Driwancybermuseum Galery (Continiu )

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

2) Asahan Sultanate and cross straits relationships

The kingdom of Asahan

History Collections

 

Creted by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

 

 

 

source

http://tembakaudeli.blogspot.com/p/sultan-van-asahan.html

1537


Kesultanan Melayu Asahan bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, yaitu ada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.

Ayahnya ialah Sultan Aladdin Mahkota Alam Johan Berdaulat (Sultan Alaiddin Riayat Syah “Al Qahhar”), Sultan Aceh ke XIII yang memerintah sejak tahun 1537 – 1568, sementara ibunya adalah Siti Ungu Selendang Bulan, anak dari Raja Pinang Awan yang bergelar “Marhum Mangkat di Jambu”. (Pinang Awan terletak di Kabupaten Labuhan Batu).

 

 Sebelumnya, Aceh telah menaklukkan negeri-negeri kecil di pesisir Sumatera Utara dan di dalam salah satu pertempuran inilah Raja Pinang Awan terbunuh dan anaknya Siti Ungu dibawa ke Aceh dan menikah dengan Sultan Alaiddin.

Sampai dengan saat ini Kerajaan Asahan telah memiliki 12 orang Sultan yang dihitung menurut Silsilah dan keturunan Raja – raja Asahan,

1612

Perjalanan Sultan Aceh, Sultan Iskandar Muda, ke Johor dan Melaka tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari sejarah Tanjungbalai. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan sultan beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai yang bernama Asahan. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara Sungai Asahan dengan Sungai Silau, tempat sultan bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang, penguasa setempat. Di tempat itu juga Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan yang dinamakan Tanjungbalai.

 

Posted by Resky Praditiya 14.29, under Kisaran News | No comments

Profile Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan Prop.Sumatera Utara

Nama Resmi : Kabupaten Asahan
Ibukota : Kisaran
Luas Wilayah: 462.441 Ha
Jumlah Penduduk: 935.233 Jiwa (Sensus Penduduk 2003)
Wilayah Administrasi:Kecamatan : 20
Bupati : Drs. H. Risuddin
Wakil Bupati: Drs. H. Taufan Gama Simatupang, MAP
Alamat Kantor: Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 5, Kisaran – Sumatera Utara
Telp. (0623) 41100, 41200 Fax. (0623) 433333
www.pemkab-asahan.go.id

Yi!/Kisaran – Menjaga dan Melestarikan Peninggalan-Peninggalan Bersejarah atau situs-situs bersejarah sangat lah penting. Pada jaman era globalisasi sekarang ini terkadang kita semakin melupakan dan meninggalkan sejarah-sejarah tempat dimana kita tinggal, bukan hanya sejarah yang berbentuk benda (Prasasti), Bangunan (property)bahkan Adat Istiadat yang diturunkan oleh nenek moyang pendiri dari satu kota tersebut semakin hari akan semakin terlupakan. Semua itu akibat dari semakin majunya perkembangan diberbagai bidang termasuk salah satu masuknya tradisi-tradisi modern maupun tradisi-tradisi asing ke wilayah tersebut.

Untuk menjaga sejarah dan budaya yang ada di daerah, kita sebagai putra daerah harus dapat mengajak seluruh elemen masyarakat agar senantiasa mengingat dan melestarikan peninggalan-peninggalan bersejarah yang ada di daerah tersebut.
Pemerintah terkadang bisa melupakan history dari daerah tersebut hanya demi pembangunan, padahal pemerintah sudah menyediakan instansi untuk menjaga dan melestarikan sejarah-sejarah yang ada seperti instansi dari dinas pariwisata, namun akibat dari perkembangan disegala aspek, instansi tersebut dapat melupakan pentingnya history dari satu kota atau daerah demi kepentingan Pembangunan inprastrusktur.

Sejarah Kota Kisaran Kab.Asahan

Perjalanan Sultan Aceh Sultan Iskandar Muda ke Johor dan Malaka pada tahun 1612 dapat dikatakan sebagai awal dari Sejarah Asahan. Dalam perjalanan tersebut, rombongan Sultan Iskandar Muda beristirahat di kawasan sebuah hulu sungai, yang kemudian dinamakan ASAHAN. Perjalanan dilanjutkan ke sebuah Tanjung yang merupakan pertemuan antara sungai Asahan dengan sungai Silau, kemudian bertemu dengan Raja Simargolang. Di tempat itu juga, Sultan Iskandar Muda mendirikan sebuah pelataran sebagai Balai untuk tempat menghadap, yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perkampungan. Perkembangan daerah ini cukup pesat sebagai pusat pertemuan perdagangan dari Aceh dan Malaka, sekarang ini dikenal dengan Tanjung Balai. Dari hasil perkawinan Sultan Iskandar Muda dengan salah seorang puteri Raja Simargolang lahirlah seorang putera yang bernama Abdul Jalil yang menjadi cikal bakal dari kesultanan Asahan. Abdul Jalil dinobatkan menjadi Sultan Asahan I.

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbnJ7gT

 1630

Pemerintahan kesultanan Asahan dimulai tahun 1630 yaitu sejak dilantiknya Sultan Asahan yang I s.d. XI. Selain itu di daerah Asahan, pemerintahan juga dilaksanakan oleh datuk-datuk di Wilayah Batu Bara dan ada kemungkinan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil lainnya. Tanggal 22 September 1865, kesultanan Asahan berhasil dikuasai Belanda. Sejak itu, kekuasaan pemerintahan dipegang oleh Belanda.

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2inbyow2u

 

 

27 desember 1672

Perkampungan ini kelak berkembang menjadi Kesultanan Asahan, yang bermula kira-kira pada abad XVI, pada saat Sultan Abdul Jalil ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Asahan yang pertama dengan gelar Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Syah.

 

 

Sejarah Kerajaan Asahan dimulai dengan penobatan raja pertama kerajaan tersebut yang berlangsung meriah disekitar kampung Tanjung. Peristiwa penabalan raja pertama kerajaan Asahan tersebut terjadi tepatnya pada tanggal 27 Desember 1620, dan tanggal 27 Desember kemudian ditetapkan sebagai “Hari Jadi Kota Tanjungbalai” den-gan surat keputusan DPRD Kota Tanjungbalai Nomor : 4/DPRD/TB/1986 Tanggal 25 November 1986.

 


1. Sultan Abdul Jalil
2. Sultan Saidisyah
3. Sultan Muhammad Rumsyah

 

1bad ke 17


4. Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah II (mangkat 1765)
5. Sultan Dewa Syah (1756 – 1805)

 

Abad ke 18

30 september 1867

Kekuasaan pemerintahan Belanda di Asahan/Tanjung Balai dipimpin oleh seorang Kontroler, yang diperkuat dengan Gouverments Besluit tanggal 30 September 1867, Nomor 2 tentang pembentukan Afdeling Asahan yang berkedudukan di Tanjung Balai dan pembagian wilayah pemerintahan dibagi menjadi 3 (tiga) yaitu:
1.Onder Afdeling Batu Bara
2.Onder Afdeling Asahan
3.Onder Afdeling Labuhan Batu.

Kerajaan Sultan Asahan dan pemerintahan Datuk-Datuk di wilayah Batu Bara tetap diakui oleh Belanda, namun tidak berkuasa penuh sebagaimana sebelumnya. Wilayah pemerintahan Kesultanan dibagi atas Distrik dan Onder Distrik yaitu:
1. Distrik Tanjung Balai dan Onder Distrik Sungai Kepayang.
2. Distrik Kisaran.
3. Distrik Bandar Pulau dan Onder Distrik Bandar Pasir Mandoge.Sedangkan wilayah pemerintahan

 

Datuk-datuk di Batu Bara dibagi menjadi wilayah Self Bestuur yaitu:
1. Self Bestuur Indrapura
2. Self Bestuur Lima Puluh
3. Self Bestuur Pesisir
4. Self Bestuur Suku Dua ( Bogak dan Lima Laras ).

Sumber : http://kisaransumatrautara.blogspot.com/2012/11/sejarah-dan-peninggalan-kota-kisaran.html#ixzz2incDARQF

Onderneming Token

 

 

 

 

Silau  Asahan Tobacco Factory  Token

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Silau Asahan Tobacco Factory Token

 

 

 Kuli Tionghoa memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Chinese koelies bij het sorteren van tabak

 

 

Pekerja tembakau deli dan asahan

 

 

Memilih tembakau deli dan asahan

Titel: “147. Tabak. Sorteerloods.”
  “Nederlandsch Oost- en West-Indië. 3” en “Suriname en de West-Indische eilanden” (serie 3: plaat 101-150 en serie 4: plaat 151-170)
Schoolplaten: foto’s van Nederlandsch-Indie, Suriname en Nederlandse Antillen, 4 series
Maker:
Trefwoord:
Verv.jaar: ca. 1913
Verv.plaats: Indonesië
Techniek:
Object:
Bron: [A5-3-47], Kerncollectie Fotografie, Museum Volkenkunde
Copyright: Voor meer informatie: Museum Volkenkunde

 

 

 

Beburu gajah di asahan dan deli

 

 Patung orang jawa di asahan

 

Hutaginjang near asahan river

 

 Manager dutch Asahan Tobacco platation

 

 

 

 

Abad 19


6. Sultan Musa Syah (1805 – 1808)
7. Sultan Muhammad Ali Syah (1808 – 1813)


8. Sultan Muhammad Hussein Syah.
9. Sultan Ahmad Syah

 

Abad ke 19

 

 

1895

 

 

Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1895

 

Foto Kota Tanjungbalai di masa lampa, foto di ambil dari udara

 

Foto jembatan sungai silau

 

 

 

Abad ke 20

 

 

Jalan utama kisaran tanjung balai asahan 1900

 

Bandar tanjung balai asahan 1900

27 juni 1917

Setelah dikuasai Belanda, Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi suatu gemeenteberdasarkan Besluit Governeur General tanggal 27 Juni 1917 dengan Stbl. no. 284/1917, sebagai akibat dibukanya perkebunan-perkebunan di derahSumatera Timur, termasuk daerah Asahan, seperti H.A.P.M., SIPEF, London Sumatera (“Lonsum”), dan lain-lain.

 Kota Tanjungbalai menjadi kota pelabuhan dan pintu masuk ke daerah Asahan yang penting artinya bagi lalu-lintas perdagangan Hindia-Bel

 

10. Sultan Muhammad Husein Syah II


11. Sultan Saibun Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah
12. Sultan Kamal Abraham Abdul Jalil Rahmatsyah


Tanjung Balai 1900


Istana Kesultanan Asahan di Tanjung Balai. Tinggal Kenangan


TUANKU SULTAN SYAIBUN ABDULJALIL RAHMATSYAH (5 Oktober 1906 – 6 April 1980). PADA PUKUL 11 TGL 19 SYAFAR 1353(15 JUNI 1933), PEDUKO TONGKU BOSAR SYAIBUN DINOBATKAN & DITABALKAN MENJADI SULTAN NEGERI ASAHAN DI ISTANA KOTA RAJA INDRA SAKTI – TANJUNG BALAI. KARENA SULTAN DINOBATKAN PADA HARI KAMIS, MAKA PADA JUM’AH MANIS 16 JUNI 1933, DIADAKAN ACARA DULI TUANKU & TEPUNG TAWAR DI SINGGASANA KESULTANAN ASAHAN.
TENGKU NURULASYIKIN BINTI TENGKU PANGERAN BENDAHARA NEGERI BEDAGAI, ESOKNYA KEHADAPAN BALAI PENGHADAPAN NAIK KE ATAS SINGGASANA LEPAS BERIJAB KABUL & DIDAULAT MENJADI TENGKU PERMAISURI NEGERI ASAHAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laurentius klappert

Assisten Resident Asahan

 

 

Tengku Besar amir

 

 

Para Pendiri HAPM

 

 

 

Sulatan sja’ibun djalil

 

 

 

  Tengku alang jahya regent asahan

 

Jembatan kisaran 1921

 

 

 

Kisaran Asahan Post Office

 

 

 

 

Tanjanungbalai asahan tionghoa temple(klenteng)

Due to Mr Robert Yeap unfo,this mosque built by his grand grand father Khoo Chew tong tke Chinese Kapitan at Tanjung Balai Asahan until 1910,when he was died,hs father move to Penang and merried with the daughter of Kuching Sarawak Chinese Kapitan.

Khoo Cheow Teong, kapitan Cina Asahan ( Tanjong Balai)

Inboxx

Roberty

Nov 12 (5 days ago)to me

 

 

 

 

Hello Dr Iwan,

P.S. my name is Robert Yeap, my maternal side is Khoo:)

Actually my father’s mother is also Khoo. Her father (my great grandfather) is Khoo Hun Yeang, kapitan cina Kuching, Sarawak on Borneo island. So i have 2 kapitan Cina in my ancestors- now that i have retired 2 yrs ago after working 33 years in US multinational companies- electronic sector,

 i can put efforts in my passion- history. I m not a professional historian or even academic- my career is in finance and have been financial controller n Tax etc all this time. So i hope to learn some skills on researching archive and perhaps how to gather artifacts from historical places.

I read that it is easy to locate porcelain shards even today (of Ming dynasty era) in the area around Palembang otherwise San fo chi or Srivijaya… Am also interested in the Chinese Muslim kingdom of  in Java ( Radin) in

Sorry to reply you late….i m rushing to supervise work toRestore 2 house which will be a history museum – whichis one reason of my request to find some details of my great

grandfather – my mother’s father’s father – kapitan cina Asahan.

Best regards, robertY

Hello Dr. Iwan,

Thks for reply. I have booked to stay same hotel – ChinaTown Inn at Petaling St. Booked under name Mr Yeap T.A.

Will advise u Khoo kongsi research when meet, my friend still reference, recently there is a lot of interest in history in PG!

I like to inform more on Khoo Cheow Teong, perhaps the people u meet in Malacca may know him too as

His first wife was eldest daughter of Lim Cheoh, famous rice miller in

malacca at that time 1874. In Asahan his business was attended by his eldest son Sian Wei, from 2nd wife ( some say quite useless fella). His second wife was from Penang. Apparently KCTeong donated to build mosque in Asahan.

KCT was also shareholder director of Deli Bank , Medan.

Ok look forward to meet you in KL nov 23-24, this Sat. N Sun, we can go round KL.

 

I have found the pictures of

Kapitan Cina Tanjungbalai asahan

 

Khoo Chew Tong

 

 

 

 

Kunjungan governor general DEI de Fock ke asahan 1925

1930

 

Pasar tanjung balai asahan 1930

 

 

Foto udara Tanjungbalai pada tahun 1930-an

 

 1933

 

Pernikahan tengku sja’ibun dan tengku nurul 1933

 

Kepala Adat Asahan

Duduk T. alang Yahya ,T,Sja’ibun,T.Musa

Berdiri  T.Madjid, T.Dr Mansoer,T.Mohamad noer

 

 Mesjid raya sultan ahmad shah(built by Kpitan Cina Khoo Chew tong info from his grandgrand daughter Robert Yeap now at Penang-Dr Iwan Note)

The complete info look at

Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

The Asahan Kingdom History Collections

Robert Yeap Notes

 Tanjong Balai history-

 will appreciate what u can provide re my

great grandPa Khoo Cheow Teong contributions there – if have Picture of temple or mosque that he build or donate- thks

 

3) Aceh –

The  Aceh History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Zhng He Museum Penang

Copyright @ 2013

Before Aceh War collections

Sultanate Perlak
(9 th century – 13th century)

Peureulak directed to this page. For the district in East Aceh, see Peureulak, East Aceh
Sultanate Peureulak Islamic kingdom in Indonesia is ruling around the Peureulak, East Aceh, Aceh are now between 840 years until the year 1292.
Perlak or Peureulak known as a waterproof timber producing areas, a very good type of wood for shipbuilding, and therefore the area is known as the State Perlak.
Natural products and its strategic position makes Perlak developed as a commercial port developed in the 8th century, visited by ships, among others derived from Arabic and Persian.
This makes the development of Muslim communities in this area, mainly as a result of intermarriage between Muslim merchants with local women
1112 M
Scrolls saga revealed that the spread of Islam in Aceh in northern Sumatra, carried out by a Saudi cleric named Sheikh Abdullah Arif in the year 506 H or 1112 AD
1161 M
Then stand sultanate Peureulak with the first sultannya Alauddin Shah who reigned from 520-544 H or 1161-1186 AD Sultan has found his tomb is Sulaiman bin Abdullah who died in 608 H or 1211 AD [1]
1178 M
Chu-fan-chi, written Chau Ju-kua in 1225, citing record a geographer, Chou Ku-fei, the year 1178 that there is a Muslim country which is just a five-day cruise of Java. [2]


Maybe the country is meant Peureulak, because Chu-fan-chi stated voyage from Java to Brunei to take 15 days.
Existence Peureulak country is strengthened by the famous Venetian traveler, Marco Polo, a century later.
1291
When Marco Polo returned from China by sea in 1291, he stopped in the country Ferlec who have converted to Islam

Development and turbulence
840
Perlak was the first Sultan Syed Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz, a homage to Shiite and Arab descent with a local woman, who founded the Sultanate Perlak on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 AD).
 He changed the name of the capital of the kingdom of Bandar Bandar Perlak became Caliph. Sultan with his wife, Princess Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, then buried in Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, East Aceh
913 M
In the reign of the third sultan, Sultan Alaiddin Maulana Syed Abbas Shah, Sunnis began to enter Perlak. After the death of the sultan in the year 363 H (913 AD), there was a civil war between the Shiites and Sunnis over the next two years so that no sultan.
915 M

Shiites won the war, and in 302 H (915 AD), Sultan Maulana Syed Ali Mughat Alaiddin Shah of Shia flow throne. At the end of his reign happened again the battle between the Shiites and the Sunnis, who this time won by the Sunnis so that subsequent sultans were taken from the Sunnis.

956 M

In the year 362 H (956 AD), after the death of the seventh sultan, Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign, another upheaval for about four years between Shia and Sunni, which ended with a peace and a division of the kingdom into two parts:
986 M

Coastal Perlak (Shiite) led by Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin (986-988)
Perlak Outback (Sunni) led by Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (986-1023)
1006
Maulana Syed Sultan Shah Alaiddin died while attacking the kingdom of Srivijaya Perlak Perlak and all re-united under the leadership of Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign who continue the struggle against Sriwijaya until the year 1006.
Merger with Ocean Pasai
1230
Sultan-17 Perlak, Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign II (reigned 1230 to 1267) run political friendship with marrying two daughters with neighboring rulers Peureulak:
• Princess Ratna Kamala, mated with King kingdom of Malacca, Sultan Muhammad Shah (Parameswara).
• Algae daughter, married to the King of the Kingdom of Pasai Ocean, Al Malik Al-Saleh.
1267
Sultan last Perlak was the 18th sultan, Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (reigned 1267 to 1292). After he died, Perlak united with the kingdom under the rule of Pasai Ocean Ocean Pasai sultan, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, son of Al Malik Al-Saleh.

List Sultan Perlak
Perlak sultans can be grouped into two dynasties: Maulana Syed Abdul Azis dynasty and Shah dynasty Johan Sovereign. Here’s a list sultan who ruled Perlak.
1. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz (840-864)
2. Alaiddin Sultan Maulana Syed Abdul Rahim Shah (864-888)
3. Alaiddin Sultan Syed Maulana Shah Abbas (888-913)
4. Maulana Syed Ali Sultan Alaiddin Mughat Shah (915-918)
5. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Abdul Kadir Johan Sovereign (928-932)
6. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Sovereign (932-956)
7. Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Abdul Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (956-983)
8. Ibrahim Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign [5] (986-1023)
9. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1023 – 1059)
10. Malik Sultan Mansur Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1059 – 1078)
11. Abdullah Sultan Malik Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1078 – 1109)
12. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Malik Shah Ahmad Johan Sovereign (1109 – 1135)
13. Malik Sultan Mahmud Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1135 – 1160)
14. Usman Malik Sultan Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1160 – 1173)
15. Malik Sultan Muhammad Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1173 – 1200)
16. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Makhdum Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1200 – 1230)
17. Alaiddin Makhdum Sultan Muhammad Amin Malik Shah II Johan Sovereign (1230 – 1267)
18. Makhdum Sultan Abdul Aziz Malik Alaiddin Johan Sovereign (1267 – 1292)

Original info

Kesultanan Perlak

(abad ke-9abad ke-13)

Peureulak diarahkan ke halaman ini. Untuk kecamatan di Kabupaten Aceh Timur, lihat Peureulak, Aceh Timur

Kesultanan Peureulak adalah kerajaan Islam di Indonesia yang berkuasa di sekitar wilayah Peureulak, Aceh Timur, Aceh sekarang antara tahun 840 sampai dengan tahun 1292.

Perlak atau Peureulak terkenal sebagai suatu daerah penghasil kayu perlak, jenis kayu yang sangat bagus untuk pembuatan kapal, dan karenanya daerah ini dikenal dengan nama Negeri Perlak.

Hasil alam dan posisinya yang strategis membuat Perlak berkembang sebagai pelabuhan niaga yang maju pada abad ke-8, disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal yang antara lain berasal dari Arab dan Persia.

Hal ini membuat berkembangnya masyarakat Islam di daerah ini, terutama sebagai akibat perkawinan campur antara saudagar muslim dengan perempuan setempat

1112 M

Naskah Hikayat Aceh mengungkapkan bahwa penyebaran Islam di bagian utara Sumatera dilakukan oleh seorang ulama Arab yang bernama Syaikh Abdullah Arif pada tahun 506 H atau 1112 M.

1161 M

Lalu berdirilah kesultanan Peureulak dengan sultannya yang pertama Alauddin Syah yang memerintah tahun 520–544 H atau 1161–1186 M. Sultan yang telah ditemukan makamnya adalah Sulaiman bin Abdullah yang wafat tahun 608 H atau 1211 M.[1]

1178 M

Chu-fan-chi, yang ditulis Chau Ju-kua tahun 1225, mengutip catatan seorang ahli geografi, Chou Ku-fei, tahun 1178 bahwa ada negeri orang Islam yang jaraknya hanya lima hari pelayaran dari Jawa.[2]

Mungkin negeri yang dimaksudkan adalah Peureulak, sebab Chu-fan-chi menyatakan pelayaran dari Jawa ke Brunai memakan waktu 15 hari.

Eksistensi negeri Peureulak ini diperkuat oleh musafir Venesia yang termasyhur, Marco Polo, satu abad kemudian.

1291

Ketika Marco Polo pulang dari Cina melalui laut pada tahun 1291, dia singgah di negeri Ferlec yang sudah memeluk agama Islam

 

 

 

Perkembangan dan pergolakan

840

Sultan pertama Perlak adalah Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, yang beraliran Syiah dan merupakan keturunan Arab dengan perempuan setempat, yang mendirikan Kesultanan Perlak pada 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M).

Ia mengubah nama ibukota kerajaan dari Bandar Perlak menjadi Bandar Khalifah. Sultan ini bersama istrinya, Putri Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, kemudian dimakamkan di Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, Aceh Timur

913 M

Pada masa pemerintahan sultan ketiga, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah, aliran Sunni mulai masuk ke Perlak. Setelah wafatnya sultan pada tahun 363 H (913 M), terjadi perang saudara antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni sehingga selama dua tahun berikutnya tak ada sultan.

915 M

 

Kaum Syiah memenangkan perang dan pada tahun 302 H (915 M), Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah dari aliran Syiah naik tahta. Pada akhir pemerintahannya terjadi lagi pergolakan antara kaum Syiah dan Sunni yang kali ini dimenangkan oleh kaum Sunni sehingga sultan-sultan berikutnya diambil dari golongan Sunni.

956 M

 

Pada tahun 362 H (956 M), setelah meninggalnya sultan ketujuh, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat, terjadi lagi pergolakan selama kurang lebih empat tahun antara Syiah dan Sunni yang diakhiri dengan perdamaian dan pembagian kerajaan menjadi dua bagian:

986 M

 

Perlak Pesisir (Syiah) dipimpin oleh Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah (986988)

Perlak Pedalaman (Sunni) dipimpin oleh Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat (986 – 1023)

1006

Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah meninggal sewaktu Kerajaan Sriwijaya menyerang Perlak dan seluruh Perlak kembali bersatu di bawah pimpinan Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat yang melanjutkan perjuangan melawan Sriwijaya hingga tahun 1006.

Penggabungan dengan Samudera Pasai

1230

Sultan ke-17 Perlak, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12301267) menjalankan politik persahabatan dengan menikahkan dua orang putrinya dengan penguasa negeri tetangga Peureulak:

1267

Sultan terakhir Perlak adalah sultan ke-18, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12671292). Setelah ia meninggal, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di bawah pemerintahan sultan Samudera Pasai, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, putra Al Malik Al-Saleh.

 

Daftar Sultan Perlak

Sultan-sultan Perlak dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua dinasti: dinasti Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah dan dinasti Johan Berdaulat. Berikut daftar sultan yang pernah memerintah Perlak.

  1. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah (840864)
  2. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Rahim Shah (864888)
  3. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah (888913)
  4. Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah (915918)
  5. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Kadir Shah Johan Berdaulat (928932)
  6. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Berdaulat (932956)
  7. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat (956983)
  8. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat [5] (9861023)
  9. Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (10231059)

10.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mansur Shah Johan Berdaulat (10591078)

11.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdullah Shah Johan Berdaulat (10781109)

12.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ahmad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11091135)

13.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (11351160)

14.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Usman Shah Johan Berdaulat (11601173)

15.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11731200)

16.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Jalil Shah Johan Berdaulat (12001230)

17.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (12301267)

18.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (12671292)

 

 

Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (abad ke-13abad ke-16)

 

Samudra Pasai, Aceh Darussalam – The First Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia

Maret 7, 2012 — ZULFITRIANSYAH PUTRA

1. History

When the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai can not be ascertained accurately and still be a debate of the historians. However, there is confidence that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai established earlier than the Ottoman dynasty in Turkey which has become one superpower in the world civilization. If the Ottoman Dynasty began to put the power in about the year 1385 AD, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai been spreading its influence in Southeast Asia since 1297 AD.

 


A number of historians and researchers from Europe at the time of Dutch colonial occupation has been some time doing research to reveal the origin of the existence of one of the largest government in Aceh this earth. Some scholars and researchers from the Netherlands, including Snouck Hurgronje, JP Moquette, JL Moens, J. Poll Hushoff, GP Rouffaer, HKJ Cowan, and others, agree on the expectation that the new Sultanate of Samudera Pasai standing in the middle of the 13th century and by putting the name of Sultan Malik Al Salih as its founder (Rusdi Sufi & Agus Budi Wibowo, 2006:50). Malik Al Salih own name is known and different writing, including Malik Ul Salih, Malik Al Saleh, Malikussaleh, Malik Al Salih, or Malik Saleh Ul.

a. The Origin of Ocean Pasai Nomination

The full names of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is “Aca Pasai Ocean”, which means “Ocean of good government in the capital Pasai” (HM Zainuddin, 1961:116). Centre of government is now no longer exists but its location is estimated to be around the state Blang Malay. The name “Ocean” that is used as the name of the island is now called Sumatra, as mentioned by the Portuguese. Previously, the name of the region is the island of Perca.

While the rover is coming from China / Chinese call it by name “Chincou”, which means “Island of Gold”, like that known from the writings of I’tsing.Kertanegara King, leader of the famous Singasari Government, saying this area Suwarnabhumi name, which means that it is similar to what is called by the people of China, “The Island of Gold”.

Sultanate of Samudera Pasai an Islamic government, which is located along the coast of northern Sumatra, more or less around the city of Lhokseumawe, North Aceh today. Written records that had been believed by historians to trace the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malay historiography is a three-book saga that King Pasai, Malay History, and thesaga of King Bakoy. Hikayat Raja Pasai give a big influence in efforts to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, although nuances of myth is still a problem in interpreting the truth.

About the name “Ocean” and “Pasai”, appeared a number of opinions that try to parse the origins of the use of the name. One is as set forth by European scholars, JL Moens, who says that the word “Pasai” comes from the term “Persian”. According to Moens, those traders who came from Persia to say the word “Pasai” with the text “Pa’Se.” Moens analysis can be accepted, with a note that since the 7th century AD the merchants who came from Persia has arrived and stopped in an area that later became the place of establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (MD Mansoer, 1963:59).

Opinion Moens received support from several people, including Prof. Gabriel Ferrand, in his work entitled L’Empire (1922), also in the book The Golden Khersonese (1961), written by Assoc. Paul Wheatley. Both work in leveraging data-data on the evidence of the rover from the Middle East to travel to Southeast Asia. Both Gabriel and Paul Wheatley Ferrand alike agree that since the 7th century AD, major ports in Southeast Asia, including in the Malacca Strait, have been visited by people traveling and the merchants who came from West Asia. Also mentioned that in all the cities there were trade-foundation or foundation settlement, the settlement of Muslim traders who stopped and stayed there.

H. Mohammad Said, a journalist as well as writers who dedicated his life to research and publish books events in Aceh, including the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam, tend to conclude that the origin of the naming muasal “Pasai” comes from Chinese merchants.According to Said, the term “Po Se” is popularly used in the mid-eighth century AD, as found in the records and reports from the China trip rover, identical and similar to the mention of the word “Pase” or “Pasai” (Said, 1963:2004-205).

There is also an opinion that says that the name “Pasai” comes from the word “tapasai” which means “the sea”. The word “tapa” are frequently found in the Polynesian languages meaning “edge”. The word “Sai” can be interpreted as a “sea”, which is also included in the vocabulary of the Malay-Polynesian continent. The word “Pasai” is a synonym of the word “beach”.Similarly, the word “ocean” which also means “not far from the sea.” So, both “Ocean” or “Pasai” implies more or less the same, that “the country is situated on the sea” (Slamet Muljana, 2005:136).

Name Pasai Ocean and often was mentioned in various sources was found, both from external sources or local sources. The sources from outside the archipelago are often mentioned the existence of a region called the Ocean and Pasai such as reports or notes of the journey, the journey of Chinese origin, Arab, India, and Europe, who had stopped to Pasai Ocean region. The course notes as written by Marco Polo, Odorico, Ibn Batuta, Tome Pires, as well as news from China. While the source of the domestic one, as enshrined in the National Book Kertagama Mpu Prapanca written works within the 13th century until the 14th century AD.

Ibn Batuta, a Muslim traveler from Morocco, Morocco, for example, in a note saying that he had visited in 1345 M. Pasai Ibn Batuta, who stopped at Pasai for 15 days, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai describes as “a country that is green with a large port city and the beautiful.”Ibn Batuta tells, when I arrived in China, he saw the ship Sultan Pasai in the state. Indeed, Chinese sources said that there is a messenger Pasai routinely come to China to deliver the tribute.

Note on the Mongol Dynasty in China showed that some governments in Sumatra, including the Government of the Ocean / Pasai, had established relations with the Mongolian Government was under the command of Kubhilai Khan. Government Ocean / Pasai starting relationship with the Mongol Dynasty in 1282. Government Ocean / Pasai in touch with the great empires in Asia by the Chinese mission that returned from the South Indian Ocean with stops in Pasai. This event is regarded as the initial contact between Ocean Pasai with Chinese / Mongolian (Muhammad Gade Ismail, 1997:23).


Sultan Mausoleum of the First Marine Board Pasai

Other information also mentions that the Sultan had sent envoys Pasai Ocean to Quilon, Western India, in 1282 AD This proves that the Sultanate of Pasai have wide relations with other governments abroad. In addition, the travel notes titled Tuhfat Al-Nazha, Ibn Batuta said, at that time Pasai have transformed the center of Islamic studies in Southeast Asia.

Logging of Portuguese origin who had settled in Malacca in the period 1512-1515, Tomi Pires, said that Pasai is the most important city in time for the whole of Sumatra, because there are no other important places on the island unless Pasai. The name of the city by some people called the Ocean and then stick with the name Ocean Pasai and became a symbol to refer to the island of Sumatra. Pasai City, according to Tomi Pires, assessed a population of not less than 20,000 people (Ismail, 1997:37).

Marco Polo reported that in 1267 AD was established the first Islamic government of the archipelago, which is none other than the Sultanate Pasai. Marco Polo visited Pasai in the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih, exactly in 1292 AD, when the government has not been long standing, but has showed the potential prosperity. Marco Polo stopped the Ocean Pasai in network journey from China to Persia. At that time, Marco Polo from Italy to participate in the delegation who visited Sumatra sepulang attend the invitation of Kublai Khan, the King of the Mongols, who also controls the territory of China.Marco Polo mentions, people in Pasai at that time are still many who have not embraced the religion (Islam), but the community of Arabs, called by the name of Marco Saraceen – have quite a lot and plays an important role in the effort to circumcise the people of Aceh. Marco Polo mentions disinggahinya areas such as “Giava Minor” or “Java Minor” (Mohammad H. Said, 1963:82-83).

Apart from written sources and records in the course of the race rover, other evidence that at least some help to reveal the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai obtained from the remains of the abandoned civilization, like ancient tombs made of granite or marble and currency- Dirham namedDeureuham or are found in Sub-Ocean, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Time of the death of Sultan Malik Al Salih, the founder of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, knowing from his own writings that appear on a headstone is found in the Blang Me, ie in 697 Hijri or 1297 AD coincided with the years. Meanwhile, when Malik Al Salih was born not found evidence that more clear.


Applicable Currency Pasai Ocean

Pemkot Banda Aceh tutup aktivitas perburuan harta karun

Kamis, 14 November 2013 20:18 WIB | 1568 Views

Pewarta: Azhari

 

Harta Karun Koin Emas Warga memperlihatkan salah satu dari ratusan koin emas bertuliskan huruf arab yang ditemukan di kawasan situs cagar budaya Kerajaan Aceh, Desa Kampung Pande, Kecamatan Kutaraja, Banda Aceh, Selasa (12/11). Koin emas itu awalnya ditemukan oleh pencari tiram di dalam peti berukuran kecil dalam kawasan cagar budaya , namun sebagian koin emas itu tumpah ke sungai. (ANTARA FOTO/Ampelsa)

Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau.”

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Tari Saman nan Rancak

Banda Aceh (ANTARA News) – Pemerintah Kota Banda Aceh memutuskan menutup kawasan alur sungai Kecamatan Kutaraja untuk aktivitas para pemburu harta karun setelah masyarakat menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham dan benda-benda bersejarah lainnya di daerah itu.

“Kawasan Kuala Krueng Geudong, Kecamatan Kutaraja total ditutup dari berbagai aktivitas mencari barang-barang kuno termasuk koin emas,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh, Illiza Saaduddin Djamal di Banda Aceh, Kamis.

Seperti diberitakan sebelumnya, kawasan pinggiran Kota Banda Aceh itu mendadak ramai masyarakat mencari harta karun setelah seorang pencari kerang menemukan kepingan koin emas mata uang dirham milik kerajaan Aceh. 

“Kami sudah berkoordinasi dengan berbagai pihak, termasuk TNI dan Polri untuk membantu mengamankan lokasi tersebut,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal.

Sebab, menurut Wakil Wali Kota bahwa jika dibiarkan masyarakat terus mencari koin emas dan barang bersejarah lainnya maka akan merusak tatanan sosial dan bisa berdampak buruk.

Selain itu, katanya mengatakan bahwa jika pemerintah membiarkan warga bebas mencari benda-benda tersebut juga tidak menutup kemungkinan akan terjadi konflik di masyarakat.

Cara-cara pemburuan koin emas yang dilakukan ratusan orang juga sudah merusak kawasan cagar budaya, karena wilayah tersebut terdapat banyak situs sejarah masa kejayaan Aceh tempo dahulu, kata dia menambahkan .

“Bahkan menurut laporan yang kami terima, telah terjadi kerusakan bagian makam para raja dan keluarganya serta makam para ulama yang ada di sekitar tempat tersebut,” kata Wakil Wali Kota Banda Aceh Illiza menjelaskan.

Ia juga mengharapkan bagi yang telah menemukan koin emas segera melapor ke pemerintah kota dalam hal ini Dinas Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata Banda Aceh.

“Pemerintah akan memberi kompensasi terhadap temuan itu. Dirham tersebut sebagai bukti Kerajaan Aceh pernah jaya di masa lampau. Kami juga meminta para kolektor yang telah membeli dirham itu agar berkoordinasi dengan Pemko Banda Aceh,” kata Illiza Saaduddin Djamal mengharapkan. (A042/N005)

Editor: Tasrief Tarmizi

COPYRIGHT © 2013

 

The sources of the origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai muasal version of Western scholars who formulated the Dutch colonial era was different from what is believed to be leaders of national historians and scholars at the time when Indonesia gained its independence. In the “History of the National Seminar” held in Medan, North Sumatra, on March 17-20, 1963, and the seminar “Entry and Growth of Islam in Aceh”, which was held on July 10-16, 1978 in Banda Aceh, among others was attended by Prof Hamka, Prof. A.Hasjmy, Prof. H. Atjeh Aboe Bakar, H. Mohammad Said, and MD Mansoer, has raised a different perspective in the history of the establishment of the Sultanate of effort menelisik Pasai Ocean.

Based on a number of indicators and sources of more recent, including explanations of Arab travelers on the Southeast Asia as well as two local script is found in Aceh, namely “Idhahul Fi Mamlakatil Peureula Rights” by Abu Ishaq Al Makarany and “Tawarich Kings The Government of Aceh “, the experts concluded that the national history of Islamic government Pasai Ocean has stood since the 11th century, or rather the year 433 Hijri alias of calendar year 1042 AD (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:52).

The location of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, have been also efforts to research and investigation, one of them efforts by the Office of the excavation is done Archeological Department of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia. From this research effort found that the location of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai located in the area called Pasai, which is now located in the North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

According to GP Rouffaer, one Dutch scholar who seriously investigates the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, said that the first Pasai park on the right of Pasai River, while the Ocean is located on the left side of river.However, over time, both places are collected into one place and then made the establishment of a great kingdom, that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (T. Ibrahim Alfian, 1973:21).

b. Ocean, Pasai, and the influence of Egypt

There are several different views of formulating and interpreting the origin of the establishment of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. One is the notion that the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is a continuation of the history of pre-Islamic kingdoms that have existed previously. In a book entitled “The collapse of the Government and the emergence of Hindu-Javanese Muslim countries in the Archipelago”, Slamet Muljana wrote that Nazimuddin Al Kamil, Navy Admiral Fathimiah Dynasty in Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh and managed to dominate the region fertile Pasai known.Nazimuddin Al-Kamil later founded a kingdom at the mouth of the River Pasai in 1128 AD by the name of Pasai. The reason the government established the dynasty Fathimiah Pasai based on a desire to trade in the eastern coastal area of Sumatra that was very crowded.

Ambition is to soothe inflammation, Dynasty Fathimiah deploy a fleet of war in order to seize the city Kambayat in Gujarat, to open a port city in Pasai, and attacked the pepper producing area that is Right and Kampar Kampar Kiri in Minangkabau. In a military expedition to seize it in the Minangkabau region, Nazimuddin Al-Kamil died and his remains buried in Bangkinang, the Kampar River in 1128 was also the Senior (Muljana, 2005:133). In 1168, Fathimiah Dynasty, which was founded in 976 AD, was defeated by Saladin’s army who profess madzhab Shafi. With the collapse of the dynasty Fathimiah, the relationship with Egypt Pasai automatically disconnected.

In the same sources mentioned that the router Nazimuddin Al-Kamil as ruler of the Kingdom of Samudera Admiral Kafrawi Al-Kamil, but in 1204 AD Pasai power fell into the hands of Admiral of the Island We Johan Jani. Under the control of Admiral Johan Jani who is Persian-breed Indian, Pasai stronger and was transformed into the most powerful maritime nation in the Nusantara (Muljana, 2005:114).

In Egypt, there is a new dynasty to replace Fathimiah Dynasty. New Dynasty Dynasty Mamaluk is living in a time frame from 1285 to 1522. Like its predecessor, Dynasty Mamaluk also want to trade in the Pasai. In the early years of existence, Mamaluk Dynasty sent envoys to Pasai, ie, a preacher of the old Islamic learning in the holy land of Mecca known as Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad, a former scholar of the West Coast of India.

Pasai, the envoy was met with angry embarrassment that when it became a member of the armed forces Pasai. Sheikh Ismail and Fakir Muhammad managed to persuade the angry embarrassment for Moslems. Furthermore, with the help of Mamaluk Dynasty in Egypt, they founded the Kingdom of the Ocean as a counterbalance to Pasai. Angry embarrassment crowned the Sultan Government Ocean. Neither the Government nor Pasai Ocean, both located at the mouth of the River Pasai and facing toward the Strait of Malacca.

c. History Samudera Pasai in the saga

Another version of the history and development emerged from the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai which tells the tale of the existence of this government, especially in the saga of King Pasai. According to the narration found in theHikayat Raja Pasai, government, led by Sultan Malik Al Salih was first named the Ocean Kingdom. The Pasai is a new rule and accompanying the subsequent existence of the Government of the Ocean. The origin of the name of the government, there are stories that lie behind them.

In the saga of King Pasai told, the emergence of the name Kingdom of the Ocean began when angry embarrassment while walking with her pet dog named Pasai. When they arrived at a high altitude, a dog belonging hesistate Angry sudden loud barking because it met with a large red ants.Anger and embarrassment to catch the giant ants and then eat it. From here arises ilhamnya to name a new government founded under the name of the Government’s Ocean original language could be interpreted as “a big red ants.”


Copy First Page Masjid Pasai


While the origin of Pasai, the story of the same post, one day, angry that embarrassment when it was called the Sultan Malik Al Salih after leading the Government’s Ocean, with the controller is doing at any hunting dog named Sultan who is also participating Pasai . Occurred a strange incident when Pasai released into the forest and see a deer, two different animal species together with the familiar talking. When Sultan Malik Al Salih want to catch it, the deer ran into the arms of a dog named Sultan Pasai it. In a surprise, Sultan Malik Al Salih was minded to build a state in place.

Once the land is located, by Sultan Malik Al Salih Pasai named, as the name of the dog that inspired the construction of the new state. The dog was alone and dying in the new state. As the representative of Sultan Malik Al Salih is still residing in the Kingdom of the Ocean, then dititahkanlah son named Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul to lead Pasai (Russell Jones [ed.], 1999:23).

Although quite a lot of researchers are leaning Pasai Masjid as a platform source of information to reveal the history and origin of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, but not least is the dubious validity. This is because the story is not a purely historical range, but many are interspersed with stories which might not have really happened, but not uncommon form of stories and myths that are difficult to accept that logic, the legitimacy of government that existed at the time it.

Cast doubt on the truth contained in the saga of King Pasai such as presented by AD Hill stated that the text of the Hikayat Raja Pasai third part was only just beginning. Similarly, Teuku Ibrahim Alfian disappointed that because of the mention of Masjid Pasai historical data, so it had to take information from other sources. In fact, never mentions that Snouck Hugronje Pasai Masjid was “a fairy story chlidren. Hugronje scathing statement it seems is a peak fatality Pasai Masjid as a source of historical information. These data show that during the literature has been seen in the pragmatic dimension through the study of historical or Filologis (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 2002:36).

d. The existence of Pasai Ocean Journey

Before embracing Islam, the original name of Malik Al Salih was angry embarrassment or Meurah Shiloh. “Meurah” is a call to honor those who exalted rank, while the “Silo” could be perceived as glare or sparkle. Angry embarrassment is a descendant of Imam Four or tribe is often referred to Sukee Imuem Peuet, which is a reference to the four sons of Emperor / Meurah brothers who came from the Mon Khmer (Champa) who is the founder of the first governments in Aceh prior to entry and growth of Islam.

Ancestors who founded the kingdoms of the Hindu / Buddhist in Aceh is among the Emperor Syahir Po-He-La are building government Peureulak (Po-He-La) in East Aceh, Syahir Tanwi flying the flag of the Government Jeumpa (Champa) in Peusangan ( Bireuen), Syahir Poly (Pau-Ling) who uphold the banner of Indra Government Cooperation in Pidie, as well as trigger the establishment of Syahir Nuwi Indra of the Ancient Kingdom of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar.

In the saga of King Pasai told that Marah Marah berayahkan embarrassment and his mother was daughter Gadjah Sewer. Angry embarrassment to have a brother named Marah Sum. After the death of his parents, two brothers left home and began wandering life. Sum angry then became the ruler of the territory Bieruen, while angry embarrassment on the upper reaches of open land Peusangan located not far from the mouth of the River Pasai until finally it became the throne of the Kingdom of the Ocean.


Batu Nisan Angry embarrassment or Sultan Malik Al Salih

As mentioned earlier, angry embarrassment alias Sultan Malik Al Salih Islam on the blarney Mamaluk Dynasty envoys of Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Ismail and Fakir. Angry Islamic embarrassment reaffirmed in the saga of King Pasai to provide records that the Prophet Muhammad has mentioned the name of the Government of the Ocean, and also for people in the government diislamkan by one of the companions of the Prophet, in this case is defined as the Sheikh Ismail. With the entry of this saga, it is possible that the teachings of Islam had entered the territory of Aceh shortly after the Prophet Muhammad died, which is in about the first century of Hijra, or about the 7th century or the AD-8 years. Can be expected is that Islam is brought into Aceh directly from Mecca (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:58-59).

The data on Islam in Masjid Pasai Pasai by showing that Pasai the first place that diislamkan. Apparently, such as written in the saga of King Pasai, Prophet Muhammad (Allah) did that brought Islam to the Ocean / Pasai, was in bed when face to face in the embarrassment the Anger of Allah. Prophet Muhammad was the mensyahdatkan and make angry embarrassment to read the Qur’an as much as 30 juz, which is after the Prophet spat in the mouth angry embarrassment. He also makes angry embarrassment was circumcised. Islamization through a direct role Messenger presumably indicates that the essential process of Pasai. In this process Angry hesistate to stay until the process of Islamization was named to run smoothly (Chamamah, 2002:40).

When Malik Salih Al Sultan was named as the first Government of the Ocean, the coronation ceremony conducted by Arab forces in the Al Salih Malik wore crowned with awards from the government of Mecca. This means, the coronation is in Arabic, not by way of India. This means longer, Malik Al Salih likely have converted to Islam at the time of Sultan Government crowned Ocean. After the coronation ceremony, all the warlords and the people immediately honor and worship them by calling the new sultan: “Long live Daulat Shah Alam Zilluilahi fil-natural.” Mention of honorary degrees to the king is also very closely with Arab names.

In a series of similar ceremonies, were also set two Big Man, as an adviser to Sultan, which is rich and Tun Tun Sri Sri Baba Rich. Aroma Islam more so when the second man was later given the title of an effective Arab, each with the name of Sayid Ali Khiatuddin to Tun Sri Kaya and Sayid Asmayuddin to Tun Sri Baba Rich (Said, 1963:85).

Sultan Malik Al Salih was married to Princess algae Sari, descendants of Sultan Aladdin Muhammad Amin bin Abdul Kadi of Government Perlak. From this marriage, Sultan Malik Al Salih blessed with two sons, namely Muhammad and Abdullah. Later, Muhammad is believed to lead Pasai, called Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul (Sultan Malik Al Tahir), side by side with his father, who still lead the Government’s hefty Ocean. The second son of Sultan Malik Al Salih, Abdullah, to opt out of a large family and Pasai Ocean Government, by establishing self-government Aru Barumun Sultanate in 1295.

