发展是有其必然性的,不是某个人所能决定的

人是从来不知道适可而止的,当时的弱国对于侵略者来说是那么的不堪一击,他们没有理由不去入侵占领。直到侵犯了强国的利益才被干预。可是箭已射出

是回不了头

第二次世界大战日本是战争的发起者也是战败国,日本军队在战争中投降的比例还是很小的,战死率也是比较高的,特别是在东南亚地区和日本本土岛屿争夺中,有的日本军队基本上是全军覆没,没有几个活下来的,即使日本军人受伤后,大多也不会投降选择自杀的据多,还有小日本的神风特工队等等,给人的感觉好像是日本军人很勇敢,都不怕死!其实不是这样的,日本是个皇权社会,天皇是日本人心中的神,效忠天皇死后可以升天的,进了靖国神社就成了神仙了!这些观念从小在日本人心中灌输,控制了日本人的精神,那一代日本军人的精神都被这种效忠天皇,死后成神的思想牢牢控制住,谎话说的多了成了真理,当时的日本军人的确大多数是不怕死的,对于当时日本军人来说,死,是一件光荣的事情,在很多战例里,日本军人在被包围后,在弹尽粮绝的情况下,在盟军强大的火力网下,往往还要组织密集的集团冲击,说白了就是去找死,去送死!争着去死人该去的地方靖国神社,幻想自己成为神!可以说,在第二次世界大战里,小日本的军队是不怕死的,但只能说是不怕死,远远称不上做战勇敢,是一群被效忠天皇死后成神的思想牢牢愚弄和控制的,几乎没有自己的思维的被训练成为杀人机器的,变态的小日本人

 

• Source  Baidu Space

 

 

December 2, 1911,

Jiangsu and Zhejiang revolutionary army in the capture of Nanjing, so the provincial representatives decided to Nanjing as the temporary seat of government in the preparatory process of the interim government in Nanjing, because the competition for power between the various forces wrangling until the Sun Yat-sen returned to Shanghai at the end of December(Du Xinxin)

 

THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1912-1949)

In January 1912,

the Nanjing Provisional Government was established, Sun Yat-sen Li Zhaofu is appointed head of the provisional Secretariat General of the Presidency, the other argument is that he served as secretary of the presidency (with a). According to Wu Yuzhang memories

On Feb. 12, 1912,

the regent of the 6-year-old emperor formally announced the abdication. The Manchu rule in China ended after 267 years, and with it the 2,000-year-old imperial system.

 

January 28, 1912,

the Nationalist government the Senate established, Li Zhaofu by the “Shujun government elected to the Senate. According to Senate provisions: set a member of the hospital, charge of Senator hospital, set to the chairman of the hospital-wide positions only inferior to the Speaker, deputy speaker of election Shiu just any of the … In April of the same year, moved north over the Senate. “(with Note a)

 

On the political stage in 1912,

Li Zhaofu is energetic, has the reputation heavy moment. “(With a) he was involved in the reorganization of the Kuomintang. Kuomintang reorganization the solid lines early escape (Song Jiaoren) one presided over, and Hu Ying, Zhang Yao had Lizhao Fu, Wei Chen group and a certain monarch whom running conspiring, all with great efforts. “(Note 4)

 

In February 1912,

in order to continue to develop about law, the Senate convened a second Provisional Constitution drafting sessions. According to the Senate Hansard record, the Senate decided to first pay the consideration of Council of the Provisional Act, Li Zhaofu for the consideration of the President.

 

The outcome of the deliberations, decided that the original case within the presidential system, by instead the responsibility of the cabinet system. (Note 9) discussion of the Provisional Constitution involving national government establish a capital where, because the Yuan Shikai not Kennan, the Valley Zhongxiu and Li Zhaofu raised capital in Beijing and in the voting majority of votes in favor, and the Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing oppose the move .

 

It is said that Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing extremely angry about the incident that night put Li Zhaofu told them cursed meal (with c).

Oppose capital in Nanjing also Zhang Taiyan, Song, the Huangxing even troops in to grab the Members of the United League. This issue marks the internal division of the United League.
In January 1912,

the Nanjing Provisional Government was established, Sun Yat-sen Li Zhaofu is appointed head of the provisional Secretariat General of the Presidency, the other argument is that he served as secretary of the presidency (with a). According to Wu Yuzhang memories:

only to open the deadlock., Sun Yat-sen then pushed for the provisional president, and the provisional government of the Republic of China was formally established on January 1, 1912,

 

but, according to the provisional the government memorandum stipulates that the interim government has only been in place for five Ministry, Yushaosengduo, How can accommodate so many people want an official? At this time, there is a man named Li Zhaofu the alliance members at the presidential palace secretariat, he born in bureaucratic families know how the old-style official set of organizations, so he proposed a way to expand government organizations, almost all people are settling down, so we are very satisfied with this interim government, both constitutional party , bureaucratic warlords revolutionaries occupied a major position. “the General team leader (Note 3)

 

Later, Wu Yuzhang to succeed Li Zhaofu resigned the post. According to the memories of my cousin, relationship between Li Zhaofu and Wu Yuzhang quite close. Wu to Li, straight into my grandmother’s bedroom, and opened a drapery, shouting “Lijiang Bo Luan. According to the information I found, regardless of political attitudes,

then the parties have praised my grandfather incorruptible government man noble. Of course there are exceptions, and later developed a close relationship with my grandfather, my grandfather was quite disrespectful, a wide face change, it seems the norm mentioned in his memoirs.

 

Later, I listen to the cousin said the man had prostitutes in Japan, and, therefore, to find my grandfather for money.
Another unofficial, the United Democrats of plotting to assassinate were Socialist Party leader, cleared Praetorian Guard first co military system counseling so Liangbi the original plan to send my grandfather to go, but it was Li Zhaofu no descendants. At this time, Peng Jiazhen stood up and said: “My wife has been pregnant,” January 26, 1912, Peng Xiangliang Bute dropping bombs on the spot sacrifice, Liangbi was bombed and severely wounded after. Dying ago, lamented: “kill me good hero also, truth and I!” “I was dead, the Qing court also will perish also.”

January 28, 1912,

the Nationalist government the Senate established, Li Zhaofu by the “Shujun government elected to the Senate. According to Senate provisions: set a member of the hospital, charge of Senator hospital, set to the chairman of the hospital-wide positions only inferior to the Speaker, deputy speaker of election Shiu just any of the … In April of the same year, moved north over the Senate. “(with Note a)

On the political stage in 1912,

Li Zhaofu is energetic, has the reputation heavy moment. “(With a) he was involved in the reorganization of the Kuomintang. Kuomintang reorganization the solid lines early escape (Song Jiaoren) one presided over, and Hu Ying, Zhang Yao had Lizhao Fu, Wei Chen group and a certain monarch whom running conspiring, all with great efforts. “(Note 4)

In February 1912,

in order to continue to develop about law, the Senate convened a second Provisional Constitution drafting sessions. According to the Senate Hansard record, the Senate decided to first pay the consideration of Council of the Provisional Act, Li Zhaofu for the consideration of the President.

 

The outcome of the deliberations, decided that the original case within the presidential system, by instead the responsibility of the cabinet system. (Note 9) discussion of the Provisional Constitution involving national government establish a capital where, because the Yuan Shikai not Kennan, the Valley Zhongxiu and Li Zhaofu raised capital in Beijing and in the voting majority of votes in favor, and the Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing oppose the move .

 

It is said that Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing extremely angry about the incident that night put Li Zhaofu told them cursed meal (with c).

Oppose capital in Nanjing also Zhang Taiyan, Song, the Huangxing even troops in to grab the Members of the United League. This issue marks the internal division of the United League.

Zhang Zhenwu was killed in August 16, 1912.

The Wuchang Uprising fathers are not establishing a republican death on the battlefield, but died in political intrigue after the success of the revolution. The case became the mystery of the history of the Republic. Zhang Zhenwu incident after the third day, the Senate met to discuss fairly warm.

 

The Most Members that the Vice President to require non-crime of murder, the President command tampering laws are contrary to approximately Act.

 

The Senate that case relations between the countries of this, to maintain the dignity of the law. So Senator joint question the government, to be answered the President Yuan Vice President Li Yuan-hung, some senators even proposed the impeachment of Vice President Li Yuan-hung, the Prime Minister Lu Cheng-hsiang, and the army chief Duan.

 

In order to protect themselves under the pressure of the Senate, Yuan Shikai, Li Yuan-hung responsibility. Li from Hubei had sent a long electrical life of army chief Duan Senate reply.

Duan on stage in the morning of August 23, the respondent, the caller claimed that according to Li, vice president, announced content only seven aspects mentioned in reply to the questions referred. In fact, he is based on Zhang Zhenwu military grounds can not catch to send the Trial Chamber, the facts of the crime are in any Department of Military Affairs is, the issue is not the relationship military affairs, so Junfacongshi. He trying to use martial law as an excuse to bypass the law of the land, the answer is clearly not so senators satisfaction Diego to lead the Senators questioning.

The questioning Senator, Li Zhaoxing Pu Diego to: “I only questioned on the simple fact. Had open martial law meeting No Will kill Zhang Zhenwu before?”
Duan: “had just previously reported, a collection of higher officers discuss several times.”

Li Zhaofu: “whether to open a martial law meeting?”
Duan: Code of Military Justice meeting will also be studied by the higher officers guilt. “

Li Zhaofu: Will open meeting of research department what date? ”
Duan: “on the 13th of this month, has met to discuss the 14th meeting to discuss perish and the president also used here.”

Li Zhaofu: “Will open martial law meeting, the President Should here?”
Duan: “in big presidential palace. Session opens Fuchu housing system are contiguous, the presidency is here.”

Li Zhaofu: “kill Zhang Zhenwu Evidence In addition to the two telegrams outside Hubei still what evidence No?”

Duan: “The so-called evidence, but that is the Department he committed counts, In addition to this there are documents outside of the telegram.”

Finally, Duan said: “In short, the Government National premise of self can not but a temporary way. Otherwise, in the country a great danger to this dangerous time of the Ruo maintaining yeah? Procedures, although the error, Qi Rui body When the blame, nor not. “

Can be seen from more than a question and answer Lizhao Fu Zhang Zhenwu case into the legal field of vision always want to explore, including the distinction of the Judge Advocate meetings Higher officer meeting, the President as the Chief Executive has the right to participate in the trial, to kill Zhang Zhenwu the exact legal evidence and so on, are straight off the legal issues.

 

Finally, ask the the Duan exposed flaws, acknowledged the “formalities error”. Repeatedly had to declare that it does not kill Zhang is in accordance with the law as a precondition, had to be so, otherwise there is a fleeting danger. The segment also showed that attitude, reluctant to admit, the Senate, if you can forgive the government need not repeatedly questioned that line can not forgive impeachment. (Note 5)

This is a contest of democracy and autocracy, Sun Wen Zhang Zhenwu case dilemma. Zhang case occurred on August 16, the Sun Yat-sen as planned on the 18th northward met Yuan Shikai was a lot of people advised him to cancel the trip, he not only did not accept, and said: “Whatever you do not lose the trust of the Yuan President and his everyone that the Yuan is not reliable, I think that reliable hatred I vision a try.

 

In Beijing, Yuan little explanation, he trusted, and urged the skeptical Huang Xingli that Beijing … these materials show that, Sun Yat-sen was simply not aware of the support or undermine democracy and the rule of law serious struggle. system, only the political activities of the parties are included in the track of democracy and the rule of law and institutions to govern these people’s hands and feet, and will it be possible to consolidate democratic republican system, Sun Wen confused it as someone ‘suspicious’ or ‘credible’ awareness to stay on such a low level, he has not published any statement that condemned the case, lost a Democratic politician should have such a major struggle morale. …

 

not in Zhang Zhenwu case deserved lesson Yuan followed six months later brazenly assassinate Song Jiaoren; Sunwen again disposed of improperly, democratic republic finally pushed to name only situation. “(Note F)

Members of the House of Representatives was elected in 1913, Li Zhaofu back to Sichuan Province, the third area. He “worked in the the temporary Senate and House of Representatives, where advocates are Zoran from the see, tilting the ruling and opposition parties. Youyi Li Ji Kuomintang, Sui Wei Yuan Shikai deep taboo.” (With Note a) In the same year, the outbreak of the second revolution, he and Xiongke Wu crusade against Monarchy.

 

The Taoyuan, Xiongke Wu’s Shu Army has been changed to the Fifth Division of the revolution, Li Zhaofu any division Party, then Liu Bocheng is a head of he and Liu Bocheng has also long been strangers. After the failure of the second revolution, Xiongke Wu was forced to disband the army, fled to Japan, “(Yuan) Shikai arrested the Members of the KMT, Chao Fu also its columns; phoenix nine is the official Tongxian with Shikai old, to avoid too free. “(with a)

 

   

Early in March 1912,

Sun Yat-sen resigned from the presidency and, as promised, Yuan Shih-kai was elected his successor at Nanjing. Inaugurated in March 1912 in Beijing, the base of his power, Yuan established a republican system of government with a premier, a cabinet, a draft constitution, and a plan for parliamentary elections

Zhang Zhenwu was killed in August 16, 1912.

The Wuchang Uprising fathers are not establishing a republican death on the battlefield, but died in political intrigue after the success of the revolution. The case became the mystery of the history of the Republic. Zhang Zhenwu incident after the third day, the Senate met to discuss fairly warm.

 

The Most Members that the Vice President to require non-crime of murder, the President command tampering laws are contrary to approximately Act.

 

The Senate that case relations between the countries of this, to maintain the dignity of the law. So Senator joint question the government, to be answered the President Yuan Vice President Li Yuan-hung, some senators even proposed the impeachment of Vice President Li Yuan-hung, the Prime Minister Lu Cheng-hsiang, and the army chief Duan.

 

In order to protect themselves under the pressure of the Senate, Yuan Shikai, Li Yuan-hung responsibility. Li from Hubei had sent a long electrical life of army chief Duan Senate reply.

 

Duan on stage in the morning of August 23, the respondent, the caller claimed that according to Li, vice president, announced content only seven aspects mentioned in reply to the questions referred. In fact, he is based on Zhang Zhenwu military grounds can not catch to send the Trial Chamber, the facts of the crime are in any Department of Military Affairs is, the issue is not the relationship military affairs, so Junfacongshi. He trying to use martial law as an excuse to bypass the law of the land, the answer is clearly not so senators satisfaction Diego to lead the Senators questioning.

 

The questioning Senator, Li Zhaoxing Pu Diego to: “I only questioned on the simple fact. Had open martial law meeting No Will kill Zhang Zhenwu before?”
Duan: “had just previously reported, a collection of higher officers discuss several times.”

 

Li Zhaofu: “whether to open a martial law meeting?”
Duan: Code of Military Justice meeting will also be studied by the higher officers guilt. “

 

Li Zhaofu: Will open meeting of research department what date? ”
Duan: “on the 13th of this month, has met to discuss the 14th meeting to discuss perish and the president also used here.”

 

Li Zhaofu: “Will open martial law meeting, the President Should here?”
Duan: “in big presidential palace. Session opens Fuchu housing system are contiguous, the presidency is here.”

 

Li Zhaofu: “kill Zhang Zhenwu Evidence In addition to the two telegrams outside Hubei still what evidence No?”

 

Duan: “The so-called evidence, but that is the Department he committed counts, In addition to this there are documents outside of the telegram.”

 

Finally, Duan said: “In short, the Government National premise of self can not but a temporary way. Otherwise, in the country a great danger to this dangerous time of the Ruo maintaining yeah? Procedures, although the error, Qi Rui body When the blame, nor not. “

 

Can be seen from more than a question and answer Lizhao Fu Zhang Zhenwu case into the legal field of vision always want to explore, including the distinction of the Judge Advocate meetings Higher officer meeting, the President as the Chief Executive has the right to participate in the trial, to kill Zhang Zhenwu the exact legal evidence and so on, are straight off the legal issues.

 

Finally, ask the the Duan exposed flaws, acknowledged the “formalities error”. Repeatedly had to declare that it does not kill Zhang is in accordance with the law as a precondition, had to be so, otherwise there is a fleeting danger. The segment also showed that attitude, reluctant to admit, the Senate, if you can forgive the government need not repeatedly questioned that line can not forgive impeachment. (Note 5)

 

This is a contest of democracy and autocracy, Sun Wen Zhang Zhenwu case dilemma. Zhang case occurred on August 16, the Sun Yat-sen as planned on the 18th northward met Yuan Shikai was a lot of people advised him to cancel the trip, he not only did not accept, and said: “Whatever you do not lose the trust of the Yuan President and his everyone that the Yuan is not reliable, I think that reliable hatred I vision a try.

 

In Beijing, Yuan little explanation, he trusted, and urged the skeptical Huang Xingli that Beijing … these materials show that, Sun Yat-sen was simply not aware of the support or undermine democracy and the rule of law serious struggle. system, only the political activities of the parties are included in the track of democracy and the rule of law and institutions to govern these people’s hands and feet, and will it be possible to consolidate democratic republican system, Sun Wen confused it as someone ‘suspicious’ or ‘credible’ awareness to stay on such a low level, he has not published any statement that condemned the case, lost a Democratic politician should have such a major struggle morale. …

 

not in Zhang Zhenwu case deserved lesson Yuan followed six months later brazenly assassinate Song Jiaoren; Sunwen again disposed of improperly, democratic republic finally pushed to name only situation. “(Note F)

 

Members of the House of Representatives was elected in 1913, Li Zhaofu back to Sichuan Province, the third area. He “worked in the the temporary Senate and House of Representatives, where advocates are Zoran from the see, tilting the ruling and opposition parties. Youyi Li Ji Kuomintang, Sui Wei Yuan Shikai deep taboo.” (With Note a) In the same year, the outbreak of the second revolution, he and Xiongke Wu crusade against Monarchy.

 

The Taoyuan, Xiongke Wu’s Shu Army has been changed to the Fifth Division of the revolution, Li Zhaofu any division Party, then Liu Bocheng is a head of he and Liu Bocheng has also long been strangers. After the failure of the second revolution, Xiongke Wu was forced to disband the army, fled to Japan, “(Yuan) Shikai arrested the Members of the KMT, Chao Fu also its columns; phoenix nine is the official Tongxian with Shikai old, to avoid too free. “(with a)

 

After the Revolution,

 

Sichuan established Shujun government summer when Vice Warlord. My grandfather and summer when cooked, Dong Zhujun in Shanghai in 1934 by my grandfather in summer when the divorce as her divorce lawyer. A more detailed account of this matter in the Dong Zhujun “

 

My Century. That book was later made into a TV series, including grandfather lens I see a really beyond recognition. The young father is also quite familiar with the family summer, said their daughter Xia Guozhang eight sister. The then popular Luting ‘Qiushuiyiren “when the niece of the Xia Xia Guobin particularly like to hear my father sing this song.

 

early in 1913.

The Kuomintang (KMT, National People’s party), the successor to Sun Yat-sen’s organization, was formed in order to prepare for the election. (The Photo is of the Republic’s Seal of Office)

    Despite his earlier pledges to support the republic, Yuan schemed to assassinate his opponents and weaken the constitution and the parliament. By

1913

 

 

 

 

 

 

1913 PPC with Chefoo Club franked with ½c Coiling Dragon stamp optd with “Republic of China”

 

1913 PPC with Chefoo East Beach franked with 2c green Coiling Dragon stamp optd with “Republic of China”

 

 

Kang heart of the old man with grandchildren historians alley No. 57 Yuan

 

Say, in Sichuan, home health is a large house.

 

To what extent is it? Kang heart of the second daughter, Ms. Kang Daisha might be (I called the Daisha Aunt) “my pathfinder Zhou Enlai couple,” memories are summarized as follows: “My family is the Sichuan influential national bourgeoisie representatives. great uncle Kang heart Fu (1884 to 1917) the old United League Leaguers, and KMT elder Yu You-jen, a fellow confidant, former professor at Beijing University, and Li Dazhao also better to my uncle Kang heart case Sichuan Meifeng Bank chairman and General Manager my father Kang heart operating factories, mines, real estate, finance, also do the “National Gazette” I tetra Kang heart is far Baofeng, general manager of my home and the Kuomintang party and government dignitaries and Regional Warlords, democracy who had dealings. ”
If it is said The influence Kangjiahui, not a few words can finish, I have only to do with the the Daisha aunt memories supplement. Self from the Reform Movement the Kang brothers Times Person of the Year of the society in history, and to a certain extent. Heart, such as Kang recalls:

1913-1916,

Taiyan division by Yuan Shikai house arrest Beijing Qianliang alley I each will go from Shanghai to Beijing to ask for their manuscripts “Triumph Books.

Teacher wishing his life writings compiled for the series of books published, I generously decided to commitment to publish the responsibility, fitness more than any Shanghai since set the right text community printed books issued to industry, therefore dare any of this.

Fanhu after, imitation Tang autumn gold (real) published the storm building Series format, arranged in proofs, validated portable Beijing, division very much appreciate his audience, call female Li the same look, hurried one, as that is to the desk, the cover has also Sheng makeup. division angry color is late by hanging dead always puzzled what the reason. division as the “dead woman birthplace” … the book is about more than a year party complete. points as a twenty-four. “(Note 1 Du Xinxin)

 

 

 

 

the end of 1914

he had made himself president for life and even planned to establish an imperial dynasty with himself as the first emperor. His dream was thwarted by the serious crisis of the Twenty-one Demands for special privileges presented by the Japanese

In 1914,

when the First World War, the Chinese Parliament carve main battle owners and factions. Members of Ma Junwu owners and, while my grandfather was a war party.

 

They began to debate Junwu debate, but my grandfather, he was on the side of the debate, the good side battle to fight grandfather. Grandfather side back side debate, Ma also chasing play, and later the police over interference House. The grandfather said: “This is a debate between our Members, you can not interfere.” It is said that at that time, in order to prevent the Members in the debate on the use of force, the House of cartridges ink stone are nailed to the table. The home of his grandfather, grandmother to fetch water to wash his feet, to see his legs are bluish purple, I asked and found Ma Junwu play.

 

According to my father recalled, rarely speaks in the home of his grandfather. He’s a very strong self-control, and youth smoking, drinking, over 30 years old, and suddenly all quit.

 

My grandmother likes to play mahjong, she and Zhang Xun played cards. Grandmother talk about officials communicative frequented playing tea surrounded which prostitutes appearance. When prostitutes near grandfather Newspapers block face and said: “I eat drunk.” My father was the youngest son home, grandfather sometimes hold him sitting in a rocking chair, shaking her sing Japanese songs.

 

In the original billing suriko can be very long, he suriko dragon dance to his father to see. Father grew up sometimes write some Waishi, and half text and half white, but also love poems, his grandfather also read. Grandfather’s life is simple, neat, very personal hygiene speaking. Every morning, he floor is covered in a newspaper, holding a comb, head pointing towards the ground, and began to comb my hair, comb down all the dandruff. Combed, take it poured into the wastebasket.

 

After the clean up, and he was eating breakfast. Breakfast is usually milk, egg drop soup, ate dinner and sat down to read a newspaper for many years so. The grandfather also nicknamed “Stingy uncle, he was wearing a very neat, but a hat for decades.

 

Rickshaw ride later in Shanghai, the fedora was snatched away before he bought a new hat. Once the kids go out with his grandfather met prostitutes in Station Street, grandfather Sichuan as saying: “Are not you the money thing?” Took five money hurry to leave, the kids are laughing behind.

 

In 1914,

when the First World War, the Chinese Parliament carve main battle owners and factions. Members of Ma Junwu owners and, while my grandfather was a war party.

 

They began to debate Junwu debate, but my grandfather, he was on the side of the debate, the good side battle to fight grandfather. Grandfather side back side debate, Ma also chasing play, and later the police over interference House. The grandfather said: “This is a debate between our Members, you can not interfere.” It is said that at that time, in order to prevent the Members in the debate on the use of force, the House of cartridges ink stone are nailed to the table. The home of his grandfather, grandmother to fetch water to wash his feet, to see his legs are bluish purple, I asked and found Ma Junwu play.

According to my father recalled, rarely speaks in the home of his grandfather. He’s a very strong self-control, and youth smoking, drinking, over 30 years old, and suddenly all quit.

 

My grandmother likes to play mahjong, she and Zhang Xun played cards. Grandmother talk about officials communicative frequented playing tea surrounded which prostitutes appearance. When prostitutes near grandfather Newspapers block face and said: “I eat drunk.” My father was the youngest son home, grandfather sometimes hold him sitting in a rocking chair, shaking her sing Japanese songs.

 

In the original billing suriko can be very long, he suriko dragon dance to his father to see. Father grew up sometimes write some Waishi, and half text and half white, but also love poems, his grandfather also read. Grandfather’s life is simple, neat, very personal hygiene speaking. Every morning, he floor is covered in a newspaper, holding a comb, head pointing towards the ground, and began to comb my hair, comb down all the dandruff. Combed, take it poured into the wastebasket.

 

After the clean up, and he was eating breakfast. Breakfast is usually milk, egg drop soup, ate dinner and sat down to read a newspaper for many years so. The grandfather also nicknamed “Stingy uncle, he was wearing a very neat, but a hat for decades.

 

Rickshaw ride later in Shanghai, the fedora was snatched away before he bought a new hat. Once the kids go out with his grandfather met prostitutes in Station Street, grandfather Sichuan as saying: “Are not you the money thing?” Took five money hurry to leave, the kids are laughing behind.(Du Xinxin)

 

 

in January 1915

and by vociferous opposition from many sectors of Chinese society.

 

1915

May 15th, 1915

 

 

 

 

 

WWI re-directed 1915 China to Sth Africa censored cover. A beauty. Mailed from Shanghai on May 15, 1915 to Jo/burg.
Recipient not there, so then re-directed TWICE within the UK. With a nice “re-posted Jo-Burg 31 July 15 cds” on back. Censor has opened again somewhere in transit, and sealed with brown plain tape. (Cover opening is on end of pink tape.)
UK arrival roller on face ‘Streatham 25 Aug 1915.’

 

 

 

 


The eve of World War II

Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.
source :

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments

In April 1915,

Zhang Jue conspired to crusade against Yuan Shikai, and sternly refused to Yuan Shikai declared, was killed in Tianjin. The authorities allowed human corpses. Zhang Jue is a member of the old alliance with grandfather with the group “B Sim Society, he later members of the Society launched the Revolution in Chongqing uprising. The grandfather and Zhang’s private exchanges have not checked, but, according to the parents, who recalls that his grandfather in Beijing heard of the matter as soon as GGP borrowed the 500 oceanic went to Zhang Jue corpses. Yuan Shikai thus offering a reward of one thousand oceans arrest Lizhao Fu, but he escaped. This is the second revolution, Li Zhaofu again escaped the Yuan arrest.

 

According to historical uploaded after the Taoyuan grandfather served as Director General of the Kuomintang socially specific information is as follows: Congress to restore “after the death of Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen agreed to resume” KMT “party name after reorganization always stick to this name, because its impact far-reaching.

then elect the cadres more is a moment of choice, the director of the General Affairs Department Director-General Wei Chen group, Yin Yu Li, Director-General Ren Hongjun director of the Communication Ministry Director-General Li Zhaofu, Director-General Tan Zhen, Wellington Koo. director of political affairs Ministry Director-General Valley Zhong Xiu, Tang Yi. elections Branch in Centre-Yang Yung-t’ai, Director-General Dongsun, Shen Junru, Xu Fu Lin, Rowan dry, ZHANG Yao-Zeng, Wu light construction, Qiu Ao, etc.. director of Wen Shi Ministry

 

Director-General Yang Guang Zhan Administrative Studies Committee Director Director-General Zhang Yao Zeng, Yan, Director-General von freedom Shi Zhiquan, Wu Tiecheng, Dongsun. people learned a trade, familiar with Europe and the United States and Japan’s political, academic, not only was the leader, and in the later decades of complex and volatile political situation in China also played an important impact. “(supra note 40)
In April 1915,

Zhang Jue conspired to crusade against Yuan Shikai, and sternly refused to Yuan Shikai declared, was killed in Tianjin. The authorities allowed human corpses. Zhang Jue is a member of the old alliance with grandfather with the group “B Sim Society, he later members of the Society launched the Revolution in Chongqing uprising. The grandfather and Zhang’s private exchanges have not checked, but, according to the parents, who recalls that his grandfather in Beijing heard of the matter as soon as GGP borrowed the 500 oceanic went to Zhang Jue corpses. Yuan Shikai thus offering a reward of one thousand oceans arrest Lizhao Fu, but he escaped. This is the second revolution, Li Zhaofu again escaped the Yuan arrest.

According to historical uploaded after the Taoyuan grandfather served as Director General of the Kuomintang socially specific information is as follows: Congress to restore “after the death of Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen agreed to resume” KMT “party name after reorganization always stick to this name, because its impact far-reaching.

then elect the cadres more is a moment of choice, the director of the General Affairs Department Director-General Wei Chen group, Yin Yu Li, Director-General Ren Hongjun director of the Communication Ministry Director-General Li Zhaofu, Director-General Tan Zhen, Wellington Koo. director of political affairs Ministry Director-General Valley Zhong Xiu, Tang Yi. elections Branch in Centre-Yang Yung-t’ai, Director-General Dongsun, Shen Junru, Xu Fu Lin, Rowan dry, ZHANG Yao-Zeng, Wu light construction, Qiu Ao, etc.. director of Wen Shi Ministry

Director-General Yang Guang Zhan Administrative Studies Committee Director Director-General Zhang Yao Zeng, Yan, Director-General von freedom Shi Zhiquan, Wu Tiecheng, Dongsun. people learned a trade, familiar with Europe and the United States and Japan’s political, academic, not only was the leader, and in the later decades of complex and volatile political situation in China also played an important impact. “(supra note 40)

Source Du Xinxin

He died in June 1916

a broken man. After Yuan’s death, a number of his proteges took positions of power in the Beijing government or ruled as warlords in outlying regions. In August 1917 the Beijing government joined the Allies and declared war on Germany. At the peace conference in Versailles, France, the Chinese demand to end foreign concessions in China was ignored.

   

Sun-yat Sen (1866-1925).

Known as the father of modern China, Sun Yat-sen worked to achieve his lofty goals for modern China. These included the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty, the unification of China, and the establishment of a republic. (The Photo is of Dr Sun Yat-sen in Guangzhou)

    Sun Yat-sen was born on Nov. 12, 1866, in Guangdong Province and attended several schools, including one in Honolulu, Hawaii, before transferring to a college of medicine in Hong Kong. Graduating in 1892, Sun almost immediately abandoned medicine for politics. His role in an unsuccessful uprising in Canton in 1895 prompted Sun to begin an exile that lasted for 16 years. Sun used this time to travel widely in Japan, Europe, and the United States, enlisting sympathy and raising money for his republican cause. Sun returned to China in 1911 after a successful rebellion in Wuhan inspired uprisings in other provinces. As leader of the Kuomintang, or Nationalist party, Sun was elected provisional president of the newly declared republic but was forced to resign in 1912.

    In 1913

his disagreements with government policies led Sun to organize a second revolution. Failing to regain power, Sun left once again for Japan, where he organized a separate government. Sun returned to China and attempted to set up a new government in 1917 and 1921 before successfully installing himself as generalissimo of a new regime in 1923.

   

Sun increasingly relied on aid from the Soviet Union, and

Li Zhaofu recovery in 1916

 

Congress after the to any interim senator and 1913 elected members of the House of Representatives since 1912, still any Members. “Five years (referring to 1916) the Congress reconvenes, Shiu just sound mining brawl was before.” (With a) 1920

1917

 

1918

 

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

Italian Offices in Tientsin, 1918-1921,

 

 

Surcharged set complete (Scott 15-23), each canceled 17-1-20 on individual piece, clean and fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000.

 

Italian Offices in Tientsin, Postage Due, 1918,

 

 

 

8¢ to 16¢ surcharges (Scott J6-J8. Sassone S.9), clean short set missing only the rare 4¢ on 10¢ value, canceled 17.1.20 on individual pieces, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,00

 

A

1919

French Offices in Yunnan Fu, 1919,

 

 

80c on 2fr, double surcharge (SG 64a. Chan FFY64a), o.g., fresh, Very Fine, scarce variety. Realized HK$ 3,000

French Offices in Hoi Hao, 1919,

 

 

2pi on 5fr, triple surcharge (SG 81a. Chan FFH81a), o.g., a rare and striking variety, F.-V.F.+. Realized HK$ 2,800

 

French Offices in Kwangchowan, 1908, 10fr

 

 

violet, double overprint (SG 34a. Chan FL34a), o.g., fresh and beautifully centered, Very Fine og, a very scarce variety, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 2,400

 

Shanghai anti-bandit control red surcharge on the first postal savings issue of 1919(this sample from 1935

 

!920

 

!921

July,1st.1921

 

On July 1, 1921, the government controlled by the Northern Warlords issued the first aircraft stamps. The set of five stamps has a picture of a black airplane skimming over the Great Wall.

This is also known by philatelists as the first aviation issue.

 

1921 Airmail 1st issue set
And if I can add a little more history to this beautiful set, William Grant was especially proud of his designs for, and engravings of, the Chinese airmail stamps.

The stamp design shows a Curtiss “Jenny” airplane flying over the Great Wall of China. The Bars of the Republic flag can be seen on its tail.

The essay samples in the collection at the US National Postal Museum show that the original design depicted a smaller plane from a different angle, head-on.

Also in Grant’s collection are five airmail stamps, ranging in denomination from 15-cents to 90-cents.

They are proof impressions of the special cachet used at Peking on July 1, 1921 to cancel mail matter on the first airmail flight between Peking, Tsinan and Shanghai

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1921 (Jul 1) Shanghai to Peking First Flight Cover (Starr Mills 2), Scott C1-5 complete on flown first day cover, Very Fine Realized HK$ 10,000

Novermber 1921

1921 (3 Nov)

 

 

 

Japanese Printing colour PPC, sent from Harbin to Madrid Spain

 

 

1922

Li Zhaofu any Senate as Speaker. 1922

 

“Cao Kun bribery congressional elections, case, Chao Fu Joint comrades Overruled, anger go Shanghai ……, Suiliu practiced law.” (A) As far as I know, the grandfather quit politics because of great-grandfather alive, Lijia still residing in Beijing. In addition to the pomp of the home, but also from time to time aid to LI Xiao-luan an aunt. Grandfather for lawyers, the firm is also quite famous, but he was not good enough Mandarin and Shanghai dialect affect personal business. 1922-1935,

 

Lijia mainly by the sale of real estate to support the family after his death in 1925 great-grandfather, grandfather in turn part of the home rental.
Since joined the revolution in 1905 to 1922,

 

Li Zhaofu from a hot-blooded youth to become the father of four children. As one of the revolutionaries, he was opposed to the the the Qing Dynasty conspirators revolution and after the revolution the Chief Legal Officer. He is also involved in the organization of political parties publicly, that political parties later won national elections. Du Yuan Zai editor of the “Revolutionary Figures tenth concentrated, commented Li Zhaofu:

 

Li Zhaofu recovery in 1916 and 1922,

Congress after the to any interim senator and 1913 elected members of the House of Representatives since 1912, still any Members. “Five years (referring to 1916) the Congress reconvenes, Shiu just sound mining brawl was before.” (With a) 1920,

Li Zhaofu any Senate as Speaker. 1922

“Cao Kun bribery congressional elections, case, Chao Fu Joint comrades Overruled, anger go Shanghai ……, Suiliu practiced law.” (A) As far as I know, the grandfather quit politics because of great-grandfather alive, Lijia still residing in Beijing. In addition to the pomp of the home, but also from time to time aid to LI Xiao-luan an aunt. Grandfather for lawyers, the firm is also quite famous, but he was not good enough Mandarin and Shanghai dialect affect personal business. 1922-1935,

Lijia mainly by the sale of real estate to support the family after his death in 1925 great-grandfather, grandfather in turn part of the home rental.
Since joined the revolution in 1905 to 1922,

Li Zhaofu from a hot-blooded youth to become the father of four children. As one of the revolutionaries, he was opposed to the the the Qing Dynasty conspirators revolution and after the revolution the Chief Legal Officer. He is also involved in the organization of political parties publicly, that political parties later won national elections. Du Yuan Zai editor of the “Revolutionary Figures tenth concentrated, commented Li Zhaofu:

After 1922,

I know The grandfather social activities to participate in Sun Yat-sen shift Ling. After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, he Tingling the Beijing Xishan, shift Ling

(Du Xinxin)

1923

1923

 

November,23th.1923

 

Chinese Republic, 1923 (Nov 28) 4¢ + 4¢ paid reply card used from Tihwa, forwarded to Paris (Han 106), a splendid, unsevered card, cancelled by bold Tihwa Nov 28 cds, forwarded Santuao to Paris. Front shows hong Kong 2 Mar 24 transit, while reverse shows a myriad of transits, including hong Kong Kong 27 Jan 24, Hong Kong 13 Feb, Foochow 19 Feb, Amoy 29 Feb (leap year!), Shanghai Jan 24, Santuao 22 Feb and Paris Apr 11 (?) arrival. An incredibly Rare usage and a Rare used card, Very Fine, a wonderful exhibition piece! Realized HK$ 36,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

1923

 

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in 1924

Sun Yat-sen  reorganized the Kuomintang on the model of the Soviet Communist party. Sun also founded the Whampoa Military Academy and appointed Chiang Kai-shek as its president. Sun summarized his policies in the Three Principles of the People–nationalism, democracy, and socialism. He died of cancer in Peking .

Sinkiang, 1924-36,

 

 

 

Re-Engraved Junk Issues complete (Scott 47-68, 69, 114. Chan PS47-PS70), complete set of 24 values by Chan listing, o.g., hinged or never hinged ($20 appears never hinged), overall clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

Plate number 3

Sinkiang, 1924, Re-Engraved Junk Issues (Scott 47-68. Chan PS47//PS70), set of 22 values complete by Scott listing, $10 & $20 are with part imprints, all o.g., never hinged, post office fresh throughout except $20 dull gum, seldom seen offered in this lovely condition, choice set, difficult to find another set this beautiful, Very Fine

Realized HK$ 16,000

 

on March 12, 1925.

Sun’s tomb in Nanking is now a national shrine. (The Photo is of the Dr Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing)

1925

May,9th.1925

 

1925 (9 May) Registered cover sent from University of Foochow to Germany with Handstamped security seals,

franked Junk stamps x12 with total postage 30c.
Tied by Foochow cds, with arrival cds.

 

 

 

 

 

it is a re-used cover. There is the partial return address on Fifth Avenue, New York, NY and on the back, where there is a fold, is the remains of a US stamp that was partially removed.

Was there a paper shortage in China at that time?

 

 

 

1

 

 

Shichang childhood death of his father, mother education the hard way. Although the family was poor, pledge to extend teachers teach children, and lessons from the governor, and moral weight. Shichang recalled: when the child, if the three food, they think obtaining the two, the mother forthwith blasted: “Today’s the case, then how grown up?!” Would rather throw away food, do not eat so Sai . Longer, each friend, the mother will be watching how the character, the fruit department more capable, then the section to the food; otherwise the legislation must be denounced. People are reflected in its lonely, persuaded by a magistrate relatives, Xu Mu Yue: “I Yam Trustee, without undue hardship to know, nothing has carved Li Zhenxing heart carry on.” Serbs lament: “You are painstakingly and Family Education, there must be different on success, true hero is also my house!” Its decency are derived from childhood education.

Shichang speak out are small station training, he came by the Yuan’s high degree of trust and respect, toe, called the brother; second to Hanlin origin, by the general respect, are called teachers; three years hard work, self-military and English, has prepared a “new army arsenal kept a little record” and “drill rules detailed clarity chart said,” 13, with a new mass co-ordinate military training and education, with remarkable achievements, prestigious, and thus established themselves in northern Yuan’s status after the army, also reached the “Writing Xiuwu to war service into the body” purposes.

Small station training, modernization of the Chinese armed forces into a milestone, Yuan and Xu are successful can not be located. Shichang the first to put forward a comprehensive military modernization theory, developed a combination of Chinese and Western military system, code, military rules, regulations and strategic and tactical principles. Later, the “Northern three heroes” – Wang Shizhen, Duan Qi-rui, Feng Guozhang are a small station in the new army leader grew up.

Xu and Yuan, as that is to politics as well as patriotism, (Yuan, at least in youth, be a patriot) Xu, who spent a Sino-Japanese defeat in the Imperial Academy, with dozens of colleagues in the joint impeachment Li. Also participated in the early Reform Movement. Shichang a book worthy of a great thing for the 51 years of age Shichang court appointed imperial commissioner to keep a close watch Northeast Northeast Governor General Affairs. Shichang in the Northeast for three years and done a lot of things beneficial to the nation:

Northeast China is the birthplace of the Qing royal, which is of special importance; to the late Qing Dynasty, took office in Shichang, the Northeast suffered a succession of Russian within a decade, Japanese two-three major looting, large tracts of land was lost, almost a two- strong colony, private fades, devastated.

Then the sheep up in prison. To seek to save,

set in 1906

the Qing court sent vibration, Shichang (both military minister) went to visit the Northeast, and calls for the right remedy, proposed solutions.
After two months traveling thousands of miles way, Shichang presented to the Qing court “to raise the Northeast through the global dredging”, ocean over thousands of words, at this time Xu northeast of governance, has an enlightened approach.
Shichang an arrival, the first of its dead for the reason – “to Zhibing the post, and management of the civil jurisdiction of the government, the various services, interest is also different, both barrier and even to contain more than Sri Lanka, its end is not a Benefit prosper, none of the disadvantages of not “- the implementation of political reform, the Governor is responsible for establishing the system,” held in three provinces do all the things to be learned in order to commission the “,” to a total clusters handedly policy, a basis for the entire nation power tilt corner of the car to help. ” Office based provinces, their divisions together with the governors office, “things are public companies, shift will be painting”, simplify administrative procedures, improve efficiency, in order to establish an efficient decision-making bodies and mechanisms, but also to adapt to a late clear implementation of the New Deal requirements. He stressed the occasion of the great land of extraordinary, non-reform, no to survival. For the punishment of corruption, update officialdom, Shichang also launched a series of specific policies, put into practice. At the same time, he also vigorously Jobs, in particular the reuse of returned overseas talents with genuine talent to the national trend of the times to attract first-class talent, so that the three northeast provinces, “corner of the land of talents”; is cracking down on corrupt officials a warning to. Took a few months, that is to identify and deal with scores of perpetrators. Its bold vision to see.

Xu Lvdong North at the beginning, financial difficulties, make ends meet. He followed in order to set up industrial center, with powers to commercial warfare, the rich provinces, strengthening the armed forces, foreign aggression ideas, the government new ways to implement the new fiscal policy, summarized as: the establishment of banks, and more open trading port, to employ foreign workers, foreign investment, but no concessions to ensure sovereignty. In agriculture, encourage the use of “Yan wide terrain, soil pulse Gao Yu, abundant rainfall,” the favorable natural conditions, the development of food of animal husbandry.

Xu went to the Northeast before the cold climate, the local result, farmers still do not know wheat. Through investigation, Shichang actively promote species of wheat to growers for domestic and Japanese, American varieties, complex, “the first relaxation of the ban on grain exports.” “After three years, all over the Northeast are wheat, self-suits, and information operations. So far the three provinces of China, dedication (Xu) is the first wheat farmers.” He also imported seeds from Australia, sheep and tractors, the promotion of agricultural modernization in Northeast played an important role in the process.

Shichang also actively develop the trade and industry, emphasis on science, education. For the transformation of the parasitic life of the children of the Manchu Eight Banners, specialized factories and run schools in order to “change its temperament,” so that the “Eight Banners talent than can be used to raise and will no longer way out of it.” He also captured to suppress bandits, immigration settlement, raising side of Angle, railways, telephone … … are highly meritorious act.

Shichang governor only two years in the Northeast, the Northeast a new look, set Tao Qin Gui Qing “Dynasty army returned from Europe, via Mukden (now Shenyang) see the road, lighting, military and police are all prepared with, market a new look, are places Corruption, as if Continental, the benefits of the New Deal after serving Sai painting, non-Jiang Li Exchange and its province. DPRK also strongly recommend that the government of its value Shu Yan. “New Deal for the three northeastern provinces, said the world” Shichang New Deal “, Xu also proud of it.

In response to the Russo-Japanese aggression, the Hsu before taking office when he was Minister of Northern Yuan to set foreign policy, one is “to defend the sovereignty, the top priority”; the second is “specific representations, in order to reach the main issues We aim to make concessions on secondary issues may be necessary”complex.

Shichang blatant acts of aggression against Japan to be strong terms: “The people must be shown to not attack, then do not attack; will show people to not be bullied, then who bully.” In Defence of the principles of territorial sovereignty issues argue inch of land to prevent .

Time, six grooves on the Japanese in the Tumen established more than 90 stakes in nails, dark circles will be our territory assigned to Korea (the Japanese occupation of Korea circles) Hsu, Wu, pulling with one night, and remember the Chinese name of Miles, nail establish identity, to the Japanese stunned.

Shichang appointment with the Japanese negotiations “with the credit” of the Wu Luzheng to solve the “community service matters” supervision, effectively eroding the Chinese border to contain the Japanese territory of conspiracy and “stained glass” policy implementation.

Shichang aggressive approach with the Tsarist Russia conducted tit for tat struggle, also made “has it demonstrated regret for it and pleased that” the results.
Shichang the implementation of modern construction in the northeast, so that the reform of the Northeast to open ground, in promoting the modernization process in the country, does power itself a remarkable achievement.
Shichang Yuan also introduced China’s first joint patrol system, the consolidation of the country and prevent foreign aggression, the public safety of its positive role played by the industry, should be affirmed. Shichang in any Book of Postal Department, to adopt a vigorous and resolute means, for the Chinese railways, electricity, postal and shipping industry development, but also played an important role.

Shichang and Yuan close early, but the Monarchy, they still separate ways. Previously, Shichang had vehemently opposed the signing of selling out the country 21 Yuan, and “strike” Shi Yuri. Xu, Yuan cracks generated from this. Shichang in the Yuan emperor after emperor addiction has Liaoding he had not long, then do not dividers Young dart, it was evil deeds, but also back Thousand Years of scorn. Or Sanshiliuji away as a good account. Descendants have asked: to Xu talent and prestige, in Xinhai year, why not from the system deal with soldiers and the South? The imperial trust (over a letter Yuan), the President of Northern soldiers and horses never let Xu; second, Xu Zhu Jiang in some prestige in the Northern, Yuan will not be permitted, will be the only Xu and the first is looking; Third, it is easy and South form a coalition government. So, the first Republican president is none other than non-Xu, after North and South do not appear political disputes, restore back the Board.

