CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS (CONTINIU)

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Anti-Japanese War sino-Japanese War

In July 1937

 

after the customs in the district of CPC Committee, Publicity Department of CPC triangular partition (Ning District) Committee, secretary of the Trilateral Security Command Cavalry Division Chief of Staff,

 

 

Brutal Japanese: Rape Of Nanking 1937

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, is a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanjing (Nanking), the former capital of the Republic of China, on December 13, 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During this period, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were murdered and 20,000–80,000 women were raped by soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army.

 

 

HOW IT HAPPENED

 

In August 1937,

the Japanese army invaded Shanghai and there they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. By mid-November the Japanese had captured Shanghai with the help of naval bombardment. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to heavy casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops. However, on December 1, headquarters ordered the Central China Area Army and the 10th Army to capture Nanking, then-capital of the Republic of China.

 

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew the fall of Nanking would be simply a matter of time. He and his staff realized that he could not risk annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital. In order to preserve the army for future battles, most of them were withdrawn. Chiang Kai-shek’s strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China utilizing China’s vast territory as a defensive strength. Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition by wearing down the Japanese in the hinterland of China.

 

Leaving General Tang Shengzhi in charge of the city for the Battle of Nanking, Chiang and many of his advisors flew to Wuhan, where they stayed until it was attacked in 1938.

 

In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death. Tang gathered about 100,000 soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. To prevent civilians from fleeing the city, he ordered troops to guard the port, as instructed by Chiang Kai-shek. The defense force blocked roads, destroyed boats, and burnt nearby villages, preventing widespread evacuation.

 

The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanking to an International Committee led by John Rabe.

 

The defense plan fell apart quickly. Those defending the city encountered Chinese troops fleeing from previous defeats such as the Battle of Shanghai, running from the advancing Japanese army. This did nothing to help the morale of the defenders.

 

 

The Japanese army enters Nanking

 

Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanking in the weeks after the fall of the city state that over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanking, Japanese troops engaged in rape, murder, theft, arson, and other war crimes. Some of these accounts came from foreigners who opted to stay behind in order to protect Chinese civilians from harm, including the diaries of German John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin. Other accounts include first-person testimonies of the Nanking Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists (both Western and Japanese), as well as the field diaries of military personnel. An American missionary, John Magee, stayed behind to provide a 16 mm film documentary and first-hand photographs of the Nanking Massacre.

A group of foreign expatriates headed by John Rabe had formed the 15-man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanking Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city, where the population numbered from 200,000 to 250,000. Rabe and American missionary Lewis S. C. Smythe, secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking, recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints to the Japanese embassy.

 

Japanese tanks enter Nanking

 

 

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20,000 women were raped, including infants and the elderly. A large portion of these rapes were systematized in a process where soldiers would search door-to-door for young girls, with many women taken captive and gang raped. The women were often killed immediately after the rape, often through explicit mutilation or by stabbing a bayonet, long stick of bamboo, or other objects into the vagina.

On 19 December 1937, Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary:

I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet … People are hysterical … Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.

On March 7, 1938, Robert O. Wilson, a surgeon at the American-administered University Hospital in the Safety Zone, wrote in a letter to his family, “a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about 100,000, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms”.


Here are two excerpts from his letters of 15 and 18 December 1937 to his family:

 

The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.

 

Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped. Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8,000 people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied. They bayoneted one little boy of eight who have [sic] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen. I think he will live.


In his diary kept during the aggression to the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army, the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe, wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities. For the 17th December:

 

Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall. When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital … Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they’re shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.


There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest. Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women.

 


On 13 December 1937, John Rabe wrote in his diary:

It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every 100 to 200 yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs. These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops (…) I watched with my own eyes as they looted the café of our German baker Herr Kiessling. Hempel’s hotel was broken into as well, as almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road.


On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin.

 

During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree – the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese …. One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.

 

On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha’s death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet.

 

Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia’s parents, aged 76 and 74, and. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha’s two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.


Pregnant women were a target of murder, as they would often be bayoneted in the stomach, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army’s systematic mass killings, testified:

The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away. As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely …

 

The soldier abruptly stabbed her in the belly with a bayonet. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.

 

 

 

According to Navy veteran Sho Mitani,

«The Army used a trumpet sound that meant “Kill all Chinese who run away”». Thousands were led away and mass-executed in an excavation known as the “Ten-Thousand-Corpse Ditch”, a trench measuring about 300m long and 5m wide.

Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4,000 to 20,000. However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12,000 victims.

 

On August 6, 1937, Hirohito had personally ratified his army’s proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners. This directive also advised staff officers to stop using the term “prisoner of war”.

Immediately after the fall of the city, Japanese troops embarked on a determined search for former soldiers, in which thousands of young men were captured. Many were taken to the Yangtze River, where they were machine-gunned. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December 18 in what is called the Straw String Gorge Massacre. Japanese soldiers took most of the morning tying all of the POWs hands together and in the dusk divided them into 4 columns, and opened fire at them. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash in desperation. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop, and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual. Most were dumped into the Yangtze. It is estimated that at least 57,500 Chinese POWs were killed.

The Japanese troops gathered 1,300 Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and killed them. The victims were blown up with landmines, then doused with petrol before being set on fire. Those that were left alive afterward were killed with bayonets.

F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele, American news correspondents, reported that they had seen bodies of killed Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanking Yijiang gate in the north. Durdin, who was working for the New York Times, made a tour of Nanking before his departure from the city. He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. Two days later, in his report to the New York Times, he stated that the alleys and street were filled with civilian bodies, including women and children.

According to a testimony made by missionary Ralph L. Phillips to the U.S. State Assembly Investigating Committee, he was “forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier” and “roasted his heart and liver and ate them”

 

HOW LONG DID THE MASSACRE LAST?


The Battle of Nanking ended on December 13, when the divisions of the Japanese Army entered the walled city of Nanking.

The Tokyo War Crime Tribunal defined the period of the massacre to the ensuing six weeks. More conservative estimates say the massacre started on December 14, when the troops entered the Safety Zone, and that it lasted for six weeks.

 

The roots of the agressive China of today perhaps lies partly in the Nanking Massacre in 1937.

 

 


VODEO: BLACK SUN MASSACRE

 

 

VIDEO;Nanking Massacre-Japanese Atrocities filmed by John Magee

 

 

 

 


Chinese being buried alive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer with a shin gunto during the Nanking Massacre.

 

 

One of articles on the “Contest to kill 100 people using a sword” published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, “‘Incredible Record’ (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) —Mukai 106 – 105 Noda—Both 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings”

 

 

The sheer volume of murdered civilians posed a formidable logistical challenge when it came to disposing of the bodies. Many Chinese were conscripted into “burial teams

 

 

 

Read more info

 

Original info source in Turkish language


Nankin Kalesi’nin kuşatılması ve Çin Ordusu’nun başarasızlığı


9 Aralık’ta Japon Ordusu Nankin Kalesi’ni kuşatarak ertesi gün öğle vaktine kadar teslim olmalarını istedi. Çin Ordusu bunu reddedince 10 Aralık’ta Japon Ordusu genel

Castle siege of Nanjing and the Chinese Army başarasızlığı

December 9 1937

Nanjing Japanese Army laid siege to the castle wanted them to be delivered by noon the next day.

Chinese Army rejected it on 10 December the Japanese Army general

 


attacked, Nanjing Castle fell on December 13.

 

Nankin’de Chinese prisoners

Text Source

Nature of the massacre

 

  1. 1.   

 

 

Top of Form

• 16 Divisional Commander Lieutenant General Nakajima log Kesago, according to the principle will not be applied and cleaning campaign in captive soldiers who want to be delivered killed.
• Located in the north Nankin’in ‘Yamada’ battalion (65th Regiment basic units) of the 14 000 prisoners are said to kill. Pier near the Yangtze River in the dead who have been booted Shaakan is not less than the number of witnesses.
• 114 Division 66 1st Regiment Report of the prisoners killed by order of the brigade combat Battalion written.
• Criminal Tribunal for the Far East International Military Commander Gen. Iwane Matsui” period” Central China Front önlemeyerek Crimes, criminals were executed on the grounds cezalandırmaması. Unfortunately, the number Matsui Japanese Army in China were friendly.
• the period of Nanjing Military Court 6 Sumio Division Commander Lieutenant General Tani was tried and executed. Lieutenant General Tani müdafasında katliâmın Nakajima associations (16.Tümen) occurred in and 6.Tümen ‘s is irrelevant, he argued.
• In addition, Osaka Mainichi Shimbun” and” Tokyo Nichinichi Simbu””” Hyakunin papers written by fitting it in order to encourage the nation to war Nin Giri (100 Person Cutting Competition)” series writing heroes, Lieutenant Takeshi Noda, Lieutenant Gunkichi Tanaka, Tabloid news Toshiaki Mukai sword of Lieutenant spend 300 civilians were executed on the grounds.
• Prince Asaka, the American 5-star General Douglas MacArthur because of the principle of the free trial ever prosecuted for the members of the Japanese dynasty.

