CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

THIS IS ONLY SAMPLE

THE COMPLETE DR IWAN CDROM EXIST

  


The second and third CEF surharge on British India stamp were issued

 

British Military PO 1904 KEVII opt C.E.F

 

1904 Postage Due opt

1904
Dr Sun with London Supporters in 1904 (photo).

After organizing the Tung meng Hui in Tokyo, dr Sun toured England,belgium,France and germany in the revolutionary cause.

 

In this year The Qing Imperial Post issued London print coilling dragon surcharge with Postage due and also issue london print 1st blue Postage Due stamp

 

June 1904

Chungking Lunar Date postmark on besect JPC stamp b 2 c with Chngking local stamp destination au.6.1904.

 

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong”

After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904.

“Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

 

1905

(5)1905
(a) Returning to Japan in July of 1905, Dr sun was welcomed by Chinese student. He brought revolutinary organizations together in the Tung meng Hui.
(b)On July.20th.1905, student from 17 Chinese province studying in Japan organized the Tung Meng Hui (Society of Revolutionary Alliance).
Dr Sun addressed the Tokyo meeting on the importance of democratic revolution in China.
In the manifesto issued by the Tung meng hui revolutionaries occured the first mention of the Republic of China as the name for entity to succed the Qing Dynasty. These ideas were precursors of Dr Sun’s three principles of the People (Nationalism,Democracy and Social Welfare) , which provided the guidelines for estabilsment and development of the Republic of China(ROC).
(c)The Qing Imperial Post issued the 1st Express stamps.

 

The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

 

1906

(6)1906
In April 1906, the Changsa Post Office have permission for bisect LCP 2 cent cancelled Changsa Bilingual postmark 10 april 06(1906)

 

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

 

(7)1907
(a)Chiang Kai-shek went to Japan in 1907 to continue his military studies.
(b) Shanglai Local postmark nov 19 o7 on green Shanghai postal stationar card 3rd issue ic.

1908

May 1908


. Shanghai postal stationer postcard 1 c , not clear post mark arrival Canton Bilingual date postmark21.5. 08

november,5th.1908


 Transit Shnaghai Chine cds postmark 5.11-08
(b)In November,14th .1908 the emperor Guangxu was died, and the forensic reported the caused by Acute Arsenic pisoning.


In November ,15th,1908

Cixi having installed Puyi as the new emperor of he qing Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

1908 (15 Nov)

 

PPC Egypt Alexandria to China, franked with Pyramid, tied by Alexandria cds, via Suez, Shanghai, Tangku with transit cds, bottom with Chang Lang Cheng postal agency arrival cds.

During early periods, vessels sailing from England to China had to go around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, and used to take as long as four to six months to get there. Since the completion of the construction of the Suez Canal and its opening in October of 1869, this Sino-England mail route via Suez cut transit time to 40 or 60 days

In November , 16th 1908

Empress dowager Cixi died in the hallof graceful Bird at the middle sea of Zhong nan hoi , her death came only one day after the death of the Guangzu emperor.

 

(c)The Belgian Post Office in China issued surcharge Chine of belgia stamp with their wn postmark

1908
Belgian Post Office in China issued surxharge Chine on Belgian stamps.

 

 

 

 

1909
The fourth CEF surharge on British India stamps were isssued

1909


Temple of Heaven stamp issued by Hsuan Tung

used with Chungking biligual date(BLD) postmsark 25 Nov 1909. and Chungking transit postmark 24 nov 9 and Hankow destination postmark 1 dec 09.

 

1909

 

Temple of Heaven stamp

(1909) Temple of Heaven – Hsuan Tung First Year Commemorative

The first and only Commemorative issue – Special Commemoration Stamps – September 8 1909 Designer and engraver unknown. Printed by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), in two colors and unwatermarked.

 

 

 

there is a controversy on who actually designed and engraved the “Temple of Heaven”. Americans Lorenzo J. Hatch & William Grant have been credited by some for the work, but again it is debated by some.