Under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Pasai experiencing the success. Ibn Batuta record times achieved a golden era Pasai the reign of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Ibn Batuta recorded that the lands in the region so fertile Pasai. Trade and business activities in the government that was sufficiently advanced, proven to have used the currency, including foreign currencies made of gold, as a means of transaction in the economic life of the people Pasai. In addition to establishing relations with countries from outside the archipelago, the trade relations with merchants from the island of Java was so good. In fact, the merchant Java gets special treatment because they have not collected the tax. Typically, those traders from Java to change the rice with the pepper.


Masjid Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul


Ibn Batuta tells, after sailing for 25 days from Barhnakar (now in the territory of Myanmar), he landed in a place that is very fertile. Ibn Batuta can not cover the taste so kagumnya Pasai centers around the city. He was so amazed to see a very beautiful city surrounded by magnificent walls. Ibn Batuta noted that he had to walk about four miles to ride from the port which he called Sahra to get to the center of town. Government center of the city is big enough and beautiful and comes with a tower-dancing made of solid timber. At the center of the city, writes Ibn Batuta, a place to stay the ruling and aristocratic government. The most important building is the Sultan Palace and Mosque (Ismail, 1997:37).

In the fence that surrounds the city, the residence of the rulers and nobles of the people covered by government outside the fence. All commercial life in the town, the newcomers from the countryside, the strangers, the craftsmen, and all other urban activities located outside the fences around the center of town. Foreign persons are often not allowed to live in a certain distance from the Palace of the Sultan, but sometimes they have to live outside the city.

If the explanation of Ibn Batuta is considered correct, it can be said that the city government center Pasai sultans who ruled in Pasai, in the middle area is a core area which is occupied by the Sultan Palace. The palace has a fence that serves as a boundary that distinguishes the Sultan Palace the market area where trade activities and other activities take place.

According to Ibn Batuta records, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is the figure of a leader who has a passion to learn the high demands of Islamic sciences.Batuta also noted that Islamic studies center that was built within the government into a discussion among scholars and government elites. Ibn Batuta even include the name of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul as one of the seven kings of the world that has tremendous advantages. The seventh king who has the uncanny ability by Ibn Batuta among others, the King of the Malay Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul dinilainya the breadth and depth of knowledge, the King of the Romans are very forgiving, King of Iraq a courteous, very friendly Raja Hindustani, the noble king of Yemen, Turkey mighty king, king of Turkistan, and wise.

Effects of Ibn Batuta the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is so deep.As king, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is a very good, generous, humble, and have noticed the poor. Although he had conquered many kingdoms, Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul never be jumawa. Sultan, said Batuta, was a leader of Islamic law is put forward. “Very humble personality. He went to the mosque for Friday prayers on foot. Finished praying, Sultan and his entourage around the city for ordinary people to see the situation, “as Ibn Batuta describes the figure of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul. Humility is one of the Sultan welcomed the group is shown when Ibn Batuta (Republika, May 21, 2008).

In its golden period, and the Government Pasai Ocean appears to be a center of international trade. Government of the Islamic port was crowded with traders and merchants from different continents such as Asia, Africa, China, and Europe. The region where the Government stands and Pasai Ocean, namely in the Malacca Strait, it is a strategic business areas. At that time, the Malacca Strait is a sea trade route is often the location of the transaction and called on merchants from all corners of the earth, as from Siam (Thailand), China, India, Arabia, to Persia (Iran).


Position Pasai (Pacém) in the Map Trade in Asia

In addition to the trade center, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is also a center of religion and government emerged as the first in Indonesia to follow the teachings of Islam. The success of the Sultanate and the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean, located in Ocean Geudong, Aceh Utara, beginning with the consolidation of small government in the area Perlak, such as Jungle and Seumerlang Jreum. In the period of the 13th century to early 16th-century, Pasai is the area’s leading producer of spices in the world, with pepper as one of the prime commodity. Each year, Pasai able to export pepper with a big production. Not only that, Pasai also a producer of other commodities such as silk, camphor, and gold.

Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul have two sons, namely Malikul Mansur Mahmud and Malikul. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul ultimately died because of illness, the leadership reins temporarily handed Pasai Sultan Malik Al Salih, who also led the Government of the Ocean, because the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul still a very young age. By Sultan Malik Al Salih, the two tribes had been referred to the standard figures that they may well lead the government at a later time. Malikul Mahmud handed over to Sayid Ali Baharuddin, while educated by Sayid Mansur Malikul Semayamuddin.

When the prince is growing up and felt ready to lead the government, the Sultan Malik Al Salih also stepped down from his throne, including the two governments, namely the Government and Pasai Ocean. Instead, according to the agreement, General Persons, lifted the Sultan Mahmud Malikul Pasai, while the Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean Kingdom. However, the harmony of the sultan’s brother and sister did not last long due to the feud between them. The cause is the act of Sultan Mansur who was fond of one of his wife of Sultan Mahmud’s brother is none other than his own. In the end, Sultan Mansur was arrested and expelled from the kingdom until later died in transit. Be Malikul Sultan Mahmud dominated government throne Pasai Ocean and the government to digabungkanlah became the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

Since 1346, the leadership of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Malikul under the regime of Sultan Mahmud was succeeded by his son named Ahmad Permadala Permala. Once crowned as the ruler of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, he was awarded honorary degrees by the name of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir. In Hikayat Raja told Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir endowed five children, three of them boys while the rest were two girls. Three sons of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir each named Tun Beraim father, Tun Abdul Jalil, and the Tun Abdul Fadil. While her two daughters are named Tun and Tun Takiah Medam Bitter Virgin.

Had a really embarrassing thing happened on the way the leadership of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, which in turn is closely linked to the image as a bad leader. According to the Hikayat Raja Pasai, The Sultan was put doted on his own two daughters, namely Tun Tun Takiah field and Bitter Virgin.Extreme attitudes of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir is of course raises the wrath of many parties, including Tun Beraim Father who is none other than the eldest son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir.

Tun Beraim Father dear life to protect his sister from the savagery of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir by running them for safekeeping in a place. Feel opposed by his own son, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir get mad and then ordered the guards to kill Tun Beraim Father. Prince should be the crown prince was eventually killed after eating the poison given the messenger of the father (Jones [ed.], 1999:35-56). Not long after, the sister of Father Tun Beraim soon followed his brother to take the same poison.

Terrorism Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir not stop there. The Sultan returned berulah rude when I heard the news that there was a princess of the Majapahit Kingdom, Radin Galuh clang, the two fell in love with the son of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir, namely Tun Abdul Jalil. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir feel offended because he himself is also put at the heart of the beautiful daughter of the King of Majapahit. And then, as enshrined in thesaga of King Pasai, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir again mandated the lives of his men to finish Tun Abdul Jalil, and when the plan is successful, the bodies of Tun Abdul Jalil sunk into the sea. Meanwhile, because love is not unbearable, Radin Galuh clink together Pasai determined to go to the controller to meet Tun Abdul Jalil.

Arriving at Pasai, the delegation of Majapahit was to hear that clink Galuh sweethearts Radin is dead, killed by his own father. The Princess is not the power of rage and then sink yourself into the sea in which the remains were buried Tun Abdul Jalil earlier. The remaining guards who accompanied the delegation Radin Galuh clink right back into Java and report to the King of Majapahit about these tragic events.

The King of course heard the anger and outrage of his daughter’s death was Sultan Pasai, and then immediately ordered the army to prepare to attack Majapahit Pasai. Still time to give the game, battle fleet was superior to the kingdom of Majapahit and succeeded in occupying Pasai. Because of the desperate, Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir escape to a place called suspect, which is located about fifteen days journey from the State Pasai.

Meanwhile, after a resounding victory by conquering Pasai, the team began preparing for war Majapahit back to Java after taking the spoils and prisoners of war from Pasai. On the way to Java, the Majapahit soldiers first camp stop at Palembang and Jambi to conquer the land, thus bringing more items to loot. Such is the story of the conquest of the kingdom of Majapahit to Pasai as told in the book saga of King Pasai (Jones [ed.], 1999:57-65).

In the genealogy of the rulers of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai lead, there was a female sultan was enthroned in the great state. Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah) Malikul Zahir reigning from 1420 to 1428, or about eight years.Sultanah Nahrasiyah has named adviser to the title of Emperor Ariya Bakooy Bakooy Ahmad Permala. Ariya Bakooy is actually a controversial figure. It had warned people not to marry his daughter scholar himself, but the warning was ditentangnya. In fact, Ariya Bakooy and even kill the 40 scholars. Ariya Bakooy finally fell to the title of Malik Musthofa Pocut Cindan Node Alam, who is none other than her husband Sultanah Nahrasiyah, with the help of Sultan Mahmud Syah Johan Alaiddin of the Government of Aceh Darussalam (1409-1465).

Sultanah Nahrasiyah a Muslim woman of great spirit. This is evidenced by his home décor is very special. In nisannya, Arabic translation of the letter written citation reads: “This is the tomb of the holy women who shine Dear queen, who departed his sins forgiven, Nahrasiyah, daughter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, son of Sultan Ahmad, son of Sultan Muhammad, son of Sultan Salih Mailkus. Mercy is poured on them and their sins forgiven. By the grace of God died on Monday, 17-Hijjah 832. “(Pocut Haslinda Hamid Azwar,www.modusaceh-news.com, 2009).


Tomb Complex refurbishment Sultanah Nahrasiyah (Nahrisyyah)

e. The remains of civilization collapse and Pasai Ocean

The success of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai begin to experience the threat of the greatest civilizations of Java at that time, from the Majapahit Empire of Gadjah Mada as the most legendary mahapatihnya. Gadjah Mada was appointed as governor in Kahuripan in the period 1319-1321 AD by the King of Majapahit who at that time occupied by Jayanegara. In 1331, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih when promoted to be led by Ratu Majapahit Tribuana Tunggadewi. When the appointment of Gadjah Mada became Mahapatih Majapahit is out with his speech called Palapa Oath, that the Gadjah Mada palapa will not enjoy the fruit before the entire archipelago under the Majapahit Kingdom power.

Gadjah Mada Mahapatih apparently little disturbed to hear the news about the greatness of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai across the sea there.Majapahit concerned about the rapid progress of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Therefore, Gadjah Mada then prepare the plan of attack to conquer the ocean Pasai Majapahit. Rumors about military attacks Majapahit, which Syiwa Hindus, the Muslim government Pasai Ocean Santer heard among the people in Aceh. Expedition Pamalayu war fleet under the command of the Majapahit Kingdom, Gadjah Mada Mahapatih action began in 1350 with several phases.

Initial attack on the border of Majapahit Perlak have failed because the location is heavily guarded by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.However, Gadjah Mada University does not cancel the attack. He retreated to the sea and find the open on the east coast that is not maintained. Elephant River, Gadjah Mada landed troops and establish a fortress on the hill, which until now known as the Hill or Bukit Meutan Gadjah Mada (Muljana, 2005:140).

Furthermore, Gadjah Mada conduct the interrogation of two major attacks, that the department of marine and terrestrial field. The attack was launched on the coast by sea in Lhokseumawe and Jambu Air. While incursions by road is via Paya Gajah located between Perlak and Pedawa. Attack of the land have failed because it is blocked by the army of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. While the attacks are done via the sea route instead to reach the palace.


The power of the Majapahit Empire territories, including the Ocean Pasai

In addition to reasons of political factors, the Ocean Pasai Majapahit attacks also triggered because of the economic interest. Commercial progress and prosperity in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Gadjah Mada had wanted to get of that success. Expansion of Majapahit in order to dominate the region has been repeatedly Pasai Ocean and the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai was still able to hold before it finally began to recede slowly over the strengthening influence of Majapahit in the Strait of Malacca.

Until about the 16th century, Ocean Pasai still able to maintain its role as a city that has commercial activities with foreign countries. The historian who shed his interest in economic development was noted that Pasai occupies a position as an international center of trade activity in the archipelago since the role of Kedah successfully rebutted (Said, 1963:125).

But then, a role previously Pasai extremely important in trade flows in Southeast Asia and the world suffered a decline with the advent of the trading town of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (Ismail, 1997:24). Malaka city soon became the prima donna in the field of trade and began to shift the position of Pasai. Not long after Malacca was built, the city in a short time immediately flooded with immigrants, immigrants from Java.

Due to the rapid advancement of Malacca is obtained, the position and role of Pasai more and more cornered, almost all business activities become loose and eventually broke completely in the hands of Malacca since 1450.Moreover, the ambition plus the arrival of the Portuguese trade in the Malay Peninsula. The Portuguese who in 1521 managed to occupy the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai (Rusdi Sufi, 2004:57)

Not only that, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai in Aceh weakened when the government established a pioneering start to a great civilization and progress. The new rule is that the Government of Aceh which was founded by Sultan Ali Shah Mughayat. Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam itself built on the ruins of the kingdoms that ever existed in Aceh at the time of pre-Islamic, like the Ancient Kingdom of Indra, Indra Purwa Government, Government Indra Patra, and the Government Indrapura. In 1524, the Government of Aceh under the leadership of Sultan Ali Shah attacked the Sultanate Mughayat Pasai Ocean. Consequently, the greatness of Government prestige Ocean Pasai more completely overcast before the collapse. Since then, the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai under the control of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam.

Traces of the civilization heritage of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai found, in 1913 and 1915 by a Dutch scientist named JJ de Vink, who took the initiative to conduct an inventory of the former omission Pasai Ocean. Then, in 1937 was done in a cemetery restoration efforts sultans Pasai Ocean by the Dutch colonial government. Then, in 1972, 1973, and in 1976 the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai relics found in the Ocean Geudong district, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, has diinventarisasi by the Director General of Culture, Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.

Recent developments, in the year 2009 has been found several relics related to the history of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. In March 2009, the Islamic Cultural History Research Team informed us that they have discovered the tomb of Al Wazir Al Afdal, who served as Prime Minister of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai. Grave is located in Teupin Ara, Ocean District, North Aceh district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

Al Wazir Al Afdhal known to have served as prime minister during the reign of the last regime Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zain al Abidin is also often known by the name of Sultan Zainal Abidin, who ruled for two terms, namely in the period 1477-1500 and 1513-1524 . From the findings obtained evidence that Al Wazir Al Afdal Zulkaedah died on 7 months of 1518 in 923 H or M. In the same year, Sultan Zainal Abidin also died. At the cemetery headstone Al Wazir Al Afdal, there are poems that describe kezuhudan that the world is transient, just like a nest of spiders knit. The same poem was written on the grave of Sultan Malik Al Salih who expressed the sinking of the Ocean civilization Pasai (www.indowarta.com, March 25, 2009).

On the occasion of Meanwhile, the Islamic Cultural History of the Research Team also claimed to have found a stamp or mark the estimated age of 683 years. Stamp of the government that is predicted to belong Malikul Sultan Muhammad Zahir, the second sultan Pasai Ocean, was found not far from the tomb of Abdullah bin Muhammad, in the village of Kuta Krueng, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Abdullah bin Muhammad (died 816 H/1414 M) itself is one of the descendants of the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustanshir Billah, who holds Shadr Al Akabir (leader of the speaker) in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai at that time.

Seals are found to have broken at the handle portion measuring 2 × 1 cm, and apparently made from a type of animal horns. From finding a location in Kuta FORUM, estimated mark was used until the reign of the last leader of Pasai Ocean, Sultan Zainal Abidin (www.acehlong.com, March 17, 2009).

Then, in June 2009, the Foundation dedicated team of researchers from Nurul Islam (YWNI) Lhokseumawe announced that they had found the tomb is believed to be the last place persemayaman Kanayan King, a warlord in the reign of Sultan Zain Al-Abidin. Tomb of King Kanayan found in the village of Meunasah Ujoung Blang Me, Ocean District, North Aceh district. Based on the research, it is known that King Kanayan died on Friday, December 3 Sha’ban 872 H or 1468 AD. Thus, King Kanayan have lived during the reign of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai some regimes, and died at the time of Sultan Zainal Abidin.

Besides the tomb of King Kanayan, also found a number of other tombs. In fact, the research team predict there are other tie-tie disappear into the ground at the tomb complex is situated not far from the east bank of the River Pasai it. The new tombs were found is not listed in the inventory of the historical site of Culture (www.waspadaonline.com, June 20, 2009).

Finally, in August 2009, the Research Institute of Islamic History (LePSI) Lhokseumawe revealed that they are reviewing the manuscript letter of Sultan Zainal Abidin, died in 923 Hijri or 1518 AD. The letter was addressed to Captain Moran representatives acting on behalf of the King of Portugal in India. Photographic copies can be seen at the Museum Negeri Aceh, while the original manuscript held in Lisbon, Portugal.

The script provides a lot of historical information about the happenings Pasai Ocean in the early 16th century, especially the last condition that caused the first Islamic kingdom in Southeast Asia, having managed to master the Portuguese of Malacca in 1511 AD. Scripts Arabic letters also indicate the names of some state or government who have a close relationship with the Ocean Pasai so we can know the original spelling of the names of states or governments, among others Nergeri Fariyaman (Pariaman) and Mulaqat (Malacca) (www.waspadaonline. com, August 21, 2009).

2. Genealogy of the Kings

Here the names of the sultan / Sultanah known ever to lead the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai:

1. Sultan Malik al-Salih (1267-1297)
2. Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul
3. Sultan Mahmud Malikul
4. Sultan Mansur Malikul
5. Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383)
6. Zain Al-Abidin Sultan Malik Az-Zahir (1383-1405)
7. Sultanah Nahrasiyah or Sultanah Nahrisyyah (1420-1428)
8. Sultan Sallah Ad-Din (1402)
9. Sultan Abu Zaid Malik Az-Zahir 1455)
10. Sultan Mahmud Malik Az-Zahir (1455-1477)
11. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1477-1500)
12. Sultan Abdullah Malik Az-Zahir (1501-1513)
13. Sultan Zain Al-Abidin (1513-1524)


Genealogy Sultan / Sultanah Sultanate Masjid Ocean Pasai According Pasai.

Sultan Malik Al Salih lead the Sultanate of Samudera, while his son, Sultan Muhammad Zahir is the ruler of the Sultanate of Malikul Pasai. When Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul died, the government of the Sultanate of Pasai held by Sultan Malik Al Salih for a while while waiting for the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, namely Malikul and Malikul Mansur Mahmud, was growing up. After the second son of Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul is considered able to be a leader, Sultan Malik Al Salih resigned from the sultan of the government he leads is.

Furthermore, Sultan Malik Al Salih handed control of the government to the tribes, each of the Sultanate of Pasai Malikul Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Ocean to Malikul. The time period of the reign of the third sultan, that Sultan Muhammad Zahir Malikul, Malikul Sultan Mahmud and Sultan Mansur Malikul, deliberately not mentioned because there are some irregularities concerning this matter, including those listed in the saga of King Pasai.

Kesimpang-siuran the period of the reign of each sultan / Sultanah the obstacle, and because of that century years are included in the list above is an interpretation of some information that was found. Similarly, the mention of the name or title of each sultan / Sultanah that we found so many versions. In addition, incomplete information about anyone sultan / Sultanah who ruled the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai a massage and runtut also cause other problems because of not necessarily what is written in the genealogy of the rulers who had recorded all the reign in the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

3. Regional Power

In the century to the 14th century, the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai already very famous and influential and has a vast territory. The powerful fleet of war is to support the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai to expand its power, both in order to dominate and occupy the territory of another state or by the mission to spread Islam. Pasai Ocean territory of the Sultanate of success lies in an area that is flanked by two large rivers in the North Coast of Aceh, namely the Peusangan and Pasai River. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai territory also includes the Ocean Geudong (Aceh Utara), Meulaboh, Bireuen, and Jungle Jreum and Seumerlang (Perlak).


Power Ocean Territory Pasai

Meanwhile, some are embracing the opinion that the territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai cover a wider area to the south, ie to the mouth of the River Jambu Ayer (Ismail, 1997:7). Clearly, the vast territory of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai covered along the river upstream of the upstream-derived remote Gayo Highlands, now in the administrative area of Central Aceh District, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. Sultanate of Samudera Pasai also successfully expanded its territory to the outside of the ground in Aceh. Some rural areas of the state administrations under the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai include Minangkabau, Palembang, Jambi, Patani, Malacca, even to their various governments on the coast of Java (Sufi & Wibowo, 2005:61).

4. Governance System

The composition of the community who become citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai show-layered character. According Ayatrohaedi, the layer consists of Sultan and the government of Persons in the top layer to slave on the bottom layer (Ayatrohaedi, 1992). In the group of layers of bureaucracy looks the group of Persons, the prime minister, ministers, soldiers, officers, and other nobles of the kingdom.

The existence of those engaged in commerce, such as those who deal in, the sail, the town, masters, and others. Although the total population of Arabs who live in Pasai not by the people of India, but among the Arabs is very influential in the way of government, even though the policies of Sultan Pasai. This situation is seen since the early formation of the Sultanate of Pasai and lasts a long time until this government changed the name of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai.

In the reign of Sultan Malik Al Salih as the first ruler of the Sultanate of Pasai, there are a number of Persons in the state, among other things, and Tun Tun Sri Kaya Kaya Baba. The names that clearly indicate their position, called the Great Persons. This is in accordance with the articulation of government Persons in the Malay Peninsula and the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam as the Rich Man (Ismail, 1997:39).

Second Person of the way the government take control of the Sultanate of Pasai, each was given the title and Sayid Sayid Ali Ghitauddin Asmayuddin, as has been mentioned before in the Islamic Anger or embarrassment Sultan Malik Al Salih. In the story illustrated clearly that Great Persons are mentioned as prime minister, one for the Sultanate of Pasai and another for the Sultanate of Samudera. Their position is very important in there place since the regime of Sultan Malik Al Salih until the era of the reign of his grandson and Malikul Malikul Mahmud Mansur.


One manuscript indicates presence Pasai

In the second grandson of Sultan Malik Al Salih was in power in their government, there is a dispute between them, ie when Malikul Mansur indecent acts against one of his wives Malikul Mahmud. Despicable acts knowing that his brother, Sultan Mahmud had Malikul speech that if he does not respect Asmayuddin Sayid, who is an advisor in the Sultanate of Sultan Mansur Malikul Ocean, Malikul Sultan Mahmud would have killed his own brother for acts of contempt are not forgiven. This fragment is sufficient to prove that how strong the effect of the Persons of the wheels of government take control, even to the level of personal and psychological affect Sultan.

In the next era of leadership, which under the regime of Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir (1346-1383), the government of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai controlled by four prime ministers, each of which called Tulus Great Tailor Sukara, Baba Mentuha, Solomon Dendang Water and Tun Shah Alam City (Jones [ed.], 1999:36). Still the same as in previous times, the fourth prime minister of the exercise of its functions as an adviser to the Sultan and influenced government policy even though the final decision still remains in the hands of Sultan Pasai Ocean. Social and political life of citizens of the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai is colored by cultural and religious elements of Islam. His administration is a theocracy (based on the teachings of Islam), and most people embrace Islam

Kesultanan Malaka (abad ke-14abad ke-17)

1402

Kesultanan Malaka (14021511) adalah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan oleh Parameswara, seorang putera Sriwijaya yang melarikan diri dari perebutan Palembang oleh Majapahit. Ibu kota kerajaan ini terdapat di Melaka, yang terletak pada penyempitan Selat Malaka. Kesultanan ini berkembang pesat menjadi sebuah entrepot dan menjadi pelabuhan terpenting di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-15 dan awal 16. Malaka runtuh setelah ibu kotanya direbut Portugis pada 1511.

Kegemilangan yang dicapai oleh Kerajaan Melaka adalah daripada beberapa faktor yang penting. Antaranya, Parameswara telah mengambil kesempatan untuk menjalinkan hubungan baik dengan negara Cina ketika Laksamana Yin Ching mengunjungi Melaka pada tahun 1403. Malah, salah seorang daripada sultan Melaka telah menikahi seorang putri dari negara Cina yang bernama Putri Hang Li Po. Hubungan erat antara Melaka dengan Cina telah memberi banyak manfaat kepada Melaka. Melaka mendapat perlindungan dari Cina yang merupakan sebuah kuasa besar di dunia untuk mengelakkan serangan Siam.

Sejarah

Parameswara pada awalnya mendirikan kerajaan di Singapura pada tahun 1390-an. Negeri ini kemudian diserang oleh Jawa dan Siam, yang memaksanya hijrah lebih ke utara. Kronik Dinasti Ming mencatat Parameswara telah berdiam di ibukota baru di Melaka pada 1403, tempat armada Ming yang dikirim ke selatan menemuinya. Sebagai balasan upeti yang diberikan Kekaisaran Cina menyetujui untuk memberikan perlindungan pada kerajaan baru tersebut. [1]

Parameswara kemudian menganut agama Islam setelah menikahi putri Pasai. Laporan dari kunjungan Laksamana Cheng Ho pada 1409 menyiratkan bahwa pada saat itu Parameswara masih berkuasa, dan raja dan rakyat Melaka sudah menjadi muslim. [2]. Pada 1414 Parameswara digantikan putranya, Megat Iskandar Syah.[1][2]

Megat Iskandar Syah memerintah selama 10 tahun, dan digantikan oleh Muhammad Syah. Putra Muhammad Syah yang kemudian menggantikannya, Raja Ibrahim, tampaknya tidak menganut agama Islam, dan mengambil gelar Sri Parameswara Dewa Syah. Namun masa pemerintahannya hanya 17 bulan, dan dia mangkat karena terbunuh pada 1445. Saudara seayahnya, Raja Kasim, kemudian menggantikannya dengan gelar Sultan Mudzaffar Syah.

Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Mudzaffar Syah Melaka melakukan ekspansi di Semenanjung Malaya dan pantai timur Sumatera (Kampar dan Indragiri). Ini memancing kemarahan Siam yang menganggap Melaka sebagai bawahan Kedah, yang pada saat itu menjadi vassal Siam. Namun serangan Siam pada 1455 dan 1456 dapat dipatahkan.

Di bawah pemerintahan raja berikutnya yang naik tahta pada tahun 1459, Sultan Mansur Syah, Melaka menyerbu Kedah dan Pahang, dan menjadikannya negara vassal. Di bawah sultan yang sama Johor, Jambi dan Siak juga takluk. Dengan demikian Melaka mengendalikan sepenuhnya kedua pesisir yang mengapit Selat Malaka.

Mansur Syah berkuasa sampai mangkatnya pada 1477. Dia digantikan oleh putranya Alauddin Riayat Syah. Sultan memerintah selama 11 tahun, saat dia meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Mahmud Syah. [3]

Mahmud Syah memerintah Malaka sampai tahun 1511, saat ibu kota kerajaan tersebut diserang pasukan Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso de Albuquerque. Serangan dimulai pada 10 Agustus 1511 dan berhasil direbut pada 24 Agustus 1511. Sultan Mahmud Syah melarikan diri ke Bintan dan mendirikan ibukota baru di sana. Pada tahun 1526 Portugis membumihanguskan Bintan, dan Sultan kemudian melarikan diri ke Kampar, tempat dia wafat dua tahun kemudian. Putranya Muzaffar Syah kemudian menjadi sultan Perak, sedangkan putranya yang lain Alauddin Riayat Syah II mendirikan kerajaan baru yaitu Johor.

[sunting] Daftar raja-raja Malaka

  1. Parameswara (1402-1414)
  2. Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)
  3. Sultan Muhammad Syah (1424-1444)
  4. Seri Parameswara Dewa Syah(1444-1445)
  5. Sultan Mudzaffar Syah (1445-1459)
  6. Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477)
  7. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)
  8. Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1528)

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan dari Samudera Pasai yang pada tahun 1360 ditaklukkan oleh Majapahit hingga kemundurannya di abad ke-14. Kesultanan Aceh terletak di utara pulau Sumatera dengan ibu kota Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) dengan sultan pertamnya adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil awal 913 H atau pada tanggal 8 September 1507. Dalam sejarahnya yang panjang itu (14961903), Aceh telah mengukir masa lampaunya dengan begitu megah dan menakjubkan, terutama karena kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan pola dan sistem pendidikan militer, komitmennya dalam menentang imperialisme bangsa Eropa, sistem pemerintahan yang teratur dan sistematik, mewujudkan pusat-pusat pengkajian ilmu pengetahuan, hingga kemampuannya dalam menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain.[1]

Sejarah

Awal mula

Kesultanan Aceh didirikan oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah pada tahun 1496. Diawal-awal masa pemerintahannya wilayah Kesultanan Aceh berkembang hingga mencakup Daya, Deli, Pedir, Pasai, dan Aru. Pada tahun 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah digantikan oleh putera sulungnya yang bernama Salahuddin, yang kemudian berkuasa hingga tahun 1537. Kemudian Salahuddin digantikan oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar yang berkuasa hingga tahun 1568.

Masa kejayaan

Kesultanan Aceh mengalami masa keemasan pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Iskandar Muda (16071636). Pada masa kepemimpinannya, Aceh telah berhasil memukul mundur kekuatan Portugis dari selat Malaka. Kejadian ini dilukiskan dalam La Grand Encyclopedie bahwa pada tahun 1582, bangsa Aceh sudah meluaskan pengaruhnya atas pulau-pulau Sunda (Sumatera, Jawa dan Kalimantan) serta atas sebagian tanah Semenanjung Melayu. Selain itu Aceh juga melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan semua bangsa yang melayari Lautan Hindia. Pada tahun 1586, kesultanan Aceh melakukan penyerangan terhadap Portugis di Melaka dengan armada yang terdiri dari 500 buah kapal perang dan 60.000 tentara laut. Serangan ini dalam upaya memperluas dominasi Aceh atas Selat Malaka dan semenanjung Melayu. Walaupun Aceh telah berhasil mengepung Melaka dari segala penjuru, namun penyerangan ini gagal dikarenakan adanya persekongkolan antara Portugis dengan kesultanan Pahang.

Dalam lapangan pembinaan kesusasteraan dan ilmu agama, Aceh telah melahirkan beberapa ulama ternama, yang karangan mereka menjadi rujukan utama dalam bidang masing-masing, seperti Hamzah Fansuri dalam bukunya Tabyan Fi Ma’rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin ar-Raniry dalam bukunya Sirat al-Mustaqim, dan Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkili dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil.

Kemunduran

Kemunduran Kesultanan Aceh bermula sejak kemangkatan Sultan Iskandar Tsani pada tahun 1641. Kemunduran Aceh disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya ialah makin menguatnya kekuasaan Belanda di pulau Sumatera dan Selat Malaka, ditandai dengan jatuhnya wilayah Minangkabau, Siak, Deli dan Bengkulu kedalam pangkuan penjajahan Belanda. Faktor penting lainnya ialah adanya perebutan kekuasaan diantara pewaris tahta kesultanan.

Traktat London yang ditandatangani pada 1824 telah memberi kekuasaan kepada Belanda untuk menguasai segala kawasan British/Inggris di Sumatra sementara Belanda akan menyerahkan segala kekuasaan perdagangan mereka di India dan juga berjanji tidak akan menandingi British/Inggris untuk menguasai Singapura.

Pada akhir Nopember 1871, lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan Traktat Sumatera, dimana disebutkan dengan jelas “Inggris wajib berlepas diri dari segala unjuk perasaan terhadap perluasan kekuasaan Belanda di bagian manapun di Sumatera. Pembatasan-pembatasan Traktat London 1824 mengenai Aceh dibatalkan.” Sejak itu, usaha-usaha untuk menyerbu Aceh makin santer disuarakan, baik dari negeri Belanda maupun Batavia. Setelah melakukan peperangan selama 40 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh ke pangkuan kolonial Hindia-Belanda. Sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Aceh menyatakan bersedia bergabung ke dalam Republik indonesia atas ajakan dan bujukan dari Soekarno kepada pemimpin Aceh Tengku Muhammad Daud Beureueh saat itu[rujukan?].

Perang Aceh

 

1537

Ottoman Empire Sends War Armada To Help Aceh

Ottoman Empire (Sultan Selim II) which Were made to help the Muslim Sultanates Aceh (Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah)

– 1537-1538,

the Ottoman sent 300 troops to the Acehnese, I don’t know what they were composed of.

– 1558, 400 Turkish artilery had joined with some 15000 Acehnese troops and an armada of 300 vessels in attack Melaka (Malacca) off the hands of the Portuguese albeit only for a month.

– 1562, an Acehnese ambassador had gone to Istanbul to ask for Turkish help. The Ottoman sent some 500 Turks, a number of projectiles with stone bullets, munitions, engineers and people to handle the big weapons.

But what I had in mind was the planned expedition that Selim II wanted to carry out which was to have some 15 war ships and be comandeered by the admiral Kurtoglu. It was also to be helped by the governerships of Yemen, Aden and Mecca, but that one was never carried out.

The Ottoman Turkish empire was a very influential empire, at least as it was the simbol of the Muslim Caliphate. The success of Suleiman the Magnificent was heard loudly in these areas, with the Sultan of Demak, wanting to conquer Java so as be called, as according to the Portuguese, Manuel Pinto, segundo Turco: “the second Turkish King”.

Warga Blang Balok Masih Simpan Meriam “Lada Sicupak” Asal Turki

Peureulak – Không nhiều người biết nếu trong làng Blang Beams Peureulak City East Aceh huyện vẫn còn lưu một khẩu pháo Lada nước Sicupak của Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ. Cannon đo gần hai mét, theo người dân địa phương đến từ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.

Không nhiều người biết lý do tại sao Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ mang súng đến Aceh hiện đang được lưu trữ gọn gàng trong làng Blang Beams khoảng 1,5 km từ cầu đối diện với khung thép Kp Beusa hoặc đường cao tốc Medan – Banda Aceh. Ngay cả người dân địa phương đã được rào chắn pháo để duy trì liên tục và tránh những điều không mong muốn.

Cha Wan, quản lý trang web Sicupak Meriam của Lada hiên hai ngày trước đây nói, đại bác lịch sử vẫn còn quan tâm rằng không có bàn tay ngu dốt phá hủy nó. Nói với cha Wan, người được cho là di tích pháo của nhà nước Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ được đặt tên Meriam Lada Sicupak và phát hiện vào ngày 12 Tháng Mười Hai 1976 lúc 23:30 bởi cuối TGK Muhammad Ben.

Pháo đã từng là một công cụ của chiến tranh sử dụng Commander Mustafa vào năm 1860 cũng là người dân địa phương.

Khẩu pháo được coi cộng đồng địa phương có một phước lành. Điều này là hiển nhiên từ các cuộc xung đột Aceh bị thiệt hại, những khẩu súng không bao giờ tranh cãi. Trong thực tế, có những người cố gắng để di chuyển vị trí của những khẩu súng, không thể để nhấc nó lên, và những người đang cố gắng để di chuyển các pháo vào thời điểm đó, cuối cùng bị một chứng rối loạn tâm thần.

Once upon a time, khẩu pháo sẽ được khai quật được di chuyển bởi một công dân, nhưng sớm người điên, bố nói Wan.

Pháo một lần loại bỏ và chuyển sang đấu trường của Tuần lễ Văn hóa Aceh (PKA), nhưng việc loại bỏ được thực hiện bởi 15 người và được giám sát bởi nhà khảo cổ học.

Mặc dù súng đã không được biết đến rộng rãi công dân, cha Wan không được phép để di chuyển các khẩu pháo. Công chúng sẽ được cho phép nếu chính phủ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ ngay lập tức yêu cầu nhớ pháo là một di sản của đất nước trong quá khứ, vì vậy cha Wan.

Nguồn: “Serambinews”
original info

PEUREULAK – Tak banyak yang tahu jika di Desa Blang Balok Kecamatan Peureulak Kota Aceh Timur kini masih tersimpan sebuah meriam Lada Sicupak asal negara Turki. Meriam yang berukuran hampir dua meter itu, menurut warga setempat berasal dari Turki.

 

 

Tak banyak yang tahu kenapa Turki membawa meriam ini ke Aceh yang kini tersimpan rapi di Desa Blang Balok sekitar 1,5 kilometer dari jembatan rangka baja Kp Beusa Sebrang atau dengan dengan jalan raya Medan – Banda Aceh. Bahkan oleh warga setempat meriam itu telah dipagar untuk menjaga kelestariannya serta menghindari hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan.

Ayah Wan, pengelola lokasi Meriam Lada Sicupak ini kepada Serambi dua hari lalu menceritakan, meriam bersejarah ini tetap dirawat supaya jangan ada tangan-tangan jahil yang merusaknya. Diceritakan Ayah Wan, meriam yang diyakini peninggalan negara Turki itu kini diberi nama Meriam Lada Sicupak dan ditemukan pada tanggal 12 Desember 1976 pukul 11.30 Wib oleh almarhum Tgk Muhammad Ben.

Meriam tersebut dulunya merupakan alat perang yang digunakan Panglima Mustafa pada Tahun 1860 yang juga merupakan warga desa setempat.

Meriam tersebut oleh masyarakat setempat dianggap memiliki keberkahan. Hal itu terbukti sejak Aceh dilanda konflik, keberadaan meriam tidak pernah diganggu gugat. Malah ada warga yang mencoba memindahkan lokasi keberadaan meriam ini, tak sanggup mengangkatnya dan orang yang mencoba memindahkan meriam kala itu, akhirnya menderita gangguan jiwa.

Pernah suatu ketika, meriam tersebut akan digali untuk dipindahkan oleh seorang warga, namun tak lama kemudian warga itu gila, ujar Ayah Wan.

Meriam tersebut dulu pernah diangkat dan dipindahkan untuk arena Pekan Kebudayaan Aceh (PKA), namun pada saat pemindahannya dilakukan oleh 15 orang dengan diawasi oleh ahli purbakala.

Meskipun meriam itu tidak banyak diketahui warga, oleh Ayah Wan tidak diizinkan untuk memindahkan lokasi meriam. Masyarakat akan mengizinkannya bila pemerintah Turki yang langsung memintanya mengingat meriam tersebut merupakan peninggalan negara itu pada masa lampau, demikian Ayah Wan.

Sources : “Serambinews”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aceh unidentief location and date

Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam

 

Oleh: Ameer Hamzah

 

Suara tokek di Meureudu dengan di Pase sangat berbeda. Di Meureudu suaranya  ko’o-ko’o dan di Pase berbunyi e’ee. e’eee. Mengapa? Seorang peneliti suara satwa bertanya kepada orang-orang tua yang ada di Aceh.

Jawabannya, ternyata sa­ngat seragam. Di Meureudu pernah singgah Poteu Meureuhom Iskandar Muda, sedang di Pase tidak. maka suara tokek berbeda. Jawaban seperti itu memang tak dapat dipertanggung jawabkan secara ilmiah, namun dalarn masyarakat telah sangat populer.

Sultan Iskandarmuda me­mang sudah menjadi legendaris. Namanya sangat agung dan hampir tak ada lidah orang Aceh yang tak pernah menyebut nama itu.

Istilah Poteu Meureuhom dalam ungkapan hadih maja, Adat bak Poteu Meureuhom, hukom bak Syiah Kuala. adalah gelar yang disempenakan kepadanya setelah sultan tersebut mangkat.

la seorang sultan terbesar yang pernah dimiliki Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam. Kekuasaannya meluas mencakupi semua wilayah Sumatera sampai ke Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (M Said: Aceh Sepanjang Abad, halaman 147).

Kerajaan Deli dan Aru ditaklukkannya pada tahun 1612 M. Johor 1613, Pahang, Kedah, Perak,  Singapura dan Batam dalam tahun 1617-1620 M. Pulau Nias, Asahan,  Indragiri dan Jambi 1623-1625 M’ dan menyerang Portugis di Malaka pada tahun 1629 M. Singkat kata, seluruh Sumatera dan Semenanjung Malaya sudah berada di bawah kekuasaannya.

Zamannya adalah zaman kegemilangan dan puncak keemasan bagi Aceh dan daerah taklukannya. Bandar Aceh Darussalam menjadi kiblat ilmu pengetahuan di belahan bumi Asia Tenggara.

Banyak ulama dan sarjana yang datang dari Arab, India, Persia, dan Gujarat untuk bermukim di Aceh. Di sini mereka menjadi guru-guru besar yang mengajar ilmu pengetahuan di Perguruan Tinggi Darusy Syariah Jamiah Baiturrahmam Bandar Aceh Darussalam. Mahasiswa datang dari berbagai penjuru nusantara.

Para pujangga dan penyair, penari dan penyanyi juga mendapat tempat tersendiri dalam istana sultan. Iskandarmuda bagaikan Harun Ar-Rasyid yang pernah berkuasa di Bag­dad.

Petani dan pedagang hidup sejahtera karena hasil yang berlimpahruah. Tak ada orang kaya yang kikir dan orang miskin yang dengki. Aceh masa itu menurut Prof Dr Hamka — benar-benar sudah mencapai, taraf Baldatun Thayyibatun wa Rabbul Ghafuur (Sejarah Umat Islam PT Bulan Bintang, 1977).

Sultan memerintah dengan adil dan bijaksana berdasarkan hukum yang berlaku di zamannya.yakni hukum syariah yang berdasarkan al-Quran, hadits, ijmak, dan qias. Banyak pelaku kejahatan yang mati dibunuh berdasarkan hukum hudud.

Hukum baginya adalah amanah Allah. Karena itu siapa saja yang berbuat melanggar hukum akan menerima risiko hukum, meski anak kandungnya sendiri. Dalam menjalankan hukum tidak pilih kasih. Ini dibuktikan dalam sejarah. Meurah Pupok, putranya yang dipersiapkan untuk menjadi pengganti (putra mahkota) — telanjur berbuat zina dengan isteri seorang menteri. Karena itu baginda sangat murka. Ia memerintahkan serdadu untuk menangkap anaknya itu dan memerintahkan hakim untuk merajamnya sampai mati.

Banyak pembesar istana yang ingin mengesampingkan risiko hukum terhadap putra mahkota. Mereka menggoda baginda supaya membatalkan hukum tersebut. Tapi dengan tegas Iskandarmuda menjawab: Mate aneuek meupat jrat, gadoh adat pat tamita. (Mati anak tinggal kuburan, hilang adat kemana dicari) (Prof A Hasymy: Iskandarmuda Meu kuta Alam). Dalam hal ini ia serupa dengan Umar bin Khattab yang menghukum rajam putranya Abu Syamah karena kasus yang serupa juga.

Sultan Iskandarmuda yang berkuasa sejak tahun 1607-1636 memang tak tertandingi. la seorang penakluk yang sa­ngat berhasil. la menaklukkan tapi bukan untuk menjajah. la seorang negarawan besar yang sangat cinta kepada agama Islam dan saudara serumpunnya di Sumatera dan Semenan­jung Melayu yang sudah dalam cengkeraman penjajah Portugis. Makanya ncgeri-ncgcri yang ditaklukkan tak pernah merasa kecewa, kecuali raja-raja yang hilang kekuasaan.

Rakyat dalam negeri-negeri yang ditaklukkan menganggap Iskandarmuda sebagai pahlawan yang telah membebaskan mereka dari pengaruh kolonialisme Barat. Bahkan kemenangan-kemenangan yang didapatnya bukan semata-mata karena kekuatan pasukan Aceh, melainkan juga karena adanya tentara yang membelot karena benci kepada kolonialisme dan bonekaisme Portugis.

Ketika Iskandarmuda dan angkatan lautnya bertekat untuk membebaskan Tanah Semenanjung Melayu (sekarang Malaysia) dari penjajahan Portugis, banyak cerita yang menarik kita baca dalam buku sejarah.

Sultan Iskandarmuda menerapkan etika perang menurut Islam yang diajarkan Rasulullah SAW. Bila rnusuh dapat dikalahkan jangan disiksa, jangan dirampok hartanya, dan jangan pula diganggu wanitanya. Sebaliknya, bila mati da­lam peperangan adalah syahid. Jangan lari dari medan perang, kecuali untuk mengatur strategi.

Dengan etika perang yang mulia itulah, kejayaan yang dicapai Iskandarmuda hampir serupa dengan kejayaan yang dipcrolehi Abubakar, Umar bin Khattab, Usman, Ali  dan Mu­hammad al-Fateh dari Turki.

Pasukan Aceh (Iskandarmu­da) dengan gemilang berturut-turut dapat menaklukkan selu­ruh negeri  yang ada di Sumatera dan Semenanjung Melayu. Nama beliaupun hidup subur menjadi lagenda di Tanah Se­menanjung.

Belum lama ini. (2/11) penulis berada di Kampong Acheh, Yan Kedah Malaysia. Saya bertanya kepada Ustaz Haji Ibrahim bin Haji Abdurrahman sesepuh masyarakat Aceh di sana. Sejak kapan masyarakat Aceh sudah bermukim di sini? “Sejak Poteu Meureuhom Iskandarmuda menaklukkan Kedah,” jawabnya.

Nama Iskandarmuda, tetap dikenang di sana. Hikayat Malem Dagang yang merupakan kisah Iskandarmuda masih dibaca oleh masyarakat Aceh di Yan. Meski sudah ratusan tahun mereka terpisah dari tanah Aceh, Serambi Makkah. Begitu juga masyarakat Melayu di Pahang. Mereka tidak melupakan jasa Iskandarmuda yang telah memuliakan Putroe Phang

Beliau juga seorang pria yang romantis dan sangat be­sar kasih sayangnya terhadap musuh yang sudah ditawannya. Setelah Pahang menyerah dan menawan anggota kerajaan, ia jatuh cinta kepada putri cantik bernama Kamaliah (Pu­troe Phang). Ia kawin dan memboyongnya ke Aceh.

Untuk mengobat hati putri Pahang yang luka karena ayahnya kalah, maka Sultan Iskan­darmuda membuat sebuah taman yang indah, (Raudhatul Isyqi lengkap dengan tempat permandian, tempat pelipur lara di pinggir Krueng Daroy. Itulah yang kita kenal seka­rang Taman Sari, Taman Pinto Khop dan Gunongan.

Sebenarnya masih sangat banyak yang harus kita tulis tentang orang besar Aceh Ini, sebab ia telah banyak mewariskan pusaka terhadap kita semua. la telah mengangkat harkat dan martabat umat Islam nusantara dari kekejaman kolonialisme Barat. Ia telah berbuat yang beIum dibuat oleh pendahulunya dan oleh sultan-sultan sesudahnya.

Tulisan ini hanya secuil ungkapan rasa bangga dan kesyukuran kita karena Sultan Iskandarmuda Meukuta Alam telah disahkan menjadi Pahlawan Naslonal oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. Hari Pahlawan Nasional 10 Nevember yang kita peringati hari ini rasanya sangat indah dari yang sudah-sudah, sangat bermakna dari sebelumnya. Seorang pahlawan sejati telah kita beri tempat yang layak untuk dihormati.

Bagi rakyat Aceh Iskandar­muda adalah simbol keadilan, simbol kemakmuran dan kebesaran. Jadi, bukan simbol impian dan nostalgia. Masa lalu adalah masa lain, denting waktu tak mungkin terulang kembali.

