Chinese history collections(continiu)

this the sample of dr iWAN e-bOOK iN cd rOM WITHOUT ILLUSTRATION,THE COMPLETE cd EXIST TO FET IT PLEASE SUNSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Chinese History Collections

Part

1915-1930

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2013

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

 

 

 

 

FORWARD

 

I hope this information in limited e-book will useable for the collectors or the writer as the basic info for their collections or for writing book and research book.

During my study I realized that the rare and very difficult cast coind were during China republic era.

During China Republic era many types of paper moner and coins issued also ceramic and art work collections which many never report before because of the political situations

I have found some rare china cast coin during republic era but I never found enough info related with this cast coin.also ther ceramic art work related with this coins.

I hope all the collectors and scientist sinology will be kind to help me with their own informations especially to comment and correctios ,

I hope with this study we can know why the Qing Manchu falls anf how the republic changed from nationalist to communist, and what kind of  numismatic collections .  Also what another ceramic and art work exist during that era.

 

 

This is the whole world study as the movement to save the world heritage from china empire which many relation with South east asia country,s kingdom especially from Thailand,Vietnam and Indonesia like srivijaya kingdom,and old Java Kingdom.

For all that info ,thanks very much.

.

Jakarta 2012

The Author

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

INTRODUCTIONS

The brief History

Prologue

 

The siege Of Port Athur

 

 

 

Pont  de jade & bateau, Palais d’été, pris sur le motif du Palais d’Été à Pékin, en Chine 1924

La collection de Sidney D. Gamble à l’Université Duke continue d’être une mine d’images qui sont à la fois artistiquement convaincante ainsi que fournir une fenêtre sur le passé.Il reste l’un de mes favoris personnels.Lien ici:

library.duke.edu / digitalcollections / jouer /

La ceinture de jade pont (alternativement aussi connu comme le pont Camel Back) est probablement le plus célèbre de plusieurs ponts sur les motifs du Palais d’Été Qing vieux. Des milliers de photos touristiques contemporaine de l’inonder le net comme sa beauté intemporelle reste, malgré près de deux siècles et demi. Remarque, il ne doit pas être confondu avec le pont de ceinture beaucoup plus vieux et plus précieux, une autre durée qui a été construit pendant la dynastie des Tang et restauré dans les Ming, qui est situé près de Suzhou.

Selon Wiki:

«La ceinture de jade Bridge (chinois simplifié: ; chinois traditionnel: ; pinyin: Yu Dài Qiao), aussi connu comme le pont le dos du chameau, est un pont du 18ème siècle piétonne lune situé sur le terrain du Palais d’Été de Pékin , en Chine. Il est célèbre pour ses grands distinctifs arc mince unique.

La ceinture de jade est le pont le plus connu des six ponts sur la rive ouest du lac Kunming.Il a été érigé dans le 1751 années à 1764, pendant le règne de l’empereur Qianlong, et a été construit dans le style des ponts délicate dans la campagne du sud de la Chine.Il est fait de marbre et autres pierres blanches.Les parapets ornés sont décorés de sculptures de grues et d’autres animaux.La clairance de la voûte a été choisi pour accueillir le bateau-dragon de l’empereur Qianlong.Comme l’entrée du lac Kunming à la rivière voisine Yu, et quand lors d’occasions spéciales, les empereurs et de l’impératrice et de leurs bateaux-dragons seraient spécifiquement passer sous ce pont. “

 

·         l’Impératrice Gobele Wan Rong (1920-1940)

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 20 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:49

Photo de l’Impératrice Gobele Wan Rong  (1920-1940)

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

1904-1905

 

Japanese 28 cm siege howitzers batter away at the Russian stronghold’s defenses. Dubbed “Osaka babies”, the gigantic guns sat on slide-type carriages atop geared turntables. These 11-inch guns were manufactured in Japan under license from Armstrongs’, at that time the world’s biggest armaments consortium. Used at the sieges of Port Arthur and Qingdao, the huge howitzers were mounted at coastal defense forts in Japan between whiles.

 
 

Strategic Considerations

The city of Port Arthur (Lüshunkou), located at the southern extremity of the Liaodong Peninsula commanding the entrance to the Bohai Gulf, became a fulcrum of historic conflict a century ago when the Russians and Japanese fought a fierce and bloody war over control of its strategic harbor and the surrounding territory in southern Manchuria. The city had received its English name in 1860, when a British tea clipper took shelter in the then fishing village during a typhoon. The ship was commanded by a Capt. Arthur, who made note of the excellent anchorage and communicated his findings to the Admiralty in London.

Why was Port Arthur so valuable that two of the foremost empires of the time would sacrifice up to 100,000 soldiers apiece and stake their navies and their national prestige on its possession? Location, location, location.

 

Guns at 203 Meter Hill Today
.

Strategic Location of the City

As can be seen from the map, the city controls a choke point on all waterborne trade with Beijing. It is closer to the Chinese capital than the Shandong Peninsula with its port of Qingdao (then occupied by Germany), which projects from the opposite shore of the Yellow Sea. Port Arthur also overlooks the western shore of Korea, with its chief cities of Pyongyang and Seoul. There could not be a more strategic location. Port Arthur had an excellent landlocked harbor with a back harbor and a basin suitable for drydocking and cleaning ships’ hulls.* The harbor was shallow and subject to silting, requiring frequent dredging to be usable by the largest warships; a task the Russians readily undertook. The strategic harbor was surrounded by lofty peaks perfect for fortification with long-range cannon commanding the approaches by land and sea. The position thus became the key to controlling the mineral wealth of Manchuria — enormous coal, iron, and copper deposits. The Russian administration of Count Sergei Witte was dedicated to vigorous empire-building in the region, building out the China Eastern Railway to Port Arthur and nearby Dalny (meaning “far, far away” in Russian), which was under development as an important commercial port to rival the German colony at Qingdao, while Port Arthur was slated to become Russia’s impregnable military fortress guarding Russia’s assets in Manchuria. More than 10 million gold rubles (US $5M) were invested in rebuilding Dalny, with the Chinese inhabitants rudely uprooted to make way for the master plan; but the Russian Viceroy, Yevgeny Alexeiev, de-emphasized Dalny and chose to reside in a magnificent palace he built at Port Arthur. At the same time, Witte poured many more millions of rubles into developing Vladivostok and Harbin, both key links in the Trans-Siberian Railway. The rail link to the Russian homeland was opened in late 1903, just before war broke out with Japan, but some segments were still incomplete during the war.