However, Shichang Shichang after all, the reason he was willing to hand over people to walk before you run opportunity, willing to be a post, must have thought of. Non can not and is not to be. If the move, driven back by the Qing emperor himself, is disloyal; aside Lao Yuan, is unjust; know What it is unwise. Furthermore Xu steady by nature, the time when the basic conditions before being let go for a Bo, when in the Northeast; risk is too high then would rather wait and see, he was not the kind of “better a chicken population, not an ox,” the people; his life credo is precisely the opposite with Yuan. Guer political consensus, they can discipline and flexibility, advantage complement, Xiangde cover Chang, redundant once the political odds, can not decorum skin, they can only self-seeking way out, play it safe was. Shichang most fundamental after all just a scholar.

In 1917,

Shichang formally advocated the development of China’s “two museums,” the cause of education authorities have announced the “Museum of the Ordinance,” “library charter.” The “American-style concept of the two museums”, all starting from Tianjin, there is a world concept, “the country is gradually extravagant fabric.” For example: In 1918, Shichang approval of China’s one — the National Academy of Beijing Academy of Fine Arts was established in Beijing, Tianjin, specialized training for the large number of primary and secondary school art teachers. Shichang other thing is to be a big book full of patriotic loyalty to the spirit of his old age.

 

 

In 1918,

the second president in the election of the occasion of the Republic of China, Duan Qi-rui, Feng Guozhang loggerheads, along both sides of Shichang then please as the “ideal person” may be president. Xu had the gall to ask for instructions abdication of Pu Yi, “obtaining the grant that.” This intention Qing Xu leftover of goodwill, but still people ridiculed him: “to clear Tutor the official Republic of China, has already seen its people!” To cover all aspects, often counter-productive; both sides please, Nong Buhao offend both sides. Shichang live’s emotional tired.

Shichang when the president’s first major event, is seeking to North-South reconciliation, the end of the civil war, this did her rescue, but they have little effect, nothing more than stall for time, finally broke out in 1922, pursued by war. Xu victorious immediate no thanks “one-sided” support, under the emperor to abdicate in Cao Kun, and again had to reluctantly leave the presidential palace, moved to the British concession, not only ended his five-year presidency, has ended his 40 years in politics course.

Shichang the President’s position does not dry out the cause of any earth-shattering, but it did a lot of things conducive to the Chinese culture.
For example: In 1920, Shichang approval of China’s first private “sea of yellow Chemical Society” was established. For example:

1919

The May Fourth Movement

    After World War I The Chinese felt betrayed. Anger and frustration erupted in demonstrations on May 4, 1919, in Beijing. Joined by workers and merchants, the movement spread to major cities. The Chinese representative at Versailles refused to endorse the peace treaty, but its provisions remained unchanged. Disillusioned with the West, many Chinese looked elsewhere for help.

The May Fourth Movement, which grew out of the student uprising, attacked Confucianism, initiated a vernacular style of writing, and promoted science. Scholars of international stature, such as John Dewey and Bertrand Russell, were invited to lecture. Numerous magazines were published to stimulate new thoughts. Toward the end of the movement’s existence, a split occurred among its leaders. Some, like Ch’en Tu-Xiu and Li Ta-chao, were beginning to be influenced by the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917, which contrasted sharply with the failure of the 1911 Revolution in China to change the social order and improve conditions.

By 1920,

people associated with the Comintern (Communist International) were disseminating literature in China and helping to start Communist groups, including one led by Mao Zedong. A meeting at Shanghai

in 1921

was actually the first party congress of the Communist Party of China (CCP).

   

The CCP was so small that the Soviet Union looked elsewhere for a viable political ally.

1922

After 1922,

I know The grandfather social activities to participate in Sun Yat-sen shift Ling.

1923

A Comintern agent, Adolph Joffe, was sent to China to approach Sun Yat-sen, who had failed to obtain assistance from Great Britain or the United States. The period of Sino-Soviet collaboration began with the Sun-Joffe Declaration of

Jan. 26, 1923.

The KMT was recognized by the Soviet Union, and the Communists were admitted as members. With Soviet aid, the KMT army was built up. A young officer, Chiang Kai-shek, was sent to Moscow for training. Upon returning, he was put in charge of the Whampoa Military Academy, established to train soldiers to fight the warlords, who controlled much of China. Zhou Enlai (also Chou En-lai) of the CCP was deputy director of the academy’s political department.

   

Sun Yat-sen, whose power base was in the south, had planned to send an expedition against the northern warlords, but he died before it could get under way. Chiang Kai-shek, who succeeded him in the KMT leadership, began the northern expedition

Chinese history collections(continiu)

this the sample of dr iWAN e-bOOK iN cd rOM WITHOUT ILLUSTRATION,THE COMPLETE cd EXIST TO FET IT PLEASE SUNSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Chinese History Collections

Part

1915-1930

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2013

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

 

 

 

 

FORWARD

 

I hope this information in limited e-book will useable for the collectors or the writer as the basic info for their collections or for writing book and research book.

During my study I realized that the rare and very difficult cast coind were during China republic era.

During China Republic era many types of paper moner and coins issued also ceramic and art work collections which many never report before because of the political situations

I have found some rare china cast coin during republic era but I never found enough info related with this cast coin.also ther ceramic art work related with this coins.

I hope all the collectors and scientist sinology will be kind to help me with their own informations especially to comment and correctios ,

I hope with this study we can know why the Qing Manchu falls anf how the republic changed from nationalist to communist, and what kind of  numismatic collections .  Also what another ceramic and art work exist during that era.

 

 

This is the whole world study as the movement to save the world heritage from china empire which many relation with South east asia country,s kingdom especially from Thailand,Vietnam and Indonesia like srivijaya kingdom,and old Java Kingdom.

For all that info ,thanks very much.

.

Jakarta 2012

The Author

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

INTRODUCTIONS

The brief History

Prologue

 

The siege Of Port Athur

 

 

 

Pont  de jade & bateau, Palais d’été, pris sur le motif du Palais d’Été à Pékin, en Chine 1924

La collection de Sidney D. Gamble à l’Université Duke continue d’être une mine d’images qui sont à la fois artistiquement convaincante ainsi que fournir une fenêtre sur le passé.Il reste l’un de mes favoris personnels.Lien ici:

library.duke.edu / digitalcollections / jouer /

La ceinture de jade pont (alternativement aussi connu comme le pont Camel Back) est probablement le plus célèbre de plusieurs ponts sur les motifs du Palais d’Été Qing vieux. Des milliers de photos touristiques contemporaine de l’inonder le net comme sa beauté intemporelle reste, malgré près de deux siècles et demi. Remarque, il ne doit pas être confondu avec le pont de ceinture beaucoup plus vieux et plus précieux, une autre durée qui a été construit pendant la dynastie des Tang et restauré dans les Ming, qui est situé près de Suzhou.

Selon Wiki:

«La ceinture de jade Bridge (chinois simplifié: ; chinois traditionnel: ; pinyin: Yu Dài Qiao), aussi connu comme le pont le dos du chameau, est un pont du 18ème siècle piétonne lune situé sur le terrain du Palais d’Été de Pékin , en Chine. Il est célèbre pour ses grands distinctifs arc mince unique.

La ceinture de jade est le pont le plus connu des six ponts sur la rive ouest du lac Kunming.Il a été érigé dans le 1751 années à 1764, pendant le règne de l’empereur Qianlong, et a été construit dans le style des ponts délicate dans la campagne du sud de la Chine.Il est fait de marbre et autres pierres blanches.Les parapets ornés sont décorés de sculptures de grues et d’autres animaux.La clairance de la voûte a été choisi pour accueillir le bateau-dragon de l’empereur Qianlong.Comme l’entrée du lac Kunming à la rivière voisine Yu, et quand lors d’occasions spéciales, les empereurs et de l’impératrice et de leurs bateaux-dragons seraient spécifiquement passer sous ce pont. “

 

·         l’Impératrice Gobele Wan Rong (1920-1940)

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 20 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:49

Photo de l’Impératrice Gobele Wan Rong  (1920-1940)

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

1904-1905

 

Japanese 28 cm siege howitzers batter away at the Russian stronghold’s defenses. Dubbed “Osaka babies”, the gigantic guns sat on slide-type carriages atop geared turntables. These 11-inch guns were manufactured in Japan under license from Armstrongs’, at that time the world’s biggest armaments consortium. Used at the sieges of Port Arthur and Qingdao, the huge howitzers were mounted at coastal defense forts in Japan between whiles.

 
 

Strategic Considerations

The city of Port Arthur (Lüshunkou), located at the southern extremity of the Liaodong Peninsula commanding the entrance to the Bohai Gulf, became a fulcrum of historic conflict a century ago when the Russians and Japanese fought a fierce and bloody war over control of its strategic harbor and the surrounding territory in southern Manchuria. The city had received its English name in 1860, when a British tea clipper took shelter in the then fishing village during a typhoon. The ship was commanded by a Capt. Arthur, who made note of the excellent anchorage and communicated his findings to the Admiralty in London.

Why was Port Arthur so valuable that two of the foremost empires of the time would sacrifice up to 100,000 soldiers apiece and stake their navies and their national prestige on its possession? Location, location, location.

 

Guns at 203 Meter Hill Today
.

Strategic Location of the City

As can be seen from the map, the city controls a choke point on all waterborne trade with Beijing. It is closer to the Chinese capital than the Shandong Peninsula with its port of Qingdao (then occupied by Germany), which projects from the opposite shore of the Yellow Sea. Port Arthur also overlooks the western shore of Korea, with its chief cities of Pyongyang and Seoul. There could not be a more strategic location. Port Arthur had an excellent landlocked harbor with a back harbor and a basin suitable for drydocking and cleaning ships’ hulls.* The harbor was shallow and subject to silting, requiring frequent dredging to be usable by the largest warships; a task the Russians readily undertook. The strategic harbor was surrounded by lofty peaks perfect for fortification with long-range cannon commanding the approaches by land and sea. The position thus became the key to controlling the mineral wealth of Manchuria — enormous coal, iron, and copper deposits. The Russian administration of Count Sergei Witte was dedicated to vigorous empire-building in the region, building out the China Eastern Railway to Port Arthur and nearby Dalny (meaning “far, far away” in Russian), which was under development as an important commercial port to rival the German colony at Qingdao, while Port Arthur was slated to become Russia’s impregnable military fortress guarding Russia’s assets in Manchuria. More than 10 million gold rubles (US $5M) were invested in rebuilding Dalny, with the Chinese inhabitants rudely uprooted to make way for the master plan; but the Russian Viceroy, Yevgeny Alexeiev, de-emphasized Dalny and chose to reside in a magnificent palace he built at Port Arthur. At the same time, Witte poured many more millions of rubles into developing Vladivostok and Harbin, both key links in the Trans-Siberian Railway. The rail link to the Russian homeland was opened in late 1903, just before war broke out with Japan, but some segments were still incomplete during the war.

For the Russians, there was the additional advantage that Port Arthur was a warm-water port, protected from the Siberian blasts by the brown, eroded hills of Manchuria: its harbor did not freeze over in the winter. Russia’s other Far East port was Vladivostok, on the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula and some four degrees further north, on the Sea of Japan; its otherwise superb harbor was unusable in the winter months because of icing. With its fine double harbor, oceanic climate, defensible position, and ready access to the mineral wealth of the region, Port Arthur was a strategic prize of incalculable value to the Tsar.

 

Preliminaries to war

 

 


Port Arthur had already been the seat of conflict during the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95. During a 20-month occupation, the Japanese massacred the Chinese garrison and oppressed the inhabitants in reprisal for brutal treatment of Japanese POWs (an estimated 2,000 – 3,000 were killed in the massacre). Under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki that ended the war, Japan was to have occupied the Port Arthur region and all Korea; but in the Tripartite Intervention of 1895, France, Germany, and Russia strong-armed Japan into relinquishing her demands on Liaodong and the Port. Soon afterwards, the Russians coerced a 25-year lease on Port Arthur from the decadent Chinese Empire, including a rail corridor through Manchuria. Russian military engineers moved in aggressively, building a rail line from Port Arthur up to the Trans-Siberian railhead at Harbin. The Russians proceeded to erect a chain of fortifications on the heights around the city, to build batteries on the spit that protected the harbor (the “Tiger’s Tail“) and all the surrounding headlands and hills in town, until the position was considered impregnable. Within this ring of concrete and steel, the Russians established a large naval base on the East Basin of the harbor, complete with graving docks, machine shops, ammo depots, fuel depots, torpedo boat docks, and all the support facilities their burgeoning fleet required — and Russia was on a buying spree from 1898 forward, building up its eastern naval force with reckless speed and, dare one say, substituting flashy new weapons for the training and discipline to make it a battle-worthy force. The Pacific Squadron based at Port Arthur included seven modern battleships, one armored cruiser, eleven protected cruisers, and dozens of TBs and TB destroyers. 1904 fortifications are marked in orange on the map at right. A second cruiser squadron based at Vladivostok included three armored cruisers and two protected cruisers, although this was considered a second command and, as noted above, that port was iced in for much of the winter.
The Japanese observed growing Russian influence in their region with mingled resentment and fear. The Japanese felt that Port Arthur was rightfully theirs after their hard-won victory over China. They viewed the Russians as usurpers, resented the overt racism expressed in the Intervention, and felt that Port Arthur as well as Korea should be integral parts of Dai Nippon, the powerful empire they were constructing in East Asia. Several years after the crushing of the Boxer Rebellion, an extensive European military presence was still evident in China. The Qing Dynasty was on its last legs, its realm a sovereign state in name only, desirable parts of its territory already carved up by western Powers which were not subject to Chinese law, or effectively broken off by local strong-men in a foreshadowing of the warlord era. With huge segments of their former revenues diverted into the pockets of crooked officials or earmarked to pay indemnities, with omens indicating the withdrawal of the Mandate of Heaven from the Manchu dynasty, China was tumbling into chaos. Small wonder the Japanese felt the need for a well-fortified buffer zone to prevent incursions on their own sovereignty. They were also anxious to exploit China’s weakness and disunity to their own ends: they had been avid participants in the suppression of the Boxers, in fact leading the armed expedition against Beijing in 1900-01, and adamantly demanding their share of the indemnity used to settle the incident. Having endured years of delay, duplicity, and calculated insult from Viceroy Alexeiev at Port Arthur, Japan delivered an ultimatum to St. Petersburg in December 1903. The two sides recalled their ambassadors a few days before hostilities commenced.


Sneak Attack: War Begins

 

Period chromolithograph shows Russian cruisers being mauled by the Japanese battle fleet. Titled in Japanese, Battle of Port Arthur, it bears little resemblance to reliable accounts of the action, but instead represents a generic battle scene of the pre-dreadnought era. A Japanese torpedo boat attacks at right, although the most credible torpedo attack of the day was made by the Russian cruiser Novik. The previous night’s Japanese surprise attack was far more of a Japanese victory than the fleet-versus-forts action of the 9th.

Japan launched war on February 8, 1904 with a surprise torpedo attack on the Russian naval vessels at Port Arthur, temporarily disabling three battleships and four large cruisers and exchanging fire with the Russian forts. This was a serious setback for Russia, since they had only one repair dock capable of handling the largest ships. The following day the Japanese fleet showed up and shelled the Russians through the harbor mouth from five miles’ distance; Russian cruisers on picket outside fled with heavy damage.

At this point Togo’s cruiser commander, Adm. Dewa, reported the Russians incapacitated and Togo closed to engage the big forts on Golden Hill; at left, Togo and staff on the bridge. However, by this time the Russian squadron had steam up and ventured forth to fight, while the forts simultaneously engaged the Japanese force with hot fire. Although this engagement is usually painted as another overwhelming Japanese victory in propaganda accounts, in reality it was more a draw, with both sides sustaining serious damage. One hit on the flagship Mikasa killed five key officers by shrapnel and wounded a dozen more crewmen; altogether, the Japanese lost 90 men, the Russians 150 with five direct hits on Russian ships, seven on Japanese. After 20 minutes of hell-for-leather firing, Togo withdrew his fleet. No ships were sunk but both sides claimed they had sunk enemy warships.

War was declared the following day, Feb. 10. Thereafter the Japanese Navy continued to harass the Russians, depleting their fleet with mines and torpedo attacks, bombarding the town and port from long range, and inviting fleet action by sending weak squadrons to cruise close offshore, within sight of the harbor, while their battleship division lurked just over the horizon, ready to swoop down on unwary Russians who took the bait. Three times the Japanese attempted to block the port by sinking old freighters the narrow entrance, and each attempt failed despite heroic efforts by the volunteer crews. One of the signal Japanese successes was to lure out the Russians’ charismatic and inspiring commander, Admiral Stepan Makaroff, and lead him over a freshly laid minefield. Makaroff’s flagship, the battleship Petropavlovsk, detonated two mines and dissolved in a tower of grey-brown smoke, sinking instantly with all hands.
This catastrophe left the Russian navy bereft of its most capable and daring commander, as became apparent when the remaining Port Arthur fleet, attempting a breakout for Vladivostok, clashed with the Japanese in the Battle of the Yellow Sea, August 10, 1904. In the opening phase of the action, Japanese and Russian vessels appeared to inflict damage in equal measure. The Mikasa sustained several hits. After 90 minutes of this, the Russian C-in-C, Adm. Wilhelm Vitgeft, was killed by a shell splinter at 6:30 p.m.; soon after, all the flagship’s bridge personnel were killed by a direct hit. These hits also disabled the steering of the Russian flagship Tsesarevich; helpless and smoldering, she steamed in gigantic circles as Japanese shellfire burst around her decks.

Witgeft’s second-in-command attempted to assume command in the Peresviet, but this was not recognized by the other ships, and they diseregarded his signals, following the demented path of the Tsesarevich instead. The Japanese soon succeeded in shooting away Peresviet’s signal-flag halyards altogether. The Russian line fell into confusion and retreated to Port Arthur. Evening was drawing on and Togo was running low on ammunition by this time, so he retired without clinching a conclusive win, but having inflicted heavy damage without suffering unduly themselves. Badly mauled, the Tsesarevich limped into Qingdao and was interned, while Askold and Diana also showed a clean pair of heels to pursuit. But the remainder of the Russian fleet turned back for Port Arthur, where it remained bottled up, its battle damage largely unattended, rusting and listing around the harbor: a premonition of defeat. Above left, the Pacific Fleet sorties to the battle. At left appears the Retvizan, perhaps Russia’s best battleship, built by the Cramps yard at Philadelphia and half-sister to the famous battleship Potemkin; at right, the cruiser Askold, which suffered a punctured boiler and lost two of its five funnels in the action, but nevertheless reached Shanghai and safety on the 14th. At left foreground and far right, turn-of-the-century TBs bob in the heavy swell.

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Port Arthur Besieged

Meanwhile the Japanese had been moving a powerful army up the Korean peninsula and across the Yalu to attack Port Arthur from the land. In a dramatic battle fought in a thunderstorm at Nanshan, outside Dalny, on May 25, 1904, Gen. Oku bested the Russian garrison of Chinchou and occupied Dalny (Jap. Dairen), only 16 miles from Port Arthur. Landing supplies and men at Dalny, the Japanese invested Port Arthur starting in late May. The well-trained Japanese troops mounted numerous suicidal frontal assaults on the forts north and east of town. These attacks were repulsed with great losses (in one case, 10,000 killed in 15 hours of fighting). Starting in Nov. 1904, General Nogi deployed his growing strength to tighten the siege of the fortress.

Siege guns crash and thump in an accurate movie re-creation of the siege, as “Gen. Nogi” watches from the left.

This was a deliberate, brutal example of modern siege warfare, foreshadowing the horrific Battle of Verdun and other clashes of the First World War. An extensive siege-works of trenches was dug around the Russian perimeter. Mortars and siege guns of ever greater size were moved up on specially-laid railroad tracks and emplaced to batter down the defenses. Japan’s many batteries were coordinated by a central fire control command, linked by field telephones. All the technology of modern warfare was brought to bear: massive mortars that could shoot a 500-lb projectile five miles; rapid-firing howitzers, machine guns, bolt-action magazine rifles, barbed wire, and hand grenades. The Russians fought back with all the strength conferred by their occupation of the high ground. But gradually the Japanese drew the noose ever tighter. Blockaded by land and sea, the Russians started to run low on food and ammunition. They also suffered from unimaginative leadership verging on incompetence (Gen. Anatoli Stoessel, C-in-C Kuropatkin, Viceroy Alexeiev). With their 5,800-mile supply line — the railroad to Moscow — broken, first their means of fighting and then their will to fight began to flag.
The beginning of the end came on December 6, when Japanese sappers succeeded in tunneling under the ramparts of the fort on 203-meter Hill, the key to the entire position. With a great boom and huge clouds of dust, charges exploded, demolishing the rampart and sending a generous slide of dirt down the steep hillside. This afforded the Japanese a natural ramp upwards as they rushed the fort. In a desperate spate of bayonet work and hand-to-hand fighting, the Japanese stormed the fort and turned its guns on the doomed city. No longer fearing bombardment from the heights, they brought up colossal 11-inch siege guns and began a relentless cannonade of the port and its surrounding forts and batteries. The ships caught in harbor were damaged and sunk in the shallows. One by one the Russian hilltop forts were pummeled into dust.

Things were not good behind Japanese lines. The malnutrition-related disease beri-beri had devastated thousands of the Emperor’s best soldiers. Grieving for the loss of his son in a fruitless assault on 203 Meter Hill, Gen. Nogi contemplated suicide, but steadied by words from the Meiji Emperor himself, he continued to press the campaign. Among the troops, morale held firm, with faith in their commanders and a quasi-religious fervor in the rightness of their Emperor’s cause. On the Russian side, by contrast, things were falling apart. Three quarters of the garrison of 40,000 had been killed or wounded. Ammunition was running low. Starvation was taking a dreadful toll. Morale collapsed.

On December 20, the outer ring of forts capitulated. The city and harbor held out until an armistice could be signed on December 30, formally surrendering on January 2, 1905. In Japan, where the effort to supply and field their great Army had placed considerable strain on society, rejoicing and fireworks greeted the news. The long-cherished objective was now gained, a jewel in the crown of the Mikado’s empire.
But the cost had been steep: 57,780 sons of Japan killed and wounded in action, plus some 30,000 dead of beri-beri The Russians had suffered 31,306 casualties at Port Arthur and were about to suffer many more in other defeats around the theater. Although Russian writings and telegrams from within the fortress had shown a defeatist perspective setting in, the Japanese discovered vast untouched hordes of food, medicine, and ammunition within the walls after the surrender. This suggests sabotage or, at the least, treasonously poor management by the Russian commanders. In the outer forts of the vast and complex Port Arthur system, many of their troops had died of starvation and long run out of ammunition that fall. They were past defending their posts in the final weeks of the siege.
The main objective may have fallen, but the war ground on for many more months, with the centerpiece being the Battle of Mukden (Shenyang), the ancient Manchu capital. In this 21-day siege, the largest land battle in history prior to WWI, the combined Japanese armies attacked on all sides simultaneously, picking off the well-fortified buffer erected by the Russian C-in-C, Gen. Alexei Kuropatkin, one village at a time. Eventually Kuropatkin found himself surrounded and his outlying troops cut off or surrendered; though he had started the battle outnumbering the Japanese 3:2, he was now outnumbered and outflanked; his only option was to abandon the position and retreat. The retreat soon became a rout, with the Japanese driving the defeated Russian army up the rail line toward Harbin and the Siberian border.

The Tsar could not acknowledge defeat, certainly not to members of an Asian race. He replaced Kuropatkin with his subordinate, Gen. Gripenberg, and commanded his remaining Baltic fleet warships to sail from Europe all the way to the Far East, to avenge the defeat of the Pacific Squadron. In reality, the Tsar signed the Baltic fleet’s death sentence; they sailed not to victory but to annihilation at Tsushima. Meanwhile in Manchuria, the Russians were forced back ever further by battle-hardened Japanese armies (at right, a journalist’s impression of a Russian column’s retreat through the winter — click here for a beautiful enlargement). Even then, facing defeat in the East, starvation and revolution at home, the Tsar mulishly stuck to his guns, while the Tsarina Alexandra purred in his ear, “Be more autocratic, darling!”


Peace and Consequences

 

In Japan, meanwhile, the continuing prosecution of the war was severely straining the economy, but the government continued to borrow in order to protect Japanese gains made to date. But there seemed no honorable way out for either side. Enter U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. On June 10, the Chief Executive offered to act as a mediator between the two sides too proud to talk to each other (at left, TR flanked by emissaries from Russia and Japan). Indeed it was high time to end the war: total killed in battle exceeded 25,000 Russians and almost 50,000 Japanese; wounded, some 150,000 Russians and 175,000 Japanese. Informal talks aboard the presidential yacht Mayflower flowered into full-blown peace negotiations at the U.S. naval base in Portsmouth, N.H., with the Russian delegation led by Minister Sergius Witte, the Japanese by Baron Komura. By the terms of the peace treaty, the defeated Russians gave up their claim to Port Arthur and the railway line through Liaodong, and also ceded half of Sakhlin Island, stormed by Japan in a surprise offensive during the final weeks of the war. The Japanese had been confidently expecting to impose a huge indemnity on the Russians for causing the war (much as Bismarck had done on the French for the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and as the western Powers had continually done in their incursions upon China, up to and including the Boxer Rebellion of 1900-01). Roosevelt refused to back Japan’s demand for reparations, and it was not incorporated into the Treaty of Portsmouth which was signed August 29, 1905. When they were made public, the terms of the Treaty caused outrage in Japan. Anti-American riots and demonstrations tore the country for several weeks. Ever sensitive to western racism, the Japanese felt betrayed, just when their arms had triumphed and established them as a rising world power. The residual mistrust from this episode formed an essential piece of the background to the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor 36 years later, as explicitly mentioned in Japan’s 1941 note declaring war. For the moment, however, the Japanese swallowed their pride, becoming exemplary hosts when the Great White Fleet visited their ports three years later on a good-will trip partly intended to impress the island nation with America’s overwhelming naval might, only ten years after the U.S. had become a neighbor by taking over the Philippines and Guam. The Japanese carefully looked over the American ships and remained privately unimpressed.

In Russia, the throne was rocked by a nationwide worker’s revolt sparked by the hardships and deaths caused by the war, and starting in many cases within the Navy. The Tsar remained in power only by agreeing to become a constitutional monarch, ruling in concert with an elected legislature — in effect, by agreeing to “be less autocratic.” A forward-looking government headed by the Tsar’s western-educated minister, Sergius Witte, was put in place, and the nation pitched in to repair the damage done in the war. Under the new arrangement, the Tsar would govern with the consent of an elected legislature, the Duma. Old habits die hard, however. The Russians had no practical experience of democracy on a national level. The ink was hardly dry on the October Declarations when Duma deputies visiting Britain to observe parliamentary procedure, were surprised by the news that the Tsar had dissolved the Duma — the first of many such expressions of imperial displeasure. The Tsar and Tsarina soon reverted to their old ways, becoming ever more imperious, ignoring the extent to which their legitimacy had been undermined by war and unrest. Eight years later, in 1914, the Russian Empire had reverted to autocratic monarchy with only a window-dressing of representative democracy. Such was the nation-state which lurched into the disaster of World War I. The Romanovs stepped willingly into the trap set by Austria-Hungary and Germany. Confronted by strains its corrupt and outdated structure could not bear, their dynasty foundered in a vast social upheaval, pulling down with it the entire autocratic order of Central Europe.

Meanwhile, President Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for brokering the 1905 peace. And in East Asia, Japan was recognized as the leading Power, with an empire including Korea (annexed 1910), Taiwan, the southern half of Sakhalin, and the hard-won foothold in Manchuria. The Liaodong Peninsula and railroad complemented the great naval base Japan had captured at Port Arthur, called Ryojun in Japanese. This territory was technically “leased” from the Chinese government until 1931, when the Japanese military moved to take over all Manchuria, eventually establishing the puppet state of Manchukuo. In 1905 Japan had upset the white-supremacist theories underlying 19th-century imperialism, and bested a European Great Power at its own game. The shock waves of Japan’s victory reverberated throughout the “civilised world,” and the island empire began to command a grudging respect in the West. Port Arthur remained under Japanese rule until the end of WWII, when Stalin’s troops barged in to take their surrender and loot all they could of the great industrial base Japan had built up in Manchuria over 40 years. Soviet troops occupied the Liaodong area until 1950, handing it over to the newly proclaimed Chinese Communist government that year.

Lüshun today is a much quieter place, having been outpaced by nearby Dalian (the former Dalny), now the chief port and provincial capital of Liaodong. But handsome European-style buildings constructed by the imperial powers still stand in Lüshun, and the city is attempting to build a tourist trade based on its spectacular scenery and fascinating history. Dalian too has sought to capitalize on its seven-year Russian heritage, restoring vintage colonial buildings and adding false Tsarist-style façades to communist era structures in the same district. Though lately recovering from a nasty oil spill, the region makes an interesting tourist destination for all who thirst to know more about the imperial rivalries that shaped the 20th century.

 

 

 

ERA REPUBLIC

INTRODUCTION

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

清末两次鸦片战争后,深感海防空虚的清政府开始了旨在国防自的洋务运动,其中建设重点便是创建近代化的海军。筹办之初,中国海军便以英国为师,大量从英国、德国等欧洲国家购买先进武器装备。图为清政府在英国订造的蚊子船这些炮舰为木船外包钢壳,被称为蚊子船,可作近岸防御但不具远洋作战能力。

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

 

1875年,清政府命李鸿章创设北洋水师,每年下拨400万两白银用以训练官兵,购置军舰。1881年,清政府先后选定在旅顺和威海两地修建海军基地。18881217日,北洋海军正式宣告成立。从此,近代中国正式拥有了一支在当时堪称世界第六、亚洲第一的海军舰队。图为1880年清政府向德国订造的铁甲舰,因吨位重、主炮口径大、装甲厚,一度被誉为亚洲第一巨舰。

In 1875, the Qing government ordered Li to the creation of the Northern Navy, allocated four million taels of silver a year for the training of officers and men, the purchase of warships. In 1881, the Qing government has chosen to build a naval base in Port Arthur and Weihai. December 17, 1888, the Northern Navy was officially inaugurated. Since then, modern China officially has a sixth in the world at the time called Asia’s first naval fleet. The picture shows the custom-made 1880 the Qing government to the German ironclads, the “set” because of heavy tonnage, heavy caliber guns, armor thickness, once known as Asia’s first ship in

 

 

北洋海军士兵多招募自山东沿海,入伍后接受严格的西式训练,在六个月时间内必须学会基础的舰上操作知识和英语。而各主要战舰舰长及高级军官几乎全为专门的船政学堂毕业,并多曾到外国海军学院留学实习,是清末中国走在近代化最前端的人群。然而正因为此,北洋海军成了顽固保守派时刻嫉视的目标。图为在威海刘公岛上操练的北洋海军士兵。

Northern sailors and more recruitment from coastal Shandong Province, joined the army to accept the strict Western training must learn, in a six month period based on the ship operational knowledge and English. Major warship captain and senior officers of almost all specialized Chuanzheng graduation, students practice and more than once to foreign Naval Academy, the late Qing Dynasty China walk in the forefront of the modernization of the crowd. However, for this reason, the Northern Navy became a stubborn conservative moment of envy, as the target. The picture shows the drilling in Weihai Liugong Island Northern sailors

 

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这支效法西方海军,以蒸汽化舰船作为主要装备的舰队,在服装制度上,也一改中国上千年以来延续的号衣样式,开始向近代化方向过渡。尽管当时北洋海军服装的样式仍然是中式,但是服装的颜色搭配、袖口的军衔标识等设计理念,都已开始和欧洲接轨。图为一名北洋海军军官接收军舰期间在欧洲拍摄的一幅照片。

This to follow the example of Western naval steam of the ship as the fleet of major equipment, clothing system, changed the style of the continuation of the “livery” in China since thousands of years, began the transition to the modern direction. Even though the style of the Northern Navy clothing is still Chinese, but the colors of the clothing, cuff rank logo design concepts have begun and European standards. The picture shows a Northern naval officer to receive warships in Europe during the shooting of a photo.

 

 

由于清廷内部政治斗争、高层好恶等原因,1888年以后北洋舰队经费大幅减少,到了1890年海军装备更新被迫彻底终止。而时为海军技术突飞猛进之时,日本通过两次海军扩张案迅速崛起。至1894年甲午战争爆发时,北洋舰队原有战舰无论航速、射速,皆落后于日本。而慈禧太后的病态性铺张浪费,给包含海军军费在内的国家财政带来无建设性的负担。

Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888, the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise. To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894, the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive

 

 

1894年初夏,日本挑起旨在侵略朝鲜和中国的甲午战争。1894917日,北洋海军主力与日本联合舰队主力在鸭绿江口海域遭遇,爆发了中日海军的首次决战,史称黄海大东沟海战。图为日本参战军舰西京丸摄到的海战现场,近处的是日本联合舰队军舰,远方烟雾下虚化的舰影是正在向日本联合舰队疾攻的北洋舰队。

The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou. The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet

 

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黄海海战初期,北洋海军意图以横队在多个点上切断、打乱日军的纵队阵型,然而北洋海军各舰舰龄老旧,且航速、火力完全被日军压倒,未能实现既定战术目标,最终陷入被日军的围困。已经遭受重伤的北洋海军舰在舰长邓世昌指挥下向日舰发起自杀式冲锋,意图以此扭转局势,最终不幸功亏一篑,被日军击沉。邓世昌落水后义不独生,拒绝救援,蹈海殉国。

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.

 

 

黄海海战以北洋海军的失利而告终,北洋海军被击沉多艘大型舰艇,但未能击沉一艘日舰,舰船装备损失过重,丧失了黄海制海权。日军先后发起旅顺和威海战役,意图歼灭北洋海军,扫清登陆渤海湾的最后障碍。18952月,经历苦战,弹尽援绝的北洋海军在威海覆灭。图为北洋海军覆灭前,被日军鱼雷重创后搁浅的旗舰为避免落入敌手自爆后的景象。

Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.

 

 

在威海陆地失守之刻,北洋海军提督丁汝昌曾组织全部的海军陆战队渡过海湾,对岸上的日军发起了背水一战的反攻,最终海军陆战队被优势日军压迫至龙庙嘴海滩,全军覆没,丁汝昌自杀。图为战后日军在龙庙嘴附近拍摄到的阵亡的北洋海军陆战队官兵遗体。

Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.

 

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1895217日,日军在海军配合下在刘公岛登陆,济远,广丙,镇中等剩余10舰为日军所俘,北洋舰队全军覆没。随后,清政府派出李鸿章为全权大臣,赴日议和,并于417签定《中日马关条约》,甲午战争结束。北洋海军的覆灭也标志着洋务运动的失败,大清帝国的国际地位一落千丈,再次成为列强鲸吞蚕食的对象。图为被日军占领的北洋海军刘公岛海军公

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall

 

  • ·              战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.

 

 

紧接而来的庚子之变和日俄战争,让清政府意识到重建海军仍是必经之路。1902年开始,大批原北洋海军军官开复原官,并设立海军学校,开始从人才入手重建海军。1909715日,清廷成立筹办海军事务部,由载洵、萨镇冰充任正副筹办海军大臣,合并南北两洋水师,改成立巡洋舰队及长江舰队。中国第一次有了统一的海军指挥机构和海军司令部。图为1905年日俄战争期间,旅顺港,日军军官目击俄军舰被击沉场面。

Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way. 1902 onwards, a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy. July 15, 1909, the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet. China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command. The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

载洵刚一出任就宣布了一个雄心勃勃的发展海军七年规划,计划快速添造头等战舰8艘,巡洋20余艘,各种兵10艘,编制第一、第二、第三各队水鱼雷艇;成立各洋军港和船坞;设立海军大学等。19091910年,载洵、萨镇冰先后出访欧美各国,订购了多艘舰船。图为载洵、萨镇冰一行考察英国海军,前排左二起分别为萨镇冰、载洵。

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College. 1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

 

 

清廷虽然建立了各级海军指挥机构,但出于对汉人的猜忌,上层大量启用皇族、旗人,其中代理海军大元帅载沣、海军大臣载洵都不懂海军业务,萨镇冰等虽是科班出身,却要受皇族节制。海军基层军官大多出身船政学堂,有些还有留洋经历,对清廷缺乏归附感,且对旗人专政、上层腐败认识深刻,普遍失望。这些军官本身也分粤、闽两派,彼此间勾心斗角,内耗严重。图为中国在英国订造的海天舰。

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family. Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

 

 

辛丑前订购的五海巡洋海圻”“海天”“海琛”“海筹”“海容陆续抵达,成为清末海军的主力。而此时海军列强已卷入军备竞赛,英国1艘主力战列舰的吨位,就相当于整个清朝巡洋舰队吨位的总和。军港方面,旅顺、威海都被列强租借,沿海港口也多被瓜分,清廷在浙江象山筹建新港,但直到清亡也没完成。图为海天的姊妹海圻舰造成后,中方接舰军官在舰上的合影,第二排右起第三人为萨镇冰。

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team. Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

进入20纪,效法日本成为了晚清一大风尚。海军购舰和留学的重点也转向日本。至1909年,在日本订购的14舰艇全数到华总计排水量5700吨。这批军舰,构成了后来长江舰队的主力。图为中国在日本订造的军舰下水仪式。

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons. These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

前往日本留学的海军学堂毕业生也逐年增加。1906年,江南水师学堂第五届驾驶班17毕业生中,有12名被派往日本。而不少海军学员在日本接受了革命思想,为了日后倒戈埋下了伏笔。图为清政府海军接收军舰的部分军官在日本与造船厂官员合影。

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection. The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

 

 

1909年,萨镇冰被委为筹备海军大臣和海军提督,统一了官制、旗式、军服、号令,实施了对中国近代海军的第一次科学管理。同年824日至924日,载洵、萨镇冰等人从北京出发,巡视了9个沿海(及长江)省的海防情况,考察了海军学堂、船坞,并参加了象山辟港典礼。至191110月辛亥革命爆发共计16年半的时间里,清政府外购军舰39艘,排水量共34728吨(均不含未能来华之军舰)。国产军舰24艘,排水量共10564

 

Important to Revolution broke out in mid-January 1907,

 

the United League headquarters staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Division Zhongkai, council Speaker Wang Jingwei Members include Qiu Jin 27. Acquaintance with my grandfather Zhongkai, served over the headquarters of Mr Xiongke Wu Mao Xin and Kang Baozhong. Home with my family is a long-time friend of my family with him to stay in the mainland’s two daughter but successful culvert and but successful Tao has been there contact, while Kang Baozhong is Kang heart Fu, his younger brother Kang heart of the eldest son Kang country dry marry my big aunt Li Xianhua wife .

Tian Tong, Hu Tao and Li Zhaofu secretary of his colleagues, they are older than my grandfather, and later on the road are also different. Hubei But Tao longer than seven years of my grandfather participated in the revolution, and the subsequent experiences similar to my grandfather.

 

1909,

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy. Same year in August 24 to September 24, contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony. To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships). Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

191158日,清政府成立皇族内阁,令各地立宪派大失所望,革命活动也日渐活跃。1010日,武昌起义揭开了辛亥革命的大幕。湖广总督瑞瀓匆匆逃上停泊在武汉江面的炮舰避难。12日,清廷迅速组建围剿机构,由陆军大臣荫昌统一指挥,赶赴武汉镇压。图为清军向革命军施行火攻,汉口街市燃起大火。

 

After the revolution, he served as the State Council, secretary of Tang Shaoyi, the Yuan Shikai implementation monarchy in 1914,

 

he immediately resigned from all his posts, Zheju Shanghai. He then also in politics, but mostly served as secretary to monitor and rank, and later to devote themselves to literature and history to hospice. Break with fellow Hubei Tian Tong opposition Uniting Russia Yung policy therefore has not worked as office, is running a newspaper and writings, and the highest official Hu Hanmin Xinhai retired from politics in the several active until his death in 1936.

Why join the United League, Li Zhaofu did not leave a few words, but contemporary Concord heart, such as (1890-1969) has been mentioned in the memories: 1902, Heart fu brother (1884-1917) to Xi’an Provincial Examination back, talking about the Hundred Days after reforms of talk enraptured, Kang and Liang infinite admiration admire my three brothers take alias Fu the Brother No. hormone Acts, Kang long prime only I

 

No. Greek any hope from the elder Liang’s younger brother the number look complex, looking up at Tan Fu-sheng (Note 2) Kangjiahui was living in Sichuan Pengshan, Shanghai publishing newspaper to be more than a month to read.

The remoteness of young people by the political reform impact is so great, not to mention a grandfather living in Beijing.

In 1907,

Li Zhaofu Sichuan alliance members Tie Cliff, Deng floc Dongxiu Wu and other revolutionary publication founded in Tokyo, Japan, the cuckoo’s song “magazine, after being closed by the Japanese authorities. In between, he purchased the shipment of arms to support Huanghuagang uprising. Li Zhaofu returning from Japan in 1910. My father said, after the Wuchang Uprising, the grandfather was another revolutionaries go Jining Zhili, the state capital. He pistol coercion the Jining capital surrendered to the Revolutionary Party, also forced the magistrate to know the state of hanging white flag.
Important to Revolution broke out in mid-January 1907,

 

the United League headquarters staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Division Zhongkai, council Speaker Wang Jingwei Members include Qiu Jin 27. Acquaintance with my grandfather Zhongkai, served over the headquarters of Mr Xiongke Wu Mao Xin and Kang Baozhong. Home with my family is a long-time friend of my family with him to stay in the mainland’s two daughter but successful culvert and but successful Tao has been there contact, while Kang Baozhong is Kang heart Fu, his younger brother Kang heart of the eldest son Kang country dry marry my big aunt Li Xianhua wife .

Tian Tong, Hu Tao and Li Zhaofu secretary of his colleagues, they are older than my grandfather, and later on the road are also different. Hubei But Tao longer than seven years of my grandfather participated in the revolution, and the subsequent experiences similar to my grandfather.

 

After the revolution, he served as the State Council, secretary of Tang Shaoyi, the Yuan Shikai implementation monarchy in 1914,

he immediately resigned from all his posts, Zheju Shanghai. He then also in politics, but mostly served as secretary to monitor and rank, and later to devote themselves to literature and history to hospice. Break with fellow Hubei Tian Tong opposition Uniting Russia Yung policy therefore has not worked as office, is running a newspaper and writings, and the highest official Hu Hanmin Xinhai retired from politics in the several active until his death in 1936.

Why join the United League, Li Zhaofu did not leave a few words, but contemporary Concord heart, such as (1890-1969) has been mentioned in the memories: 1902, Heart fu brother (1884-1917) to Xi’an Provincial Examination back, talking about the Hundred Days after reforms of talk enraptured, Kang and Liang infinite admiration admire my three brothers take alias Fu the Brother No. hormone Acts, Kang long prime only I

 

No. Greek any hope from the elder Liang’s younger brother the number look complex, looking up at Tan Fu-sheng (Note 2) Kangjiahui was living in Sichuan Pengshan, Shanghai publishing newspaper to be more than a month to read.

The remoteness of young people by the political reform impact is so great, not to mention a grandfather living in Beijing.

In 1907,

Li Zhaofu Sichuan alliance members Tie Cliff, Deng floc Dongxiu Wu and other revolutionary publication founded in Tokyo, Japan, the cuckoo’s song “magazine, after being closed by the Japanese authorities. In between, he purchased the shipment of arms to support Huanghuagang uprising. Li Zhaofu returning from Japan in 1910. My father said, after the Wuchang Uprising, the grandfather was another revolutionaries go Jining Zhili, the state capital. He pistol coercion the Jining capital surrendered to the Revolutionary Party, also forced the magistrate to know the state of hanging white flag

   

The failure of the Boxer Rebellion to eject the West and the humiliation of the Chinese by the terms of the Peace of Peking generated more support for nationalist revolutionaries.

In 1911

the Ch’ing Dynasty collapsed. Revolutionaries led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen then took over the Chinese government, ending more than 2,000 years of monarchy. (The Photo is of Dr Sun Yat-sen

 

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION: NATIONALIST

The Revolution of 1911

   

In the industrial city of Wuhan, a soldiers’ groupwith only a loose connection to Sun’s alliance rose in rebellion in the early morning of

Oct. 10, 1911

(since celebrated as Double Ten, the tenth day of the tenth month). The Manchu governor and his commander fled, and a Chinese ommander, Li Yuan-hung, was pressured into taking over the leadership. By early December all of the central, southern, and northwestern provinces had declared independence. Sun Yat-sen, who was in the United States during the revolution, returned and was chosen head of the provisional government of the Republic of China in Nanjing. (The Photo is of Li Yuan-hung)

    The Manchu court quickly summoned Yuan Shih-kai, the former commander of the reformed Northern Army. Personally ambitious and politically shrewd, Yuan carried out negotiations with both the Manchu court and the revolutionaries. Yuan was able to persuade the Manchus to abdicate peacefully in return for the safety of the imperial family.

