CHINESE HISTORY COLLECTIONS ( CONTINIU)

THIS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN EBOOK IN CDROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

1930

2 August 1930
Mukden
Republic of China

Colonel Seishiro Itagaki and Lieutenant Colonel Kanji Ishiwara had spent a long time planning this and tonight it would come to fruition, they had no choice but to act. Itagaki had received word that the Minister for War, Jiro Minami had dispatched a general to curb what he called ‘insubordination and militarist behaviour’ of the Kwangtung Army. The irony of it was that both of them considered themselves true patriots. Both of them had put a great deal of planning into this. A secret artillery bunker had been constructed over the last several months and disguised to look like a swimming complex, so that when the time came they could initiate a fire fight with Chinese troops and make it seem as if they were the aggressors. As both of the plotters waited at the officer’s club where the artillery was hidden, another soldier who believed in their cause was planting the explosives that would start everything off.

Lieutenant Hiro Sakamoto of the 29th Infantry Regiment had just finished placing the last of the explosives that would hopefully start the chain reaction needed for Japan to seize Manchuria. Hiro stood back and examined them for several seconds to make sure everything was ready. He had placed the explosives near to a small Japanese barracks and he had also placed the first set near the tracks of the South Manchuria Railway. He had placed them far away enough so that no real damage would occur and by the morning the Chinese would hopefully be under attack.

As he turned around to walk to his place to detonate them someone called out “Who’s there?” in Japanese.
Hiro froze, unsure what to do. It was clearly a soldier from the barracks and his discovery next to the explosives would be hard to explain. He thought as fast as he could and then decided. In the dark the soldier didn’t see him draw out his knife and he responded in a friendly voice.
The other soldier stepped forward when he realised it was another of his own and Hiro stabbed him as quickly as he could several times. The man dropped to the ground, with no sound but a quiet gurgling which soon stopped after half a minute. Hiro ran towards the detonation point as quickly as he could. If anything the dead soldier would simply add believability to the story that the Chinese had attacked the barracks. Hiro reached his destination and slammed his hand down on the detonator.
[1]


Seishiro Itagaki and Kanji Ishiwara, the instigators of the Manchurian Incident.


Site of the explosion at the South Manchuria Railway, which provided the spark for the invasion of Manchuria.

From ‘The Complete Second World War, Volume 1: The Opening Moves, From Manchuria to Yugoslavia’
By Robert Keegan
© 1985, Coleman Publishing Group, St Louis, USA

Japan’s desire for land and resources would have to come at the expense of a weaker nation, and China had become that nation in the eyes of most Japanese militarists. Despite the size of the Chinese armies and the advances that had come in Kuomintang military they were still far behind Japan, whose own forces were the most advanced in Asia. This was well known in Japan and combined with the historical victory they had achieved in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1896, led many Japanese officers to believe that China would not put up much of a fight for Manchuria. The IJA was eager to flex its muscles and there was much contempt among the army for the government of Hamaguchi Osachi, which had failed to manage the hardships brought on by the Great Depression and also faced accusations of selling national security by agreeing to the London Naval Treaty. Osachi continued to oppose the militarists, but his assassination on 27 June 1930 put the final nail in the coffin for Japanese diplomacy and peace.

Despite the close timing of the assassination to the Manchurian Incident, they were not part of any elaborate conspiracy, although the soldiers involved in both shared similar views. Osachi’s assassin, Inichi Hosukawa, was a member of Aikoku-sha, one of the many nationalist secret societies that had sprung up among the Japanese armed forces (others included the Black Dragon Society, the Cherry Blossom Society and the Double Leaf Society) while the Manchurian instigators were not part of these societies, simply radical members of the Kwantung Army. Theses plotters had been planning an incident near Mukden for some time, in order to seize Manchuria for Japan, and with Hamguchi’s assassination they simply moved up their timetable as the opportunity had presented itself. After all they could not be sure if his successor would curb their activities or not. Carrying out the incident earlier than planned had two important effects, one it meant that the forces for invading Manchuria were not as prepared as they would have been and this gave Zhang Xueliang time to concentrate his units that were stationed north of the Great Wall. It also ensured that there was less time to woo certain Northeastern Army generals to the Japanese side. This meant that Zhang Xueliang was able to mount a stubborn, if short resistance and he made the Japanese pay in lives for every inch of Manchuria they took.


Hamaguchi Osachi, the confusion following his assassination allowed the Kwangtung Army free reign in Manchuria

6 August 1930
Mukden

Zhang Xueliang angrily slammed down the phone, almost breaking it in the process. Major General Feng Zhanhai flinched slightly as he did so, but calmly asked “Sir, what are Nanjing’s orders?”
“Those weak shit heads want me to ‘withdraw’ to a secure, defensive position” said Zhang shaking his head. “To hell with that” he said defiantly “they may have flashier force than ours, but I’m going to make them pay hell for invading us. If they want Manchuria they’ll have to pay for it dearly.”
Zhang Xueliang wasn’t going to retreat. His father hadn’t retreated in battle and he wouldn’t either. If the Japanese wanted a fight he would give it to them

 

 

Headline from Central Daily News
Nanjing, 12 September 1930

 

Young Tiger [2] Lives Up To Father’s Legacy,
Stalls Japanese Army At Mukden.



General Zhang Xueliang, the ‘Young Tiger’, disobeyed orders and fought the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

[1] Jiro Minami was appointed as War Minister earlier than OTL due to butterflies and Itagaki and Ishiwara have correspondingly taken action about a year earlier. In OTL Minami sent Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to counter the independent ambitions of the Kwantung Army in 1931 but he was slack and was in an alcohol-induced sleep when the railway explosion of the Mukden Incident happened. Despite the change of timing and exact circumstances the officers were fanatics prepared to do anything they could to bring Manchuria under Japanese rule, so an incident is still likely to happen.

[2] In OTL Zhang was in Beijing at the time of the incident, helping refugees from the Yangtze River floods and he obeyed Nanjing’s orders to not offer the Japanese resistance. This earned him the nickname ‘General Nonresistance’ in the newspapers and among the populace

 

A Crouching Tiger.

 

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15 September 1930
Mukden
Republic of China

Lieutenant Bei Xing ducked as another rattle of bullet fire rang out. He was the last survivor of his unit. The Japanese had finally penetrated the last area of the city held by the Chinese and they would now have no choice but to retreat. An exploding artillery shell nearby, almost knocked him off his feet and he was showered with dust. He looked up above the makeshift barrier to see Japanese soldiers advancing through the street. With only himself left, there was no chance on stopping the Japanese from marching straight to General Zhang’s command further behind him, he needed to get back and warn them!

But from behind him he heard shouts and the sounds of running boots. He turned his head briefly to see the general’s personal guard unit coming down the street and start firing at the Japanese. Bei was deeply encouraged by this sight and he joined them, coming out from his cover and fired his rifle off at the now scattering Japanese soldiers. After some time most of the soldiers had been driven back and a few were left injured on the ground. The artillery fire had ceased as well, indicating that the Japanese had slowed down their offensive in this part of the city.
As he looked up he saw a car approaching the battle site. It was General Zhang! The car slowed down and Bei could see that it had mounted guns on the side. Even when traveling it seemed the general was prepared for fighting! It stopped as it reached the soldiers and the general spoke to his men.
“You did well here, that will buy us some time, but we can’t hold the city any longer. The Japanese have overrun our positions on both the eastern and western sides of the city, we can’t hold it any longer. I’m going to personally order the remaining positions to pull back and we’re going to join General Ma’s force further south.”
Then the car left and the men started clearing the sit in an orderly manner.
“Soldier?”
“Uh…yes” said Bei somewhat in a daze as his mind processed everything.
“Thank you for your help. Where’s the rest of your unit?”
“All dead sir.”
“I see. Well you best report to Colonel Wujiang at the Southern command centre, I’m sure he’ll be able to assign you a unit. It’s only a few streets that way” and the man pointed behind Bei, who nodded.
“Best hurry though, they’ll begin evacuating soon and you don’t want to be caught in the city when the Japanese finally take it over.”
Bei saluted the man and started making his way through the now mostly empty streets. He could hardly believe he had seen the Young Tiger up close. Just the feeling of that had reinvigorated him, he felt like he could face the Japanese again, with General Zhang on their side, they would eventually push them out of Manchuria.


Japanese troops at the Battle of Mukden.

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

While the Japanese soldiers that prepared for the invasion of Manchuria had planned well for some time, there were certain aspects of the suspected ‘walkover’ campaign that they had overlooked. They had fully expected to drive the Chinese garrison at Mukden out immediately, and that the Chinese would rapidly flee before them without putting up much resistance. Initially it may seem ludicrous that less than a thousand Japanese soldiers could make several thousand of the enemy retreat, but this assessment had some merit, as the Nanking government did initially decide not to resist the Japanese invasion, but this policy was reversed when General Zhang Xueliang made the decision to fight for Mukden. Secondly, even if the Japanese could not push occupy Mukden quickly the Kwantung Army was ready to be transported there by rail, and reinforcements began arriving at the city by the 10 August. The Japanese also had much knowledge of the Northeastern Army, due to Zhang Zuolin’s ties to Japan and many of the Chinese forces in Manchuria were underequipped, poorly trained and lacking in loyalty and morale, while the Kwantung Army was one of the best that Japan could field.

But General Zhang’s resistance decision, threw a wrench into their plans for a quick taking of Mukden to secure a stable base for the rest of the invasion. Zhang had fortunately been in Mukden at the time of the incident and seeing the Japanese invade what had been his father’s land for so long was too much for him to run from. He ignored his orders from Li Zongren on the morning of 3 August, 1930. He organised his troops as the Japanese began moving into the city and with his sheer presence of personality, encouraged his soldiers to fight as hard as they could. He had no air force to call on though, it had been relatively small and Japanese planes had taken out the airfield long before he could issue any orders to it. His army held the Japanese in position for several days until Japanese reinforcements started arriving from Korea and they pushed further into the city. Zhang decided to make the battle for Manchuria hinge on Mukden and concentrated his forces there, even removing some form northern Manchuria. This made him a hero in the eyes of most Chinese, as he was successfully holding the Japanese invasion back, eventually President Wang ordered that more troops should be sent to support his forces. While this may have made things seem rosy the reality was different from the perception. The Northeastern Army had been holding back the Japanese at Mukden at a huge cost in casualties and supplies, in fact several units had begun running out of ammunition. Additionally Zhang’s concentration of forces at Mukden had led to Japanese seizures of many of the outlying areas of Manchuria. By early September the Kwantung Army reinforcements had taken the Liaodong Peninsula and most of the main rail lines giving them the advantage of being able to transport their forces faster. In the north several Chinese generals decided to rebel against the Republican government and collaborate with the Japanese, Xi Qia and Zhang Jinghui [1]. The IJA 7th Infantry Division and these rebel Chinese forces quickly took many of the towns in the north and east and then prepared to march on Harbin.

Eventually even Zhang had to admit that Mukden could no longer be held and pulled the last units out on 16 September, making a retreat to Harbin. In the north General Ma Zhanshan had been fighting a retreat back to Harbin and he arrived there a few days after Zhang where consolidated there forces and prepared to make another stand against the Japanese. The Japanese were rapidly marching through Manchuria and taking most of the small towns, but were constantly besieged by the members of the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies, who were conducting guerrilla warfare against them. By the time the Defence of Harbin had begun the total casualties for both sides were: China: 17,890, Japan: 4990, and the Japanese had begun to become weary of fighting of what they called ‘bandits’, they were eager to engage the bulk of the Chinese armies at Harbin. Harbin was the final stand for the Chinese forces, thought it was a battle that would last for nearly three months and require more of the Chosen Army to be brought in from Korea. The IJA 2nd Division’s aggressive tactics were what finally pushed the Chinese out of Harbin and a good deal of the defenders were encircled and trapped in the city to end up as prisoners [2], many of them fated to end up in the infamous Unit 891 [3].