For the Russians, there was the additional advantage that Port Arthur was a warm-water port, protected from the Siberian blasts by the brown, eroded hills of Manchuria: its harbor did not freeze over in the winter. Russia’s other Far East port was Vladivostok, on the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula and some four degrees further north, on the Sea of Japan; its otherwise superb harbor was unusable in the winter months because of icing. With its fine double harbor, oceanic climate, defensible position, and ready access to the mineral wealth of the region, Port Arthur was a strategic prize of incalculable value to the Tsar.

 

Preliminaries to war

 

 


Port Arthur had already been the seat of conflict during the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95. During a 20-month occupation, the Japanese massacred the Chinese garrison and oppressed the inhabitants in reprisal for brutal treatment of Japanese POWs (an estimated 2,000 – 3,000 were killed in the massacre). Under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki that ended the war, Japan was to have occupied the Port Arthur region and all Korea; but in the Tripartite Intervention of 1895, France, Germany, and Russia strong-armed Japan into relinquishing her demands on Liaodong and the Port. Soon afterwards, the Russians coerced a 25-year lease on Port Arthur from the decadent Chinese Empire, including a rail corridor through Manchuria. Russian military engineers moved in aggressively, building a rail line from Port Arthur up to the Trans-Siberian railhead at Harbin. The Russians proceeded to erect a chain of fortifications on the heights around the city, to build batteries on the spit that protected the harbor (the “Tiger’s Tail“) and all the surrounding headlands and hills in town, until the position was considered impregnable. Within this ring of concrete and steel, the Russians established a large naval base on the East Basin of the harbor, complete with graving docks, machine shops, ammo depots, fuel depots, torpedo boat docks, and all the support facilities their burgeoning fleet required — and Russia was on a buying spree from 1898 forward, building up its eastern naval force with reckless speed and, dare one say, substituting flashy new weapons for the training and discipline to make it a battle-worthy force. The Pacific Squadron based at Port Arthur included seven modern battleships, one armored cruiser, eleven protected cruisers, and dozens of TBs and TB destroyers. 1904 fortifications are marked in orange on the map at right. A second cruiser squadron based at Vladivostok included three armored cruisers and two protected cruisers, although this was considered a second command and, as noted above, that port was iced in for much of the winter.
The Japanese observed growing Russian influence in their region with mingled resentment and fear. The Japanese felt that Port Arthur was rightfully theirs after their hard-won victory over China. They viewed the Russians as usurpers, resented the overt racism expressed in the Intervention, and felt that Port Arthur as well as Korea should be integral parts of Dai Nippon, the powerful empire they were constructing in East Asia. Several years after the crushing of the Boxer Rebellion, an extensive European military presence was still evident in China. The Qing Dynasty was on its last legs, its realm a sovereign state in name only, desirable parts of its territory already carved up by western Powers which were not subject to Chinese law, or effectively broken off by local strong-men in a foreshadowing of the warlord era. With huge segments of their former revenues diverted into the pockets of crooked officials or earmarked to pay indemnities, with omens indicating the withdrawal of the Mandate of Heaven from the Manchu dynasty, China was tumbling into chaos. Small wonder the Japanese felt the need for a well-fortified buffer zone to prevent incursions on their own sovereignty. They were also anxious to exploit China’s weakness and disunity to their own ends: they had been avid participants in the suppression of the Boxers, in fact leading the armed expedition against Beijing in 1900-01, and adamantly demanding their share of the indemnity used to settle the incident. Having endured years of delay, duplicity, and calculated insult from Viceroy Alexeiev at Port Arthur, Japan delivered an ultimatum to St. Petersburg in December 1903. The two sides recalled their ambassadors a few days before hostilities commenced.


Sneak Attack: War Begins

 

Period chromolithograph shows Russian cruisers being mauled by the Japanese battle fleet. Titled in Japanese, Battle of Port Arthur, it bears little resemblance to reliable accounts of the action, but instead represents a generic battle scene of the pre-dreadnought era. A Japanese torpedo boat attacks at right, although the most credible torpedo attack of the day was made by the Russian cruiser Novik. The previous night’s Japanese surprise attack was far more of a Japanese victory than the fleet-versus-forts action of the 9th.

Japan launched war on February 8, 1904 with a surprise torpedo attack on the Russian naval vessels at Port Arthur, temporarily disabling three battleships and four large cruisers and exchanging fire with the Russian forts. This was a serious setback for Russia, since they had only one repair dock capable of handling the largest ships. The following day the Japanese fleet showed up and shelled the Russians through the harbor mouth from five miles’ distance; Russian cruisers on picket outside fled with heavy damage.

At this point Togo’s cruiser commander, Adm. Dewa, reported the Russians incapacitated and Togo closed to engage the big forts on Golden Hill; at left, Togo and staff on the bridge. However, by this time the Russian squadron had steam up and ventured forth to fight, while the forts simultaneously engaged the Japanese force with hot fire. Although this engagement is usually painted as another overwhelming Japanese victory in propaganda accounts, in reality it was more a draw, with both sides sustaining serious damage. One hit on the flagship Mikasa killed five key officers by shrapnel and wounded a dozen more crewmen; altogether, the Japanese lost 90 men, the Russians 150 with five direct hits on Russian ships, seven on Japanese. After 20 minutes of hell-for-leather firing, Togo withdrew his fleet. No ships were sunk but both sides claimed they had sunk enemy warships.

