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Indonesian traditions and beliefs have exerted a strong influence over those ethnic Chinese migrants who have resided in the country for generations.

Most came to Indonesia during the 12th & 15th centuries thereby making Peranakan settlement & history in Indonesia older than that of Malaya’s.

The long-resident Peranakan, or Straits Chinese, who have settled mostly in Java and other outer islands such as the Riau islands, West Kalimantan and Sumatra, are the earliest examples of assimilation in Indonesian society.

The Peranakans are descendents of Chinese merchants, males who came unaccompanied to the East Indies for the lucrative spice trade.

Many of these immigrants married the local Indonesian women and their descendents are today known as the Peranakan, meaning local born. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia was just as similar and identical to that of Singapore and Malaysian Peranakan Culture in more ways than one.


Photo above:

Old Photos of Indonesian Peranakans & an old Peranakan book in Dutch (right).



After the late 19th century, the invention of the steamship facilitated the flow of Chinese migrants to Indonesia, who this time came accompanied by their wives and families.

Unlike the Peranakans, these Pure Chinese, or Totoks as they were known, had Chinese families and retained the use of the Chinese language, dress and customs.

They kept their mainland Chinese culture for generations and saw to the establishment of Chinese schools, newspapers and most eminently, Chinese business networks.


Historians today have largely attributed the prosperous economic activity among the Chinese as the reason for the Dutch colonial policy that segregated the Totoks and Peranakans from the rest of the Indonesian community.

This led to no small measure of misunderstanding and jealousy among the two groups.

The Peranakan Chinese population in Indonesia numbers at 6 million people out of a total Chinese population of 9 million while the Totok or Pure Chinese Community numbers at around 3 million or so.

Making them the largest Peranakan Chinese community in the entire world. Singapore and Malaysia however only have a miniscule 500,000 Peranakan Chinese each.

This explains why the overwhelming majority Indonesian Chinese only converse to each other in local Indonesian dialects and Bahasa Indonesia and not in Mandarin.

The Dutch imposed a policy of seperation that gave powers and trading priveleges to the Peranakan & Totok Communities.

As a result they were known as Chukongs or Kapitan Cina and controlled vast areas of land, plantation, coal and gold mines, diamond & tin mines and the like. Therefore the wealth and prestige of the Peranakan Chinese in Indonesia was similar to that of those in the Straits Settements


Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. Peranakan Culture in Indonesia has largely died outdue to the numerous and anti Chinese policies that were so prevalent in the past. However in spite of these issues Peranakan Culture in the form of Food and Language has survived till this very day. Ayam Buah Keluak, Kueh Lapis and Kueh Bengka Ambon are just some of the cultural contributions that the Indonesian Peranakans have given to the rest of the Peranakan Communities in Malaya. The lovely sarung kebaya itself as we know it originated in Indonesia itself not in the Straits Settlements as it was invented by the Indonesian Chinese Peranakans themselves.




Indies-Chinese nationalism in the early 20th century was shaped by the transformation of the Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies.

The Chinese community in this period was characterised by the division between the Totok and the Peranakan communities, and by the growing influence of the Totok community.

Skinner views the distinction between the Totok and the Peranakan communities as cultural: the Totok community was characterised by its pure Chinese culture, while the peranakan community was characterised by its cross Chinese-Javanese culture. The construction of a united Chinese community could have been achieved if a single community of Totoks and Peranakans had been constructed. I shall now proceed to explain why this was not achieved.

The expansion of the Totok community at the beginning of the 20th century was a consequence of the inability of the Peranakan community to completely assimilate the new Chinese migrants who had arrived from China to take advantage of the economic development of the Dutch East Indies.

This massive migration of labourers can be identified as belonging to the Huagong pattern. From the 1900s this migration started to include women, and this gave the male migrants the freedom to choose not to settle with peranakan or indigenous women; this weakened one route of assimilation into the peranakan community.

The large proportion of Hakka and Cantonese dialect groups among the migrants also weakened assimilation since the Peranakan community was distinctly Hokkien.


Above: Indonesian Nonyas dressed in the sarung kebaya for important events and functions. In 1909 the Qing government issued the Nationality Law which declared all overseas Chinese to be Chinese nationals, this raised Huaqiao consciousness as it gave a legal basis for China-orientation. This consciousness prevented assimilation into the Peranakan community as the new migrants were motivated to maintain and propagate their pure Chinese culture. Indeed, the Totok community actively sought to re-sinicize the peranakan community, as seen in the efforts of institutions such as the Totok press and Totok-dominated Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) schools to revive Peranakan interest in Chinese culture and to establish a China-oriented world-view.

Just as the Peranakan community failed to assimilate the Huagong migrants, contributing to the rise of the Totok community, the Totok community failed in its goal of re-sinicizing the Peranakan community. One fundamental reason was that the peranakans perceived China to be an alien land. This was due to the vast difference between peranakan and Chinese culture, and the fact that most peranakans perceived the Dutch East Indies to be their homeland. In the late 1910s a group of peranakan leaders migrated to China; all but one found China to be an alien place to live. Dutch efforts to prevent the re-sinification of the Peranakans also contributed to the continuance of the Indies Dutch-orientation of the Peranakan community.


Photo Above: Books on emborideing Nonya Kebaya & Indonesian Peranakan History. The fact that unhappiness with Dutch policy was a central motivation behind the apparent unity between the Peranakan and the Totok communities can be seen in the Dutch Nationality Law (DNL) issue. Apart from dismantling unpopular policies, the Dutch sought to maintain the Indies-orientation of the peranakan Chinese through the establishment of Dutch-Chinese schools, the first of which was established in 1908. These schools were a reaction to the THHK schools, and they were popular with the peranakan community. The Dutch-Chinese schools eventually grew to be more popular than the THHK schools with the Peranakan community, as the latter were seen to be suitable only for those living in China. By the late 1930s, it was clear that the THHK schools serviced the Totok community, while the Dutch-Chinese schools serviced the Peranakan community. [15] The China-oriented nationalist attempt to re-sinicize the Peranakan community through education had failed.


Photo above: Indonesian Peranakan Festivasl held yearly at Tangerang and Jakarta with Dondnag Sayang troupe. The failure of the attempt to unify the Chinese community under the China-oriented nationalist movement is most clearly demonstrated by the establishment of the all-peranakan Chung Hua Hui (CHH) in 1927, which was the first of the major all-peranakan organisations.

This marked the peranakan rejection of China-oriented nationalism and the totok-dominated pan-Chinese organisations.

But as Skinner points out, this disunity was already evident in the 1917 Semarang conference.

Suryadinata notes that among the participants of this conference can be identified a small group of Peranakan leaders such as Kan Hok Hoei (H. H. Kan) who did not seek protection from China and who sought collaboration with the Dutch in order to protect their interests. H. H. Kan would eventually help establish the CHH, which was an Indies-oriented organisation. It sought to promote the interests of the Indies-Chinese community through collaboration with the Dutch, as manifested in its participation in the Volksraad. In contrast, the China-oriented nationalist movement rejected involvement in local politics, as seen in the Semarang conference’s declaration that the Indies Chinese should not participate in the Volksraad. The CHH failed to unify the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community.


Above Photo: Shows one of the panels at the Peranakan Festival in Jakarta describing the Sarung Kebaya called Kebaya Encim in Indonesia used by the Nonyas and old Bibiks there. In response to what was seen as the CHH’s pro-Dutch position, a group of Indonesian-oriented Peranakans established the Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (PTI) in 1932. The PTI, seeking political assimilation of the Chinese in the indigenous Indonesian society, was anti-colonial and supported the Indonesian nationalist movement. The establishment of the PTI marked the internal division in the Indies-oriented peranakan community between the pro-Dutch and Indonesian-oriented groups. Like the CHH, the PTI was unable to unite the peranakan community, much less the Indies-Chinese community. Lacking the support of Peranakan big business that the CHH enjoyed, the PTI was politically weaker than the CHH.

In the early 20th century the Indies-Chinese community hence was divided into three groups. The first was the China-oriented group, mainly consisting of the totok community. The second was the Indies-oriented Peranakan pro-Dutch CHH. The third was the Indonesian-oriented Peranakan PTI. This division was manifested in the geographical dispersal of these groups’ centres of power. The China-oriented group was based in Batavia, which was the gateway into the Dutch East Indies for new Chinese migrants. The CHH was based in Semarang, which possessed an old and established Peranakan community and which was also a centre for Peranakan big business. The PTI was based in Surabaya, which was a centre for contact between Indonesian nationalists and Peranakans.


Above Photo: Peranakan Cultural Exhibitions & Festivals being held in different parts of Indonesia. The inability of each of these three groups to establish hegemony over the others led to the disunity of the Indies-Chinese community. The China-oriented nationalists failed to reconstruct the Indies-orientation of the Peranakans, largely due to Dutch efforts to prevent the peranakans from becoming China-orientated. The Indies-orientated pro-Dutch CHH was rejected by the anti-colonial Peranakan group. The Indonesian-oriented PTI was politically weak and could not gain political strength beyond East Java. The Chinese community in the Dutch East Indies hence was characterised by disunity prior to the Second World War. After Independence from Holland, anti Chinese Demonstrations, massacres, killings and riots obliterated Peranakan Chinese Associations, Culture and Position. Anti Chinese policies and outright discrimination further worsened Peranakan Chinese influence as many Peranakans immigrated to Holland, Australia and other western countries. This immigration is continuing at quite a considerable scale till this very day.

The situation today however is vastly different & has greatly improved as more Indonesian Nonyas are using the kebaya their grandmothers used to use and having yearly Peranakan Festivals on a simlar scale to that of their Malaysian, Thai and Singapore Peranakans cousins. There has been a revival of Peranakan culture in the last 10 decades in Indonesia ever since Chinese New Year has been declared part of a National Holiday. There has been the numerous openings of Indonesian Peranakan restaurants, cultural & antique shops, musuems, festivals, exhibitions and special events held to showcase and promote Peranakan culture all over the Indonesian islands






Padang Chinese community formed the organization, with the goal of serving the needs of members in the social and cultural fields.


Old West Sumatra Map

Look more











Kapitan Cina or Capitan China was originally a Portuguese title for the representative of a Chinese enclave.[1][2] The 15th century rulers of Southeast Asia, such as Melaka (modern day Malacca) and Banten (or Bantam), chose to deal with a single individual from each ethnic group under their rule.[3][4] This administrative method of indirect rule was later adopted by the Portuguese when they took over Melaka in the 16th century, as well as the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, and the English in British Malaya.[3]


Kapitan can Surabaya 1880

Throughout Southeast Asia, Batavia (now Jakarta) arguably boasts the longest continuous history of the institution of Kapitan Cina: see the official website of the Koang Koan Archives at Leiden University. In 1619, the Dutch appointed Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam, as the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. Through Kapitein Beng Kong, then, the Batavian Captaincy succeeded the much-earlier institution of Kapitan Cina of Bantam. Batavia also produced probably Asia’s only female Kapitan Cina, the so-called Nyai Bali, who was appointed officially by the VOC to her post in 1649: see Yuan Bingling, “The Last Resort” in Blussé, Leonard & Chen, Menghong, “The Archives of the Kongkoan of Batavia” (Den Haag, 2003), pp. 30-31). The Batavian Captaincy ended in 1945 with the death of Khouw Kim An, the last Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia, possibly also the last such intermediary rulers in Southeast Asia. The issue of a Luitenant, Kapitein or Majoor der Chinesen are entitled, by Peranakan custom, to the hereditary dignity of Sia.

With the end of the colonial period, the title became purely an honorary one.[3]

Masa-masa awal



Seorang pria Tionghoa berkuncir (toucang) di jalanan Batavia pertengahan tahun 1910-an.

Orang dari Tiongkok daratan telah ribuan tahun mengunjungi dan mendiami kepulauan Nusantara.

Beberapa catatan tertua ditulis oleh para agamawan, seperti Fa Hien pada abad ke-4 dan I Ching pada abad ke-7. Fa Hien melaporkan suatu kerajaan di Jawa (“To lo mo”) dan I Ching ingin datang ke India untuk mempelajari agama Buddha dan singgah dulu di Nusantara untuk belajar bahasa Sansekerta dahulu. Di Jawa ia berguru pada seseorang bernama Jñânabhadra.

Dengan berkembangnya kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, para imigran Tiongkok pun mulai berdatangan, terutama untuk kepentingan perdagangan. Pada prasasti-prasasti dari Jawa orang Cina disebut-sebut sebagai warga asing yang menetap di samping nama-nama sukubangsa dari Nusantara, daratan Asia Tenggara dan anakbenua India. Dalam suatu prasasti perunggu bertahun 860 dari Jawa Timur disebut suatu istilah, Juru Cina, yang berkait dengan jabatan pengurus orang-orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sana. Beberapa motif relief di Candi Sewu diduga juga mendapat pengaruh dari motif-motif kain sutera Tiongkok.[8]

Catatan Ma Huan, ketika turut serta dalam ekspedisi Cheng Ho, menyebut secara jelas bahwa pedagang Cina muslim menghuni ibukota dan kota-kota bandar Majapahit (abad ke-15) dan membentuk satu dari tiga komponen penduduk kerajaan itu.[9] Ekspedisi Cheng Ho juga meninggalkan jejak di Semarang, ketika orang keduanya, Wang Jinghong, sakit dan memaksa rombongan melepas sauh di Simongan (sekarang bagian dari Kota Semarang). Wang kemudian menetap karena tidak mampu mengikuti ekspedisi selanjutnya. Ia dan pengikutnya menjadi salah satu cikal-bakal warga Tionghoa Semarang. Wang mengabadikan Cheng Ho menjadi sebuah patung (disebut “Mbah Ledakar Juragan Dampo Awang Sam Po Kong”), serta membangun kelenteng Sam Po Kong atau Gedung Batu.[10] Di komplek ini Wang juga dikuburkan dan dijuluki “Mbah Jurumudi Dampo Awang”.[11]

Sejumlah sejarawan juga menunjukkan bahwa Raden Patah, pendiri Kesultanan Demak, memiliki darah Tiongkok selain keturunan Majapahit. Beberapa wali penyebar agama Islam di Jawa juga memiliki darah Tiongkok, meskipun mereka memeluk Islam dan tidak lagi secara aktif mempraktekkan kultur Tionghoa.

Kitab Sunda Tina Layang Parahyang menyebutkan kedatangan rombongan Tionghoa ke muara Ci Sadane (sekarang Teluknaga) pada tahun 1407, di masa daerah itu masih di bawah kekuasaan Kerajaan Sunda (Pajajaran). Pemimpinnya adalah Halung dan mereka terdampar sebelum mencapai tujuan di Kalapa.



Ilustrasi pedagang Tionghoa di Banten

Era kolonial

Di masa kolonial, Belanda pernah mengangkat beberapa pemimpin komunitas dengan gelar Kapiten Cina, yang diwajibkan setia dan menjadi penghubung antara pemerintah dengan komunitas Tionghoa. Beberapa di antara mereka ternyata juga telah berjasa bagi masyarakat umum, misalnya So Beng Kong dan Phoa Beng Gan yang membangun kanal di Batavia[rujukan?]. Di Yogyakarta, Kapiten Tan Djin Sing sempat menjadi Bupati Yogyakarta.[12]


Pembantaian orang Tionghoa tanggal 9 Oktober 1740 di Batavia

Sebetulnya terdapat juga kelompok Tionghoa yang pernah berjuang melawan Belanda, baik sendiri maupun bersama etnis lain. Bersama etnis Jawa, kelompok Tionghoa berperang melawan VOC tahun 17401743.[rujukan?] Di Kalimantan Barat, komunitas Tionghoa yang tergabung dalam “Republik” Lanfong[rujukan?] berperang dengan pasukan Belanda pada abad XIX.

Dalam perjalanan sejarah pra kemerdekaan, beberapa kali etnis Tionghoa menjadi sasaran pembunuhan massal atau penjarahan, seperti pembantaian di Batavia 1740 dan pembantaian masa perang Jawa 1825-1830. Pembantaian di Batavia tersebut [13][14][4] melahirkan gerakan perlawanan dari etnis Tionghoa yang bergerak di beberapa kota di Jawa Tengah yang dibantu pula oleh etnis Jawa. Pada gilirannya ini mengakibatkan pecahnya kerajaan Mataram. Orang Tionghoa tidak lagi diperbolehkan bermukim di sembarang tempat. Aturan Wijkenstelsel ini menciptakan pemukiman etnis Tionghoa atau pecinan di sejumlah kota besar di Hindia Belanda.



Daerah Pecinan di Banjarmasin.



Kelenteng Tua Pek Kong di Ketapang.


Kebangkitan nasionalisme di Hindia Belanda tidak terlepas dari perkembangan yang terjadi pada komunitas Tionghoa. Tanggal 17 Maret 1900 terbentuk di Batavia Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan (THHK) yang mendirikan sekolah-sekolah, seperti di kota Garut dirintis dan didirikan pada tahun 1907 oleh seorang pengusaha hasil bumi saat itu bernama Lauw O Teng beserta kedua anak lelakinya bernama Lauw Tek Hay dan Lauw Tek Siang,dengan maksud agar orang Tionghoa bisa pintar, (kemudian jumlahnya mencapai 54 buah sekolah dan di tahun 1908 dan mencapai 450 sekolah tahun 1934). Inisiatif ini diikuti oleh etnis lain, seperti keturunan Arab yang mendirikan Djamiat-ul Chair meniru model THHK. Pada gilirannya hal ini menyadarkan priyayi Jawa tentang pentingnya pendidikan bagi generasi muda sehingga dibentuklah Budi Utomo.


Target pemerintah kolonial untuk mencegah interaksi pribumi dengan etnis Tionghoa melalui aturan passenstelsel dan Wijkenstelsel itu ternyata menciptakan konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi orang Tionghoa di perkotaan. Ketika perekonomian dunia beralih ke sektor industri, orang-orang Tionghoa paling siap berusaha dengan spesialisasi usaha makanan-minuman, jamu, peralatan rumah tangga, bahan bangunan, pemintalan, batik, kretek dan transportasi. Tahun 1909 di Buitenzorg (Bogor) Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh RA Tirtoadisuryo mengikuti model Siang Hwee (kamar dagang orang Tionghoa) yang dibentuk tahun 1906 di Batavia. Bahkan pembentukan Sarekat Islam (SI) di Surakarta tidak terlepas dari pengaruh asosiasi yang lebih dulu dibuat oleh warga Tionghoa. Pendiri SI, Haji Samanhudi, pada mulanya adalah anggota Kong Sing, organisasi paguyuban tolong-menolong orang Tionghoa di Surakarta. Samanhudi juga kemudian membentuk Rekso Rumekso yaitu Kong Sing-nya orang Jawa.


Pemerintah kolonial Belanda makin kuatir karena Sun Yat Sen memproklamasikan Republik Cina, Januari 1912. Organisasi Tionghoa yang pada mulanya berkecimpung dalam bidang sosial-budaya mulai mengarah kepada politik. Tujuannya menghapuskan perlakukan diskriminatif terhadap orang-orang Tionghoa di Hindia Belanda dalam bidang pendidikan, hukum/peradilan, status sipil, beban pajak, hambatan bergerak dan bertempat tinggal.

