chinese history collections (continiu)

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on January 1, 1912,

 

but, according to the provisional the government memorandum stipulates that the interim government has only been in place for five Ministry, Yushaosengduo, How can accommodate so many people want an official? At this time, there is a man named Li Zhaofu the alliance members at the presidential palace secretariat, he born in bureaucratic families know how the old-style official set of organizations, so he proposed a way to expand government organizations, almost all people are settling down, so we are very satisfied with this interim government, both constitutional party , bureaucratic warlords revolutionaries occupied a major position. “the General team leader (Note 3)

 

Later, Wu Yuzhang to succeed Li Zhaofu resigned the post. According to the memories of my cousin, relationship between Li Zhaofu and Wu Yuzhang quite close. Wu to Li, straight into my grandmother’s bedroom, and opened a drapery, shouting “Lijiang Bo Luan. According to the information I found, regardless of political attitudes,

then the parties have praised my grandfather incorruptible government man noble. Of course there are exceptions, and later developed a close relationship with my grandfather, my grandfather was quite disrespectful, a wide face change, it seems the norm mentioned in his memoirs.

 

Later, I listen to the cousin said the man had prostitutes in Japan, and, therefore, to find my grandfather for money.
Another unofficial, the United Democrats of plotting to assassinate were Socialist Party leader, cleared Praetorian Guard first co military system counseling so Liangbi the original plan to send my grandfather to go, but it was Li Zhaofu no descendants. At this time, Peng Jiazhen stood up and said: “My wife has been pregnant,” January 26, 1912, Peng Xiangliang Bute dropping bombs on the spot sacrifice, Liangbi was bombed and severely wounded after. Dying ago, lamented: “kill me good hero also, truth and I!” “I was dead, the Qing court also will perish also.”

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

第二次世界大战前夕,日本占领中国的东北数年,德国也占领了匈牙利和捷克斯洛伐克,并没有引起国际社会的多大反应,那个时候主要的大国是不会为了这些而彼此翻脸的,而且西方国家还指望着希特勒和斯大林的对打。但是,如果这个时候,德国和日本能够及时收手,享受既得利益,和世界上主要的大国形成战略平衡或者是结成利益集团,也许就没有第二次世界大战,世界上很多国家的历史和命运都要被改写了。

中国,很可能是东北三省尽失去,还有宝岛台湾,也许日本会和苏联达成某种协约来瓜分东北和朝鲜,无休止的民间抵抗是不会改变被占领的基础的,而同化随着时间的延长而慢慢深入人心。况且国内国共还要内战,不管谁胜谁负,恐怕那个时候都没有力量去收复东北,时间长了就成为下一个《中俄条约》,现在俄国不是还占领中国数百万平方公里的领土吗?。。。美国也不会下那么大力气和日本对着干,冷战可能是会有的,谁都防着谁,日本控制东北亚,美国控制西亚和美洲,德国雄霸中东欧洲,取代英国成为欧洲的领袖,成为反俄的前哨。大国之间只会形成暗战和代理战争,各自维持着各自的利益圈,形成三角鼎立的局面。而广大的亚非拉小国,也许还是大国的附属或者殖民地,帝国主义国家对待这个问题是高度一致的。

历史不会这么简单的进行,而统治者的贪欲也使理性成为不可能,大国之间为了谁当领袖而不惜一切的彼此毁灭着,完全没有达成势力平衡的想法。于是乎,大国之间的力量消耗着,发展中国家才可能崛起。而那些打架的大国发现已经控制不住了局势,于是就结成了现代的军事和利益同盟,北约

[

918起中国就注定了要和日本再次一,应该说蒋介石还是很重承诺的,12变以后中国陆军开始了大规模整训,日本由于害怕中国的报复才先下手为强。中国2战的导火索是918,直接原因是双12事件以后中国舆论和政府行为的重大转向,77变只是一个早晚会来的必然事件。至于说战争的结果日本注定会失败,中国太大了日本根本不可能进行直接有效的统治。中国人的大一统思想太重了,即便日本不动手,在中国政府实现完全统一以后必然会发起对东北的统一战争。楼住可以翻翻历史书本,只要汉人不是统治在一个政府的治下中国都会出现各种各样的南征或者北伐。日本人可以同化东北但要让东北人都说日本话,怎么着也得3代人,中国政府有足够多的时间去凝聚力量。如果日本不对中国37年开始的大规模反日行为作出回应,日本经济在失去中国这个大市场后将遭受重创,而中国在反日旗帜的凝聚下不出20年定能培养出一只足够与日本一战的军队,结果是中日两败具伤,日本失去世界二等强国的地位,这是日本所绝对不能容忍的
奥地利是德意志的一部分,到现在我仍然这么认为!俾斯麦允许奥地利分裂只是因为当时力量不足的妥协手段,希特勒合并奥地利是正确的,而且奥地利人也支持的。这个不算侵略

中国的抗日战争应从九一八算起,纵使日本不扩张 中国一天也没有停止抗日
德国入侵捷克、奥匈到有点不同 战过去只有20 们还没有忘记当年奥匈帝国的辉煌 许多人看到被德国吞并感动的热泪盈眶 在梦想重建昔日奥匈帝国的

说的有些勉强.德国前期站了上,你也要知道,很多利益也是被瓜分了。比如,实德国打波兰是有苏联的合作的.只是我们的教科书上没有提到罢了.德国一开始的发动战争的最终目标就是苏联.一但开始就不会终止.而日本在亚洲的行动完全漠视美英战略利益,所以美国参战也是迟早的事.过是因为美国封锁日本还上航线直接导致了战争进程加速而已.

不是那么回事的。日本和德国各有其特殊的情况。德国在世界大战爆发之后迅速占了上风,但是希特勒确实希望结束战争(他是个赢了一大笔钱的赌徒,唯一想的就是赶快离开赌桌”——齐亚诺),但是英国不会允许这个赢了钱的人离开赌桌(那就真输光了),而且斯大林以罗马尼亚问题发难,希特勒也是忍无可忍了。日本在二次大战中战略混乱,没有一个核心的策略,主要是因为军队于政府的对立,海军与陆军的矛盾,以及军队内部复杂的关系,九一八事变、七七事变、八一三事变都在这样的背景下发生,天皇和政府都认为没有和中国爆发全面战争的必要,但是陆军的利益集团根本不听他们的指挥。意大利只是跟错了人而已。这都不是贪心的问题,而是无可奈何

时候是后全球性金融危机时期,都需要转移国内矛盾,像日本德国那样的国家光占领几个地区根本解决不了国内的矛盾,只能继续打不停地

哪有这么容易停下,分法西斯是要当政侵略就不可能停止,就像当时的日本,战争的决定甚至不是政治家决定的,而是由军人(甚至是中低级军官)决定,而当政的内阁也只好下台,由支持侵略中国的军人执政。纳粹如果不继续扩张,等待他们的只能是下台,并由一个主张继续扩张的政党当政。历史的发展是有其必然性的,不是某个人所能决定的

