This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment
Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery
This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment
Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery
2) Asahan Sultanate and cross straits relationships
The kingdom of Asahan
Creted by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA
Private Limited Edition
Copyright @ 2013
Kesultanan Melayu Asahan bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, yaitu ada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.
Ayahnya ialah Sultan Aladdin Mahkota Alam Johan Berdaulat (Sultan Alaiddin Riayat Syah “Al Qahhar”), Sultan Aceh ke XIII yang memerintah sejak tahun 1537 – 1568, sementara ibunya adalah Siti Ungu Selendang Bulan, anak dari Raja Pinang Awan yang bergelar “Marhum Mangkat di Jambu”. (Pinang Awan terletak di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu).
Sebelumnya, Aceh telah menaklukkan negeri-negeri kecil di pesisir Sumatera Utara dan di dalam salah satu pertempuran inilah Raja Pinang Awan terbunuh dan anaknya Siti Ungu dibawa ke Aceh dan menikah dengan Sultan Alaiddin.
Sampai dengan saat ini Kerajaan Asahan telah memiliki 12 orang Sultan yang dihitung menurut Silsilah dan keturunan Raja – raja Asahan,
Perjalanan Sultan Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda, ke Johor dan Melaka tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari sejarah Tanjungbalai. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan sultan beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai yang bernama Asahan. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara Sungai Asahan dengan Sungai Silau, tempat sultan bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang, penguasa setempat. Di tempat itu juga Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan yang dinamakan Tanjungbalai.
Posted by Resky Praditiya 14.29, under Kisaran News | No comments
Profile Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan Prop.Sumatera Utara
Nama Resmi : Kabupaten Asahan
Ibukota : Kisaran
Luas Wilayah: 462.441 Ha
Jumlah Penduduk: 935.233 Jiwa (Sensus Penduduk 2003)
Wilayah Administrasi:Kecamatan : 20
Bupati : Drs. H. Risuddin
Wakil Bupati: Drs. H. Taufan Gama Simatupang, MAP
Alamat Kantor: Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 5, Kisaran – Sumatera Utara
Telp. (0623) 41100, 41200 Fax. (0623) 433333
Yi!/Kisaran – Menjaga dan Melestarikan Peninggalan-Peninggalan Bersejarah atau situs-situs bersejarah sangat lah penting. Pada jaman era globalisasi sekarang ini terkadang kita semakin melupakan dan meninggalkan sejarah-sejarah tempat dimana kita tinggal, bukan hanya sejarah yang berbentuk benda (Prasasti), Bangunan (property)bahkan Adat Istiadat yang diturunkan oleh nenek moyang pendiri dari satu kota tersebut semakin hari akan semakin terlupakan. Semua itu akibat dari semakin majunya perkembangan diberbagai bidang termasuk salah satu masuknya tradisi-tradisi modern maupun tradisi-tradisi asing ke wilayah tersebut.
Untuk menjaga sejarah dan budaya yang ada di daerah, kita sebagai putra daerah harus dapat mengajak seluruh elemen masyarakat agar senantiasa mengingat dan melestarikan peninggalan-peninggalan bersejarah yang ada di daerah tersebut.
Pemerintah terkadang bisa melupakan history dari daerah tersebut hanya demi pembangunan, padahal pemerintah sudah menyediakan instansi untuk menjaga dan melestarikan sejarah-sejarah yang ada seperti instansi dari dinas pariwisata, namun akibat dari perkembangan disegala aspek, instansi tersebut dapat melupakan pentingnya history dari satu kota atau daerah demi kepentingan Pembangunan inprastrusktur.
Sejarah Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan
Perjalanan Sultan Aceh Sultan Iskandar Muda ke Johor dan Malaka pada tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari Sejarah Asahan. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan Sultan Iskandar Muda beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai, yang kemudian dinamakan ASAHAN. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah Tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara sungai Asahan dengan sungai Silau, kemudian bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang. Di tempat itu juga, Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai Balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan. Perkembangan daerah ini cukup pesat sebagai pusat pertemuan perdagangan dari Aceh dan Malaka, sekarang ini dikenal dengan Tanjung Balai. Dari hasil perkawinan Sultan Iskandar Muda dengan salah seorang puteri Raja Simargolang lahirlah seorang putera yang bernama Abdul Jalil yang menjadi cikal bakal dari kesultanan Asahan. Abdul Jalil dinobatkan menjadi Sultan Asahan I.
Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbnJ7gT
Pemerintahan kesultanan Asahan dimulai tahun 1630 yaitu sejak dilantiknya Sultan Asahan yang I s.d. XI. Selain itu di daerah Asahan, pemerintahan juga dilaksanakan oleh datuk-datuk di Wilayah Batu Bara dan ada kemungkinan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil lainnya. Tanggal 22 September 1865, kesultanan Asahan berhasil dikuasai Belanda. Sejak itu, kekuasaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh Belanda.
Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbyow2u
27 desember 1672
Perkampungan ini kelak berkembang menjadi Kesultanan Asahan, yang bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, pada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.
Sejarah Kerajaan Asahan dimulai dengan penobatan raja pertama kerajaan tersebut yang berlangsung meriah disekitar kampung Tanjung. Peristiwa penabalan raja pertama kerajaan Asahan tersebut terjadi tepatnya pada tanggal 27 Desember 1620, dan tanggal 27 Desember kemudian ditetapkan sebagai “Hari Jadi Kota Tanjungbalai” den-gan surat keputusan DPRD Kota Tanjungbalai Nomor : 4/DPRD/TB/1986 Tanggal 25 November 1986.
1. Sultan Abdul Jalil
2. Sultan Saidisyah
3. Sultan Muhammad Rumsyah
1bad ke 17
4. Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah II (mangkat 1765)
5. Sultan Dewa Syah (1756 – 1805)
Abad ke 18
30 september 1867
Kekuasaan pemerintahan Belanda di Asahan/Tanjung Balai dipimpin oleh seorang Kontroler, yang diperkuat dengan Gouverments Besluit tanggal 30 September 1867, Nomor 2 tentang pembentukan Afdeling Asahan yang berkedudukan di Tanjung Balai dan pembagian wilayah pemerintahan dibagi menjadi 3 (tiga) yaitu:
1.Onder Afdeling Batu Bara
2.Onder Afdeling Asahan
3.Onder Afdeling Labuhan Batu.
Kerajaan Sultan Asahan dan pemerintahan Datuk-Datuk di wilayah Batu Bara tetap diakui oleh Belanda, namun tidak berkuasa penuh sebagaimana sebelumnya. Wilayah pemerintahan Kesultanan dibagi atas Distrik dan Onder Distrik yaitu:
1. Distrik Tanjung Balai dan Onder Distrik Sungai Kepayang.
2. Distrik Kisaran.
3. Distrik Bandar Pulau dan Onder Distrik Bandar Pasir Mandoge.Sedangkan wilayah pemerintahan
Datuk-datuk di Batu Bara dibagi menjadi wilayah Self Bestuur yaitu:
1. Self Bestuur Indrapura
2. Self Bestuur Lima Puluh
3. Self Bestuur Pesisir
4. Self Bestuur Suku Dua ( Bogak dan Lima Laras ).
Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2incDARQF
Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token
Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token
Kuli Tionghoa memilih tembakau deli dan asahan
Chinese koelies bij het sorteren van tabak
Pekerja tembakau deli dan asahan
Memilih tembakau deli dan asahan
Beburu gajah di asahan dan deli
Patung orang jawa di asahan
Hutaginjang near asahan river
Manager dutch Asahan Tobacco platation
6. Sultan Musa Syah (1805 – 1808)
7. Sultan Muhammad Ali Syah (1808 – 1813)
8. Sultan Muhammad Hussein Syah.
9. Sultan Ahmad Syah
Abad ke 19
Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1895
Foto Kota Tanjungbalai di masa lampa, foto di ambil dari udara
Foto jembatan sungai silau
Abad ke 20
Jalan utama kisaran tanjung balai asahan 1900
Bandar tanjung balai asahan 1900
27 juni 1917
Setelah dikuasai Belanda, Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi suatu gemeenteberdasarkan Besluit Governeur General tanggal 27 Juni 1917 dengan Stbl. no. 284/1917, sebagai akibat dibukanya perkebunan-perkebunan di derahSumatera Timur, termasuk daerah Asahan, seperti H.A.P.M., SIPEF, London Sumatera (“Lonsum”), dan lain-lain.
Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi kota pelabuhan dan pintu masuk ke daerah Asahan yang penting artinya bagi lalu-lintas perdagangan Hindia-Bel
10. Sultan Muhammad Husein Syah II
11. Sultan Saibun Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah
12. Sultan Kamal Abraham Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah
Tanjung Balai 1900
Istana Kesultanan Asahan di Tanjung Balai. Tinggal Kenangan
TUANKU SULTAN SYAIBUN ABDULJALIL RAHMATSYAH (5 Oktober 1906 – 6 April 1980). PADA PUKUL 11 TGL 19 SYAFAR 1353(15 JUNI 1933), PEDUKO TONGKU BOSAR SYAIBUN DINOBATKAN & DITABALKAN MENJADI SULTAN NEGERI ASAHAN DI ISTANA KOTA RAJA INDRA SAKTI – TANJUNG BALAI. KARENA SULTAN DINOBATKAN PADA HARI KAMIS, MAKA PADA JUM’AH MANIS 16 JUNI 1933, DIADAKAN ACARA DULI TUANKU & TEPUNG TAWAR DI SINGGASANA KESULTANAN ASAHAN.
TENGKU NURULASYIKIN BINTI TENGKU PANGERAN BENDAHARA NEGERI BEDAGAI, ESOKNYA KEHADAPAN BALAI PENGHADAPAN NAIK KE ATAS SINGGASANA LEPAS BERIJAB KABUL & DIDAULAT MENJADI TENGKU PERMAISURI NEGERI ASAHAN
Assisten Resident Asahan
Tengku Besar amir
Para Pendiri HAPM
Sulatan sja’ibun djalil
Tengku alang jahya regent asahan
Jembatan kisaran 1921
Kisaran Asahan Post Office
Tanjanungbalai asahan tionghoa temple(klenteng)
Due to Mr Robert Yeap unfo,this mosque built by his grand grand father Khoo Chew tong tke Chinese Kapitan at Tanjung Balai Asahan until 1910,when he was died,hs father move to Penang and merried with the daughter of Kuching Sarawak Chinese Kapitan.
Khoo Cheow Teong, kapitan Cina Asahan ( Tanjong Balai)
Nov 12 (5 days ago)to me
Hello Dr Iwan,
P.S. my name is Robert Yeap, my maternal side is Khoo:)
Actually my father’s mother is also Khoo. Her father (my great grandfather) is Khoo Hun Yeang, kapitan cina Kuching, Sarawak on Borneo island. So i have 2 kapitan Cina in my ancestors- now that i have retired 2 yrs ago after working 33 years in US multinational companies- electronic sector,
i can put efforts in my passion- history. I m not a professional historian or even academic- my career is in finance and have been financial controller n Tax etc all this time. So i hope to learn some skills on researching archive and perhaps how to gather artifacts from historical places.
I read that it is easy to locate porcelain shards even today (of Ming dynasty era) in the area around Palembang otherwise San fo chi or Srivijaya… Am also interested in the Chinese Muslim kingdom of in Java ( Radin) in
Sorry to reply you late….i m rushing to supervise work toRestore 2 house which will be a history museum – whichis one reason of my request to find some details of my great
grandfather – my mother’s father’s father – kapitan cina Asahan.
Best regards, robertY
Hello Dr. Iwan,
Thks for reply. I have booked to stay same hotel – ChinaTown Inn at Petaling St. Booked under name Mr Yeap T.A.
Will advise u Khoo kongsi research when meet, my friend still reference, recently there is a lot of interest in history in PG!
I like to inform more on Khoo Cheow Teong, perhaps the people u meet in Malacca may know him too as
His first wife was eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, famous rice miller in
malacca at that time 1874. In Asahan his business was attended by his eldest son Sian Wei, from 2nd wife ( some say quite useless fella). His second wife was from Penang. Apparently KCTeong donated to build mosque in Asahan.
KCT was also shareholder director of Deli Bank , Medan.
Ok look forward to meet you in KL nov 23-24, this Sat. N Sun, we can go round KL.
I have found the pictures of
Kapitan Cina Tanjungbalai asahan
Khoo Chew Tong
Kunjungan governor general DEI de Fock ke asahan 1925
Pasar tanjung balai asahan 1930
Foto udara Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1930-an
Pernikahan tengku sja’ibun dan tengku nurul 1933
Kepala Adat Asahan
Duduk T. alang Yahya ,T,Sja’ibun,T.Musa
Berdiri T.Madjid, T.Dr Mansoer,T.Mohamad noer
Mesjid raya sultan ahmad shah(built by Kpitan Cina Khoo Chew tong info from his grandgrand daughter Robert Yeap now at Penang-Dr Iwan Note)
The complete info look at
Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM
The Asahan Kingdom History Collections
Robert Yeap Notes
Tanjong Balai history-
will appreciate what u can provide re my
great grandPa Khoo Cheow Teong contributions there – if have Picture of temple or mosque that he build or donate- thks
3) Aceh –
The Aceh History Collections
Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA
Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition
Special for Zhng He Museum Penang
Copyright @ 2013
Before Aceh War collections
(9 th century – 13th century)
Peureulak directed to this page. For the district in East Aceh, see Peureulak, East Aceh
Sultanate Peureulak Islamic kingdom in Indonesia is ruling around the Peureulak, East Aceh, Aceh are now between 840 years until the year 1292.
Perlak or Peureulak known as a waterproof timber producing areas, a very good type of wood for shipbuilding, and therefore the area is known as the State Perlak.
Natural products and its strategic position makes Perlak developed as a commercial port developed in the 8th century, visited by ships, among others derived from Arabic and Persian.
This makes the development of Muslim communities in this area, mainly as a result of intermarriage between Muslim merchants with local women
Scrolls saga revealed that the spread of Islam in Aceh in northern Sumatra, carried out by a Saudi cleric named Sheikh Abdullah Arif in the year 506 H or 1112 AD
Then stand sultanate Peureulak with the first sultannya Alauddin Shah who reigned from 520-544 H or 1161-1186 AD Sultan has found his tomb is Sulaiman bin Abdullah who died in 608 H or 1211 AD 
Chu-fan-chi, written Chau Ju-kua in 1225, citing record a geographer, Chou Ku-fei, the year 1178 that there is a Muslim country which is just a five-day cruise of Java. 
Maybe the country is meant Peureulak, because Chu-fan-chi stated voyage from Java to Brunei to take 15 days.
Existence Peureulak country is strengthened by the famous Venetian traveler, Marco Polo, a century later.
When Marco Polo returned from China by sea in 1291, he stopped in the country Ferlec who have converted to Islam
Development and turbulence
Perlak was the first Sultan Syed Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz, a homage to Shiite and Arab descent with a local woman, who founded the Sultanate Perlak on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 AD).
He changed the name of the capital of the kingdom of Bandar Bandar Perlak became Caliph. Sultan with his wife, Princess Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, then buried in Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, East Aceh
In the reign of the third sultan, Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Syed Abbas Shah, Sunnis began to enter Perlak. After the death of the sultan in the year 363 H (913 AD), there was a civil war between the Shiites and Sunnis over the next two years so that no sultan.
Shiites won the war, and in 302 H (915 AD), Sultan Maulana Syed Ali Mughat Alaiddin Shah of Shia flow throne. At the end of his reign happened again the battle between the Shiites and the Sunnis, who this time won by the Sunnis so that subsequent sultans were taken from the Sunnis.
In the year 362 H (956 AD), after the death of the seventh sultan, Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign, another upheaval for about four years between Shia and Sunni, which ended with a peace and a division of the kingdom into two parts:
Coastal Perlak (Shiite) led by Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin (986-988)
Perlak Outback (Sunni) led by Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (986-1023)
Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin died while attacking the kingdom of Srivijaya Perlak Perlak and all re-united under the leadership of Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign who continue the struggle against Sriwijaya until the year 1006.
Merger with Ocean Pasai
Sultan-17 Perlak, Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign II (reigned 1230 to 1267) run political friendship with marrying two daughters with neighboring rulers Peureulak:
• Princess Ratna Kamala, mated with King kingdom of Malacca, Sultan Muhammad Shah (Parameswara).
• Algae daughter, married to the King of the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean, Al Malik Al-Saleh.
Sultan last Perlak was the 18th sultan, Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (reigned 1267 to 1292). After he died, Perlak united with the kingdom under the rule of Pasai Ocean Ocean Pasai sultan, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, son of Al Malik Al-Saleh.
List Sultan Perlak
Perlak sultans can be grouped into two dynasties: Maulana Syed Abdul Azis dynasty and Shah dynasty Johan Sovereign. Here’s a list sultan who ruled Perlak.
1. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz (840-864)
2. Alaiddin Sultan Maulana Syed Abdul Rahim Shah (864-888)
3. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abbas (888-913)
4. Maulana Syed Ali Sultan Alaiddin Mughat Shah (915-918)
5. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Abdul Kadir Johan Sovereign (928-932)
6. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign (932-956)
7. Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (956-983)
8. Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign  (986-1023)
9. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1023 – 1059)
10. Malik Sultan Mansur Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1059 – 1078)
11. Abdullah Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1078 – 1109)
12. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Ahmad Johan Sovereign (1109 – 1135)
13. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1135 – 1160)
14. Usman Malik Sultan Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1160 – 1173)
15. Malik Sultan Muhammad Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1173 – 1200)
16. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1200 – 1230)
17. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Muhammad Amin Malik Shah II Johan Sovereign (1230 – 1267)
18. Makhdum Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1267 – 1292)
(abad ke-9 – abad ke-13)
Peureulak diarahkan ke halaman ini. Untuk kecamatan di Kabupaten Aceh Timur, lihat Peureulak, Aceh Timur
Kesultanan Peureulak adalah kerajaan Islam di Indonesia yang berkuasa di sekitar wilayah Peureulak, Aceh Timur, Aceh sekarang antara tahun 840 sampai dengan tahun 1292.
Perlak atau Peureulak terkenal sebagai suatu daerah penghasil kayu perlak, jenis kayu yang sangat bagus untuk pembuatan kapal, dan karenanya daerah ini dikenal dengan nama Negeri Perlak.
Hasil alam dan posisinya yang strategis membuat Perlak berkembang sebagai pelabuhan niaga yang maju pada abad ke-8, disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal yang antara lain berasal dari Arab dan Persia.
Hal ini membuat berkembangnya masyarakat Islam di daerah ini, terutama sebagai akibat perkawinan campur antara saudagar muslim dengan perempuan setempat
Naskah Hikayat Aceh mengungkapkan bahwa penyebaran Islam di bagian utara Sumatera dilakukan oleh seorang ulama Arab yang bernama Syaikh Abdullah Arif pada tahun 506 H atau 1112 M.
Lalu berdirilah kesultanan Peureulak dengan sultannya yang pertama Alauddin Syah yang memerintah tahun 520–544 H atau 1161–1186 M. Sultan yang telah ditemukan makamnya adalah Sulaiman bin Abdullah yang wafat tahun 608 H atau 1211 M.
Chu-fan-chi, yang ditulis Chau Ju-kua tahun 1225, mengutip catatan seorang ahli geografi, Chou Ku-fei, tahun 1178 bahwa ada negeri orang Islam yang jaraknya hanya lima hari pelayaran dari Jawa.
Mungkin negeri yang dimaksudkan adalah Peureulak, sebab Chu-fan-chi menyatakan pelayaran dari Jawa ke Brunai memakan waktu 15 hari.
Eksistensi negeri Peureulak ini diperkuat oleh musafir Venesia yang termasyhur, Marco Polo, satu abad kemudian.
Ketika Marco Polo pulang dari Cina melalui laut pada tahun 1291, dia singgah di negeri Ferlec yang sudah memeluk agama Islam
Perkembangan dan pergolakan
Sultan pertama Perlak adalah Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, yang beraliran Syiah dan merupakan keturunan Arab dengan perempuan setempat, yang mendirikan Kesultanan Perlak pada 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M).
Ia mengubah nama ibukota kerajaan dari Bandar Perlak menjadi Bandar Khalifah. Sultan ini bersama istrinya, Putri Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, kemudian dimakamkan di Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, Aceh Timur
Pada masa pemerintahan sultan ketiga, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah, aliran Sunni mulai masuk ke Perlak. Setelah wafatnya sultan pada tahun 363 H (913 M), terjadi perang saudara antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni sehingga selama dua tahun berikutnya tak ada sultan.
Kaum Syiah memenangkan perang dan pada tahun 302 H (915 M), Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah dari aliran Syiah naik tahta. Pada akhir pemerintahannya terjadi lagi pergolakan antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni yang kali ini dimenangkan oleh kaum Sunni sehingga sultan-sultan berikutnya diambil dari golongan Sunni.
Pada tahun 362 H (956 M), setelah meninggalnya sultan ketujuh, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat, terjadi lagi pergolakan selama kurang lebih empat tahun antara Syiah dan Sunni yang diakhiri dengan perdamaian dan pembagian kerajaan menjadi dua bagian:
Perlak Pesisir (Syiah) dipimpin oleh Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah (986 – 988)
Perlak Pedalaman (Sunni) dipimpin oleh Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat (986 – 1023)
Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah meninggal sewaktu Kerajaan Sriwijaya menyerang Perlak dan seluruh Perlak kembali bersatu di bawah pimpinan Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat yang melanjutkan perjuangan melawan Sriwijaya hingga tahun 1006.
Penggabungan dengan Samudera Pasai
Sultan ke-17 Perlak, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 1230 – 1267) menjalankan politik persahabatan dengan menikahkan dua orang putrinya dengan penguasa negeri tetangga Peureulak:
Sultan terakhir Perlak adalah sultan ke-18, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 1267 – 1292). Setelah ia meninggal, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di bawah pemerintahan sultan Samudera Pasai, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, putra Al Malik Al-Saleh.
Daftar Sultan Perlak
Sultan-sultan Perlak dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua dinasti: dinasti Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah dan dinasti Johan Berdaulat. Berikut daftar sultan yang pernah memerintah Perlak.
- Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah (840 – 864)
- Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Rahim Shah (864 – 888)
- Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah (888 – 913)
- Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah (915 – 918)
- Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Kadir Shah Johan Berdaulat (928 – 932)
- Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Berdaulat (932 – 956)
- Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat (956 – 983)
- Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat  (986 – 1023)
- Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (1023 – 1059)
10. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mansur Shah Johan Berdaulat (1059 – 1078)
11. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdullah Shah Johan Berdaulat (1078 – 1109)
12. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ahmad Shah Johan Berdaulat (1109 – 1135)
13. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (1135 – 1160)
14. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Usman Shah Johan Berdaulat (1160 – 1173)
15. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Shah Johan Berdaulat (1173 – 1200)
16. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Jalil Shah Johan Berdaulat (1200 – 1230)
17. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (1230 – 1267)
18. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (1267 – 1292)
Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (abad ke-13 – abad ke-16)
Samudra Pasai, Aceh Darussalam – The First Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia
Maret 7, 2012 — ZULFITRIANSYAH PUTRA
When the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai can not be ascertained accurately and still be a debate of the historians. However, there is confidence that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai established earlier than the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey which has become one superpower in the world civilization. If the Ottoman Dynasty began to put the power in about the year 1385 AD, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai been spreading its influence in Southeast Asia since 1297 AD.
A number of historians and researchers from Europe at the time of Dutch colonial occupation has been some time doing research to reveal the origin of the existence of one of the largest government in Aceh this earth. Some scholars and researchers from the Netherlands, including Snouck Hurgronje, JP Moquette, JL Moens, J. Poll Hushoff, GP Rouffaer, HKJ Cowan, and others, agree on the expectation that the new Sultanate of Samudera Pasai standing in the middle of the 13th century and by putting the name of Sultan Malik Al Salih as its founder (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo, 2006:50). Malik Al Salih own name is known and different writing, including Malik Ul Salih, Malik Al Saleh, Malikussaleh, Malik Al Salih, or Malik Saleh Ul.
a. The Origin of Ocean Pasai Nomination
The full names of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is “Aca Pasai Ocean”, which means “Ocean of good government in the capital Pasai” (HM Zainuddin, 1961:116). Centre of government is now no longer exists but its location is estimated to be around the state Blang Malay. The name “Ocean” that is used as the name of the island is now called Sumatra, as mentioned by the Portuguese. Previously, the name of the region is the island of Perca.
While the rover is coming from China / Chinese call it by name “Chincou”, which means “Island of Gold”, like that known from the writings of I’tsing.Kertanegara King, leader of the famous Singasari Government, saying this area Suwarnabhumi name, which means that it is similar to what is called by the people of China, “The Island of Gold”.
Sultanate of Samudera Pasai an Islamic government, which is located along the coast of northern Sumatra, more or less around the city of Lhokseumawe, North Aceh today. Written records that had been believed by historians to trace the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malay historiography is a three-book saga that King Pasai, Malay History, and thesaga of King Bakoy. Hikayat Raja Pasai give a big influence in efforts to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, although nuances of myth is still a problem in interpreting the truth.
About the name “Ocean” and “Pasai”, appeared a number of opinions that try to parse the origins of the use of the name. One is as set forth by European scholars, JL Moens, who says that the word “Pasai” comes from the term “Persian”. According to Moens, those traders who came from Persia to say the word “Pasai” with the text “Pa’Se.” Moens analysis can be accepted, with a note that since the 7th century AD the merchants who came from Persia has arrived and stopped in an area that later became the place of establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (MD Mansoer, 1963:59).
Opinion Moens received support from several people, including Prof. Gabriel Ferrand, in his work entitled L’Empire (1922), also in the book The Golden Khersonese (1961), written by Assoc. Paul Wheatley. Both work in leveraging data-data on the evidence of the rover from the Middle East to travel to Southeast Asia. Both Gabriel and Paul Wheatley Ferrand alike agree that since the 7th century AD, major ports in Southeast Asia, including in the Malacca Strait, have been visited by people traveling and the merchants who came from West Asia. Also mentioned that in all the cities there were trade-foundation or foundation settlement, the settlement of Muslim traders who stopped and stayed there.
H. Mohammad Said, a journalist as well as writers who dedicated his life to research and publish books events in Aceh, including the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, tend to conclude that the origin of the naming muasal “Pasai” comes from Chinese merchants.According to Said, the term “Po Se” is popularly used in the mid-eighth century AD, as found in the records and reports from the China trip rover, identical and similar to the mention of the word “Pase” or “Pasai” (Said, 1963:2004-205).
There is also an opinion that says that the name “Pasai” comes from the word “tapasai” which means “the sea”. The word “tapa” are frequently found in the Polynesian languages meaning “edge”. The word “Sai” can be interpreted as a “sea”, which is also included in the vocabulary of the Malay-Polynesian continent. The word “Pasai” is a synonym of the word “beach”.Similarly, the word “ocean” which also means “not far from the sea.” So, both “Ocean” or “Pasai” implies more or less the same, that “the country is situated on the sea” (Slamet Muljana, 2005:136).
Name Pasai Ocean and often was mentioned in various sources was found, both from external sources or local sources. The sources from outside the archipelago are often mentioned the existence of a region called the Ocean and Pasai such as reports or notes of the journey, the journey of Chinese origin, Arab, India, and Europe, who had stopped to Pasai Ocean region. The course notes as written by Marco Polo, Odorico, Ibn Batuta, Tome Pires, as well as news from China. While the source of the domestic one, as enshrined in the National Book Kertagama Mpu Prapanca written works within the 13th century until the 14th century AD.
Ibn Batuta, a Muslim traveler from Morocco, Morocco, for example, in a note saying that he had visited in 1345 M. Pasai Ibn Batuta, who stopped at Pasai for 15 days, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai describes as “a country that is green with a large port city and the beautiful.”Ibn Batuta tells, when I arrived in China, he saw the ship Sultan Pasai in the state. Indeed, Chinese sources said that there is a messenger Pasai routinely come to China to deliver the tribute.
Note on the Mongol Dynasty in China showed that some governments in Sumatra, including the Government of the Ocean / Pasai, had established relations with the Mongolian Government was under the command of Kubhilai Khan. Government Ocean / Pasai starting relationship with the Mongol Dynasty in 1282. Government Ocean / Pasai in touch with the great empires in Asia by the Chinese mission that returned from the South Indian Ocean with stops in Pasai. This event is regarded as the initial contact between Ocean Pasai with Chinese / Mongolian (Muhammad Gade Ismail, 1997:23).
Sultan Mausoleum of the First Marine Board Pasai
Other information also mentions that the Sultan had sent envoys Pasai Ocean to Quilon, Western India, in 1282 AD This proves that the Sultanate of Pasai have wide relations with other governments abroad. In addition, the travel notes titled Tuhfat Al-Nazha, Ibn Batuta said, at that time Pasai have transformed the center of Islamic studies in Southeast Asia.
Logging of Portuguese origin who had settled in Malacca in the period 1512-1515, Tomi Pires, said that Pasai is the most important city in time for the whole of Sumatra, because there are no other important places on the island unless Pasai. The name of the city by some people called the Ocean and then stick with the name Ocean Pasai and became a symbol to refer to the island of Sumatra. Pasai City, according to Tomi Pires, assessed a population of not less than 20,000 people (Ismail, 1997:37).