 

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active. October 10, the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge. On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression. The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

鉴于三镇襟带江汉,舰船作用巨大,清廷又令萨镇冰率海军助剿。萨镇冰自13日自高昌庙率楚有楚豫楚秦江元建威舰以及鱼雷艇6艘起航,15日就至汉口江心,比陆军还早两天通知各国领事,等海军军舰到齐,便开炮轰城。图为武汉江面上的长江水师战船。

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

 

 

对于革命初期大批起义的新军,海军投身革命的极少。一则舰艇部门繁多,一二人振臂高呼难以控制全舰;二则待遇大大优于陆军,导致海军军官在政治上比较保守;三则革命党人的工作重心主要集中在新军和会党。因此在统治者来说,海军是他们用以镇压人民反抗的重要工具。加之革命军水上力量薄弱,长江舰队对其构成了重大威胁。图为九江革命军的简陋炮船。

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies . Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

时,清廷的三艘主力巡洋舰海筹海容海琛也已奉命开赴武汉江面助战。这三艘舰上见过世面的官兵较多,同情革命的是主流。海琛舰军官张怿伯则联络各主力舰官兵,打仗时尽量不瞄准,不是放空就是射向江面。而其他炮舰中有多艘原归属湖北省,舰员出于香火之情不愿力战。左上图:海筹;右上图:海琛;下图:海容

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

 

 

总司令萨镇冰虽是蒙古族旗人,却是职业海军将领,更与黎元洪有师生之谊,到汉以后没有积极布置进攻革命军。当接到黎元洪的策反信时,他也不置可否,既不响应革命,也不卖力作战。海军和革命军相隔3000多米对射,彼此炮弹却都落在水面,没有造成损失。部分海军官兵已萌发同情起义的思想,革命军开始继续争取海军。图为革命军在襄河旁守卫。

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces. When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

 

到了11月初,下游省份大多独立,海军成了,且缺煤、缺饷,陆军又因派系成见不予接济。武汉军政府政事部长汤化龙给其弟弟,萨镇冰的参谋官,汤芗铭送去劝降密信。汤芗铭随即在海容舰召集各舰军官密谋起义,被各舰代表推为起义舰队临时司令。身为旗人的萨镇冰进退两难,见军心已经动摇,悄然离舰去了上海。汤芗铭接管舰队指挥权后,开始协助革命军打击清军。图为汤芗铭。

Downstream provinces are mostly independent, early November, the Navy became the “Jiang Jun”, and the coal shortage, lack of rates, the Army because of factional prejudices is not aid. The conduct of public affairs, Minister Tang Hualong, Wuhan Jun government to his brother, the the Bodhisattva town ice Staff Officer, Tang Xiang Ming sent to capitulate secret letter. Tang Xiang Ming immediately Hoi Yung ship, called the Gejian officers conspired uprising, Gejian on behalf of push for the temporary commander of the uprising fleet. As a Manchu Sa town ice dilemma, see the morale of the troops had been shaken, quietly away from the ship to Shanghai. Tang Xiang Ming took over the fleet command, began to assist the revolutionary army against the Qing. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

由于大多数清朝基层海军官兵为粤、闽籍,和起义官兵是同学、同乡,主力舰艇起义后,清军残留各地的舰艇纷纷起义。图为九江军政府民政长林森说服海军起义。

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

清政府重建的海军,在清廷尚未垮台之时就已全部起义,成为革命党人手中一支重要的军事力量。图为起义海军士兵准备进攻南京。

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

 

图为军的舰载诺登飞机关炮被拆卸上岸参加进攻南京。

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

126日,革命军在上海成立海军总司令部,公推程璧光为海军总司令,黄钟英为副总司令,汤芗铭为巡洋舰司令长,此时清廷已解除载洵海军大臣职务,由副大臣谭学衡出任末代海军大臣,却已经既没有海,也没有海军。1912212日,清帝逊位,中国长达两千年之久的君主专制制度宣告结束。图为汤芗铭率领的主力舰队正在北上进入渤海湾,清军最终无一舰出击。

December 6,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy. February 12, 1912, the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

清末海军的主力舰为五海,其中海琛海筹海容在革命后起义,海天舰则在1904年触礁沉没。而最大的海圻舰则在辛亥革命发生时,由巡洋舰队统领程璧光率领,以大清海军战舰的身份出访,参加英国国王乔治五世加冕阅舰礼。图为海圻舰出访期间停泊美国纽约。

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong” After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904. “Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

 

 

纽约媒体发现,海圻舰所有海军官兵脑后,清代中国人特有的那根辫子已荡然无存。原来,早在海圻离开上海之前,经报请清廷,舰上的军官就已全部剪除了发辫。海圻舰也成为了满清政府海军中的唯一一艘全舰官兵都剪掉辫子的军舰。图为剪掉辫子的海圻舰士兵出席纽约官方举办的欢迎仪式。

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

为孙中山的同乡老友,程璧光在得到革命消息之后经过商讨,召集全舰官兵,下令革命者站右舷,不愿者站左舷结果全舰官兵、连同访美时纽约造船厂厂长赠送的舰猫均站到右舷。191211日,远在英国的海圻舰举行易帜仪式,降下清朝黄龙旗,升起民国五色旗。19125月,历经30850海里航程的海圻舰回到出发港上海,此时的中国大地已不再是帝制时代。

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

 

 

December 2, 1911,

 

Jiangsu and Zhejiang revolutionary army in the capture of Nanjing, so the provincial representatives decided to Nanjing as the temporary seat of government in the preparatory process of the interim government in Nanjing, because the competition for power between the various forces wrangling until the Sun Yat-sen returned to Shanghai at the end of December,

 

only to open the deadlock., Sun Yat-sen then pushed for the provisional president, and the provisional government of the Republic of China was formally established

Driwancybermuseum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

The Dr Iwan Cybermuseum Galery

 INTRODUCTION

 

I just starting to built my Masterpieces History Collections museum in Jakarta.

I have found very good Maur Museum display collections and this info will be my based

And I also look the other better history Museum In Melaka

 

Kelantan gold coin

The Malaysian Independent History Museum

This museum give me an idea how to arranged the informations

I hope my cybermuseum will be on of the best history museum in the world

I have just meet the owner of Zheng He Museum Penang at Kuala Lumpur november 2013, and we meet agrrement to colloaberation in his museum which be  soft opening in February 2014, and in june will launching.

This is the mutual benefit send by Mr Robert Yeap to me, I hope our coloaberation will be in good condition

Roberty
Nov 25 (8 days ago)

to me

Hello Dr. Iwan and Lily, thank you for meeting me n my family- it is great to know someone with your passion for history! Here is a update of our discussions n action plan, best regards, robertY

Mutual Exchange of Benefit
ZH= ZhengHe muse um
IS= Dr. Iwan Suwandy

1) ZH to sell physical copies of CD, DVD, books, articles written by IS-100% sales $ to give IS

2) ZH create souvenir from image copy of objects loan by IS~50% of sales less cost to give IS

3) ZH attribute to IS any information, image of artifact ( coin, banknote, letter, stamp, document, photo, drawing, map etc.) provided

4) ZH arrange secure display visuals, insurance on of any original artifact (no collection value, example   Half ceramic plate, bowl  to be used as comparative study to new reproduction copies of original) by IS  and attribute accordingly

5) ZH arrange secure display visuals, dedicated CCTV, sensor and other electronic security, seperate insurance against damage, fire, theft
on Collection materiel . (near intact ceramics, coin, banknote, stamp,  original map photo, letter, documents loan by IS)
ZH will display Dedication in memory of persons to be honored by IS

6) ZH invite Dr. IS to ZH board of Advisors immediately

7) Dr. IS to nominate person to ZH Council of Museum Trust upon creation of #5

8) tentative timing of #5,  #7 is 2015 after IS visit to ZH ‘s official open  in June 2014(concurrently Georgetown Festival)

9) preparation and work on #1 -4 between now and Feb 2014, soft open of ZH

10) Thank you for accepting #6 and look forward to your particiation- when we meet and discuss – about once every 4 months; we will connect via Skype tele conference. It’s Free!.

Due to the cooalaberation, I send some info for him to put in the useum, in this web log without illustrations and fro Mr Robert I will send the illustration he need.

FOR COMPARATIVE STUDY,BETTER WE LOOK THE SAME BEST CHINESE KAPITAN MUSUEM IN PENANG,LOOK BELOW,AND ALSO OTHER MUSEUM MASUR

Jakarta November 2013

Dr Iwan suwandy MHA

 

cHINESE KAPITAN MSUEUJM PENANG

Pinang Peranakan Museum (Hai Kee Chan)

Written by Shirley T   
Thursday, 30 July 2009 05:07
 

Pinang Peranakan MansionPinang Peranakan Mansion

Remember that I did a review on Little Nyonya – the Singapore blockbuster drama serial starring Jeanette Aw as an entrepreneur Nyonya not too long ago? If you are a fan of Little Nyonya (like me!), take a visit to Pinang Peranakan Mansion! Stepping in this place and get the feel like the crews. As I arrived at the entrance, the pale green facade seems familiar. Yes, many scenes in Little Nyonya were made here as Chen’s family house.

Iron gate and balcony with pale green facadeIron gate and balcony with pale green facade

At the gate of this historic mansion, there are a pair of metal crowns to welcome us. The crowns signify the glory of British era in Penang. I was impressed with the grand balcony of a Straits eclectic design. The pillars resembled a European influence whereas the gold colored floral designed iron arts of the balcony looks similar to Malays crafting. This rich Baba home has faithfully stood here since late 19th century and managed through many hands! 

Delicate ornamented doorwayDelicate ornamented doorway

Compiling almost everything a typical Peranakan family house used to have, Pinang Peranakan Mansion or formerly known as ‘Hai Kee Chan’ is tucked away in Church Street of the George Town Heritage Zone. This mansion symbolizes the legacies of Peranakan and herald the preservation of one-of-its kind architecture.

Chinese carved wood on door panelChinese carved wood on door panel

Baba Nyonya or Peranakan is a term used to describe the descendants of 15th or 16th century Chinese immigrants to Nusantara during the colonial era. With the current population about 7 million, they are mainly dispersed in the region of Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Record stated that the Chinese immigrants back then married the local Malays women and as a result this community is more or less adopting or assimilating into the local cultures especially in their dressing, cooking and language. However, the Peranakans do worship their ancestral and common faiths are Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism or Confucianism. Some younger generations of Peranakan have also embraced Christianity resulted from English education.

Dining chamberDining chamber

At present, this ethnic group is almost reaching the vulnerable stage, whereby modernization does not go hand in hand with Peranakan style of living anymore! In fact, very few Peranakan communities in Penang, Malacca or Singapore do retain their lifestyle and even identity. Nowadays, they are usually mistakenly referred as Malaysian Chinese or Singaporean Chinese instead!

Ancestral HallAncestral Hall

Coming back to Pinang Peranakan Mansion, this building was once served as he residence and office of Kapitan Cina Chung Keng Kwee. The architecture of this building is very unique as it incorporates Chinese carved-wood panels with English floor tiles and Scottish iron-works.

Kapitan Cina Chung Keng KweeKapitan Cina Chung Keng Kwee

Classical staircaseClassical staircase

As I strolled inside, there is a square concrete bowl that is overlooking the sky. There is no roof so it is exposed to both rain and sun. With sun, the nearby vicinity is brighten under natural light. And as rain pouring, it works to trap the water and funnel to the underneath drainage.

Central bowlCentral bowl

The wing that is closer to the main road (Church Street) is designed for business discussion among the gentlemen. While the smaller chamber beside is the lady’s room whereby the Nyonyas were playing cherki (card game) and enjoyed eating betel nut.

Want to play cherki?Want to play cherki?

Potty? ..it is used to collect the seeds of betel nutPotty? ..it is used to collect the seeds of betel nut

Of the opposite end, it is the guest dining hall whereby ‘tok panjang‘ is situated. Tok panjang or literally translated as ‘long table’ is used by the Peranakan family to prepare feast for their guests. For English group, the rich Baba would usually prepare a special room with European cutlery, teapot set and dining style.

Tok panjang or Long table to prepare feast for guestsTok panjang or Long table to prepare feast for guests

English diningEnglish dining

As I climbed up the lovely wooden stairs, it leads me to the upper floor whereby all the antiques are on displayed. They includes a huge vintage standing camera, brooches (keronsang), hair pins (cucuk sanggul), covered jars (kamcheng), metal belts, gold bracelets and many other woman accessories.

Kamcheng (Covered jars)Kamcheng (Covered jars)

Vintage items from top left (clock-wise): Traveling baggage, radio, vinyl record player, talcVintage items from top left (clock-wise): Traveling baggage, radio, vinyl record player, talc

Vintage camera - so huge!Vintage camera – so huge!

Do not miss to visit some of the chambers that features the traditional bridal room, various vanity tables and sewing room whereby the Nyonya long shirts (baju panjang), embroideries and beaded shoes (kasut manik) are displayed. 

Peranakan bridal roomPeranakan bridal room, check out what’s underneath the bed i.e. a hen and a cock?

Headgear of the bride and groomHeadgear of the bride and groom

That’s not about it. Kitchen is a must in every Peranakan family as all the nyonyas were the culinary experts before marriage. In this mansion, its kitchen is relatively the biggest compares to most Penangites’ kitchen area. From making dishes to desserts, they had every mold and tool to serve the best delicacy!

Peranakan's kitchenPeranakan’s kitchen

I personally would not called this place a mansion, it deserves the name as Pinang Peranakan Museum. Each item in this mansion speaks for itself. You have to come and see by yourself this amazing heritage!

Visiting hours: Monday to Sunday & Public Holiday from 9:30 am to 5:00 pm

Admission:
Adult: RM6& free for children below 6 years old (subject to change without notice)

The legacy mansion of Baba NyonyaThe legacy mansion of Baba Nyonya

MASUR MUSEUM ORIENTAL ART OBJECTS EXHIBIT

by Dean S. Hartley, Jr.

 

INTRODUCTION

In order to appreciate Oriental art and artifacts, it is necessary to understand first the relationships which have existed from time immemorial between the various countries of that part of the world. In a very great many instances there is a direct and traceable line of relationship and artistic dependency, while in other cases, each country followed its own unique cultural heritage.

It is inevitable that China, which was called the Middle Kingdom (i.e., the center of all social and cultural excellence) should have been the primary and pervading influence. With its thousands of years of superbly organized civilization; with its common written language which allowed widely different groups to communicate even though their spoken languages were mutually unintelligible; with its profound philosophies and deep respect for scholastic achievement; and with its continued reverence for the past and maintenance of historical records, it could in no way avoid exerting a powerful influence – on Japan, on Korea, on the whole complex of Burma and Southeast Asia, and in fact, indirectly,

 on the then relatively young cultures of Europe. This influence may be discerned by the observant person in many of the artifacts on display here.

Just as surely, however, one should realize that the genuine imprint of the Japanese spirit and people is evident, both in those items which are peculiarly Japanese, and in the adaptations which the Japanese have made of Chinese ideas. This same admonition applies to other countries represented by the items on display. For example, for many centuries, just as French was the recognized language of the educated and cultural persons of the courts of England and mainland Europe, so Chinese was the badge of education and culture in Japan. A truly scholarly person was one who could converse, compose extemporaneously a beautiful poem, or write with his brush in formal Chinese. Even so – and even though Japanese is still written in Kan-ji (literally, “Chinese characters”), the spoken language is truly Japanese – sometimes, however, with alternate pronunciations closely resembling the ancient Chinese. It is the practice, from childhood, of writing/drawing these characters with ink and brush which has led to the distinctive and easily recognized style of painting and decoration in most of the Chinese and Japanese art work.

While Buddhism was “imported” from China around the 5th Century A.D. – and with it, specialists in sculpture, pottery, bronze casting, and many other arts – the Japanese sword (Nippon-To) is completely and uniquely Japanese. One other observation of “relationships” concerns the importance of Korea to this trio of separate cultures. Korea, as a stepping stone between China and Japan, inevitably added some of its own individuality and national character to ideas and methods which passed back and forth between the two larger, more powerful countries. So, although each was influenced by all the others, each still retains its own unique characteristics.

In examining the similarities and dissimilarities, this catalogue will call your attention to several specially designated and numbered items or areas of interest, and will attempt to present some salient points of information about each.

You may find it helpful to refer to the chronological chart in the back of the catalogue in order to clarify the comparative dates of, say, Sung Chinese, Koryo Korean, and Heian Japanese periods. The time actually represented in this show extends from about the Fourth Century A.D. to the present. Even so, a definite continuity can be observed in style and shape. We hope you find the items and display interesting and informative.

Dean S. Hartley

 

 

 

 


ITEMS OF SPECIAL INTEREST

1. Wooden figure of ZAO GONGEN, Kamakura period of Japan (1192-1336 A.D.). Zao Gongen is a deity of the Shinto religion. Shinto, which is a purely Japanese religion based upon the myths of the creation and growth of Japan, coexists in complete harmony with the imported Buddhism, which became popular there in the fifth century A.D. So harmoniously do they exist together that there has been significant cross-transfer of ideas, “heroes”, and in some instances, divinities. There is no thought of conflict in following a Shinto ceremony by attendance at and participation in a Buddhist service. The figure is of wood, with “dry lacquer” applied as a finish. Remnants of colored decoration can still be seen.

2. Japanese armor (GUSOKU), the helmet signed “Yoshimasa,” and dated to about 1535 A.D. (Momoyama Period). This armor, with the closely placed lacing, is probably that of a General Officer or other high ranking official. The armor of lower ranks and foot soldiers (when they wore any) was characterized by much wider spaced lacings. The helmet of 62 separate plates riveted together is a fine example of the most advanced style of armor making. The lacings are employed to fasten together separate steel plates (covered with lacquer to cover sharp edges and prevent rusting) so as to provide the greatest flexibility and light weight. You will notice that the arms and legs are covered with a chain mail not dissimilar to that employed in Europe at about the same time in history. Unlike the heavy plate armor of Europe, however, which immobilized a “grounded” knight, a Japanese warrior could fight very well afoot. The fan is a symbol of authority or command. The silver inlaid iron objects at either side of his feet are stirrups, which date to about 1650 A.D. The sword was, in this case, called a TACHI, and was worn slung at the left side, cutting edge down, as we wear our swords.

3. The Japanese sword has been regarded with the deepest reverence throughout the history of Japan. It is the finest cutting weapon ever devised; it has been called “the soul of the Samurai,” and it is a work of art to which even an Emperor (Go-Toba, ca. 1198) may turn his own physical efforts. The Samurai is the traditional “knight” of the feudal society of ancient Japan. He lived by a code as strict as any known to history, and was ready to pay with his own life (seppuku, commonly known as hara-kiri) for falling short of his duties. While the older style was to carry a TACHI – a sword worn blade edge down at the waist – changing styles of warfare led to the KATANA, worn the scabbard thrust through the sash, cutting edge up. As a mark of distinction,

only Samurai were allowed to wear two swords (a long and a medium), as may be seen in the large scroll (No.4) close by. The longer of this pair dates to about 1394, while the shorter dates to about 1504. Note that the scabbards and mounts are a matching set. Merchants were sometimes allowed to wear a single sword, which was usually much more gaudily decorated (3.A.), and court wear also allowed much richer mounts (3.B.) than these primarily fighting swords.

4. During the period immediately following the opening of Japan in the latter 19th Century and very early 20th Century, it was considered “in” for European and American diplomats to have their sons painted in full Samurai regalia as in this scroll. Notice the manner of wearing the DAI-SHO-TO (Long-Short-Swords).

5. Since the beginning of the Eighth Century (at the latest), the manner of forging swords by hand has followed the same traditional methods. Even at that early date, the Japanese swordsmiths achieved technological mastery of the metallurgy of forging and tempering steel that allowed them to make blades with cutting edges which are equal to the middle range of modern tool steel in hardness and toughness. The two bare blades shown here were made by the same procedures, differing in appearance only by minor shape variations and a different pattern in the edge tempering. As it happens, each of these blades is signed and dated – the top one by YOSHI, dated 1345 A.D., while the bottom is by YASUNORI, dated 1935. The plain wooden scabbard below is for storage, not use, and is called SHIRASAYA (white scabbard).

6. The rough looking iron items shown here were prepared in 1963 by Mr. FUJIMURA KUNITOSHI as examples of the various techniques in forging a sword blade. The method he employed in extracting his iron from sand-iron ore, in purifying it, and in combining portions of different hardness to form a blade to his design were identical with those of his spiritual ancestor – the swordsmith of 705 A.D. Mr. Fujimura was a very famous modern swordsmith, having won many prizes for making swords in the manner of famous smiths of seven hundred years ago. He died in 1966 of a stroke while making a sword in his forge. He was 72 years old.

7. Although swords were the primary weapons, the Japanese warrior – and his wife – had many others to choose from under special circumstances. The blades were all forged in the same manner as sword blades, and were equally well made. This strongly curved blade is called a NAGINATA, and was the primary weapon used by the women of a warrior household in defending their home against attack. When not in use, the scabbard with the clan insignia (MON) is placed over the blade. Note the other shapes – generally called YARI – which were used by men, either afoot or on horseback. The very odd pole with the spikes and “fish-hook” head was used to apprehend fleeing criminals – the fish-hooks to twist into his flowing kimono sleeves, the spikes to prevent him from releasing the hooks. It is called a SODE-GARAMI (sleeve grabber).

7.A. This matchlock gun was developed from one obtained by trading with a Portuguese sailor who landed on the remote small southern island of Tanegashima in 1542 A.D. From that time until Japan was “re-opened” in the 1850’s by Admiral Perry,

 they followed the same pattern and mechanism, not improving or changing as the European and American gunmakers did. This was primarily because of the absolute pre-eminence of the sword as a weapon. This style of gun is called TEPPO.

8. Despite the fairly striking regalia of the young man in the scroll previously discussed at No. 4., Samurai were allowed no personal jewelry or decoration, so that whatever ostentation was permitted was found on the swords. For battle, of course, complete sets of iron mounts were appropriate (No. 3, previously described), but for civilian or social occasions, richer sets of “clothes” (mounts) were permitted. This sword guard (TSUBA) of red copper, and the matching handle to the small utility knife carried in a slot in the scabbard were made by a famous Tsuba-maker named JOI around 1750. Other mounts show various rich designs employed in this single area of Samurai personal decoration.

9. CHA-NO-YU – the Japanese tea ceremony – was originally a monastic custom introduced by Japanese Buddhists who had gone to China to study. The essence of the tea ceremony may be translated by such words as calmness, rusticity, harmonious yet unbalanced beauty. The mood is quiet, contemplative, and rigidly ceremonial. Every move has a specific meaning and importance, and each is dedicated to the achievement of the appropriate feeling of total harmony with one’s world. Since, to a great degree, the Samurai code was based upon other aspects of Buddhist teachings, there is nothing incongruous in a Samurai having participated in a honorable battle in the morning and enjoying the quietness of CHA-NO-YU in the afternoon. It is all a part of the totality of the Samurai world as seen from his own understanding of the teachings of the Buddha. It is for this reason that the tea ceremony items have deliberately been placed near those of the warrior. Generally, the idea of calmness, simplicity, and oneness with the entire world precluded gaudy utensils in the ceremony itself, although occasionally an exception will be made in the case of a very fine item made by a famous potter of tea ceremony items. The utensils are not usually made as sets, since each piece has its own – sometimes historical – personality. Those shown here are:

a. Cha-wan (tea bowl)
b. Mizuzashi (covered water jar)
c. Cha-ire (small covered tea container)
d. Cha-sen (bamboo tea-whisk for stirring)
e. Ken-sui (broad, open waste-water bowl)
f. Cha-saku (bamboo tea ladle)

As you look around, you will see various styles of tea-bowls – some genuinely old Chinese bowls, which the Japanese particularly admired – some from the many kilns which specialized in this type of potting. You will also see incense containers (KO-GO),  incense burners (KO-RO), vases for single flowers or sprays, dishes for small cakes, etc., all used from time to time in various styles of CHA-NO-YU.

 

10. Rice wine (SAKE) is the favorite alcoholic drink of the Japanese and Chinese. These are some examples of the iron kettle to heat it (it is served hot), the small individual bottles in which it is served, and the very small cups from which it is drunk. It is also drunk from flat lacquer saucers, one of which you see here.

11. China was almost certainly the first country to perfect the manufacture of porcelain. This small bowl of the Western Chin dynasty (265 – 316 A.D.), while in no way impressive of itself, is a precursor of the beautiful celadons of the later Sung dynasty. This ware is called “Old Yueh,” and has one of the earliest controlled color glazes (some Han dynasty ware had a controlled black glaze). The ware itself is porcelainous stoneware, which developed further in the beautiful multicolor T’Ang glazes (notice the later copy of a T’Ang horse, with accurate glaze colors elsewhere in the displays). In later T’Ang periods, a near porcelain was developed, and in the early Sung dynasty, true porcelain was developed. There were several kilns,  which achieved this goal, the wares being such as Ting and Ching Pai. 11.A. is an example of the Ch’ing Pai ware made around the 10th – 13th Centuries. Other Sung dynasty stoneware pieces may be seen here too.

11.B. Concurrent with the Sung dynasty – and extending both earlier and later in Korea – the development of ceramics also proceeded, drawing on native ideas as well as imported Chinese skills and techniques. This bowl is of the Korean Koryo period – around 1150 A.D., and shows Korean adaptation of the Chinese glazes. Other Korean items are arranged with this piece.

12. Developing along lines peculiar to their own cultural preferences, the Koreans produced during the Yi dynasty (1392-1910) a variety of glazes on stoneware and porcelainous articles. This white glazed sake bottle of the middle period of Yi represents a typically Korean rendition, and the one most commonly associated with this period. Other glazes evolved during this period range from refinements of the crackled celadons to opaque cream glazes.

DRIWANCYBERMSUEUM

INDONESIAN HISTORY MUSEUM

The Chronology Of  development

1973

By the time the police on duty at e KOMRES Solok Helath Clinic , each week holiday to the in-laws house in Padang Panjang to go to church and then to Bukittinggi and it was here for the first time the author met with Datuk Man who gave information about his collection of Chinese ceramics.

For the first time  in Solok the  author purchase  porcelain plate  with Chinese calligraphy meaning unknown in good condition, now known means that shou longevity meaning many lucky , this plate from the Late Qing Dynasty stacked burner technique so there are footprints on the tiles middle of the plate, known as hoof plate, the plate is not rare at that time but it’s been difficult to obtain in large size and good condition at this time, currently in the collection of the author there are two plates du measure see the illustration below.

 

This plate gives motivation to the author to learn Chinese calligraphy characters, and very lucky to find in the city of Padang in 1973 published a book in shanghai China 194o in English with a clear picture of Chinese character either ancient alphabet (old character), and the old characters (vintage ) at that time.

 

Based on studies with the lguifance of imited edition book  (only 1000 edition) the author begin to understand the meaning of calligraphy on ceramics and art objects of the Kingdom of China were found.
Please read and enjoyed the chapter tersediri calligraphy motif

Original info

Pada saat bertugas di esehatan POLisi KOMRES Solok, setiap minggu libur ke rumah mertua di Padang Panjang untuk ke gereja dan setelah itu ke Bukittinggi dan disinilah buat pertama kali penulis bertemu dengan Man Datuk yang memberikan informasi tentang koleksi keramik dari Tiongkok.

Buat pertama kali di Solok penulis membeli piring porselein dengan kaligrafi Tiongkok yang tidak diketahui maknanya dalam kondisi yang bagus, sekarang sudah diketahui artinya yaitu shou arti panjang umur banyak reseki

,Piring ini dari Dinasti Qing Akhir dengan teknik pembakar ditumpuk sehingga ada bekas kaki keramik di bagian tengah piring yang dikenal dengan piring tapak kuda,piring ini tidak langka saat itu tetapi saat ini sudah sulit memperolehnya dalam ukuran besar dan kondisi bagus saat ini, saat ini dalam koleksi penulis ada dua piring dengan du ukuran lihat ilustrasi dibawah ini.

Piring ini memberikan motivasi kepada penulis untuk mempelajari aksara kaligrafi Tiongkok, dan sangat beruntung menemukan di Kota Padang tahun 1973 sebuah buku terbitan shanghai Tiongkok tahun 194o dalam bahasa inggris dengan gambaran aksara Tiongkok yang jelas baik aksara kuno(old character) , dan aksara lama(vintage ) saat itu .

 

 

Berdasarkan studi dengan petunjuk buku edisi terbatas tersebut (hanya 1000 edisi) penulsi mulai memahami makna kaligrafi pada keramik dan benda seni dari Kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan.

Silahkan dibaca dan dinikmati dalam bab tersediri motif Kaligrafi.

1979

I saw a copy of the ceramic and the help of my sister Elina Widyono current American Citizens In Los Angeles I can buy ceramic sebuak book titled USA for 40 dollars
The Pottery And Porcelain Volume I, By William E.Cox, revise Edition, New York, 1979

This book describes the complete kinds and types of ceramics from the Kingdom of China, Korea,
Japan and Europe.
With the help of this book the author began to assemble a collection of West Sumatra, but most of the period of Late Qing dynasty, and there are several of the Ming Dynasty.
The book is unfortunately not fully colored, mostly black and white illustrasinya so sylit ceramic motifs for identification and also in the form of sketches just so Juka brand (mark)
Begin the author began to understand the meaning of a ceramic motif but very limited.
Nulailah Penulsi nergerak for collection to North Sumatra (Medan), and Aceh * Lhoseumawe). Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Jpgya, Java Timur.tetapi not obtain ceramics of high artistic
value.

 

Original info

Saya melihat sebuah fotokopi buku keramik  dan atas bantuan kakak saya Elina Widyono yang saat ini Warga Negara Amerika Di Los Angeles saya dapat membeli sebuak buku keramik seharga  40 dolar USA berjudul

The Pottery And Porcelain Volume I,  By William E.Cox,Revise Edition, New York,1979

Buku ini menjelaskan dengan lengkap jenis dan tipe keramik dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Korea ,Jepang dan Eropah.

Dengan bantuan buku ini penulis mulai mengumpulkan koleksi dari sumatera Barat, tetapi kebanyak dari masa dinasti Qing Akhir, dan ada beberap dari dinasti Ming.

Buku ini sayang tidak berwarna seluruhnya, sebagian besar hitam putih illustrasinya sehingga sylit untuk identifikasi serta motif keramik juga dalam bentuk lukisan sketsa saja begitu juka mereknya(mark)

Mulailah penulis mulai memahami makna dari motif keramik tetapi sangat terbatas.

Nulailah Penulsi nergerak mencari koleksi ke Sumatera Utara(Medan),dan Aceh*Lhoseumawe).Jakarta,Jawa Barat,Jawa tengah,Jpgya,Jawa Timur.tetapi tidak memeroleh keramik yang bernilai seni tinggi.

 

1985

This year I change their car Toyota Corona sedan with hardtop Lancruiser 1500 CC 3500 CC 4000 Jeep Bj so that it can move that way ugly desolations
Landcruser Toyota Jeep Hardtop This leads me to explore the island of Sumatra, Java, Bali and start up kie I found a lot of collections.

 


At this year I met with Dr. Mac Kinnon arkologis National Archaeological Center visiting my Antique Gallery in the city of Padang,

 

 

 

 

and explained that the findings artifact shards of pottery bowl from the Ming Dynasty Xuante that I get in my town Rengat Riau is a type of imperial ceramics with dragon motif five finger specifically for the king and his companions,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 this is one of the Imperial tile that I found in Riau, can be seen in my article entitled the Chinese ceramic Imperial Kingdom of the examples found in Indonesia in 2013 was my show on my web Blog
Hhtp :/ / http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
And CF-ROM contains complete information available.

At the same time say find artifacts of the celadon plate with deer motif and grass script writing, and according to Dr. Mac Kinnon is also a very rare imperial dishes;

 

 

 

 

Also found there The Rare Ming Cheng Hua red and blue Chrysanthenum Imperial Saucer with mark

 

THE IMPERIAL YUAN MONGOL CERAMIC BRING NY THE MONGOL GENERAL DURING PONISH JAVA SINGOSARI KINGDOM BECAUSE THE KARTANEGARA KING MADE SCARC ON THE Mongol Envoy Meng Chi when the King Kartanegara did not want to sent a imperial given as under Chinese Mongolian protectoraed

Read the complete info at Dr Iwan E-BOOK In CD-ROM

The Majapahit History Collections

The Majapahit

Historic Collections

Part One

Introduction

 

Created By

 

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition

Copyright @ 2013

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace

1293-1525

Based on

Dr Iwan Rare History  Collections

 

Edited By

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited Private Publication

special for premium member hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2013

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

1.Introductions

2.Majapahit Rising(Timbul) war 1293-1309

3.Majapahit Developing(Berkembang) War 1309-1389

4.Majapahit Declining (Menurun)War 1389-1476

5.Majapahit Settting (Tengelam)war

The Fall Of Majapahit Kingdom

1478-1525

 

 

PREFACE

1.This amizing book based on several my rare old books  ans Other History collections :

 

1)   constitutional Madjapahit Prof. essay. Moh.Yamin, 1960

consisting of seven Volumes (Parwa)2)

 

2)    Notes On The Malay Archiphelago and Malacca, published in 1876 and connected with a “supplemantary jottings” (1896) preformance Pao.dan Toung magazine in 1956 published by Bhatara. which contains the story of the war with the Mongolian army Kertajaya, Jayakatwang (Rajakatong) and Raden wijaya Majapahit.

 

3)    Rangalawe bouquet of C, C,Berg, published by Bibliotica Javanica to Kon.Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschaape, Weltevreden.Albrecht & Co in 1930

 

which contains about (1) Panji Wijayakrama (Durma, pickaxe, Wiraraja, ratna Sutawan and Jaya-Katong , Wijaya and Maja-Bitter, Wiraraja and victory), (2) Rangalawe (Wijaya and Kertarajasa, Rangalawe and Sera, Lawe and Madjapahit army, (3) sinom.

 

4)    Gajah Mada Heroes Union Nusantara essay Mr. Mohammad Yamin, Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1951

5)    a) Coins Majapahit, as part of the book that dtemukan coins in Indonesia, 1850. with illustration lithography.

Some new finding of Majapahit and chinese cash coin in the sites:

(a) Purwodadi,Pacitan east Java.

(b) ) The discovery of Gold Coins Chinese coins and cash at the site of MajapahitFirst, about found or the presence of gold coins Majapahit that reads the words ‘La ilaha illallah Muhammad Rasulullah’

 

 

Coins With Sentence lafadz Tauhid(I have this coin but in copper)My Reviews:In 2009, the Evaluation Team Neo Majapahit Information Center (Neo PIM) discovered human remains at the site Trowulan Majapahit kingdom, one of which is thousands of Chinese ancient currency. Currency bearing Chinese characters, and the number is about 60 thousand pieces.Does this signify that the Majapahit kingdom religion is Confucianism, Taoism, or any religion that originated from China?Or, if Majapahit is a subordinate kingdom (vassal) of the Chinese Empire?Of course not.

Heritage of Chinese coins found in the territory of the kingdom of Majapahit sign of trade relations with China. The traders from China often bring their country currency made of gold, silver or bronze to bring to Majapahit. This is only fair considering the era of gold, silver, or bronze is a commonly used means of payment, anywhere. What differentiates its value is the weight of gold / silver itself. Majapahit itself issued a local currency called Gobog.

koin atau mata uang resmi sebagai alat tukar yang dipergunakan pada jaman kerajaan Majapahit.

 

Chinese Coins On the day of Majapahit

 

 

 


 

This year I went to Medan and continue to Lhos Seumawe and find one another imperial ceramic jug Yuhuncuphing are molded with dragon handle and bird motifs on the body of the queen of phoenix Hong  bird emblem pitc

 

 

 

 

 

Yuan Imperial Qingpai Dragon Handle ewer

 

 

 

 

 

Yuan Imperial Qinpai Dragon mouth and loungue ewer

 

After having quite a lot of my collection to make colored photograph with a camera and arranged by type and ceramic type according literatut there but not by the motive because when it has not been found relevant literature. Take a look at some of the photos below

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menganti mobil sedan Toyota Corona 1500 CC dengan Hardtop Lancruiser Bj 4000 3500 cc Jeep sehingga dapat bergerak kedaerah yang jalannya jelek

Jeep Landcruser Toyota Hardtop ini membawa saya menjelajahi pulau Sumatera ,Jawa sampai kie Bali dan mulailah saya menemukan banyak koleksi.

Pada Tahun ini saya bertemu dengan Dr Mac kinnon arkologis Pusat Arkeologis Nasional yang berkunjung ke Galeri Antique saya di Kota Padang , dan menjelaskan bahwa temuan artifak pecahan keramik  Mangkuk dari Dinasti Ming Xuante yang saya peroleh di kota Rengat Riau  adalah tipe keramik imperial dengan motif Naga jari lima khusus dibuat untuk para raja dan sahabatnya, inilah salah satu  keramik Imperial yang saya temukan di Riau, dapat dilihat dalam tulisan saya berjudul Keramik Imperial Kerajaan Tiongkok Yang ditemukan di Indonesia yang contohnya sudah saya tampilkan tahun 2013 di Web Blog saya

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Dan CF-ROM berisi info lengkap tersedia.

 

Pada saat yang sama say menemukan artifak piring besar Seladon dengan motif rusa dan tulisan grass script ,dan menurut Dr Mac Kinnon ini juga piring imperial yang sangat langka; juga disini saya temukan pirin saus dengan motif bunga chrysant biru dan bungannya merah dalam glasir dengan merek Cheng Hua.

Pada tahun ini saya Ke Medan dan terus ke Lhos Seumawe dan menemukan salah satu keramik imperial lainnya yaitu Kendi Yuhuncuphing moulded dengan handle Naga dan motif burung Hong lambang ratu di badan kendi

Setelah memiliki cukup banyak koleksi saya membuat foto  bewarna dengan kamera dan menyusunnya berdasar jenis dan tipe keramik sesuai literatut yang ada  tetapi belum berdasarkan motif karena saat itu belum ditemukan literature terkait. Lihatlah beberapa foto tersebut dibawah ini.

 

 

1990-1994

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yuan chysanthenum Tea cup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

At the time on My duty in Pontianak West Kalimantan I found the artifacts in the instructions Ketapang Police friend who had served there, and I found the yuan dynasty blue and white bowl with floral kingdom chrysanthenum type

 

Original info

Pada saat saya bertugas di Pontianak Kalimantan Barat saya menemukan artifak di Ketapang atas petunjuk teman Polisi yang pernah bertugas disana,dan saya menemukan mangkuk dinasti yuan biru putih dengan motif bunga chrysanthenum tipe kerajaan.

1995

This year I found a book written by Lilian To Feng Shui luck that explains the meaning of the symbol chinese fortune. Most of my illustrations of a copy of the image artifacts and arranging it directly from the book info, but still possessed many apparently incomplete collection of every motif present in the book by Lilian To.
Results of data collection with photo illustrations and sketches from my copy of the artifacts collected in a file.Silahkan see the results of the data collection until the year 19995.

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menemukan buku keberuntungan Fengsui karangan Lilian To yang menerangkan arti keberuntungan dari symbol cina. Sebagian ilustrasi saya gambar dari fotokopi dari artifak secara langsung dan menyusunnya sesuai dari info buku tersebut, tetapi masih banyak ternyata koleksi yang dimiliki belum lengkap dari setiap motif yang ada dalam buku karangan Lilian To tersebut.

Hasil pengumpulan data dengan ilustrasi foto dan gambar sketsa dari fotokopi artifak tersebut saya kumpulkan dalam sebuah file.Silahkan melihat hasil pengumpulan data sampai tahun 19995 ini.

1996

Napier to this year when I found the artifact jar with blue and white floral motif chrysanthenum

.Mohameddan Blue Imperial Jar

Found Makassar south celebes

1.first step.

 

restored

 

Saat ke Makasar tahun ini saya menemukan artifak jar biru putih dengan motif bunga chrysanthenum.

2002-2003

After retirement years should be entitled 2000.saya enough time to explore.
When he returned to West Kalimantan in particular to Ketapang, I found some red in glazed and  blue and white ceramic type yuan empire (imperial)

 

 

 

 

I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain. 

Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.

The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

 

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

 

 

 

Compare with the ming hung wu red in glazed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Mohamadan Blue Imperial YuhunchupingVase

 (1)Type One

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2)type two

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Original info

Setelah pensiun tahun 2000.saya menpunyai cukup waktu untuk melakukan eksplorasi.

Saat kembali ke Ke Kalimantan Barat khususnya Ketapang, saya menemukan beberapa keramik yuan biru putih tipe kerajaan(imperial)

 

2005

found several artifacts ceramic Jakrta Ming Wanli imperial type, he comes from the Banten Lama

The Very Rare Middle Ming  Imperial Ceramic

1). Ming Cheng Hua Phoenix Bigger Plate

 

 

 

 

restored.

 

 

 

 

Compared with same pattern ceramic look in the next page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3).Ming Chenghua

 Human Figure Imperial Bowl

(1)type one

 base imperial mint mark

 

 

 

 

 Inner

 

Restored

 

 

 

 

 

2) type two

 

Base

 

 

 

Inner

 

 

 

 

 

Restored

 

 

 

 

 

4).The Ming Cheng Hua Blue Imperial Chrysnathenum Bottle Vase

 

Restored

 

 

This year I found a lot of books ceramics auction, and also a very good book that Chinese Symbolism and Art Moty essay CAS Williams, also a book about a stunning motifs and motifs in ceramics Chinese Taoism.

Original Info

Saya emnemukan di Jakrta beberapa artifak keramik Ming Wanli tipe imperial,katanya berasal dari Banten Lama

Pada tahun ini saya menemukan banyak buku lelangan keramik,dan juga satu buku yang sangat bagus  yaitu Chinese Symbolism and Art Moty karangan  Williams C.A.S, Juga buku tentang motif pemandang pada keramik Tiongkok dan motif TAOISM.

 

2006-2012

I find more Chinese royal art collection in Jakarta and also other collections of historical artifacts, most of the collection on display in the gallery began Driwancybermuseum Home Office and Gallery and put in my web blog in 25 years anniversary of Driwancybermuseum look below

Original info

Saya menemukan lebih banyak koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Jakarta dan juga koleksi benda artifak sejarah lainnya, sebagian koleksi mulai di pajang dalam galeri Driwancybermuseum Home office and Galery dan menampilkannya diweb blog saya dalam rangka  peringatan 25 tahun

Driwancybermuseum.silahkan melihat tampilan tersebut dibawah ini

PREFACE

After 30 years built the Unique Collections,  in  July,15th.1985  I am starting to go international with my Antique Collections ,the  born’s name of Unique Collections after change name several time. In this day I built an Antique Collections shop in my house  at 16 Bundo Kandung street  Padang West Sumatra after my new House ,three stairs were finished, I live at the second and third floor, and at the base was my shop.

Almost five years this Antiqie shop with my communications with many international Phillatelic Collectors from Dutch, and in this year Mr P.R. Bulterman the Indonesia Dai Nippon  Postal stationer history expert and he also written the the Dutch East indie postmark”s boook,

 The Indonesia Dai Nippon postal stationery History, and  latest The Republic Indonesia Revolutionary Postal stationery History’s book.

 

He bough some rare postal stationery History from sumatra from me lika Lampong Hinomaru ovpt postally used cover, West Sumatra Cross postalstatinery Cover,and The Bencoolen Dai nippon Regional Dav id Star on Kreisler wilhemina stamps.

 At the end of 1985 ,the Indonesia Phillatelist Karel bought from me the Dai Nippon Occupation Sumatra  and Indonesia Indeopendent War Postal History in ten bigger Album includding the Revenue History from Dai nippon occupation and Indonesia Independent War Sumatra.

I have sold many my collections in other to preparing for study Master of Hospital Administrations degree and bring my wife and my Children Albert and Anton studies in Jakarta, for that I need fund, after that bigger transactions, I have enough m oney to move to Jakarta,boug house,and  all the family studied in Jakarta my master degree in 1989-1990,my wife D3 degree 1989-1993,and after that Si degree in 1998-1999 and Master degree 2007-2008, my Son Albert S1 degree 1994-1998, and Anton si degree 1995-1999.and postgraduaete cour after they works. My House at Padang were sold in 1991,and became thepart of  Ambacang  hotel which broken during bigger earthquacked in 2009.

The rare Unique Collections which the name before change as the antique  C ollections in July,15t.1985 still in my collections until now and during my master degree study in 1989 until now I starting to built more Unique collections which I add in Internet with the site’s name  uniiqueinfonet.com in July,15th in 1999  but not succeed,  aftre that in 2000 I am retire from mo Officiasl workd and my new cretions as the teac her in S1 and D3 health scicece University until 2005.

In July,15th 2005 I am starting the new creations with the name uniquecollections until now, I starting to write The Investation’s value of Unique Collections,later I change to How Estimate The Uniquecollections investation value, The Sarawak Unique Collections, and The Vietnam War. THe new blog starting in Fberuary,9th 2009 with the site name uniequecolooctions.wordpress.com, but very slow but growth, and when I begun the full time created this blog from December 2009 until June 2010 I have written 350 uniquecollections article based on my collections.

In June 2010, due to the old blog full and have trouble to add the inmformation due to the site was in my editor,my son name and password which made I cannot enter my own blog, because My family gave me the new computers, that is why I staring the new blog with my name and own  e.mail and password, the new blog name iwansuwandy.wordpress.com , and everything ok about operations and the capicity of thew computer and site very bigger now which made me could created e-book with more ilustrations, I have all info in my computer’s  memory thousand gigabyte,before only three gIgabyte I have used 2,8 Gigabytes.

During Silver Birthday of Uniquecollection in July,15th 2010, I will made a show of my best uniquecollections e-book  as UHI-uniquecollection Heritage Informations, free of charge, beside that I have wrtitten PUI-premium Uniquecolletions Informations. whic all collectors can read and looked free the sample of that premium e-book free of charge.

I want to than very much to all my friend who ever help me to built this amizing and interestin uniquecollctions blog iwansuwandy.wordpress.com  and I want to apologized to wordpress,, Gmail, facebook and Google for the modern internet and information digital communications which made the uniquecolelction’s blog growth very fast, and Facebook made many communicatios with the collectors from all over the world my two  FBblog


Driwancybermuseum Galery (Continiu )

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

2) Asahan Sultanate and cross straits relationships

The kingdom of Asahan

History Collections

 

Creted by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

 

 

 

source

http://tembakaudeli.blogspot.com/p/sultan-van-asahan.html

1537


Kesultanan Melayu Asahan bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, yaitu ada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.

Ayahnya ialah Sultan Aladdin Mahkota Alam Johan Berdaulat (Sultan Alaiddin Riayat Syah “Al Qahhar”), Sultan Aceh ke XIII yang memerintah sejak tahun 1537 – 1568, sementara ibunya adalah Siti Ungu Selendang Bulan, anak dari Raja Pinang Awan yang bergelar “Marhum Mangkat di Jambu”. (Pinang Awan terletak di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu).

 

 Sebelumnya, Aceh telah menaklukkan negeri-negeri kecil di pesisir Sumatera Utara dan di dalam salah satu pertempuran inilah Raja Pinang Awan terbunuh dan anaknya Siti Ungu dibawa ke Aceh dan menikah dengan Sultan Alaiddin.

Sampai dengan saat ini Kerajaan Asahan telah memiliki 12 orang Sultan yang dihitung menurut Silsilah dan keturunan Raja – raja Asahan,

1612

Perjalanan Sultan Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda, ke Johor dan Melaka tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari sejarah Tanjungbalai. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan sultan beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai yang bernama Asahan. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara Sungai Asahan dengan Sungai Silau, tempat sultan bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang, penguasa setempat. Di tempat itu juga Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan yang dinamakan Tanjungbalai.

 

Posted by Resky Praditiya 14.29, under Kisaran News | No comments

Profile Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan Prop.Sumatera Utara

Nama Resmi : Kabupaten Asahan
Ibukota : Kisaran
Luas Wilayah: 462.441 Ha
Jumlah Penduduk: 935.233 Jiwa (Sensus Penduduk 2003)
Wilayah Administrasi:Kecamatan : 20
Bupati : Drs. H. Risuddin
Wakil Bupati: Drs. H. Taufan Gama Simatupang, MAP
Alamat Kantor: Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 5, Kisaran – Sumatera Utara
Telp. (0623) 41100, 41200 Fax. (0623) 433333
www.pemkab-asahan.go.id

Yi!/Kisaran – Menjaga dan Melestarikan Peninggalan-Peninggalan Bersejarah atau situs-situs bersejarah sangat lah penting. Pada jaman era globalisasi sekarang ini terkadang kita semakin melupakan dan meninggalkan sejarah-sejarah tempat dimana kita tinggal, bukan hanya sejarah yang berbentuk benda (Prasasti), Bangunan (property)bahkan Adat Istiadat yang diturunkan oleh nenek moyang pendiri dari satu kota tersebut semakin hari akan semakin terlupakan. Semua itu akibat dari semakin majunya perkembangan diberbagai bidang termasuk salah satu masuknya tradisi-tradisi modern maupun tradisi-tradisi asing ke wilayah tersebut.