人是从来不知道适可而止的,当时的弱国对于侵略者来说是那么的不堪一击,他们没有理由不去入侵占领。直到侵犯了强国的利益才被干预。可是箭已射出

是回不了头

第二次世界大战日本是战争的发起者也是战败国,日本军队在战争中投降的比例还是很小的,战死率也是比较高的,特别是在东南亚地区和日本本土岛屿争夺中,有的日本军队基本上是全军覆没,没有几个活下来的,即使日本军人受伤后,大多也不会投降选择自杀的据多,还有小日本的神风特工队等等,给人的感觉好像是日本军人很勇敢,都不怕死!其实不是这样的,日本是个皇权社会,天皇是日本人心中的神,效忠天皇死后可以升天的,进了靖国神社就成了神仙了!这些观念从小在日本人心中灌输,控制了日本人的精神,那一代日本军人的精神都被这种效忠天皇,死后成神的思想牢牢控制住,谎话说的多了成了真理,当时的日本军人的确大多数是不怕死的,对于当时日本军人来说,死,是一件光荣的事情,在很多战例里,日本军人在被包围后,在弹尽粮绝的情况下,在盟军强大的火力网下,往往还要组织密集的集团冲击,说白了就是去找死,去送死!争着去死人该去的地方靖国神社,幻想自己成为神!可以说,在第二次世界大战里,小日本的军队是不怕死的,但只能说是不怕死,远远称不上做战勇敢,是一群被效忠天皇死后成神的思想牢牢愚弄和控制的,几乎没有自己的思维的被训练成为杀人机器的,变态的小日本人

 

• Source  Baidu Space

 

 

December 2, 1911,

Jiangsu and Zhejiang revolutionary army in the capture of Nanjing, so the provincial representatives decided to Nanjing as the temporary seat of government in the preparatory process of the interim government in Nanjing, because the competition for power between the various forces wrangling until the Sun Yat-sen returned to Shanghai at the end of December(Du Xinxin)

 

THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1912-1949)

In January 1912,

the Nanjing Provisional Government was established, Sun Yat-sen Li Zhaofu is appointed head of the provisional Secretariat General of the Presidency, the other argument is that he served as secretary of the presidency (with a). According to Wu Yuzhang memories

On Feb. 12, 1912,

the regent of the 6-year-old emperor formally announced the abdication. The Manchu rule in China ended after 267 years, and with it the 2,000-year-old imperial system.

 

January 28, 1912,

the Nationalist government the Senate established, Li Zhaofu by the “Shujun government elected to the Senate. According to Senate provisions: set a member of the hospital, charge of Senator hospital, set to the chairman of the hospital-wide positions only inferior to the Speaker, deputy speaker of election Shiu just any of the … In April of the same year, moved north over the Senate. “(with Note a)

 

On the political stage in 1912,

Li Zhaofu is energetic, has the reputation heavy moment. “(With a) he was involved in the reorganization of the Kuomintang. Kuomintang reorganization the solid lines early escape (Song Jiaoren) one presided over, and Hu Ying, Zhang Yao had Lizhao Fu, Wei Chen group and a certain monarch whom running conspiring, all with great efforts. “(Note 4)

 

In February 1912,

in order to continue to develop about law, the Senate convened a second Provisional Constitution drafting sessions. According to the Senate Hansard record, the Senate decided to first pay the consideration of Council of the Provisional Act, Li Zhaofu for the consideration of the President.

 

The outcome of the deliberations, decided that the original case within the presidential system, by instead the responsibility of the cabinet system. (Note 9) discussion of the Provisional Constitution involving national government establish a capital where, because the Yuan Shikai not Kennan, the Valley Zhongxiu and Li Zhaofu raised capital in Beijing and in the voting majority of votes in favor, and the Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing oppose the move .

 

It is said that Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing extremely angry about the incident that night put Li Zhaofu told them cursed meal (with c).

Oppose capital in Nanjing also Zhang Taiyan, Song, the Huangxing even troops in to grab the Members of the United League. This issue marks the internal division of the United League.
In January 1912,

the Nanjing Provisional Government was established, Sun Yat-sen Li Zhaofu is appointed head of the provisional Secretariat General of the Presidency, the other argument is that he served as secretary of the presidency (with a). According to Wu Yuzhang memories:

only to open the deadlock., Sun Yat-sen then pushed for the provisional president, and the provisional government of the Republic of China was formally established on January 1, 1912,

 

but, according to the provisional the government memorandum stipulates that the interim government has only been in place for five Ministry, Yushaosengduo, How can accommodate so many people want an official? At this time, there is a man named Li Zhaofu the alliance members at the presidential palace secretariat, he born in bureaucratic families know how the old-style official set of organizations, so he proposed a way to expand government organizations, almost all people are settling down, so we are very satisfied with this interim government, both constitutional party , bureaucratic warlords revolutionaries occupied a major position. “the General team leader (Note 3)

 

Later, Wu Yuzhang to succeed Li Zhaofu resigned the post. According to the memories of my cousin, relationship between Li Zhaofu and Wu Yuzhang quite close. Wu to Li, straight into my grandmother’s bedroom, and opened a drapery, shouting “Lijiang Bo Luan. According to the information I found, regardless of political attitudes,

then the parties have praised my grandfather incorruptible government man noble. Of course there are exceptions, and later developed a close relationship with my grandfather, my grandfather was quite disrespectful, a wide face change, it seems the norm mentioned in his memoirs.

 

Later, I listen to the cousin said the man had prostitutes in Japan, and, therefore, to find my grandfather for money.
Another unofficial, the United Democrats of plotting to assassinate were Socialist Party leader, cleared Praetorian Guard first co military system counseling so Liangbi the original plan to send my grandfather to go, but it was Li Zhaofu no descendants. At this time, Peng Jiazhen stood up and said: “My wife has been pregnant,” January 26, 1912, Peng Xiangliang Bute dropping bombs on the spot sacrifice, Liangbi was bombed and severely wounded after. Dying ago, lamented: “kill me good hero also, truth and I!” “I was dead, the Qing court also will perish also.”

January 28, 1912,

the Nationalist government the Senate established, Li Zhaofu by the “Shujun government elected to the Senate. According to Senate provisions: set a member of the hospital, charge of Senator hospital, set to the chairman of the hospital-wide positions only inferior to the Speaker, deputy speaker of election Shiu just any of the … In April of the same year, moved north over the Senate. “(with Note a)

On the political stage in 1912,

Li Zhaofu is energetic, has the reputation heavy moment. “(With a) he was involved in the reorganization of the Kuomintang. Kuomintang reorganization the solid lines early escape (Song Jiaoren) one presided over, and Hu Ying, Zhang Yao had Lizhao Fu, Wei Chen group and a certain monarch whom running conspiring, all with great efforts. “(Note 4)

In February 1912,

in order to continue to develop about law, the Senate convened a second Provisional Constitution drafting sessions. According to the Senate Hansard record, the Senate decided to first pay the consideration of Council of the Provisional Act, Li Zhaofu for the consideration of the President.

 

The outcome of the deliberations, decided that the original case within the presidential system, by instead the responsibility of the cabinet system. (Note 9) discussion of the Provisional Constitution involving national government establish a capital where, because the Yuan Shikai not Kennan, the Valley Zhongxiu and Li Zhaofu raised capital in Beijing and in the voting majority of votes in favor, and the Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing oppose the move .

 

It is said that Sun Yat-sen and Huang Xing extremely angry about the incident that night put Li Zhaofu told them cursed meal (with c).

Oppose capital in Nanjing also Zhang Taiyan, Song, the Huangxing even troops in to grab the Members of the United League. This issue marks the internal division of the United League.

Zhang Zhenwu was killed in August 16, 1912.

The Wuchang Uprising fathers are not establishing a republican death on the battlefield, but died in political intrigue after the success of the revolution. The case became the mystery of the history of the Republic. Zhang Zhenwu incident after the third day, the Senate met to discuss fairly warm.