Marco Polo reported that in 1267 AD was established the first Islamic government of the archipelago, which is none other than the Sultanate Pasai. Marco Polo visited Pasai in the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih, exactly in 1292 AD, when the government has not been long standing, but has showed the potential prosperity. Marco Polo stopped the Ocean Pasai in network journey from China to Persia. At that time, Marco Polo from Italy to participate in the delegation who visited Sumatra sepulang attend the invitation of Kublai Khan, the King of the Mongols, who also controls the territory of China.Marco Polo mentions, people in Pasai at that time are still many who have not embraced the religion (Islam), but the community of Arabs, called by the name of Marco Saraceen – have quite a lot and plays an important role in the effort to circumcise the people of Aceh. Marco Polo mentions disinggahinya areas such as “Giava Minor” or “Java Minor” (Mohammad H. Said, 1963:82-83).
Apart from written sources and records in the course of the race rover, other evidence that at least some help to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from the remains of the abandoned civilization, like ancient tombs made of granite or marble and currency- Dirham namedDeureuham or are found in Sub-Ocean, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Time of the death of Sultan Malik Al Salih, the founder of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, knowing from his own writings that appear on a headstone is found in the Blang Me, ie in 697 Hijri or 1297 AD coincided with the years. Meanwhile, when Malik Al Salih was born not found evidence that more clear.
Applicable Currency Pasai Ocean
Pemkot Banda Aceh tutup aktivitas perburuan harta karun
Kamis, 14 November 2013 20:18 WIB | 1568 Views
Harta Karun Koin Emas Warga memperlihatkan salah satu dari ratusan koin emas bertuliskan huruf arab yang ditemukan di kawasan situs cagar budaya Kerajaan Aceh, Desa Kampung Pande, Kecamatan Kutaraja, Banda Aceh, Selasa (12/11). Koin emas itu awalnya ditemukan oleh pencari tiram di dalam peti berukuran kecil dalam kawasan cagar budaya , namun sebagian koin emas itu tumpah ke sungai. (ANTARA FOTO/Ampelsa)
Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau.”
Masjid Raya Baiturrahman
Harta Karun Koin Emas
Tari Saman nan Rancak
Banda Aceh (ANTARA News) – Pemerintah Kota Banda Aceh memutuskan menutup kawasan alur sungai Kecamatan Kutaraja untuk aktivitas para pemburu harta karun setelah masyarakat menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham dan benda-benda bersejarah lainnya di daerah itu.
“Kawasan Kuala Krueng Geudong, Kecamatan Kutaraja total ditutup dari berbagai aktivitas mencari barang-barang kuno termasuk koin emas,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh, Illiza Saaduddin Djamal di Banda Aceh, Kamis.
Seperti diberitakan sebelumnya, kawasan pinggiran Kota Banda Aceh itu mendadak ramai masyarakat mencari harta karun setelah seorang pencari kerang menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham milik kerajaan Aceh.
“Kami sudah berkoordinasi dengan berbagai pihak, termasuk TNI dan Polri untuk membantu mengamankan lokasi tersebut,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal.
Sebab, menurut Wakil Wali Kota bahwa jika dibiarkan masyarakat terus mencari koin emas dan barang bersejarah lainnya maka akan merusak tatanan sosial dan bisa berdampak buruk.
Selain itu, katanya mengatakan bahwa jika pemerintah membiarkan warga bebas mencari benda-benda tersebut juga tidak menutup kemungkinan akan terjadi konflik di masyarakat.
Cara-cara pemburuan koin emas yang dilakukan ratusan orang juga sudah merusak kawasan cagar budaya, karena wilayah tersebut terdapat banyak situs sejarah masa kejayaan Aceh tempo dahulu, kata dia menambahkan .
“Bahkan menurut laporan yang kami terima, telah terjadi kerusakan bagian makam para raja dan keluarganya serta makam para ulama yang ada di sekitar tempat tersebut,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh Illiza menjelaskan.
Ia juga mengharapkan bagi yang telah menemukan koin emas segera melapor ke pemerintah kota dalam hal ini Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Banda Aceh.
“Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau. Kami juga meminta para kolektor yang telah membeli dirham itu agar berkoordinasi dengan Pemko Banda Aceh,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal mengharapkan. (A042/N005)
Editor: Tasrief Tarmizi
COPYRIGHT © 2013
The sources of the origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai muasal version of Western scholars who formulated the Dutch colonial era was different from what is believed to be leaders of national historians and scholars at the time when Indonesia gained its independence. In the “History of the National Seminar” held in Medan, North Sumatra, on March 17-20, 1963, and the seminar “Entry and Growth of Islam in Aceh”, which was held on July 10-16, 1978 in Banda Aceh, among others was attended by Prof Hamka, Prof. A.Hasjmy, Prof. H. Atjeh Aboe Bakar, H. Mohammad Said, and MD Mansoer, has raised a different perspective in the history of the establishment of the Sultanate of effort menelisik Pasai Ocean.
Based on a number of indicators and sources of more recent, including explanations of Arab travelers on the Southeast Asia as well as two local script is found in Aceh, namely “Idhahul Fi Mamlakatil Peureula Rights” by Abu Ishaq Al Makarany and “Tawarich Kings The Government of Aceh “, the experts concluded that the national history of Islamic government Pasai Ocean has stood since the 11th century, or rather the year 433 Hijri alias of calendar year 1042 AD (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:52).
The location of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, have been also efforts to research and investigation, one of them efforts by the Office of the excavation is done Archeological Department of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. From this research effort found that the location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai located in the area called Pasai, which is now located in the North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.
According to GP Rouffaer, one Dutch scholar who seriously investigates the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, said that the first Pasai park on the right of Pasai River, while the Ocean is located on the left side of river.However, over time, both places are collected into one place and then made the establishment of a great kingdom, that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (T. Ibrahim Alfian, 1973:21).
b. Ocean, Pasai, and the influence of Egypt
There are several different views of formulating and interpreting the origin of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. One is the notion that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is a continuation of the history of pre-Islamic kingdoms that have existed previously. In a book entitled “The collapse of the Government and the emergence of Hindu-Javanese Muslim countries in the Archipelago”, Slamet Muljana wrote that Nazimuddin Al Kamil, Navy Admiral Fathimiah Dynasty in Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh and managed to dominate the region fertile Pasai known.Nazimuddin Al-Kamil later founded a kingdom at the mouth of the River Pasai in 1128 AD by the name of Pasai. The reason the government established the dynasty Fathimiah Pasai based on a desire to trade in the eastern coastal area of Sumatra that was very crowded.
Ambition is to soothe inflammation, Dynasty Fathimiah deploy a fleet of war in order to seize the city Kambayat in Gujarat, to open a port city in Pasai, and attacked the pepper producing area that is Right and Kampar Kampar Kiri in Minangkabau. In a military expedition to seize it in the Minangkabau region, Nazimuddin Al-Kamil died and his remains buried in Bangkinang, the Kampar River in 1128 was also the Senior (Muljana, 2005:133). In 1168, Fathimiah Dynasty, which was founded in 976 AD, was defeated by Saladin’s army who profess madzhab Shafi. With the collapse of the dynasty Fathimiah, the relationship with Egypt Pasai automatically disconnected.
In the same sources mentioned that the router Nazimuddin Al-Kamil as ruler of the Kingdom of Samudera Admiral Kafrawi Al-Kamil, but in 1204 AD Pasai power fell into the hands of Admiral of the Island We Johan Jani. Under the control of Admiral Johan Jani who is Persian-breed Indian, Pasai stronger and was transformed into the most powerful maritime nation in the Nusantara (Muljana, 2005:114).
In Egypt, there is a new dynasty to replace Fathimiah Dynasty. New Dynasty Dynasty Mamaluk is living in a time frame from 1285 to 1522. Like its predecessor, Dynasty Mamaluk also want to trade in the Pasai. In the early years of existence, Mamaluk Dynasty sent envoys to Pasai, ie, a preacher of the old Islamic learning in the holy land of Mecca known as Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad, a former scholar of the West Coast of India.
Pasai, the envoy was met with angry embarrassment that when it became a member of the armed forces Pasai. Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad managed to persuade the angry embarrassment for Moslems. Furthermore, with the help of Mamaluk Dynasty in Egypt, they founded the Kingdom of the Ocean as a counterbalance to Pasai. Angry embarrassment crowned the Sultan Government Ocean. Neither the Government nor Pasai Ocean, both located at the mouth of the River Pasai and facing toward the Strait of Malacca.
c. History Samudera Pasai in the saga
Another version of the history and development emerged from the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai which tells the tale of the existence of this government, especially in the saga of King Pasai. According to the narration found in theHikayat Raja Pasai, government, led by Sultan Malik Al Salih was first named the Ocean Kingdom. The Pasai is a new rule and accompanying the subsequent existence of the Government of the Ocean. The origin of the name of the government, there are stories that lie behind them.
In the saga of King Pasai told, the emergence of the name Kingdom of the Ocean began when angry embarrassment while walking with her pet dog named Pasai. When they arrived at a high altitude, a dog belonging hesistate Angry sudden loud barking because it met with a large red ants.Anger and embarrassment to catch the giant ants and then eat it. From here arises ilhamnya to name a new government founded under the name of the Government’s Ocean original language could be interpreted as “a big red ants.”
Copy First Page Masjid Pasai
While the origin of Pasai, the story of the same post, one day, angry that embarrassment when it was called the Sultan Malik Al Salih after leading the Government’s Ocean, with the controller is doing at any hunting dog named Sultan who is also participating Pasai . Occurred a strange incident when Pasai released into the forest and see a deer, two different animal species together with the familiar talking. When Sultan Malik Al Salih want to catch it, the deer ran into the arms of a dog named Sultan Pasai it. In a surprise, Sultan Malik Al Salih was minded to build a state in place.
Once the land is located, by Sultan Malik Al Salih Pasai named, as the name of the dog that inspired the construction of the new state. The dog was alone and dying in the new state. As the representative of Sultan Malik Al Salih is still residing in the Kingdom of the Ocean, then dititahkanlah son named Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul to lead Pasai (Russell Jones [ed.], 1999:23).
Although quite a lot of researchers are leaning Pasai Masjid as a platform source of information to reveal the history and origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, but not least is the dubious validity. This is because the story is not a purely historical range, but many are interspersed with stories which might not have really happened, but not uncommon form of stories and myths that are difficult to accept that logic, the legitimacy of government that existed at the time it.
Cast doubt on the truth contained in the saga of King Pasai such as presented by AD Hill stated that the text of the Hikayat Raja Pasai third part was only just beginning. Similarly, Teuku Ibrahim Alfian disappointed that because of the mention of Masjid Pasai historical data, so it had to take information from other sources. In fact, never mentions that Snouck Hugronje Pasai Masjid was “a fairy story chlidren. Hugronje scathing statement it seems is a peak fatality Pasai Masjid as a source of historical information. These data show that during the literature has been seen in the pragmatic dimension through the study of historical or Filologis (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 2002:36).
d. The existence of Pasai Ocean Journey
Before embracing Islam, the original name of Malik Al Salih was angry embarrassment or Meurah Shiloh. “Meurah” is a call to honor those who exalted rank, while the “Silo” could be perceived as glare or sparkle. Angry embarrassment is a descendant of Imam Four or tribe is often referred to Sukee Imuem Peuet, which is a reference to the four sons of Emperor / Meurah brothers who came from the Mon Khmer (Champa) who is the founder of the first governments in Aceh prior to entry and growth of Islam.
Ancestors who founded the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh is among the Emperor Syahir Po-He-La are building government Peureulak (Po-He-La) in East Aceh, Syahir Tanwi flying the flag of the Government Jeumpa (Champa) in Peusangan ( Bireuen), Syahir Poly (Pau-Ling) who uphold the banner of Indra Government Cooperation in Pidie, as well as trigger the establishment of Syahir Nuwi Indra of the Ancient Kingdom of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar.
In the saga of King Pasai told that Marah Marah berayahkan embarrassment and his mother was daughter Gadjah Sewer. Angry embarrassment to have a brother named Marah Sum. After the death of his parents, two brothers left home and began wandering life. Sum angry then became the ruler of the territory Bieruen, while angry embarrassment on the upper reaches of open land Peusangan located not far from the mouth of the River Pasai until finally it became the throne of the Kingdom of the Ocean.
Batu Nisan Angry embarrassment or Sultan Malik Al Salih
As mentioned earlier, angry embarrassment alias Sultan Malik Al Salih Islam on the blarney Mamaluk Dynasty envoys of Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and Fakir. Angry Islamic embarrassment reaffirmed in the saga of King Pasai to provide records that the Prophet Muhammad has mentioned the name of the Government of the Ocean, and also for people in the government diislamkan by one of the companions of the Prophet, in this case is defined as the Sheikh Ismail. With the entry of this saga, it is possible that the teachings of Islam had entered the territory of Aceh shortly after the Prophet Muhammad died, which is in about the first century of Hijra, or about the 7th century or the AD-8 years. Can be expected is that Islam is brought into Aceh directly from Mecca (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:58-59).
The data on Islam in Masjid Pasai Pasai by showing that Pasai the first place that diislamkan. Apparently, such as written in the saga of King Pasai, Prophet Muhammad (Allah) did that brought Islam to the Ocean / Pasai, was in bed when face to face in the embarrassment the Anger of Allah. Prophet Muhammad was the mensyahdatkan and make angry embarrassment to read the Qur’an as much as 30 juz, which is after the Prophet spat in the mouth angry embarrassment. He also makes angry embarrassment was circumcised. Islamization through a direct role Messenger presumably indicates that the essential process of Pasai. In this process Angry hesistate to stay until the process of Islamization was named to run smoothly (Chamamah, 2002:40).
When Malik Salih Al Sultan was named as the first Government of the Ocean, the coronation ceremony conducted by Arab forces in the Al Salih Malik wore crowned with awards from the government of Mecca. This means, the coronation is in Arabic, not by way of India. This means longer, Malik Al Salih likely have converted to Islam at the time of Sultan Government crowned Ocean. After the coronation ceremony, all the warlords and the people immediately honor and worship them by calling the new sultan: “Long live Daulat Shah Alam Zilluilahi fil-natural.” Mention of honorary degrees to the king is also very closely with Arab names.
In a series of similar ceremonies, were also set two Big Man, as an adviser to Sultan, which is rich and Tun Tun Sri Sri Baba Rich. Aroma Islam more so when the second man was later given the title of an effective Arab, each with the name of Sayid Ali Khiatuddin to Tun Sri Kaya and Sayid Asmayuddin to Tun Sri Baba Rich (Said, 1963:85).
Sultan Malik Al Salih was married to Princess algae Sari, descendants of Sultan Aladdin Muhammad Amin bin Abdul Kadi of Government Perlak. From this marriage, Sultan Malik Al Salih blessed with two sons, namely Muhammad and Abdullah. Later, Muhammad is believed to lead Pasai, called Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul (Sultan Malik Al Tahir), side by side with his father, who still lead the Government’s hefty Ocean. The second son of Sultan Malik Al Salih, Abdullah, to opt out of a large family and Pasai Ocean Government, by establishing self-government Aru Barumun Sultanate in 1295.
Under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Pasai experiencing the success. Ibn Batuta record times achieved a golden era Pasai the reign of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Ibn Batuta recorded that the lands in the region so fertile Pasai. Trade and business activities in the government that was sufficiently advanced, proven to have used the currency, including foreign currencies made of gold, as a means of transaction in the economic life of the people Pasai. In addition to establishing relations with countries from outside the archipelago, the trade relations with merchants from the island of Java was so good. In fact, the merchant Java gets special treatment because they have not collected the tax. Typically, those traders from Java to change the rice with the pepper.
Masjid Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
Ibn Batuta tells, after sailing for 25 days from Barhnakar (now in the territory of Myanmar), he landed in a place that is very fertile. Ibn Batuta can not cover the taste so kagumnya Pasai centers around the city. He was so amazed to see a very beautiful city surrounded by magnificent walls. Ibn Batuta noted that he had to walk about four miles to ride from the port which he called Sahra to get to the center of town. Government center of the city is big enough and beautiful and comes with a tower-dancing made of solid timber. At the center of the city, writes Ibn Batuta, a place to stay the ruling and aristocratic government. The most important building is the Sultan Palace and Mosque (Ismail, 1997:37).
In the fence that surrounds the city, the residence of the rulers and nobles of the people covered by government outside the fence. All commercial life in the town, the newcomers from the countryside, the strangers, the craftsmen, and all other urban activities located outside the fences around the center of town. Foreign persons are often not allowed to live in a certain distance from the Palace of the Sultan, but sometimes they have to live outside the city.
If the explanation of Ibn Batuta is considered correct, it can be said that the city government center Pasai sultans who ruled in Pasai, in the middle area is a core area which is occupied by the Sultan Palace. The palace has a fence that serves as a boundary that distinguishes the Sultan Palace the market area where trade activities and other activities take place.
According to Ibn Batuta records, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is the figure of a leader who has a passion to learn the high demands of Islamic sciences.Batuta also noted that Islamic studies center that was built within the government into a discussion among scholars and government elites. Ibn Batuta even include the name of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul as one of the seven kings of the world that has tremendous advantages. The seventh king who has the uncanny ability by Ibn Batuta among others, the King of the Malay Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul dinilainya the breadth and depth of knowledge, the King of the Romans are very forgiving, King of Iraq a courteous, very friendly Raja Hindustani, the noble king of Yemen, Turkey mighty king, king of Turkistan, and wise.
Effects of Ibn Batuta the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is so deep.As king, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is a very good, generous, humble, and have noticed the poor. Although he had conquered many kingdoms, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul never be jumawa. Sultan, said Batuta, was a leader of Islamic law is put forward. “Very humble personality. He went to the mosque for Friday prayers on foot. Finished praying, Sultan and his entourage around the city for ordinary people to see the situation, “as Ibn Batuta describes the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Humility is one of the Sultan welcomed the group is shown when Ibn Batuta (Republika, May 21, 2008).
In its golden period, and the Government Pasai Ocean appears to be a center of international trade. Government of the Islamic port was crowded with traders and merchants from different continents such as Asia, Africa, China, and Europe. The region where the Government stands and Pasai Ocean, namely in the Malacca Strait, it is a strategic business areas. At that time, the Malacca Strait is a sea trade route is often the location of the transaction and called on merchants from all corners of the earth, as from Siam (Thailand), China, India, Arabia, to Persia (Iran).
Position Pasai (Pacém) in the Map Trade in Asia
In addition to the trade center, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is also a center of religion and government emerged as the first in Indonesia to follow the teachings of Islam. The success of the Sultanate and the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean, located in Ocean Geudong, Aceh Utara, beginning with the consolidation of small government in the area Perlak, such as Jungle and Seumerlang Jreum. In the period of the 13th century to early 16th-century, Pasai is the area’s leading producer of spices in the world, with pepper as one of the prime commodity. Each year, Pasai able to export pepper with a big production. Not only that, Pasai also a producer of other commodities such as silk, camphor, and gold.
Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul have two sons, namely Malikul Mansur Mahmud and Malikul. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul ultimately died because of illness, the leadership reins temporarily handed Pasai Sultan Malik Al Salih, who also led the Government of the Ocean, because the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul still a very young age. By Sultan Malik Al Salih, the two tribes had been referred to the standard figures that they may well lead the government at a later time. Malikul Mahmud handed over to Sayid Ali Baharuddin, while educated by Sayid Mansur Malikul Semayamuddin.
When the prince is growing up and felt ready to lead the government, the Sultan Malik Al Salih also stepped down from his throne, including the two governments, namely the Government and Pasai Ocean. Instead, according to the agreement, General Persons, lifted the Sultan Mahmud Malikul Pasai, while the Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean Kingdom. However, the harmony of the sultan’s brother and sister did not last long due to the feud between them. The cause is the act of Sultan Mansur who was fond of one of his wife of Sultan Mahmud’s brother is none other than his own. In the end, Sultan Mansur was arrested and expelled from the kingdom until later died in transit. Be Malikul Sultan Mahmud dominated government throne Pasai Ocean and the government to digabungkanlah became the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.
Since 1346, the leadership of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malikul under the regime of Sultan Mahmud was succeeded by his son named Ahmad Permadala Permala. Once crowned as the ruler of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, he was awarded honorary degrees by the name of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir. In Hikayat Raja told Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir endowed five children, three of them boys while the rest were two girls. Three sons of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir each named Tun Beraim father, Tun Abdul Jalil, and the Tun Abdul Fadil. While her two daughters are named Tun and Tun Takiah Medam Bitter Virgin.
Had a really embarrassing thing happened on the way the leadership of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, which in turn is closely linked to the image as a bad leader. According to the Hikayat Raja Pasai, The Sultan was put doted on his own two daughters, namely Tun Tun Takiah field and Bitter Virgin.Extreme attitudes of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir is of course raises the wrath of many parties, including Tun Beraim Father who is none other than the eldest son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir.
Tun Beraim Father dear life to protect his sister from the savagery of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir by running them for safekeeping in a place. Feel opposed by his own son, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir get mad and then ordered the guards to kill Tun Beraim Father. Prince should be the crown prince was eventually killed after eating the poison given the messenger of the father (Jones [ed.], 1999:35-56). Not long after, the sister of Father Tun Beraim soon followed his brother to take the same poison.
Terrorism Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir not stop there. The Sultan returned berulah rude when I heard the news that there was a princess of the Majapahit Kingdom, Radin Galuh clang, the two fell in love with the son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, namely Tun Abdul Jalil. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir feel offended because he himself is also put at the heart of the beautiful daughter of the King of Majapahit. And then, as enshrined in thesaga of King Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir again mandated the lives of his men to finish Tun Abdul Jalil, and when the plan is successful, the bodies of Tun Abdul Jalil sunk into the sea. Meanwhile, because love is not unbearable, Radin Galuh clink together Pasai determined to go to the controller to meet Tun Abdul Jalil.
Arriving at Pasai, the delegation of Majapahit was to hear that clink Galuh sweethearts Radin is dead, killed by his own father. The Princess is not the power of rage and then sink yourself into the sea in which the remains were buried Tun Abdul Jalil earlier. The remaining guards who accompanied the delegation Radin Galuh clink right back into Java and report to the King of Majapahit about these tragic events.
The King of course heard the anger and outrage of his daughter’s death was Sultan Pasai, and then immediately ordered the army to prepare to attack Majapahit Pasai. Still time to give the game, battle fleet was superior to the kingdom of Majapahit and succeeded in occupying Pasai. Because of the desperate, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir escape to a place called suspect, which is located about fifteen days journey from the State Pasai.
Meanwhile, after a resounding victory by conquering Pasai, the team began preparing for war Majapahit back to Java after taking the spoils and prisoners of war from Pasai. On the way to Java, the Majapahit soldiers first camp stop at Palembang and Jambi to conquer the land, thus bringing more items to loot. Such is the story of the conquest of the kingdom of Majapahit to Pasai as told in the book saga of King Pasai (Jones [ed.], 1999:57-65).
In the genealogy of the rulers of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai lead, there was a female sultan was enthroned in the great state. Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah) Malikul Zahir reigning from 1420 to 1428, or about eight years.Sultanah Nahrasiyah has named adviser to the title of Emperor Ariya Bakooy Bakooy Ahmad Permala. Ariya Bakooy is actually a controversial figure. It had warned people not to marry his daughter scholar himself, but the warning was ditentangnya. In fact, Ariya Bakooy and even kill the 40 scholars. Ariya Bakooy finally fell to the title of Malik Musthofa Pocut Cindan Node Alam, who is none other than her husband Sultanah Nahrasiyah, with the help of Sultan Mahmud Syah Johan Alaiddin of the Government of Aceh Darussalam (1409-1465).
Sultanah Nahrasiyah a Muslim woman of great spirit. This is evidenced by his home décor is very special. In nisannya, Arabic translation of the letter written citation reads: “This is the tomb of the holy women who shine Dear queen, who departed his sins forgiven, Nahrasiyah, daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, son of Sultan Ahmad, son of Sultan Muhammad, son of Sultan Salih Mailkus. Mercy is poured on them and their sins forgiven. By the grace of God died on Monday, 17-Hijjah 832. “(Pocut Haslinda Hamid Azwar,www.modusaceh-news.com, 2009).
Tomb Complex refurbishment Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah)
e. The remains of civilization collapse and Pasai Ocean
The success of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai begin to experience the threat of the greatest civilizations of Java at that time, from the Majapahit Empire of Gadjah Mada as the most legendary mahapatihnya. Gadjah Mada was appointed as governor in Kahuripan in the period 1319-1321 AD by the King of Majapahit who at that time occupied by Jayanegara. In 1331, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih when promoted to be led by Ratu Majapahit Tribuana Tunggadewi. When the appointment of Gadjah Mada became Mahapatih Majapahit is out with his speech called Palapa Oath, that the Gadjah Mada palapa will not enjoy the fruit before the entire archipelago under the Majapahit Kingdom power.
Gadjah Mada Mahapatih apparently little disturbed to hear the news about the greatness of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai across the sea there.Majapahit concerned about the rapid progress of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Therefore, Gadjah Mada then prepare the plan of attack to conquer the ocean Pasai Majapahit. Rumors about military attacks Majapahit, which Syiwa Hindus, the Muslim government Pasai Ocean Santer heard among the people in Aceh. Expedition Pamalayu war fleet under the command of the Majapahit Kingdom, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih action began in 1350 with several phases.
Initial attack on the border of Majapahit Perlak have failed because the location is heavily guarded by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.However, Gadjah Mada University does not cancel the attack. He retreated to the sea and find the open on the east coast that is not maintained. Elephant River, Gadjah Mada landed troops and establish a fortress on the hill, which until now known as the Hill or Bukit Meutan Gadjah Mada (Muljana, 2005:140).
Furthermore, Gadjah Mada conduct the interrogation of two major attacks, that the department of marine and terrestrial field. The attack was launched on the coast by sea in Lhokseumawe and Jambu Air. While incursions by road is via Paya Gajah located between Perlak and Pedawa. Attack of the land have failed because it is blocked by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. While the attacks are done via the sea route instead to reach the palace.
The power of the Majapahit Empire territories, including the Ocean Pasai
In addition to reasons of political factors, the Ocean Pasai Majapahit attacks also triggered because of the economic interest. Commercial progress and prosperity in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Gadjah Mada had wanted to get of that success. Expansion of Majapahit in order to dominate the region has been repeatedly Pasai Ocean and the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai was still able to hold before it finally began to recede slowly over the strengthening influence of Majapahit in the Strait of Malacca.
Until about the 16th century, Ocean Pasai still able to maintain its role as a city that has commercial activities with foreign countries. The historian who shed his interest in economic development was noted that Pasai occupies a position as an international center of trade activity in the archipelago since the role of Kedah successfully rebutted (Said, 1963:125).
But then, a role previously Pasai extremely important in trade flows in Southeast Asia and the world suffered a decline with the advent of the trading town of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (Ismail, 1997:24). Malaka city soon became the prima donna in the field of trade and began to shift the position of Pasai. Not long after Malacca was built, the city in a short time immediately flooded with immigrants, immigrants from Java.
Due to the rapid advancement of Malacca is obtained, the position and role of Pasai more and more cornered, almost all business activities become loose and eventually broke completely in the hands of Malacca since 1450.Moreover, the ambition plus the arrival of the Portuguese trade in the Malay Peninsula. The Portuguese who in 1521 managed to occupy the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (Rusdi Sufi, 2004:57)
Not only that, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai in Aceh weakened when the government established a pioneering start to a great civilization and progress. The new rule is that the Government of Aceh which was founded by Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam itself built on the ruins of the kingdoms that ever existed in Aceh at the time of pre-Islamic, like the Ancient Kingdom of Indra, Indra Purwa Government, Government Indra Patra, and the Government Indrapura. In 1524, the Government of Aceh under the leadership of Sultan Ali Shah attacked the Sultanate Mughayat Pasai Ocean. Consequently, the greatness of Government prestige Ocean Pasai more completely overcast before the collapse. Since then, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the control of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam.
Traces of the civilization heritage of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai found, in 1913 and 1915 by a Dutch scientist named JJ de Vink, who took the initiative to conduct an inventory of the former omission Pasai Ocean. Then, in 1937 was done in a cemetery restoration efforts sultans Pasai Ocean by the Dutch colonial government. Then, in 1972, 1973, and in 1976 the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai relics found in the Ocean Geudong district, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, has diinventarisasi by the Director General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.
Recent developments, in the year 2009 has been found several relics related to the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. In March 2009, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team informed us that they have discovered the tomb of Al Wazir Al Afdal, who served as Prime Minister of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Grave is located in Teupin Ara, Ocean District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.
Al Wazir Al Afdhal known to have served as prime minister during the reign of the last regime Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zain al Abidin is also often known by the name of Sultan Zainal Abidin, who ruled for two terms, namely in the period 1477-1500 and 1513-1524 . From the findings obtained evidence that Al Wazir Al Afdal Zulkaedah died on 7 months of 1518 in 923 H or M. In the same year, Sultan Zainal Abidin also died. At the cemetery headstone Al Wazir Al Afdal, there are poems that describe kezuhudan that the world is transient, just like a nest of spiders knit. The same poem was written on the grave of Sultan Malik Al Salih who expressed the sinking of the Ocean civilization Pasai (www.indowarta.com, March 25, 2009).