Dalam rangka pelaksanaan Politik Etis, pemerintah kolonial berusaha memajukan pendidikan, namun warga Tionghoa tidak diikutkan dalam program tersebut. Padahal orang Tionghoa membayar pajak ganda (pajak penghasilan dan pajak kekayaan). Pajak penghasilan diwajibkan kepada warga pribumi yang bukan petani. Pajak kekayaan (rumah, kuda, kereta, kendaraan bermotor dan peralatan rumah tangga) dikenakan hanya bagi Orang Eropa dan Timur Asing (termasuk orang etnis Tionghoa). Hambatan untuk bergerak dikenakan bagi warga Tionghoa dengan adanya passenstelsel.

Pada waktu terjadinya Sumpah Pemuda, ada beberapa nama dari kelompok Tionghoa sempat hadir, antara lain Kwee Tiam Hong dan tiga pemuda Tionghoa lainnya. Sin Po sebagai koran Melayu Tionghoa juga sangat banyak memberikan sumbangan dalam menyebarkan informasi yang bersifat nasionalis. Pada 1920-an itu, harian Sin Po memelopori penggunaan kata Indonesia bumiputera sebagai pengganti kata Belanda inlander di semua penerbitannya. Langkah ini kemudian diikuti oleh banyak harian lain. Sebagai balas budi, semua pers lokal kemudian mengganti kata “Tjina” dengan kata Tionghoa. Pada 1931 Liem Koen Hian mendirikan PTI, Partai Tionghoa Indonesia (dan bukan Partai Tjina Indonesia).


  1. 1.        














Chong Yong Tian, elder brother of Chong Yeau Tian

Worked in Cheong Fatt Tze’s company in Medan, Sumatra. Vice president of a Penang foreign trade board, 1895. The Dutch made him Chinese leader in Medan.In 1907 was bestowed as a third rank mandarin by the Qing court for his services to the private railway industry in China. Died 1911. (IS THAT A SUN OR FLAMING WHEEL BEHIND THE BIRD’S WING?)



Chong Yeau Tian, younger brother of Chong Yong Tian

Brought over to Medan by his elder brother, Chong Yong Tian. Was bestowed as a 4th. rank mandarin by the Qing court, for his services to the private railway industry in China. Took over as leader of the Chinese in Medan after the death of his brother in 1911. Died 1921.                      (ISN’T THAT A FEMALE RANK BADGE










Tobacco Platation Deli 1905






Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan




Major Chinese Say A Lie  who was appointed by the Dutch to bring in workers from China to rebuild the shrine.

In 1840 Lie Ma Say with his wife were ordered by the Qing Dinasty Fujian government to visit Priaman City west Sumatra as the Trade Mission officer.Li Ma say started from Amoy(no Xiamen) by ship to Indonesia.


In 1855 Chinese Kapitan    Li say was the first Tionghoa padang Kapitan  ,

Info from Lie swan hauw Lie Say or Lie Ma Say must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents. Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1855)



Another theory is derived from the Chinese Padang Pariaman . Ernawati , who wrote a book on the Hio Smoke Minang , Chinese Community in West Sumatra , estimates The Chinese already in Pariaman in the 13th century . When entering into Pariaman Aceh .

Not surprising actually . Pariaman is a haven for the merchants at that time . Pariaman become a trade center on the coast .

 Not surprisingly , in 1630 , Christine Dobbin , author of the economic turmoil and the Rise of Islam and the Padri Movement , 1784-1847 Minangkabau , Chinese quarter estimates already exist in Pariaman .
Unfortunately, a tragic event to trigger the departure of the Chinese people of Pariaman . During the Japanese occupation , the Chinese brought her two daughters to the Japan office . The other vision ditanggap by young men who happened to see him . Traitor whispers erupted immediately . Two girls were immediately taken to the beach and dibelek with kangso ( a tool made of aluminum ) .
According Erniwati , the attack was carried out without planning . Hence , the tool is not sharp weapons are usually prepared to kill . “Besides , the punishment for traitors . Not only the Chinese people feel the punishment , community leaders who also became a Japanese spy , gets the same punishment . , “Said S – 2 undergraduate majors UNP ‘s history .

Fear creeping Chinese society . Gradually they began to leave Pariaman . By 1965 some Chinese people still dwell there . However , entering the 1967 is rather difficult to find the slant-eyed in Pariaman . ” Because the incidence of PKI or PRRI , ” said Erniawati . Slowly the Chinese berangur moved to Champaign . Precisely , in the cottage at the moment.

However , economic reasons can also be used as a basis . Pariaman no longer considered fertile ground for approaching the trade of the 19th century . So it is not just the Chinese traders who left , but also traders from other regions .

Ethical Trade Platform Minang – China Relations
It is estimated there are 12 thousand Chinese people living in Padang . Hundreds of clan or tribe inhabiting .
However , only eight tribes have a home meetings . GHO is the eighth tribe , Lie – Kwee , Tan , Ong , Tjoa – Kwa , Lim Hwang and Kho . Kho clan is the last clan to build a meeting house . ” Highways are another few in number . So do not build a meeting house , “said Rush of Family Hanura Lie – Kwee . Lie – Kwee currently has 600 members . All were over 17 years old .

As the name implies , the meeting house was used to organize events involving one family . For example, the Lunar ( Chinese New Year ) , Cap Go Meh ( 15th day of the celebration of Chinese New Year ) , Kio , Sipasan or Pek Chun ( the feast that commemorates the height of summer ) .

 In fact , the 140 th anniversary , the family plans to invite Lie – Kwee – Kwee Lie entire tribe residing in Indonesia . ” But , it’s three years away , ” said Lie Kian Guan secretary secretary set of Lie – Kwee family .
Kinship is to be number one for Chinese people . And like the ” indigenous ” people of Central Asia ( Japan and Korea ) , they are maintaining the dignity of the family . If embarrassing , suicide or disposed of families is an appropriate punishment . ” On the field , for example, many families are no longer recognized , to the extent that made ​​the ad in the paper , because it tarnished the large family disgrace , ” said Hanura .

They had great respect for ancestors . This is a fundamental attitude to the Chinese . ” It’s influenced by the teachings of the Tao Confunsius and attached to each of the Chinese , ‘ said Erniwati .

One more is the attitude of the Chinese authorities often approach . In the Dutch period they were considered second-class citizens . While indigenous third grade . So also in Japanese and Sukarno era . Those who do not get the opportunity that many people even though natives .

Only in the Suharto era , tap the China trade a little freedom is limited in view of the public eye . Therefore , some Chinese people become successful entrepreneurs like Sio Liong Liem ( ?) , The owner of Bank BCA . ( Dr Iwan note : Sofyan Wanandi – bian Liem from Padang koen one successful Chinese entrepreneurs )

In the days of the Dutch and Sukarno they are placed with a purpose , economy . Dutch resettle them along the Dutch region , such as in the area to be monitored Kampuang Cino in overseeing their trade . Sukarno Likewise , those in the ” hand over ” in one place and only allowed to trade .

This , according to Hanura , there are pros and cons . On the one hand they fulfilled economically , but on the other hand they can not contribute in other areas . ” How many civil servants who are of Chinese descent ,” he asked .

Jealousy had mastered the natives saw their success in trade . No wonder , if there are riots , the Chinese became targets as the events of 1998. ” Though not all Chinese people rich . Look at Tanah Kongsi market , ” said Hanura .
However , in the crunch Padang Minang ethnic Chinese and does not occur or is not as big as other cities . According Erniwati , unique relationship occurs between the two.
As a fellow tribe strong trade and has a strong culture and religion , it should be frequent collisions . ” It seems , ethical trade makes both respect each other , ” said Erniwati .

Ethical trade that makes both tribes are in a position of a friend . Looks like the trade area is divided into two alone . Trade dominated the national level as well as for international regions Minang , Chinese who became the ruler .

99 % Could not Chinese
Regardless of the Soeharto era , the Chinese became more freely . Government pressure is much reduced . The Chinese are more liberated in the running of worship and culture . No wonder the Chinese New Year or Cap Go Meh feels more festive from year to year . ” The most exciting event was Sipasan . Cap Go Meh At this time the show will take place most festive Sipasan because Sipasan long , “said Xin Xui who trade in front of the HBT .

Even so , alkulturasi quietly been taking place . Long before the Chinese people breathe easier.

‘ The proof , 99 % of Chinese people who live here can no longer Chinese , ” said Hanura . The long distance from the land of the ancestors, as well as limited memory makes Chinese culture slowly began to be forgotten . Many residents in Padang ‘s Chinatown was shocked when Erniwati mention Chinese traditions that had never been heard . Language was impressed that appear funny . Land Market may witness alkulturasi Kongsi language . If you were there , Malay – Chinese sounds here and there . Pigi where lu ( going ) , Telok kecik papaya ( small water large eggs , kind of expression ) , it would ndak o ( he will not) , for example .
To attenuate the distance , ceremonies , religious warnings sought to be implemented properly . Although it was only to write Chinese characters without understanding the meaning . ” Ndak ambo know , do , ” said when asked intent Hanura text contained in lanterns .

When interviewed Hanura palanquin procession is preparing for the event on Thursday (5 /2) . A mystical events like dabuih at Coastal . The goal of the ancestors . Kio marched to the homes of other clans . ” To friendship , ” said Arif Rusdi Rush , Jiko ( representative ) of the Lie and Kwee family .

In addition , Sipasan be unique in the village of Chinese art . In fact according to Hanura , art not found in other Chinatowns in Indonesian .

As Mother’s Day , the Chinese community held a unique competition . Minangkabau marapulai race wear . Similarly diverse variations. There Sawahlunto wedding dress , Bukittinggi , Payakumbuh , “said Hanura who happens to get the wedding dress of Padang .

From there he also learned that culturally there is a very obvious similarities between the Minang culture with Chinese . ” Especially the wedding dress . And Telong said in a poem has similarities with Tenglong ( lanterns ) . ”
Erniwati justify the resemblance even call this rather sensitive to the Minang community .

Another change is evident is the Chinese people are now no longer closed to accept members from outside the ethnic . In fact , many players liong or brown skinned lion . ” In fact there is Islam , ” said Hanura

Source :Ernawati(Asap Hio di Minangkabau)




Kapitan Cina or Capitan China was originally a Portuguese title for the representative of a Chinese enclave. The 15th century rulers of Southeast Asia, such as Melaka (modern day Malacca) and Banten (or Bantam), chose to deal with a single inpidual from each ethnic group under their rule. This administrative method of indirect rule was later adopted by the Portuguese when they took over Melaka in the 16th century, as well as the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, and the English in British Malaya.

Throughout Southeast Asia, Batavia (now Jakarta) arguably boasts the longest continuous history of the institution of Kapitan Cina: see the official website of the Koang Koan Archives at Leiden University. In 1619, the Dutch appointed Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam, as the first Kapitein der Chinezen of Batavia. Through Kapitein Beng Kong, then, the Batavian Captaincy succeeded the much-earlier institution of Kapitan Cina of Bantam. Batavia also produced probably Asia’s only female Kapitan Cina, the so-called Nyai Bali, who was appointed officially by the VOC to her post in 1649: see Yuan Bingling, “The Last Resort” in Blussé, Leonard & Chen, Menghong, “The Archives of the Kongkoan of Batavia” (Den Haag, 2003), pp. 30-31). The Batavian Captaincy ended in 1945 with the death of Khouw Kim An, the last Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia, possibly also the last such intermediary rulers in Southeast Asia. The issue of a Luitenant, Kapitein or Majoor der Chinesen are entitled, by Peranakan custom, to the hereditary dignity of Sia.

With the end of the colonial period, the title became purely an honorary one.

Kapiteins and Majoors of Batavia (present day Jakarta)[edit]

  • 1619 – 1644: Kapitein Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam
  • Kapitein Lim Lak Tjo
  • Kapitein Phoa Beng Gan
  • Kapitein Gan Djie
  • Nyonya Kapitein Gan Djie, dubbed “Nyai Bali”
  • Kapitein Tjoa Hoan Giok
  • Kapitein Ni Hoe Kong
  • Majoor Tan Eng Goan
  • Majoor Tan Tjoet Tiat
  • Majoor Lie Tjian Tjoen
  • Majoor Tio Tek Ho
  • Majoor Khouw Kim An



Tionghoa Gambling in Batavia

Di Indonesia permainan judi sudah ada sejak jaman dulu, dalam cerita Mahabarata dapat diketahui bahwa Pandawa menjadi kehilangan kerajaan dan dibuang ke hutan selama 13 tahun karena kalah dalam permainan judi melawan Kurawa.

Sabung Ayam merupakan bentuk permainan judi  tradisional dan banyak dilakukan oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Ketika VOC bercokol, untuk memperoleh penghasilan pajak yang tinggi dari pengelola rumah-rumah judi tersebut, maka pemerintah VOC memberi izin pada para Kapitan Tionghoa untuk membuka rumah judi sejak 1620. Rumah judi itu bisa berada di dalam ataupun di luar benteng Kota Batavia.

Sejak masa Souw Beng Kong, Kapitan Tionghoa pertama di Batavia, rumah judi resmi telah berdiri. Souw Beng Kong tak hanya mengurus tempat judi tapi juga pembuatan koin dan rumah timbang untuk barang-barang orang Tionghoa.

Ia juga diberi hak menarik cukai sebesar 20 persen dari pajak judi yang dikenakan VOC kepada para pemilik rumah judi.



foto pria sedang berjudi saat jaman penjajahan belanda

Judi kartu dan dadu, atau disebut juga po, cukup beken di kalangan penggemar judi di Batavia. Masyarakat Tionghoa pada masa itu pun juga sudah memperkenalkan judi capjiki.

Sementara itu, untuk permainan lotere ala Eropa atau Belanda baru masuk Hindia Belanda pada pertengahan abad ke-19.

Sumber Artikel: Phesolo || Sumber Gambar: Berbagai Sumber







1619 – 1644:


Kapitein Souw Beng Kong, formerly Kapitan Cina of Bantam



Children look at a grave of Chinese Captain Souw Beng Kong located between houses in Mangga Dua Selatan in North Jakarta. The historical site is managed by the Captain Souw Beng Kong Foundation. JP/P.J











Kaptian cina Souw beng Kong , menurut Nederland Indische company ia tiada bisa harapkan(hareP) pekerjaannya akan menjandi mudah(gampang) dengan dapat segala keterangan dan catatan dari orang-orang tionghoa .Golongan orang-orang Tionghoa yand dulu datang di Hindia Belanda dan tinggal di Batavia tiada ada dalam buku atau tulisan akan catat hal ihwalnya sendiri atau hal ihwal bangsanya dan dengan tiada tulisan peringatan dari ini hal, juga susah diharapkan ,turunannya mereka itu ada  surat-surat dari orang-orang tuannya yang dulu tentang itu pasal (masalah), Pengarang membuat begitu Cuma (hanya) bisa(dapat) keterangan –keterangan buat pekerjaannya dan tulisan-tulisan kelenteng-kelenteng dan itu batu-batu kuburn-Nisan(Bongpai) yang tiada rusak dan tiada ingkar.Maka perlulah orang cari(mencari) tulisan-tulisan itu dan dikumpul menjadi satu..


Menanti Taman Wisata Sejarah di Makam Beng Kong

  • Penulis :
    • WARTA KOTA Pradaningrum Mijarto
    • Kamis, 16 April 2009 | 11:30 WIB


Makam kapitan China pertama di Batavia, Souw Beng Kong, di sebuah gang sempit di kawasan Mangga Dua, Jakarta setelah dipugar | Warta Kota/Pradaningrum







SEBUAH gang sempit di antara permukiman padat di kawasan Mangga Dua kini seakan mencuat. Tepatnya, mungkin, semakin mencuat karena semakin banyak orang mengetahui keberadaan gang ini – sebuah gang yang terbilang istimewa. Gang kecil bernama Taruna di Jalan Pangeran Jayakarta ini menyimpan satu makam kuno dari petinggi Batavia di tahun 1600-an.

Di tahun 1600-an kawasan itu merupakan kebun luas milik seorang kapitan. Kini kebun luas itu sudah berubah menjadi sebuah kawasan padat penduduk. Tak ada  lagi bekas-bekas masa lalu kecuali makam kuno tadi.     

Makam yang disebut-sebut ajaib ini adalah makam kapitan Tionghoa pertama di Batavia, Souw Beng Kong. Ajaib karena makam dari tahun 1644 itu tak tergerus perkembangan kota, tak tergusur bangunan petak di kawasan ini. Makam kuno dengan tiga batu nisan berbahasa Belanda dan China ini sempat terlupakan, tak terurus hingga jadi dasar bangunan kos (hingga sekitar tahun lalu).

Di tahun 1929, Mayor Tionghoa Khow Kim An – pemilik Gedung Candra naya – memugar makam Beng Kong. Khow Kim An juga yang menambahkan dua nisan, berbahasa Belanda dan China, yang menjelaskan riwayat sang kapitan untuk melengkapi makam. Keajaiban lain adalah kenyataan bahwa makam Mayor Kim An yang memugar makam Beng Kong pun belum ditemukan keberadaannya.   

Menurut Hendra Lukito, pengamat bangunan China klasik, keberadaan makam  yang bisa melampaui beberapa zaman, penyerobotan tanah, pembangunan liar sungguh dahsyat. “Bayangkan, makam ini ada di kawasan kumuh. Di atas makamnya malah ada bangunan bertingkat lengkap dengan jamban,” ujarnya.

Di tahun 2002 berbagai kelompok masyarakat dari Universitas Tarumanegara, Matakin (Majelis Tinggi Agama Khonghucu Indonsia), Paguyuban Sosial Masyarakat Tionghoa Indonesia (PSMTI) didukung oleh marga Souw berkumpul hingga pada 2006 makam Souw beng Kong bisa mulai dipugar dan mendapat lahan seluas 200 m2. Padahal, seperti sudah disebutkan di atas, dulu kawasan ini adalah kebun milik Beng Kong – luasnya 20.000 m2 hadiah dari Pemerintah Belanda.

Kini makam itu sudah dikonservasi bahkan diusulkan agar menjadi benda cagar budaya. “Kita sudah usulkan dari tahun lalu, tapi belum ada tanggapan. Kita  tunggu aja, tapi kita juga tetap usahakan terus ke DPRD DKI dan dinas (Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan DKI – Red),” ujar Hendarmin Susilo, ketua Yayasan Souw Beng Kong . Sementara itu Ernawati Sugondo, anggota komisi B DPRD DKI menyatakan usulan ini mendapat tanggapan positif dari DPRD DKI.   

Total anggaran pemugaran sekitar Rp 400 juta. Kini, anggaran besar diperlukan untuk mewujudkan rencana makam menjadi taman wisata sejarah. Pembebasan tanah di sekitar makam adalah tahap selanjutnya yang harus dikerjakan oleh Yayasan Souw Beng Kong. Upaya pembebasan tanah ini agar makam bisa terlihat dari Jalan Pangeran Jayakarta. Tujuan akhirnya tak lain adalah mewujudkan Taman Wisata Sejarah Kota Tua Batavia. Sebuah upaya yang tak mudah, tapi bukan tak mungkin

Ziarah Kuburan souw beng Kong


Hari Minggu (21/8) kemarin pihak Yayasan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong mengadakan ziarah kubur dalam rangka tradisi sembahyang musim gugur di makam Kapiten Souw Beng Kong, Pangeran Jayakarta, Jakarta Pusat.

Kapiten Souw Beng Kong merupakan tokoh sejarah yang hidup pada tahun 1619-1644, masa pemerintahan Belanda di Indonesia. Makamnya dijadikan situs bersejarah.