War was declared the following day, Feb. 10. Thereafter the Japanese Navy continued to harass the Russians, depleting their fleet with mines and torpedo attacks, bombarding the town and port from long range, and inviting fleet action by sending weak squadrons to cruise close offshore, within sight of the harbor, while their battleship division lurked just over the horizon, ready to swoop down on unwary Russians who took the bait. Three times the Japanese attempted to block the port by sinking old freighters the narrow entrance, and each attempt failed despite heroic efforts by the volunteer crews. One of the signal Japanese successes was to lure out the Russians’ charismatic and inspiring commander, Admiral Stepan Makaroff, and lead him over a freshly laid minefield. Makaroff’s flagship, the battleship Petropavlovsk, detonated two mines and dissolved in a tower of grey-brown smoke, sinking instantly with all hands.
This catastrophe left the Russian navy bereft of its most capable and daring commander, as became apparent when the remaining Port Arthur fleet, attempting a breakout for Vladivostok, clashed with the Japanese in the Battle of the Yellow Sea, August 10, 1904. In the opening phase of the action, Japanese and Russian vessels appeared to inflict damage in equal measure. The Mikasa sustained several hits. After 90 minutes of this, the Russian C-in-C, Adm. Wilhelm Vitgeft, was killed by a shell splinter at 6:30 p.m.; soon after, all the flagship’s bridge personnel were killed by a direct hit. These hits also disabled the steering of the Russian flagship Tsesarevich; helpless and smoldering, she steamed in gigantic circles as Japanese shellfire burst around her decks.

Witgeft’s second-in-command attempted to assume command in the Peresviet, but this was not recognized by the other ships, and they diseregarded his signals, following the demented path of the Tsesarevich instead. The Japanese soon succeeded in shooting away Peresviet’s signal-flag halyards altogether. The Russian line fell into confusion and retreated to Port Arthur. Evening was drawing on and Togo was running low on ammunition by this time, so he retired without clinching a conclusive win, but having inflicted heavy damage without suffering unduly themselves. Badly mauled, the Tsesarevich limped into Qingdao and was interned, while Askold and Diana also showed a clean pair of heels to pursuit. But the remainder of the Russian fleet turned back for Port Arthur, where it remained bottled up, its battle damage largely unattended, rusting and listing around the harbor: a premonition of defeat. Above left, the Pacific Fleet sorties to the battle. At left appears the Retvizan, perhaps Russia’s best battleship, built by the Cramps yard at Philadelphia and half-sister to the famous battleship Potemkin; at right, the cruiser Askold, which suffered a punctured boiler and lost two of its five funnels in the action, but nevertheless reached Shanghai and safety on the 14th. At left foreground and far right, turn-of-the-century TBs bob in the heavy swell.

·         Top of Page


Port Arthur Besieged

Meanwhile the Japanese had been moving a powerful army up the Korean peninsula and across the Yalu to attack Port Arthur from the land. In a dramatic battle fought in a thunderstorm at Nanshan, outside Dalny, on May 25, 1904, Gen. Oku bested the Russian garrison of Chinchou and occupied Dalny (Jap. Dairen), only 16 miles from Port Arthur. Landing supplies and men at Dalny, the Japanese invested Port Arthur starting in late May. The well-trained Japanese troops mounted numerous suicidal frontal assaults on the forts north and east of town. These attacks were repulsed with great losses (in one case, 10,000 killed in 15 hours of fighting). Starting in Nov. 1904, General Nogi deployed his growing strength to tighten the siege of the fortress.

Siege guns crash and thump in an accurate movie re-creation of the siege, as “Gen. Nogi” watches from the left.

This was a deliberate, brutal example of modern siege warfare, foreshadowing the horrific Battle of Verdun and other clashes of the First World War. An extensive siege-works of trenches was dug around the Russian perimeter. Mortars and siege guns of ever greater size were moved up on specially-laid railroad tracks and emplaced to batter down the defenses. Japan’s many batteries were coordinated by a central fire control command, linked by field telephones. All the technology of modern warfare was brought to bear: massive mortars that could shoot a 500-lb projectile five miles; rapid-firing howitzers, machine guns, bolt-action magazine rifles, barbed wire, and hand grenades. The Russians fought back with all the strength conferred by their occupation of the high ground. But gradually the Japanese drew the noose ever tighter. Blockaded by land and sea, the Russians started to run low on food and ammunition. They also suffered from unimaginative leadership verging on incompetence (Gen. Anatoli Stoessel, C-in-C Kuropatkin, Viceroy Alexeiev). With their 5,800-mile supply line — the railroad to Moscow — broken, first their means of fighting and then their will to fight began to flag.
The beginning of the end came on December 6, when Japanese sappers succeeded in tunneling under the ramparts of the fort on 203-meter Hill, the key to the entire position. With a great boom and huge clouds of dust, charges exploded, demolishing the rampart and sending a generous slide of dirt down the steep hillside. This afforded the Japanese a natural ramp upwards as they rushed the fort. In a desperate spate of bayonet work and hand-to-hand fighting, the Japanese stormed the fort and turned its guns on the doomed city. No longer fearing bombardment from the heights, they brought up colossal 11-inch siege guns and began a relentless cannonade of the port and its surrounding forts and batteries. The ships caught in harbor were damaged and sunk in the shallows. One by one the Russian hilltop forts were pummeled into dust.

Things were not good behind Japanese lines. The malnutrition-related disease beri-beri had devastated thousands of the Emperor’s best soldiers. Grieving for the loss of his son in a fruitless assault on 203 Meter Hill, Gen. Nogi contemplated suicide, but steadied by words from the Meiji Emperor himself, he continued to press the campaign. Among the troops, morale held firm, with faith in their commanders and a quasi-religious fervor in the rightness of their Emperor’s cause. On the Russian side, by contrast, things were falling apart. Three quarters of the garrison of 40,000 had been killed or wounded. Ammunition was running low. Starvation was taking a dreadful toll. Morale collapsed.