On the occasion of Meanwhile, the Islamic Cultural History of the Research Team also claimed to have found a stamp or mark the estimated age of 683 years. Stamp of the government that is predicted to belong Malikul Sultan Muhammad Zahir, the second sultan Pasai Ocean, was found not far from the tomb of Abdullah bin Muhammad, in the village of Kuta Krueng, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Abdullah bin Muhammad (died 816 H/1414 M) itself is one of the descendants of the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustanshir Billah, who holds Shadr Al Akabir (leader of the speaker) in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai at that time.
Seals are found to have broken at the handle portion measuring 2 × 1 cm, and apparently made from a type of animal horns. From finding a location in Kuta FORUM, estimated mark was used until the reign of the last leader of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zainal Abidin (www.acehlong.com, March 17, 2009).
Then, in June 2009, the Foundation dedicated team of researchers from Nurul Islam (YWNI) Lhokseumawe announced that they had found the tomb is believed to be the last place persemayaman Kanayan King, a warlord in the reign of Sultan Zain Al-Abidin. Tomb of King Kanayan found in the village of Meunasah Ujoung Blang Me, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Based on the research, it is known that King Kanayan died on Friday, December 3 Sha’ban 872 H or 1468 AD. Thus, King Kanayan have lived during the reign of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai some regimes, and died at the time of Sultan Zainal Abidin.
Besides the tomb of King Kanayan, also found a number of other tombs. In fact, the research team predict there are other tie-tie disappear into the ground at the tomb complex is situated not far from the east bank of the River Pasai it. The new tombs were found is not listed in the inventory of the historical site of Culture (www.waspadaonline.com, June 20, 2009).
Finally, in August 2009, the Research Institute of Islamic History (LePSI) Lhokseumawe revealed that they are reviewing the manuscript letter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, died in 923 Hijri or 1518 AD. The letter was addressed to Captain Moran representatives acting on behalf of the King of Portugal in India. Photographic copies can be seen at the Museum Negeri Aceh, while the original manuscript held in Lisbon, Portugal.
The script provides a lot of historical information about the happenings Pasai Ocean in the early 16th century, especially the last condition that caused the first Islamic kingdom in Southeast Asia, having managed to master the Portuguese of Malacca in 1511 AD. Scripts Arabic letters also indicate the names of some state or government who have a close relationship with the Ocean Pasai so we can know the original spelling of the names of states or governments, among others Nergeri Fariyaman (Pariaman) and Mulaqat (Malacca) (www.waspadaonline. com, August 21, 2009).
2. Genealogy of the Kings
Here the names of the sultan / Sultanah known ever to lead the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai:
1. Sultan Malik al-Salih (1267-1297)
2. Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
3. Sultan Mahmud Malikul
4. Sultan Mansur Malikul
5. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383)
6. Zain Al-Abidin Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (1383-1405)
7. Sultanah Nahrasiyah or Sultanah Nahrisyyah (1420-1428)
8. Sultan Sallah Ad-Din (1402)
9. Sultan Abu Zaid Malik Az-Zahir 1455)
10. Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1455-1477)
11. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1477-1500)
12. Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir (1501-1513)
13. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1513-1524)
Genealogy Sultan / Sultanah Sultanate Masjid Ocean Pasai According Pasai.
Sultan Malik Al Salih lead the Sultanate of Samudera, while his son, Sultan Muhammad Zahir is the ruler of the Sultanate of Malikul Pasai. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul died, the government of the Sultanate of Pasai held by Sultan Malik Al Salih for a while while waiting for the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, namely Malikul and Malikul Mansur Mahmud, was growing up. After the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is considered able to be a leader, Sultan Malik Al Salih resigned from the sultan of the government he leads is.
Furthermore, Sultan Malik Al Salih handed control of the government to the tribes, each of the Sultanate of Pasai Malikul Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Ocean to Malikul. The time period of the reign of the third sultan, that Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Malikul Sultan Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Malikul, deliberately not mentioned because there are some irregularities concerning this matter, including those listed in the saga of King Pasai.
Kesimpang-siuran the period of the reign of each sultan / Sultanah the obstacle, and because of that century years are included in the list above is an interpretation of some information that was found. Similarly, the mention of the name or title of each sultan / Sultanah that we found so many versions. In addition, incomplete information about anyone sultan / Sultanah who ruled the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai a massage and runtut also cause other problems because of not necessarily what is written in the genealogy of the rulers who had recorded all the reign in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.
3. Regional Power
In the century to the 14th century, the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already very famous and influential and has a vast territory. The powerful fleet of war is to support the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai to expand its power, both in order to dominate and occupy the territory of another state or by the mission to spread Islam. Pasai Ocean territory of the Sultanate of success lies in an area that is flanked by two large rivers in the North Coast of Aceh, namely the Peusangan and Pasai River. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai territory also includes the Ocean Geudong (Aceh Utara), Meulaboh, Bireuen, and Jungle Jreum and Seumerlang (Perlak).
Power Ocean Territory Pasai
Meanwhile, some are embracing the opinion that the territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai cover a wider area to the south, ie to the mouth of the River Jambu Ayer (Ismail, 1997:7). Clearly, the vast territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai covered along the river upstream of the upstream-derived remote Gayo Highlands, now in the administrative area of Central Aceh District, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai also successfully expanded its territory to the outside of the ground in Aceh. Some rural areas of the state administrations under the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai include Minangkabau, Palembang, Jambi, Patani, Malacca, even to their various governments on the coast of Java (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:61).
4. Governance System
The composition of the community who become citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai show-layered character. According Ayatrohaedi, the layer consists of Sultan and the government of Persons in the top layer to slave on the bottom layer (Ayatrohaedi, 1992). In the group of layers of bureaucracy looks the group of Persons, the prime minister, ministers, soldiers, officers, and other nobles of the kingdom.
The existence of those engaged in commerce, such as those who deal in, the sail, the town, masters, and others. Although the total population of Arabs who live in Pasai not by the people of India, but among the Arabs is very influential in the way of government, even though the policies of Sultan Pasai. This situation is seen since the early formation of the Sultanate of Pasai and lasts a long time until this government changed the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.
In the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih as the first ruler of the Sultanate of Pasai, there are a number of Persons in the state, among other things, and Tun Tun Sri Kaya Kaya Baba. The names that clearly indicate their position, called the Great Persons. This is in accordance with the articulation of government Persons in the Malay Peninsula and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as the Rich Man (Ismail, 1997:39).
Second Person of the way the government take control of the Sultanate of Pasai, each was given the title and Sayid Sayid Ali Ghitauddin Asmayuddin, as has been mentioned before in the Islamic Anger or embarrassment Sultan Malik Al Salih. In the story illustrated clearly that Great Persons are mentioned as prime minister, one for the Sultanate of Pasai and another for the Sultanate of Samudera. Their position is very important in there place since the regime of Sultan Malik Al Salih until the era of the reign of his grandson and Malikul Malikul Mahmud Mansur.
One manuscript indicates presence Pasai
In the second grandson of Sultan Malik Al Salih was in power in their government, there is a dispute between them, ie when Malikul Mansur indecent acts against one of his wives Malikul Mahmud. Despicable acts knowing that his brother, Sultan Mahmud had Malikul speech that if he does not respect Asmayuddin Sayid, who is an advisor in the Sultanate of Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean, Malikul Sultan Mahmud would have killed his own brother for acts of contempt are not forgiven. This fragment is sufficient to prove that how strong the effect of the Persons of the wheels of government take control, even to the level of personal and psychological affect Sultan.
In the next era of leadership, which under the regime of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383), the government of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai controlled by four prime ministers, each of which called Tulus Great Tailor Sukara, Baba Mentuha, Solomon Dendang Water and Tun Shah Alam City (Jones [ed.], 1999:36). Still the same as in previous times, the fourth prime minister of the exercise of its functions as an adviser to the Sultan and influenced government policy even though the final decision still remains in the hands of Sultan Pasai Ocean. Social and political life of citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is colored by cultural and religious elements of Islam. His administration is a theocracy (based on the teachings of Islam), and most people embrace Islam
Kesultanan Malaka (abad ke-14 – abad ke-17)
Kesultanan Malaka (1402 – 1511) adalah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan oleh Parameswara, seorang putera Sriwijaya yang melarikan diri dari perebutan Palembang oleh Majapahit. Ibu kota kerajaan ini terdapat di Melaka, yang terletak pada penyempitan Selat Malaka. Kesultanan ini berkembang pesat menjadi sebuah entrepot dan menjadi pelabuhan terpenting di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-15 dan awal 16. Malaka runtuh setelah ibu kotanya direbut Portugis pada 1511.
Kegemilangan yang dicapai oleh Kerajaan Melaka adalah daripada beberapa faktor yang penting. Antaranya, Parameswara telah mengambil kesempatan untuk menjalinkan hubungan baik dengan negara Cina ketika Laksamana Yin Ching mengunjungi Melaka pada tahun 1403. Malah, salah seorang daripada sultan Melaka telah menikahi seorang putri dari negara Cina yang bernama Putri Hang Li Po. Hubungan erat antara Melaka dengan Cina telah memberi banyak manfaat kepada Melaka. Melaka mendapat perlindungan dari Cina yang merupakan sebuah kuasa besar di dunia untuk mengelakkan serangan Siam.
Parameswara pada awalnya mendirikan kerajaan di Singapura pada tahun 1390-an. Negeri ini kemudian diserang oleh Jawa dan Siam, yang memaksanya hijrah lebih ke utara. Kronik Dinasti Ming mencatat Parameswara telah berdiam di ibukota baru di Melaka pada 1403, tempat armada Ming yang dikirim ke selatan menemuinya. Sebagai balasan upeti yang diberikan Kekaisaran Cina menyetujui untuk memberikan perlindungan pada kerajaan baru tersebut. 
Parameswara kemudian menganut agama Islam setelah menikahi putri Pasai. Laporan dari kunjungan Laksamana Cheng Ho pada 1409 menyiratkan bahwa pada saat itu Parameswara masih berkuasa, dan raja dan rakyat Melaka sudah menjadi muslim. . Pada 1414 Parameswara digantikan putranya, Megat Iskandar Syah.
Megat Iskandar Syah memerintah selama 10 tahun, dan digantikan oleh Muhammad Syah. Putra Muhammad Syah yang kemudian menggantikannya, Raja Ibrahim, tampaknya tidak menganut agama Islam, dan mengambil gelar Sri Parameswara Dewa Syah. Namun masa pemerintahannya hanya 17 bulan, dan dia mangkat karena terbunuh pada 1445. Saudara seayahnya, Raja Kasim, kemudian menggantikannya dengan gelar Sultan Mudzaffar Syah.
Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Mudzaffar Syah Melaka melakukan ekspansi di Semenanjung Malaya dan pantai timur Sumatera (Kampar dan Indragiri). Ini memancing kemarahan Siam yang menganggap Melaka sebagai bawahan Kedah, yang pada saat itu menjadi vassal Siam. Namun serangan Siam pada 1455 dan 1456 dapat dipatahkan.
Di bawah pemerintahan raja berikutnya yang naik tahta pada tahun 1459, Sultan Mansur Syah, Melaka menyerbu Kedah dan Pahang, dan menjadikannya negara vassal. Di bawah sultan yang sama Johor, Jambi dan Siak juga takluk. Dengan demikian Melaka mengendalikan sepenuhnya kedua pesisir yang mengapit Selat Malaka.
Mansur Syah berkuasa sampai mangkatnya pada 1477. Dia digantikan oleh putranya Alauddin Riayat Syah. Sultan memerintah selama 11 tahun, saat dia meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Mahmud Syah. 
Mahmud Syah memerintah Malaka sampai tahun 1511, saat ibu kota kerajaan tersebut diserang pasukan Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso de Albuquerque. Serangan dimulai pada 10 Agustus 1511 dan berhasil direbut pada 24 Agustus 1511. Sultan Mahmud Syah melarikan diri ke Bintan dan mendirikan ibukota baru di sana. Pada tahun 1526 Portugis membumihanguskan Bintan, dan Sultan kemudian melarikan diri ke Kampar, tempat dia wafat dua tahun kemudian. Putranya Muzaffar Syah kemudian menjadi sultan Perak, sedangkan putranya yang lain Alauddin Riayat Syah II mendirikan kerajaan baru yaitu Johor.
- Parameswara (1402-1414)
- Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)
- Sultan Muhammad Syah (1424-1444)
- Seri Parameswara Dewa Syah(1444-1445)
- Sultan Mudzaffar Syah (1445-1459)
- Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477)
- Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)
- Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1528)
Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan dari Samudera Pasai yang pada tahun 1360 ditaklukkan oleh Majapahit hingga kemundurannya di abad ke-14. Kesultanan Aceh terletak di utara pulau Sumatera dengan ibu kota Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) dengan sultan pertamnya adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil awal 913 H atau pada tanggal 8 September 1507. Dalam sejarahnya yang panjang itu (1496 – 1903), Aceh telah mengukir masa lampaunya dengan begitu megah dan menakjubkan, terutama karena kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan pola dan sistem pendidikan militer, komitmennya dalam menentang imperialisme bangsa Eropa, sistem pemerintahan yang teratur dan sistematik, mewujudkan pusat-pusat pengkajian ilmu pengetahuan, hingga kemampuannya dalam menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain.
Kesultanan Aceh didirikan oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah pada tahun 1496. Diawal-awal masa pemerintahannya wilayah Kesultanan Aceh berkembang hingga mencakup Daya, Deli, Pedir, Pasai, dan Aru. Pada tahun 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah digantikan oleh putera sulungnya yang bernama Salahuddin, yang kemudian berkuasa hingga tahun 1537. Kemudian Salahuddin digantikan oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar yang berkuasa hingga tahun 1568.
Kesultanan Aceh mengalami masa keemasan pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607 – 1636). Pada masa kepemimpinannya, Aceh telah berhasil memukul mundur kekuatan Portugis dari selat Malaka. Kejadian ini dilukiskan dalam La Grand Encyclopedie bahwa pada tahun 1582, bangsa Aceh sudah meluaskan pengaruhnya atas pulau-pulau Sunda (Sumatera, Jawa dan Kalimantan) serta atas sebagian tanah Semenanjung Melayu. Selain itu Aceh juga melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan semua bangsa yang melayari Lautan Hindia. Pada tahun 1586, kesultanan Aceh melakukan penyerangan terhadap Portugis di Melaka dengan armada yang terdiri dari 500 buah kapal perang dan 60.000 tentara laut. Serangan ini dalam upaya memperluas dominasi Aceh atas Selat Malaka dan semenanjung Melayu. Walaupun Aceh telah berhasil mengepung Melaka dari segala penjuru, namun penyerangan ini gagal dikarenakan adanya persekongkolan antara Portugis dengan kesultanan Pahang.
Dalam lapangan pembinaan kesusasteraan dan ilmu agama, Aceh telah melahirkan beberapa ulama ternama, yang karangan mereka menjadi rujukan utama dalam bidang masing-masing, seperti Hamzah Fansuri dalam bukunya Tabyan Fi Ma’rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin ar-Raniry dalam bukunya Sirat al-Mustaqim, dan Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkili dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil.
Kemunduran Kesultanan Aceh bermula sejak kemangkatan Sultan Iskandar Tsani pada tahun 1641. Kemunduran Aceh disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya ialah makin menguatnya kekuasaan Belanda di pulau Sumatera dan Selat Malaka, ditandai dengan jatuhnya wilayah Minangkabau, Siak, Deli dan Bengkulu kedalam pangkuan penjajahan Belanda. Faktor penting lainnya ialah adanya perebutan kekuasaan diantara pewaris tahta kesultanan.
Traktat London yang ditandatangani pada 1824 telah memberi kekuasaan kepada Belanda untuk menguasai segala kawasan British/Inggris di Sumatra sementara Belanda akan menyerahkan segala kekuasaan perdagangan mereka di India dan juga berjanji tidak akan menandingi British/Inggris untuk menguasai Singapura.
Pada akhir Nopember 1871, lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan Traktat Sumatera, dimana disebutkan dengan jelas “Inggris wajib berlepas diri dari segala unjuk perasaan terhadap perluasan kekuasaan Belanda di bagian manapun di Sumatera. Pembatasan-pembatasan Traktat London 1824 mengenai Aceh dibatalkan.” Sejak itu, usaha-usaha untuk menyerbu Aceh makin santer disuarakan, baik dari negeri Belanda maupun Batavia. Setelah melakukan peperangan selama 40 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh ke pangkuan kolonial Hindia-Belanda. Sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Aceh menyatakan bersedia bergabung ke dalam Republik indonesia atas ajakan dan bujukan dari Soekarno kepada pemimpin Aceh Tengku Muhammad Daud Beureueh saat itu[rujukan?].
Ottoman Empire Sends War Armada To Help Aceh
Ottoman Empire (Sultan Selim II) which Were made to help the Muslim Sultanates Aceh (Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah)
the Ottoman sent 300 troops to the Acehnese, I don’t know what they were composed of.
– 1558, 400 Turkish artilery had joined with some 15000 Acehnese troops and an armada of 300 vessels in attack Melaka (Malacca) off the hands of the Portuguese albeit only for a month.
– 1562, an Acehnese ambassador had gone to Istanbul to ask for Turkish help. The Ottoman sent some 500 Turks, a number of projectiles with stone bullets, munitions, engineers and people to handle the big weapons.
But what I had in mind was the planned expedition that Selim II wanted to carry out which was to have some 15 war ships and be comandeered by the admiral Kurtoglu. It was also to be helped by the governerships of Yemen, Aden and Mecca, but that one was never carried out.
The Ottoman Turkish empire was a very influential empire, at least as it was the simbol of the Muslim Caliphate. The success of Suleiman the Magnificent was heard loudly in these areas, with the Sultan of Demak, wanting to conquer Java so as be called, as according to the Portuguese, Manuel Pinto, segundo Turco: “the second Turkish King”.
Warga Blang Balok Masih Simpan Meriam “Lada Sicupak” Asal Turki
Peureulak – Không nhiều người biết nếu trong làng Blang Beams Peureulak City East Aceh huyện vẫn còn lưu một khẩu pháo Lada nước Sicupak của Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ. Cannon đo gần hai mét, theo người dân địa phương đến từ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.
Không nhiều người biết lý do tại sao Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ mang súng đến Aceh hiện đang được lưu trữ gọn gàng trong làng Blang Beams khoảng 1,5 km từ cầu đối diện với khung thép Kp Beusa hoặc đường cao tốc Medan – Banda Aceh. Ngay cả người dân địa phương đã được rào chắn pháo để duy trì liên tục và tránh những điều không mong muốn.
Cha Wan, quản lý trang web Sicupak Meriam của Lada hiên hai ngày trước đây nói, đại bác lịch sử vẫn còn quan tâm rằng không có bàn tay ngu dốt phá hủy nó. Nói với cha Wan, người được cho là di tích pháo của nhà nước Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ được đặt tên Meriam Lada Sicupak và phát hiện vào ngày 12 Tháng Mười Hai 1976 lúc 23:30 bởi cuối TGK Muhammad Ben.
Pháo đã từng là một công cụ của chiến tranh sử dụng Commander Mustafa vào năm 1860 cũng là người dân địa phương.
Khẩu pháo được coi cộng đồng địa phương có một phước lành. Điều này là hiển nhiên từ các cuộc xung đột Aceh bị thiệt hại, những khẩu súng không bao giờ tranh cãi. Trong thực tế, có những người cố gắng để di chuyển vị trí của những khẩu súng, không thể để nhấc nó lên, và những người đang cố gắng để di chuyển các pháo vào thời điểm đó, cuối cùng bị một chứng rối loạn tâm thần.
Once upon a time, khẩu pháo sẽ được khai quật được di chuyển bởi một công dân, nhưng sớm người điên, bố nói Wan.
Pháo một lần loại bỏ và chuyển sang đấu trường của Tuần lễ Văn hóa Aceh (PKA), nhưng việc loại bỏ được thực hiện bởi 15 người và được giám sát bởi nhà khảo cổ học.
Mặc dù súng đã không được biết đến rộng rãi công dân, cha Wan không được phép để di chuyển các khẩu pháo. Công chúng sẽ được cho phép nếu chính phủ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ ngay lập tức yêu cầu nhớ pháo là một di sản của đất nước trong quá khứ, vì vậy cha Wan.
PEUREULAK – Tak banyak yang tahu jika di Desa Blang Balok Kecamatan Peureulak Kota Aceh Timur kini masih tersimpan sebuah meriam Lada Sicupak asal negara Turki. Meriam yang berukuran hampir dua meter itu, menurut warga setempat berasal dari Turki.
Tak banyak yang tahu kenapa Turki membawa meriam ini ke Aceh yang kini tersimpan rapi di Desa Blang Balok sekitar 1,5 kilometer dari jembatan rangka baja Kp Beusa Sebrang atau dengan dengan jalan raya Medan – Banda Aceh. Bahkan oleh warga setempat meriam itu telah dipagar untuk menjaga kelestariannya serta menghindari hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan.
Ayah Wan, pengelola lokasi Meriam Lada Sicupak ini kepada Serambi dua hari lalu menceritakan, meriam bersejarah ini tetap dirawat supaya jangan ada tangan-tangan jahil yang merusaknya. Diceritakan Ayah Wan, meriam yang diyakini peninggalan negara Turki itu kini diberi nama Meriam Lada Sicupak dan ditemukan pada tanggal 12 Desember 1976 pukul 11.30 Wib oleh almarhum Tgk Muhammad Ben.
Meriam tersebut dulunya merupakan alat perang yang digunakan Panglima Mustafa pada Tahun 1860 yang juga merupakan warga desa setempat.
Meriam tersebut oleh masyarakat setempat dianggap memiliki keberkahan. Hal itu terbukti sejak Aceh dilanda konflik, keberadaan meriam tidak pernah diganggu gugat. Malah ada warga yang mencoba memindahkan lokasi keberadaan meriam ini, tak sanggup mengangkatnya dan orang yang mencoba memindahkan meriam kala itu, akhirnya menderita gangguan jiwa.
Pernah suatu ketika, meriam tersebut akan digali untuk dipindahkan oleh seorang warga, namun tak lama kemudian warga itu gila, ujar Ayah Wan.
Meriam tersebut dulu pernah diangkat dan dipindahkan untuk arena Pekan Kebudayaan Aceh (PKA), namun pada saat pemindahannya dilakukan oleh 15 orang dengan diawasi oleh ahli purbakala.
Meskipun meriam itu tidak banyak diketahui warga, oleh Ayah Wan tidak diizinkan untuk memindahkan lokasi meriam. Masyarakat akan mengizinkannya bila pemerintah Turki yang langsung memintanya mengingat meriam tersebut merupakan peninggalan negara itu pada masa lampau, demikian Ayah Wan.
Sources : “Serambinews”
Aceh unidentief location and date
Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam
Oleh: Ameer Hamzah
Suara tokek di Meureudu dengan di Pase sangat berbeda. Di Meureudu suaranya ko’o-ko’o dan di Pase berbunyi e’ee. e’eee. Mengapa? Seorang peneliti suara satwa bertanya kepada orang-orang tua yang ada di Aceh.
Jawabannya, ternyata sangat seragam. Di Meureudu pernah singgah Poteu Meureuhom Iskandar Muda, sedang di Pase tidak. maka suara tokek berbeda. Jawaban seperti itu memang tak dapat dipertanggung jawabkan secara ilmiah, namun dalarn masyarakat telah sangat populer.
Sultan Iskandarmuda memang sudah menjadi legendaris. Namanya sangat agung dan hampir tak ada lidah orang Aceh yang tak pernah menyebut nama itu.
Istilah Poteu Meureuhom dalam ungkapan hadih maja, Adat bak Poteu Meureuhom, hukom bak Syiah Kuala. adalah gelar yang disempenakan kepadanya setelah sultan tersebut mangkat.
la seorang sultan terbesar yang pernah dimiliki Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam. Kekuasaannya meluas mencakupi semua wilayah Sumatera sampai ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (M Said: Aceh Sepanjang Abad, halaman 147).
Kerajaan Deli dan Aru ditaklukkannya pada tahun 1612 M. Johor 1613, Pahang, Kedah, Perak, Singapura dan Batam dalam tahun 1617-1620 M. Pulau Nias, Asahan, Indragiri dan Jambi 1623-1625 M’ dan menyerang Portugis di Malaka pada tahun 1629 M. Singkat kata, seluruh Sumatera dan Semenanjung Malaya sudah berada di bawah kekuasaannya.
Zamannya adalah zaman kegemilangan dan puncak keemasan bagi Aceh dan daerah taklukannya. Bandar Aceh Darussalam menjadi kiblat ilmu pengetahuan di belahan bumi Asia Tenggara.
Banyak ulama dan sarjana yang datang dari Arab, India, Persia, dan Gujarat untuk bermukim di Aceh. Di sini mereka menjadi guru-guru besar yang mengajar ilmu pengetahuan di Perguruan Tinggi Darusy Syariah Jamiah Baiturrahmam Bandar Aceh Darussalam. Mahasiswa datang dari berbagai penjuru nusantara.
Para pujangga dan penyair, penari dan penyanyi juga mendapat tempat tersendiri dalam istana sultan. Iskandarmuda bagaikan Harun Ar-Rasyid yang pernah berkuasa di Bagdad.
Petani dan pedagang hidup sejahtera karena hasil yang berlimpahruah. Tak ada orang kaya yang kikir dan orang miskin yang dengki. Aceh masa itu menurut Prof Dr Hamka — benar-benar sudah mencapai, taraf Baldatun Thayyibatun wa Rabbul Ghafuur (Sejarah Umat Islam PT Bulan Bintang, 1977).
Sultan memerintah dengan adil dan bijaksana berdasarkan hukum yang berlaku di zamannya.yakni hukum syariah yang berdasarkan al-Quran, hadits, ijmak, dan qias. Banyak pelaku kejahatan yang mati dibunuh berdasarkan hukum hudud.
Hukum baginya adalah amanah Allah. Karena itu siapa saja yang berbuat melanggar hukum akan menerima risiko hukum, meski anak kandungnya sendiri. Dalam menjalankan hukum tidak pilih kasih. Ini dibuktikan dalam sejarah. Meurah Pupok, putranya yang dipersiapkan untuk menjadi pengganti (putra mahkota) — telanjur berbuat zina dengan isteri seorang menteri. Karena itu baginda sangat murka. Ia memerintahkan serdadu untuk menangkap anaknya itu dan memerintahkan hakim untuk merajamnya sampai mati.
Banyak pembesar istana yang ingin mengesampingkan risiko hukum terhadap putra mahkota. Mereka menggoda baginda supaya membatalkan hukum tersebut. Tapi dengan tegas Iskandarmuda menjawab: Mate aneuek meupat jrat, gadoh adat pat tamita. (Mati anak tinggal kuburan, hilang adat kemana dicari) (Prof A Hasymy: Iskandarmuda Meu kuta Alam). Dalam hal ini ia serupa dengan Umar bin Khattab yang menghukum rajam putranya Abu Syamah karena kasus yang serupa juga.
Sultan Iskandarmuda yang berkuasa sejak tahun 1607-1636 memang tak tertandingi. la seorang penakluk yang sangat berhasil. la menaklukkan tapi bukan untuk menjajah. la seorang negarawan besar yang sangat cinta kepada agama Islam dan saudara serumpunnya di Sumatera dan Semenanjung Melayu yang sudah dalam cengkeraman penjajah Portugis. Makanya ncgeri-ncgcri yang ditaklukkan tak pernah merasa kecewa, kecuali raja-raja yang hilang kekuasaan.
Rakyat dalam negeri-negeri yang ditaklukkan menganggap Iskandarmuda sebagai pahlawan yang telah membebaskan mereka dari pengaruh kolonialisme Barat. Bahkan kemenangan-kemenangan yang didapatnya bukan semata-mata karena kekuatan pasukan Aceh, melainkan juga karena adanya tentara yang membelot karena benci kepada kolonialisme dan bonekaisme Portugis.
Ketika Iskandarmuda dan angkatan lautnya bertekat untuk membebaskan Tanah Semenanjung Melayu (sekarang Malaysia) dari penjajahan Portugis, banyak cerita yang menarik kita baca dalam buku sejarah.
Sultan Iskandarmuda menerapkan etika perang menurut Islam yang diajarkan Rasulullah SAW. Bila rnusuh dapat dikalahkan jangan disiksa, jangan dirampok hartanya, dan jangan pula diganggu wanitanya. Sebaliknya, bila mati dalam peperangan adalah syahid. Jangan lari dari medan perang, kecuali untuk mengatur strategi.
Dengan etika perang yang mulia itulah, kejayaan yang dicapai Iskandarmuda hampir serupa dengan kejayaan yang dipcrolehi Abubakar, Umar bin Khattab, Usman, Ali dan Muhammad al-Fateh dari Turki.
Pasukan Aceh (Iskandarmuda) dengan gemilang berturut-turut dapat menaklukkan seluruh negeri yang ada di Sumatera dan Semenanjung Melayu. Nama beliaupun hidup subur menjadi lagenda di Tanah Semenanjung.
Belum lama ini. (2/11) penulis berada di Kampong Acheh, Yan Kedah Malaysia. Saya bertanya kepada Ustaz Haji Ibrahim bin Haji Abdurrahman sesepuh masyarakat Aceh di sana. Sejak kapan masyarakat Aceh sudah bermukim di sini? “Sejak Poteu Meureuhom Iskandarmuda menaklukkan Kedah,” jawabnya.