-Timeline of the Invasion of Manchuria

 

By the mid-1930s

the Japanese had seized Inner Mongolia and parts of northeastern China and had created the North China Autonomous Region with no resistance from the Nationalists. Anti-Japanese sentiment mounted in China, but Chiang ignored it and in 1936 launched yet another extermination campaign against the Communists in Shaanxi. Chiang was forced to give up the anti-Communist drive when his troops mutinied and arrested him as he arrived in Xi’an in December 1936 to plan strategy. He was released after he agreed to form a united front with the CCP against the Japanese, who were making steady inroads into China.

1930
2 August
Mukden Incident-explosion set by radical Japanese soldiers gives the IJA a pretext to begin an invasion of Manchuria, General Shigeru Honjo, commander of the Kwantung Army, tacitly approves it.

3 August
General Zhang Xueliang disobeys orders and begins fighting the Japanese. Battle of Mukden begins as the IJA 2nd Division attacks Chinese forces in Mukden.

6 August
Stubborn Chinese resistance, prompts call of reinforcements to Mukden

10 August
Kwantung and Chosen Army reinforcements arrive at Mukden.

20 August-8 September
The Kwangtung Army marches through Manchuria seizing Liaoning and many of the towns in eastern Manchuria.

16 September
Zhang Xueliang’s forces retreat from Mukden as the Japanese finally seize the city.

3 October
General Xi Qia defects to Japan and seizes towns in Heilongjiang province, his forces clash with those of General Ma Zhanshan.

26 October
Ma Zhanshan finally begins retreating after fighting back numerous Japanese and Chinese troops, he makes for Harbin to join with Zhang Xueliang.

18 November
Battle of Harbin begins

28 November
The League of Nations proposes a ceasefire and a neutral zone in Manchuria. Both sides agree to talks, but fighting at Harbin continues.

10 December
The Japanese government is in crisis and Prime Minster Wakatsuki resigns. His replacement is Sadao Araki, who managed to manipulate the crisis to his advantage. He breaks off talks with the Kuomintang government and sends additional reinforcements to Manchuria.

1931

1931

 

29 January
General Zhang Xueliang retreats from Harbin, his army pursued by Japanese aircraft.

4 February
The League of Nations issues the Jones Report [4], following which the Japanese officially withdraw from the League of Nations.

12 February
Zhang Xueliang is given a hero’s welcome in Nanjing. The Nanjing government has decided to discontinue fighting the Japanese in Manchuria, although they refuse to recognise any puppet government.

23 February
The independent state of Manchukuo is declared, with former emperor Puyi, declared head of state, though he has little real power.


Statue of General Zhang Xueliang in Harbin (1984), the Republic of China’s first recipient of the newly created Order of Blue Sky and White Sun [5].

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young Tiger [2] Lives Up To Father’s Legacy,
Stalls Japanese Army At Mukden.



General Zhang Xueliang, the ‘Young Tiger’, disobeyed orders and fought the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

 

japanese army officer being transported by motorcycle (manchuria 1931)

 

japanese soldiers in under roof of a burning house (manchuria 1931)


[1] Jiro Minami was appointed as War Minister earlier than OTL due to butterflies and Itagaki and Ishiwara have correspondingly taken action about a year earlier. In OTL Minami sent Major General Yoshitsugu Tatekawa to counter the independent ambitions of the Kwantung Army in 1931 but he was slack and was in an alcohol-induced sleep when the railway explosion of the Mukden Incident happened. Despite the change of timing and exact circumstances the officers were fanatics prepared to do anything they could to bring Manchuria under Japanese rule, so an incident is still likely to happen.

[2] In OTL Zhang was in Beijing at the time of the incident, helping refugees from the Yangtze River floods and he obeyed Nanjing’s orders to not offer the Japanese resistance. This earned him the nickname ‘General Nonresistance’ in the newspapers and among the populace

Japanese troops entering Changchun.

[1] Zhang Haipeng also collaborated in OTL in return for military supplies, but here the lack of a Central Plains War has meant that he has far more military supplies and Zhang Xueliang’s resistance has convinced him to remain with the Kuomintang government.

[2] Somewhat like a mini-version of Stalingrad, thought the roles are reversed with the invaders being the ones who manage the encirclement and the defenders running out of food, ammo and supplies.

[3] TTL Unit 731.

[4] Similar to OTL Lytton Report.

[5] This is a military award established in 1929. Although in TTL it is the highest military order that can be given out as opposed to becoming the second highest to the Order of National Glory.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

I wonder–could that be his late father’s custom-made Packard, which came with side-mounted machine guns?

 

After Japan’s defeat,

the U.S. military has become the occupation forces in Japan, the Emperor of Japan from God to fight back who tore off the mask of the Emperor, breaking Japan’s Emperor of monotheism. Control of U.S. occupation troops, after decades of rapid development, Japan, became an economic power, all the small Japanese words providers do business, own army can only be called Self-Defense Forces.
So-called Japanese, the so-called Japanese family name is to survive on a desert island for thousands of years, bully, with duplicity, selfish and hypocritical, submissive servility serious speculative psychological metamorphosis of the nation!

 

11. White Sun Politicians.

 

 

 

1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100


March,31th/1931

 

Chinese Republic, 1931 (Mar.) printed Japanese postal card posted on sea voyage, from Tsingtau to address in Osaka, franked with 2¢ yellow green Junk issue postmarked Shimonoseki/Japan Mar 1931 with “Paquebot” enclosed in wavy line cancel, with oblong frame handstamp “Received dated and numbered #1275”, unusual, F.-V.F Realized HK$ 2,400

April,14th. 1931

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1931 (Apr 14) incoming airmail cover from Berlin to Peiping, bearing German airmail issues Scott C28, C29 and C31 with Peiping receiver alongside, lightly toned. Realized HK$ 3,400

 

15 July 1931
Nanjing
Republic of China

Four of the most important and powerful men in China were gathered together in a lavish room. Wang Jingwei, President of the Republic was seated in a chair at one end of the room next to a large fireplace.
“How can we continue to oppose them? Zhang fought as best as he could but even outnumbering them didn’t help. We have to face it, the Japanese military is far more advanced than any of our forces, in both tactics and technology” he stated.
General Li Zongren, Commander-in-Chief of the National Revolutionary Army, bristled at the implication of the quality of his forces but he knew he the president wasn’t wrong. Standing next to him was the Premier Sun Fo, the son of Sun Yat-Sen, Wang had asked him to attend the meeting anyway since he wanted his input. The title of premier meant that Sun was head of the Executive Yuan, which in theory made him the head of government, but in reality Wang had taken over much of the affairs of that branch in his capacity as president and this meant the government was now leaning more towards a presidential republican system, with the president acting as head of state and head of government in the one role [1].

Sun tried to counter Wang’s argument.
“But the people are demanding we take action. The newspapers are still lauding Zhang as a hero and some of the northern towns [2] are half empty from volunteers joining the resistance army. How can we do nothing?”
“I know, but aside from keeping the resistance as well supplied as we can there’s not much else I can think of until we hear back from Koo. Unless you have any suggestions general?” said Wang turning to Li.

Li rubbed his chin and said “The Japanese have control of the major cities everywhere east of a rough line from Jinzhou to Daqing. Zhang pulled his army back to Shanhaiguan [3] and ordered General Wan Fulin to hold as long as he can if the Japanese advance any further while he is here. For now it seems as if the Japanese are not intending on pushing to take any more of Manchuria. Personally I think they’re on the brink of overstretching themselves with what they have and they’re trying to solidify their hold on it. But that isn’t to say they can’t bring in more reinforcements from Korea and their home islands, if we decided to retake our territory. I’ve had a few reports that General Chao has managed to beat back several Japanese attacks near Songyuan, but he wasn’t able to hold the city. Further north General Ma is waging a guerrilla war and gathering as many of the volunteers as he can. Zhang is planning on sending in more troops and supplies to support him. Mr President I believe the best action we can take is to drain the Japanese armies in a slow fight, exactly what is beginning to happen now. If we move any conventional forces north they may declare a complete war and attack us with everything they have.”
“And you think we couldn’t beat them?” asked Kong Xiangxi, or H H Kung as he was known to his Western friends, the Minister of Industry [4], Kong was high in the Kuomintang government, but his world view was based on money matters, not military and so it was only natural for him to simply look at the numbers and assume China had the advantage.
“At the moment we’re still dealing with communist forces in the countryside, not to mention the two regions under their control. To fight them and the Japanese at the same time would stretch the our forces to the breaking point” replied Li. “The best thing I can think of is to send some of the more experienced intelligence troops to join up with Ma and Chao in order to help train their forces and coordinate supplies to move north.”
Wang said “I agree general. Despite the advances we’ve made on the last few years, our army is not ready to take on a foreign power, some of the more independent minded governors would probably keep their forces in their own region, under the guise of protecting it from any Japanese incursions.”
Damned warlords thought Li Zongren. Despite most of the issues between the Kuomintang and the former warlords being settled, they were still very independent minded and ruled over their assigned provinces with complete authority. While this meant that there was rarely trouble in those regions, the government could not always count on them to provide the soldiers that might be needed for operations.
Still thought Li better to keep them happy than order them around until they decided to fight back.

Things had almost reached that point a few years ago, but a series of meetings and agreements between Wang and the warlords had prevented an actual war from breaking out. Once that had been settled Li focused on fighting the communists, but they were hard to eliminate. The bulk of them were holed up in mountainous strongholds and even a large enough army would have trouble dislodging them, while the rest were scattered across the entire country in guerrilla bands that were difficult to catch. The German trained military intelligence had been very useful in tracking many of them down, but they always somehow managed to find new recruits amongst the peasant and farmers. Li was concerned that the communists in the north would get even more recruits because of the Japanese which is why he wanted to send Colonel Lin Jiazhou there. He was his best intelligence officer and would ensure the insurgency against the Japanese would be a Kuomintang driven one rather than communist driven.

Wang continued “I am still concerned about the communists, which is why I don’t want to order a full campaign to retake Manchuria. So until we hear back from-“
There was a knock at the door and Wang said “Come in.”
Wang’s assistant opened the door and held it aside for Gu Weijun [5] to enter. Gu had adopted the Western name of Wellington, since he spent much of his time in other nations and had been involved in the formation of the League of Nations, whose decision Gu had been waiting to hear about before he attended the current meeting.
He placed his hat on the rack next to the door and slowly walked towards the other four men. Wang could tell the outcome by the look on Gu’s face.

Gu shook his head and said “It’s no good Jingwei. Aside from military action against Japan, which is not going to happen, there is little they can or will do. By rights they should have put sanctions on them, but even if they did it would matter little to Japan, since they have now withdrawn from the League themselves.”
Wang shook his head “We have to face it. They don’t care about problems.
“Oh they all care! They care so much, they’ll debate it for hours and hours, but never actually do anything!” shouted Sun.
Wang let him calm down for a few seconds before continuing “Li we’ll implement your plan for placing intelligence soldiers in Manchuria. Make sure you get Bauer’s input on the operation, after all his men trained those soldiers. In the mean time I am ordering the current north-eastern forces to maintain position, if we can’t push the Japanese back, we can make damned sure they don’t progress any further.”
There was another knock at the door, this time it sounded far more urgent. Wang told whoever it was to enter. It was his assistant again.
“Sorry to interrupt sir, but there is urgent news. The Japanese have landed troops near Shanghai and sent the city’s mayor an ultimatum”
Wang frowned, Shanghai had become a hotbed since the invasion of Manchuria, with numerous incidents reported against Japanese citizens. He turned to General Li.
“General I want you to head to Shanghai personally, if this gets out of hand I need you there.”
“Yes sir” replied Li “I’ll take the 3rd Army with me.” The others knew what that meant Li had formed the 3rd Army himself from a solid core of German-trained troops and Guangxi Clique veterans, if any force could stop an invasion of Shanghai it would be that one.