On December 20, the outer ring of forts capitulated. The city and harbor held out until an armistice could be signed on December 30, formally surrendering on January 2, 1905. In Japan, where the effort to supply and field their great Army had placed considerable strain on society, rejoicing and fireworks greeted the news. The long-cherished objective was now gained, a jewel in the crown of the Mikado’s empire.
But the cost had been steep: 57,780 sons of Japan killed and wounded in action, plus some 30,000 dead of beri-beri The Russians had suffered 31,306 casualties at Port Arthur and were about to suffer many more in other defeats around the theater. Although Russian writings and telegrams from within the fortress had shown a defeatist perspective setting in, the Japanese discovered vast untouched hordes of food, medicine, and ammunition within the walls after the surrender. This suggests sabotage or, at the least, treasonously poor management by the Russian commanders. In the outer forts of the vast and complex Port Arthur system, many of their troops had died of starvation and long run out of ammunition that fall. They were past defending their posts in the final weeks of the siege.
The main objective may have fallen, but the war ground on for many more months, with the centerpiece being the Battle of Mukden (Shenyang), the ancient Manchu capital. In this 21-day siege, the largest land battle in history prior to WWI, the combined Japanese armies attacked on all sides simultaneously, picking off the well-fortified buffer erected by the Russian C-in-C, Gen. Alexei Kuropatkin, one village at a time. Eventually Kuropatkin found himself surrounded and his outlying troops cut off or surrendered; though he had started the battle outnumbering the Japanese 3:2, he was now outnumbered and outflanked; his only option was to abandon the position and retreat. The retreat soon became a rout, with the Japanese driving the defeated Russian army up the rail line toward Harbin and the Siberian border.

The Tsar could not acknowledge defeat, certainly not to members of an Asian race. He replaced Kuropatkin with his subordinate, Gen. Gripenberg, and commanded his remaining Baltic fleet warships to sail from Europe all the way to the Far East, to avenge the defeat of the Pacific Squadron. In reality, the Tsar signed the Baltic fleet’s death sentence; they sailed not to victory but to annihilation at Tsushima. Meanwhile in Manchuria, the Russians were forced back ever further by battle-hardened Japanese armies (at right, a journalist’s impression of a Russian column’s retreat through the winter — click here for a beautiful enlargement). Even then, facing defeat in the East, starvation and revolution at home, the Tsar mulishly stuck to his guns, while the Tsarina Alexandra purred in his ear, “Be more autocratic, darling!”


Peace and Consequences

 

In Japan, meanwhile, the continuing prosecution of the war was severely straining the economy, but the government continued to borrow in order to protect Japanese gains made to date. But there seemed no honorable way out for either side. Enter U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. On June 10, the Chief Executive offered to act as a mediator between the two sides too proud to talk to each other (at left, TR flanked by emissaries from Russia and Japan). Indeed it was high time to end the war: total killed in battle exceeded 25,000 Russians and almost 50,000 Japanese; wounded, some 150,000 Russians and 175,000 Japanese. Informal talks aboard the presidential yacht Mayflower flowered into full-blown peace negotiations at the U.S. naval base in Portsmouth, N.H., with the Russian delegation led by Minister Sergius Witte, the Japanese by Baron Komura. By the terms of the peace treaty, the defeated Russians gave up their claim to Port Arthur and the railway line through Liaodong, and also ceded half of Sakhlin Island, stormed by Japan in a surprise offensive during the final weeks of the war. The Japanese had been confidently expecting to impose a huge indemnity on the Russians for causing the war (much as Bismarck had done on the French for the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, and as the western Powers had continually done in their incursions upon China, up to and including the Boxer Rebellion of 1900-01). Roosevelt refused to back Japan’s demand for reparations, and it was not incorporated into the Treaty of Portsmouth which was signed August 29, 1905. When they were made public, the terms of the Treaty caused outrage in Japan. Anti-American riots and demonstrations tore the country for several weeks. Ever sensitive to western racism, the Japanese felt betrayed, just when their arms had triumphed and established them as a rising world power. The residual mistrust from this episode formed an essential piece of the background to the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor 36 years later, as explicitly mentioned in Japan’s 1941 note declaring war. For the moment, however, the Japanese swallowed their pride, becoming exemplary hosts when the Great White Fleet visited their ports three years later on a good-will trip partly intended to impress the island nation with America’s overwhelming naval might, only ten years after the U.S. had become a neighbor by taking over the Philippines and Guam. The Japanese carefully looked over the American ships and remained privately unimpressed.

In Russia, the throne was rocked by a nationwide worker’s revolt sparked by the hardships and deaths caused by the war, and starting in many cases within the Navy. The Tsar remained in power only by agreeing to become a constitutional monarch, ruling in concert with an elected legislature — in effect, by agreeing to “be less autocratic.” A forward-looking government headed by the Tsar’s western-educated minister, Sergius Witte, was put in place, and the nation pitched in to repair the damage done in the war. Under the new arrangement, the Tsar would govern with the consent of an elected legislature, the Duma. Old habits die hard, however. The Russians had no practical experience of democracy on a national level. The ink was hardly dry on the October Declarations when Duma deputies visiting Britain to observe parliamentary procedure, were surprised by the news that the Tsar had dissolved the Duma — the first of many such expressions of imperial displeasure. The Tsar and Tsarina soon reverted to their old ways, becoming ever more imperious, ignoring the extent to which their legitimacy had been undermined by war and unrest. Eight years later, in 1914, the Russian Empire had reverted to autocratic monarchy with only a window-dressing of representative democracy. Such was the nation-state which lurched into the disaster of World War I. The Romanovs stepped willingly into the trap set by Austria-Hungary and Germany. Confronted by strains its corrupt and outdated structure could not bear, their dynasty foundered in a vast social upheaval, pulling down with it the entire autocratic order of Central Europe.