Menurut pemerhati sejarah dan warisan budaya kolonial dari Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas Indonesia,  Dr. Lilie Suratminto, tulisan yang tertera di batu nisan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong—yang ditulis dalam bahasa Belanda dan Mandarin Tradisional—menceritakan silsilah hidup Souw Beng Kong sebagai saudagar hingga turut berperan dalam pemerintahan di Jakarta. “Ia adalah seorang yang cerdas, maju, pemberani,” katanya.

“Souw Beng Kong perlu dikenang atas jasanya. Ia turut mendirikan dan membangun Jakarta,” senada disampaikan Eddy Sadeli, Dewan Pengawas Yayasan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong yang juga ialah anggota DPR RI.

“Pada masa itu Souw Beng Kong sebagai wali bagi warga Tionghoa yang berada di Jakarta, karena pemerintahan saat itu masih diurus masing-masing, belum seperti sekarang,” tambahnya menjelaskan.

Situs makam Souw Beng Kong ini terakhir kali dipugar tahun 2006-2008. Ketika ditemukan oleh beberapa orang yang tim gabungan sekitar tahun 2003, keadaan makam sangat terlantar dan memprihatinkan. Makam terhimpit di antara bangunan-bangunan pemukiman yang agak kumuh. “Bahkan bagian pusara dijadikan bordes tangga untuk naik ke atas loteng,” ujar Eddy.

(Gloria Samantha)

Aswin Hinanto Tjandra, Berharap Makam Souw Beng Kong Jadi Cagar Budaya

Written by admin | 14/11/2012 | 1

BULAN  lalu, tepatnya pada Minggu (23/9), Sembahyang Musim Gugur dilaksanakan di Makam Kapiten Souw Beng Kong (KSBK) di Gang Taruna, Jl. Pangeran Jayakarta, Jakarta. Pada kesempatan itu, Ir. Aswin Hinanto Tjandra selaku wakil ketua Yayasan KSBK turut hadir. Dia mengemukakan bahwa dirinya mewakili Ketua Yayasan KSBK, KRT. Hendarmin Susilo, yang sudah tak mampu lagi menakhodai Yayasan KSBK karena alasan kesehatan.

“Karena keterbatasan fisik, Pak Hendarmin berpesan kepada saya bahwa per Maret 2013, adalah masa akhir kepemimpinannya dan dia tidak mampu lagi mengepalai Yayasam KSBK. Saya pribadi menilai dia sebagai sosok yang memiliki integritas serta bersahaja. Sejujurnya, sulit untuk mencari pengganti dirinya,” ungkapnya ketika itu.

Pemilik nama Mandarin Tjan Tek Hin itu juga berkata, untuk masa kepemimpinan selanjutnya, ketua Yayasan KBSK yang baru tidak hanya mesti berkarakter pemimpin, tetapi juga memiliki kepedulian terhadap sejarah.

“Dalam hal ini, saya pun sebenarnya tidak masuk dalam kandidat kriteria ketua Yayasan periode selanjutnya. Berbahasa Mandarin saja tidak fasih. Untuk itu, saya harus sadar diri dengan kapasitas kemampuan yang saya miliki,” ungkapnya sembari tertawa lepas.

Terlepas dari segala keterbatasannya, pria yang sehari-hari berprofesi sebagai dosen di salah satu universitas terkemuka di Jakarta ini memiliki harapan besar. Selain berharap Yayasan KSBK menjadi lebih baik lagi, Aswin juga berharap situs makam KSBK mendapatkan surat keputusan dari pemerintah agar makam tersebut bisa dijadikan cagar budaya sekaligus sejarah yang dapat diingat oleh orang banyak. Willy Suyanto

Filed in: Sosok


Yayasan Kapiten Souw Beng Kong (KSBK) menggelar acara sembahyang ceng bersama pada hari Minggu (7/4) yang berlokasi di Makam KSBK yang terletak di kawasan Sawah Besar, Jakarta Pusat. Hadir pada acara tersebut beberapa pengurus Yayasan KSBK diantaranya So Wee Ming, Aswin Hinanto Tjandra, Brigjen TNI Purn Tedy Jusuf, Kamil Setiadi, dan lainnya.

Dalam sambutannya, Warso selaku tokoh masyarakat daerah situs makan KSBK mengemukakan bahwa peringatan ceng beng adalah bukti bahwa manusia menghormati leluhur dan budaya yang telah diwariskan. “Semoga prosesi ini dapat mengilhami kita semua dan saya dapat terus berada disini untuk mendukung acara positif ini,” jelasnya.

Lukito, selaku Anggota Badan Pembina dalam pidatonya berkata, warga Tionghoa di Indonesia masih diwarisi makam Tionghoa yang menunjukkan keberadaan masyarakat etnis Tionghoa telah ada sejak beberapa abad lalu. “Mari kita sama-sama menyelesaikan proyek dan cita-cita almarhum KRT Hendarmin Susilo salah satunya mengajukan situs makan KSBK ke Pemprov agar dijadikan cagar budaya,” ungkapnya.

Perwakilan almarhum KRT Hendarmin Susilo, Ketua Badan Pengurus 2008-2013, Aswin Hinanto, mengemukakan perginya almarhum  KRT Hendarmin Susilo seperti ayam kehilangan induknya. Ia menghimbau dewan pembina agar merekrut badan pengurus baru periode 2013-2018 yang lebih mida mengingat sekarang seluruh anggotanya sudah berusia lanjut.

Acara dilanjutkan dengan penyerahan plakat kenang-kenangan kepada pihak yang memberikan sumbangsih dalam perawatan situs makam KSBK, dilanjutkan dengan foto bersama, sembahyang, dan makan siang bersama para tamu yang hadir di siang itu. (willy suyanto)

Filed in: News


Sesudah Candranaya dan SMAN2 Hancur . Lalu ?

Budaya-Tionghoa.Net | ADA sebuah makam kuno yang terlupakan di Gang Taruna, Jalan Pangeran Jayakarta, Jakarta Barat, yaitu makam tokoh pionir perantau Tionghoa bernama Souw Beng Kong (1580-1644) yang diberi jabatan Kapiten Non Militer oleh VOC sejak tanggal 11-10-1619 s/d 8-4-1644. Ketika itu daratan Tiongkok masih berada di bawah kekuasaan Dinasti Ming, jadi orang Tionghoa saat itu belum memakai kuncir di kepalanya. Tempat kelahiran Souw Beng Kong adalah Desa Tongan Provinsi Fujian Tingkok Selatan. Di tempat persinggahannya yang pertama di Banten, ia berhasil menjadi seorang pedagang yang ulung dan tokoh penting.

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Beserta sekitar 200 orang perantauan Tionghoa lainnya, ia meninggalkan Banten pindah ke Batavia. JPZ Coen sangat berterima kasih atas segala jasanya karena turut membangun kota Batavia. Orang Belanda biasa menyebut namanya ”Bencon”. Ia menjadi sahabat karib JPZ Coen dan merupakan tokoh besar yang berjasa bagi kehidupan masyarakat Tionghoa di kala itu. Ia berjasa pula dalam pengembangan persawahan dan perkebunan tebu, dan menjelang akhir hayatnya sempat berlayar ke Pulau Formosa untuk memajukan hubungan niaga langsung antara Formosa dan Batavia.
Sekitar 60 tahun yang lalu makamnya masih tampak utuh dan di mulut Gang Taruna masih berdiri tegak sebuah gapura. Gang Taruna dulunya bernama Gang Souw Beng Kong. Pada bulan Oktober 1929 ”KONG KUAN” (Dewan Perwakilan Masyarakat Tinghoa) menyediakan dana sebesar 2.500 Golden untuk biaya renovasi makam tersebut. Pada saat ini makam SBK, turut terhimpit dengan laju perkembangan kota dan pertumbuhan penduduk DKI Jakarta yang sangat pesat. Namun kita masih sangat bersyukur kalau makam kuno itu masih bisa bertahan dan tidak sampai tergusur walau pada saat ini dalam kondisi sangat terlantar dan nyaris punah.
SBK dimakamkan di atas tanah perkebunan miliknya sendiri dan di sekitarnya sebetulnya masih ada beberapa makam lainnya dari keluarga SBK, tetapi pada saat ini semuanya sudah musnah kecuali masih tertinggal satu saja yang kondisinya serupa dengan makam SBK. Sungguh sayang sekali nama Souw Beng Kong atau Bencon kurang melegenda dalam komunitas suku Tionghoa. Tetapi titik terang sudah mulai terlihat dalam era reformasi dengan adanya beberapa tulisan yang membahas makam kuno yang terlupakan itu, antara lain di Jakarta Post (2/12/2002) dan Mandarin Post (Agustus 2002) serta usaha penelitian pakar sejarah A Heuken, Denys Lombard dan Claudine Salmon.
Beberapa dosen dan mahasiswa Fak Teknik Arsitektur UNTAR yang dikepalai Ir WP Zhong, menyatakan keprihatinannya karena di atas makam kuno itu sudah dibangun rumah tinggal dan lingkungan sekitarnya sudah padat sekali dengan perumahan kumuh. Tulisan ini hendak membangkitkan kesadaran dan rasa kepedulian masyarakat suku Tionghoa terutama sekali kepada Organisasi Paguyuban Sosial Marga TH-Indonesia, INTI, MAKIN, Yin Hua Rhu Shang, Perkumpulan Hakka dan lain-lain untuk mulai memberikan perhatian dan penghargaan kepada makam kuno yang merupakan monumen bersejarah tokoh pionir perantau Tionghoa yang turut membangun kota Batavia ini. Kiranya sudah saatnya untuk mengadakan tindakan konservasi dan renovasi atau sebagai langkah pendahuluan dibangun dahulu sebuah gapura di mulut Gang Taruna itu. Hal itu patut dilakukan demi menghormati leluhur kita agar pendidikan etika moral dan warisan budaya luhur bisa berlanjut terus sampai generasi seterusnya.

2 Desember 2003


30 3 / 2012


Pada Tahun 1611, Gubernur Jenderal VOC Pieter Both mengutus bawahannya Jan Pieterzoon Koen ke Tanah Banten untuk membeli Hasil Bumi dan rempah-rempah terutama Lada, di Banten dia berkenalan dengan seorang saudagar Tionghoa yang sangat berpengaruh di wilayah itu serta mepnya tanah perkebunan yang sangat luas yang bernama Souw Beng Kong ( oleh orang Belanda ditulis sebagai BENCON ), Souw Beng Kong sangat dihormati dan dipercaya penuh oleh para petani dan pedagang di wilayah itu, setiap pedagang asing dari Inggris , Portugis dan Belanda yang ingin membeli Hasil Bumi haruslah melakukan pembelian dan negosiasi harga dengan kehadiran pihak Souw Beng Kong .


Souw Beng Kong ( selanjutnya disingkat sebagai SBK ) diperkirakan lahir di Tang Oa dekat Kota Pelabuhan Amoy – Propinsi Hokkian, kira-kira Tahun 1580. Istri resminya diperkirakan berdarah Melayu bernama INQUA ( ? ),karena Surat Wasiat terakhir dari SBK harus diterjemahkan dahulu kedalam Bahasa Melayu,SBK mempunyai seorang anak yang masih tinggal di daerah asalnya di Tiongkok, Ia juga mempunyai 2 orang putra anak dari 2 perempuan Bali, seorang putra lagi dari istri lain seorang perempuan Tionghoa dan ada lagi seorang putrid dari istri yang tidak pernah disebut namanya.

Pada masa itu sudah banyak masyarakat Tionghoa yang tinggal mengelompok disuatu tempat yang dikelilingi Poho Bambu yang kelak tempat tersebut dikenal dengan sebutan daerah Bambu Cina. Masa itu Pelabuhan Banten adalah sebuah pelabuhuan yang sangat ramai dikunjungi oleh para pedagang dari mancanegara, terutama pada bulan February sampai bula April banyak pedagang dari Daratan Tiongkok yang dating ntk membeli hasil bumi terutamanya adalah Lada dan Kopra.

Peranan kelompok orang Tionghoa sangatlah penting dalam turut memajukan perdagangan di wilayah Kesultanan Bantensejak Zaman Dahulu , Hal ini terlihat dari hasil penggalian di daerah Banten Girang menunjukan bahwa orang-orang Tionghoa sudah berinteraksi dengan masyarakat Banten sejak Abad ke 7 – 8 dan setidak nya dari hasil penggalian purbakala tersebut terlihat bahwa telah terjadi hubungan yang sangat erat dan saling menguntungkan untuk kedua belah pihak.

Kebanyakan dari orang Tionghoa kala itu datang dari pesisir Daratan Tiongkok Selatan, pada awalnya mereka dating untuk berdagang dan memuat barang-barang dagangan tersebut dengan Jung-Jung ( Kapal China Zaman dulu yang sangat terkenal ) dan kembali ke negeri asalnya , setelah itu banyak dari mereka yang memutuskan untuk tinggal dan mencari penghidupan disini dan pengaruh mereka sangatlah besar kemudian berkembang memasuki hampir semua sektor ekonomi, mulai dari tata cara bertani sampai ke pemasaran hasil bumi, dari berdagang keliling sampai ke perdagangan dengan kalangan internasional, dari Tukang Kayu sampai Pandai Besi, dari pembuatan garam sampai pembuatan batu bata.

Jan Pieterzoon Coen yang datang untuk membeli hasil bumi mulai mencoba mempengaruhi dan menekan SBK, tetapi tidak berhasil karena sebagai pedagang yang piawai SBK tidaklah mudah untuk diintimidasi dan diteka, dalam hal ini Sultan Banten waktu itu merasa sangat senang dan terbantu oleh Pihak SBk dan kelompok Tionghoa lainnya yang dianggap bisa mengadakan negosiasi dagang yang bisa menguntungkan Kesultanan Banten. Orang-orang Tionghoa in juga yang mengajarkan teknologi baru dalam hal bertani sehinga hasilnya bisa melimpah seperti bertani dengan sistim persawahan lengkap dengan pengairannya karena sebelumnya mereka hanya bercocok tanam dengan sistim lading sehingga hasilnya kurang memuaskan.

Ketika Jan Pieterzoon Coen berhasil merebut Jayakarta / Sunda Kelapa pada Tahun 1619, penduduk setempat tidak mau mengadakan hubngan dagang dengan pihak Belanda, demikian juga dengan orang Tionghoa karena sebelumnya Belanda telah membuat perjanjian dengan Pangeran Jayakarta, dalam perjanjian itu disebutkan bahwa orang-orang Tionghoa tidak diperbolehkan membangun rumah disekitar Loji yang didirikan Belanda, padahal waktu sudah banyak orang Tionghoa yang tinggal di sekitar pesisir pantai dimana Belanda banyak mendirikan Loji-loji nya sehingga banyak dari warga Tionghoa yang rumahnya harus dibongkar dan harus pindah ketempat lain untuk menjauhi Loji-loji tersebut.

Untuk merebut hati golongan Tionghoa ini maka akhirnya Coen menghapus peraturan tersebut, namun golongan Tionghoa sudah patah arang dan tidak percaya lagi pada Belanda serta tidak mau lagi berhubungan dagang, menghadapi hal ini Coen teringat pada SBK, pedagang yang sangat dihormati oleh masyarakat Tionghoa.

Pemboikotan yang dilakukan oleh komunitas Tionghoa ini makin lama makin hebat, para pedagang Tionghoa juga tidak mau lagi menjual dagangannya kepada pihak Belanda, bahkan tidak ada orang Tionghoa yang mau memperbaiki sepatu para Serdadu Belanda. Jan Pieterzoon Coen akhirnya sadar akan potensi kerugian lebih besar yang bisa terjadi kalau masalah ini berlarut-larut, akhirnya ia memutuskan untuk menemui SBK dan meminta bantuannya untuk mengatur dan mengurus komunitas Tionghoa di Batavia maupun di Banten.Kepada bawahannya dia memberi perintah bahwa “ Siapapun yang ingin memperluas dan memperkuat perdagangan serta pengaruh Belanda, harus bekerja sama dengan komunitas Tionghoa, karena mereka adalah bangsa yang ulet, rajin dan giat bekerja – ” dan hanya SBK lah orang yang tepat untuk diajak bekerja sama. “ Tidak ada yang lebih cocok untuk tujuan kita selain bekerja-sama dengan komunitas Tionghoa “ demikian laporan J.P. Coen kepada Heeren XVII. Coen juga menyatakan bahwa “ komunitas ini sangat bertentangan dengan penduduk asli yang berwatak pemalas, susah diatur dan tidak dapat dipercaya, orang-orang Tionghoa ini adalah pekerja yang rajin, tidak kenal lelah, sangat terampil dan berdisiplin kuat “. Demikian setelah melalui proses pendekatan dan bersaing dengan pihak Kesultanan Banten dan juga karena Sultan Banten telah melakukan kesalahan fatal dengan menyuruh membongkar semua rumah orang Tionghoa yang terletak dipinggiran pantai Banten karena hal ini dianggap terlalu mengganggu pemandangannya dalam memantau Pantai Banten, maka berangsur-angsur orang-orang Tionghoa dibawah pimpinan Souw Beng Kong dan Lim Lak Co ( Shoemaker van Banten / Pembuat Sepatu dari Banten ) berpindah ke Batavia. Sejak itu pelan-pelan Pelabuhan Banten mulai ditinggalkan oleh para pedagang mancanegara, pusat kegiatan perdagangan pun mulai berpindah ke Batavia. Gelombang pertama perpindahan itu sebanyak 170 Keluarga Tionghoa dari Banten mulai memasuki Batavia, dan SBK harus menampung dan mengurusi mereka . Untuk keperluan mengatur masyarakat Tionghoa tersebut maka Jan Pieterzoon Coen pada tanggal 11 Oktober 1619 mengangkat Souw Beng Kong menjadi Kapiten ( Kapitein ) Tionghoa yang pertama yang diangkat oleh Pihak Belanda, pada masa itu penduduk Tionghoa yang ada di Batavia sudah sekitar 400 Keluarga dan terus bertambah. Souw Beng Kong juga diangkat sebagai sebagai Ketua Kongkoan ( Dewan Tionghoa masa itu ), Dewan itu bertugas untuk mengatur segala keperluan dan kepentingan orang-orang Tionghoa mulai dari Upacara Perkawinan , Upacara dan tempat Pemakaman serta memilih tempat-tempat pemakaman untuk orang Tionghoa di Batavia. Mengenai soal Kongkoan ini sejarahwan dari Universitas Leiden Belanda yaitu Profesor Leonard Blusse menyatakan, Kongkoan ini dipergunakan oleh Pemerintah Belanda selain untuk mengurusi orang Tionghoa, Dewan ini juga bertugas menjadi semacam petugas sensus yg mencatat semua data-data tentang masyarakat Tionghoa dan yang terlebih penting adalah untuk menarik bermacam Pajak dari mereka. Profesor Blusse saat ini dengan Historical Institute ( IGEER ) sedang melakukan pekerjaan besar yaitu menyusun dan membuat microfilm tentang daftar dan data-data dari anggota Kongkoan di Batavia dari mulai didirikan dibawah Pimpinan Souw Beng Kong yang jumlahnya mencapai puluhan ribu orang, data dari para anggota Kongkoan tersebut sa’at ini sudah berada di Universitas Leiden, bila selesai data itu dapat digunakan oleh para orang-orang Tionghoa yang ingin mencari asal-usul dan akar keluarganya.