 

In 1908,

the Imperial Chinese government sent a representative, Chen Chin Tao, to the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany to investigate stamp production styles and to determine which method was least susceptible to counterfeiting.

 

The Chinese government decided that United States’ manufacturing technique was most suitable for its purposes.

The Imperial government asked two Americans, Lorenzo J. Hatch and William A. Grant, to establish a Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Hatch was a renowned artist and engraver whose experience included more than 15 years at the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

 

Hatch had also spent a number of years working at both the Western Banknote Company of Chicago and the International Bank Note Company. After overcoming some initial reluctance, Lorenzo Hatch signed a six-year contract with the Chinese government.

William A. Grant, an engraver and designer, was an expert in creating the lettering, script, vignettes, geometrical lathe work, scrolls and cycloid twirls that filled bank note and stamp backgrounds.

 

A particularly skilled engraver, Grant specialized in detail engraving which helped make bank notes and stamps difficult to counterfeit. Grant was in charge of the engraving room at the American Bank Note Company when he agreed to accompany Hatch to China.

Hatch and Grant established the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1909.

 

They were responsible for the design and production of all the early Chinese Republic issues. The production of the first stamps of the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing was very much a collaborative effort.

 

While Lorenzo Hatch was primarily responsible for the design of the stamp and prepared most of the vignettes, William Grant applied his special skills to reducing the frame and scrollwork, as well doing the lettering and much of the actual engraving.

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set “Temple of Heaven” issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver “Index 1” on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

 

French Indo-Chine 1908

 

Canton surcharge

This set alone costs 233 €, according to my Yvert

 

From left to right, they dipict: a Cambodian, an Annam (Central Vietnam at that time), a Muong (mountainous region of north Vietnam), a Laotian, and a Tonkin (currently northern Vietnam), all in traditional costumes.

Were they not overprinted – valid only in Indochina, the cost is 149 €, with the last 10 Fr stamp alone worth 100 €.

 

 

Compare these two:

 

 

1909

July .15th, 1909,

the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.

China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

 

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

 

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

 

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

 

 

1909,

 

1909 4th Express Delivery stamp

 

…. 3rd section

 

 

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

November,19th.1909

 

Off cover used Temple of Heaven stamps CDS BLD Bilingual Date  Teng Yue 9.Nov.1909(Dr Iwan collections)

1910

1910 (Apr 10)

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500

April,11th.1910

Peking Bilingual Date(BLD) postmark 11 Apr 10 on Temple of Heaven stamp 1 c and 4 cent.

 

In June of 1910

Chiang was initatited into the Tung meng hui and met Dr sun Yat-sen.

 

1910’s Cigarette advertising postcard, f.w CIP opt. “ROC” 1c. Tied by rare postal agent cancel.

1911
The Chinese General post office was formed

 

 

Due to the differences in currency between Tibet and other parts of China, especially the popularity of Indian Rupee in Tibetan commercial market, the I.P.O. finally decided to issue a set of postage stamps in Rupee values and restricted for use in Tibet. A set of 11 values of the CIP coiling dragon stamps were overprinted with Chinese. Issued in March 1911
1911 Cover …. sent Tibet locally, franked Coil Dragon opt Tibet 1/2c & 1c pair, tied by Yatung large dollar cancel, plus double ring arrival cancel

 

Tibet 1911 Coil Dragon otp

feb 4 1911

 

Postal Postage Paid statistical department inspectorate general stationer cover send with shanghai lunar dater postmark

March 27 1911

 

Postally used cover from Kucheng lunar postmark to Tiebet lunar postmark transit Tihua (urumtsi), Transit Peking lunar postmark and peking belingual postmark

 


On March 29,1911,

some of 170 revolutionaries attacked the Kwangtung-Kwangsi Governor’s office in Canton under command of Huang Hsing. they were determined to prevail or die. Although it failed because of lack of reinfrcemetns, the uprising roused the people against the Qing manchu.