Untuk menjaga sejarah dan budaya yang ada di daerah, kita sebagai putra daerah harus dapat mengajak seluruh elemen masyarakat agar senantiasa mengingat dan melestarikan peninggalan-peninggalan bersejarah yang ada di daerah tersebut.
Pemerintah terkadang bisa melupakan history dari daerah tersebut hanya demi pembangunan, padahal pemerintah sudah menyediakan instansi untuk menjaga dan melestarikan sejarah-sejarah yang ada seperti instansi dari dinas pariwisata, namun akibat dari perkembangan disegala aspek, instansi tersebut dapat melupakan pentingnya history dari satu kota atau daerah demi kepentingan Pembangunan inprastrusktur.

Sejarah Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan

Perjalanan Sultan Aceh Sultan Iskandar Muda ke Johor dan Malaka pada tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari Sejarah Asahan. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan Sultan Iskandar Muda beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai, yang kemudian dinamakan ASAHAN. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah Tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara sungai Asahan dengan sungai Silau, kemudian bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang. Di tempat itu juga, Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai Balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan. Perkembangan daerah ini cukup pesat sebagai pusat pertemuan perdagangan dari Aceh dan Malaka, sekarang ini dikenal dengan Tanjung Balai. Dari hasil perkawinan Sultan Iskandar Muda dengan salah seorang puteri Raja Simargolang lahirlah seorang putera yang bernama Abdul Jalil yang menjadi cikal bakal dari kesultanan Asahan. Abdul Jalil dinobatkan menjadi Sultan Asahan I.

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbnJ7gT

 1630

Pemerintahan kesultanan Asahan dimulai tahun 1630 yaitu sejak dilantiknya Sultan Asahan yang I s.d. XI. Selain itu di daerah Asahan, pemerintahan juga dilaksanakan oleh datuk-datuk di Wilayah Batu Bara dan ada kemungkinan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil lainnya. Tanggal 22 September 1865, kesultanan Asahan berhasil dikuasai Belanda. Sejak itu, kekuasaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh Belanda.

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbyow2u

 

 

27 desember 1672

Perkampungan ini kelak berkembang menjadi Kesultanan Asahan, yang bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, pada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.

 

 

Sejarah Kerajaan Asahan dimulai dengan penobatan raja pertama kerajaan tersebut yang berlangsung meriah disekitar kampung Tanjung. Peristiwa penabalan raja pertama kerajaan Asahan tersebut terjadi tepatnya pada tanggal 27 Desember 1620, dan tanggal 27 Desember kemudian ditetapkan sebagai “Hari Jadi Kota Tanjungbalai” den-gan surat keputusan DPRD Kota Tanjungbalai Nomor : 4/DPRD/TB/1986 Tanggal 25 November 1986.

 


1. Sultan Abdul Jalil
2. Sultan Saidisyah
3. Sultan Muhammad Rumsyah

 

1bad ke 17


4. Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah II (mangkat 1765)
5. Sultan Dewa Syah (1756 – 1805)

 

Abad ke 18

30 september 1867

Kekuasaan pemerintahan Belanda di Asahan/Tanjung Balai dipimpin oleh seorang Kontroler, yang diperkuat dengan Gouverments Besluit tanggal 30 September 1867, Nomor 2 tentang pembentukan Afdeling Asahan yang berkedudukan di Tanjung Balai dan pembagian wilayah pemerintahan dibagi menjadi 3 (tiga) yaitu:
1.Onder Afdeling Batu Bara
2.Onder Afdeling Asahan
3.Onder Afdeling Labuhan Batu.

Kerajaan Sultan Asahan dan pemerintahan Datuk-Datuk di wilayah Batu Bara tetap diakui oleh Belanda, namun tidak berkuasa penuh sebagaimana sebelumnya. Wilayah pemerintahan Kesultanan dibagi atas Distrik dan Onder Distrik yaitu:
1. Distrik Tanjung Balai dan Onder Distrik Sungai Kepayang.
2. Distrik Kisaran.
3. Distrik Bandar Pulau dan Onder Distrik Bandar Pasir Mandoge.Sedangkan wilayah pemerintahan

 

Datuk-datuk di Batu Bara dibagi menjadi wilayah Self Bestuur yaitu:
1. Self Bestuur Indrapura
2. Self Bestuur Lima Puluh
3. Self Bestuur Pesisir
4. Self Bestuur Suku Dua ( Bogak dan Lima Laras ).

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2incDARQF

Onderneming Token

 

 

 

 

Silau  Asahan Tobacco Factory  Token

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token

 

 

 Kuli Tionghoa memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Chinese koelies bij het sorteren van tabak

 

 

Pekerja tembakau deli dan asahan

 

 

Memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Titel: “147. Tabak. Sorteerloods.”
  “Nederlandsch Oost- en West-Indië. 3” en “Suriname en de West-Indische eilanden” (serie 3: plaat 101-150 en serie 4: plaat 151-170)
Schoolplaten: foto’s van Nederlandsch-Indie, Suriname en Nederlandse Antillen, 4 series
Maker:
Trefwoord:
Verv.jaar: ca. 1913
Verv.plaats: Indonesië
Techniek:
Object:
Bron: [A5-3-47], Kerncollectie Fotografie, Museum Volkenkunde
Copyright: Voor meer informatie: Museum Volkenkunde

 

 

 

Beburu gajah di asahan dan deli

 

 Patung orang jawa di asahan

 

Hutaginjang near asahan river

 

 Manager dutch Asahan Tobacco platation

 

 

 

 

Abad 19


6. Sultan Musa Syah (1805 – 1808)
7. Sultan Muhammad Ali Syah (1808 – 1813)


8. Sultan Muhammad Hussein Syah.
9. Sultan Ahmad Syah

 

Abad ke 19

 

 

1895

 

 

Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1895

 

Foto Kota Tanjungbalai di masa lampa, foto di ambil dari udara

 

Foto jembatan sungai silau

 

 

 

Abad ke 20

 

 

Jalan utama kisaran tanjung balai asahan 1900

 

Bandar tanjung balai asahan 1900

27 juni 1917

Setelah dikuasai Belanda, Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi suatu gemeenteberdasarkan Besluit Governeur General tanggal 27 Juni 1917 dengan Stbl. no. 284/1917, sebagai akibat dibukanya perkebunan-perkebunan di derahSumatera Timur, termasuk daerah Asahan, seperti H.A.P.M., SIPEF, London Sumatera (“Lonsum”), dan lain-lain.

 Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi kota pelabuhan dan pintu masuk ke daerah Asahan yang penting artinya bagi lalu-lintas perdagangan Hindia-Bel

 

10. Sultan Muhammad Husein Syah II


11. Sultan Saibun Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah
12. Sultan Kamal Abraham Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah


Tanjung Balai 1900


Istana Kesultanan Asahan di Tanjung Balai. Tinggal Kenangan


TUANKU SULTAN SYAIBUN ABDULJALIL RAHMATSYAH (5 Oktober 1906 – 6 April 1980). PADA PUKUL 11 TGL 19 SYAFAR 1353(15 JUNI 1933), PEDUKO TONGKU BOSAR SYAIBUN DINOBATKAN & DITABALKAN MENJADI SULTAN NEGERI ASAHAN DI ISTANA KOTA RAJA INDRA SAKTI – TANJUNG BALAI. KARENA SULTAN DINOBATKAN PADA HARI KAMIS, MAKA PADA JUM’AH MANIS 16 JUNI 1933, DIADAKAN ACARA DULI TUANKU & TEPUNG TAWAR DI SINGGASANA KESULTANAN ASAHAN.
TENGKU NURULASYIKIN BINTI TENGKU PANGERAN BENDAHARA NEGERI BEDAGAI, ESOKNYA KEHADAPAN BALAI PENGHADAPAN NAIK KE ATAS SINGGASANA LEPAS BERIJAB KABUL & DIDAULAT MENJADI TENGKU PERMAISURI NEGERI ASAHAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laurentius klappert

Assisten Resident Asahan

 

 

Tengku Besar amir

 

 

Para Pendiri HAPM

 

 

 

Sulatan sja’ibun djalil

 

 

 

  Tengku alang jahya regent asahan

 

Jembatan kisaran 1921

 

 

 

Kisaran Asahan Post Office

 

 

 

 

Tanjanungbalai asahan tionghoa temple(klenteng)

Due to Mr Robert Yeap unfo,this mosque built by his grand grand father Khoo Chew tong tke Chinese Kapitan at Tanjung Balai Asahan until 1910,when he was died,hs father move to Penang and merried with the daughter of Kuching Sarawak Chinese Kapitan.

Khoo Cheow Teong, kapitan Cina Asahan ( Tanjong Balai)

Inboxx

Roberty

Nov 12 (5 days ago)to me

 

 

 

 

Hello Dr Iwan,

P.S. my name is Robert Yeap, my maternal side is Khoo:)

Actually my father’s mother is also Khoo. Her father (my great grandfather) is Khoo Hun Yeang, kapitan cina Kuching, Sarawak on Borneo island. So i have 2 kapitan Cina in my ancestors- now that i have retired 2 yrs ago after working 33 years in US multinational companies- electronic sector,

 i can put efforts in my passion- history. I m not a professional historian or even academic- my career is in finance and have been financial controller n Tax etc all this time. So i hope to learn some skills on researching archive and perhaps how to gather artifacts from historical places.

I read that it is easy to locate porcelain shards even today (of Ming dynasty era) in the area around Palembang otherwise San fo chi or Srivijaya… Am also interested in the Chinese Muslim kingdom of  in Java ( Radin) in

Sorry to reply you late….i m rushing to supervise work toRestore 2 house which will be a history museum – whichis one reason of my request to find some details of my great

grandfather – my mother’s father’s father – kapitan cina Asahan.

Best regards, robertY

Hello Dr. Iwan,

Thks for reply. I have booked to stay same hotel – ChinaTown Inn at Petaling St. Booked under name Mr Yeap T.A.

Will advise u Khoo kongsi research when meet, my friend still reference, recently there is a lot of interest in history in PG!

I like to inform more on Khoo Cheow Teong, perhaps the people u meet in Malacca may know him too as

His first wife was eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, famous rice miller in

malacca at that time 1874. In Asahan his business was attended by his eldest son Sian Wei, from 2nd wife ( some say quite useless fella). His second wife was from Penang. Apparently KCTeong donated to build mosque in Asahan.

KCT was also shareholder director of Deli Bank , Medan.

Ok look forward to meet you in KL nov 23-24, this Sat. N Sun, we can go round KL.

 

I have found the pictures of

Kapitan Cina Tanjungbalai asahan

 

Khoo Chew Tong

 

 

 

 

Kunjungan governor general DEI de Fock ke asahan 1925

1930

 

Pasar tanjung balai asahan 1930

 

 

Foto udara Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1930-an

 

 1933

 

Pernikahan tengku sja’ibun dan tengku nurul 1933

 

Kepala Adat Asahan

Duduk T. alang Yahya ,T,Sja’ibun,T.Musa

Berdiri  T.Madjid, T.Dr Mansoer,T.Mohamad noer

 

 Mesjid raya sultan ahmad shah(built by Kpitan Cina Khoo Chew tong info from his grandgrand daughter Robert Yeap now at Penang-Dr Iwan Note)

The complete info look at

Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

The Asahan Kingdom History Collections

Robert Yeap Notes

 Tanjong Balai history-

 will appreciate what u can provide re my

great grandPa Khoo Cheow Teong contributions there – if have Picture of temple or mosque that he build or donate- thks

 

3) Aceh –

The  Aceh History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Zhng He Museum Penang

Copyright @ 2013

Before Aceh War collections

Sultanate Perlak
(9 th century – 13th century)

Peureulak directed to this page. For the district in East Aceh, see Peureulak, East Aceh
Sultanate Peureulak Islamic kingdom in Indonesia is ruling around the Peureulak, East Aceh, Aceh are now between 840 years until the year 1292.
Perlak or Peureulak known as a waterproof timber producing areas, a very good type of wood for shipbuilding, and therefore the area is known as the State Perlak.
Natural products and its strategic position makes Perlak developed as a commercial port developed in the 8th century, visited by ships, among others derived from Arabic and Persian.
This makes the development of Muslim communities in this area, mainly as a result of intermarriage between Muslim merchants with local women
1112 M
Scrolls saga revealed that the spread of Islam in Aceh in northern Sumatra, carried out by a Saudi cleric named Sheikh Abdullah Arif in the year 506 H or 1112 AD
1161 M
Then stand sultanate Peureulak with the first sultannya Alauddin Shah who reigned from 520-544 H or 1161-1186 AD Sultan has found his tomb is Sulaiman bin Abdullah who died in 608 H or 1211 AD [1]
1178 M
Chu-fan-chi, written Chau Ju-kua in 1225, citing record a geographer, Chou Ku-fei, the year 1178 that there is a Muslim country which is just a five-day cruise of Java. [2]


Maybe the country is meant Peureulak, because Chu-fan-chi stated voyage from Java to Brunei to take 15 days.
Existence Peureulak country is strengthened by the famous Venetian traveler, Marco Polo, a century later.
1291
When Marco Polo returned from China by sea in 1291, he stopped in the country Ferlec who have converted to Islam

Development and turbulence
840
Perlak was the first Sultan Syed Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz, a homage to Shiite and Arab descent with a local woman, who founded the Sultanate Perlak on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 AD).
 He changed the name of the capital of the kingdom of Bandar Bandar Perlak became Caliph. Sultan with his wife, Princess Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, then buried in Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, East Aceh
913 M
In the reign of the third sultan, Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Syed Abbas Shah, Sunnis began to enter Perlak. After the death of the sultan in the year 363 H (913 AD), there was a civil war between the Shiites and Sunnis over the next two years so that no sultan.
915 M

Shiites won the war, and in 302 H (915 AD), Sultan Maulana Syed Ali Mughat Alaiddin Shah of Shia flow throne. At the end of his reign happened again the battle between the Shiites and the Sunnis, who this time won by the Sunnis so that subsequent sultans were taken from the Sunnis.

956 M

In the year 362 H (956 AD), after the death of the seventh sultan, Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign, another upheaval for about four years between Shia and Sunni, which ended with a peace and a division of the kingdom into two parts:
986 M

Coastal Perlak (Shiite) led by Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin (986-988)
Perlak Outback (Sunni) led by Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (986-1023)
1006
Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin died while attacking the kingdom of Srivijaya Perlak Perlak and all re-united under the leadership of Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign who continue the struggle against Sriwijaya until the year 1006.
Merger with Ocean Pasai
1230
Sultan-17 Perlak, Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign II (reigned 1230 to 1267) run political friendship with marrying two daughters with neighboring rulers Peureulak:
• Princess Ratna Kamala, mated with King kingdom of Malacca, Sultan Muhammad Shah (Parameswara).
• Algae daughter, married to the King of the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean, Al Malik Al-Saleh.
1267
Sultan last Perlak was the 18th sultan, Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (reigned 1267 to 1292). After he died, Perlak united with the kingdom under the rule of Pasai Ocean Ocean Pasai sultan, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, son of Al Malik Al-Saleh.

List Sultan Perlak
Perlak sultans can be grouped into two dynasties: Maulana Syed Abdul Azis dynasty and Shah dynasty Johan Sovereign. Here’s a list sultan who ruled Perlak.
1. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz (840-864)
2. Alaiddin Sultan Maulana Syed Abdul Rahim Shah (864-888)
3. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abbas (888-913)
4. Maulana Syed Ali Sultan Alaiddin Mughat Shah (915-918)
5. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Abdul Kadir Johan Sovereign (928-932)
6. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign (932-956)
7. Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (956-983)
8. Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign [5] (986-1023)
9. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1023 – 1059)
10. Malik Sultan Mansur Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1059 – 1078)
11. Abdullah Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1078 – 1109)
12. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Ahmad Johan Sovereign (1109 – 1135)
13. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1135 – 1160)
14. Usman Malik Sultan Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1160 – 1173)
15. Malik Sultan Muhammad Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1173 – 1200)
16. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1200 – 1230)
17. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Muhammad Amin Malik Shah II Johan Sovereign (1230 – 1267)
18. Makhdum Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1267 – 1292)

Original info

Kesultanan Perlak

(abad ke-9abad ke-13)

Peureulak diarahkan ke halaman ini. Untuk kecamatan di Kabupaten Aceh Timur, lihat Peureulak, Aceh Timur

Kesultanan Peureulak adalah kerajaan Islam di Indonesia yang berkuasa di sekitar wilayah Peureulak, Aceh Timur, Aceh sekarang antara tahun 840 sampai dengan tahun 1292.

Perlak atau Peureulak terkenal sebagai suatu daerah penghasil kayu perlak, jenis kayu yang sangat bagus untuk pembuatan kapal, dan karenanya daerah ini dikenal dengan nama Negeri Perlak.

Hasil alam dan posisinya yang strategis membuat Perlak berkembang sebagai pelabuhan niaga yang maju pada abad ke-8, disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal yang antara lain berasal dari Arab dan Persia.

Hal ini membuat berkembangnya masyarakat Islam di daerah ini, terutama sebagai akibat perkawinan campur antara saudagar muslim dengan perempuan setempat

1112 M

Naskah Hikayat Aceh mengungkapkan bahwa penyebaran Islam di bagian utara Sumatera dilakukan oleh seorang ulama Arab yang bernama Syaikh Abdullah Arif pada tahun 506 H atau 1112 M.

1161 M

Lalu berdirilah kesultanan Peureulak dengan sultannya yang pertama Alauddin Syah yang memerintah tahun 520–544 H atau 1161–1186 M. Sultan yang telah ditemukan makamnya adalah Sulaiman bin Abdullah yang wafat tahun 608 H atau 1211 M.[1]

1178 M

Chu-fan-chi, yang ditulis Chau Ju-kua tahun 1225, mengutip catatan seorang ahli geografi, Chou Ku-fei, tahun 1178 bahwa ada negeri orang Islam yang jaraknya hanya lima hari pelayaran dari Jawa.[2]

Mungkin negeri yang dimaksudkan adalah Peureulak, sebab Chu-fan-chi menyatakan pelayaran dari Jawa ke Brunai memakan waktu 15 hari.

Eksistensi negeri Peureulak ini diperkuat oleh musafir Venesia yang termasyhur, Marco Polo, satu abad kemudian.

1291

Ketika Marco Polo pulang dari Cina melalui laut pada tahun 1291, dia singgah di negeri Ferlec yang sudah memeluk agama Islam

 

 

 

Perkembangan dan pergolakan

840

Sultan pertama Perlak adalah Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, yang beraliran Syiah dan merupakan keturunan Arab dengan perempuan setempat, yang mendirikan Kesultanan Perlak pada 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M).

Ia mengubah nama ibukota kerajaan dari Bandar Perlak menjadi Bandar Khalifah. Sultan ini bersama istrinya, Putri Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, kemudian dimakamkan di Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, Aceh Timur

913 M

Pada masa pemerintahan sultan ketiga, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah, aliran Sunni mulai masuk ke Perlak. Setelah wafatnya sultan pada tahun 363 H (913 M), terjadi perang saudara antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni sehingga selama dua tahun berikutnya tak ada sultan.

915 M

 

Kaum Syiah memenangkan perang dan pada tahun 302 H (915 M), Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah dari aliran Syiah naik tahta. Pada akhir pemerintahannya terjadi lagi pergolakan antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni yang kali ini dimenangkan oleh kaum Sunni sehingga sultan-sultan berikutnya diambil dari golongan Sunni.

956 M

 

Pada tahun 362 H (956 M), setelah meninggalnya sultan ketujuh, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat, terjadi lagi pergolakan selama kurang lebih empat tahun antara Syiah dan Sunni yang diakhiri dengan perdamaian dan pembagian kerajaan menjadi dua bagian:

986 M

 

Perlak Pesisir (Syiah) dipimpin oleh Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah (986988)

Perlak Pedalaman (Sunni) dipimpin oleh Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat (986 – 1023)

1006

Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah meninggal sewaktu Kerajaan Sriwijaya menyerang Perlak dan seluruh Perlak kembali bersatu di bawah pimpinan Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat yang melanjutkan perjuangan melawan Sriwijaya hingga tahun 1006.

Penggabungan dengan Samudera Pasai

1230

Sultan ke-17 Perlak, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12301267) menjalankan politik persahabatan dengan menikahkan dua orang putrinya dengan penguasa negeri tetangga Peureulak:

1267

Sultan terakhir Perlak adalah sultan ke-18, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12671292). Setelah ia meninggal, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di bawah pemerintahan sultan Samudera Pasai, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, putra Al Malik Al-Saleh.

 

Daftar Sultan Perlak

Sultan-sultan Perlak dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua dinasti: dinasti Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah dan dinasti Johan Berdaulat. Berikut daftar sultan yang pernah memerintah Perlak.

  1. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah (840864)
  2. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Rahim Shah (864888)
  3. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah (888913)
  4. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah (915918)
  5. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Kadir Shah Johan Berdaulat (928932)
  6. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Berdaulat (932956)
  7. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat (956983)
  8. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat [5] (9861023)
  9. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (10231059)

10.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mansur Shah Johan Berdaulat (10591078)

11.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdullah Shah Johan Berdaulat (10781109)

12.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ahmad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11091135)

13.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (11351160)

14.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Usman Shah Johan Berdaulat (11601173)

15.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11731200)

16.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Jalil Shah Johan Berdaulat (12001230)

17.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (12301267)

18.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (12671292)

 

 

Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (abad ke-13abad ke-16)

 

Samudra Pasai, Aceh Darussalam – The First Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia

Maret 7, 2012 — ZULFITRIANSYAH PUTRA

1. History

When the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai can not be ascertained accurately and still be a debate of the historians. However, there is confidence that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai established earlier than the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey which has become one superpower in the world civilization. If the Ottoman Dynasty began to put the power in about the year 1385 AD, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai been spreading its influence in Southeast Asia since 1297 AD.

 


A number of historians and researchers from Europe at the time of Dutch colonial occupation has been some time doing research to reveal the origin of the existence of one of the largest government in Aceh this earth. Some scholars and researchers from the Netherlands, including Snouck Hurgronje, JP Moquette, JL Moens, J. Poll Hushoff, GP Rouffaer, HKJ Cowan, and others, agree on the expectation that the new Sultanate of Samudera Pasai standing in the middle of the 13th century and by putting the name of Sultan Malik Al Salih as its founder (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo, 2006:50). Malik Al Salih own name is known and different writing, including Malik Ul Salih, Malik Al Saleh, Malikussaleh, Malik Al Salih, or Malik Saleh Ul.

a. The Origin of Ocean Pasai Nomination

The full names of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is “Aca Pasai Ocean”, which means “Ocean of good government in the capital Pasai” (HM Zainuddin, 1961:116). Centre of government is now no longer exists but its location is estimated to be around the state Blang Malay. The name “Ocean” that is used as the name of the island is now called Sumatra, as mentioned by the Portuguese. Previously, the name of the region is the island of Perca.

While the rover is coming from China / Chinese call it by name “Chincou”, which means “Island of Gold”, like that known from the writings of I’tsing.Kertanegara King, leader of the famous Singasari Government, saying this area Suwarnabhumi name, which means that it is similar to what is called by the people of China, “The Island of Gold”.

Sultanate of Samudera Pasai an Islamic government, which is located along the coast of northern Sumatra, more or less around the city of Lhokseumawe, North Aceh today. Written records that had been believed by historians to trace the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malay historiography is a three-book saga that King Pasai, Malay History, and thesaga of King Bakoy. Hikayat Raja Pasai give a big influence in efforts to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, although nuances of myth is still a problem in interpreting the truth.

About the name “Ocean” and “Pasai”, appeared a number of opinions that try to parse the origins of the use of the name. One is as set forth by European scholars, JL Moens, who says that the word “Pasai” comes from the term “Persian”. According to Moens, those traders who came from Persia to say the word “Pasai” with the text “Pa’Se.” Moens analysis can be accepted, with a note that since the 7th century AD the merchants who came from Persia has arrived and stopped in an area that later became the place of establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (MD Mansoer, 1963:59).

Opinion Moens received support from several people, including Prof. Gabriel Ferrand, in his work entitled L’Empire (1922), also in the book The Golden Khersonese (1961), written by Assoc. Paul Wheatley. Both work in leveraging data-data on the evidence of the rover from the Middle East to travel to Southeast Asia. Both Gabriel and Paul Wheatley Ferrand alike agree that since the 7th century AD, major ports in Southeast Asia, including in the Malacca Strait, have been visited by people traveling and the merchants who came from West Asia. Also mentioned that in all the cities there were trade-foundation or foundation settlement, the settlement of Muslim traders who stopped and stayed there.

H. Mohammad Said, a journalist as well as writers who dedicated his life to research and publish books events in Aceh, including the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, tend to conclude that the origin of the naming muasal “Pasai” comes from Chinese merchants.According to Said, the term “Po Se” is popularly used in the mid-eighth century AD, as found in the records and reports from the China trip rover, identical and similar to the mention of the word “Pase” or “Pasai” (Said, 1963:2004-205).

There is also an opinion that says that the name “Pasai” comes from the word “tapasai” which means “the sea”. The word “tapa” are frequently found in the Polynesian languages meaning “edge”. The word “Sai” can be interpreted as a “sea”, which is also included in the vocabulary of the Malay-Polynesian continent. The word “Pasai” is a synonym of the word “beach”.Similarly, the word “ocean” which also means “not far from the sea.” So, both “Ocean” or “Pasai” implies more or less the same, that “the country is situated on the sea” (Slamet Muljana, 2005:136).

Name Pasai Ocean and often was mentioned in various sources was found, both from external sources or local sources. The sources from outside the archipelago are often mentioned the existence of a region called the Ocean and Pasai such as reports or notes of the journey, the journey of Chinese origin, Arab, India, and Europe, who had stopped to Pasai Ocean region. The course notes as written by Marco Polo, Odorico, Ibn Batuta, Tome Pires, as well as news from China. While the source of the domestic one, as enshrined in the National Book Kertagama Mpu Prapanca written works within the 13th century until the 14th century AD.

Ibn Batuta, a Muslim traveler from Morocco, Morocco, for example, in a note saying that he had visited in 1345 M. Pasai Ibn Batuta, who stopped at Pasai for 15 days, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai describes as “a country that is green with a large port city and the beautiful.”Ibn Batuta tells, when I arrived in China, he saw the ship Sultan Pasai in the state. Indeed, Chinese sources said that there is a messenger Pasai routinely come to China to deliver the tribute.

Note on the Mongol Dynasty in China showed that some governments in Sumatra, including the Government of the Ocean / Pasai, had established relations with the Mongolian Government was under the command of Kubhilai Khan. Government Ocean / Pasai starting relationship with the Mongol Dynasty in 1282. Government Ocean / Pasai in touch with the great empires in Asia by the Chinese mission that returned from the South Indian Ocean with stops in Pasai. This event is regarded as the initial contact between Ocean Pasai with Chinese / Mongolian (Muhammad Gade Ismail, 1997:23).


Sultan Mausoleum of the First Marine Board Pasai

Other information also mentions that the Sultan had sent envoys Pasai Ocean to Quilon, Western India, in 1282 AD This proves that the Sultanate of Pasai have wide relations with other governments abroad. In addition, the travel notes titled Tuhfat Al-Nazha, Ibn Batuta said, at that time Pasai have transformed the center of Islamic studies in Southeast Asia.

Logging of Portuguese origin who had settled in Malacca in the period 1512-1515, Tomi Pires, said that Pasai is the most important city in time for the whole of Sumatra, because there are no other important places on the island unless Pasai. The name of the city by some people called the Ocean and then stick with the name Ocean Pasai and became a symbol to refer to the island of Sumatra. Pasai City, according to Tomi Pires, assessed a population of not less than 20,000 people (Ismail, 1997:37).

Marco Polo reported that in 1267 AD was established the first Islamic government of the archipelago, which is none other than the Sultanate Pasai. Marco Polo visited Pasai in the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih, exactly in 1292 AD, when the government has not been long standing, but has showed the potential prosperity. Marco Polo stopped the Ocean Pasai in network journey from China to Persia. At that time, Marco Polo from Italy to participate in the delegation who visited Sumatra sepulang attend the invitation of Kublai Khan, the King of the Mongols, who also controls the territory of China.Marco Polo mentions, people in Pasai at that time are still many who have not embraced the religion (Islam), but the community of Arabs, called by the name of Marco Saraceen – have quite a lot and plays an important role in the effort to circumcise the people of Aceh. Marco Polo mentions disinggahinya areas such as “Giava Minor” or “Java Minor” (Mohammad H. Said, 1963:82-83).

Apart from written sources and records in the course of the race rover, other evidence that at least some help to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from the remains of the abandoned civilization, like ancient tombs made of granite or marble and currency- Dirham namedDeureuham or are found in Sub-Ocean, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Time of the death of Sultan Malik Al Salih, the founder of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, knowing from his own writings that appear on a headstone is found in the Blang Me, ie in 697 Hijri or 1297 AD coincided with the years. Meanwhile, when Malik Al Salih was born not found evidence that more clear.


Applicable Currency Pasai Ocean

Pemkot Banda Aceh tutup aktivitas perburuan harta karun

Kamis, 14 November 2013 20:18 WIB | 1568 Views

Pewarta: Azhari

 

Harta Karun Koin Emas Warga memperlihatkan salah satu dari ratusan koin emas bertuliskan huruf arab yang ditemukan di kawasan situs cagar budaya Kerajaan Aceh, Desa Kampung Pande, Kecamatan Kutaraja, Banda Aceh, Selasa (12/11). Koin emas itu awalnya ditemukan oleh pencari tiram di dalam peti berukuran kecil dalam kawasan cagar budaya , namun sebagian koin emas itu tumpah ke sungai. (ANTARA FOTO/Ampelsa)

Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau.”

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Banda Aceh (ANTARA News) – Pemerintah Kota Banda Aceh memutuskan menutup kawasan alur sungai Kecamatan Kutaraja untuk aktivitas para pemburu harta karun setelah masyarakat menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham dan benda-benda bersejarah lainnya di daerah itu.

“Kawasan Kuala Krueng Geudong, Kecamatan Kutaraja total ditutup dari berbagai aktivitas mencari barang-barang kuno termasuk koin emas,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh, Illiza Saaduddin Djamal di Banda Aceh, Kamis.

Seperti diberitakan sebelumnya, kawasan pinggiran Kota Banda Aceh itu mendadak ramai masyarakat mencari harta karun setelah seorang pencari kerang menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham milik kerajaan Aceh. 

“Kami sudah berkoordinasi dengan berbagai pihak, termasuk TNI dan Polri untuk membantu mengamankan lokasi tersebut,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal.

Sebab, menurut Wakil Wali Kota bahwa jika dibiarkan masyarakat terus mencari koin emas dan barang bersejarah lainnya maka akan merusak tatanan sosial dan bisa berdampak buruk.

Selain itu, katanya mengatakan bahwa jika pemerintah membiarkan warga bebas mencari benda-benda tersebut juga tidak menutup kemungkinan akan terjadi konflik di masyarakat.

Cara-cara pemburuan koin emas yang dilakukan ratusan orang juga sudah merusak kawasan cagar budaya, karena wilayah tersebut terdapat banyak situs sejarah masa kejayaan Aceh tempo dahulu, kata dia menambahkan .

“Bahkan menurut laporan yang kami terima, telah terjadi kerusakan bagian makam para raja dan keluarganya serta makam para ulama yang ada di sekitar tempat tersebut,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh Illiza menjelaskan.

Ia juga mengharapkan bagi yang telah menemukan koin emas segera melapor ke pemerintah kota dalam hal ini Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Banda Aceh.

“Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau. Kami juga meminta para kolektor yang telah membeli dirham itu agar berkoordinasi dengan Pemko Banda Aceh,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal mengharapkan. (A042/N005)

Editor: Tasrief Tarmizi

COPYRIGHT © 2013

 

The sources of the origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai muasal version of Western scholars who formulated the Dutch colonial era was different from what is believed to be leaders of national historians and scholars at the time when Indonesia gained its independence. In the “History of the National Seminar” held in Medan, North Sumatra, on March 17-20, 1963, and the seminar “Entry and Growth of Islam in Aceh”, which was held on July 10-16, 1978 in Banda Aceh, among others was attended by Prof Hamka, Prof. A.Hasjmy, Prof. H. Atjeh Aboe Bakar, H. Mohammad Said, and MD Mansoer, has raised a different perspective in the history of the establishment of the Sultanate of effort menelisik Pasai Ocean.

Based on a number of indicators and sources of more recent, including explanations of Arab travelers on the Southeast Asia as well as two local script is found in Aceh, namely “Idhahul Fi Mamlakatil Peureula Rights” by Abu Ishaq Al Makarany and “Tawarich Kings The Government of Aceh “, the experts concluded that the national history of Islamic government Pasai Ocean has stood since the 11th century, or rather the year 433 Hijri alias of calendar year 1042 AD (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:52).

The location of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, have been also efforts to research and investigation, one of them efforts by the Office of the excavation is done Archeological Department of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. From this research effort found that the location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai located in the area called Pasai, which is now located in the North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

According to GP Rouffaer, one Dutch scholar who seriously investigates the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, said that the first Pasai park on the right of Pasai River, while the Ocean is located on the left side of river.However, over time, both places are collected into one place and then made the establishment of a great kingdom, that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (T. Ibrahim Alfian, 1973:21).

b. Ocean, Pasai, and the influence of Egypt

There are several different views of formulating and interpreting the origin of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. One is the notion that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is a continuation of the history of pre-Islamic kingdoms that have existed previously. In a book entitled “The collapse of the Government and the emergence of Hindu-Javanese Muslim countries in the Archipelago”, Slamet Muljana wrote that Nazimuddin Al Kamil, Navy Admiral Fathimiah Dynasty in Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh and managed to dominate the region fertile Pasai known.Nazimuddin Al-Kamil later founded a kingdom at the mouth of the River Pasai in 1128 AD by the name of Pasai. The reason the government established the dynasty Fathimiah Pasai based on a desire to trade in the eastern coastal area of Sumatra that was very crowded.

Ambition is to soothe inflammation, Dynasty Fathimiah deploy a fleet of war in order to seize the city Kambayat in Gujarat, to open a port city in Pasai, and attacked the pepper producing area that is Right and Kampar Kampar Kiri in Minangkabau. In a military expedition to seize it in the Minangkabau region, Nazimuddin Al-Kamil died and his remains buried in Bangkinang, the Kampar River in 1128 was also the Senior (Muljana, 2005:133). In 1168, Fathimiah Dynasty, which was founded in 976 AD, was defeated by Saladin’s army who profess madzhab Shafi. With the collapse of the dynasty Fathimiah, the relationship with Egypt Pasai automatically disconnected.

In the same sources mentioned that the router Nazimuddin Al-Kamil as ruler of the Kingdom of Samudera Admiral Kafrawi Al-Kamil, but in 1204 AD Pasai power fell into the hands of Admiral of the Island We Johan Jani. Under the control of Admiral Johan Jani who is Persian-breed Indian, Pasai stronger and was transformed into the most powerful maritime nation in the Nusantara (Muljana, 2005:114).

In Egypt, there is a new dynasty to replace Fathimiah Dynasty. New Dynasty Dynasty Mamaluk is living in a time frame from 1285 to 1522. Like its predecessor, Dynasty Mamaluk also want to trade in the Pasai. In the early years of existence, Mamaluk Dynasty sent envoys to Pasai, ie, a preacher of the old Islamic learning in the holy land of Mecca known as Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad, a former scholar of the West Coast of India.

Pasai, the envoy was met with angry embarrassment that when it became a member of the armed forces Pasai. Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad managed to persuade the angry embarrassment for Moslems. Furthermore, with the help of Mamaluk Dynasty in Egypt, they founded the Kingdom of the Ocean as a counterbalance to Pasai. Angry embarrassment crowned the Sultan Government Ocean. Neither the Government nor Pasai Ocean, both located at the mouth of the River Pasai and facing toward the Strait of Malacca.

c. History Samudera Pasai in the saga

Another version of the history and development emerged from the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai which tells the tale of the existence of this government, especially in the saga of King Pasai. According to the narration found in theHikayat Raja Pasai, government, led by Sultan Malik Al Salih was first named the Ocean Kingdom. The Pasai is a new rule and accompanying the subsequent existence of the Government of the Ocean. The origin of the name of the government, there are stories that lie behind them.

In the saga of King Pasai told, the emergence of the name Kingdom of the Ocean began when angry embarrassment while walking with her pet dog named Pasai. When they arrived at a high altitude, a dog belonging hesistate Angry sudden loud barking because it met with a large red ants.Anger and embarrassment to catch the giant ants and then eat it. From here arises ilhamnya to name a new government founded under the name of the Government’s Ocean original language could be interpreted as “a big red ants.”


Copy First Page Masjid Pasai


While the origin of Pasai, the story of the same post, one day, angry that embarrassment when it was called the Sultan Malik Al Salih after leading the Government’s Ocean, with the controller is doing at any hunting dog named Sultan who is also participating Pasai . Occurred a strange incident when Pasai released into the forest and see a deer, two different animal species together with the familiar talking. When Sultan Malik Al Salih want to catch it, the deer ran into the arms of a dog named Sultan Pasai it. In a surprise, Sultan Malik Al Salih was minded to build a state in place.

Once the land is located, by Sultan Malik Al Salih Pasai named, as the name of the dog that inspired the construction of the new state. The dog was alone and dying in the new state. As the representative of Sultan Malik Al Salih is still residing in the Kingdom of the Ocean, then dititahkanlah son named Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul to lead Pasai (Russell Jones [ed.], 1999:23).

Although quite a lot of researchers are leaning Pasai Masjid as a platform source of information to reveal the history and origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, but not least is the dubious validity. This is because the story is not a purely historical range, but many are interspersed with stories which might not have really happened, but not uncommon form of stories and myths that are difficult to accept that logic, the legitimacy of government that existed at the time it.

Cast doubt on the truth contained in the saga of King Pasai such as presented by AD Hill stated that the text of the Hikayat Raja Pasai third part was only just beginning. Similarly, Teuku Ibrahim Alfian disappointed that because of the mention of Masjid Pasai historical data, so it had to take information from other sources. In fact, never mentions that Snouck Hugronje Pasai Masjid was “a fairy story chlidren. Hugronje scathing statement it seems is a peak fatality Pasai Masjid as a source of historical information. These data show that during the literature has been seen in the pragmatic dimension through the study of historical or Filologis (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 2002:36).

d. The existence of Pasai Ocean Journey

Before embracing Islam, the original name of Malik Al Salih was angry embarrassment or Meurah Shiloh. “Meurah” is a call to honor those who exalted rank, while the “Silo” could be perceived as glare or sparkle. Angry embarrassment is a descendant of Imam Four or tribe is often referred to Sukee Imuem Peuet, which is a reference to the four sons of Emperor / Meurah brothers who came from the Mon Khmer (Champa) who is the founder of the first governments in Aceh prior to entry and growth of Islam.

Ancestors who founded the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh is among the Emperor Syahir Po-He-La are building government Peureulak (Po-He-La) in East Aceh, Syahir Tanwi flying the flag of the Government Jeumpa (Champa) in Peusangan ( Bireuen), Syahir Poly (Pau-Ling) who uphold the banner of Indra Government Cooperation in Pidie, as well as trigger the establishment of Syahir Nuwi Indra of the Ancient Kingdom of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar.

In the saga of King Pasai told that Marah Marah berayahkan embarrassment and his mother was daughter Gadjah Sewer. Angry embarrassment to have a brother named Marah Sum. After the death of his parents, two brothers left home and began wandering life. Sum angry then became the ruler of the territory Bieruen, while angry embarrassment on the upper reaches of open land Peusangan located not far from the mouth of the River Pasai until finally it became the throne of the Kingdom of the Ocean.


Batu Nisan Angry embarrassment or Sultan Malik Al Salih

As mentioned earlier, angry embarrassment alias Sultan Malik Al Salih Islam on the blarney Mamaluk Dynasty envoys of Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and Fakir. Angry Islamic embarrassment reaffirmed in the saga of King Pasai to provide records that the Prophet Muhammad has mentioned the name of the Government of the Ocean, and also for people in the government diislamkan by one of the companions of the Prophet, in this case is defined as the Sheikh Ismail. With the entry of this saga, it is possible that the teachings of Islam had entered the territory of Aceh shortly after the Prophet Muhammad died, which is in about the first century of Hijra, or about the 7th century or the AD-8 years. Can be expected is that Islam is brought into Aceh directly from Mecca (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:58-59).

The data on Islam in Masjid Pasai Pasai by showing that Pasai the first place that diislamkan. Apparently, such as written in the saga of King Pasai, Prophet Muhammad (Allah) did that brought Islam to the Ocean / Pasai, was in bed when face to face in the embarrassment the Anger of Allah. Prophet Muhammad was the mensyahdatkan and make angry embarrassment to read the Qur’an as much as 30 juz, which is after the Prophet spat in the mouth angry embarrassment. He also makes angry embarrassment was circumcised. Islamization through a direct role Messenger presumably indicates that the essential process of Pasai. In this process Angry hesistate to stay until the process of Islamization was named to run smoothly (Chamamah, 2002:40).

When Malik Salih Al Sultan was named as the first Government of the Ocean, the coronation ceremony conducted by Arab forces in the Al Salih Malik wore crowned with awards from the government of Mecca. This means, the coronation is in Arabic, not by way of India. This means longer, Malik Al Salih likely have converted to Islam at the time of Sultan Government crowned Ocean. After the coronation ceremony, all the warlords and the people immediately honor and worship them by calling the new sultan: “Long live Daulat Shah Alam Zilluilahi fil-natural.” Mention of honorary degrees to the king is also very closely with Arab names.

In a series of similar ceremonies, were also set two Big Man, as an adviser to Sultan, which is rich and Tun Tun Sri Sri Baba Rich. Aroma Islam more so when the second man was later given the title of an effective Arab, each with the name of Sayid Ali Khiatuddin to Tun Sri Kaya and Sayid Asmayuddin to Tun Sri Baba Rich (Said, 1963:85).

Sultan Malik Al Salih was married to Princess algae Sari, descendants of Sultan Aladdin Muhammad Amin bin Abdul Kadi of Government Perlak. From this marriage, Sultan Malik Al Salih blessed with two sons, namely Muhammad and Abdullah. Later, Muhammad is believed to lead Pasai, called Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul (Sultan Malik Al Tahir), side by side with his father, who still lead the Government’s hefty Ocean. The second son of Sultan Malik Al Salih, Abdullah, to opt out of a large family and Pasai Ocean Government, by establishing self-government Aru Barumun Sultanate in 1295.

Under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Pasai experiencing the success. Ibn Batuta record times achieved a golden era Pasai the reign of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Ibn Batuta recorded that the lands in the region so fertile Pasai. Trade and business activities in the government that was sufficiently advanced, proven to have used the currency, including foreign currencies made of gold, as a means of transaction in the economic life of the people Pasai. In addition to establishing relations with countries from outside the archipelago, the trade relations with merchants from the island of Java was so good. In fact, the merchant Java gets special treatment because they have not collected the tax. Typically, those traders from Java to change the rice with the pepper.


Masjid Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul


Ibn Batuta tells, after sailing for 25 days from Barhnakar (now in the territory of Myanmar), he landed in a place that is very fertile. Ibn Batuta can not cover the taste so kagumnya Pasai centers around the city. He was so amazed to see a very beautiful city surrounded by magnificent walls. Ibn Batuta noted that he had to walk about four miles to ride from the port which he called Sahra to get to the center of town. Government center of the city is big enough and beautiful and comes with a tower-dancing made of solid timber. At the center of the city, writes Ibn Batuta, a place to stay the ruling and aristocratic government. The most important building is the Sultan Palace and Mosque (Ismail, 1997:37).

In the fence that surrounds the city, the residence of the rulers and nobles of the people covered by government outside the fence. All commercial life in the town, the newcomers from the countryside, the strangers, the craftsmen, and all other urban activities located outside the fences around the center of town. Foreign persons are often not allowed to live in a certain distance from the Palace of the Sultan, but sometimes they have to live outside the city.

If the explanation of Ibn Batuta is considered correct, it can be said that the city government center Pasai sultans who ruled in Pasai, in the middle area is a core area which is occupied by the Sultan Palace. The palace has a fence that serves as a boundary that distinguishes the Sultan Palace the market area where trade activities and other activities take place.

According to Ibn Batuta records, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is the figure of a leader who has a passion to learn the high demands of Islamic sciences.Batuta also noted that Islamic studies center that was built within the government into a discussion among scholars and government elites. Ibn Batuta even include the name of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul as one of the seven kings of the world that has tremendous advantages. The seventh king who has the uncanny ability by Ibn Batuta among others, the King of the Malay Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul dinilainya the breadth and depth of knowledge, the King of the Romans are very forgiving, King of Iraq a courteous, very friendly Raja Hindustani, the noble king of Yemen, Turkey mighty king, king of Turkistan, and wise.

Effects of Ibn Batuta the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is so deep.As king, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is a very good, generous, humble, and have noticed the poor. Although he had conquered many kingdoms, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul never be jumawa. Sultan, said Batuta, was a leader of Islamic law is put forward. “Very humble personality. He went to the mosque for Friday prayers on foot. Finished praying, Sultan and his entourage around the city for ordinary people to see the situation, “as Ibn Batuta describes the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Humility is one of the Sultan welcomed the group is shown when Ibn Batuta (Republika, May 21, 2008).

In its golden period, and the Government Pasai Ocean appears to be a center of international trade. Government of the Islamic port was crowded with traders and merchants from different continents such as Asia, Africa, China, and Europe. The region where the Government stands and Pasai Ocean, namely in the Malacca Strait, it is a strategic business areas. At that time, the Malacca Strait is a sea trade route is often the location of the transaction and called on merchants from all corners of the earth, as from Siam (Thailand), China, India, Arabia, to Persia (Iran).


Position Pasai (Pacém) in the Map Trade in Asia

In addition to the trade center, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is also a center of religion and government emerged as the first in Indonesia to follow the teachings of Islam. The success of the Sultanate and the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean, located in Ocean Geudong, Aceh Utara, beginning with the consolidation of small government in the area Perlak, such as Jungle and Seumerlang Jreum. In the period of the 13th century to early 16th-century, Pasai is the area’s leading producer of spices in the world, with pepper as one of the prime commodity. Each year, Pasai able to export pepper with a big production. Not only that, Pasai also a producer of other commodities such as silk, camphor, and gold.

Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul have two sons, namely Malikul Mansur Mahmud and Malikul. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul ultimately died because of illness, the leadership reins temporarily handed Pasai Sultan Malik Al Salih, who also led the Government of the Ocean, because the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul still a very young age. By Sultan Malik Al Salih, the two tribes had been referred to the standard figures that they may well lead the government at a later time. Malikul Mahmud handed over to Sayid Ali Baharuddin, while educated by Sayid Mansur Malikul Semayamuddin.