Sebagai Kapiten , Souw Beng Kong ditugasi untuk mengurusi urusan sipil termasuk harus bisa mengatasi bila ada keributan antar sesama orang Tionghoa. Ketika pada 24 Juni 1620 di Batavia dibentuk College van Schepenen, Souw Beng Kong sebagai Kapiten Tionghoa sa’at itu juga diberi jabatan dalam Dewan tersebut, Jabatan Souw Beng Kong dalam Dewan tersebut bukan hanya memberikan nasihat, tetapi juga memutuskan dan bertanggung-jawab atas segala perkara-perkara yang berkenaan dengan orang Tionghoa yang diajukan kepada Dewan / Majelis tersebut.

Dengan Surat Keputusan Gubernur Jenderal pada 18 Agustus 1620, Souw Beng Kong diberi kekuasaan penuh untuk menangkap orang-orang Tionghoa yang menurut pendapatnya harus ditangkap ( semisal terlibat tindakan Kriminal ) dan menyerahkannya kepada pemerintah Belanda. Pengangkatan Souw Beng Kong dalam jabatannya tersebut juga disetujui oleh Pemerintah Pusat di Negeri Belanda, seperti yang tertera dalam surat kepada J.P. Coen yang antara lain menyatakan “ Pemerintah Kerajaan Belanda menyetujui pengangkatan Tuan BENCON ( Belanda menyebut SBK dengan nama BENCON ) sebagai anggota Dewan College van Schepenen “

Dalam melaksanakan tugasnya, Souw Beng Kong dibantu oleh seorang sekretaris beragama Islam yang bernama Gouw Cay. Kedua pimpinan orang Tionghoa ini tidak diberi gaji tetapi diberi hak untuk menarik cukai sebesar 20 % dari dari Pajak Judi yang dikenakan Pemerintah Belanda kepada para Pachter ( Penyelenggara Rumah Judi ) di Batavia, Rumah Judi ini sengaja dipelihara oleh pemerintah Belanda tujuannya tentu untuk menarik uang pajak dari para para pemain judi yang kebanyakan adalah para Kuli Kontrak dan Budak yang sangat kecanduan judi dimana sering kali uang yang diterima dihabiskan di meja judi. Sebenarnya bukan hal yang mustahil bila Pemerintah Belanda memang mau menghapuskan rumah-rumah judi tersebut tetapi hal ini sengaja dipelihara dan dilindungi oleh para petugas Belanda setempat yang mendapatkan setoran / upeti dari para penyelenggara rumah judi tersebut, rumah judi tersebut harus membayar jumlah yang cukup besar sampai mencapi 6000 Sterling tiap bulannya. Gouw Cay sebagai sekretaris Souw Beng Kong dengan Surat Keputusan Gubernur Jenderal Belanda tertanggap 1 Agustus 1621 diberi sebidang tanah berupa kebun kelapa di Kampung Bebek. Ditempat tersebut pada Tahun 1625 Gouw Cay membangun sebuah Mesjid yang sampai Tahun 1920 an masih berdiri.

Dibawah pimpinan Souw Beng Kong, jumlah penduduk Tionghoa di Batavia meningkat dengan pesat sampai mencapai 1000 keluarga pada Tahun 1622. Mereka pada umumnya hidup dengan berdagang dan bertani, pemboikotan kepada Pemerintah Belanda juga berangsur-angsur dihentikan Karena Pemerintah Belanda telah memberikan kebebasan kepada orang Tionghoa untuk membangun rumahnya dimana saja mereka suka dalam artian tidak lagi dibatasi hanya boleh membangun di daerah tertentu,setiap hari makin banyak saja orang Tionghoa yang berdatangan dan tinggal di Batavia. Daerah perumahan pun berkembang dengan pesat, baik didalam kota maupun daerah pinggiran, demikian juga dengan sektor perdagangan berkembang dengan pesat. Boleh dikata bahwa Souw Beng Kong turut membangun fondasi dalam mengembangkan Kota Batavia yang dimulai oleh Jan Pieterszoon Coen.

Karena jasa-jasanya, dengan Surat Keputusan tertanggal 1 February 1623 Gubernur Jenderal JP Coen member hadiah 2 bidang kebun kelapa kepada Souw Beng Kong diatas tanah tersebut dibangun rumah-rumah batu yang cukup megah atas biaya Pemerintah Belanda, penjagaan 24 jam juga diberikan demi menjaga keamanan Souw Beng Kong dan keluarganya. Dalam catatan “ Kalapaci “ disebutkan bahwa orang-orang dari Tiongkok selatan tidak suka berhubungan dengan Pemerintah Belanda di Batavia karena kapal-kapal Jung mereka yang akan pulang ke Tiongkok sering dicegat dan dirampas diperairan sebelah utara Nusantara ( atas hal ini utusan dari Gubernur penguasa Fukien datang ke Batavia untuk menyampaikan protes atas tidakan perompakan yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang Belanda dibawah pimpinan Cornelis Reyersen ). Barang-barang rampasan diangkut ke Batavia dan awaknya dibui untuk kemudian dijual kepada para hartawan sebagai budak belian dengan harga 60 Real ( ? ) perorangnya kemudian dipekerjakan sebagai budak perkebunan dan pertanian dengan Pajak Kepala sebesar 1,5 Real sebulan. Waktu itu Souw Beng Kong dan Gouw Cay diberi hak untuk membuat mata uangnya sendiri yang terbuat dari timah dan timahnya harus dibeli dari pihak Belanda dengan tidak dikenakan pajak.

Tahun 1628-1629 terjadi perang antara Belanda dengan tentara Sultan Agung di front Timur, dengan tentara Banten di front Barat dan armada tentara Inggris dari laut di front Utara maka Souw Beng Kong menunjukan sikap Netral dan Tidak Memihak, berkali-kali J P Coen dari Pihak Belanda meminta bantuan dan saran tapi ditolak oleh Souw Beng Kong dan Sultan Banten yang pernah punya hubungan baik dengannya juga meminta bantuan Souw Beng Kong tetapi juga ditolaknya dengan halus, ini membuktikan bahwa kedatangan orang Tionghoa di Bumi Nusantara ini tidak punya maksud untuk terlibat dalam Konflik dan ingin menjadi Penguasa tetapi murni karena ingin berdagang dan mencari kehidupan yang lebih baik.
Setelah berhasil melakukan penyusupan kedalam pasukan Sultan Agung dan berhasil membakar ransum serta berhasil mengalahkan pasukan tentara Banten dan juga mengalahkan armada Inggris, maka Pemerintah VOC makin memperkokoh posisinya di Batavia, Pemerintah Belanda memberlakukan peraturan yang ketat, setiap warga dilarang bepergian tanpa Surat Izin dari Pemerintah Belanda.

Souw Beng Kong menjadi tidak senang bekerja sama lagi dengan pihak pemerintah Belanda, ia mengajukan permohonan untuk kembali ke Tiongkok. Setelah permohonannya dikabulkan maka dengan menumpang kapal perang “ de swaen “ dia berangkat ke Tiongkok melalui Taiwan. Namun, ketika di Taiwan dia membaca maklumat dari pemerintah Tiongkok yang menyatakan bahwa barang siapa yang pernah bekerja sama dengan pihak Belanda, maka harta bendanya akan disita dan orangnya akan dikenakan hukuman berat. Karena takut maka Souw Beng Kong membatalkan kepulangannya ke Tiongkok dan selama dua tahun dia tinggal di Taiwan sambil berdagang dan ternyata usahanya tersebut gagal.

Selama di Taiwan Souw Beng Kong akhirnya terlibat dalam sejumlah usaha penyelundupan dan perdangangan gelap, tetapi mengingat akan jasa-jasanya kepada kaum Tionghoa di Batavia maka dia tetap dilindungi oleh para sahabatnya, para pejabat Belanda di Batavia mengirimkan utusan dan surat kepada Gubernur Taiwan sehingga dia lolos dari hukuman pemerintah Tiongkok dan akhirnya ia memutuskan kembali ke Batavia. Pada tahun 1639 , dengan menumpang Kapal perang Belanda “ Brouckoort “ dia pun bersama keluarganya kembali ke Batavia. Ternyata sesampai di Batavia Souw Beng Kong masih tetap dihormati, walaupun kedudukannya sebagai anggota College van Schepenen telah digantikan oleh Phoa Beng Gan ( yang oleh Belanda disebut Binggam), tetapi jasa-jasa Souw Beng Kong masih tetap diingat oleh pihak Belanda. Ketika dibentuk Boedel Kamer atau Balai Harta Peninggalan untuk mengurus dan melindungi harta warisan kaum Hartawan Tionghoa yang tidak mempunyai ahli waris, maka Souw Beng Kong pun mendapat kehormatan dan diangkat untuk mengepalainya ( Boedel Messter ). Kemudian, bersama Lim Lak Co, Souw Beng Kong mengajukan resolusi agar pemerintah Belanda menaruh perhatian khusus dan serius kepada kampung orang Tionghoa untuk menjaga kesehatan dan diperbaiki lingkungannya, tuntutan kedua orang ini dipenuhi oleh pemerintah Belanda dan hasilnya adalah penataan lingkungan pecinan di seputar Pancoran-Kota yang sampai sekarang masih belum banyak berubah, pengaruh Souw Beng Kong pun semakin bertambah kuat. Akhirnya karena telah berusia lanjut Souw Beng Kong mengajukan pengunduran diri dan Lim Lak Co dipilih menjadi pengganti Souw Beng Kong.

Souw Beng Kong meninggal pada 8 April 1644 dan seluruh masyarakat Tionghoa ikut berkabung, pemerintah Belanda juga menyatakan turut bela sungkawa, Phoa Beng Gan sebagai Kapitein pengganti Souw Beng Kong pun mengajukan permohonan agar jenazah Souw Beng Kong boleh disemayamkan di rumahnya, sambil menunggu selesainya pembangunan komplek makam yang memakan waktu dua bulan lamanya.
Upacara pemakamannya dilakukan dengan penuh kebesaran dan penghormatan, masyarakat Tionghoa dari seluruh Batavia dan sekitarnya pun turut mengantarkan jenazahnya ke pemakaman yang jumlahnya mungkin mencapai belasan ribu orang. Pemerintah Belanda pun memberikan penghormatan penuh secara kemiliteran.
Sampai dengan akhir tahun 1960 an Makam Souw Beng Kong tersebut masih bisa dijumpai di Gang Taruna ( dahulu disebut Gang Souw Beng Kong ) di Jalan P. Jayakarta.

Dalam rangka melestarikan peninggalan sejarah dan turut menghargai jasa-jasa almarhum Souw Beng Kong serta sebagai wujud keperdulian terhadap Bangsa dan Negara maka pada 11 Februari 2008 di Jakarta telah didirikan Yayasan Kapitein Souw Beng Kong yang dipimpin oleh KRT Hendarmin Susilo ( So Sien Ming ) yang program pertamanya adalah membebaskan tanah di sekeliling makam Souw Beng Kong yang sudah di dikuasai oleh warga sekitar, bahkan diatas makam Souw Beng Kong tersebut pernah berdiri sebuah rumah lengkap dengan kamar mandinya, Yayasan Kapitein Souw Beng Kong juga sudah merehabilitasi komplek makam tersebut sehingga sekarang ini layak disebut sebagai makam orang ternama dan juga mengadakan upacara-upacara adat sesuai dengan kepercayaan yang dipeluk oleh almarhum Souw Beng Kong. Demikianlah kisah dari seorang Tokoh Marga Souw yang boleh dibanggakan oleh kalangan Marga Souw, karena beliau selain sebagai Kapitein Pertama dari golongan Tionghoa, dia juga sangat besar jasa-jasanya terhadap kaum Tionghoa , dia sangat di hormati dan dicintai oleh kaum Tionghoa pada waktu itu, semoga tulisan bisa menjadi inspirasi dan kebanggaan bersama dari Kaum Keturunan Marga Souw.



1. Pada tahun 1909 dipugar oleh Kong Koan (Dewan Opsir Tionghoa).

2. Pada bulan Oktober 1929 “KONG KUAN” (Dewan Perwakilan Masyarakat Tinghoa) menyediakan dana sebesar 2.500 Golden untuk biaya renovasi makam tersebut dibawah perintah Majoor der Chineezen Khouw Kim An (1875-1946).

3. Pada bulan April 2006 ini ada yang mengaku keluarganya yang membeli rumah di atas makam itu. Kabarnya, mereka akan memperbaiki makam ini.


  • Kapitein Lim Lak Tjo
  • Kapitein Phoa Beng Gan
  • Kapitein Gan Djie
  • Nyonya Kapitein Gan Djie, dubbed “Nyai Bali” [5] [6]
  • Kapitein Tjoa Hoan Giok
  • Kapitein Ni Hoe Kong
  • Majoor Tan Eng Goan
  • Majoor Tan Tjoet Tiat
  • Majoor Lie Tjian Tjoen
  • Majoor Tio Tek Ho
  • Majoor Khouw Kim An




Overseas Chinese Kapitan Sourabaya


Painting by Surabaya Overseas Chinece Kapitan Han Jan Pit in 1805

Original info

Tekening van de tuin van de kapitein der chinezen Hanjanpit te Soerabaja vervaardigd door H.J. Wardenaar tijdens een reis naar het oostelijke deel van Java in opdracht van N. Engelhard op 29 augustus 1805.


Tekening in aanzicht op het tuinhuis van de luitenant der chinezen Hanzoerik van Soerabaja vervaardigd door H.J. Wardenaar tijdens een reis naar het oostelijke deel van Java in opdracht van N. Engelhard op 28 augustus 1805.

Chinese overseas picture In Java



Straat, vermoedelijk te Batavia met op de achtergrond de Amsterdamse Poort



Chinese tempel, vermoedelijk op Java



“Karbouwenhoeder. Toekang angon kerbo.”





Tionghoa shop at Jogya market



Chienese overseas mosque Madjobo Koedoes








Overseas Chinese Kapitan  Makassar


Kapitan cina makassae Tomb 1900-1920



Dansers (Kabesarant), vermoedelijk bij Gorotalo
























6th  Century

Menurut Erniwati, ken­dati sulit menelusuri sejak kapan masuknya orang Tiong­hoa ke Indonesia, namun dari cacatan yang bersumber dari Cina menuliskan tentang ke­da­tangan utusan dari Lang-ya (Malaya) di antaranya, pada awal abad ke-6, yaitu ninik mamak Minangkabau Sultan Balun yang kemudian bergelar Datuk Parpatiah Nan Sa­batang, dari kelarasan Bodi Chaniago.

Datuk Parpatiah Nan Sa­batang dikabarkan me­rantau ke Siam, Indocina, dan ke­negeri Cina, sebelum Datuk Parpatiah Nan Sabatang mempresentasikan konsep adat matrilineal di Minang­kabau.

“Tujuh abad setelah itu, abad ke-13, Pantai Pariaman telah dikunjungi  oleh pe­dagang dari Gujarat, Cina, dan pedagang lainnya, terjalin di pelabuhan ini,” kata Erniwati.

Selain itu, tambah Er­niwati, seorang Raja Tiongkok dahulunya pernah meminang Bundo Kanduang dengan mengirim seperangkat pe­laminan sebagai ikatannya. Tapi rencana itu tak ter­laksana, karena dalam per­jalanan kapal Raja Tiongkok itu mengalami musibah. “Na­mun seperangkat pelaminan sebagai ikatan pertunangan itu sudah diterima Bundo Kanduang.”

Sementara itu, Mely G Tan, dari perkembangan dan masuknya etnis Tionghoa ke Sumatera Barat membaginya berdasarkan dialek bahasa di Cina menjadi tiga ke­lompok dialek yang masing-masing dengan spesialisasi kerjanya, yaitu orang Hokkian berasal dari Fukien Selatan di Cina Selatan, kemudian per­ka­winan campuran dengan pen­duduk lokal yang akhirnya membentuk Tionghoa pe­ra­nakan. Ciri-cirinya berbahasa Melayu.

Sampai kini, tradisi yang masih melekat sejak dulu, hingga kini masih dengan setia dijalankan orang Tiong­hoa. Misalnya, upacara yang dilakukan oleh orang Tiong­hoa di Sumatera Barat pada umumnya berkaitan dengan unsure kepercayaan, seperti penyembahan kepada nenek moyangnya.

Secara umum, orang Tiong­­hoa berprofesi sebagai pe­dagang dan industri, seperti di Piaman. Pabrik minyak kelapa yang terkenal di Pa­riaman adalah milik Tjoa Tjeng Han cap Unta dan minyak kelapa Lam Kiauw di Padang.

Lebih jauh Erniwati men­jelaskan, pusat pemerintahan dan perdagangan di pantai barat Sumatera Barat, Pa­dang menjadi kota penting bagi orang Tionghoa dibandingkan dengan kota lainnya.


Pada tahun 1511, Portugis merajalela di selat Malaka. Imperium Aceh lumpuh dibuatnya. Bersamaan dengan itu, kesibukan lalu lintas perdagangan pun tersendat di kawasan yang sangat sibuk itu.

Kerakusan Portugis membuat kapal-kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan Eropa tak bisa lewat. Akhirnya, pantai barat yang ombaknya dikenal ganas terpaksa dipilih sebagai jalur alternatif perdagangan dunia.

Sepotong pesisir di muara sungai Arau tiba-tiba menjadi persinggahan yang ramai di tepian samudera Indonesia sebelum kapal-kapal dagang melanjutkan pelayaran ke Jawa. Pelabuhan kecil yang awalnya bernama kampung Batung itu kini bernama kota Padang.



Kepopuleran pelabuhan Muaro sebagai kota pelabuhan internasional sudah dimulai sejak tahun 1511 saat Portugis memblokade selat Malaka setelah menguasai kerajaan Malaka

Blokade itu untuk melumpuhkan kekuasaan Kesultanan Aceh yang sebelumnya mengendalikan aktifitas perdagangan di selat Malaka.

Akibatnya kapal dagang dari negara-negara Asia dan sebagian Eropa terpaksa memutar haluan, dan menjadikan kawasan pantai barat Sumatera sebagai penghubung ke laut Jawa melalui perairan Sunda.

Pelabuhan Muaro seperti diselamatkan ombak. Mendadak ia ternama sebagai kota pelabuhan karena disinggahi kapal dagang dari Inggris, Perancis dan Cina. .