Key figures in the Kuomintang government-1931, from left to right; Premier Sun Fo, Minister of Industry H. H. Kung and Minister of Foreign Affairs Wellington Koo.

Part of President Wang Jingwei’s famous Nanjing Address of

20 July 1931.

“At this great turning point in history, the National Government should make clear to the people of China and of the whole world the main objectives in its policy of realizing national independence and completing the National Revolution. We shall then be able to co-operate more wholeheartedly and fulfill our mission more effectively. We fervently hope that security in China and peace in the world may be permanently established. With this thought in mind I today make the following statement.

The aim of our National Revolution is two-fold. In our relations with other nations we seek national independence and freedom. Within the nation we seek equality for all racial groups. For forty years we have faced the ever-growing menace of Japanese aggression. Therefore the main emphasis of our national revolutionary movement is upon consolidating the strength of all our racial groups. We knew that we must unite in resisting foreign aggression if we are to attain national independence and freedom.

We have three most important goals and the attainment of these constitute our most urgent tasks.
First, we must continue the National Revolution as the legacy handed down to us by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
Second, we have to regain our sovereign rights in the Northeastern Provinces and re-establish territorial and administrative integrity there.
And third, we must continue to resist aggression against our nation in all of its forms. While a specific example is the aggression of the Empire of Japan in our province of Manchuria and intimidations near Shanghai, this includes any other form of aggression against our rightful government. The communist bandits that seek to destabilise the nation we have been building and their Soviet backers [6], as well as the Western nations that think we must still accept their demands in our cities, when our people are under attack [7].


Wang shortly after the 20 July Nanjing Address, he dressed in uniform to inspire the crowd.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of China

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria and new puppet nation of Manchukuo had divided the Kuomintang government. Whilst a majority of them wanted to bring the army north in order to push the Japanese out of rightful Chinese territory, many realised that it was easier said than done. The Japanese were looking for any excuse to launch more attacks at China and the Shanghai Incident is a reflection of this. President Wang spoke several times to crowds after the invasion of Manchuria, the general population had a n angry attitude towards Japan and he wanted to prevent anything happening in Shanghai, but his words were not enough to calm things down.
Wang sent reinforcements to the 6th and 88th Army stationed near the city under the command of Li Zongren himself, after hearing of Japan’s landing of forces. Despite wanting to avoid any further expansion of conflict, Wang had some hopes that the Japanese would launch an attack, since it would mean they would be seen in an even worse light than they already were by the rest of the world. Things eventually came to a head on the 27 July 1931.

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, by Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House, Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The Battle of Shanghai (1931), also known as the Shanghai Incident began on the 27 July. Japanese troops attacked various targets just before dawn as well as bombing parts of Shanghai with naval planes. In response Li Zongren ordered the 3rd Army and the 19th Route Army to counter-attack the Japanese, while he kept the 5th Army in defensive positions inside the centre of the city. The fierce fighting soon spread to most of the eastern parts of Shanghai and the stubborn resistance prompted the Japanese to bring in reinforcements. Two weeks later the Japanese had landed two more divisions, bringing their troop numbers up to 100,000 and nearly 100 ships as well as a substantial air force. Li requested for China’s meagre air force to be brought in to support the infantry, which Wang quickly authorised.

The Japanese infantry forces managed to penetrate into the city as a far as and stopped when they were attacked by the entrenched Special Brigade commanded by General Hu. Intense fighting in the district lasted for six days before the Japanese withdrew, when they were in danger of running out of ammunition. After another week of fighting around the city General Shirakawa finally called back all forces under direct orders from Prime Minister Araki. Though neither side had really won, the Chinese had pushed the Japanese from Shanghai, albeit at a great cost, the 3rd had borne the brunt of the fighting and some of it’s units had taken more than sixty percent casualties. Li Zongren’s precious hardened core of the NRA was decimated.

The Incident is noteworthy because it marked one of the few occasions during the Second Sino-Japanese War that Chinese numbers were lower than the Japanese and they were able to achieve victory [8].

Fig. 9. Order of Battle during the Shanghai Incident 1931.

Japan
Shanghai Expeditionary Army – Gen. Yoshinori Shirakawa
Lieutenant- Gen. Kanichiro Tashiro – Chief of Staff

Army Troops:
Mixed Regiment Medium Artillery –
3 Batteries 150mm Howitzers, 12 guns, horse drawn.
2 Batteries 100mm guns, 8 guns, horse drawn.

Army Air Service:
3 Bomber Squadrons
1 Pursuit Squadron (Nieuports)
1 Reconnaissance Squadron

24th Mixed Brigade –
2nd Battalion / 14th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 24th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 46th Infantry Regiment
1st Battalion / 48th Infantry Regiment
2nd Battalion / 3rd Independent Mountain Gun Regiment
2nd Company / 18th Engineer Battalion

9th Division – General Uyeda
2nd Independent Tank Company – Captain Shigemi
5 Type 89 Medium Tanks, 10 Renault NC27 Tanks
Cavalry Detachment
Battalion 150mm Howitzers
Heavy Siege Gun Unit, (6 150mm Mortars)
6th Infantry Brigade
7th Infantry Regiment
35th Infantry Regiment
18th Infantry Brigade
19th Infantry Regiment
36th Infantry Regiment
9th Mountain Artillery Regiment
9th Cavalry Regiment

11th Division – General Koto
10th Infantry Brigade
12th Infantry Regiment
22nd Infantry Regiment
22nd Infantry Brigade
43rd Infantry Regiment
44th Infantry Regiment
11th Mountain Artillery Regiment
11th Cavalry Regiment
11th Engineer Regiment
11th Army Service Detachment

14th Division – General Matsuki
27th Infantry Brigade
2nd Infantry Regiment
59th Infantry Regiment
28th Infantry Brigade
15th Infantry Regiment
50th Infantry Regiment
20th Field Artillery Regiment
18th Cavalry Regiment
14th Engineer Regiment
14th Battalion of Army Service Corps

3rd Fleet – Vice Admiral Kichisaburo Nomura
34 warships including:
Kirishima, Kongō class battlecruiser
Yura, Nagara class cruiser
Tenryū, Tenryū class cruiser
Mutsuki, Mutsuki class destroyer
1st Koku-sentai (Carrier Division)
Carrier Kaga (flagship)
Nakajima A1N fighters
Mitsubishi B1M bombers
Carrier Hōshō
9 Nakajima A1N2 fighters
3 Mitsubishi B2M bombers
3 Mitsubishi C1M Type 10 reconnaissance aircraft
Shanghai SNLF (Captain Samejima) *[2000men]
1st Battalion (Including Sasebo 1st SNLF)
2nd Battalion (Former Kure 1st SNLF)
3rd Battalion (Former Sasebo 2nd SNLF)
4th Battalion (Former Sasebo 3rd SNLF)
5th Battalion (Former Yokosuka 1st SNLF)
7th Battalion (Former Yokosuka 2nd SNLF)
Armed reservists and Ronin, agents 3000 men
Total Naval forces in Shanghai 5000 men

China

Shanghai Front – Commander in Chief, Gen. Li Zongren

3rd Army – Gen. He Yingqin
38th Division –
75th Brigade
Special Brigade – Gen. Hu Wei-an
50th Division – Gen. Li Bao
109th Brigade
110th Brigade
55th Division – Gen. Ma Changbo
114th Brigade
115th Brigade

19th Route Army – Gen. Chiang Kuang-Nai
60th Division – Gen. Shen Kwan-han
119th Brigade
120th Brigade
61st Division – Gen. Mao Weh-hsu
121st Brigade
122nd Brigade
78th Division – Gen. Shu Zu-nien
155th Brigade
156th Brigade
3 Chinese armored trains (500men)
Woosung Forts Garrison (2,000 men)

5th Army – Gen. Chang Chih-chung
87th Division – Gen. Lau Ching-yueh
174th Brigade
175th Brigade
88th Division – Gen. Yu Tsi-shih
176th Brigade
177th Brigade
Independent Brigade – Gen. Wang Ken


Chinese soldiers during the Shanghai Incident.

[1] Kuomintang government positions and who had authority are somewhat of a headache. In OTL Chiang changed positions numerous times, due to disagreements and being force to reisgn and then being brought back. he alternated between premier and president along with other figures though power tended to be in his hands regardless of his actual position. Here Tan Yankai remained as premier and Wang became president during the Northern Expedition. Since Tan was a fairly weak figure, Wang became more powerful and authority has slowly moved into the presidential position. By the time Tan died in 1930, premier was a role only indicating the head of the Executive Yuan that was answerable to the president and Wang appointed Sun to replace Tan.

[2] When Sun says ‘northern towns’ here, he means the towns north of the Yellow River and Beijing, not Manchurian towns.

[3] Also known as Shanhai Pass, it has been used numerous times in Chinese history to defend against attacks form Manchuria.

[4] This Minister position presides over a combination of what is usually the Ministry of Economic Affairs and some of the areas of Ministry of the Interior.

[5] This is the pinyin version of Wellington Koo’s name.

[6] Not actually true, but a belief amongst many in China at the time.

[7] Rioting in Shanghai has become routine particularly between Chinese and Japanese citizens and the other nations in the international sections of the city are pressuring the Chinese to stop it.

[8] This statement does not include guerrilla actions, only large scale battles.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

12. Once Upon A Time In Manchuria.

9 March 1931
Xingshan Township, Kirin Province
Manchuria
Republic of China
(Manchukuo, as recognised by Japan)

The last Japanese soldier fell down dead next to his compatriots, his body riddled with bullets. Tang Juwu ordered his men to cease firing the precious M1917 heavy machine gun. He ordered them to pack up the gun and get ready to move out, this town had been cleared, but they had much work to do.
“Thank you general” said the leader of the town “we are eternally grateful to you.”
Tang nodded, this man had lost his entire family to the brutal Japanese soldiers that had occupied his town, killing them had been the least he could for him.
“Make sure you are ready to defend yourselves if you have to” said Tang “but don’t try to provoke them too much. If you do, they’ll send in an entire unit to wipe out the town, hopefully though we’ll be keeping them busy. Alright, set the bodies alight and get ready to move out, we’ve got work to do elsewhere.”
One of Tang’s scouts came up while they were moving the bodies into a pile.
“Sir the Japanese are sending a brigade past the river, it should be passing south in the next half hour.”
Tang smiled “Excellent, we’ll show these bastards they can’t do what they like in our country.” Tang began giving orders to move towards the river and set up an ambush for the Japanese brigade. He hoped this would be the first of many steps towards threatening Mukden.

Taken from Tang Juwu: The Hero of Manchuria, by Chen Jisheng, © 1985 Dragon Breath Publishing House, Shanghai, Republic of China, Translated to English by Carl Hamilton

Chapter 2.

Tang’s service time in the army since 1915 had taught him discipline, honour and most importantly loyalty. The disbanding of his regiment in the aftermath of the Japanese invasion left him grieving for his homeland until he escaped internment.
The deplorable conditions in the prison camp were harsh and many the Japanese guards were brutal to anyone who stepped out of line. Tang kept himself out of trouble for one week and waited for the Japanese to drop their guard.
On the night of November 18 an opportunity presented itself. Tang had noted that certain parts of the camp went unwatched for some time as the guards deemed those areas unimportant. When he was coming back from the outhouse he stabbed a soldier in the neck with a sharpened piece of wood and strangled another with wire. Thus he was able to make it to the unwatched sections without anyone hearing anything. He quickly made his way over the fence and was a mile away before anyone at the camp became suspicious.

Tang met up with other soldiers that avoided internment or had hidden and he was appointed commander of the Anti-Japanese Resistance Army, which he built up with his extensive contacts throughout north east Manchuria. This army comprised of former soldiers, bandits, militias and self defence peasant groups. By the time Tang decided to go on the offensive his army was 30,000 strong. In June of 1931 Tang led his army into Liaoning from the north east and engaged the Kwangtung Army garrison at Fushun. He beat back the Japanese forces and continued advancing west until he army was savaged at Dengta, by several Japanese and Manchukuo brigades. After this he turned his army towards the guerrilla warfare for which he became famous for, to both the Chinese public and the infuriated Japanese commanders that tired to capture him and his men.