Tugas kita sekarang, bukan bernostalgja (cet langet) terhadap prestasi yang diraih Iskandarmuda dan juga pahlawan-pahlawan kita yang lain, tetapi berkarya yang lebih baik lagi dari karya pcndahulu kita. Kalau Iskandarmuda dalam waktu yang relatif singkat dapat mengubah wajah kemiskinan menjadi kemakmuran, rasanya kita juga perlu meniru.

 

Ameer Hamzah, Wartawan Harian Serambi Indonesia

Meriam Lada Sicupak (Aceh)

Meriam Aceh Digunakan Ketika Menentang Portugis dan Belanda

Sultanate Of Aceh Darussalam Flag

(1496 – 1903)

Aceh Flag : Alam Aceh (Atjeh) , Alam Peudeueng , Alam Zulfiqar

 

Cờ của Vương quốc Aceh, tên là ALAM của Zulfiqar Ali Shah Mughayat (vua đầu tiên của Aceh) từ sự lãnh đạo cũ là 916-936 H (1511 đến 1530 AD)
AwangPembela
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:09
Công cụ tuyệt vời, HangPC. Cảm ơn bạn.

Tôi sẽ khuyên bạn nên có xúc tiến để LaksamanaPC.
Bhaskara
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:29
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!
HangPC2
23 tháng 4 năm 2008, 01:52
QUOTE (Bhaskara @ April 23, 2008, 14:29) [snapback] 3.655.814 [/ snapback]
Wow, tôi có thể thấy rằng lá cờ là thực sự Tương tự như lá cờ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, và rất khác biệt với những lá cờ của các quốc gia Hồi giáo khác, Bởi vì không có quốc gia Hồi giáo khác trên thế giới này sử dụng lưỡi liềm và biểu tượng ngôi sao cho lá cờ của họ!

 

 

original info

 


Bendera Kerajaan Aceh, bernama ALAM ZULFIQAR yang dibuat oleh Ali Mughayat Syah (Raja pertama Aceh) lama kepemimpinannya adalah dari tahun 916 – 936 H (1511 – 1530 M)

AwangPembela

Apr 23 2008, 01:09 AM

Great stuff, HangPC. Thank you.

I’ll recommend ya for promotion to LaksamanaPC.

Bhaskara

Apr 23 2008, 01:29 AM

Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!

HangPC2

Apr 23 2008, 01:52 AM

QUOTE(Bhaskara @ Apr 23 2008, 02:29 PM) [snapback]3655814[/snapback]

Wow, I can see that the flag is really similar to Turkey’s flag, and very different with other Islamic countries’ flags, because no other Islamic country in this world use the crescent and star symbol for their flag!

Malay Federation (1948-1950)

 

 

 

1950-1963 – Federation of Malaya

Melaka (Malacca) Negeri Melaka Darul Azim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sultanate Of Johore (Negeri Johor Darul Takzim)

Sultanate Of Kelantan (Negeri Kelantan Dar ul-Naim)

Sultanate Of Selangor (Negeri Selangor Darul Ehsan)

Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO)

Greater Patani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya)

Islamic Republic of Patani

Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

DutchEastIndiesMan

Apr 23 2008, 04:00 AM

ahh ok, Good on you HangPC, great ok. I’ve got evidence now.
Awang sorry for dismissing your claim. However I’m still not yet convince completely.

Bhaskara

Apr 23 2008, 09:39 PM

Hah? bukti gmn maksud lo? Hanya krn benderanya mirip? Yaelah, di seluruh dunia jg yg namanya negara Islam ya benderanya pake bulan sabit dan bintang, di mana istimewanya kemiripan antara 2 bendera ini?

DutchEastIndiesMan

Apr 24 2008, 12:06 AM

Well Hang did gave us some evidence,as in the articles and the cannons. Not the flags.. I know almost every Muslim country has that sort of flag, with the crescent and star.

Like I said I’m still not convinced completely…there might been a contact between Ottomans and Acehnese but I still think Awang is still a bit dreaming…

Majapahitans

Apr 24 2008, 05:39 AM

Actually early Islamic chaliphate during Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) era doesn’t associate themself with crescent and star as the emblem of Islam.
But the color green indeed have Islamic association. In Islamic traditions mentioned that the angel Jibreel (Gabriel) bring the heavenly silk green banner for Muhammad’s army during their fights against Meccan pagans. Thus green become Islamic colors.

The emblem of star and crescent probably have more ancient origin. Both are the symbol of celestial or heavenly power since Sumerian and ancient Persian era. Star is symbol of Gods in ancient Babylonian tradition, wheather like it or not Islam sometimes bear more ancient pre-Islamic traditions.
Another theory mentioned that ancient middleeastern tribes often “decorate” their banner’s pole with horn of goat, thus later evolved to “crescent moon” shape made from metal.

Later the Turks made the star and crescent and star as their banner. Ottoman as the largest Islamic empire at that time, also “the heir” of Islamic caliphate make their banner associated with Islam.
So I think Hang PC got his reasons of his opinions. Indeed every Islamic nations that use crescent as their banner in some degree influenced and has bilateral relationship with Turkey Ottoman.

Ralf

Apr 24 2008, 06:37 AM

Little bit off-topic, but when I was in Turkey, I saw the crescent and star symbol in the night sky.
It appeared exactly as it does on the flag

HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF ACHIN, FROM THE PERIOD OF ITS BEING VISITED BY EUROPEANS.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE PORTUGUESE.

The Portuguese, under the conduct of Vasco de Gama, doubled the Cape of Good Hope in the year 1497, and arrived on the coast of Malabar in the following year. These people, whom the spirit of glory, commerce, and plunder led to the most magnanimous undertakings, were not so entirely engaged by their conquests on the continent of India as to prevent them from extending their views to the discovery of regions yet more distant.

They learned from the merchants of Guzerat some account of the riches and importance of Malacca, a great trading city in the farther peninsula of India, supposed by them the Golden Chersonnese of Ptolemy. Intelligence of this was transmitted to their enterprising sovereign Emanuel, who became impressed with a strong desire to avail himself of the flattering advantages which this celebrated country held out to his ambition.

1508.

He equipped a fleet of four ships under the command of Diogo Lopez de Sequeira, which sailed from Lisbon on the eighth day of April 1508 with orders to explore and establish connexions in those eastern parts of Asia.

 

1509.

After touching at Madagascar Sequeira proceeded to Cochin, where a ship was added to his fleet, and, departing from thence on the eighth of September 1509, he made sail towards Malacca; but having doubled the extreme promontory of Sumatra (then supposed to be the Taprobane of the ancients) he anchored at Pidir, a principal port of that island, in which he found vessels from Pegu, Bengal, and other countries. The king of the place, who, like other Mahometan princes, was styled sultan, sent off a deputation to him, accompanied with refreshments, excusing himself, on account of illness,

 

from paying his compliments in person, but assuring him at the same time that he should derive much pleasure from the friendship and alliance of the Portuguese, whose fame had reached his ears. Sequeira answered this message in such terms that, by consent of the sultan, a monument of their amity was erected on the shore; or, more properly, as the token of discovery and possession usually employed by the European nations. He was received in the same manner at a place called Pase, lying about twenty leagues farther to the eastward on the same coast, and there also erected a monument or cross. Having procured at each of these ports as much pepper as could be collected in a short time he hastened to Malacca, where the news of his appearance in these seas had anticipated his arrival. Here he was near falling a sacrifice to the insidious policy of Mahmud, the reigning king, to whom the Portuguese had been represented by the Arabian and Persian merchants (and not very unjustly) as lawless pirates, who, under the pretext of establishing commercial treaties, had, at first by encroachments, and afterwards with insolent rapacity, ruined and enslaved the princes who were weak enough to put a confidence in them, or to allow them a footing in their dominions. He escaped the snares that were laid for him but lost many of his people, and, leaving others in captivity, he returned to Europe, and gave an account of his proceedings to the king.

 

 

 

1510.

A fleet was sent out in the year 1510 under Diogo Mendez to establish the Portuguese interests at Malacca; but Affonso d’Alboquerque, the governor of their affairs in India, thought proper to detain this squadron on the coast of Malabar until he could proceed thither himself with a greater force.

1511.

And accordingly on the second of May 1511 he set sail from Cochin with nineteen ships and fourteen hundred men. He touched at Pidir, where he found some of his countrymen who had made their escape from Malacca in a boat and sought protection on the Sumatran shore. They represented that, arriving off Pase, they had been ill-treated by the natives, who killed one of their party and obliged them to fly to Pidir, where they met with hospitality and kindness from the prince, who seemed desirous to conciliate the regard of their nation. Alboquerque expressed himself sensible of this instance of friendship, and renewed with the sultan the alliance that had been formed by Sequeira. He then proceeded to Pase, whose monarch endeavoured to exculpate himself from the outrage committed against the Portuguese fugitives, and as he could not tarry to take redress he concealed his resentment. In crossing over to Malacca he fell in with a large junk, or country vessel, which he engaged and attempted to board, but the enemy, setting fire to a quantity of inflammable oleaginous matter,

 

he was deterred from his design, with a narrow escape of the destruction of his own ship. The junk was then battered from a distance until forty of her men were killed, when Alboquerque, admiring the bravery of the crew, proposed to them that, if they would strike and acknowledge themselves vassals of Portugal, he would treat them as friends and take them under his protection. This offer was accepted, and the valiant defender of the vessel informed the governor that his name was Jeinal, the lawful heir of the kingdom of Pase; he by whom it was then ruled being a usurper, who, taking advantage of his minority and his own situation as regent, had seized the crown: that he had made attempts to assert his rights, but had been defeated in two battles, and was now proceeding with his adherents to Java, some of the princes of which were his relations, and would, he hoped, enable him to obtain possession of his throne.

1511.

Alboquerque promised to effect it for him, and desired the prince to accompany him to Malacca, where they arrived the first of July 1511. In order to save the lives of the Portuguese prisoners, and if possible to effect their recovery, he negotiated with the king of Malacca before he proceeded to an attack on the place; which conduct of his Jeinal construed into fear, and, forsaking his new friend, passed over in the night to the Malayan monarch, whose protection he thought of more consequence to him. When Alboquerque had subdued the place, which made a vigorous resistance, the prince of Pase, seeing the error of his policy, returned, and threw himself at the governor’s feet,

 

acknowledged his injurious mistrust, and implored his pardon, which was not denied him. He doubted however it seems of a sincere reconciliation and forgiveness, and, perceiving that no measures were taking for restoring him to his kingdom, but on the contrary that Alboquerque was preparing to leave Malacca with a small force, and talked of performing his promise when he should return from Goa, he took the resolution of again attaching himself to the fortunes of the conquered monarch, and secretly collecting his dependants fled once more from the protection of the Portuguese. He probably was not insensible that the reigning king of Pase, his adversary, had for some time taken abundant pains to procure the favour of Alboquerque, and found an occasion of demonstrating his zeal. The governor, on his return from Malacca, met with a violent storm on the coast of Sumatra near the point of Timiang, where his ship was wrecked. Part of the crew making a raft were driven to Pase, where the king treated them with kindness and sent them to the coast of Coromandel by a merchant ship. Some years after these events Jeinal was enabled by his friends to carry a force to Pase, and obtained the ascendency there, but did not long enjoy his power.

Upon the reduction of Malacca the governor received messages from several of the Sumatran princes, and amongst the rest from the king of a place called Kampar, on the eastern coast, who had married a daughter of the king of Malacca, but was on ill terms with his father-in-law.

He desired to become a vassal of the Portuguese crown, and to have leave to reside under their jurisdiction. His view was to obtain the important office of bandhara, or chief magistrate of the Malays, lately vacant by the execution of him who possessed it. He sent before him a present of lignum-aloes and gum-lac, the produce of his country, but Alboquerque, suspecting the honesty of his intentions, and fearing that he either aspired to the crown of Malacca or designed to entice the merchants to resort to his own kingdom, refused to permit his coming, and gave the superintendence of the natives to a person named Nina Chetuan.

1514.

After some years had elapsed, at the time when Jorge Alboquerque was governor of Malacca, this king (Abdallah by name) persisting in his views, paid him a visit, and was honourably received. At his departure he had assurances given him of liberty to establish himself at Malacca, if he should think proper, and Nina Chetuan was shortly afterwards removed from his office, though no fault was alleged against him. He took the disgrace so much to heart that, causing a pile to be erected before his door, and setting fire to it, he threw himself into the flames.*

(*Footnote. This man was not a Mahometan but one of the unconverted natives of the peninsula who are always distinguished from the Moors by the Portuguese writers.)

The intention of appointing Abdallah to the office of bandhara was quickly rumoured abroad,

and, coming to the knowledge of the king of Bintang, who was driven from Malacca and now carried on a vigorous war against the Portuguese, under the command of the famous Laksamana, he resolved to prevent his arrival there. For this purpose he leagued himself with the king of Lingga, a neighbouring island, and sent out a fleet of seventy armed boats to block up the port of Kampar. By the valour of a small Portuguese armament this force was overcome in the river of that name, and the king conducted in triumph to Malacca, where he was invested in form with the important post he aspired to. But this sacrifice of his independence proved an unfortunate measure to him; for although he conducted himself in such a manner as should have given the amplest satisfaction, and appears to have been irreproachable in the execution of his trust, yet in the following year the king of Bintang found means to inspire the governor with diffidence of his fidelity, and jealousy of his power.

1515.

He was cruelly sentenced to death without the simplest forms of justice and perished in the presence of an indignant multitude, whilst he called heaven to witness his innocence and direct its vengeance against his interested accusers. This iniquitous and impolitic proceeding had such an effect upon the minds of the people that all of any property or repute forsook the place, execrating the government of the Portuguese. The consequences of this general odium reduced them to extreme difficulties for provisions, which the neighbouring countries refused to supply them with,

and but for some grain at length procured from Siak with much trouble the event had proved fatal to the garrison.

1516.

Fernando Perez d’Andrade, in his way to China, touched at Pase in order to take in pepper. He found the people of the place, as well as the merchants from Bengal, Cambay, and other parts of India, much discontented with the measures then pursuing by the government of Malacca, which had stationed an armed force to oblige all vessels to resort thither with their merchandise and take in at that place, as an emporium, the cargoes they were used to collect in the straits. The king notwithstanding received Andrade well, and consented that the Portuguese should have liberty to erect a fortress in his kingdom.

1520.

Extraordinary accounts having been related of certain islands abounding in gold, which were reported by the general fame of India to lie off the southern coast of Sumatra, a ship and small brigantine, under the command of Diogo Pacheco, an experienced seaman, were sent in order to make the discovery of them. Having proceeded as far as Daya the brigantine was lost in a gale of wind. Pacheco stood on to Barus, a place renowned for its gold trade, and for gum benzoin of a peculiar scent, which the country produced. It was much frequented by vessels, both from the neighbouring ports in the island, and from those in the West of India, whence it was supplied with cotton cloths.

The merchants, terrified at the approach of the Portuguese, forsook their ships and fled precipitately to the shore. The chiefs of the country sent to inquire the motives of his visit, which he informed them were to establish friendly connexions and to give them assurances of unmolested freedom of trade at the city of Malacca. Refreshments were then ordered for his fleet, and upon landing he was treated with respect by the inhabitants, who brought the articles of their country to exchange with him for merchandise. His chief view was to obtain information respecting the situation and other circumstances of the ilhas d’Ouro, but they seemed jealous of imparting any. At length, after giving him a laboured detail of the dangers attending the navigation of the seas where they were said to lie, they represented their situation to be distant a hundred leagues to the south-east of Barus, amidst labyrinths of shoals and reefs through which it was impossible to steer with any but the smallest boats. If these islands, so celebrated about this time, existed anywhere but in the regions of fancy,* they were probably those of Tiku, to which it is possible that much gold might be brought from the neighbouring country of Menangkabau. Pacheco, leaving Barus, proceeded to the southward, but did not make the wished-for discovery. He reached the channel that divides Sumatra from Java, which he called the strait of Polimban, from a city he erroneously supposed to lie on the Javan shore, and passing through this returned to Malacca by the east; being the first European who sailed round the island of Sumatra. In the following year he sailed once more in search of these islands,

which were afterwards the object of many fruitless voyages; but touching again at Barus he met with resistance there and perished with all his companions.

(*Footnote. Linschoten makes particular mention of having seen them, and gives practical directions for the navigation, but the golden dreams of the Portuguese were never realized in them.)

A little before this time a ship under the command of Gaspar d’Acosta was lost on the island of Gamispola (Pulo Gomez) near Achin Head, when the people from Achin attacked and plundered the crew, killing many and taking the rest prisoners. A ship also which belonged to Joano de Lima was plundered in the road, and the Portuguese which belonged to her put to death. These insults and others committed at Pase induced the governor of Malacca, Garcia de Sa, to dispatch a vessel under Manuel Pacheco to take satisfaction; which he endeavoured to effect by blocking up the ports, and depriving the towns of all sources of provision, particularly their fisheries. As he cruised between Achin and Pase a boat with five men, going to take in fresh water at a river nigh to the latter, would have been cut off had not the people, by wonderful efforts of valour, overcome the numerous party which attacked them. The sultan, alarmed for the consequences of this affray, sent immediately to sue for reconciliation, offering to make atonement for the loss of property the merchants had sustained by the licentiousness of his people, from a participation in whose crimes he sought to vindicate himself.

The advantage derived from the connexion with this place induced the government of Malacca to be satisfied with his apology, and cargoes of pepper and raw silk were shortly after procured there; the former being much wanted for the ships bound to China.

Jeinal, who had fled to the king of Malacca, as before mentioned, followed that monarch to the island of Bintang, and received one of his daughters in marriage. Six or seven years elapsed before the situation of affairs enabled the king to lend him any effectual assistance, but at length some advantages gained over the Portuguese afforded a proper opportunity, and accordingly a fleet was fitted out, with which Jeinal sailed for Pase. In order to form a judgment of the transactions of this kingdom it must be understood that the people, having an idea of predestination, always conceived present possession to constitute right, however that possession might have been acquired; but yet they made no scruple of deposing and murdering their sovereigns, and justified their acts by this argument; that the fate of concerns so important as the lives of kings was in the hands of God, whose vicegerents they were, and that if it was not agreeable to him and the consequence of his will that they should perish by the daggers of their subjects it could not so happen. Thus it appears that their religious ideas were just strong enough to banish from their minds every moral sentiment. The natural consequence of these maxims was that their kings were merely the tyrants of the day; and it is said that whilst a certain ship remained in the port no less than two were murdered, and a third set up:

but allowance should perhaps be made for the medium through which these accounts have been transmitted to us.

The maternal uncle of Jeinal, who, on account of his father’s infirmities, had been some time regent, and had deprived him of the succession to the throne, was also king of Aru or Rou, a country not far distant, and thus became monarch of both places. The caprices of the Pase people, who submitted quietly to his usurpation, rendered them ere long discontented with his government, and being a stranger they had the less compunction in putting him to death. Another king was set up in his room, who soon fell by the hands of some natives of Aru who resided at Pase, in revenge for the assassination of their countryman.

1519.

A fresh monarch was elected by the people, and in his reign it was that Jeinal appeared with a force from Bintang, who, carrying everything before him, put his rival to death, and took possession of the throne. The son of the deceased, a youth of about twelve years of age, made his escape, accompanied by the Mulana or chief priest of the city, and procured a conveyance to the west of India. There they threw themselves at the feet of the Portuguese governor, Lopez Sequeira, then engaged in an expedition to the Red Sea, imploring his aid to drive the invader from their country, and to establish the young prince in his rights, who would thenceforth consider himself as a vassal of the crown of Portugal. It was urged that Jeinal, as being nearly allied to the king of Bintang, was an avowed enemy to that nation,

which he had manifested in some recent outrages committed against the merchants from Malacca who traded at Pase. Sequeira, partly from compassion, and partly from political motives, resolved to succour this prince, and by placing him on the throne establish a firm interest in the affairs of his kingdom. He accordingly gave orders to Jorge Alboquerque, who was then proceeding with a strong fleet towards Malacca, to take the youth with him, whose name was Orfacam,* and after having expelled Jeinal to put him in possession of the sovereignty.

(*Footnote. Evidently corrupted, as are most of the country names and titles, which shows that the Portuguese were not at this period much conversant in the Malayan language.)

When Jeinal entered upon the administration of the political concerns of the kingdom, although he had promised his father-in-law to carry on the war in concert with him, yet, being apprehensive of the effects of the Portuguese power, he judged it more for his interest to seek a reconciliation with them than to provoke their resentment, and in pursuance of that system had so far recommended himself to Garcia de Sa, the governor of Malacca, that he formed a treaty of alliance with him. This was however soon interrupted, and chiefly by the imprudence of a man named Diogo Vaz, who made use of such insulting language to the king, because he delayed payment of a sum of money he owed him, that the courtiers, seized with indignation, immediately stabbed him with their krises, and, the alarm running through the city, others of the Portuguese were likewise murdered.

The news of this affair, reaching Goa, was an additional motive for the resolution taken of dethroning him.

1521.

Jorge d’Alboquerque arrived at Pase in 1521 with Prince Orfacam, and the inhabitants came off in great numbers to welcome his return. The king of Aru had brought thither a considerable force the preceding day, designing to take satisfaction for the murder of his relation, the uncle of Jeinal, and now proposed to Alboquerque that they should make the attack in conjunction, who thought proper to decline it. Jeinal, although he well knew the intention of the enemy, yet sent a friendly message to Alboquerque, who in answer required him to relinquish his crown in favour of him whom he styled the lawful prince. He then represented to him the injustice of attempting to force him from the possession of what was his, not only by right of conquest but of hereditary descent, as was well known to the governor himself; that he was willing to consider himself as the vassal of the king of Portugal, and to grant every advantage in point of trade that they could expect from the administration of his rival; and that since his obtaining the crown he had manifested the utmost friendship to the Portuguese, for which he appealed to the treaty formed with him by the government of Malacca, which was not disturbed by any fault that could in justice be imputed to himself. These arguments, like all others that pass between states which harbour inimical designs, had no effect upon Alboquerque, who, after reconnoitring the ground, gave orders for the attack.

The king was now sensible that there was nothing left for him but to conquer or die, and resolved to defend himself to extremity in an entrenchment he had formed at some distance from the town of Pase, where he had never yet ventured to reside as the people were in general incensed against him on account of the destruction of the late king of their choice; for though they were ever ready to demolish those whom they disliked, yet were they equally zealous to sacrifice their own lives in the cause of those to whom they were attached. The Portuguese force consisted but of three hundred men, yet such was the superiority they possessed in war over the inhabitants of these countries that they entirely routed Jeinal’s army, which amounted to three thousand, with many elephants, although they fought bravely. When he fell they became dispirited, and, the people of Aru joining in the pursuit, a dreadful slaughter succeeded, and upwards of two thousand Sumatrans lay dead, with the loss of only five or six Europeans; but several were wounded, among whom was Alboquerque himself.

The next measure was to place the young prince upon the throne, which was performed with much ceremony. The mulana was appointed his governor, and Nina Cunapan, who in several instances had shown a friendship for the Portuguese, was continued in the office of Shabandar. It was stipulated that the prince should do homage to the crown of Portugal, give a grant of the whole produce of pepper of his country at a certain price, and defray the charges of a fortress which they then prepared to erect in his kingdom, and of which Miranda d’Azeuedo was appointed captain, with a garrison of a hundred soldiers.

The materials were mostly timber, with which the ruins of Jeinal’s entrenchment supplied them. After Alboquerque’s departure the works had nearly fallen into the hands of an enemy, named Melek-el-adil, who called himself sultan of Pase and made several desultory attacks upon them; but he was at length totally routed, and the fortifications were completed without further molestation.

1521.

A fleet which sailed from the west of India a short time after that of Alboquerque, under the command of Jorge de Brito, anchored in the road of Achin, in their way to the Molucca Islands. There was at this time at that place a man of the name of Joano Borba, who spoke the language of the country, having formerly fled thither from Pase when Diogo Vaz was assassinated. Being afterwards intrusted with the command of a trading vessel from Goa, which foundered at sea, he again reached Achin, with nine men in a small boat, and was hospitably received by the king, when he learned that the ship had been destined to his port. Borba came off to the fleet along with a messenger sent by the king to welcome the commander and offer him refreshments for his fleet, and, being a man of extraordinary loquacity, he gave a pompous description to Brito of a temple in the country in which was deposited a large quantity of gold: he mentioned likewise that the king was in possession of the artillery and merchandise of Gaspar d’Acosta’s vessel, some time since wrecked there; and also of the goods saved from a brigantine driven on shore at Daya, in Pacheco’s expedition; as well as of Joano de Lima’s ship,

which he had caused to be cut off. Brito, being tempted by the golden prize, which he conceived already in his power, and inflamed by Borba’s representation of the king’s iniquities, sent a message in return to demand the restitution of the artillery, ship, and goods, which had been unlawfully seized. The king replied that, if he wanted those articles to be refunded, he must make his demand to the sea which had swallowed them up. Brito and his captains now resolved to proceed to an attack upon the place, and so secure did they make themselves of their prey that they refused permission to a ship lately arrived, and which did not belong to their squadron, to join them or participate in the profits of their adventure. They prepared to land two hundred men in small boats; a larger, with a more considerable detachment and their artillery, being ordered to follow. About daybreak they had proceeded halfway up the river, and came near to a little fort designed to defend the passage, where Brito thought it advisable to stop till the remainder of their force should join them; but, being importuned by his people, he advanced to make himself master of the fort, which was readily effected. Here he again resolved to make his stand, but by the imprudence of his ensign, who had drawn some of the party into a skirmish with the Achinese, he was forced to quit that post in order to save his colours, which were in danger. At this juncture the king appeared at the head of eight hundred or a thousand men, and six elephants. A desperate conflict ensued, in which the Portuguese received considerable injury. Brito sent orders for the party he had left to come up, and endeavoured to retreat to the fort, but he found himself so situated that it could not be executed without much loss,

and presently after he received a wound from an arrow through the cheeks. No assistance arriving, it was proposed that they should retire in the best manner they could to their boats; but this Brito would not consent to, preferring death to flight, and immediately a lance pierced his thighs, and he fell to the ground. The Portuguese, rendered desperate, renewed the combat with redoubled vigour, all crowding to the spot where their commander lay, but their exertions availed them nothing against such unequal force, and they only rushed on to sacrifice. Almost every man was killed, and among these were near fifty persons of family who had embarked as volunteers. Those who escaped belonged chiefly to the corps-de-reserve, who did not, or could not, come up in time to succour their unfortunate companions. Upon this merited defeat the squadron immediately weighed anchor, and, after falling in with two vessels bound on the discovery of the Ilhas d’Ouro, arrived at Pase, where they found Alboquerque employed in the construction of his fortress, and went with him to make an attack on Bintang.

STATE OF ACHIN IN 1511.

At the period when Malacca fell into the hands of the Portuguese Achin and Daya are said by the historians of that nation to have been provinces subject to Pidir, and governed by two slaves belonging to the sultan of that place, to each of whom he had given a niece in marriage. Slaves, it must be understood, are in that country on a different footing from those in most other parts of the world, and usually treated as children of the family. Some of them are natives of the continent of India,

whom their masters employ to trade for them; allowing them a certain proportion of the profits and permission to reside in a separate quarter of the city. It frequently happened also that men of good birth, finding it necessary to obtain the protection of some person in power, became voluntary slaves for this purpose, and the nobles, being proud of such dependants, encouraged the practice by treating them with a degree of respect, and in many instances they made them their heirs. The slave of this description who held the government of Achin had two sons, the elder of whom was named Raja Ibrahim, and the younger Raja Lella, and were brought up in the house of their master. The father being old was recalled from his post; but on account of his faithful services the sultan gave the succession to his eldest son, who appears to have been a youth of an ambitious and very sanguinary temper. A jealousy had taken place between him and the chief of Daya whilst they were together at Pidir, and as soon as he came into power he resolved to seek revenge, and with that view entered in a hostile manner the district of his rival. When the sultan interposed it not only added fuel to his resentment but inspired him with hatred towards his master, and he showed his disrespect by refusing to deliver up, on the requisition of the sultan, certain Portuguese prisoners taken from a vessel lost at Pulo Gomez, and which he afterwards complied with at the intercession of the Shabandar of Pase. This conduct manifesting an intention of entirely throwing off his allegiance, his father endeavoured to recall him to a sense of his duty by representing the obligations in which the family were indebted to the sultan, and the relationship which so nearly connected them.

But so far was this admonition from producing any good effect that he took offence at his father’s presumption, and ordered him to be confined in a cage, where he died.

1521.

Irritated by these acts, the sultan resolved to proceed to extremities against him; but by means of the plunder of some Portuguese vessels, as before related, and the recent defeat of Brito’s party, he became so strong in artillery and ammunition, and so much elated with success, that he set his master at defiance and prepared to defend himself. His force proved superior to that of Pidir, and in the end he obliged the sultan to fly for refuge and assistance to the European fortress at Pase, accompanied by his nephew, the chief of Daya, who was also forced from his possessions.

1522.

Ibrahim had for some time infested the Portuguese by sending out parties against them, both by sea and land; but these being always baffled in their attempts with much loss, he began to conceive a violent antipathy against that nation, which he ever after indulged to excess. He got possession of the city of Pidir by bribing the principal officers, a mode of warfare that he often found successful and seldom neglected to attempt. These he prevailed upon to write a letter to their master, couched in artful terms, in which they besought him to come to their assistance with a body of Portuguese, as the only chance of repelling the enemy by whom they pretended to be invested. The sultan showed this letter to Andre Henriquez,

then governor of the fort, who, thinking it a good opportunity to chastise the Achinese, sent by sea a detachment of eighty Europeans and two hundred Malays under the command of his brother Manuel, whilst the sultan marched overland with a thousand men and fifteen elephants to the relief of the place. They arrived at Pidir in the night, but, being secretly informed that the king of Achin was master of the city, and that the demand for succour was a stratagem, they endeavoured to make their retreat; which the land troops effected, but before the tide could enable the Portuguese to get their boats afloat they were attacked by the Achinese, who killed Manuel and thirty-five of his men.

Henriquez, perceiving his situation at Pase was becoming critical, not only from the force of the enemy but the sickly state of his garrison, and the want of provisions, which the country people now withheld from him, discontinuing the fairs that they were used to keep three times in the week, dispatched advices to the governor of India, demanding immediate succours, and also sent to request assistance of the king of Aru, who had always proved the steadfast friend of Malacca, and who, though not wealthy, because his country was not a place of trade, was yet one of the most powerful princes in those parts. The king expressed his joy in having an opportunity of serving his allies, and promised his utmost aid; not only from friendship to them, but indignation against Ibrahim, whom he regarded as a rebellious slave.

 

 

1523.

A supply of stores at length arrived from India under the charge of Lopo d’Azuedo, who had orders to relieve Henriquez in the command; but, disputes having arisen between them, and chiefly on the subject of certain works which the shabandar of Pase had been permitted to erect adjoining to the fortress, d’Azuedo, to avoid coming to an open rupture, departed for Malacca. Ibrahim, having found means to corrupt the honesty of this shabandar, who had received his office from Alboquerque, gained intelligence through him of all that passed. This treason, it is supposed, he would not have yielded to but for the desperate situation of affairs. The country of Pase was now entirely in subjection to the Achinese, and nothing remained unconquered but the capital, whilst the garrison was distracted with internal divisions.

After the acquisition of Pidir the king thought it necessary to remain there some time in order to confirm his authority, and sent his brother Raja Lella with a large army to reduce the territories of Pase, which he effected in the course of three months, and with the more facility because all the principal nobility had fallen in the action with Jeinal. He fixed his camp within half a league of the city, and gave notice to Ibrahim of the state in which matters were, who speedily joined him, being anxious to render himself master of the place before the promised succours from the king of Aru could arrive. His first step was to issue a proclamation, giving notice to the people of the town that whoever should submit to his authority

within six days should have their lives, families, and properties secured to them, but that all others must expect to feel the punishment due to their obstinacy. This had the effect he looked for, the greater part of the inhabitants coming over to his camp. He then commenced his military operations, and in the third attack got possession of the town after much slaughter; those who escaped his fury taking shelter in the neighbouring mountains and thick woods. He sent a message to the commander of the fortress, requiring him to abandon it and to deliver into his hands the kings of Pidir and Daya, to whom he had given protection. Henriquez returned a spirited answer to this summons, but, being sickly at the time, at best of an unsteady disposition, and too much attached to his trading concerns for a soldier, he resolved to relinquish the command to his relation Aires Coelho, and take passage for the West of India.

1523.

He had not advanced farther on his voyage than the point of Pidir, when he fell in with two Portuguese ships bound to the Moluccas, the captains of which he made acquainted with the situation of the garrison, and they immediately proceeded to its relief. Arriving in the night they heard great firing of cannon, and learned next morning that the Achinese had made a furious assault in hopes of carrying the fortress before the ships, which were descried at a distance, could throw succours into it. They had mastered some of the outworks, and the garrison represented that it was impossible for them to support such another shock without aid from the vessels.

The captains, with as much force as could be spared, entered the fort, and a sally was shortly afterwards resolved on and executed, in which the besiegers sustained considerable damage. Every effort was likewise employed to repair the breaches and stop up the mines that had been made by the enemy in order to effect a passage into the place. Ibrahim now attempted to draw them into a snare by removing his camp to a distance and making a feint of abandoning his enterprise; but this stratagem proved ineffectual. Reflecting then with indignation that his own force consisted of fifteen thousand men whilst that of the Europeans did not exceed three hundred and fifty, many of whom were sick and wounded, and others worn out with the fatigue of continual duty (intelligence whereof was conveyed to him), he resolved once more to return to the siege, and make a general assault upon all parts of the fortification at once. Two hours before daybreak he caused the place to be surrounded with eight thousand men, who approached in perfect silence. The nighttime was preferred by these people for making their attacks as being then most secure from the effect of firearms, and they also generally chose a time of rain, when the powder would not burn. As soon as they found themselves perceived they set up a hideous shout, and, fixing their scaling ladders, made of bamboo and wonderfully light, to the number of six hundred, they attempted to force their way through the embrasures for the guns; but after a strenuous contest they were at length repulsed. Seven elephants were driven with violence against the paling of one of the bastions, which gave way before them like a hedge, and overset all the men who were on it. Javelin

s and pikes these enormous beasts made no account of, but upon setting fire to powder under their trunks they drew back with precipitation in spite of all the efforts of their drivers, overthrew their own people, and, flying to the distance of several miles, could not again be brought into the lines. The Achinese upon receiving this check thought to take revenge by setting fire to some vessels that were in the dockyard; but this proved an unfortunate measure to them, for by the light which it occasioned the garrison were enabled to point their guns, and did abundant execution.

1524.

Henriquez, after beating sometime against a contrary wind, put back to Pase, and, coming on shore the day after this conflict, resumed his command. A council was soon after held to determine what measures were fittest to be pursued in the present situation of affairs, and, taking into their consideration that no further assistance could be expected from the west of India in less than six months, that the garrison was sickly and provisions short, it was resolved by a majority of votes to abandon the place, and measures were taken accordingly. In order to conceal their intentions from the enemy they ordered such of the artillery and stores as could be removed conveniently to be packed up in the form of merchandise and then shipped off. A party was left to set fire to the buildings, and trains of powder were so disposed as to lead to the larger cannon, which they overcharged that they might burst as soon as heated. But this was not effectually executed, and the pieces mostly fell into the hands of the Achinese,

who upon the first alarm of the evacuation rushed in, extinguished the flames, and turned upon the Portuguese their own artillery, many of whom were killed in the water as they hurried to get into their boats. They now lost as much credit by this ill conducted retreat as they had acquired by their gallant defence, and were insulted by the reproachful shouts of the enemy, whose power was greatly increased by this acquisition of military stores, and of which they often severely experienced the effects. To render their disgrace more striking it happened that as they sailed out of the harbour they met thirty boats laden with provisions for their use from the king of Aru, who was himself on his march overland with four thousand men: and when they arrived at Malacca they found troops and stores embarked there for their relief. The unfortunate princes who had sought an asylum with them now joined in their flight; the sultan of Pase proceeded to Malacca, and the sultan of Pidir and chief of Daya took refuge with the king of Aru.

1525.

Raja Nara, king of Indragiri, in conjunction with a force from Bintang, attacked the king of a neighbouring island called Lingga, who was in friendship with the Portuguese. A message which passed on this occasion gives a just idea of the style and manners of this people. Upon their acquainting the king of Lingga, in their summons of surrender, that they had lately overcome the fleet of Malacca, he replied that his intelligence informed him of the contrary; that he had just made a festival and killed fifty goats to celebrate one defeat which they had received,

and hoped soon to kill a hundred in order to celebrate a second. His expectations were fulfilled, or rather anticipated, for the Portuguese, having a knowledge of the king of Indragiri’s design, sent out a small fleet which routed the combined force before the king of Lingga was acquainted with their arrival, his capital being situated high up on the river.

1526.

In the next year, at the conquest of Bintang, this king unsolicited sent assistance to his European allies.

1527.

However well founded the accounts may have been which the Portuguese have given us of the cruelties committed against their people by the king of Achin, the barbarity does not appear to have been only on one side. Francisco de Mello, being sent in an armed vessel with dispatches to Goa, met near Achin Head with a ship of that nation just arrived from Mecca and supposed to be richly laden. As she had on board three hundred Achinese and forty Arabs he dared not venture to board her, but battered her at a distance, when suddenly she filled and sunk, to the extreme disappointment of the Portuguese, who thereby lost their prize; but they wreaked their vengeance on the unfortunate crew as they endeavoured to save themselves by swimming, and boast that they did not suffer a man to escape. Opportunities of retaliation soon offered.

 

1528.

Simano de Sousa, going with a reinforcement to the Moluccas from Cochin, was overtaken in the bay by a violent storm, which forced him to stow many of his guns in the hold; and, having lost several of his men through fatigue, he made for the nearest port he could take shelter in, which proved to be Achin. The king, having the destruction of the Portuguese at heart, and resolving if possible to seize their vessel, sent off a message to De Sousa recommending his standing in closer to the shore, where he would have more shelter from the gale which still continued, and lie more conveniently for getting off water and provisions, at the same time inviting him to land. This artifice not succeeding, he ordered out the next morning a thousand men in twenty boats, who at first pretended they were come to assist in mooring the ship; but the captain, aware of their hostile design, fired amongst them, when a fierce engagement took place in which the Achinese were repulsed with great slaughter, but not until they had destroyed forty of the Portuguese. The king, enraged at this disappointment, ordered a second attack, threatening to have his admiral trampled to death by elephants if he failed of success. A boat was sent ahead of this fleet with a signal of peace, and assurances to De Sousa that the king, as soon as he was made acquainted with the injury that had been committed, had caused the perpetrators of it to be punished, and now once more requested him to come on shore and trust to his honour. This proposal some of the crew were inclined that he should accept,

but being animated by a speech that he made to them it was resolved that they should die with arms in their hands in preference to a disgraceful and hazardous submission. The combat was therefore renewed, with extreme fury on the one side, and uncommon efforts of courage on the other, and the assailants were a second time repulsed; but one of those who had boarded the vessel and afterwards made his escape represented to the Achinese the reduced and helpless situation of their enemy, and, fresh supplies coming off, they were encouraged to return to the attack. De Sousa and his people were at length almost all cut to pieces, and those who survived, being desperately wounded, were overpowered, and led prisoners to the king, who unexpectedly treated them with extraordinary kindness, in order to cover the designs he harboured, and pretended to lament the fate of their brave commander. He directed them to fix upon one of their companions, who should go in his name to the governor of Malacca, to desire he would immediately send to take possession of the ship, which he meant to restore, as well as to liberate them. He hoped by this artifice to draw more of the Portuguese into his power, and at the same time to effect a purpose of a political nature. A war had recently broken out between him and the king of Aru, the latter of whom had deputed ambassadors to Malacca, to solicit assistance, in return for his former services, and which was readily promised to him. It was highly the interest of the king of Achin to prevent this junction, and therefore, though determined to relax nothing in his plans of revenge, he hastened to dispatch Antonio Caldeira, one of the captives, with proposals of accommodation and alliance, offering to restore not only this vessel,

but also the artillery which he had taken at Pase. These terms appeared to the governor too advantageous to be rejected. Conceiving a favourable idea of the king’s intentions, from the confidence which Caldeira, who was deceived by the humanity shown to the wounded captives, appeared to place in his sincerity, he became deaf to the representations that were made to him by more experienced persons of his insidious character. A message was sent back, agreeing to accept his friendship on the proposed conditions, and engaging to withhold the promised succours from the king of Aru. Caldeira, in his way to Achin, touched at an island, where he was cut off with those who accompanied him. The ambassadors from Aru being acquainted with this breach of faith, retired in great disgust, and the king, incensed at the ingratitude shown him, concluded a peace with Achin; but not till after an engagement between their fleets had taken place, in which the victory remained undecided.

In order that he might learn the causes of the obscurity in which his negotiations with Malacca rested, Ibrahim dispatched a secret messenger to Senaia Raja, bandhara of that city, with whom he held a correspondence; desiring also to be informed of the strength of the garrison. Hearing in answer that the governor newly arrived was inclined to think favourably of him, he immediately sent an ambassador to wait on him with assurances of his pacific and friendly disposition, who returned in company with persons empowered, on the governor’s part, to negotiate a treaty of commerce. These, upon their arrival at Achin, were loaded with favours

and costly presents, the news of which quickly flew to Malacca, and, the business they came on being adjusted, they were suffered to depart; but they had not sailed far before they were overtaken by boats sent after them, and were stripped and murdered. The governor, who had heard of their setting out, concluded they were lost by accident. Intelligence of this mistaken opinion was transmitted to the king, who thereupon had the audacity to request that he might be honoured with the presence of some Portuguese of rank and consequence in his capital, to ratify in a becoming manner the articles that had been drawn up; as he ardently wished to see that nation trafficking freely in his dominions.

1529.

The deluded governor, in compliance with this request, adopted the resolution of sending thither a large ship under the command of Manuel Pacheco, with a rich cargo, the property of himself and several merchants of Malacca, who themselves embarked with the idea of making extraordinary profits. Senaia conveyed notice of this preparation to Achin, informing the king at the same time that, if he could make himself master of this vessel, Malacca must fall an easy prey to him, as the place was weakened of half its force for the equipment. When Pacheco approached the harbour he was surrounded by a great number of boats, and some of the people began to suspect treachery, but so strongly did the spirit of delusion prevail in this business that they could not persuade the captain to put himself on his guard. He soon had reason to repent his credulity. Perceiving an arrow pass close by him

, he hastened to put on his coat of mail, when a second pierced his neck, and he soon expired. The vessel then became an easy prey, and the people, being made prisoners, were shortly afterwards massacred by the king’s order, along with the unfortunate remnant of De Sousa’s crew, so long flattered with the hopes of release. By this capture the king was supposed to have remained in possession of more artillery than was left in Malacca, and he immediately fitted out a fleet to take advantage of its exposed state. The pride of success causing him to imagine it already in his power, he sent a taunting message to the governor in which he thanked him for the late instances of his liberality, and let him know he should trouble him for the remainder of his naval force.

Senaia had promised to put the citadel into his hands, and this had certainly been executed but for an accident that discovered his treasonable designs. The crews of some vessels of the Achinese fleet landed on a part of the coast not far from the city, where they were well entertained by the natives, and in the openness of conviviality related the transactions which had lately passed at Achin, the correspondence of Senaia, and the scheme that was laid for rising on the Portuguese when they should be at church, murdering them, and seizing the fortress. Intelligence of this was reported with speed to the governor, who had Senaia instantly apprehended and executed. This punishment served to intimidate those among the inhabitants who were engaged in the conspiracy, and disconcerted the plans of the king of Achin.

This appears to be the last transaction of Ibrahim’s reign recorded by the Portuguese historians. His death is stated by De Barros to have taken place in the year 1528 in consequence of poison administered to him by one of his wives, to revenge the injuries her brother, the chief of Daya, had suffered at his hand. In a Malayan work (lately come into my possession) containing the annals of the kingdom of Achin, it is said that a king, whose title was sultan Saleh-eddin-shah, obtained the sovereignty in a year answering to 1511 of our era, and who, after reigning about eighteen years, was dethroned by a brother in 1529. Notwithstanding some apparent discordance between the two accounts there can be little doubt of the circumstances applying to the same individual, as it may well be presumed that, according to the usual practice in the East, he adopted upon ascending the throne a title different from the name which he had originally borne, although that might continue to be his more familiar appellation, especially in the mouths of his enemies. The want of precise coincidence in the dates cannot be thought an objection, as the event not falling under the immediate observation of the Portuguese they cannot pretend to accuracy within a few months, and even their account of the subsequent transactions renders it more probable that it happened in 1529; nor are the facts of his being dethroned by the brother, or put to death by the sister, materially at variance with each other; and the latter circumstance, whether true or false, might naturally enough be reported at Malacca.

 

1529.

His successor took the name of Ala-eddin-shah, and afterwards, from his great enterprises, acquired the additional epithet of keher or the powerful. By the Portuguese he is said to have styled himself king of Achin, Barus, Pidir, Pase, Daya, and Batta, prince of the land of the two seas, and of the mines of Menangkabau.

1537.

Nothing is recorded of his reign until the year 1537, in which he twice attacked Malacca. The first time he sent an army of three thousand men who landed near the city by night, unperceived by the garrison, and, having committed some ravages in the suburbs, were advancing to the bridge, when the governor, Estavano de Gama, sallied out with a party and obliged them to retreat for shelter to the woods. Here they defended themselves during the next day, but on the following night they re-embarked, with the loss of five hundred men. A few months afterwards the king had the place invested with a larger force; but in the interval the works had been repaired and strengthened, and after three days ineffectual attempt the Achinese were again constrained to retire.

1547.

In the year 1547 he once more fitted out a fleet against Malacca, where a descent was made; but, contented with some trifling plunder,

the army re-embarked, and the vessels proceeded to the river of Parles on the Malayan coast. Hither they were followed by a Portuguese squadron, which attacked and defeated a division of the fleet at the mouth of the river. This victory was rendered famous, not so much by the valour of the combatants, as by a revelation opportunely made from heaven to the celebrated missionary Francisco Xavier of the time and circumstances of it, and which he announced to the garrison at a moment when the approach of a powerful invader from another quarter had caused much alarm and apprehension among them.

Many transactions of the reign of this prince, particularly with the neighbouring states of Batta and Aru (about the years 1539 and 1541) are mentioned by Ferdinand Mendez Pinto; but his writings are too apocryphal to allow of the facts being recorded upon his authority. Yet there is the strongest internal evidence of his having been more intimately acquainted with the countries of which we are now speaking, the character of the inhabitants, and the political transactions of the period, than any of his contemporaries; and it appears highly probable that what he has related is substantially true: but there is also reason to believe that he composed his work from recollection after his return to Europe, and he may not have been scrupulous in supplying from a fertile imagination the unavoidable failures of a memory, however richly stored.

1556.

The death of Ala-eddin took place, according to the Annals, in 1556, after a reign of twenty-eight years.