When the prince is growing up and felt ready to lead the government, the Sultan Malik Al Salih also stepped down from his throne, including the two governments, namely the Government and Pasai Ocean. Instead, according to the agreement, General Persons, lifted the Sultan Mahmud Malikul Pasai, while the Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean Kingdom. However, the harmony of the sultan’s brother and sister did not last long due to the feud between them. The cause is the act of Sultan Mansur who was fond of one of his wife of Sultan Mahmud’s brother is none other than his own. In the end, Sultan Mansur was arrested and expelled from the kingdom until later died in transit. Be Malikul Sultan Mahmud dominated government throne Pasai Ocean and the government to digabungkanlah became the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

Since 1346, the leadership of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malikul under the regime of Sultan Mahmud was succeeded by his son named Ahmad Permadala Permala. Once crowned as the ruler of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, he was awarded honorary degrees by the name of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir. In Hikayat Raja told Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir endowed five children, three of them boys while the rest were two girls. Three sons of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir each named Tun Beraim father, Tun Abdul Jalil, and the Tun Abdul Fadil. While her two daughters are named Tun and Tun Takiah Medam Bitter Virgin.

Had a really embarrassing thing happened on the way the leadership of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, which in turn is closely linked to the image as a bad leader. According to the Hikayat Raja Pasai, The Sultan was put doted on his own two daughters, namely Tun Tun Takiah field and Bitter Virgin.Extreme attitudes of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir is of course raises the wrath of many parties, including Tun Beraim Father who is none other than the eldest son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir.

Tun Beraim Father dear life to protect his sister from the savagery of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir by running them for safekeeping in a place. Feel opposed by his own son, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir get mad and then ordered the guards to kill Tun Beraim Father. Prince should be the crown prince was eventually killed after eating the poison given the messenger of the father (Jones [ed.], 1999:35-56). Not long after, the sister of Father Tun Beraim soon followed his brother to take the same poison.

Terrorism Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir not stop there. The Sultan returned berulah rude when I heard the news that there was a princess of the Majapahit Kingdom, Radin Galuh clang, the two fell in love with the son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, namely Tun Abdul Jalil. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir feel offended because he himself is also put at the heart of the beautiful daughter of the King of Majapahit. And then, as enshrined in thesaga of King Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir again mandated the lives of his men to finish Tun Abdul Jalil, and when the plan is successful, the bodies of Tun Abdul Jalil sunk into the sea. Meanwhile, because love is not unbearable, Radin Galuh clink together Pasai determined to go to the controller to meet Tun Abdul Jalil.

Arriving at Pasai, the delegation of Majapahit was to hear that clink Galuh sweethearts Radin is dead, killed by his own father. The Princess is not the power of rage and then sink yourself into the sea in which the remains were buried Tun Abdul Jalil earlier. The remaining guards who accompanied the delegation Radin Galuh clink right back into Java and report to the King of Majapahit about these tragic events.

The King of course heard the anger and outrage of his daughter’s death was Sultan Pasai, and then immediately ordered the army to prepare to attack Majapahit Pasai. Still time to give the game, battle fleet was superior to the kingdom of Majapahit and succeeded in occupying Pasai. Because of the desperate, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir escape to a place called suspect, which is located about fifteen days journey from the State Pasai.

Meanwhile, after a resounding victory by conquering Pasai, the team began preparing for war Majapahit back to Java after taking the spoils and prisoners of war from Pasai. On the way to Java, the Majapahit soldiers first camp stop at Palembang and Jambi to conquer the land, thus bringing more items to loot. Such is the story of the conquest of the kingdom of Majapahit to Pasai as told in the book saga of King Pasai (Jones [ed.], 1999:57-65).

In the genealogy of the rulers of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai lead, there was a female sultan was enthroned in the great state. Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah) Malikul Zahir reigning from 1420 to 1428, or about eight years.Sultanah Nahrasiyah has named adviser to the title of Emperor Ariya Bakooy Bakooy Ahmad Permala. Ariya Bakooy is actually a controversial figure. It had warned people not to marry his daughter scholar himself, but the warning was ditentangnya. In fact, Ariya Bakooy and even kill the 40 scholars. Ariya Bakooy finally fell to the title of Malik Musthofa Pocut Cindan Node Alam, who is none other than her husband Sultanah Nahrasiyah, with the help of Sultan Mahmud Syah Johan Alaiddin of the Government of Aceh Darussalam (1409-1465).

Sultanah Nahrasiyah a Muslim woman of great spirit. This is evidenced by his home décor is very special. In nisannya, Arabic translation of the letter written citation reads: “This is the tomb of the holy women who shine Dear queen, who departed his sins forgiven, Nahrasiyah, daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, son of Sultan Ahmad, son of Sultan Muhammad, son of Sultan Salih Mailkus. Mercy is poured on them and their sins forgiven. By the grace of God died on Monday, 17-Hijjah 832. “(Pocut Haslinda Hamid Azwar,www.modusaceh-news.com, 2009).


Tomb Complex refurbishment Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah)

e. The remains of civilization collapse and Pasai Ocean

The success of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai begin to experience the threat of the greatest civilizations of Java at that time, from the Majapahit Empire of Gadjah Mada as the most legendary mahapatihnya. Gadjah Mada was appointed as governor in Kahuripan in the period 1319-1321 AD by the King of Majapahit who at that time occupied by Jayanegara. In 1331, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih when promoted to be led by Ratu Majapahit Tribuana Tunggadewi. When the appointment of Gadjah Mada became Mahapatih Majapahit is out with his speech called Palapa Oath, that the Gadjah Mada palapa will not enjoy the fruit before the entire archipelago under the Majapahit Kingdom power.

Gadjah Mada Mahapatih apparently little disturbed to hear the news about the greatness of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai across the sea there.Majapahit concerned about the rapid progress of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Therefore, Gadjah Mada then prepare the plan of attack to conquer the ocean Pasai Majapahit. Rumors about military attacks Majapahit, which Syiwa Hindus, the Muslim government Pasai Ocean Santer heard among the people in Aceh. Expedition Pamalayu war fleet under the command of the Majapahit Kingdom, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih action began in 1350 with several phases.

Initial attack on the border of Majapahit Perlak have failed because the location is heavily guarded by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.However, Gadjah Mada University does not cancel the attack. He retreated to the sea and find the open on the east coast that is not maintained. Elephant River, Gadjah Mada landed troops and establish a fortress on the hill, which until now known as the Hill or Bukit Meutan Gadjah Mada (Muljana, 2005:140).

Furthermore, Gadjah Mada conduct the interrogation of two major attacks, that the department of marine and terrestrial field. The attack was launched on the coast by sea in Lhokseumawe and Jambu Air. While incursions by road is via Paya Gajah located between Perlak and Pedawa. Attack of the land have failed because it is blocked by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. While the attacks are done via the sea route instead to reach the palace.


The power of the Majapahit Empire territories, including the Ocean Pasai

In addition to reasons of political factors, the Ocean Pasai Majapahit attacks also triggered because of the economic interest. Commercial progress and prosperity in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Gadjah Mada had wanted to get of that success. Expansion of Majapahit in order to dominate the region has been repeatedly Pasai Ocean and the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai was still able to hold before it finally began to recede slowly over the strengthening influence of Majapahit in the Strait of Malacca.

Until about the 16th century, Ocean Pasai still able to maintain its role as a city that has commercial activities with foreign countries. The historian who shed his interest in economic development was noted that Pasai occupies a position as an international center of trade activity in the archipelago since the role of Kedah successfully rebutted (Said, 1963:125).

But then, a role previously Pasai extremely important in trade flows in Southeast Asia and the world suffered a decline with the advent of the trading town of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (Ismail, 1997:24). Malaka city soon became the prima donna in the field of trade and began to shift the position of Pasai. Not long after Malacca was built, the city in a short time immediately flooded with immigrants, immigrants from Java.

Due to the rapid advancement of Malacca is obtained, the position and role of Pasai more and more cornered, almost all business activities become loose and eventually broke completely in the hands of Malacca since 1450.Moreover, the ambition plus the arrival of the Portuguese trade in the Malay Peninsula. The Portuguese who in 1521 managed to occupy the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (Rusdi Sufi, 2004:57)

Not only that, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai in Aceh weakened when the government established a pioneering start to a great civilization and progress. The new rule is that the Government of Aceh which was founded by Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam itself built on the ruins of the kingdoms that ever existed in Aceh at the time of pre-Islamic, like the Ancient Kingdom of Indra, Indra Purwa Government, Government Indra Patra, and the Government Indrapura. In 1524, the Government of Aceh under the leadership of Sultan Ali Shah attacked the Sultanate Mughayat Pasai Ocean. Consequently, the greatness of Government prestige Ocean Pasai more completely overcast before the collapse. Since then, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the control of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam.

Traces of the civilization heritage of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai found, in 1913 and 1915 by a Dutch scientist named JJ de Vink, who took the initiative to conduct an inventory of the former omission Pasai Ocean. Then, in 1937 was done in a cemetery restoration efforts sultans Pasai Ocean by the Dutch colonial government. Then, in 1972, 1973, and in 1976 the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai relics found in the Ocean Geudong district, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, has diinventarisasi by the Director General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

Recent developments, in the year 2009 has been found several relics related to the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. In March 2009, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team informed us that they have discovered the tomb of Al Wazir Al Afdal, who served as Prime Minister of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Grave is located in Teupin Ara, Ocean District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

Al Wazir Al Afdhal known to have served as prime minister during the reign of the last regime Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zain al Abidin is also often known by the name of Sultan Zainal Abidin, who ruled for two terms, namely in the period 1477-1500 and 1513-1524 . From the findings obtained evidence that Al Wazir Al Afdal Zulkaedah died on 7 months of 1518 in 923 H or M. In the same year, Sultan Zainal Abidin also died. At the cemetery headstone Al Wazir Al Afdal, there are poems that describe kezuhudan that the world is transient, just like a nest of spiders knit. The same poem was written on the grave of Sultan Malik Al Salih who expressed the sinking of the Ocean civilization Pasai (www.indowarta.com, March 25, 2009).

On the occasion of Meanwhile, the Islamic Cultural History of the Research Team also claimed to have found a stamp or mark the estimated age of 683 years. Stamp of the government that is predicted to belong Malikul Sultan Muhammad Zahir, the second sultan Pasai Ocean, was found not far from the tomb of Abdullah bin Muhammad, in the village of Kuta Krueng, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Abdullah bin Muhammad (died 816 H/1414 M) itself is one of the descendants of the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustanshir Billah, who holds Shadr Al Akabir (leader of the speaker) in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai at that time.

Seals are found to have broken at the handle portion measuring 2 × 1 cm, and apparently made from a type of animal horns. From finding a location in Kuta FORUM, estimated mark was used until the reign of the last leader of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zainal Abidin (www.acehlong.com, March 17, 2009).

Then, in June 2009, the Foundation dedicated team of researchers from Nurul Islam (YWNI) Lhokseumawe announced that they had found the tomb is believed to be the last place persemayaman Kanayan King, a warlord in the reign of Sultan Zain Al-Abidin. Tomb of King Kanayan found in the village of Meunasah Ujoung Blang Me, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Based on the research, it is known that King Kanayan died on Friday, December 3 Sha’ban 872 H or 1468 AD. Thus, King Kanayan have lived during the reign of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai some regimes, and died at the time of Sultan Zainal Abidin.

Besides the tomb of King Kanayan, also found a number of other tombs. In fact, the research team predict there are other tie-tie disappear into the ground at the tomb complex is situated not far from the east bank of the River Pasai it. The new tombs were found is not listed in the inventory of the historical site of Culture (www.waspadaonline.com, June 20, 2009).

Finally, in August 2009, the Research Institute of Islamic History (LePSI) Lhokseumawe revealed that they are reviewing the manuscript letter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, died in 923 Hijri or 1518 AD. The letter was addressed to Captain Moran representatives acting on behalf of the King of Portugal in India. Photographic copies can be seen at the Museum Negeri Aceh, while the original manuscript held in Lisbon, Portugal.

The script provides a lot of historical information about the happenings Pasai Ocean in the early 16th century, especially the last condition that caused the first Islamic kingdom in Southeast Asia, having managed to master the Portuguese of Malacca in 1511 AD. Scripts Arabic letters also indicate the names of some state or government who have a close relationship with the Ocean Pasai so we can know the original spelling of the names of states or governments, among others Nergeri Fariyaman (Pariaman) and Mulaqat (Malacca) (www.waspadaonline. com, August 21, 2009).

2. Genealogy of the Kings

Here the names of the sultan / Sultanah known ever to lead the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai:

1. Sultan Malik al-Salih (1267-1297)
2. Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
3. Sultan Mahmud Malikul
4. Sultan Mansur Malikul
5. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383)
6. Zain Al-Abidin Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (1383-1405)
7. Sultanah Nahrasiyah or Sultanah Nahrisyyah (1420-1428)
8. Sultan Sallah Ad-Din (1402)
9. Sultan Abu Zaid Malik Az-Zahir 1455)
10. Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1455-1477)
11. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1477-1500)
12. Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir (1501-1513)
13. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1513-1524)


Genealogy Sultan / Sultanah Sultanate Masjid Ocean Pasai According Pasai.

Sultan Malik Al Salih lead the Sultanate of Samudera, while his son, Sultan Muhammad Zahir is the ruler of the Sultanate of Malikul Pasai. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul died, the government of the Sultanate of Pasai held by Sultan Malik Al Salih for a while while waiting for the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, namely Malikul and Malikul Mansur Mahmud, was growing up. After the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is considered able to be a leader, Sultan Malik Al Salih resigned from the sultan of the government he leads is.

Furthermore, Sultan Malik Al Salih handed control of the government to the tribes, each of the Sultanate of Pasai Malikul Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Ocean to Malikul. The time period of the reign of the third sultan, that Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Malikul Sultan Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Malikul, deliberately not mentioned because there are some irregularities concerning this matter, including those listed in the saga of King Pasai.

Kesimpang-siuran the period of the reign of each sultan / Sultanah the obstacle, and because of that century years are included in the list above is an interpretation of some information that was found. Similarly, the mention of the name or title of each sultan / Sultanah that we found so many versions. In addition, incomplete information about anyone sultan / Sultanah who ruled the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai a massage and runtut also cause other problems because of not necessarily what is written in the genealogy of the rulers who had recorded all the reign in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

3. Regional Power

In the century to the 14th century, the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already very famous and influential and has a vast territory. The powerful fleet of war is to support the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai to expand its power, both in order to dominate and occupy the territory of another state or by the mission to spread Islam. Pasai Ocean territory of the Sultanate of success lies in an area that is flanked by two large rivers in the North Coast of Aceh, namely the Peusangan and Pasai River. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai territory also includes the Ocean Geudong (Aceh Utara), Meulaboh, Bireuen, and Jungle Jreum and Seumerlang (Perlak).


Power Ocean Territory Pasai

Meanwhile, some are embracing the opinion that the territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai cover a wider area to the south, ie to the mouth of the River Jambu Ayer (Ismail, 1997:7). Clearly, the vast territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai covered along the river upstream of the upstream-derived remote Gayo Highlands, now in the administrative area of Central Aceh District, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai also successfully expanded its territory to the outside of the ground in Aceh. Some rural areas of the state administrations under the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai include Minangkabau, Palembang, Jambi, Patani, Malacca, even to their various governments on the coast of Java (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:61).

4. Governance System

The composition of the community who become citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai show-layered character. According Ayatrohaedi, the layer consists of Sultan and the government of Persons in the top layer to slave on the bottom layer (Ayatrohaedi, 1992). In the group of layers of bureaucracy looks the group of Persons, the prime minister, ministers, soldiers, officers, and other nobles of the kingdom.

The existence of those engaged in commerce, such as those who deal in, the sail, the town, masters, and others. Although the total population of Arabs who live in Pasai not by the people of India, but among the Arabs is very influential in the way of government, even though the policies of Sultan Pasai. This situation is seen since the early formation of the Sultanate of Pasai and lasts a long time until this government changed the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

In the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih as the first ruler of the Sultanate of Pasai, there are a number of Persons in the state, among other things, and Tun Tun Sri Kaya Kaya Baba. The names that clearly indicate their position, called the Great Persons. This is in accordance with the articulation of government Persons in the Malay Peninsula and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as the Rich Man (Ismail, 1997:39).

Second Person of the way the government take control of the Sultanate of Pasai, each was given the title and Sayid Sayid Ali Ghitauddin Asmayuddin, as has been mentioned before in the Islamic Anger or embarrassment Sultan Malik Al Salih. In the story illustrated clearly that Great Persons are mentioned as prime minister, one for the Sultanate of Pasai and another for the Sultanate of Samudera. Their position is very important in there place since the regime of Sultan Malik Al Salih until the era of the reign of his grandson and Malikul Malikul Mahmud Mansur.


One manuscript indicates presence Pasai

In the second grandson of Sultan Malik Al Salih was in power in their government, there is a dispute between them, ie when Malikul Mansur indecent acts against one of his wives Malikul Mahmud. Despicable acts knowing that his brother, Sultan Mahmud had Malikul speech that if he does not respect Asmayuddin Sayid, who is an advisor in the Sultanate of Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean, Malikul Sultan Mahmud would have killed his own brother for acts of contempt are not forgiven. This fragment is sufficient to prove that how strong the effect of the Persons of the wheels of government take control, even to the level of personal and psychological affect Sultan.

In the next era of leadership, which under the regime of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383), the government of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai controlled by four prime ministers, each of which called Tulus Great Tailor Sukara, Baba Mentuha, Solomon Dendang Water and Tun Shah Alam City (Jones [ed.], 1999:36). Still the same as in previous times, the fourth prime minister of the exercise of its functions as an adviser to the Sultan and influenced government policy even though the final decision still remains in the hands of Sultan Pasai Ocean. Social and political life of citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is colored by cultural and religious elements of Islam. His administration is a theocracy (based on the teachings of Islam), and most people embrace Islam

Kesultanan Malaka (abad ke-14abad ke-17)

1402

Kesultanan Malaka (14021511) adalah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan oleh Parameswara, seorang putera Sriwijaya yang melarikan diri dari perebutan Palembang oleh Majapahit. Ibu kota kerajaan ini terdapat di Melaka, yang terletak pada penyempitan Selat Malaka. Kesultanan ini berkembang pesat menjadi sebuah entrepot dan menjadi pelabuhan terpenting di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-15 dan awal 16. Malaka runtuh setelah ibu kotanya direbut Portugis pada 1511.

Kegemilangan yang dicapai oleh Kerajaan Melaka adalah daripada beberapa faktor yang penting. Antaranya, Parameswara telah mengambil kesempatan untuk menjalinkan hubungan baik dengan negara Cina ketika Laksamana Yin Ching mengunjungi Melaka pada tahun 1403. Malah, salah seorang daripada sultan Melaka telah menikahi seorang putri dari negara Cina yang bernama Putri Hang Li Po. Hubungan erat antara Melaka dengan Cina telah memberi banyak manfaat kepada Melaka. Melaka mendapat perlindungan dari Cina yang merupakan sebuah kuasa besar di dunia untuk mengelakkan serangan Siam.

Sejarah

Parameswara pada awalnya mendirikan kerajaan di Singapura pada tahun 1390-an. Negeri ini kemudian diserang oleh Jawa dan Siam, yang memaksanya hijrah lebih ke utara. Kronik Dinasti Ming mencatat Parameswara telah berdiam di ibukota baru di Melaka pada 1403, tempat armada Ming yang dikirim ke selatan menemuinya. Sebagai balasan upeti yang diberikan Kekaisaran Cina menyetujui untuk memberikan perlindungan pada kerajaan baru tersebut. [1]

Parameswara kemudian menganut agama Islam setelah menikahi putri Pasai. Laporan dari kunjungan Laksamana Cheng Ho pada 1409 menyiratkan bahwa pada saat itu Parameswara masih berkuasa, dan raja dan rakyat Melaka sudah menjadi muslim. [2]. Pada 1414 Parameswara digantikan putranya, Megat Iskandar Syah.[1][2]

Megat Iskandar Syah memerintah selama 10 tahun, dan digantikan oleh Muhammad Syah. Putra Muhammad Syah yang kemudian menggantikannya, Raja Ibrahim, tampaknya tidak menganut agama Islam, dan mengambil gelar Sri Parameswara Dewa Syah. Namun masa pemerintahannya hanya 17 bulan, dan dia mangkat karena terbunuh pada 1445. Saudara seayahnya, Raja Kasim, kemudian menggantikannya dengan gelar Sultan Mudzaffar Syah.

Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Mudzaffar Syah Melaka melakukan ekspansi di Semenanjung Malaya dan pantai timur Sumatera (Kampar dan Indragiri). Ini memancing kemarahan Siam yang menganggap Melaka sebagai bawahan Kedah, yang pada saat itu menjadi vassal Siam. Namun serangan Siam pada 1455 dan 1456 dapat dipatahkan.

Di bawah pemerintahan raja berikutnya yang naik tahta pada tahun 1459, Sultan Mansur Syah, Melaka menyerbu Kedah dan Pahang, dan menjadikannya negara vassal. Di bawah sultan yang sama Johor, Jambi dan Siak juga takluk. Dengan demikian Melaka mengendalikan sepenuhnya kedua pesisir yang mengapit Selat Malaka.

Mansur Syah berkuasa sampai mangkatnya pada 1477. Dia digantikan oleh putranya Alauddin Riayat Syah. Sultan memerintah selama 11 tahun, saat dia meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Mahmud Syah. [3]

Mahmud Syah memerintah Malaka sampai tahun 1511, saat ibu kota kerajaan tersebut diserang pasukan Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso de Albuquerque. Serangan dimulai pada 10 Agustus 1511 dan berhasil direbut pada 24 Agustus 1511. Sultan Mahmud Syah melarikan diri ke Bintan dan mendirikan ibukota baru di sana. Pada tahun 1526 Portugis membumihanguskan Bintan, dan Sultan kemudian melarikan diri ke Kampar, tempat dia wafat dua tahun kemudian. Putranya Muzaffar Syah kemudian menjadi sultan Perak, sedangkan putranya yang lain Alauddin Riayat Syah II mendirikan kerajaan baru yaitu Johor.

[sunting] Daftar raja-raja Malaka

  1. Parameswara (1402-1414)
  2. Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)
  3. Sultan Muhammad Syah (1424-1444)
  4. Seri Parameswara Dewa Syah(1444-1445)
  5. Sultan Mudzaffar Syah (1445-1459)
  6. Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477)
  7. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)
  8. Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1528)

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan dari Samudera Pasai yang pada tahun 1360 ditaklukkan oleh Majapahit hingga kemundurannya di abad ke-14. Kesultanan Aceh terletak di utara pulau Sumatera dengan ibu kota Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) dengan sultan pertamnya adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil awal 913 H atau pada tanggal 8 September 1507. Dalam sejarahnya yang panjang itu (14961903), Aceh telah mengukir masa lampaunya dengan begitu megah dan menakjubkan, terutama karena kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan pola dan sistem pendidikan militer, komitmennya dalam menentang imperialisme bangsa Eropa, sistem pemerintahan yang teratur dan sistematik, mewujudkan pusat-pusat pengkajian ilmu pengetahuan, hingga kemampuannya dalam menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain.[1]

Sejarah

Awal mula

Kesultanan Aceh didirikan oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah pada tahun 1496. Diawal-awal masa pemerintahannya wilayah Kesultanan Aceh berkembang hingga mencakup Daya, Deli, Pedir, Pasai, dan Aru. Pada tahun 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah digantikan oleh putera sulungnya yang bernama Salahuddin, yang kemudian berkuasa hingga tahun 1537. Kemudian Salahuddin digantikan oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar yang berkuasa hingga tahun 1568.

Masa kejayaan

Kesultanan Aceh mengalami masa keemasan pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Iskandar Muda (16071636). Pada masa kepemimpinannya, Aceh telah berhasil memukul mundur kekuatan Portugis dari selat Malaka. Kejadian ini dilukiskan dalam La Grand Encyclopedie bahwa pada tahun 1582, bangsa Aceh sudah meluaskan pengaruhnya atas pulau-pulau Sunda (Sumatera, Jawa dan Kalimantan) serta atas sebagian tanah Semenanjung Melayu. Selain itu Aceh juga melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan semua bangsa yang melayari Lautan Hindia. Pada tahun 1586, kesultanan Aceh melakukan penyerangan terhadap Portugis di Melaka dengan armada yang terdiri dari 500 buah kapal perang dan 60.000 tentara laut. Serangan ini dalam upaya memperluas dominasi Aceh atas Selat Malaka dan semenanjung Melayu. Walaupun Aceh telah berhasil mengepung Melaka dari segala penjuru, namun penyerangan ini gagal dikarenakan adanya persekongkolan antara Portugis dengan kesultanan Pahang.

Dalam lapangan pembinaan kesusasteraan dan ilmu agama, Aceh telah melahirkan beberapa ulama ternama, yang karangan mereka menjadi rujukan utama dalam bidang masing-masing, seperti Hamzah Fansuri dalam bukunya Tabyan Fi Ma’rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin ar-Raniry dalam bukunya Sirat al-Mustaqim, dan Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkili dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil.

Kemunduran

Kemunduran Kesultanan Aceh bermula sejak kemangkatan Sultan Iskandar Tsani pada tahun 1641. Kemunduran Aceh disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya ialah makin menguatnya kekuasaan Belanda di pulau Sumatera dan Selat Malaka, ditandai dengan jatuhnya wilayah Minangkabau, Siak, Deli dan Bengkulu kedalam pangkuan penjajahan Belanda. Faktor penting lainnya ialah adanya perebutan kekuasaan diantara pewaris tahta kesultanan.

Traktat London yang ditandatangani pada 1824 telah memberi kekuasaan kepada Belanda untuk menguasai segala kawasan British/Inggris di Sumatra sementara Belanda akan menyerahkan segala kekuasaan perdagangan mereka di India dan juga berjanji tidak akan menandingi British/Inggris untuk menguasai Singapura.

Pada akhir Nopember 1871, lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan Traktat Sumatera, dimana disebutkan dengan jelas “Inggris wajib berlepas diri dari segala unjuk perasaan terhadap perluasan kekuasaan Belanda di bagian manapun di Sumatera. Pembatasan-pembatasan Traktat London 1824 mengenai Aceh dibatalkan.” Sejak itu, usaha-usaha untuk menyerbu Aceh makin santer disuarakan, baik dari negeri Belanda maupun Batavia. Setelah melakukan peperangan selama 40 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh ke pangkuan kolonial Hindia-Belanda. Sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Aceh menyatakan bersedia bergabung ke dalam Republik indonesia atas ajakan dan bujukan dari Soekarno kepada pemimpin Aceh Tengku Muhammad Daud Beureueh saat itu[rujukan?].

Perang Aceh

 

1537

Ottoman Empire Sends War Armada To Help Aceh

Ottoman Empire (Sultan Selim II) which Were made to help the Muslim Sultanates Aceh (Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah)

– 1537-1538,

the Ottoman sent 300 troops to the Acehnese, I don’t know what they were composed of.

– 1558, 400 Turkish artilery had joined with some 15000 Acehnese troops and an armada of 300 vessels in attack Melaka (Malacca) off the hands of the Portuguese albeit only for a month.

– 1562, an Acehnese ambassador had gone to Istanbul to ask for Turkish help. The Ottoman sent some 500 Turks, a number of projectiles with stone bullets, munitions, engineers and people to handle the big weapons.

But what I had in mind was the planned expedition that Selim II wanted to carry out which was to have some 15 war ships and be comandeered by the admiral Kurtoglu. It was also to be helped by the governerships of Yemen, Aden and Mecca, but that one was never carried out.

The Ottoman Turkish empire was a very influential empire, at least as it was the simbol of the Muslim Caliphate. The success of Suleiman the Magnificent was heard loudly in these areas, with the Sultan of Demak, wanting to conquer Java so as be called, as according to the Portuguese, Manuel Pinto, segundo Turco: “the second Turkish King”.

Warga Blang Balok Masih Simpan Meriam “Lada Sicupak” Asal Turki

Peureulak – Không nhiều người biết nếu trong làng Blang Beams Peureulak City East Aceh huyện vẫn còn lưu một khẩu pháo Lada nước Sicupak của Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ. Cannon đo gần hai mét, theo người dân địa phương đến từ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.

Không nhiều người biết lý do tại sao Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ mang súng đến Aceh hiện đang được lưu trữ gọn gàng trong làng Blang Beams khoảng 1,5 km từ cầu đối diện với khung thép Kp Beusa hoặc đường cao tốc Medan – Banda Aceh. Ngay cả người dân địa phương đã được rào chắn pháo để duy trì liên tục và tránh những điều không mong muốn.

Cha Wan, quản lý trang web Sicupak Meriam của Lada hiên hai ngày trước đây nói, đại bác lịch sử vẫn còn quan tâm rằng không có bàn tay ngu dốt phá hủy nó. Nói với cha Wan, người được cho là di tích pháo của nhà nước Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ được đặt tên Meriam Lada Sicupak và phát hiện vào ngày 12 Tháng Mười Hai 1976 lúc 23:30 bởi cuối TGK Muhammad Ben.

Pháo đã từng là một công cụ của chiến tranh sử dụng Commander Mustafa vào năm 1860 cũng là người dân địa phương.

Khẩu pháo được coi cộng đồng địa phương có một phước lành. Điều này là hiển nhiên từ các cuộc xung đột Aceh bị thiệt hại, những khẩu súng không bao giờ tranh cãi. Trong thực tế, có những người cố gắng để di chuyển vị trí của những khẩu súng, không thể để nhấc nó lên, và những người đang cố gắng để di chuyển các pháo vào thời điểm đó, cuối cùng bị một chứng rối loạn tâm thần.

Once upon a time, khẩu pháo sẽ được khai quật được di chuyển bởi một công dân, nhưng sớm người điên, bố nói Wan.

Pháo một lần loại bỏ và chuyển sang đấu trường của Tuần lễ Văn hóa Aceh (PKA), nhưng việc loại bỏ được thực hiện bởi 15 người và được giám sát bởi nhà khảo cổ học.

Mặc dù súng đã không được biết đến rộng rãi công dân, cha Wan không được phép để di chuyển các khẩu pháo. Công chúng sẽ được cho phép nếu chính phủ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ ngay lập tức yêu cầu nhớ pháo là một di sản của đất nước trong quá khứ, vì vậy cha Wan.

Nguồn: “Serambinews”
original info

PEUREULAK – Tak banyak yang tahu jika di Desa Blang Balok Kecamatan Peureulak Kota Aceh Timur kini masih tersimpan sebuah meriam Lada Sicupak asal negara Turki. Meriam yang berukuran hampir dua meter itu, menurut warga setempat berasal dari Turki.

 

 

Tak banyak yang tahu kenapa Turki membawa meriam ini ke Aceh yang kini tersimpan rapi di Desa Blang Balok sekitar 1,5 kilometer dari jembatan rangka baja Kp Beusa Sebrang atau dengan dengan jalan raya Medan – Banda Aceh. Bahkan oleh warga setempat meriam itu telah dipagar untuk menjaga kelestariannya serta menghindari hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan.

Ayah Wan, pengelola lokasi Meriam Lada Sicupak ini kepada Serambi dua hari lalu menceritakan, meriam bersejarah ini tetap dirawat supaya jangan ada tangan-tangan jahil yang merusaknya. Diceritakan Ayah Wan, meriam yang diyakini peninggalan negara Turki itu kini diberi nama Meriam Lada Sicupak dan ditemukan pada tanggal 12 Desember 1976 pukul 11.30 Wib oleh almarhum Tgk Muhammad Ben.

Meriam tersebut dulunya merupakan alat perang yang digunakan Panglima Mustafa pada Tahun 1860 yang juga merupakan warga desa setempat.

Meriam tersebut oleh masyarakat setempat dianggap memiliki keberkahan. Hal itu terbukti sejak Aceh dilanda konflik, keberadaan meriam tidak pernah diganggu gugat. Malah ada warga yang mencoba memindahkan lokasi keberadaan meriam ini, tak sanggup mengangkatnya dan orang yang mencoba memindahkan meriam kala itu, akhirnya menderita gangguan jiwa.

Pernah suatu ketika, meriam tersebut akan digali untuk dipindahkan oleh seorang warga, namun tak lama kemudian warga itu gila, ujar Ayah Wan.

Meriam tersebut dulu pernah diangkat dan dipindahkan untuk arena Pekan Kebudayaan Aceh (PKA), namun pada saat pemindahannya dilakukan oleh 15 orang dengan diawasi oleh ahli purbakala.

Meskipun meriam itu tidak banyak diketahui warga, oleh Ayah Wan tidak diizinkan untuk memindahkan lokasi meriam. Masyarakat akan mengizinkannya bila pemerintah Turki yang langsung memintanya mengingat meriam tersebut merupakan peninggalan negara itu pada masa lampau, demikian Ayah Wan.

Sources : “Serambinews”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aceh unidentief location and date

Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam

 

Oleh: Ameer Hamzah

 

Suara tokek di Meureudu dengan di Pase sangat berbeda. Di Meureudu suaranya  ko’o-ko’o dan di Pase berbunyi e’ee. e’eee. Mengapa? Seorang peneliti suara satwa bertanya kepada orang-orang tua yang ada di Aceh.

Jawabannya, ternyata sa­ngat seragam. Di Meureudu pernah singgah Poteu Meureuhom Iskandar Muda, sedang di Pase tidak. maka suara tokek berbeda. Jawaban seperti itu memang tak dapat dipertanggung jawabkan secara ilmiah, namun dalarn masyarakat telah sangat populer.

Sultan Iskandarmuda me­mang sudah menjadi legendaris. Namanya sangat agung dan hampir tak ada lidah orang Aceh yang tak pernah menyebut nama itu.

Istilah Poteu Meureuhom dalam ungkapan hadih maja, Adat bak Poteu Meureuhom, hukom bak Syiah Kuala. adalah gelar yang disempenakan kepadanya setelah sultan tersebut mangkat.

la seorang sultan terbesar yang pernah dimiliki Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam. Kekuasaannya meluas mencakupi semua wilayah Sumatera sampai ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (M Said: Aceh Sepanjang Abad, halaman 147).

Kerajaan Deli dan Aru ditaklukkannya pada tahun 1612 M. Johor 1613, Pahang, Kedah, Perak,  Singapura dan Batam dalam tahun 1617-1620 M. Pulau Nias, Asahan,  Indragiri dan Jambi 1623-1625 M’ dan menyerang Portugis di Malaka pada tahun 1629 M. Singkat kata, seluruh Sumatera dan Semenanjung Malaya sudah berada di bawah kekuasaannya.

Zamannya adalah zaman kegemilangan dan puncak keemasan bagi Aceh dan daerah taklukannya. Bandar Aceh Darussalam menjadi kiblat ilmu pengetahuan di belahan bumi Asia Tenggara.

Banyak ulama dan sarjana yang datang dari Arab, India, Persia, dan Gujarat untuk bermukim di Aceh. Di sini mereka menjadi guru-guru besar yang mengajar ilmu pengetahuan di Perguruan Tinggi Darusy Syariah Jamiah Baiturrahmam Bandar Aceh Darussalam. Mahasiswa datang dari berbagai penjuru nusantara.

Para pujangga dan penyair, penari dan penyanyi juga mendapat tempat tersendiri dalam istana sultan. Iskandarmuda bagaikan Harun Ar-Rasyid yang pernah berkuasa di Bag­dad.

Petani dan pedagang hidup sejahtera karena hasil yang berlimpahruah. Tak ada orang kaya yang kikir dan orang miskin yang dengki. Aceh masa itu menurut Prof Dr Hamka — benar-benar sudah mencapai, taraf Baldatun Thayyibatun wa Rabbul Ghafuur (Sejarah Umat Islam PT Bulan Bintang, 1977).

Sultan memerintah dengan adil dan bijaksana berdasarkan hukum yang berlaku di zamannya.yakni hukum syariah yang berdasarkan al-Quran, hadits, ijmak, dan qias. Banyak pelaku kejahatan yang mati dibunuh berdasarkan hukum hudud.

Hukum baginya adalah amanah Allah. Karena itu siapa saja yang berbuat melanggar hukum akan menerima risiko hukum, meski anak kandungnya sendiri. Dalam menjalankan hukum tidak pilih kasih. Ini dibuktikan dalam sejarah. Meurah Pupok, putranya yang dipersiapkan untuk menjadi pengganti (putra mahkota) — telanjur berbuat zina dengan isteri seorang menteri. Karena itu baginda sangat murka. Ia memerintahkan serdadu untuk menangkap anaknya itu dan memerintahkan hakim untuk merajamnya sampai mati.

Banyak pembesar istana yang ingin mengesampingkan risiko hukum terhadap putra mahkota. Mereka menggoda baginda supaya membatalkan hukum tersebut. Tapi dengan tegas Iskandarmuda menjawab: Mate aneuek meupat jrat, gadoh adat pat tamita. (Mati anak tinggal kuburan, hilang adat kemana dicari) (Prof A Hasymy: Iskandarmuda Meu kuta Alam). Dalam hal ini ia serupa dengan Umar bin Khattab yang menghukum rajam putranya Abu Syamah karena kasus yang serupa juga.

Sultan Iskandarmuda yang berkuasa sejak tahun 1607-1636 memang tak tertandingi. la seorang penakluk yang sa­ngat berhasil. la menaklukkan tapi bukan untuk menjajah. la seorang negarawan besar yang sangat cinta kepada agama Islam dan saudara serumpunnya di Sumatera dan Semenan­jung Melayu yang sudah dalam cengkeraman penjajah Portugis. Makanya ncgeri-ncgcri yang ditaklukkan tak pernah merasa kecewa, kecuali raja-raja yang hilang kekuasaan.

Rakyat dalam negeri-negeri yang ditaklukkan menganggap Iskandarmuda sebagai pahlawan yang telah membebaskan mereka dari pengaruh kolonialisme Barat. Bahkan kemenangan-kemenangan yang didapatnya bukan semata-mata karena kekuatan pasukan Aceh, melainkan juga karena adanya tentara yang membelot karena benci kepada kolonialisme dan bonekaisme Portugis.

Ketika Iskandarmuda dan angkatan lautnya bertekat untuk membebaskan Tanah Semenanjung Melayu (sekarang Malaysia) dari penjajahan Portugis, banyak cerita yang menarik kita baca dalam buku sejarah.

Sultan Iskandarmuda menerapkan etika perang menurut Islam yang diajarkan Rasulullah SAW. Bila rnusuh dapat dikalahkan jangan disiksa, jangan dirampok hartanya, dan jangan pula diganggu wanitanya. Sebaliknya, bila mati da­lam peperangan adalah syahid. Jangan lari dari medan perang, kecuali untuk mengatur strategi.

Dengan etika perang yang mulia itulah, kejayaan yang dicapai Iskandarmuda hampir serupa dengan kejayaan yang dipcrolehi Abubakar, Umar bin Khattab, Usman, Ali  dan Mu­hammad al-Fateh dari Turki.

Pasukan Aceh (Iskandarmu­da) dengan gemilang berturut-turut dapat menaklukkan selu­ruh negeri  yang ada di Sumatera dan Semenanjung Melayu. Nama beliaupun hidup subur menjadi lagenda di Tanah Se­menanjung.

Belum lama ini. (2/11) penulis berada di Kampong Acheh, Yan Kedah Malaysia. Saya bertanya kepada Ustaz Haji Ibrahim bin Haji Abdurrahman sesepuh masyarakat Aceh di sana. Sejak kapan masyarakat Aceh sudah bermukim di sini? “Sejak Poteu Meureuhom Iskandarmuda menaklukkan Kedah,” jawabnya.

Nama Iskandarmuda, tetap dikenang di sana. Hikayat Malem Dagang yang merupakan kisah Iskandarmuda masih dibaca oleh masyarakat Aceh di Yan. Meski sudah ratusan tahun mereka terpisah dari tanah Aceh, Serambi Makkah. Begitu juga masyarakat Melayu di Pahang. Mereka tidak melupakan jasa Iskandarmuda yang telah memuliakan Putroe Phang

Beliau juga seorang pria yang romantis dan sangat be­sar kasih sayangnya terhadap musuh yang sudah ditawannya. Setelah Pahang menyerah dan menawan anggota kerajaan, ia jatuh cinta kepada putri cantik bernama Kamaliah (Pu­troe Phang). Ia kawin dan memboyongnya ke Aceh.

Untuk mengobat hati putri Pahang yang luka karena ayahnya kalah, maka Sultan Iskan­darmuda membuat sebuah taman yang indah, (Raudhatul Isyqi lengkap dengan tempat permandian, tempat pelipur lara di pinggir Krueng Daroy. Itulah yang kita kenal seka­rang Taman Sari, Taman Pinto Khop dan Gunongan.

Sebenarnya masih sangat banyak yang harus kita tulis tentang orang besar Aceh Ini, sebab ia telah banyak mewariskan pusaka terhadap kita semua. la telah mengangkat harkat dan martabat umat Islam nusantara dari kekejaman kolonialisme Barat. Ia telah berbuat yang beIum dibuat oleh pendahulunya dan oleh sultan-sultan sesudahnya.

Tulisan ini hanya secuil ungkapan rasa bangga dan kesyukuran kita karena Sultan Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam telah disahkan menjadi Pahlawan Naslonal oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Hari Pahlawan Nasional 10 Nevember yang kita peringati hari ini rasanya sangat indah dari yang sudah-sudah, sangat bermakna dari sebelumnya. Seorang pahlawan sejati telah kita beri tempat yang layak untuk dihormati.

Bagi rakyat Aceh Iskandar­muda adalah simbol keadilan, simbol kemakmuran dan kebesaran. Jadi, bukan simbol impian dan nostalgia. Masa lalu adalah masa lain, denting waktu tak mungkin terulang kembali.

Tugas kita sekarang, bukan bernostalgja (cet langet) terhadap prestasi yang diraih Iskandarmuda dan juga pahlawan-pahlawan kita yang lain, tetapi berkarya yang lebih baik lagi dari karya pcndahulu kita. Kalau Iskandarmuda dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dapat mengubah wajah kemiskinan menjadi kemakmuran, rasanya kita juga perlu meniru.

 

Ameer Hamzah, Wartawan Harian Serambi Indonesia

Meriam Lada Sicupak (Aceh)

Meriam Aceh Digunakan Ketika Menentang Portugis dan Belanda

Sultanate Of Aceh Darussalam Flag

(1496 – 1903)

Aceh Flag : Alam Aceh (Atjeh) , Alam Peudeueng , Alam Zulfiqar

 

Cờ của Vương quốc Aceh, tên là ALAM của Zulfiqar Ali Shah Mughayat (vua đầu tiên của Aceh) từ sự lãnh đạo cũ là 916-936 H (1511 đến 1530 AD)
AwangPembela
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:09
Công cụ tuyệt vời, HangPC. Cảm ơn bạn.

Tôi sẽ khuyên bạn nên có xúc tiến để LaksamanaPC.
Bhaskara
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:29
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!
HangPC2
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:52
QUOTE (Bhaskara @ April 23, 2008, 14:29) [snapback] 3.655.814 [/ snapback]
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!

 

 

original info

 


Bendera Kerajaan Aceh, bernama ALAM ZULFIQAR yang dibuat oleh Ali Mughayat Syah (Raja pertama Aceh) lama kepemimpinannya adalah dari tahun 916 – 936 H (1511 – 1530 M)

AwangPembela

Apr 23 2008, 01:09 AM

Great stuff, HangPC. Thank you.

I’ll recommend ya for promotion to LaksamanaPC.

Bhaskara

Apr 23 2008, 01:29 AM

Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!

HangPC2

Apr 23 2008, 01:52 AM

QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Apr 23 2008, 02:29 PM) [snapback]3655814[/snapback]

Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!

Malay Federation (1948-1950)

 

 

 

1950-1963 – Federation of Malaya

Melaka (Malacca) Negeri Melaka Darul Azim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sultanate Of Johore (Negeri Johor Darul Takzim)

Sultanate Of Kelantan (Negeri Kelantan Dar ul-Naim)

Sultanate Of Selangor (Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan)

Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO)

Greater Patani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya)

Islamic Republic of Patani

Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

DutchEastIndiesMan

Apr 23 2008, 04:00 AM

ahh ok, Good on you HangPC, great ok. I’ve got evidence now.
Awang sorry for dismissing your claim. However I’m still not yet convince completely.

Bhaskara

Apr 23 2008, 09:39 PM

Hah? bukti gmn maksud lo? Hanya krn benderanya mirip? Yaelah, di seluruh dunia jg yg namanya negara Islam ya benderanya pake bulan sabit dan bintang, di mana istimewanya kemiripan antara 2 bendera ini?

DutchEastIndiesMan

Apr 24 2008, 12:06 AM

Well Hang did gave us some evidence,as in the articles and the cannons. Not the flags.. I know almost every Muslim country has that sort of flag, with the crescent and star.

Like I said I’m still not convinced completely…there might been a contact between Ottomans and Acehnese but I still think Awang is still a bit dreaming…

Majapahitans

Apr 24 2008, 05:39 AM

Actually early Islamic chaliphate during Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) era doesn’t associate themself with crescent and star as the emblem of Islam.
But the color green indeed have Islamic association. In Islamic traditions mentioned that the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) bring the heavenly silk green banner for Muhammad’s army during their fights against Meccan pagans. Thus green become Islamic colors.

The emblem of star and crescent probably have more ancient origin. Both are the symbol of celestial or heavenly power since Sumerian and ancient Persian era. Star is symbol of Gods in ancient Babylonian tradition, wheather like it or not Islam sometimes bear more ancient pre-Islamic traditions.
Another theory mentioned that ancient middleeastern tribes often “decorate” their banner’s pole with horn of goat, thus later evolved to “crescent moon” shape made from metal.

Later the Turks made the star and crescent and star as their banner. Ottoman as the largest Islamic empire at that time, also “the heir” of Islamic caliphate make their banner associated with Islam.
So I think Hang PC got his reasons of his opinions. Indeed every Islamic nations that use crescent as their banner in some degree influenced and has bilateral relationship with Turkey Ottoman.

Ralf

Apr 24 2008, 06:37 AM

Little bit off-topic, but when I was in Turkey, I saw the crescent and star symbol in the night sky.
It appeared exactly as it does on the flag

HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF ACHIN, FROM THE PERIOD OF ITS BEING VISITED BY EUROPEANS.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE PORTUGUESE.

The Portuguese, under the conduct of Vasco de Gama, doubled the Cape of Good Hope in the year 1497, and arrived on the coast of Malabar in the following year. These people, whom the spirit of glory, commerce, and plunder led to the most magnanimous undertakings, were not so entirely engaged by their conquests on the continent of India as to prevent them from extending their views to the discovery of regions yet more distant.

They learned from the merchants of Guzerat some account of the riches and importance of Malacca, a great trading city in the farther peninsula of India, supposed by them the Golden Chersonnese of Ptolemy. Intelligence of this was transmitted to their enterprising sovereign Emanuel, who became impressed with a strong desire to avail himself of the flattering advantages which this celebrated country held out to his ambition.

1508.