 

(cThe March 29

uprising at canton was the 10th under Dr Sun yat-sen’s direct leadership.Although traumatic, it sent out shock waves that rocked qing manchu rule. the do-or-die spirit of these revolutionaries is enshrined in Chinese history.

The remains of 72 martyrs were entobed at Yellow Flower mound in Canton, this site became a shrine of the national Revolution. Eight-six revolutionaries are known to have been killed in the incident and they may have been more,this day later became the martyr Day and the next year as Youth day.

 

Shanghai Postal Commissioner postmark Apr 18 1911.


In September,1911.

the Wuchang revolutinaries rise up and overthrew the Qing dynasty.

 

 

October.10th,1911


The Tung Meng Hui provided leadership for eight uprisings against Qing Dynasty at Huangkang Chaochow ,Huichow,Chinlien,Chennankuan,Shangsu in Chienlien, Hokow in Yunnan,Yellow Flower Mound in Canton and Wuchang.

The last of these on Octber 10.1911

led the dwnfall of the Qing Dymasty and the birth of the ROC. The shot fired at Wuchnag brought an immediate response from Tung meng Hui members in Shanghai under the leadership of Chen Chi-mei. The successive victories of the revolutionaries quickly convinced the Qing Mancus that they could not loner prevail. and the downfall of the Qing dynasty came quickly.

 

In October 13 , 1911.

Chiang leading more than a hundred do-or-die commandos who attacked government office at hangchow and capture the Manchu Governor. Chiang had returned to Shanghai and joined Chen Chi-mai for nanking-Shnaghai-hanchow area. He then hurried to Hangcxhow to head the successful revolutionary attack of October 13.

 

Chinese General Post office were opened, with special postmark another administration pstmarklike registered, revenue etc.

 

 

 

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

 

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

 

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

 

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

 

November,21th.1911

 

1911 (21 Nov) Cover Macau to Hong Kong,

 

 

franked Macau bisect stamp, tied by Macau cds, reverse with Lappa customs transit cds, Hong Kong arrival cancel

 

 

 

December 6th.1911 ,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

 

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

 

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

 

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

 

When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

 

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

Surcharges, 3p – 1r (Scott 1-10. Chan T1-10), a scarce group short only the rare 2r on $2, o.g., F.-V.F Realized HK$ 6,500

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

 

 

Surcharges, 1r on $1 and 2r on $2 key values (Scott 10-11. Chan T10-11), o.g., both trace of hinge mark, clean smooth gum, choice examples, scarce this nice, Very Fine Realized HK$ 22,000

1912

1912 Coil Dragon Waterlow overprint “CHMK”

 

 

 

The revolution of 1911 resulted in overprints on the imperial stamps in 1912; at Foochow to indicate that the post office was effectively a neutral area available to both sides, and at Nanking and Shanghai reading “Republic of China”. An additional set of overprints were produced by Waterlow and Sons in London, and postmasters throughout the country made their own unofficial overprints using the same characters(126)

(6) 1912
The Republic of China (Koumintang) exsitance had already been firmly established .

(12) 1912
The founding Father Dr Sun Yat-sen leaves Shanghai station the morning of the Newyear’s day ,1912 for his Nanking swearing-in as the Republic of China’s provisional President.
Please collectors be patien, this informations still in prcess, the illustration will install one by on

 

Tibet, 1912, Local Issue,

 

1/6t – 1t, five values (Scott 1-5. Chan TL1-TL5), mint, without gum, huge to wide margins all around, good colors, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

 

Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

 

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

 

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

1912

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000

January,1st.1912

On January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President.

 

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time.

 

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan’s demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan.

 

February,5th.1912

 

 

1912 (5 FEB) Coil Dragon 3c opt “Provisional Neutrality”. On piece with “Foochow” cancel.