Japanese soldiers “contest” the sword used in the military museum of the Republic of China,
Taipei, Taiwan, are available.

  1. 1.   

 

  1. 1.   

 Nanjing Japanese Army troops participating in Operation in the
and Commanders

 

 


general Iwane Matsui

 

Şangai Sefer Ordusu : Korgeneral Prens Asaka =
Asakanomiya Yasuhiko


 

İstihbarattan sorumlu baş kurmay: Isamu Chō

 

 

  • 3. Tümen Öncü Birliği (Alay Komutan Albay Takashi Takamori)

 

 

  • 9. Tümen general Ryoosuke Yoshizumi)
  • 16. Tümen (general Kesago Nakajima)
  • ‘Yamada’ müfrezesi =
  • 103. Piyade Tugayı general Senji Yamada)

 

general Heisuke Yanagawa

 

 

16. Tümen: Korgeneral Kesago Nakajima

 

  1. 1.   

 

  • 6. Tümen (Korgeneral Hisao Tani)

 

Mitsuru Ushijima

  • 18. Tümen (Korgeneral Sadao Ushijima)

 

. General 末松 Suematsu

 

  • 114. Tümen (Korgeneral Shigeharu Suematsu)
  • ‘Kunisaki’ müfrezesi = 5. Tümen 9. Piyade Tugayı (Tümgeneral Noboru Kunisaki)

 

  1. 1.    Katliamdan Fotoğraflar
     

 

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  1. 1.     

 

 

   
  1. 1.    Japon askerlerinin Süngü uygulamasın için kullandıkları
    canlı esirler 

 

  1. 1.   


Etrafta yayılmış olan cesetleri toplayan gönüllüler

Yangtze Nehrine atılmış cesetler

Kafası kesilecek olan Çinli sivil

 

 


Canlı olarak gömülmeyi bekleyen Çinli siviller

 

  1. 1.     

 

 

 

 

Katliamda öldürülen bebekler

 

   

 

 

 

VIDEO: RAPE OF NANKING

Source: Nanking-massacre.com

 

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GREAT DVDS

 

 

 

Filmmaker Bill Guttentag takes a closer look at the atrocities committed by the Japanese after Nanking fell to the Imperial Japanese Army in 1937 with this documentary that was inspired by Iris Chang’s novel The Rape of Nanking. Compiled from over 700 hours of footage including news-reel footage, interviews with survivors and soldiers, and staged readings, Nanking was financed in large by millionaire Ted Leonsis, who had read Chang’s obituary and subsequently been prompted to read the author’s best-selling account of the massacre.

TRAILER



——–————————————————-

 

MORE DVDS ON THE RAPE OF NANKING

 

 

 

He Yingqin (simplified Chinese: 应钦; traditional Chinese: 何應欽; pinyin: Hé Yìngqīn; April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987), also spelled Ho Ying-chin, was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek

 

Rise and fall in the Kuomintang

 

 

In 1924, Chiang Kai-shek made preparation for the establishment of Whampoa Military Academy under the authorization of Sun Yat-sen. Chiang knew He’s talent and recommend him to Sun. Sun sent a telegraph asking He to Guangzhou for the job. He accepted the offer and was appointed as the General Instructor of the academy.

In the course of the academy’s establishment, He supported Chiang and won Chiang’s appreciation. In the war against the local warlord Chen Jiongming, students training in the academy were grouped into two regiments. He was appointed as a colonel of one regiment. In the war, He proved his courage and military talent by winning several battles although he had just recovered from an illness, his performance made a deep impression on both Chiang and the Soviet Union’s military advisor Vasily Blyukher (General Galen). Galen sent his sword to He as a gift after this war.

In July of the same year, the National Revolutionary Army was set up. The students of the academy were grouped into the 1st Army Corps, Chiang as the commander, He Yingqin as commander of one division, Zhou Enlai as the party representative of He’s division. In September, Chen masterminded another commotion. Chiang led the war to put down this revolt, in which He demonstrated his military talent again.

During the Northern Expedition in 1926, He Yingqin succeeded Chiang as commander of the 1st Army Corps and led his army marching into Guangdong and Fujian provinces. After He controlled the whole area of Fujian, he conquered Zhejiang as well. When Chiang began to confront the Communists He supported Chiang as well. In 1927 He’s army and Bai Chongxi‘s army launched a massacre on CCP members in Shanghai, which announced the end of first alliance of KMT-CCP.

When Chiang took power, the tension between him and Wang Jingwei, the New Guangxi Clique led by Li Zongren and Bai Chongxi rose day by day. Wang sent a statement to ask Chiang to resign, with the support from Li and Bai. Under these circumstances, He thought Chiang had made himself a public enemy and was destined to fail, so he supported Chiang’s opponents activities secretly. In the meeting to decide Chiang’s future, when Bai asked Chiang to resign, Chiang turned to He for support. He said nothing, which hurt Chiang’s heart deeply and then Chiang left the meeting and announced his resignation in sorrow. Later when Chiang recalled this event, he said “Had He given me one word of support, I would not have been forced to resign.”

Chiang soon regained his power due to the incompetence of Wang and his allies in controlling the situation. After Chiang’s restoration, he took over He’s military command and made himself commander. After He was sacked by Chiang, he went to Hangzhou for relieving his discontent. Chiang knew He’s protest and came to meet with He. Chiang told He, “Without you, I can still take power, but without me, you will be nothing.” After careful consideration, He had to reconcile with Chiang.

He was appointed as chief of staff of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA), and training supervisor for the NRA. During his term, He spared no effort to train armies for Chiang and crack down on warlords by regrouping their armies into Chiang’s own armies. When the war between Chiang and alliance of the New Guangxi Clique, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, He commanded the army even when his father was dead. Chiang sent his condolence, which deeply impressed He.

In 1930, He was appointed as Minister of Military Administration Department of the Nationalist (KMT) government, of which he held for over a decade. During his term, He made great contributions to military service, logistics, defense construction of KMT, and his probity and cleanness won him great reputation.

In 1931, He was appointed as commander to lead Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet, but his troops suffered great losses, which was the beginning of the end of his reputation as a skillful commander.

In the same year, the Mukden Incident took place in Manchuria. Chiang regarded the CCP as his archrival and placed priority on the suppression of CCP forces, the Japanese should be dealt with by compromises instead of war. Thus, He was sent to Northern China to handle these tough issues because of his friendly way to the Japanese. In 1933, Japanese armies invaded Rehe and broke through the KMT defense along the Great Wall. He Yingqin replaced Zhang Xueliang as chairman of the Beijing Military Committee, which was the supreme organ in charge of the military forces of Northern China. He advocated no direct confrontation with the Japanese troops, and signed the Tanggu Cease-Fire Accord with Okamura Yasuji (岡村寧次), who was deputy chief of staff of Kantogun at that time.

After that, He Yingqin opposed campaigns and efforts against the Japanese, and disarmed Feng Yuxiang’s anti-Japanese army. In 1935, Japanese troops started several incidents. When the Blue Shirts Society, the secret organization of the Whampoa Clique of the KMT, and a firm anti-Japanese group fought back with assassination and other violent activities, the Japanese argued that it was violation of the Tanggu Accord signed between China and Japan which was to keep the status quo of Northern China. Under the name of Yoshijirō Umezu, who was commander of Japanese troops in Northern China at that time, the Japanese spy agency under the direction of Kenji Doihara provided an investigation of the BSS as appendix of a memo. He agreed with all issues proposed by Japanese in this memo, which later was called He-Umezu Agreement. According to this accord, all forces having relations with the BSS inclusive of military police, regular forces such as 2nd Division and 25th Division should be evacuated from Beijing and out of Hebei province. The BSS had to retreat from Beijing in humiliation.

With KMT forces out of Northern China, He Yingqin had little room for maneuver. Then, he returned to Nanjing to do his job as minister. In Dec 1936, the Xian Incident broke out, Chiang was taken into custody by Zhang Xueliang’s army. There were disagreements among the KMT leaders on how to handle this incident. Chiang’s wife Soong May-ling was afraid of Chiang being killed and urged peace negotiations. He’s role was quite controversial. He was voted as acting commander to lead the KMT armies to the rescue of Chiang. Historians used to say that He strongly supported the need to solve this incident by force, for which reason He contacted Wang Jingwei and asked him back to China to take charge of the KMT, and sent two armies marching to Xian to fight against Zhang’s army. There was a saying when Soong May-ling came to He and asking for peaceful solution, He refuted her as a woman knowing little of politics should leave state issues alone. However, new evidence showed that actually it was the Whampoa clique especially those young and extremist officers of the Blue Shirts Society that launched the military attack against Zhang, and He even rejected their request for a supporting army.