He equipped a fleet of four ships under the command of Diogo Lopez de Sequeira, which sailed from Lisbon on the eighth day of April 1508 with orders to explore and establish connexions in those eastern parts of Asia.

 

1509.

After touching at Madagascar Sequeira proceeded to Cochin, where a ship was added to his fleet, and, departing from thence on the eighth of September 1509, he made sail towards Malacca; but having doubled the extreme promontory of Sumatra (then supposed to be the Taprobane of the ancients) he anchored at Pidir, a principal port of that island, in which he found vessels from Pegu, Bengal, and other countries. The king of the place, who, like other Mahometan princes, was styled sultan, sent off a deputation to him, accompanied with refreshments, excusing himself, on account of illness,

 

from paying his compliments in person, but assuring him at the same time that he should derive much pleasure from the friendship and alliance of the Portuguese, whose fame had reached his ears. Sequeira answered this message in such terms that, by consent of the sultan, a monument of their amity was erected on the shore; or, more properly, as the token of discovery and possession usually employed by the European nations. He was received in the same manner at a place called Pase, lying about twenty leagues farther to the eastward on the same coast, and there also erected a monument or cross. Having procured at each of these ports as much pepper as could be collected in a short time he hastened to Malacca, where the news of his appearance in these seas had anticipated his arrival. Here he was near falling a sacrifice to the insidious policy of Mahmud, the reigning king, to whom the Portuguese had been represented by the Arabian and Persian merchants (and not very unjustly) as lawless pirates, who, under the pretext of establishing commercial treaties, had, at first by encroachments, and afterwards with insolent rapacity, ruined and enslaved the princes who were weak enough to put a confidence in them, or to allow them a footing in their dominions. He escaped the snares that were laid for him but lost many of his people, and, leaving others in captivity, he returned to Europe, and gave an account of his proceedings to the king.

 

 

 

1510.

A fleet was sent out in the year 1510 under Diogo Mendez to establish the Portuguese interests at Malacca; but Affonso d’Alboquerque, the governor of their affairs in India, thought proper to detain this squadron on the coast of Malabar until he could proceed thither himself with a greater force.

1511.

And accordingly on the second of May 1511 he set sail from Cochin with nineteen ships and fourteen hundred men. He touched at Pidir, where he found some of his countrymen who had made their escape from Malacca in a boat and sought protection on the Sumatran shore. They represented that, arriving off Pase, they had been ill-treated by the natives, who killed one of their party and obliged them to fly to Pidir, where they met with hospitality and kindness from the prince, who seemed desirous to conciliate the regard of their nation. Alboquerque expressed himself sensible of this instance of friendship, and renewed with the sultan the alliance that had been formed by Sequeira. He then proceeded to Pase, whose monarch endeavoured to exculpate himself from the outrage committed against the Portuguese fugitives, and as he could not tarry to take redress he concealed his resentment. In crossing over to Malacca he fell in with a large junk, or country vessel, which he engaged and attempted to board, but the enemy, setting fire to a quantity of inflammable oleaginous matter,

 

he was deterred from his design, with a narrow escape of the destruction of his own ship. The junk was then battered from a distance until forty of her men were killed, when Alboquerque, admiring the bravery of the crew, proposed to them that, if they would strike and acknowledge themselves vassals of Portugal, he would treat them as friends and take them under his protection. This offer was accepted, and the valiant defender of the vessel informed the governor that his name was Jeinal, the lawful heir of the kingdom of Pase; he by whom it was then ruled being a usurper, who, taking advantage of his minority and his own situation as regent, had seized the crown: that he had made attempts to assert his rights, but had been defeated in two battles, and was now proceeding with his adherents to Java, some of the princes of which were his relations, and would, he hoped, enable him to obtain possession of his throne.

1511.

Alboquerque promised to effect it for him, and desired the prince to accompany him to Malacca, where they arrived the first of July 1511. In order to save the lives of the Portuguese prisoners, and if possible to effect their recovery, he negotiated with the king of Malacca before he proceeded to an attack on the place; which conduct of his Jeinal construed into fear, and, forsaking his new friend, passed over in the night to the Malayan monarch, whose protection he thought of more consequence to him. When Alboquerque had subdued the place, which made a vigorous resistance, the prince of Pase, seeing the error of his policy, returned, and threw himself at the governor’s feet,

 

acknowledged his injurious mistrust, and implored his pardon, which was not denied him. He doubted however it seems of a sincere reconciliation and forgiveness, and, perceiving that no measures were taking for restoring him to his kingdom, but on the contrary that Alboquerque was preparing to leave Malacca with a small force, and talked of performing his promise when he should return from Goa, he took the resolution of again attaching himself to the fortunes of the conquered monarch, and secretly collecting his dependants fled once more from the protection of the Portuguese. He probably was not insensible that the reigning king of Pase, his adversary, had for some time taken abundant pains to procure the favour of Alboquerque, and found an occasion of demonstrating his zeal. The governor, on his return from Malacca, met with a violent storm on the coast of Sumatra near the point of Timiang, where his ship was wrecked. Part of the crew making a raft were driven to Pase, where the king treated them with kindness and sent them to the coast of Coromandel by a merchant ship. Some years after these events Jeinal was enabled by his friends to carry a force to Pase, and obtained the ascendency there, but did not long enjoy his power.

Upon the reduction of Malacca the governor received messages from several of the Sumatran princes, and amongst the rest from the king of a place called Kampar, on the eastern coast, who had married a daughter of the king of Malacca, but was on ill terms with his father-in-law.

He desired to become a vassal of the Portuguese crown, and to have leave to reside under their jurisdiction. His view was to obtain the important office of bandhara, or chief magistrate of the Malays, lately vacant by the execution of him who possessed it. He sent before him a present of lignum-aloes and gum-lac, the produce of his country, but Alboquerque, suspecting the honesty of his intentions, and fearing that he either aspired to the crown of Malacca or designed to entice the merchants to resort to his own kingdom, refused to permit his coming, and gave the superintendence of the natives to a person named Nina Chetuan.

1514.

After some years had elapsed, at the time when Jorge Alboquerque was governor of Malacca, this king (Abdallah by name) persisting in his views, paid him a visit, and was honourably received. At his departure he had assurances given him of liberty to establish himself at Malacca, if he should think proper, and Nina Chetuan was shortly afterwards removed from his office, though no fault was alleged against him. He took the disgrace so much to heart that, causing a pile to be erected before his door, and setting fire to it, he threw himself into the flames.*

(*Footnote. This man was not a Mahometan but one of the unconverted natives of the peninsula who are always distinguished from the Moors by the Portuguese writers.)

The intention of appointing Abdallah to the office of bandhara was quickly rumoured abroad,

and, coming to the knowledge of the king of Bintang, who was driven from Malacca and now carried on a vigorous war against the Portuguese, under the command of the famous Laksamana, he resolved to prevent his arrival there. For this purpose he leagued himself with the king of Lingga, a neighbouring island, and sent out a fleet of seventy armed boats to block up the port of Kampar. By the valour of a small Portuguese armament this force was overcome in the river of that name, and the king conducted in triumph to Malacca, where he was invested in form with the important post he aspired to. But this sacrifice of his independence proved an unfortunate measure to him; for although he conducted himself in such a manner as should have given the amplest satisfaction, and appears to have been irreproachable in the execution of his trust, yet in the following year the king of Bintang found means to inspire the governor with diffidence of his fidelity, and jealousy of his power.

1515.

He was cruelly sentenced to death without the simplest forms of justice and perished in the presence of an indignant multitude, whilst he called heaven to witness his innocence and direct its vengeance against his interested accusers. This iniquitous and impolitic proceeding had such an effect upon the minds of the people that all of any property or repute forsook the place, execrating the government of the Portuguese. The consequences of this general odium reduced them to extreme difficulties for provisions, which the neighbouring countries refused to supply them with,

and but for some grain at length procured from Siak with much trouble the event had proved fatal to the garrison.

1516.

Fernando Perez d’Andrade, in his way to China, touched at Pase in order to take in pepper. He found the people of the place, as well as the merchants from Bengal, Cambay, and other parts of India, much discontented with the measures then pursuing by the government of Malacca, which had stationed an armed force to oblige all vessels to resort thither with their merchandise and take in at that place, as an emporium, the cargoes they were used to collect in the straits. The king notwithstanding received Andrade well, and consented that the Portuguese should have liberty to erect a fortress in his kingdom.

1520.

Extraordinary accounts having been related of certain islands abounding in gold, which were reported by the general fame of India to lie off the southern coast of Sumatra, a ship and small brigantine, under the command of Diogo Pacheco, an experienced seaman, were sent in order to make the discovery of them. Having proceeded as far as Daya the brigantine was lost in a gale of wind. Pacheco stood on to Barus, a place renowned for its gold trade, and for gum benzoin of a peculiar scent, which the country produced. It was much frequented by vessels, both from the neighbouring ports in the island, and from those in the West of India, whence it was supplied with cotton cloths.

The merchants, terrified at the approach of the Portuguese, forsook their ships and fled precipitately to the shore. The chiefs of the country sent to inquire the motives of his visit, which he informed them were to establish friendly connexions and to give them assurances of unmolested freedom of trade at the city of Malacca. Refreshments were then ordered for his fleet, and upon landing he was treated with respect by the inhabitants, who brought the articles of their country to exchange with him for merchandise. His chief view was to obtain information respecting the situation and other circumstances of the ilhas d’Ouro, but they seemed jealous of imparting any. At length, after giving him a laboured detail of the dangers attending the navigation of the seas where they were said to lie, they represented their situation to be distant a hundred leagues to the south-east of Barus, amidst labyrinths of shoals and reefs through which it was impossible to steer with any but the smallest boats. If these islands, so celebrated about this time, existed anywhere but in the regions of fancy,* they were probably those of Tiku, to which it is possible that much gold might be brought from the neighbouring country of Menangkabau. Pacheco, leaving Barus, proceeded to the southward, but did not make the wished-for discovery. He reached the channel that divides Sumatra from Java, which he called the strait of Polimban, from a city he erroneously supposed to lie on the Javan shore, and passing through this returned to Malacca by the east; being the first European who sailed round the island of Sumatra. In the following year he sailed once more in search of these islands,

which were afterwards the object of many fruitless voyages; but touching again at Barus he met with resistance there and perished with all his companions.

(*Footnote. Linschoten makes particular mention of having seen them, and gives practical directions for the navigation, but the golden dreams of the Portuguese were never realized in them.)

A little before this time a ship under the command of Gaspar d’Acosta was lost on the island of Gamispola (Pulo Gomez) near Achin Head, when the people from Achin attacked and plundered the crew, killing many and taking the rest prisoners. A ship also which belonged to Joano de Lima was plundered in the road, and the Portuguese which belonged to her put to death. These insults and others committed at Pase induced the governor of Malacca, Garcia de Sa, to dispatch a vessel under Manuel Pacheco to take satisfaction; which he endeavoured to effect by blocking up the ports, and depriving the towns of all sources of provision, particularly their fisheries. As he cruised between Achin and Pase a boat with five men, going to take in fresh water at a river nigh to the latter, would have been cut off had not the people, by wonderful efforts of valour, overcome the numerous party which attacked them. The sultan, alarmed for the consequences of this affray, sent immediately to sue for reconciliation, offering to make atonement for the loss of property the merchants had sustained by the licentiousness of his people, from a participation in whose crimes he sought to vindicate himself.

The advantage derived from the connexion with this place induced the government of Malacca to be satisfied with his apology, and cargoes of pepper and raw silk were shortly after procured there; the former being much wanted for the ships bound to China.

Jeinal, who had fled to the king of Malacca, as before mentioned, followed that monarch to the island of Bintang, and received one of his daughters in marriage. Six or seven years elapsed before the situation of affairs enabled the king to lend him any effectual assistance, but at length some advantages gained over the Portuguese afforded a proper opportunity, and accordingly a fleet was fitted out, with which Jeinal sailed for Pase. In order to form a judgment of the transactions of this kingdom it must be understood that the people, having an idea of predestination, always conceived present possession to constitute right, however that possession might have been acquired; but yet they made no scruple of deposing and murdering their sovereigns, and justified their acts by this argument; that the fate of concerns so important as the lives of kings was in the hands of God, whose vicegerents they were, and that if it was not agreeable to him and the consequence of his will that they should perish by the daggers of their subjects it could not so happen. Thus it appears that their religious ideas were just strong enough to banish from their minds every moral sentiment. The natural consequence of these maxims was that their kings were merely the tyrants of the day; and it is said that whilst a certain ship remained in the port no less than two were murdered, and a third set up:

but allowance should perhaps be made for the medium through which these accounts have been transmitted to us.

The maternal uncle of Jeinal, who, on account of his father’s infirmities, had been some time regent, and had deprived him of the succession to the throne, was also king of Aru or Rou, a country not far distant, and thus became monarch of both places. The caprices of the Pase people, who submitted quietly to his usurpation, rendered them ere long discontented with his government, and being a stranger they had the less compunction in putting him to death. Another king was set up in his room, who soon fell by the hands of some natives of Aru who resided at Pase, in revenge for the assassination of their countryman.

1519.

A fresh monarch was elected by the people, and in his reign it was that Jeinal appeared with a force from Bintang, who, carrying everything before him, put his rival to death, and took possession of the throne. The son of the deceased, a youth of about twelve years of age, made his escape, accompanied by the Mulana or chief priest of the city, and procured a conveyance to the west of India. There they threw themselves at the feet of the Portuguese governor, Lopez Sequeira, then engaged in an expedition to the Red Sea, imploring his aid to drive the invader from their country, and to establish the young prince in his rights, who would thenceforth consider himself as a vassal of the crown of Portugal. It was urged that Jeinal, as being nearly allied to the king of Bintang, was an avowed enemy to that nation,

which he had manifested in some recent outrages committed against the merchants from Malacca who traded at Pase. Sequeira, partly from compassion, and partly from political motives, resolved to succour this prince, and by placing him on the throne establish a firm interest in the affairs of his kingdom. He accordingly gave orders to Jorge Alboquerque, who was then proceeding with a strong fleet towards Malacca, to take the youth with him, whose name was Orfacam,* and after having expelled Jeinal to put him in possession of the sovereignty.

(*Footnote. Evidently corrupted, as are most of the country names and titles, which shows that the Portuguese were not at this period much conversant in the Malayan language.)

When Jeinal entered upon the administration of the political concerns of the kingdom, although he had promised his father-in-law to carry on the war in concert with him, yet, being apprehensive of the effects of the Portuguese power, he judged it more for his interest to seek a reconciliation with them than to provoke their resentment, and in pursuance of that system had so far recommended himself to Garcia de Sa, the governor of Malacca, that he formed a treaty of alliance with him. This was however soon interrupted, and chiefly by the imprudence of a man named Diogo Vaz, who made use of such insulting language to the king, because he delayed payment of a sum of money he owed him, that the courtiers, seized with indignation, immediately stabbed him with their krises, and, the alarm running through the city, others of the Portuguese were likewise murdered.

The news of this affair, reaching Goa, was an additional motive for the resolution taken of dethroning him.

1521.

Jorge d’Alboquerque arrived at Pase in 1521 with Prince Orfacam, and the inhabitants came off in great numbers to welcome his return. The king of Aru had brought thither a considerable force the preceding day, designing to take satisfaction for the murder of his relation, the uncle of Jeinal, and now proposed to Alboquerque that they should make the attack in conjunction, who thought proper to decline it. Jeinal, although he well knew the intention of the enemy, yet sent a friendly message to Alboquerque, who in answer required him to relinquish his crown in favour of him whom he styled the lawful prince. He then represented to him the injustice of attempting to force him from the possession of what was his, not only by right of conquest but of hereditary descent, as was well known to the governor himself; that he was willing to consider himself as the vassal of the king of Portugal, and to grant every advantage in point of trade that they could expect from the administration of his rival; and that since his obtaining the crown he had manifested the utmost friendship to the Portuguese, for which he appealed to the treaty formed with him by the government of Malacca, which was not disturbed by any fault that could in justice be imputed to himself. These arguments, like all others that pass between states which harbour inimical designs, had no effect upon Alboquerque, who, after reconnoitring the ground, gave orders for the attack.

The king was now sensible that there was nothing left for him but to conquer or die, and resolved to defend himself to extremity in an entrenchment he had formed at some distance from the town of Pase, where he had never yet ventured to reside as the people were in general incensed against him on account of the destruction of the late king of their choice; for though they were ever ready to demolish those whom they disliked, yet were they equally zealous to sacrifice their own lives in the cause of those to whom they were attached. The Portuguese force consisted but of three hundred men, yet such was the superiority they possessed in war over the inhabitants of these countries that they entirely routed Jeinal’s army, which amounted to three thousand, with many elephants, although they fought bravely. When he fell they became dispirited, and, the people of Aru joining in the pursuit, a dreadful slaughter succeeded, and upwards of two thousand Sumatrans lay dead, with the loss of only five or six Europeans; but several were wounded, among whom was Alboquerque himself.

The next measure was to place the young prince upon the throne, which was performed with much ceremony. The mulana was appointed his governor, and Nina Cunapan, who in several instances had shown a friendship for the Portuguese, was continued in the office of Shabandar. It was stipulated that the prince should do homage to the crown of Portugal, give a grant of the whole produce of pepper of his country at a certain price, and defray the charges of a fortress which they then prepared to erect in his kingdom, and of which Miranda d’Azeuedo was appointed captain, with a garrison of a hundred soldiers.

The materials were mostly timber, with which the ruins of Jeinal’s entrenchment supplied them. After Alboquerque’s departure the works had nearly fallen into the hands of an enemy, named Melek-el-adil, who called himself sultan of Pase and made several desultory attacks upon them; but he was at length totally routed, and the fortifications were completed without further molestation.

1521.

A fleet which sailed from the west of India a short time after that of Alboquerque, under the command of Jorge de Brito, anchored in the road of Achin, in their way to the Molucca Islands. There was at this time at that place a man of the name of Joano Borba, who spoke the language of the country, having formerly fled thither from Pase when Diogo Vaz was assassinated. Being afterwards intrusted with the command of a trading vessel from Goa, which foundered at sea, he again reached Achin, with nine men in a small boat, and was hospitably received by the king, when he learned that the ship had been destined to his port. Borba came off to the fleet along with a messenger sent by the king to welcome the commander and offer him refreshments for his fleet, and, being a man of extraordinary loquacity, he gave a pompous description to Brito of a temple in the country in which was deposited a large quantity of gold: he mentioned likewise that the king was in possession of the artillery and merchandise of Gaspar d’Acosta’s vessel, some time since wrecked there; and also of the goods saved from a brigantine driven on shore at Daya, in Pacheco’s expedition; as well as of Joano de Lima’s ship,

which he had caused to be cut off. Brito, being tempted by the golden prize, which he conceived already in his power, and inflamed by Borba’s representation of the king’s iniquities, sent a message in return to demand the restitution of the artillery, ship, and goods, which had been unlawfully seized. The king replied that, if he wanted those articles to be refunded, he must make his demand to the sea which had swallowed them up. Brito and his captains now resolved to proceed to an attack upon the place, and so secure did they make themselves of their prey that they refused permission to a ship lately arrived, and which did not belong to their squadron, to join them or participate in the profits of their adventure. They prepared to land two hundred men in small boats; a larger, with a more considerable detachment and their artillery, being ordered to follow. About daybreak they had proceeded halfway up the river, and came near to a little fort designed to defend the passage, where Brito thought it advisable to stop till the remainder of their force should join them; but, being importuned by his people, he advanced to make himself master of the fort, which was readily effected. Here he again resolved to make his stand, but by the imprudence of his ensign, who had drawn some of the party into a skirmish with the Achinese, he was forced to quit that post in order to save his colours, which were in danger. At this juncture the king appeared at the head of eight hundred or a thousand men, and six elephants. A desperate conflict ensued, in which the Portuguese received considerable injury. Brito sent orders for the party he had left to come up, and endeavoured to retreat to the fort, but he found himself so situated that it could not be executed without much loss,

and presently after he received a wound from an arrow through the cheeks. No assistance arriving, it was proposed that they should retire in the best manner they could to their boats; but this Brito would not consent to, preferring death to flight, and immediately a lance pierced his thighs, and he fell to the ground. The Portuguese, rendered desperate, renewed the combat with redoubled vigour, all crowding to the spot where their commander lay, but their exertions availed them nothing against such unequal force, and they only rushed on to sacrifice. Almost every man was killed, and among these were near fifty persons of family who had embarked as volunteers. Those who escaped belonged chiefly to the corps-de-reserve, who did not, or could not, come up in time to succour their unfortunate companions. Upon this merited defeat the squadron immediately weighed anchor, and, after falling in with two vessels bound on the discovery of the Ilhas d’Ouro, arrived at Pase, where they found Alboquerque employed in the construction of his fortress, and went with him to make an attack on Bintang.

STATE OF ACHIN IN 1511.

At the period when Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese Achin and Daya are said by the historians of that nation to have been provinces subject to Pidir, and governed by two slaves belonging to the sultan of that place, to each of whom he had given a niece in marriage. Slaves, it must be understood, are in that country on a different footing from those in most other parts of the world, and usually treated as children of the family. Some of them are natives of the continent of India,

whom their masters employ to trade for them; allowing them a certain proportion of the profits and permission to reside in a separate quarter of the city. It frequently happened also that men of good birth, finding it necessary to obtain the protection of some person in power, became voluntary slaves for this purpose, and the nobles, being proud of such dependants, encouraged the practice by treating them with a degree of respect, and in many instances they made them their heirs. The slave of this description who held the government of Achin had two sons, the elder of whom was named Raja Ibrahim, and the younger Raja Lella, and were brought up in the house of their master. The father being old was recalled from his post; but on account of his faithful services the sultan gave the succession to his eldest son, who appears to have been a youth of an ambitious and very sanguinary temper. A jealousy had taken place between him and the chief of Daya whilst they were together at Pidir, and as soon as he came into power he resolved to seek revenge, and with that view entered in a hostile manner the district of his rival. When the sultan interposed it not only added fuel to his resentment but inspired him with hatred towards his master, and he showed his disrespect by refusing to deliver up, on the requisition of the sultan, certain Portuguese prisoners taken from a vessel lost at Pulo Gomez, and which he afterwards complied with at the intercession of the Shabandar of Pase. This conduct manifesting an intention of entirely throwing off his allegiance, his father endeavoured to recall him to a sense of his duty by representing the obligations in which the family were indebted to the sultan, and the relationship which so nearly connected them.

But so far was this admonition from producing any good effect that he took offence at his father’s presumption, and ordered him to be confined in a cage, where he died.

1521.

Irritated by these acts, the sultan resolved to proceed to extremities against him; but by means of the plunder of some Portuguese vessels, as before related, and the recent defeat of Brito’s party, he became so strong in artillery and ammunition, and so much elated with success, that he set his master at defiance and prepared to defend himself. His force proved superior to that of Pidir, and in the end he obliged the sultan to fly for refuge and assistance to the European fortress at Pase, accompanied by his nephew, the chief of Daya, who was also forced from his possessions.

1522.

Ibrahim had for some time infested the Portuguese by sending out parties against them, both by sea and land; but these being always baffled in their attempts with much loss, he began to conceive a violent antipathy against that nation, which he ever after indulged to excess. He got possession of the city of Pidir by bribing the principal officers, a mode of warfare that he often found successful and seldom neglected to attempt. These he prevailed upon to write a letter to their master, couched in artful terms, in which they besought him to come to their assistance with a body of Portuguese, as the only chance of repelling the enemy by whom they pretended to be invested. The sultan showed this letter to Andre Henriquez,

then governor of the fort, who, thinking it a good opportunity to chastise the Achinese, sent by sea a detachment of eighty Europeans and two hundred Malays under the command of his brother Manuel, whilst the sultan marched overland with a thousand men and fifteen elephants to the relief of the place. They arrived at Pidir in the night, but, being secretly informed that the king of Achin was master of the city, and that the demand for succour was a stratagem, they endeavoured to make their retreat; which the land troops effected, but before the tide could enable the Portuguese to get their boats afloat they were attacked by the Achinese, who killed Manuel and thirty-five of his men.

Henriquez, perceiving his situation at Pase was becoming critical, not only from the force of the enemy but the sickly state of his garrison, and the want of provisions, which the country people now withheld from him, discontinuing the fairs that they were used to keep three times in the week, dispatched advices to the governor of India, demanding immediate succours, and also sent to request assistance of the king of Aru, who had always proved the steadfast friend of Malacca, and who, though not wealthy, because his country was not a place of trade, was yet one of the most powerful princes in those parts. The king expressed his joy in having an opportunity of serving his allies, and promised his utmost aid; not only from friendship to them, but indignation against Ibrahim, whom he regarded as a rebellious slave.

 

 

1523.

A supply of stores at length arrived from India under the charge of Lopo d’Azuedo, who had orders to relieve Henriquez in the command; but, disputes having arisen between them, and chiefly on the subject of certain works which the shabandar of Pase had been permitted to erect adjoining to the fortress, d’Azuedo, to avoid coming to an open rupture, departed for Malacca. Ibrahim, having found means to corrupt the honesty of this shabandar, who had received his office from Alboquerque, gained intelligence through him of all that passed. This treason, it is supposed, he would not have yielded to but for the desperate situation of affairs. The country of Pase was now entirely in subjection to the Achinese, and nothing remained unconquered but the capital, whilst the garrison was distracted with internal divisions.

After the acquisition of Pidir the king thought it necessary to remain there some time in order to confirm his authority, and sent his brother Raja Lella with a large army to reduce the territories of Pase, which he effected in the course of three months, and with the more facility because all the principal nobility had fallen in the action with Jeinal. He fixed his camp within half a league of the city, and gave notice to Ibrahim of the state in which matters were, who speedily joined him, being anxious to render himself master of the place before the promised succours from the king of Aru could arrive. His first step was to issue a proclamation, giving notice to the people of the town that whoever should submit to his authority

within six days should have their lives, families, and properties secured to them, but that all others must expect to feel the punishment due to their obstinacy. This had the effect he looked for, the greater part of the inhabitants coming over to his camp. He then commenced his military operations, and in the third attack got possession of the town after much slaughter; those who escaped his fury taking shelter in the neighbouring mountains and thick woods. He sent a message to the commander of the fortress, requiring him to abandon it and to deliver into his hands the kings of Pidir and Daya, to whom he had given protection. Henriquez returned a spirited answer to this summons, but, being sickly at the time, at best of an unsteady disposition, and too much attached to his trading concerns for a soldier, he resolved to relinquish the command to his relation Aires Coelho, and take passage for the West of India.

1523.

He had not advanced farther on his voyage than the point of Pidir, when he fell in with two Portuguese ships bound to the Moluccas, the captains of which he made acquainted with the situation of the garrison, and they immediately proceeded to its relief. Arriving in the night they heard great firing of cannon, and learned next morning that the Achinese had made a furious assault in hopes of carrying the fortress before the ships, which were descried at a distance, could throw succours into it. They had mastered some of the outworks, and the garrison represented that it was impossible for them to support such another shock without aid from the vessels.

The captains, with as much force as could be spared, entered the fort, and a sally was shortly afterwards resolved on and executed, in which the besiegers sustained considerable damage. Every effort was likewise employed to repair the breaches and stop up the mines that had been made by the enemy in order to effect a passage into the place. Ibrahim now attempted to draw them into a snare by removing his camp to a distance and making a feint of abandoning his enterprise; but this stratagem proved ineffectual. Reflecting then with indignation that his own force consisted of fifteen thousand men whilst that of the Europeans did not exceed three hundred and fifty, many of whom were sick and wounded, and others worn out with the fatigue of continual duty (intelligence whereof was conveyed to him), he resolved once more to return to the siege, and make a general assault upon all parts of the fortification at once. Two hours before daybreak he caused the place to be surrounded with eight thousand men, who approached in perfect silence. The nighttime was preferred by these people for making their attacks as being then most secure from the effect of firearms, and they also generally chose a time of rain, when the powder would not burn. As soon as they found themselves perceived they set up a hideous shout, and, fixing their scaling ladders, made of bamboo and wonderfully light, to the number of six hundred, they attempted to force their way through the embrasures for the guns; but after a strenuous contest they were at length repulsed. Seven elephants were driven with violence against the paling of one of the bastions, which gave way before them like a hedge, and overset all the men who were on it. Javelin

s and pikes these enormous beasts made no account of, but upon setting fire to powder under their trunks they drew back with precipitation in spite of all the efforts of their drivers, overthrew their own people, and, flying to the distance of several miles, could not again be brought into the lines. The Achinese upon receiving this check thought to take revenge by setting fire to some vessels that were in the dockyard; but this proved an unfortunate measure to them, for by the light which it occasioned the garrison were enabled to point their guns, and did abundant execution.

1524.

Henriquez, after beating sometime against a contrary wind, put back to Pase, and, coming on shore the day after this conflict, resumed his command. A council was soon after held to determine what measures were fittest to be pursued in the present situation of affairs, and, taking into their consideration that no further assistance could be expected from the west of India in less than six months, that the garrison was sickly and provisions short, it was resolved by a majority of votes to abandon the place, and measures were taken accordingly. In order to conceal their intentions from the enemy they ordered such of the artillery and stores as could be removed conveniently to be packed up in the form of merchandise and then shipped off. A party was left to set fire to the buildings, and trains of powder were so disposed as to lead to the larger cannon, which they overcharged that they might burst as soon as heated. But this was not effectually executed, and the pieces mostly fell into the hands of the Achinese,

who upon the first alarm of the evacuation rushed in, extinguished the flames, and turned upon the Portuguese their own artillery, many of whom were killed in the water as they hurried to get into their boats. They now lost as much credit by this ill conducted retreat as they had acquired by their gallant defence, and were insulted by the reproachful shouts of the enemy, whose power was greatly increased by this acquisition of military stores, and of which they often severely experienced the effects. To render their disgrace more striking it happened that as they sailed out of the harbour they met thirty boats laden with provisions for their use from the king of Aru, who was himself on his march overland with four thousand men: and when they arrived at Malacca they found troops and stores embarked there for their relief. The unfortunate princes who had sought an asylum with them now joined in their flight; the sultan of Pase proceeded to Malacca, and the sultan of Pidir and chief of Daya took refuge with the king of Aru.

1525.

Raja Nara, king of Indragiri, in conjunction with a force from Bintang, attacked the king of a neighbouring island called Lingga, who was in friendship with the Portuguese. A message which passed on this occasion gives a just idea of the style and manners of this people. Upon their acquainting the king of Lingga, in their summons of surrender, that they had lately overcome the fleet of Malacca, he replied that his intelligence informed him of the contrary; that he had just made a festival and killed fifty goats to celebrate one defeat which they had received,

and hoped soon to kill a hundred in order to celebrate a second. His expectations were fulfilled, or rather anticipated, for the Portuguese, having a knowledge of the king of Indragiri’s design, sent out a small fleet which routed the combined force before the king of Lingga was acquainted with their arrival, his capital being situated high up on the river.

1526.

In the next year, at the conquest of Bintang, this king unsolicited sent assistance to his European allies.

1527.

However well founded the accounts may have been which the Portuguese have given us of the cruelties committed against their people by the king of Achin, the barbarity does not appear to have been only on one side. Francisco de Mello, being sent in an armed vessel with dispatches to Goa, met near Achin Head with a ship of that nation just arrived from Mecca and supposed to be richly laden. As she had on board three hundred Achinese and forty Arabs he dared not venture to board her, but battered her at a distance, when suddenly she filled and sunk, to the extreme disappointment of the Portuguese, who thereby lost their prize; but they wreaked their vengeance on the unfortunate crew as they endeavoured to save themselves by swimming, and boast that they did not suffer a man to escape. Opportunities of retaliation soon offered.

 

1528.

Simano de Sousa, going with a reinforcement to the Moluccas from Cochin, was overtaken in the bay by a violent storm, which forced him to stow many of his guns in the hold; and, having lost several of his men through fatigue, he made for the nearest port he could take shelter in, which proved to be Achin. The king, having the destruction of the Portuguese at heart, and resolving if possible to seize their vessel, sent off a message to De Sousa recommending his standing in closer to the shore, where he would have more shelter from the gale which still continued, and lie more conveniently for getting off water and provisions, at the same time inviting him to land. This artifice not succeeding, he ordered out the next morning a thousand men in twenty boats, who at first pretended they were come to assist in mooring the ship; but the captain, aware of their hostile design, fired amongst them, when a fierce engagement took place in which the Achinese were repulsed with great slaughter, but not until they had destroyed forty of the Portuguese. The king, enraged at this disappointment, ordered a second attack, threatening to have his admiral trampled to death by elephants if he failed of success. A boat was sent ahead of this fleet with a signal of peace, and assurances to De Sousa that the king, as soon as he was made acquainted with the injury that had been committed, had caused the perpetrators of it to be punished, and now once more requested him to come on shore and trust to his honour. This proposal some of the crew were inclined that he should accept,

but being animated by a speech that he made to them it was resolved that they should die with arms in their hands in preference to a disgraceful and hazardous submission. The combat was therefore renewed, with extreme fury on the one side, and uncommon efforts of courage on the other, and the assailants were a second time repulsed; but one of those who had boarded the vessel and afterwards made his escape represented to the Achinese the reduced and helpless situation of their enemy, and, fresh supplies coming off, they were encouraged to return to the attack. De Sousa and his people were at length almost all cut to pieces, and those who survived, being desperately wounded, were overpowered, and led prisoners to the king, who unexpectedly treated them with extraordinary kindness, in order to cover the designs he harboured, and pretended to lament the fate of their brave commander. He directed them to fix upon one of their companions, who should go in his name to the governor of Malacca, to desire he would immediately send to take possession of the ship, which he meant to restore, as well as to liberate them. He hoped by this artifice to draw more of the Portuguese into his power, and at the same time to effect a purpose of a political nature. A war had recently broken out between him and the king of Aru, the latter of whom had deputed ambassadors to Malacca, to solicit assistance, in return for his former services, and which was readily promised to him. It was highly the interest of the king of Achin to prevent this junction, and therefore, though determined to relax nothing in his plans of revenge, he hastened to dispatch Antonio Caldeira, one of the captives, with proposals of accommodation and alliance, offering to restore not only this vessel,

but also the artillery which he had taken at Pase. These terms appeared to the governor too advantageous to be rejected. Conceiving a favourable idea of the king’s intentions, from the confidence which Caldeira, who was deceived by the humanity shown to the wounded captives, appeared to place in his sincerity, he became deaf to the representations that were made to him by more experienced persons of his insidious character. A message was sent back, agreeing to accept his friendship on the proposed conditions, and engaging to withhold the promised succours from the king of Aru. Caldeira, in his way to Achin, touched at an island, where he was cut off with those who accompanied him. The ambassadors from Aru being acquainted with this breach of faith, retired in great disgust, and the king, incensed at the ingratitude shown him, concluded a peace with Achin; but not till after an engagement between their fleets had taken place, in which the victory remained undecided.

In order that he might learn the causes of the obscurity in which his negotiations with Malacca rested, Ibrahim dispatched a secret messenger to Senaia Raja, bandhara of that city, with whom he held a correspondence; desiring also to be informed of the strength of the garrison. Hearing in answer that the governor newly arrived was inclined to think favourably of him, he immediately sent an ambassador to wait on him with assurances of his pacific and friendly disposition, who returned in company with persons empowered, on the governor’s part, to negotiate a treaty of commerce. These, upon their arrival at Achin, were loaded with favours

and costly presents, the news of which quickly flew to Malacca, and, the business they came on being adjusted, they were suffered to depart; but they had not sailed far before they were overtaken by boats sent after them, and were stripped and murdered. The governor, who had heard of their setting out, concluded they were lost by accident. Intelligence of this mistaken opinion was transmitted to the king, who thereupon had the audacity to request that he might be honoured with the presence of some Portuguese of rank and consequence in his capital, to ratify in a becoming manner the articles that had been drawn up; as he ardently wished to see that nation trafficking freely in his dominions.

1529.

The deluded governor, in compliance with this request, adopted the resolution of sending thither a large ship under the command of Manuel Pacheco, with a rich cargo, the property of himself and several merchants of Malacca, who themselves embarked with the idea of making extraordinary profits. Senaia conveyed notice of this preparation to Achin, informing the king at the same time that, if he could make himself master of this vessel, Malacca must fall an easy prey to him, as the place was weakened of half its force for the equipment. When Pacheco approached the harbour he was surrounded by a great number of boats, and some of the people began to suspect treachery, but so strongly did the spirit of delusion prevail in this business that they could not persuade the captain to put himself on his guard. He soon had reason to repent his credulity. Perceiving an arrow pass close by him

, he hastened to put on his coat of mail, when a second pierced his neck, and he soon expired. The vessel then became an easy prey, and the people, being made prisoners, were shortly afterwards massacred by the king’s order, along with the unfortunate remnant of De Sousa’s crew, so long flattered with the hopes of release. By this capture the king was supposed to have remained in possession of more artillery than was left in Malacca, and he immediately fitted out a fleet to take advantage of its exposed state. The pride of success causing him to imagine it already in his power, he sent a taunting message to the governor in which he thanked him for the late instances of his liberality, and let him know he should trouble him for the remainder of his naval force.

Senaia had promised to put the citadel into his hands, and this had certainly been executed but for an accident that discovered his treasonable designs. The crews of some vessels of the Achinese fleet landed on a part of the coast not far from the city, where they were well entertained by the natives, and in the openness of conviviality related the transactions which had lately passed at Achin, the correspondence of Senaia, and the scheme that was laid for rising on the Portuguese when they should be at church, murdering them, and seizing the fortress. Intelligence of this was reported with speed to the governor, who had Senaia instantly apprehended and executed. This punishment served to intimidate those among the inhabitants who were engaged in the conspiracy, and disconcerted the plans of the king of Achin.

This appears to be the last transaction of Ibrahim’s reign recorded by the Portuguese historians. His death is stated by De Barros to have taken place in the year 1528 in consequence of poison administered to him by one of his wives, to revenge the injuries her brother, the chief of Daya, had suffered at his hand. In a Malayan work (lately come into my possession) containing the annals of the kingdom of Achin, it is said that a king, whose title was sultan Saleh-eddin-shah, obtained the sovereignty in a year answering to 1511 of our era, and who, after reigning about eighteen years, was dethroned by a brother in 1529. Notwithstanding some apparent discordance between the two accounts there can be little doubt of the circumstances applying to the same individual, as it may well be presumed that, according to the usual practice in the East, he adopted upon ascending the throne a title different from the name which he had originally borne, although that might continue to be his more familiar appellation, especially in the mouths of his enemies. The want of precise coincidence in the dates cannot be thought an objection, as the event not falling under the immediate observation of the Portuguese they cannot pretend to accuracy within a few months, and even their account of the subsequent transactions renders it more probable that it happened in 1529; nor are the facts of his being dethroned by the brother, or put to death by the sister, materially at variance with each other; and the latter circumstance, whether true or false, might naturally enough be reported at Malacca.

 

1529.

His successor took the name of Ala-eddin-shah, and afterwards, from his great enterprises, acquired the additional epithet of keher or the powerful. By the Portuguese he is said to have styled himself king of Achin, Barus, Pidir, Pase, Daya, and Batta, prince of the land of the two seas, and of the mines of Menangkabau.

1537.

Nothing is recorded of his reign until the year 1537, in which he twice attacked Malacca. The first time he sent an army of three thousand men who landed near the city by night, unperceived by the garrison, and, having committed some ravages in the suburbs, were advancing to the bridge, when the governor, Estavano de Gama, sallied out with a party and obliged them to retreat for shelter to the woods. Here they defended themselves during the next day, but on the following night they re-embarked, with the loss of five hundred men. A few months afterwards the king had the place invested with a larger force; but in the interval the works had been repaired and strengthened, and after three days ineffectual attempt the Achinese were again constrained to retire.

1547.

In the year 1547 he once more fitted out a fleet against Malacca, where a descent was made; but, contented with some trifling plunder,

the army re-embarked, and the vessels proceeded to the river of Parles on the Malayan coast. Hither they were followed by a Portuguese squadron, which attacked and defeated a division of the fleet at the mouth of the river. This victory was rendered famous, not so much by the valour of the combatants, as by a revelation opportunely made from heaven to the celebrated missionary Francisco Xavier of the time and circumstances of it, and which he announced to the garrison at a moment when the approach of a powerful invader from another quarter had caused much alarm and apprehension among them.

Many transactions of the reign of this prince, particularly with the neighbouring states of Batta and Aru (about the years 1539 and 1541) are mentioned by Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; but his writings are too apocryphal to allow of the facts being recorded upon his authority. Yet there is the strongest internal evidence of his having been more intimately acquainted with the countries of which we are now speaking, the character of the inhabitants, and the political transactions of the period, than any of his contemporaries; and it appears highly probable that what he has related is substantially true: but there is also reason to believe that he composed his work from recollection after his return to Europe, and he may not have been scrupulous in supplying from a fertile imagination the unavoidable failures of a memory, however richly stored.

1556.

The death of Ala-eddin took place, according to the Annals, in 1556, after a reign of twenty-eight years.

1565.

He was succeeded by sultan Hussein­shah, who reigned about eight, and dying in 1565 was succeeded by his son, an infant. This child survived only seven months; and in the same year the throne was occupied by Raja Firman-shah, who was murdered soon after.

1567.

His successor, Raja Janil, experienced a similar fate when he had reigned ten months. This event is placed in 1567. Sultan Mansur-shah, from the kingdom of Perak in the peninsula, was the next who ascended the throne.

1567.

The western powers of India having formed a league for the purpose of extirpating the Portuguese, the king of Achin was invited to accede to it, and, in conformity with the engagements by which the respective parties were bound, he prepared to attack them in Malacca, and carried thither a numerous fleet, in which were fifteen thousand people of his own subjects, and four hundred Turks, with two hundred pieces of artillery of different sizes. In order to amuse the enemy he gave out that his force was destined against Java, and sent a letter, accompanied with a present of a kris, to the governor, professing strong sentiments of friendship. A person whom he turned on shore with marks of ignominy, being suspected for a spy, was taken up, and being put to the torture confessed that he was employed by the Ottoman emperor

and king of Achin to poison the principal officers of the place, and to set fire to their magazine. He was put to death, and his mutilated carcase was sent off to the king. This was the signal for hostilities. He immediately landed with all his men and commenced a regular siege. Sallies were made with various success and very unequal numbers. In one of these the chief of Aru, the king’s eldest son, was killed. In another the Portuguese were defeated and lost many officers. A variety of stratagems were employed to work upon the fears and shake the fidelity of the inhabitants of the town. A general assault was given in which, after prodigious efforts of courage, and imminent risk of destruction, the besieged remained victorious. The king, seeing all his attempts fruitless, at length departed, having lost three thousand men before the walls, beside about five hundred who were said to have died of their wounds on the passage. The king of Ujong-tanah or Johor, who arrived with a fleet to the assistance of the place, found the sea for a long distance covered with dead bodies. This was esteemed one of the most desperate and honourable sieges the Portuguese experienced in India, their whole force consisting of but fifteen hundred men, of whom no more than two hundred were Europeans.

1568.

In the following year a vessel from Achin bound to Java, with ambassadors on board to the queen of Japara, in whom the king wished to raise up a new enemy against the Portuguese, was met in the straits by a vessel from Malacca, who took her and put all the people to the sword.

It appears to have been a maxim in these wars never to give quarter to an enemy, whether resisting or submitting.

1569.

In 1569 a single ship, commanded by Lopez Carrasco, passing near Achin, fell in with a fleet coming out of that port, consisting of twenty large galleys and a hundred and eighty other vessels, commanded by the king in person, and supposed to be designed against Malacca. The situation of the Portuguese was desperate. They could not expect to escape, and therefore resolved to die like men. During three days they sustained a continual attack, when, after having by incredible exertions destroyed forty of the enemy’s vessels, and being themselves reduced to the state of a wreck, a second ship appeared in sight. The king perceiving this retired into the harbour with his shattered forces.

It is difficult to determine which of the two is the more astonishing, the vigorous stand made by such a handful of men as the whole strength of Malacca consisted of, or the prodigious resources and perseverance of the Achinese monarch.

1573.

In 1573, after forming an alliance with the queen of Japara, the object of which was the destruction of the European power, he appeared again before Malacca with ninety vessels, twenty-five of them large galleys, with seven thousand men and great store of artillery

. He began his operations by sending a party to set fire to the suburbs of the town, but a timely shower of rain prevented its taking effect. He then resolved on a different mode of warfare, and tried to starve the place to a surrender by blocking up the harbour and cutting off all supplies of provisions. The Portuguese, to prevent the fatal consequences of this measure, collected those few vessels which they were masters of, and, a merchant ship of some force arriving opportunely, they put to sea, attacked the enemy’s fleet, killed the principal captain, and obtained a complete victory.

1574.

In the year following Malacca was invested by an armada from the queen of Japara, of three hundred sail, eighty of which were junks of four hundred tons burden. After besieging the place for three months, till the very air became corrupted by their stay, the fleet retired with little more than five thousand men, of fifteen that embarked on the expedition.

1575.

Scarcely was the Javanese force departed when the king of Achin once more appeared with a fleet that is described as covering the straits. He ordered an attack upon three Portuguese frigates that were in the road protecting some provision vessels, which was executed with such a furious discharge of artillery that they were presently destroyed with all their crews. This was a dreadful blow to Malacca, and lamented, as the historian relates,

with tears of blood by the little garrison, who were not now above a hundred and fifty men, and of those a great part non­effective. The king, elated with his success, landed his troops, and laid siege to the fort, which he battered at intervals during seventeen days. The fire of the Portuguese became very slack, and after some time totally ceased, as the governor judged it prudent to reserve his small stock of ammunition for an effort at the last extremity. The king, alarmed at this silence, which he construed into a preparation for some dangerous stratagem, was seized with a panic, and, suddenly raising the siege, embarked with the utmost precipitation; unexpectedly relieving the garrison from the ruin that hung over it, and which seemed inevitable in the ordinary course of events.

1582.

In 1582 we find the king appearing again before Malacca with a hundred and fifty sail of vessels. After some skirmishes with the Portuguese ships, in which the success was nearly equal on both sides, the Achinese proceeded to attack Johor, the king of which was then in alliance with Malacca. Twelve ships followed them thither, and, having burned some of their galleys, defeated the rest and obliged them to fly to Achin. The operations of these campaigns, and particularly the valour of the commander, named Raja Makuta, are alluded to in Queen Elizabeth’s letter to the king, delivered in 1602 by Sir James Lancaster.

About three or four years after this misfortune Mansur-shah prepared a fleet of no less than three hundred sail of vessels,

and was ready to embark once more upon his favourite enterprise, when he was murdered, together with his queen and many of the principal nobility, by the general of the forces, who had long formed designs upon the crown.

1585.