Nama Iskandarmuda, tetap dikenang di sana. Hikayat Malem Dagang yang merupakan kisah Iskandarmuda masih dibaca oleh masyarakat Aceh di Yan. Meski sudah ratusan tahun mereka terpisah dari tanah Aceh, Serambi Makkah. Begitu juga masyarakat Melayu di Pahang. Mereka tidak melupakan jasa Iskandarmuda yang telah memuliakan Putroe Phang
Beliau juga seorang pria yang romantis dan sangat besar kasih sayangnya terhadap musuh yang sudah ditawannya. Setelah Pahang menyerah dan menawan anggota kerajaan, ia jatuh cinta kepada putri cantik bernama Kamaliah (Putroe Phang). Ia kawin dan memboyongnya ke Aceh.
Untuk mengobat hati putri Pahang yang luka karena ayahnya kalah, maka Sultan Iskandarmuda membuat sebuah taman yang indah, (Raudhatul Isyqi lengkap dengan tempat permandian, tempat pelipur lara di pinggir Krueng Daroy. Itulah yang kita kenal sekarang Taman Sari, Taman Pinto Khop dan Gunongan.
Sebenarnya masih sangat banyak yang harus kita tulis tentang orang besar Aceh Ini, sebab ia telah banyak mewariskan pusaka terhadap kita semua. la telah mengangkat harkat dan martabat umat Islam nusantara dari kekejaman kolonialisme Barat. Ia telah berbuat yang beIum dibuat oleh pendahulunya dan oleh sultan-sultan sesudahnya.
Tulisan ini hanya secuil ungkapan rasa bangga dan kesyukuran kita karena Sultan Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam telah disahkan menjadi Pahlawan Naslonal oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Hari Pahlawan Nasional 10 Nevember yang kita peringati hari ini rasanya sangat indah dari yang sudah-sudah, sangat bermakna dari sebelumnya. Seorang pahlawan sejati telah kita beri tempat yang layak untuk dihormati.
Bagi rakyat Aceh Iskandarmuda adalah simbol keadilan, simbol kemakmuran dan kebesaran. Jadi, bukan simbol impian dan nostalgia. Masa lalu adalah masa lain, denting waktu tak mungkin terulang kembali.
Tugas kita sekarang, bukan bernostalgja (cet langet) terhadap prestasi yang diraih Iskandarmuda dan juga pahlawan-pahlawan kita yang lain, tetapi berkarya yang lebih baik lagi dari karya pcndahulu kita. Kalau Iskandarmuda dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dapat mengubah wajah kemiskinan menjadi kemakmuran, rasanya kita juga perlu meniru.
Ameer Hamzah, Wartawan Harian Serambi Indonesia
Meriam Lada Sicupak (Aceh)
Meriam Aceh Digunakan Ketika Menentang Portugis dan Belanda
Sultanate Of Aceh Darussalam Flag
(1496 – 1903)
Aceh Flag : Alam Aceh (Atjeh) , Alam Peudeueng , Alam Zulfiqar
Cờ của Vương quốc Aceh, tên là ALAM của Zulfiqar Ali Shah Mughayat (vua đầu tiên của Aceh) từ sự lãnh đạo cũ là 916-936 H (1511 đến 1530 AD)
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:09
Công cụ tuyệt vời, HangPC. Cảm ơn bạn.
Tôi sẽ khuyên bạn nên có xúc tiến để LaksamanaPC.
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:29
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:52
QUOTE (Bhaskara @ April 23, 2008, 14:29) [snapback] 3.655.814 [/ snapback]
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!
Bendera Kerajaan Aceh, bernama ALAM ZULFIQAR yang dibuat oleh Ali Mughayat Syah (Raja pertama Aceh) lama kepemimpinannya adalah dari tahun 916 – 936 H (1511 – 1530 M)
Apr 23 2008, 01:09 AM
Great stuff, HangPC. Thank you.
I’ll recommend ya for promotion to LaksamanaPC.
Apr 23 2008, 01:29 AM
Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!
Apr 23 2008, 01:52 AM
QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Apr 23 2008, 02:29 PM) [snapback]3655814[/snapback]
Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!
Malay Federation (1948-1950)
1950-1963 – Federation of Malaya
Melaka (Malacca) Negeri Melaka Darul Azim
Sultanate Of Johore (Negeri Johor Darul Takzim)
Sultanate Of Kelantan (Negeri Kelantan Dar ul-Naim)
Sultanate Of Selangor (Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan)
Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO)
Greater Patani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya)
Islamic Republic of Patani
Free Aceh Movement (GAM)
Apr 23 2008, 04:00 AM
ahh ok, Good on you HangPC, great ok. I’ve got evidence now.
Awang sorry for dismissing your claim. However I’m still not yet convince completely.
Apr 23 2008, 09:39 PM
Hah? bukti gmn maksud lo? Hanya krn benderanya mirip? Yaelah, di seluruh dunia jg yg namanya negara Islam ya benderanya pake bulan sabit dan bintang, di mana istimewanya kemiripan antara 2 bendera ini?
Apr 24 2008, 12:06 AM
Well Hang did gave us some evidence,as in the articles and the cannons. Not the flags.. I know almost every Muslim country has that sort of flag, with the crescent and star.
Like I said I’m still not convinced completely…there might been a contact between Ottomans and Acehnese but I still think Awang is still a bit dreaming…
Apr 24 2008, 05:39 AM
Actually early Islamic chaliphate during Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) era doesn’t associate themself with crescent and star as the emblem of Islam.
But the color green indeed have Islamic association. In Islamic traditions mentioned that the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) bring the heavenly silk green banner for Muhammad’s army during their fights against Meccan pagans. Thus green become Islamic colors.
The emblem of star and crescent probably have more ancient origin. Both are the symbol of celestial or heavenly power since Sumerian and ancient Persian era. Star is symbol of Gods in ancient Babylonian tradition, wheather like it or not Islam sometimes bear more ancient pre-Islamic traditions.
Another theory mentioned that ancient middleeastern tribes often “decorate” their banner’s pole with horn of goat, thus later evolved to “crescent moon” shape made from metal.
Later the Turks made the star and crescent and star as their banner. Ottoman as the largest Islamic empire at that time, also “the heir” of Islamic caliphate make their banner associated with Islam.
So I think Hang PC got his reasons of his opinions. Indeed every Islamic nations that use crescent as their banner in some degree influenced and has bilateral relationship with Turkey Ottoman.
Apr 24 2008, 06:37 AM
Little bit off-topic, but when I was in Turkey, I saw the crescent and star symbol in the night sky.
It appeared exactly as it does on the flag
HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF ACHIN, FROM THE PERIOD OF ITS BEING VISITED BY EUROPEANS.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE PORTUGUESE.
The Portuguese, under the conduct of Vasco de Gama, doubled the Cape of Good Hope in the year 1497, and arrived on the coast of Malabar in the following year. These people, whom the spirit of glory, commerce, and plunder led to the most magnanimous undertakings, were not so entirely engaged by their conquests on the continent of India as to prevent them from extending their views to the discovery of regions yet more distant.
They learned from the merchants of Guzerat some account of the riches and importance of Malacca, a great trading city in the farther peninsula of India, supposed by them the Golden Chersonnese of Ptolemy. Intelligence of this was transmitted to their enterprising sovereign Emanuel, who became impressed with a strong desire to avail himself of the flattering advantages which this celebrated country held out to his ambition.
He equipped a fleet of four ships under the command of Diogo Lopez de Sequeira, which sailed from Lisbon on the eighth day of April 1508 with orders to explore and establish connexions in those eastern parts of Asia.
After touching at Madagascar Sequeira proceeded to Cochin, where a ship was added to his fleet, and, departing from thence on the eighth of September 1509, he made sail towards Malacca; but having doubled the extreme promontory of Sumatra (then supposed to be the Taprobane of the ancients) he anchored at Pidir, a principal port of that island, in which he found vessels from Pegu, Bengal, and other countries. The king of the place, who, like other Mahometan princes, was styled sultan, sent off a deputation to him, accompanied with refreshments, excusing himself, on account of illness,
from paying his compliments in person, but assuring him at the same time that he should derive much pleasure from the friendship and alliance of the Portuguese, whose fame had reached his ears. Sequeira answered this message in such terms that, by consent of the sultan, a monument of their amity was erected on the shore; or, more properly, as the token of discovery and possession usually employed by the European nations. He was received in the same manner at a place called Pase, lying about twenty leagues farther to the eastward on the same coast, and there also erected a monument or cross. Having procured at each of these ports as much pepper as could be collected in a short time he hastened to Malacca, where the news of his appearance in these seas had anticipated his arrival. Here he was near falling a sacrifice to the insidious policy of Mahmud, the reigning king, to whom the Portuguese had been represented by the Arabian and Persian merchants (and not very unjustly) as lawless pirates, who, under the pretext of establishing commercial treaties, had, at first by encroachments, and afterwards with insolent rapacity, ruined and enslaved the princes who were weak enough to put a confidence in them, or to allow them a footing in their dominions. He escaped the snares that were laid for him but lost many of his people, and, leaving others in captivity, he returned to Europe, and gave an account of his proceedings to the king.
A fleet was sent out in the year 1510 under Diogo Mendez to establish the Portuguese interests at Malacca; but Affonso d’Alboquerque, the governor of their affairs in India, thought proper to detain this squadron on the coast of Malabar until he could proceed thither himself with a greater force.
And accordingly on the second of May 1511 he set sail from Cochin with nineteen ships and fourteen hundred men. He touched at Pidir, where he found some of his countrymen who had made their escape from Malacca in a boat and sought protection on the Sumatran shore. They represented that, arriving off Pase, they had been ill-treated by the natives, who killed one of their party and obliged them to fly to Pidir, where they met with hospitality and kindness from the prince, who seemed desirous to conciliate the regard of their nation. Alboquerque expressed himself sensible of this instance of friendship, and renewed with the sultan the alliance that had been formed by Sequeira. He then proceeded to Pase, whose monarch endeavoured to exculpate himself from the outrage committed against the Portuguese fugitives, and as he could not tarry to take redress he concealed his resentment. In crossing over to Malacca he fell in with a large junk, or country vessel, which he engaged and attempted to board, but the enemy, setting fire to a quantity of inflammable oleaginous matter,
he was deterred from his design, with a narrow escape of the destruction of his own ship. The junk was then battered from a distance until forty of her men were killed, when Alboquerque, admiring the bravery of the crew, proposed to them that, if they would strike and acknowledge themselves vassals of Portugal, he would treat them as friends and take them under his protection. This offer was accepted, and the valiant defender of the vessel informed the governor that his name was Jeinal, the lawful heir of the kingdom of Pase; he by whom it was then ruled being a usurper, who, taking advantage of his minority and his own situation as regent, had seized the crown: that he had made attempts to assert his rights, but had been defeated in two battles, and was now proceeding with his adherents to Java, some of the princes of which were his relations, and would, he hoped, enable him to obtain possession of his throne.
Alboquerque promised to effect it for him, and desired the prince to accompany him to Malacca, where they arrived the first of July 1511. In order to save the lives of the Portuguese prisoners, and if possible to effect their recovery, he negotiated with the king of Malacca before he proceeded to an attack on the place; which conduct of his Jeinal construed into fear, and, forsaking his new friend, passed over in the night to the Malayan monarch, whose protection he thought of more consequence to him. When Alboquerque had subdued the place, which made a vigorous resistance, the prince of Pase, seeing the error of his policy, returned, and threw himself at the governor’s feet,
acknowledged his injurious mistrust, and implored his pardon, which was not denied him. He doubted however it seems of a sincere reconciliation and forgiveness, and, perceiving that no measures were taking for restoring him to his kingdom, but on the contrary that Alboquerque was preparing to leave Malacca with a small force, and talked of performing his promise when he should return from Goa, he took the resolution of again attaching himself to the fortunes of the conquered monarch, and secretly collecting his dependants fled once more from the protection of the Portuguese. He probably was not insensible that the reigning king of Pase, his adversary, had for some time taken abundant pains to procure the favour of Alboquerque, and found an occasion of demonstrating his zeal. The governor, on his return from Malacca, met with a violent storm on the coast of Sumatra near the point of Timiang, where his ship was wrecked. Part of the crew making a raft were driven to Pase, where the king treated them with kindness and sent them to the coast of Coromandel by a merchant ship. Some years after these events Jeinal was enabled by his friends to carry a force to Pase, and obtained the ascendency there, but did not long enjoy his power.
Upon the reduction of Malacca the governor received messages from several of the Sumatran princes, and amongst the rest from the king of a place called Kampar, on the eastern coast, who had married a daughter of the king of Malacca, but was on ill terms with his father-in-law.
He desired to become a vassal of the Portuguese crown, and to have leave to reside under their jurisdiction. His view was to obtain the important office of bandhara, or chief magistrate of the Malays, lately vacant by the execution of him who possessed it. He sent before him a present of lignum-aloes and gum-lac, the produce of his country, but Alboquerque, suspecting the honesty of his intentions, and fearing that he either aspired to the crown of Malacca or designed to entice the merchants to resort to his own kingdom, refused to permit his coming, and gave the superintendence of the natives to a person named Nina Chetuan.
After some years had elapsed, at the time when Jorge Alboquerque was governor of Malacca, this king (Abdallah by name) persisting in his views, paid him a visit, and was honourably received. At his departure he had assurances given him of liberty to establish himself at Malacca, if he should think proper, and Nina Chetuan was shortly afterwards removed from his office, though no fault was alleged against him. He took the disgrace so much to heart that, causing a pile to be erected before his door, and setting fire to it, he threw himself into the flames.*
(*Footnote. This man was not a Mahometan but one of the unconverted natives of the peninsula who are always distinguished from the Moors by the Portuguese writers.)
The intention of appointing Abdallah to the office of bandhara was quickly rumoured abroad,
and, coming to the knowledge of the king of Bintang, who was driven from Malacca and now carried on a vigorous war against the Portuguese, under the command of the famous Laksamana, he resolved to prevent his arrival there. For this purpose he leagued himself with the king of Lingga, a neighbouring island, and sent out a fleet of seventy armed boats to block up the port of Kampar. By the valour of a small Portuguese armament this force was overcome in the river of that name, and the king conducted in triumph to Malacca, where he was invested in form with the important post he aspired to. But this sacrifice of his independence proved an unfortunate measure to him; for although he conducted himself in such a manner as should have given the amplest satisfaction, and appears to have been irreproachable in the execution of his trust, yet in the following year the king of Bintang found means to inspire the governor with diffidence of his fidelity, and jealousy of his power.
He was cruelly sentenced to death without the simplest forms of justice and perished in the presence of an indignant multitude, whilst he called heaven to witness his innocence and direct its vengeance against his interested accusers. This iniquitous and impolitic proceeding had such an effect upon the minds of the people that all of any property or repute forsook the place, execrating the government of the Portuguese. The consequences of this general odium reduced them to extreme difficulties for provisions, which the neighbouring countries refused to supply them with,
and but for some grain at length procured from Siak with much trouble the event had proved fatal to the garrison.
Fernando Perez d’Andrade, in his way to China, touched at Pase in order to take in pepper. He found the people of the place, as well as the merchants from Bengal, Cambay, and other parts of India, much discontented with the measures then pursuing by the government of Malacca, which had stationed an armed force to oblige all vessels to resort thither with their merchandise and take in at that place, as an emporium, the cargoes they were used to collect in the straits. The king notwithstanding received Andrade well, and consented that the Portuguese should have liberty to erect a fortress in his kingdom.
Extraordinary accounts having been related of certain islands abounding in gold, which were reported by the general fame of India to lie off the southern coast of Sumatra, a ship and small brigantine, under the command of Diogo Pacheco, an experienced seaman, were sent in order to make the discovery of them. Having proceeded as far as Daya the brigantine was lost in a gale of wind. Pacheco stood on to Barus, a place renowned for its gold trade, and for gum benzoin of a peculiar scent, which the country produced. It was much frequented by vessels, both from the neighbouring ports in the island, and from those in the West of India, whence it was supplied with cotton cloths.
The merchants, terrified at the approach of the Portuguese, forsook their ships and fled precipitately to the shore. The chiefs of the country sent to inquire the motives of his visit, which he informed them were to establish friendly connexions and to give them assurances of unmolested freedom of trade at the city of Malacca. Refreshments were then ordered for his fleet, and upon landing he was treated with respect by the inhabitants, who brought the articles of their country to exchange with him for merchandise. His chief view was to obtain information respecting the situation and other circumstances of the ilhas d’Ouro, but they seemed jealous of imparting any. At length, after giving him a laboured detail of the dangers attending the navigation of the seas where they were said to lie, they represented their situation to be distant a hundred leagues to the south-east of Barus, amidst labyrinths of shoals and reefs through which it was impossible to steer with any but the smallest boats. If these islands, so celebrated about this time, existed anywhere but in the regions of fancy,* they were probably those of Tiku, to which it is possible that much gold might be brought from the neighbouring country of Menangkabau. Pacheco, leaving Barus, proceeded to the southward, but did not make the wished-for discovery. He reached the channel that divides Sumatra from Java, which he called the strait of Polimban, from a city he erroneously supposed to lie on the Javan shore, and passing through this returned to Malacca by the east; being the first European who sailed round the island of Sumatra. In the following year he sailed once more in search of these islands,
which were afterwards the object of many fruitless voyages; but touching again at Barus he met with resistance there and perished with all his companions.
(*Footnote. Linschoten makes particular mention of having seen them, and gives practical directions for the navigation, but the golden dreams of the Portuguese were never realized in them.)
A little before this time a ship under the command of Gaspar d’Acosta was lost on the island of Gamispola (Pulo Gomez) near Achin Head, when the people from Achin attacked and plundered the crew, killing many and taking the rest prisoners. A ship also which belonged to Joano de Lima was plundered in the road, and the Portuguese which belonged to her put to death. These insults and others committed at Pase induced the governor of Malacca, Garcia de Sa, to dispatch a vessel under Manuel Pacheco to take satisfaction; which he endeavoured to effect by blocking up the ports, and depriving the towns of all sources of provision, particularly their fisheries. As he cruised between Achin and Pase a boat with five men, going to take in fresh water at a river nigh to the latter, would have been cut off had not the people, by wonderful efforts of valour, overcome the numerous party which attacked them. The sultan, alarmed for the consequences of this affray, sent immediately to sue for reconciliation, offering to make atonement for the loss of property the merchants had sustained by the licentiousness of his people, from a participation in whose crimes he sought to vindicate himself.
The advantage derived from the connexion with this place induced the government of Malacca to be satisfied with his apology, and cargoes of pepper and raw silk were shortly after procured there; the former being much wanted for the ships bound to China.
Jeinal, who had fled to the king of Malacca, as before mentioned, followed that monarch to the island of Bintang, and received one of his daughters in marriage. Six or seven years elapsed before the situation of affairs enabled the king to lend him any effectual assistance, but at length some advantages gained over the Portuguese afforded a proper opportunity, and accordingly a fleet was fitted out, with which Jeinal sailed for Pase. In order to form a judgment of the transactions of this kingdom it must be understood that the people, having an idea of predestination, always conceived present possession to constitute right, however that possession might have been acquired; but yet they made no scruple of deposing and murdering their sovereigns, and justified their acts by this argument; that the fate of concerns so important as the lives of kings was in the hands of God, whose vicegerents they were, and that if it was not agreeable to him and the consequence of his will that they should perish by the daggers of their subjects it could not so happen. Thus it appears that their religious ideas were just strong enough to banish from their minds every moral sentiment. The natural consequence of these maxims was that their kings were merely the tyrants of the day; and it is said that whilst a certain ship remained in the port no less than two were murdered, and a third set up:
but allowance should perhaps be made for the medium through which these accounts have been transmitted to us.
The maternal uncle of Jeinal, who, on account of his father’s infirmities, had been some time regent, and had deprived him of the succession to the throne, was also king of Aru or Rou, a country not far distant, and thus became monarch of both places. The caprices of the Pase people, who submitted quietly to his usurpation, rendered them ere long discontented with his government, and being a stranger they had the less compunction in putting him to death. Another king was set up in his room, who soon fell by the hands of some natives of Aru who resided at Pase, in revenge for the assassination of their countryman.
A fresh monarch was elected by the people, and in his reign it was that Jeinal appeared with a force from Bintang, who, carrying everything before him, put his rival to death, and took possession of the throne. The son of the deceased, a youth of about twelve years of age, made his escape, accompanied by the Mulana or chief priest of the city, and procured a conveyance to the west of India. There they threw themselves at the feet of the Portuguese governor, Lopez Sequeira, then engaged in an expedition to the Red Sea, imploring his aid to drive the invader from their country, and to establish the young prince in his rights, who would thenceforth consider himself as a vassal of the crown of Portugal. It was urged that Jeinal, as being nearly allied to the king of Bintang, was an avowed enemy to that nation,
which he had manifested in some recent outrages committed against the merchants from Malacca who traded at Pase. Sequeira, partly from compassion, and partly from political motives, resolved to succour this prince, and by placing him on the throne establish a firm interest in the affairs of his kingdom. He accordingly gave orders to Jorge Alboquerque, who was then proceeding with a strong fleet towards Malacca, to take the youth with him, whose name was Orfacam,* and after having expelled Jeinal to put him in possession of the sovereignty.
(*Footnote. Evidently corrupted, as are most of the country names and titles, which shows that the Portuguese were not at this period much conversant in the Malayan language.)
When Jeinal entered upon the administration of the political concerns of the kingdom, although he had promised his father-in-law to carry on the war in concert with him, yet, being apprehensive of the effects of the Portuguese power, he judged it more for his interest to seek a reconciliation with them than to provoke their resentment, and in pursuance of that system had so far recommended himself to Garcia de Sa, the governor of Malacca, that he formed a treaty of alliance with him. This was however soon interrupted, and chiefly by the imprudence of a man named Diogo Vaz, who made use of such insulting language to the king, because he delayed payment of a sum of money he owed him, that the courtiers, seized with indignation, immediately stabbed him with their krises, and, the alarm running through the city, others of the Portuguese were likewise murdered.
The news of this affair, reaching Goa, was an additional motive for the resolution taken of dethroning him.
Jorge d’Alboquerque arrived at Pase in 1521 with Prince Orfacam, and the inhabitants came off in great numbers to welcome his return. The king of Aru had brought thither a considerable force the preceding day, designing to take satisfaction for the murder of his relation, the uncle of Jeinal, and now proposed to Alboquerque that they should make the attack in conjunction, who thought proper to decline it. Jeinal, although he well knew the intention of the enemy, yet sent a friendly message to Alboquerque, who in answer required him to relinquish his crown in favour of him whom he styled the lawful prince. He then represented to him the injustice of attempting to force him from the possession of what was his, not only by right of conquest but of hereditary descent, as was well known to the governor himself; that he was willing to consider himself as the vassal of the king of Portugal, and to grant every advantage in point of trade that they could expect from the administration of his rival; and that since his obtaining the crown he had manifested the utmost friendship to the Portuguese, for which he appealed to the treaty formed with him by the government of Malacca, which was not disturbed by any fault that could in justice be imputed to himself. These arguments, like all others that pass between states which harbour inimical designs, had no effect upon Alboquerque, who, after reconnoitring the ground, gave orders for the attack.
The king was now sensible that there was nothing left for him but to conquer or die, and resolved to defend himself to extremity in an entrenchment he had formed at some distance from the town of Pase, where he had never yet ventured to reside as the people were in general incensed against him on account of the destruction of the late king of their choice; for though they were ever ready to demolish those whom they disliked, yet were they equally zealous to sacrifice their own lives in the cause of those to whom they were attached. The Portuguese force consisted but of three hundred men, yet such was the superiority they possessed in war over the inhabitants of these countries that they entirely routed Jeinal’s army, which amounted to three thousand, with many elephants, although they fought bravely. When he fell they became dispirited, and, the people of Aru joining in the pursuit, a dreadful slaughter succeeded, and upwards of two thousand Sumatrans lay dead, with the loss of only five or six Europeans; but several were wounded, among whom was Alboquerque himself.
The next measure was to place the young prince upon the throne, which was performed with much ceremony. The mulana was appointed his governor, and Nina Cunapan, who in several instances had shown a friendship for the Portuguese, was continued in the office of Shabandar. It was stipulated that the prince should do homage to the crown of Portugal, give a grant of the whole produce of pepper of his country at a certain price, and defray the charges of a fortress which they then prepared to erect in his kingdom, and of which Miranda d’Azeuedo was appointed captain, with a garrison of a hundred soldiers.
The materials were mostly timber, with which the ruins of Jeinal’s entrenchment supplied them. After Alboquerque’s departure the works had nearly fallen into the hands of an enemy, named Melek-el-adil, who called himself sultan of Pase and made several desultory attacks upon them; but he was at length totally routed, and the fortifications were completed without further molestation.
A fleet which sailed from the west of India a short time after that of Alboquerque, under the command of Jorge de Brito, anchored in the road of Achin, in their way to the Molucca Islands. There was at this time at that place a man of the name of Joano Borba, who spoke the language of the country, having formerly fled thither from Pase when Diogo Vaz was assassinated. Being afterwards intrusted with the command of a trading vessel from Goa, which foundered at sea, he again reached Achin, with nine men in a small boat, and was hospitably received by the king, when he learned that the ship had been destined to his port. Borba came off to the fleet along with a messenger sent by the king to welcome the commander and offer him refreshments for his fleet, and, being a man of extraordinary loquacity, he gave a pompous description to Brito of a temple in the country in which was deposited a large quantity of gold: he mentioned likewise that the king was in possession of the artillery and merchandise of Gaspar d’Acosta’s vessel, some time since wrecked there; and also of the goods saved from a brigantine driven on shore at Daya, in Pacheco’s expedition; as well as of Joano de Lima’s ship,
which he had caused to be cut off. Brito, being tempted by the golden prize, which he conceived already in his power, and inflamed by Borba’s representation of the king’s iniquities, sent a message in return to demand the restitution of the artillery, ship, and goods, which had been unlawfully seized. The king replied that, if he wanted those articles to be refunded, he must make his demand to the sea which had swallowed them up. Brito and his captains now resolved to proceed to an attack upon the place, and so secure did they make themselves of their prey that they refused permission to a ship lately arrived, and which did not belong to their squadron, to join them or participate in the profits of their adventure. They prepared to land two hundred men in small boats; a larger, with a more considerable detachment and their artillery, being ordered to follow. About daybreak they had proceeded halfway up the river, and came near to a little fort designed to defend the passage, where Brito thought it advisable to stop till the remainder of their force should join them; but, being importuned by his people, he advanced to make himself master of the fort, which was readily effected. Here he again resolved to make his stand, but by the imprudence of his ensign, who had drawn some of the party into a skirmish with the Achinese, he was forced to quit that post in order to save his colours, which were in danger. At this juncture the king appeared at the head of eight hundred or a thousand men, and six elephants. A desperate conflict ensued, in which the Portuguese received considerable injury. Brito sent orders for the party he had left to come up, and endeavoured to retreat to the fort, but he found himself so situated that it could not be executed without much loss,
and presently after he received a wound from an arrow through the cheeks. No assistance arriving, it was proposed that they should retire in the best manner they could to their boats; but this Brito would not consent to, preferring death to flight, and immediately a lance pierced his thighs, and he fell to the ground. The Portuguese, rendered desperate, renewed the combat with redoubled vigour, all crowding to the spot where their commander lay, but their exertions availed them nothing against such unequal force, and they only rushed on to sacrifice. Almost every man was killed, and among these were near fifty persons of family who had embarked as volunteers. Those who escaped belonged chiefly to the corps-de-reserve, who did not, or could not, come up in time to succour their unfortunate companions. Upon this merited defeat the squadron immediately weighed anchor, and, after falling in with two vessels bound on the discovery of the Ilhas d’Ouro, arrived at Pase, where they found Alboquerque employed in the construction of his fortress, and went with him to make an attack on Bintang.
STATE OF ACHIN IN 1511.
At the period when Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese Achin and Daya are said by the historians of that nation to have been provinces subject to Pidir, and governed by two slaves belonging to the sultan of that place, to each of whom he had given a niece in marriage. Slaves, it must be understood, are in that country on a different footing from those in most other parts of the world, and usually treated as children of the family. Some of them are natives of the continent of India,
whom their masters employ to trade for them; allowing them a certain proportion of the profits and permission to reside in a separate quarter of the city. It frequently happened also that men of good birth, finding it necessary to obtain the protection of some person in power, became voluntary slaves for this purpose, and the nobles, being proud of such dependants, encouraged the practice by treating them with a degree of respect, and in many instances they made them their heirs. The slave of this description who held the government of Achin had two sons, the elder of whom was named Raja Ibrahim, and the younger Raja Lella, and were brought up in the house of their master. The father being old was recalled from his post; but on account of his faithful services the sultan gave the succession to his eldest son, who appears to have been a youth of an ambitious and very sanguinary temper. A jealousy had taken place between him and the chief of Daya whilst they were together at Pidir, and as soon as he came into power he resolved to seek revenge, and with that view entered in a hostile manner the district of his rival. When the sultan interposed it not only added fuel to his resentment but inspired him with hatred towards his master, and he showed his disrespect by refusing to deliver up, on the requisition of the sultan, certain Portuguese prisoners taken from a vessel lost at Pulo Gomez, and which he afterwards complied with at the intercession of the Shabandar of Pase. This conduct manifesting an intention of entirely throwing off his allegiance, his father endeavoured to recall him to a sense of his duty by representing the obligations in which the family were indebted to the sultan, and the relationship which so nearly connected them.