Soong came to Xian for peace talks and did succeed in rescuing Chiang. When Chiang came back, he distrusted He again. Nonetheless, He still held his position of minister but with little real power.

When the Chinese anti-Japanese war turned into a general war after the occurrence of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937, He Yingqin was appointed as chief of staff and worked with Chiang for drafting military plans. In 1944, when his title of Minister of War was taken over by Chiang’s favorite, Chen Cheng, He was appointed as General Commander of the Chinese Military Area, which was an honorable title instead of real power, and was sent to Yunnan to train the Chinese Expeditionary Army, which was set up under the proposal of Joseph Stilwell, for assisting in the ally force’s operation in Southeast Asia.

 

 

Commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army Yasuji Okamura presenting the Japanese Instrument of Surrender to He Yingqin in Nanjing on 9 September 1945.

In August 1945, when Japan announced its unconditional surrender, He was appointed as representative of both the Chinese Government and the Southeast Asia Ally Forces to host the surrender of Japanese troops in China. On Sept 9th, He accepted the statement of surrender submitted by Yasuji Okamura, who was General Commander of Japanese troops in China at that time. This historic moment put He under the spotlight of the world, and was the peak of his career.

In 1946, the KMT government set up the Defense Department to take charge of the military attack against CCP forces in the Chinese Civil War, but He lost the race with Chen Cheng and Bai, who were appointed as Chief of Staff and Defense Minister respectively. He was sent to the United Nations Security Council as director of the Chinese military delegation. One year later, He was called back to be a senior military advisor, and regained the position of Defense Minister in 1948 witnessing the collapse of KMT power.

In 1949, Chiang had to resign for the third time, when Li Zongren was voted as acting president. In order to contain Li’s power and influence, Chiang asked He to take the job of speaker and later the head of the Executive Yuan of Li’s cabinet, and was also named as acting Defense Minister. He took the job and proposed the plan of cease-fire first and peace negotiation later, for KMT to win time for its governance in China. The Communists exploited the military victory and crossed the Yangtze River conquering Nanjing, the capital of KMT government. Although the nationalists still had huge number of troops and there were good possibilities of turning the tide on paper, the United States refused to supply any more military aid and thus the troops were poorly armed and equipped and thus no longer had the combat power to turn the tide. Song Xilian, deputy commander-in-chief of Central China, had a heated argument with He over the telephone when He shouted that as the defense minister commanding all the forces, Song must obey his order, but Song arrogantly replied that he did not even know what was the defense minister and the head of Executive Yuan, and then simply hung up. He Yingqin consequently went to Li Zongren to complain, and claimed that he had never been humiliated like this in his life but Li was unable to help. In May, He resigned with his cabinet members in Guangzhou.

 

 

Later years

When He came to Taiwan, he said he would leave politics for introspection of the failure of the KMT. When Chiang was reelected as president of the Republic of China in 1950, he lost his election as member of the central committee of the KMT, and only gained the honorary title of senior advisor.

He took charge of several clubs and associations working for the KMT, and spent most of his time playing sports, bridge, and planting. In 1986 He suffered from apoplexy and was sent to a hospital, where, after several months treatment, he died on October 21, 1987. With the nickname of Lucky General, he survived battles and campaigns, and lived longer than most of the patriarchs of KMT inclusive of Chiang. His remains are interred at Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery in Taiwan

 

 

a japanese naval landing force soldier holding a chinese mortar shell that failed to explode (shanghai 1937)

 

 

a type 89 medium tank supporting two japanese soldiers (china 1937)

 

commander of the naval landing force wearing a dark blue uniform (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese naval landing force officer reading letter send by Lt. Cdr. Uroku Hashimoto after successful operations during the battle of shanghai, 1937

 

 

 

 

officer of the kwantung army using heavy winter uniform (manchuria 1937)

 

 

soldier of a cavalry unit of the kwantung army armed with a type 44 carbine rifle (manchuria 1937)

 

 

a wounded soldier of the kwantung army using crutches (manchuria 1937)

 

 

an officer of a cavalry unit of the japanese kwantung army using sun glasses (manchuria, 1937)

 

 

 

japanese soldiers entering in peking (july 1937)

 

japanese army war veteran private Yoshida Shusuke with his type 11 light machine gun, he fought in china from 1937 to 1942 and retired from military service

 

 

two japanese war veterans showing their weapons, corporal Sasaki Tokuji on right fought in china from 1937 to 1941 and later retired from military service

 

 

japanese navy troops using motorcycle armed with a type 11 light machine gun (shanghai 1937)

 

Shanghai DN Naval PC in 1937 send to korea

 

 

 

a soldier of the special naval landing force posing with his Type 11 light machine gun (shanghai 1937)

 

 

a commander of the special naval landing force in shanghai, 1937

 

 

 

 

special naval landing force officer using a katana sword (shanghai 1937

 

 

japanese navy troops armed with nambu pistols (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese marine troops armed with mp-34 smgs and type 11 lmgs (shanghai 1937)

 

a chinese kid playing with a type 11 light machine gun while two japanese marines slimes at the background (shanghai 1937)

 

 

japanese navy troops passing by a ruined building (shanghai 1937)

 

soldiers of the Special Guard Corps of the Manchukuo Imperial Guards patterned after the Imperial Guard of Japan officer

 

special naval landing force officer in shanghai (1937

 

 

japanese navy pilots wearing hachimaki headbands during heavy air war battles around shanghai (august 1937)

 

 

 

Colonel Sugimoto Goro

was a japanese army officer and buddhist philosopher, he was killed in combat during the Battle of Taiyuan in sept 1937,

Sugimoto was a very pure imperialist, when he was shot he moved his sword to the left hand and gave a salute to the direction of the imperial palace,

after his dead his friends and family decided to publish a posthumous book called Great Duty (Taigi) and became especially popular among japanese army officers and soldiers, 1,200,000 copies were sold from 1938 to 1945, in his book he said: The reason that Zen is necessary for soldiers is that all Japanese, especially soldiers, must live in the spirit of the unity of the sovereign and subjects, eliminating their ego and getting rid of their self. It is exactly the awakening to the nothingness (mu) of Zen that is the fundamental spirit of the unity of sovereign and subjects. Through my practice of Zen I am able to get rid of my self. In facilitating the accomplishment of this, Zen becomes, as it is, the true spirit of the imperial military…

 

japanese soldier and fellow soldier admiring his wife photograph (manchuria 1937)

 

 

happy soldiers of the IJA 18th Division on the train-station ready to go the front (1937)

 

 

A Japanese Army officer standing in front of a captured Chinese Panzer-Ia.JPG

 

 

soldiers of the japanese army 1st Independent Mixed Brigade smiling for the camera before the invasion of peking (july 1937)

 

 

japanese navy special naval landing force commanders looking at a destroyed chinese tank after the battle of shanghai (1937)

 

japanese army reporter looking at a shot down chinese fighter (shanghai 1937)

 

 

 

general Sakai Koji (center) celebrating victory with troops of the IJA 1st Independent Mixed Brigade after the captured of peking (1937)

 

Type 92 Battalion Gun crew man in action (peking 1937)

 

 

japanese soldiers in the great wall (1937)

 

 

japanese soldiers rescuing a chinese baby during Operation Chahar (manchuria 1937)

 

 

 

japanese officer overlooking the recently conquered city of peking (1937)

 

 

 

japanese officer posing with a guardian lion statue also called Fu (Foo) Lions at the forbidden city imperial , lions of Buddha in japanese occupied peking (1937)

 

japanese army officer shaking hands with a chinese civilian (peking 1937)

 

 

 

 

survivors of the combat around Luodian in downtown Shanghai surrendering to a japanese soldier,German adviser Alexander von Falkenhausen told Chiang Kai-shek that the town of Luodian had to be held at all costs. The carnage and intensity of the resulting battle earned the fight for Luodian the nickname “grinding mill of flesh and blood”

 

 

soldiers of the special naval landing force being departed to shanghai (1937)

 

 

japanese soldier using a German Shepherd dog during urban fighting during the battle of shanghai (1937)

 

special naval landing force officers (shanghai 1937)

In the middle is Rear Admiral Denshichi Okawachi, commander of the Navy Special Landing Forces at Shanghai, China.

 

 

japanese navy type 92 armored cars supporting japanese marines during the invasion of hainan island

 

ruins

 

japanese sniper using wall for cover (shanghai 1937

 

 

Chinese Panzer-Ia light tanks were captured by Japanese troops during the battle of Nanking, Dec.1937

 

 

Chinese Panzer-Ia light tank was captured by Japanese troops during the battle of Nanking, Dec.1937

 

 

 

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小小的日本国,小小的岛屿,小小的民族,非要什么都要带一个字,大日本,大和民族!全世界表面上最有礼貌的人应该就是日本人,见面三鞠躬,好话说尽,一转身就随地小便,在战争中是最没有人性的军队!没有办法,小日本人在海外孤岛上生存了几千年,全体没有安全感,造就了这变态的民族

 

 

日本投降后,美国军队进驻日本,小日本民族的本质立刻就显现出来了,对美国占领军卑躬屈膝,奴才相全部显现,在二战中表现出了野蛮,杀戮,不要命的假相顷刻之间全无,做了美国顺从的小奴才!这就是小日本,所谓大和名族的本性!这也就决定了日本人的军队是一支虚张声势,怕死的部队

而我们伟大是中国人民解放军从诞生起,就是一支勇敢的,不怕死的军队!永远是一支攻无不克,战无不胜是伟大军队!!