 

The Most Members that the Vice President to require non-crime of murder, the President command tampering laws are contrary to approximately Act.

 

The Senate that case relations between the countries of this, to maintain the dignity of the law. So Senator joint question the government, to be answered the President Yuan Vice President Li Yuan-hung, some senators even proposed the impeachment of Vice President Li Yuan-hung, the Prime Minister Lu Cheng-hsiang, and the army chief Duan.

 

In order to protect themselves under the pressure of the Senate, Yuan Shikai, Li Yuan-hung responsibility. Li from Hubei had sent a long electrical life of army chief Duan Senate reply.

Duan on stage in the morning of August 23, the respondent, the caller claimed that according to Li, vice president, announced content only seven aspects mentioned in reply to the questions referred. In fact, he is based on Zhang Zhenwu military grounds can not catch to send the Trial Chamber, the facts of the crime are in any Department of Military Affairs is, the issue is not the relationship military affairs, so Junfacongshi. He trying to use martial law as an excuse to bypass the law of the land, the answer is clearly not so senators satisfaction Diego to lead the Senators questioning.

The questioning Senator, Li Zhaoxing Pu Diego to: “I only questioned on the simple fact. Had open martial law meeting No Will kill Zhang Zhenwu before?”
Duan: “had just previously reported, a collection of higher officers discuss several times.”

Li Zhaofu: “whether to open a martial law meeting?”
Duan: Code of Military Justice meeting will also be studied by the higher officers guilt. “

Li Zhaofu: Will open meeting of research department what date? ”
Duan: “on the 13th of this month, has met to discuss the 14th meeting to discuss perish and the president also used here.”

Li Zhaofu: “Will open martial law meeting, the President Should here?”
Duan: “in big presidential palace. Session opens Fuchu housing system are contiguous, the presidency is here.”

Li Zhaofu: “kill Zhang Zhenwu Evidence In addition to the two telegrams outside Hubei still what evidence No?”

Duan: “The so-called evidence, but that is the Department he committed counts, In addition to this there are documents outside of the telegram.”

Finally, Duan said: “In short, the Government National premise of self can not but a temporary way. Otherwise, in the country a great danger to this dangerous time of the Ruo maintaining yeah? Procedures, although the error, Qi Rui body When the blame, nor not. “

Can be seen from more than a question and answer Lizhao Fu Zhang Zhenwu case into the legal field of vision always want to explore, including the distinction of the Judge Advocate meetings Higher officer meeting, the President as the Chief Executive has the right to participate in the trial, to kill Zhang Zhenwu the exact legal evidence and so on, are straight off the legal issues.

 

Finally, ask the the Duan exposed flaws, acknowledged the “formalities error”. Repeatedly had to declare that it does not kill Zhang is in accordance with the law as a precondition, had to be so, otherwise there is a fleeting danger. The segment also showed that attitude, reluctant to admit, the Senate, if you can forgive the government need not repeatedly questioned that line can not forgive impeachment. (Note 5)

This is a contest of democracy and autocracy, Sun Wen Zhang Zhenwu case dilemma. Zhang case occurred on August 16, the Sun Yat-sen as planned on the 18th northward met Yuan Shikai was a lot of people advised him to cancel the trip, he not only did not accept, and said: “Whatever you do not lose the trust of the Yuan President and his everyone that the Yuan is not reliable, I think that reliable hatred I vision a try.

 

In Beijing, Yuan little explanation, he trusted, and urged the skeptical Huang Xingli that Beijing … these materials show that, Sun Yat-sen was simply not aware of the support or undermine democracy and the rule of law serious struggle. system, only the political activities of the parties are included in the track of democracy and the rule of law and institutions to govern these people’s hands and feet, and will it be possible to consolidate democratic republican system, Sun Wen confused it as someone ‘suspicious’ or ‘credible’ awareness to stay on such a low level, he has not published any statement that condemned the case, lost a Democratic politician should have such a major struggle morale. …

 

not in Zhang Zhenwu case deserved lesson Yuan followed six months later brazenly assassinate Song Jiaoren; Sunwen again disposed of improperly, democratic republic finally pushed to name only situation. “(Note F)

Members of the House of Representatives was elected in 1913, Li Zhaofu back to Sichuan Province, the third area. He “worked in the the temporary Senate and House of Representatives, where advocates are Zoran from the see, tilting the ruling and opposition parties. Youyi Li Ji Kuomintang, Sui Wei Yuan Shikai deep taboo.” (With Note a) In the same year, the outbreak of the second revolution, he and Xiongke Wu crusade against Monarchy.

 

The Taoyuan, Xiongke Wu’s Shu Army has been changed to the Fifth Division of the revolution, Li Zhaofu any division Party, then Liu Bocheng is a head of he and Liu Bocheng has also long been strangers. After the failure of the second revolution, Xiongke Wu was forced to disband the army, fled to Japan, “(Yuan) Shikai arrested the Members of the KMT, Chao Fu also its columns; phoenix nine is the official Tongxian with Shikai old, to avoid too free. “(with a)

 

   

Early in March 1912,

Sun Yat-sen resigned from the presidency and, as promised, Yuan Shih-kai was elected his successor at Nanjing. Inaugurated in March 1912 in Beijing, the base of his power, Yuan established a republican system of government with a premier, a cabinet, a draft constitution, and a plan for parliamentary elections

Zhang Zhenwu was killed in August 16, 1912.

The Wuchang Uprising fathers are not establishing a republican death on the battlefield, but died in political intrigue after the success of the revolution. The case became the mystery of the history of the Republic. Zhang Zhenwu incident after the third day, the Senate met to discuss fairly warm.

 

The Most Members that the Vice President to require non-crime of murder, the President command tampering laws are contrary to approximately Act.

 

The Senate that case relations between the countries of this, to maintain the dignity of the law. So Senator joint question the government, to be answered the President Yuan Vice President Li Yuan-hung, some senators even proposed the impeachment of Vice President Li Yuan-hung, the Prime Minister Lu Cheng-hsiang, and the army chief Duan.

 

In order to protect themselves under the pressure of the Senate, Yuan Shikai, Li Yuan-hung responsibility. Li from Hubei had sent a long electrical life of army chief Duan Senate reply.

 

Duan on stage in the morning of August 23, the respondent, the caller claimed that according to Li, vice president, announced content only seven aspects mentioned in reply to the questions referred. In fact, he is based on Zhang Zhenwu military grounds can not catch to send the Trial Chamber, the facts of the crime are in any Department of Military Affairs is, the issue is not the relationship military affairs, so Junfacongshi. He trying to use martial law as an excuse to bypass the law of the land, the answer is clearly not so senators satisfaction Diego to lead the Senators questioning.

 

The questioning Senator, Li Zhaoxing Pu Diego to: “I only questioned on the simple fact. Had open martial law meeting No Will kill Zhang Zhenwu before?”
Duan: “had just previously reported, a collection of higher officers discuss several times.”

 

Li Zhaofu: “whether to open a martial law meeting?”
Duan: Code of Military Justice meeting will also be studied by the higher officers guilt. “

 

Li Zhaofu: Will open meeting of research department what date? ”
Duan: “on the 13th of this month, has met to discuss the 14th meeting to discuss perish and the president also used here.”

 

Li Zhaofu: “Will open martial law meeting, the President Should here?”
Duan: “in big presidential palace. Session opens Fuchu housing system are contiguous, the presidency is here.”