1565.

He was succeeded by sultan Hussein­shah, who reigned about eight, and dying in 1565 was succeeded by his son, an infant. This child survived only seven months; and in the same year the throne was occupied by Raja Firman-shah, who was murdered soon after.

1567.

His successor, Raja Janil, experienced a similar fate when he had reigned ten months. This event is placed in 1567. Sultan Mansur-shah, from the kingdom of Perak in the peninsula, was the next who ascended the throne.

1567.

The western powers of India having formed a league for the purpose of extirpating the Portuguese, the king of Achin was invited to accede to it, and, in conformity with the engagements by which the respective parties were bound, he prepared to attack them in Malacca, and carried thither a numerous fleet, in which were fifteen thousand people of his own subjects, and four hundred Turks, with two hundred pieces of artillery of different sizes. In order to amuse the enemy he gave out that his force was destined against Java, and sent a letter, accompanied with a present of a kris, to the governor, professing strong sentiments of friendship. A person whom he turned on shore with marks of ignominy, being suspected for a spy, was taken up, and being put to the torture confessed that he was employed by the Ottoman emperor

and king of Achin to poison the principal officers of the place, and to set fire to their magazine. He was put to death, and his mutilated carcase was sent off to the king. This was the signal for hostilities. He immediately landed with all his men and commenced a regular siege. Sallies were made with various success and very unequal numbers. In one of these the chief of Aru, the king’s eldest son, was killed. In another the Portuguese were defeated and lost many officers. A variety of stratagems were employed to work upon the fears and shake the fidelity of the inhabitants of the town. A general assault was given in which, after prodigious efforts of courage, and imminent risk of destruction, the besieged remained victorious. The king, seeing all his attempts fruitless, at length departed, having lost three thousand men before the walls, beside about five hundred who were said to have died of their wounds on the passage. The king of Ujong-tanah or Johor, who arrived with a fleet to the assistance of the place, found the sea for a long distance covered with dead bodies. This was esteemed one of the most desperate and honourable sieges the Portuguese experienced in India, their whole force consisting of but fifteen hundred men, of whom no more than two hundred were Europeans.

1568.

In the following year a vessel from Achin bound to Java, with ambassadors on board to the queen of Japara, in whom the king wished to raise up a new enemy against the Portuguese, was met in the straits by a vessel from Malacca, who took her and put all the people to the sword.

It appears to have been a maxim in these wars never to give quarter to an enemy, whether resisting or submitting.

1569.

In 1569 a single ship, commanded by Lopez Carrasco, passing near Achin, fell in with a fleet coming out of that port, consisting of twenty large galleys and a hundred and eighty other vessels, commanded by the king in person, and supposed to be designed against Malacca. The situation of the Portuguese was desperate. They could not expect to escape, and therefore resolved to die like men. During three days they sustained a continual attack, when, after having by incredible exertions destroyed forty of the enemy’s vessels, and being themselves reduced to the state of a wreck, a second ship appeared in sight. The king perceiving this retired into the harbour with his shattered forces.

It is difficult to determine which of the two is the more astonishing, the vigorous stand made by such a handful of men as the whole strength of Malacca consisted of, or the prodigious resources and perseverance of the Achinese monarch.

1573.

In 1573, after forming an alliance with the queen of Japara, the object of which was the destruction of the European power, he appeared again before Malacca with ninety vessels, twenty-five of them large galleys, with seven thousand men and great store of artillery

. He began his operations by sending a party to set fire to the suburbs of the town, but a timely shower of rain prevented its taking effect. He then resolved on a different mode of warfare, and tried to starve the place to a surrender by blocking up the harbour and cutting off all supplies of provisions. The Portuguese, to prevent the fatal consequences of this measure, collected those few vessels which they were masters of, and, a merchant ship of some force arriving opportunely, they put to sea, attacked the enemy’s fleet, killed the principal captain, and obtained a complete victory.

1574.

In the year following Malacca was invested by an armada from the queen of Japara, of three hundred sail, eighty of which were junks of four hundred tons burden. After besieging the place for three months, till the very air became corrupted by their stay, the fleet retired with little more than five thousand men, of fifteen that embarked on the expedition.

1575.

Scarcely was the Javanese force departed when the king of Achin once more appeared with a fleet that is described as covering the straits. He ordered an attack upon three Portuguese frigates that were in the road protecting some provision vessels, which was executed with such a furious discharge of artillery that they were presently destroyed with all their crews. This was a dreadful blow to Malacca, and lamented, as the historian relates,

with tears of blood by the little garrison, who were not now above a hundred and fifty men, and of those a great part non­effective. The king, elated with his success, landed his troops, and laid siege to the fort, which he battered at intervals during seventeen days. The fire of the Portuguese became very slack, and after some time totally ceased, as the governor judged it prudent to reserve his small stock of ammunition for an effort at the last extremity. The king, alarmed at this silence, which he construed into a preparation for some dangerous stratagem, was seized with a panic, and, suddenly raising the siege, embarked with the utmost precipitation; unexpectedly relieving the garrison from the ruin that hung over it, and which seemed inevitable in the ordinary course of events.

1582.

In 1582 we find the king appearing again before Malacca with a hundred and fifty sail of vessels. After some skirmishes with the Portuguese ships, in which the success was nearly equal on both sides, the Achinese proceeded to attack Johor, the king of which was then in alliance with Malacca. Twelve ships followed them thither, and, having burned some of their galleys, defeated the rest and obliged them to fly to Achin. The operations of these campaigns, and particularly the valour of the commander, named Raja Makuta, are alluded to in Queen Elizabeth’s letter to the king, delivered in 1602 by Sir James Lancaster.

About three or four years after this misfortune Mansur-shah prepared a fleet of no less than three hundred sail of vessels,

and was ready to embark once more upon his favourite enterprise, when he was murdered, together with his queen and many of the principal nobility, by the general of the forces, who had long formed designs upon the crown.

1585.

This was perpetrated in May 1585, when he had reigned nearly eighteen years. In his time the consequence of the kingdom of Achin is represented to have arrived at a considerable height, and its friendship to have been courted by the most powerful states. No city in India possessed a more flourishing trade, the port being crowded with merchant vessels which were encouraged to resort thither by the moderate rates of the customs levied; and although the Portuguese and their ships were continually plundered, those belonging to every Asiatic power, from Mecca in the West to Japan in the East, appear to have enjoyed protection and security. The despotic authority of the monarch was counterpoised by the influence of the orang-kayas or nobility, who are described as being possessed of great wealth, living in fortified houses, surrounded by numerous dependants, and feeling themselves above control, often giving a licentious range to their proud and impatient tempers.

The late monarch’s daughter and only child was married to the king of Johor,* by whom she had a son, who, being regarded as heir to the crown of Achin, had been brought to the latter place to be educated under the eye of his grandfather. When the general (whose name is corruptly written Moratiza) assumed the powers of government,

he declared himself the protector of this child, and we find him mentioned in the Annals by the title of Sultan Buyong (or the Boy).

(*Footnote. The king of Achin sent on this occasion to Johor a piece of ordnance, such as for greatness, length, and workmanship (says Linschoten), could hardly be matched in all Christendom. It was afterwards taken by the Portuguese, who shipped it for Europe, but the vessel was lost in her passage.)

1588.

But before he had completed the third year of his nominal reign he also was dispatched, and the usurper took formal possession of the throne in the year 1588, by the name of Ala-eddin Rayet-shah,* being then at an advanced period of life.

(*Footnote. Valentyn, by an obvious corruption, names him Sulthan Alciden Ryetza, and this coincidence is strongly in favour of the authenticity and correctness of the Annals. John Davis, who will be hereafter mentioned, calls him, with sufficient accuracy, Sultan Aladin.)

The Annals say he was the grandson of Sultan Firman-shah; but the Europeans who visited Achin during his reign report him to have been originally a fisherman, who, having afterwards served in the wars against Malacca, showed so much courage, prudence,

 

and skill in maritime affairs that the late king made him at length the chief commander of his forces, and gave him one of his nearest kinswomen to wife, in right of whom he is said to have laid claim to the throne.

The French Commodore Beaulieu relates the circumstances of this revolution in a very different manner.*

(*Footnote. The commodore had great opportunity of information, was a man of very superior ability, and indefatigable in his inquiries upon all subjects, as appears by the excellent account of his voyage, and of Achin in particular, written by himself, and published in Thevenot’s collection, of which there is an English translation in Harris; but it is possible he may, in this instance, have been amused by a plausible tale from the grandson of this monarch, with whom he had much intercourse. John Davis, an intelligent English navigator whose account I have followed, might have been more likely to hear the truth as he was at Achin (though not a frequenter of the court) during Ala-eddin’s reign, whereas Beaulieu did not arrive till twenty’ years after, and the report of his having been originally a fisherman is also mentioned by the Dutch writers.)

He says that, upon the extinction of the ancient royal line, which happened about forty years before the period at which he wrote, the orang-kayas met in order to choose a king, but, every one affecting the dignity for himself, they could not agree and resolved to decide it by force. In this ferment the cadi or chief judge by his authority

 

and remonstrances persuaded them to offer the crown to a certain noble who in all these divisions had taken no part, but had lived in the reputation of a wise, experienced man, being then seventy years of age, and descended from one of the most respectable families of the country. After several excuses on his side, and entreaties and even threats on theirs, he at length consented to accept the dignity thus imposed upon him, provided they should regard him as a father, and receive correction from him as his children; but no sooner was he in possession of the sovereign power than (like Pope Sixtus the Fifth) he showed a different face, and the first step after his accession was to invite the orang-kayas to a feast, where, as they were separately introduced, he caused them to be seized and murdered in a court behind the palace. He then proceeded to demolish their fortified houses, and lodged their cannon, arms, and goods in the castle, taking measures to prevent in future the erection of any buildings of substantial materials that could afford him grounds of jealousy. He raised his own adherents from the lower class of people to the first dignities of the state, and of those who presumed to express any disapprobation of his conduct he made great slaughter, being supposed to have executed not less than twenty thousand persons in the first year of his reign.

From the silence of the Portuguese writers with respect to the actions of this king we have reason to conclude that he did not make any attempts to disturb their settlement of Malacca; and it even appears that some persons in the character of ambassadors

or agents from that power resided at Achin, the principal object of whose policy appears to have been that of inspiring him with jealousy and hatred of the Hollanders, who in their turn were actively exerting themselves to supplant the conquerors of India.

1600.

Towards the close of the sixteenth century they began to navigate these seas; and in June 1600 visited Achin with two ships, but had no cause to boast of the hospitality of their reception. An attempt was made to cut them off, and evidently by the orders or connivance of the king, who had prevailed upon the Dutch admiral to take on board troops and military stores for an expedition meditated, or pretended, against the city of Johor, which these ships were to bombard. Several of the crews were murdered, but after a desperate conflict in both ships the treacherous assailants were overcome and driven into the water, “and it was some pleasure (says John Davis, an Englishman, who was the principal pilot of the squadron) to see how the base Indians did fly, how they were killed, and how well they were drowned.”* This barbarous and apparently unprovoked attack was attributed, but perhaps without any just grounds, to the instigation of the Portuguese.

(*Footnote. All the Dutchmen on shore at the time were made prisoners, and many of them continued in that state for several years. Among these was Captain Frederick Houtman, whose Vocabulary of the Malayan language was printed at Amsterdam in 1604, being the first that was published in Europe. My copy has the writer’s autograph.)

1600.

In November 1600 Paulus van Caarden, having also the command of two Dutch ships, was received upon his landing with much ceremony; but at his first audience the king refused to read a letter from the Prince of Orange, upon its being suggested to him that instead of paper it was written on the skin of an unclean animal; and the subsequent treatment experienced by this officer was uniformly bad. It appears however that in December 1601 the king was so far reconciled to this new power as to send two ambassadors to Holland, one of whom died there in August 1602, and the other returned to Achin subsequently to the death of his master.

1602.

The first English fleet that made its appearance in this part of the world, and laid the foundation of a commerce which was in time to eclipse that of every other European state, arrived at Achin in June 1602. Sir James Lancaster, who commanded it, was received by the king with abundant ceremony and respect, which seem with these monarchs to have been usually proportioned to the number of vessels and apparent strength of their foreign guests. The queen of England’s letter was conveyed to court with great pomp, and the general, after delivering a rich present, the most admired article of which was a fan of feathers, declared the purpose of his coming was to establish peace and amity between his royal mistress and her loving brother, the great and mighty king of Achin.

He was invited to a banquet prepared for his entertainment, in which the service was of gold, and the king’s damsels, who were richly attired and adorned with bracelets and jewels, were ordered to divert him with dancing and music. Before he retired he was arrayed by the king in a magnificent habit of the country, and armed with two krises. In the present sent as a return for the queen’s there was, among other matters, a valuable ruby set in a ring. Two of the nobles, one of whom was the chief priest, were appointed to settle with Lancaster the terms of a commercial treaty, which was accordingly drawn up and executed in an explicit and regular manner. The Portuguese ambassador, or more properly the Spanish, as those kingdoms were now united, kept a watchful and jealous eye upon his proceedings; but by bribing the spies who surrounded him he foiled them at their own arts, and acquired intelligence that enabled him to take a rich prize in the straits of Malacca, with which he returned to Achin; and, having loaded what pepper he could procure there, took his departure in November of the same year. On this occasion it was requested by the king that he and his officers would favour him by singing one of the psalms of David, which was performed with much solemnity.

Very little is known of the military transactions of this reign, and no conquest but that of Pase is recorded. He had two sons, the younger of whom he made king of Pidir, and the elder, styled Sultan Muda, he kept at Achin, in order to succeed him in the throne. In the year 1603 he resolved to divide the charge of government with his intended heir, as he found his extraordinary age began to render him unequal to the task,

and accordingly invested him with royal dignity; but the effect which might have been foreseen quickly followed this measure. The son, who was already advanced in years, became impatient to enjoy more complete power, and, thinking his father had possessed the crown sufficiently long, he confined him in a prison, where his days were soon ended.

1604.

The exact period at which this event took place is not known, but, calculating from the duration of his reign as stated in the Annals, it must have been early in the year 1604.* He was then ninety-five years of age,** and described to be a hale man, but extremely gross and fat.

(*Footnote. The Dutch commander Joris van Spilbergen took leave of him in April 1603, and his ambassador to Holland, who returned in December, 1604, found his son on the throne, according to Valentyn. Commodore Beaulieu says he died in 1603.)

(**Footnote. According to Beaulieu Davis says he was about a hundred; and the Dutch voyages mention that his great age prevented his ever appearing out of his palace.)

His constitution must have been uncommonly vigorous, and his muscular strength is indicated by this ludicrous circumstance, that when he once condescended to embrace a Dutch admiral, contrary to the usual manners of his country, the pressure of his arms was so violent as to cause excessive pain to the person so honoured. He was passionately addicted to women, gaming, and drink,

his favourite beverage being arrack. By the severity of his punishments he kept his subjects in extreme awe of him; and the merchants were obliged to submit to more exactions and oppressions than were felt under the government of his predecessors. The seizure of certain vessels belonging to the people of Bantam and other arbitrary proceedings of that nature are said to have deterred the traders of India from entering into his ports.

The new king, who took the name of Ali Maghayat-shah, proved himself, from indolence or want of capacity, unfit to reign. He was always surrounded by his women, who were not only his attendants but his guards, and carried arms for that purpose. His occupations were the bath and the chase, and the affairs of state were neglected insomuch that murders, robberies, oppression, and an infinity of disorders took place in the kingdom for want of a regular and strict administration of justice. A son of the daughter of Ala-eddin had been a favourite of his grandfather, at the time of whose death he was twenty-three years of age, and continued, with his mother, to reside at the court after that event. His uncle the king of Achin having given him a rebuke on some occasion, he left his palace abruptly and fled to the king of Pidir, who received him with affection, and refused to send him back at the desire of the elder brother, or to offer any violence to a young prince whom their father loved. This was the occasion of an inveterate war which cost the lives of many thousand people. The nephew commanded the forces of Pidir, and for some time maintained the advantage,

but these, at length seeing themselves much inferior in numbers to the army of Ali-Maghayat, refused to march, and the king was obliged to give him up, when he was conveyed to Achin and put in close confinement.

1606.

Not long afterwards a Portuguese squadron under Martin Alfonso, going to the relief of Malacca, then besieged by the Dutch, anchored in Achin road with the resolution of taking revenge on the king for receiving these their rivals into his ports, contrary to the stipulations of a treaty that had been entered into between them. The viceroy landed his men, who were opposed by a strong force on the part of the Achinese; but after a stout resistance they gained the first turf fort with two pieces of cannon, and commenced an attack upon the second, of masonry. In this critical juncture the young prince sent a message to his uncle requesting he might be permitted to join the army and expose himself in the ranks, declaring himself more willing to die in battle against the Kafers (so they always affected to call the Portuguese) than to languish like a slave in chains. The fears which operated upon the king’s mind induced him to consent to his release. The prince showed so much bravery on this occasion, and conducted two or three attacks with such success that Alfonso was obliged to order a retreat, after wasting two days and losing three hundred men in this fruitless attempt. The reputation of the prince was raised by this affair to a high pitch amongst the people of Achin. His mother, who was an active, ambitious woman, formed the design of placing him on the throne,

and furnished him with large sums of money, to be distributed in gratuities amongst the principal orang cayas. At the same time he endeavoured to ingratiate himself by his manners with all classes of people. To the rich he was courteous; to the poor he was affable; and he was the constant companion of those who were in the profession of arms. When the king had reigned between three and four years he died suddenly, and at the hour of his death the prince got access to the castle. He bribed the guards, made liberal promises to the officers, advanced a large sum of money to the governor, and sending for the chief priest obliged him by threats to crown him. In fine he managed the revolution so happily that he was proclaimed king before night, to the great joy of the people, who conceived vast hopes from his liberality, courtesy, and valour. The king of Pidir was speedily acquainted with the news of his brother’s death, but not of the subsequent transactions, and came the next day to take possession of his inheritance. As he approached the castle with a small retinue he was seized by orders from the reigning prince, who, forgetting the favours he had received, kept him prisoner for a month, and then, sending him into the country under the pretence of a commodious retreat, had him murdered on the way. Those who put the crown on his head were not better requited; particularly the Maharaja, or governor of the castle. In a short time his disappointed subjects found that instead of being humane he was cruel; instead of being liberal he displayed extreme avarice, and instead of being affable he manifested a temper austere and inexorable.

This king, whom the Annals name Iskander Muda, was known to our travellers by the title of sultan Paduka Sri (words equivalent to most gracious), sovereign of Achin and of the countries of Aru, Dilli, Johor, Pahang, Kedah, and Perak on the one side, and of Barus, Pasaman, Tiku, Sileda, and Priaman on the other. Some of these places were conquered by him, and others he inherited.

1613.

He showed much friendship to the Hollanders in the early part of his reign; and in the year 1613 gave permission to the English to settle a factory, granting them many indulgences, in consequence of a letter and present from king James the first. He bestowed on Captain Best, who was the bearer of them, the title of orang kaya putih, and entertained him with the fighting of elephants, buffaloes, rams, and tigers. His answer to king James (a translation of which is to be found in Purchas) is couched in the most friendly terms, and he there styles himself king of all Sumatra. He expressed a strong desire that the king of England should send him one of his countrywomen to wife, and promised to make her eldest son king of all the pepper countries, that so the English might be supplied with that commodity by a monarch of their own nation. But notwithstanding his strong professions of attachment to us, and his natural connexion with the Hollanders, arising from their joint enmity to the Portuguese, it was not many years before he began to oppress both nations and use his endeavours to ruin their trade. He became jealous of their growing power,

and particularly in consequence of intelligence that reached him concerning the encroachments made by the latter in the island of Java.

The conquest of Aru seems never to have been thoroughly effected by the kings of Achin. Paduka Sri carried his arms thither and boasted of having obtained some victories.

1613.

In 1613 he subdued Siak in its neighbourhood. Early in the same year he sent an expedition against the kingdom of Johor (which had always maintained a political connexion with Aru) and, reducing the city after a siege of twenty-nine days, plundered it of everything moveable, and made slaves of the miserable inhabitants. The king fled to the island of Bintang, but his youngest brother and coadjutor was taken prisoner and carried to Achin. The old king of Johor, who had so often engaged the Portuguese, left three sons, the eldest of whom succeeded him by the title of Iang de per-tuan.*

(*Footnote. This is not an individual title or proper name, but signifies the sovereign or reigning monarch. In like manner Rega Bongsu signifies the king’s youngest brother, as Raja Muda does the heir apparent.)

The second was made king of Siak, and the third, called Raja Bongsu, reigned jointly with the first. He it was who assisted the Hollanders in the first siege of Malacca, and corresponded with Prince Maurice. T

he king of Achin was married to their sister, but this did not prevent a long and cruel war between them. A Dutch factory at Johor was involved in the consequences of this war, and several of that nation were among the prisoners. In the course of the same year however the king of Achin thought proper to establish Raja Bongsu on the throne of Johor, sending him back for that purpose with great honours, assisting him to rebuild the fort and city, and giving him one of his own sisters in marriage.

1615.

In 1615 the king of Achin sailed to the attack of Malacca in a fleet which he had been four years employed in preparing. It consisted of above five hundred sail, of which a hundred were large galleys, greater than any at that time built in Europe, carrying each from six to eight hundred men, with three large cannon and several smaller pieces. These galleys the orang kayas were obliged to furnish, repair, and man, at the peril of their lives. The soldiers served without pay, and carried three months provision at their own charge. In this great fleet there were computed to be sixty thousand men, whom the king commanded in person. His wives and household were taken to sea with him. Coming in sight of the Portuguese ships in the afternoon, they received many shot from them but avoided returning any, as if from contempt. The next day they got ready for battle, and drew up in form of a half moon. A desperate engagement took place and lasted without intermission till midnight, during which the Portuguese admiral was three times boarded, and repeatedly on fire.

Many vessels on both sides were also in flames and afforded light to continue the combat. At length the Achinese gave way, after losing fifty sail of different sizes, and twenty thousand men. They retired to Bancalis, on the eastern coast of Sumatra, and shortly afterwards sailed for Achin, the Portuguese not daring to pursue their victory, both on account of the damage they had sustained and their apprehension of the Hollanders, who were expected at Malacca. The king proposed that the prisoners taken should be mutually given up, which was agreed to, and was the first instance of that act of humanity and civilisation between the two powers.

1619.

Three years afterwards the king made a conquest of the cities of Kedah and Perak on the Malayan coast, and also of a place called Dilli in Sumatra. This last had been strongly fortified by the assistance of the Portuguese, and gave an opportunity of displaying much skill in the attack. Trenches were regularly opened before it and a siege carried on for six weeks ere it fell. In the same year the king of Jorcan (a place unknown at present by that name) fled for refuge to Malacca with eighty sail of boats, having been expelled his dominions by the king of Achin. The Portuguese were not in a condition to afford him relief, being themselves surrounded with enemies and fearful of an attack from the Achinese more especially; but the king was then making preparations against an invasion he heard was meditated by the viceroy of Goa. Reciprocal apprehensions kept each party on the defensive.

1621.

The French being desirous of participating in the commerce of Achin, of which all the European nations had formed great ideas, and all found themselves disappointed in, sent out a squadron commanded by General Beaulieu, which arrived in January 1621, and finally left it in December of the same year. He brought magnificent presents to the king, but these did not content his insatiable avarice, and he employed a variety of mean arts to draw from him further gifts. Beaulieu met also with many difficulties, and was forced to submit to much extortion in his endeavours to procure a loading of pepper, of which Achin itself, as has been observed, produced but little. The king informed him that he had some time since ordered all the plants to be destroyed, not only because the cultivation of them proved an injury to more useful agriculture, but also lest their produce might tempt the Europeans to serve him, as they had served the kings of Jakatra and Bantam. From this apprehension he had lately been induced to expel the English and Dutch from their settlements at Priaman and Tiku, where the principal quantity of pepper was procured, and of which places he changed the governor every third year to prevent any connexions dangerous to his authority from being formed. He had likewise driven the Dutch from a factory they were attempting to settle at Padang; which place appears to be the most remote on the western coast of the island to which the Achinese conquests at any time extended.

 

1628.

Still retaining a strong desire to possess himself of Malacca, so many years the grand object of Achinese ambition, he imprisoned the ambassador then at his court, and made extraordinary preparations for the siege, which he designed to undertake in person. The laksamana or commander in chief (who had effected all the king’s late conquests) attempted to oppose this resolution; but the maharaja, willing to flatter his master’s propensity, undertook to put him in possession of the city and had the command of the fleet given to him, as the other had of the land forces. The king set out on the expedition with a fleet of two hundred and fifty sail (forty­seven of them not less than a hundred feet in the keel), in which were twenty thousand men well appointed, and a great train of artillery. After being some time on board, with his family and retinue as usual, he determined, on account of an ill omen that was observed, to return to the shore. The generals, proceeding without him, soon arrived before Malacca. Having landed their men they made a judicious disposition, and began the attack with much courage and military skill. The Portuguese were obliged to abandon several of their posts, one of which, after a defence of fifty days, was levelled with the ground, and from its ruins strong works were raised by the laksamana. The maharaja had seized another post advantageously situated. From their several camps they had lines of communication, and the boats on the river were stationed in such a manner that the place was completely invested. Matters were in this posture

when a force of two thousand men came to the assistance of the besieged from the king of Pahang, and likewise five sail of Portuguese vessels from the coast of Coromandel; but all was insufficient to remove so powerful an enemy, although by that time they had lost four thousand of their troops in the different attacks and skirmishes. In the latter end of the year a fleet of thirty sail of ships, large and small, under the command of Nunno Alvarez Botello, having on board nine hundred European soldiers, appeared off Malacca, and blocked up the fleet of Achin in a river about three miles from the town. This entirely altered the complexion of affairs. The besiegers retired from their advanced works and hastened to the defence of their galleys, erecting batteries by the side of the river. The maharaja being summoned to surrender returned a civil but resolute answer. In the night, endeavouring to make his escape with the smaller vessels through the midst of the Portuguese, he was repulsed and wounded. Next day the whole force of the Achinese dropped down the stream with a design to fight their way, but after an engagement of two hours their principal galley, named the Terror of the World, was boarded and taken, after losing five hundred men of seven which she carried. Many other vessels were afterwards captured or sunk. The laksamana hung out a white flag and sent to treat with Nunno, but, some difficulty arising about the terms, the engagement was renewed with great warmth. News was brought to the Portuguese that the maharaja was killed and that the king of Pahang was approaching with a hundred sail of vessels to reinforce them. Still the Achinese kept up a dreadful fire, which seemed to render the final success doubtful;

but at length they sent proposals desiring only to be allowed three galleys of all their fleet to carry away four thousand men who remained of twenty that came before the town. It was answered that they must surrender at discretion; which the laksamana hesitating to do, a furious assault took place both by water and land upon his galleys and works, which were all effectually destroyed or captured, not a ship and scarcely a man escaping. He himself in the last extremity fled to the woods, but was seized ere long by the king of Pahang’s scouts. Being brought before the governor he said to him, with an undaunted countenance, “Behold here the laksamana for the first time overcome!” He was treated with respect but kept a prisoner, and sent on his own famous ship to Goa in order to be from thence conveyed to Portugal: but death deprived his enemies of that distinguished ornament of their triumph.

1635.

This signal defeat proved so important a blow to the power of Achin that we read of no further attempts to renew the war until the year 1635, when the king, encouraged by the feuds which at this time prevailed in Malacca, again violated the law of nations, to him little known, by imprisoning their ambassador, and caused all the Portuguese about his court to be murdered. No military operations however immediately took place in consequence of this barbarous proceeding.

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1640. 1641.

In the year 1640 the Dutch with twelve men of war, and the king of Achin with twenty-five galleys, appeared before that harassed and devoted city; which at length, in the following year was wrested from the hands of the Portuguese, who had so long, through such difficulties, maintained possession of it. This year was also marked by the death of the sultan, whom the Dutch writers name Paduka Sri, at the age of sixty, after a reign of thirty-five years; having just lived to see his hereditary foe subdued; and as if the opposition of the Portuguese power, which seems first to have occasioned the rise of that of Achin, was also necessary to its existence, the splendour and consequence of the kingdom from that period rapidly declined.

The prodigious wealth and resources of the monarchy during his reign are best evinced by the expeditions he was enabled to fit out; but being no less covetous than ambitious he contrived to make the expenses fall upon his subjects, and at the same time filled his treasury with gold by pressing the merchants and plundering the neighbouring states. An intelligent person (General Beaulieu), who was for some time at his court, and had opportunities of information on the subject, uses this strong expression–that he was infinitely rich. He constantly employed in his castle three hundred goldsmiths. This would seem an exaggeration, but that it is well known the Malayan princes have them always about them in great numbers at this day, working in the manufacture of filigree, for which the country is so famous.

His naval strength has been already sufficiently described. He was possessed of two thousand brass guns and small arms in proportion. His trained elephants amounted to some hundreds. His armies were probably raised only upon the occasion which called for their acting, and that in a mode similar to what was established under the feudal system in Europe. The valley of Achin alone was said to be able to furnish forty thousand men upon an emergency. A certain number of warriors however were always kept on foot for the protection of the king and his capital. Of these the superior class were called ulubalang, and the inferior amba-raja, who were entirely devoted to his service and resembled the janizaries of Constantinople. Two hundred horsemen nightly patrolled the grounds about the castle, the inner courts and apartments of which were guarded by three thousand women. The king’s eunuchs amounted to five hundred.

The disposition of this monarch was cruel and sanguinary. A multitude of instances are recorded of the horrible barbarity of his punishments, and for the most trivial offences. He imprisoned his own mother and put her to the torture, suspecting her to have been engaged in a conspiracy against him with some of the principal nobles, whom he caused to be executed. He murdered his nephew, the king of Johor’s son, of whose favour with his mother he was jealous. He also put to death a son of the king of Bantam, and another of the king of Pahang, who were both his near relations. None of the royal family survived in 1622 but his own son, a youth of eighteen, who had been thrice banished the court,

and was thought to owe his continuance in life only to his surpassing his father, if possible, in cruelty, and being hated by all ranks of people. He was at one time made king of Pidir but recalled on account of his excesses, confined in prison and put to strange tortures by his father, whom he did not outlive. The whole territory of Achin was almost depopulated by wars, executions, and oppression. The king endeavoured to repeople the country by his conquests. Having ravaged the kingdoms of Johor, Pahang, Kedah, Perak, and Dilli, he transported the inhabitants from those places to Achin, to the number of twenty-two thousand persons. But this barbarous policy did not produce the effect he hoped; for the unhappy people, being brought naked to his dominions, and not allowed any kind of maintenance on their arrival, died of hunger in the streets. In the planning his military enterprises he was generally guided by the distresses of his neighbours, for whom, as for his prey, he unceasingly lay in wait; and his preparatory measures were taken with such secrecy that the execution alone unravelled them. Insidious political craft and wanton delight in blood united in him to complete the character of a tyrant.

It must here be observed that, with respect to the period of this remarkable reign, the European and Malayan authorities are considerably at variance, the latter assigning to it something less than thirty solar years, and placing the death of Iskander Muda in December 1636. The Annals further state that he was succeeded by sultan Ala-eddin­Mahayat-shah, who reigned only about four years and died in February 1641. That this is the more accurate account I have no hesitation in believing, although Valentyn,

who gives a detail of the king’s magnificent funeral, was persuaded that the reign which ended in 1641 was the same that began in 1607. But he collected his information eighty years after the event, and as it does not appear that any European whose journal has been given to the world was on the spot at that period, the death of an obscure monarch who died after a short reign may well have been confounded by persons at a distance with that of his more celebrated predecessor. Both authorities however are agreed in the important fact that the successor to the throne in 1641 was a female. This person is described by Valentyn as being the wife of the old king, and not his daughter, as by some had been asserted; but from the Annals it appears that she was his daughter, named Taju al-alum; and as it was in her right that Maghayat-shah (certainly her husband), obtained the crown, so upon his decease, there being no male heir, she peaceably succeeded him in the government, and became the first queen regent of Achin. The succession having thenceforward continued nearly sixty years in the female line, this may be regarded as a new era in the history of the country. The nobles finding their power less restrained, and their individual consequence more felt under an administration of this kind than when ruled by kings (as sometimes they were with a rod of iron) supported these pageants, whom they governed as they thought fit, and thereby virtually changed the constitution into an aristocracy or oligarchy. The business of the state was managed by twelve orang-kayas, four of whom were superior to the rest, and among these the maharaja, or governor of the kingdom, was considered as the chief.

It does not appear, nor is it probable, that the queen had the power of appointing or removing any of these great officers. No applications were made to the throne but in their presence, nor any public resolution taken but as they determined in council. The great object of their political jealousy seems to have been the pretensions of the king of Johor to the crown, in virtue of repeated intermarriages between the royal families of the two countries, and it may be presumed that the alarms excited from that quarter materially contributed to reconcile them to the female domination. They are accordingly said to have formed an engagement amongst themselves never to pay obedience to a foreign prince, nor to allow their royal mistress to contract any marriage that might eventually lead to such a consequence.* At the same time, by a new treaty with Johor, its king was indirectly excused from the homage to the crown of Achin which had been insisted upon by her predecessors and was the occasion of frequent wars.

(*Footnote. However fanciful it may be thought, I cannot doubt that the example of our Queen Elizabeth, whose character and government were highly popular with the Achinese on account of her triumphant contest with the united powers of Spain and Portugal, had a strong influence in the establishment of this new species of monarchy, and that the example of her sister’s marriage with Philip may have contributed to the resolution taken by the nobles. The actions of our illustrious queen were a common topic of conversation between the old tyrant and Sir James Lancaster.)

In proportion as the political consequence of the kingdom declined, its history, as noticed by foreigners, becomes obscure. Little is recorded of the transactions of her reign, and it is likely that Achin took no active part in the concerns of neighbouring powers, but suffered the Hollanders, who maintained in general a friendly intercourse with her, to remain in quiet possession of Malacca.

1643.

In 1643 they sent an ambassador to compliment her upon her accession, and at the same time to solicit payment for a quantity of valuable jewels ordered by the deceased king, but for the amount of which she declined to make herself responsible.

1660.

It is said (but the fact will admit of much doubt) that in 1660 she was inclined to marry one of their countrymen, and would have carried her design into execution had not the East India Company prevented by their authority a connexion that might, as they prudently judged, be productive of embarrassment to their affairs.

1664.

The Dutch however complain that she gave assistance to their enemies the people of Perak, and in 1664 it was found necessary to send a squadron under the command of Pieter de Bitter to bring her to reason. As it happened that she was at this time at war with some of her own dependants

he made himself master of several places on the western coast that were nominally at least belonging to Achin.

1666.

About 1666 the English establishments at Achin and some ports to the southward appear to have given considerable umbrage to their rivals.

1669.

In 1669 the people of Dilli on the north-eastern coast threw off their allegiance, and the power of the kingdom became gradually more and more circumscribed.

1675.

This queen died in 1675, after reigning, with a degree of tranquillity little known in these countries, upwards of thirty-four years.

The people being now accustomed and reconciled to female rule, which they found more lenient than that of their kings, acquiesced in general in the established mode of government.

1677.

And she was immediately succeeded by another female monarch, named Nur al-alum, who reigned little more than two years and died in 1677.

The queen who succeeded her was named Anayet-shah.

1684.

In the year 1684 she received an embassy from the English government of Madras, and appeared at that time to be about forty years. The persons who were on this occasion presented to her express their suspicions, which were suggested to them by a doubt prevailing amongst the inhabitants, that this sovereign was not a real queen, but a eunuch dressed up in female apparel, and imposed on the public by the artifices of the orang kayas. But as such a cheat, though managed with every semblance of reality (which they observe was the case) could not be carried on for any number of years without detection, and as the same idea does not appear to have been entertained at any other period, it is probable they were mistaken in their surmise. Her person they describe to have been large, and her voice surprisingly strong, but not manly.*

(*Footnote. The following curious passage is extracted from the journal of these gentlemen’s proceedings. “We went to give our attendance at the palace this day as customary. Being arrived at the place of audience with the orang cayos, the queen was pleased to order us to come nearer, when her majesty was very inquisitive into the use of our wearing periwigs, and what was the convenience of them; to all which we returned satisfactory answers. After this her majesty desired of Mr. Ord, if it were no affront to him, that he would take off his periwig, that she might see how he appeared without it; which, according to her majesty’s request, he did. She then told us she had heard of our business,

and would give her answer by the orang cayos; and so we retired.” I venture, with submission, to observe that this anecdote seems to put the question of the sex beyond controversy.)

The purport of the embassy was to obtain liberty to erect a fortification in her territory, which she peremptorily refused, being contrary to the established rules of the kingdom; adding that if the governor of Madras would fill her palace with gold she could not permit him to build with brick either fort or house. To have a factory of timber and plank was the utmost indulgence that could be allowed; and on that footing the return of the English, who had not traded there for many years, should be welcomed with great friendship. The queen herself, the orang kayas represented, was not allowed to fortify lest some foreign power might avail themselves of it to enslave the country. In the course of these negotiations it was mentioned that the agriculture of Achin had suffered considerably of late years by reason of a general licence given to all the inhabitants to search for gold in the mountains and rivers which afforded that article; whereas the business had formerly been restricted to certain authorized persons, and the rest obliged to till the ground.

1684.

The court feared to give a public sanction for the settlement of the English on any part of the southern coast lest it should embroil them with the other European powers.*

 

(*Footnote. The design of settling a factory at this period in the dominions of Achin was occasioned by the recent loss of our establishment at Bantam, which had been originally fixed by Sir James Lancaster in 1603. The circumstances of this event were as follows. The old sultan had thought proper to share the regal power with his son in the year 1677, and this measure was attended with the obvious effect of a jealousy between the parent and child, which soon broke forth into open hostilities. The policy of the Dutch led them to take an active part in favour of the young sultan, who had inclined most to their interests and now solicited their aid. The English on the other hand discouraged what appeared to them an unnatural rebellion, but without interfering, as they said, in any other character than that of mediators, or affording military assistance to either party; and which their extreme weakness rather than their assertions renders probable. On the twenty-eighth of March 1682 the Dutch landed a considerable force from Batavia, and soon terminated the war. They placed the young sultan on the throne, delivering the father into his custody, and obtained from him in return for these favours an exclusive privilege of trade in his territories; which was evidently the sole object they had in view. On the first day of April possession was taken of the English factory by a party of Dutch and country soldiers, and on the twelfth the agent and council were obliged to embark with their property on vessels provided for the purpose, which carried them to Batavia. From thence they proceeded to Surat on the twenty-second of August in the following year.

In order to retain a share in the pepper-trade the English turned their thoughts towards Achin, and a deputation, consisting of two gentlemen, of the names of Old and Cawley, was sent thither in 1684; the success of which is above related. It happened that at this time certain Rajas or chiefs of the country of Priaman and other places on the west coast of Sumatra were at Achin also to solicit aid of that court against the Dutch, who had made war upon and otherwise molested them. These immediately applied to Mr. Ord, expressing a strong desire that the English should settle in their respective districts, offering ground for a fort and the exclusive purchase of their pepper. They consented to embark for Madras, where an agreement was formed with them by the governor in the beginning of the year 1685 on the terms they had proposed. In consequence of this an expedition was fitted out with the design of establishing a settlement at Priaman; but a day or two before the ships sailed an invitation to the like purport was received from the chiefs of Bang­kaulu (since corruptly called Bencoolen); and as it was known that a considerable proportion of the pepper that used to be exported from Bantam had been collected from the neighbourhood of Bencoolen (at a place called Silebar), it was judged advisable that Mr. Ord, who was the person entrusted with the management of this business, should first proceed thither; particularly as at that season of the year it was the windward port. He arrived there on the twenty-fifth day of June 1685, and, after taking possession of the country assigned to the English Company, and leaving Mr. Broome in charge of the place, he sailed for the purpose of establishing the other settlements.

He stopped first at Indrapura, where he found three Englishmen who were left of a small factory that had been some time before settled there by a man of the name of Du Jardin. Here he learned that the Dutch, having obtained a knowledge of the original intention of our fixing at Priaman, had anticipated us therein and sent a party to occupy the situation. In the meantime it was understood in Europe that this place was the chief of our establishments on the coast, and ships were accordingly consigned thither. The same was supposed at Madras, and troops and stores were sent to reinforce it, which were afterwards landed at Indrapura. A settlement was then formed at Manjuta, and another attempted at Batang-kapas in 1686; but here the Dutch, assisted by a party amongst the natives, assaulted and drove out our people. Every possible opposition, as it was natural to expect, was given by these our rivals to the success of our factories. They fixed themselves in the neighbourhood of them and endeavoured to obstruct the country people from carrying pepper to them or supplying them with provisions either by sea or land. Our interests however in the end prevailed, and Bencoolen in particular, to which the other places were rendered subordinate in 1686, began to acquire some degree of vigour and respectability. In 1689 encouragement was given to Chinese colonists to settle there, whose number has been continually increasing from that time. In 1691 the Dutch felt the loss of their influence at Silebar and other of the southern countries, where they attempted to exert authority in the name of the sultan of Bantam, and the produce of these places was delivered to the English. This revolution proceeded from the works with which about this time our factory was strengthened.

In 1695 a settlement was made at Triamang, and two years after at Kattaun and Sablat. The first, in the year 1700, was removed to Bantal. Various applications were made by the natives in different parts of the island for the establishment of factories, particularly from Ayer-Bangis to the northward, Palembang on the eastern side, and the people from the countries south of Tallo, near Manna. A person was sent to survey these last, as far as Pulo Pisang and Kroi, in 1715. In consequence of the inconvenience attending the shipping of goods from Bencoolen River, which is often impracticable from the surfs, a warehouse was built in 1701 at a place then called the cove; which gave the first idea of removing the settlement to the point of land which forms the bay of Bencoolen. The unhealthiness of the old situation was thought to render this an expedient step; and accordingly about 1714 it was in great measure relinquished, and the foundations of Fort Marlborough were laid on a spot two or three miles distant. Being a high plain it was judged to possess considerable advantages; many of which however are counterbalanced by its want of the vicinity of a river, so necessary for the ready and plentiful supply of provisions. Some progress had been made in the erection of this fort when an accident happened that had nearly destroyed the Company’s views. The natives incensed at ill treatment received from the Europeans, who were then but little versed in the knowledge of their dispositions or the art of managing them by conciliating methods, rose in a body in the year 1719, and forced the garrison, whose ignorant fears rendered them precipitate, to seek refuge on board their ships. These people began now to feel alarms lest the Dutch, taking advantage of the absence of the English,

should attempt an establishment, and soon permitted some persons from the northern factories to resettle the place; and, supplies arriving from Madras, things returned to their former course, and the fort was completed. The Company’s affairs on this coast remained in tranquillity for a number of years. The important settlement of Natal was established in 1752, and that of Tappanuli a short time afterwards; which involved the English in fresh disputes with the Dutch, who set up a claim to the country in which they are situated. In the year 1760 the French under Comte d’Estaing destroyed all the English settlements on the coast of Sumatra; but they were soon reestablished and our possession secured by the treaty of Paris in 1763. Fort Marlborough, which had been hitherto a peculiar subordinate of Fort St. George, was now formed into an independent presidency, and was furnished with a charter for erecting a mayor’s court, but which has never been enforced. In 1781 a detachment of military from thence embarked upon five East India ships and took possession of Padang and all other Dutch factories in consequence of the war with that nation. In 1782 the magazine of Fort Marlborough, in which were four hundred barrels of powder, was fired by lightning and blew up; but providentially few lives were lost. In 1802 an act of parliament was passed “to authorize the East India Company to make their settlement at Fort Marlborough in the East Indies, a factory subordinate to the presidency of Fort William in Bengal, and to transfer the servants who on the reduction of that establishment shall be supernumerary, to the presidency of Fort St. George.” In 1798 plants of the nutmeg and clove had for the first time been procured from the Moluccas;

and in 1803 a large importation of these valuable articles of cultivation took place. As the plantations were, by the last accounts from thence, in the most flourishing state, very important commercial advantages were expected to be derived from the culture.)

A few years before these transactions she had invited the king of Siam to renew the ancient connexion between their respective states, and to unite in a league against the Dutch, by whose encroachments the commerce of her subjects and the extent of her dominions were much circumscribed. It does not appear however that this overture was attended with any effect, nor have the limits of the Achinese jurisdiction since that period extended beyond Pidir on the northern, and Barus on the western coast.

1688.

She died in 1688, having reigned something less than eleven years, and was succeeded by a young queen named Kamalat-shah; but this did not take place without a strong opposition from a faction amongst the orang kayas which wanted to set up a king, and a civil war actually commenced. The two parties drew up their forces on opposite sides of the river, and for two or three nights continued to fire at each other, but in the daytime followed their ordinary occupations. These opportunities of intercourse made them sensible of their mutual folly. They agreed to throw aside their arms and the crown remained in possession of the newly elected queen. It was said to have been esteemed essential that she should be a maiden, advanced in years,

and connected by blood with the ancient royal line. In this reign an English factory, which had been long discontinued, was reestablished at Achin, but in the interval some private traders of this nation had always resided on the spot. These usually endeavoured to persuade the state that they represented the India Company, and sometimes acquired great influence, which they are accused of having employed in a manner not only detrimental to that body but to the interests of the merchants of India in general by monopolizing the trade of the port, throwing impediments in the way of all shipping not consigned to their management, and embezzling the cargoes of such as were. An asylum was also afforded, beyond the reach of law, for all persons whose crimes or debts induced them to fly from the several European settlements. These considerations chiefly made the Company resolve to reclaim their ancient privileges in that kingdom, and a deputation was sent from the presidency of Madras in the year 1695 for that purpose, with letters addressed to her illustrious majesty the queen of Achin, desiring permission to settle on the terms her predecessors had granted to them; which was readily complied with, and a factory, but on a very limited scale, was established accordingly, but soon declined and disappeared. In 1704, when Charles Lockyer (whose account of his voyage, containing a particular description of this place, was published in 1711) visited Achin, one of these independent factors, named Francis Delton, carried on a flourishing trade. In 1695 the Achinese were alarmed by the arrival of six sail of Dutch ships of force, with a number of troops on board, in their road,

not having been visited by any of that nation for fifteen years, but they departed without offering any molestation.

1699.

This queen was deposed by her subjects (whose grounds of complaint are not stated) about the latter part of the year 1699, after reigning also eleven years; and with her terminated the female dynasty, which, during its continuance of about fifty-nine years, had attracted much notice in Europe.

Her successor was named Beder al-alum sherif Hasham, the nature of whose pretensions to the crown does not positively appear, but there is reason to believe that he was her brother. When he had reigned a little more than two years it pleased God (as the Annals express it) to afflict him with a distemper which caused his feet and hands to contract (probably the gout) and disqualified him for the performance of his religious duties.

1702.

Under these circumstances he was induced to resign the government in 1702, and died about a month after his abdication.