Belakangan VOC berhasil mengadu-domba masyarakat Minangkabau dan Aceh, sehingga tercipta Perjanjian Painan pada tahun 1633 yang sekaligus mengakhiri kekuasaan Aceh di Minang. Salah satu poin penting perjanjian Painan adalah, tidak mengakui kerajaan Aceh, dan sebaliknya mengakui Raja Minangkabau sebagai penguasa tertinggi dan mengakui VOC sebagai pelindung serta hanya berdagang dengan mereka. (insidesumatra)


Menindaklanjuti perjanjian ini, pada tahun 1667 VOC menjadikan Padang sebagai pusat perwakilan (headquarter) untuk wilayah pesisir barat Sumatera yang ditandai dengan pembangunan benteng pertahanan atau loji. Pembangunan loji ini atas izin penghulu terkemuka, Orang Kayo Kaciak. Loji berbentuk empat segi dengan setiap sisi sepanjang 100 meter dan tinggi enam meter di sekitar Muaro. Penentangan terhadap VOC muncul dari rakyat Minangkabau di Pauh dan Koto Tangah. Mereka membakar loji pada 7 Agustus 1669. Momen inilah kemudian yang ditetapkan sebagai “Hari Jadi Kota Padang”. Setelah berakhirnya masa VOC yang ditutup karena rugi, pada 20 Mei 1784 Belanda secara resmi mengambil alih Padang dan menjadikannya pusat kedudukan dan pusat perniagaan di wilayah Sumatera. Belanda membangun gudang-gudang untuk menumpuk barang sebelum dikapalkan melalui pelabuhan Muara Padang yang berada di muara Batang (sungai) Arau. Kawasan inilah yang merupakan kawasan awal Kota Tua Padang. Batang Arau yang berhulu sekitar 25 kilometer ke pegunungan Bukit Barisan merupakan salah satu dari lima sungai di Padang. Sungai ini sangat penting karena posisinya sangat strategis dibanding Batang Kuranji, Batang Tarung, Batang Tandis dan Batang Lagan.(insidesumatra)


July 6, 1662

Treaty of Painan:

coastal areas of Minangkabau, including Padang, become a protectorate of the VOC, which guarantees them security against raids from Aceh





Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island



 Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island

This town then became an important place since year 1663 when the Dutch, via the Dutch East India Company set-up a trading post in ‘Pulau Cingkuk’, one of many islands offshore the town, according to “Perjanjian Painan” or ‘Painan Treaty’.


Cingkuk island now



cingkuk island now


If you go to Painan, West Sumatera, Indonesia, don’t forget to across the sea to Cingkuk Island, the sands are white, so many coral here, and we can see sea animal such as colourful fish, sea cucumber, through the water because the water is very clear. WHAT A BEAUTIFUL ISLAND ever.

It is also cheap to go here. You just need to pay about Rp 10,000 or $ 1 per person to rent a boat to across the sea to the island. At this island you also can play banana boat also only Rp 10,000 0r $1 per person.


 It is Very cheap right????


Let’s fell the smell of the virgin sea,,,

And not far from Cingkuk Island, there is Langkisau Hill. We can see almost the part of Padang City from there. You will see a very beautiful view here. Oh,,, and the good news is, this tour object is free entering. You just need to climb the ladder till the top of the hill. Nice, huh?!

Unfortunately because do not have much time there, meanwhile, there is still so many thing to find there.




VOC notch the West Sumatra with the help of local leaders is strong enough.

The problem is the attitude of the people who sulitbdan community leaders are often at odds and dutch memuhak depada one class. But sometimes the Dutch embrace both classes and then over the Dutch rock should be given a token of gratitude for services rendered whether concession

Thanks Groenenwegen and Verspreet diplomacy, the Dutch managed to cultivate a small layer of executing the will golongn Company (Company VOC) VOC thus not dealing directly with the people.
One way of securing his pretense with King minangkabau dutch, to accomplish this task charged to Mr. Pits substitute Verspreet.
The skipper White has many followers in the Middle Koto Pariaman much fuss to the Dutch cause problems even though he did not openly oppose the Dutch,

(Rusdi Amran, West Sumatra Plakat Long Until, Sinar Harapan, 1981)



Showdown In Pariaman
In 1672 White was appointed skipper of VOCs into regen who was a prince of a rather important in Kototengah, experiencing disturbing the original followers of Kayo Maradjo VII-Koto and he also got into trouble because they do not fit the Commander Radja and Datuk Bandaro In Padang.
Many Penghulu Belnda including Panglimo Radjo and Datuk Maradjo o not happy with skipper White, they asked for it to be replaced. Pits are not quickly replace it because he had many followers among the people of Koto symbolic middle and not overtly anti VOC
Pits on the above resolved without the help of Batavia.
(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

In the year 1673 the conflict between the King of Madjunto by the dead of Sultan Adil Muhammadsyah of Indrapura completed after the sultan’s father, Sultan Malfarsyah Muhammadsyah
(Rusdi Amran, 1981)


1674, King of  Minangkabau world(Rajo Alam Minangkabau) pass away  , this led to disputes as to who will replace it. Children or niece
Finally The four Bandaro (BaSO Ampek Balai ) decides son Raja ruled the western part, while Kemanakan (nephew ) ruled the East.

(Rusdi Amran, 1981)


In the Year 1674 then dispute between King Adil of Madjunto with Sultan Sulaiman of Indrapura completed (Rusdi Amran, 1981)

(Rusdi Amra, 1981)

According to the agreement Painan, trade boats containing merchandise from Aceh to Pariaman be banned and arrested
Ibrahim Radjo penhulu of Pariaman has a relationship with skipper White regen Voc in Pariaman, and Suri Naro of Salido.

Until Pariaman Aceh boat loaded with merchandise and by Painan  Agrrement this boat must be captured and impounded but Radjo Ibrahim XII sent  200 people from the north-Koto located Painan and river lime, to mempertahankan In such which a  same boat of brother Ibrahim Radjo of religion, Radjo Mahkota , thousands of people were moving towards the west coast of Sumatra Agam .

 This situation made VOC office Padang confused(binguang) , Koto-Tengah and Pariaman, especially when Radjo Ibrahim and Putih  did not appear when called into the field.
 Apparently there are talks between Eadjo Ibrahim with Radjo Adil and Mahkota Radjo to evict people from the Maradjo Kayo-VII Koto near Pariaman order Radjo Ibrahim to head Pariaman.

If this is successful they will continue into the Middle Koto, and the White Nakhoda Kayo expel Commander of Padang So tidk no immediate danger to the VOC.

Ibrahim action is considered as a defiance VOC and VOC Temangung when an investigator who has a young Valves VOC employees were sent to search the  movement.
Results of search 
A prince named  Nakhoda Putih(skipper White ) Lengang bumi-in-law who does not know the  mass movement plan , carry merchandise bought from VOC Pariaman to  Padang through Koto Tengah . He was beaten out and robbed goods, heard by a white captain(nakhoda Putih)  handed again.


Tempers fray against deputy skipper with his followers in the river rotan and  most eager to attack skipper White ( Nakhoda Putih)was Radjo Ibrahim.

 Putih  almost any skipper could captivity, but a successful escape
After learned this  search  report this  VOC. Against  skipper White( Nakhoda Putih)

(Rusdi Amra, 1981)

In August 1675, the VOC in handing out money to catch Regen  Pariaman Nakhoda  Putih.
In December 1675  VOC split-bagikan money again in Pariamna to the prince who gathered there and they swear to the Pits to destroy skipper White( regen Nakhoda  Putih)



In 1676 occurred the actual Minangkabau People’s Movement spearheaded by pro Dutch  elements, the movement is not addressed to the Dutch but to a party whose leader wants to be changed.

This situation is favorable for the Dutch VOC, because the organization is not good with not one  goal  and not have one leadership and engage skipper of Koto-White Middle RADJO of Pariaman Radjo Ibrahim Adil of Manjunto, Bandaro Pandjang of Batipuh, Radjo Batuah of Ulakan and Suri Naro of Salido.
The dispute heated up when the son of Batipuh found died  ,assasination  killed by  Bandaro Pandjang  from Ulakan so Bandaro Pandjang dating and his family helped by Lubuk Alung invade and mengusir(shoo)  Datuk Bandaro of this Ulakan.Kota including looted and burned hamlets near Pariaman.
Lubuk Alung participate because before this Ulakan had attacked their village in retaliation, but this plan  canceled after 12 ½  gold thail paid by Pariaman.and  Regen Nakhoda  Putih( skipper White) was a  Ulakan’s friend
In June 1976, Suri Naro of Salido secretly dealing with skipper White (regen Putih) to strike Padang but can be stopped by Panglimo Radjo with his followers of Padang
(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

1680 1695

 Mighty Tuanku Raja Mulia(Holy King ) Stakeholder XXXII

Disputes between  leader in Minangkabau hamper the delivery of gold and relocation pepper the beach.

 Raja  Adil of Manjuto in Tarusan secretly sell  their pepper  to british  in Bencoolen  and Banten not to VOC

After a ten year stint Pits moved to



Malacca  became the governor there , His place was taken over by Hurdt Melchior who moved





from the Cingkuk  island to  Padang .




Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island





 Portugeus Fort at cingkuk Island



During Hult appointed as the highest vice of VOC in Padang, West Sumatra coast state still troublesome, such disputesbe between lIndigenous leaders and VOCs are generally not intervene,

Only City Pauh often robbed .. flame*dbakar) and people driven to anything and still rebelled.

To overcome this the Panglimo  Radjo in Padang had armed some thousand people to deal with attacks from Pauh.
The Dutch  does not have a lot of forces at this time, while the  Central VOC Government in Batavia  does not want to send an expedition to West Sumatra.


The same thing happened in Tarusan, Imagine and Bandar-X South area of Padang, small wars happen because leaders want to have a position.


This situation creates difficulties for the VOC trade flows when it rains it is no longer (weak).

In In February 1680,

unexpectedly visited Padang Sultan Ahmadsyah, envoy of King Minangkabau


Who came to Padang  is The Son of  king  Minangkabau who ruled the eastern part, the messenger brings a letter addressed to Hurdt and Panglimo Radjo to renew contracts and appointed as the official representative Panglimo Radjo Radja-Alam Minangkabau. And further recommends Radja Minangkabau people that do not disturb the VOC trade and paid tribute to the King of Aceh paid to the Minangkabau King.
On this occasion Hurdt asked King Minangkabau that skipper-WHITE scold naughty. But it was rejected because the King minangkabau not have the power to carry it out. This has led to frustration for Hurdt and central pemeruntah VOC in Batavia.
Vice VOC in Padang are not desperate, he kept trying to reconcile the princes and the representatives of the people are pro belanda.karena could disrupt VOC trade.
Finally Enterprises VOC managed, on 29 August 1680 in the city of Padang skipper gathered from Koto-WHITE-Tangah H with 10 the prince, Sultan Ahmadsyah from Indrapura, and Rajo-FAIR from Madjunto respectively with 20 and 18 penghulu.Panglimo Radjo of Padang carrying 12 penghulunya and Sari-Salido Naro of premises 9 princes and some traditional leaders. Voc along with other companions.
Everyone present signed important agreements and solemnly pledged to support all efforts VOC and renew all contracts ever signed first.



They also promised not to fussy-fussy and fighting each other again.
Since the conclusion of the agreement on which is the victory diplomatus VOC, VOC trade flows become fluent, but Hurdt
 be called  to Batavia because he was suspected of cheating with finances VOCs. He investigated continuously,Hurdt served only one year in the city of Padang


Three follow VOC  Man at Padang also only each served only one year as well, all withdrawn  for the same reason coruption  although isnpector or commissioners sent for investigating  found no results at all.

Corruption continues until the VOC was disbanded at the end of the 18th century. West Sumatra is an area for VOC loss due to costs incurred for the crush of people reversing yidak forever too large profit peradsangan dubanding with VOC.

It is being considered for release VOC Batavia West Sumatra region, but it is always opposed by representatives in the West Suamtera padded seat that benefit himself.



(Rusdi Amran, 1981)


Deman Emas  Di Salido(sambungan)

Pada tahun  1679 dikirim dari pucuk pimpinan vOC di Amsterdam, 69 orang ahli pertambangan dari euro yang kemudian ditambah lagi. Nafsu vOC ini mungkin disebakan karena pada  tahun ini terjadi perdamaian dengan rakyat Bayang-village dan tambanga emas yang ada disana diserahkan kepada VOC.

Kemudian kepala perwakilan VOC di Padang Tuan Pits dikrim ke Salido untuk memeriksa tambang tersebut dan ia memebrillaporan ke Batavia bahwa masa depan tambang itu baik.

(Rusdi Amran, 1981)

Penduduk Tionghoa datang tidak lama setelah pendirian pos VOC. Orang Tionghoa di Padang yang biasa disebut dengan Cina Padang, sebagian besar sudah membaur dan biasanya berbahasa Minang.[54](wiki)
se­belum abad ke-19, ke­be­radaan orang Tionghoa secara umum dapat dikatakan tidak mem­pengaruhi tatanan sosial dan sistem ekonomi tra­disional yang berkembang dalam masya­­­rakat Minang­kabau di pedalaman Suma­tera Barat.


Cina tahun 1680 datang berdagang ke Inderapura 9 tahun pasca perjanjian pemuka kota pantai dari Ombak Ketaun (Pesisir Selatan) hingga Air Bangis (Pesisir Utara, Pasaman Barat sekarang) ditandatangani (1680) oleh Raja Adil dan Muhammadsyah (sultan Inderapura) sedikit memberi ruang gerak kepada VOC berdagang lada dan emas

In 1686, the Pariaman (Pryaman as written in the notes W. Marsden) start dealing with the British.
As the area is located on the beach, has become a destination Pariaman trade and conquest of foreign nations that do cruise ships a few centuries ago. Ports entreport Pariaman time was very advanced. (Shvoong, 2002)

In the Month August 1686
  EIC English also came to West Sumatra to compete with the VOC for profit., They also try to approach local leaders.
But because of the situation in the Euro, the leader  of  VOC in Batavia always  told  VOC  Padang. To remember that  Avoid looking for an issue with the EIC British., If necessary, native friend who got beat.
To achieve this purpose , in August 1686 gathered again the Penghulu and Followers VOC in Padang city, and they all promised not to seek and facilitate trade relations with British EIC. (East India Company)

Besides that  came  some  the  Representative  of King Minangkabau to West Sumatra coastal regions to levy tribute but  not  successful because the VOC had forgotten terms – terms of skits with former Minangkabau King.
The first vice-king was not able to appease the princes fighting each other.

In fact, several times thE Viceroy OF  minangkabau Kingdom even participated in the movement against the VOC.

The last Came envoy of Minangkabau King ,named Maharaja Laksmana, he had come to collect tribute  until Singkel  in the north and Ketaun in  the south. He was received with honor by Vice VOC in Padang, but was not given a single cent.
That the state at the end of the 17th century in western Sumatra Padang and peisir time



(Rusdi Amran, 1981)


In 1686,

Amangkurat II sends secret letters to Johore, Minangkabau, English East India Co, even Siam trying to find help against VOC.

1695 1719

Sultan Tuanku Raja Raja Alam Bagewang II Stakeholder XXVII


Sultan Muhammad Syah of Indrapura abdicates and VOC gains influence in the absence of a ruler there.



Supervision of Ulama education scholars in Pariaman up in 1697


17th Century

In the 17th century Pagarruyung king of the rumored MinangKabhu very charismatic and full power.

  Empire centered in Tanah Datar, famous in those days as a gold mine of the most easily looted, because gold does not have to dig too deep to be found.

  Governor General of Netherlands Cornelis van Quelbergh representative for the Dutch VOC Malacca in 1641 sent Thomas Dias (Portuguese citizens in Malacca, as was previously occupied by the Portuguese) to get to the Siak river and tried to make contact with the King in making trade agreements MinangKhabu gold, pepper and Tin, as well as an envoy to discuss the long-running conflict between the Dutch Malacca Johore, Siak, Jambi and Palembang.

  Researchers reviewed data about the doubting Thomas Dias trip, because Pagarruyung not close to the river in Tanah Datar Selo, but probably farther north near the river between Buo and Kumanis Sinamar


VOC membawa orang Nias ke Padang  sebagai budak sejak awal abad ke-17(wiki)


1719 1739

Sultan Tuanku Raja Arif Alam Badaeunsyah XXVIII

1739 1780

King Tuanku Raja Alam Alam Muningsyah I XXIX


Top of Form

western part  Pasaman consisting of coastal areas Katiagan starting from the south and ends at aia Bangih in the north has become a haven the merchants of Europe such as Britain and the Netherlands.

Katiagan Masang rod bounded by a separate territory with Tiku Agam area once contained a highly developed commercial center with a major brokerage named Peto Mage ‘, a Minangkabau half of Aceh who have shed a bit into the mouth of the Batang Masang. Christine Dobbin writes as follows;

When the British private traders began entering these waters, the Pasaman can also supply them with pepper and this continues until the end of abat eighteen, when the place is also a regional supplier of rice to the British power on the coast farther.

Pasaman also provide a way out for the export of gold from Rao, the valley immediately to the north Alahan length, which is the area of ​​exporting gold from time immemorial.

British trade with the region’s growing Pasaman so in 1766 the Netherlands was also flying the flag there, but they can only survive until the year 1772.

After developing the ports because of its association with the British people, while the Acehnese traders also came and settled on the coast between Pasaman and Masang River.

Pasaman area thus evolved into part of the coastal trade network developed based on the needs of British private traders.

If we cast a little view of the east, not far from the town center Simpang Ampek, therein lies the area named Mount Ophir. The Minangkabau language vocabulary, does not have the word “Ophir”. Mentioned in the literature that comes from the word Ophir Portuguese vocabulary.

What makes people interested in the Portuguese hills, so they named the Mount Ophir. But we will not discuss this.

This area of ​​Mount Ophir before Indonesia’s independence, one of the Dutch business developing oil palm plantations and that’s when the first foreign plant called palm touching Pasaman.

After the nationalization of Dutch companies under Law no. 56 In 1958, this estate belonged to PTPN VI.



Raja 1775/xxxx
1775 1810 Marhum Asal (posthumous name)



1780 1798

King Tuanku Tuanku Raja Alam Basusu Ampek Muningsyah II King of XXX

Tasik (Kota Pinang)


Raja 1785/xxxx
1785 1800 Sultan Rakhmat Syah

Sultanate 1789/1816
1789 1816 Khalifatullah Inayat Syah

extinction of the state and the colonial government of the Netherlands


Successor states of Pinangawan


status Pinangawan splits:

Sungai Taras-


Raja 1785/xxxx
1785 1800 Sultan Rakhmat Syah
1800 1835 Sultan Alam II Bidar
1835 1865 Sultan Alam Bidar III
1865 1903 Sultan Alam Bidar IV
1903 xxxx Bidar Sultan Alam V

-Sungai Taras (Kampong Raja)

Raja 1775/xxxx
1775 1810 Marhum Asal (posthumous name)
1810 1835 Marhum Mangkat of Rantau Baru (posthumous name)
The Sultan Muda 1835 1871
1871 xxxx Sultan Muda II

-Tasik (Kota Pinang)

Raja 1795/xxxx
1795 1815

Sultan Bongsa II

1815 1871

Sultan Mustafa


1798 1803

King Tuanku Tuanku Rajo Alam Onion Muningsyah III King of the XXXI

-Sungai Taras (Kampong Raja)


Sultanate 1789/1816
1789 1816 Khalifatullah Inayat Syah

Raja 1795/xxxx
1795 1815 Sultan Bongsa II



Raja 1795/xxxx
1795 1815

Sultan Bongsa II



Sultan bagagaryah Official stamped

19th century

19th Century AD is the most decisive in history and culture of Minangkabau.


In this century there has been not only a series of purification and renewal efforts of the creed and practice of traditional and syarak, but also there has been interference of the

colonial Dutch East Indies which pitted indigenous people and religious people, who both embraced Islam.

The term ‘agreement’ is felt more appropriate than the term ‘determination’, therefore in accordance with the principles
‘Sit up straight at the same low-high’ followed by the Minangkabau society.

The term ‘Minangkabau culture’ refers to a whole way of life as one of the Minangkabau ethnic group

ethnic groups in Indonesia between 1072 according to data from the National Census of 2000. Ethnic diversity of Indonesia than is recognized
sesanti Coat in the State, was also recognized by Article 36 a of the Constitution of 1945.