Meanwhile, President Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Prize for brokering the 1905 peace. And in East Asia, Japan was recognized as the leading Power, with an empire including Korea (annexed 1910), Taiwan, the southern half of Sakhalin, and the hard-won foothold in Manchuria. The Liaodong Peninsula and railroad complemented the great naval base Japan had captured at Port Arthur, called Ryojun in Japanese. This territory was technically “leased” from the Chinese government until 1931, when the Japanese military moved to take over all Manchuria, eventually establishing the puppet state of Manchukuo. In 1905 Japan had upset the white-supremacist theories underlying 19th-century imperialism, and bested a European Great Power at its own game. The shock waves of Japan’s victory reverberated throughout the “civilised world,” and the island empire began to command a grudging respect in the West. Port Arthur remained under Japanese rule until the end of WWII, when Stalin’s troops barged in to take their surrender and loot all they could of the great industrial base Japan had built up in Manchuria over 40 years. Soviet troops occupied the Liaodong area until 1950, handing it over to the newly proclaimed Chinese Communist government that year.

Lüshun today is a much quieter place, having been outpaced by nearby Dalian (the former Dalny), now the chief port and provincial capital of Liaodong. But handsome European-style buildings constructed by the imperial powers still stand in Lüshun, and the city is attempting to build a tourist trade based on its spectacular scenery and fascinating history. Dalian too has sought to capitalize on its seven-year Russian heritage, restoring vintage colonial buildings and adding false Tsarist-style façades to communist era structures in the same district. Though lately recovering from a nasty oil spill, the region makes an interesting tourist destination for all who thirst to know more about the imperial rivalries that shaped the 20th century.

 

 

 

ERA REPUBLIC

INTRODUCTION

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

清末两次鸦片战争后,深感海防空虚的清政府开始了旨在国防自的洋务运动,其中建设重点便是创建近代化的海军。筹办之初,中国海军便以英国为师,大量从英国、德国等欧洲国家购买先进武器装备。图为清政府在英国订造的蚊子船这些炮舰为木船外包钢壳,被称为蚊子船,可作近岸防御但不具远洋作战能力。

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

 

1875年,清政府命李鸿章创设北洋水师,每年下拨400万两白银用以训练官兵,购置军舰。1881年,清政府先后选定在旅顺和威海两地修建海军基地。18881217日,北洋海军正式宣告成立。从此,近代中国正式拥有了一支在当时堪称世界第六、亚洲第一的海军舰队。图为1880年清政府向德国订造的铁甲舰,因吨位重、主炮口径大、装甲厚,一度被誉为亚洲第一巨舰。

In 1875, the Qing government ordered Li to the creation of the Northern Navy, allocated four million taels of silver a year for the training of officers and men, the purchase of warships. In 1881, the Qing government has chosen to build a naval base in Port Arthur and Weihai. December 17, 1888, the Northern Navy was officially inaugurated. Since then, modern China officially has a sixth in the world at the time called Asia’s first naval fleet. The picture shows the custom-made 1880 the Qing government to the German ironclads, the “set” because of heavy tonnage, heavy caliber guns, armor thickness, once known as Asia’s first ship in

 

 

北洋海军士兵多招募自山东沿海,入伍后接受严格的西式训练,在六个月时间内必须学会基础的舰上操作知识和英语。而各主要战舰舰长及高级军官几乎全为专门的船政学堂毕业,并多曾到外国海军学院留学实习,是清末中国走在近代化最前端的人群。然而正因为此,北洋海军成了顽固保守派时刻嫉视的目标。图为在威海刘公岛上操练的北洋海军士兵。

Northern sailors and more recruitment from coastal Shandong Province, joined the army to accept the strict Western training must learn, in a six month period based on the ship operational knowledge and English. Major warship captain and senior officers of almost all specialized Chuanzheng graduation, students practice and more than once to foreign Naval Academy, the late Qing Dynasty China walk in the forefront of the modernization of the crowd. However, for this reason, the Northern Navy became a stubborn conservative moment of envy, as the target. The picture shows the drilling in Weihai Liugong Island Northern sailors

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

这支效法西方海军,以蒸汽化舰船作为主要装备的舰队,在服装制度上,也一改中国上千年以来延续的号衣样式,开始向近代化方向过渡。尽管当时北洋海军服装的样式仍然是中式,但是服装的颜色搭配、袖口的军衔标识等设计理念,都已开始和欧洲接轨。图为一名北洋海军军官接收军舰期间在欧洲拍摄的一幅照片。

This to follow the example of Western naval steam of the ship as the fleet of major equipment, clothing system, changed the style of the continuation of the “livery” in China since thousands of years, began the transition to the modern direction. Even though the style of the Northern Navy clothing is still Chinese, but the colors of the clothing, cuff rank logo design concepts have begun and European standards. The picture shows a Northern naval officer to receive warships in Europe during the shooting of a photo.

 

 

由于清廷内部政治斗争、高层好恶等原因,1888年以后北洋舰队经费大幅减少,到了1890年海军装备更新被迫彻底终止。而时为海军技术突飞猛进之时,日本通过两次海军扩张案迅速崛起。至1894年甲午战争爆发时,北洋舰队原有战舰无论航速、射速,皆落后于日本。而慈禧太后的病态性铺张浪费,给包含海军军费在内的国家财政带来无建设性的负担。

Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888, the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise. To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894, the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive

 

 

1894年初夏,日本挑起旨在侵略朝鲜和中国的甲午战争。1894917日,北洋海军主力与日本联合舰队主力在鸭绿江口海域遭遇,爆发了中日海军的首次决战,史称黄海大东沟海战。图为日本参战军舰西京丸摄到的海战现场,近处的是日本联合舰队军舰,远方烟雾下虚化的舰影是正在向日本联合舰队疾攻的北洋舰队。

The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou. The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet

 

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黄海海战初期,北洋海军意图以横队在多个点上切断、打乱日军的纵队阵型,然而北洋海军各舰舰龄老旧,且航速、火力完全被日军压倒,未能实现既定战术目标,最终陷入被日军的围困。已经遭受重伤的北洋海军舰在舰长邓世昌指挥下向日舰发起自杀式冲锋,意图以此扭转局势,最终不幸功亏一篑,被日军击沉。邓世昌落水后义不独生,拒绝救援,蹈海殉国。

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.