But so far was this admonition from producing any good effect that he took offence at his father’s presumption, and ordered him to be confined in a cage, where he died.
Irritated by these acts, the sultan resolved to proceed to extremities against him; but by means of the plunder of some Portuguese vessels, as before related, and the recent defeat of Brito’s party, he became so strong in artillery and ammunition, and so much elated with success, that he set his master at defiance and prepared to defend himself. His force proved superior to that of Pidir, and in the end he obliged the sultan to fly for refuge and assistance to the European fortress at Pase, accompanied by his nephew, the chief of Daya, who was also forced from his possessions.
Ibrahim had for some time infested the Portuguese by sending out parties against them, both by sea and land; but these being always baffled in their attempts with much loss, he began to conceive a violent antipathy against that nation, which he ever after indulged to excess. He got possession of the city of Pidir by bribing the principal officers, a mode of warfare that he often found successful and seldom neglected to attempt. These he prevailed upon to write a letter to their master, couched in artful terms, in which they besought him to come to their assistance with a body of Portuguese, as the only chance of repelling the enemy by whom they pretended to be invested. The sultan showed this letter to Andre Henriquez,
then governor of the fort, who, thinking it a good opportunity to chastise the Achinese, sent by sea a detachment of eighty Europeans and two hundred Malays under the command of his brother Manuel, whilst the sultan marched overland with a thousand men and fifteen elephants to the relief of the place. They arrived at Pidir in the night, but, being secretly informed that the king of Achin was master of the city, and that the demand for succour was a stratagem, they endeavoured to make their retreat; which the land troops effected, but before the tide could enable the Portuguese to get their boats afloat they were attacked by the Achinese, who killed Manuel and thirty-five of his men.
Henriquez, perceiving his situation at Pase was becoming critical, not only from the force of the enemy but the sickly state of his garrison, and the want of provisions, which the country people now withheld from him, discontinuing the fairs that they were used to keep three times in the week, dispatched advices to the governor of India, demanding immediate succours, and also sent to request assistance of the king of Aru, who had always proved the steadfast friend of Malacca, and who, though not wealthy, because his country was not a place of trade, was yet one of the most powerful princes in those parts. The king expressed his joy in having an opportunity of serving his allies, and promised his utmost aid; not only from friendship to them, but indignation against Ibrahim, whom he regarded as a rebellious slave.
A supply of stores at length arrived from India under the charge of Lopo d’Azuedo, who had orders to relieve Henriquez in the command; but, disputes having arisen between them, and chiefly on the subject of certain works which the shabandar of Pase had been permitted to erect adjoining to the fortress, d’Azuedo, to avoid coming to an open rupture, departed for Malacca. Ibrahim, having found means to corrupt the honesty of this shabandar, who had received his office from Alboquerque, gained intelligence through him of all that passed. This treason, it is supposed, he would not have yielded to but for the desperate situation of affairs. The country of Pase was now entirely in subjection to the Achinese, and nothing remained unconquered but the capital, whilst the garrison was distracted with internal divisions.
After the acquisition of Pidir the king thought it necessary to remain there some time in order to confirm his authority, and sent his brother Raja Lella with a large army to reduce the territories of Pase, which he effected in the course of three months, and with the more facility because all the principal nobility had fallen in the action with Jeinal. He fixed his camp within half a league of the city, and gave notice to Ibrahim of the state in which matters were, who speedily joined him, being anxious to render himself master of the place before the promised succours from the king of Aru could arrive. His first step was to issue a proclamation, giving notice to the people of the town that whoever should submit to his authority
within six days should have their lives, families, and properties secured to them, but that all others must expect to feel the punishment due to their obstinacy. This had the effect he looked for, the greater part of the inhabitants coming over to his camp. He then commenced his military operations, and in the third attack got possession of the town after much slaughter; those who escaped his fury taking shelter in the neighbouring mountains and thick woods. He sent a message to the commander of the fortress, requiring him to abandon it and to deliver into his hands the kings of Pidir and Daya, to whom he had given protection. Henriquez returned a spirited answer to this summons, but, being sickly at the time, at best of an unsteady disposition, and too much attached to his trading concerns for a soldier, he resolved to relinquish the command to his relation Aires Coelho, and take passage for the West of India.
He had not advanced farther on his voyage than the point of Pidir, when he fell in with two Portuguese ships bound to the Moluccas, the captains of which he made acquainted with the situation of the garrison, and they immediately proceeded to its relief. Arriving in the night they heard great firing of cannon, and learned next morning that the Achinese had made a furious assault in hopes of carrying the fortress before the ships, which were descried at a distance, could throw succours into it. They had mastered some of the outworks, and the garrison represented that it was impossible for them to support such another shock without aid from the vessels.
The captains, with as much force as could be spared, entered the fort, and a sally was shortly afterwards resolved on and executed, in which the besiegers sustained considerable damage. Every effort was likewise employed to repair the breaches and stop up the mines that had been made by the enemy in order to effect a passage into the place. Ibrahim now attempted to draw them into a snare by removing his camp to a distance and making a feint of abandoning his enterprise; but this stratagem proved ineffectual. Reflecting then with indignation that his own force consisted of fifteen thousand men whilst that of the Europeans did not exceed three hundred and fifty, many of whom were sick and wounded, and others worn out with the fatigue of continual duty (intelligence whereof was conveyed to him), he resolved once more to return to the siege, and make a general assault upon all parts of the fortification at once. Two hours before daybreak he caused the place to be surrounded with eight thousand men, who approached in perfect silence. The nighttime was preferred by these people for making their attacks as being then most secure from the effect of firearms, and they also generally chose a time of rain, when the powder would not burn. As soon as they found themselves perceived they set up a hideous shout, and, fixing their scaling ladders, made of bamboo and wonderfully light, to the number of six hundred, they attempted to force their way through the embrasures for the guns; but after a strenuous contest they were at length repulsed. Seven elephants were driven with violence against the paling of one of the bastions, which gave way before them like a hedge, and overset all the men who were on it. Javelin
s and pikes these enormous beasts made no account of, but upon setting fire to powder under their trunks they drew back with precipitation in spite of all the efforts of their drivers, overthrew their own people, and, flying to the distance of several miles, could not again be brought into the lines. The Achinese upon receiving this check thought to take revenge by setting fire to some vessels that were in the dockyard; but this proved an unfortunate measure to them, for by the light which it occasioned the garrison were enabled to point their guns, and did abundant execution.
Henriquez, after beating sometime against a contrary wind, put back to Pase, and, coming on shore the day after this conflict, resumed his command. A council was soon after held to determine what measures were fittest to be pursued in the present situation of affairs, and, taking into their consideration that no further assistance could be expected from the west of India in less than six months, that the garrison was sickly and provisions short, it was resolved by a majority of votes to abandon the place, and measures were taken accordingly. In order to conceal their intentions from the enemy they ordered such of the artillery and stores as could be removed conveniently to be packed up in the form of merchandise and then shipped off. A party was left to set fire to the buildings, and trains of powder were so disposed as to lead to the larger cannon, which they overcharged that they might burst as soon as heated. But this was not effectually executed, and the pieces mostly fell into the hands of the Achinese,
who upon the first alarm of the evacuation rushed in, extinguished the flames, and turned upon the Portuguese their own artillery, many of whom were killed in the water as they hurried to get into their boats. They now lost as much credit by this ill conducted retreat as they had acquired by their gallant defence, and were insulted by the reproachful shouts of the enemy, whose power was greatly increased by this acquisition of military stores, and of which they often severely experienced the effects. To render their disgrace more striking it happened that as they sailed out of the harbour they met thirty boats laden with provisions for their use from the king of Aru, who was himself on his march overland with four thousand men: and when they arrived at Malacca they found troops and stores embarked there for their relief. The unfortunate princes who had sought an asylum with them now joined in their flight; the sultan of Pase proceeded to Malacca, and the sultan of Pidir and chief of Daya took refuge with the king of Aru.
Raja Nara, king of Indragiri, in conjunction with a force from Bintang, attacked the king of a neighbouring island called Lingga, who was in friendship with the Portuguese. A message which passed on this occasion gives a just idea of the style and manners of this people. Upon their acquainting the king of Lingga, in their summons of surrender, that they had lately overcome the fleet of Malacca, he replied that his intelligence informed him of the contrary; that he had just made a festival and killed fifty goats to celebrate one defeat which they had received,
and hoped soon to kill a hundred in order to celebrate a second. His expectations were fulfilled, or rather anticipated, for the Portuguese, having a knowledge of the king of Indragiri’s design, sent out a small fleet which routed the combined force before the king of Lingga was acquainted with their arrival, his capital being situated high up on the river.
In the next year, at the conquest of Bintang, this king unsolicited sent assistance to his European allies.
However well founded the accounts may have been which the Portuguese have given us of the cruelties committed against their people by the king of Achin, the barbarity does not appear to have been only on one side. Francisco de Mello, being sent in an armed vessel with dispatches to Goa, met near Achin Head with a ship of that nation just arrived from Mecca and supposed to be richly laden. As she had on board three hundred Achinese and forty Arabs he dared not venture to board her, but battered her at a distance, when suddenly she filled and sunk, to the extreme disappointment of the Portuguese, who thereby lost their prize; but they wreaked their vengeance on the unfortunate crew as they endeavoured to save themselves by swimming, and boast that they did not suffer a man to escape. Opportunities of retaliation soon offered.
Simano de Sousa, going with a reinforcement to the Moluccas from Cochin, was overtaken in the bay by a violent storm, which forced him to stow many of his guns in the hold; and, having lost several of his men through fatigue, he made for the nearest port he could take shelter in, which proved to be Achin. The king, having the destruction of the Portuguese at heart, and resolving if possible to seize their vessel, sent off a message to De Sousa recommending his standing in closer to the shore, where he would have more shelter from the gale which still continued, and lie more conveniently for getting off water and provisions, at the same time inviting him to land. This artifice not succeeding, he ordered out the next morning a thousand men in twenty boats, who at first pretended they were come to assist in mooring the ship; but the captain, aware of their hostile design, fired amongst them, when a fierce engagement took place in which the Achinese were repulsed with great slaughter, but not until they had destroyed forty of the Portuguese. The king, enraged at this disappointment, ordered a second attack, threatening to have his admiral trampled to death by elephants if he failed of success. A boat was sent ahead of this fleet with a signal of peace, and assurances to De Sousa that the king, as soon as he was made acquainted with the injury that had been committed, had caused the perpetrators of it to be punished, and now once more requested him to come on shore and trust to his honour. This proposal some of the crew were inclined that he should accept,
but being animated by a speech that he made to them it was resolved that they should die with arms in their hands in preference to a disgraceful and hazardous submission. The combat was therefore renewed, with extreme fury on the one side, and uncommon efforts of courage on the other, and the assailants were a second time repulsed; but one of those who had boarded the vessel and afterwards made his escape represented to the Achinese the reduced and helpless situation of their enemy, and, fresh supplies coming off, they were encouraged to return to the attack. De Sousa and his people were at length almost all cut to pieces, and those who survived, being desperately wounded, were overpowered, and led prisoners to the king, who unexpectedly treated them with extraordinary kindness, in order to cover the designs he harboured, and pretended to lament the fate of their brave commander. He directed them to fix upon one of their companions, who should go in his name to the governor of Malacca, to desire he would immediately send to take possession of the ship, which he meant to restore, as well as to liberate them. He hoped by this artifice to draw more of the Portuguese into his power, and at the same time to effect a purpose of a political nature. A war had recently broken out between him and the king of Aru, the latter of whom had deputed ambassadors to Malacca, to solicit assistance, in return for his former services, and which was readily promised to him. It was highly the interest of the king of Achin to prevent this junction, and therefore, though determined to relax nothing in his plans of revenge, he hastened to dispatch Antonio Caldeira, one of the captives, with proposals of accommodation and alliance, offering to restore not only this vessel,
but also the artillery which he had taken at Pase. These terms appeared to the governor too advantageous to be rejected. Conceiving a favourable idea of the king’s intentions, from the confidence which Caldeira, who was deceived by the humanity shown to the wounded captives, appeared to place in his sincerity, he became deaf to the representations that were made to him by more experienced persons of his insidious character. A message was sent back, agreeing to accept his friendship on the proposed conditions, and engaging to withhold the promised succours from the king of Aru. Caldeira, in his way to Achin, touched at an island, where he was cut off with those who accompanied him. The ambassadors from Aru being acquainted with this breach of faith, retired in great disgust, and the king, incensed at the ingratitude shown him, concluded a peace with Achin; but not till after an engagement between their fleets had taken place, in which the victory remained undecided.
In order that he might learn the causes of the obscurity in which his negotiations with Malacca rested, Ibrahim dispatched a secret messenger to Senaia Raja, bandhara of that city, with whom he held a correspondence; desiring also to be informed of the strength of the garrison. Hearing in answer that the governor newly arrived was inclined to think favourably of him, he immediately sent an ambassador to wait on him with assurances of his pacific and friendly disposition, who returned in company with persons empowered, on the governor’s part, to negotiate a treaty of commerce. These, upon their arrival at Achin, were loaded with favours
and costly presents, the news of which quickly flew to Malacca, and, the business they came on being adjusted, they were suffered to depart; but they had not sailed far before they were overtaken by boats sent after them, and were stripped and murdered. The governor, who had heard of their setting out, concluded they were lost by accident. Intelligence of this mistaken opinion was transmitted to the king, who thereupon had the audacity to request that he might be honoured with the presence of some Portuguese of rank and consequence in his capital, to ratify in a becoming manner the articles that had been drawn up; as he ardently wished to see that nation trafficking freely in his dominions.
The deluded governor, in compliance with this request, adopted the resolution of sending thither a large ship under the command of Manuel Pacheco, with a rich cargo, the property of himself and several merchants of Malacca, who themselves embarked with the idea of making extraordinary profits. Senaia conveyed notice of this preparation to Achin, informing the king at the same time that, if he could make himself master of this vessel, Malacca must fall an easy prey to him, as the place was weakened of half its force for the equipment. When Pacheco approached the harbour he was surrounded by a great number of boats, and some of the people began to suspect treachery, but so strongly did the spirit of delusion prevail in this business that they could not persuade the captain to put himself on his guard. He soon had reason to repent his credulity. Perceiving an arrow pass close by him
, he hastened to put on his coat of mail, when a second pierced his neck, and he soon expired. The vessel then became an easy prey, and the people, being made prisoners, were shortly afterwards massacred by the king’s order, along with the unfortunate remnant of De Sousa’s crew, so long flattered with the hopes of release. By this capture the king was supposed to have remained in possession of more artillery than was left in Malacca, and he immediately fitted out a fleet to take advantage of its exposed state. The pride of success causing him to imagine it already in his power, he sent a taunting message to the governor in which he thanked him for the late instances of his liberality, and let him know he should trouble him for the remainder of his naval force.
Senaia had promised to put the citadel into his hands, and this had certainly been executed but for an accident that discovered his treasonable designs. The crews of some vessels of the Achinese fleet landed on a part of the coast not far from the city, where they were well entertained by the natives, and in the openness of conviviality related the transactions which had lately passed at Achin, the correspondence of Senaia, and the scheme that was laid for rising on the Portuguese when they should be at church, murdering them, and seizing the fortress. Intelligence of this was reported with speed to the governor, who had Senaia instantly apprehended and executed. This punishment served to intimidate those among the inhabitants who were engaged in the conspiracy, and disconcerted the plans of the king of Achin.
This appears to be the last transaction of Ibrahim’s reign recorded by the Portuguese historians. His death is stated by De Barros to have taken place in the year 1528 in consequence of poison administered to him by one of his wives, to revenge the injuries her brother, the chief of Daya, had suffered at his hand. In a Malayan work (lately come into my possession) containing the annals of the kingdom of Achin, it is said that a king, whose title was sultan Saleh-eddin-shah, obtained the sovereignty in a year answering to 1511 of our era, and who, after reigning about eighteen years, was dethroned by a brother in 1529. Notwithstanding some apparent discordance between the two accounts there can be little doubt of the circumstances applying to the same individual, as it may well be presumed that, according to the usual practice in the East, he adopted upon ascending the throne a title different from the name which he had originally borne, although that might continue to be his more familiar appellation, especially in the mouths of his enemies. The want of precise coincidence in the dates cannot be thought an objection, as the event not falling under the immediate observation of the Portuguese they cannot pretend to accuracy within a few months, and even their account of the subsequent transactions renders it more probable that it happened in 1529; nor are the facts of his being dethroned by the brother, or put to death by the sister, materially at variance with each other; and the latter circumstance, whether true or false, might naturally enough be reported at Malacca.
His successor took the name of Ala-eddin-shah, and afterwards, from his great enterprises, acquired the additional epithet of keher or the powerful. By the Portuguese he is said to have styled himself king of Achin, Barus, Pidir, Pase, Daya, and Batta, prince of the land of the two seas, and of the mines of Menangkabau.
Nothing is recorded of his reign until the year 1537, in which he twice attacked Malacca. The first time he sent an army of three thousand men who landed near the city by night, unperceived by the garrison, and, having committed some ravages in the suburbs, were advancing to the bridge, when the governor, Estavano de Gama, sallied out with a party and obliged them to retreat for shelter to the woods. Here they defended themselves during the next day, but on the following night they re-embarked, with the loss of five hundred men. A few months afterwards the king had the place invested with a larger force; but in the interval the works had been repaired and strengthened, and after three days ineffectual attempt the Achinese were again constrained to retire.
In the year 1547 he once more fitted out a fleet against Malacca, where a descent was made; but, contented with some trifling plunder,
the army re-embarked, and the vessels proceeded to the river of Parles on the Malayan coast. Hither they were followed by a Portuguese squadron, which attacked and defeated a division of the fleet at the mouth of the river. This victory was rendered famous, not so much by the valour of the combatants, as by a revelation opportunely made from heaven to the celebrated missionary Francisco Xavier of the time and circumstances of it, and which he announced to the garrison at a moment when the approach of a powerful invader from another quarter had caused much alarm and apprehension among them.
Many transactions of the reign of this prince, particularly with the neighbouring states of Batta and Aru (about the years 1539 and 1541) are mentioned by Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; but his writings are too apocryphal to allow of the facts being recorded upon his authority. Yet there is the strongest internal evidence of his having been more intimately acquainted with the countries of which we are now speaking, the character of the inhabitants, and the political transactions of the period, than any of his contemporaries; and it appears highly probable that what he has related is substantially true: but there is also reason to believe that he composed his work from recollection after his return to Europe, and he may not have been scrupulous in supplying from a fertile imagination the unavoidable failures of a memory, however richly stored.
The death of Ala-eddin took place, according to the Annals, in 1556, after a reign of twenty-eight years.
He was succeeded by sultan Husseinshah, who reigned about eight, and dying in 1565 was succeeded by his son, an infant. This child survived only seven months; and in the same year the throne was occupied by Raja Firman-shah, who was murdered soon after.
His successor, Raja Janil, experienced a similar fate when he had reigned ten months. This event is placed in 1567. Sultan Mansur-shah, from the kingdom of Perak in the peninsula, was the next who ascended the throne.
The western powers of India having formed a league for the purpose of extirpating the Portuguese, the king of Achin was invited to accede to it, and, in conformity with the engagements by which the respective parties were bound, he prepared to attack them in Malacca, and carried thither a numerous fleet, in which were fifteen thousand people of his own subjects, and four hundred Turks, with two hundred pieces of artillery of different sizes. In order to amuse the enemy he gave out that his force was destined against Java, and sent a letter, accompanied with a present of a kris, to the governor, professing strong sentiments of friendship. A person whom he turned on shore with marks of ignominy, being suspected for a spy, was taken up, and being put to the torture confessed that he was employed by the Ottoman emperor
and king of Achin to poison the principal officers of the place, and to set fire to their magazine. He was put to death, and his mutilated carcase was sent off to the king. This was the signal for hostilities. He immediately landed with all his men and commenced a regular siege. Sallies were made with various success and very unequal numbers. In one of these the chief of Aru, the king’s eldest son, was killed. In another the Portuguese were defeated and lost many officers. A variety of stratagems were employed to work upon the fears and shake the fidelity of the inhabitants of the town. A general assault was given in which, after prodigious efforts of courage, and imminent risk of destruction, the besieged remained victorious. The king, seeing all his attempts fruitless, at length departed, having lost three thousand men before the walls, beside about five hundred who were said to have died of their wounds on the passage. The king of Ujong-tanah or Johor, who arrived with a fleet to the assistance of the place, found the sea for a long distance covered with dead bodies. This was esteemed one of the most desperate and honourable sieges the Portuguese experienced in India, their whole force consisting of but fifteen hundred men, of whom no more than two hundred were Europeans.
In the following year a vessel from Achin bound to Java, with ambassadors on board to the queen of Japara, in whom the king wished to raise up a new enemy against the Portuguese, was met in the straits by a vessel from Malacca, who took her and put all the people to the sword.
It appears to have been a maxim in these wars never to give quarter to an enemy, whether resisting or submitting.
In 1569 a single ship, commanded by Lopez Carrasco, passing near Achin, fell in with a fleet coming out of that port, consisting of twenty large galleys and a hundred and eighty other vessels, commanded by the king in person, and supposed to be designed against Malacca. The situation of the Portuguese was desperate. They could not expect to escape, and therefore resolved to die like men. During three days they sustained a continual attack, when, after having by incredible exertions destroyed forty of the enemy’s vessels, and being themselves reduced to the state of a wreck, a second ship appeared in sight. The king perceiving this retired into the harbour with his shattered forces.
It is difficult to determine which of the two is the more astonishing, the vigorous stand made by such a handful of men as the whole strength of Malacca consisted of, or the prodigious resources and perseverance of the Achinese monarch.
In 1573, after forming an alliance with the queen of Japara, the object of which was the destruction of the European power, he appeared again before Malacca with ninety vessels, twenty-five of them large galleys, with seven thousand men and great store of artillery
. He began his operations by sending a party to set fire to the suburbs of the town, but a timely shower of rain prevented its taking effect. He then resolved on a different mode of warfare, and tried to starve the place to a surrender by blocking up the harbour and cutting off all supplies of provisions. The Portuguese, to prevent the fatal consequences of this measure, collected those few vessels which they were masters of, and, a merchant ship of some force arriving opportunely, they put to sea, attacked the enemy’s fleet, killed the principal captain, and obtained a complete victory.
In the year following Malacca was invested by an armada from the queen of Japara, of three hundred sail, eighty of which were junks of four hundred tons burden. After besieging the place for three months, till the very air became corrupted by their stay, the fleet retired with little more than five thousand men, of fifteen that embarked on the expedition.
Scarcely was the Javanese force departed when the king of Achin once more appeared with a fleet that is described as covering the straits. He ordered an attack upon three Portuguese frigates that were in the road protecting some provision vessels, which was executed with such a furious discharge of artillery that they were presently destroyed with all their crews. This was a dreadful blow to Malacca, and lamented, as the historian relates,
with tears of blood by the little garrison, who were not now above a hundred and fifty men, and of those a great part noneffective. The king, elated with his success, landed his troops, and laid siege to the fort, which he battered at intervals during seventeen days. The fire of the Portuguese became very slack, and after some time totally ceased, as the governor judged it prudent to reserve his small stock of ammunition for an effort at the last extremity. The king, alarmed at this silence, which he construed into a preparation for some dangerous stratagem, was seized with a panic, and, suddenly raising the siege, embarked with the utmost precipitation; unexpectedly relieving the garrison from the ruin that hung over it, and which seemed inevitable in the ordinary course of events.
In 1582 we find the king appearing again before Malacca with a hundred and fifty sail of vessels. After some skirmishes with the Portuguese ships, in which the success was nearly equal on both sides, the Achinese proceeded to attack Johor, the king of which was then in alliance with Malacca. Twelve ships followed them thither, and, having burned some of their galleys, defeated the rest and obliged them to fly to Achin. The operations of these campaigns, and particularly the valour of the commander, named Raja Makuta, are alluded to in Queen Elizabeth’s letter to the king, delivered in 1602 by Sir James Lancaster.
About three or four years after this misfortune Mansur-shah prepared a fleet of no less than three hundred sail of vessels,
and was ready to embark once more upon his favourite enterprise, when he was murdered, together with his queen and many of the principal nobility, by the general of the forces, who had long formed designs upon the crown.
This was perpetrated in May 1585, when he had reigned nearly eighteen years. In his time the consequence of the kingdom of Achin is represented to have arrived at a considerable height, and its friendship to have been courted by the most powerful states. No city in India possessed a more flourishing trade, the port being crowded with merchant vessels which were encouraged to resort thither by the moderate rates of the customs levied; and although the Portuguese and their ships were continually plundered, those belonging to every Asiatic power, from Mecca in the West to Japan in the East, appear to have enjoyed protection and security. The despotic authority of the monarch was counterpoised by the influence of the orang-kayas or nobility, who are described as being possessed of great wealth, living in fortified houses, surrounded by numerous dependants, and feeling themselves above control, often giving a licentious range to their proud and impatient tempers.
The late monarch’s daughter and only child was married to the king of Johor,* by whom she had a son, who, being regarded as heir to the crown of Achin, had been brought to the latter place to be educated under the eye of his grandfather. When the general (whose name is corruptly written Moratiza) assumed the powers of government,
he declared himself the protector of this child, and we find him mentioned in the Annals by the title of Sultan Buyong (or the Boy).
(*Footnote. The king of Achin sent on this occasion to Johor a piece of ordnance, such as for greatness, length, and workmanship (says Linschoten), could hardly be matched in all Christendom. It was afterwards taken by the Portuguese, who shipped it for Europe, but the vessel was lost in her passage.)
But before he had completed the third year of his nominal reign he also was dispatched, and the usurper took formal possession of the throne in the year 1588, by the name of Ala-eddin Rayet-shah,* being then at an advanced period of life.
(*Footnote. Valentyn, by an obvious corruption, names him Sulthan Alciden Ryetza, and this coincidence is strongly in favour of the authenticity and correctness of the Annals. John Davis, who will be hereafter mentioned, calls him, with sufficient accuracy, Sultan Aladin.)
The Annals say he was the grandson of Sultan Firman-shah; but the Europeans who visited Achin during his reign report him to have been originally a fisherman, who, having afterwards served in the wars against Malacca, showed so much courage, prudence,
and skill in maritime affairs that the late king made him at length the chief commander of his forces, and gave him one of his nearest kinswomen to wife, in right of whom he is said to have laid claim to the throne.
The French Commodore Beaulieu relates the circumstances of this revolution in a very different manner.*
(*Footnote. The commodore had great opportunity of information, was a man of very superior ability, and indefatigable in his inquiries upon all subjects, as appears by the excellent account of his voyage, and of Achin in particular, written by himself, and published in Thevenot’s collection, of which there is an English translation in Harris; but it is possible he may, in this instance, have been amused by a plausible tale from the grandson of this monarch, with whom he had much intercourse. John Davis, an intelligent English navigator whose account I have followed, might have been more likely to hear the truth as he was at Achin (though not a frequenter of the court) during Ala-eddin’s reign, whereas Beaulieu did not arrive till twenty’ years after, and the report of his having been originally a fisherman is also mentioned by the Dutch writers.)
He says that, upon the extinction of the ancient royal line, which happened about forty years before the period at which he wrote, the orang-kayas met in order to choose a king, but, every one affecting the dignity for himself, they could not agree and resolved to decide it by force. In this ferment the cadi or chief judge by his authority
and remonstrances persuaded them to offer the crown to a certain noble who in all these divisions had taken no part, but had lived in the reputation of a wise, experienced man, being then seventy years of age, and descended from one of the most respectable families of the country. After several excuses on his side, and entreaties and even threats on theirs, he at length consented to accept the dignity thus imposed upon him, provided they should regard him as a father, and receive correction from him as his children; but no sooner was he in possession of the sovereign power than (like Pope Sixtus the Fifth) he showed a different face, and the first step after his accession was to invite the orang-kayas to a feast, where, as they were separately introduced, he caused them to be seized and murdered in a court behind the palace. He then proceeded to demolish their fortified houses, and lodged their cannon, arms, and goods in the castle, taking measures to prevent in future the erection of any buildings of substantial materials that could afford him grounds of jealousy. He raised his own adherents from the lower class of people to the first dignities of the state, and of those who presumed to express any disapprobation of his conduct he made great slaughter, being supposed to have executed not less than twenty thousand persons in the first year of his reign.
From the silence of the Portuguese writers with respect to the actions of this king we have reason to conclude that he did not make any attempts to disturb their settlement of Malacca; and it even appears that some persons in the character of ambassadors
or agents from that power resided at Achin, the principal object of whose policy appears to have been that of inspiring him with jealousy and hatred of the Hollanders, who in their turn were actively exerting themselves to supplant the conquerors of India.
Towards the close of the sixteenth century they began to navigate these seas; and in June 1600 visited Achin with two ships, but had no cause to boast of the hospitality of their reception. An attempt was made to cut them off, and evidently by the orders or connivance of the king, who had prevailed upon the Dutch admiral to take on board troops and military stores for an expedition meditated, or pretended, against the city of Johor, which these ships were to bombard. Several of the crews were murdered, but after a desperate conflict in both ships the treacherous assailants were overcome and driven into the water, “and it was some pleasure (says John Davis, an Englishman, who was the principal pilot of the squadron) to see how the base Indians did fly, how they were killed, and how well they were drowned.”* This barbarous and apparently unprovoked attack was attributed, but perhaps without any just grounds, to the instigation of the Portuguese.