 

Li Zhaofu: “kill Zhang Zhenwu Evidence In addition to the two telegrams outside Hubei still what evidence No?”

 

Duan: “The so-called evidence, but that is the Department he committed counts, In addition to this there are documents outside of the telegram.”

 

Finally, Duan said: “In short, the Government National premise of self can not but a temporary way. Otherwise, in the country a great danger to this dangerous time of the Ruo maintaining yeah? Procedures, although the error, Qi Rui body When the blame, nor not. “

 

Can be seen from more than a question and answer Lizhao Fu Zhang Zhenwu case into the legal field of vision always want to explore, including the distinction of the Judge Advocate meetings Higher officer meeting, the President as the Chief Executive has the right to participate in the trial, to kill Zhang Zhenwu the exact legal evidence and so on, are straight off the legal issues.

 

Finally, ask the the Duan exposed flaws, acknowledged the “formalities error”. Repeatedly had to declare that it does not kill Zhang is in accordance with the law as a precondition, had to be so, otherwise there is a fleeting danger. The segment also showed that attitude, reluctant to admit, the Senate, if you can forgive the government need not repeatedly questioned that line can not forgive impeachment. (Note 5)

 

This is a contest of democracy and autocracy, Sun Wen Zhang Zhenwu case dilemma. Zhang case occurred on August 16, the Sun Yat-sen as planned on the 18th northward met Yuan Shikai was a lot of people advised him to cancel the trip, he not only did not accept, and said: “Whatever you do not lose the trust of the Yuan President and his everyone that the Yuan is not reliable, I think that reliable hatred I vision a try.

 

In Beijing, Yuan little explanation, he trusted, and urged the skeptical Huang Xingli that Beijing … these materials show that, Sun Yat-sen was simply not aware of the support or undermine democracy and the rule of law serious struggle. system, only the political activities of the parties are included in the track of democracy and the rule of law and institutions to govern these people’s hands and feet, and will it be possible to consolidate democratic republican system, Sun Wen confused it as someone ‘suspicious’ or ‘credible’ awareness to stay on such a low level, he has not published any statement that condemned the case, lost a Democratic politician should have such a major struggle morale. …

 

not in Zhang Zhenwu case deserved lesson Yuan followed six months later brazenly assassinate Song Jiaoren; Sunwen again disposed of improperly, democratic republic finally pushed to name only situation. “(Note F)

 

Members of the House of Representatives was elected in 1913, Li Zhaofu back to Sichuan Province, the third area. He “worked in the the temporary Senate and House of Representatives, where advocates are Zoran from the see, tilting the ruling and opposition parties. Youyi Li Ji Kuomintang, Sui Wei Yuan Shikai deep taboo.” (With Note a) In the same year, the outbreak of the second revolution, he and Xiongke Wu crusade against Monarchy.

 

The Taoyuan, Xiongke Wu’s Shu Army has been changed to the Fifth Division of the revolution, Li Zhaofu any division Party, then Liu Bocheng is a head of he and Liu Bocheng has also long been strangers. After the failure of the second revolution, Xiongke Wu was forced to disband the army, fled to Japan, “(Yuan) Shikai arrested the Members of the KMT, Chao Fu also its columns; phoenix nine is the official Tongxian with Shikai old, to avoid too free. “(with a)

 

After the Revolution,

 

Sichuan established Shujun government summer when Vice Warlord. My grandfather and summer when cooked, Dong Zhujun in Shanghai in 1934 by my grandfather in summer when the divorce as her divorce lawyer. A more detailed account of this matter in the Dong Zhujun “

 

My Century. That book was later made into a TV series, including grandfather lens I see a really beyond recognition. The young father is also quite familiar with the family summer, said their daughter Xia Guozhang eight sister. The then popular Luting ‘Qiushuiyiren “when the niece of the Xia Xia Guobin particularly like to hear my father sing this song.

 

early in 1913.

The Kuomintang (KMT, National People’s party), the successor to Sun Yat-sen’s organization, was formed in order to prepare for the election. (The Photo is of the Republic’s Seal of Office)

    Despite his earlier pledges to support the republic, Yuan schemed to assassinate his opponents and weaken the constitution and the parliament. By

1913

 

 

 

 

 

 

1913 PPC with Chefoo Club franked with ½c Coiling Dragon stamp optd with “Republic of China”

 

1913 PPC with Chefoo East Beach franked with 2c green Coiling Dragon stamp optd with “Republic of China”

 

 

Kang heart of the old man with grandchildren historians alley No. 57 Yuan

 

Say, in Sichuan, home health is a large house.

 

To what extent is it? Kang heart of the second daughter, Ms. Kang Daisha might be (I called the Daisha Aunt) “my pathfinder Zhou Enlai couple,” memories are summarized as follows: “My family is the Sichuan influential national bourgeoisie representatives. great uncle Kang heart Fu (1884 to 1917) the old United League Leaguers, and KMT elder Yu You-jen, a fellow confidant, former professor at Beijing University, and Li Dazhao also better to my uncle Kang heart case Sichuan Meifeng Bank chairman and General Manager my father Kang heart operating factories, mines, real estate, finance, also do the “National Gazette” I tetra Kang heart is far Baofeng, general manager of my home and the Kuomintang party and government dignitaries and Regional Warlords, democracy who had dealings. ”
If it is said The influence Kangjiahui, not a few words can finish, I have only to do with the the Daisha aunt memories supplement. Self from the Reform Movement the Kang brothers Times Person of the Year of the society in history, and to a certain extent. Heart, such as Kang recalls:

1913-1916,

Taiyan division by Yuan Shikai house arrest Beijing Qianliang alley I each will go from Shanghai to Beijing to ask for their manuscripts “Triumph Books.

Teacher wishing his life writings compiled for the series of books published, I generously decided to commitment to publish the responsibility, fitness more than any Shanghai since set the right text community printed books issued to industry, therefore dare any of this.

Fanhu after, imitation Tang autumn gold (real) published the storm building Series format, arranged in proofs, validated portable Beijing, division very much appreciate his audience, call female Li the same look, hurried one, as that is to the desk, the cover has also Sheng makeup. division angry color is late by hanging dead always puzzled what the reason. division as the “dead woman birthplace” … the book is about more than a year party complete. points as a twenty-four. “(Note 1 Du Xinxin)

 

 

 

 

the end of 1914

he had made himself president for life and even planned to establish an imperial dynasty with himself as the first emperor. His dream was thwarted by the serious crisis of the Twenty-one Demands for special privileges presented by the Japanese

In 1914,

when the First World War, the Chinese Parliament carve main battle owners and factions. Members of Ma Junwu owners and, while my grandfather was a war party.

 

They began to debate Junwu debate, but my grandfather, he was on the side of the debate, the good side battle to fight grandfather. Grandfather side back side debate, Ma also chasing play, and later the police over interference House. The grandfather said: “This is a debate between our Members, you can not interfere.” It is said that at that time, in order to prevent the Members in the debate on the use of force, the House of cartridges ink stone are nailed to the table. The home of his grandfather, grandmother to fetch water to wash his feet, to see his legs are bluish purple, I asked and found Ma Junwu play.

 

According to my father recalled, rarely speaks in the home of his grandfather. He’s a very strong self-control, and youth smoking, drinking, over 30 years old, and suddenly all quit.