Tang Juwu

From “A Tour Of International Cinema, Part 12”, by Kevin Raines, © July 1990, American Journal of Motion Picture, Volume 37, California Film Centre, Los Angeles, USA

Dumpling Westerns.
The name Dumpling Western was first coined to describe director Chang Cheh’s [1] film The Lone Soldier, about the guerrilla war led by Tang Juwu, which was not the most historically accurate film and made Tang out to be more of a folk hero than a disciplined soldier, but it did well nonetheless and with it came a surge of Chinese films set in the same period. The film depicted Tang during his time before he formed his large guerrilla army and saving a small town from a garrison of Japanese soldiers intent on ruling over it. The inaccuracies are fairly obvious, no group of Japanese soldiers ever set themselves up as rulers of a Manchurian town and Tang only spent a few weeks in the wilderness before meeting with the leaders of the Manchurian rebellion, doubtful he would have had time to have saved a town. But Chang took much inspiration from the Western genre and much as the Italian made Spaghetti Westerns his film was dubbed a ‘Dumpling Western’ and would be followed by several more. This would soon follow with a slew of Dumpling Westerns being made in Shanghai and Hong Kong, with many of them becoming the second major Chinese genre to make it to American and European theatres after kung fu films.
The Lone Soldier also ignited the early careers of several actors who would continue in Dumpling Westerns and become famous for them, as well as branching into the more traditional Chinese stories of wuxia [2].

The important difference between Spaghetti and Dumpling Westerns is that the Italian ones were still set in the American West and Mexico while the Chinese films have a Chinese setting and this distinction has become clear over time. Spaghetti Westerns tended to die off around the early 1980s, though many are still revered today, as Italian cinema changed course away from westerns. But Dumpling Westerns maintained a strong presence in China and in the United States, this was likely due to the fact that several prominent American directors tried their hand at a Dumpling Western and several of them went on to have great success at the box office, Stanley Kubrick’s Fire On The Yangtze River being the most widely known and watched.
Today Dumpling Westerns still enjoy a strong market in China and any Chinese historical film from set roughly in the period 1911-1940 with a certain style is considered to be a Dumpling Western.


Actors from The Lone Soldier who became famous in the Dumpling Western genre; left to right, Zheng Pei-pei, Cheung Ying Choi and John Wang.

Notable Dumpling Westerns (in order of release)

The Lone Soldier (1965)
Gold Lust (1966)
Bandits, Bullets and Beans (1966)
Wayward Cause (1968)
Race To Wu’s Treasure (1968)
The Horseman and the Thief (1969)
In the Shadow of the Mountain (1970)
1001 Thieves (1970)
Showdown in Arun (1971)
Gunman Jiaxing (1972)
Bounty’s Rest (1972)
Drifting Through Liaoning (1973)
Land of Loss (1974)
The Road To Shanghai (1975)
Where the Soldiers Won’t Go (1976)
Seven Man Army (1976) [3]
Bullets Don’t Lie (1978)
Cold Heart (1980)
Warlord Zhou (1981)


Posters from some Dumpling Westerns

[1] Chang was one of the most famous and prolific directors of Hong Kong cinema and Shaw Brother’s Studio, much of his work OTL was influenced by spaghetti westerns, so here he has simply taken that inspiration one step further and created a new type of western.

[2] Chinese historical martial arts films.

[3] Similar to the OTL film of the same name but with differences like being set in the Battle of Shanghai of 1931 rather than in the defence of the Great Wall and more of a Western style to it.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

13. Brotherhood Of Resistance.

From ‘The Complete Second World War, Volume 1: The Opening Moves, From Manchuria to Yugoslavia’
By Robert Keegan
© 1985, Coleman Publishing Group, St Louis, USA

The main armies of the NRA had finally been forced to pull back from Manchuria in early 1932 and the Chinese government decided to abandon its policy of direct engagement, as there were other pressing issues including a long overdue fixing of the economy and the resurgence of the communists. In fact there was some decision that allowing the Japanese to temporarily have Manchuria may in fact wipe out the difficult to remove communist guerrillas under Mao.
While the decision to do this was not politically easy, given the public’s anti-Japanese stance, it was done in such a way as to portray the government as still fighting without actually carrying out military operations. Many advisors and supplies were sent to aid the ‘freedom armies’ which had formed in the wake of the invasion (dubbed as ‘bandits’ by the IJA)
Japan meanwhile was trying to ease its conquest and occupation by creating the new nation of Manchukuo, under the Manchu heir Henry Puyi, though it was not recognised by any other nations [1].

Manchuria, with the dark red showing the initial territory of Manchukuo.

The Jilin and Liaoning provinces were the most important areas where the resistance operated, in Jilin General Ting Chao was operating his Jilin Self-Defence Army, which managed to hold Harbin form three major assaults by Japanese and Manchukuoan troops, until they were finally forced to abandon the city and spread out into the countryside, several resistance armies operated here for the next three years under Ting and generals, Li Du, Feng Zhanhai and Wang Delin as the harassed the IJA between Harbin and the Soviet border. In the northwest the cavalry general Ma Zhanshan, who had at first joined Manchukuo and Japan only to betray them and seize arms and supplies to use against them caused so much trouble, including attacking Changchun in November of 1931 that the Japanese concentrated their forces there giving the other generals a free hand.
After several fierce battles in the summer of 1932, Ma’s forces were finally forced into retreat and he was captured near the town of Jiwen along with several thousand of his men. The remainder of them escaped to the Soviet Union or fled west, some of them joining the communist resistance. Ma had forced three times as many men as he had to chase him for more than a year and Ting’s armies made good use of this, establishing themselves throughout most of the small towns in the north east and they held out until 1934, when the Japanese finally brought in overwhelming numbers to defeat them, though many continued to operate in very small units and many of the generals managed to make their way south to Chinese controlled territory.

Further south in Liaoning, General Tang Juwu led an incredible guerrilla campaign, and his forces swelled with volunteers, including some Korean resistance members led by future politician Kim Il-Sung. This further delayed the Japanese operations against the NRA and the Jilin Army and the Japanese were continually frustrated by Tang’s elusiveness. In fact he became so troublesome that IJA intelligence officer, Colonel Kenji Doihara put up a $1,000,000 sum in gold for his capture or death [2].

Resistance fighters in Manchuria

Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The Imperial Army’s impressive war machine, which had done an incredible job at taking Manchuria, was however not quite as capable as holding the territory which it had captured. Continual resistance in the north-west plagued the Japanese and the Kwangtung forces were still fighting some active NRA units west of Liaoning. The Chinese government had stepped back from direct engagement and limited itself to defence in the south while continuing to ship advisors and supplies into Manchuria.
After finally destroying many of the larger bandit armies, the IJA was ready to expand Manchukuo to ensure that support to the remaining resistance was cut off. To this end, the overall commander of the Kwantung Army, Baron Shigeru Honjo [3], decided to seize Rehe province from the Kuomintang government in order to seal off Manchuria.

On Nov. 1, 1931,

they proclaimed the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic in the southeastern province of Jiangxi, with Mao Zedong as chairman. Here the first units of the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army were formed. While conducting guerrilla warfare in these regions, the soldiers carried out an agrarian revolution that was based on Mao’s premise that the best way to win the conflict was to isolate the cities by gaining control of the countryside and the food supply. (The Photo is of Mao in 1931)

1932

1932

Yunnan, 1932,

 

 

 

London Overprints on Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Type II (single circle) (Scott 36//42 vars. Chan Y36-Y42), nicely canceled, clean, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 20,000 – 24,000

 

1933

4 May 1933
Rehe Province
Republic of China

A scan of the horizon revealed, small wisps of dust and smoke from the approaching army. The observer put down the binoculars and handed them back to Zhang Xueliang, they had originally belonged to his father, a gift from a Japanese nobleman before they had decided to invade China.
“Well?” asked Zhang.
“No doubt about it sir, the Japanese have finally decided to come west.”
Zhang simply nodded in acknowledgement. He turned his head to his officers.
“I’m not going to lie to any of you, we’re in for one hell of a fight. They may have been savaged over the last few years by the brave men in the north, but they wouldn’t come unless they were fairly confident of taking the province. The president wants us to stand here and I intend to do so. Whether we win or lose it has been an honour serving with each of you. You have all shown incredible dedication and patriotism in this war. I can only pray to Heaven that this will be the last battle of it. Luck by with you all.”
And with that his men gave a cheer and saluted him.

The Japanese attacked near dawn the next day. They had seized the small towns in the east of the province first and then proceed on a south-west direction towards the Great Wall and Zhang intended on stopping them from reaching it.
He had positioned his army in and around Changde. Zhang commanded his forces from the city hall in the south of the metropolitan district as the Japanese advanced up towards the city, their constant artillery fire ravaging the buildings and defences.
After two days the Japanese had reached the edge of the city and Zhang was getting reports of lines being broken. He had just ordered the bulk of his forces back into the city when an aide ran up and delivered him an intelligence message.
Further Japanese reinforcements were arriving from the north-about two divisions.
He crumpled the paper in frustration and placed his hands on the table, closing his eyes and calming his thoughts. Two more divisions was too much, there were barely holding on as it was, the Japanese were going to crush them. Perhaps it was finally time to surrender and ask for terms?
No, it was too soon, how could look at his men in the face after surrendering so quickly. He would fight until the city was no longer defendable and only then surrender.

The next day, fully expecting the Japanese reinforcements to begin penetrating the north he was surprised to get reports of Chinese troops marching in from the north instead! He couldn’t get a clear message so he decided to find out what was going on in person and ran down to his car.
“Drive north Wu!” he said “I need to know what is happening”.
His driver nodded and made the journey as quickly as he could reaching the northern outskirts within twenty minutes.
Zhang got out of the vehicle and approached one of his Tang Yelin, who was conversing with several others, poorly dressed, but tough looking individuals.
“What is going on?” asked Zhang.
“General, sir!” said Tang, this Wang Delin and Feng Zhanhai. They bring a message from General Tang Juwu.”
Wang said “General Tang says do not worry, the Japanese reinforcements have been dealt with and it is Changde which will be receiving reinforcement, from the Anti-Japanese Brotherhood Army”
Zhang looked at them in amazement “You’re still out there fighting!”
“Yes” replied Wang “and the Japanese made a fatal mistake in ignoring us to attack you. Tang has a trap ready fro the Japanese in the east, he is simply waiting for them to spring it with a little help from us of course.”
Zhang nodded and smiled “This is wonderful. Of course, if Tang has a plan then let me hear it and after this battle I must invite him to have a drink with me!”


Soldiers from Tang Juwu’s army, waiting to ambush the Japanese

[1] At its creation it was not, but within a few years, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Italy and the Soviet Union gave defacto diplomatic recognition to Manchukuo, despite the official League of Nations declaration that Manchuria was rightfully part of China.

[2] If this seems outrageously large, in OTL Doihara made a $3,000,000 offer to General Ma to defect from the resistance to Manchukuo due to his fame.

[3] Honjo was put in command slightly later than OTL, Hishikari was not replaced until after his failure to crack down on the resistance, and he remains in command rather than being relieved for insubordination due to his connections to Prime Minister Araki.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

14. Reflections.

16 August 1931
Tokyo
Empire of Japan

Prime Minister Sadao Araki let his hand barely touch the surface of the koi pond, the small fish darting away from the ripples his hand was making. He had a difficult decision to make and being in his small garden helped to calm his thoughts and sort things out clearly. Things had not been progressing well in the war. The Chinese had managed to stunt the Imperial Army at Shanghai and forced them to withdraw five months ago. Since then Manchuria and slowly come under control of the Imperial Army, but the losses were quickly mounting upwards. Guerrillas were picking away at the soldiers and the units were forced to march back and forth chasing the small groups of bandits.