Perkasa-alum, a priest, found means by his intrigues to acquire the sovereignty, and one of his first acts was to attempt imposing certain duties on the merchandise imported by English traders,

who had been indulged with an exemption from all port charges excepting the established complimentary presents upon their arrival and receiving the chap or licence. This had been stipulated in the treaty made by Sir James Lancaster, and renewed by Mr. Grey when chief of the Company’s factory. The innovation excited an alarm and determined opposition on the part of the masters of ships then at the place, and they proceeded (under the conduct of Captain Alexander Hamilton, who published an account of his voyage in 1727) to the very unwarrantable step of commencing hostilities by firing upon the villages situated near the mouth of the river, and cutting off from the city all supplies of provisions by sea. The inhabitants, feeling severely the effects of these violent measures, grew clamorous against the government, which was soon obliged to restore to these insolent traders the privileges for which they contended.

1704.

Advantage was taken of the public discontents to raise an insurrection in favour of the nephew of the late queen, or, according to the Annals, the son of Beder al-alum (who was probably her brother), in the event of which Perkasa-alum was deposed about the commencement of the year 1704, and after an interregnum or anarchy of three months continuance, the young prince obtained possession of the throne, by the name of Jemal al-alum. From this period the native writers furnish very ample details of the transactions of the Achinese government, as well as of the general state of the country,

whose prosperous circumstances during the early part of this king’s reign are strongly contrasted with the misery and insignificance to which it was reduced by subsequent events. The causes and progress of this political decline cannot be more satisfactorily set forth than in a faithful translation of the Malayan narrative which was drawn up, or extracted from a larger work, for my use, and is distinct from the Annals already mentioned:

When raja Jemal al-alum reigned in Achin the country was exceedingly populous, the nobles had large possessions, the merchants were numerous and opulent, the judgments of the king were just, and no man could experience the severity of punishment but through his own fault. In those days the king could not trade on his own account, the nobles having combined to prevent it; but the accustomed duties of the port were considered as his revenue, and ten per cent was levied for this purpose upon all merchandise coming into the country. The city was then of great extent, the houses were of brick and stone. The most considerable merchant was a man named Daniel, a Hollander; but many of different nations were also settled there, some from Surat, some from Kutch, others from China. When ships arrived in the port, if the merchants could not take off all the cargoes the king advanced the funds for purchasing what remained, and divided the goods among them, taking no profit to himself. After the departure of the vessel the king was paid in gold the amount of his principal, without interest.

His daily amusements were in the grounds allotted for the royal sports.

He was attended by a hundred young men, who were obliged to be constantly near his person day and night, and who were clothed in a sumptuous manner at a monthly expense of a hundred dollars for each man. The government of the different parts of the country was divided, under his authority, amongst the nobles. When a district appeared to be disturbed he took measures for quelling the insurrection; those who resisted his orders he caused to be apprehended; when the roads were bad he gave directions for their repair. Such was his conduct in the government. His subjects all feared him, and none dared to condemn his actions. At that time the country was in peace.

When he had been a few years on the throne a country lying to the eastward, named Batu Bara, attempted to throw off its subjection to Achin. The chiefs were ordered to repair to court to answer for their conduct, but they refused to obey. These proceedings raised the king’s indignation. He assembled the nobles and required of them that each should furnish a vessel of war, to be employed on an expedition against that place, and within two months, thirty large galleys, without counting vessels of a smaller size, were built and equipped for sea. When the fleet arrived off Batu Bara (by which must be understood the Malayan district at the mouth of the river, and not the Batta territory through which it takes its course), a letter was sent on shore addressed to the refractory chiefs, summoning them to give proof of their allegiance by appearing in the king’s presence, or threatening the alternative of an immediate attack. After much division in their councils it was at length agreed to feign submission,

and a deputation was sent off to the royal fleet, carrying presents of fruit and provisions of all kinds. One of the chiefs carried, as his complimentary offering, some fresh coconuts, of the delicate species called kalapa-gading, into which a drug had been secretly introduced. The king observing these directed that one should be cut open for him, and having drunk of the juice, became affected with a giddiness in his head. (This symptom shows the poison to have been the upas, but too much diluted in the liquor of the nut to produce death). Being inclined to repose, the strangers were ordered to return on shore, and, finding his indisposition augment, he gave directions for being conveyed back to Achin, whither his ship sailed next day. The remainder of the fleet continued off the coast during five or six days longer, and then returned likewise without effecting the reduction of the place, which the chiefs had lost no time in fortifying.

About two years after this transaction the king, under pretence of amusement, made an excursion to the country lying near the source of the river Achin, then under the jurisdiction of a panglima or governor named Muda Seti; for it must be understood that this part of the kingdom is divided into three districts, known by the appellations of the Twenty-two, Twenty-six, and Twenty-five Mukims (see above), which were governed respectively by Muda Seti, Imam Muda, and Perbawang­Shah (or Purba-wangsa). These three chiefs had the entire control of the country, and when their views were united they had the power of deposing and setting up kings. Such was the nature of the government.

The king’s expedition was undertaken with the design of making himself master of the person of Muda Seti, who had given him umbrage, and on this occasion his followers of all ranks were so numerous that wherever they halted for the night the fruits of the earth were all devoured, as well as great multitudes of cattle. Muda Seti however, being aware of the designs against him, had withdrawn himself from the place of his usual residence and was not to be found when the king arrived there; but a report being brought that he had collected five or six hundred followers and was preparing to make resistance, orders were immediately given for burning his house. This being effected, the king returned immediately to Achin, leaving the forces that had accompanied him at a place called Pakan Badar, distant about half a day’s journey from the capital, where they were directed to entrench themselves. From this post they were driven by the country chief, who advanced rapidly upon them with several thousand men, and forced them to fall back to Padang Siring, where the king was collecting an army, and where a battle was fought soon after, that terminated in the defeat of the royal party with great slaughter. Those who escaped took refuge in the castle along with the king.

1723.

Under these disastrous circumstances he called upon the chiefs who adhered to him to advise what was best to be done, surrounded as they were by the country people, on

 

whom he invoked the curse of God; when one of them, named Panglima Maharaja, gave it as his opinion that the only effectual measure by which the country could be saved from ruin would be the king’s withdrawing himself from the capital so long as the enemy should continue in its vicinity, appointing a regent from among the nobles to govern the country in his absence; and when subordination should be restored he might then return and take again possession of his throne. To this proposition he signified his assent on the condition that Panglima Maharaja should assure him by an oath that no treachery was intended; which oath was accordingly taken, and the king, having nominated as his substitute Maharaja Lela, one of the least considerable of the ulubalangs, retired with his wives and children to the country of the Four mukims, situated about three hours journey to the westward of the city. (The Annals say he fled to Pidir in November 1723.) Great ravages were committed by the insurgents, but they did not attack the palace, and after some days of popular confusion the chiefs of the Three districts, who (says the writer) must not be confounded with the officers about the person of the king, held a consultation amongst themselves, and, exercising an authority of which there had been frequent examples, set up Panglima Maharaja in the room of the abdicated king (by the title, say the Annals, of Juhar al-alum, in December 1723). About seven days after his elevation he was seized with a convulsive disorder in his neck and died. A nephew of Jemal al-alum, named Undei Tebang, was then placed upon the throne, but notwithstanding his having bribed the chiefs of the Three districts with thirty katties of gold, they permitted him to enjoy his dignity only a few days,

and then deposed him. (The same authority states that he was set up by the chiefs of the Four mukims, and removed through the influence of Muda Seti.)

1724. 1735.

The person whom they next combined to raise to the throne was Maharaja Lela (before mentioned as the king’s substitute). It was his good fortune to govern the country in tranquillity for the space of nearly twelve years, during which period the city of Achin recovered its population. (According to the Annals he began to reign in February 1724, by the title of Ala ed-din Ahmed shah Juhan, and died in June 1735.) It happened that the same day on which the event of his death took place Jemal al-alum again made his appearance, and advanced to a mosque near the city. His friends advised him to lose no time in possessing himself of the castle, but for trifling reasons that mark the weakness of his character he resolved to defer the measure till the succeeding day; and the opportunity, as might be expected, was lost. The deceased king left five sons, the eldest of whom, named Po-chat-au (or Po-wak, according to another manuscript) exhorted his brothers to unite with him in the determination of resisting a person whose pretensions were entirely inconsistent with their security. They accordingly sent to demand assistance of Perbawang-shah, chief of the district of the Twenty-five mukims, which lies the nearest to that quarter. He arrived before morning, embraced the five princes, confirmed them in their resolution, and authorised the eldest to assume the government (which he did, say the Annals,

by the title of Ala ed-din Juhan-shah in September 1735.) But to this measure the concurrence of the other chiefs was wanting. At daybreak the guns of the castle began to play upon the mosque, and, some of the shot penetrating its walls, the pusillanimous Jemal al-alum, being alarmed at the danger, judged it advisable to retreat from thence and to set up his standard in another quarter, called kampong Jawa, his people at the same time retaining possession of the mosque. A regular warfare now ensued between the two parties and continued for no less than ten years (the great chiefs taking different sides), when at length some kind of compromise was effected that left Po-chat-au (Juhan­shah) in the possession of the throne, which he afterwards enjoyed peaceably for eight years, and no further mention is made of Jemal al-alum. About this period the chiefs took umbrage at his interfering in matters of trade, contrary to what they asserted to be the established custom of the realm, and assembled their forces in order to intimidate him. (The history of Achin presents a continual struggle between the monarch and the aristocracy of the country, which generally made the royal monopoly of trade the ground of crimination and pretext for their rebellions).

1755.

Panglima Muda Seti, being considered as the head of the league, came down with twenty thousand followers, and, upon the king’s refusing to admit into the castle his complimentary present (considering it only as the prelude to humiliating negotiation), another war commenced that lasted for two years,

and was at length terminated by Muda Seti’s withdrawing from the contest and returning to his province. About five years after this event Juhan shah died, and his son, Pochat-bangta, succeeded him, but not (says this writer, who here concludes his abstract) with the general concurrence of the chiefs, and the country long continued in a disturbed state.

END OF NARRATIVE.

1760.

The death of Juhan shah is stated in the Annals to have taken place in August 1760, and the accession of the son, who took the name of Ala-eddin Muhammed shah, not until November of the same year. Other authorities place these events in 1761.

1763.

Before he had completed the third year of his reign an insurrection of his subjects obliged him to save himself by flight on board a ship in the road. This happened in 1763 or 1764. The throne was seized by the maharaja (first officer of state) named Sinara, who assumed the title of Beder-eddin Juhan shah, and about the end of 1765 was put to death by the adherents of the fugitive monarch, Muhammed shah, who thereupon returned to the throne.*

(*Footnote. Captain Forrest acquaints us that he visited the court of Mahomed Selim (the latter name is not given to this prince by any other writer) in the year 1764, at which time he appeared to be about forty years of age.

It is difficult to reconcile this date with the recorded events of this unfortunate reign, and I have doubts whether it was not the usurper whom the Captain saw.)

He was exposed however to further revolutions. About six years after his restoration the palace was attacked in the night by a desperate band of two hundred men, headed by a man called Raja Udah, and he was once more obliged to make a precipitate retreat. This usurper took the title of sultan Suliman shah, but after a short reign of three months was driven out in his turn and forced to fly for refuge to one of the islands in the eastern sea. The nature of his pretensions, if he had any, have not been stated, but he never gave any further trouble. From this period Muhammed maintained possession of his capital, although it was generally in a state of confusion.

1772.

“In the year 1772,” says Captain Forrest, “Mr. Giles Holloway, resident of Tappanooly, was sent to Achin by the Bencoolen government, with a letter and present, to ask leave from the king to make a settlement there. I carried him from his residency. Not being very well on my arrival, I did not accompany Mr. Holloway (a very sensible and discreet gentleman, and who spoke the Malay tongue very fluently) on shore at his first audience; and finding his commission likely to prove abortive I did not go to the palace at all. There was great anarchy and confusion at this time; and the malcontents came often, as I was informed, near the king’s palace at night.”

1775.

The Captain further remarks that when again there in 1775 he could not obtain an audience.

1781.

The Annals report his death to have happened on the 2nd of June 1781, and observe that from the commencement to the close of his reign the country never enjoyed repose. His brother, named Ala-eddin (or Uleddin, as commonly pronounced, and which seems to have been a favourite title with the Achinese princes), was in exile at Madras during a considerable period, and resided also for some time at Bencoolen.

The eldest son of the deceased king, then about eighteen years of age, succeeded him on the 16th of the same month, by the title of Ala-eddin Mahmud shah Juhan, in spite of an opposition attempted to be raised by the partisans of another son by a favourite wife. Weapons had been drawn in the court before the palace, when the tuanku agung or high priest, a person of great respectability and influence, by whom the former had been educated, came amidst the crowd, bareheaded and without attendance, leading his pupil by the hand. Having placed himself between the contending factions, he addressed them to the following effect: that the prince who stood before them had a natural right and legal claim to the throne of his father; that he had been educated with a view to it, and was qualified to adorn it by his disposition and talents;

that he wished however to found his pretensions neither upon his birthright nor the strength of the party attached to him, but upon the general voice of his subjects calling him to the sovereignty; that if such was their sentiment he was ready to undertake the arduous duties of the station, in which he himself would assist him with the fruits of his experience; that if on the contrary they felt a predilection for his rival, no blood should be shed on his account, the prince and his tutor being resolved in that case to yield the point without a struggle, and retire to some distant island. This impressive appeal had the desired effect, and the young prince was invited by unanimous acclamation to assume the reins of government.*

(*Footnote. Mr. Philip Braham, late chief of the East India Company’s settlement of Fort Marlborough, by whom the circumstances of this event were related to me, arrived at Achin in July 1781, about a fortnight after the transaction. He thus described his audience. The king was seated in a gallery (to which there were no visible steps), at the extremity of a spacious hall or court, and a curtain which hung before him was drawn aside when it was his pleasure to appear. In this court were great numbers of female attendants, but not armed, as they have been described. Mr. Braham was introduced through a long file of guards armed with blunderbusses, and then seated on a carpet in front of the gallery. When a conversation had been carried on for some time through the Shabandar, who communicated his answers to an interpreter, by whom they were reported to the king, the latter perceiving that he spoke the Malayan language addressed him directly,

and asked several questions respecting England; what number of wives and children our sovereign had; how many ships of war the English kept in India; what was the French force, and others of that nature. He expressed himself in friendly terms with regard to our nation, and said he should always be happy to countenance our traders in his ports. Even at this early period of his reign he had abolished some vexatious imposts. Mr. Braham had an opportunity of learning the great degree of power and control possessed by certain of the orang kayas, who held their respective districts in actual sovereignty, and kept the city in awe by stopping, when it suited their purpose, the supplies of provisions. Captain Forrest, who once more visited Achin in 1784 and was treated with much distinction (see his Voyage to the Mergui Archipelago page 51), says he appeared to be twenty-five years of age; but this was a misconception. Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, who saw him in 1782, judged him to have been at that time no more than nineteen or twenty, which corresponds with Mr. Braham’s statement.)

Little is known of the transactions of his reign, but that little is in favour of his personal character. The Annals (not always unexceptionable evidence when speaking of the living monarch) describe him as being endowed with every princely virtue, exercising the functions of government with vigour and rectitude, of undaunted courage, attentive to the protection of the ministers of religion, munificent to the descendants of the prophet (seiyid, but commonly pronounced sidi) and to men of learning, prompt at all times to administer justice,

and consequently revered and beloved by his people. I have not been enabled to ascertain the year in which he died.

1791.

It appears by a Malayan letter from Achin that in 1791 the peace of the capital was much disturbed, and the state of the government as well as of private property (which induced the writer to reship his goods) precarious.

1805.

In 1805 his son, then aged twenty-one, was on the throne, and had a contention with his paternal uncle, and at the same time his father-in-law, named Tuanku Raja, by whom he had been compelled to fly (but only for a short time) to Pidir, the usual asylum of the Achinese monarchs. Their quarrel appears to have been rather of a family than of a political nature, and to have proceeded from the irregular conduct of the queen-mother. The low state of this young king’s finances, impoverished by a fruitless struggle to enforce, by means of an expensive marine establishment, his right to an exclusive trade, had induced him to make proposals, for mutual accommodation, to the English government of Pulo Pinang.*

 

(*Footnote. Since the foregoing was printed the following information respecting the manners of the Batta people, obtained by Mr. Charles Holloway from Mr. W.H. Hayes, has reached my hands.

 

“In the month of July 1805

an expedition consisting of Sepoys, Malays, and Battas was sent from Tapanuli against a chief named Punei Manungum, residing at Nega­timbul, about thirty miles inland from Old Tapanuli, in consequence of his having attacked a kampong under the protection of the company, murdered several of the inhabitants, and carried others into captivity. After a siege of three days, terms of accommodation being proposed, a cessation of hostilities took place, when the people of each party having laid aside their arms intermixed with the utmost confidence, and conversed together as if in a state of perfect amity. The terms however not proving satisfactory, each again retired to his arms and renewed the contest with their former inveteracy. On the second day the place was evacuated, and upon our people entering it Mr. Hayes found the bodies of one man and two women, whom the enemy had put to death before their departure (being the last remaining of sixteen prisoners whom they had originally carried off), and from whose legs large pieces had been cut out, evidently for the purpose of being eaten. During the progress of this expedition a small party had been sent to hold in check the chiefs of Labusukum and Singapollum (inland of Sibogah), who were confederates of Punei Manungum. These however proved stronger than was expected, and, making a sally from their kampongs, attacked the sergeant’s party and killed a sepoy, whom he was obliged to abandon. Mr. Hayes, on his way from Negatimbul, was ordered to march to the support of the retreating party;

 

but these having taken a different route he remained ignorant of the particulars of their loss. The village of Singapollam being immediately carried by storm, and the enemy retreating by one gate, as our people entered at the opposite, the accoutrements of the sepoy who had been killed the day before were seen hanging as trophies in the front of the houses, and in the town hall, Mr. Hayes saw the head entirely scalped, and one of the fingers fixed upon a fork or skewer, still warm from the fire. On proceeding to the village of Labusucom, situated little more than two hundred yards from the former, he found a large plantain leaf full of human flesh, mixed with lime-juice and chili-pepper, from which he inferred that they had been surprised in the very act of feasting on the sepoy, whose body had been divided between the two kampongs. Upon differences being settled with the chiefs they acknowledged with perfect sangfroid that such had been the case, saying at the same time, “you know it is our custom; why should we conceal it?”)

 

 

 

 

 

1836

 


TEUNGKU CIK DI TIRO
Lahir : Tiro, Pidie, 1836
Wafat : Benteng, Aneuk Galong, Januari 1891

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK kecil, Teungku Cik Di Tiro yang bernama asli Muhammad Saman telah terbiasa tinggal di lingkungan pesantren. Di situ ia banyak menimba ilmu dari beberapa ulama terkenal di Aceh. Setelah merasa cukup berguru, Saman menunaikan ibadah haji ke Mekah sekaligus memperdalam ilmu agamanya.

 

 

Sekembalinya dari Mekah, Saman menjadi guru agama di Tiro hingga kemudian dikenal sebagai Teungku Cik Di Tiro.

Tahun 1873

, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya. Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.

Mei 1881, benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro. Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut. Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh. Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.

Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya. Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.

 

 

1854


TEUKU UMAR
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh. Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.

Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat. Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.

Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.

Tahun 1893,

Teuku Umar tunduk dan bergabung dengan Belanda. Siasat berpura-pura Teuku Umar ini ternyata berhasil. Belanda kemudian mengizinkan Teuku Umar memiliki tentara berkekuatan 250 orang berikut persenjataan lengkap untuk memerangi pejuang-pejuang Aceh yang belum tunduk. Para pejuang Aceh yang akan diperangi pun paham karena telah diberitahu sebelumnya. Semua itu dilakukan Teuku Umar demi mendapatkan senjata dan perbekalan dari pihak VOC Belanda.

Pada tanggal 29 Maret 1896,

Teuku Umar kembali bergabung dengan para pejuang Aceh. Ia berhasil membawa lari senjata, uang sebanyak 800.000 Dollar, dan perlengkapan lain milik Belanda.

Semasa bergabung dengan Belanda, Teuku Umar pernah diberi gelar Teuku Johan Pahlawan dan memimpin 1 legiun tentara berkekuatan 250 orang serdadu. Teuku Umar mampu menghadapi Politik Devide et Empera (“Pecah Belah dan Jajahlah”) Belanda dengan menggunakan kekuatan Belanda sendiri.

Pada Januari 1899,

Belanda merasa tertipu dan amat marah sehingga mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menangkap Teuku Umar di Meulaboh. Teuku Umar akhirnya gugur pada tanggal 11 Februari 1899, dan dimakamkan di Desa Mugo, Aceh.

 

1870

 

 

The poster of atjeh War in 1870

 

1870


Berani Menerjang Peluru

Spoiler for tentang dia


Pameo yang mengatakan wanita sebagai insan lemah dan harus selalu dilindungi tidak selamanya benar. Itu dibuktikan oleh Cut Nyak Meutia, wanita asal Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, yang terus berjuang melawan Belanda hingga tewas diterjang tiga peluru di tubuhnya.

 

Wanita kelahiran Perlak, Aceh, tahun 1870, ini adalah seorang Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional yang hingga titik darah penghabisan tetap memegang prinsip tak akan mau tunduk kepada kolonial.

Sebelum Cut Nyak Meutia lahir, pasukan Belanda sudah menduduki daerah Aceh yang digelari serambi Mekkah tersebut. Perlakuan Belanda yang semena-mena dengan berbagai pemaksaan dan penyiksaan akhirnya menimbulkan perlawanan dari rakyat.

Tiga tahun sebelum perang Aceh-Belanda meletus, ketika itulah Cut Nyak Meutia dilahirkan. Suasana perang pada saat kelahiran dan perkembangannya itu, di kemudian hari sangat memengaruhi perjalanan hidupnya.

Ketika sudah beranjak dewasa, dia menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, seorang pejuang yang lebih terkenal dengan nama Teuku Cik Tunong. Walaupun ketika masih kecil ia sudah ditunangkan dengan seorang pria bernama Teuku Syam Syarif, tetapi ia memilih menikah dengan Teuku Muhammad, pria yang sangat dicintainya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tahun 1873

, Saman melakukan perlawanan terhadap VOC yang bermaksud memasukkan Aceh ke dalam wilayah jajahannya.

 

Bahkan pada perang di tahun itu, Panglima Belanda, Mayor Jenderal JHR Kohler tewas dalam suatu pertempuran. Hal ini membuat Belanda marah dan mengirimkan pasukan dalam jumlah yang jauh lebuih besar dan kuat untuk memerangi Aceh.

 

1873

Perang Aceh dimulai sejak Belanda menyatakan perang terhadap Aceh pada 26 Maret 1873 setelah melakukan beberapa ancaman diplomatik, namun tidak berhasil merebut wilayah yang besar. Perang kembali berkobar pada tahun 1883, namun lagi-lagi gagal, dan pada 1892 dan 1893, pihak Belanda menganggap bahwa mereka telah gagal merebut Aceh.

Dr. Snouck Hurgronje, seorang ahli Islam dari Universitas Leiden yang telah berhasil mendapatkan kepercayaan dari banyak pemimpin Aceh, kemudian memberikan saran kepada Belanda agar serangan mereka diarahkan kepada para ulama, bukan kepada sultan. Saran ini ternyata berhasil. Pada tahun 1898, J.B. van Heutsz dinyatakan sebagai gubernur Aceh, dan bersama letnannya, Hendricus Colijn, merebut sebagian besar Aceh.

 

 

 

 


TEUKU UMAR
Lahir : Meulaboh, Aceh 1854
Wafat : Meulaboh, 11 Februari 1899

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEJAK umur 19 tahun, tepatnya tahun 1873, Teuku Umar telah ikut berperang melawan Belanda di kampung halamannya Meulaboh.

 

 

1873

 

 

The Atjeh War,landing of DEI  Marines at atjeh in 1873

 

 

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. Benting Penajoeng van het KNIL in de noordwesthoek van de kraton te Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie

and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

look the eastren  area above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

fort benteng Penajoeng Atjeh in 1873

 

 

 

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. KNIL-artillerie gelegen aan de hoofdweg in bivak Penajoeng bij Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie in 1873

 

 

Look from outside area

 

 

Fist Atjeh Expedition in 1873

 

KOLEKSI PEDANG PANJANG ACEH

Pedang Panjang Aceh Sumatera

Aceh (juga disebut sebagai Aceh, Atjin, Aceh Achin.) Berada di ujung utara Sumatera di Indonesia. Hal ini diyakini menjadi salah satu kerajaan tertua di Indonesia. Hindu dan Budha pengaruh dari India mungkin telah sampai ke Aceh pada awal abad pertama. abad keenam A. D. Tionghoa sejarah. berbicara tentang sebuah kerajaan di ujung utara Sumatera bernama Po-Li. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Islam mungkin pertama kali memasuki kepulauan Indonesia melalui Aceh suatu waktu antara abad ke-8 dan 12. Pada 1292, Marco Polo, pada pelayaran epik dari China mengunjungi Sumatera dalam perjalanan ke Persia dan melaporkan bahwa di bagian utara pulau setidaknya ada enam pelabuhan perdagangan sibuk termasuk Perlak, Samudera dan lambri. Dengan masa lalu seperti ini tidak mengherankan bahwa senjata mereka telah Hindu, Budha, pengaruh Cina dan Islam. Daerah ini memiliki sejarah bela diri yang luas. Pada pertengahan abad ke-14, Pasai diserbu oleh tentara Majapahit dari Jawa. Pada tahun 1523, Sultan Ali menyerang Portugis di Pasai, Portugal menewaskan komandan militer Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali berhasil mengusir pasukan Portugis dari Pasai. Setelah kekalahan ini, Portugal berusaha untuk menaklukkan beberapa kali di Aceh, tanpa keberhasilan. Pada 1873, Belanda menyatakan perang dan menyerang Aceh Darussalam. Tapi Belanda menemukan lebih sulit daripada mereka diharapkan untuk mendapatkan kontrol dari seluruh Aceh. Aceh menolak pendudukan, menyentuh dari Perang Aceh, perang kolonial / ekspedisi terpanjang diperjuangkan oleh lebih dari 10.000 jiwa Belanda dan mengklaim. Aceh-Belanda perang berlarut-larut sampai 1914, resistensi dilanjutkan dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil sampai 1942 ketika Jepang tiba di Hindia Belanda. Sudah sering dikatakan bahwa Kesultanan Aceh dari abad ke-16 pada itu dalam perjuangan terus-menerus. Meskipun banyak senjata bermata digunakan di Aceh ada 3 senjata utama yang telah memainkan peran dalam sejarah Aceh. Mereka adalah rencong, Siwaih (Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) dan peudeueng. Artikel ini akan berurusan dengan peudeueng tersebut. Ketika saya mendapatkan imformation lebih ini akan diperbarui dan jenis pedang yang lebih dapat ditambahkan. Tidak ada dalam ini harus dianggap sebagai pekerjaan baru atau asli di bagian saya. Sebaliknya ini adalah kompilasi dari apa yang begitu banyak orang telah berbaik hati untuk berbagi dengan saya, dan apa yang diterbitkan bahan yang saya telah dapat mengakses. Saya yakin ada ketidakakuratan di sini yang merupakan hasil dari kesalahan yang jujur. Mereka akan dikoreksi karena saya dibuat sadar dari mereka atau mencari informasi yang lebih baik. Itulah salah satu keuntungan besar artikel yang telah berbasis web. Tidak seperti kata dipublikasikan yang hanya dapat sebagai baik sebagai informasi pada saat penerbitan; artikel berbasis web dapat udated dan diubah.

The New York Times, pada 6 Mei 1873, menulis: “Sebuah pertempuran berdarah telah terjadi di Aceh, Kerajaan pribumi menempati bagian utara pulau Sumatra Belanda menyampaikan serangan umum dan sekarang kami memiliki rincian hasilnya. Serangan itu. jijik dengan pembantaian besar. jenderal Belanda tewas, dan tentara-Nya dimasukkan ke penerbangan bencana. Tampaknya, memang, telah harfiah hancur. “

Pedang panjang Aceh disebut peudeung tersebut. Meskipun pedang diberikan ke Aceh itu hampir pasti mereka digunakan juga oleh kelompok-kelompok etnis lain di daerah tersebut. Ada bukti penggunaannya sebagai senjata setidaknya sejauh kembali sebagai abad ke-17. Ini mungkin telah digunakan secara terpisah, dengan pedang ganda atau dengan perisai bulat kecil yang disebut sebuah peurise. Perlu dicatat bahwa pedang ini juga sering disebut dengan nama lain. Dalam buku referensi yang sangat lengkap, SENJATA TRADISIONAL DARI KEPULAUAN INDONESIA. oleh AG Van Zonneveld mereka disebut sebagai “aku Pedang” “Sikin Pasangan” dan “Sikin Panjang” Banyak sumber-sumber lain termasuk situs yang sangat baik Dominique Buttin yang menyebutnya sebagai “Sikin” (Sikim, Sikkim, Sekem). Dalam sebuah korespondensi dengan Dominique Buttin, ia memberitahu bahwa, “Peudeung namanya berarti pedang, yang merupakan arti sama dengan Podang dari Batak atau Pedang dari Jawa.” Sebuah masalah besar dengan memutuskan nama yang akan digunakan untuk ini pedang berasal dari fakta bahwa ada 10 kelompok subethnic dari acehnesse (seperti Aceh, Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban dan Julu) Disini Saya akan menggunakan istilah yang digunakan dalam sebagian besar sumber-sumber Belanda dan itu adalah “Peudeueng”. Sebuah tinjauan literatur tampaknya untuk membagi peudeueng oleh gaya pisau dan jenis jika gagang. Berbilah pedang lurus disebut peudeueng Panjang (sikin Panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh,). Pisau melengkung peudeueng disebut peudeueng Peusangan (peudeueng Pasangan, sikin Peusangan, sikin pasagan, Pedang, poedeung).

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (Hulul Buaya)

 

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

 

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

 

Divisi lain untuk Aceh pedang adalah dengan jenis atau bentuk gagang atau Hulu, Dalam “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta, ia menggambarkan mereka sebagai “gagang seperti ekor kucing”, “gagang seperti mulut buaya”, “gagang seperti tanduk rusa”, “gagang seperti kaki kuda”, dan “gagang seperti ekor bebek” Sementara semua ini dapat ditemukan di Aceh lainnya pedang, saya hanya menemukan 4 jenis Hulu pada peudeueng. Gagang yang terlihat seperti mulut terbuka hewan (atau buaya) disebut Hulu tumpang beunteung di Gayo atau Hulu Buaya di Aceh. Jenis gagang dapat dilihat pada kedua peudeueng Panjang dan peudeueng Peusangan. Dalam salah satu varian dari tips datang bersama-sama sampai mereka hampir menyentuh dengan ujung diratakan. Gaya Saya diberitahu oleh smith Aceh masih disebut Buaya Hulu tetapi beberapa buku juga menyebutnya Peusangan Hulu. Peusangan adalah nama sungai dan nama kecamatan di Bireuen, Aceh Jenis ketiga adalah biasanya terlihat hanya pada Panjang peudeueng disebut Rumpung Hulu.

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

 

dari dekat dari Hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan rumpung Hulu

Keempat jenis gagang yang terlihat pada peudeueng disebut meu APET Hulu (Hulu Muapit di Gayo atau Sukul Mekepit di Alas). Hulu berarti gagang meu adalah kata kerja APET (jaga / kawal) berarti dijaga, maka ini hanya dapat berarti “gagang dijaga”. Beberapa sumber lain menyebutnya gagang Daun Tebu. Duan Daun Tebu Gula Tebu berarti dan ujung gagang ini dikatakan menyerupai tebu tumbuh. Para Hulu meu APET sangat mirip gagang pedang India terlihat pada Khanda dan firangi, tetapi lonjakan akhirnya adalah lebih pendek.

dari dekat dari meu suatu APET Hulu


Baru-baru ini Ariel Barkan, pada forum di http://www.vikingsword.com, menyadari bahwa hal itu juga dipengaruhi oleh gagang Gulabghati India, dinamakan demikian karena disk atasnya memiliki garis-garis konsentris menyerupai bunga mawar, “gulab”. Lebih lanjut tentang ini gaya gagang dapat ditemukan di India dan Armour Senjata oleh GN Celana.

 

suatu Hulu meu APET LANGKA  terlihat dengan tombol pada akhir gagang, ini kadang-kadang disebut meutampoh Peudeueng. Mungkin ini harus dianggap sebagai gaya terpisah dari gagang

 

 

 

 

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld menyatakan dalam bukunya, bahwa Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET sebagian besar pembuatan asing dan tidak mendapatkan bantuan besar. Perasaan adalah bahwa karena itu varian ini mungkin sebagian besar seremonial. Itu mungkin benar hari ini, bagaimanapun,

 

 

foto yang diambil selama perang Belanda-Aceh dapat ditemukan dengan pedang ini digunakan. Sementara spesimen hiasan dapat ditemukan, mayoritas Hulu meu APET saya jumpai atau melihat gambar yang dirancang untuk fungsi dan tidak terlalu banyak hiasan. Para sarung biasanya ditemukan dengan mereka yang juga agak keras. Spesimen dapat ditemukan dengan tanda-tanda kerusakan biasanya berhubungan dengan kerusakan pertempuran. Pedang dengan Hulu meu APET bahkan ditemukan pada beberapa pertempuran bendera. Selain contoh dari pedang dapat ditemukan dengan Azimat di dalamnya atau pada selubung untuk melindungi pembawa dalam pertempuran.

 

Bendera ini – secara harfiah – telah direndam dalam darah: penelitian laboratorium telah mengkonfirmasi bahwa bendera memiliki lubang peluru dan beruang noda darah. Ini mungkin darah CH letnan satu Bischoff. Dialah yang ditangk

 

 

 

Bischoff membayar petualangannya dengan sebelas luka yang ditimbulkan oleh klewangs musuh. Klewang awalnya pedang asli Aceh: ‘gliwang’. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19 itu menjadi fitur karakteristik seragam Belanda Hindia Timur prajurit. Pedang melebar di ujung pisau yang bersama-sama dengan pegangan, f

ORMS garis melengkung .. Dia dibawa terbungkus bendera. Beberapa hari kemudian, pada tanggal 3 Mei 1840, Bischoff meninggal karena luka-lukanya. Sebelum meninggal, ia dipromosikan ke pangkat kapten karena perbuatan heroik.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foto bendera pertempuran di koleksi Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Sarung (Sarung) Para sarung untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET biasanya kayu ditutupi dengan kulit. Beberapa dihiasi dengan perak banding. Sarung pedang untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung dan peudeueng Panjang adalah dari kayu dan dapat ditemukan baik hiasan dan polos

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 

Sebuah sarung untuk Panjang peudeueng

 

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 


 

Pada bulan Maret 2006 terungkap beberapa informasi tentang beberapa dari keyakinan spiritual dan ritual sekitarnya pedang ini. Tampaknya bahwa ada paralel dengan anting (atau anting-anting) yang digunakan pada senjata Filipina. Ini jimat disebut tangkal atau azimat / zimat atau jimat. Jimat ini berisi ayat-ayat pelindung atau ayat-ayat agama dari ayat-ayat Quran (mungkin lagi sebuah sejajar dengan praktek Filipina Oracion). Hal ini terungkap pada thread di Vikingsword.com. Dalam diskusi ini tangkal atau azimat telah diposting yang berasal dari bawah tangan seorang penjaga Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET. Ini adalah area yang saya berharap untuk dapat melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang temuan dan post di sini. Saya terima kasih kepada Fazli Ibrahim untuk membantu saya dengan informasi tentang ini.

Berikut adalah pedang yang azimat itu ditemukan di dalam dan kantong yang berisi hal

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Beberapa gambar dari azimat dalam yang menangani pedang. Bagian antara 2 bintang dikenal sebagai Khatimus Sulaiman;.

Tujuan itu adalah untuk melindungi pemakainya itu terhadap “ilmu hitam” dan roh-roh jahat.

Beberapa Azimat lainnya dari Museum Nasional di Indonesia

Sebuah Azimat tertulis pada selubung dari Pa

njang Peudeung

Beberapa pedang Aceh memiliki motif vegatative di tenggorokan Pucuk Rebung disebut. Berbentuk V Pucuk Rebung bambu tumbuh mewakili
Menurut beberapa acehnesse, jika ada emas di gagang / menangani / sarung pedang hanya dapat dibuat untuk atau dimiliki oleh Panglima (komandan, kepala suku), teungku (noblility) dan sangat dihormati orang lain.

 

 

 

Berikut adalah beberapa foto-foto pejuang Aceh dengan peudeueng tersebut.

 

 

 

 

1880

 

Terlebih sejak menikah dengan Cut Nyak Dien pada tahun 1880, perlawanan Teuku Umar semakin menghebat. Seperti diketahui, Cut Nyak Dien juga merupakan seorang pejuang wanita yang gigih melawan Belanda.

Teuku Umar adalah panglima perang yang cerdik dan pandai bersiasat.

Ia pernah berpura-pura membantu Belanda membebaskan kapal Inggris Nissero yang terdampar dan ditawan oleh Raja Teunom, Aceh Barat. Inggris mendesak Belanda agar membantu membebaskan awak kapal yang ditawan. Belanda lantas mengutus TeukuUmar dengan 32 orang tentara ke Teunom. Di tengah jalan, tentara Belanda yang menyertainya dibunuh dan dirampas senjatanya.

Teuku Umar pernah menyerang dan menawan kapal Hok Canton yang berlabuh di Pantai Rigaih. Pasalnya, Teuku Umar curiga awak kapal tersebut akan menangkap dirinya. Untuk menebusnya, Belanda terpaksa harus membayar uang sebesar 25.000 Dollar.

 

 

Mei 1881,

benteng Belanda di Indrapuri berhasil direbut pasukan Cik Di Tiro.

 

Tak lama kemudian benteng-benteng Belanda lainnya seperti benteng Lambaro, dan Aneuk Galong juga berhasil direbut.

Ketika itu, Belanda sudah sangat terdesak sehingga satu-satunya tempat bertahan Belanda hanya tinggal benteng di Banda Aceh.

Daerah yang dikuasai Belanda itu pun hanya tinggal empat kilometer persegi. Hal ini membuat Belanda panik dan kewalahan. Cik Di Tiro memang sulit ditundukkan, dan Belanda selalu mengalami kekalahan.

Menyadari peran vital Cik Dik Tiro sebagai sumber semangat perjuangan rakyat Aceh, Belanda akhirnya menggunakan akal licik untuk membunuhnya.

 

 

 

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

 

 

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

 

 

 

Sebuah foto pejuang Aceh (foto kanan) dengan peudeueng dan rencong dari “Wapens Blanke” oleh JG Dieles. Satu memiliki sebuah Hulu tumpang beunteung (kanan) sebuah lainnya Hulu meu APET (kiri).

Foto di kanan menunjukkan buku sumber.

“Aceh bangsawan” dari: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).

Referensi

1) “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2) “Senjata Tradisional kepulauan Indonesia” oleh Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Buku Seni – Leiden; Musim Semi

3) Blades 2001OLD – Dunia Melayu Senjata beringsut. Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revisi: 2005-04-03

4) “India Senjata dan Armour” oleh Pant GN 1978

5). Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV murah V. Gambar 21 A.

6) Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).
7) Senjata dan Memerangi Seni Indonesia, oleh Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Penerbitan 1972

 

 

 

original info

The Achenese Peudeueng

The Long Sword of Aceh Sumatra

Aceh (also referred to as Atjeh, Atjin, Acheen Achin.) is at the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is believed to be one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia. Hindu and Buddist influence from India may have reached Aceh as early as the first century. sixth century A.D. Chinese chronicles. spoke of a kingdom on the northern tip of Sumatra named Po-Li. It is believed that Islam likely first entered the Indonesian archipelago through Aceh sometime between the 8th and 12th century. In 1292, Marco Polo, on his epic voyage from China visited Sumatra on his way to Persia and reported that in the northern part of the island there were at least six busy trading ports including Perlak, Samudera and lambri. With a past like this it is not surprising that their weapons have Hindu, Buddist, Chinese and Islamic influence. The area has an extensive martial history. In the middle of the 14th century, Pasai was invaded by Majapahit soldiers from Java. In 1523, Sultan Ali attacked the Portuguese in Pasai, killing Portugal military commander Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali managed to drive the Portuguese troops out of Pasai. After this defeat, Portugal attempted to conquer Aceh several times, without success. In 1873, the Netherlands declared war and invaded Aceh Darussalam. But the Dutch found it more difficult than they expected to gain control of the whole of Aceh. The Acehnese resisted the occupation, touching off the Aceh War, the longest colonial/expeditionary war fought by the Dutch and claiming more than 10,000 lives. Aceh-Dutch war dragged on until 1914, resistance continued with smaller groups until 1942 when the Japanese arrived in the Dutch East Indies. It has often been said that the Sultanate of Aceh from the 16th century on was in continual struggle. Although a multitude of edged weapons are used in Aceh there are 3 primary weapons that have played a role in Aceh’s history. They are the rencong, Siwaih ( Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) and peudeueng. This article will deal with the peudeueng. As I gain more imformation this will be updated and more sword types may be added. Nothing in this should be considered new or original work on my part. Instead this is a compilation of what so many people have been kind enough to share with me, and what published material I have been able to access. I am certain there are inaccuracies here that are the result of honest mistakes. They will be corrected as I am made aware of them or find better information. That is one large advantage a web based article has. Unlike the published word wich can only be as good as the information at the time of publishing; the web based article can be udated and changed.

 

THE NEW YORK TIMES, on May 6th, 1873, wrote: “A sanguinary battle has taken place in Aceh, a native Kingdom occupying the Northern portion of the island of Sumatra. The Dutch delivered a general assault and now we have details of the result. The attack was repulsed with great slaughter. The Dutch general was killed, and his army put to disastrous flight. It appears, indeed, to have been literally decimated.”

The Aceh long sword is called the peudeung. While these swords are attributed to the Aceh it is almost certain they were used also by other ethnic groups in the area. There is evidence of its use as a weapon at least as far back as the 17th century. It may have been used singly, with dual swords or with a small round shield called a peurise. It should be noted that these swords are also often called by other names. In the very complete reference book, TRADITIONAL WEAPONS OF THE INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO. by A.G. Van Zonneveld they are referred to as a “Pedang I” “Sikin Pasangan” and” Sikin Panjang” Numerous other sources including Dominique Buttin’s excellent site call it a “Sikin” ( Sikim , Sikkim, Sekem ). In a correspondence with Dominique Buttin, he informed the that, “The name Peudeung means sword, which is the same meaning as Podang from the Batak or Pedang from the Javanese.” A major problem with deciding which name to use for these swords comes from the fact that there are 10 subethnic groups of acehnesse (such as Aceh , Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban and Julu ) Here I will use the term used in the most of the Dutch sources and that is “Peudeueng” . A review of the literature seems to divide peudeueng by blade style and type if hilt. The straight bladed swords are called peudeueng panjang ( sikin panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh, ). Curved blades peudeueng are called peudeueng peusangan ( peudeueng pasangan , sikin peusangan, sikin pasagan, pedang, poedeung ).

 

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

 

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

 

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

The other division for Aceh swords is by type or shape of the hilt or hulu, In “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta she describes them as “hilt like the tail of a cat”, “hilt like the mouth of a crocodile”, “hilt like the horns of a deer”, “hilt like the legs of a horse”, and “hilt like the tail of a duck” While all of these may be found on other Aceh swords; I have only found 4 types of hulu on peudeueng. The hilt that looks like the open mouth of an animal ( or crocodile) is called hulu tumpang beunteung in Gayo or Hulu Buaya in Aceh. This type of hilt can be seen on both peudeueng panjang and peudeueng peusangan. In one variant of this the tips come together till they almost touch with flattened ends. This style I was told by an Acheen smith is still called a hulu Buaya but some books also call it a Hulu Peusangan. Peusangan is the name of a river and the name of a subdistrict in Bireuen, Aceh The third type is usually seen only on the peudeueng panjang is called a Hulu Rumpung.

 

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu rumpung

 

The fourth type of hilt that is seen on peudeueng is called Hulu Meu Apet (Hulu Muapit in Gayo or Sukul Mekepit in Alas). Hulu means hilt Meu is a verb Apet ( jaga / kawal) means guarded ; so this may simply mean “guarded hilt”. Some other sources call this hilt Daun Tebu. Duan Tebu means Sugar Cane Leaf and the end of the hilt on this is said to resemble a sprouting sugar cane. The hulu meu apet strongly resembles Indian sword hilts seen on the khanda and firangi, but the end spike is shorter.

a close up of a a Hulu Meu Apet

 

Recently Ariel Barkan, on the forum at www.vikingsword.com, noticed that it also is influenced by the Indian Gulabghati hilt, named so because its upper disk has concentric lines resembling a rose flower, “gulab”. More on this style of hilt can be found in Indian Arms and Armour by G.N. Pant.

 

 

Rarely a Hulu Meu apet is seen with a knob at the end of the hilt, this is sometimes called a Peudeueng meutampoh. Perhaps this should be considered a separate style of hilt

 

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld states in his book, that the peudeueng peusangan with the Hulu Meu Apet was largely of foreign manufacture and did not gain great favor. His feeling is that because of that this variant may be largely ceremonial. That may be true today, however, photos taken during the Dutch-Aceh war can be found with this sword being used. While ornate specimens can be found; the majority of the hulu meu apet I have encountered or seen pictures of are designed for function and not overly ornate. The scabbards normally found with them are also rather austere. Specimens can be found with signs of damage usually associated with battle damage. The sword with the hulu meu apet was even found on several battle flags. In addition examples of these swords can be found with Azimat in them or on the sheath to protect the bearer in battle.

 

This flag has – literally – been soaked in blood: laboratory research has confirmed that the flag has a bullet hole and bears blood stains. This was probably the blood of first lieutenant C.H. Bischoff. It was he who captured the flag for booty during the storming of a ‘benteng’ (Malay for fort) held by the Achinese enemy in 1840. Bischoff paid for his escapade with eleven wounds inflicted by enemy klewangs. The klewang was originally a native Atjeh sword: ‘gliwang’. Towards the end of the 19th century it became a characteristic feature of the Dutch East Indian soldier’s uniform. The sword widens at the tip of the blade which, together with the handle, f

 

orms a curved line.. He was carried off wrapped in the flag. Several days later, on 3 May 1840, Bischoff died of his wounds. Before passing away, he was promoted to the rank of captain for his heroic deed.

Photo of a battle flag in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam


Scabbards ( Sarung)

The scabbards for the peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet are usually wood covered with leather. Some are adorned with silver banding . Scabbards for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung and the peudeueng panjang are of wood and can be found both ornate and plain

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

 

In March of 2006 some information was revealed about some of the spiritual beliefs and rituals surrounding these swords. It appears that there are parallels to the the anting ( or anting-anting ) used on Philippine weapons. These talismans are called tangkal or azimat/zimat or jimat. These talismans contained protective verses or religious verses from the Quranic verses ( perhaps again a parallel to the Phillipine practice of Oracion ). This came to light on a thread on Vikingsword.com. In this discussion a tangkal or azimat was posted that came from under the hand guard of a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet. This is an area that I hope to be able to do more research on and post the findings here. My thanks to Fazli Ibrahim for helping me with information on this.