 

My grandmother likes to play mahjong, she and Zhang Xun played cards. Grandmother talk about officials communicative frequented playing tea surrounded which prostitutes appearance. When prostitutes near grandfather Newspapers block face and said: “I eat drunk.” My father was the youngest son home, grandfather sometimes hold him sitting in a rocking chair, shaking her sing Japanese songs.

 

In the original billing suriko can be very long, he suriko dragon dance to his father to see. Father grew up sometimes write some Waishi, and half text and half white, but also love poems, his grandfather also read. Grandfather’s life is simple, neat, very personal hygiene speaking. Every morning, he floor is covered in a newspaper, holding a comb, head pointing towards the ground, and began to comb my hair, comb down all the dandruff. Combed, take it poured into the wastebasket.

 

After the clean up, and he was eating breakfast. Breakfast is usually milk, egg drop soup, ate dinner and sat down to read a newspaper for many years so. The grandfather also nicknamed “Stingy uncle, he was wearing a very neat, but a hat for decades.

 

Rickshaw ride later in Shanghai, the fedora was snatched away before he bought a new hat. Once the kids go out with his grandfather met prostitutes in Station Street, grandfather Sichuan as saying: “Are not you the money thing?” Took five money hurry to leave, the kids are laughing behind.

 

In 1914,

when the First World War, the Chinese Parliament carve main battle owners and factions. Members of Ma Junwu owners and, while my grandfather was a war party.

 

They began to debate Junwu debate, but my grandfather, he was on the side of the debate, the good side battle to fight grandfather. Grandfather side back side debate, Ma also chasing play, and later the police over interference House. The grandfather said: “This is a debate between our Members, you can not interfere.” It is said that at that time, in order to prevent the Members in the debate on the use of force, the House of cartridges ink stone are nailed to the table. The home of his grandfather, grandmother to fetch water to wash his feet, to see his legs are bluish purple, I asked and found Ma Junwu play.

According to my father recalled, rarely speaks in the home of his grandfather. He’s a very strong self-control, and youth smoking, drinking, over 30 years old, and suddenly all quit.

 

My grandmother likes to play mahjong, she and Zhang Xun played cards. Grandmother talk about officials communicative frequented playing tea surrounded which prostitutes appearance. When prostitutes near grandfather Newspapers block face and said: “I eat drunk.” My father was the youngest son home, grandfather sometimes hold him sitting in a rocking chair, shaking her sing Japanese songs.

 

In the original billing suriko can be very long, he suriko dragon dance to his father to see. Father grew up sometimes write some Waishi, and half text and half white, but also love poems, his grandfather also read. Grandfather’s life is simple, neat, very personal hygiene speaking. Every morning, he floor is covered in a newspaper, holding a comb, head pointing towards the ground, and began to comb my hair, comb down all the dandruff. Combed, take it poured into the wastebasket.

 

After the clean up, and he was eating breakfast. Breakfast is usually milk, egg drop soup, ate dinner and sat down to read a newspaper for many years so. The grandfather also nicknamed “Stingy uncle, he was wearing a very neat, but a hat for decades.

 

Rickshaw ride later in Shanghai, the fedora was snatched away before he bought a new hat. Once the kids go out with his grandfather met prostitutes in Station Street, grandfather Sichuan as saying: “Are not you the money thing?” Took five money hurry to leave, the kids are laughing behind.(Du Xinxin)

 

 

in January 1915

and by vociferous opposition from many sectors of Chinese society.

 

1915

May 15th, 1915

 

 

 

 

 

WWI re-directed 1915 China to Sth Africa censored cover. A beauty. Mailed from Shanghai on May 15, 1915 to Jo/burg.
Recipient not there, so then re-directed TWICE within the UK. With a nice “re-posted Jo-Burg 31 July 15 cds” on back. Censor has opened again somewhere in transit, and sealed with brown plain tape. (Cover opening is on end of pink tape.)
UK arrival roller on face ‘Streatham 25 Aug 1915.’

 

 

 

 


The eve of World War II

Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.
source :

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments

In April 1915,

Zhang Jue conspired to crusade against Yuan Shikai, and sternly refused to Yuan Shikai declared, was killed in Tianjin. The authorities allowed human corpses. Zhang Jue is a member of the old alliance with grandfather with the group “B Sim Society, he later members of the Society launched the Revolution in Chongqing uprising. The grandfather and Zhang’s private exchanges have not checked, but, according to the parents, who recalls that his grandfather in Beijing heard of the matter as soon as GGP borrowed the 500 oceanic went to Zhang Jue corpses. Yuan Shikai thus offering a reward of one thousand oceans arrest Lizhao Fu, but he escaped. This is the second revolution, Li Zhaofu again escaped the Yuan arrest.

 

According to historical uploaded after the Taoyuan grandfather served as Director General of the Kuomintang socially specific information is as follows: Congress to restore “after the death of Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen agreed to resume” KMT “party name after reorganization always stick to this name, because its impact far-reaching.

then elect the cadres more is a moment of choice, the director of the General Affairs Department Director-General Wei Chen group, Yin Yu Li, Director-General Ren Hongjun director of the Communication Ministry Director-General Li Zhaofu, Director-General Tan Zhen, Wellington Koo. director of political affairs Ministry Director-General Valley Zhong Xiu, Tang Yi. elections Branch in Centre-Yang Yung-t’ai, Director-General Dongsun, Shen Junru, Xu Fu Lin, Rowan dry, ZHANG Yao-Zeng, Wu light construction, Qiu Ao, etc.. director of Wen Shi Ministry

 

Director-General Yang Guang Zhan Administrative Studies Committee Director Director-General Zhang Yao Zeng, Yan, Director-General von freedom Shi Zhiquan, Wu Tiecheng, Dongsun. people learned a trade, familiar with Europe and the United States and Japan’s political, academic, not only was the leader, and in the later decades of complex and volatile political situation in China also played an important impact. “(supra note 40)
In April 1915,

Zhang Jue conspired to crusade against Yuan Shikai, and sternly refused to Yuan Shikai declared, was killed in Tianjin. The authorities allowed human corpses. Zhang Jue is a member of the old alliance with grandfather with the group “B Sim Society, he later members of the Society launched the Revolution in Chongqing uprising. The grandfather and Zhang’s private exchanges have not checked, but, according to the parents, who recalls that his grandfather in Beijing heard of the matter as soon as GGP borrowed the 500 oceanic went to Zhang Jue corpses. Yuan Shikai thus offering a reward of one thousand oceans arrest Lizhao Fu, but he escaped. This is the second revolution, Li Zhaofu again escaped the Yuan arrest.

According to historical uploaded after the Taoyuan grandfather served as Director General of the Kuomintang socially specific information is as follows: Congress to restore “after the death of Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen agreed to resume” KMT “party name after reorganization always stick to this name, because its impact far-reaching.

then elect the cadres more is a moment of choice, the director of the General Affairs Department Director-General Wei Chen group, Yin Yu Li, Director-General Ren Hongjun director of the Communication Ministry Director-General Li Zhaofu, Director-General Tan Zhen, Wellington Koo. director of political affairs Ministry Director-General Valley Zhong Xiu, Tang Yi. elections Branch in Centre-Yang Yung-t’ai, Director-General Dongsun, Shen Junru, Xu Fu Lin, Rowan dry, ZHANG Yao-Zeng, Wu light construction, Qiu Ao, etc.. director of Wen Shi Ministry

Director-General Yang Guang Zhan Administrative Studies Committee Director Director-General Zhang Yao Zeng, Yan, Director-General von freedom Shi Zhiquan, Wu Tiecheng, Dongsun. people learned a trade, familiar with Europe and the United States and Japan’s political, academic, not only was the leader, and in the later decades of complex and volatile political situation in China also played an important impact. “(supra note 40)

Source Du Xinxin

He died in June 1916

a broken man. After Yuan’s death, a number of his proteges took positions of power in the Beijing government or ruled as warlords in outlying regions. In August 1917 the Beijing government joined the Allies and declared war on Germany. At the peace conference in Versailles, France, the Chinese demand to end foreign concessions in China was ignored.