It went against everything he believed, but he was seriously considering the offer that had been made by China via the League of Nations for a negotiated settlement. Not just himself, but everyone in his political faction and hundreds of army officers did not want to negotiate with China. But Araki thought that he could bring the Chinese to terms in an acceptable fashion. He would concede in some areas, but the one exception was Manchuria. That had to be Japanese, there was no question. Obtaining it was critical to the eventual war that with the Soviet Union that he knew was necessary.
He stepped back from the pond having made his decision. It was time to contact the League of Nations and start talking with the Chinese foreign minister.

 

 

 


Imperial Japan’s Folly: Invading China, By Marco Bravelli, English translation by Antonio Grimani © 1978, Gravello Publishing House-Kingdom of Italy, Nice

The failure of Japanese army to hold fast against the overwhelming Chinese forces led to a political and military stalemate in the Japanese government. The diminishing influence of moderate civilian government under Araki’s regime had led to much more radical military power. But that power had been shown to be mistaken after retreating from Shanghai and the attacks of the 19th Route Army. The military was self-deluded and did not want to admit that the attack on Shanghai was a mistake, but the few realists quickly realised, that an escalation into outright war was not in their best interest right now. Araki in particular was far more interested in securing Manchuria, which was become a meat grinder for the IJA. He had long looked towards the north and the threat of the Soviet Union and in his mind, securing Manchuria first was a necessary step in an eventual victory against the Soviets [1]. He was able to push through a ceasefire against the wishes of many in his faction, by arguing that they needed to focus on Manchuria instead of whittling away at Chinese cities. The attempted assassination of General Ueda Kenkichi in Shanghai by the Korean nationalist Yoon Bong-Gil in late August [2], helped to sway the reluctant officers that Manchuria and Korea were the prime areas for Japan to exert absolute control over, before gong to war with another nation. The Chinese were reluctant to sign a ceasefire, the ongoing fighting in Manchuria was very much in the public mind and was what had led to the anti-Japanese riots in Shanghai, but this problem was avoided as the ceasefire agreement only dealt with Shanghai and made no mention of NRA or IJA actions anywhere else.


Soldiers of the 19th Route Army engaging in one of the final fire fights in Shanghai.


Taken from “The Rise and Fall of Imperial Japan”, by Christopher Lloyd, © 1985, Davidson Historical Books.

The aftermath of the Battle of Shanghai (1931) must also be discussed. This was essentially the first time Japanese soldiers had retreated from battle with Chinese soldiers and though small, its effects marked an important step in the militarisation of the Japanese government and the eventual path to its downfall.

The Japanese civilian government succeeded in negotiating with China, but at extreme cost to its own prestige. Prime Minister Araki, despite advocating an aggressive stance could see that securing Manchuria was a priority rather than being involved in an all out shooting war with the largest nation in Asia. His back stepping from what the militarists had seen as the correct course angered many of the more fanatical officers in the IJA and Araki would soon pay the price for his realism and negotiation.

After the agreed negotiation between the two countries, the Japanese civilian government was nearly at a standstill, Araki considered resigning but Baron Hiranuma Kiichiro convinced him that it was better for him to remain there to help control the more radical urges of the army factions. Several ministers did resign in protest at the agreement however and Jinzaburo Masaki pitched Araki to replace them with other members, but ones who shared Masaki’s views, so they would have even more power. The loss of these key military figures in the government caused such commotion in Japan, that for a while the war in Manchuria took a backseat in the newspapers to the government crisis. The political situation in Japan had finally reached a critical point and it would not be long before action was taken on the part of those who felt betrayed by Araki and the government.

The men who came into the government now, Heisuke Yanagawa, Tomoyuki Yamashita and Kuniako Koiso [3], were all part of Araki’s Imperial Way Faction, but not only that they were heavily intertwined into the radical secret societies that wanted to reshape Japan and destroy what they thought of as corrupt government form the bottom up and bring what the called ‘state socialism’ with more direct rule under the Emperor.


The new military figures in the Japanese government Yanagawa, Yamashita and Koiso.

[1] Araki was leader of the faction which advocated the ‘Imperial Way Faction’ which saw the Soviet Union as the biggest threat to Japan’s future.

[2] OTL Yoon assassinated General Yoshinori Shirakawa, commander of the IJA in Shanghai, during the battle of 1932. The earlier occurrence of the battle means he didn’t have the opportunity to get to Shanghai, so he targeted a general in Manchuria.

[3] With no Imperial Colours Incident, Koiso is still very involved in the Sakurakai and thus has become closer to the Imperial Way Faction than the Control faction.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

15. Currency Affairs

‘Wealth does not pass three generations’-Chinese proverb.
1932

 

Rare Manchukuo, 1932, First Definitive Series complete (Scott 1-18. JSDA 1-18), an incredible rare complete set of imprint blocks, an occasional perf or gum tone speck, largely irrelevant, mostly fresh and well-centered, imprint blocks of 4, o.g., never hinged, Very Fine, a showpiece set!

 

Manchukuo, 1932, First Definitive Series, 1½f-50f, 9 values (Scott 3//17. JSDA 3//17), imprint blocks of 4, o.g., never hinged; scarce group, some slight perf or gum tone specks, still generally F.-V.F.

 

1933

   

A military man by temperament and training, Chiang sought to eliminate the Communists by force. He defined his anti-Communist drive as “internal pacification before resistance to external attack,” and he gave it more importance than opposition to the increasingly aggressive Japanese. With arms and military advisers from Nazi Germany, Chiang carried out a series of “extermination campaigns” that killed about a million people between 1930 to 1934. Chiang’s fifth campaign, involving over half a million troops, almost annihilated the Communists. Faced with the dilemma of being totally destroyed in Jiangxi or attempting an almost impossible escape, the Communists decided to risk the escape.

October 1933

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1933 (Oct 4) Sven Hedin set on registered cover to Sweden, the complete set, tied by Peiping 4.10.33 cds’s, with 20¢ reaper and 10¢ martyr on reverse. Boldly signed “Sven Heden Peiping” on reverse, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 3,800

 

On Oct. 15, 1934,

they broke through the tight KMT siege. Over 100,000 men and women set out on the Long March of about 6,000 miles (9,600 kilometers) through China’s most rugged terrain to find a new base in the northwest. (The Photo is of Chiang Kai-shek)

   

(Photo – Chiang Kai-shek (right) with future Japanese Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai (center), Pan-Asianist leader Tōyama Mitsuru (left) in Japan 1929.)

In the meantime, the Japanese had made steady inroads into China. The Mukden Incident of 1931,

through which Mukden was occupied by the Japanese, was initiated by Japanese officers stationed along the South Manchurian Railway. This was followed by the occupation of Manchuria and the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932.

 

Probably in 1933 or 1934,

the Mid-Autumn Festival, Li Xian Jing was arrested for engaging in the student movement. When he was arrested, surnamed Chen, lesbians come home to inform their bed with two baskets of the Communist Party’s propaganda material.

 

The grandmother quickly find the maid to transfer them out, and then personally uncle Paul. Paul came out of the night to the uncle, grandmother makeup, he dressed up as an old man, and then with his arm in arm out of the house, and took the train to Tianjin. Grandfather, then in Shanghai, he saw in the newspaper uncle news of the arrest, it was decided to let the uncle and aunt went to Shanghai. The grandfather said: “I do not oppose your revolution, nor against the Communist Party, but ye first the school.”

The father every time Beijing will see the old house of West Fourth. In 2004, we visited again the old home, hospital or high threshold, but the hospital has changed dramatically. Concierge and long corridors are turned into housing, small kitchen covered the entire yard and winding walkways cutting. Although the old residents still clearly remember with floral glass corridors, acacia, wisteria tree, the moon gate, fish pond rockery been no trace. We are allowed to enter the floor of the North Building of the Eastern Hospital, the indoor can see carved on the ceiling, but also because of the compartment is divided. Initially households thought we were to ask for the old house, when we told the house early in 1935 to sell, they said in unison: “selling well, otherwise will be the demolition has been removed to the front of the alley.”
Although the house has long been non-Lee all but see the loss to defeat this point, is still ahead of the game. Left, I counted the door of the court meter, a total of 16 names, it is estimated that the hospital at least three fifty people lived.
Second, the

Why Lijia to sell patrimony? The main reason is that grandfather Li Zhaofu unwilling official, in order to support the family and moved to Shanghai to do a practicing lawyer.

Lizhao Fu was born in 1887. It is set out in his “wind nine Christian Yan, Chao Fu was ordered dimension honor, since childhood, Xiao Wen entering the private school, grow older avid reader of the classics, history, disdain regulatory rules in the imperial examination industry. Western learning, more domestic Translation by Day Chao-fu for hidden learning, especially steeped in the law books, that the reform of political primordial non-advocate of no Jianxin state also. “(a) 1905, Li Zhaofu obtain to the official fee hygiene enter Tokyo, Japan’s Meiji University Law .

On August 20 of the same year, the United League was established to be a hundred people. According to Huang Fusheng recalls: “Mr. Sun return from Europe and America, the organization United League in Tokyo, opened the General Assembly on red Osaka District of Hope South Sakamoto I Chuan person participants XIONG Jun Jin Fan Ke Wu, Huang Junwen piano pet Zhang, Li Junbo Shenzhao Fu (when the name on the pass)).”

Sun Yat-sen at the July 30 meeting in Akasaka district-juniper-cho three banchi within Tianliang Ping house, the Huangxing the drafting of the United Democrats of the Articles of Association, and the development of members on the spot. Infer Li Zhaofu may then joined League, and United League was established as members to participate, and Liao Zhongkai and Hu Hanmin September 1 of the same year.

My grandmother Jumbo luan (word for wear) Anhui Huizhou Renshi, her father and my great-grandfather the same in Shandong government officials understand that rank higher than the great-grandfather, great-grandfather is said to fancy Li Zhaofu talents daughter.

 

Until into the bridal chamber, my grandmother did not go to Japan, returning home to get married grandfather grandmother before seen grandfather wearing a fake braids, thereby guess he’s Revolutionary Party. Grandmother grandfather was described as a very pale and bald scholar. It is said that grandfather also go back and get married the great-grandfather said: “I put the hair back to you.” He meant “I leaned back to the parents, I went to the revolution”.

 

 

Many years later, my father said: “our revolution was also the head do belt shop, the revolution is always the dead, such as Shandong Jining government to the Huanghuagang shipped arms and other Communist Party came to me how I do not know since I have time to be a revolution are not afraid of death, is nothing to fear now. ”
Grandfather served as secretary of the Enforcement Division joined the United League, and later served as the person in charge of the Sichuan branch of the United League. According to the United League of data, Li Zhaofu worked in the secretary of the Bureau of the alliance headquarters

Probably in 1933 or 1934,

the Mid-Autumn Festival, Li Xian Jing was arrested for engaging in the student movement. When he was arrested, surnamed Chen, lesbians come home to inform their bed with two baskets of the Communist Party’s propaganda material.

 

The grandmother quickly find the maid to transfer them out, and then personally uncle Paul. Paul came out of the night to the uncle, grandmother makeup, he dressed up as an old man, and then with his arm in arm out of the house, and took the train to Tianjin. Grandfather, then in Shanghai, he saw in the newspaper uncle news of the arrest, it was decided to let the uncle and aunt went to Shanghai. The grandfather said: “I do not oppose your revolution, nor against the Communist Party, but ye first the school.”