This was perpetrated in May 1585, when he had reigned nearly eighteen years. In his time the consequence of the kingdom of Achin is represented to have arrived at a considerable height, and its friendship to have been courted by the most powerful states. No city in India possessed a more flourishing trade, the port being crowded with merchant vessels which were encouraged to resort thither by the moderate rates of the customs levied; and although the Portuguese and their ships were continually plundered, those belonging to every Asiatic power, from Mecca in the West to Japan in the East, appear to have enjoyed protection and security. The despotic authority of the monarch was counterpoised by the influence of the orang-kayas or nobility, who are described as being possessed of great wealth, living in fortified houses, surrounded by numerous dependants, and feeling themselves above control, often giving a licentious range to their proud and impatient tempers.

The late monarch’s daughter and only child was married to the king of Johor,* by whom she had a son, who, being regarded as heir to the crown of Achin, had been brought to the latter place to be educated under the eye of his grandfather. When the general (whose name is corruptly written Moratiza) assumed the powers of government,

he declared himself the protector of this child, and we find him mentioned in the Annals by the title of Sultan Buyong (or the Boy).

(*Footnote. The king of Achin sent on this occasion to Johor a piece of ordnance, such as for greatness, length, and workmanship (says Linschoten), could hardly be matched in all Christendom. It was afterwards taken by the Portuguese, who shipped it for Europe, but the vessel was lost in her passage.)

1588.

But before he had completed the third year of his nominal reign he also was dispatched, and the usurper took formal possession of the throne in the year 1588, by the name of Ala-eddin Rayet-shah,* being then at an advanced period of life.

(*Footnote. Valentyn, by an obvious corruption, names him Sulthan Alciden Ryetza, and this coincidence is strongly in favour of the authenticity and correctness of the Annals. John Davis, who will be hereafter mentioned, calls him, with sufficient accuracy, Sultan Aladin.)

The Annals say he was the grandson of Sultan Firman-shah; but the Europeans who visited Achin during his reign report him to have been originally a fisherman, who, having afterwards served in the wars against Malacca, showed so much courage, prudence,

 

and skill in maritime affairs that the late king made him at length the chief commander of his forces, and gave him one of his nearest kinswomen to wife, in right of whom he is said to have laid claim to the throne.

The French Commodore Beaulieu relates the circumstances of this revolution in a very different manner.*

(*Footnote. The commodore had great opportunity of information, was a man of very superior ability, and indefatigable in his inquiries upon all subjects, as appears by the excellent account of his voyage, and of Achin in particular, written by himself, and published in Thevenot’s collection, of which there is an English translation in Harris; but it is possible he may, in this instance, have been amused by a plausible tale from the grandson of this monarch, with whom he had much intercourse. John Davis, an intelligent English navigator whose account I have followed, might have been more likely to hear the truth as he was at Achin (though not a frequenter of the court) during Ala-eddin’s reign, whereas Beaulieu did not arrive till twenty’ years after, and the report of his having been originally a fisherman is also mentioned by the Dutch writers.)

He says that, upon the extinction of the ancient royal line, which happened about forty years before the period at which he wrote, the orang-kayas met in order to choose a king, but, every one affecting the dignity for himself, they could not agree and resolved to decide it by force. In this ferment the cadi or chief judge by his authority

 

and remonstrances persuaded them to offer the crown to a certain noble who in all these divisions had taken no part, but had lived in the reputation of a wise, experienced man, being then seventy years of age, and descended from one of the most respectable families of the country. After several excuses on his side, and entreaties and even threats on theirs, he at length consented to accept the dignity thus imposed upon him, provided they should regard him as a father, and receive correction from him as his children; but no sooner was he in possession of the sovereign power than (like Pope Sixtus the Fifth) he showed a different face, and the first step after his accession was to invite the orang-kayas to a feast, where, as they were separately introduced, he caused them to be seized and murdered in a court behind the palace. He then proceeded to demolish their fortified houses, and lodged their cannon, arms, and goods in the castle, taking measures to prevent in future the erection of any buildings of substantial materials that could afford him grounds of jealousy. He raised his own adherents from the lower class of people to the first dignities of the state, and of those who presumed to express any disapprobation of his conduct he made great slaughter, being supposed to have executed not less than twenty thousand persons in the first year of his reign.

From the silence of the Portuguese writers with respect to the actions of this king we have reason to conclude that he did not make any attempts to disturb their settlement of Malacca; and it even appears that some persons in the character of ambassadors

or agents from that power resided at Achin, the principal object of whose policy appears to have been that of inspiring him with jealousy and hatred of the Hollanders, who in their turn were actively exerting themselves to supplant the conquerors of India.

1600.

Towards the close of the sixteenth century they began to navigate these seas; and in June 1600 visited Achin with two ships, but had no cause to boast of the hospitality of their reception. An attempt was made to cut them off, and evidently by the orders or connivance of the king, who had prevailed upon the Dutch admiral to take on board troops and military stores for an expedition meditated, or pretended, against the city of Johor, which these ships were to bombard. Several of the crews were murdered, but after a desperate conflict in both ships the treacherous assailants were overcome and driven into the water, “and it was some pleasure (says John Davis, an Englishman, who was the principal pilot of the squadron) to see how the base Indians did fly, how they were killed, and how well they were drowned.”* This barbarous and apparently unprovoked attack was attributed, but perhaps without any just grounds, to the instigation of the Portuguese.

(*Footnote. All the Dutchmen on shore at the time were made prisoners, and many of them continued in that state for several years. Among these was Captain Frederick Houtman, whose Vocabulary of the Malayan language was printed at Amsterdam in 1604, being the first that was published in Europe. My copy has the writer’s autograph.)

1600.

In November 1600 Paulus van Caarden, having also the command of two Dutch ships, was received upon his landing with much ceremony; but at his first audience the king refused to read a letter from the Prince of Orange, upon its being suggested to him that instead of paper it was written on the skin of an unclean animal; and the subsequent treatment experienced by this officer was uniformly bad. It appears however that in December 1601 the king was so far reconciled to this new power as to send two ambassadors to Holland, one of whom died there in August 1602, and the other returned to Achin subsequently to the death of his master.

1602.

The first English fleet that made its appearance in this part of the world, and laid the foundation of a commerce which was in time to eclipse that of every other European state, arrived at Achin in June 1602. Sir James Lancaster, who commanded it, was received by the king with abundant ceremony and respect, which seem with these monarchs to have been usually proportioned to the number of vessels and apparent strength of their foreign guests. The queen of England’s letter was conveyed to court with great pomp, and the general, after delivering a rich present, the most admired article of which was a fan of feathers, declared the purpose of his coming was to establish peace and amity between his royal mistress and her loving brother, the great and mighty king of Achin.

He was invited to a banquet prepared for his entertainment, in which the service was of gold, and the king’s damsels, who were richly attired and adorned with bracelets and jewels, were ordered to divert him with dancing and music. Before he retired he was arrayed by the king in a magnificent habit of the country, and armed with two krises. In the present sent as a return for the queen’s there was, among other matters, a valuable ruby set in a ring. Two of the nobles, one of whom was the chief priest, were appointed to settle with Lancaster the terms of a commercial treaty, which was accordingly drawn up and executed in an explicit and regular manner. The Portuguese ambassador, or more properly the Spanish, as those kingdoms were now united, kept a watchful and jealous eye upon his proceedings; but by bribing the spies who surrounded him he foiled them at their own arts, and acquired intelligence that enabled him to take a rich prize in the straits of Malacca, with which he returned to Achin; and, having loaded what pepper he could procure there, took his departure in November of the same year. On this occasion it was requested by the king that he and his officers would favour him by singing one of the psalms of David, which was performed with much solemnity.

Very little is known of the military transactions of this reign, and no conquest but that of Pase is recorded. He had two sons, the younger of whom he made king of Pidir, and the elder, styled Sultan Muda, he kept at Achin, in order to succeed him in the throne. In the year 1603 he resolved to divide the charge of government with his intended heir, as he found his extraordinary age began to render him unequal to the task,

and accordingly invested him with royal dignity; but the effect which might have been foreseen quickly followed this measure. The son, who was already advanced in years, became impatient to enjoy more complete power, and, thinking his father had possessed the crown sufficiently long, he confined him in a prison, where his days were soon ended.

1604.

The exact period at which this event took place is not known, but, calculating from the duration of his reign as stated in the Annals, it must have been early in the year 1604.* He was then ninety-five years of age,** and described to be a hale man, but extremely gross and fat.

(*Footnote. The Dutch commander Joris van Spilbergen took leave of him in April 1603, and his ambassador to Holland, who returned in December, 1604, found his son on the throne, according to Valentyn. Commodore Beaulieu says he died in 1603.)

(**Footnote. According to Beaulieu Davis says he was about a hundred; and the Dutch voyages mention that his great age prevented his ever appearing out of his palace.)

His constitution must have been uncommonly vigorous, and his muscular strength is indicated by this ludicrous circumstance, that when he once condescended to embrace a Dutch admiral, contrary to the usual manners of his country, the pressure of his arms was so violent as to cause excessive pain to the person so honoured. He was passionately addicted to women, gaming, and drink,

his favourite beverage being arrack. By the severity of his punishments he kept his subjects in extreme awe of him; and the merchants were obliged to submit to more exactions and oppressions than were felt under the government of his predecessors. The seizure of certain vessels belonging to the people of Bantam and other arbitrary proceedings of that nature are said to have deterred the traders of India from entering into his ports.

The new king, who took the name of Ali Maghayat-shah, proved himself, from indolence or want of capacity, unfit to reign. He was always surrounded by his women, who were not only his attendants but his guards, and carried arms for that purpose. His occupations were the bath and the chase, and the affairs of state were neglected insomuch that murders, robberies, oppression, and an infinity of disorders took place in the kingdom for want of a regular and strict administration of justice. A son of the daughter of Ala-eddin had been a favourite of his grandfather, at the time of whose death he was twenty-three years of age, and continued, with his mother, to reside at the court after that event. His uncle the king of Achin having given him a rebuke on some occasion, he left his palace abruptly and fled to the king of Pidir, who received him with affection, and refused to send him back at the desire of the elder brother, or to offer any violence to a young prince whom their father loved. This was the occasion of an inveterate war which cost the lives of many thousand people. The nephew commanded the forces of Pidir, and for some time maintained the advantage,

but these, at length seeing themselves much inferior in numbers to the army of Ali-Maghayat, refused to march, and the king was obliged to give him up, when he was conveyed to Achin and put in close confinement.

1606.

Not long afterwards a Portuguese squadron under Martin Alfonso, going to the relief of Malacca, then besieged by the Dutch, anchored in Achin road with the resolution of taking revenge on the king for receiving these their rivals into his ports, contrary to the stipulations of a treaty that had been entered into between them. The viceroy landed his men, who were opposed by a strong force on the part of the Achinese; but after a stout resistance they gained the first turf fort with two pieces of cannon, and commenced an attack upon the second, of masonry. In this critical juncture the young prince sent a message to his uncle requesting he might be permitted to join the army and expose himself in the ranks, declaring himself more willing to die in battle against the Kafers (so they always affected to call the Portuguese) than to languish like a slave in chains. The fears which operated upon the king’s mind induced him to consent to his release. The prince showed so much bravery on this occasion, and conducted two or three attacks with such success that Alfonso was obliged to order a retreat, after wasting two days and losing three hundred men in this fruitless attempt. The reputation of the prince was raised by this affair to a high pitch amongst the people of Achin. His mother, who was an active, ambitious woman, formed the design of placing him on the throne,

and furnished him with large sums of money, to be distributed in gratuities amongst the principal orang cayas. At the same time he endeavoured to ingratiate himself by his manners with all classes of people. To the rich he was courteous; to the poor he was affable; and he was the constant companion of those who were in the profession of arms. When the king had reigned between three and four years he died suddenly, and at the hour of his death the prince got access to the castle. He bribed the guards, made liberal promises to the officers, advanced a large sum of money to the governor, and sending for the chief priest obliged him by threats to crown him. In fine he managed the revolution so happily that he was proclaimed king before night, to the great joy of the people, who conceived vast hopes from his liberality, courtesy, and valour. The king of Pidir was speedily acquainted with the news of his brother’s death, but not of the subsequent transactions, and came the next day to take possession of his inheritance. As he approached the castle with a small retinue he was seized by orders from the reigning prince, who, forgetting the favours he had received, kept him prisoner for a month, and then, sending him into the country under the pretence of a commodious retreat, had him murdered on the way. Those who put the crown on his head were not better requited; particularly the Maharaja, or governor of the castle. In a short time his disappointed subjects found that instead of being humane he was cruel; instead of being liberal he displayed extreme avarice, and instead of being affable he manifested a temper austere and inexorable.

This king, whom the Annals name Iskander Muda, was known to our travellers by the title of sultan Paduka Sri (words equivalent to most gracious), sovereign of Achin and of the countries of Aru, Dilli, Johor, Pahang, Kedah, and Perak on the one side, and of Barus, Pasaman, Tiku, Sileda, and Priaman on the other. Some of these places were conquered by him, and others he inherited.

1613.

He showed much friendship to the Hollanders in the early part of his reign; and in the year 1613 gave permission to the English to settle a factory, granting them many indulgences, in consequence of a letter and present from king James the first. He bestowed on Captain Best, who was the bearer of them, the title of orang kaya putih, and entertained him with the fighting of elephants, buffaloes, rams, and tigers. His answer to king James (a translation of which is to be found in Purchas) is couched in the most friendly terms, and he there styles himself king of all Sumatra. He expressed a strong desire that the king of England should send him one of his countrywomen to wife, and promised to make her eldest son king of all the pepper countries, that so the English might be supplied with that commodity by a monarch of their own nation. But notwithstanding his strong professions of attachment to us, and his natural connexion with the Hollanders, arising from their joint enmity to the Portuguese, it was not many years before he began to oppress both nations and use his endeavours to ruin their trade. He became jealous of their growing power,

and particularly in consequence of intelligence that reached him concerning the encroachments made by the latter in the island of Java.

The conquest of Aru seems never to have been thoroughly effected by the kings of Achin. Paduka Sri carried his arms thither and boasted of having obtained some victories.

1613.

In 1613 he subdued Siak in its neighbourhood. Early in the same year he sent an expedition against the kingdom of Johor (which had always maintained a political connexion with Aru) and, reducing the city after a siege of twenty-nine days, plundered it of everything moveable, and made slaves of the miserable inhabitants. The king fled to the island of Bintang, but his youngest brother and coadjutor was taken prisoner and carried to Achin. The old king of Johor, who had so often engaged the Portuguese, left three sons, the eldest of whom succeeded him by the title of Iang de per-tuan.*

(*Footnote. This is not an individual title or proper name, but signifies the sovereign or reigning monarch. In like manner Rega Bongsu signifies the king’s youngest brother, as Raja Muda does the heir apparent.)

The second was made king of Siak, and the third, called Raja Bongsu, reigned jointly with the first. He it was who assisted the Hollanders in the first siege of Malacca, and corresponded with Prince Maurice. T

he king of Achin was married to their sister, but this did not prevent a long and cruel war between them. A Dutch factory at Johor was involved in the consequences of this war, and several of that nation were among the prisoners. In the course of the same year however the king of Achin thought proper to establish Raja Bongsu on the throne of Johor, sending him back for that purpose with great honours, assisting him to rebuild the fort and city, and giving him one of his own sisters in marriage.

1615.

In 1615 the king of Achin sailed to the attack of Malacca in a fleet which he had been four years employed in preparing. It consisted of above five hundred sail, of which a hundred were large galleys, greater than any at that time built in Europe, carrying each from six to eight hundred men, with three large cannon and several smaller pieces. These galleys the orang kayas were obliged to furnish, repair, and man, at the peril of their lives. The soldiers served without pay, and carried three months provision at their own charge. In this great fleet there were computed to be sixty thousand men, whom the king commanded in person. His wives and household were taken to sea with him. Coming in sight of the Portuguese ships in the afternoon, they received many shot from them but avoided returning any, as if from contempt. The next day they got ready for battle, and drew up in form of a half moon. A desperate engagement took place and lasted without intermission till midnight, during which the Portuguese admiral was three times boarded, and repeatedly on fire.

Many vessels on both sides were also in flames and afforded light to continue the combat. At length the Achinese gave way, after losing fifty sail of different sizes, and twenty thousand men. They retired to Bancalis, on the eastern coast of Sumatra, and shortly afterwards sailed for Achin, the Portuguese not daring to pursue their victory, both on account of the damage they had sustained and their apprehension of the Hollanders, who were expected at Malacca. The king proposed that the prisoners taken should be mutually given up, which was agreed to, and was the first instance of that act of humanity and civilisation between the two powers.

1619.

Three years afterwards the king made a conquest of the cities of Kedah and Perak on the Malayan coast, and also of a place called Dilli in Sumatra. This last had been strongly fortified by the assistance of the Portuguese, and gave an opportunity of displaying much skill in the attack. Trenches were regularly opened before it and a siege carried on for six weeks ere it fell. In the same year the king of Jorcan (a place unknown at present by that name) fled for refuge to Malacca with eighty sail of boats, having been expelled his dominions by the king of Achin. The Portuguese were not in a condition to afford him relief, being themselves surrounded with enemies and fearful of an attack from the Achinese more especially; but the king was then making preparations against an invasion he heard was meditated by the viceroy of Goa. Reciprocal apprehensions kept each party on the defensive.

1621.

The French being desirous of participating in the commerce of Achin, of which all the European nations had formed great ideas, and all found themselves disappointed in, sent out a squadron commanded by General Beaulieu, which arrived in January 1621, and finally left it in December of the same year. He brought magnificent presents to the king, but these did not content his insatiable avarice, and he employed a variety of mean arts to draw from him further gifts. Beaulieu met also with many difficulties, and was forced to submit to much extortion in his endeavours to procure a loading of pepper, of which Achin itself, as has been observed, produced but little. The king informed him that he had some time since ordered all the plants to be destroyed, not only because the cultivation of them proved an injury to more useful agriculture, but also lest their produce might tempt the Europeans to serve him, as they had served the kings of Jakatra and Bantam. From this apprehension he had lately been induced to expel the English and Dutch from their settlements at Priaman and Tiku, where the principal quantity of pepper was procured, and of which places he changed the governor every third year to prevent any connexions dangerous to his authority from being formed. He had likewise driven the Dutch from a factory they were attempting to settle at Padang; which place appears to be the most remote on the western coast of the island to which the Achinese conquests at any time extended.

 

1628.

Still retaining a strong desire to possess himself of Malacca, so many years the grand object of Achinese ambition, he imprisoned the ambassador then at his court, and made extraordinary preparations for the siege, which he designed to undertake in person. The laksamana or commander in chief (who had effected all the king’s late conquests) attempted to oppose this resolution; but the maharaja, willing to flatter his master’s propensity, undertook to put him in possession of the city and had the command of the fleet given to him, as the other had of the land forces. The king set out on the expedition with a fleet of two hundred and fifty sail (forty­seven of them not less than a hundred feet in the keel), in which were twenty thousand men well appointed, and a great train of artillery. After being some time on board, with his family and retinue as usual, he determined, on account of an ill omen that was observed, to return to the shore. The generals, proceeding without him, soon arrived before Malacca. Having landed their men they made a judicious disposition, and began the attack with much courage and military skill. The Portuguese were obliged to abandon several of their posts, one of which, after a defence of fifty days, was levelled with the ground, and from its ruins strong works were raised by the laksamana. The maharaja had seized another post advantageously situated. From their several camps they had lines of communication, and the boats on the river were stationed in such a manner that the place was completely invested. Matters were in this posture

when a force of two thousand men came to the assistance of the besieged from the king of Pahang, and likewise five sail of Portuguese vessels from the coast of Coromandel; but all was insufficient to remove so powerful an enemy, although by that time they had lost four thousand of their troops in the different attacks and skirmishes. In the latter end of the year a fleet of thirty sail of ships, large and small, under the command of Nunno Alvarez Botello, having on board nine hundred European soldiers, appeared off Malacca, and blocked up the fleet of Achin in a river about three miles from the town. This entirely altered the complexion of affairs. The besiegers retired from their advanced works and hastened to the defence of their galleys, erecting batteries by the side of the river. The maharaja being summoned to surrender returned a civil but resolute answer. In the night, endeavouring to make his escape with the smaller vessels through the midst of the Portuguese, he was repulsed and wounded. Next day the whole force of the Achinese dropped down the stream with a design to fight their way, but after an engagement of two hours their principal galley, named the Terror of the World, was boarded and taken, after losing five hundred men of seven which she carried. Many other vessels were afterwards captured or sunk. The laksamana hung out a white flag and sent to treat with Nunno, but, some difficulty arising about the terms, the engagement was renewed with great warmth. News was brought to the Portuguese that the maharaja was killed and that the king of Pahang was approaching with a hundred sail of vessels to reinforce them. Still the Achinese kept up a dreadful fire, which seemed to render the final success doubtful;

but at length they sent proposals desiring only to be allowed three galleys of all their fleet to carry away four thousand men who remained of twenty that came before the town. It was answered that they must surrender at discretion; which the laksamana hesitating to do, a furious assault took place both by water and land upon his galleys and works, which were all effectually destroyed or captured, not a ship and scarcely a man escaping. He himself in the last extremity fled to the woods, but was seized ere long by the king of Pahang’s scouts. Being brought before the governor he said to him, with an undaunted countenance, “Behold here the laksamana for the first time overcome!” He was treated with respect but kept a prisoner, and sent on his own famous ship to Goa in order to be from thence conveyed to Portugal: but death deprived his enemies of that distinguished ornament of their triumph.

1635.

This signal defeat proved so important a blow to the power of Achin that we read of no further attempts to renew the war until the year 1635, when the king, encouraged by the feuds which at this time prevailed in Malacca, again violated the law of nations, to him little known, by imprisoning their ambassador, and caused all the Portuguese about his court to be murdered. No military operations however immediately took place in consequence of this barbarous proceeding.

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1640. 1641.

In the year 1640 the Dutch with twelve men of war, and the king of Achin with twenty-five galleys, appeared before that harassed and devoted city; which at length, in the following year was wrested from the hands of the Portuguese, who had so long, through such difficulties, maintained possession of it. This year was also marked by the death of the sultan, whom the Dutch writers name Paduka Sri, at the age of sixty, after a reign of thirty-five years; having just lived to see his hereditary foe subdued; and as if the opposition of the Portuguese power, which seems first to have occasioned the rise of that of Achin, was also necessary to its existence, the splendour and consequence of the kingdom from that period rapidly declined.

The prodigious wealth and resources of the monarchy during his reign are best evinced by the expeditions he was enabled to fit out; but being no less covetous than ambitious he contrived to make the expenses fall upon his subjects, and at the same time filled his treasury with gold by pressing the merchants and plundering the neighbouring states. An intelligent person (General Beaulieu), who was for some time at his court, and had opportunities of information on the subject, uses this strong expression–that he was infinitely rich. He constantly employed in his castle three hundred goldsmiths. This would seem an exaggeration, but that it is well known the Malayan princes have them always about them in great numbers at this day, working in the manufacture of filigree, for which the country is so famous.

His naval strength has been already sufficiently described. He was possessed of two thousand brass guns and small arms in proportion. His trained elephants amounted to some hundreds. His armies were probably raised only upon the occasion which called for their acting, and that in a mode similar to what was established under the feudal system in Europe. The valley of Achin alone was said to be able to furnish forty thousand men upon an emergency. A certain number of warriors however were always kept on foot for the protection of the king and his capital. Of these the superior class were called ulubalang, and the inferior amba-raja, who were entirely devoted to his service and resembled the janizaries of Constantinople. Two hundred horsemen nightly patrolled the grounds about the castle, the inner courts and apartments of which were guarded by three thousand women. The king’s eunuchs amounted to five hundred.

The disposition of this monarch was cruel and sanguinary. A multitude of instances are recorded of the horrible barbarity of his punishments, and for the most trivial offences. He imprisoned his own mother and put her to the torture, suspecting her to have been engaged in a conspiracy against him with some of the principal nobles, whom he caused to be executed. He murdered his nephew, the king of Johor’s son, of whose favour with his mother he was jealous. He also put to death a son of the king of Bantam, and another of the king of Pahang, who were both his near relations. None of the royal family survived in 1622 but his own son, a youth of eighteen, who had been thrice banished the court,

and was thought to owe his continuance in life only to his surpassing his father, if possible, in cruelty, and being hated by all ranks of people. He was at one time made king of Pidir but recalled on account of his excesses, confined in prison and put to strange tortures by his father, whom he did not outlive. The whole territory of Achin was almost depopulated by wars, executions, and oppression. The king endeavoured to repeople the country by his conquests. Having ravaged the kingdoms of Johor, Pahang, Kedah, Perak, and Dilli, he transported the inhabitants from those places to Achin, to the number of twenty-two thousand persons. But this barbarous policy did not produce the effect he hoped; for the unhappy people, being brought naked to his dominions, and not allowed any kind of maintenance on their arrival, died of hunger in the streets. In the planning his military enterprises he was generally guided by the distresses of his neighbours, for whom, as for his prey, he unceasingly lay in wait; and his preparatory measures were taken with such secrecy that the execution alone unravelled them. Insidious political craft and wanton delight in blood united in him to complete the character of a tyrant.

It must here be observed that, with respect to the period of this remarkable reign, the European and Malayan authorities are considerably at variance, the latter assigning to it something less than thirty solar years, and placing the death of Iskander Muda in December 1636. The Annals further state that he was succeeded by sultan Ala-eddin­Mahayat-shah, who reigned only about four years and died in February 1641. That this is the more accurate account I have no hesitation in believing, although Valentyn,

who gives a detail of the king’s magnificent funeral, was persuaded that the reign which ended in 1641 was the same that began in 1607. But he collected his information eighty years after the event, and as it does not appear that any European whose journal has been given to the world was on the spot at that period, the death of an obscure monarch who died after a short reign may well have been confounded by persons at a distance with that of his more celebrated predecessor. Both authorities however are agreed in the important fact that the successor to the throne in 1641 was a female. This person is described by Valentyn as being the wife of the old king, and not his daughter, as by some had been asserted; but from the Annals it appears that she was his daughter, named Taju al-alum; and as it was in her right that Maghayat-shah (certainly her husband), obtained the crown, so upon his decease, there being no male heir, she peaceably succeeded him in the government, and became the first queen regent of Achin. The succession having thenceforward continued nearly sixty years in the female line, this may be regarded as a new era in the history of the country. The nobles finding their power less restrained, and their individual consequence more felt under an administration of this kind than when ruled by kings (as sometimes they were with a rod of iron) supported these pageants, whom they governed as they thought fit, and thereby virtually changed the constitution into an aristocracy or oligarchy. The business of the state was managed by twelve orang-kayas, four of whom were superior to the rest, and among these the maharaja, or governor of the kingdom, was considered as the chief.

It does not appear, nor is it probable, that the queen had the power of appointing or removing any of these great officers. No applications were made to the throne but in their presence, nor any public resolution taken but as they determined in council. The great object of their political jealousy seems to have been the pretensions of the king of Johor to the crown, in virtue of repeated intermarriages between the royal families of the two countries, and it may be presumed that the alarms excited from that quarter materially contributed to reconcile them to the female domination. They are accordingly said to have formed an engagement amongst themselves never to pay obedience to a foreign prince, nor to allow their royal mistress to contract any marriage that might eventually lead to such a consequence.* At the same time, by a new treaty with Johor, its king was indirectly excused from the homage to the crown of Achin which had been insisted upon by her predecessors and was the occasion of frequent wars.

(*Footnote. However fanciful it may be thought, I cannot doubt that the example of our Queen Elizabeth, whose character and government were highly popular with the Achinese on account of her triumphant contest with the united powers of Spain and Portugal, had a strong influence in the establishment of this new species of monarchy, and that the example of her sister’s marriage with Philip may have contributed to the resolution taken by the nobles. The actions of our illustrious queen were a common topic of conversation between the old tyrant and Sir James Lancaster.)

In proportion as the political consequence of the kingdom declined, its history, as noticed by foreigners, becomes obscure. Little is recorded of the transactions of her reign, and it is likely that Achin took no active part in the concerns of neighbouring powers, but suffered the Hollanders, who maintained in general a friendly intercourse with her, to remain in quiet possession of Malacca.

1643.

In 1643 they sent an ambassador to compliment her upon her accession, and at the same time to solicit payment for a quantity of valuable jewels ordered by the deceased king, but for the amount of which she declined to make herself responsible.

1660.

It is said (but the fact will admit of much doubt) that in 1660 she was inclined to marry one of their countrymen, and would have carried her design into execution had not the East India Company prevented by their authority a connexion that might, as they prudently judged, be productive of embarrassment to their affairs.

1664.

The Dutch however complain that she gave assistance to their enemies the people of Perak, and in 1664 it was found necessary to send a squadron under the command of Pieter de Bitter to bring her to reason. As it happened that she was at this time at war with some of her own dependants

he made himself master of several places on the western coast that were nominally at least belonging to Achin.

1666.

About 1666 the English establishments at Achin and some ports to the southward appear to have given considerable umbrage to their rivals.

1669.

In 1669 the people of Dilli on the north-eastern coast threw off their allegiance, and the power of the kingdom became gradually more and more circumscribed.

1675.

This queen died in 1675, after reigning, with a degree of tranquillity little known in these countries, upwards of thirty-four years.

The people being now accustomed and reconciled to female rule, which they found more lenient than that of their kings, acquiesced in general in the established mode of government.

1677.

And she was immediately succeeded by another female monarch, named Nur al-alum, who reigned little more than two years and died in 1677.

The queen who succeeded her was named Anayet-shah.

1684.

In the year 1684 she received an embassy from the English government of Madras, and appeared at that time to be about forty years. The persons who were on this occasion presented to her express their suspicions, which were suggested to them by a doubt prevailing amongst the inhabitants, that this sovereign was not a real queen, but a eunuch dressed up in female apparel, and imposed on the public by the artifices of the orang kayas. But as such a cheat, though managed with every semblance of reality (which they observe was the case) could not be carried on for any number of years without detection, and as the same idea does not appear to have been entertained at any other period, it is probable they were mistaken in their surmise. Her person they describe to have been large, and her voice surprisingly strong, but not manly.*

(*Footnote. The following curious passage is extracted from the journal of these gentlemen’s proceedings. “We went to give our attendance at the palace this day as customary. Being arrived at the place of audience with the orang cayos, the queen was pleased to order us to come nearer, when her majesty was very inquisitive into the use of our wearing periwigs, and what was the convenience of them; to all which we returned satisfactory answers. After this her majesty desired of Mr. Ord, if it were no affront to him, that he would take off his periwig, that she might see how he appeared without it; which, according to her majesty’s request, he did. She then told us she had heard of our business,

and would give her answer by the orang cayos; and so we retired.” I venture, with submission, to observe that this anecdote seems to put the question of the sex beyond controversy.)

The purport of the embassy was to obtain liberty to erect a fortification in her territory, which she peremptorily refused, being contrary to the established rules of the kingdom; adding that if the governor of Madras would fill her palace with gold she could not permit him to build with brick either fort or house. To have a factory of timber and plank was the utmost indulgence that could be allowed; and on that footing the return of the English, who had not traded there for many years, should be welcomed with great friendship. The queen herself, the orang kayas represented, was not allowed to fortify lest some foreign power might avail themselves of it to enslave the country. In the course of these negotiations it was mentioned that the agriculture of Achin had suffered considerably of late years by reason of a general licence given to all the inhabitants to search for gold in the mountains and rivers which afforded that article; whereas the business had formerly been restricted to certain authorized persons, and the rest obliged to till the ground.

1684.

The court feared to give a public sanction for the settlement of the English on any part of the southern coast lest it should embroil them with the other European powers.*

 

(*Footnote. The design of settling a factory at this period in the dominions of Achin was occasioned by the recent loss of our establishment at Bantam, which had been originally fixed by Sir James Lancaster in 1603. The circumstances of this event were as follows. The old sultan had thought proper to share the regal power with his son in the year 1677, and this measure was attended with the obvious effect of a jealousy between the parent and child, which soon broke forth into open hostilities. The policy of the Dutch led them to take an active part in favour of the young sultan, who had inclined most to their interests and now solicited their aid. The English on the other hand discouraged what appeared to them an unnatural rebellion, but without interfering, as they said, in any other character than that of mediators, or affording military assistance to either party; and which their extreme weakness rather than their assertions renders probable. On the twenty-eighth of March 1682 the Dutch landed a considerable force from Batavia, and soon terminated the war. They placed the young sultan on the throne, delivering the father into his custody, and obtained from him in return for these favours an exclusive privilege of trade in his territories; which was evidently the sole object they had in view. On the first day of April possession was taken of the English factory by a party of Dutch and country soldiers, and on the twelfth the agent and council were obliged to embark with their property on vessels provided for the purpose, which carried them to Batavia. From thence they proceeded to Surat on the twenty-second of August in the following year.

In order to retain a share in the pepper-trade the English turned their thoughts towards Achin, and a deputation, consisting of two gentlemen, of the names of Old and Cawley, was sent thither in 1684; the success of which is above related. It happened that at this time certain Rajas or chiefs of the country of Priaman and other places on the west coast of Sumatra were at Achin also to solicit aid of that court against the Dutch, who had made war upon and otherwise molested them. These immediately applied to Mr. Ord, expressing a strong desire that the English should settle in their respective districts, offering ground for a fort and the exclusive purchase of their pepper. They consented to embark for Madras, where an agreement was formed with them by the governor in the beginning of the year 1685 on the terms they had proposed. In consequence of this an expedition was fitted out with the design of establishing a settlement at Priaman; but a day or two before the ships sailed an invitation to the like purport was received from the chiefs of Bang­kaulu (since corruptly called Bencoolen); and as it was known that a considerable proportion of the pepper that used to be exported from Bantam had been collected from the neighbourhood of Bencoolen (at a place called Silebar), it was judged advisable that Mr. Ord, who was the person entrusted with the management of this business, should first proceed thither; particularly as at that season of the year it was the windward port. He arrived there on the twenty-fifth day of June 1685, and, after taking possession of the country assigned to the English Company, and leaving Mr. Broome in charge of the place, he sailed for the purpose of establishing the other settlements.

He stopped first at Indrapura, where he found three Englishmen who were left of a small factory that had been some time before settled there by a man of the name of Du Jardin. Here he learned that the Dutch, having obtained a knowledge of the original intention of our fixing at Priaman, had anticipated us therein and sent a party to occupy the situation. In the meantime it was understood in Europe that this place was the chief of our establishments on the coast, and ships were accordingly consigned thither. The same was supposed at Madras, and troops and stores were sent to reinforce it, which were afterwards landed at Indrapura. A settlement was then formed at Manjuta, and another attempted at Batang-kapas in 1686; but here the Dutch, assisted by a party amongst the natives, assaulted and drove out our people. Every possible opposition, as it was natural to expect, was given by these our rivals to the success of our factories. They fixed themselves in the neighbourhood of them and endeavoured to obstruct the country people from carrying pepper to them or supplying them with provisions either by sea or land. Our interests however in the end prevailed, and Bencoolen in particular, to which the other places were rendered subordinate in 1686, began to acquire some degree of vigour and respectability. In 1689 encouragement was given to Chinese colonists to settle there, whose number has been continually increasing from that time. In 1691 the Dutch felt the loss of their influence at Silebar and other of the southern countries, where they attempted to exert authority in the name of the sultan of Bantam, and the produce of these places was delivered to the English. This revolution proceeded from the works with which about this time our factory was strengthened.

In 1695 a settlement was made at Triamang, and two years after at Kattaun and Sablat. The first, in the year 1700, was removed to Bantal. Various applications were made by the natives in different parts of the island for the establishment of factories, particularly from Ayer-Bangis to the northward, Palembang on the eastern side, and the people from the countries south of Tallo, near Manna. A person was sent to survey these last, as far as Pulo Pisang and Kroi, in 1715. In consequence of the inconvenience attending the shipping of goods from Bencoolen River, which is often impracticable from the surfs, a warehouse was built in 1701 at a place then called the cove; which gave the first idea of removing the settlement to the point of land which forms the bay of Bencoolen. The unhealthiness of the old situation was thought to render this an expedient step; and accordingly about 1714 it was in great measure relinquished, and the foundations of Fort Marlborough were laid on a spot two or three miles distant. Being a high plain it was judged to possess considerable advantages; many of which however are counterbalanced by its want of the vicinity of a river, so necessary for the ready and plentiful supply of provisions. Some progress had been made in the erection of this fort when an accident happened that had nearly destroyed the Company’s views. The natives incensed at ill treatment received from the Europeans, who were then but little versed in the knowledge of their dispositions or the art of managing them by conciliating methods, rose in a body in the year 1719, and forced the garrison, whose ignorant fears rendered them precipitate, to seek refuge on board their ships. These people began now to feel alarms lest the Dutch, taking advantage of the absence of the English,

should attempt an establishment, and soon permitted some persons from the northern factories to resettle the place; and, supplies arriving from Madras, things returned to their former course, and the fort was completed. The Company’s affairs on this coast remained in tranquillity for a number of years. The important settlement of Natal was established in 1752, and that of Tappanuli a short time afterwards; which involved the English in fresh disputes with the Dutch, who set up a claim to the country in which they are situated. In the year 1760 the French under Comte d’Estaing destroyed all the English settlements on the coast of Sumatra; but they were soon reestablished and our possession secured by the treaty of Paris in 1763. Fort Marlborough, which had been hitherto a peculiar subordinate of Fort St. George, was now formed into an independent presidency, and was furnished with a charter for erecting a mayor’s court, but which has never been enforced. In 1781 a detachment of military from thence embarked upon five East India ships and took possession of Padang and all other Dutch factories in consequence of the war with that nation. In 1782 the magazine of Fort Marlborough, in which were four hundred barrels of powder, was fired by lightning and blew up; but providentially few lives were lost. In 1802 an act of parliament was passed “to authorize the East India Company to make their settlement at Fort Marlborough in the East Indies, a factory subordinate to the presidency of Fort William in Bengal, and to transfer the servants who on the reduction of that establishment shall be supernumerary, to the presidency of Fort St. George.” In 1798 plants of the nutmeg and clove had for the first time been procured from the Moluccas;

and in 1803 a large importation of these valuable articles of cultivation took place. As the plantations were, by the last accounts from thence, in the most flourishing state, very important commercial advantages were expected to be derived from the culture.)

A few years before these transactions she had invited the king of Siam to renew the ancient connexion between their respective states, and to unite in a league against the Dutch, by whose encroachments the commerce of her subjects and the extent of her dominions were much circumscribed. It does not appear however that this overture was attended with any effect, nor have the limits of the Achinese jurisdiction since that period extended beyond Pidir on the northern, and Barus on the western coast.

1688.

She died in 1688, having reigned something less than eleven years, and was succeeded by a young queen named Kamalat-shah; but this did not take place without a strong opposition from a faction amongst the orang kayas which wanted to set up a king, and a civil war actually commenced. The two parties drew up their forces on opposite sides of the river, and for two or three nights continued to fire at each other, but in the daytime followed their ordinary occupations. These opportunities of intercourse made them sensible of their mutual folly. They agreed to throw aside their arms and the crown remained in possession of the newly elected queen. It was said to have been esteemed essential that she should be a maiden, advanced in years,

and connected by blood with the ancient royal line. In this reign an English factory, which had been long discontinued, was reestablished at Achin, but in the interval some private traders of this nation had always resided on the spot. These usually endeavoured to persuade the state that they represented the India Company, and sometimes acquired great influence, which they are accused of having employed in a manner not only detrimental to that body but to the interests of the merchants of India in general by monopolizing the trade of the port, throwing impediments in the way of all shipping not consigned to their management, and embezzling the cargoes of such as were. An asylum was also afforded, beyond the reach of law, for all persons whose crimes or debts induced them to fly from the several European settlements. These considerations chiefly made the Company resolve to reclaim their ancient privileges in that kingdom, and a deputation was sent from the presidency of Madras in the year 1695 for that purpose, with letters addressed to her illustrious majesty the queen of Achin, desiring permission to settle on the terms her predecessors had granted to them; which was readily complied with, and a factory, but on a very limited scale, was established accordingly, but soon declined and disappeared. In 1704, when Charles Lockyer (whose account of his voyage, containing a particular description of this place, was published in 1711) visited Achin, one of these independent factors, named Francis Delton, carried on a flourishing trade. In 1695 the Achinese were alarmed by the arrival of six sail of Dutch ships of force, with a number of troops on board, in their road,

not having been visited by any of that nation for fifteen years, but they departed without offering any molestation.

1699.

This queen was deposed by her subjects (whose grounds of complaint are not stated) about the latter part of the year 1699, after reigning also eleven years; and with her terminated the female dynasty, which, during its continuance of about fifty-nine years, had attracted much notice in Europe.

Her successor was named Beder al-alum sherif Hasham, the nature of whose pretensions to the crown does not positively appear, but there is reason to believe that he was her brother. When he had reigned a little more than two years it pleased God (as the Annals express it) to afflict him with a distemper which caused his feet and hands to contract (probably the gout) and disqualified him for the performance of his religious duties.

1702.

Under these circumstances he was induced to resign the government in 1702, and died about a month after his abdication.

Perkasa-alum, a priest, found means by his intrigues to acquire the sovereignty, and one of his first acts was to attempt imposing certain duties on the merchandise imported by English traders,

who had been indulged with an exemption from all port charges excepting the established complimentary presents upon their arrival and receiving the chap or licence. This had been stipulated in the treaty made by Sir James Lancaster, and renewed by Mr. Grey when chief of the Company’s factory. The innovation excited an alarm and determined opposition on the part of the masters of ships then at the place, and they proceeded (under the conduct of Captain Alexander Hamilton, who published an account of his voyage in 1727) to the very unwarrantable step of commencing hostilities by firing upon the villages situated near the mouth of the river, and cutting off from the city all supplies of provisions by sea. The inhabitants, feeling severely the effects of these violent measures, grew clamorous against the government, which was soon obliged to restore to these insolent traders the privileges for which they contended.

1704.

Advantage was taken of the public discontents to raise an insurrection in favour of the nephew of the late queen, or, according to the Annals, the son of Beder al-alum (who was probably her brother), in the event of which Perkasa-alum was deposed about the commencement of the year 1704, and after an interregnum or anarchy of three months continuance, the young prince obtained possession of the throne, by the name of Jemal al-alum. From this period the native writers furnish very ample details of the transactions of the Achinese government, as well as of the general state of the country,

whose prosperous circumstances during the early part of this king’s reign are strongly contrasted with the misery and insignificance to which it was reduced by subsequent events. The causes and progress of this political decline cannot be more satisfactorily set forth than in a faithful translation of the Malayan narrative which was drawn up, or extracted from a larger work, for my use, and is distinct from the Annals already mentioned:

When raja Jemal al-alum reigned in Achin the country was exceedingly populous, the nobles had large possessions, the merchants were numerous and opulent, the judgments of the king were just, and no man could experience the severity of punishment but through his own fault. In those days the king could not trade on his own account, the nobles having combined to prevent it; but the accustomed duties of the port were considered as his revenue, and ten per cent was levied for this purpose upon all merchandise coming into the country. The city was then of great extent, the houses were of brick and stone. The most considerable merchant was a man named Daniel, a Hollander; but many of different nations were also settled there, some from Surat, some from Kutch, others from China. When ships arrived in the port, if the merchants could not take off all the cargoes the king advanced the funds for purchasing what remained, and divided the goods among them, taking no profit to himself. After the departure of the vessel the king was paid in gold the amount of his principal, without interest.

His daily amusements were in the grounds allotted for the royal sports.

He was attended by a hundred young men, who were obliged to be constantly near his person day and night, and who were clothed in a sumptuous manner at a monthly expense of a hundred dollars for each man. The government of the different parts of the country was divided, under his authority, amongst the nobles. When a district appeared to be disturbed he took measures for quelling the insurrection; those who resisted his orders he caused to be apprehended; when the roads were bad he gave directions for their repair. Such was his conduct in the government. His subjects all feared him, and none dared to condemn his actions. At that time the country was in peace.

When he had been a few years on the throne a country lying to the eastward, named Batu Bara, attempted to throw off its subjection to Achin. The chiefs were ordered to repair to court to answer for their conduct, but they refused to obey. These proceedings raised the king’s indignation. He assembled the nobles and required of them that each should furnish a vessel of war, to be employed on an expedition against that place, and within two months, thirty large galleys, without counting vessels of a smaller size, were built and equipped for sea. When the fleet arrived off Batu Bara (by which must be understood the Malayan district at the mouth of the river, and not the Batta territory through which it takes its course), a letter was sent on shore addressed to the refractory chiefs, summoning them to give proof of their allegiance by appearing in the king’s presence, or threatening the alternative of an immediate attack. After much division in their councils it was at length agreed to feign submission,

and a deputation was sent off to the royal fleet, carrying presents of fruit and provisions of all kinds. One of the chiefs carried, as his complimentary offering, some fresh coconuts, of the delicate species called kalapa-gading, into which a drug had been secretly introduced. The king observing these directed that one should be cut open for him, and having drunk of the juice, became affected with a giddiness in his head. (This symptom shows the poison to have been the upas, but too much diluted in the liquor of the nut to produce death). Being inclined to repose, the strangers were ordered to return on shore, and, finding his indisposition augment, he gave directions for being conveyed back to Achin, whither his ship sailed next day. The remainder of the fleet continued off the coast during five or six days longer, and then returned likewise without effecting the reduction of the place, which the chiefs had lost no time in fortifying.

About two years after this transaction the king, under pretence of amusement, made an excursion to the country lying near the source of the river Achin, then under the jurisdiction of a panglima or governor named Muda Seti; for it must be understood that this part of the kingdom is divided into three districts, known by the appellations of the Twenty-two, Twenty-six, and Twenty-five Mukims (see above), which were governed respectively by Muda Seti, Imam Muda, and Perbawang­Shah (or Purba-wangsa). These three chiefs had the entire control of the country, and when their views were united they had the power of deposing and setting up kings. Such was the nature of the government.

The king’s expedition was undertaken with the design of making himself master of the person of Muda Seti, who had given him umbrage, and on this occasion his followers of all ranks were so numerous that wherever they halted for the night the fruits of the earth were all devoured, as well as great multitudes of cattle. Muda Seti however, being aware of the designs against him, had withdrawn himself from the place of his usual residence and was not to be found when the king arrived there; but a report being brought that he had collected five or six hundred followers and was preparing to make resistance, orders were immediately given for burning his house. This being effected, the king returned immediately to Achin, leaving the forces that had accompanied him at a place called Pakan Badar, distant about half a day’s journey from the capital, where they were directed to entrench themselves. From this post they were driven by the country chief, who advanced rapidly upon them with several thousand men, and forced them to fall back to Padang Siring, where the king was collecting an army, and where a battle was fought soon after, that terminated in the defeat of the royal party with great slaughter. Those who escaped took refuge in the castle along with the king.

1723.