   

Sun-yat Sen (1866-1925).

Known as the father of modern China, Sun Yat-sen worked to achieve his lofty goals for modern China. These included the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty, the unification of China, and the establishment of a republic. (The Photo is of Dr Sun Yat-sen in Guangzhou)

    Sun Yat-sen was born on Nov. 12, 1866, in Guangdong Province and attended several schools, including one in Honolulu, Hawaii, before transferring to a college of medicine in Hong Kong. Graduating in 1892, Sun almost immediately abandoned medicine for politics. His role in an unsuccessful uprising in Canton in 1895 prompted Sun to begin an exile that lasted for 16 years. Sun used this time to travel widely in Japan, Europe, and the United States, enlisting sympathy and raising money for his republican cause. Sun returned to China in 1911 after a successful rebellion in Wuhan inspired uprisings in other provinces. As leader of the Kuomintang, or Nationalist party, Sun was elected provisional president of the newly declared republic but was forced to resign in 1912.

    In 1913

his disagreements with government policies led Sun to organize a second revolution. Failing to regain power, Sun left once again for Japan, where he organized a separate government. Sun returned to China and attempted to set up a new government in 1917 and 1921 before successfully installing himself as generalissimo of a new regime in 1923.

   

Sun increasingly relied on aid from the Soviet Union, and

Li Zhaofu recovery in 1916

 

Congress after the to any interim senator and 1913 elected members of the House of Representatives since 1912, still any Members. “Five years (referring to 1916) the Congress reconvenes, Shiu just sound mining brawl was before.” (With a) 1920

1917

 

1918

 

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

Italian Offices in Tientsin, 1918-1921,

 

 

Surcharged set complete (Scott 15-23), each canceled 17-1-20 on individual piece, clean and fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000.

 

Italian Offices in Tientsin, Postage Due, 1918,

 

 

 

8¢ to 16¢ surcharges (Scott J6-J8. Sassone S.9), clean short set missing only the rare 4¢ on 10¢ value, canceled 17.1.20 on individual pieces, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,00

 

A

1919

French Offices in Yunnan Fu, 1919,

 

 

80c on 2fr, double surcharge (SG 64a. Chan FFY64a), o.g., fresh, Very Fine, scarce variety. Realized HK$ 3,000

French Offices in Hoi Hao, 1919,

 

 

2pi on 5fr, triple surcharge (SG 81a. Chan FFH81a), o.g., a rare and striking variety, F.-V.F.+. Realized HK$ 2,800

 

French Offices in Kwangchowan, 1908, 10fr

 

 

violet, double overprint (SG 34a. Chan FL34a), o.g., fresh and beautifully centered, Very Fine og, a very scarce variety, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 2,400

 

Shanghai anti-bandit control red surcharge on the first postal savings issue of 1919(this sample from 1935

 

!920

 

!921

July,1st.1921

 

On July 1, 1921, the government controlled by the Northern Warlords issued the first aircraft stamps. The set of five stamps has a picture of a black airplane skimming over the Great Wall.

This is also known by philatelists as the first aviation issue.

 

1921 Airmail 1st issue set
And if I can add a little more history to this beautiful set, William Grant was especially proud of his designs for, and engravings of, the Chinese airmail stamps.

The stamp design shows a Curtiss “Jenny” airplane flying over the Great Wall of China. The Bars of the Republic flag can be seen on its tail.

The essay samples in the collection at the US National Postal Museum show that the original design depicted a smaller plane from a different angle, head-on.

Also in Grant’s collection are five airmail stamps, ranging in denomination from 15-cents to 90-cents.

They are proof impressions of the special cachet used at Peking on July 1, 1921 to cancel mail matter on the first airmail flight between Peking, Tsinan and Shanghai

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1921 (Jul 1) Shanghai to Peking First Flight Cover (Starr Mills 2), Scott C1-5 complete on flown first day cover, Very Fine Realized HK$ 10,000

Novermber 1921

1921 (3 Nov)

 

 

 

Japanese Printing colour PPC, sent from Harbin to Madrid Spain

 

 

1922

Li Zhaofu any Senate as Speaker. 1922

 

“Cao Kun bribery congressional elections, case, Chao Fu Joint comrades Overruled, anger go Shanghai ……, Suiliu practiced law.” (A) As far as I know, the grandfather quit politics because of great-grandfather alive, Lijia still residing in Beijing. In addition to the pomp of the home, but also from time to time aid to LI Xiao-luan an aunt. Grandfather for lawyers, the firm is also quite famous, but he was not good enough Mandarin and Shanghai dialect affect personal business. 1922-1935,

 

Lijia mainly by the sale of real estate to support the family after his death in 1925 great-grandfather, grandfather in turn part of the home rental.
Since joined the revolution in 1905 to 1922,

 

Li Zhaofu from a hot-blooded youth to become the father of four children. As one of the revolutionaries, he was opposed to the the the Qing Dynasty conspirators revolution and after the revolution the Chief Legal Officer. He is also involved in the organization of political parties publicly, that political parties later won national elections. Du Yuan Zai editor of the “Revolutionary Figures tenth concentrated, commented Li Zhaofu:

 

Li Zhaofu recovery in 1916 and 1922,

Congress after the to any interim senator and 1913 elected members of the House of Representatives since 1912, still any Members. “Five years (referring to 1916) the Congress reconvenes, Shiu just sound mining brawl was before.” (With a) 1920,

Li Zhaofu any Senate as Speaker. 1922

“Cao Kun bribery congressional elections, case, Chao Fu Joint comrades Overruled, anger go Shanghai ……, Suiliu practiced law.” (A) As far as I know, the grandfather quit politics because of great-grandfather alive, Lijia still residing in Beijing. In addition to the pomp of the home, but also from time to time aid to LI Xiao-luan an aunt. Grandfather for lawyers, the firm is also quite famous, but he was not good enough Mandarin and Shanghai dialect affect personal business. 1922-1935,

Lijia mainly by the sale of real estate to support the family after his death in 1925 great-grandfather, grandfather in turn part of the home rental.
Since joined the revolution in 1905 to 1922,

Li Zhaofu from a hot-blooded youth to become the father of four children. As one of the revolutionaries, he was opposed to the the the Qing Dynasty conspirators revolution and after the revolution the Chief Legal Officer. He is also involved in the organization of political parties publicly, that political parties later won national elections. Du Yuan Zai editor of the “Revolutionary Figures tenth concentrated, commented Li Zhaofu:

After 1922,

I know The grandfather social activities to participate in Sun Yat-sen shift Ling. After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, he Tingling the Beijing Xishan, shift Ling

(Du Xinxin)

1923

1923

 

November,23th.1923

 

Chinese Republic, 1923 (Nov 28) 4¢ + 4¢ paid reply card used from Tihwa, forwarded to Paris (Han 106), a splendid, unsevered card, cancelled by bold Tihwa Nov 28 cds, forwarded Santuao to Paris. Front shows hong Kong 2 Mar 24 transit, while reverse shows a myriad of transits, including hong Kong Kong 27 Jan 24, Hong Kong 13 Feb, Foochow 19 Feb, Amoy 29 Feb (leap year!), Shanghai Jan 24, Santuao 22 Feb and Paris Apr 11 (?) arrival. An incredibly Rare usage and a Rare used card, Very Fine, a wonderful exhibition piece! Realized HK$ 36,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

1923

 

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in 1924

Sun Yat-sen  reorganized the Kuomintang on the model of the Soviet Communist party. Sun also founded the Whampoa Military Academy and appointed Chiang Kai-shek as its president. Sun summarized his policies in the Three Principles of the People–nationalism, democracy, and socialism. He died of cancer in Peking .