The father every time Beijing will see the old house of West Fourth. In 2004, we visited again the old home, hospital or high threshold, but the hospital has changed dramatically. Concierge and long corridors are turned into housing, small kitchen covered the entire yard and winding walkways cutting. Although the old residents still clearly remember with floral glass corridors, acacia, wisteria tree, the moon gate, fish pond rockery been no trace. We are allowed to enter the floor of the North Building of the Eastern Hospital, the indoor can see carved on the ceiling, but also because of the compartment is divided. Initially households thought we were to ask for the old house, when we told the house early in 1935 to sell, they said in unison: “selling well, otherwise will be the demolition has been removed to the front of the alley.”
Although the house has long been non-Lee all but see the loss to defeat this point, is still ahead of the game. Left, I counted the door of the court meter, a total of 16 names, it is estimated that the hospital at least three fifty people lived.
Second, the

Why Lijia to sell patrimony? The main reason is that grandfather Li Zhaofu unwilling official, in order to support the family and moved to Shanghai to do a practicing lawyer.

Lizhao Fu was born in 1887. It is set out in his “wind nine Christian Yan, Chao Fu was ordered dimension honor, since childhood, Xiao Wen entering the private school, grow older avid reader of the classics, history, disdain regulatory rules in the imperial examination industry. Western learning, more domestic Translation by Day Chao-fu for hidden learning, especially steeped in the law books, that the reform of political primordial non-advocate of no Jianxin state also. “(a) 1905, Li Zhaofu obtain to the official fee hygiene enter Tokyo, Japan’s Meiji University Law .

On August 20 of the same year, the United League was established to be a hundred people. According to Huang Fusheng recalls: “Mr. Sun return from Europe and America, the organization United League in Tokyo, opened the General Assembly on red Osaka District of Hope South Sakamoto I Chuan person participants XIONG Jun Jin Fan Ke Wu, Huang Junwen piano pet Zhang, Li Junbo Shenzhao Fu (when the name on the pass)).”

Sun Yat-sen at the July 30 meeting in Akasaka district-juniper-cho three banchi within Tianliang Ping house, the Huangxing the drafting of the United Democrats of the Articles of Association, and the development of members on the spot. Infer Li Zhaofu may then joined League, and United League was established as members to participate, and Liao Zhongkai and Hu Hanmin September 1 of the same year.

My grandmother Jumbo luan (word for wear) Anhui Huizhou Renshi, her father and my great-grandfather the same in Shandong government officials understand that rank higher than the great-grandfather, great-grandfather is said to fancy Li Zhaofu talents daughter.

 

Until into the bridal chamber, my grandmother did not go to Japan, returning home to get married grandfather grandmother before seen grandfather wearing a fake braids, thereby guess he’s Revolutionary Party. Grandmother grandfather was described as a very pale and bald scholar. It is said that grandfather also go back and get married the great-grandfather said: “I put the hair back to you.” He meant “I leaned back to the parents, I went to the revolution”.

 

 

 

Many years later, my father said: “our revolution was also the head do belt shop, the revolution is always the dead, such as Shandong Jining government to the Huanghuagang shipped arms and other Communist Party came to me how I do not know since I have time to be a revolution are not afraid of death, is nothing to fear now. “


Grandfather served as secretary of the Enforcement Division joined the United League, and later served as the person in charge of the Sichuan branch of the United League. According to the United League of data, Li Zhaofu worked in the secretary of the Bureau of the alliance headquarters.

 

 

 

1 March 1934
Central Bank of China, Shanghai Office
Republic of China

Each piece of ledger was beginning to blur his eyes. Soong Ziwen put down his pen and closed his eyes, rubbing his head. The government of the Republic of China had come a long way since the overthrow of the Qing, but its finances were still in a quagmire, much of which was due to the Warlord Era. But Premier Wang had managed to settle things on that front for the most part and with the exception of the Japanese invading Manchuria he was able to concentrate on domestic affairs, one of which was economic reform.
Wang had appointed Soong Minister of Finance, a portfolio which had previously been held by his brother-in-law Kung. He now had to find a way to properly balance the budget and get the government debt under control. Completely changing the currency had certainly helped matters-the old notes were not worth the paper they were printed on thanks to the excesses and corrupted economy of the old warlord regimes.
But more was needed, the warlord era had not only inflated the currency but put assets into the hands of individuals who hoarded it. Seizing those assets was possible, even if it cost the government some allies, but public opinion had never been better thanks to the ongoing resistance in Manchuria and the destruction of the communist armies in the west.
He would make recommendations to that effect to Wang, but for now he wanted to start work on the new note designs. Dr Sun Yat-Sen’s face would of course be on one side, but the other, well that was between him and the design artist. He rang his bell to summon his servant to find an artist for him.

“Golden Dragons: An Economic History Of China” by Jeffrey Finley, Manchester University Press , United Kingdom, © 1972.

20. New Economics in the Republic

Despite the depression and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, these events had not greatly affected the economy of the heartland of the nation. Industrial output was on the rise and much of the previous corruption and inflation form the warlord era and been stamped out, thanks to the efforts of the NRA in fighting corruption in the more rural provinces. These provinces had taken big hits from the depression, with a fall in agricultural prices and the import of foreign goods, but TV Soong soon changed this. His power as Finance Minister was large and he turned the entire economy around in less than 2 years. He scrapped the gold and silver standards that China had been operating on and introduced an entirely new currency and a new economic policy to go with it [2]. Importantly Soong made sure to stress that while the government had control of the money that didn’t mean that it could print money to solve any of its problems as this would only make things worse.

He was proved right when the new currency spread and things began to stabilise. Where communists and rebels refused to use the new currency, the KMT government used military force to back up the policy. There were several more outbreaks and revolts, some of it linked to the new economic policies as the government tried to concentrate the industry and urged farmers not overproduce. The NRA was able to prevent most of the revolts from becoming serious and the new economy of China was soon reaching the level it had been before the depression [3].


Currency notes of China introduced in 1934, in circulation until 1970.

“The Royalty of Modern China”, by Carl Wolfe, University of California Press, © 1990.

The Soong family became one of the most prominently in China and the KMT despite the previous split between Sun Yat-Sen and patriarch Charlie Soong. Wang Jing-wei and Soong’s children had no problem getting past this dispute as Wang valued their influence, Western ties and money far too much to let it be an issue and T.V. Soong (Song Ziwen in modern Chinese [1]) had already been instrumental in governing the Central Bank of China when Wang came to power. The other Soong siblings also had prominent positions in the upper echelons of the Republic of China.
Ai-ling was married to H. H. Kung, Wang’s Minister of Industry and one of the richest men in China, and had previously worked for Sun Yat-Sen as a secretary, a job which her sister Qing-ling followed her in.
Qing-ling had married to Sun Yat-Sen despite her parents objections and thus carried great influence, particularly with the left-wing of the KMT . She was unhappy with the treatment of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1920’s, but eventually sided with President Wang as they had similar views on many issues [4].

The youngest sister, Mei-ling had met Chiang Kai-Shek back in 1920 and they had been interested in each other, despite Chiang already being married, in fact there were rumours that had been planning to divorce Chen Jieru and marry Mei-ling, but after his assassination it was not wise to speak poorly of the KMT martyr, so the rumours stayed behind closed doors.

At the time of his rise to leadership Wang was close to Qing-ling but did not have many other ties to the rest of the family, something he soon fixed as he saw that there would be a need to secure support from them. He placed Ai-ling’s husband in his administration, first as minister of finance, then as minister of industry. He then invited T.V. to assume the position of Finance Minister, after his work running the Central Bank. Finally he encouraged meetings between Mei-ling and his new intelligence chief Chen Guofu [5]. And thus the positions of Industry, Finance and Intelligence became the most influential and powerful positions in China


The three Soong sisters at a young age, they went on to become three of the most influential women in modern Chinese history.

[1] Modern Chinese is slightly similar to OTL simplified Chinese and pinyin.

[2] Something similar happened in OTL but the government printed too much mone resulting in rampant inflation. With no Central Plains War there is more foreign investment and Soong has taken advice from external economists.

[3] These revolts are a somewhat smaller level of the CPC-KMT encirclement campaigns.

[4] OTL Qingling exiled herself to Moscow after Chiang’s communist purge. Wang’s rise to leadership and both the left and right of the KMT rather than splitting has led her to remain with the party, though she came close to leaving during Wang’s communist purge, she was convinced that it was necessary as the assassination of Chiang and other small incidents were portrayed as ‘communist chaos’.

[5] Chen’s CC Clique and the Blue Shirt Society were merged in 1930 and Chen was given total command of both the party administraion and the secret police, the Central Investigation Bureau. The Blueshirts never became as prominent as OTL, as Wang aligned himself with the Chen brothers early on, thus Dai Li is not in charge of his own separate secret police.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have to had to take a “big” big in Japan, Japan


Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have had to take a “big” word, the Japanese, Japanese national The most polite people in the world on the surface is the Japanese, to meet the three bows, good words spoken, turned around to urinate anywhere, in the war is the most human army. There is no way a small Japanese island abroad survived for thousands of years, all insecure, created a metamorphosis of the nation!

 

Japanese Soldiers on the March in Manchuria, 1931

 

Utilizing the ‘Knee-Mortar’, Unknown Theater


 

Japanese Infantry operating in South China

 

Lying in Wait, Unknown Theater


 

Imperial Troops advancing up a hill, unknown theater

 

The sun gives it’s light to the Hinomaru, unknown theater

 

1932

1932-The Year Of Change

From “Yomiori” Tokyo, Empire of Japan
27 February 1932

Naval Officers Assassinate Naval Minister Kiyokazu Abo and Injure Prime Minister Sadao Araki

Yesterday at approximately 4pm, Prime Minister Araki and Naval Minister Abo were exiting the Naval Office together and were ambushed by nine young men in military uniforms. They drew pistols and opened fire on the two men before running off to attempt more sabotage. Abo was killed by at least ten bullets, while Araki was only hit by three bullets, two in his right arm and on in his right leg. It is believed that the Naval Minister was the target and when the men saw that the prime minister had also been shot they stopped and moved on. Over the next few hours they proceeded to attack several other government offices, but thankfully there were no further casualties.
Prime Minister Araki made a statement this morning “While I understand the patriotic minds of young soldiers such as them, we cannot let our passions overcome rational judgements [1].”
It is believed that the men were acting against the government due to the recent ceasefire with China and the signing of the London Naval Treaty, which has upset many in the navy.

 

 

From “The Times” London, UK
9 April 1932

NEW LEADER FOR JAPAN

Prime Minister Araki stepped down yesterday in favour of Heisuke Yanagawa. Araki cited his injuries and the reduction in popular support that he has suffered since preventing war with China. He stated that he would also be retiring from the military in order to “heal the rift that has occurred between our government and our young officers. My presence in either government or army would only exaggerate that rift.”
Yanagawa promised to bring Japan peace back to both China in Japan, but also said that Japan could not stand by idly while chaos continued in China. He also said that Manchukuo “is now under control and peace should bring about order there”. Despite this fighting still continues in north east China, as Chinese guerrillas continue to resist the Imperial Japanese Army. Replacing Yanagawa as War Minister is General Jinzaburo Masaki [2], a prominent Araki supporter.


Prime Minister Araki, recovering from his injuries.

From “The Middletown Times” Middletown, New York, USA
18 July 1932

WAR SPIRIT RIFE AS PARAGUAYANS CLAIM A VICTORY
Annihilation of the Fourteenth Bolivian Infantry Regiment was claimed by Paraguayan forces today as thousands of troops battled fiercely for possession of Fort Boqueron the scene of several days fighting in the disputed Gran Chaco Announcement of the victory was made soon after midnight. It was cheered by thousands in the streets.

An earlier communique from the War Department said that fighting continues in the vicinity of Fort Boqueron. Public excitement was high. Mobs paraded singing the national anthem. On Sunday morning a two minute period of silence was observed in honor of Paraguayans killed in the fighting.

An alleged description of the first air battle of the campaign was carried in the newspaper El Diaro led by the chief of the Paraguayan air force Lieutenants Rocholl and Garcia pilot and observer of a bombing plane carrying 12 bombs flew over Fort Boqueron. They were attacked by three Bolivian planes Lieutenant Rocholl was wounded in the arm but he put the Bolivian planes to rout dropped the bombs on the fort and returned to his base. The plane was hit by 30 bullets.
[3].