Review of SBK ABS cultivated in this Agreement is comprehensive and actionable, so that

includes not only the teachings of the betsifat normative, but also the institutions that implement these teachings, human behavior
who embrace the teachings, and policies that need to be further considered in the implementation.

A concise review of the history of the concept of ‘Indigenous Basandi Syarak, Syarak Basandi Qur’aan’ can be seen in
Gusti Asnan, 2003, History of Minangkabau dictionary, PPIM, Padang, pages 8-10.

The phrase ‘customary mangato syarak mamakai’ than there is in the range of books on traditional Minangkabau proverb goes, is also

The dictum contained in the Decree of the Great Council of West Sumatra No. IX LKAAM TAP-10/MUBES / IX LKAAM/SB/VI/2005
Dated June 5, 2005 On Application of Customary Basandi Syarak Syarak Basandi Qur’aan.

‘Aspect’ refers to the Province of West Sumatra, while the ‘Overseas’ refers to the tribal areas overseas
Minangkabau people, both in Indonesia, as well as abroad.

As citizens, Minangkabau society has the right to enjoy rights and protections of the Unitary
Republic of Indonesia and shall be subject to the fundamental positive law of the State and the Republic of Indonesia.

This section should be listed as a historical background, to understand the position in Minangkabau society SBK ABS
experiencing a wave of change many times.




Minang people is the nickname for the air rail LOKKOMOTIF black with steam that has been around since about 1800’s in Minangkabau

This train to pass through the rail serrated ramp area
The dramatic image is visible when the train was passing through the edge of Lake Batur, adjacent vehicle lane



After experiencing a prolonged conflict, Followed by a devastating civil war between the years 1803-1821, Followed by
Minangkabau war between the years 1821 – 1838
  to face the armies of the colonial Dutch East Indies,

1810 1835
Marhum died of seacoast New (Posthumous name)

Book ‘lost interest Tuanku Rao’ and Controversies Heroism lord Tambusai
by Suryadi
Compass (Thursday, 10/16/2008) the results of the discussion of the Indonesian version of the second edition (the first in 1992 by the INIS) Christine Dobbin book that is quite classic: Economic turmoil, Islamic Awakening and Padri War (New York: Community Bamboo, 2008) . The book was also discussed again at the Padang on 18 October.

Discussion of the book is a sort of continuation of the polemic about


Padri War (1803-1837)
which has been ongoing since last year.
One of the initiators polemic is Basyral Hamidi Harahap (BHH), the author lost interest Tuanku Rao (New York: Community Bamboo, September 2007). In this book the author, among others criticize lord Tambusai (1784-1882), the first national hero of origin Riau based 071/TK/Tahun Presidential Decree No. 1995.
Polemics about sticking Padri War again, with BHH as one of the main propulsion motors, initially triggered by the user republikasi MO Parlindungan, Pongkinangolngolan Sinamabela title Tuanku Rao: Hanbali school of Islamic Terror in Batak, 1816-1833 (New York: LKiS, 2006) the first edition (1964) has criticized Hamka (1974).
Along with that comes a degree of heroism petitions sued Bonjol Tuanku Imam accused of violating human rights because it forces invaded Padri Batak Land (1816-1833) who killed “millions” of people in the area (see: http://www.petitiononline.com/ knurl / petition.html).
Now it seems to go a step further polemic: the title of the report in Kompas dated October 16, 2008 was quite controversial: “Casualties of War Rectification Request Padri History”. Thus, the explicit claims of the children and grandchildren of war casualties that occurred nearly two hundred years ago it was that history Padri War was in the public has been “not correct” to say nothing untrue.
This brief review BHH in lost interest a little view Tuanku Rao (GTR) on the heroic lord Tambusai, the common thread that can be pulled to the discussion that took place in the field as reported by Reuters that.
Although this book is ‘spread’ here and there, less effective, and weak in terms of theory and methodology, but the content that is full of lost interest is clearly focused on criticism of the cruelty and brutality of The Padri when they invaded the Land of Batak. The invasion has joined the ancestors BHH own torment. In GTR BHH questioned the patriotism and heroism Tambusai my lord and my lord Imam Bonjol (hlm.106-7).
Tuanku Tambusai and irony Padri War
It can not be denied that the war had left the memories of heroic Padri well as traumatic to the people in the three regions: West Sumatra, North Sumatra (Tapanuli and vicinity), and Riau (Rokan and vicinity).
For about the first 20 years of the war (1803-1821) was practically a mutually berbunuhan fellow Minangkabau and his brothers from the Land of Batak.
Starting in April 1821
Company involved in the war as “invited” the Indigenous. Furthermore, it is the resistance war repel invaders Netherlands.
Heroism lord Tambusai more associated with the final episode Padri War. After the fortress fell Bonjol



Original Lithography Muara Batang arau Padang 1811 By Merseden

(Courtecy dr Iwan suwandy found  in Jakarta)

Compare with he repro below








ENTRANCE_OF_PADANG_RIVER.jpg ‎(472 × 400 pixels, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)


From The history of Sumatra, containing an account of the government, laws, customs, and manners of the native inhabitants with a description of the natural products and a relation of the ancient political state of that islandby William Marsden, F.R.S., the Third Edition with corrections, additions, and plates. London. Printed for the Author by J. M’Creery, Black-Horse-Court, and sold by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster-Row 1811


VIEW_OF_PADANG_HILL.jpg ‎(472 × 409 pixels, file size: 39 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

PLATE 18a. VIEW OF PADANG HILL. Published by W. Marsden, 1810.

From The history of Sumatra, containing an account of the government, laws, customs, and manners of the native inhabitants with a description of the natural products and a relation of the ancient political state of that islandby William Marsden, F.R.S., the Third Edition with corrections, additions, and plates. London. Printed for the Author by J. M’Creery, Black-Horse-Court, and sold by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster-Row 1811




However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang.

The Convention of 1814 only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang.

Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau.


Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.





The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38)



Monkey Hill(Gunung Monyet) sketch in 1821



Sketch Batang Arau 1821

In 1840


Lie Ma Say with his wife were ordered by the Qing Dinasty Fujian government to visit Priaman City west Sumatra as the Trade Mission officer.Li Ma say started from Amoy(no Xiamen) by ship to Indonesia.



Hadirnya Pasar

Perkembangan kota me­nga­­kibatkan beberapa pe­dagang Tionghoa yang ada di Padang mendirikan sebuah Pasar di Kampung Tionghoa dekat Kelenteng di atas tanah milik Kapten Tionghoa, Lie Maa Saay dan dikelola Poa Leng. “Sekarang pasar itu terkenal dengan nama Pasar Tanah Kongsi,” kata Erniwati.

Pasar Tanah Kongsi ini berdekatan dengan Pasar Mudik yang berdekatan de­ngan pasar yang dibangun orang Minangkabau.




Sekitar tahun 1340, daerah ini hanya dikenal sebagai kampung nelayan. Namanya kampung Batung. Kampung ini di bawah sistem pemerintahan nagari yang diperintah Penghulu Delapan Suku. Cikal-bakal masuknya Belanda di Ranah Minang berlangsung dengan kedatangan VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) untuk melakukan transaksi dagang


Status sebagai pusat perniagaan kemudian memacu pertumbuhan fisik kota dan semakin berkembang pasca terbangunnya pelabuhan Emma Haven yang sekarang disebut sebagai Teluk Bayur pada abad ke 19.

Kota ini lebih melesat lagi setelah ditemukannya tambang batubara di Umbilin, Sawah Lunto/Sijunjung, oleh peneliti Belanda, De Greve. Namun sentra perdagangan tetap di Muaro. ***

Sejak lama, kota Padang adalah wilayah persaingan pasar yang sengit. Para pesaing muncul berdasarkan etnis tertentu, hingga akhirnya tumbuh berbagai pusat perdagangan seperti Pasar Gadang, Pasar Mudik, Pasar Batipuh, Pasar Tanah Kongsi, Pasar Jawa dan sebagainya. Pasar pertama di Kota Padang adalah Pasar Gadang yang berada di sisi kanan Batang Arau. Pasar Mudik yang jauh dari situ berdiri kemudian.

Lantas pedagang Cina membuat pasar baru dekat Klenteng See Hion Kiong (1861) yang masih berdiri sampai sekarang.

Namun sejumlah kebakaran kemudian menghanguskan pasar. Kawasan kota Padang pada masa itu terbagi dalam kelompok-kelompok bangsa.

Para penduduk keturunan Cina bermukim di sekitar Pasar Tanah Kongsi yang selanjutnya disebut Kampung Cina.

Bagian kota lain didiami pemukim keturunan India, saudagar dari Arabia dan Persia yang kemudian terkenal dengan Kampung Keling.

Ada juga Kampung Jawa yang didiami perantau asal Jawa yang konon sudah ada di Minangkabau sejak zaman Majapahit. Agak ke hulu lagi, berdiam warga keturunan Nias, Melayu dan Bugis. Sementara masyarakat Minangkabau asli bermukim agak di belakang lagi.






Padang reede,

DEI Boat arrived at muara Batang Arau Padang City in 1845,painting By Van de Velde











Chinese Captau   Li say was the first Tionghoa padang captain ,

Info from Lie swan hauw

Lie Saaij or Lie Ma Saaij must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents.
\Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1855)

Before Lie Saaij there were among others Lie Piet as captain of the chinese with Lie Kee as lieutenant. ( ±1855 )


Chan Yong Chuan

was a merchant at Padang, West Sumatra, who later moved to Penang in 1851 had a son born in Penang nam Chan Kim Boon

My family also move to penang from Payakumbuh (family of Kam Djoe Ho), the son of my grandpa brother Chua Gim Boe named Chuan Ban Boen ‘s son became the chief of Penang Police Departmen,circa 1970 named Albert Ma (DR Iwan note)







Chan Kim Boon

Chan Kim Boon was a famous, writer, poet, novelist, translator, and had profound knowledge in Chinese literature and mythology. He was well versed in English, Chinese and Malay. Born in Penang in 1851  to Chan Yong Chuan. His father was a merchant at Padang, Sumatra, who later moved to Penang.






Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name, Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.


Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.

Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi




The Origin Of Surname And Background

The Sek Tong Cheah clan is the descendants of Yan Di Shen Nong. Jiang Zi Ya, the 56th generation grandson of Yan Di, assisted King Zhou Wu to defeat the Zhou of Shang Dynasty in 1122 B.C and he was appointed as “General In Battle and Premier In Court”. Ten generations later, Shen Bo was born. Shen Bo became the brother-in-law of King Zhou Xuan and he was awarded with Xie (Cheah), somewhere around Chen Liu in Henan (presently known as Wan Cheng in Nan Yang District of Henan). He adopted the name of his county as his surname and he became the first original ancestor of the Xie (Cheah) clan.


Cheah Beng Him also known as Cheah Tong San, one of the 85th generation grandsons of Shen Bo was born in 1233.  Towards the end of 13th century, he moved to settle down in Sek Tong Village in the subdivision of Sam Toh of Hai Teng District of

Cheang Chew in Fukien

 (presently known as Shi Tang Village of Hai Cheng District, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China) and he became the progenitor of the Sek Tong Cheah clan.


During the late period of Manchu Emperor Qian Long in the 18th century, due to economical stagnation in Southern Fukien including Sek Tong Village, the Cheah clansmen left their village and brave through the stormy seas to look for greener pastures overseas.


From a partial record of the Cheah Genealogy compiled in the early reign of Manchu Emperor Tong Zhi, there were 110 clansmen buried in Penang between the 18th century during the reign of

 Manchu Emperor Qian Long

 and mid19th century during the reign of


Manchu Emperor, Xian Feng.


This reflects the sufferings encountered by the Cheahs during the early development of Penang and that Penang was the important destination of the Cheah clans in their emigration to South East Asia.




The Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi also known as Cheah Si Hock Haw Kong Kongsi or in short Cheah Kongsi was formed in 1810 by the Cheah clansmen of Sek Tong Village, Sam Toh Sub-division, Hai Teng District of Cheang Chew, Fukien, who have settled down overseas and their descendants in Penang, later, constructed the present magnificent clan temple.


Their clansmen in Penang, besides striving hard to accumulate personal wealth, did not forget the worshipping of their patron saints, the two Hock Haw Kong which they brought along from Liu She An Temple in their village and also at the same time did not forget to explore means to integrate their fellow clansmen for purpose of mutual assistance and self-defence. Initially, they purchased a landed property at T.S. 20 Georgetown in the name of “Jee Oui Hock How Kong” on May 25, 1810. Their pioneer leaders at that time were Cheah Chengin, Cheah Gnow Sooe, Cheah Pang and Cheah Yeam.


On 2nd July 1828,

 Cheah Chengin, Cheah Lye Yeam and Cheah (Tai) Pang as Trustees for “Cheah Kay Hock How Kong Kongsi” purchased the site of the present ancestral temple. Since then, under the leaderships of Cheah Yeam, Cheah Soye, Cheah Chow Phan and Cheah Oon Heap respectively until 1860, the Kongsi served as conveyor of traditional patriarchal clan rules in order to promote a rational social order of mutuality and harmony among the Cheah clan and at the same exercised the function of accumulating collective material wealth.


In 1858,

 under the leadership of Cheah Chow Phan, Cheah Teow Koh and Cheah Phaik Ee, the clansmen successfully united to erect the ancestral temple to worship their two territorial patron saints, the two Hock Haw Kong, with $12,367 from the common fund of the Kongsi, and it was called Chong Tek Tong Cheah Kay Beow then.


In 1891,

Cheah Oon Heap officially registered the Cheah Kongsi with the Registrar of Society and the Board of Trustees was formed from 14 members from the ten sections namely Sai Suah, Chooi Thau, Eh Boey, Tcheng Kow, Ow Kow, Ho Boey, Teng Tang Kheh, Eh Tang Kheh, Eh Choo and Thaw Theah to handle its administration

In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.



Cheong Fatt Tze(Thio Tiauw Siat.)

Cheong Fatt Tze as he is known today was born in 1840 in Dapu, Guangdong. He was a Hakka, with birth name Chang Chin Hsun, and when he lived in Batavia and Penang, he was then known by his Hokkien name,


Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name, Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history.

Cheong Fatt Tze was born to a very poor family in China, at the age of 17 years, he left his native and lived in several places under the Dutch East Indies empire.

He did some odd jobs before landed at Batavia

and worked at a provision shop. As time passed, he married his employer’s daughter, Choo Neo (b. 1867). It was through the marriage, he was given financial support by his father-in-law to commence business on his own account and used Thio Tiauw Siat as his signature.

His name Thio Tiauw Siat was spelled in a Dutch way, and was used in the Dutch and British colonies throughout his entire business life. However, he was commonly known in China as Chang Chin Hsun.


In 1859,

he secured a government contract in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Batavia.

Through these contracts, he was then a well-known figure in the Dutch East Indies, and from Batavia he moved to Aceh when he was 35 years old, where he secured another contract in in supplying food and daily provisions to the Dutch army and navy forces in Aceh.

Because of his articulate social life with the Dutch elites, he successful obtained the Opium, Liquor and Pawnbroker Farm in Aceh and by 1877, his farming interest had extended to half of the northern region of Sumatra, with vast interest in Government Farms in Edi, Temiang, Deli and Bengkalis, and in 1893 expanded to Rhio and Indragiri.


Cheah Choo Yew was born in 1841 to Cheah Yam with ancestry in Sek Tong, Fujian. Cheah Yam or also known as Cheah Hun Yam was an early settler in Penang, in around 1750s, when the Colony was founded by Sir Francis Light.


Cheah Yam first settled at Bagan Dalam, Province Wellesley as an angler, before moved to Penang. By then he was already a successful merchant. During the early time, he owned two houses and a shop lot in Penang and was then a wealthy man where his property worth 2,700 Spanish dollars.


Cheah Yam soon recognized as the leader for the Cheah clansmen, and in 1801 he acquired a building at Armenian Street to form the Cheah ancestral temple and housed the Patron Saints Hock Haw of Sek Tong.


In 1820,

the under the name of the Cheah temple, a property was purchased and named the Jee Lye Hock Haw Kongsi. Cheah Yam died in 1845 and was then a well-established man among the Chinese community in the Colony. His active involvement in assisting and concerning the welfare of Cheah clansmen in Penang was passed to his wife, Ong Sin Neoh.


In 1858,

Ong Sin Neoh and her son, Cheah Choo Yew founded the Cheah Kay Sek Tong Seah Hock Haw Kong Kongsi (Cheah Clan Temple) at Armenian Street, the establishment of the temple cost 12,367 Spanish dollars. The construction work commenced in 1858 and ended in 1873.




In 1870

Published agrarian laws that prohibit non-indigenous people to own farmland. People initially lived in the port tionghoa priaman, although there are also found in the harbor my heart.




Batang arau Padang look from the appenberg(gunung Monyet) in 1870














in 1875,


Cheong Fat Tze commenced business in Penang in partnership with

Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia)

and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.

And ten years later he managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore, where another three years later he secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).











Padang Beach in 1875

In 1879,


Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.




Padang City seen from the Hill in 1870



Tionghoa klenteneng temple at Padang in 1870


Tionghoa merried women in 1870

in 1875,


Cheong Fat Tze  commenced business in Penang in partnership with Lee Ah Ghee (Captain of Batavia) and Wong Boon Sin, under the name Chop Thio Joo Hoe at 15 Pitt Street.



In 1879,


Cheong Fat Tze purchased a steamer, the Raja Kongsi Aceh, which plied between Penang and Aceh.


According to the magazine in 1880, the city of Pariaman were the ship port, like  the Port of Bengkulu and Sibolga sebaigaiman

(Said Zakaria,1930,Handwritten Document Book)





Klenteng padang

In 1880




Kampong Tionghoa  with Bendi in 1880

Compare with Singapore Tionghoa street in 19th century below






Chine camp(kampong tionghoa) Street starting from the Kinol Aphotek corner until the Chinese temple.



Kampong tionghoa during earthquake 2008

The left one,with staircase where my grandfather printing office(later My Father and Uncle) Express.also seen Eng Djoe Bie and at the right the house Mie Yap Kie(noodle restautrant),Lena Khoe my teacher house(his father the brother of My Wife Grandmother at Padang Panjang Mrs Tjan Tjie Seng),no car this time only Bendi(delman ,horse carriage) and pedati.

then the house of the mother of dr Lie Po Tjoe(maria), then the house of Khoe family(mfather of Lena Khoe my teacher at SD Fransikus(low s basic school or Sekolah Dasar),her sister merried Thio Tjoe Liong,

after that I donn’t know, the one gang to Kali Kecil street, the took(shop) Julia  father of dr Itje Juliani, then Toko(shop) Romeo (later became wasserij,now painting Shop Tjia Eng Wan and his his wife mu second uncucle  ,my father brother Gho Ie Keng- name Gho soei Hong, then Hidangan Kita

,then the shoe shop, then Nam Yang  restaurant(father of Bo liong) the corner now became the car shop

then  Kampung sebelah street then  Khoun  Chan foto studio,Hen seng hotel, Toko Murah owner Oei Soei Ho, from his first wife they did not had children and  get step children Oei Djie san and Oei Bok sioe(meeried with my thirs  brother of My Father Gho Ie Hauw(Hardi Firgo), after that the new house before burned, many years this building not finish. I remember only few oner like the father of Eng Liang and Eng Liep and Mak Kim Lian (son of Mak Pak soei) merried  aunt Tjoe she ever played lawn tennis with me their children  Mak Ying Fa,Mak yoek Fa and son Mak Wan Wie.