 

 

黄海海战以北洋海军的失利而告终,北洋海军被击沉多艘大型舰艇,但未能击沉一艘日舰,舰船装备损失过重,丧失了黄海制海权。日军先后发起旅顺和威海战役,意图歼灭北洋海军,扫清登陆渤海湾的最后障碍。18952月,经历苦战,弹尽援绝的北洋海军在威海覆灭。图为北洋海军覆灭前,被日军鱼雷重创后搁浅的旗舰为避免落入敌手自爆后的景象。

Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.

 

 

在威海陆地失守之刻,北洋海军提督丁汝昌曾组织全部的海军陆战队渡过海湾,对岸上的日军发起了背水一战的反攻,最终海军陆战队被优势日军压迫至龙庙嘴海滩,全军覆没,丁汝昌自杀。图为战后日军在龙庙嘴附近拍摄到的阵亡的北洋海军陆战队官兵遗体。

Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.

 

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1895217日,日军在海军配合下在刘公岛登陆,济远,广丙,镇中等剩余10舰为日军所俘,北洋舰队全军覆没。随后,清政府派出李鸿章为全权大臣,赴日议和,并于417签定《中日马关条约》,甲午战争结束。北洋海军的覆灭也标志着洋务运动的失败,大清帝国的国际地位一落千丈,再次成为列强鲸吞蚕食的对象。图为被日军占领的北洋海军刘公岛海军公

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall

 

  • ·              战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.

 

 

紧接而来的庚子之变和日俄战争,让清政府意识到重建海军仍是必经之路。1902年开始,大批原北洋海军军官开复原官,并设立海军学校,开始从人才入手重建海军。1909715日,清廷成立筹办海军事务部,由载洵、萨镇冰充任正副筹办海军大臣,合并南北两洋水师,改成立巡洋舰队及长江舰队。中国第一次有了统一的海军指挥机构和海军司令部。图为1905年日俄战争期间,旅顺港,日军军官目击俄军舰被击沉场面。

Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way. 1902 onwards, a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy. July 15, 1909, the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet. China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command. The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

 

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载洵刚一出任就宣布了一个雄心勃勃的发展海军七年规划,计划快速添造头等战舰8艘,巡洋20余艘,各种兵10艘,编制第一、第二、第三各队水鱼雷艇;成立各洋军港和船坞;设立海军大学等。19091910年,载洵、萨镇冰先后出访欧美各国,订购了多艘舰船。图为载洵、萨镇冰一行考察英国海军,前排左二起分别为萨镇冰、载洵。

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College. 1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

 

 

清廷虽然建立了各级海军指挥机构,但出于对汉人的猜忌,上层大量启用皇族、旗人,其中代理海军大元帅载沣、海军大臣载洵都不懂海军业务,萨镇冰等虽是科班出身,却要受皇族节制。海军基层军官大多出身船政学堂,有些还有留洋经历,对清廷缺乏归附感,且对旗人专政、上层腐败认识深刻,普遍失望。这些军官本身也分粤、闽两派,彼此间勾心斗角,内耗严重。图为中国在英国订造的海天舰。

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family. Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

 

 

辛丑前订购的五海巡洋海圻”“海天”“海琛”“海筹”“海容陆续抵达,成为清末海军的主力。而此时海军列强已卷入军备竞赛,英国1艘主力战列舰的吨位,就相当于整个清朝巡洋舰队吨位的总和。军港方面,旅顺、威海都被列强租借,沿海港口也多被瓜分,清廷在浙江象山筹建新港,但直到清亡也没完成。图为海天的姊妹海圻舰造成后,中方接舰军官在舰上的合影,第二排右起第三人为萨镇冰。

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team. Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

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进入20纪,效法日本成为了晚清一大风尚。海军购舰和留学的重点也转向日本。至1909年,在日本订购的14舰艇全数到华总计排水量5700吨。这批军舰,构成了后来长江舰队的主力。图为中国在日本订造的军舰下水仪式。

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons. These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

前往日本留学的海军学堂毕业生也逐年增加。1906年,江南水师学堂第五届驾驶班17毕业生中,有12名被派往日本。而不少海军学员在日本接受了革命思想,为了日后倒戈埋下了伏笔。图为清政府海军接收军舰的部分军官在日本与造船厂官员合影。

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection. The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

 

 

1909年,萨镇冰被委为筹备海军大臣和海军提督,统一了官制、旗式、军服、号令,实施了对中国近代海军的第一次科学管理。同年824日至924日,载洵、萨镇冰等人从北京出发,巡视了9个沿海(及长江)省的海防情况,考察了海军学堂、船坞,并参加了象山辟港典礼。至191110月辛亥革命爆发共计16年半的时间里,清政府外购军舰39艘,排水量共34728吨(均不含未能来华之军舰)。国产军舰24艘,排水量共10564

 

Important to Revolution broke out in mid-January 1907,

 

the United League headquarters staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Division Zhongkai, council Speaker Wang Jingwei Members include Qiu Jin 27. Acquaintance with my grandfather Zhongkai, served over the headquarters of Mr Xiongke Wu Mao Xin and Kang Baozhong. Home with my family is a long-time friend of my family with him to stay in the mainland’s two daughter but successful culvert and but successful Tao has been there contact, while Kang Baozhong is Kang heart Fu, his younger brother Kang heart of the eldest son Kang country dry marry my big aunt Li Xianhua wife .

Tian Tong, Hu Tao and Li Zhaofu secretary of his colleagues, they are older than my grandfather, and later on the road are also different. Hubei But Tao longer than seven years of my grandfather participated in the revolution, and the subsequent experiences similar to my grandfather.