Region of war between Bolivia and Paraguay.


Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The death of Ma Zhongying and the retreat of his force left the Kumuliks and the forces of Jin Shuren to continue fighting each other until the governor’s troops eventually managed to force the rebels into surrender. This came just after another, separate rebellion had started further south. These Uyghurs were now fighting for full independence and on 9 October 1932 they seized the city of Kashgar and declared the East Turkestan Republic.


The leaders of the Uyghur rebellion.
August 1932

August,23th.1932

 

Manchukuo, 1932 (Aug. 23) “Postal War” combination cover from Mukden, Manchukuo to Petaiho, China, franked with Manchukuo 4 fen Pagoda (Scott 5) and China 1c Junk pair, 3c single (Scott 249, 252) tied by Chinese PO ‘Shenyang (Mukden)’ postmarks with Year altered from ’21’ to ‘1’. Accepted by the Chinese Post Office without further postage due charge. Bkstpd ‘Peiping’ (Aug. 27) and ‘Petaiho Beach’ (Aug. 28). Attractive usage shortly after Manchukuo’s first stamps were issued.

Taken from “Hitler And The Third Reich, Volume 2: The Rise To Power”
By Verne Masters, Cougar Historicals, (c) 1981, Boston, USA

Hitler’s first taste of real political power came with the German federal election of 6 November 1932. The National Socialists support had increased since the last election in response to the increased support the KPD had received under Ernst Meyers moderate leadership.

The Nazi vote actually decreased since the election in July, though they remained the largest party, albeit without the majority required to govern as had happened in the last election.

 

The parliament had been dissolved by Hindenberg on von Papen’s request and the German government appeared to be at a standstill. Hitler refused to negotiate with Papen and realising he could not remain in control he resigned. Kurt von Schliecher then stepped into the vacuum of government.

 

He tried negotiating with Gregor Strasser in order to split the NSDAP and gain a majority coalition. Hitler and Strasser were now in a fight for leadership of their party.

 

 

Hitler at first seemed to have the upper hand,

 

his speeches won over many, but Strasser also made ground, by repeating that the party would never get into government because of the stubbornness of one man [4]. For almost three weeks they tried to gain follower in each side of the party and this could have well resulted in completely splitting the party, but for a small accident.

 

 

 

 

September 1932

September,20th.1832

 

Manchukuo, 1932 (Sept 28) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, Intercompany Carlowitz and Co. usage, franked on reverse by pair of Japan 3s definitives and 10s Nagoya Castle, tied by violet IJPO cds’s. Front shows 4¢ SYS vertical strip of 3 added, along with three 1¢ postage dues, all tied by Shanghai Oct 4 cds’s. Reverse also shows 1st and 2nd “Notice sent on” boxed handstamps, nice usage,

 

September.23th.1932

Manchukuo, 1932 (Sept 28)

“Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, Intercompany Carlowitz Company cover, franked on reverse by vertical pair of 4s orange Japan Fuji issue, tied by dual moukden IJPO cds’s. Front carries pair of 4¢ SYS, plus two 1¢ postage dues, each tied by Shanghai Oct 1 cds’s. Reverse shows 1st and 2nd Notice Sent handstamps, nice usage, scarce,

 

On December 7,

Strasser was crossing the street and was hit by a drunk driver.

 

The speed at which he was hit was not great and he might have survived, but he hit his head against a lamp post form the impact, which resulted in irreversible brain damage and he died the next day. Numerous historians and conspiracy

 

theorists have claimed that Hitler had Strasser killed, but the evidence does not support this, especially since if Hitler had planned on having someone killed,

 

he would not likely have relied on the chances of a drunk driver. In any case, Strasser’s death meant Hitler was undisputed master of the party and Schleicher was left to govern with Papens’ leftovers.

 

This government would only last for three more months in any case and the November election would be the last set of free elections in Germany for 18 years and the last election held by the Weimar government.

 

Results for the November 1932 German Federal Election from Interpedia [5].


Taken from “A History of Presidential Elections”, By Geoff Kane, University of Chicago Press, (c) 1990, Chicago, USA

The election of 1932 reflected an America that was hungry for change. The Great Depression and Hoover’s inadequate policies in handling its effects had profoundly eroded much of the Republican’s support, to the point where even during the campaign period it was fairly obvious who the more popular candidate was, Hoover having objects thrown at him, while Roosevelt had numerous crowds greet him and his song became incredibly popular. The election was a landslide for the Roosevelt-Ritchie ticket [7], with them carrying all but 5 states [8] and winning 58.25% of the popular vote, the largest vote ever cast for a presidential election up until that time.
A time of progressive change was about to hit the USA, the end of the Prohibtion Era, Roosevelts’ progressive policies and the slow ending of isolation, Roosevelt’s acceptance speech reflected this with his promise of ‘a new deal for all Americans.’

[1] In OTL Araki was Minister of War and showed support to the conspirators of the May 15 movement, however his time as prime minister has shown him the realities of making war in China and dealing with international politics thus while he retains his radical politics, he has a greater sense of realism and thus some young officers thought he had betrayed their beliefs.

[2] Araki’s time as prime minister means that the ‘Imperial Way Faction’, has far more influence. He is able to step down and his faction is able to remain in power over the ‘Control’ group. This also means that the officers and secret societies with radical views are better represented in the government and civilian control has slipped much faster than in OTL.

[3] The Chaco War has started up about two months earlier than OTL

[4] Strasser did not decide to resign from the party as per OTL.

[5] Due to butterflies Ernst Meyer was able to take control of the KPD over the extremists led by Thalman [6], the party is slightly more moderate than OTL, resulting in slightly better election results, though this has also pushed the NSDAP vote up in response.

[6] Thalman was killed during a KPD-BSA brawl in July of 1929.

[7] Roosevelt had greater support than OTL and Garner gave up his campaign much earlier in exchange for the position of Attorney General, Albert Ritchie accepted the offer to be Roosevelt’s running mate.

[8] Hoover’s support is even worse than OTL and Connecticut went to Roosevelt.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

 

 

日本战败后,美国军队成了日本的占领军,把小日本的天皇从神打回了人,撕下了天皇的假面具,打破了小日本的天皇神论。在美国占领军的控制下,经过几十年的快速发展,小日本竟然成了经济大国,全体小日本人言商经商,自己的军队只能叫成自卫队

谓日本人,所谓大和名族,是一个在孤岛上生存了几千年,欺软怕硬,带表里不一,虚伪自私,顺从奴性,投机心理严重的变态的民族

After Japan’s defeat,

the U.S. military has become the occupation forces in Japan, the Emperor of Japan from God to fight back who tore off the mask of the Emperor, breaking Japan’s Emperor of monotheism. Control of U.S. occupation troops, after decades of rapid development, Japan, became an economic power, all the small Japanese words providers do business, own army can only be called Self-Defense Forces.
So-called Japanese, the so-called Japanese family name is to survive on a desert island for thousands of years, bully, with duplicity, selfish and hypocritical, submissive servility serious speculative psychological metamorphosis of the nation!

 

 

小小的日本国,小小的岛屿,小小的民族,非要什么都要带一个字,大日本,大和

Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have to had to take a “big” big in Japan, Japan


Little of Japan, small islands, a small nation, have had to take a “big” word, the Japanese, Japanese national The most polite people in the world on the surface is the Japanese, to meet the three bows, good words spoken, turned around to urinate anywhere, in the war is the most human army. There is no way a small Japanese island abroad survived for thousands of years, all insecure, created a metamorphosis of the nation!

Manchukuo issued its first postage stamps

on July 28, 1932.

A number of denominations existed, with two designs: the pagoda at Liaoyang and a portrait of Puyi.

     

Originally the inscription read (in Chinese) “Manchu State Postal Administration”;

Sinkiang, Airmail, 1932-33,

 

First Issue complete (Scott C1-4. Chan PSA1-4), o.g., 10¢ & rare 15¢ values never hinged, others lightly hinged, brilliant colors, scarce, Very Fine, all signed F.Z. Chan except 10¢Realized HK$ 24,000

 

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932 engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays

 

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932 engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays.

 

during the battle of shanghai in 1932

engineer privates Takeji Eshita Inosuke Sakue and Yuzuru Kitagawa died while trying to blow up enemy barbed wire field , they blow not only themselves, but 34 Chinese soldiers as well , japan immediately dubbed them “Our Three Human Bomb Patriots” Within weeks, they became the subject of songs,radio plays,movies and stage plays.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

japanese infantryman supported by a type 89 tank (Nanchang)

 

 

a naval landing force officer armed with a nambu pistol and a katana sword (shanghai 1932)

 

 

 

japanese soldier using a Type 89 grenade discharger (shanghai 1932)

 

japanese navy soldier guarding a chinese prisoner (shanghai, 1932)

 

japanese soldiers using camouflage nets during the january 28 incident (shanghai 1932)

 

 

infantryman of the naval landing force in the ruins of shanghai (1932)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1933

1933

 

 

japanese soldier with his family one last time before leaving for the front in manchuria (1933)

 

 

russian mercenaries of the japanese controlled Manchukuo Imperial Army inside a trench during the japanese invasion of the great wall in 1933

 

japanese army soldiers using a ZB vz. 26 light machine gun (manchuria 1933)

 

Szechuan, 1933-1934,

 

 

complete selection of mint sets (Scott 1-23. Chan SC1-23), composed of 23 stamps, plus a couple duplicates and 2 used with anti-bandit chops. You will also fine 8¢ New Peking block of 4 NH and a unfinished proof of the 1897 CIP $5. F-VF many regummed. Realized HK$ 3,000

April 1933

 

Manchukuo, 1933 (April) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, a lovely cover originating at the Carlowitz firm at Mukden originally framked by 4s Japan Fuji definitive (Scott 172) in a horizontal strip of 3, cancelled violet, Moukden 4.33 IJPO cds’s. pair of 4¢ SYS definitive pasted over the Japanese issues and cancelled at Shanghai, with front showing additional pair of 2¢ orange postage dues cancelled Shanghai 29.4.33 cds, along with “Shanghai T” due handstamp. Marvelous example of the postal war period,

 

 

August 1933

 

Manchukuo, 1933 (August) “Postal War” cover from Mukden to Shanghai, lovely cover used between Carlowitz firms, franked on back by vertical strip of 4 of 4s orange Fuji definitive, tied by dual, violet “Moukden 8.33 IJPO” strikes. Reverse also shows 2 Shanghai security cds chops, plus a 10¢ martyr and 1¢ on 4¢ Junk surcharge, 6 copies, all tied by Shanghai August 24 cds’s. Lovely and scarce combination

in 1934,

September 1934

 

Manchukuo, 1934 (Sept. 9) red band cover from Tengtien/Manchukuo to Tientsin, franked on reverse by Japanese Tazawa 2 s. red tied by standard Japanese trisected postmark 9/9/5, when cover arrived in Tientsin, postage due was applied as the Chinese government had no postal treaty with Manchukao, hence additional postage charged, 5¢ orange was added and cancelled by bilingual Tientsin September 10th, on front circle “T” “Postage due/Tientsin” indicated to collect postage due, a Very Fine cover with historical significance

 

1934

1935

In 1935, the great-grandmother died, my grandfather ordered to Beijing real estate all betrayed, the family moved to Shanghai. During this time, Li Zhaofu addition to a lawyer, he also went to Hong Kong and Zhao Tieqiao make doing business. Zhao Tieqiao any Hong Kong investment promotion director, while his grandfather, and he was ready to buy a boat, Chiang Kai-shek’s assassination Zhao Iron Bridge.Third, the

The jointly organized LLP Location Lizhao Fu and Zhang Yao Zeng, Shen Junru is in the British Concession in Shanghai Schoenberg Road Chase. According to the father recalled, although his grandfather was a lawyer, but he, unlike general lawyer, he does not answer unconscionable lawsuit. Once a rogue lose the lawsuit, vowed a vow, saying things, give you a garden house, but his grandfather did not answer.