Here is the sword that the azimat was found in and the bag that contained it

 


 

Some pictures of the azimat in that sword handle. The portion between the 2 stars is known as Khatimus Sulaiman;.

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Some other Azimat from the National Museum in Indonesia

An Azimat inscribed on the sheath of a Peudeung Panjang

 

Some Aceh swords have a vegatative motif at the throat called Pucuk Rebung. The V shaped Pucuk Rebung represents sprouting bamboo
According to some acehnesse, if there is gold on hilt / handle / scabbard the sword only can be made for or owned by Panglima ( commander , chieftains ), teungku ( the noblility ) and other highly respected persons.

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

 

 

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

 

 

 

“Acehnese noblemen” from: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).

References

1)      “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2)      “Traditional Weapons of the Indonesian Archipelago” by Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Art Books – Leiden; Spring

3)      2001OLD BLADES – Malay World Edged Weapons.  Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revised: 2005-04-03

4)      “Indian Arms and Armour” by GN Pant 1978

5)      . Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV dan V. Gambar 21 A.

6)      Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).
7)      The Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia, by Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Publishing 1972

 

 

 

 

 

1874

 

 

Mrs Teuku Umar in 1874

 

 

Atjeh River’s bridge in 1874

 

 

Atjeh river bridge

 

 

The controleur and Inland chief of Masingit atjeh in 1874

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bras island beach of Atjeh nord Sumatra in 1874(three photos)

 

 

The Gouvenor of Atjeh house at North sumatra in 1874

 

 

The Zinc Roof(atap seng) House at Atjeh in 1874

 

 

The Inland Atjeh tomb cementary  in 1874

 

 

The railways of Koetaradja atjeh in 1874

 

 

 

 

1877

 

 

Controleur of Krueeng  Raba atjeh in 1877

1879

 

 

Bivak Tjoet Basetoel Atjeh in 1879

 

 

 

 

1880

 

 

Gouvenor Atjeh bridge in 1880

 

 

 

The Teuku of West atjeh with his bride,look his revolver and rencong knife  in 1880

 

 

 

The road of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

Controleur of IDI Atjeh in 1880

 

 

The Atjeh Club of Koetaradja during fload in 1880

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Atjeh river of Koetaradja in 1880

 

 

 

The Kraton of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

 

The Kratonlaan(street) of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

 

 

The Atjeh women in 1880

 

 

 

The Chief of Tadji atjeh and young women in 1880

 

 

1881

 

 

Baiturahman Mosque Of Koetaradja in 1881

 

 

 

 

1883

 

 

Wonig (House)Atjeh,panted  b Jhr. Josias Cornelis Rappard in deze collectie in alle collecties

1884

 

 

The lithography caricature poster of new toewan besar(Bigger Man) Atjeh during the way to paradise  in 1884

 

 

1888

 

 

The ship at Oleh-leh Atjeh in 1888

 

 

The Gouvenor of Atjeh’s  house(woning)in 1888

 

 

 

 

 

The brige of Koetaraja Chief Atjeh Keraton  in 1888

 

 

Fishing at Masudji Pante Perak(silver beach) Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

 

 

 

 

 

Mesdjid Mosque Raja Koetaradja in 1888

 

 

The train railway at Lamjong Lambaroe Atjeh in 1888

 

 

Kota Petjoet Tomb Of Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

 

 

The European and asian at water reasource building  at sabang Atjeh in 1888

 

 

 

 

1890

 

 

Bivak Tjot Mantjang atjeh in 1890

 

 

 

 

 

1891

 

Cik Di Tiro akhirnya berhasil diracun melalui makanannya yang dilakukan oleh kakitangan Belanda. Cik Di Tiro kemudian jatuh sakit dan meninggal dunia di benteng Aneuk Galong pada bulan Januari 1891.

 

 

1892

 

The Atjeh Chief of Koetaradja in 1892

Standing from right: Mohammed Arif, hoofddjaksa bij het gerecht te Koetaradja; Teukoe Machmoed van Lamtenga, halfbroer van Teukoe Baid; Ketjiq Oemar van Lampisang, boodschapper van Teukoe Oemar; Hadji Abdoellah, schrijver van de assistent-resident; Teukoe Nja Daoed, hoeloebalang van Bolohan; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, waarnemend hoofd van de IX Moekims; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, inlandse zendeling; assistent-resident H.P.A. Bakker; Hadji Abdoellah, hoofdpenghoeloe; wakil Joesoef van Lohong; adjunct-djaksa Aboe Bakr; schrijver van assistent-resident A.J.C. de Neve; onbekend; controleur J.B. Léon. Siting from right  : Panglima Medsjid Rajah, rijksgrote; vermoedelijk een hoeloebalang van de [?] Moekims; Teukoe Sjech Toenkoep; Teukoe Neq Moeda Setia Radjah; Pangeran Hoesain; Teukoe Njah Bantah van Lamreng, sagihoofd van de XVI Moekims; Teukoe Malikoel Adil, erfelijk opperrechter van Atjeh

 

 

 

 

 

 

The bridge at Koetaradja in 1892

 

 

 

The daughter and son of Teuku Maharadja Atjeh in 1892

 

 

The Resident Scherer in ship at the teloek semelue (sabang) atjeh with atjeh chief of government official in 1892

 

 

Fort benteng Bras island Atjeh in 1892

 

 

 

 

The Aceh War Collections

Aceh War !!

Source

http://www.asiafinest.com/forum/lofiversion/index.php/t16358.html


The invasion of Aceh in 1873 was the brainchild of Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte (1822-1902), Netherlands Minister of Colonies, to prevent encroachment by Britain into Sumatra from British colonies in Malay Peninsula


Van de Putte’s idea was strongly supported by his close friend the Dutch governor-general in Batavia (now Jakarta), James Loudon (1824-1900)


Map of the defeated Dutch first invasion of Aceh in 1873, and successful second invasion in 1874


Optimistic reporting of the first Dutch invasion of Aceh in Java-Bode newspaper, 10 April 1873


Generaal-Majoor JHR Kohler, leader of first Dutch expedition to Aceh. His 2000 soldiers managed to penetrate to the Koetaradja Market and the Baiturrahman Mosque. The Dutch stopped to burn down the mosque, in which courtyard they set up a camp.

On the night of 14 April 1873,

a suicidal Acehnese sneaked into the camp and shot Kohler in the chest. Kohler was killed instantly. The next days, the Dutch faced suicidal Acehnese attacks from all sides.

On 24 April 1873,

they were forced to retreat back to their ships. Dutch casualties were 50 dead (including Kohler) and 500 wounded


Kohler Tree, under which General Kohler was shot dead. Photograph from 1936 Dutch magazine.


Generaal Jan van Swieten (1807-1888),

leader of second Dutch invasion in 1873. Swieten was an experienced soldier, fighting in Java War (1825-1830), Belgian War of Independence (1830), Padri War (1830-1837), Bali Expeditions 1848 and 1849, Bone War 1859.

The second expedition sailed with the force of 18 warships, 7 supply ships, 12 auxillary ships, 2 patrol boats, and 22 transport ships carrying more than 13,000 soldiers.

Landing on 9 December 1873

some distance from Koetaradja, by 24 January 1874 had successfully occupied the capital. The three-year-old Acehnese sultan, Mohammad Daud, was taken to the jungle by his followers to continue guerilla warfare.


Engraving of the deadly fighting during Dutch second expedition.


After successfully occupying the royal palace, van Swieten declared victory and opened up the champagne crates to celebrate. Governor-General Loudon telegramed Minister van de Putte back in The Netherlands, informing him that
“Atjeh is ons”, “Aceh is ours”. According to past experience, other Dutch wars of conquest in Indonesia was usually won by occupying the capital of the particular region to be conquered. This is not the case in Aceh.

After failed attempts to retake Koetaradja, by April 1874 the Acehnese settled to lay siege on the town, cutting all supplies from coming in from the interior. Road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee port, where Dutch supplies came from, was unsafe due to frequent Acehnese attacks. By 1875, 25% of Dutch troops in Koetaradja had been put out of action by disease, hunger, and war wounds.


Coinciding with silver jubilee of King Willem III’s coronation in 1874, Generaal van Swieten received the
Militaire Willemsorde medal above for his “victory” over the Acehnese. However, by 1875, only around 0.1% of Aceh is under Dutch control, which is Koetaradja and the port of Oelee-Lhee.


In May 1875,

Generaal van Swieten, 68 years old and well-above retirement age, turned over command to Generaal-Majoor Pieter Cornelius van Pel (photo and Jakarta grave above).

Van Pel’s tenure saw increasing Acehnese attacks on Dutch-held areas around Koetaradja. The Dutch lost control of Peukan Bada, Blang Kala Pass, Pagar Ajer, and Koetaradja suburbs of Moekim IX and VI. These disastrous losses caused Generaal-Majoor van Pel to be recalled. He sailed for Batavia on June 1877, replaced by one-eyed Generaal Karel van der Heyden


Generaal Karel van der Heyden (1824-1901),

half-Dutch and half-Bugis general who took over command of Aceh troops in 1877.

He was known as generaal een-oog (one-eyed general) by his troops and setan seblah mata (one-eyed demon) by his Acehnese opponents.

He strengthened Koetaradja’s defences and secured the road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee.

On 29 June 1878,

he launced an attack from Koetaradja, successfully capturing strategic Glitaroenpass, leading to the capture of Montasik plains, the stronghold of Acehnese guerilla leader Panglima Polim. By the end of his tenure in 1880, van der Heyden had secured tenuos Dutch control over most of Groot-Atjeh, the area surrounding Koetaradja (now Aceh Besar district).


Among the important leaders of Acehnese resistance in this early part of the war is Tengku Chik di Tiro, an Islamic cleric who led Acehnese contingent from Pidie in the fighting around Koetaradja.

He declared jihad, holy war against infidel Dutch invaders who had burnt the Baiturrahman mosque, centre of Acehnese Islam. He decreed the war a perang sabil, in which Acehnese killed by the Dutch would be assured a place in paradise.

In 1876,

he presided over the re-coronation of the child Sultan Muhammad Daud in Indrapoeri Mosque as symbol of the continuation of Acehnese sultanate.
Militarily, he launched unsuccessful seaborne attacks on Breueh and Nasi islands off Koetaradja

in 1880,

attempting to disturb Dutch sea supply routes. In May 1881, he successfully assaulted the Dutch fort at Lambaro, Groot Atjeh. In 1891, an Acehnese under the pay of the Dutch killed Chik di Tiro by poisoning his food.


Habib Abdoerrachman Al-Zahir, a Turkish cleric, travelled to Turkey to gather support for Aceh from the Ottoman Empire, the chief Muslim state at the time; to Singapore where he met United States consul; and to Penang where he promised the British the island of Sabang if they would help Aceh against the Dutch.
Failing in his efforts, Habib Abdoerrachman surrendered to the Dutch at Koetaradja on July 1878,

secured an annual subsidy of $500 from the Dutch government, then sailed back to Istanbul where he died in 1902.


Tjoet Nja Dhien (1850-1908),

a famous female guerilla leader from Lampisang, just west of Koetaradja. She first led a unit under her father, Nanta Setia and husband, Teuku Ibrahim in the successful fighting in 1870s. In 1881 her husband was killed in a battle, whereby she married her cousin Teuku Umar, another guerilla leader.


Teuku Umar (1854-1899),

leader of contingent from West Aceh in fighting around Koetaradja. His father Mahmoed is the brother of Nanta Setia, father of Tjoet Nja Dhien whom he married in 1884. After ten years as effective guerilla leader against the Dutch, Teuku Umar surrendered to the Dutch on 30 September 1893, receiving the title Teuku Djohan Pahlawan, “Lord Hero-Winner” and substantial amount of guns and ammunition to help the Dutch fight other insurgents.


Teuku Umar (sitting left), partially wearing Dutch uniform.

In 1896, Teuku Umar abandoned the Dutch, carrying off 880 rifles, 25000 bullets, 500 kg of explosives, 5000 kg of lead balls, and $18000 worth of cash back to the jungles.
This extraordinary exploit send shockwaves all the way to The Netherlands. A popular poem was sung by the Dutch:

Teuku Umar die moet hangen
Aan en touw, aan en touw
Teuku Umar en zijn vrouw

meaning
Teuku Umar must be hanged
On the rope, on the rope
Teuku Umar and his wife!

Upon hearing Teuku Umar’s deed, Queen Wilhelmina and Dowager Emma send a telegram to Dutch commander in Koetaradja demanding they recover the lost honour inflicted on the name of The Netherlands.

Three years later,

on 11 February 1899,

Teuku Umar and his 800 men was ambushed by 20 men of special Marechausse troops near Meulaboh, West Aceh. Umar was shot in the chest and died days later in front of his wife, Tjoet Nja Dhien.


Dutch memorial on the site of Teuku Umar’s fall on February 1899


The Dutch Point of View
Throughout the 1880s, Dutch control over Aceh is limited in Koetaradja and its surrounds, while cooperative local rulers allowed the Dutch footholds in Idi, Langsa, Lhokseumawe, Meulaboh, Tapaktuan, and Trumon. The Dutch were unable to contol the rural areas due to its unfamiliarity to guerilla warfare.


To protect Koetaradja from constant Acehnese raids, Generaal van der Heyden decided to establish a line of 16 forts linked with barbed wire, telephone and telegraph lines, and a tramline. This fortification system is called the concentration line (geconcentreerde linie) and was finished in 1884.


Dutch family on the concentration line tramline, 1880s


Damaged tramcar line after Acehnese attack, 1890s


Unable to defeat the Acehnese militarily, the Dutch tried a cultural approach. They asked the advice of Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1933), an expert on Islam who had visited Mecca in 1884 posing as an Arab. His advice was basically to woo the Acehnese nobility (uleebalang) and crush the remaining resistance mercilessly.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 02:08 PM

Aceh War !!


In accordance the advice of Snouck Hurgronje, a Dutch officer named Koloneel, later Generaal Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz (1851-1924) came up with the idea of highly mobile and independent units capable of fighting the Acehnese insurgents deep in the jungles, at the home of the guerillas themselves.


The idea was realised in 1896 with the establishment of Korps Marechausse. Each of its units consisted of 20 native soldiers (due to their natural ability to live in the jungle) led by a Dutch officer and an Ambonese corporal. Each soldier was armed with the new M95 self-loading rifle and a
klewang, a native sword. Their motto was “Berani soempah!” (Dare to swear!)


First commander of the Korps Marechausse, Kapitein Jonkheer GJWCH Graafland


Ceremonial uniform of the Korps Marechausse, worn by a Luitenant Geldorp


The regimental banner of the Korps Marechausse


Generaal van Heutsz (centre) watching the assault on Acehnese fortress Batee Iliek in Tiro, Pidie on 3 February 1901. To his right were Kolonel van Dussen, Majoor Doorman, Kapitein Spruijt, Luitenant Schutstal van Woudenberg, and controleur Frijling. The defeated Acehnese lost 71 men, the Dutch lost 5 killed and 37 wounded.


Van Heutsz was military governor of Aceh fron 1898-1904. He became governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies from 1904-1909. He later returned to Europe and died in Montreux in 1924. Above picture was the Van Heutsz Memorial in Koetaradja in 1932.


Van Heutsz Monument in Batavia (Jakarta), demolished in 1945


Van Heutsz Monument in Vijzelstraat 32 Amsterdam. His son, Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz Jr joined the German army during World War II, reaching the rank SS-Sturmbahnfuhrer der Waffen-SS, and was killed in Russia in 1943.

Van Heutsz is credited as the first person in history to unite the Indonesian Archipelago under one political unit. In his Amsterdam Monument, the epitaph was written:

JB VAN HEUTSZ
GOUVERNEUR-GENERAAL VAN NEDERLANDS-INDIE
1904 TOT 1909
HIJ SCHIEP ORDE, RUST, EN WELVAART
EN HEEFT DE VOLKEN VAN NEDERLANDS-INDIE
TOT EEN EENHEID GESMEED

meaning
JB VAN HEUTSZ
GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF NETHERLANDS INDIES
1904 TO 1909
HE SHAPED ORDER, PEACE, AND WELFARE
AND GUIDE THE PEOPLE OF NETHERLANDS INDIES
TOWARDS THE GATE OF UNITY


Koos Speenhoff and Caesarina Speenhoff-Prinz (1907), anti-war folk singers who specialised in slamming the bloody Dutch war in Aceh.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 06:15 PM

Aceh War !!

Other Dutch generals:


Luitenant-Kolonel HNA Swart (1857-1922), ruthlessly eliminated Acehnese guerillas in Lhokseumawe-Bireuen area, govenor of Atjeh 1908-1912, vice-president of Raad van Indie (Indies Council advising the governor-general) in Batavia till his death in 1922. His governorship on Aceh saw the last guerilla bands destroyed by Marechausse troops, hence he was known as “pacifier of Aceh”.


Luitenant Hendrikus Colijn (1869-1944), adjudant to van Heutsz, the person receiving surrender of Panglima Polim, later Prime Minister of The Netherlands (1925-1926; 1933-1939). Colijn died under German custody in 1944.


Kapitein Heinz Christoffel, organised
Tijger Colonne that devastate the Panton Laboe and Pidie areas, destroying the guerilla’s base there. He received the Militaire Willemsorde and later led the Dutch “pacification” of Flores, Buton, and East Borneo in 1907-1912.


Christoffel leading a
Tijger Colonne in Aceh


Kolonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen (1863-1930), Dutch colonel who devastate the Gayo-Alas area from February-July 1904, subjugating the highland tribes under Dutch rule. His method was known as
van-daal-isme (van-daal-ism).



Remnants of Koeta Reh village in Gayo Highlands after a vist by van Daalen


Van Daalen resting on the hanging cot while leading a patrol into Gayo Highlands in 1904


Men of Korps Marechausse posing after a sucessful operation.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 06:56 PM

Aceh War !!


Korps Marechausse men in their
egelstelling “porcupine formation” in Aceh.


Captured Acehnese guerillas.


Medals given to veterans of Aceh War in 1870s, bearing the likeness of Dutch king Willem III, father of future Queen Wilhelmina


A Surabaya restaurant 1902 menu celebrated recent Dutch victories over Indonesians in Aceh and elsewhere in the archipelago by naming its dishes after vanquished Indonesian cities


Aceh War veterans reunion in 1938.


Toekoe Oemar Spel, a popular children’s game in 1890s Netherlands involving 25 white figurines (Dutch soldiers) chasing one black figure (Teuku Umar)!


Dutch anti-war cartoon from 1900 ridiculing the awarding of
Militaire Willemsorde to “bloodhounds”.


Another cartoon depicting Dutch missionaries spreading the Bible to “pacified” natives.

Click here for detailed history of Aceh War and other events in Netherlands Indies

Nusantara

Aug 31 2004, 10:26 PM

That fu-king dutch troop did genocide to Achehnese Gayo civillian.
The way they won the war by killing all civillian related to Achehnese warrior.
I heard/read somewhere most this barbaric act done by fanatic Cristian Ambonese soldier and some of them also Javanse soldier which Indonesian who fought against dutch called them at that time “black dutch” since Ambonese is black/dark skin typical melanesian. They are more cruel than dutch itself.

QUOTE (purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 07:15 PM)



Remnants of Koeta Reh village in Gayo Highlands after a vist by van Daalen

purnomor

Sep 1 2004, 12:29 PM

Bandung, West Java

The first buildings of Technische Hogeschoole te Bandoeng (THB), now the Institut Tekhnologi Bandung (ITB) when it was opened in 1920. First president Soekarno would later enrolled in the THB in 1924.

Alun-alun (Town Square) and Grand Mosque area in Bandung

Pasteurstraat, showing the current Biofarma building

Bragastraat, the main shopping avenue of Dutch Bandoeng

European residential area

A street in European residential area

Bethel Church, built 1926

Aerial photograph of northern Bandoeng

Welcoming Queen Wilhelmina in Alun-alun area

Black-and-white film of Bandoeng in 1930 and 1912

Black-and-white film of Batavia (Jakarta) in 1919

rasibiduk

Sep 1 2004, 02:22 PM

ohh Bandung, my sweet hometown, it’s much more crowded and hectic but I still love my Bandung. Can’t help to wonder if only we had a better city planning and not destroy some of the beautiful heritage buildings- but it’s quite heart-warming too to see that some of buildings from the movie clip still look exactly the same. Oh and Purnomor, you just posted my grandfather’s old house under “European residential area”. The row of houses on top of the stonewalls, it is Jalan Wastukencana and my grandfather’s house is on the right. He sold the house in the 80’s when my grandmother passed away.

purnomor

Sep 3 2004, 01:39 PM

Civic Heraldry from the Dutch colonial era city authorities

Civic seal of Amboina (Ambon), Maluku

Civic seal of Bandoeng, West Java

Civic seal of Batavia (Jakarta)

Civic seal of Buitenzorg (Bogor), West Java

Civic seal of Tjeribon, West Java

Civic seal of Madioen, East Java

Civic seal of Makassar, South Celebes

Civic seal of Medan, North Sumatera

Civic seal of Malang, East Java

Civic seal of Padang, West Sumatera

purnomor

Sep 3 2004, 01:44 PM


Civic seal of Pekalongan, Central Java

Civic seal of Semarang, Central Java

Civic seal of Tegal, Central Java

Civic seal of Tjiandjoer, West Java


Coat-of-arms of Netherlands East Indies, same with coat-of-arms of The Netherlands

International Civic Heraldry Website

flipcombatmedic

Sep 3 2004, 11:58 PM

some of the pics here looks like the old manila before ww2 when the japanese f’ed it up bad. the rape of manila and the battle of manila really made manila so f’ed up it never recovered. but yeah nice pics really nice. many of them structures still up or what.

purnomor

Sep 4 2004, 01:04 PM

^ yeap, most of ’em still standing

Sody

Sep 21 2004, 03:10 PM

QUOTE (purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 07:56 PM)


Another cartoon depicting Dutch missionaries spreading the Bible to “pacified” natives.


I am so ignorant when it comes to Indonesian history. I wish I knew more, I am learning a lot from reading these forums, it has really broadened my understanding. Can anyone tell me if Christianity was forced upon Indonesians? I hate Christianity. Most of my family are Christian and most of the Indonesians I know here in Canada are as well. It is a dumb fu-king religion that has ruined much of Asian culture throughout many Asian countries. It is a white man’s religion that is detrimental to the Asian way of life as well. Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that in Indonesia Muslims and Christians get along. I wouldn’t have it any other way. But I believe that all people should be able to live together in harmony and not try and influence others to change. I see so many stupid Chinese here in Canada that are so concerned with the White man’s opinion that they naturally turn to Christianity. It is truly sad.

Sody

nama_user

Sep 22 2004, 05:32 AM

No religion should be forced to another, that’s how we should live in a plural country.

gvelde

Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

furansizuka

Mar 20 2005, 05:40 AM

QUOTE (gvelde @ Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM)

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

 


so those are the photos of yours?
Wow! Could you tell me the history of her?

gvelde

Sep 8 2005, 02:53 AM

QUOTE (furansizuka @ Mar 20 2005, 12:40 PM)

QUOTE (gvelde @ Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM)

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

 


so those are the photos of yours?
Wow! Could you tell me the history of her?

 


I am working on a short history of my wife’s family in colonial times. In short, they meant well but not always did. I certainly will post a reference for you guys when it is ready. Maybe you have seen the films? they are on:
http://www.vandervelde.net/familie/fammaier/film00.htm.

furansizuka

Sep 8 2005, 04:17 AM

Thanks for the interesting link!

haqine

Dec 13 2006, 03:44 AM

QUOTE(rasibiduk @ Sep 2 2004, 02:22 AM) [snapback]400665[/snapback]


ohh Bandung, my sweet hometown, it’s much more crowded and hectic but I still love my Bandung. Can’t help to wonder if only we had a better city planning and not destroy some of the beautiful heritage buildings- but it’s quite heart-warming too to see that some of buildings from the movie clip still look exactly the same. Oh and Purnomor, you just posted my grandfather’s old house under “European residential area”. The row of houses on top of the stonewalls, it is Jalan Wastukencana and my grandfather’s house is on the right. He sold the house in the 80’s when my grandmother passed away.

Oh that used to be your grandfather’s house?
I think the house in that area are beautiful !
Had u been there?

BTW, i just know about this thread.
Interesting thread!

alfan

Dec 13 2006, 04:28 AM

@ purnomor, where did you find the infos on indonesia’s history? Were they online somewhere or did you actually went to a library? I’ve tried neither of them however…

santoloco

Dec 13 2006, 11:12 AM

seems like the dutch has been a good time in indonesia.

GluTTony

Dec 13 2006, 11:06 PM

ewww the Indonesian are soo skinny!

yaa_ampyun

Dec 13 2006, 11:33 PM

QUOTE(purnomor @ Aug 29 2004, 05:05 PM) [snapback]395997[/snapback]


His wife, Greta Linda Maier-Goossens (1895-1945), died of dysentry in Japanese concentration camp in Lubuk Linggau, 13 August 1945

http://members.lycos.nl/fammaier/

wahh tempat lahirku

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 14 2006, 01:39 AM

QUOTE(Sody @ Sep 21 2004, 03:10 PM) [snapback]441799[/snapback]


I am so ignorant when it comes to Indonesian history. I wish I knew more, I am learning a lot from reading these forums, it has really broadened my understanding. Can anyone tell me if Christianity was forced upon Indonesians? I hate Christianity. Most of my family are Christian and most of the Indonesians I know here in Canada are as well. It is a dumb fu-king religion that has ruined much of Asian culture throughout many Asian countries. It is a white man’s religion that is detrimental to the Asian way of life as well. Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that in Indonesia Muslims and Christians get along. I wouldn’t have it any other way. But I believe that all people should be able to live together in harmony and not try and influence others to change. I see so many stupid Chinese here in Canada that are so concerned with the White man’s opinion that they naturally turn to Christianity. It is truly sad.

Sody

you will probably never come back, but I am so offended with what you just said up there

http://www.ngw.nl/images/rykswap.gif

nice!

tangawizi

Dec 14 2006, 11:44 PM

QUOTE(purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 09:33 PM) [snapback]399340[/snapback]


Panglima Polim Sri Moeda Perkasa Shah (centre), who had fought the Dutch in Koetaradja since 1873 and was a guerilla leader in Lhokseumawe area, surrendered to the Dutch Kapitein Hendricus Colijn (third from right) in Lhokseumawe in 6 September 1903, together with 150 of his men. He was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of
Nassau-Oranje Orde

Interesting fotos here, pur. Btw, do u know what was the Chinese mandarin doing in the group above (second from right)? Was he the ambassador from China?

QUOTE(purnomor @ Sep 1 2004, 02:15 AM) [snapback]399572[/snapback]



Kolonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen (1863-1930), Dutch colonel who devastate the Gayo-Alas area from February-July 1904, subjugating the highland tribes under Dutch rule. His method was known as
van-daal-isme (van-daal-ism).

Is that how the meaning of the word ‘Vandalism’ came about?

And the following were acts of vandalism by this van Daalen butcher?

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 15 2006, 12:22 AM

^ woahhhhhhh

Kopassus

Dec 15 2006, 02:20 AM

QUOTE(santoloco @ Dec 13 2006, 11:12 AM) [snapback]2566516[/snapback]


seems like the dutch has been a good time in indonesia.


Yes they have….thats why all the Indische Nederlanders desire to “Tempo Doeloe”, they all want to go back to the time that they live in a beautiful country with nice weather where they can suppres the inlanders…

QUOTE(Nusantara @ Aug 31 2004, 10:26 PM) [snapback]399990[/snapback]


That fu-king dutch troop did genocide to Achehnese Gayo civillian.

The way they won the war by killing all civillian related to Achehnese warrior.
I heard/read somewhere most this barbaric act done by fanatic Cristian Ambonese soldier and some of them also Javanse soldier which Indonesian who fought against dutch called them at that time “black dutch” since Ambonese is black/dark skin typical melanesian. They are more cruel than dutch itself.


Yes, they are all warcriminals.
Thanks Pur for all the pictures and info!

Bhaskara

Dec 15 2006, 03:42 AM

Wow, gr8 pics,pur!And rasibiduk, what a shame!I love those houses on Wastukencana. I wonder who owns them nowadays….

purnomor

Dec 16 2006, 07:12 PM

QUOTE(tangawizi @ Dec 14 2006, 11:44 PM) [snapback]2571605[/snapback]


Interesting fotos here, pur. Btw, do u know what was the Chinese mandarin doing in the group above (second from right)? Was he the ambassador from China?

Back in colonial times, the ethnic-Chinese, ethnic-Arab, and other immigrant communities in each Indonesian city was led by a government-appointed officer with honorary ranks of majoor, kapitein, or luitenant (the larger the community, the higher the rank) who functioned as liason officer between the community and the Dutch colonial government. This fellow with the mandarin uniform should be the local Chinese officer of Lhokseumawe who attended the surrender of Panglima Polim in his role as civic dignitary.

QUOTE

Is that how the meaning of the word ‘Vandalism’ came about?

No, “vandalism” came from the Roman Empire period after the name of a particularly destructive barbarian tribe the Vandals. The Dutch press made a pun out of the similarity between the word “vandalism” and the name van Daalen.

QUOTE

And the following were acts of vandalism by this van Daalen butcher?

Yeap, quite a nasty fellow, isn’t he?

bandung

Dec 16 2006, 08:12 PM

^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

purnomor

Dec 16 2006, 08:34 PM

^ That’s a strange thought, considering Indonesia expelled the Dutch government through war of independence, and later on we also expelled 200,000 Dutch settlers in 1957-1958.

I think it is Malaysians who love the British like a puppy loves its master.

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 17 2006, 02:43 AM

I don’t have nothing against the dutch..

tangawizi

Dec 17 2006, 02:49 AM

QUOTE(bandung @ Dec 17 2006, 04:12 AM) [snapback]2576088[/snapback]


^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

I think it’s more like Msian royalty instead who cavorted with the English colonials and tried to imitate their ways – love for horseracing, pre and post prandial cocktails, savoy tailor suits… do u recall your royalty like Tengku Rahman? The likes of him were seen celebrated by the Brits as brown englishmen..

That’s the trouble with the Msian identity crisis since way before colonial times when their ruling houses were running from persecution by the Indonesian ruling houses, they mimicked the Islamic missionaries came later, then the British ruling class. They have been paranoid abt the encroachment of the chinese. Instead of celebrating their common identity with Indonesians, they take pains to distinguish themselves from Indonesia particularly in the areas of wealth & prestige status, and take pleasure in dissing the minority Chinese as a race.

The colonial Englishmen no longer casts a shadow on their elite ruling houses, but the shadow of the Arabs are creeping up on the Msian ruling class big time. Where is the true and authentic Msian identity? Afraid there is none anymore. Their ruling classes are shadow people. Wayang Kulits themselves.

I hope u won’t flame me bandung…it’s juz a neutral observation.

Astromantic

Dec 17 2006, 03:58 AM

QUOTE(bandung @ Dec 17 2006, 02:12 AM) [snapback]2576088[/snapback]


^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

How can you say that we LOVE the Dutch people when they have been torturing us for 350 years? Think before you speak. By the way, I ain’t got no beef with Dutch people… after all I’ve lived there.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 05:57 AM

JOURNEY OF KERLEN FAMILY OF SEMARANG, A TYPICAL DUTCH SETTLER FAMILY IN INDONESIA


Johannes Godfried Kerlen (1850-1927) was born in Zuthpen, Netherlands. He arrived in Indonesia in 1870 as a lieutenant with the KNIL (Royal Netherlands Indies Army). He had a distinguished military career as army engineer, participating in the first and second Aceh invasions of 1873 and 1874, and spending most of the following decades fighting the rebellious Acehnese. He received knighthood with the title ridder 1e klasse in de orde van Nederlandsche Leeuw. He retired as a general, and died in Bandoeng in 1927 aged 77.

In 1878, JG Kerlen married half-Chinese daughter of a German settler, Charlotte Baumgarten. They had five children, Johannes (born 1883), Jopie (born 1884), Greta (born 1885), Milly (born 1886), and Charlotte (born 1887). Charlotte Baumgarten died in Medan soon after giving birth to her fifth child. Afterwards, Johannes Kerlen gave away his three daughters to an orphanage in Batavia, while keeping his two sons. He married again twice, with Hendrika Cornelia Polkijn who died in an 1888 malaria outbreak and Agnes Maria Naessens who died in 1900 due to miscarriage.

Johannes Godfried Kerlen Jr (1883-1940), the eldest son, was born in Bengkalis – Riau. He worked as sugar factory manager in Semarang – Central Java. There, he married daughter of a local Dutch settler, Caroline Juliana van Zanten in 1912. Here Johannes Kerlen Jr posed with his eldest son Hans in 1912.

Here, Johannes Kerlen Jr posed with Hans and newborn second son Ernst, in 1914.

Caroline Juliana van Zanten-Kerlen posing with Hans, Ernst, and newborn baby daughter Marijke in a 1915 letter sent to relatives back in the Netherlands.

Caroline van Zanten-Kerlen with Hans, Ernst, Marijke, and two neighbours’ children in front of their Semarang home in 1918.

Hans, Ernst, and Marijke posing with their mother and three cousins (children of Jopie Kerlen) in 1921.

Ernst, Marijke, and their two cousins in 1921.

Kerlen children playing with the family car

Johannes and Caroline Kerlen with teenage Ernst in 1930

DEL

Dec 17 2006, 06:11 AM

My Indonesian grandfather and Indonesian grandmother got a lot of old pictures like that. I never asked the real reason why they had to leave Indonesia, because i got the feeling it lays deep. I better study some Indonesian history more, since i am learning the language and want to go back to my roots. But i dont want to go to deep in it, because history sharpens up national feelings and hate. I don’t want that, because i am a man of the world and not of a country.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 06:17 AM


Proud grandparents Johannes and Caroline Kerlen with their daughter Marijke, and grandson Mark Lindo (Marijke’s son) in 1937

Comfortable interior of the Kerlen family house in Semarang

The Kerlen house compound, during colonial times on average the annual income of a white settler in Indonesia was 60 times the average income of a native and 10 times the average income of Foreign Orientals (Chinese and Arab settlers).

During World War II, the Kerlen family was imprisoned in Japanese concentration camp. After the war, the first son Hans Kerlen decided to stay in independent Indonesia. He lived in Bandung until he was expelled along with all Dutch citizens in 1956 by Sukarno, upon which he moved to South Africa where he died in 2003. The second son Ernst Kerlen and his wife Lydia de Leeuw emigrated to Australia, a popular destination for Dutch refugees fleeing Indonesian war of independence. Ernst died while in Netherlands in 1991. Marijke Kerlen moved with her family to Netherlands to escape the war of independence, where she died in 1995.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 06:45 AM

QUOTE(DEL @ Dec 17 2006, 06:11 AM) [snapback]2577436[/snapback]


My Indonesian grandfather and Indonesian grandmother got a lot of old pictures like that. I never asked the real reason why they had to leave Indonesia, because i got the feeling it lays deep. I better study some Indonesian history more, since i am learning the language and want to go back to my roots. But i dont want to go to deep in it, because history sharpens up national feelings and hate. I don’t want that, because i am a man of the world and not of a country.

Are they Europeans/Eurasians?

In Indonesia, the people has generally forgotten the past colonial injustices since the Dutch was expelled such a long time ago. Nowadays, most Indonesians view the Dutch just as a European country with no bitterness involved.

Tahun 1893,

Teuku Umar tunduk dan bergabung dengan Belanda. Siasat berpura-pura Teuku Umar ini ternyata berhasil. Belanda kemudian mengizinkan Teuku Umar memiliki tentara berkekuatan 250 orang berikut persenjataan lengkap untuk memerangi pejuang-pejuang Aceh yang belum tunduk. Para pejuang Aceh yang akan diperangi pun paham karena telah diberitahu sebelumnya. Semua itu dilakukan Teuku Umar demi mendapatkan senjata dan perbekalan dari pihak VOC Belanda.

1896

Pada tanggal 29 Maret 1896,

Teuku Umar kembali bergabung dengan para pejuang Aceh. Ia berhasil membawa lari senjata, uang sebanyak 800.000 Dollar, dan perlengkapan lain milik Belanda.

Semasa bergabung dengan Belanda, Teuku Umar pernah diberi gelar Teuku Johan Pahlawan dan memimpin 1 legiun tentara berkekuatan 250 orang serdadu. Teuku Umar mampu menghadapi Politik Devide et Empera (“Pecah Belah dan Jajahlah”) Belanda dengan menggunakan kekuatan Belanda sendiri.

 

 

Read more

1893-1895

Hendrik de Booij, herinneringen aan zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1893-1895

Inhoudsopgave:
1. Inleiding
2. Derde Atjeh oorlog 1884 -1896 (met noot: de krijgsverrichtingen van generaal Vetter en luitenant Colijn in Lombok in 1894)
3. Herinneringen Hendrik de Booy over zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog van 1893-1895
4. Vierde Atjeh oorlog 1898-1918

1. Inleiding

In het hoofdstuk 3  van deze website, heb ik verhaald  over de eerste en tweede Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1873-1879, daarbij heb ik de brieven van Chrétien Jean Gérard de Booy ( de oudste broer van mijn grootvader Hendrik de Booy) aan zijn ouders afgedrukt. Hij heeft deze Atjeh oorlog van nabij meegemaakt. Nu wil het dat mijn grootvader in de derde Atjeh oorlog  heeft meegevochten. De herinneringen van mijn grootvader over de periode van 1867 tot 1901 zijn door mij beschreven in hoofdstuk 1 van deze website. Ik heb daarbij gebruik gemaakt van de selecties, die mijn tante Dr E.P. de Booy (jongste dochter van mijn grootvader), heeft gemaakt uit de herinneringen en dagboeken van mijn grootvader. Bij nadere bestudering van deze herinneringen, die mijn grootvader heeft gebundeld in twee ingebonden exemplaren, blijkt dat mijn tante slechts enkele alinea’s heeft geselecteerd, die gaan over de tijd, dat mijn grootvader betrokken was bij de derde Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1893-1895. De reden waarom mijn tante deze periode zo summier heeft behandeld, is misschien gelegen in het feit, dat de tijdgeest omtrent ons koloniaal verleden en onze krijgsverrichtingen aan het eind van de 19e en begin 20ste eeuw sterk is veranderd. In de tijd van mijn grootvader werden de koloniale oorlogen als rechtvaardig beschouwd, terwijl men in het recente verleden door de vele publicaties en fotomateriaal anders is gaan denken over deze vroegere tijd. Ik ben echter van mening dat het goed is om dit in gedachte een uitgebreidere selectie te maken van de herinneringen van mijn grootvader in deze derde Atjeh oorlog. Evenals in het hoofdstuk 3, dat gaat over de oudste broer (Chrik) van mijn grootvader, zal ik een korte samenvatting geven van de historische gebeurtenissen, nu niet van de eerste en tweede, maar van de derde en de vierde Atjeh oorlogen, die geduurd hebben van 1884-1918, zodat men de herinneringen van mijn grootvader beter in deze tijd weet te plaatsen. In hoofdstuk 6 worden de krijgsverrichtingen in Atjeh van mijn grootvader (van mijn moeders kant) A.F.Gooszen beschreven. Het blijkt dat mijn twee grootvaders tegelijkertijd deel hebben genomen aan een expeditie in november 1893 naar de bovenloop van de Tamiang rivier aan de Oostkust van Sumatra. Ze werden beiden hiervoor  onderscheiden door de Minister van Marine met een ereteken.

2. Derde Atjeh oorlog 1884-1896

De oorlog tegen Atjeh kostte Nederland handen vol geld en het was door de twee gevoerde oorlogen niet gelukt om het Atjehse verzet te breken. Zo besloot de minister van oorlog Weitzel om een andere tactiek in Atjeh toe te passen.

 

Minister van Oorlog A.W.Ph. Weitzel

Allereerst wilde hij een troepen vermindering en een afsluiting van de vesting Kota Radja door middel van een zwaar versterkte linie. Hij wilde op zo’n manier de Atjehers op de knieën brengen. Op 20 augustus 1884 werd onder commando van kolonel H. Demmeni met de aanleg van de Geconcentreerde Linie begonnen.

 

De geconcentreerde linie om Kota Radja gebouwd  in 1884-1885

Zij bestond uit 16 bentengs, met een bezetting variërend van 60-160 man elk. Ze waren met Kota Radja verbonden door middel van telefoon en bereikbaar via een trambaan. Het gebied werd afgeschermd door een hoog ijzeren hek met wachthuisjes op palen. Deze verdedigingslinie moest  de Nederlandse troepen in Atjeh  beveiligen tegen infiltratie van Atjehse vrijheidsstrijders. De verdedigingslinie werd voltooid in maart 1885.

 

Officiers vrouwen gaan op theevisite bij een andere post van de geconcentreerde linie.

Ondertussen werd gezocht naar bondgenoten onder de Atjehse leiders die met Nederland willen samenwerken. Men ging de verdeel en heers politiek toepassen. Er heerste onder de elite van de Atjehers een duidelijke rivaliteit  In januari 1891 stierf Teungkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tirò, een van de belangrijkste verzetstrijders.

 

Teugkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tiro 1836-1891

Hij was de leider van de godsdienst partij. Hij verzond brieven waarin hierin hij de Atjehers opriep om de heilige oorlog volgens de regels van de godsdienst te voeren. Deze geven een goed beeld van hoe men dacht over het Nederlands gezag. (zie achteraan in dit hoofdstuk bij de herinneringen  van mijn grootvader de tekst van zo’n brief). Hij stierf in 1891 evenals panglima Polim, een andere machtige verzetsstrijder.  Er was een andere verzetsstrijder Teukoe Oemar, die na hun dood de kans zag een sultanzetel te verkrijgen. Hij koos daarbij de zijde van de Nederlanders.

 

De verzetstrijder Teukoe Oemar

In januari 1992 werd een nieuwe militaire gouverneur benoemd, het werd  kolonel C. Deijkerhoff (Later tot generaal benoemd). Hij stelde o.a. voor aan de Gouverneur-generaal Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk om Teukoe Oemar te voorzien van wapens. Pijnacker Hordijk stemde daarmee in en heeft zijn opvolger  Gouverneur-generaal Jhr. C.H.A. van Wijck te laten beloven, dat hij generaal Deijkerhoff de vrije hand zou geven om zijn plannen te kunnen uitvoeren.

 

Generaal-majoor  C. Deijkerhoff.

 

Links: Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk, Gouverneur -generaal van 1888-1893. Rechts: Jhr Carel H.A. van der Wijck, Gouverneur-generaal van 1893-1899.

In juli en augustus 1893 is Teukoe Oemar militaire steun verleend gegeven in de strijd tegen de zich verzettende Atjehers in het Moekim gebied. Op 30 december werd hij zelfs aangesteld in Koeta Radja tot panglima prang besar, opperste krijgsheer van het gouvernement. Hij veranderde zijn naam in Teukoe Djohan Pahlawan, wat betekent Johan de Heldhaftige . Op 30 oktober veroverde hij zelfs Anagaloeng, het belangrijkste militaire steunpunt van de vallei. In april 1894 was de actie ten einde en het gehele gebied van de Moekims gezuiverd. Maar er kwam verzet tegen de plannen van Deijkerhoff en en wel door dr C. Snouck Hurgronje.

 

Links: Dr Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (18571936) was een Nederlands arabist en islamoloog. Rechts: majoor J.B. van Heutsz

Hij pleitte voor een goed georganiseerde systematische spionnage in plaats van terreur als middel om het Nederlandse gezag te handhaven. Men moest niet met de Atjehers onderhandelen, zij zwichten alleen voor geweld. Hij raadde de regering aan deze moslimleiders “zeer gevoelig te slaan”. Deijkerhoff had door zijn succes in Atjeh echter het gelijk aan zijn zijde. Snouck wees op het gevaar, dat het monsterverbod met Teukoe Oemar  in hield. Hij stond daarbij niet alleen, ook majoor J. B. van Heutsz had soortgelijke denkbeelden. Dit blijkt uit een in 1893 van zijn hand verschenen brochure getiteld: “Over de onderwerping van Atjeh”.Van Heutsz beschouwde de Atjehers niet als oproerkraaiers, maar als vrijheidsstrijders. Volgens van Heutsz biograaf Witte had de brochure daarnaast nog een verborgen boodschap: ‘hier is van Heutsz, ik durf de Atjehers wel aan, benoem mij maar tot gouverneur van Atjeh’. (Het is hem later ook inderdaad gelukt. In mei 1898 werd hij benoemd als gouverneur van Atjeh)

Over de krijgsverrichtingen in 1893,  waar men grootvader direct bij betrokken was, staan interessante passages in het boek van W.J. Cohen Stuart,  De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 geschreven in 1937:

Het overlopen van Toekoe Oemar
Eenige maanden later had eene groote verandering plaats in de verhouding van Toekoe Oemar tot het Bestuur. De Regeering had gemeend, van den invloed en de voortvarendheid van dezen Atjeher voor het overwinnen van het verzet partij te kunnen trekken door hem aan onze zijde te brengen en blijkbaar had Oemar ook zijn voordeel daarin gezien; in Juli werd hij onze bondgenoot en de “Benkoelen” embarkeerde den 31 en dier maand van Rigaih, Gloempang en Lho Siddoh 137 personen, w.o. 42 vrouwen en kinderen, allen volgelingen van den Toekoe, ten overvoer naar Oeleë Lheuë; zij voerden mede 2 lilla’s, 60 geweren – w.o. 20 achterlaad – (3 Beaumont-geweren werden als afkomstig van de Marine herkend), 116 blanke wapenen, 3000 patronen voor het Beaumont-geweer, 10 kg buskruit, 1000 looden kogels; van de patronen waren sommige door Atjehers gevuld.