 

1909,

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy. Same year in August 24 to September 24, contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony. To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships). Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

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191158日,清政府成立皇族内阁,令各地立宪派大失所望,革命活动也日渐活跃。1010日,武昌起义揭开了辛亥革命的大幕。湖广总督瑞瀓匆匆逃上停泊在武汉江面的炮舰避难。12日,清廷迅速组建围剿机构,由陆军大臣荫昌统一指挥,赶赴武汉镇压。图为清军向革命军施行火攻,汉口街市燃起大火。

 

After the revolution, he served as the State Council, secretary of Tang Shaoyi, the Yuan Shikai implementation monarchy in 1914,

 

he immediately resigned from all his posts, Zheju Shanghai. He then also in politics, but mostly served as secretary to monitor and rank, and later to devote themselves to literature and history to hospice. Break with fellow Hubei Tian Tong opposition Uniting Russia Yung policy therefore has not worked as office, is running a newspaper and writings, and the highest official Hu Hanmin Xinhai retired from politics in the several active until his death in 1936.

Why join the United League, Li Zhaofu did not leave a few words, but contemporary Concord heart, such as (1890-1969) has been mentioned in the memories: 1902, Heart fu brother (1884-1917) to Xi’an Provincial Examination back, talking about the Hundred Days after reforms of talk enraptured, Kang and Liang infinite admiration admire my three brothers take alias Fu the Brother No. hormone Acts, Kang long prime only I

 

No. Greek any hope from the elder Liang’s younger brother the number look complex, looking up at Tan Fu-sheng (Note 2) Kangjiahui was living in Sichuan Pengshan, Shanghai publishing newspaper to be more than a month to read.

The remoteness of young people by the political reform impact is so great, not to mention a grandfather living in Beijing.

In 1907,

Li Zhaofu Sichuan alliance members Tie Cliff, Deng floc Dongxiu Wu and other revolutionary publication founded in Tokyo, Japan, the cuckoo’s song “magazine, after being closed by the Japanese authorities. In between, he purchased the shipment of arms to support Huanghuagang uprising. Li Zhaofu returning from Japan in 1910. My father said, after the Wuchang Uprising, the grandfather was another revolutionaries go Jining Zhili, the state capital. He pistol coercion the Jining capital surrendered to the Revolutionary Party, also forced the magistrate to know the state of hanging white flag.
Important to Revolution broke out in mid-January 1907,

 

the United League headquarters staff of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Division Zhongkai, council Speaker Wang Jingwei Members include Qiu Jin 27. Acquaintance with my grandfather Zhongkai, served over the headquarters of Mr Xiongke Wu Mao Xin and Kang Baozhong. Home with my family is a long-time friend of my family with him to stay in the mainland’s two daughter but successful culvert and but successful Tao has been there contact, while Kang Baozhong is Kang heart Fu, his younger brother Kang heart of the eldest son Kang country dry marry my big aunt Li Xianhua wife .

Tian Tong, Hu Tao and Li Zhaofu secretary of his colleagues, they are older than my grandfather, and later on the road are also different. Hubei But Tao longer than seven years of my grandfather participated in the revolution, and the subsequent experiences similar to my grandfather.

 

After the revolution, he served as the State Council, secretary of Tang Shaoyi, the Yuan Shikai implementation monarchy in 1914,

he immediately resigned from all his posts, Zheju Shanghai. He then also in politics, but mostly served as secretary to monitor and rank, and later to devote themselves to literature and history to hospice. Break with fellow Hubei Tian Tong opposition Uniting Russia Yung policy therefore has not worked as office, is running a newspaper and writings, and the highest official Hu Hanmin Xinhai retired from politics in the several active until his death in 1936.

Why join the United League, Li Zhaofu did not leave a few words, but contemporary Concord heart, such as (1890-1969) has been mentioned in the memories: 1902, Heart fu brother (1884-1917) to Xi’an Provincial Examination back, talking about the Hundred Days after reforms of talk enraptured, Kang and Liang infinite admiration admire my three brothers take alias Fu the Brother No. hormone Acts, Kang long prime only I

 

No. Greek any hope from the elder Liang’s younger brother the number look complex, looking up at Tan Fu-sheng (Note 2) Kangjiahui was living in Sichuan Pengshan, Shanghai publishing newspaper to be more than a month to read.

The remoteness of young people by the political reform impact is so great, not to mention a grandfather living in Beijing.

In 1907,

Li Zhaofu Sichuan alliance members Tie Cliff, Deng floc Dongxiu Wu and other revolutionary publication founded in Tokyo, Japan, the cuckoo’s song “magazine, after being closed by the Japanese authorities. In between, he purchased the shipment of arms to support Huanghuagang uprising. Li Zhaofu returning from Japan in 1910. My father said, after the Wuchang Uprising, the grandfather was another revolutionaries go Jining Zhili, the state capital. He pistol coercion the Jining capital surrendered to the Revolutionary Party, also forced the magistrate to know the state of hanging white flag

   

The failure of the Boxer Rebellion to eject the West and the humiliation of the Chinese by the terms of the Peace of Peking generated more support for nationalist revolutionaries.

In 1911

the Ch’ing Dynasty collapsed. Revolutionaries led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen then took over the Chinese government, ending more than 2,000 years of monarchy. (The Photo is of Dr Sun Yat-sen

 

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION: NATIONALIST

The Revolution of 1911

   

In the industrial city of Wuhan, a soldiers’ groupwith only a loose connection to Sun’s alliance rose in rebellion in the early morning of

Oct. 10, 1911

(since celebrated as Double Ten, the tenth day of the tenth month). The Manchu governor and his commander fled, and a Chinese ommander, Li Yuan-hung, was pressured into taking over the leadership. By early December all of the central, southern, and northwestern provinces had declared independence. Sun Yat-sen, who was in the United States during the revolution, returned and was chosen head of the provisional government of the Republic of China in Nanjing. (The Photo is of Li Yuan-hung)

    The Manchu court quickly summoned Yuan Shih-kai, the former commander of the reformed Northern Army. Personally ambitious and politically shrewd, Yuan carried out negotiations with both the Manchu court and the revolutionaries. Yuan was able to persuade the Manchus to abdicate peacefully in return for the safety of the imperial family.