In 1945 live at Kampoeng tionghoa street(now Pondok street) based to dr Iwan collections Road tax registration Book

kampoeng tionghoa,now Pondok street (  Tjan Hoei Nio ,no 21,  Tjoa eng Keng   gold marchant shop at kampoeng Tionghoa  and he had also house  at tepi Bandar Olo where dr Italian and Dr Khamardi thalut practse, Tjoa  tjong Thay, Sho Sien Hien, )

At the leftside of kampong (village)  Tionghoa street were the house of gho (father of dr Gho Tjeng hoen) the fist leader of Gho Famili(marga) Kongsi Padang, then small gang

tanah Kongsi Market At OPadang City (not yet found old illustration)


Situation now

Compare with Dr Iwan Grandpa HomelandCZhnagzhou

From Quanzhou (Tjiang Tjioe) Bus station  by taxi Dr Iwan  went to the very exciting Pagoda temple with many ancient statue collection, old wooden tree (400 years old) ,




Kay Yuan Temple beside Dr Iwan Grandpa Homeland



Walked fron the Kaiyuan temple to the left and from here at least i saw my grandpa home area, the old Hokian House same with in indonesia chinese area(Tionghoa), in my Granpa homeland I found some interesting collections like vintage mao era ID, the Cultural revolution books,near same I found during visit at nanning -south china fromHanoi I cann’t show nanning photo because i took video theremay be if wordpress gave me facility the Video fromHanoi and Nanning will put in the blog. I am very happy to came the area where my grandpa was born, tall my family this our grandpa city (he called Tjiangtjioe)













Kelenteng(wihara) Padang CHINESE TEMPLE  1880



Klenteng Padang 1880. Beside this Klenteng(Tionghoa temple)

This building maybe beside the Tionghoa Kelenteng which before the Major Tionghoa Lie say house(Dr Iwan)

And in the front the small street


pasar borong



Mak Pak soen,OPIUM TRADER  pADANG 1880



Tionghoa gambling in 19th century




Klenten in Rembang java


In 1883,


Cheong Fatt Tze acquired another steamer, the Hock Canton, which also had the same route as the former





the first chinese Major ( Majoor der chinezen ) of Padang City , which appointment was done after he contributed more than 25.000 old dutch guilders to the Krakatau relief fund in 1883.

The pther Major de  cheneesen  of Padang city as told by my mother were Lie Tjay Thai, and Gho goan Tee,


In 1883,



Cheong Fat Tze  acquired another steamer, the Hock Canton, which also had the same route as the former.

After 14 years of experience in running the steamship business, in 1893 he established a steamship company at Penang, known as Kong Hock Kiok Limited Company and had nine steamers running to Perak, Tongkah, Klang, Asahan, and Deli.







Cheong Fat Tze managed to obtain the Penang Pawnbroker Farm and became the Chinese Consul-General in Singapore,

At the same time in Payakumbuh my grandgrandpa


‘Chua Chay Hiok became viceconsult in Payakumbuh,every singkek from china came to payakumbuh report to him and he gave the work included my grandpa Gho Kim thian he cam from Changzhou(Tjiang Tjioe) Fukien,and later he was merried with the daughter of Chua Chay Hiok sister named Chua giok Wan,





that is why my father


 Djohan Gho

called his father inlaw Chua Gim Toen,uncle


(father of my mother Chua Giok Lan,chua Gim toen the son of Chua chay Hiok) uncle.

In 1886,


Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles. This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products. In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.




In 1886,


Cheong Fat Tze established the Ban Joo Hin in Penang, and took great interest in steamship, tin mining, coconut, sago, fruit and pepper plantations, all distributed over Province Wellesley, Perak and Selangor.

During his stay in Singapore

when he was the Chinese Consul, his business was left to his attorneys and agents who were Cheah Chen Eok and Lee Ah Kam, with headquarters at Penang.

It was not known why Cheong Fatt Tze drastically shifted his interest from the Dutch colonies to the British ones.

He also owned a settlement called Karatan near Batavia, the place with a population of 8,000 with the length about 10 miles and width about 8 miles.

This place was planted with paddy and fish was amongst the products.

In partnership with a Dutch company, he owned various farms in Tjebaraosa, Tjelengsa, Klapa Moengal, Kongbong and Boyoung.

The total area of all these districts was 60 miles in length and 305 miles in width and had over 100,000 populations. Where the principal produce was rice, birds’ nests and coffee.






Cheong Fat Tze secured the Opium and Liquor Farm of Penang and Singapore.

The onerous duties of this responsible Chinese diplomat position he fulfilled for five years and in return for his services was created a Mandarin of the Highest Order (First Rank Officer).



Emma Haven in 1888 (now teluk Bayur)


Sultan deli membangun istana  Maimoon


Kiahnya sebagai berikut:


 Beberapa bangunan peninggalan Kesultanan Deli juga menjadi bukti perkembangan daerah ini pada masa itu, misalnya


Istana Maimun..(wiki)

Dalam benak gw waktu itu, medan isinya orang batak semua. tnyata gw salah. banyak juga penduduk keturunan melayu disini. salah satu bukti peninggalan kerajaan melayu yang pernah berjaya adalah


 Istana Maimun.

Aga disayangkan, sewaktu gw kesana sekitar 2 thn silam, kondisinya sudah seperti rumah hunian yang dipenuhi jemuran dan antena televisi. mudah2an skr sudah kembali seperti layaknya Istana yang dulu pernah berjaya

Berlokasi di Jl. Brigjen Katamso Medan (10 km dari bandara), Istana Maimun merupakan peninggalan Sultan Kerajaan Deli (jadi inget soto deli di deket kesawan, enak banget!!!)bernama Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah. pusat kerajaan deli ini didominasi dengan warna kuning (warna khas orang melayu) dan selesai dibangun tahun 1888 dengan arsitek berkebangsaan Italia. kalau diperhatikan, bangunan ini memiliki perpaduan antara budaya Islam dan Eropa, dengan beberapa material (seperti ubin dan marmer) yang memang langung diimpor dari Eropa. Bagunan terdiri dari 2 lantai dengan 3 bagian yaitu bangunan induk, sayap kiri dan sayap kanan. pengaruh budaya eropa agaknya cukup kental tertata di istana ini, dari mulai lampu, kursi, meja, lemari, jendela sampai pintu dorong. sedangkan pengaruh Islam dapat dilihat dari bentuk lengkungan (arcade) di bagian atap yang menyerupai perahu terbalik (lengkungan persia) yang biasanya dijumpai pada bangunan2 di kawasan timur tengah.

salah satu ruang yang ada di dalam bangunan adalah balaiurung. tempat ini biasa digunakan untuk upacara penobatan Sultan Deli dan tempat keluarga sultan sungkem2an di hari raya Islam. selanjutnya terdapat 40 kamar yang terdiri dari 20 kamar di lantai atas (tempat singasana sultan) dan lainnya di bagian bawah. tnyata dilantai bawah ada penjaranya jg lho.


Di komplek istana, kita bisa liat sebuah meriam yang agaknya dikeramatkan. meriam ini punya cerita. konon legendanya di jaman kesultanan Deli lama tinggallah seorang putri cantik bernama Putri Hijau. kecantikannya sempat membuat Sultan Aceh jatuh cinta dan hendak melamar tuk dijadikan permaisuri. namun lamaran tersebut ditolak kedua saudara laki2 sang putri.

 Sultan Aceh marah, dan timbullah perang antara kesultanan aceh dan deli. dengan kesaktiannya, seorang saudara sang putri menjelma menjadi ular tangga dan seorang lagi menjadi sepucuk meriam yang tidak pernah berhenti menembak tentara aceh (meriam ini yang skr ada di Istana Maimun). kesultanan deli lama mengalami kekalahan dan putra mahkota yang menjelma menjadi meriam meledak sebagian karena kecewa. ledakan itu konon melontarkan bagian belakang meriam sampai ke Labuhan Deli dan bagian depan ke dataran tinggi Karo.

Sang putri kemudian ditawan, dimasukkan ke peti kaca dan dibawa ke aceh. sampai di Ujung Jamboe Aye membuat permintaan terakhir dengan upacara penyerahan beras dan telur sebelum peti diturunkan dari kapal. saat upacara dimulai, angin ribut berhembus, disertai gelombang laut yang sangat tinggi. dari dalam laut muncul saudara sang putri yang menjelma menjadi ular naga dan dengan rahangnya ia mengambil peti adiknya dan dibawa masuk ke laut(Siertha)


Istana Maimun terlihat dari depan


Istana Maimun ini didesain atau dirancang oleh arsitek dari Italia yang kemudian dibangun oleh Sultan Deli, Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah pada taun 1888 silam, Istana Maimun memiliki luas sebesar 2.772 meter persegi dengan jumlah ruangan sebanyak 30 kamar.
Istana Maimun menjadi salah satu tempat tujuan wisata yang sudah cukup populer, bukan hanya karena usianya yang sudah tua, melainkan desain interiornya yang sangat unik dapat mengundang para wisatawan berkunjung ke Istana Maimun ini,


dengan memadukan unsur-unsur warisan kebudayaan dari Melayu dan gaya Islam, Spanyol, India dan Italia. namun sayang sekali sekarang keadaanya kurang begitu terurus. Jika kita sedang melewati tempat ini pada waktu sore hari, kita dapat melihat anak-anak bermain sepak bola di halaman istana ini.

Istana Maimun tepatnya terletak di Jl. Brigjen Katamso Kota Medan sekitar 10 km dari bandara, wisata Istana Maimun merupakan sebuah peninggalan dari Sultan Kerajaan Deli Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah. Bagunan ini terdiri dari 2 lantai dengan memiliki 3 bagian bangunan induk, sayap kiri dan sayap kanan dan dipengaruhi budaya Eropa yang cukup kental.


Istana Maimun penghuni medan lorong atas




Istana Maimun penghuni medan




istana maimun tampak ruangan dalam





Foto jalan Tjong a Fie (Kesawan ) Medan in 1889

Bandingkan dengan


The Kesawan Streen(Tjong a Fie Street) Medan in 1920




Mr Cheong Fat Tze  From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri  Dr Iwan  Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu Dr Iwan  ada yang masih berada di Penang,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang dan salah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.(Dr Iwan)

Lim A King yang mempelopori perhimpunan baru ini dengan nama Heng Beng Tong pada tahun 1890. Ia lalu menjadi toako pertama HBT.

Pada tahun 1895 organisasi ini disahkan secara hukum dengan AD/ART yang resmi dengan masa bakti pengurus tahun 1895-1901.

Info dari Tnbeng penasehat HBT 2006 kepad Lisasuroso




Cheong Fat Tze

The Founer Of HTT Padang City

Thio Tiauw Siat. His Cantonese name,

Cheong Fatt Tze is much popular in today’s history



Until 1890,because quite a lot of difficulties in taking care of the needs of ethnic Chinese, formed a new association or joint venture. Organization formed

Heng  Beng  Tong (HBT).

Old HBT picture not yet found


HBT now

The two organizations have different procedures and features of the relations among its members.

Each member of the HBT, for example, regardless of religion, are required to perform prayers Kwan Tee Koen and ancestral spirits by lifting incense.


While HTT members must meet a summons and is responsible for the implementation of the cemetery.

Although in some areas of Indonesia such as Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and others, there is a foundation or organization of ethnic Chinese, but Chinese organizations that exist in West Sumatra to say unique, because there are only born and West Sumatra alone and not in other areas.

In these organizations also embraced the membership of all the tribes and clans of existing ethnic Chinese.


Another plus is that they are able to maintain the original Chinese culture from generation to generation like a funeral that is still practiced in ancient China. Cemetery organization is even listed as the organization’s first funeral is present in the archipelago.

The formation of this cemetery organization need not be separated from Chinese ethnic Padang worked together when they wanted to bury the corpses.

They must carry the coffins of a hollowed piece of wood logs up the mountain that overlooks the sea. The process of carrying crates weighing up to hundreds of pounds is to be done with the stretcher. Without cooperation, the family would be impossible to do it alone

What is interesting is that although they managed to maintain their cultural identity, very few of the residents of Padang Chinese who can speak Mandarin






Toekn Perkebunan Soengai Serbangan 1891

In May 1893,


Cheong Fat Tse became the Honorary Vice-Consul of China in Penang.

Followed by his business success in the Dutch colonies,




Mr lCheong Fat Tze From penang The Sek Tong Cheah Si She Tek tong datang ke Padang mendirikan Ho Tek Tong tahun 1890.

Banyak penduduk Tionghoa Padang berasal dari Penang seperti nenek isteri saya Khoe Kim Lian(saudara ayah Ibu Lena Khoe) lahir di Penang dan keluarga ibu sya ada yang masih berada di Penang,dulunya anaknya jadi Kepala Polisi Kota Penang dan slah seorang anaknya mendapat bea siswa ke Australia.



 Oranje Hotel (Hotel Muara) in 1890

Compare with in 1935


Oranye hotel, after the WWII changed to be Muara hotel

In 1892,


 Cheong Fat Tze  founded the Chang Yu Winery in Shangtung, China, producing mainly fine Western wines with some traditional Chinese herbal wines.

In May 1893,


Cheong Fat Tze  became the Honorary Vice-Consul of China in Penang.

Followed by his business success in the Dutch colonies,





The Sultang of Deli Mammon Al Rasyid Perkasa alam in 1893


in 1896


 Cheong Fat Tze founded various Chinese commercial banks and was a well-known banker in China and Dutch East Indies and was on the Board of Directors of the Canton Railway and the Bank of China.

He was also a shareholder in the Sze Hai Tong Banking & Insurance Company Limited in Singapore


Silau Onderneming Asahan Token





Silau  Asahan Tobacco Factory  Token





 Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token



 Kuli Tionghoa memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Chinese koelies bij het sorteren van tabak



Pekerja tembakau deli dan asahan



Memilih tembakau deli dan asahan


Abad ke 20




Klenteng Batavia(Jakarta)



Jalan utama kisaran tanjung balai asahan 1900


Pelabuhan  tanjung balai asahan 1900


Pada Mas pemerintahan Sultan Muhammad Hussain Rahmad shah II Negeri Asahan sangat maju dan sangat dikenal oleh Pedagang dari luar negeri terutama pedagang dari negeri belanda. Banyak maskapai eropah memmbuka perkebunan(onderneming) di Asahan.

Pada masa iniBelanda banyak membangun bberapa gedung pemerintahan  dan membangun akses dari daerah lain menuju Tanjung Balai dengan membangun jalan dan jalur kereta api  serta memperluas pelabuhan

Sukltan Muhammad Husain pernah melawt kenegeri Belanda bersama Tengku Alang Yahya dan tengku Musa dsan pada tahun 1908 beliau menerima anugrah bintang Knight order of the Netherland Lion dari Ratu wihelmina.dan semasa pemerintahannya Rakyat asahan bertambah makmur hidupnya dan beberapa perusahan Eropah menjalankan perniagan dinegeri asahan.

Menurut info teman dr Iwan sat ini ada seorang peagang Tionghoa yang tersohor di tanjung Balai Asahan baca pessannya liwat email


Dear Dr. Iwan,

I read your blog on history of Padang , Sumatra and enjoyed the nostalgia…Perhaps with luck, u may know something of other historical TiongHua communities in Sumatra- am interested to know more about  Khoo Cheow Teong who was a active trader from Tanjong Balai, Asahan( east coast, North Sumatra ) in 1900s.  He had two sons; Khoo Sian Wei and Sian Ewe, the former stayed back in Asahan whilst the father and second son, Sian Ewe lived a active biz n social life in Penang. I am a descendant but have no contact or knowledge of their family or biz in Asahan. Now am trying to catchup and wonder if you can kindly share what u may know or refer me to sources

( clan associations? Newspaper reports? Museum? Archives? English, Jawi or Dutch language?? Etc)  and people who may know the Khoo family.Thanks for yr help, rgds robertY

Saya harap ada info buatnya

(Dr Iwan)

During visit Malaysia in November 2013,I found information about kapitan cina Tanjung balai asahan

Khoo Chew Tong



Khoo Chew Tong KAPITAN CINA tanjung Balai Asahan



Khoo Cheng Lin born in China from Khoo Wat seng . Khoo Wat seng was among the early Chinese  and founders of the Khoo family clan temple Ee Kok Tong in 1835.

Khoo Cheng Lin elder son was first named Lim Neo in china in which he had two sons Khoo . he later moved to penang to join his father in Penang  and he merried Koh Keng Yean.

The Khoo family was a well established member in Penang an his patnarch Koh Lay HUan was the Kapitan of Penang.The marriage was arranged so as to increase the power of the Khoo-Khoo families in the Straits settlements

Khoo Cheng Lim had four sons through Koh Keng Yean, and

his youngest son Khoo Cheow Teong was a Chinese Kapitan of Asahan


Khoo Chew Tong

and was made a Justice of Peace by the british in Penang.

Khoo Cheng Lim’s youngest son through his principal wife in China, Khoo Soo Teong was born in 1883,he merried Quah Neo in China and had four sons.His second son Khoo Ban Seng later moved to Penang and worked for his uncle,Khoo Cheow Teong, Khoo Ban seng merried Yeoh Cheam Neo( 1939) and had a son Khoo Ewe Aik


Khoo Ewe Aik






27 juni 1917

Setelah dikuasai Belanda, Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi suatu gemeenteberdasarkan Besluit Governeur General tanggal 27 Juni 1917 dengan Stbl. no. 284/1917, sebagai akibat dibukanya perkebunan-perkebunan di derahSumatera Timur, termasuk daerah Asahan, seperti H.A.P.M., SIPEF, London Sumatera (“Lonsum”), dan lain-lain.

 Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi kota pelabuhan dan pintu masuk ke daerah Asahan yang penting artinya bagi lalu-lintas perdagangan Hindia-Belanda


Tanjung Balai 1900

Istana Kesultanan Asahan di Tanjung Balai. Tinggal Kenangan


(5 Oktober 1906 – 6 April 1980).

 PADA PUKUL 11 TGL 19 SYAFAR 1353(15 JUNI 1933),






Laurentius klappert

Assisten Resident Asahan




Awal Abad ke 20

Kejayaan Deli pun masih dapat kita saksikan hingga saat ini, yaitu Istana Maimun dan Masjid Raya Al-Mahsun. Kedua bangunan monumental itu didirikan oleh sultan ke-9 Kerajaan Deli, Sultan Ma’mun Al-Rasyid Perkasa Alamsyah, pada awal abad ke-20.

Pada saat itu, Medan telah menjadi kota niaga yang berkembang pesat. Hubungan raja dengan asing (Belanda) untuk membuka lahan tembakau, semakin meramaikan lalu lintas barang di kota ini. Tembakau Deli pun dikenal luas sebagai tembakau kelas 1 karena ditanam di lahan yang sangat cocok, demikian setidaknya papar Profesor Abdul Rauf dari Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU), saat diskusi dengan Tim EGI 2009 Sumatera Utara (Selasa, 19 Mei 2009


Hingar bingar perdagangan di Medan pun tidak dilakukan sendiri oleh Kesultanan Deli. Selain Belanda sebagai pemilik modal, orang Jawa turut serta didatangkan ke Tanah Deli sebagai tenaga ahli di bidang pertanian tembakau, sedangkan orang China sebagai pemasarannya. Suatu kolaborasi etnis yang hingga kini menjadi bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Medan.