(*Footnote. All the Dutchmen on shore at the time were made prisoners, and many of them continued in that state for several years. Among these was Captain Frederick Houtman, whose Vocabulary of the Malayan language was printed at Amsterdam in 1604, being the first that was published in Europe. My copy has the writer’s autograph.)
In November 1600 Paulus van Caarden, having also the command of two Dutch ships, was received upon his landing with much ceremony; but at his first audience the king refused to read a letter from the Prince of Orange, upon its being suggested to him that instead of paper it was written on the skin of an unclean animal; and the subsequent treatment experienced by this officer was uniformly bad. It appears however that in December 1601 the king was so far reconciled to this new power as to send two ambassadors to Holland, one of whom died there in August 1602, and the other returned to Achin subsequently to the death of his master.
The first English fleet that made its appearance in this part of the world, and laid the foundation of a commerce which was in time to eclipse that of every other European state, arrived at Achin in June 1602. Sir James Lancaster, who commanded it, was received by the king with abundant ceremony and respect, which seem with these monarchs to have been usually proportioned to the number of vessels and apparent strength of their foreign guests. The queen of England’s letter was conveyed to court with great pomp, and the general, after delivering a rich present, the most admired article of which was a fan of feathers, declared the purpose of his coming was to establish peace and amity between his royal mistress and her loving brother, the great and mighty king of Achin.
He was invited to a banquet prepared for his entertainment, in which the service was of gold, and the king’s damsels, who were richly attired and adorned with bracelets and jewels, were ordered to divert him with dancing and music. Before he retired he was arrayed by the king in a magnificent habit of the country, and armed with two krises. In the present sent as a return for the queen’s there was, among other matters, a valuable ruby set in a ring. Two of the nobles, one of whom was the chief priest, were appointed to settle with Lancaster the terms of a commercial treaty, which was accordingly drawn up and executed in an explicit and regular manner. The Portuguese ambassador, or more properly the Spanish, as those kingdoms were now united, kept a watchful and jealous eye upon his proceedings; but by bribing the spies who surrounded him he foiled them at their own arts, and acquired intelligence that enabled him to take a rich prize in the straits of Malacca, with which he returned to Achin; and, having loaded what pepper he could procure there, took his departure in November of the same year. On this occasion it was requested by the king that he and his officers would favour him by singing one of the psalms of David, which was performed with much solemnity.
Very little is known of the military transactions of this reign, and no conquest but that of Pase is recorded. He had two sons, the younger of whom he made king of Pidir, and the elder, styled Sultan Muda, he kept at Achin, in order to succeed him in the throne. In the year 1603 he resolved to divide the charge of government with his intended heir, as he found his extraordinary age began to render him unequal to the task,
and accordingly invested him with royal dignity; but the effect which might have been foreseen quickly followed this measure. The son, who was already advanced in years, became impatient to enjoy more complete power, and, thinking his father had possessed the crown sufficiently long, he confined him in a prison, where his days were soon ended.
The exact period at which this event took place is not known, but, calculating from the duration of his reign as stated in the Annals, it must have been early in the year 1604.* He was then ninety-five years of age,** and described to be a hale man, but extremely gross and fat.
(*Footnote. The Dutch commander Joris van Spilbergen took leave of him in April 1603, and his ambassador to Holland, who returned in December, 1604, found his son on the throne, according to Valentyn. Commodore Beaulieu says he died in 1603.)
(**Footnote. According to Beaulieu Davis says he was about a hundred; and the Dutch voyages mention that his great age prevented his ever appearing out of his palace.)
His constitution must have been uncommonly vigorous, and his muscular strength is indicated by this ludicrous circumstance, that when he once condescended to embrace a Dutch admiral, contrary to the usual manners of his country, the pressure of his arms was so violent as to cause excessive pain to the person so honoured. He was passionately addicted to women, gaming, and drink,
his favourite beverage being arrack. By the severity of his punishments he kept his subjects in extreme awe of him; and the merchants were obliged to submit to more exactions and oppressions than were felt under the government of his predecessors. The seizure of certain vessels belonging to the people of Bantam and other arbitrary proceedings of that nature are said to have deterred the traders of India from entering into his ports.
The new king, who took the name of Ali Maghayat-shah, proved himself, from indolence or want of capacity, unfit to reign. He was always surrounded by his women, who were not only his attendants but his guards, and carried arms for that purpose. His occupations were the bath and the chase, and the affairs of state were neglected insomuch that murders, robberies, oppression, and an infinity of disorders took place in the kingdom for want of a regular and strict administration of justice. A son of the daughter of Ala-eddin had been a favourite of his grandfather, at the time of whose death he was twenty-three years of age, and continued, with his mother, to reside at the court after that event. His uncle the king of Achin having given him a rebuke on some occasion, he left his palace abruptly and fled to the king of Pidir, who received him with affection, and refused to send him back at the desire of the elder brother, or to offer any violence to a young prince whom their father loved. This was the occasion of an inveterate war which cost the lives of many thousand people. The nephew commanded the forces of Pidir, and for some time maintained the advantage,
but these, at length seeing themselves much inferior in numbers to the army of Ali-Maghayat, refused to march, and the king was obliged to give him up, when he was conveyed to Achin and put in close confinement.
Not long afterwards a Portuguese squadron under Martin Alfonso, going to the relief of Malacca, then besieged by the Dutch, anchored in Achin road with the resolution of taking revenge on the king for receiving these their rivals into his ports, contrary to the stipulations of a treaty that had been entered into between them. The viceroy landed his men, who were opposed by a strong force on the part of the Achinese; but after a stout resistance they gained the first turf fort with two pieces of cannon, and commenced an attack upon the second, of masonry. In this critical juncture the young prince sent a message to his uncle requesting he might be permitted to join the army and expose himself in the ranks, declaring himself more willing to die in battle against the Kafers (so they always affected to call the Portuguese) than to languish like a slave in chains. The fears which operated upon the king’s mind induced him to consent to his release. The prince showed so much bravery on this occasion, and conducted two or three attacks with such success that Alfonso was obliged to order a retreat, after wasting two days and losing three hundred men in this fruitless attempt. The reputation of the prince was raised by this affair to a high pitch amongst the people of Achin. His mother, who was an active, ambitious woman, formed the design of placing him on the throne,
and furnished him with large sums of money, to be distributed in gratuities amongst the principal orang cayas. At the same time he endeavoured to ingratiate himself by his manners with all classes of people. To the rich he was courteous; to the poor he was affable; and he was the constant companion of those who were in the profession of arms. When the king had reigned between three and four years he died suddenly, and at the hour of his death the prince got access to the castle. He bribed the guards, made liberal promises to the officers, advanced a large sum of money to the governor, and sending for the chief priest obliged him by threats to crown him. In fine he managed the revolution so happily that he was proclaimed king before night, to the great joy of the people, who conceived vast hopes from his liberality, courtesy, and valour. The king of Pidir was speedily acquainted with the news of his brother’s death, but not of the subsequent transactions, and came the next day to take possession of his inheritance. As he approached the castle with a small retinue he was seized by orders from the reigning prince, who, forgetting the favours he had received, kept him prisoner for a month, and then, sending him into the country under the pretence of a commodious retreat, had him murdered on the way. Those who put the crown on his head were not better requited; particularly the Maharaja, or governor of the castle. In a short time his disappointed subjects found that instead of being humane he was cruel; instead of being liberal he displayed extreme avarice, and instead of being affable he manifested a temper austere and inexorable.
This king, whom the Annals name Iskander Muda, was known to our travellers by the title of sultan Paduka Sri (words equivalent to most gracious), sovereign of Achin and of the countries of Aru, Dilli, Johor, Pahang, Kedah, and Perak on the one side, and of Barus, Pasaman, Tiku, Sileda, and Priaman on the other. Some of these places were conquered by him, and others he inherited.
He showed much friendship to the Hollanders in the early part of his reign; and in the year 1613 gave permission to the English to settle a factory, granting them many indulgences, in consequence of a letter and present from king James the first. He bestowed on Captain Best, who was the bearer of them, the title of orang kaya putih, and entertained him with the fighting of elephants, buffaloes, rams, and tigers. His answer to king James (a translation of which is to be found in Purchas) is couched in the most friendly terms, and he there styles himself king of all Sumatra. He expressed a strong desire that the king of England should send him one of his countrywomen to wife, and promised to make her eldest son king of all the pepper countries, that so the English might be supplied with that commodity by a monarch of their own nation. But notwithstanding his strong professions of attachment to us, and his natural connexion with the Hollanders, arising from their joint enmity to the Portuguese, it was not many years before he began to oppress both nations and use his endeavours to ruin their trade. He became jealous of their growing power,
and particularly in consequence of intelligence that reached him concerning the encroachments made by the latter in the island of Java.
The conquest of Aru seems never to have been thoroughly effected by the kings of Achin. Paduka Sri carried his arms thither and boasted of having obtained some victories.
In 1613 he subdued Siak in its neighbourhood. Early in the same year he sent an expedition against the kingdom of Johor (which had always maintained a political connexion with Aru) and, reducing the city after a siege of twenty-nine days, plundered it of everything moveable, and made slaves of the miserable inhabitants. The king fled to the island of Bintang, but his youngest brother and coadjutor was taken prisoner and carried to Achin. The old king of Johor, who had so often engaged the Portuguese, left three sons, the eldest of whom succeeded him by the title of Iang de per-tuan.*
(*Footnote. This is not an individual title or proper name, but signifies the sovereign or reigning monarch. In like manner Rega Bongsu signifies the king’s youngest brother, as Raja Muda does the heir apparent.)
The second was made king of Siak, and the third, called Raja Bongsu, reigned jointly with the first. He it was who assisted the Hollanders in the first siege of Malacca, and corresponded with Prince Maurice. T
he king of Achin was married to their sister, but this did not prevent a long and cruel war between them. A Dutch factory at Johor was involved in the consequences of this war, and several of that nation were among the prisoners. In the course of the same year however the king of Achin thought proper to establish Raja Bongsu on the throne of Johor, sending him back for that purpose with great honours, assisting him to rebuild the fort and city, and giving him one of his own sisters in marriage.
In 1615 the king of Achin sailed to the attack of Malacca in a fleet which he had been four years employed in preparing. It consisted of above five hundred sail, of which a hundred were large galleys, greater than any at that time built in Europe, carrying each from six to eight hundred men, with three large cannon and several smaller pieces. These galleys the orang kayas were obliged to furnish, repair, and man, at the peril of their lives. The soldiers served without pay, and carried three months provision at their own charge. In this great fleet there were computed to be sixty thousand men, whom the king commanded in person. His wives and household were taken to sea with him. Coming in sight of the Portuguese ships in the afternoon, they received many shot from them but avoided returning any, as if from contempt. The next day they got ready for battle, and drew up in form of a half moon. A desperate engagement took place and lasted without intermission till midnight, during which the Portuguese admiral was three times boarded, and repeatedly on fire.
Many vessels on both sides were also in flames and afforded light to continue the combat. At length the Achinese gave way, after losing fifty sail of different sizes, and twenty thousand men. They retired to Bancalis, on the eastern coast of Sumatra, and shortly afterwards sailed for Achin, the Portuguese not daring to pursue their victory, both on account of the damage they had sustained and their apprehension of the Hollanders, who were expected at Malacca. The king proposed that the prisoners taken should be mutually given up, which was agreed to, and was the first instance of that act of humanity and civilisation between the two powers.
Three years afterwards the king made a conquest of the cities of Kedah and Perak on the Malayan coast, and also of a place called Dilli in Sumatra. This last had been strongly fortified by the assistance of the Portuguese, and gave an opportunity of displaying much skill in the attack. Trenches were regularly opened before it and a siege carried on for six weeks ere it fell. In the same year the king of Jorcan (a place unknown at present by that name) fled for refuge to Malacca with eighty sail of boats, having been expelled his dominions by the king of Achin. The Portuguese were not in a condition to afford him relief, being themselves surrounded with enemies and fearful of an attack from the Achinese more especially; but the king was then making preparations against an invasion he heard was meditated by the viceroy of Goa. Reciprocal apprehensions kept each party on the defensive.
The French being desirous of participating in the commerce of Achin, of which all the European nations had formed great ideas, and all found themselves disappointed in, sent out a squadron commanded by General Beaulieu, which arrived in January 1621, and finally left it in December of the same year. He brought magnificent presents to the king, but these did not content his insatiable avarice, and he employed a variety of mean arts to draw from him further gifts. Beaulieu met also with many difficulties, and was forced to submit to much extortion in his endeavours to procure a loading of pepper, of which Achin itself, as has been observed, produced but little. The king informed him that he had some time since ordered all the plants to be destroyed, not only because the cultivation of them proved an injury to more useful agriculture, but also lest their produce might tempt the Europeans to serve him, as they had served the kings of Jakatra and Bantam. From this apprehension he had lately been induced to expel the English and Dutch from their settlements at Priaman and Tiku, where the principal quantity of pepper was procured, and of which places he changed the governor every third year to prevent any connexions dangerous to his authority from being formed. He had likewise driven the Dutch from a factory they were attempting to settle at Padang; which place appears to be the most remote on the western coast of the island to which the Achinese conquests at any time extended.
Still retaining a strong desire to possess himself of Malacca, so many years the grand object of Achinese ambition, he imprisoned the ambassador then at his court, and made extraordinary preparations for the siege, which he designed to undertake in person. The laksamana or commander in chief (who had effected all the king’s late conquests) attempted to oppose this resolution; but the maharaja, willing to flatter his master’s propensity, undertook to put him in possession of the city and had the command of the fleet given to him, as the other had of the land forces. The king set out on the expedition with a fleet of two hundred and fifty sail (fortyseven of them not less than a hundred feet in the keel), in which were twenty thousand men well appointed, and a great train of artillery. After being some time on board, with his family and retinue as usual, he determined, on account of an ill omen that was observed, to return to the shore. The generals, proceeding without him, soon arrived before Malacca. Having landed their men they made a judicious disposition, and began the attack with much courage and military skill. The Portuguese were obliged to abandon several of their posts, one of which, after a defence of fifty days, was levelled with the ground, and from its ruins strong works were raised by the laksamana. The maharaja had seized another post advantageously situated. From their several camps they had lines of communication, and the boats on the river were stationed in such a manner that the place was completely invested. Matters were in this posture
when a force of two thousand men came to the assistance of the besieged from the king of Pahang, and likewise five sail of Portuguese vessels from the coast of Coromandel; but all was insufficient to remove so powerful an enemy, although by that time they had lost four thousand of their troops in the different attacks and skirmishes. In the latter end of the year a fleet of thirty sail of ships, large and small, under the command of Nunno Alvarez Botello, having on board nine hundred European soldiers, appeared off Malacca, and blocked up the fleet of Achin in a river about three miles from the town. This entirely altered the complexion of affairs. The besiegers retired from their advanced works and hastened to the defence of their galleys, erecting batteries by the side of the river. The maharaja being summoned to surrender returned a civil but resolute answer. In the night, endeavouring to make his escape with the smaller vessels through the midst of the Portuguese, he was repulsed and wounded. Next day the whole force of the Achinese dropped down the stream with a design to fight their way, but after an engagement of two hours their principal galley, named the Terror of the World, was boarded and taken, after losing five hundred men of seven which she carried. Many other vessels were afterwards captured or sunk. The laksamana hung out a white flag and sent to treat with Nunno, but, some difficulty arising about the terms, the engagement was renewed with great warmth. News was brought to the Portuguese that the maharaja was killed and that the king of Pahang was approaching with a hundred sail of vessels to reinforce them. Still the Achinese kept up a dreadful fire, which seemed to render the final success doubtful;
but at length they sent proposals desiring only to be allowed three galleys of all their fleet to carry away four thousand men who remained of twenty that came before the town. It was answered that they must surrender at discretion; which the laksamana hesitating to do, a furious assault took place both by water and land upon his galleys and works, which were all effectually destroyed or captured, not a ship and scarcely a man escaping. He himself in the last extremity fled to the woods, but was seized ere long by the king of Pahang’s scouts. Being brought before the governor he said to him, with an undaunted countenance, “Behold here the laksamana for the first time overcome!” He was treated with respect but kept a prisoner, and sent on his own famous ship to Goa in order to be from thence conveyed to Portugal: but death deprived his enemies of that distinguished ornament of their triumph.
This signal defeat proved so important a blow to the power of Achin that we read of no further attempts to renew the war until the year 1635, when the king, encouraged by the feuds which at this time prevailed in Malacca, again violated the law of nations, to him little known, by imprisoning their ambassador, and caused all the Portuguese about his court to be murdered. No military operations however immediately took place in consequence of this barbarous proceeding.
In the year 1640 the Dutch with twelve men of war, and the king of Achin with twenty-five galleys, appeared before that harassed and devoted city; which at length, in the following year was wrested from the hands of the Portuguese, who had so long, through such difficulties, maintained possession of it. This year was also marked by the death of the sultan, whom the Dutch writers name Paduka Sri, at the age of sixty, after a reign of thirty-five years; having just lived to see his hereditary foe subdued; and as if the opposition of the Portuguese power, which seems first to have occasioned the rise of that of Achin, was also necessary to its existence, the splendour and consequence of the kingdom from that period rapidly declined.
The prodigious wealth and resources of the monarchy during his reign are best evinced by the expeditions he was enabled to fit out; but being no less covetous than ambitious he contrived to make the expenses fall upon his subjects, and at the same time filled his treasury with gold by pressing the merchants and plundering the neighbouring states. An intelligent person (General Beaulieu), who was for some time at his court, and had opportunities of information on the subject, uses this strong expression–that he was infinitely rich. He constantly employed in his castle three hundred goldsmiths. This would seem an exaggeration, but that it is well known the Malayan princes have them always about them in great numbers at this day, working in the manufacture of filigree, for which the country is so famous.
His naval strength has been already sufficiently described. He was possessed of two thousand brass guns and small arms in proportion. His trained elephants amounted to some hundreds. His armies were probably raised only upon the occasion which called for their acting, and that in a mode similar to what was established under the feudal system in Europe. The valley of Achin alone was said to be able to furnish forty thousand men upon an emergency. A certain number of warriors however were always kept on foot for the protection of the king and his capital. Of these the superior class were called ulubalang, and the inferior amba-raja, who were entirely devoted to his service and resembled the janizaries of Constantinople. Two hundred horsemen nightly patrolled the grounds about the castle, the inner courts and apartments of which were guarded by three thousand women. The king’s eunuchs amounted to five hundred.
The disposition of this monarch was cruel and sanguinary. A multitude of instances are recorded of the horrible barbarity of his punishments, and for the most trivial offences. He imprisoned his own mother and put her to the torture, suspecting her to have been engaged in a conspiracy against him with some of the principal nobles, whom he caused to be executed. He murdered his nephew, the king of Johor’s son, of whose favour with his mother he was jealous. He also put to death a son of the king of Bantam, and another of the king of Pahang, who were both his near relations. None of the royal family survived in 1622 but his own son, a youth of eighteen, who had been thrice banished the court,
and was thought to owe his continuance in life only to his surpassing his father, if possible, in cruelty, and being hated by all ranks of people. He was at one time made king of Pidir but recalled on account of his excesses, confined in prison and put to strange tortures by his father, whom he did not outlive. The whole territory of Achin was almost depopulated by wars, executions, and oppression. The king endeavoured to repeople the country by his conquests. Having ravaged the kingdoms of Johor, Pahang, Kedah, Perak, and Dilli, he transported the inhabitants from those places to Achin, to the number of twenty-two thousand persons. But this barbarous policy did not produce the effect he hoped; for the unhappy people, being brought naked to his dominions, and not allowed any kind of maintenance on their arrival, died of hunger in the streets. In the planning his military enterprises he was generally guided by the distresses of his neighbours, for whom, as for his prey, he unceasingly lay in wait; and his preparatory measures were taken with such secrecy that the execution alone unravelled them. Insidious political craft and wanton delight in blood united in him to complete the character of a tyrant.
It must here be observed that, with respect to the period of this remarkable reign, the European and Malayan authorities are considerably at variance, the latter assigning to it something less than thirty solar years, and placing the death of Iskander Muda in December 1636. The Annals further state that he was succeeded by sultan Ala-eddinMahayat-shah, who reigned only about four years and died in February 1641. That this is the more accurate account I have no hesitation in believing, although Valentyn,
who gives a detail of the king’s magnificent funeral, was persuaded that the reign which ended in 1641 was the same that began in 1607. But he collected his information eighty years after the event, and as it does not appear that any European whose journal has been given to the world was on the spot at that period, the death of an obscure monarch who died after a short reign may well have been confounded by persons at a distance with that of his more celebrated predecessor. Both authorities however are agreed in the important fact that the successor to the throne in 1641 was a female. This person is described by Valentyn as being the wife of the old king, and not his daughter, as by some had been asserted; but from the Annals it appears that she was his daughter, named Taju al-alum; and as it was in her right that Maghayat-shah (certainly her husband), obtained the crown, so upon his decease, there being no male heir, she peaceably succeeded him in the government, and became the first queen regent of Achin. The succession having thenceforward continued nearly sixty years in the female line, this may be regarded as a new era in the history of the country. The nobles finding their power less restrained, and their individual consequence more felt under an administration of this kind than when ruled by kings (as sometimes they were with a rod of iron) supported these pageants, whom they governed as they thought fit, and thereby virtually changed the constitution into an aristocracy or oligarchy. The business of the state was managed by twelve orang-kayas, four of whom were superior to the rest, and among these the maharaja, or governor of the kingdom, was considered as the chief.
It does not appear, nor is it probable, that the queen had the power of appointing or removing any of these great officers. No applications were made to the throne but in their presence, nor any public resolution taken but as they determined in council. The great object of their political jealousy seems to have been the pretensions of the king of Johor to the crown, in virtue of repeated intermarriages between the royal families of the two countries, and it may be presumed that the alarms excited from that quarter materially contributed to reconcile them to the female domination. They are accordingly said to have formed an engagement amongst themselves never to pay obedience to a foreign prince, nor to allow their royal mistress to contract any marriage that might eventually lead to such a consequence.* At the same time, by a new treaty with Johor, its king was indirectly excused from the homage to the crown of Achin which had been insisted upon by her predecessors and was the occasion of frequent wars.
(*Footnote. However fanciful it may be thought, I cannot doubt that the example of our Queen Elizabeth, whose character and government were highly popular with the Achinese on account of her triumphant contest with the united powers of Spain and Portugal, had a strong influence in the establishment of this new species of monarchy, and that the example of her sister’s marriage with Philip may have contributed to the resolution taken by the nobles. The actions of our illustrious queen were a common topic of conversation between the old tyrant and Sir James Lancaster.)
In proportion as the political consequence of the kingdom declined, its history, as noticed by foreigners, becomes obscure. Little is recorded of the transactions of her reign, and it is likely that Achin took no active part in the concerns of neighbouring powers, but suffered the Hollanders, who maintained in general a friendly intercourse with her, to remain in quiet possession of Malacca.
In 1643 they sent an ambassador to compliment her upon her accession, and at the same time to solicit payment for a quantity of valuable jewels ordered by the deceased king, but for the amount of which she declined to make herself responsible.
It is said (but the fact will admit of much doubt) that in 1660 she was inclined to marry one of their countrymen, and would have carried her design into execution had not the East India Company prevented by their authority a connexion that might, as they prudently judged, be productive of embarrassment to their affairs.
The Dutch however complain that she gave assistance to their enemies the people of Perak, and in 1664 it was found necessary to send a squadron under the command of Pieter de Bitter to bring her to reason. As it happened that she was at this time at war with some of her own dependants
he made himself master of several places on the western coast that were nominally at least belonging to Achin.
About 1666 the English establishments at Achin and some ports to the southward appear to have given considerable umbrage to their rivals.
In 1669 the people of Dilli on the north-eastern coast threw off their allegiance, and the power of the kingdom became gradually more and more circumscribed.
This queen died in 1675, after reigning, with a degree of tranquillity little known in these countries, upwards of thirty-four years.
The people being now accustomed and reconciled to female rule, which they found more lenient than that of their kings, acquiesced in general in the established mode of government.
And she was immediately succeeded by another female monarch, named Nur al-alum, who reigned little more than two years and died in 1677.
The queen who succeeded her was named Anayet-shah.
In the year 1684 she received an embassy from the English government of Madras, and appeared at that time to be about forty years. The persons who were on this occasion presented to her express their suspicions, which were suggested to them by a doubt prevailing amongst the inhabitants, that this sovereign was not a real queen, but a eunuch dressed up in female apparel, and imposed on the public by the artifices of the orang kayas. But as such a cheat, though managed with every semblance of reality (which they observe was the case) could not be carried on for any number of years without detection, and as the same idea does not appear to have been entertained at any other period, it is probable they were mistaken in their surmise. Her person they describe to have been large, and her voice surprisingly strong, but not manly.*
(*Footnote. The following curious passage is extracted from the journal of these gentlemen’s proceedings. “We went to give our attendance at the palace this day as customary. Being arrived at the place of audience with the orang cayos, the queen was pleased to order us to come nearer, when her majesty was very inquisitive into the use of our wearing periwigs, and what was the convenience of them; to all which we returned satisfactory answers. After this her majesty desired of Mr. Ord, if it were no affront to him, that he would take off his periwig, that she might see how he appeared without it; which, according to her majesty’s request, he did. She then told us she had heard of our business,
and would give her answer by the orang cayos; and so we retired.” I venture, with submission, to observe that this anecdote seems to put the question of the sex beyond controversy.)
The purport of the embassy was to obtain liberty to erect a fortification in her territory, which she peremptorily refused, being contrary to the established rules of the kingdom; adding that if the governor of Madras would fill her palace with gold she could not permit him to build with brick either fort or house. To have a factory of timber and plank was the utmost indulgence that could be allowed; and on that footing the return of the English, who had not traded there for many years, should be welcomed with great friendship. The queen herself, the orang kayas represented, was not allowed to fortify lest some foreign power might avail themselves of it to enslave the country. In the course of these negotiations it was mentioned that the agriculture of Achin had suffered considerably of late years by reason of a general licence given to all the inhabitants to search for gold in the mountains and rivers which afforded that article; whereas the business had formerly been restricted to certain authorized persons, and the rest obliged to till the ground.
The court feared to give a public sanction for the settlement of the English on any part of the southern coast lest it should embroil them with the other European powers.*
(*Footnote. The design of settling a factory at this period in the dominions of Achin was occasioned by the recent loss of our establishment at Bantam, which had been originally fixed by Sir James Lancaster in 1603. The circumstances of this event were as follows. The old sultan had thought proper to share the regal power with his son in the year 1677, and this measure was attended with the obvious effect of a jealousy between the parent and child, which soon broke forth into open hostilities. The policy of the Dutch led them to take an active part in favour of the young sultan, who had inclined most to their interests and now solicited their aid. The English on the other hand discouraged what appeared to them an unnatural rebellion, but without interfering, as they said, in any other character than that of mediators, or affording military assistance to either party; and which their extreme weakness rather than their assertions renders probable. On the twenty-eighth of March 1682 the Dutch landed a considerable force from Batavia, and soon terminated the war. They placed the young sultan on the throne, delivering the father into his custody, and obtained from him in return for these favours an exclusive privilege of trade in his territories; which was evidently the sole object they had in view. On the first day of April possession was taken of the English factory by a party of Dutch and country soldiers, and on the twelfth the agent and council were obliged to embark with their property on vessels provided for the purpose, which carried them to Batavia. From thence they proceeded to Surat on the twenty-second of August in the following year.
In order to retain a share in the pepper-trade the English turned their thoughts towards Achin, and a deputation, consisting of two gentlemen, of the names of Old and Cawley, was sent thither in 1684; the success of which is above related. It happened that at this time certain Rajas or chiefs of the country of Priaman and other places on the west coast of Sumatra were at Achin also to solicit aid of that court against the Dutch, who had made war upon and otherwise molested them. These immediately applied to Mr. Ord, expressing a strong desire that the English should settle in their respective districts, offering ground for a fort and the exclusive purchase of their pepper. They consented to embark for Madras, where an agreement was formed with them by the governor in the beginning of the year 1685 on the terms they had proposed. In consequence of this an expedition was fitted out with the design of establishing a settlement at Priaman; but a day or two before the ships sailed an invitation to the like purport was received from the chiefs of Bangkaulu (since corruptly called Bencoolen); and as it was known that a considerable proportion of the pepper that used to be exported from Bantam had been collected from the neighbourhood of Bencoolen (at a place called Silebar), it was judged advisable that Mr. Ord, who was the person entrusted with the management of this business, should first proceed thither; particularly as at that season of the year it was the windward port. He arrived there on the twenty-fifth day of June 1685, and, after taking possession of the country assigned to the English Company, and leaving Mr. Broome in charge of the place, he sailed for the purpose of establishing the other settlements.