After Japan surrendered, the U.S. military stationed in Japan, the nature of the small Japanese nation is immediately apparent, groveling to the U.S. occupation forces, I phase all appear in World War II showed the barbaric killings, lives the illusion of instant noU.S. submissive I! This is the nature of the small Japan, the so-called Japanese family name! This also determines the Japanese army is a bluff, the fear of death forces!
Our great People’s Liberation Army since its birth, is a brave, not afraid of death army! Will always be an all-conquering, invincible is a great army! ! !

 

写道这里,我突然发现我错了,和这样的变态民族比较,简直是对我们伟大的中华民族的侮辱

在我们几千年的历史里,小日本一直是落后我们,一直是我们身边是小国家,小附属,只不过是在近代靠投机比我们先进了几十年,我相信用不了多长时间,小日本国,小大和名族还会被我们打回原形!还像以前一样,悄悄地,乖乖地,永远臣服于我们中华民族脚下!

 

Wrote here, I suddenly found I was wrong, and this metamorphosis nation, is simply an insult to our great Chinese nation!
Thousands of years of our history, the small in Japan has been behind us, around us is a small country, small subsidiary, is only in modern times by speculation ahead of us for decades, I believe that will not take long. Little Japan, the Japanese family name will be their colors! As before, quietly, obediently, never to submit to our nation at the foot! !

 

 

 

武汉发现日本屠城庆功旗 写有四座城市名字(图)

2012-08-09 07:44:18 张勇军 武汉晚报

Wuhan found that the Japanese massacre celebration flag to write four city name (Figure)
2012-08-09 07:44:18 Zhang Yongjun Wuhan Evening News

 

汉发现日本屠城庆功旗写有四座城市名字(). 军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市

Wuhan found that the Japanese massacre celebration flag written four city name (Figure).

The four corners of the flag write the Japanese occupation of China four cities
Flag corners of written Japanese occupation, the names and schedules of the four cities in China

军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市的名称和时间表

Reporter Zhang Yongjun intern Wang Shan Mo Shu-one)

occupied Shanghai, Huzhou, Nanjing, Hangzhou,

he wrote on the flag, which is naked to show off.

“Yesterday, from the 67th anniversary of the victory of the war 7 days, Wuhan War collectors Xu Yibing, in Hankou the Chongren Lu antique market to showcase his collection of part of the Japanese invasion of incriminating evidence. The special aspect of the Japanese massacre celebration flag (see above), another new evidence of Japanese atrocities.
This side of the Japanese sun flag of about one square meter. Common the Japanese flag this side of the flag corners of written Japanese occupation, the names and schedules of the four cities in China, Shanghai on the land, Showa on November 26, 2003; Huzhou into the city, In 1937 10 February 7; into the city of Nanjing, December 15; In 1937, Hangzhou into the city, Showa

December 26, 2003. “flag just below the eye-catching at, there is a Temple in Hangzhou dragon seal.
Xu Yibing said 2010 Friends of Tibet in the online auction this side of the Japanese flag, he immediately spent thousands of dollars to be photographed. He also learned that this side of the flag is the Friends of Tibet, brought back from Japan.
“Record of aggression against track on the Japanese flag, why?” Two years ago, Xu Yibing has been studying the surface of the flag, he is very obvious the Japanese show off their exploits, but why the flag on a Temple of the Dragon India? This seems a mystery.
Xu Yibing found online and read the data, in 1937, Hangzhou fall, the influx Temple, “the abbot Quefei Jackson to see the Japanese bullying, the temple can not maintain the status quo, then a temporary refuge in Shanghai.” Japan is also a Buddhist countries will not be the Japanese take away the Temple seal? However, Xu Yibing of this speculation, there is no evidence. Reporter Yu Zhiyong photo
• Related reports:
• Japanese aggressor troops legacy of poison gas victims no compensation in case of medical hardship
• Professor of Shanghai: China should also “comfort women” was renamed the “sex slaves”
• Nanjing Massacre survivors of the bloody memory: full of dead stink
• Japanese confidential documents admit: the war of aggression against China caused by a virgin in China rarely
• 89-year-old memory for the Japanese invaders dragged: up to a day to lift 20 body
• World War II, Japanese troops recalled to eat the dead carcasses of meat circumstances: from the hip to eat
• beautify the Japanese invasion of China should pay the price
• Guangzhou CPPCC members said the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese “liberation of Nanjing”

本报讯(记者张勇军 实习生王珊 莫淑壹) “占领上海、湖州、南京、杭州,还要写在军旗上,这是赤裸裸地炫耀。”昨天,离抗战胜利67周年纪念日还有7天,武汉抗战收藏爱好者许一兵,在汉口崇仁路古玩市场展示他收藏的部分日军侵华罪证。其中一面特殊的日军“屠城庆功旗”(见上图),成为日军暴行又一新证。

这面日军太阳旗约一平方米。与常见日军军旗不同的是,这面军旗四角写有日军侵占中国四座城市的名称和时间表,“上海上陆,昭和十二年十一月二十六日;湖州入城,昭和十二年十二月七日;南京入城,昭和十二年十二月十五日;杭州入城,昭和十二年十二月二十六日。”在军旗的正下方醒目处,还有一枚杭州灵隐寺的龙纹大印。

许一兵说,2010年,发现有藏友在网上拍卖这面日军军旗,他当即花费数千元钱将其拍下。他还了解到,这面军旗是藏友从日本带回。

“日军军旗上为何记录侵华轨迹?”两年来,许一兵一直在研究这面军旗,他认为,很明显日军在炫耀自己的“战功”,但为何军旗上还有一枚灵隐寺的龙印?这似乎成谜。

许一兵上网查看资料发现,1937年,杭州沦陷,大量难民涌入灵隐寺,“当时的住持却非禅师看到日军的强横霸道,寺院无法维持现状,遂暂时避居上海。”日本也是信仰佛教国家,会不会是日军夺走了灵隐寺大印?然而,许一兵的这种猜测,尚无证据证实。  记者喻志勇摄

September 18 Incident,
The Japanese government to achieve a permanent occupation of northeast China’s ambitions in the military power it difficult to reach rural, began to plan to output armed militias, trying to aggressive activities by large-scale immigration, assimilation Manchuria, the Japanese moved into Manchuria, northeast China become an extension of Japanese territory. Japanese immigrants moved to the northeast China to open up group of three types: Group Development Team, a collection of pioneering mission and dispersion of the pioneering group.

Group to develop groups of Japanese immigration to explore the group’s main purpose is the construction of rural collaborative body, culture to open up China’s stronghold, the scale of 200-300 households, to the Association as the main body is divided into several tribes. Each tribe by the
20-30 households composed of 10 tribes formed an immigrant village. Each tribe has its Japanese name, and not subject to the jurisdiction of the local grass-roots puppet regime.

Open up the group initially to the group, and later to the village as a unit, composed of agricultural portfolio in the field of production, distribution, consumption, etc., to pilot joint management. Develop within the Mission a complete set of institutions to manage immigration, and have their own armed, as if the “state within a state. According to records, the the Sanjiang Province, the company town village of Japanese immigrants – Yae village, the village tribal organization discipline, based consumer Ministry of trafficking Department, Ministry of the package and Industry, the cause of brewing, as well as from the Extension Ministry collar salaries of physicians, a midwife. Daily production of Japanese immigrants, the needs of institutions, everything. Other things, to make such a life is also in the rural areas of the Japanese mainland. The village of paddy fields and fertile fields, In addition to the production of milled rice, barley, wheat, soybeans, corn and other crops, where the Japanese mainland grown vegetables, nor do not have …

Therefore, when the comment was made that Yasaka village “scale very ambitious, such as counties and cities in general, daily necessities, foodstuffs can be self-made, schools, hospitals, etc. all have a clothing class appliances also increased from pioneering the business of the corporation run by cooperatives, as good as the Japanese domestic village to move to Manchuria, equipment surpasses it and also pioneering group established a shrine to the Orient House, Tetsuo explore the father of the ritual. Immigrant members are required sooner or later, the Emperor of the East Sunday, and compliance with the Covenant, “we are not married should extend the kingdom of God mission forward …” Thus, the Japanese immigrants attempt by family or cite village migration, settle, through the integration of the daily production and life, penetration, to achieve the purpose of national aggression.