Under these disastrous circumstances he called upon the chiefs who adhered to him to advise what was best to be done, surrounded as they were by the country people, on

 

whom he invoked the curse of God; when one of them, named Panglima Maharaja, gave it as his opinion that the only effectual measure by which the country could be saved from ruin would be the king’s withdrawing himself from the capital so long as the enemy should continue in its vicinity, appointing a regent from among the nobles to govern the country in his absence; and when subordination should be restored he might then return and take again possession of his throne. To this proposition he signified his assent on the condition that Panglima Maharaja should assure him by an oath that no treachery was intended; which oath was accordingly taken, and the king, having nominated as his substitute Maharaja Lela, one of the least considerable of the ulubalangs, retired with his wives and children to the country of the Four mukims, situated about three hours journey to the westward of the city. (The Annals say he fled to Pidir in November 1723.) Great ravages were committed by the insurgents, but they did not attack the palace, and after some days of popular confusion the chiefs of the Three districts, who (says the writer) must not be confounded with the officers about the person of the king, held a consultation amongst themselves, and, exercising an authority of which there had been frequent examples, set up Panglima Maharaja in the room of the abdicated king (by the title, say the Annals, of Juhar al-alum, in December 1723). About seven days after his elevation he was seized with a convulsive disorder in his neck and died. A nephew of Jemal al-alum, named Undei Tebang, was then placed upon the throne, but notwithstanding his having bribed the chiefs of the Three districts with thirty katties of gold, they permitted him to enjoy his dignity only a few days,

and then deposed him. (The same authority states that he was set up by the chiefs of the Four mukims, and removed through the influence of Muda Seti.)

1724. 1735.

The person whom they next combined to raise to the throne was Maharaja Lela (before mentioned as the king’s substitute). It was his good fortune to govern the country in tranquillity for the space of nearly twelve years, during which period the city of Achin recovered its population. (According to the Annals he began to reign in February 1724, by the title of Ala ed-din Ahmed shah Juhan, and died in June 1735.) It happened that the same day on which the event of his death took place Jemal al-alum again made his appearance, and advanced to a mosque near the city. His friends advised him to lose no time in possessing himself of the castle, but for trifling reasons that mark the weakness of his character he resolved to defer the measure till the succeeding day; and the opportunity, as might be expected, was lost. The deceased king left five sons, the eldest of whom, named Po-chat-au (or Po-wak, according to another manuscript) exhorted his brothers to unite with him in the determination of resisting a person whose pretensions were entirely inconsistent with their security. They accordingly sent to demand assistance of Perbawang-shah, chief of the district of the Twenty-five mukims, which lies the nearest to that quarter. He arrived before morning, embraced the five princes, confirmed them in their resolution, and authorised the eldest to assume the government (which he did, say the Annals,

by the title of Ala ed-din Juhan-shah in September 1735.) But to this measure the concurrence of the other chiefs was wanting. At daybreak the guns of the castle began to play upon the mosque, and, some of the shot penetrating its walls, the pusillanimous Jemal al-alum, being alarmed at the danger, judged it advisable to retreat from thence and to set up his standard in another quarter, called kampong Jawa, his people at the same time retaining possession of the mosque. A regular warfare now ensued between the two parties and continued for no less than ten years (the great chiefs taking different sides), when at length some kind of compromise was effected that left Po-chat-au (Juhan­shah) in the possession of the throne, which he afterwards enjoyed peaceably for eight years, and no further mention is made of Jemal al-alum. About this period the chiefs took umbrage at his interfering in matters of trade, contrary to what they asserted to be the established custom of the realm, and assembled their forces in order to intimidate him. (The history of Achin presents a continual struggle between the monarch and the aristocracy of the country, which generally made the royal monopoly of trade the ground of crimination and pretext for their rebellions).

1755.

Panglima Muda Seti, being considered as the head of the league, came down with twenty thousand followers, and, upon the king’s refusing to admit into the castle his complimentary present (considering it only as the prelude to humiliating negotiation), another war commenced that lasted for two years,

and was at length terminated by Muda Seti’s withdrawing from the contest and returning to his province. About five years after this event Juhan shah died, and his son, Pochat-bangta, succeeded him, but not (says this writer, who here concludes his abstract) with the general concurrence of the chiefs, and the country long continued in a disturbed state.

END OF NARRATIVE.

1760.

The death of Juhan shah is stated in the Annals to have taken place in August 1760, and the accession of the son, who took the name of Ala-eddin Muhammed shah, not until November of the same year. Other authorities place these events in 1761.

1763.

Before he had completed the third year of his reign an insurrection of his subjects obliged him to save himself by flight on board a ship in the road. This happened in 1763 or 1764. The throne was seized by the maharaja (first officer of state) named Sinara, who assumed the title of Beder-eddin Juhan shah, and about the end of 1765 was put to death by the adherents of the fugitive monarch, Muhammed shah, who thereupon returned to the throne.*

(*Footnote. Captain Forrest acquaints us that he visited the court of Mahomed Selim (the latter name is not given to this prince by any other writer) in the year 1764, at which time he appeared to be about forty years of age.

It is difficult to reconcile this date with the recorded events of this unfortunate reign, and I have doubts whether it was not the usurper whom the Captain saw.)

He was exposed however to further revolutions. About six years after his restoration the palace was attacked in the night by a desperate band of two hundred men, headed by a man called Raja Udah, and he was once more obliged to make a precipitate retreat. This usurper took the title of sultan Suliman shah, but after a short reign of three months was driven out in his turn and forced to fly for refuge to one of the islands in the eastern sea. The nature of his pretensions, if he had any, have not been stated, but he never gave any further trouble. From this period Muhammed maintained possession of his capital, although it was generally in a state of confusion.

1772.

“In the year 1772,” says Captain Forrest, “Mr. Giles Holloway, resident of Tappanooly, was sent to Achin by the Bencoolen government, with a letter and present, to ask leave from the king to make a settlement there. I carried him from his residency. Not being very well on my arrival, I did not accompany Mr. Holloway (a very sensible and discreet gentleman, and who spoke the Malay tongue very fluently) on shore at his first audience; and finding his commission likely to prove abortive I did not go to the palace at all. There was great anarchy and confusion at this time; and the malcontents came often, as I was informed, near the king’s palace at night.”

1775.

The Captain further remarks that when again there in 1775 he could not obtain an audience.

1781.

The Annals report his death to have happened on the 2nd of June 1781, and observe that from the commencement to the close of his reign the country never enjoyed repose. His brother, named Ala-eddin (or Uleddin, as commonly pronounced, and which seems to have been a favourite title with the Achinese princes), was in exile at Madras during a considerable period, and resided also for some time at Bencoolen.

The eldest son of the deceased king, then about eighteen years of age, succeeded him on the 16th of the same month, by the title of Ala-eddin Mahmud shah Juhan, in spite of an opposition attempted to be raised by the partisans of another son by a favourite wife. Weapons had been drawn in the court before the palace, when the tuanku agung or high priest, a person of great respectability and influence, by whom the former had been educated, came amidst the crowd, bareheaded and without attendance, leading his pupil by the hand. Having placed himself between the contending factions, he addressed them to the following effect: that the prince who stood before them had a natural right and legal claim to the throne of his father; that he had been educated with a view to it, and was qualified to adorn it by his disposition and talents;

that he wished however to found his pretensions neither upon his birthright nor the strength of the party attached to him, but upon the general voice of his subjects calling him to the sovereignty; that if such was their sentiment he was ready to undertake the arduous duties of the station, in which he himself would assist him with the fruits of his experience; that if on the contrary they felt a predilection for his rival, no blood should be shed on his account, the prince and his tutor being resolved in that case to yield the point without a struggle, and retire to some distant island. This impressive appeal had the desired effect, and the young prince was invited by unanimous acclamation to assume the reins of government.*

(*Footnote. Mr. Philip Braham, late chief of the East India Company’s settlement of Fort Marlborough, by whom the circumstances of this event were related to me, arrived at Achin in July 1781, about a fortnight after the transaction. He thus described his audience. The king was seated in a gallery (to which there were no visible steps), at the extremity of a spacious hall or court, and a curtain which hung before him was drawn aside when it was his pleasure to appear. In this court were great numbers of female attendants, but not armed, as they have been described. Mr. Braham was introduced through a long file of guards armed with blunderbusses, and then seated on a carpet in front of the gallery. When a conversation had been carried on for some time through the Shabandar, who communicated his answers to an interpreter, by whom they were reported to the king, the latter perceiving that he spoke the Malayan language addressed him directly,

and asked several questions respecting England; what number of wives and children our sovereign had; how many ships of war the English kept in India; what was the French force, and others of that nature. He expressed himself in friendly terms with regard to our nation, and said he should always be happy to countenance our traders in his ports. Even at this early period of his reign he had abolished some vexatious imposts. Mr. Braham had an opportunity of learning the great degree of power and control possessed by certain of the orang kayas, who held their respective districts in actual sovereignty, and kept the city in awe by stopping, when it suited their purpose, the supplies of provisions. Captain Forrest, who once more visited Achin in 1784 and was treated with much distinction (see his Voyage to the Mergui Archipelago page 51), says he appeared to be twenty-five years of age; but this was a misconception. Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, who saw him in 1782, judged him to have been at that time no more than nineteen or twenty, which corresponds with Mr. Braham’s statement.)

Little is known of the transactions of his reign, but that little is in favour of his personal character. The Annals (not always unexceptionable evidence when speaking of the living monarch) describe him as being endowed with every princely virtue, exercising the functions of government with vigour and rectitude, of undaunted courage, attentive to the protection of the ministers of religion, munificent to the descendants of the prophet (seiyid, but commonly pronounced sidi) and to men of learning, prompt at all times to administer justice,

and consequently revered and beloved by his people. I have not been enabled to ascertain the year in which he died.

1791.

It appears by a Malayan letter from Achin that in 1791 the peace of the capital was much disturbed, and the state of the government as well as of private property (which induced the writer to reship his goods) precarious.

1805.

In 1805 his son, then aged twenty-one, was on the throne, and had a contention with his paternal uncle, and at the same time his father-in-law, named Tuanku Raja, by whom he had been compelled to fly (but only for a short time) to Pidir, the usual asylum of the Achinese monarchs. Their quarrel appears to have been rather of a family than of a political nature, and to have proceeded from the irregular conduct of the queen-mother. The low state of this young king’s finances, impoverished by a fruitless struggle to enforce, by means of an expensive marine establishment, his right to an exclusive trade, had induced him to make proposals, for mutual accommodation, to the English government of Pulo Pinang.*

 

(*Footnote. Since the foregoing was printed the following information respecting the manners of the Batta people, obtained by Mr. Charles Holloway from Mr. W.H. Hayes, has reached my hands.

 

“In the month of July 1805

an expedition consisting of Sepoys, Malays, and Battas was sent from Tapanuli against a chief named Punei Manungum, residing at Nega­timbul, about thirty miles inland from Old Tapanuli, in consequence of his having attacked a kampong under the protection of the company, murdered several of the inhabitants, and carried others into captivity. After a siege of three days, terms of accommodation being proposed, a cessation of hostilities took place, when the people of each party having laid aside their arms intermixed with the utmost confidence, and conversed together as if in a state of perfect amity. The terms however not proving satisfactory, each again retired to his arms and renewed the contest with their former inveteracy. On the second day the place was evacuated, and upon our people entering it Mr. Hayes found the bodies of one man and two women, whom the enemy had put to death before their departure (being the last remaining of sixteen prisoners whom they had originally carried off), and from whose legs large pieces had been cut out, evidently for the purpose of being eaten. During the progress of this expedition a small party had been sent to hold in check the chiefs of Labusukum and Singapollum (inland of Sibogah), who were confederates of Punei Manungum. These however proved stronger than was expected, and, making a sally from their kampongs, attacked the sergeant’s party and killed a sepoy, whom he was obliged to abandon. Mr. Hayes, on his way from Negatimbul, was ordered to march to the support of the retreating party;

 

but these having taken a different route he remained ignorant of the particulars of their loss. The village of Singapollam being immediately carried by storm, and the enemy retreating by one gate, as our people entered at the opposite, the accoutrements of the sepoy who had been killed the day before were seen hanging as trophies in the front of the houses, and in the town hall, Mr. Hayes saw the head entirely scalped, and one of the fingers fixed upon a fork or skewer, still warm from the fire. On proceeding to the village of Labusucom, situated little more than two hundred yards from the former, he found a large plantain leaf full of human flesh, mixed with lime-juice and chili-pepper, from which he inferred that they had been surprised in the very act of feasting on the sepoy, whose body had been divided between the two kampongs. Upon differences being settled with the chiefs they acknowledged with perfect sangfroid that such had been the case, saying at the same time, “you know it is our custom; why should we conceal it?”)

 

 

 

 

 

1836

 


TEUNGKU CIK DI TIRO
Lahir : Tiro, Pidie, 1836
Wafat : Benteng, Aneuk Galong, Januari 1891

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK kecil, Teungku Cik Di Tiro yang bernama asli Muhammad Saman telah terbiasa tinggal di lingkungan pesantren. Di situ ia banyak menimba ilmu dari beberapa ulama terkenal di Aceh. Setelah merasa cukup berguru, Saman menunaikan ibadah haji ke Mekah sekaligus memperdalam ilmu agamanya.

 

 

Sekembalinya dari Mekah, Saman menjadi guru agama di Tiro hingga kemudian dikenal sebagai Teungku Cik Di Tiro.

Tahun 1873

, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya. Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.

Mei 1881, benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro. Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut. Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh. Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.

Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya. Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.

 

 

1854


TEUKU UMAR
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh. Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.

Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat. Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.

Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.

Tahun 1893,

Teuku Umar tunduk dan bergabung dengan Belanda. Siasat berpura-pura Teuku Umar ini ternyata berhasil. Belanda kemudian mengizinkan Teuku Umar memiliki tentara berkekuatan 250 orang berikut persenjataan lengkap untuk memerangi pejuang-pejuang Aceh yang belum tunduk. Para pejuang Aceh yang akan diperangi pun paham karena telah diberitahu sebelumnya. Semua itu dilakukan Teuku Umar demi mendapatkan senjata dan perbekalan dari pihak VOC Belanda.

Pada tanggal 29 Maret 1896,

Teuku Umar kembali bergabung dengan para pejuang Aceh. Ia berhasil membawa lari senjata, uang sebanyak 800.000 Dollar, dan perlengkapan lain milik Belanda.

Semasa bergabung dengan Belanda, Teuku Umar pernah diberi gelar Teuku Johan Pahlawan dan memimpin 1 legiun tentara berkekuatan 250 orang serdadu. Teuku Umar mampu menghadapi Politik Devide et Empera (“Pecah Belah dan Jajahlah”) Belanda dengan menggunakan kekuatan Belanda sendiri.

Pada Januari 1899,

Belanda merasa tertipu dan amat marah sehingga mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menangkap Teuku Umar di Meulaboh. Teuku Umar akhirnya gugur pada tanggal 11 Februari 1899, dan dimakamkan di Desa Mugo, Aceh.

 

1870

 

 

The poster of atjeh War in 1870

 

1870


Berani Menerjang Peluru

Spoiler for tentang dia


Pameo yang mengatakan wanita sebagai insan lemah dan harus selalu dilindungi tidak selamanya benar. Itu dibuktikan oleh Cut Nyak Meutia, wanita asal Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, yang terus berjuang melawan Belanda hingga tewas diterjang tiga peluru di tubuhnya.

 

Wanita kelahiran Perlak, Aceh, tahun 1870, ini adalah seorang Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional yang hingga titik darah penghabisan tetap memegang prinsip tak akan mau tunduk kepada kolonial.

Sebelum Cut Nyak Meutia lahir, pasukan Belanda sudah menduduki daerah Aceh yang digelari serambi Mekkah tersebut. Perlakuan Belanda yang semena-mena dengan berbagai pemaksaan dan penyiksaan akhirnya menimbulkan perlawanan dari rakyat.

Tiga tahun sebelum perang Aceh-Belanda meletus, ketika itulah Cut Nyak Meutia dilahirkan. Suasana perang pada saat kelahiran dan perkembangannya itu, di kemudian hari sangat memengaruhi perjalanan hidupnya.

Ketika sudah beranjak dewasa, dia menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, seorang pejuang yang lebih terkenal dengan nama Teuku Cik Tunong. Walaupun ketika masih kecil ia sudah ditunangkan dengan seorang pria bernama Teuku Syam Syarif, tetapi ia memilih menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, pria yang sangat dicintainya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tahun 1873

, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya.

 

Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.

 

1873

Perang Aceh dimulai sejak Belanda menyatakan perang terhadap Aceh pada 26 Maret 1873 setelah melakukan beberapa ancaman diplomatik, namun tidak berhasil merebut wilayah yang besar. Perang kembali berkobar pada tahun 1883, namun lagi-lagi gagal, dan pada 1892 dan 1893, pihak Belanda menganggap bahwa mereka telah gagal merebut Aceh.

Dr. Snouck Hurgronje, seorang ahli Islam dari Universitas Leiden yang telah berhasil mendapatkan kepercayaan dari banyak pemimpin Aceh, kemudian memberikan saran kepada Belanda agar serangan mereka diarahkan kepada para ulama, bukan kepada sultan. Saran ini ternyata berhasil. Pada tahun 1898, J.B. van Heutsz dinyatakan sebagai gubernur Aceh, dan bersama letnannya, Hendricus Colijn, merebut sebagian besar Aceh.

 

 

 

 


TEUKU UMAR
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh.

 

 

1873

 

 

The Atjeh War,landing of DEI  Marines at atjeh in 1873

 

 

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. Benting Penajoeng van het KNIL in de noordwesthoek van de kraton te Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie

and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

look the eastren  area above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fort benteng Penajoeng Atjeh in 1873

 

 

 

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. KNIL-artillerie gelegen aan de hoofdweg in bivak Penajoeng bij Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie in 1873

 

 

Look from outside area

 

 

Fist Atjeh Expedition in 1873

 

KOLEKSI PEDANG PANJANG ACEH

Pedang Panjang Aceh Sumatera

Aceh (juga disebut sebagai Aceh, Atjin, Aceh Achin.) Berada di ujung utara Sumatera di Indonesia. Hal ini diyakini menjadi salah satu kerajaan tertua di Indonesia. Hindu dan Budha pengaruh dari India mungkin telah sampai ke Aceh pada awal abad pertama. abad keenam A. D. Tionghoa sejarah. berbicara tentang sebuah kerajaan di ujung utara Sumatera bernama Po-Li. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Islam mungkin pertama kali memasuki kepulauan Indonesia melalui Aceh suatu waktu antara abad ke-8 dan 12. Pada 1292, Marco Polo, pada pelayaran epik dari China mengunjungi Sumatera dalam perjalanan ke Persia dan melaporkan bahwa di bagian utara pulau setidaknya ada enam pelabuhan perdagangan sibuk termasuk Perlak, Samudera dan lambri. Dengan masa lalu seperti ini tidak mengherankan bahwa senjata mereka telah Hindu, Budha, pengaruh Cina dan Islam. Daerah ini memiliki sejarah bela diri yang luas. Pada pertengahan abad ke-14, Pasai diserbu oleh tentara Majapahit dari Jawa. Pada tahun 1523, Sultan Ali menyerang Portugis di Pasai, Portugal menewaskan komandan militer Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali berhasil mengusir pasukan Portugis dari Pasai. Setelah kekalahan ini, Portugal berusaha untuk menaklukkan beberapa kali di Aceh, tanpa keberhasilan. Pada 1873, Belanda menyatakan perang dan menyerang Aceh Darussalam. Tapi Belanda menemukan lebih sulit daripada mereka diharapkan untuk mendapatkan kontrol dari seluruh Aceh. Aceh menolak pendudukan, menyentuh dari Perang Aceh, perang kolonial / ekspedisi terpanjang diperjuangkan oleh lebih dari 10.000 jiwa Belanda dan mengklaim. Aceh-Belanda perang berlarut-larut sampai 1914, resistensi dilanjutkan dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil sampai 1942 ketika Jepang tiba di Hindia Belanda. Sudah sering dikatakan bahwa Kesultanan Aceh dari abad ke-16 pada itu dalam perjuangan terus-menerus. Meskipun banyak senjata bermata digunakan di Aceh ada 3 senjata utama yang telah memainkan peran dalam sejarah Aceh. Mereka adalah rencong, Siwaih (Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) dan peudeueng. Artikel ini akan berurusan dengan peudeueng tersebut. Ketika saya mendapatkan imformation lebih ini akan diperbarui dan jenis pedang yang lebih dapat ditambahkan. Tidak ada dalam ini harus dianggap sebagai pekerjaan baru atau asli di bagian saya. Sebaliknya ini adalah kompilasi dari apa yang begitu banyak orang telah berbaik hati untuk berbagi dengan saya, dan apa yang diterbitkan bahan yang saya telah dapat mengakses. Saya yakin ada ketidakakuratan di sini yang merupakan hasil dari kesalahan yang jujur. Mereka akan dikoreksi karena saya dibuat sadar dari mereka atau mencari informasi yang lebih baik. Itulah salah satu keuntungan besar artikel yang telah berbasis web. Tidak seperti kata dipublikasikan yang hanya dapat sebagai baik sebagai informasi pada saat penerbitan; artikel berbasis web dapat udated dan diubah.

The New York Times, pada 6 Mei 1873, menulis: “Sebuah pertempuran berdarah telah terjadi di Aceh, Kerajaan pribumi menempati bagian utara pulau Sumatra Belanda menyampaikan serangan umum dan sekarang kami memiliki rincian hasilnya. Serangan itu. jijik dengan pembantaian besar. jenderal Belanda tewas, dan tentara-Nya dimasukkan ke penerbangan bencana. Tampaknya, memang, telah harfiah hancur. “

Pedang panjang Aceh disebut peudeung tersebut. Meskipun pedang diberikan ke Aceh itu hampir pasti mereka digunakan juga oleh kelompok-kelompok etnis lain di daerah tersebut. Ada bukti penggunaannya sebagai senjata setidaknya sejauh kembali sebagai abad ke-17. Ini mungkin telah digunakan secara terpisah, dengan pedang ganda atau dengan perisai bulat kecil yang disebut sebuah peurise. Perlu dicatat bahwa pedang ini juga sering disebut dengan nama lain. Dalam buku referensi yang sangat lengkap, SENJATA TRADISIONAL DARI KEPULAUAN INDONESIA. oleh AG Van Zonneveld mereka disebut sebagai “aku Pedang” “Sikin Pasangan” dan “Sikin Panjang” Banyak sumber-sumber lain termasuk situs yang sangat baik Dominique Buttin yang menyebutnya sebagai “Sikin” (Sikim, Sikkim, Sekem). Dalam sebuah korespondensi dengan Dominique Buttin, ia memberitahu bahwa, “Peudeung namanya berarti pedang, yang merupakan arti sama dengan Podang dari Batak atau Pedang dari Jawa.” Sebuah masalah besar dengan memutuskan nama yang akan digunakan untuk ini pedang berasal dari fakta bahwa ada 10 kelompok subethnic dari acehnesse (seperti Aceh, Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban dan Julu) Disini Saya akan menggunakan istilah yang digunakan dalam sebagian besar sumber-sumber Belanda dan itu adalah “Peudeueng”. Sebuah tinjauan literatur tampaknya untuk membagi peudeueng oleh gaya pisau dan jenis jika gagang. Berbilah pedang lurus disebut peudeueng Panjang (sikin Panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh,). Pisau melengkung peudeueng disebut peudeueng Peusangan (peudeueng Pasangan, sikin Peusangan, sikin pasagan, Pedang, poedeung).

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (Hulul Buaya)

 

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

 

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

 

Divisi lain untuk Aceh pedang adalah dengan jenis atau bentuk gagang atau Hulu, Dalam “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta, ia menggambarkan mereka sebagai “gagang seperti ekor kucing”, “gagang seperti mulut buaya”, “gagang seperti tanduk rusa”, “gagang seperti kaki kuda”, dan “gagang seperti ekor bebek” Sementara semua ini dapat ditemukan di Aceh lainnya pedang, saya hanya menemukan 4 jenis Hulu pada peudeueng. Gagang yang terlihat seperti mulut terbuka hewan (atau buaya) disebut Hulu tumpang beunteung di Gayo atau Hulu Buaya di Aceh. Jenis gagang dapat dilihat pada kedua peudeueng Panjang dan peudeueng Peusangan. Dalam salah satu varian dari tips datang bersama-sama sampai mereka hampir menyentuh dengan ujung diratakan. Gaya Saya diberitahu oleh smith Aceh masih disebut Buaya Hulu tetapi beberapa buku juga menyebutnya Peusangan Hulu. Peusangan adalah nama sungai dan nama kecamatan di Bireuen, Aceh Jenis ketiga adalah biasanya terlihat hanya pada Panjang peudeueng disebut Rumpung Hulu.

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

 

dari dekat dari Hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan rumpung Hulu

Keempat jenis gagang yang terlihat pada peudeueng disebut meu APET Hulu (Hulu Muapit di Gayo atau Sukul Mekepit di Alas). Hulu berarti gagang meu adalah kata kerja APET (jaga / kawal) berarti dijaga, maka ini hanya dapat berarti “gagang dijaga”. Beberapa sumber lain menyebutnya gagang Daun Tebu. Duan Daun Tebu Gula Tebu berarti dan ujung gagang ini dikatakan menyerupai tebu tumbuh. Para Hulu meu APET sangat mirip gagang pedang India terlihat pada Khanda dan firangi, tetapi lonjakan akhirnya adalah lebih pendek.

dari dekat dari meu suatu APET Hulu


Baru-baru ini Ariel Barkan, pada forum di http://www.vikingsword.com, menyadari bahwa hal itu juga dipengaruhi oleh gagang Gulabghati India, dinamakan demikian karena disk atasnya memiliki garis-garis konsentris menyerupai bunga mawar, “gulab”. Lebih lanjut tentang ini gaya gagang dapat ditemukan di India dan Armour Senjata oleh GN Celana.

 

suatu Hulu meu APET LANGKA  terlihat dengan tombol pada akhir gagang, ini kadang-kadang disebut meutampoh Peudeueng. Mungkin ini harus dianggap sebagai gaya terpisah dari gagang

 

 

 

 

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld menyatakan dalam bukunya, bahwa Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET sebagian besar pembuatan asing dan tidak mendapatkan bantuan besar. Perasaan adalah bahwa karena itu varian ini mungkin sebagian besar seremonial. Itu mungkin benar hari ini, bagaimanapun,

 

 

foto yang diambil selama perang Belanda-Aceh dapat ditemukan dengan pedang ini digunakan. Sementara spesimen hiasan dapat ditemukan, mayoritas Hulu meu APET saya jumpai atau melihat gambar yang dirancang untuk fungsi dan tidak terlalu banyak hiasan. Para sarung biasanya ditemukan dengan mereka yang juga agak keras. Spesimen dapat ditemukan dengan tanda-tanda kerusakan biasanya berhubungan dengan kerusakan pertempuran. Pedang dengan Hulu meu APET bahkan ditemukan pada beberapa pertempuran bendera. Selain contoh dari pedang dapat ditemukan dengan Azimat di dalamnya atau pada selubung untuk melindungi pembawa dalam pertempuran.

 

Bendera ini – secara harfiah – telah direndam dalam darah: penelitian laboratorium telah mengkonfirmasi bahwa bendera memiliki lubang peluru dan beruang noda darah. Ini mungkin darah CH letnan satu Bischoff. Dialah yang ditangk

 

 

 

Bischoff membayar petualangannya dengan sebelas luka yang ditimbulkan oleh klewangs musuh. Klewang awalnya pedang asli Aceh: ‘gliwang’. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19 itu menjadi fitur karakteristik seragam Belanda Hindia Timur prajurit. Pedang melebar di ujung pisau yang bersama-sama dengan pegangan, f

ORMS garis melengkung .. Dia dibawa terbungkus bendera. Beberapa hari kemudian, pada tanggal 3 Mei 1840, Bischoff meninggal karena luka-lukanya. Sebelum meninggal, ia dipromosikan ke pangkat kapten karena perbuatan heroik.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foto bendera pertempuran di koleksi Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Sarung (Sarung) Para sarung untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET biasanya kayu ditutupi dengan kulit. Beberapa dihiasi dengan perak banding. Sarung pedang untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung dan peudeueng Panjang adalah dari kayu dan dapat ditemukan baik hiasan dan polos

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 

Sebuah sarung untuk Panjang peudeueng

 

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 


 

Pada bulan Maret 2006 terungkap beberapa informasi tentang beberapa dari keyakinan spiritual dan ritual sekitarnya pedang ini. Tampaknya bahwa ada paralel dengan anting (atau anting-anting) yang digunakan pada senjata Filipina. Ini jimat disebut tangkal atau azimat / zimat atau jimat. Jimat ini berisi ayat-ayat pelindung atau ayat-ayat agama dari ayat-ayat Quran (mungkin lagi sebuah sejajar dengan praktek Filipina Oracion). Hal ini terungkap pada thread di Vikingsword.com. Dalam diskusi ini tangkal atau azimat telah diposting yang berasal dari bawah tangan seorang penjaga Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET. Ini adalah area yang saya berharap untuk dapat melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang temuan dan post di sini. Saya terima kasih kepada Fazli Ibrahim untuk membantu saya dengan informasi tentang ini.

Berikut adalah pedang yang azimat itu ditemukan di dalam dan kantong yang berisi hal

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Beberapa gambar dari azimat dalam yang menangani pedang. Bagian antara 2 bintang dikenal sebagai Khatimus Sulaiman;.

Tujuan itu adalah untuk melindungi pemakainya itu terhadap “ilmu hitam” dan roh-roh jahat.

Beberapa Azimat lainnya dari Museum Nasional di Indonesia

Sebuah Azimat tertulis pada selubung dari Pa

njang Peudeung

Beberapa pedang Aceh memiliki motif vegatative di tenggorokan Pucuk Rebung disebut. Berbentuk V Pucuk Rebung bambu tumbuh mewakili
Menurut beberapa acehnesse, jika ada emas di gagang / menangani / sarung pedang hanya dapat dibuat untuk atau dimiliki oleh Panglima (komandan, kepala suku), teungku (noblility) dan sangat dihormati orang lain.

 

 

 

Berikut adalah beberapa foto-foto pejuang Aceh dengan peudeueng tersebut.

 

 

 

 

1880

 

Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.

Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat.

Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.

Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.

 

 

Mei 1881,

benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro.

 

Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut.

Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh.

Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.

Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya.

 

 

 

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

 

 

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

 

 

 

Sebuah foto pejuang Aceh (foto kanan) dengan peudeueng dan rencong dari “Wapens Blanke” oleh JG Dieles. Satu memiliki sebuah Hulu tumpang beunteung (kanan) sebuah lainnya Hulu meu APET (kiri).

Foto di kanan menunjukkan buku sumber.

“Aceh bangsawan” dari: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).

Referensi

1) “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2) “Senjata Tradisional kepulauan Indonesia” oleh Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Buku Seni – Leiden; Musim Semi

3) Blades 2001OLD – Dunia Melayu Senjata beringsut. Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revisi: 2005-04-03

4) “India Senjata dan Armour” oleh Pant GN 1978

5). Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV murah V. Gambar 21 A.

6) Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).
7) Senjata dan Memerangi Seni Indonesia, oleh Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Penerbitan 1972

 

 

 

original info

The Achenese Peudeueng

The Long Sword of Aceh Sumatra

Aceh (also referred to as Atjeh, Atjin, Acheen Achin.) is at the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is believed to be one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia. Hindu and Buddist influence from India may have reached Aceh as early as the first century. sixth century A.D. Chinese chronicles. spoke of a kingdom on the northern tip of Sumatra named Po-Li. It is believed that Islam likely first entered the Indonesian archipelago through Aceh sometime between the 8th and 12th century. In 1292, Marco Polo, on his epic voyage from China visited Sumatra on his way to Persia and reported that in the northern part of the island there were at least six busy trading ports including Perlak, Samudera and lambri. With a past like this it is not surprising that their weapons have Hindu, Buddist, Chinese and Islamic influence. The area has an extensive martial history. In the middle of the 14th century, Pasai was invaded by Majapahit soldiers from Java. In 1523, Sultan Ali attacked the Portuguese in Pasai, killing Portugal military commander Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali managed to drive the Portuguese troops out of Pasai. After this defeat, Portugal attempted to conquer Aceh several times, without success. In 1873, the Netherlands declared war and invaded Aceh Darussalam. But the Dutch found it more difficult than they expected to gain control of the whole of Aceh. The Acehnese resisted the occupation, touching off the Aceh War, the longest colonial/expeditionary war fought by the Dutch and claiming more than 10,000 lives. Aceh-Dutch war dragged on until 1914, resistance continued with smaller groups until 1942 when the Japanese arrived in the Dutch East Indies. It has often been said that the Sultanate of Aceh from the 16th century on was in continual struggle. Although a multitude of edged weapons are used in Aceh there are 3 primary weapons that have played a role in Aceh’s history. They are the rencong, Siwaih ( Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) and peudeueng. This article will deal with the peudeueng. As I gain more imformation this will be updated and more sword types may be added. Nothing in this should be considered new or original work on my part. Instead this is a compilation of what so many people have been kind enough to share with me, and what published material I have been able to access. I am certain there are inaccuracies here that are the result of honest mistakes. They will be corrected as I am made aware of them or find better information. That is one large advantage a web based article has. Unlike the published word wich can only be as good as the information at the time of publishing; the web based article can be udated and changed.

 

THE NEW YORK TIMES, on May 6th, 1873, wrote: “A sanguinary battle has taken place in Aceh, a native Kingdom occupying the Northern portion of the island of Sumatra. The Dutch delivered a general assault and now we have details of the result. The attack was repulsed with great slaughter. The Dutch general was killed, and his army put to disastrous flight. It appears, indeed, to have been literally decimated.”

The Aceh long sword is called the peudeung. While these swords are attributed to the Aceh it is almost certain they were used also by other ethnic groups in the area. There is evidence of its use as a weapon at least as far back as the 17th century. It may have been used singly, with dual swords or with a small round shield called a peurise. It should be noted that these swords are also often called by other names. In the very complete reference book, TRADITIONAL WEAPONS OF THE INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO. by A.G. Van Zonneveld they are referred to as a “Pedang I” “Sikin Pasangan” and” Sikin Panjang” Numerous other sources including Dominique Buttin’s excellent site call it a “Sikin” ( Sikim , Sikkim, Sekem ). In a correspondence with Dominique Buttin, he informed the that, “The name Peudeung means sword, which is the same meaning as Podang from the Batak or Pedang from the Javanese.” A major problem with deciding which name to use for these swords comes from the fact that there are 10 subethnic groups of acehnesse (such as Aceh , Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban and Julu ) Here I will use the term used in the most of the Dutch sources and that is “Peudeueng” . A review of the literature seems to divide peudeueng by blade style and type if hilt. The straight bladed swords are called peudeueng panjang ( sikin panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh, ). Curved blades peudeueng are called peudeueng peusangan ( peudeueng pasangan , sikin peusangan, sikin pasagan, pedang, poedeung ).

 

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

 

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

 

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

The other division for Aceh swords is by type or shape of the hilt or hulu, In “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta she describes them as “hilt like the tail of a cat”, “hilt like the mouth of a crocodile”, “hilt like the horns of a deer”, “hilt like the legs of a horse”, and “hilt like the tail of a duck” While all of these may be found on other Aceh swords; I have only found 4 types of hulu on peudeueng. The hilt that looks like the open mouth of an animal ( or crocodile) is called hulu tumpang beunteung in Gayo or Hulu Buaya in Aceh. This type of hilt can be seen on both peudeueng panjang and peudeueng peusangan. In one variant of this the tips come together till they almost touch with flattened ends. This style I was told by an Acheen smith is still called a hulu Buaya but some books also call it a Hulu Peusangan. Peusangan is the name of a river and the name of a subdistrict in Bireuen, Aceh The third type is usually seen only on the peudeueng panjang is called a Hulu Rumpung.

 

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu rumpung

 

The fourth type of hilt that is seen on peudeueng is called Hulu Meu Apet (Hulu Muapit in Gayo or Sukul Mekepit in Alas). Hulu means hilt Meu is a verb Apet ( jaga / kawal) means guarded ; so this may simply mean “guarded hilt”. Some other sources call this hilt Daun Tebu. Duan Tebu means Sugar Cane Leaf and the end of the hilt on this is said to resemble a sprouting sugar cane. The hulu meu apet strongly resembles Indian sword hilts seen on the khanda and firangi, but the end spike is shorter.

a close up of a a Hulu Meu Apet

 

Recently Ariel Barkan, on the forum at www.vikingsword.com, noticed that it also is influenced by the Indian Gulabghati hilt, named so because its upper disk has concentric lines resembling a rose flower, “gulab”. More on this style of hilt can be found in Indian Arms and Armour by G.N. Pant.

 

 

Rarely a Hulu Meu apet is seen with a knob at the end of the hilt, this is sometimes called a Peudeueng meutampoh. Perhaps this should be considered a separate style of hilt

 

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld states in his book, that the peudeueng peusangan with the Hulu Meu Apet was largely of foreign manufacture and did not gain great favor. His feeling is that because of that this variant may be largely ceremonial. That may be true today, however, photos taken during the Dutch-Aceh war can be found with this sword being used. While ornate specimens can be found; the majority of the hulu meu apet I have encountered or seen pictures of are designed for function and not overly ornate. The scabbards normally found with them are also rather austere. Specimens can be found with signs of damage usually associated with battle damage. The sword with the hulu meu apet was even found on several battle flags. In addition examples of these swords can be found with Azimat in them or on the sheath to protect the bearer in battle.

 

This flag has – literally – been soaked in blood: laboratory research has confirmed that the flag has a bullet hole and bears blood stains. This was probably the blood of first lieutenant C.H. Bischoff. It was he who captured the flag for booty during the storming of a ‘benteng’ (Malay for fort) held by the Achinese enemy in 1840. Bischoff paid for his escapade with eleven wounds inflicted by enemy klewangs. The klewang was originally a native Atjeh sword: ‘gliwang’. Towards the end of the 19th century it became a characteristic feature of the Dutch East Indian soldier’s uniform. The sword widens at the tip of the blade which, together with the handle, f

 

orms a curved line.. He was carried off wrapped in the flag. Several days later, on 3 May 1840, Bischoff died of his wounds. Before passing away, he was promoted to the rank of captain for his heroic deed.

Photo of a battle flag in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam


Scabbards ( Sarung)

The scabbards for the peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet are usually wood covered with leather. Some are adorned with silver banding . Scabbards for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung and the peudeueng panjang are of wood and can be found both ornate and plain

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

 

In March of 2006 some information was revealed about some of the spiritual beliefs and rituals surrounding these swords. It appears that there are parallels to the the anting ( or anting-anting ) used on Philippine weapons. These talismans are called tangkal or azimat/zimat or jimat. These talismans contained protective verses or religious verses from the Quranic verses ( perhaps again a parallel to the Phillipine practice of Oracion ). This came to light on a thread on Vikingsword.com. In this discussion a tangkal or azimat was posted that came from under the hand guard of a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet. This is an area that I hope to be able to do more research on and post the findings here. My thanks to Fazli Ibrahim for helping me with information on this.

Here is the sword that the azimat was found in and the bag that contained it

 


 

Some pictures of the azimat in that sword handle. The portion between the 2 stars is known as Khatimus Sulaiman;.

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Some other Azimat from the National Museum in Indonesia

An Azimat inscribed on the sheath of a Peudeung Panjang

 

Some Aceh swords have a vegatative motif at the throat called Pucuk Rebung. The V shaped Pucuk Rebung represents sprouting bamboo
According to some acehnesse, if there is gold on hilt / handle / scabbard the sword only can be made for or owned by Panglima ( commander , chieftains ), teungku ( the noblility ) and other highly respected persons.

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

 

 

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

 

 

 

“Acehnese noblemen” from: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).

References

1)      “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2)      “Traditional Weapons of the Indonesian Archipelago” by Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Art Books – Leiden; Spring

3)      2001OLD BLADES – Malay World Edged Weapons.  Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revised: 2005-04-03

4)      “Indian Arms and Armour” by GN Pant 1978

5)      . Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV dan V. Gambar 21 A.

6)      Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).
7)      The Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia, by Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Publishing 1972

 

 

 

 

 

1874

 

 

Mrs Teuku Umar in 1874

 

 

Atjeh River’s bridge in 1874

 

 

Atjeh river bridge

 

 

The controleur and Inland chief of Masingit atjeh in 1874

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bras island beach of Atjeh nord Sumatra in 1874(three photos)

 

 

The Gouvenor of Atjeh house at North sumatra in 1874

 

 

The Zinc Roof(atap seng) House at Atjeh in 1874

 

 

The Inland Atjeh tomb cementary  in 1874

 

 

The railways of Koetaradja atjeh in 1874

 

 

 

 

1877

 

 

Controleur of Krueeng  Raba atjeh in 1877

1879

 

 

Bivak Tjoet Basetoel Atjeh in 1879

 

 

 

 

1880

 

 

Gouvenor Atjeh bridge in 1880

 

 

 

The Teuku of West atjeh with his bride,look his revolver and rencong knife  in 1880

 

 

 

The road of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

Controleur of IDI Atjeh in 1880

 

 

The Atjeh Club of Koetaradja during fload in 1880

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Atjeh river of Koetaradja in 1880

 

 

 

The Kraton of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

 

The Kratonlaan(street) of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

The Atjeh women in 1880

 

 

 

The Chief of Tadji atjeh and young women in 1880

 

 

1881

 

 

Baiturahman Mosque Of Koetaradja in 1881

 

 

 

 

1883

 

 

Wonig (House)Atjeh,panted  b Jhr. Josias Cornelis Rappard in deze collectie in alle collecties

1884

 

 

The lithography caricature poster of new toewan besar(Bigger Man) Atjeh during the way to paradise  in 1884

 

 

1888

 

 

The ship at Oleh-leh Atjeh in 1888

 

 

The Gouvenor of Atjeh’s  house(woning)in 1888

 

 

 

 

 

The brige of Koetaraja Chief Atjeh Keraton  in 1888

 

 

Fishing at Masudji Pante Perak(silver beach) Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

 

 

 

 

 

Mesdjid Mosque Raja Koetaradja in 1888

 

 

The train railway at Lamjong Lambaroe Atjeh in 1888

 

 

Kota Petjoet Tomb Of Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

 

 

The European and asian at water reasource building  at sabang Atjeh in 1888

 

 

 

 

1890

 

 

Bivak Tjot Mantjang atjeh in 1890

 

 

 

 

 

1891

 

Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.

 

 

1892

 

The Atjeh Chief of Koetaradja in 1892

Standing from right: Mohammed Arif, hoofddjaksa bij het gerecht te Koetaradja; Teukoe Machmoed van Lamtenga, halfbroer van Teukoe Baid; Ketjiq Oemar van Lampisang, boodschapper van Teukoe Oemar; Hadji Abdoellah, schrijver van de assistent-resident; Teukoe Nja Daoed, hoeloebalang van Bolohan; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, waarnemend hoofd van de IX Moekims; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, inlandse zendeling; assistent-resident H.P.A. Bakker; Hadji Abdoellah, hoofdpenghoeloe; wakil Joesoef van Lohong; adjunct-djaksa Aboe Bakr; schrijver van assistent-resident A.J.C. de Neve; onbekend; controleur J.B. Léon. Siting from right  : Panglima Medsjid Rajah, rijksgrote; vermoedelijk een hoeloebalang van de [?] Moekims; Teukoe Sjech Toenkoep; Teukoe Neq Moeda Setia Radjah; Pangeran Hoesain; Teukoe Njah Bantah van Lamreng, sagihoofd van de XVI Moekims; Teukoe Malikoel Adil, erfelijk opperrechter van Atjeh

 

 

 

 

 

 

The bridge at Koetaradja in 1892

 

 

 

The daughter and son of Teuku Maharadja Atjeh in 1892

 

 

The Resident Scherer in ship at the teloek semelue (sabang) atjeh with atjeh chief of government official in 1892

 

 

Fort benteng Bras island Atjeh in 1892

 

 

 

 

The Aceh War Collections

Aceh War !!

Source

http://www.asiafinest.com/forum/lofiversion/index.php/t16358.html


The invasion of Aceh in 1873 was the brainchild of Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte (1822-1902), Netherlands Minister of Colonies, to prevent encroachment by Britain into Sumatra from British colonies in Malay Peninsula


Van de Putte’s idea was strongly supported by his close friend the Dutch governor-general in Batavia (now Jakarta), James Loudon (1824-1900)


Map of the defeated Dutch first invasion of Aceh in 1873, and successful second invasion in 1874


Optimistic reporting of the first Dutch invasion of Aceh in Java-Bode newspaper, 10 April 1873


Generaal-Majoor JHR Kohler, leader of first Dutch expedition to Aceh. His 2000 soldiers managed to penetrate to the Koetaradja Market and the Baiturrahman Mosque. The Dutch stopped to burn down the mosque, in which courtyard they set up a camp.

On the night of 14 April 1873,

a suicidal Acehnese sneaked into the camp and shot Kohler in the chest. Kohler was killed instantly. The next days, the Dutch faced suicidal Acehnese attacks from all sides.

On 24 April 1873,

they were forced to retreat back to their ships. Dutch casualties were 50 dead (including Kohler) and 500 wounded


Kohler Tree, under which General Kohler was shot dead. Photograph from 1936 Dutch magazine.


Generaal Jan van Swieten (1807-1888),

leader of second Dutch invasion in 1873. Swieten was an experienced soldier, fighting in Java War (1825-1830), Belgian War of Independence (1830), Padri War (1830-1837), Bali Expeditions 1848 and 1849, Bone War 1859.

The second expedition sailed with the force of 18 warships, 7 supply ships, 12 auxillary ships, 2 patrol boats, and 22 transport ships carrying more than 13,000 soldiers.

Landing on 9 December 1873

some distance from Koetaradja, by 24 January 1874 had successfully occupied the capital. The three-year-old Acehnese sultan, Mohammad Daud, was taken to the jungle by his followers to continue guerilla warfare.


Engraving of the deadly fighting during Dutch second expedition.


After successfully occupying the royal palace, van Swieten declared victory and opened up the champagne crates to celebrate. Governor-General Loudon telegramed Minister van de Putte back in The Netherlands, informing him that
“Atjeh is ons”, “Aceh is ours”. According to past experience, other Dutch wars of conquest in Indonesia was usually won by occupying the capital of the particular region to be conquered. This is not the case in Aceh.

After failed attempts to retake Koetaradja, by April 1874 the Acehnese settled to lay siege on the town, cutting all supplies from coming in from the interior. Road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee port, where Dutch supplies came from, was unsafe due to frequent Acehnese attacks. By 1875, 25% of Dutch troops in Koetaradja had been put out of action by disease, hunger, and war wounds.


Coinciding with silver jubilee of King Willem III’s coronation in 1874, Generaal van Swieten received the
Militaire Willemsorde medal above for his “victory” over the Acehnese. However, by 1875, only around 0.1% of Aceh is under Dutch control, which is Koetaradja and the port of Oelee-Lhee.


In May 1875,

Generaal van Swieten, 68 years ol