Tjong A Fie adalah pelopor etnis China untuk membangun Medan. Pada awal abad ke-19, jiwa muda Tjong A Fie membawanya untuk merantu hingga ke Tanah Deli. Di sini, dengan dibantu oleh saudaranya Tjong Yong Hian, A Fie melakukan perdagangan dengan penduduk setempat. Kesuksesannya dalam niaga menarik hati Pemerintah Belanda untuk mengangkatnya sebagai Walikota (semacam itu sekarang-red) yang khusus mengurusi komunitas China di Medan. Selain itu, Kekaisaran China pun memberi kepercayaan kepada A Fie sebagai Duta Besar untuk wilayah Indonesia.

Kemajemukan Medan di masa lalu inilah yang telah menjadi cikal bakal perkembangan Medan dewasa ini. Bukan hanya etnis lokal (Batak) dan Melayu saja, tetapi orang Jawa, China, India dan lainnya, telah bahu membahu membangun Medan, hingga menjadikan kota terbesar ke-4 di Indonesia ini semakin menggeliat.

Catatan kota tua Medan merupakan awal dari perjalanan Ekspedisi Geografi Indonesia ke-6, yang mengambil kajian Provinsi Sumatera Utara. Perjalanan yang diawali pada tanggal 19 Mei 2009, dilakukan untuk mengamati fenomena geografi pada suatu trase atau rute tertentu. Fenomena itu meliput abiotik, biotik, kultur, dan dampak lingkungan yang diakibatkan dari interaksi ketiga unsur tersebut.

Untuk kesekian kalinya BAKOSURTANAL pun memberikan sumbangan nyata kepada daerah untuk mengangkat potensi wilayahnya.

Oleh Agung Christianto


read more about Tjong a Fie

 TJONG A FIE History collections





History of The Tjong A Fie Mansion

A prominent home located in the heart of Medan City at Kesawan Square, this beautiful mansion is full of characters and cultures behind its history in Medan.





The History of Tjong A Fie

Tjong Fung Nam, born from Hakka family and more popularly known as Tjong A Fie is born on 1860 in the village of Sungkow, Moyan or Meixien.  He was raised from a simple home, with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian.  Both have to give up schooling from a young age to help their father in his shop.  Even with limited education, Tjong A Fie quickly learned the business and trading skills and soon pursued his dreams to become independent and successful, hence leaving his village in search for a better life.


Tjong A fie

In 1880, after sailing for months, he finally arrived at the port of Deli (Medan).  At that time his brother Tjong Yong Hian had already been living in Sumatra for 5 years and had became a respected merchant in Sumatra.  However, the independent Tjong A Fie wanted to find his own living and went about finding his own work.  Tjong A Fie started to learn and develop business skills from working for Tjong Sui Fo. He developed his social skills interacting with people of all races, Chinese, Melayu, Arab, India, including Dutch.  He began by learning the language Bahasa Melayu which became the national language used in Medan Deli.




The Entertaining Hall

Tjong A Fie grew and became a well respected person in Medan Sumatra, where he stayed away from gambling, alcohol and prostitution in the developing town of Medan.  With his strong sense of leadership and fairness, he became the mediator for the Chinese. The Dutch also seek his help when their plantations have problems with labor issues.  His ability to solve these issues earned him to become the Chinese lieutenant. With his outstanding performance, he was elected to become a Captain (Kapiten).


The various rooms

Tjong A Fie was known as a respected businessman who has good social networks and has build good relation with the Sultan Deli, Makmoen Al Rasjid Perkasa Alamsjah and Tuanku Raja Moeda.  As they became good friends, Tjong A Fie became his trusted person and helped dealt with many business matters.

Tjong A Fie also became the first Chinese to own a tobacco plantation. He also developed and expanded to tea plantation in Bandar Baroe and large coconut/palm oil plantations.

Along with his elder brother Tjong Yong Hian, Tjong A Fie joint partner with Tio Tiaw Siat also known as Chang Pi Shih, his uncle as well as consulate of China in Singapore and set up a railway company known as The Chow-Chow & Swatow Railyway Co.Ltd. in China



The Bedroom

Tjong A Fie, a very active social contributor, donated much of his wealth building many facilities for the welfare of the poor regardless of race, cultural beliefs or nationality including many places of worships such as Chinese & Hindu temple, Mosques and Churches.

As a well respected person in Medan who owns many plantations, palm oil and sugar factories, banks and railway companies, he employed more than 10.000 workers. As recommended by Sultan Deli, Tjong A Fie was appointed member of gemeenteraad (city council) and cultuurraad (cultural council)

4 February 1921, Tjong A Fie passed away from apopleksia or bleeding in the brain, in his home at Jalan Kesawan, Medan.  It shook the city Medan, thousands flock to pay respect from all over including Sumatera Timur, Aceh, Padang, Penang, Malaysia, Singapore and Java. He became a legend known by many in Medan till today.

Four months before his death, Tjong A Fie wrote his will in the presence of notary Dirk Johan Facquin den Grave.

Side  car: this odd name is probably a miss-spelling of Fouquain de Grave–as for instance shown in Pucca’s Blog: Memories of a Nonya Notaris Fouquain de Grave–but either way I would not want to pronounce that eminent name with an American accent.

Written in his will, he wanted all his wealth to be managed by Yayasan Toen Moek Tong which was established in Medan and Sungkow at the time of his death. The Yayasan based in Medan has been given 5 missions. Three of them are to provide financial help to young talented people that wished to complete their education, without no cultural or racial choice. Yayasan will also help the disabled who are no longer able to work including the blind or those with fatal illness.  Thirdly, the Yayasan will also help victims of natural disaster of any race or nationality.

1873-1924 The rule of Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah, “the Builder”.
1878 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Tanjung Mulia (between Titipapan & Labuhan)
1880s Guandi-miao (Guandi, Caishen, Dabogong) was erected by Guangdong people in Medan (Jl. Irian Barat 2).
1880s Guanyin-gong (Shakyamuni, Guanyin, Dizang-wang) was erected by Xinghua people in Medan (Jl. Yos Sudarso 46).
1885 The first newspaper “Deli Courant” was published.


Side Note: in checking the web for “Deli courant” I came across many fastfood outlets, or deli’s, where they serve ”delicatessen” (Dutch for delicacies) but also a reference to Sutan Sharir–an important early Indonesian statesman–one of that country’s founding fathers in fact, who had roots in Padang and Medan. He had also been a study friend of my Opa Otto at Leiden University, where they both studied law. On the way back to the Indies, Sharir made the long ocean trip as the pro forma ‘babysitter’ of my uncle Ernst (aka Oom Kiddie) since Opa Otto was still on Government pay and entitled to one ‘servant’. He opted to help out his friend Sharir instead.


Sjahrir: politics and exile in Indonesia – Google Books Result by Rudolf Mrázek – 1994 – Biography & Autobiography – 526 pages
128 In Gemeente Medan 1909-1934 (Medan: Deli Courant, 1934),  which mentions that Deli was a bit like the East Indies wild west: if you had committed murder in Batavia, you’d still be welcome in Medan–and every Dutch loafer was a potential grand seigneur in Deli. I mentioned Sharir before in my journal entry


Now we can continue with the timeline:

1886 Medan became the capital of northern Sumatra.
1886 “Witte Societeit” (“a rather grand club”) was erected next to the post office. [see photo hereunder]


1888 Sultan of Deli (Sultan Ma’mum Al Rashid Perkasa Alamsyah) moved from Labuhan Deli [series of pitcures below]




to the Maimoon Palace in Medan. [following two photographs of exterior and interior:]





1890 Guandi-gong (Guandi) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pertemburan 81 – near Pulo Brayan)
1891 Shoushan-gong (Guanyin) was erected by Fujianese in Labuhan Deli
1895 Zhenjun-miao was erected by Chaozhou people in Titipapan.
1898 Hotel De Boer was constructed.
1898-1939 Publication of “De Sumatra Post” by Joseph Hallermann, a German.
1900 Tjong A Fie mansion was built.
1906 Tianhou-gong (Mazu temple) was erected in Medan (Jl. Pandu Baru 2)
1907 Sultan Mosque was built [see pictures below]



1908 City Hall (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam)
1909-1911 Construction of post office (Snuyf, architect – head of Ned.Ind.PWD)
1910 Medan was a small city. Population = 17,500.
1910 Javasche Bank (Hulswit & Fermont Weltevreden + Ed Cuypers Amsterdam) [see pictures below]







1913 Tjong A Fie donated the city hall’s clock tower.
1917 Horse drawn carts with brooms were used for town cleaning.
1923 Renovation of City Hall.
1923 Zhenlian-si (Guangze-zunwang, Yuhuang-dadi) was erected by Chaozhou people in Kedai Durian.
1924-1945 The rule of Sultan Amaluddin Al Sani Perkasa Alamsyah
1928 Motorized vehicles were used to replace the horse drawn cars for town cleaning.
1929 Office of Netherlands Trading Company (now Bank Exim) was completed (used by Gunseikanbu during the Japanese occupation).
1936 Guanyin-ting (Guanyin) was erected by Hakka women in Medan (Jl. Lahat 54)
1936 Baolian-tang (Guanyin) was erected by Chaozhou women in Medan (Jl. Sun Yat Sen)
1942 End of Dutch rule. Population = 80,000.
2000 Medan’s population = 1,898,013


Cf.: Deli Maatschappij – Wikipedia

De N.V. Deli Maatschappij is een Nederlands bedrijf van koloniale oorsprong. Het bedrijf is in 1869 opgericht door Jacob Nienhuys als tabakscultuurmaatschappij met een concessie voor het Sultanaat Deli in Sumatra, Nederlands-Indië. In de Deli Maatschappij werd voor 50 % geparticipeerd door de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij. In de negentiende eeuw exploiteerde de Deli Maatschappij 120.000 hectare. De activiteiten van de maatschappij vormden een impuls voor een sterke groei van de stad Medan. Het toenmalige hoofdkantoor van de Deli Maatschappij in Medan is tegenwoordig het paleis van de Gouverneur van Sumatra.

Translation: The NV Deli Maatschappij is a Dutch company of colonial origin. The company was founded in 1869 by Jacob Nienhuys as a tabacco culture company with a concession for the Sultanate Deli in Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies. In the Deli Company there was a 50% participation of the Netherlands Trading Society. In the nineteenth century the Deli Company exploited 120,000 hectares. The activities of the company formed an impulse for the strong growth of the city of Medan. The onetime headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan is today the palace of the Governor of Sumatra. [See photo below on the left]




Klenteng of Chinese tempel, vermoedelijk op Java



Cheah Choo Yew commenced his early life at Langkat, Sumatra, and was for about two years trading in small sailing ships from one port to another. He was afterwards the government licensee for Opium Farming in Deli, Sumatra, where he engaged the business for about 17 years.

Cheah Choo Yew partnered with Khaw Joo Choe managed to the Opium and Liquor Farm in Thailand and Penang, and in 1906 he partnered with Lim Ah Siang in the Farm interest. He also managed the Gambling Farm in Siam for three years, a gambling farm at Hong Kong and also the Singapore Gambling Farm for about 12 years.

Cheah Choo Yew was a member of the Penang Advisory Board, Managing Director of Khean Guan Insurance Company Ltd., shareholder of the Eastern Shipping Company. In 1919, he founded a Chinese school in the Cheah Clan Temple, where the school ended its service in 1942.

Cheah Choo Yew was awarded the Certificate of Honour in 1928 for his invaluable public services and was made a Justice of Peace. He died in 1931 in Penang. The family obligation to serve the Cheah Clan Temple was continued by his son Cheah Seng Khim, a prominent politician in Penang during

11 februri 1908

Sultan Muhammad Husain shah II menanda tangani Kontrak  Politik dengan Belanda yang diwakili oleh Jacob ballot  residen Sumatera timur  dan pemrintah belanda juga mengankat Laurentius Klappert sebagai assisten resident  Afdelling Asahan.

Semasa hidupnya sultan Muahammad Husain menikah  6 kali, yang pertama dengan Raja tengah Uteh putri  sulung Raja tengah Muhammad abu Bakar dan isteri kedua  dengan Siti Zainab  seorang wanita keturunan Arab, isteri ketiga encik hitam ,wanita dari penang, isteri ke empat Encik Ungah(ongah) wanita dari sungai Kepayang(mungkin sumbu sama dengan  Hajjah ainon binti Awang atau singapura) yang mungkin ibu tengku Amir,isteri kelima Tengku Zahara putri Tengku uhammad Yusuf  bin Tengku Abdul Djalil atau johor-singapura, isteri keenam  tengku Madariah  dan isteri ketujuh Encik Itam

Dari pernikahan ii sultan memiliki 8 putra dan  4 putri



Tengku Besar amir

  1. 1.       Tengku amir lahir tahun 1885 di tajung Balai,dan tahun 5 mei 1899 dinobatkan sebagai tengku Besar  anak dari pasangan  Raja Uteh
  2. 2.       Tengku Ibrahim (siti ainab)
  3. 3.       Tengku Usman lahir tahun 1900(dari isteri encik hitam)
  4. 4.       Tengku Muhammad Ishak (dari isteri encik hitam),meninggal dalam  revolusi social maret 1946
  5. 5.       Tengku Haidar Manazir( dari isteri Encik Unga)
  6. 6.       Tengku Zai’bun Yunus(dari isteri tengku Zahara)
  7. 7.       Tengku Muhammad Ali(dari isteri tengku Zahara)
  8. 8.       Tengku Abdul Azis (dari isteri tengku Zahara)

Putri, tengku Darjat,aishah,Khail ul Bannah,Fatimah Badtiyah,Mariam,Jamilah,munal ,slamah,haminah,chantik,kalsum,hasnah,arfah,dan Jawahir.



Para Pendiri HAPM

Ass resident, tengku alang yaha,regent asahan,cj van kampen dan gouvernour sumastra ooskust



“Baba Geo, onze tolk”


Harag karet dunia melambung tinggi sehingga Belanda dan amerika membuka perkebunan karet di Asahanatas persetujuan sultan Muhammad Husain II dengan member konsensi tanah diaerah Kisaran  dengan nama perushaan  Hollandsche-Americaansche Plantange Maatschapij(HAPM)







Klenteng surabaya

In 1919,


Sek Tong Cheah Si Eok Chye School mooted by Cheah Soo Tuan and other clansmen was opened and in the same year, Sek Tong Cheah Si Hock Haw Kong Kongsi commenced to give scholarships and financial aids to the children of Sek Tong Cheah clan to study in Chinese and English Schools in Penang. This encouraged the children of the clan to study and benefit the society and to get ride of illiterateness.


In 1933, the ancestral temple underwent a major restoration work and it was named as Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi to standardize with the name of the original ancestral temple in the ancestral village.




The annual worshipping rituals are run on rotation among the 10 sections. At the Winter Solstice Festival normally on the 22nd day of Lunar 11th moon each year, the next trustee in charge of worshipping rituals will be appointed in front of Khong Hui Seng Ong by throwing the “poey”. The duty of the newly appointed trustee in charge of worshipping rituals will commence henceforth until the next Winter Solstice Day.


The Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi continues the many practices of clan laws, religion, education and welfare work as stipulated in its Rules and Regulations. It keeps up with the traditional system of nominating 4 Trustees each with Khoo,Yeoh, Lim and Tan Kongsi (known as the five big clan kongsis in early Penang) to sit on the Board of Trustees of Hokkien Kongsi. Their duties are to oversee the management of five temples namely, Cheng Hoon Giam Snake Temple, Seng Ong Beow, Cheng Leong Keong, Siew Thean Keong/Kim Hoe Keong and Chooi Bee Keong Temples.


Besides, Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi together with the Khoo clans and Yeoh clans, whose villages are at the foot of Sam Quaye Hill (San Kuai Ning) formed the Sam Quaye Tong Kongsi to settle any disputes, if any, among themselves amicably and also to strengthen their relationship since the 19th century until today. Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi has been nominating their trustees to represent the kongsi on the respective Boards of Trustees of Penang Recreation Club, Penang SamToh Bean Lok Keok and Kong Hock Keong Temple, an apex religious organization. This helped in the maintaining good relationship and inter-segmental interactions among the leaders of the Chinese society since the old days.


The Sek Tong Cheah Si Seh Tek Tong Hock Haw Kong Kongsi, established in 1810, is the oldest kongsi in Penang. With the esteemed status and experience of their past clansmen of Sek Tong Cheah clan in vitalizing themselves with the solid historical past, it is believed that their new generations of clansmen would be in a better position to explore much wider into the cultural aspect and also to work with other clan societies in achieving a wider social network.






Klenteng Bandung




Rubber plantaion factory Deli sumatra



Huizen aan een kanaal of rivier te Koepang



Europese man naast een auto op de weg naar Karangnoenggal bij Tasikmalaja



Klenteng Koepang west Timor



Fotoansichtkaart van het paleis van de gouverneur-generaal te Buitenzorg







Klenteng toapekong Batavia(Toasebio)



Gezelschap met D.O.L. Cornelius (vierde v.l.n.r.) , opzichter bij de BOW (Dienst der Burgerlijke en Openbare werken) en zijn vrouw (tweede v.l.n.r. ) te Tandjoengpinang, Riouw-archipel



Stenen trap naar Bawomataloeo op Nias Or. 435. Aangeboden aan Dr. V.E. Korn, resident van Tapanoeli, door districtsambtenaren in Tapanoeli, als bewijs van erkentelijkheid. Sibolga, den 16en maart 1939. Albumdoos van A.C. Buisson, Noordwijk 10, Batavia-Centrum. In albumdoos een leeg album aanwezig, opgedragen aan V.E. Korn: Disembahkan kehadapan seri padoeka toean Dr. V.E. Korn, resident Tapanoeli, 29 september 1936 – 23 maart 1939. Oleh Boekhandel & Drukkerij Tapiannaoeli Sibolga. Sibolga, 20 maart 1939



Kamp Lampersari ‘Een Mary-Gold als verjaarscadeau : aquarellen en schetsen,1942-1945’ / C. Neytzell de Wilde. – Franeker : Wever, 1987



2 thoughts on “Driwancybermuseum Galery(continiu)

  1. Greg Suharsono October 25, 2014 / 2:11 am

    Halo Pak Iwan Suwandy, senang bisa membaca blog Bapak mengenai orang Chinese di Indonesia.
    Saya sedang mencoba mengumpulkan informasi mengenai leluhur saya. Mungkin Bapak punya cerita mengenai Kapitan Sibolga, Lim Kheng Jao ? katanya juga sempat memiliki perusahaan bus AD Lim ? terus terang saya penasaran dengan cerita itu.

    Terima kasih

    • iwansuwandy January 13, 2015 / 10:02 pm

      yth Greg Suharsono
      saya bisa carika info tentang famili anda
      kapitan tionghoa sibolga, tetapi tentunya pakai biaya, nanti bila anda setuju harganya CD-Rom Koleksi leluhur tionghoa Sumatera karya saya, harganya lima rat=us ribu rupiah silahkan anda hubunggi saya liwat email saya iwansuwandy@gmail.com,jangan lupa upload kopi KTP nya dan alamat lebngkap,maklum banyak hiject internet yang menipu saat ini
      Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

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