According to the distribution of Japanese immigrants, “it reads, 1932,
Advance of the Japanese armed settlers, is just the puppet Manchukuo implementation of the law and order in Gansu is the occasion of five-year plan. In this context, the five tests ,1932-1936 immigrants, all of it into the “Frontier Strip and the military along the railway line. Therefore, most people believe that Manchuria moved to defense immigrants. This record has been clearly demonstrated ancient Haizhong confession “from Manchuria to open up policy making since maintained a close relationship and the military aggression of Japanese imperialism …… of Manchukuo about to open up all kinds of policy, not only by the Japanese Extension Ministry of Justice, but also by the Kwantung Army spy involved in the development … an attempt to forcibly occupied northeast land with a large number of armed immigrant group, as the rear positions of the Japanese imperialist aggression against China and the Soviet Union. large group of Japanese immigrant group are armed. its members in Japan within the original training after a year of soldiers, farmers training, the majority of the locations of the immigrant group to select the rear of the important military area in Sanjiang, Dongan, Mudanjiang and Heihe, these locations are decided by the Kwantung Army “. Japanese immigrants, “is the use of the apartment soldiers in the agricultural policy of aggression”.

 

九一八事变后,

日本政府为实现永久占领中国东北的野心,在军力一时难以到达的农村,开始有计划地输出武装民,试图通过大规模移民侵略活动,“同化满洲”、“将日本搬入满洲”,把中国东北变成日本领土的延伸。移入中国东北的日本移民开拓团有三种类型:集团开拓团、集合开拓团和分散开拓团。

  集团开拓团作为日本移民开拓团的主体,目的是“建设农村协同体,培养开拓民的据点”,规模以200—300户为标准,以同乡为主体分成若干部落。每一部落由

20—30户组成,10个部落形成一个移民村。每个部落都有日本名字,不受当地基层伪政权管辖。

  开拓团最初以团,后来以村为单位,组成农业组合,在生产、流通、消费等领域,全面试行共同经营。开拓团内部有一套完整机构来管理移民事务,并有自己的武装,俨然是“国中之国”。据资料记载,三江省永丰镇第一个日本移民村——弥荣村,村内部落组织井然,设消费部、贩卖部、利用部、包工部、事业酿造部等,还有从拓务省领薪俸之医师、产婆。日本移民日常生产、生活所需机构,应有尽有。而其他各事,尽如在日本内地之农村生活同样。村中有水田与良田,除产精米、大麦、小麦、大豆、玉米等作物外,凡日本内地种植之菜蔬,亦无所不有……

  因此,当时有人评论说,弥荣村“规模极宏大,如县市一般,日用品食料均能自造,学校医院等无不具备,而衣类用具亦由开拓团自办的合作社经营,不啻为日本国内村庄移至满洲,其设备之完备有过之无不及也。开拓团立有神社,以东宫铁男为开拓之父而祭祀之”。移民团员早晚须向东方礼拜天皇,并遵盟约,“吾等并非出嫁人,应向延长神国使命方面迈进……”由此可见,日本移民企图通过举家或举村迁移、定居的方式,通过日常生产和生活的融合、渗透,达到民族侵略目的。

  据《日本移民的分布》记载,1932年,

日本武装移民推进时,恰是伪满洲国实施治安肃正五年计划之际。在此背景下,1932—1936年的五次试验移民,全部移入“国境”地带和军用铁路沿线。所以,一般人们都认为满洲移入的是国防移民。此记载也得到古海忠之供述的印证,“从满洲开拓政策制定的时候起,就和日本帝国主义的军事侵略保持着密不可分的关系……伪满有关开拓的各种政策,不仅是由日本拓务省,也是由关东军特务部参与制定的……它企图用大量武装移民团强占东北土地,以此作为日本帝国主义侵略中国和苏联的后方据点。日本移民团都是武装起来的大集团,它的成员在日本内原训练所经过一年的兵农训练,移民团的地点多数选择三江、东安、牡丹江、黑河等重要军事地区后方,而这些地点都是由关东军决定的”。日本移民“是采用寓兵于农的侵略政策”。

 

 

 

 

1937

 

193711月,国民革命军在淞沪会战中失利,上海被日本占。中国方面就此开始准

关于南京保卫战,我们通常声讨日本南京大屠杀的罪恶,这没有错。但是,人们通常忽视了国民党军队的战略失误。

[ 转自铁血社区 http:.tiexIn November 1937,the defeat of the National Revolutionary Army

in the Battle of Shanghai,

Shanghai was occupied by Japan. China begins to prepare …
About the Battle of Nanjing, we usually denounce the evils of the Nanjing Massacre in Japan, it is not wrong. However, people often ignore the strategic mistake of the Kuomintang army
ue.net/ ]

1937年11月,

November 1937,
The defeat of the National Revolutionary Army in the Battle of Shanghai, Shanghai was occupied by Japan. China begins to prepare in more than 300 kilometers west of Shanghai, Nanjing, the capital to defend the combat. December 1st, the Japanese issued a combat command to attack Nanjing, the beginning of the Battle of Nanjing. Tang Sheng-chih any of the Nanjing garrison commander of the command 150 000 Guojun resistance to combat. KMT authorities there have been significant errors in the organization and command of the battle. Before the war, not for the meticulous arrangements, and finally decided to break through Shiyou not develop well-conceived evacuation plans, but not through the General Staff operations, causing the defenders to break through the autocorrelation trampling, competing cries, particularly residual weight loss, the military’s resistance As collapse. December 13, Nanjing fall to less than five million Japanese troops into the city, which began more than eight consecutive months on the massacre of more than three hundred thousand prisoners of war civilians that shocked the world

国民革命军淞沪会战中失利,上海被日本占领。中国方面就此开始准备在上海以西仅300余千米的首都南京的保卫作战。12月1日,日军下达进攻南京的作战命令,南京保卫战开始。唐生智任南京卫戍司令长官,指挥15万国军抵抗作战。国民党当局在战役组织指挥上出现了重大错误。战前未作周密部署,最后决定突围时又未拟定周密的撤退计划,更没有经过参谋作业,致使守军在突围中,自相践踏,争相夺路,损失特别残重,国军的抵抗就此瓦解。12月13日,南京沦陷,不足五万人的日军入城,由此开始了连续八个多月对三十多万战俘平民震惊世界的大屠杀。

1937年12月1日,

December 1, 1937
Stronghold of Japan issued the “eighth continent command” command: CCAA commander to be synergistic with the Navy, and capture the enemy capital, Nanjing. The detailed deployment of the command to do the “chief of staff instructions. Invasion of Nanjing, the Japanese forces in the Battle of Shanghai was the varying degrees of damage, most of the will after the war to return home and rest, and only three division scrambling to kill to Nanjing. According to this standard projections, about 50,000, about 20,000 people to move back from Nanjing peripheral, a total of about 70,000 people from the frontal attack of the Japanese in Nanjing

日本大本营下达了《大陆命令第八号》“命令:中支那方面军司令官须与海军协同,攻克敌国首都南京”。详细部署则命令按“参谋总长指示”办。进攻南京的日军部队在淞沪会战中遭到不同程度的损伤,在会战后大部回国休整,只有三个师团争先恐后地杀向南京。若按这一标准推算,从正面进攻南京的日军约有5万人,从南京外围迁回的约有两万多人,共约七万多人。

 

 

曾6赴台湾搜集史料的杨天石介绍,目前保存在台湾且比较重要的史料包括:国民党党史馆保存的国防最高委员会的档案、国民党中央常务委员会中央全会和常务委员会的速记录,还有台湾“国史馆”保存的蒋介石个人档案,共有30万卷,按照“九一八事变”“七七事变”“淞沪会战”……整理好分成几十个专题。此外还有蒋介石日记的摘录(原件寄存在胡佛研究所),摘录分5种,全部对外开放,其中1937年到1943年部分是非常重要的研究抗战的史料。

Yang Shijie Shao, had six to go to Taiwan to collect historical data stored in Taiwan and the more important historical materials, including: KMT Party History Museum to save the files of the Supreme National Defense Council, the speed record of the plenary session and Standing Committee of the KMT Central Standing Committee of the Central TaiwanChiang Kai-shek’s personal files, the Academia Historica saved a total of 30 rolls, in accordance with the “September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident” Battle of Shanghai “…… finishing well is divided into dozens of topics. In addition to the Chiang Kai-shek’s diary excerpts (original storage at the Hoover Institution), extract of five kinds, all opening to the outside world, of which part of the 1937 to 1943 is very important to study the war’s historical

 

 

In 1937 after the defeat of the Battle of Shanghai,

Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek Why knowing Nanjing restrain, had once advocated stick Nanjing? Yang Tianshi found a hidden reason in the historical materials on Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek hope to stick to a few months will be able to wait until the Soviet troops in Nanjing

在1937年上海淞沪会战失利之后,蒋介石为什么明明知道南京守不住,还一度主张坚守南京?杨天石在台湾史料中发现了一个隐秘的原因,就是蒋介石寄望于在南京坚守几个月就能等到苏联出兵。