He stopped first at Indrapura, where he found three Englishmen who were left of a small factory that had been some time before settled there by a man of the name of Du Jardin. Here he learned that the Dutch, having obtained a knowledge of the original intention of our fixing at Priaman, had anticipated us therein and sent a party to occupy the situation. In the meantime it was understood in Europe that this place was the chief of our establishments on the coast, and ships were accordingly consigned thither. The same was supposed at Madras, and troops and stores were sent to reinforce it, which were afterwards landed at Indrapura. A settlement was then formed at Manjuta, and another attempted at Batang-kapas in 1686; but here the Dutch, assisted by a party amongst the natives, assaulted and drove out our people. Every possible opposition, as it was natural to expect, was given by these our rivals to the success of our factories. They fixed themselves in the neighbourhood of them and endeavoured to obstruct the country people from carrying pepper to them or supplying them with provisions either by sea or land. Our interests however in the end prevailed, and Bencoolen in particular, to which the other places were rendered subordinate in 1686, began to acquire some degree of vigour and respectability. In 1689 encouragement was given to Chinese colonists to settle there, whose number has been continually increasing from that time. In 1691 the Dutch felt the loss of their influence at Silebar and other of the southern countries, where they attempted to exert authority in the name of the sultan of Bantam, and the produce of these places was delivered to the English. This revolution proceeded from the works with which about this time our factory was strengthened.
In 1695 a settlement was made at Triamang, and two years after at Kattaun and Sablat. The first, in the year 1700, was removed to Bantal. Various applications were made by the natives in different parts of the island for the establishment of factories, particularly from Ayer-Bangis to the northward, Palembang on the eastern side, and the people from the countries south of Tallo, near Manna. A person was sent to survey these last, as far as Pulo Pisang and Kroi, in 1715. In consequence of the inconvenience attending the shipping of goods from Bencoolen River, which is often impracticable from the surfs, a warehouse was built in 1701 at a place then called the cove; which gave the first idea of removing the settlement to the point of land which forms the bay of Bencoolen. The unhealthiness of the old situation was thought to render this an expedient step; and accordingly about 1714 it was in great measure relinquished, and the foundations of Fort Marlborough were laid on a spot two or three miles distant. Being a high plain it was judged to possess considerable advantages; many of which however are counterbalanced by its want of the vicinity of a river, so necessary for the ready and plentiful supply of provisions. Some progress had been made in the erection of this fort when an accident happened that had nearly destroyed the Company’s views. The natives incensed at ill treatment received from the Europeans, who were then but little versed in the knowledge of their dispositions or the art of managing them by conciliating methods, rose in a body in the year 1719, and forced the garrison, whose ignorant fears rendered them precipitate, to seek refuge on board their ships. These people began now to feel alarms lest the Dutch, taking advantage of the absence of the English,
should attempt an establishment, and soon permitted some persons from the northern factories to resettle the place; and, supplies arriving from Madras, things returned to their former course, and the fort was completed. The Company’s affairs on this coast remained in tranquillity for a number of years. The important settlement of Natal was established in 1752, and that of Tappanuli a short time afterwards; which involved the English in fresh disputes with the Dutch, who set up a claim to the country in which they are situated. In the year 1760 the French under Comte d’Estaing destroyed all the English settlements on the coast of Sumatra; but they were soon reestablished and our possession secured by the treaty of Paris in 1763. Fort Marlborough, which had been hitherto a peculiar subordinate of Fort St. George, was now formed into an independent presidency, and was furnished with a charter for erecting a mayor’s court, but which has never been enforced. In 1781 a detachment of military from thence embarked upon five East India ships and took possession of Padang and all other Dutch factories in consequence of the war with that nation. In 1782 the magazine of Fort Marlborough, in which were four hundred barrels of powder, was fired by lightning and blew up; but providentially few lives were lost. In 1802 an act of parliament was passed “to authorize the East India Company to make their settlement at Fort Marlborough in the East Indies, a factory subordinate to the presidency of Fort William in Bengal, and to transfer the servants who on the reduction of that establishment shall be supernumerary, to the presidency of Fort St. George.” In 1798 plants of the nutmeg and clove had for the first time been procured from the Moluccas;
and in 1803 a large importation of these valuable articles of cultivation took place. As the plantations were, by the last accounts from thence, in the most flourishing state, very important commercial advantages were expected to be derived from the culture.)
A few years before these transactions she had invited the king of Siam to renew the ancient connexion between their respective states, and to unite in a league against the Dutch, by whose encroachments the commerce of her subjects and the extent of her dominions were much circumscribed. It does not appear however that this overture was attended with any effect, nor have the limits of the Achinese jurisdiction since that period extended beyond Pidir on the northern, and Barus on the western coast.
She died in 1688, having reigned something less than eleven years, and was succeeded by a young queen named Kamalat-shah; but this did not take place without a strong opposition from a faction amongst the orang kayas which wanted to set up a king, and a civil war actually commenced. The two parties drew up their forces on opposite sides of the river, and for two or three nights continued to fire at each other, but in the daytime followed their ordinary occupations. These opportunities of intercourse made them sensible of their mutual folly. They agreed to throw aside their arms and the crown remained in possession of the newly elected queen. It was said to have been esteemed essential that she should be a maiden, advanced in years,
and connected by blood with the ancient royal line. In this reign an English factory, which had been long discontinued, was reestablished at Achin, but in the interval some private traders of this nation had always resided on the spot. These usually endeavoured to persuade the state that they represented the India Company, and sometimes acquired great influence, which they are accused of having employed in a manner not only detrimental to that body but to the interests of the merchants of India in general by monopolizing the trade of the port, throwing impediments in the way of all shipping not consigned to their management, and embezzling the cargoes of such as were. An asylum was also afforded, beyond the reach of law, for all persons whose crimes or debts induced them to fly from the several European settlements. These considerations chiefly made the Company resolve to reclaim their ancient privileges in that kingdom, and a deputation was sent from the presidency of Madras in the year 1695 for that purpose, with letters addressed to her illustrious majesty the queen of Achin, desiring permission to settle on the terms her predecessors had granted to them; which was readily complied with, and a factory, but on a very limited scale, was established accordingly, but soon declined and disappeared. In 1704, when Charles Lockyer (whose account of his voyage, containing a particular description of this place, was published in 1711) visited Achin, one of these independent factors, named Francis Delton, carried on a flourishing trade. In 1695 the Achinese were alarmed by the arrival of six sail of Dutch ships of force, with a number of troops on board, in their road,
not having been visited by any of that nation for fifteen years, but they departed without offering any molestation.
This queen was deposed by her subjects (whose grounds of complaint are not stated) about the latter part of the year 1699, after reigning also eleven years; and with her terminated the female dynasty, which, during its continuance of about fifty-nine years, had attracted much notice in Europe.
Her successor was named Beder al-alum sherif Hasham, the nature of whose pretensions to the crown does not positively appear, but there is reason to believe that he was her brother. When he had reigned a little more than two years it pleased God (as the Annals express it) to afflict him with a distemper which caused his feet and hands to contract (probably the gout) and disqualified him for the performance of his religious duties.
Under these circumstances he was induced to resign the government in 1702, and died about a month after his abdication.
Perkasa-alum, a priest, found means by his intrigues to acquire the sovereignty, and one of his first acts was to attempt imposing certain duties on the merchandise imported by English traders,
who had been indulged with an exemption from all port charges excepting the established complimentary presents upon their arrival and receiving the chap or licence. This had been stipulated in the treaty made by Sir James Lancaster, and renewed by Mr. Grey when chief of the Company’s factory. The innovation excited an alarm and determined opposition on the part of the masters of ships then at the place, and they proceeded (under the conduct of Captain Alexander Hamilton, who published an account of his voyage in 1727) to the very unwarrantable step of commencing hostilities by firing upon the villages situated near the mouth of the river, and cutting off from the city all supplies of provisions by sea. The inhabitants, feeling severely the effects of these violent measures, grew clamorous against the government, which was soon obliged to restore to these insolent traders the privileges for which they contended.
Advantage was taken of the public discontents to raise an insurrection in favour of the nephew of the late queen, or, according to the Annals, the son of Beder al-alum (who was probably her brother), in the event of which Perkasa-alum was deposed about the commencement of the year 1704, and after an interregnum or anarchy of three months continuance, the young prince obtained possession of the throne, by the name of Jemal al-alum. From this period the native writers furnish very ample details of the transactions of the Achinese government, as well as of the general state of the country,
whose prosperous circumstances during the early part of this king’s reign are strongly contrasted with the misery and insignificance to which it was reduced by subsequent events. The causes and progress of this political decline cannot be more satisfactorily set forth than in a faithful translation of the Malayan narrative which was drawn up, or extracted from a larger work, for my use, and is distinct from the Annals already mentioned:
When raja Jemal al-alum reigned in Achin the country was exceedingly populous, the nobles had large possessions, the merchants were numerous and opulent, the judgments of the king were just, and no man could experience the severity of punishment but through his own fault. In those days the king could not trade on his own account, the nobles having combined to prevent it; but the accustomed duties of the port were considered as his revenue, and ten per cent was levied for this purpose upon all merchandise coming into the country. The city was then of great extent, the houses were of brick and stone. The most considerable merchant was a man named Daniel, a Hollander; but many of different nations were also settled there, some from Surat, some from Kutch, others from China. When ships arrived in the port, if the merchants could not take off all the cargoes the king advanced the funds for purchasing what remained, and divided the goods among them, taking no profit to himself. After the departure of the vessel the king was paid in gold the amount of his principal, without interest.
His daily amusements were in the grounds allotted for the royal sports.
He was attended by a hundred young men, who were obliged to be constantly near his person day and night, and who were clothed in a sumptuous manner at a monthly expense of a hundred dollars for each man. The government of the different parts of the country was divided, under his authority, amongst the nobles. When a district appeared to be disturbed he took measures for quelling the insurrection; those who resisted his orders he caused to be apprehended; when the roads were bad he gave directions for their repair. Such was his conduct in the government. His subjects all feared him, and none dared to condemn his actions. At that time the country was in peace.
When he had been a few years on the throne a country lying to the eastward, named Batu Bara, attempted to throw off its subjection to Achin. The chiefs were ordered to repair to court to answer for their conduct, but they refused to obey. These proceedings raised the king’s indignation. He assembled the nobles and required of them that each should furnish a vessel of war, to be employed on an expedition against that place, and within two months, thirty large galleys, without counting vessels of a smaller size, were built and equipped for sea. When the fleet arrived off Batu Bara (by which must be understood the Malayan district at the mouth of the river, and not the Batta territory through which it takes its course), a letter was sent on shore addressed to the refractory chiefs, summoning them to give proof of their allegiance by appearing in the king’s presence, or threatening the alternative of an immediate attack. After much division in their councils it was at length agreed to feign submission,
and a deputation was sent off to the royal fleet, carrying presents of fruit and provisions of all kinds. One of the chiefs carried, as his complimentary offering, some fresh coconuts, of the delicate species called kalapa-gading, into which a drug had been secretly introduced. The king observing these directed that one should be cut open for him, and having drunk of the juice, became affected with a giddiness in his head. (This symptom shows the poison to have been the upas, but too much diluted in the liquor of the nut to produce death). Being inclined to repose, the strangers were ordered to return on shore, and, finding his indisposition augment, he gave directions for being conveyed back to Achin, whither his ship sailed next day. The remainder of the fleet continued off the coast during five or six days longer, and then returned likewise without effecting the reduction of the place, which the chiefs had lost no time in fortifying.
About two years after this transaction the king, under pretence of amusement, made an excursion to the country lying near the source of the river Achin, then under the jurisdiction of a panglima or governor named Muda Seti; for it must be understood that this part of the kingdom is divided into three districts, known by the appellations of the Twenty-two, Twenty-six, and Twenty-five Mukims (see above), which were governed respectively by Muda Seti, Imam Muda, and PerbawangShah (or Purba-wangsa). These three chiefs had the entire control of the country, and when their views were united they had the power of deposing and setting up kings. Such was the nature of the government.
The king’s expedition was undertaken with the design of making himself master of the person of Muda Seti, who had given him umbrage, and on this occasion his followers of all ranks were so numerous that wherever they halted for the night the fruits of the earth were all devoured, as well as great multitudes of cattle. Muda Seti however, being aware of the designs against him, had withdrawn himself from the place of his usual residence and was not to be found when the king arrived there; but a report being brought that he had collected five or six hundred followers and was preparing to make resistance, orders were immediately given for burning his house. This being effected, the king returned immediately to Achin, leaving the forces that had accompanied him at a place called Pakan Badar, distant about half a day’s journey from the capital, where they were directed to entrench themselves. From this post they were driven by the country chief, who advanced rapidly upon them with several thousand men, and forced them to fall back to Padang Siring, where the king was collecting an army, and where a battle was fought soon after, that terminated in the defeat of the royal party with great slaughter. Those who escaped took refuge in the castle along with the king.
Under these disastrous circumstances he called upon the chiefs who adhered to him to advise what was best to be done, surrounded as they were by the country people, on
whom he invoked the curse of God; when one of them, named Panglima Maharaja, gave it as his opinion that the only effectual measure by which the country could be saved from ruin would be the king’s withdrawing himself from the capital so long as the enemy should continue in its vicinity, appointing a regent from among the nobles to govern the country in his absence; and when subordination should be restored he might then return and take again possession of his throne. To this proposition he signified his assent on the condition that Panglima Maharaja should assure him by an oath that no treachery was intended; which oath was accordingly taken, and the king, having nominated as his substitute Maharaja Lela, one of the least considerable of the ulubalangs, retired with his wives and children to the country of the Four mukims, situated about three hours journey to the westward of the city. (The Annals say he fled to Pidir in November 1723.) Great ravages were committed by the insurgents, but they did not attack the palace, and after some days of popular confusion the chiefs of the Three districts, who (says the writer) must not be confounded with the officers about the person of the king, held a consultation amongst themselves, and, exercising an authority of which there had been frequent examples, set up Panglima Maharaja in the room of the abdicated king (by the title, say the Annals, of Juhar al-alum, in December 1723). About seven days after his elevation he was seized with a convulsive disorder in his neck and died. A nephew of Jemal al-alum, named Undei Tebang, was then placed upon the throne, but notwithstanding his having bribed the chiefs of the Three districts with thirty katties of gold, they permitted him to enjoy his dignity only a few days,
and then deposed him. (The same authority states that he was set up by the chiefs of the Four mukims, and removed through the influence of Muda Seti.)
The person whom they next combined to raise to the throne was Maharaja Lela (before mentioned as the king’s substitute). It was his good fortune to govern the country in tranquillity for the space of nearly twelve years, during which period the city of Achin recovered its population. (According to the Annals he began to reign in February 1724, by the title of Ala ed-din Ahmed shah Juhan, and died in June 1735.) It happened that the same day on which the event of his death took place Jemal al-alum again made his appearance, and advanced to a mosque near the city. His friends advised him to lose no time in possessing himself of the castle, but for trifling reasons that mark the weakness of his character he resolved to defer the measure till the succeeding day; and the opportunity, as might be expected, was lost. The deceased king left five sons, the eldest of whom, named Po-chat-au (or Po-wak, according to another manuscript) exhorted his brothers to unite with him in the determination of resisting a person whose pretensions were entirely inconsistent with their security. They accordingly sent to demand assistance of Perbawang-shah, chief of the district of the Twenty-five mukims, which lies the nearest to that quarter. He arrived before morning, embraced the five princes, confirmed them in their resolution, and authorised the eldest to assume the government (which he did, say the Annals,
by the title of Ala ed-din Juhan-shah in September 1735.) But to this measure the concurrence of the other chiefs was wanting. At daybreak the guns of the castle began to play upon the mosque, and, some of the shot penetrating its walls, the pusillanimous Jemal al-alum, being alarmed at the danger, judged it advisable to retreat from thence and to set up his standard in another quarter, called kampong Jawa, his people at the same time retaining possession of the mosque. A regular warfare now ensued between the two parties and continued for no less than ten years (the great chiefs taking different sides), when at length some kind of compromise was effected that left Po-chat-au (Juhanshah) in the possession of the throne, which he afterwards enjoyed peaceably for eight years, and no further mention is made of Jemal al-alum. About this period the chiefs took umbrage at his interfering in matters of trade, contrary to what they asserted to be the established custom of the realm, and assembled their forces in order to intimidate him. (The history of Achin presents a continual struggle between the monarch and the aristocracy of the country, which generally made the royal monopoly of trade the ground of crimination and pretext for their rebellions).
Panglima Muda Seti, being considered as the head of the league, came down with twenty thousand followers, and, upon the king’s refusing to admit into the castle his complimentary present (considering it only as the prelude to humiliating negotiation), another war commenced that lasted for two years,
and was at length terminated by Muda Seti’s withdrawing from the contest and returning to his province. About five years after this event Juhan shah died, and his son, Pochat-bangta, succeeded him, but not (says this writer, who here concludes his abstract) with the general concurrence of the chiefs, and the country long continued in a disturbed state.
END OF NARRATIVE.
The death of Juhan shah is stated in the Annals to have taken place in August 1760, and the accession of the son, who took the name of Ala-eddin Muhammed shah, not until November of the same year. Other authorities place these events in 1761.
Before he had completed the third year of his reign an insurrection of his subjects obliged him to save himself by flight on board a ship in the road. This happened in 1763 or 1764. The throne was seized by the maharaja (first officer of state) named Sinara, who assumed the title of Beder-eddin Juhan shah, and about the end of 1765 was put to death by the adherents of the fugitive monarch, Muhammed shah, who thereupon returned to the throne.*
(*Footnote. Captain Forrest acquaints us that he visited the court of Mahomed Selim (the latter name is not given to this prince by any other writer) in the year 1764, at which time he appeared to be about forty years of age.
It is difficult to reconcile this date with the recorded events of this unfortunate reign, and I have doubts whether it was not the usurper whom the Captain saw.)
He was exposed however to further revolutions. About six years after his restoration the palace was attacked in the night by a desperate band of two hundred men, headed by a man called Raja Udah, and he was once more obliged to make a precipitate retreat. This usurper took the title of sultan Suliman shah, but after a short reign of three months was driven out in his turn and forced to fly for refuge to one of the islands in the eastern sea. The nature of his pretensions, if he had any, have not been stated, but he never gave any further trouble. From this period Muhammed maintained possession of his capital, although it was generally in a state of confusion.
“In the year 1772,” says Captain Forrest, “Mr. Giles Holloway, resident of Tappanooly, was sent to Achin by the Bencoolen government, with a letter and present, to ask leave from the king to make a settlement there. I carried him from his residency. Not being very well on my arrival, I did not accompany Mr. Holloway (a very sensible and discreet gentleman, and who spoke the Malay tongue very fluently) on shore at his first audience; and finding his commission likely to prove abortive I did not go to the palace at all. There was great anarchy and confusion at this time; and the malcontents came often, as I was informed, near the king’s palace at night.”
The Captain further remarks that when again there in 1775 he could not obtain an audience.
The Annals report his death to have happened on the 2nd of June 1781, and observe that from the commencement to the close of his reign the country never enjoyed repose. His brother, named Ala-eddin (or Uleddin, as commonly pronounced, and which seems to have been a favourite title with the Achinese princes), was in exile at Madras during a considerable period, and resided also for some time at Bencoolen.
The eldest son of the deceased king, then about eighteen years of age, succeeded him on the 16th of the same month, by the title of Ala-eddin Mahmud shah Juhan, in spite of an opposition attempted to be raised by the partisans of another son by a favourite wife. Weapons had been drawn in the court before the palace, when the tuanku agung or high priest, a person of great respectability and influence, by whom the former had been educated, came amidst the crowd, bareheaded and without attendance, leading his pupil by the hand. Having placed himself between the contending factions, he addressed them to the following effect: that the prince who stood before them had a natural right and legal claim to the throne of his father; that he had been educated with a view to it, and was qualified to adorn it by his disposition and talents;
that he wished however to found his pretensions neither upon his birthright nor the strength of the party attached to him, but upon the general voice of his subjects calling him to the sovereignty; that if such was their sentiment he was ready to undertake the arduous duties of the station, in which he himself would assist him with the fruits of his experience; that if on the contrary they felt a predilection for his rival, no blood should be shed on his account, the prince and his tutor being resolved in that case to yield the point without a struggle, and retire to some distant island. This impressive appeal had the desired effect, and the young prince was invited by unanimous acclamation to assume the reins of government.*
(*Footnote. Mr. Philip Braham, late chief of the East India Company’s settlement of Fort Marlborough, by whom the circumstances of this event were related to me, arrived at Achin in July 1781, about a fortnight after the transaction. He thus described his audience. The king was seated in a gallery (to which there were no visible steps), at the extremity of a spacious hall or court, and a curtain which hung before him was drawn aside when it was his pleasure to appear. In this court were great numbers of female attendants, but not armed, as they have been described. Mr. Braham was introduced through a long file of guards armed with blunderbusses, and then seated on a carpet in front of the gallery. When a conversation had been carried on for some time through the Shabandar, who communicated his answers to an interpreter, by whom they were reported to the king, the latter perceiving that he spoke the Malayan language addressed him directly,
and asked several questions respecting England; what number of wives and children our sovereign had; how many ships of war the English kept in India; what was the French force, and others of that nature. He expressed himself in friendly terms with regard to our nation, and said he should always be happy to countenance our traders in his ports. Even at this early period of his reign he had abolished some vexatious imposts. Mr. Braham had an opportunity of learning the great degree of power and control possessed by certain of the orang kayas, who held their respective districts in actual sovereignty, and kept the city in awe by stopping, when it suited their purpose, the supplies of provisions. Captain Forrest, who once more visited Achin in 1784 and was treated with much distinction (see his Voyage to the Mergui Archipelago page 51), says he appeared to be twenty-five years of age; but this was a misconception. Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, who saw him in 1782, judged him to have been at that time no more than nineteen or twenty, which corresponds with Mr. Braham’s statement.)
Little is known of the transactions of his reign, but that little is in favour of his personal character. The Annals (not always unexceptionable evidence when speaking of the living monarch) describe him as being endowed with every princely virtue, exercising the functions of government with vigour and rectitude, of undaunted courage, attentive to the protection of the ministers of religion, munificent to the descendants of the prophet (seiyid, but commonly pronounced sidi) and to men of learning, prompt at all times to administer justice,
and consequently revered and beloved by his people. I have not been enabled to ascertain the year in which he died.
It appears by a Malayan letter from Achin that in 1791 the peace of the capital was much disturbed, and the state of the government as well as of private property (which induced the writer to reship his goods) precarious.
In 1805 his son, then aged twenty-one, was on the throne, and had a contention with his paternal uncle, and at the same time his father-in-law, named Tuanku Raja, by whom he had been compelled to fly (but only for a short time) to Pidir, the usual asylum of the Achinese monarchs. Their quarrel appears to have been rather of a family than of a political nature, and to have proceeded from the irregular conduct of the queen-mother. The low state of this young king’s finances, impoverished by a fruitless struggle to enforce, by means of an expensive marine establishment, his right to an exclusive trade, had induced him to make proposals, for mutual accommodation, to the English government of Pulo Pinang.*
(*Footnote. Since the foregoing was printed the following information respecting the manners of the Batta people, obtained by Mr. Charles Holloway from Mr. W.H. Hayes, has reached my hands.
“In the month of July 1805
an expedition consisting of Sepoys, Malays, and Battas was sent from Tapanuli against a chief named Punei Manungum, residing at Negatimbul, about thirty miles inland from Old Tapanuli, in consequence of his having attacked a kampong under the protection of the company, murdered several of the inhabitants, and carried others into captivity. After a siege of three days, terms of accommodation being proposed, a cessation of hostilities took place, when the people of each party having laid aside their arms intermixed with the utmost confidence, and conversed together as if in a state of perfect amity. The terms however not proving satisfactory, each again retired to his arms and renewed the contest with their former inveteracy. On the second day the place was evacuated, and upon our people entering it Mr. Hayes found the bodies of one man and two women, whom the enemy had put to death before their departure (being the last remaining of sixteen prisoners whom they had originally carried off), and from whose legs large pieces had been cut out, evidently for the purpose of being eaten. During the progress of this expedition a small party had been sent to hold in check the chiefs of Labusukum and Singapollum (inland of Sibogah), who were confederates of Punei Manungum. These however proved stronger than was expected, and, making a sally from their kampongs, attacked the sergeant’s party and killed a sepoy, whom he was obliged to abandon. Mr. Hayes, on his way from Negatimbul, was ordered to march to the support of the retreating party;
but these having taken a different route he remained ignorant of the particulars of their loss. The village of Singapollam being immediately carried by storm, and the enemy retreating by one gate, as our people entered at the opposite, the accoutrements of the sepoy who had been killed the day before were seen hanging as trophies in the front of the houses, and in the town hall, Mr. Hayes saw the head entirely scalped, and one of the fingers fixed upon a fork or skewer, still warm from the fire. On proceeding to the village of Labusucom, situated little more than two hundred yards from the former, he found a large plantain leaf full of human flesh, mixed with lime-juice and chili-pepper, from which he inferred that they had been surprised in the very act of feasting on the sepoy, whose body had been divided between the two kampongs. Upon differences being settled with the chiefs they acknowledged with perfect sangfroid that such had been the case, saying at the same time, “you know it is our custom; why should we conceal it?”)
TEUNGKU CIK DI TIRO
Lahir : Tiro, Pidie, 1836
Wafat : Benteng, Aneuk Galong, Januari 1891
Spoiler for Biografi Singkat
SEJAK kecil, Teungku Cik Di Tiro yang bernama asli Muhammad Saman telah terbiasa tinggal di lingkungan pesantren. Di situ ia banyak menimba ilmu dari beberapa ulama terkenal di Aceh. Setelah merasa cukup berguru, Saman menunaikan ibadah haji ke Mekah sekaligus memperdalam ilmu agamanya.
Sekembalinya dari Mekah, Saman menjadi guru agama di Tiro hingga kemudian dikenal sebagai Teungku Cik Di Tiro.
, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya. Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.
Mei 1881, benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro. Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut. Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh. Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.
Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya. Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899
Spoiler for Biografi Singkat
SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh. Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.
Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat. Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.
Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.
Teuku Umar tunduk dan bergabung dengan Belanda. Siasat berpura-pura Teuku Umar ini ternyata berhasil. Belanda kemudian mengizinkan Teuku Umar memiliki tentara berkekuatan 250 orang berikut persenjataan lengkap untuk memerangi pejuang-pejuang Aceh yang belum tunduk. Para pejuang Aceh yang akan diperangi pun paham karena telah diberitahu sebelumnya. Semua itu dilakukan Teuku Umar demi mendapatkan senjata dan perbekalan dari pihak VOC Belanda.
Pada tanggal 29 Maret 1896,
Teuku Umar kembali bergabung dengan para pejuang Aceh. Ia berhasil membawa lari senjata, uang sebanyak 800.000 Dollar, dan perlengkapan lain milik Belanda.
Semasa bergabung dengan Belanda, Teuku Umar pernah diberi gelar Teuku Johan Pahlawan dan memimpin 1 legiun tentara berkekuatan 250 orang serdadu. Teuku Umar mampu menghadapi Politik Devide et Empera (“Pecah Belah dan Jajahlah”) Belanda dengan menggunakan kekuatan Belanda sendiri.
Pada Januari 1899,
Belanda merasa tertipu dan amat marah sehingga mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menangkap Teuku Umar di Meulaboh. Teuku Umar akhirnya gugur pada tanggal 11 Februari 1899, dan dimakamkan di Desa Mugo, Aceh.
The poster of atjeh War in 1870
Berani Menerjang Peluru
Spoiler for tentang dia
Pameo yang mengatakan wanita sebagai insan lemah dan harus selalu dilindungi tidak selamanya benar. Itu dibuktikan oleh Cut Nyak Meutia, wanita asal Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, yang terus berjuang melawan Belanda hingga tewas diterjang tiga peluru di tubuhnya.
Wanita kelahiran Perlak, Aceh, tahun 1870, ini adalah seorang Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional yang hingga titik darah penghabisan tetap memegang prinsip tak akan mau tunduk kepada kolonial.
Sebelum Cut Nyak Meutia lahir, pasukan Belanda sudah menduduki daerah Aceh yang digelari serambi Mekkah tersebut. Perlakuan Belanda yang semena-mena dengan berbagai pemaksaan dan penyiksaan akhirnya menimbulkan perlawanan dari rakyat.
Tiga tahun sebelum perang Aceh-Belanda meletus, ketika itulah Cut Nyak Meutia dilahirkan. Suasana perang pada saat kelahiran dan perkembangannya itu, di kemudian hari sangat memengaruhi perjalanan hidupnya.
Ketika sudah beranjak dewasa, dia menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, seorang pejuang yang lebih terkenal dengan nama Teuku Cik Tunong. Walaupun ketika masih kecil ia sudah ditunangkan dengan seorang pria bernama Teuku Syam Syarif, tetapi ia memilih menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, pria yang sangat dicintainya.
, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya.
Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.
Perang Aceh dimulai sejak Belanda menyatakan perang terhadap Aceh pada 26 Maret 1873 setelah melakukan beberapa ancaman diplomatik, namun tidak berhasil merebut wilayah yang besar. Perang kembali berkobar pada tahun 1883, namun lagi-lagi gagal, dan pada 1892 dan 1893, pihak Belanda menganggap bahwa mereka telah gagal merebut Aceh.
Dr. Snouck Hurgronje, seorang ahli Islam dari Universitas Leiden yang telah berhasil mendapatkan kepercayaan dari banyak pemimpin Aceh, kemudian memberikan saran kepada Belanda agar serangan mereka diarahkan kepada para ulama, bukan kepada sultan. Saran ini ternyata berhasil. Pada tahun 1898, J.B. van Heutsz dinyatakan sebagai gubernur Aceh, dan bersama letnannya, Hendricus Colijn, merebut sebagian besar Aceh.