Sinkiang, 1924-36,

 

 

 

Re-Engraved Junk Issues complete (Scott 47-68, 69, 114. Chan PS47-PS70), complete set of 24 values by Chan listing, o.g., hinged or never hinged ($20 appears never hinged), overall clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

Plate number 3

Sinkiang, 1924, Re-Engraved Junk Issues (Scott 47-68. Chan PS47//PS70), set of 22 values complete by Scott listing, $10 & $20 are with part imprints, all o.g., never hinged, post office fresh throughout except $20 dull gum, seldom seen offered in this lovely condition, choice set, difficult to find another set this beautiful, Very Fine

Realized HK$ 16,000

 

on March 12, 1925.

Sun’s tomb in Nanking is now a national shrine. (The Photo is of the Dr Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing)

1925

May,9th.1925

 

1925 (9 May) Registered cover sent from University of Foochow to Germany with Handstamped security seals,

franked Junk stamps x12 with total postage 30c.
Tied by Foochow cds, with arrival cds.

 

 

 

 

 

it is a re-used cover. There is the partial return address on Fifth Avenue, New York, NY and on the back, where there is a fold, is the remains of a US stamp that was partially removed.

Was there a paper shortage in China at that time?

 

 

 

1

 

 

Shichang childhood death of his father, mother education the hard way. Although the family was poor, pledge to extend teachers teach children, and lessons from the governor, and moral weight. Shichang recalled: when the child, if the three food, they think obtaining the two, the mother forthwith blasted: “Today’s the case, then how grown up?!” Would rather throw away food, do not eat so Sai . Longer, each friend, the mother will be watching how the character, the fruit department more capable, then the section to the food; otherwise the legislation must be denounced. People are reflected in its lonely, persuaded by a magistrate relatives, Xu Mu Yue: “I Yam Trustee, without undue hardship to know, nothing has carved Li Zhenxing heart carry on.” Serbs lament: “You are painstakingly and Family Education, there must be different on success, true hero is also my house!” Its decency are derived from childhood education.

Shichang speak out are small station training, he came by the Yuan’s high degree of trust and respect, toe, called the brother; second to Hanlin origin, by the general respect, are called teachers; three years hard work, self-military and English, has prepared a “new army arsenal kept a little record” and “drill rules detailed clarity chart said,” 13, with a new mass co-ordinate military training and education, with remarkable achievements, prestigious, and thus established themselves in northern Yuan’s status after the army, also reached the “Writing Xiuwu to war service into the body” purposes.

Small station training, modernization of the Chinese armed forces into a milestone, Yuan and Xu are successful can not be located. Shichang the first to put forward a comprehensive military modernization theory, developed a combination of Chinese and Western military system, code, military rules, regulations and strategic and tactical principles. Later, the “Northern three heroes” – Wang Shizhen, Duan Qi-rui, Feng Guozhang are a small station in the new army leader grew up.

Xu and Yuan, as that is to politics as well as patriotism, (Yuan, at least in youth, be a patriot) Xu, who spent a Sino-Japanese defeat in the Imperial Academy, with dozens of colleagues in the joint impeachment Li. Also participated in the early Reform Movement. Shichang a book worthy of a great thing for the 51 years of age Shichang court appointed imperial commissioner to keep a close watch Northeast Northeast Governor General Affairs. Shichang in the Northeast for three years and done a lot of things beneficial to the nation:

Northeast China is the birthplace of the Qing royal, which is of special importance; to the late Qing Dynasty, took office in Shichang, the Northeast suffered a succession of Russian within a decade, Japanese two-three major looting, large tracts of land was lost, almost a two- strong colony, private fades, devastated.

Then the sheep up in prison. To seek to save,

set in 1906

the Qing court sent vibration, Shichang (both military minister) went to visit the Northeast, and calls for the right remedy, proposed solutions.
After two months traveling thousands of miles way, Shichang presented to the Qing court “to raise the Northeast through the global dredging”, ocean over thousands of words, at this time Xu northeast of governance, has an enlightened approach.
Shichang an arrival, the first of its dead for the reason – “to Zhibing the post, and management of the civil jurisdiction of the government, the various services, interest is also different, both barrier and even to contain more than Sri Lanka, its end is not a Benefit prosper, none of the disadvantages of not “- the implementation of political reform, the Governor is responsible for establishing the system,” held in three provinces do all the things to be learned in order to commission the “,” to a total clusters handedly policy, a basis for the entire nation power tilt corner of the car to help. ” Office based provinces, their divisions together with the governors office, “things are public companies, shift will be painting”, simplify administrative procedures, improve efficiency, in order to establish an efficient decision-making bodies and mechanisms, but also to adapt to a late clear implementation of the New Deal requirements. He stressed the occasion of the great land of extraordinary, non-reform, no to survival. For the punishment of corruption, update officialdom, Shichang also launched a series of specific policies, put into practice. At the same time, he also vigorously Jobs, in particular the reuse of returned overseas talents with genuine talent to the national trend of the times to attract first-class talent, so that the three northeast provinces, “corner of the land of talents”; is cracking down on corrupt officials a warning to. Took a few months, that is to identify and deal with scores of perpetrators. Its bold vision to see.

Xu Lvdong North at the beginning, financial difficulties, make ends meet. He followed in order to set up industrial center, with powers to commercial warfare, the rich provinces, strengthening the armed forces, foreign aggression ideas, the government new ways to implement the new fiscal policy, summarized as: the establishment of banks, and more open trading port, to employ foreign workers, foreign investment, but no concessions to ensure sovereignty. In agriculture, encourage the use of “Yan wide terrain, soil pulse Gao Yu, abundant rainfall,” the favorable natural conditions, the development of food of animal husbandry.

Xu went to the Northeast before the cold climate, the local result, farmers still do not know wheat. Through investigation, Shichang actively promote species of wheat to growers for domestic and Japanese, American varieties, complex, “the first relaxation of the ban on grain exports.” “After three years, all over the Northeast are wheat, self-suits, and information operations. So far the three provinces of China, dedication (Xu) is the first wheat farmers.” He also imported seeds from Australia, sheep and tractors, the promotion of agricultural modernization in Northeast played an important role in the process.

Shichang also actively develop the trade and industry, emphasis on science, education. For the transformation of the parasitic life of the children of the Manchu Eight Banners, specialized factories and run schools in order to “change its temperament,” so that the “Eight Banners talent than can be used to raise and will no longer way out of it.” He also captured to suppress bandits, immigration settlement, raising side of Angle, railways, telephone … … are highly meritorious act.