International powers, the Soviet Union is only willing to actively support China’s country. In November 1937, the Soviet party and state leaders Voroshilov Marshal told the Chinese military delegation in Moscow: in the Chinese war of resistance to reach the life and death, the Soviet Union when the troops, and never sit back and watch. November 30, Chiang Kai-shek call Voroshilov and Stalin expressed his thanks: for national survival and international obligations and China has done all its final maximum force men, and to have been forced to retreat Nanjing, but to be allies the Soviet Union strength. should aid, even look, act decisively and the the HUNTER Xingshi.
[Transfer from Jagged community

当时在国际列强中,苏联是唯一表示愿积极支持中国的国家。1937年11月,苏联党和国家重要领导人伏罗希洛夫元帅告诉在莫斯科的中国军事代表团:在中国抗战到达生死关头时,苏联当出兵,决不坐视。11月30日,蒋介石致电伏罗希洛夫及斯大林表示感谢:“中国今为民族生存与国际义务已竭尽其最后、最大之力量矣,且已至不得已退守南京,惟待友邦苏俄实力之应援,甚望先生当机立断,仗义兴师。”

International powers, the Soviet Union is only willing to actively support China’s country. In November 1937, the Soviet party and state leaders Voroshilov Marshal told the Chinese military delegation in Moscow: in the Chinese war of resistance to reach the life and death, the Soviet Union when the troops, and never sit back and watch. November 30, Chiang Kai-shek call Voroshilov and Stalin expressed his thanks: for national survival and international obligations and China has done all its final maximum force men, and to have been forced to retreat Nanjing, but to be allies the Soviet Union strength. should aid, even look, act decisively and the the HUNTER Xingshi.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

 

 

At that time, Chiang Kai-shek sent troops to the Soviet Union

as the only hope to save a critical situation. Jiang had power to make the newly appointed commander of the Nanjing garrison Executive Tang Sheng-chih: “If more than keep the 1st, that is the nation an additional layer of luster if it could keep a half or more, the internal and external situation will be a drastic change, and I field army can also be scheduled to should the encirclement of suffering from the enemy, not now! “Jiang said inside and outside the situation will be a big change.” and “outside”, including the Soviet Union sent troops to account. Chiang Kai-shek’s life relying on foreigners to eat, and the Battle of Shanghai is not using to hit you, I hit my “preserving oneself and destroying the enemy’s tactics, but a suicide subjugation detract from the array to cater to the Japanese bombing. Is such as to Guolian ocean big people every boots scratching towards Japan condemned, this Nanjing Battle again by the Soviet Union to interfere in

当时,蒋介石将苏联出兵看成挽救危局的唯一希望。蒋曾电令新任命的南京卫戍司令长官唐生智:“如能多守一日,即民族多加一层光彩。如能再守半月以上,则内外形势必一大变,而我野战军亦可如期来应,不患敌军之合围矣!”蒋所说的“内外形势必一大变”的“外”,包含苏联出兵在内。蒋介石一生倚仗洋人吃饭,与淞沪会战一样不是采用“你打你的,我打我的”保存自己消灭敌人的战法,而是用一种自杀亡国式的堂堂之阵来迎合日军轰炸。为的就是等来国联洋大人们隔靴挠痒的对日谴责,这次南京保卫战又把靠苏联干涉。

 

67年前的19371213日,日本侵略领中国南京。

67 years ago December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China67年前的1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。逝者如斯,但留在中华民族心中的伤痛是永远的。今天,日本仍有一小撮人在为军国主义招魂,企图篡改历史。但历史的真相是不能改变的,中日两国人民应当永志不忘那30万遇难者的冤魂,为世界的持久和平而努力,让自己的后代子孙不再生活在阴影之中。     图为在南京大屠杀中,日军把300多名无辜的中国人反绑双臂枪杀后,掷入城郊池塘。        新华社发

67 years ago December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. The pain of lost time is, but to remain in the hearts of the Chinese nation is forever. Today, a handful of people in Japan still militarism Evocation, an attempt to distort history. But the historical truth can not be changed, and Japanese people should never forget the innocent people of the 300,000 victims, for a lasting world peace and efforts to make their descendants no longer live in the shadows. The picture shows the Nanjing Massacre, the Japanese tied behind his arms shot and killed more than 300 innocent Chinese people, thrown into the suburban pond. Xinhua News Agency issued

“否认大屠杀历史的情况下何谈‘友好城市’?

 

“Denial of the Holocaust history, what about the ‘friendly city’?”

Kawamura Takayuki, Mayor of Nagoya, Japan on the 20th to receive the delegation from sister city Nanjing, China actually alleging: “The Nanjing Massacre did not happen.” Remark a public outcry. Chinese media in recent days been reports of anti-Japanese messages, Nanjing, the evening of 21 suddenly announced the suspension of the exchange with Nagoya City. Two cities in the establishment of sisterhood relationship in 1978, 34 years of friendly exchanges. Coupled with China and Japan over the Diaoyu Islands (Japan said the sovereignty dispute over the Senkaku Islands) recent resurgence, leading This year marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries’ relations in trouble.

Met the delegation led by Kawamura Takayuki Nanjing Municipal Committee Liu Zhiwei, said: “Indeed there is a conventional fighting behavior, but I think that the massacre did not happen.” He asked: “When the war ended in 1945, my father soldiers in Nanjing, the local Chinese people’s hospitality. the event of the massacre how could this happen? “he added:” If Nanjing seminars, I am willing to participate. ”

The remarks angered the Chinese masses. 22, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Hong Lei said at a news conference: “China has publicly stated the solemn position, while the Japanese side proposed to negotiate serious concerns that the Nanjing made ​​the decision to suspend official contacts with the Nagoya City, we are expressed understanding and support and we will pay close attention to the situation. “Hong Lei also said that on the 21st:” the Nanjing Massacre committed by Japanese militarism in the war of aggression against the atrocities of evidence, the international community has also been conclusion. Japan, certain people should correctly understand and treat that period of history, and earnestly draw lessons from history. “Beijing News” wrote in an editorial on the same day: “Kawamura Takayuki before this openly denied the Nanjing Massacre, but actually on official occasions in front of the sister city delegation, denied that the facts of the Holocaust, there is a ‘provocation’ means that are too difficult to tolerate. “


日本名古屋市长河村隆之20日接待来自姊妹城市中国南京市的访问团时竟称:“南京大屠杀事件并未发生过。”此言一出,舆论哗然。中国媒体连日来不断报道反日消息,南京市21日晚还突然宣布暂停同名古屋市之间的交流。两座城市1978年建立姊妹关系后,34年来一直进行友好交流。再加上中日两国围绕钓鱼岛(日本称尖阁列岛)的主权纠纷最近再度抬头,导致今年迎来建交40周年的两国关系陷入困境。

河村隆之与南京市委常委刘志伟率领的访问团会面时表示:“的确存在常规的战斗行为,但我认为大屠杀事件并未发生过。”他反问道:“1945年战争结束时,我父亲作为日本士兵在南京得到当地中国人的热情招待。如果发生大屠杀事件怎么会这样呢?”他还说:“如果南京市举行讨论会,我愿意参加。”

这番言论激怒了中国群众。中国外交部发言人洪磊22日在新闻发布会上表示:“中方已公开表明严正立场,同时向日方提出交涉表明严重关切。 南京市做出暂停与名古屋市官方交往的决定,我们对此表示理解和支持。我们将密切关注有关事态。”洪磊21日也曾表示:“南京大屠杀是日本军国主义在侵华战争中犯下的残暴罪行,铁证如山,国际社会对此也早有定论。日方某些人士应该正确认识和对待那段历史,切实汲取历史教训。”《新京报》当天在社论中写道:“河村隆之在这之前也公开否认过南京大屠杀,但这次居然在官方场合、当着友好城市访问团的面,否认大屠杀事实,有一种‘挑衅’的意味,实在过分,难以容忍。”

 

南京大屠杀事件是指中日战争期间的193712月,占领中国时首都南京的日本军人

Nanjing Massacre refers to December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War,

Japanese military occupation of China was in Nanjing, the capital o Incident was in December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War,
Occupation of China was the capital of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers killed 300,000 massacre of the Chinese army captured and the public. Photo = Baidu network
The Nanjing Massacre refers to December 1937 during the Sino-Japanese War, the occupation of China was the capital city of Nanjing, Japanese soldiers use of fire, arson, buried alive, such as the massacre of 300,000 killed by the Chinese army captured and the public. Japanese ultra-right forces in this proposition “does not exist killings”, the Japanese scholars recognize the massacre that killed the number of 50000-20 000. Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Fujimura repair 22 on the Nanjing Massacre, said: “The existence of non-combatants, killing, looting and other acts, which can not be denied.”