De strijd tegen de verzetsstrijder Nja Makam
Het Westelijk deel der Noordkust was meermalen het tooneel van beschieting van schepen en sloepen, vooral bij Koeala Gigieng en Pedropunt, dat aanleiding gaf tot tuchtiging der betrokken kampongs met granaatvuur; bij eene dergelijke gelegenheid werd de Adelborst 1e kl. G. den Berger gewond. Onze post te Sigli stond herhaaldelijk aan aanvallen bloot; de “Lombok”, van een zoeklicht voorzien, kon daardoor, bij het afslaan door de bezetting van nachtelijke aanvallen, goede diensten bewijzen; den 7en Mei wierp dit schip 46 granaten in de schuldige kampongs. Bloedig gevolg had de plotselinge aanval van een met klewang en rent jong gewapenden Atjeher op een detachement van 12 man van de “Lombok” dat aan den wal aan het schijfschieten was; de man wist dadelijk den officier en 2 man te verwonden en toen de Stuurman Prins hem te lijf ging, dezen een doodelijken steek toe te brengen, vóórdat hij afgemaakt werd. De strooptochten van het bendehoofd Nja Makam uitgebroed in het ons steeds vijandige Simpang-Olim, waren oorzaak van krijgsverrichtingen; waaraan de Zeemacht een belangrijk aandeel nam. In Januari 1893 ontving de Commandant van H.M.Raderstoomschip, Sindoro”, de Luitenant ter zee 1 e kl. W. Allirol, ter Oostkust van Atjeh in station, van den Nederlandschen Consul-Generaal te Penang bericht, dat Nja Makam zich Zuidwaarts had begeven en voornemens was, in de residentie Oostkust van Sumatra vijandelijkheden te plegen. De “Sindoro” stoomde dadelijk daarop naar de Tamiang-Rivier en zond eene gewapende sloep onder den Adelborst 1e kl. van Idsinga naar Seroeway om onzen post aldaar te waarschuwen. Ongeveer halverwege, bij Rantau-Pakam, werd de sloep beschoten; bij den terugkeer werd zij gesleept door het van pantserplaten voorziene gewestelijk stoomjacht “Langkat” , waarop de bemanning der sloep was overgegaan, zoodat de beschieting geene verliezen veroorzaakte. Den 25en verscheen Nja Makam’s bende op den rechteroever der rivier nabij ons etablissement Seroeway beschoot den pasar, waarvan het Maleische deel verbrandde en bezette de op den linkeroever gelegen Missisgit van het ons bevriende hoofd Radja Bandahara, welke zij plunderde en daarna in de vlammen deed opgaan

Cohen Stuart geeft vervolgens vele details  over de strijd tegen de troepen van Nja Makam. Ik begin weer met het citeren als blijkt, dat mijn grootvader van mijn moeder kant Luitenant ter zee 2e kl A.F. Gooszen  bij de gevechtshandelingen betrokken is.

Luitenant der zee 2e klasse A.F. Gooszen gaat met mee met de expeditie stroomopwaarts van de rivier Tamiang

Na deze voorvallen werd tot eene nieuwe expeditie besloten. H.M. stoomjacht “Koerier” werd met het oog op het bevaren der rivier gewapend met 4 kanonnen van 3,7 cm, een op den bak, een op de kampanje en twee op de brug; een kraaiennest voor 4 scherpschutters werd aan den fokkemast aangebracht, de kwetsbare punten werden met zware planken geblindeerd; ook bevestigde men voor het verbreken van versperringen een ijzeren schoen met kettingen aan den voorsteven en bracht door het lossen van steenkolen den diepgang tot 18 dm terug.

Den 30en, nadat des morgens ten l0u met hoog water de “Koerier” de ondiepte had gepasseerd, stoomde de geheele macht in alarmstelling de rivier op; de versterkingen bij Rantau-Pakam bleken niet bezet te zijn, doch bij Pasir Poetih stuitte men op twee versperringen, bestaande uit niboengstammen, hout en bamboe, door dwarslatten met pen en gat verbonden, en waartusschen zich een staaldraadtros van 50 mm bevond. De versperringen gingen op den rechteroever van één punt uit, maar aangezien de rivier aldaar een scherpe bocht maakt, maakten zij een hoek met elkander en hadden op den linkeroever een onderlingen afstand van ongeveer 25 m. Hier lagen een tweetal geschutstellingen, bovendien verkende men aan den overkant der ladang eenige versterkingen; uit al deze verdedigingswerken werd het vuur geopend toen de “Koerier”, aan het hoofd der flottille stoomende, ten 2u15m tot 250 à 300 m genaderd was. Dit vuur beantwoordende, stoomde de “Koerier”, den rechteroever houdende, zoo normaal mogelijk op de eerste versperring in; deze werd verbroken, doch door de vermindering in vaart gelukte het niet, de tweede stuk te varen; de Commandant van de “Koerier”, de Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. J. F. B. van Dijk, kreeg hierbij een schampschot in de zijde door een lilla-kogel, die tegen de bescherm plaat van het aan bakboordzijde op de brug staande kanon van 3,7 cm ricocheteerde; hij bleef echter het schip besturen. Het schip stoomde nu achteruit en daarna volle kracht vooruit op de tweede versperring in, die daarvoor bezweek; het voorschip liep echter hierbij aan den linkeroever in de modder en daar volle kracht achteruitslaan niet voldoende was om het schip achteruit tc krijgen, werd de bemanning naar het achterschip gezonden; zij kwam daardoor echter een oogenblik buiten de blindeering van planken, kooien en ijzeren platen, en kreeg door ‘s vijands vuur drie gewonden; het schip kwam vlot, en verdreef door vuur uit de gevechtsmars en aan het dek, de Atjehers uit de geschutstellingen aan den oever, waarna de officieren Mensert en Noordhoek Hegt met een klein detachement van de “Koerier” twee lilla’s daaruit haalden; de versperringen werden latere door de sloepen opgeruimd. Inmiddels waren, op een punt, ongeveer 500 m benedenstrooms van Pasir Poetih, de beide colonnes der Infanterie met een deel der landingsdivisie op den linkeroever geland en rukten door de ladang, die, pas aangelegd, een zeer moeilijk terrein bleek te zijn, tegen de meest Noordelijk gelegen versterking op; de tegenstand, hier door den vijand geboden, bezorgde aan de Infanterie een gesneuvelde en vier gewonden; uit de overige bentings vluchtte de vijand. Eene compagnie bleef in de genomen versterkingen achter om die den volgenden dag te slechten, daarna werd het overige der gelande troepen geëmbarkeerd en ten 7u30m bereikte de flotille Seroeway, waar den 31 en de gewonden per particulieren stoomer naar Deli werden geëvacueerd, de colonne van Pasir Poetih afgehaald en overigens gerust werd.

Den 2en des morgens ten 6u werd door de sloepen aangevangen met het overzetten der colonnes en den trein, en ten 7u45m werd de marsch aanvaard; de landingsdivisie werd, om haar een vermoeiende marsch te besparen, door de “Anna” en “Slamat” overgevoerd naar een punt, tegenover Oud-Seroeway gelegen, waar zij ten 8u30m aankwam en in afwachting van de komst der colonne, naar den rand der sawah oprukte, vanwaar de ligging van een viertal vijandelijke versterkingen op ongeveer 700 m afstand, werd waargenomen; weldra kwam nu ook de colonne, onder bevel van den Majoor Meuleman, die het voetpad langs de rivier had gevolgd, op het terrein aan, en nadat de landingsdivisie hare plaats in den hoofdtroep had ingenomen werd even vóór 9u op de sawah gedeboucheerd; de sterkte van den troep bestond op dit oogenblik uit 9 officieren en 307 minderen der Infanterie, aan wie toegevoegd waren 1 officier en 19 mariniers, Marine-landingsdivisie 5 officieren en 73 matrozen 8 mariniers, artillerie 1 officier en 24 minderen met 3 getrokken bronzen kanonnen van 8 cm en een Coehoorn-mortier. Nadat tot ongeveer 650 pas van de vijandelijke stelling voortgerukt was, terwijl eene sectie infanterie bij het landingspunt achtergelaten was om de ageerende troepenmacht in den rug te dekken en de verbinding met de vaartuigen te onderhouden, kwam ten ongeveer 9u15m de artillerie in batterij en richtte haar vuur met granaten en granaatkartetsen achtereenvolgens op de vijandelijke versterkingen, terwijl door den troep beurtelings pelotons-  en sectiesgewijze salvovuur werd afgegeven; men kreeg vuur niet alleen uit de bentings maar ook van een 200-tal Atjehers, die nabij de meest Noordelijk gelegen versterking eene schietstelling hadden ingenomen, waardoor de rechtervleugel onzer linie bedreigd werd; het detachement van Seroeway, met eene sectie infanterie versterkt, hiertegen afgezonden, slaagde erin, dat vuur tot zwijgen tebrengen.

Inmiddels had de Commandant der Landingsdivisie bevel ontvangen, om de bovengenoemde benting op den linkervleugel van ‘s vijands linie gelegen, te nemen. Zij rukte in vier tempo’s vooruit, op de halten salvo’s afgevend; door het zeer moeilijke terrein, eene sawah, met riet of zwaar hard gras ter hoogte van 1,5 m begroeid, waarvan bovendien de bodem glibberig was en vele kuilen en nagenoeg onbegaanbare galangans opleverde, kwam men slechts langzaam vooruit en leed reeds eenige verliezen; op ongeveer 200 pas van het doel werd daarom de order tot stormloopen tegen de Noord-Oostelijke face gegeven.Men kwam vóór eene omheining van aangepunte bamboe waarachter eene drooge gracht, gevuld met bamboedoerie, om het buitentalud te bereiken, moest eene tweede omheining van bamboe doorbroken worden; men trachtte nu, door kappen en snijden, openingen te maken. Het gelukte Commandant en Officieren op enkele plaatsen de borstwering te bereiken, doch de Commandant, de Luitenant ter zee 1 e kl. Mensert, werd door een schot in het hoofd zwaar gewond, zoodat hij het bevel aan den Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. C.W. Broers moest overgeven. Terzelfder tijd was het detachement van Seroeway, waarbij, zooals reeds vermeld, 20 man van het Korps Mariniers waren ingedeeld, na het vermeesteren der bovengenoemde schietstelling, tegen de Vester- en Zuiderfacen der benting opgerukt, en werd getracht, de poort der versterking te forceeren; hierbij sneuvelde de Korporaal der Mariniers Viergever, terwijl de Commandant van de troep, de 1 e Luitenant der Infanterie C. van der Schroeff, bij het beklimmen der borstwering doodelijk gewond werd.

Intusschen was tot steun dezer actie eene groep infanterie van eene der andere collones afgezonden geworden, en gelukte het aan eenige manschappen dezer groep, met den Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. A. F. Gooszen en 4 mariniers, in de binnenruimte der versterking te springen, op hetzelfde oogenblik, dat het forceeren der poort gelukte; hiermede was de versterking in ons bezit. Reeds bij het oprukken had de Landingsdivisie 6 gewonden gekregen, waaronder de Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. J. H. Zeeman; bij het stormen sneuvelden met inbegrip van de bij het detachement Seroeway ingedeelde mariniers, vier man en werden, behalve de Luitenant ter zee 1e kl. Mensert, drie man gewond. (…)

Nadat alle versterkingen genomen waren, stoomde de “Koerier” nog hooger de rivier op en verjoeg met eenige schoten uit de kanons van 3,7 cm de nog standhoudende Atjehers uit een versterkt huis in de kampong Loeboek Batil. De veroverde versterkingen werden voor den nacht door de Landmacht bezet en daags daarna geslecht. Nog in den namiddag van den 2en April werden de lijken der gesneuvelden de gewonden en de landingsdivisie door de “Koerier” en de sloepen naar Seroeway overgevoerd; aldaar was de Kapitein ter zee Stokhuyzen, Commandant der vereenigde scheepsmacht in de wateren van Atjeh, per stoomschip “Kinta” aangekomen; hij begaf zich, vergezeld van den Kapitein-Luitenant ter zee van den Pauvert, leider van het nautische gedeelte der expeditionnaire macht, per stoomsloep naar het gevechtsterrein; vandaar terugkeerende, kreeg de sloep door een geweerschot een lek, waarin den volgenden dag, door haar op eene droogte te zetten, kon worden voorzien. Den 3en werden de gewonden door de gewestelijke stoomjachten, onder geleide van eene stoombarkas, naar de reede vervoerd en had in den namiddag de plechtige ter aarde-bestelling der gesneuvelden plaats. Op den 5en keerden alle schepelingen naar hunne respectieve bodems terug, terwijl de “Koerier” met eene stoombarkas op de rivier bleef.

Nu aan Nja Makam’s aanhangers belangrijke verliezen waren toegebracht, was de toestand in het Tamiangsche aanmerkelijk verbeterd; niettemin werd voorloopig de aanwezigheid van een oorlogsvaartuig op de rivier noodig geacht; toen dan ook in Mei de “Koerier” naar Penang moest om te dokken, werd het Gouvernements-stoomschip  “Indragiri”, met een Marine-detachement aan boord, ter vervanging aangewezen. Verder werd de toegankelijkheid van de “Tamiang-Rivier bevorderd door de opname van de Panaga-geul en de bebakening der monding van de Soengei Ijoe, welke dieper was dan de Tamianggeul.

Hendrik de  Booij gaat als commandant van gewapende sloepen op patrouille om de bovenloop van de rivier Tamiang  te verkennen

In de tweede helft van October werd door de “Koerier” op last van den Commandant der Zeemacht de poging herhaald, om den bovenloop der rivier te verkennen. Begunstigd. door hoogen waterstand tengevolge van bandjirs, vertrok men den 28e van Seroeway, vergezeld van eene stoombarkas en met een detachement als bovengenoemd aan boord, en bereikte den volgenden dag Karang, ruim 5 km bovenstrooms van Koeala Simpang, waar men vuur kreeg uit eene benting van Radja Silang, welk vuur door het geschut tot zwijgen werd gebracht. Terwijl men zich voor de landing gereed maakte, kwam met de “Anna” de Kapitein van Polanen Petel van Seroeway aan, vergezeld van 10 man Infanterie; deze als dekking der ambulance aanwendende, rukte nu het landingsdetachement onder den Luitenant der Mariniers G. Faassen tegen de benting op, welke overhaast verlaten bleek te zijn; daags daarna werd zij verbrand. Verder opstoomen werd voor de “Koerier” niet raadzaam geacht, zoodat, nadat met de stoom barkas eenige verkenningen waren verricht en een bezoek was gebracht aan bet ons bevriende Tandjong Mandang,aan de SimpangKiri, de “Koerier” den 2e November met krabbend anker de rivier afzakte, daar het stoomen wegen de vele afdrijvende boomen te gevaarlijk was. Terwijl de “Koerier” nog te Koeala Sim pang vertoefde, kwam aldaar den 9en November de Gewestelijk Militair Commandant per “Alllla”, in prauwen eene halve compagnie Infanterie sleepende ; den volgenden dag werd de tocht vervolgd, waaraan door de gewapende stoombarkas en een 20-tal mariniers werd deelgenomen; men bereikte de Kampong Loeboek Sidoep, ongeveer 18 km boven Koeala Sim pang en deed haar in vlammen opgaan.

Inmiddels had de Oudst-aanwezend Zeeofficier ter Oostkust eene flottille gewapende sloepen van de “Merapi” en drie andere schepen samengesteld en voer daarmede den 9en de rivier op; men bereikte een punt nog bijna 20 km voorbij Loeboek Sidoep en bevond alles rustig; den 12e was men aan boord der schepen terug.

Nog werd door de Mariniers met de landingsdivisie van de “Koerier” deelgenomen aan een marsch van de Infanterie van Koeala Simpang uit, ter opsporing van eene in de nabijheid gesignaleerde, 200 man sterke, bende Atjehers; de vermoeiende marsch leverde geene ontmoeting met den vijand op. Intusschen had de “Sindoro”, waarvan brug en ketelkap van eene doelmatige blindeering waren voorzien geworden, terwijl met eigen middelen een kanon van 3,7 cm in den top van den fokkemast was geplaatst, den gen October met de “Koerier” een tocht op de Ara Koendoe-rivier gemaakt. Toen de rivier te bochtig werd voor de “Sindoro”, stoomde de “Koerier” verder op, voorafgegaan door de stoomsloep, en kwam men tot het eilandje Leboni. Op de hoogte van Blang-Ni gekomen, kreeg de stoomsloep uit een loopgraaf een salvo, dat echter niemand kwetste; toen de “Koerier” het vuur opende, vluchtte de vijand.

Einde citaten uit het boek van Cohen Stuart . De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915

Begin 1896 kwam een nieuwe commandant luitenant-kolonel F.W. Bisschoff van Heemskerk. Hij zag dat de politiek van Deijkerhoff steeds minder goed ging functioneren. De posten  van de linie werden steeds meer beschoten, vooral vanuit de gebieden buiten de linie, die met hulp van Teukoe Oemar waren gezuiverd. Deijkerhoff wilde geen patrouilles buiten de linie, dat moest worden gewaarborgd door Teukoe Oemar. Maar Bisschoff van Heemskerk gaf desondanks het bevel om eens per maand een demonstratieve patrouille te houden in het gebied buiten de linie. Op 7 maart 1896 was kapitein Blokland met 92 man op patrouille gegaan. Direct al werden zij onder vuur genomen. Na afloop telde men negen doden en 22 gewonden. Deijkerhoff verlangde van Teukoe Oemar, dat hij de orde in de buiten gebieden ging herstellen, maar deze eiste van Deijkerhoff meer wapens en munitie. Maar al spoedig bleek,dat hij van plan was over te lopen. Hij weigerde in eerste instantie de orders van Deijkerhoff op te volgen. Teukoe Oemar ging vervolgens over, dankbaar gebruik makend van de wapens, die hij van Deijkerhoff had gekregen, door de Nederlandse troepen aan te vallen. Het verraad was al lang van te voren door hem gepland. 29 maart werden de Nederlandse posten buiten de linie ingesloten. Zo ontstond er een totaal nieuwe situatie. Deijkerhoff had zichtbaar gefaald en werd ontslagen. Generaal Vetter * ) werd benoemd als regeringscommissaris. Er werd nu korte metten gemaakt en een groot offensief gestart, waarop Snouck Hurgronje steeds had aangedrongen. Wie ook mee deed aan dit offensief was luitenant-kolonel J.B. van Heutsz (die al driemaal in Atjeh had gediend). Eveneens was  luitenant H. Colijn van de partij. Op 5 april 1896 schreef Colijn in de Nederlander): ‘De geest onder de troep is uitstekend. Er heerst spannende geestdrift. En wanneer het aan ons en aan onze soldaten ligt, geen rijsthalmpje, ja geen grassprietje in het gebied der IV Moekims (Oemars kerngebied) zal ongeschonden blijven. Hij heeft het gewild, dat de oorlogsfakkel branden zou! Het zij zoo!’.
8 april 1896 begon een offensief, onder leiding van kolonel J.W. Stemfort, met colonne van duizend man met als doel om de belegerde posten te ontzetten. De Atjehers boden fel verzet. De vallei werd door de Nederlandse troepen bezet en vele posten van de Atjehers werden vernietigd, zo ook de geboorteplaats van Teukoe Oemar in mei 1896. Koningin Wilhelmina zond een telegram om de colonne, die onder commandant van van Heutsz stond, te feliciteren met de verovering van Lam Pisang op 24 mei. Daarna werd de kampong Lamasang met de grond gelijk gemaakt. Alle bomen gekapt en de grafheuvels afgegraven. Tijdens deze zware gevechten vielen vele doden aan beiden zijde. Colijn schrijft over deze ‘heldhaftige’ gebeurtenis in de Nederlander van 22 juli : ‘ De vallei van Lam Pisang bevat 30-tal welvarende dorpen (kampongs). In die vallei raast de rook: een 30-tal kampongs ging in vlammen op en zijn van dit aardsche schouwspel verdwenen. De geheele rijke vallei is één onafzienbare smeulende vlakte, talrijk goed gevulde voorraadschuren van Oemar – zoomede zijn eigen prachtige woning- deelden in het lot van al het overige’.  Zo kwam er een einde aan de derde Atjeh oorlog.

Dit betekende niet het einde, want er volgden nog vele oorlogen, niet alleen in Atjeh maar ook in andere gebieden van Nederlandsch Indië. Het onderstaande kaartje laat zien deze zogenaamde pacificaties van Indië.

 

 

Pacificatie van Indië door de Nederlanders

Generaal Vetter en luitenant Colijn, die deelnamen aan de derde Atjeh oorlog, hebben een paar jaar daarvoor in 1894 een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de verovering van Lombok. Hieronder volgt een korte samenvatting van deze krijgsverrichting.

 

 

Links: Luitenant H. Colijn. Rechts: Generaal  J.A. Vetter.

Het ten oosten van Bali gelegen eiland Lombok is lang buiten de Nederlandse invloedsfeer gebleven. Het eiland werd bestuurd door 2 vorstenfamilies uit het oosten van Bali, het huis van Karangasem-Mataram. Het Balische vorstenbewind bestuurde zowel het eigen gebied op Bali als het gehele eiland Lombok. Eind 19e eeuw was dit geslacht van radja’s(vorsten) op het toppunt van hun macht. Zij bouwden paleizen en tempels op beide eilanden. Er bestonden spanningen tussen de oorspronkelijke moslimbevolking op Lombok, de Sasaks en de hindoeistische radja’s van Bali. Vooral het autocratische bewind van de Balische vorsten leidde tot opstanden op Lombok. Bestuur en belastingheffing waren in handen van deze vorsten. In de jaren negentig brak op Lombok een opstand uit tegen de op Lombok regerende Balinese vorsten. Vooral de vorst Anak Agoeng Madé was berucht om zijn wreedheden t.o.v. de plaatselijke bevolking, de Sasaks. Batavia werd door enkele Sasaks voormannen gevraagd om hulp tegen hun Balinese onderdrukkers en dan vooral hulp voor de strijd tegen de vorst Anak Agoeng Madé. In deze periode was het zo dat de Balinese radja van Lombok leenheer was van de vorsten op Bali en verschillende Balinese leenmannen kwamen vanuit Bali hun leenheer op Lombok te hulp. Een gecompliceerde situatie en dat dus midden in de niet zo succesvol verlopende eerste Atjeh pacificaties. Er ontstond een hele diskussie : wel ingrijpen of niet, of misschien toch wel….De nieuwe gouverneur-generaal van der Wijck hakte de knoop door : we doen het wel en dus landde in maart 1894 een expeditieleger o.l.v. generaal Vetter op de kust van Lombok.

 

Invasie op Lombok aan het strand bij Ampenan

Tijdens de opmars naar Mataram pleegde de Balinese vorst Anak Agoeng Madé, die de Sasaks bevolking het meest had onderdrukt, zelfmoord en dus was eigenlijk de directe aanleiding verdwenen. De verdere onderhandelingen met de Balinese radja van Lombok liepen ogenschijnlijk voorspoedig, want de overmacht van de Nederlandse koloniale troepen was natuurlijk overweldigend. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radja van Lombok

Ook de uit Bali overgekomen hulptroepen wisten, dat zij militair t.o.v de Nederlanders niets voorstelden. Maar, zoals gebruikelijk in die dagen, moesten nog wel alle kosten van de invasie worden betaald. De kosten van deze expeditie werden geschat op één miljoen gulden : voor die tijd en natuurlijk speciaal voor de Balinese radja, een krankzinnig hoog bedrag. In de loop van de maand augustus was echter al een kwart bijeen gebracht. Generaal Vetter legerde in deze periode zijn troepen verdeeld over het eiland. En toen ging het mis. De Balische vorsten kregen het (terechte) vermoeden dat, na betaling van de opgelegde schatting, de Nederlanders wel eens niet zouden kunnen vertrekken en dat op zijn minst nieuwe eisen zouden worden gesteld. Langzamerhand brak het besef door dat het Sasakse verzoek om hulp alleen maar had gediend als aanleiding voor Batavia om eindelijk heel Lombok te ‘pacificeren’, ook zij wisten natuurlijk wat er in Atjeh gaande was. Men besloot zich tot het uiterste te verzetten .En dus gebeurde het dat plotseling op een nacht de Nederlandse troepen, zonder waarschuwing vooraf, werden aangevallen : er vielen bijna 100 doden (w.o. de Generaal-Majoor van der Ham) en ruim 250 gewonden : de grootste nederlaag die de Nederlandse koloniale troepen tot nu toe in de 19e eeuw hadden geleden.

 

Generaal-majoor P.P.M. van der Ham, gedood op Lombok 26 augustus 1894

Ook de reeds verkregen oorlogsschatting waren de Nederlanders weer kwijt. M.b.v. vers aangevoerde troepen werd Lombok, met meer dan grof geweld, gepacificeerd, want kostte wat het kost, het verraad van Lombok moest worden gebroken. De verwoestingen waren enorm : eerst werd alles tussen Ampenan en Mataram door de artillerie kapot geschoten en vervolgens werd dat wat er nog overbleef, nagenoeg met de grond gelijk gemaakt. Van zowel Ampenan als Mataram, bleef nauwelijks iets over. De verwoestingen waren zo grondig dat sommigen in de pers zich afvroegen “wat heeft het voor zin om alles zo te vernietigen, waarover men later gezag wil uitoefenen ?” Ook op Lombok werden de slachtoffers onder de bevolking nauwelijks geteld, want “het verzet moest worden gebroken”. Toch werd er nog geaarzeld om Tjakranegara, waar de radja woonde, aan te vallen. Men wachtte totdat er bijna 10.000 man waren : alles tussen Mataram en Tjakranegara werd omgehakt c.q. afgebroken : de artillerie wilde een vrij schootsveld hebben. De radja stuurde een smeekbrief, daarop werd, op direct bevel van G.G van der Wijck, door Generaal Vetter geantwoord met granaten. De radja betoogde dat hij niets wist van de nachtelijke aanval op de Nederlanders, hij had toch niet voor niets al zoveel geld betaald ? Het mocht allemaal niet baten. Tjakranegara werd massaal bestormd en veroverd, de radja wist te ontvluchten en gaf zich later over en werd verbannen naar Batavia.

 

De bestorming van Tjakranegara

De laatste overgebleven vorsten pleegden zelfmoord via een Perang Poepoetan: mannen, vrouwen en kinderen stortten zich in witte kleren op de verbaasd toekijkende en continu schietende Nederlanders. Een van de vele Poepoetans tijdens de pacificaties in de 19e eeuw. Tijdens de ‘akties’ werd door de Nederlanders op Lombok een grote buit veroverd : zilveren en gouden sieraden en wapens : de zogenaamde schatten van Lombok. De schatten van Lombok werden jarenlang tentoongesteld in het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Een gedeelte werd omgesmolten (!), pas in 1977 werd het grootste deel teruggeschonken aan Indonesië en een gedeelte bleef achter in Nederland en ligt nog steeds, naar men zegt, opgeslagen in de kluizen van de Nederlandse bank.

Uit de twee biografieën van Hendrik Colijn, die bij de invasie op Lombok heeft meegestreden, blijkt hoe men vroeger en tegenwoordig dacht over de oorlogen in Nederlandsch Indië. Het is interessant hoe de tijdgeest sterk is veranderd. Allereerst geef ik enkele citaten  uit de levensschets van Hendrik Colijn geschreven door Rullmann in 1933.  Hieruit blijkt hoe men in die tijd stond tegen over de krijgsverrichtingen van Colijn. De toon is, zoals we later zullen zien in de biografie van Herman Langeveld geschreven 65 jaar later in 1998  wel geheel anders dan die van Rullmann.

Rullmann pagina 12 “November 1894 werd hij geroepen deel te nemen aan de bekende Lombok-expeditie. Op den 18den van die maand, bij de bestorming van Tjakra Negara, onderging hij den vuurdoop. Zijn militaire bekwaamheden werden toen erkend met het ridderkruis 4e klasse van de Militaire Willemsorde, omdat zijn afdeeling van de Noordelijke troepen het eerst was doorgedrongen in de poeri van den vorst, gelijk de afdeeling van luitenant Van der Heyden bij de Zuidelijken.
In 1895 nam hij, op zijn verzoek overgeplaatst naar Atjeh, deel aan de krijgsverrichtingen in dat gewest. In datzelfde jaar noopte een ernstige ziekte hem naar Java terug te keeren. Maar na herstel daarvan vertrok hij met bekwamen spoed weer naar Atjeh en onderscheidde zich buitengewoon in de krijgsverrichtingen tegen Toekoe Oemar. Krijgsmakkers van Colijn uit die dagen hebben verklaard, dat hij een schitterend soldaat was, onverschrokken, koelbloedig, vasthoudend, onvermoeid, beslist, humaan tegenover den overwonnen en onderworpen inlander en goed voor zijn soldaten. Eens zag hij een gewonden soldaat in de wildernis halfdood liggen. Hij ging niet, gelijk de priester en de leviet, tegenover hem voorbij, maar kwam als de barmhartige Samaritaan tot hem, verbond zijn wonden, en droeg hem 2 uur ver naar het naastbij gelegen bivak ter verpleging. In 1925 heeft hij dien ouden strijdmakker nog eens ontmoet”..

De citaten uit de biografie van Colijn van Herman Langeveld in 1998 geven wel een heel ander beeld over Hendrik Colijn tijdens zijn krijgsverrichtingen in Lombok.

Langeveld p. 57-61:   “Colijn die ingedeeld was bij de derde compagnie, onder leiding van kapitein C.F. van den Ende schreef over deze zelfmoord het volgende aan zijn resp. zijn vrouw en ouders : 24 november 1894 ‘Ik heb er een gezien die, met een kind van ongeveer 1/2 jaar op den linkerarm, en een lange lans in de rechterhand op ons aanstormde. Een kogel van ons doodde moeder en kind.’ Dan volgt een onheilspellende zin, gevolgd door een volledige beschrijving van het onheil. ‘We mochten toen geen genade meer geven. Ik heb 9 vrouwen en 3 kinderen, die genade vroegen, op een hoop moeten zetten en ze zoo dood laten schieten. Het was onaangenaam werk, maar ‘t kon niet anders. De soldaten regen ze met genot aan hun bajonetten. ‘t Was een verschrikkelijk werk. Ik zal er maar over eindigen.’ (In een ander handschrift – zo goed als zeker dat van Colijns vrouw in de marge :”Hoe vreeselijk!”).

In de brief (17 december 1894) aan zijn ouders gaf Colijn een iets andere beschrijving van deze gruweldaden. ‘Zelfs jonge, schoone vrouwen met zuigelingen op den arm streden mee en wierpen uit de daken stukken lood op ons, terwijl anderen zelfs de lans hanteerden. Gelukkig stonden mijn dappere Amboneezen als een muur. Na den 8en aanval bleven nog eenige weinigen over, die genade vroegen, ik geloof 13. De soldaten keken mij vragend aan. Een 30-tal mijner manschappen was dood of gewond. Ik keerde mij naar achteren om een sigaar op te steken. Eenige hartverscheurende kreten klonken en toen ik mij weer omdraaide waren ook die 13 dood.
Hiervoor is reeds de grotere betrouwbaarheid van de brief aan zijn vrouw ten opzichte van die aan zijn ouders aangetoond, maar zelfs als deze laatste lezing de juiste is en Colijn geen expliciet bevel tot doden gegeven zou hebben, dan nog was hij als bevelvoerend officier ten volle verantwoordelijk voor het executeren van vrouwen en kinderen die om genade smeekten.

De vraag rijst hoe Colijn een dergelijke handelwijze voor zichzelf gerechtvaardigd heeft. In de geciteerde passages zit iets van een rechtvaardiging, namelijk daar waar Colijn vermeldt dat een dertigtal van zijn mannen gedood of gewond was. Het is natuurlijk een uiterst primitieve en harteloze redenering, maar iets dergelijks bleek ook toen Colijn, de balans van de gevechten opmakend, van tot honderd vijf door zijn compagnie gedode Baliërs, onder wie zestien vrouwen. ‘Ik verloor echter 1 officier, wiens vrouw in diepe droefheid eerstdaags de geboorte van een kleine tegemoet ziet’. (brief aan zijn ouders van 17 december 1894). Het heeft iets van tegen elkaar wegstrepen: één gedode officier met een vrouw die in verwachting is rechtvaardigt zestien gedode vrouwen.

Het vraagstuk heeft echter nog een andere dimensie. Bestond er voor Colijn geen tegenstelling tussen zijn christelijke levensovertuiging en de door hem gevolgde handelwijze? Leverde die geen conflict op met zijn door het christendom gevormde geweten? Daarvan blijkt in deze brieven niets, wat overigens niet wil zeggen dat het godsdienstig element er geheel in ontbreekt. Aan zijn vrouw schreef hij: ‘Danken we, mijn lieveling, den Heere onzen God voor zijne weldaden en zegeningen. Hij heeft ons in de ure des gevaars bewaard. Zij hij ons ook verder nu nabij!’ (brief van 23 november 1894).  En aan zijn ouders: ‘Ik gaf mijn leven in de hand van Hem, die alom regeert en ik dankte den Heere voor ‘t geluk, dat hij mij gegeven had in mijn vrouwtje.'(brief 17 december 1894). Maar van de genoemde tegenstelling lijkt Colijn zich in het geheel niet bewust geweest te zijn. Blijkbaar achtte hij de christelijke ethiek niet van toepassing op het terrein van de oorlog. Anders gezegd: in de oorlog was volgens Colijn alles geoorloofd. ‘[ … ] in den oorlog kan men geen jonge juffrouwen gebruiken. Voor de ijzeren wet der noodzakelijkheid zwijgt alles’. (brief van 17 december)

Toch is de conclusie dat Colijn in ‘de oorlog’ alles geoorloofd achtte, waarschijnlijk te globaal, omdat daarbij geen onderscheid wordt gemaakt tussen koloniale oorlogen en oorlogen tussen westerse, zo men wil christelijke naties onderling. Vooropgesteld moet worden dat een dergelijk onderscheid in de uitlatingen van Colijn zelf niet voorkomt. Dat wil echter nog niet zeggen dat hetgeen rol heeft gespeeld, want het kan zeer wel onderdeel uitgemaakt hebben van de ‘unspoken assumptions’, de onuitgesproken veronderstellingen, van zijn tijd. In het algemeen werd de tijd van het moderne imperialisme gekenmerkt door westers of blank superioriteitsgevoel. Ook zonder dat er van geprononceerd rasdenken sprake hoefde te zijn, kon dit er gemakkelijk toe leiden dat het leven van een niet-blanke minder waard geacht werd dan dat van een blanke. Het moderne imperialisme als zodanig ging uit van een ‘recht’ dat Europa zou hebben om de Derde Wereld in bezit te nemen; als de inheemse bevolking zich daar dan tegen verzette, had zij haar ondergang aan zichzelf te wijten. Zonder dat dergelijke redeneringen bij Colijn aanwijsbaar zijn, hebben zij, waarschijnlijk eerder onbewust dan bewust, mede zijn optreden op Lombok bepaald. Een zijdelingse aanwijzing voor dit soort redeneringen in verband met de Lombokexpeditie is te vinden in het boek van Cool uit 1896, dat achterin wel een lijst van ‘Europese’ gesneuvelde officieren en minderen heeft, maar daarbij in een noot slechts vermeldt: ‘Over de opgave van de [gesneuvelde] niet-Europese mindere militairen kon niet beschikt worden.’. En dat gold dan nog de ‘eigen’ soldaten”.

Einde citaten uit de biografie van Colijn door Herman Langeveld

Colijn kreeg voor zijn heldendaden het ridderschap van de militaire Willemsorde 4e klasse.

Langeveld, pagina 78:  In zijn Atjeh-brieven in De Nederlander ging Colijn niet in op de vraag naar de rechtmatigheid van de Nederlandse oorlog tegen Atjeh; impliciet blijkt wel dat hij hier geen probleem zag. In een brief van juli 1896 aan Van der Veen, antirevolutionair als hijzelf, voelde hij zich gedrongen wel nadrukkelijk bij die vraag stil te staan. Hij achtte deze van beslissende betekenis. ‘Is de oorlog noodig en billijk, dan zij er ook oorlog, oorlog, oorlog! Men breke dan met elk half-systeem. Is de oorlog onbillijk, men verlate Atjeh!’ Colijn kwam nu tot de conclusie dat de Atjeh-oorlog  ‘in oorsprong rechtvaardig’ was. De antirevolutionaire pers, die blijkbaar nog steeds het tegendeel verkondigde dwaalde zijns inziens ‘grovelijk’, waarbij hij verwees naar het  dat van Kuyper afwijkende standpunt van Elout van Soeterwoude. Colijn had zich dus terdege verdiept in de geschiedenis van het antirevolutionaire standpunt inzake de Atjeh-oorlog, en dacht van mening te verschillen met de almachtige partijleider Kuyper. Het zou tot 1904 duren voor hij in de gelegenheid was Kuyper in een persoonlijk gesprek zijn zienswijze te ontvouwen.

3. Herinneringen van Hendrik de Booy over zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog van 1893-1895

 

Luitenant ter Zee der 2e klasse Hendrik de Booy oud 26 jaar in Atjeh

In januari 1893 ontving onze Marine bericht dat het bekende bendehoofd Nja Makam ( later tijdens de vierde Atjeh oorlog zal hij sneuvelen) voornemens was vijandelijkheden te plegen in de residentie Oostkust van Sumatra en wel in het bijzonder bij de rivier van Tamiang waaraan onze post Seroeway gelegen was. Marine en Landmacht namen krachtige maatregelen om daartegen op te treden. Het werd een belangrijke onderneming. Wij hadden een aantal flottielje vaartuigen aan de kust waarvan verscheidene naar de rivier Tamiang kwamen voor het vormen van een divisie gewapende sloepen en een landingsdivisie onder bevel van den luitenant ter zee 1e klasse D. A. Mensert. De “Koerier” werd ook aangewezen,  gewapend met licht geschut. Het nautische deel van onze macht was in zijn geheel onder bevel van overste van den Pauvert. Er moesten versperringen in de rivier opgeruimd worden, bentengs worden veroverd en het geschiedde.

 

Benteng (vesting)

Ook de Landmacht gaf haar deel en vervulde haar taak. Over overste van den Pauvert, die zich voor deze gelegenheid had gewapend met een Japans zwaard van grote afmeting  was een verhaal in omloop dat hij, zich bevindende aan boord van de “Koerier” toen hem werd gerapporteerd “versperring vooruit”, de ontvangst van dit bericht erkende met de woorden: “dank U, waarschuw wanneer wij ‘m dwars hebben”. Wat er geschiedde, het staat alles beschreven in de Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 in 2 gedeelten door W. J. Cohen Stuart , dat ik leende van de heer Cox, directeur van het Historisch Scheepvaartkundig Museum ( Uit dit boek heb ik reeds de belangrijks passages betreffende de krijgsverrichtingen die mijn grootvader in 1893-1895 heeft meegemaakt geciteerd). Nja Makam en zijn volgelingen hadden een nederlaag geleden, maar een toestand van rust en veiligheid was niet bereikt. Uit het bovenstaande zal blijken waarom ik Mensert, mijn 1e officier aan boord “Matador”en “Panter” bij mijn opname in het hospitaal te Weltevreden daar aantrof. De verwonding welke hij ontving waarbij de kogel tot de hersenen doordrong betekende voor hem verlies van een oog. Hij ontving de hoge onderscheiding te worden benoemd tot Ridder van de Militaire Willemsorde.

Mijn bestemming was op 31 mei 1893 mij te bevinden aan boord van het ramtorenschip” Koning der Nederlanden”, Stationsschip van de Zeemacht op de kust van Atjeh, liggende ter reede van Olehleh. Hier bevond ik mij dus op de plaats waar in 1873 de eerste expeditie landde onder generaal Köhler, en nabij die waar generaal van Swieten landde voor de tweede expeditie in 1874.

 

Het landingshoofd Oleh-Leh en het strand in 1893

De Kraton was door ons genomen. De Missigit ((Moskee) werd door ons herbouwd. In 1884 kwam de geconcentreerde postenstelling tot stand. Het huis van Teukoe Ne Radja Moeda Setia, hoofd van de grote Moekim, die gedurende de 1ste en 2de expeditie onze zijde had gekozen en ons herhaaldelijk goede raad had gegeven zagen we dichtbij. Ook konden wij wijzen op de Atjeh tram. (…) Het zou niet lang meer duren namelijk minder dan 2 maanden na mijn komst als zou blijken of wederom zou blijken, dat Atjeh nog niet tot rust gekomen gebied geworden was. Op 20 juli 1893 namelijk was de stoomsloep van Hr Ms “Madura” nabij Diamant punt op brandwacht toen lichtsignalen onder de wal werden gezien. Met den dag zag men top van “Madura” de twee masten van een op het strand zittend stoomschip dat bleek te zijn de “Rayah Kongsie Atjeh” varende onder Nederlandsche vlag. Aan boord vond men een bloedbad, slechts twee van de europese machinisten, die zich hadden schuil gehouden, waren ontkomen. Tenslotte bleek, dat vijf Atjehers, die te Lhos Seumawè aan boord waren gekomen, nadat de controlerende politie-oppasser van boord was gegaan en die rentjongs (Atjehse kris)  in hun kussen verborgen hadden meegebracht gedurende de vaart den Engelschen kapitein, die op de brug lag te slapen, dodelijk verwond en den wachthebbende stuurman gedood hadden. Daarna hadden zij de bemanning en de passagiers, voor zo ver deze zich verzetten hetzelfde lot doen ondergaan en het schip den wal opgestuurd, zodat het ten 9.30 ‘s avonds even benoorden de Koela belas aan den grond liep. Daarna hadden zij met de drie sloepen de geldkist, de post , 2 Snider geweren en al wat zij geroofd hadden, benevens 4 Atjehers als gevangenen en 5 vrouwen aan wal gebracht. Toen de rovers tegen middernacht van boord waren gegaan, waren de machinisten te voorschijn gekomen en hadden enige vuurpijlen afgestoken. De bemanning van de “Madura”vond 24 lijken van passagiers en 12 gewonden; het bleek voorts dat 18 personen verdronken waren bij een poging om met de nog overgebleven sloep, die lek was, het schip te verlaten. De “Madura”nam maatregelen om het schip te bewaken en te beletten, dat het verder op den wal zou slaan, begroef de doden en verbonden de gewonden. Op de 25ste juli Juli sleepte de “Sindow” het schip vlot en werd het daarna met bewaking van de Marine aan boord onder geleide van het gouverments-stoomschip “Havik” naar Penang gebracht en overhandigd aan de eigenaars.(mijn grootvader heeft deze gebeurtenis geput uit het reeds genoemde  werk van de gepensioneerd kapitein ter zee, oud- Minister van Marine W.J.Cohen Stuart )

Op 17 november 1893 heeft kapitein ter zee F.J. Stokhuyzen het bevel over de Zeemacht in de wateren van Atjeh overgegeven aan den kapitein ter zee F.K. Engelbracht. Door  mijn plaatsing aan boord  “Batavia”heb ik van die overdracht niets gemerkt. Op 28 december 1893 heeft een zestal sloepen van “Merapi”en “Batavia op verzoek van het Binnenlandsch Bestuur de rivier  van Modjopahit opgevaren  waar de controleur van Idi werd aangetroffen, die met een bevolkings patrouille daarheen was opgerukt. Blijkbaar was enig machtsvertoon gewenst (..) In 1893 kwam op last van onze Regering het beroemde werk van Dr Snouck Hurgronje uit. De schrijver was van 1992-1893 in Atjeh teneinde over den politieke toestand van advies te dienen. Hij raadde nergens met den vijand te onderhandelen, hem alleen te slaan en nooit de gelegenheid geven zich te herstellen. Sinds een tiental jaren had het bendehoofd Teukoe Oemar het ons lastig gemaakt. Hij had door zijn persoonlijkheid op vele Atjehers invloed en hiervan wilde de toenmalige Gouverneur partij trekken door, na zijn onderwerping hem zijn vertrouwen schenken. Deze Teukoe werd Atjehs generaal in onze dienst, toegerust met onze wapens en voorzien van ons geld tot het onderhouden van een kleine legerafdeling. Een centraal , krachtig inlands gezag hebben wij in Atjeh nooit gekend. Oelemas hielden door hartstochtelijke zendbrieven den oorlogsgeest bij d bevolking wakker. Onder die oelamas ((godsdienstige leiders) was die in Atjeh steeds als autoriteit golden op het gebied van den godsdienst, die Teukoe werden genoemd was Tjèh Thanam di Tirò, een der ijverigste. Ik geef hier de vertaling van een van zijn zendbrieven.

“In handen te stellen van Teukoe Lamreng en Panglima II Moekins en Lamkapang en alle Moslims tot aan Lamthoes en Lampoelan. Laat deze op iedere plaats goed bekende brief niet verloren gaan. Wie hem doet verdwijnen wachte zich voor ongeluk Zo Allah wil!”
Lof zij Allah!
Van fakir, die op hulp hoopt van Allah, den Almachtige. Moge hij dezen brief doen geworden aan alle Moslimse broeders in de kampongs die door de Hollanders, de vervloekten, zijn overweldigd. Zo Allah de Verhevene wil en door zijn bestuur en Zijne kracht zullen deze en alle andere gelovigen nog overwonnen en wij Moslims door Hem ondersteund worden, zoals Allah, de Verhevene, heeft beloofd. En geopenbaard is het teeken der overwinning door het terugtrekken der ongelovigen. Hoevele sterke stellingen hebben de Moslims genomen, hoevele sterke wapenen reeds buitgemaakt. En om deze reden vermeerdert hunne volharding. De zekerheid dat de Moslims moedig zijn vermeerdert de vrees, de schuwheid en de kommer der ongelovigen en renegaten. Een duidelijk teken daarvan is, dat door paggers omgeven versterkingen willen maken en wachten plaatsen van Lam Bengkos tot aan Lambara, vandaar tot aan Geutapan Doea em Peukan Badas tot aan Koeala Tjangkool. Doch meer openbaar is het bewijs van hun kommer daar zij den vrede, van ons, Moslims, afvragen en Teukoe Basét opgedragen is geworden te verzoeken het geweervuur tussen Amagaloeng en Lambaro gedurende 15 dagen te staken. Allah! Allah! Gij lieden, onze broeders, die gevestigd zijt onder het bestuur der ongelovigen, wij zouden wensen, dat de ongelovigen en renegaten nog meer bevreesd werden. De Imam Mahdi heeft zich reeds in de Soedan en Egypte geopenbaard en hij beoorlogt die landen.(De mahdi is een persoon van wie in sommige
islamitische stromingen verwacht wordt dat hij volgens profetieën aan het einde van de tijden komt. De komst van de mahdi is het belangrijkste dat er op de dag des oordeels zal gebeuren).  Hoevele rijken hebben zich reeds aan hem onderworpen en hoevele millioenen ongelovigen en renegaten zijn reeds door de de krijgers van den Mahdi gedood. Aldus het is het ware en duidelijke bericht dat reeds alom bekend is te Mekka en te Constantinopel en in Engeland en dat ook voorkomt in de overleveringen en verhalen van de vrienden des Profeet en de uitspraken der schriftgeleerden. inderdaad zal een heilige uit één der kleinzonen, afstammelingen van den Profeet geboren worden ten tijde der verwarring in goddeloze landen, die de goddelijke wet verwerpen waar nieuwe ketterijen het hoofd opsteken. Die tijd is nu aangebroken. Allen die zich aan de zijde der gelovigen scharen, die onze broeders in de Godsdienst zijn, wilt toch den Godsdienst verheffen, het Goede doen en het Kwade nalaten en de ongelovigen bestrijden, zij zijn de vijanden van Allah, den Verhevene en  de vijanden van ons, Moslims. Ook worden door U bestraft de afvalligen met duidelijke tekenen en bewijzen, terwijl gij lieden moet overleggen en beraadslagen om den godsdienst bij de renegaten versterken door ongelovigen te doden, hunne goederen te roven, bij hun te plunderen, hen te beliegen en te bedriegen en te verschalken, zoveel als in uw vermogen is, opdat gijlieden werkelijk volgens de Islamietischen Godsdienst onze broeders wordt terwijl het U hiernamaals niet als zonden zal worden aangerekend. De ongelovigen, zoals Allah wil, overwonnen en verdreven worden, zoals de heer, de Verhevene. heeft beloofd. Twijfelt gij lieden niet, wie twijfelt is niet de broeder van de Moslims. Inderdaad van den afvallige staat geschreven: Zij dragen U een kwaad hart toe en door Allah en den Profeet is ons opgedragen hen te belagen en ons te bestendigen, terwijl wij zullen gesteund worden door de kracht des Profeets, onzen voorganger Mohammed denalwetende Profeet, aan wien en aan wiens vrienden Allah barmhartigheid schonk.
16 Rabiak Achin 1302  (Adòë Mòslöt)  Deze brief is geschreven na de concentratielinie werd ingesteld in 1884.