 

Lijia in Shanghai is renting an apartment, grandmother, grandfather refused that case complained. For another example, the divorce, my grandfather, the total first advised and. Day of the end of 1936, my grandfather came home, the whole family was already seated waiting for his dinner. He came in, put the briefcase edge edge grandmother said: “Today’s case.” My grandmother asked: “with which to fight you?” He replied: “with Chiang Kai-shek.” That lawsuit is the history of China’s seven The gentleman the case(du xin xin)

1935

1935 Postal Saving Certificate





10x10c Junk stamps optd with “Limited for Saving Only”
Additional optd with violet “Shanghai”. Shanghai Postal Saving cds.
Shanghai anti-bandit control on the first postal savings issue of 1919.


September,8th.1935

 

ROC resistent war 1935

 

Taiwan, 1935 FFC Taiwan/Taihoku to Foochos, 11/19/35, franked with 2 s. red Tazawa issue tied by Taihoku/Taiwan/Japan with receiver Minhow/Foochoos same date cds on reverse, only 60 covers flown, scarce thus, Very Fine.

 

 

 

 

1936

 

 

Guo Bingkun colonel

he was forty red twenty-six Army division political commissar of a regiment,

in September 1936,

he was off in the Military commander, led his troops to participate in the direct rho, Eastern Campaign and other battles. September, he served as the CPC Shaanxi-Gansu border the Southern District Committee Propaganda Department, Red Army seventy-eight fifth division two hundred thirty-two general branch secretary the CPC group. Red Army Long March to the northern Shaanxi, he served as Army General Political Department of the CPC in the recorder off the rank of vice minister of the military, for the creation of the Northwest Soviet contributed.

a new issue read “Manchu Empire Postal Administration”. An orchid crest design appeared in 1935, and a design featuring the Sacred White Mountains in 1936.

     
     

 

 

 

18/2/1936 first flight  cover from canton to USA via Hanoi

 

Both covers same flight, depatched 6.3.1936 and delayed due to whether condition, with instructional cachet. Both covers are 1936 Canton to Honoi first flight covers

 

 

In China, World War II broke out

on July 7, 1937,

with a seemingly insignificant little battle between Chinese and Japanese troops near Peking, called the Marco Polo Bridge Incident. Within a few days, the Japanese had occupied Peking, and the fighting spread rapidly. The war in China fell into three stages.

The Seven Gentlemen arrested, escorted to Suzhou. ZHANG Yao had diary recalls,

April 5, 1937,

 

Zhang Yao had forenoon to the firm, Hou Bo Shen not to afternoon before they may be energized, please visit Hengshan its generation of more than Soviet Union to talk about defense thing. Primary application fast Connaught friend adversity catching flu also write a letter to shore caused Hengshan (Shen Junru). “Li Zhaofu few people on the day went to Suzhou visitation Shen Junru. Shen Junru in the April 9 letter to Shen Qian said, “to come with the 5th Bo Shen-kai Zhang, Yu, Tang three lawyers and carrying Mr. Rong West letter, with views are Szczecin want. Was there that day several decided …… my defense counsel except rong West, Bo Shen, has agreed to appoint Liu Chongyou, Qin Liankui two lawyers are already very mature Friends of. Shen Junru four defense lawyers, ZHANG Yao has ranked top, but play a major role in the actual defense Lizhao Fu, Qin Liankui (Note 7).

Zhang Yuanji diary also mentioned the Marco Polo Bridge Incident before and after, he Lizhao Fu Shen Junru Gongpu people often have dinner, and to discuss the affairs of state, such as the gathering on September 3, 1937 for Li Zhaofu plays host to a total of thirteen people. ”

 

Thirteen, eight

• Japanese occupation of the Chinese city of Shanghai, and grandfather left Shanghai at the end of 1937 returned to Sichuan(du xinxin)

The first (1937-1939)

was characterized by the phenomenally rapid Japanese occupation of most of China’s east coast, including such major cities as Shanghai, Nanjing, and Canton. The Nationalist government moved to the interior, ultimately to Chongqing in Sichuan, and the Japanese established puppet governments in Peking in 1937 and in Nanjing in 1940. The second stage (1939-1943) was a period of waiting, as Chiang blockaded the Communists in the northwest (despite the united front) and waited for help from the United States, which had declared war on Japan in 1941. (The Photo is of the Marco Polo Bridge)

1937 “77″ Incident,

Shichang very concerned about the prospect of the nation, one day, visiting old friends Cao Rulin. Turning to the current political situation in question, Cao Rulin said: “Anglo-American School of Nanjing government in power, to suppress the Japanese forces in China, so Japan’s loss of rights in China, Japan forced choice but to send troops and fight in China. President (referring to Shichang) at this time as can out of the mountains, with Japan Goodwill Treaty, the Japanese can withdraw troops. “hearing these words, Shichang understand Cao Rulin is for the Japanese aggressors as lobbyists, to persuade himself as a traitor, came forward to maintain the situation in China under Japanese rule. He could not angry, flatly refused: “The old and useless over 80, frail and sick, have long asked the government affairs, however, have no interest in it you find smb. Better qualified”. Cao Rulin had a hard-hitting nails, had to leave crestfallen leave. Shichang immediately ordered the porter: “If you come back after Cao Rulin, said I was not home. “Since then, Hsu said the disease, behind closed doors, thank-you.

At this time, Japan is the northern invaders into account Shichang veteran, high qualifications, but also served as president, the rich political experience, was appointed head of the puppet regime in North China the best candidate, so determined to continue to fight for him. Thus, the Japanese intend to Shichang the Neizhi Xu from the body up to find a breakthrough.

Xu was in Beijing to work one up. Pseudo-Mayor of Tianjin Panyu Gui sent his secretary KE Chang Xu Si to Beijing to lobby for a tat. KE Chang Xu Si on a-tat said: Shichang as the Japanese military would like to invite the leaders of North China. If Shichang promise out of the mountains, took the post of mayor of Beijing arrangements for Xu 1 up. Like uncle, like a reach with patriotic Xu, KE Chang Si politely rejected the request, and forwarded to the uncle of this situation. Xu Shichang on a patriotic move up quite appreciated, and told him immediately to avoid the Beijing-Tianjin area, to avoid being the Japanese hostage, then, under the Shanghai Xu 1 Danan, and lived in Shanghai for over a year.

However, the “patient’s” still insists on dragging the Japanese aggressors Shichang water. Early 1938, the Japanese invaders Itagaki, head and big secret division chief Kenji Doihara Colonel, invite Shichang were met, but Shichang was not plead illness. Helpless, the Japanese also sent Shichang the disciples and others to lobby the gold beam. Gold beam is were the main members of the Socialist Party, served in Manchukuo. They carried out of the last emperor Pu Yi Shichang succumb to oppression. Kim Shichang living room to meet with the teacher, the urgent advice: “The Order of division heads and Dohihara Colonel Itagaki was sent to audience with the teacher, asked the teacher to become the first North leaders. Once the deployment is ready, then please go to Beijing is emperor Xuantong position, the teacher should never lose this golden opportunity. “

Shichang senior official who is the Qing Dynasty, Emperor has been on the Xuantong great respect. After the emperor to abdicate in Xuantong he Qing court funding, treatment, etc. has been taken care of. Therefore, survivors of the Qing Dynasty, he called the “feel nostalgic old master” in the name. However, at this moment, Shichang clearly recognize that this is related to national interests, national sovereignty and personal names section of the major problems, their plans must not only be loyal to former team for the slightest concession. Therefore, he solemnly declined: “I am old and can not energy poor, never again coming out of the like!” Golden beam raised her voice to persuade: “We came here not for the other, but to the teacher later section . everyone has a later section, also hope the teachers understand this. “Shichang angry already has, lips trembling, snapped:” You know what’s later? greedy interests of the individual moment, betraying the nation, contrary to Tianliliangxin, which be considered later years? Do you too Hun! “he finished, stormed upstairs.

Since then, the Japanese aggressors Shichang not resort to the idea.

1937

 

 

1937 First Flight cover China-USA from Shanghai

Franked with 3x$1 Airmail stamps

If you fall off the eastern edge of the Himalayan mountains, the first major city (population 4.1 million) that you come to is Chengdu, in China’s Sichuan province. You’ve heard of it from the spicy Chinese food, called “Szechuan” in the west.

Rosemary and I spent 5 or 6 days based around there. A few of those were visiting a Buddhist holy mountain, and the largest Buddha in the world – I’ll write about them in another post.

Chengdu itself was like every other large Chinese city – endless streets with few distinguishing features. My fault for hoping it might be a bit better than that. It has some super parks, but you have to deliberately go to them, you couldn’t stumble upon them by accident.

We saw real Giant Pandas at the breeding centre outside town – they’re super cute, mainly because they have a sixth thumb-like finger so they look like people as they eat bamboo. The Red Pandas are even better. I hope somebody domesticates some soon. They were running round playing, happy like dogs, but cute like cats.

The surprise attraction in Chengdu itself was Du Fu’s “cottage”. Really a whole complex of buildings and gardens (photo right), originally where an 8th century poet lived in a thatched house. There was lots of good bonsai trees, and also calligraphy of Du Fu’s poems. Those are the two arts which I’ve seen that are both still practiced properly in China, and are uniquely Chinese

From google exploration I found information from Szecuan during Dai Nippon Occupation below

Dari eksplorasi Google ditemukan info tentang kampong Szechuan masa perang dunia kedua

Needham Photographs – Wartime China, 1942-1946

Northwest Journey 西北之旅

Photographs taken by Joseph Needham on the long expedition to the northwest from Chongqing to Jiayuguan in Gansu province and back, via Chengdu, Lanzhou and many other places. Note that on this journey he travelled beyond Jiayuguan to the Buddhist caves at Qianfodong near Dunhuang in Gansu, the photographs for which are in CFT. The Northwest journey was undertaken from 7th August – 14th December 1943, but there are also a few photographs taken before and after the journey on rolls NW2 and NW6. On the outward leg of the journey to Lanzhou, Needham was accompanied by SBSCO staff members H.T. Huang 黃興宗 and Liao Hongying 廖鴻英, as well as Edward Beltz, an American oil geologist, and a young scientist Chen Zixin 陳自信. In another truck travelled the famous explorer Sir Eric Teichman (1884-1944). From Lanzhou to Qianfodong and back he was accompanied by H.T. Huang (who travelled back to Lanchow separately), Rewi Alley (1897-1987), Sun Guangjun 孫光俊 and Wang Wansheng 王萬盛, two boys from the Lanzhou Bailie School, the painter Wu Zuoren 吳作人, as well as a driver, Kuang Wei 鄺威, and a mechanic from Lanzhou, Yu Dexin 俞德新. The photographs have been rearranged from their original sequence into chronological order.

照片是李约瑟先生在从重庆到甘肃省嘉峪关往返的漫长途中拍摄的,期间他还经过了成都市,兰州市和其它许多地方。需要指出的是在这次旅行中,他还参观了甘肃敦煌的千佛洞,那部分的照片请参看CFT。西北之旅的照片是在194387号到1214号之间拍摄的,但NW2NW6胶卷上也有少量照片是在之前和之后拍摄的。在去兰州旅行的途中,陪同李约瑟先生的有中英科学合作馆的黄兴宗和廖鸿英,还有美国石油质学者 Edward Beltz 和青年科学家陈自信。在另外一个卡车上旅行的有著名的探险家 Eric Teichman 爵士。从兰州到千佛洞往返的途中,陪同的有黄兴宗 (兰州回来时他独自返回),路易艾黎 Rewi Alley (1897-1987),孫光俊和王萬盛, 来自兰州培黎学校的两个男孩, 画家吳作人,司机鄺威,还有来自兰州的机械师余德新。照片已按照年代顺序重新进行排列

 

 

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