The East China Sea sovereignty dispute over the flames of war. 19,
Japan Coast Guard tracking ship in the waters near the Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea to probe the seabed crustal structure, due to “violation of Chinese territorial waters” was the suppression of the Chinese maritime surveillance vessels. Chinese media reported that Chinese maritime surveillance vessels to stop the measurement of activities of the Japanese tracking ship, the rising of the bilateral territorial dispute in 2010, two years for the first time

事件是指中日战争期间的1937年12月,

占领中国当时首都南京的日本军人杀害中国军队俘虏和市民等30万人的屠杀事件。照片=百度网

南京大屠杀事件是指中日战争期间的1937年12月,占领中国当时首都南京的日本军人利用扫射、放火、活埋等方式杀害中国军队俘虏和市民等30万人的屠杀事件。日本极右势力对此主张“不存在屠杀行为”,承认屠杀的日本学者也认为杀害人数在5万至20万人。日本官房长官藤村修22日就南京大屠杀问题表示:“存在对非战斗人员的杀害、掠夺等行为,这不能否认。”

中国东海的主权纠纷也点燃战火。19日,

日本海上保安厅的测量船在中国东海钓鱼岛附近海域探测海底地壳结构时,因“侵犯中国领海”而遭到中国海上监视船的制止。中国媒体报道称,中国海上监视船制止日本测量船的测量活动,是2010年两国领海纠纷高涨后两年来第一次。

 

 

 

The conscienceless Japan right-wing film deny the Nanjing Massacre
January 25, 2007 11:43:54 Source: WASHINGTON

丧尽天良 日本右翼要拍电影否认南京大屠杀

2007年01月25日 11:43:54  来源:中新网

 

 

南京大屠杀是铁的事实,1937年,在南京被侵华日军杀害的中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人

The Nanjing massacre is a hard fact, in 1937,

 

the Chinese civilians and captured soldiers killed by Japanese invaders in Nanjing over 30 million


December 13, 1937,

the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned tragic, bloody massacre of up to more than 40 days.


The killing of Chinese civilians and captured soldiers in Nanjing over 30 million people. The pain of lost time is, but to remain in the hearts of the Chinese nation is forever. Today, a handful of people in Japan still militarism Evocation, an attempt to distort history. But the historical truth can not be changed, and Japanese people should never forget the innocent people of the 300,000 victims, for a lasting world peace and efforts to make their descendants no longer live in the shadows.
This is the Nanjing Massacre survivors Luo Jin, Xuan Wu risked his life to the preservation of photographs of the Japanese shot killing of Chinese civilians. The picture shows Japanese troops in Nanjing buried alive by our countrymen. Xinhua News Agency issued
 
December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. This is a massacre, a suburb of Nanjing, littered with corpses. Xinhua News Agency issued
Japanese right-wing plans to shoot a deny the 1937 Nanjing Massacre film, the film program will be completed in August this year.
This movie called “Nanjing truth” to get the support of right-wing politicians in Japan, including Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara.
“Truth” of Nanjing director Mizushima told Reuters in a telephone interview, said that currently busy to collect the information of the film. Mizushima said, the film will quote from the conversation of the Japanese soldiers, archives and documents “as”
Does not exist to prove that the Nanjing Massacre.
December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese mass shootings, buried alive, knifed,
Fire and other brutal methods, the bloody massacre of more than 40 days,
The killing of Chinese civilians and captured soldiers in Nanjing over 30 million people. This is after the massacre, numerous bones fill the gully. Xinhua News Agency issued
 
Japanese 65 Wing, the massacre of Chinese prisoners of war.

 

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,

在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。逝者如斯,但留在中华民族心中的伤痛是永远的。今天,日本仍有一小撮人在为军国主义招魂,企图篡改历史。但历史的真相是不能改变的,中日两国人民应当永志不忘那30万遇难者的冤魂,为世界的持久和平而努力,让自己的后代子孙不再生活在阴影之中。

这是南京大屠杀的幸存者罗瑾、吴璇冒死保存下来的日军自己拍摄的残杀中国平民的照片。图为日军在南京活埋我国同胞。 新华社发

 

December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army occupied Nanjing, China. Under the command of the Japanese Central China Area Army commander Iwane Matsui and 6 Division Division Head of Gushou Fu, the Japanese collective shot to death, buried alive, knifed, burned and other brutal methods, up to more than 40 days of the bloody massacre in Nanjing killing more than 30 million Chinese civilians and captured soldiers. This is a massacre, a suburb of Nanjing, littered with corpses. Xinhua News Agency issued
Japanese right-wing plans to shoot a deny the 1937 Nanjing Massacre film, the film program will be completed in August this year.
This movie called “Nanjing truth” to get the support of right-wing politicians in Japan, including Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara.
“Truth” of Nanjing director Mizushima told Reuters in a telephone interview, said that currently busy to collect the information of the film. Mizushima said, the film will quote from the conversation of the Japanese soldiers, archives and documents “as”

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。这是大屠杀后,南京郊外尸横遍野。 新华社发

日本右翼计划拍摄一部否认有1937年南京大屠杀事件的电影,该片计划将于今年8月完成。

这部名为《南京的真相》的电影获得日本右翼政治人物的支持,包括东京都知事石原慎太郎。

《南京的真相》的导演水岛在接受路透社的电话访问时说,目前在忙着收集拍电影的资料。水岛说,电影将引述日本老兵的谈话、档案资料和文件“作为根据”,

以证明南京大屠杀事件不存在。

1937年12月13日,日本侵略军占领中国南京。在日本华中方面军司令官松井石根和第6师团师团长谷寿夫指挥下,日军使用集体枪杀、活埋、刀劈、

火烧等惨绝人寰的方法,进行了长达40多天的血腥屠杀,

在南京杀害中国平民和被俘军人达30多万人。这是大屠杀后,累累尸骨填满沟壑。  新华社发

 

日军第65联队屠杀中国战俘。

 

 

Japanese 65 Wing, the massacre of Chinese prisoners of war.

 

 

 

日本移民开拓团是负有侵略使命的特殊村落

Japanese immigrants to open up the group is a special village to bear the mission of aggression
August 11, 2011 Source: Social Sciences “August 9, 2011 212: Shujuan browser:
 22 I want to comment font size:

2011年08月11日 来源:《中国社会科学报》2011年8月9日第212期作者:李淑娟 浏览:

22 我要评论 字号:

 

 

 

soldiers of the 1st infantry Division guarding the manchurian border with russia (1937)


japanese soldier giving candy to chinese childrens (peking 1937)

 

 

japanese navy Mitsubishi A5M fighter aircraft pilots smiling after another successful combat mission against the Chinese Air Force (china 1937)

 

 

A Japanese doctor preforming a vivisection on a conscious Chinese man at Unit 731

 

 

从1937年起,

From 1937 onwards,
One million Japanese immigration program was implemented, and begun to implement the first five-year plan.

 

With the puppet Manchukuo by the “law and order in Gansu are” getting into “industrial development” mainly to open up China moved into the purpose of gradually turned to “open up the land, the revitalization of industry and fight for the hearts and minds of Aborigines”.

 

Since then, open up China from the early to ensure law and order for the purpose of “industrial development” and “national harmony” new aggression stage.

 

 

1938

The summer of 1938, my grandmother took the children removed Hong Kong also went to the rear area

 

Since 1938 backDuring the war,

health heart, such as the word “provisional capital” KMT government designated as the Speaker of the Senate of Chongqing, then allegedly circulated that he invented. Kang heart of the long-son-in-law, Zhang Ping group served as the KMT’s Consul General in New York, the second daughter Kang Daisha participated in the leadership of the Communist revolution in 1938.

After doing secret work for the Communist Party in Chongqing. During which she twice received the spies threatening letter, after being kidnapped into prison. His life, my grandfather Li Zhaofu (Bo Shen) she was released on bail (Note 2).

the Li has been no money to buy a house, has staying rental Kang Heart (in Chongqing the consular Lane), Hu Ziang, the preacher of righteousness (located in Chengdu auspicious Street), Zhang Qun Tang style compliance house, living sources mainly rely Li Zhaofu do judge wage, resigned from the judges after his grandfather served as Kang Heart hosted by the president of the National Gazette and the Tang Dynasty style compliance run Nanlin, Dean, Fu Shing Law School professor. Sichuan is about to change hands, Chiang Kai-shek came to Sichuan, appointed Li Zhaofu for the very members of the Committee of the Kuomintang very, but Li Zhaofu refused to work. Chiang Kai-shek and also he went to Taiwan, he refused even to avoid Runan Lin Institute. He also refused to speak the anticommunist broadcast KMT wanted him to do. Later CC camp had sent surveillance Li Zhaofu rumored also to assassinate him.

Sichuan changed hands, the grandfather is still staying home Down compliance. One day home to two people, one of them my father called Lvwu Bo Bo. Lvwu Bo brother Lu Chao, who the KMT join the army long equivalent to Chiang Kai-shek’s largest adjutant, Lvwu Bo’s daughter is the underground Communist party members. Come Lizhao Fu said Liu Bocheng would like to meet with him.