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899
Spoiler for Biografi Singkat
SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh.
The Atjeh War,landing of DEI Marines at atjeh in 1873
Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. Benting Penajoeng van het KNIL in de noordwesthoek van de kraton te Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie
look the eastren area above
fort benteng Penajoeng Atjeh in 1873
Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. KNIL-artillerie gelegen aan de hoofdweg in bivak Penajoeng bij Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie in 1873
Look from outside area
Fist Atjeh Expedition in 1873
KOLEKSI PEDANG PANJANG ACEH
Pedang Panjang Aceh Sumatera
Aceh (juga disebut sebagai Aceh, Atjin, Aceh Achin.) Berada di ujung utara Sumatera di Indonesia. Hal ini diyakini menjadi salah satu kerajaan tertua di Indonesia. Hindu dan Budha pengaruh dari India mungkin telah sampai ke Aceh pada awal abad pertama. abad keenam A. D. Tionghoa sejarah. berbicara tentang sebuah kerajaan di ujung utara Sumatera bernama Po-Li. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Islam mungkin pertama kali memasuki kepulauan Indonesia melalui Aceh suatu waktu antara abad ke-8 dan 12. Pada 1292, Marco Polo, pada pelayaran epik dari China mengunjungi Sumatera dalam perjalanan ke Persia dan melaporkan bahwa di bagian utara pulau setidaknya ada enam pelabuhan perdagangan sibuk termasuk Perlak, Samudera dan lambri. Dengan masa lalu seperti ini tidak mengherankan bahwa senjata mereka telah Hindu, Budha, pengaruh Cina dan Islam. Daerah ini memiliki sejarah bela diri yang luas. Pada pertengahan abad ke-14, Pasai diserbu oleh tentara Majapahit dari Jawa. Pada tahun 1523, Sultan Ali menyerang Portugis di Pasai, Portugal menewaskan komandan militer Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali berhasil mengusir pasukan Portugis dari Pasai. Setelah kekalahan ini, Portugal berusaha untuk menaklukkan beberapa kali di Aceh, tanpa keberhasilan. Pada 1873, Belanda menyatakan perang dan menyerang Aceh Darussalam. Tapi Belanda menemukan lebih sulit daripada mereka diharapkan untuk mendapatkan kontrol dari seluruh Aceh. Aceh menolak pendudukan, menyentuh dari Perang Aceh, perang kolonial / ekspedisi terpanjang diperjuangkan oleh lebih dari 10.000 jiwa Belanda dan mengklaim. Aceh-Belanda perang berlarut-larut sampai 1914, resistensi dilanjutkan dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil sampai 1942 ketika Jepang tiba di Hindia Belanda. Sudah sering dikatakan bahwa Kesultanan Aceh dari abad ke-16 pada itu dalam perjuangan terus-menerus. Meskipun banyak senjata bermata digunakan di Aceh ada 3 senjata utama yang telah memainkan peran dalam sejarah Aceh. Mereka adalah rencong, Siwaih (Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) dan peudeueng. Artikel ini akan berurusan dengan peudeueng tersebut. Ketika saya mendapatkan imformation lebih ini akan diperbarui dan jenis pedang yang lebih dapat ditambahkan. Tidak ada dalam ini harus dianggap sebagai pekerjaan baru atau asli di bagian saya. Sebaliknya ini adalah kompilasi dari apa yang begitu banyak orang telah berbaik hati untuk berbagi dengan saya, dan apa yang diterbitkan bahan yang saya telah dapat mengakses. Saya yakin ada ketidakakuratan di sini yang merupakan hasil dari kesalahan yang jujur. Mereka akan dikoreksi karena saya dibuat sadar dari mereka atau mencari informasi yang lebih baik. Itulah salah satu keuntungan besar artikel yang telah berbasis web. Tidak seperti kata dipublikasikan yang hanya dapat sebagai baik sebagai informasi pada saat penerbitan; artikel berbasis web dapat udated dan diubah.
The New York Times, pada 6 Mei 1873, menulis: “Sebuah pertempuran berdarah telah terjadi di Aceh, Kerajaan pribumi menempati bagian utara pulau Sumatra Belanda menyampaikan serangan umum dan sekarang kami memiliki rincian hasilnya. Serangan itu. jijik dengan pembantaian besar. jenderal Belanda tewas, dan tentara-Nya dimasukkan ke penerbangan bencana. Tampaknya, memang, telah harfiah hancur. “
Pedang panjang Aceh disebut peudeung tersebut. Meskipun pedang diberikan ke Aceh itu hampir pasti mereka digunakan juga oleh kelompok-kelompok etnis lain di daerah tersebut. Ada bukti penggunaannya sebagai senjata setidaknya sejauh kembali sebagai abad ke-17. Ini mungkin telah digunakan secara terpisah, dengan pedang ganda atau dengan perisai bulat kecil yang disebut sebuah peurise. Perlu dicatat bahwa pedang ini juga sering disebut dengan nama lain. Dalam buku referensi yang sangat lengkap, SENJATA TRADISIONAL DARI KEPULAUAN INDONESIA. oleh AG Van Zonneveld mereka disebut sebagai “aku Pedang” “Sikin Pasangan” dan “Sikin Panjang” Banyak sumber-sumber lain termasuk situs yang sangat baik Dominique Buttin yang menyebutnya sebagai “Sikin” (Sikim, Sikkim, Sekem). Dalam sebuah korespondensi dengan Dominique Buttin, ia memberitahu bahwa, “Peudeung namanya berarti pedang, yang merupakan arti sama dengan Podang dari Batak atau Pedang dari Jawa.” Sebuah masalah besar dengan memutuskan nama yang akan digunakan untuk ini pedang berasal dari fakta bahwa ada 10 kelompok subethnic dari acehnesse (seperti Aceh, Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban dan Julu) Disini Saya akan menggunakan istilah yang digunakan dalam sebagian besar sumber-sumber Belanda dan itu adalah “Peudeueng”. Sebuah tinjauan literatur tampaknya untuk membagi peudeueng oleh gaya pisau dan jenis jika gagang. Berbilah pedang lurus disebut peudeueng Panjang (sikin Panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh,). Pisau melengkung peudeueng disebut peudeueng Peusangan (peudeueng Pasangan, sikin Peusangan, sikin pasagan, Pedang, poedeung).
Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (Hulul Buaya)
Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET
Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (HuluPasangan)
Divisi lain untuk Aceh pedang adalah dengan jenis atau bentuk gagang atau Hulu, Dalam “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta, ia menggambarkan mereka sebagai “gagang seperti ekor kucing”, “gagang seperti mulut buaya”, “gagang seperti tanduk rusa”, “gagang seperti kaki kuda”, dan “gagang seperti ekor bebek” Sementara semua ini dapat ditemukan di Aceh lainnya pedang, saya hanya menemukan 4 jenis Hulu pada peudeueng. Gagang yang terlihat seperti mulut terbuka hewan (atau buaya) disebut Hulu tumpang beunteung di Gayo atau Hulu Buaya di Aceh. Jenis gagang dapat dilihat pada kedua peudeueng Panjang dan peudeueng Peusangan. Dalam salah satu varian dari tips datang bersama-sama sampai mereka hampir menyentuh dengan ujung diratakan. Gaya Saya diberitahu oleh smith Aceh masih disebut Buaya Hulu tetapi beberapa buku juga menyebutnya Peusangan Hulu. Peusangan adalah nama sungai dan nama kecamatan di Bireuen, Aceh Jenis ketiga adalah biasanya terlihat hanya pada Panjang peudeueng disebut Rumpung Hulu.
a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)
dari dekat dari Hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)
Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan rumpung Hulu
Keempat jenis gagang yang terlihat pada peudeueng disebut meu APET Hulu (Hulu Muapit di Gayo atau Sukul Mekepit di Alas). Hulu berarti gagang meu adalah kata kerja APET (jaga / kawal) berarti dijaga, maka ini hanya dapat berarti “gagang dijaga”. Beberapa sumber lain menyebutnya gagang Daun Tebu. Duan Daun Tebu Gula Tebu berarti dan ujung gagang ini dikatakan menyerupai tebu tumbuh. Para Hulu meu APET sangat mirip gagang pedang India terlihat pada Khanda dan firangi, tetapi lonjakan akhirnya adalah lebih pendek.
dari dekat dari meu suatu APET Hulu
Baru-baru ini Ariel Barkan, pada forum di http://www.vikingsword.com, menyadari bahwa hal itu juga dipengaruhi oleh gagang Gulabghati India, dinamakan demikian karena disk atasnya memiliki garis-garis konsentris menyerupai bunga mawar, “gulab”. Lebih lanjut tentang ini gaya gagang dapat ditemukan di India dan Armour Senjata oleh GN Celana.
suatu Hulu meu APET LANGKA terlihat dengan tombol pada akhir gagang, ini kadang-kadang disebut meutampoh Peudeueng. Mungkin ini harus dianggap sebagai gaya terpisah dari gagang
Albert G. Van Zonnenveld menyatakan dalam bukunya, bahwa Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET sebagian besar pembuatan asing dan tidak mendapatkan bantuan besar. Perasaan adalah bahwa karena itu varian ini mungkin sebagian besar seremonial. Itu mungkin benar hari ini, bagaimanapun,
foto yang diambil selama perang Belanda-Aceh dapat ditemukan dengan pedang ini digunakan. Sementara spesimen hiasan dapat ditemukan, mayoritas Hulu meu APET saya jumpai atau melihat gambar yang dirancang untuk fungsi dan tidak terlalu banyak hiasan. Para sarung biasanya ditemukan dengan mereka yang juga agak keras. Spesimen dapat ditemukan dengan tanda-tanda kerusakan biasanya berhubungan dengan kerusakan pertempuran. Pedang dengan Hulu meu APET bahkan ditemukan pada beberapa pertempuran bendera. Selain contoh dari pedang dapat ditemukan dengan Azimat di dalamnya atau pada selubung untuk melindungi pembawa dalam pertempuran.
Bendera ini – secara harfiah – telah direndam dalam darah: penelitian laboratorium telah mengkonfirmasi bahwa bendera memiliki lubang peluru dan beruang noda darah. Ini mungkin darah CH letnan satu Bischoff. Dialah yang ditangk
Bischoff membayar petualangannya dengan sebelas luka yang ditimbulkan oleh klewangs musuh. Klewang awalnya pedang asli Aceh: ‘gliwang’. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19 itu menjadi fitur karakteristik seragam Belanda Hindia Timur prajurit. Pedang melebar di ujung pisau yang bersama-sama dengan pegangan, f
ORMS garis melengkung .. Dia dibawa terbungkus bendera. Beberapa hari kemudian, pada tanggal 3 Mei 1840, Bischoff meninggal karena luka-lukanya. Sebelum meninggal, ia dipromosikan ke pangkat kapten karena perbuatan heroik.
Foto bendera pertempuran di koleksi Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Sarung (Sarung) Para sarung untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET biasanya kayu ditutupi dengan kulit. Beberapa dihiasi dengan perak banding. Sarung pedang untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung dan peudeueng Panjang adalah dari kayu dan dapat ditemukan baik hiasan dan polos
Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET
Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung
Sebuah sarung untuk Panjang peudeueng
Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung
Pada bulan Maret 2006 terungkap beberapa informasi tentang beberapa dari keyakinan spiritual dan ritual sekitarnya pedang ini. Tampaknya bahwa ada paralel dengan anting (atau anting-anting) yang digunakan pada senjata Filipina. Ini jimat disebut tangkal atau azimat / zimat atau jimat. Jimat ini berisi ayat-ayat pelindung atau ayat-ayat agama dari ayat-ayat Quran (mungkin lagi sebuah sejajar dengan praktek Filipina Oracion). Hal ini terungkap pada thread di Vikingsword.com. Dalam diskusi ini tangkal atau azimat telah diposting yang berasal dari bawah tangan seorang penjaga Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET. Ini adalah area yang saya berharap untuk dapat melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang temuan dan post di sini. Saya terima kasih kepada Fazli Ibrahim untuk membantu saya dengan informasi tentang ini.
Berikut adalah pedang yang azimat itu ditemukan di dalam dan kantong yang berisi hal
It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.
Beberapa gambar dari azimat dalam yang menangani pedang. Bagian antara 2 bintang dikenal sebagai Khatimus Sulaiman;.
Tujuan itu adalah untuk melindungi pemakainya itu terhadap “ilmu hitam” dan roh-roh jahat.
Beberapa Azimat lainnya dari Museum Nasional di Indonesia
Sebuah Azimat tertulis pada selubung dari Pa
Beberapa pedang Aceh memiliki motif vegatative di tenggorokan Pucuk Rebung disebut. Berbentuk V Pucuk Rebung bambu tumbuh mewakili
Menurut beberapa acehnesse, jika ada emas di gagang / menangani / sarung pedang hanya dapat dibuat untuk atau dimiliki oleh Panglima (komandan, kepala suku), teungku (noblility) dan sangat dihormati orang lain.
Berikut adalah beberapa foto-foto pejuang Aceh dengan peudeueng tersebut.
Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.
Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat.
Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.
Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.
benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro.
Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut.
Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh.
Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.
Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya.
Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.
A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .
The photograph on the far right shows the source book.
Sebuah foto pejuang Aceh (foto kanan) dengan peudeueng dan rencong dari “Wapens Blanke” oleh JG Dieles. Satu memiliki sebuah Hulu tumpang beunteung (kanan) sebuah lainnya Hulu meu APET (kiri).
Foto di kanan menunjukkan buku sumber.
“Aceh bangsawan” dari: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).
1) “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989
2) “Senjata Tradisional kepulauan Indonesia” oleh Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Buku Seni – Leiden; Musim Semi
3) Blades 2001OLD – Dunia Melayu Senjata beringsut. Copyright © 2000 – 2005
4) “India Senjata dan Armour” oleh Pant GN 1978
5). Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV murah V. Gambar 21 A.
6) Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).
7) Senjata dan Memerangi Seni Indonesia, oleh Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Penerbitan 1972
The Achenese Peudeueng
The Long Sword of Aceh Sumatra
Aceh (also referred to as Atjeh, Atjin, Acheen Achin.) is at the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is believed to be one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia. Hindu and Buddist influence from India may have reached Aceh as early as the first century. sixth century A.D. Chinese chronicles. spoke of a kingdom on the northern tip of Sumatra named Po-Li. It is believed that Islam likely first entered the Indonesian archipelago through Aceh sometime between the 8th and 12th century. In 1292, Marco Polo, on his epic voyage from China visited Sumatra on his way to Persia and reported that in the northern part of the island there were at least six busy trading ports including Perlak, Samudera and lambri. With a past like this it is not surprising that their weapons have Hindu, Buddist, Chinese and Islamic influence. The area has an extensive martial history. In the middle of the 14th century, Pasai was invaded by Majapahit soldiers from Java. In 1523, Sultan Ali attacked the Portuguese in Pasai, killing Portugal military commander Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali managed to drive the Portuguese troops out of Pasai. After this defeat, Portugal attempted to conquer Aceh several times, without success. In 1873, the Netherlands declared war and invaded Aceh Darussalam. But the Dutch found it more difficult than they expected to gain control of the whole of Aceh. The Acehnese resisted the occupation, touching off the Aceh War, the longest colonial/expeditionary war fought by the Dutch and claiming more than 10,000 lives. Aceh-Dutch war dragged on until 1914, resistance continued with smaller groups until 1942 when the Japanese arrived in the Dutch East Indies. It has often been said that the Sultanate of Aceh from the 16th century on was in continual struggle. Although a multitude of edged weapons are used in Aceh there are 3 primary weapons that have played a role in Aceh’s history. They are the rencong, Siwaih ( Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) and peudeueng. This article will deal with the peudeueng. As I gain more imformation this will be updated and more sword types may be added. Nothing in this should be considered new or original work on my part. Instead this is a compilation of what so many people have been kind enough to share with me, and what published material I have been able to access. I am certain there are inaccuracies here that are the result of honest mistakes. They will be corrected as I am made aware of them or find better information. That is one large advantage a web based article has. Unlike the published word wich can only be as good as the information at the time of publishing; the web based article can be udated and changed.
THE NEW YORK TIMES, on May 6th, 1873, wrote: “A sanguinary battle has taken place in Aceh, a native Kingdom occupying the Northern portion of the island of Sumatra. The Dutch delivered a general assault and now we have details of the result. The attack was repulsed with great slaughter. The Dutch general was killed, and his army put to disastrous flight. It appears, indeed, to have been literally decimated.”
The Aceh long sword is called the peudeung. While these swords are attributed to the Aceh it is almost certain they were used also by other ethnic groups in the area. There is evidence of its use as a weapon at least as far back as the 17th century. It may have been used singly, with dual swords or with a small round shield called a peurise. It should be noted that these swords are also often called by other names. In the very complete reference book, TRADITIONAL WEAPONS OF THE INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO. by A.G. Van Zonneveld they are referred to as a “Pedang I” “Sikin Pasangan” and” Sikin Panjang” Numerous other sources including Dominique Buttin’s excellent site call it a “Sikin” ( Sikim , Sikkim, Sekem ). In a correspondence with Dominique Buttin, he informed the that, “The name Peudeung means sword, which is the same meaning as Podang from the Batak or Pedang from the Javanese.” A major problem with deciding which name to use for these swords comes from the fact that there are 10 subethnic groups of acehnesse (such as Aceh , Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban and Julu ) Here I will use the term used in the most of the Dutch sources and that is “Peudeueng” . A review of the literature seems to divide peudeueng by blade style and type if hilt. The straight bladed swords are called peudeueng panjang ( sikin panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh, ). Curved blades peudeueng are called peudeueng peusangan ( peudeueng pasangan , sikin peusangan, sikin pasagan, pedang, poedeung ).
A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)
A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet
A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung (HuluPasangan)
The other division for Aceh swords is by type or shape of the hilt or hulu, In “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta she describes them as “hilt like the tail of a cat”, “hilt like the mouth of a crocodile”, “hilt like the horns of a deer”, “hilt like the legs of a horse”, and “hilt like the tail of a duck” While all of these may be found on other Aceh swords; I have only found 4 types of hulu on peudeueng. The hilt that looks like the open mouth of an animal ( or crocodile) is called hulu tumpang beunteung in Gayo or Hulu Buaya in Aceh. This type of hilt can be seen on both peudeueng panjang and peudeueng peusangan. In one variant of this the tips come together till they almost touch with flattened ends. This style I was told by an Acheen smith is still called a hulu Buaya but some books also call it a Hulu Peusangan. Peusangan is the name of a river and the name of a subdistrict in Bireuen, Aceh The third type is usually seen only on the peudeueng panjang is called a Hulu Rumpung.
a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)
A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)
A peudeueng panjang with a hulu rumpung
The fourth type of hilt that is seen on peudeueng is called Hulu Meu Apet (Hulu Muapit in Gayo or Sukul Mekepit in Alas). Hulu means hilt Meu is a verb Apet ( jaga / kawal) means guarded ; so this may simply mean “guarded hilt”. Some other sources call this hilt Daun Tebu. Duan Tebu means Sugar Cane Leaf and the end of the hilt on this is said to resemble a sprouting sugar cane. The hulu meu apet strongly resembles Indian sword hilts seen on the khanda and firangi, but the end spike is shorter.
a close up of a a Hulu Meu Apet
Recently Ariel Barkan, on the forum at www.vikingsword.com, noticed that it also is influenced by the Indian Gulabghati hilt, named so because its upper disk has concentric lines resembling a rose flower, “gulab”. More on this style of hilt can be found in Indian Arms and Armour by G.N. Pant.
Rarely a Hulu Meu apet is seen with a knob at the end of the hilt, this is sometimes called a Peudeueng meutampoh. Perhaps this should be considered a separate style of hilt
Albert G. Van Zonnenveld states in his book, that the peudeueng peusangan with the Hulu Meu Apet was largely of foreign manufacture and did not gain great favor. His feeling is that because of that this variant may be largely ceremonial. That may be true today, however, photos taken during the Dutch-Aceh war can be found with this sword being used. While ornate specimens can be found; the majority of the hulu meu apet I have encountered or seen pictures of are designed for function and not overly ornate. The scabbards normally found with them are also rather austere. Specimens can be found with signs of damage usually associated with battle damage. The sword with the hulu meu apet was even found on several battle flags. In addition examples of these swords can be found with Azimat in them or on the sheath to protect the bearer in battle.
This flag has – literally – been soaked in blood: laboratory research has confirmed that the flag has a bullet hole and bears blood stains. This was probably the blood of first lieutenant C.H. Bischoff. It was he who captured the flag for booty during the storming of a ‘benteng’ (Malay for fort) held by the Achinese enemy in 1840. Bischoff paid for his escapade with eleven wounds inflicted by enemy klewangs. The klewang was originally a native Atjeh sword: ‘gliwang’. Towards the end of the 19th century it became a characteristic feature of the Dutch East Indian soldier’s uniform. The sword widens at the tip of the blade which, together with the handle, f
orms a curved line.. He was carried off wrapped in the flag. Several days later, on 3 May 1840, Bischoff died of his wounds. Before passing away, he was promoted to the rank of captain for his heroic deed.
Photo of a battle flag in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Scabbards ( Sarung)
The scabbards for the peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet are usually wood covered with leather. Some are adorned with silver banding . Scabbards for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung and the peudeueng panjang are of wood and can be found both ornate and plain
A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet
A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung
A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang
A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet
A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung
A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang
In March of 2006 some information was revealed about some of the spiritual beliefs and rituals surrounding these swords. It appears that there are parallels to the the anting ( or anting-anting ) used on Philippine weapons. These talismans are called tangkal or azimat/zimat or jimat. These talismans contained protective verses or religious verses from the Quranic verses ( perhaps again a parallel to the Phillipine practice of Oracion ). This came to light on a thread on Vikingsword.com. In this discussion a tangkal or azimat was posted that came from under the hand guard of a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet. This is an area that I hope to be able to do more research on and post the findings here. My thanks to Fazli Ibrahim for helping me with information on this.
Here is the sword that the azimat was found in and the bag that contained it
Some pictures of the azimat in that sword handle. The portion between the 2 stars is known as Khatimus Sulaiman;.
It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.
Some other Azimat from the National Museum in Indonesia
An Azimat inscribed on the sheath of a Peudeung Panjang
Some Aceh swords have a vegatative motif at the throat called Pucuk Rebung. The V shaped Pucuk Rebung represents sprouting bamboo
According to some acehnesse, if there is gold on hilt / handle / scabbard the sword only can be made for or owned by Panglima ( commander , chieftains ), teungku ( the noblility ) and other highly respected persons.
Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.
A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .
The photograph on the far right shows the source book.
“Acehnese noblemen” from: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).
1) “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989
2) “Traditional Weapons of the Indonesian Archipelago” by Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Art Books – Leiden; Spring
3) 2001OLD BLADES – Malay World Edged Weapons. Copyright © 2000 – 2005
4) “Indian Arms and Armour” by GN Pant 1978
5) . Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV dan V. Gambar 21 A.
6) Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).
7) The Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia, by Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Publishing 1972
Mrs Teuku Umar in 1874
Atjeh River’s bridge in 1874
Atjeh river bridge
The controleur and Inland chief of Masingit atjeh in 1874
Bras island beach of Atjeh nord Sumatra in 1874(three photos)
The Gouvenor of Atjeh house at North sumatra in 1874
The Zinc Roof(atap seng) House at Atjeh in 1874
The Inland Atjeh tomb cementary in 1874
The railways of Koetaradja atjeh in 1874
Controleur of Krueeng Raba atjeh in 1877
Bivak Tjoet Basetoel Atjeh in 1879
Gouvenor Atjeh bridge in 1880
The Teuku of West atjeh with his bride,look his revolver and rencong knife in 1880
The road of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880
Controleur of IDI Atjeh in 1880
The Atjeh Club of Koetaradja during fload in 1880
The Atjeh river of Koetaradja in 1880
The Kraton of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880
The Kratonlaan(street) of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880
The Atjeh women in 1880
The Chief of Tadji atjeh and young women in 1880
Baiturahman Mosque Of Koetaradja in 1881
Wonig (House)Atjeh,panted b Jhr. Josias Cornelis Rappard in deze collectie – in alle collecties
The lithography caricature poster of new toewan besar(Bigger Man) Atjeh during the way to paradise in 1884
The ship at Oleh-leh Atjeh in 1888
The Gouvenor of Atjeh’s house(woning)in 1888
The brige of Koetaraja Chief Atjeh Keraton in 1888
Fishing at Masudji Pante Perak(silver beach) Koetaradja atjeh in 1888
Mesdjid Mosque Raja Koetaradja in 1888
The train railway at Lamjong Lambaroe Atjeh in 1888
Kota Petjoet Tomb Of Koetaradja atjeh in 1888
The European and asian at water reasource building at sabang Atjeh in 1888
Bivak Tjot Mantjang atjeh in 1890
Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.
The Atjeh Chief of Koetaradja in 1892
Standing from right: Mohammed Arif, hoofddjaksa bij het gerecht te Koetaradja; Teukoe Machmoed van Lamtenga, halfbroer van Teukoe Baid; Ketjiq Oemar van Lampisang, boodschapper van Teukoe Oemar; Hadji Abdoellah, schrijver van de assistent-resident; Teukoe Nja Daoed, hoeloebalang van Bolohan; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, waarnemend hoofd van de IX Moekims; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, inlandse zendeling; assistent-resident H.P.A. Bakker; Hadji Abdoellah, hoofdpenghoeloe; wakil Joesoef van Lohong; adjunct-djaksa Aboe Bakr; schrijver van assistent-resident A.J.C. de Neve; onbekend; controleur J.B. Léon. Siting from right : Panglima Medsjid Rajah, rijksgrote; vermoedelijk een hoeloebalang van de [?] Moekims; Teukoe Sjech Toenkoep; Teukoe Neq Moeda Setia Radjah; Pangeran Hoesain; Teukoe Njah Bantah van Lamreng, sagihoofd van de XVI Moekims; Teukoe Malikoel Adil, erfelijk opperrechter van Atjeh
The bridge at Koetaradja in 1892
The daughter and son of Teuku Maharadja Atjeh in 1892
The Resident Scherer in ship at the teloek semelue (sabang) atjeh with atjeh chief of government official in 1892
Fort benteng Bras island Atjeh in 1892
The Aceh War Collections
Aceh War !!
The invasion of Aceh in 1873 was the brainchild of Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte (1822-1902), Netherlands Minister of Colonies, to prevent encroachment by Britain into Sumatra from British colonies in Malay Peninsula
Van de Putte’s idea was strongly supported by his close friend the Dutch governor-general in Batavia (now Jakarta), James Loudon (1824-1900)
Map of the defeated Dutch first invasion of Aceh in 1873, and successful second invasion in 1874
Optimistic reporting of the first Dutch invasion of Aceh in Java-Bode newspaper, 10 April 1873
Generaal-Majoor JHR Kohler, leader of first Dutch expedition to Aceh. His 2000 soldiers managed to penetrate to the Koetaradja Market and the Baiturrahman Mosque. The Dutch stopped to burn down the mosque, in which courtyard they set up a camp.
On the night of 14 April 1873,
a suicidal Acehnese sneaked into the camp and shot Kohler in the chest. Kohler was killed instantly. The next days, the Dutch faced suicidal Acehnese attacks from all sides.
On 24 April 1873,
they were forced to retreat back to their ships. Dutch casualties were 50 dead (including Kohler) and 500 wounded
Kohler Tree, under which General Kohler was shot dead. Photograph from 1936 Dutch magazine.
Generaal Jan van Swieten (1807-1888),
leader of second Dutch invasion in 1873. Swieten was an experienced soldier, fighting in Java War (1825-1830), Belgian War of Independence (1830), Padri War (1830-1837), Bali Expeditions 1848 and 1849, Bone War 1859.
The second expedition sailed with the force of 18 warships, 7 supply ships, 12 auxillary ships, 2 patrol boats, and 22 transport ships carrying more than 13,000 soldiers.
Landing on 9 December 1873
some distance from Koetaradja, by 24 January 1874 had successfully occupied the capital. The three-year-old Acehnese sultan, Mohammad Daud, was taken to the jungle by his followers to continue guerilla warfare.
Engraving of the deadly fighting during Dutch second expedition.
After successfully occupying the royal palace, van Swieten declared victory and opened up the champagne crates to celebrate. Governor-General Loudon telegramed Minister van de Putte back in The Netherlands, informing him that “Atjeh is ons”, “Aceh is ours”. According to past experience, other Dutch wars of conquest in Indonesia was usually won by occupying the capital of the particular region to be conquered. This is not the case in Aceh.
After failed attempts to retake Koetaradja, by April 1874 the Acehnese settled to lay siege on the town, cutting all supplies from coming in from the interior. Road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee port, where Dutch supplies came from, was unsafe due to frequent Acehnese attacks. By 1875, 25% of Dutch troops in Koetaradja had been put out of action by disease, hunger, and war wounds.
Coinciding with silver jubilee of King Willem III’s coronation in 1874, Generaal van Swieten received the Militaire Willemsorde medal above for his “victory” over the Acehnese. However, by 1875, only around 0.1% of Aceh is under Dutch control, which is Koetaradja and the port of Oelee-Lhee.
In May 1875,
Generaal van Swieten, 68 years ol