Shichang governor only two years in the Northeast, the Northeast a new look, set Tao Qin Gui Qing “Dynasty army returned from Europe, via Mukden (now Shenyang) see the road, lighting, military and police are all prepared with, market a new look, are places Corruption, as if Continental, the benefits of the New Deal after serving Sai painting, non-Jiang Li Exchange and its province. DPRK also strongly recommend that the government of its value Shu Yan. “New Deal for the three northeastern provinces, said the world” Shichang New Deal “, Xu also proud of it.

In response to the Russo-Japanese aggression, the Hsu before taking office when he was Minister of Northern Yuan to set foreign policy, one is “to defend the sovereignty, the top priority”; the second is “specific representations, in order to reach the main issues We aim to make concessions on secondary issues may be necessary”complex.

Shichang blatant acts of aggression against Japan to be strong terms: “The people must be shown to not attack, then do not attack; will show people to not be bullied, then who bully.” In Defence of the principles of territorial sovereignty issues argue inch of land to prevent .

Time, six grooves on the Japanese in the Tumen established more than 90 stakes in nails, dark circles will be our territory assigned to Korea (the Japanese occupation of Korea circles) Hsu, Wu, pulling with one night, and remember the Chinese name of Miles, nail establish identity, to the Japanese stunned.

Shichang appointment with the Japanese negotiations “with the credit” of the Wu Luzheng to solve the “community service matters” supervision, effectively eroding the Chinese border to contain the Japanese territory of conspiracy and “stained glass” policy implementation.

Shichang aggressive approach with the Tsarist Russia conducted tit for tat struggle, also made “has it demonstrated regret for it and pleased that” the results.
Shichang the implementation of modern construction in the northeast, so that the reform of the Northeast to open ground, in promoting the modernization process in the country, does power itself a remarkable achievement.
Shichang Yuan also introduced China’s first joint patrol system, the consolidation of the country and prevent foreign aggression, the public safety of its positive role played by the industry, should be affirmed. Shichang in any Book of Postal Department, to adopt a vigorous and resolute means, for the Chinese railways, electricity, postal and shipping industry development, but also played an important role.

Shichang and Yuan close early, but the Monarchy, they still separate ways. Previously, Shichang had vehemently opposed the signing of selling out the country 21 Yuan, and “strike” Shi Yuri. Xu, Yuan cracks generated from this. Shichang in the Yuan emperor after emperor addiction has Liaoding he had not long, then do not dividers Young dart, it was evil deeds, but also back Thousand Years of scorn. Or Sanshiliuji away as a good account. Descendants have asked: to Xu talent and prestige, in Xinhai year, why not from the system deal with soldiers and the South? The imperial trust (over a letter Yuan), the President of Northern soldiers and horses never let Xu; second, Xu Zhu Jiang in some prestige in the Northern, Yuan will not be permitted, will be the only Xu and the first is looking; Third, it is easy and South form a coalition government. So, the first Republican president is none other than non-Xu, after North and South do not appear political disputes, restore back the Board.

However, Shichang Shichang after all, the reason he was willing to hand over people to walk before you run opportunity, willing to be a post, must have thought of. Non can not and is not to be. If the move, driven back by the Qing emperor himself, is disloyal; aside Lao Yuan, is unjust; know What it is unwise. Furthermore Xu steady by nature, the time when the basic conditions before being let go for a Bo, when in the Northeast; risk is too high then would rather wait and see, he was not the kind of “better a chicken population, not an ox,” the people; his life credo is precisely the opposite with Yuan. Guer political consensus, they can discipline and flexibility, advantage complement, Xiangde cover Chang, redundant once the political odds, can not decorum skin, they can only self-seeking way out, play it safe was. Shichang most fundamental after all just a scholar.

In 1917,

Shichang formally advocated the development of China’s “two museums,” the cause of education authorities have announced the “Museum of the Ordinance,” “library charter.” The “American-style concept of the two museums”, all starting from Tianjin, there is a world concept, “the country is gradually extravagant fabric.” For example: In 1918, Shichang approval of China’s one — the National Academy of Beijing Academy of Fine Arts was established in Beijing, Tianjin, specialized training for the large number of primary and secondary school art teachers. Shichang other thing is to be a big book full of patriotic loyalty to the spirit of his old age.

 

 

In 1918,

the second president in the election of the occasion of the Republic of China, Duan Qi-rui, Feng Guozhang loggerheads, along both sides of Shichang then please as the “ideal person” may be president. Xu had the gall to ask for instructions abdication of Pu Yi, “obtaining the grant that.” This intention Qing Xu leftover of goodwill, but still people ridiculed him: “to clear Tutor the official Republic of China, has already seen its people!” To cover all aspects, often counter-productive; both sides please, Nong Buhao offend both sides. Shichang live’s emotional tired.

Shichang when the president’s first major event, is seeking to North-South reconciliation, the end of the civil war, this did her rescue, but they have little effect, nothing more than stall for time, finally broke out in 1922, pursued by war. Xu victorious immediate no thanks “one-sided” support, under the emperor to abdicate in Cao Kun, and again had to reluctantly leave the presidential palace, moved to the British concession, not only ended his five-year presidency, has ended his 40 years in politics course.

Shichang the President’s position does not dry out the cause of any earth-shattering, but it did a lot of things conducive to the Chinese culture.
For example: In 1920, Shichang approval of China’s first private “sea of yellow Chemical Society” was established. For example:

1919

The May Fourth Movement

    After World War I The Chinese felt betrayed. Anger and frustration erupted in demonstrations on May 4, 1919, in Beijing. Joined by workers and merchants, the movement spread to major cities. The Chinese representative at Versailles refused to endorse the peace treaty, but its provisions remained unchanged. Disillusioned with the West, many Chinese looked elsewhere for help.

The May Fourth Movement, which grew out of the student uprising, attacked Confucianism, initiated a vernacular style of writing, and promoted science. Scholars of international stature, such as John Dewey and Bertrand Russell, were invited to lecture. Numerous magazines were published to stimulate new thoughts. Toward the end of the movement’s existence, a split occurred among its leaders. Some, like Ch’en Tu-Xiu and Li Ta-chao, were beginning to be influenced by the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917, which contrasted sharply with the failure of the 1911 Revolution in China to change the social order and improve conditions.

By 1920,

people associated with the Comintern (Communist International) were disseminating literature in China and helping to start Communist groups, including one led by Mao Zedong. A meeting at Shanghai

in 1921

was actually the first party congress of the Communist Party of China (CCP).

   

The CCP was so small that the Soviet Union looked elsewhere for a viable political ally.

1922

After 1922,

I know The grandfather social activities to participate in Sun Yat-sen shift Ling.

1923

A Comintern agent, Adolph Joffe, was sent to China to approach Sun Yat-sen, who had failed to obtain assistance from Great Britain or the United States. The period of Sino-Soviet collaboration began with the Sun-Joffe Declaration of

Jan. 26, 1923.

The KMT was recognized by the Soviet Union, and the Communists were admitted as members. With Soviet aid, the KMT army was built up. A young officer, Chiang Kai-shek, was sent to Moscow for training. Upon returning, he was put in charge of the Whampoa Military Academy, established to train soldiers to fight the warlords, who controlled much of China. Zhou Enlai (also Chou En-lai) of the CCP was deputy director of the academy’s political department.

   

Sun Yat-sen, whose power base was in the south, had planned to send an expedition against the northern warlords, but he died before it could get under way. Chiang Kai-shek, who succeeded him in the KMT leadership, began the northern expedition

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