Grandfather answered: “Liu Bocheng Communist Party, the KMT, although I am not Chiang Kai-shek that faction, but, after all, the KMT. Communist Party to see me, your reputation is not good.”

Come to exhort a while, but the grandfather or rejected. Later, Liu Bocheng brought the letter to Li Zhaofu go leather large learning. Lizhao Fu said: “I do not leather, I’m not in politics. Anti-Japanese, my politics, I will not be in politics after the victory in the War of Resistance, or when a university professor or a lawyer, or running a newspaper.”

By marriage Kang Heart moved to Beijing when his grandfather said: “I have porridge, you bowl.” but Li Zhaofu still decided to stay in Sichuan, although he once said: “Which Revolutionary Party, the start was not very good, there are changes then slowly look at ten In two decades, decades to see if it will become like the KMT. “

After the Communist Party seized power in Sichuan,

Hu Ziang do the vice mayor of Chongqing, and Cao Diqiu is secretary. Was not CPPCC National People’s Congress, a meeting to attend as a local squire invited Li Zhaofu. The meeting finished, grandfather to go home to my father and said: “Today I am wrong word, I said that the alliance with Russia,

 

Accommodate, assist the workers and peasants.” Sun Yat-sen’s policy was originally alliance with Russia, Accommodate, assist the workers and peasants, was changed to the associated Russia cooperate to assist the workers and peasants. The next day the newspaper published grandfather’s speeches, has also been changed to the “total”. I

n addition, the grandfather at home, and rarely participate in political activities. Hu Ziang and our family relatives, my grandfather, when the Secretary-General had invited him to do construction director.

But Hu made the official face on some, and later on in the grandfather of the apprehension, was conjecture over the role he played, and the some Sichuan elderly, such as Mao heart, Deng tin Hou, Liu Wenhui mutual affection of my grandfather is still deposit. Tang Dynasty style combat death of compliance with the Communist Party, the grandfather’s house staying to be confiscated, Lijia had moved to the Yu interpersonal Church home. Yu interpersonal Church, but Mao the heart, Deng tin-designate Liu Wenhui and others see Lijia no house to live, have been willing to chip in to help buy a house.

The day my father came home, saw two People’s Liberation Army stood in the doorway. The nominally the confiscation of the property of the Tang Dynasty compliance, but also copied my home. They took away two contacts, old books, there is one to be appointed Li Zhaofu “the very members” the letter. At this point the authorities are no longer able to tolerate Li Zhaofu uncooperative.( du xinxin)

 

The spring of 1939,

Shichang suffering from cystitis, doctors recommend the treatment to Beijing, Shichang due to fear of abduction of Japanese, insist not, then died. Age of 85. At that time the national government ordered the compliment: Shichang, country Nestor, hope re-group ethics. Bugnein break of in Tianjin, a leisurely Road, Su. Kou Pro North, despite repeated threats and inducements think, succeed chisel conspiracy, independence can be unyielding, stern sobriety light wind section, the know with the Chin … …

Looking Shichang life, he is certainly not a revolutionary, political character is also not perfect, but he inherited the fine traditional intellectual spirit, knowledgeable, and the implementation of the New Deal, who loves his country, uphold peace and respect for nature, neither general politicians can be boring after more non-acquisitiveness Dong mind that the soldier dead weight, disastrous than the old warlords

In 1939,

 

Li Zhaofu was elected provisional Parliament Speaker of Sichuan Province, in 1940 he was named Secretary General of the Sichuan Provincial Government. His re-designated as a story.

 

The War of Resistance Against Japan,

 

the KMT retreated to Sichuan. Initial Sichuan local forces, the KMT central potential micro Chiang Kai-shek pro Chairman of Sichuan Province. Later, Chiang’s forces gradually increases, then resigned as governor of the province. The local forces of the Kuomintang central Sichuan is still not assured,

 

then Chief Dean Chang Chun Chiang Kai-shek on the delegate to serve as governor of the province. Sichuan warlord Zhang Qun said: “If you want me to do the governor of the province, we must Libo Shen when the Secretary-General, otherwise clash.

 

The Chiang Kai Li Zhaofu hit three telegraph last a very blunt. The telegram said party elder, alliance members, what you can mention, now is the people of the War of Resistance Against Japan, you do not come out inappropriate. So Li Zhaofu promised coming out, but made it clear beforehand: “as long as the end of the war, I will resign.”

 

Was Sichuan Province, both negative base for the war, the soldiers, the amount of food is more important than the provinces, “Li Zhaofu addition to strong coordination of the relationship between the central government and the provincial government at the time, also in February 1940, jointly with representatives of the gentry grain Yan Chang-ling et al call at that time the highest departments of Sichuan and the provincial government budget year more than $ 100 million protested.

 

The requirements of the central body China sufferings, verify austerity budget, explicitly dismiss all a matter of no great urgency, to serve traumatic deep river of people have been slightly Su respite. (H) In the meantime, his grandfather also have a number of part-time when most people chief part-time salary, but he not only refused to part-time, and obligations of individual companies in Sichuan Province Aviation Construction Committee and chairman.
Grandfather served as Provincial Secretary-General, Zhang Qun encountered a tricky thing to let him come forward to deal with.(Du Xinxin)

 

 

 

   

In the final stage (1944-1945),

the United States provided massive assistance to Nationalist China, but the Chongqing government, weakened by inflation, impoverishment of the middle class, and low troop morale was unable to take full advantage of it. Feuds among the KMT generals and between Chiang and his United States military adviser, General Joseph Stilwell, further hampered the KMT. (The Photo is of the Marco Polo Bridge)

    When Japanese defeat became a certainty in the spring of 1945, the Communists seemed in a better position to take over from the Japanese garrisons than the KMT, which was far away in the rear of the formation. A United States airlift of KMT troops enabled them to occupy many cities, but the countryside stayed with the Communists.

By the end of October 1944,

the the Chengdu downtown student protests. Chengdu Mayor Yu Zhongying send police station rectangular ultra personally led the police to the repression and the wounding of more than thirty students, arresting more than forty.

 

November 11,

 

Chengdu broke out parade of students thousands of people to protest against government atrocities. Zhang Qun afraid to meet with students, and then send the grandfather go. Said that his car passed, the student said: “Li old man’s car, do not stand in his.”

 

Then Sichuan to open Parliament left, right, some Kuomintang rightists often provocative oppress NLD, as Speaker of the Li Zhaofu often requirements to protect the leftist, restrained by the rightists.

 

The Li Gongpu and smell more than one memorial service on behalf of Li Zhaofu Zhang Qun to attend. Said Xu Qi Mullington spies mixed with the venue to collect blacklist and wounded Zhang Lan memorial service, and therefore subject to social pressure. Lee Xu Qi, Xu uses the “central directives to stall and asked his grandfather managed to” resting flat on the matter questioned. Li Zhaofu in office, had to bail Kang Daisha released from prison, and Ying Yang Shuming, and Luo Yuhan request personal bail Luo Guangbin call to the authorities. Yan’an Kang Daisha was released from prison after the Go. CCP has after she was working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and in Cambodia and Romania.

    After the end of World War II in Europe

in May 1945,

the Allied war effort moved to the east. The Soviet Union joined the war against Japan at the end of July. On August 6 and 9 the United States dropped the world’s first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On Aug. 14, 1945, the Japanese surrendered. In China, however, civil war raged over who should take charge of the Japanese arms and equipment. At the end of August an agreement was reached in Chongqing between a CCP delegation and the KMT, but the truce was brief.

    In January 1946 a cease-fire was negotiated by United States General George C. Marshall. The Nationalist government returned to Nanjing, and China was recognized by the new United Nations as one of the five great powers. The United States supplied the Chiang government with an additional $2 billion ($1.5 billion had been spent for the war). Although the KMT’s dominance in weapons and supplies was enormous, it was kept under guard in the cities, while the Communists held the surrounding countryside. As inflation soared, both civilians and the military became demoralized. The CCP, sensing the national mood, proposed a coalition government. The KMT refused, and fighting erupted again.

The short and decisive civil war that followed was resolved in two main places: Manchuria and the Huai River area. Despite a massive airlift of KMT forces by the United States, Manchuria was lost in October 1948 after 300,000 KMT forces surrendered to the CCP. By the end of 1948 the KMT had lost over half a million men, more than two thirds of whom had defected. In April 1949 the Communists moved south of the Yangtze. (Photo: The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City; the imposing structure directly faced the Presidential Building, was seen as a symbol of the party’s wealth and dominance.)

After the fall of Nanjing and Shanghai, KMT resistance evaporated. By the autumn, the Communists had taken all mainland territories except Tibet. Chiang Kai-shek and a number of his associates fled to the island of Taiwan, where they set up what they claimed was the rightful government of China.

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