 

 

1912 Anhwei Hochow Local black opt

Coil Dragon 2c in block of 4. tied by Hochow cancel

 

On March. 10th,1912

 

in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

 

A poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen.

The republic that Sun Yat-sen and his associates envisaged evolved slowly.

 

Although there were many political parties each vying for supremacy in the legislature, the revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai began to outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial.

 

May 1912

 

1912 (22 May)

 

 

Registered cover Swatow to Germany, franked Coil Dragon opt “CHMK” stamps x8, total postage 47c, tied by Swatow cds,

 

 

 

with German arrival cds

 

In August 1912,

 

the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded by Song Jiaoren, one of Sun’s associates

.

It was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tong menghui.

 

 

December 1912

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

 

Yuan Shih-kai should request a set of stamps featuring Sun Yat-sen with the inscription “In Commemoration of the Revolution” at the end of 1912.

 

Sun Yat-sen would lead a “second revolution” against Yuan Shih-kai within the year.

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

December,14th 1912

Commemoration the Revolution 1st Design Specimen Set

 

The first new designs of the Republic were two commemorative sets of 12 each,

the first set depicting Sun Yat-sen

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

and

second Yuan Shikai, both issued on 14 December, 1912

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution 2nd Design Set

 

 

 

1st Design and 1st Commemorative of the new republic, President Yuan Shih-Kai December 14th 1912

 

2nd Design of the New Republic Dr. Sun Yat-sen December 14th 1912

The first issues of the new Chinese Republic ran into a few problems. The original design for the first commemorative issue of 1912 displayed a map of China bearing the inscription, “The Republic of China” in English and Chinese. After the design had been approved, the stamps printed and made ready for distribution, President Yuan Shih-kai ordered the stamps destroyed. The original issue depicting the map was burned, but some stamps survived the fire. Three partially burned stamps of the original map issue were part of Grant’s collection and are now in the US National Postal museum.

In their place, President Yuan Shih-kai demanded the creation of a commemorative design baring his portrait and the legend, “In Commemoration of the Republic.” The president also requested a second stamp design. That issue featured a portrait of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with the inscription, “In Commemoration of the Revolution.” Dr. Sun Yat-sen, considered the leader of the first Chinese Revolution, and the provisional President of China, had voluntarily yielded the office to his successor, Yuan Shih-kai.

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

China Postage Dues 1912

“Provisional Neutrality” Overprints
Chan D17-D22

 

 

1913

In the national elections held in February 1913

 

for the new bicameral parliament, Song Jiao-ren campaigned against the Yuan Sin-kai administration, whose representation at the time was largely by the Republican Party, led by Liang Qichao.

 

Song Jiao-ren was an able campaigner and the Kuomintang won a majority of seats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China Postage Due 1913 complete set of eight

Overprinted “Specimen” in red

London Printing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1913

1913 (24 Dec)

 

Yuan Shih-Kai colour postal card Jiansu to Shanghai

 

 

 

1914
The Republic of China Postal system formally became a party to the International Postal Convension(UPU)

 

 

British Military PO 1914-22 C.E.F. opt on KGV

 

 

 

 

1915

 

China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post 1915

1921

 

Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.

 

Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.

 

 

 

 

The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

 

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 

1923

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang 

    1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang) 

    Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang. 

    Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China 

    Despite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles. 

    5-8 May 1926 

    With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months. 

    The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army. 

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4]. 

    From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong Press 

    Tan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5]. 

    In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]


Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

 

 

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

__________________
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Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

(8)1917
Italia Post Office in China issued surharge Pechino and Tientsin on Italia stamps.

(9) 1919
US Post office in China issue surchaged Shanghai China stamps

Something a little different. For some time after Outer Mongolia was established, China refused to recognise it, and required Chinese stamps on mail coming across the border. This example was sent from Ulan Bator to Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in Inner Mongolia:

 

 

 

 

1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

The end @ Copyright 2012

Look the another related

Dr Iwan Cd-ROM

The Dai Nippon War In China

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