 

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active. October 10, the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge. On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression. The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

鉴于三镇襟带江汉,舰船作用巨大,清廷又令萨镇冰率海军助剿。萨镇冰自13日自高昌庙率楚有楚豫楚秦江元建威舰以及鱼雷艇6艘起航,15日就至汉口江心,比陆军还早两天通知各国领事,等海军军舰到齐,便开炮轰城。图为武汉江面上的长江水师战船。

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

 

 

对于革命初期大批起义的新军,海军投身革命的极少。一则舰艇部门繁多,一二人振臂高呼难以控制全舰;二则待遇大大优于陆军,导致海军军官在政治上比较保守;三则革命党人的工作重心主要集中在新军和会党。因此在统治者来说,海军是他们用以镇压人民反抗的重要工具。加之革命军水上力量薄弱,长江舰队对其构成了重大威胁。图为九江革命军的简陋炮船。

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies . Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

时,清廷的三艘主力巡洋舰海筹海容海琛也已奉命开赴武汉江面助战。这三艘舰上见过世面的官兵较多,同情革命的是主流。海琛舰军官张怿伯则联络各主力舰官兵,打仗时尽量不瞄准,不是放空就是射向江面。而其他炮舰中有多艘原归属湖北省,舰员出于香火之情不愿力战。左上图:海筹;右上图:海琛;下图:海容

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

 

 

总司令萨镇冰虽是蒙古族旗人,却是职业海军将领,更与黎元洪有师生之谊,到汉以后没有积极布置进攻革命军。当接到黎元洪的策反信时,他也不置可否,既不响应革命,也不卖力作战。海军和革命军相隔3000多米对射,彼此炮弹却都落在水面,没有造成损失。部分海军官兵已萌发同情起义的思想,革命军开始继续争取海军。图为革命军在襄河旁守卫。

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces. When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

 

到了11月初,下游省份大多独立,海军成了,且缺煤、缺饷,陆军又因派系成见不予接济。武汉军政府政事部长汤化龙给其弟弟,萨镇冰的参谋官,汤芗铭送去劝降密信。汤芗铭随即在海容舰召集各舰军官密谋起义,被各舰代表推为起义舰队临时司令。身为旗人的萨镇冰进退两难,见军心已经动摇,悄然离舰去了上海。汤芗铭接管舰队指挥权后,开始协助革命军打击清军。图为汤芗铭。

Downstream provinces are mostly independent, early November, the Navy became the “Jiang Jun”, and the coal shortage, lack of rates, the Army because of factional prejudices is not aid. The conduct of public affairs, Minister Tang Hualong, Wuhan Jun government to his brother, the the Bodhisattva town ice Staff Officer, Tang Xiang Ming sent to capitulate secret letter. Tang Xiang Ming immediately Hoi Yung ship, called the Gejian officers conspired uprising, Gejian on behalf of push for the temporary commander of the uprising fleet. As a Manchu Sa town ice dilemma, see the morale of the troops had been shaken, quietly away from the ship to Shanghai. Tang Xiang Ming took over the fleet command, began to assist the revolutionary army against the Qing. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

由于大多数清朝基层海军官兵为粤、闽籍,和起义官兵是同学、同乡,主力舰艇起义后,清军残留各地的舰艇纷纷起义。图为九江军政府民政长林森说服海军起义。

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

清政府重建的海军,在清廷尚未垮台之时就已全部起义,成为革命党人手中一支重要的军事力量。图为起义海军士兵准备进攻南京。

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

 

图为军的舰载诺登飞机关炮被拆卸上岸参加进攻南京。

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

126日,革命军在上海成立海军总司令部,公推程璧光为海军总司令,黄钟英为副总司令,汤芗铭为巡洋舰司令长,此时清廷已解除载洵海军大臣职务,由副大臣谭学衡出任末代海军大臣,却已经既没有海,也没有海军。1912212日,清帝逊位,中国长达两千年之久的君主专制制度宣告结束。图为汤芗铭率领的主力舰队正在北上进入渤海湾,清军最终无一舰出击。

December 6,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy. February 12, 1912, the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

清末海军的主力舰为五海,其中海琛海筹海容在革命后起义,海天舰则在1904年触礁沉没。而最大的海圻舰则在辛亥革命发生时,由巡洋舰队统领程璧光率领,以大清海军战舰的身份出访,参加英国国王乔治五世加冕阅舰礼。图为海圻舰出访期间停泊美国纽约。

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong” After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904. “Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

 

 

纽约媒体发现,海圻舰所有海军官兵脑后,清代中国人特有的那根辫子已荡然无存。原来,早在海圻离开上海之前,经报请清廷,舰上的军官就已全部剪除了发辫。海圻舰也成为了满清政府海军中的唯一一艘全舰官兵都剪掉辫子的军舰。图为剪掉辫子的海圻舰士兵出席纽约官方举办的欢迎仪式。

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

为孙中山的同乡老友,程璧光在得到革命消息之后经过商讨,召集全舰官兵,下令革命者站右舷,不愿者站左舷结果全舰官兵、连同访美时纽约造船厂厂长赠送的舰猫均站到右舷。191211日,远在英国的海圻舰举行易帜仪式,降下清朝黄龙旗,升起民国五色旗。19125月,历经30850海里航程的海圻舰回到出发港上海,此时的中国大地已不再是帝制时代。

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

 

 

December 2, 1911,

 

Jiangsu and Zhejiang revolutionary army in the capture of Nanjing, so the provincial representatives decided to Nanjing as the temporary seat of government in the preparatory process of the interim government in Nanjing, because the competition for power between the various forces wrangling until the Sun Yat-sen returned to Shanghai at the end of December,

 

only to open the deadlock., Sun Yat-sen then pushed for the provisional president, and the provisional government of the Republic of China was formally established

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