(Bij het lezen van deze brief zou men kunnen denken dat zij geschreven is door de tegenwoordige Jihadstrijders)

In het boek van mijn grootvader is een pas voor een vissersvaartuig dat hij voor 40 gulden kocht van de Atjeher Masiad, zie hieronder

 

Pas voor vissersvaartuig dat mijn grootvader van de Atjeher Masiad voor f 40 gulden had gekocht

Ik vervolg weer met passages uit het boek met de herinneringen van mijn grootvader:

Wanneer ik nu, na zovele jaren, terugdenk aan de omstandigheden waaronder wij leefden aan boord van een klein schip dat meestal ten anker lag voor de kust van het ons als regel vijandige Atjeh, dan moet ik constateren dat wij tevreden waren, in weerwil van de warmte in de kleine hut en de aanwezigheid van kakkerlakken, die zich des nachts te goed deden aan vocht dat zij vonden in de mondhoeken van den slapende zeeman. Soms moest zo een slapende man de kooi (het bed) voor vier uur verlaten en in dien tijd zorgdragen voor de veiligheid van de een honderd en vier mensen, waarvan de meerderheid slapende was en ieder zijn eigen dromen droomde en een minderheid, gewapende aan dek in wakende staat, een marinier met geladen geweer op de brug de wacht hield. En lag ons scheepje niet ver van een post van de Landmacht, die last ondervond van nachtelijke beschietingen door den vijand, dan gebeurde het dat op verzoek van de Commandant van die Post, het op zijn station voor anker liggende schip elk uur van de nacht een schot loste met een der kanonnen van 12 cm, op de kampong waartoe de mensen behoorden, die de nachtelijke beschietingen voerde. Ik denk nu aan de Post Sigli op de Noordkust. Wij brachten een bezoek aan deze Post en werden door de Commandant op de hoogte gesteld van de nachtelijke beschietingen door volk van de kampong Lho Soekoen, waarna de regeling tot stand kwam van de nachtelijke beschieting van elk uur een projectiel van 12 cm op de genoemde kampong. De post Sigli had een hoge, ijzeren uitkijktoren. Ik vroeg den commandant van de post Sigli mij toe te staan den toren te beklimmen, wat hij toestond maar, voegde hij er aan toe: “u moet het mij niet kwalijk nemen als ze op u schieten terwijl U naar boven klimt”. Een ijzeren trap voerde naar boven, boven was men beschut. Naar boven klimmende hoorde ik beneden mij een geluid, zoiets als ‘ klets’ van ijzer op ijzer, dat op mij de indruk maakte, dat ik was beschoten. Bij het afdalen heb ik het niet gehoord. Ik heb omtrent de nachtelijk paraatheid van ons schip nog niet medegedeeld, dat volgens een vaststaande regel de stoomsloep met een gewapende bemanning op brandwacht voer. Hoelang de brandwachtsloep uitbleef herinner ik mij niet meer. Wel herinner ik mij dat een lid der bemanning zorgde voor een zeer op prijs gestelde  kop koffie waarbij naar ik geloof een primus dienst deed. Ik zal nu nog herinneringen opschrijven zonder precies dat te vermelden maar wel met de wetenschap dat ze verband hebben met de “Batavia” en gebeurtenissen welke plaatsvonden in 1893 en wel een tweede tocht met gewapende sloepen naar de bovenloop van de rivier van Tamiang. Deze rivier heeft haar bestaan te danken aan twee andere machtige rivieren, de Simpang kanan en de Simpang kiri (kanan en kiri zijn maleise woorden en betekenen rechts en links). Na vereniging van die twee rivieren heet de rivier verder Tamiang en valt in Noordoostelijke richting stromende in de straat van Malakka. Ik heb reeds verteld dat wij – de Hollanders – den Atjehsen bendeleider der Nja Makan een ernstige nederlaag hadden bezorgd. Toch kon de streek waar hij zich ophield niet als kalm worden beschouwd zoals uit berichten bleek. De “Koerier” bevond zich nog daar in de bovenloop van de Tamiang rivier met haar flinke commandant luitenant ter zee 2e klasse J.F.B.van Dijk en op het zelfde schip  bevond zich ook de commandant van de gehele expeditie de overste H van den Pauvert, met zijn japanse slagzwaard.

 

 

De Koerier””  voor de expeditie Tamiang 1893 bevorderd en in staat gebracht tot krijgsverrichtingen. De beschermde marsen zijn voorzien van snelvuur kanonnen tot krijgsverrichtingen.

Nu werd weder een nieuwe sloepen flottielje gevormd met de bedoeling dat die gewenst zou blijken, aan den wal zou optreden. De “Batavia” zou gewapende sloepen leveren en niet alleen de “Batavia”, maar ook verscheidende andere schepen en ik zou commandant zijn van één van die sloepen. Verscheidende schepen leverden ook één of twee sloepen door en begeleid en gesleept door stoomsloepen en stoombarkassen verzamelden wij ons tot een sloepenmacht, waarvan ieder sloepscommandant zijn best had gedaan bemanning en commandant op de beste wijze doormiddel, van kooien (hangmatten compleet) te beschermen tegen geweervuur van den vijand.

 

Gewapende sloepen op de rivier Tamiang. De tocht vond plaats van  9 t/m 12 november 1893

Op mijn plaats achteruit had ik den indruk in Abrahams schoot te verkeren. Zo bereikten wij dan Seroeway op den eersten dag, een sterke Hollandse post aan de rechteroever van de rivier. Ik had in mijn hut aan boord  een briefje achtergelaten, waarop vermeld stond wat ik zou wensen dat met mijn eigendommen zou geschieden ingeval ik zou sneuvelen. In Seroeway sliepen wij aan den wal, wat niet et letterlijk moet worden opgevat daar slapen bijna onmogelijk werd gemaakt door de talloze muskieten, die zich verheugden in onze aanwezigheid. Den volgende dag vervolgden wij onze tocht. De stemming was best. Zo waren wij nu op die machtige stroom tussen twee dichte oerwouden. Soms liet ik, als  gelegenheid ons te beschieten mij voor den vijand gunstig scheen  mijn bemanning gereed zijn om te vuren van achter hun kooien. Maar van een beschieting door den vijand bleek niets en ook wij deden niets. Wij passeren een benting en stelden vast, dat het een verlaten vijandelijke benting was vlak bij de rivier waarin wij nog een oude lilla vonden, welke wij in de rivier wierpen en waarin een vermagerd katje in de benting werd aangetroffen, dat wij een naam gaven ( naam is ergens in die 66 jaren blijven hangen) en meenamen bevorderden tot kat van de “Batavia”. Eindelijk bereikten wij de “Koerier”een mooi gezicht die Hollandse vlag op die machtige rivier.(…) Ik herinner mij van het bezoek aan de “Koerier”slechts dat ik, na de overste van den Pauvert met zijn Japanse slagzwaard eerbiedig te hebben begroet een zittende houding te hebben aangenomen, onmiddellijk in een diepe slaap viel, waaruit ik eerst ontwaakte toen men mij mededeelde dat onze gewapende sloepenmacht nog hoger op moest. De “:Koerier” kon niet hoger op wegens haar diepgang en nu zouden wij een kijkje gaan nemen (..) Wij gingen dus verder de rivier op en zagen toen plotseling na het passeren van een bocht een grote hoeveelheid mensen, die zich op een plek bevonden waar geen bomen stonden. Deze mensen waren Atjehers , die geen vijandige houding aannamen. Ik schat het aantal op iets minder dan honderd. Hadden wij vertegenwoordigers van ons Binnenlandsch Bestuur bij ons en kwamen deze in gesprek met  een  aantal van deze Atjehers? Ik heb den indruk behouden dat wij niet voldoende voorzichtig ware. maar er gebeurde niets. De volgende dag vertrokken wij met onze gewapende sloepen voorstrooms naar de schepen, ieder naar zijn eigen schip, wat mij betreft de “Batavia “. En ons katje van die Atjehse benting voelde zich ‘senang’ onder de  hollandse vlag.

 

Aantekeningen 1893 van Hendrik de Booy van de expeditie Tamiang rivier:

Wij waren vijf dagen en nachten (met muskieten) afwezig geweest en hadden het een vermoeiende tocht gevonden. Nu konden wij weder genieten van de gemakken welke ons goede scheepje de  “Batavia” ons kon bieden. Zo iets als wat wij in die vijf dagen hadden doorleefd, het was niet zo bijzonder belangrijk maar het was toch een avontuur en zulke avonturen zijn, nu wij geen oostindiesche koloniën beheren dan – (tijdelijk) Nieuw Guinea, niet langer in ons bereik en dat is een gemis en doet ons gevoelen dat wij, wat onze positie onder de naties betreft, zijn gedaald tot van landen als Zwitserland, Denemarken en dergelijke. Maar wij kunnen ons troosten met het feit dat denkbeelden welke behoren bij den tijd waarin wij leven bezig zijn zich te voltrekken en alle naties zullen ondervinden. Later ontving ik een onderscheidingsteken, het ereteken voor krijgsverrichtingen met de gesp Tamiang 1893, ook al waren die krijgsverrichtingen niet belangrijk, toch denk ik gaarne aan dien tijd terug.

Bij mijn komst aan boord van de “Batavia”had onze Commandant mij opgedragen eenmaal in de week te oefenen met het kanon van 18 cm dat op het voorschip stond. In verband met deze opdracht begaf ik mij op zekeren voormiddag naar het voorschip waar het kanon van 18 cm A mij met zijn bemanning van 10 man afwachtte. De exercitie met dit kanon doorlopende, viel het mij op dat bij het vele baksen ( het geschut in de gewenste positie stellen) waarbij verscheidene kampongs schijnbaar onder vuur werden genomen mijn bemanning de zwaarte van het kanon als een groot beletsel ondervond tegen een snel veranderen van vuurrichting. Er werd veel gezucht en weinig vriendelijke namen werden het kanon gegeven terwijl niet de aanwezige lichaamskrachten genoeg werden gebruikt. Ik zeide, dat, al was ik met de bemanning de mening toegedaan dat het kanon een pestbuil is, dit daarvoor niet verantwoordelijk is, zijnde het als zodanig geboren. Beter dan op het kanon te schelden ware het daarom alle kracht aan te wenden. Het baksen ging daarna beter en toen enige weken later den Commandant een oefening kwam bij wonen ging alles best en zeide na afloop. dat hij de oefening met genoegen had bijgewoond.(…)

In maart 1894 werd ik over geplaatst a/b van Hr. Ms. Ramtorenschip “Koning der Nederlanden”. Nadat Kapitein ter zee Stokhuyzen op 17 november 1893 het commando over de “Koning” en de in de wateren van Atjeh aanwezige Nederlandse scheepsmacht had overgegeven aan Kapitein ter zee F.K. Engelbrecht had het niet lang geduurd of deze had op het schip waarop wij dienden zijn stempel gedrukt. Het duurde ook niet lang of ik had een naam bedacht, die goed bij hem paste. Deze naam was “Radja Brul”, een naam waaronder hij weldra op onze gehele vloot bekend was, en die hij tot zijn dood behield, ja zelfs daarna. Hij was de door allen erkende “radja” op het schip dat “Koning” heette en de toevoeging Brul hield verband met zijn alle scheepsruimten doordringende stem. Bij de overdracht aan hem van het commando over een van onze grote schepen met een bemanning van 300 man zeide hij: “Ik heb van mijn voorganger gehoord, dat gij niet een gemakkelijke bemanning zijt en ook aan de wal wel eens aanleiding geeft tot klachten. Welnu, ik waarschuw u, als daarvan iets blijkt, zal ik u in veertien dagen zó tam maken, dat gij gort komt eten uit mijn hand.” Wat hij tot de bemanning zeide werd zeer bewonderd.

Ik persoonlijk herinner mij, in de vroege morgen de wacht hebbende, aan dek geluid te horen van een menselijke stem, komende uit het achterschip, een geluid, aanzwellende tot een geluid dat het best kan worden vergeleken, al heb ik het nog nooit gehoord, met het geluid van de ontwakende leeuw, de koning der dieren. Dan een hofmeester van Europees ras, doodsbleek, die aan dek verschijnt, bedreigd wordende door die menselijke stem met het indraaien met een schroef in, ja waarin, ik weet het niet. Wij noemden zulk een vertoning “réveil du lion” en zorgden er voor een der torens van ons schip tussen onze commandant en ons te hebben als, na de doodsbleke hofmeester, de commandant op het halfdek verscheen. Het gebeurde wel eens, dat ik, op snippenjacht lang in de tropenzon gelopen hebbende, met een paar dagen koorts aan boord terug kwam en dan geen dienst kon doen. Ik was toen 26 jaar. Toen, nadat zo iets had plaats gehad, ik weer onderweg was met het voornemen snippen te schieten en op een afstand van zowat honderd meter van het schip was, hoorde ik mijn naam en, omkijkende, zag ik Radja Brul, staande op het achterschip, die mij toeriep: “denk eraan de Booy, je lichaam hoort niet aan je zelf maar aan het schip. En ik heb: “Jawel commandant” geroepen. Velen aan boord zullen zijn stem gehoord en verstaan en begrepen hebben wat hij zeide. Dat elke opvarende de plicht had mede te werken tot de goede naam van het schip, waarop hij dient en zodoende tot de goede naam van onze marine, was een gedachte die onze commandant gemeengoed wenste en die ook tegenover de Atjeher moest worden geëerbiedigd.

Als er te Kota Radja iets bijzonders gebeurde als de benoeming van een nieuwe, met ons bevriende Radja van Edi, waartoe de generaal Deijkerhoff ons uitnodigde, dan trok ik zelf mijn  mooie bullen aan, lange jas met sabel en epauletten en ging er heen met de tram want in de gouverneurswoning was dan iets te zien, vele Hoofd – en andere Officieren en bevriende Atjehse  hoofden vooral den nieuw te benoemen Radja van Edi  en ook  den sluwen Teukoe Oemar en wij vergaten dan tijdelijk dat wij (de Marine) het getikte blaadje, dat de Gouverneur  ons geregeld toezond, misschien onverdiend, altijd bestempelde met den naam Blauwe Leugen. Wij oordeelden misschien ten onrechte , dat de toestand van rust en veiligheid daarin al te gunstig werd geschilderd.

 

Inhuldiging van de nieuwe Radja van Edi. V.l.n r Radja van Edi , x,  Generaal Deijkerhoff (met tafeltje met glazen voor hem), x ,x,Overste Siekens commandant dan 2e van links van de witte pilaar er achter zittende Teukoe Oemar, geheel rechts zittend Luitenant ter zee H. de Booy

Op 19 juli 1894 kwam een eind aan een periode van mijn dienst tijd bij de Marine waaraan ik gaarne terugdenk. Behalve met het gewone clubje bezocht ik ook enige kampongs in de geconcentreerde stelling met Alfred Boissevain (later na het huwelijk van mijn grootvader met Hilda Boissevain zijn zwager) dien ik op het instituut had leren kennen als adelborst van het jongste jaar. Met dit afscheid op 19 juli 1894  van een periode waaraan ik met genoegen terugdenk ben ik te vlug geweest. Immers werd ik op dien datum geplaatst aan boord van H.M. “Benkoelen” welk schip ik eerst op 18 oktober 1895 zou verlaten na 1 jaar en 3 maanden en er is geen reden waarom ik niet met genoegen ook aan dien tijd terugdenk.

De tijd dat mijn grootvader op het schip de “Benkoelen” heeft doorgebracht aan de kustwateren van Atjeh heeft hij weinig krijgsverrichtingen moet doen. Ik laat nog enkele passages uit deze tijd volgen.

 

H.M. “Benkoelen “, bemanning 77 Europeanen 28 inlanders

Wij doorzochten veel zeilprauwen die beantwoorden aan de voorschriften van de Scheepvaartregeling, waren in station aan Noord – en Oostkust, ik bezocht met een stoombarkas een in het binnenland gevestigde militaire post van het N.I. leger. Volgens mijn herinnering was de `Benkoelen” gedurende den tijd van een jaar en ongeveer drie maanden, de duur van mijn verblijf aan boord vaak aan de westkust, ook aan de Noordkust soms op de rede van Oelee Lheue voor het voorgeschreven bezoek aan het hoofdstation en ook geruimen tijd bezig aan de opname van het eiland Simaloer, een groot eiland aan de Westkust. Ik kan mij echter niet herinneren, wanneer wij aan de Noordkust gestationeerd waren wanneer aan de Westkust waar wij vele malen met de landingsdivisie den wal opgingen ook schijf te schieten en wanneer  wij het eiland Simaloer opnamen.

 

De landingsdivisie van H.M. “Benkoelen”op Poeloe Rajah, Westkust van Atjeh

 

De landingsdivisie van H.M. ” Benkoelen”versterkt door een deel van de bezetting van de post Lho Theumawe oefenden aan de wal 1895 Geheel links staat ergens luitenant ter zee H. de Booy

Een  gebeurtenis vol spanning was het omslaan van onze vlet in de branding, de landing op een eiland van de bemanning van inbegrip van onze dokter v.d. Sande.  Verder mag niet onvermeld blijven dat de “Benkoelen” werkzaam aan de Westkust, even op een koraal rif stootte . Alles samen genomen, is het voor ons, koloniale mogendheid , een groot verlies, dat wij dit werk zo radicaal hebben moeten opgeven (..)

 

Hospitaal Pantei Perak bij Kota Radja

De photo hierachter (zie bovenstaande foto) stelt het grote militair hospitaal Pantei Perak bij Kota Radja voor waar ik enigen tijd met koorts verpleegd werd. De photo toont vooral den langen middenweg die vertakkingen heeft naar zijwegen rechts en links waaraan de kamers van de verpleegden zich bevinden. Achteruit die kamer keek men op het uitgebreide terrein van de geconcentreerde postenlinie vanwaar geluid van geschutvuur kwam en vooral in de avond van Vrijdag het geluid van godsdienstoefening in de kampongs. Op gewone avonden vaak het gegil van Atjehers. ‘s Avonds langs de middenweg dwangarbeiders die gestorven patiënten naar het lijkhuis brengen. In het hospitaal een Hoofdofficier van gezondheid ontmoet die (misschien) Rutgers van der Loeff heet en die zegt dat “de Booij “een goed ras is. Ik vind in het hospitaal ook ter Cock , de officier van administratie van de “Flores”, die met zijn sloepen langzij “Benkoelen” liggende zware brandwonden heeft gekregen door onachtzaamheid van onze machine kamer, die niet heeft gewaarschuwd dat er zou worden gebreind, waardoor ter Cock dit breinwater, dat naar ik meen 40 graden celcius heeft, over zich heeft gekregen. Voornamelijk armen en benen getroffen..

 

Werpen van mortier te Lhos Theumawe 1895

Ten anker liggende voor de kust van Atjeh bevindt zich gedurende den nacht steeds een gewapende marinier op de brug. Zijn Beamont geweer is geladen en draagt een sabelbajonet. Wij weten wat wij van den Atjeher kunnen verwachten op een donkeren nacht. Als hij wordt afgelost ontlaadt de afgeloste zijn geweer en neemt de sabelbajonet af. Nu was dat afnemen van de sabelbajonet door den afgeloste marinier wat onhandig geschied want de sabelbajonet viel in zee en wat erger is voor een bekwaam, goed oppassend marinier, vader van driekinderen in Holland, drukt deze zijn gevoelens uit wijzende naar de plek waar zijn sabelbajonet in de zee verdween: “daar leit het pestijzer”. Ik maakte dadelijk het plan er over te schrijven aan des mariniers hoogste chef in de wateren van Atjeh doch voor dien brief als briefschrijven te nemen (zonder zijn medeweten) den marinier Middendorp “capitain d’armes “aan boord. H.M. “Benkoelen”, een man, beantwoordend , wat zijn karaktertrekken betreft, aan de strengste eisen welke het Korps voorschrijft.

 

De marinier Middendop, “capitaine d’armes “aan boord H.M. “Benkoelen”op de kust van Atjeh. Hij schreef (zonder zijn medeweten ) een brief met een klacht aan zijn hoogste chef (zie tekst)

Bekendheid met wat er omgaat in het hoofd van den Marinier stelde mij in staat aan dien brief de vereiste vorm een inhoud te geven, ook wanneer dit hoofd staat voor de beoordeling van andere moeilijkheden van het verhinderen van het opschuiven van de stropdas. Hoe die brief luidde, er zijn sedert zestig jaren verlopen en mijn herinneringenvermogen is ontoereikend. Wel herinner ik mij dat een man, die later mijn schoonbroeder werd, dien brief las en gedurende een tijdelijke aanwezigheid aan boord van H.M. ” Koning der Nederlanden” mij zeide dat hij er met genoegen van had kennis genomen. Die man was de luitenant ter zee 2 e klasse Abraham van Stockum.( een volle neef van Hendrik de Booy). Wat zou de ontvanger van den brief,  luitenant G. Faassen doen.. Wat hij deed had ik niet verwacht. Hij schreef aan de Commandant van d e “Benkoelen” van Rossum. Wat hij schreef weet ik niet en wist ik zestig jaren geleden ook niet. De heer van Rossum, commandant van H.M.”Benkoelen” bezat verscheidene  lofwaardige eigenschappen doch hield niet van zulk soort aardigheden. Wat zou hij doen. Misschien had hij het briefje van G. Faassen, dat waarschijnlijk niet geheel vrij van een geestigheid zal zijn geweest op een dergelijke wijze hebben kunnen beantwoorden maar hij deed het best wat hij kon doen “niet”  en liep een week rond met de gelaatsuitdrukking welke lezer van het leven van Koningin Victoria bekend is, die van “we are not amused”.

Daar mijn doel is het opschrijven van herinneringen mag ik geen herinneringen verzwijgen tenzij dit gewenst is. Op en neer wandelen op het half dek met onze commandant (luitenant ter zee 1e klasse J.P. van Rossum en sprekend over koetjes en kalfjes, zeide hij plotseling,  de Booy zeide hij  onze tweede Machinist wil bevorderd worden tot een hogere rang. Volgens de  bepalingen moet hij daarvoor examen afleggen en heb ik besloten U te  belasten met het afnemen van dat examen. Het gaat om  Natuurkunde, wel te weten de beginselen. En wanneer zal dit examen worden afgenomen, vroeg ik “Morgen “antwoordde de  Commandant. De marine is vol verassing.. Het ene ogenblik ben je de gast van een rijke Arabier het volgende sla ik om met een sloep; wat mij altijd treft als ik thuis kom in het ouderlijk huis te Haarlem dat de kruidenier van Veen terwijl ik in grillige lijnen den aardbol heb omcirkeld nog altijd bezig is met het afwegen van een of ander vocht zoals stroop of het afmeten van iets anders als ik uit  de tram, die mij naar huis brengt, hem met de hand groet, want ik ken dien man. Vaak heeft mijn Moeder mij opgedragen, toen ik nog een jongetje was, iets bij Veen te kopen,. maar deze verrassing gaat te ver. Als de Commandant mij in kennis brengt met deze benoeming herinner ik mij niets van de beginselen van Natuurkunde.  Er zal dus een leerboek nodig zijn om het geheugen op te frissen. veel meer dan iemand die her examen afneemt gevoel ik mij als iemand die examen aflegt. Maar ik had dien nacht de Hondenwacht en friste met een leerboek dat ik vond het vroeger geleerde op. Den volgende morgen zat ik met den machinist en de Commandant aan een tafeltje aan dek. De machinist kwam door zijn examen en ik door het mijne.
Mijn tijd dienende in de wateren van Atjeh liep ten einde. Op 18 october 1895 werd ik overgeplaatst in de rol van  H.M “Gedeh”, het wachtschip in de haven van Tandjong Priok. Op 2 november melde ik mij aan boord van dit schip na een voorspoedige reis met de Westboot van de K.P.M. Ik nam afscheid van de “Benkoelen” en van mijn vrienden te Oleë Lheuë. In mijn atjehsen tijd had ik veel gelezen in het boek van Snouck Hurgronje en had ik getracht met behulp van de atjehse taal te leren. De gedachte was bij mij opgekomen afscheid te nemen van de  Marine en in dienst te komen bij het Binnenlands Bestuur. Toen het feit dat ik hierover ernstig nadacht en er over sprak met een assistent resident ter ore kwam van mijn ouderen vriend Frits Bauduin, schreef deze mij verscheidende brieven, minstens drie, waarin hij ten sterkste afraadt het plan dat ik heb, uit te voeren onder aanvoering van de grote nadelen en er aan verbonden waartoe dan ook behoort dat ik ten slotte dan zal trouwen met de “snaar” ,die zo trouw voor mij gezorgd heeft.  Hij wijst ook op de nadelen verbonden aan het op mijn leeftijd in dienst komen als controleur. Intussen, begrijpende dat ik bij de overgang naar het binnenlands bestuur zou moeten kunnen  beschikken over de kennis welke door aanstaande controleurs gedurende een studie van een aantal jaren te Leiden is verkregen of over een deel ervan, ben ik begonnen met het lezen van maleise hikajats in arabiesch schrift. Wij ontvingen op het Instituut van de Marine reeds onderricht in die richting van den heer Derx.  Het was mijn plan te Batavia te wenden tot een heer, die Margadant heette en die zonder twijfel bereid zou zijn mijn kennis in het lezen van hikajats te onderzoeken en beoordelen. (Later in Batavia heeft de heer Margadant zijn vaardigheid in het lezen van maleise hikajats in arabisch schrift niet voldoende gevonden wat mijn grootvader niet verwonderde)

 

H. de Booy in de kleding van een atjees hoofd (oeloebalang)

Op den dag van vertrek besteeg ik de Westboot, aan boord waarvan groet drukte heerste. Er waren vele militairen aan boord en daarbij behorende vrouwen en kinderen. Op het grootluik zat een figuur, dien ik dadelijk herkende als een Atjeher. Hij was met een dun touwtje verbonden aan een politieoppasser, een inlander, die rustig sliep. Vrouwen van militairen brachten den gevangen Atjeher seroetos (inlandse cigaretten) dat hij dankbaar ontving. Ik vroeg hem in de Atjehse taal van waar hij kwam en hij vertelde mij dat hij kwam van de kampong Lho Soekoen bij Sigli; dat Atjehers de boot van het binnenlandsch bestuur, die onder de brug lag in de hollandse benting Sigli hadden geroofd en dat een atjehs oeloebalang de dader had aangewezen en uitgeleverd, echter werd de boot, naar ik meen, een stoomsloep, niet uitgeleverd en ontkende deze atjeher dat hij had deelgenomen aan de roof, maar oeloebalangs zijn en toen volgde een woord, dat waarschijnlijk vertaald in de hollandse taal “smeerlappen” betekent. Sigli is de ons welbekende post, welks militair commandant ons een bezoek bracht en met onze commandant een afspraak maakte welke inhield dat hij hulp nodig hebbende die vuurpijlen zou tonen. Hij zou, het was avond, na terugkomst op zijn Post, ook vuurpijlen omhoog schieten, maar deze zouden dienen om te zien, dat die vuurpijlen goed zichtbaar waren, niet als een verzoek om hulp. De Commandant van Sigli verzocht onzen Commandant de bemanning een extra oorlam te geven schenken en dit verzoek willigde onzen Commandant in.

 

Extra oorlam bij de gelegenheid van het bezoek van de Commandant van Sigli

Daarna vertrok hij. Wij lichten daarna het anker en gingen onder stoom naar onze plaats door onze commandant opgegeven. Ik had de wacht en onder stoom zijnde stond ik op de brug. Toen zag ik drie vuurpijlen omhoog gaan boven Sigli, wat ik den Commandant rapporteerde, die mij mededeelde dat deze vuurpijlen geen andere betekenis hadden, dan dat ze gezien waren wat wij nog door het oplaten  van een vuurpijl bevestigden.

De Atjeher van het groot luik zeide te behoren tot de kampong Lko Soekoen van waar Sigli vaak beschoten werd en die wij dan beschoten met granaten. Na aankomst in Tandjong Priok gingen al die militairen en ook de Atjeher  van het grootluik van boord. Enige dagen, misschien een week later, te Tandjong Priok geland zijnde met de bedoeling naar Batavia te gaan zag ik een troepje dwangarbeiders op de gebruikelijke wijze  onder geleide  van een inheemse politieoppasser gekleed in een tenue dat hem het voorkomen geeft van een gekleed aapje. Een dun touw omgeeft zijn gehele troepje. De twee einden zijn aan elkaar geknoopt en dan heeft de politieoppasser het in de hand. Een van de dwangarbeiders steekt een arm  in de hoogte . Ik herken hem, al is zijn lange haar geknipt, den Atjeher aan boord van de Westboot. Ik vraag hen naar het oordeel van het binnenlands bestuur en hij zegt mij dat hij 20 jaar dwangarbeid heeft gekregen. Ik herinner mij dat hij er “soesah tehat”aan toevoegde. Toen kwam het troepje in beweging, ik denk naar de pakketboot die een lange reis zal maken naar een plaats in het oosten van ons eilandenrijk. Er waren vele mensen, een van die mensen scheen mij toe ietwat verbaasd te zijn over mijn spreken met een dwangarbeider.. Het was een ambtenaar van het BB een resident of assistent-resident.

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Voor de expeditie naar de Tamiang rivier van 5-12 november 1893 heeft Hendrik de Booij van de Minister van Marine Jjhr H.W. van der Wijck een oorkonde  gekregen dd 30 november 1894

 

:
Oorkonde voor Hendrik de Booij, Luitenant ter Zee der 2e Klasse, . ( De naam van de Booij wordt nu terecht met een lange ij geschreven). De tekst van deze oorkonde luidt: De Minister van  Marine,  Gezien het Koninklijk Besluit van den 19 Februari 1869 no 13 waarbij een eerteken is ingesteld voor hen, die deelgenomen hebben aan belangrijke krijgsbedrijven, verklaart dat de Luitenant ter Zee der 2e klasse H. de Booij gerechtigd is tot het dragen van het voormeld eereteken met gesp, hebbende hij als Luitenant ter Zee der 2e Klasse deelgenomen aan de expeditie naar de Tamiang-rivier ( Oostkust van Sumatra) 1893.  ‘s-Gravenhage den 30 november 1894. De Minister voornoemd  Van der Wijck

Opmerkelijk genoeg  bestaat er een direct verband tussen mijn twee grootvaders, voordat mijn ouders geboren waren. Wat wil namelijk het geval. Zoals we al hebben kunnen lezen waren zij aan boord van de gewapende sloepen, die een verkenningsexpeditie uitvoerden op de bovenloop van de Rivier Tamiang aan de Oostkust van Atjeh. Zowel mijn grootvader Gooszen als mijn grootvader de Booij krijgen  voor deze krijgsverrichtingen een ereteken van de Minister van Marine. Uit de oorkonde, die daarbij werd vergezeld gaat heeft de zelfde tekst voor beide grootsvaders, uiteraard waren de namen van hen op de oorkonde verschillend. De dagtekening was ook het zelfde: 30 november 1994.  De oorkonde was getekend door  Jhr  H.M. van der Wijck, de Minister van Marine.

 

Oorkonde voor Antonie Frederik Gooszen, Luitenant ter Zee 2e klasse. De tekst van deze oorkonde is identiek aan die van Antonie Frederik Gooszen. Uiteraard verschilt de naam die bij de oorkonde is ingevuld

4. Vierde Atjeh oorlog 1898-1918

De vierde Atjeh oorlog duurde van 1998-1918. Mijn grootvader is reeds, zoals we al gezien hebben in 1895 uit Atjeh vertrokken Hij is in begin 1900 weer naar Indië teruggekeerd. Hier werd hij benoemd als adjudant van de Gouverneur-generaal W. Rooseboom

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Willem Rooseboom ,Gouverneur-generaal 1899-1904. Mevrouw Rooseboom-Pit

Door deze functie was hij indirect op een bepaalde manier betrokken bij deze vierde Atjeh oorlog. Rooseboom was van huis uit een beroepsmilitair.  Bij zijn ontslag uit de militaire dienst in 1899 werd hij bevorderd tot luitenant-generaal. Roosebooms ontslag hing samen met zijn benoeming tot gouverneur-generaal van Nederlandsch-Indië. Men mag aannemen, dat deze benoeming het werk is geweest van de minister van Koloniën J.Th. Cremer, die Rooseboom uit de tijd van diens kamerlidmaatschap goed kende. Dat de keuze op een militair viel – voor het eerst in bijna zestig jaar na het overlijden van gouverneur-generaal D.J. de Eerens in 1840 – was op zichzelf niet zo verwonderlijk. De gebrekkige staat van de Indische defensie baarde bij het opdringen van Japan en het verlies van de Philippijnen door Spanje aan de Verenigde Staten grote zorgen. Rooseboom leek de geschikte man om Indië in een betere staat van tegenweer te brengen bij een onverhoopte aanval van een buitenlandse vijand. In de Indische pers vond Roosebooms benoeming echter geen onverdeeld gunstig onthaal, vanwege zijn onbekendheid met Indië waarvoor hij in het verleden nooit enige belangstelling had getoond. Hij volgde in oktober 1899 de Gouverneur-generaal Jhr C.H.A. van der Wijck op. Hij steunde van Heutsz met volle overtuiging in zijn strijd tegen de Atjehers om het Nederlands gezag te vestigen. Als gouverneur-generaal, heeft Rooseboom niet geheel aan de verwachtingen ten opzichte van de door hem te ondernemen reorganisatie van de Indische defensie beantwoord. Met de minister van Koloniën lag hij dikwijls overhoop. Zo bood Rooseboom in december 1903 zijn ontslag aan, omdat hij door gewapend ingrijpen een einde wilde maken aan de in het rijkje Tabanan op Bali bestaande weduwen verbranding, terwijl minister Idenburg van een dergelijk ingrijpen niet wilde weten.

 

Willem Frederik Idenburg , Minister van Oorlog

Het conflict kon worden bijgelegd doordat de raja van Tabanan zich in het begin van 1904 naar de wensen van de Ned.-Indische regering schikte.(Zoals we later zullen zien, bij de memoires van mijn oom James Marnix de Booy, is het plan van Rooseboom toch uitgevoerd in 1906 toen Bali werd veroverd. Mijn oom heeft als zeeofficier meegedaan met deze verovering). Op 1 oktober 1904 gaf Rooseboom het bestuur over aan zijn opvolger, de pacificator van Atjeh, J.B. van Heutsz.

 

Hendrik de Booij adjudant van de Gouverneur-generaal van Nederlandsch Indië V.r.n.l: H. de Booij, zijn vrouw Hilda, Holle, vrouw van de Gouverneur Generaal Rooseboom-Pit,, Gouverneur-generaal Rooseboom, Regent van Bandoeng, Nederburg, De Lannoy, assistent resident Maurenborcher.

De tuchtiging van de opstandige Atjehers, aan het einde van de derde Atjeh oorlog heeft een onbeschrijfelijke verwoesting aangericht. Groot Atjeh was vrijwel geheel ontvolkt, de bevolking was weggetrokken naar andere gebieden zoals Malakka . Hoe diep de moraal van de troepen was gezonken laat een passage uit het boek van Paul van ‘t Veer over de Atjeh oorlog zien:

pagina 232: “De mate van verwildering wordt treffend geïllustreerd door een trofee die in 1897 op de achtergalerij van het militair hospitaal te Koetaradja was tentoongesteld. Het was een grote stopfles gevuld met alkohol waarin het opgezwollen hoofd dreef van teukoe Nja Makan. ( over deze man verhaalt mijn grootvader in zijn herinneringen). Deze verzetsleider was in juli 1896 ernstig ziek aangetroffen in kampong Lamnga even buiten de linie. Hij werd op een tandoe gelegd en met zijn gezin naar de colonnecommandant overste Soeters gebracht. Die liet hem van de tandoe gooien en ter plaatse doodschieten. In aanwezigheid van Makans vrouwen en kinderen werd zijn hoofd afgehakt. Kolonel Stemfoort liet het als trofee tentoonstellen. Een niet teerhartige ooggetuige schreef: ‘Deze en soortgelijke barbaarsheden hebben de onderwerping en pacificatie van Atjeh niet in de hand gewerkt, tegendeel, zij hebben ons duizenden en duizenden onverzoenlijke vijanden bezorgd.’  (Later kreeg deze Stemfoort de Militaire Willemsorde 3e klasse).

Generaal van Heutsz was de leider van de Pedir expeditie in 1989. Uit Selimoen en Sigli vertrokken twee collones van 75-100 man. Snouck Hurgronje was ook weer van  de partij en had een groot aandeel, samen met van Heutsz, gehad om de voorbereiding van deze expeditie. Hun grootste tegenstander was niet minder dan de Teukoe Oemar, die we al eerder hebben leren kennen.

 

Bivakfoto Pedir expeditie  olv. generaal van Heutsz. Hij zit achter de tafel links op een stoel. De man uiterst links in de witte jas is Snouck Hurgronje

Op 10 februari 1899 viel het leger het kamp van Teukoe Oemar binnen. Hij had er echter lucht van gekregen en trok op tijd weg en viel met zijn mannen de plaats Meulaboh aan. Er waren nog maar weinig mensen op deze post achter gebleven. Maar van Heutsz had toch rond de post een hinderlaag gelegd met in zijn achterhoofd de gedachte : “Je kunt maar nooit weten”. Er ontstond een heftige strijd. De troepen van Oemar raakten in paniek, maar ook de troepen van van Heutsz onder leiding van Verbrugh moesten zich terugtrekken.  De volgende ochtend bleek dat onder de gesneuvelden Teukoe Oemar zelf  en verscheidene van de bekendste panglima’s.

 

Commandant J. J. Verbrugh

De volgende expeditie, die geleid werd door van Heutsz, is in 1901 tegen de bergstelling Batoe Iliq. In 1880 heeft Generaal van der  Heijden tot driemaal tevergeefs  geprobeerd deze vesting te veroveren. Nu lukt het wel met verlies van 5 doden en 27 gewonden en71 doden aan de kant van de Atjehers.

 

Van Heutsz bij de aanval op Batè Ilië op 3 februari 1901. Geheel links staat een afdeling infanterie voor dekking van de staf. Achter Van Heutsz v.l.n.r. kolonel Van Dussen, majoor Doorman, kapitein Spruijt, achter de kapitein luitenant Schutstal van Woudenberg en de controleur (inlandse bestuurder) Frijling

 

Bivak Tripa. De expeditie nam de familie van Panglima Polim in gijzeling en dwong hierdoor Panglima Polim zich over te geven. Colijn omcirkeld.

Door al deze militaire acties werd het verzet van vele feodale hoofden en hun legertjes gebroken. De sultan van Kota Radja en zijn volgelingen waren in 1874 uit hun stad verdreven en gaven zich na een kwart eeuw over op 10 februari 1903. Even later door Panglima Polim, die een grote  rol heeft gespeeld in de guerrilla strijd tegen het Nederlandse gezag.

 

Panglima Polim, de verzetsstrijder die zich in 1903 overgaf aan het Nederlands gezag

Top of Form

Pang Polim, the resistance fighter who in 1903 surrendered to the Dutch authority


The time of Heutsz from 1899 to 1909

were the ten years of all Aceh bloodiest wars.

 

The climax was the expedition of 8 February to 23 July 1904,

 

which was led by captain GCE Van Dalen. His right hand was 2nd Lt. Christopher. He accompanied Daalen of the journey through the Atlas Gajo and areas in the south of Aceh. In the five months in 2092 Acehnese were slain by 26 killing the forces of Van Dalen. Yet there but actually ten days fierce fighting
Again let me van ‘t Veer in his book Aceh war on this expedition From Daalen the word. On page 270 we read:


“The villagers had themselves with shock and stabbing weapons and some old-fashioned muzzle loading rifles entrenched behind earthworks with thorn bushes.

 

They were in no way match for the military police with their modern repeating rifles. The attackers were able to kampong model drawing, got the signal Attacks and stormed the earthworks.

That was always a perilous moment, the only one, and it lasted only briefly. soon as the soldiers on shore stood, they stopped systematically down everything what is behind it was.

Sometimes it took the shooting fifteen minutes or half an hour , sometimes it took a few hours before the village was conquered and the entire population killed. In one case lasted for a quarter past nine in the morning till a quarter past four in the afternoon.

Never give anyone surrendering. Never thought Van Daalen to another tactics than the total eradication. Prisoners he could not make. What had he to them should do Who’d they have to monitor or drains? T

ime for sieges wanted or he could not take. He was in a hurry. He wanted to set examples. His tactic was complete surrender or complete death. It was a massacre unprecedented, of which the photos sixty years later without disqualification can view.

From Daalen was not at all embarrassed about his performance, rather proud of his success, he made lieutenant Neeb after the assaults the piles of corpses photographed, the triumphant military police next.
The right hand of Van Daalen on asset boss still in cruelty. From Daalen wrote in his report that Christopher always first started shooting and finished last and here, Van Daalen hate, that do not shoot, but that Christopher had already started before he, Van Daalen, had given the order.

 

After the command “cease Vuuren ‘shot Christopher with his men still go through .. Also van’ t Veer know some examples of the occurrence of these Lieutenant Christopher to recover:


Page 266:

“The division that Christopher under his command had himself may compose Ambonese, Menadonese and Javanese veterans,

 

was no ordinary trooper. It was the column mat Jan, ‘the tiger column, whose troops as extra-ornament a red scarf wearing. When one of the old brigade commanders on those days speaks, writes Zentgraaff, “he raises his hands defensively briefly, he wants nothing more to say.”

 

An example of Christoffels performance style from another source: He had to put an end to the breakup of the tram, one of the most common acts of resistance. He checked overnight kampong houses along the road.

 

Was the man absent, was at the door a cross drawn with chalk. early the next morning were ticked houses again checked. Could the man in the opinion of Christopher no good explanation for his nightly absence, he was immediately shot dead. ”
Especially these activities he became the most decorated officer of the KN.IL: Military Order of William 3rd and 4th class, Knight Dutch Lion etc.

 

The whole expedition is recorded in the book: The journey of Commander Of Daalen by Gajo, and Alas- and Batak. 8 February to 23 July 1904 by J.C.J. Kempees first Lute of Art. and fungeerend Adjutant of the Colonne Commander. Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer in 1905, 265 pp. 28 photos of J.Neeb (to be purchased for 350 euros at the antiquarian Gemilang)

De tijd van van Heutsz van 1899 tot 1909 waren de tien bloedigste jaren van alle Atjeh oorlogen. Het toppunt was wel  de expeditie van 8 februari  tot 23 juli 1904, die onder leiding stond van overste G.C.E. Van Dalen. Zijn  rechterhand was 2e luitenant Christoffel. Hij vergezelde van Daalen op de tocht door de Gajo en Atlas gebieden in het zuiden van Atjeh. In de vijf maanden werden 2092 Atjehers gedood tegen 26 doden van de troepen van Van Dalen. Toch werd er maar eigenlijk een tiental  dagen heftig gevochten

Ook hier laat ik van ‘t Veer in zijn boek Atjeh oorlog over deze expeditie van Van Daalen aan het woord. Op pagina 270 lezen we:

“De  dorpelingen hadden zich met slag- en steekwapens en wat ouderwetse tromplaadgeweren verschanst achter aarden wallen met doornstruiken. Zij waren in geen enkel opzicht partij voor de marechaussees met hun moderne repeteergeweren. De aanvallers konden zich voor   de kampong model opstellen, kregen het signaal Aanvallen en bestormden de aarden wallen. Dat was altijd een hachelijk moment, het enige, en het duurde slechts kort. Zodra de soldaten op de wal stonden, schoten zij systematisch alles neer wat zich daarachter bevond. Soms duurde de schietpartij een kwartier of een half uur, soms duurde het een paar uur eer de kampong veroverd was en de complete bevolking afgemaakt. In één enkel geval duurde het van kwart over negen’s morgens tot kwart over vier ‘s middags. Nimmer gaf iemand zich over. Nimmer dacht Van Daalen aan een andere tactiek dan de totale uitroeiing. Gevangenen kon hij niet maken. Wat had hij met hen moeten doen? Wie had hen moeten bewaken of afvoeren? Tijd voor belegeringen wilde of kon hij niet nemen. Hij had haast. Hij wilde voorbeelden stellen. Zijn tactiek was complete overgave of complete dood. Het werd een moordpartij zonder weerga, waarvan men de foto’s zestig jaar na dato niet zonder ontzetting kan bekijken. Van Daalen was allerminst beschaamd over zijn optreden, veeleer trots op zijn succes, hij liet luitenant Neeb na afloop van de bestormingen de stapels lijken fotograferen, de triomfantelijke marechaussees ernaast.

De rechterhand van Van Daalen overtroef zijn baas nog in wreedheid. Van Daalen schreef in zijn verslag, dat Christoffel altijd als eerste begon te schieten en als laatste eindigde en hier had Van Daalen een hekel aan, niet aan dat schieten, maar dat Christoffel al begon voordat hij, Van Daalen, het bevel had gegeven. Na het bevel ‘staakt het vuuren’ schoot Christoffel met zijn mannen nog altijd even door..Ook van ‘t Veer weet enkele staaltjes van het optreden van deze luitenant Christoffel te verhalen:

Pagina 266: “De divisie die Christoffel onder zijn commando zelf had mogen samenstellen uit Ambonese, Menadonese en Javaanse veteranen, was dan ook geen gewone marechaussee. Het was ‘de colonne mat jan,’ de tijgercolonne, waarvan de manschappen als extra-ornament een rode halsdoek droegen. Als men een van de oude brigadecommandanten over die dagen spreekt, schrijft Zentgraaff, ‘heft hij afwerend de handen even op; hij wil er niets meer van zeggen.’ Een voorbeeld van Christoffels manier van optreden uit andere bron: Hij moest een eind maken aan het opbreken van de trambaan, een der meest voorkomende verzetsdaden. Hij controleerde ‘s nachts de kamponghuizen langs de baan. Was de man afwezig, dan werd op de deur met krijt een kruis getekend. De volgende ochtend vroeg werden de aangekruiste huizen weer nagelopen. Kon de man naar het oordeel van Christoffel geen goede verklaring geven van zijn nachtelijke afwezigheid, dan werd hij meteen doodgeschoten”.

Vooral deze activiteiten werd hij de meest gedecoreerde officier van het KN.I.L.: Militaire Willemsorde 3e en 4e klasse, Ridder Nederlandse Leeuw etc. De hele expeditie is vastgelegd in het boek: De tocht van Overste Van Daalen door de Gajo-, en Alas- en Bataklanden. 8 februari tot 23 Juli 1904 door J.C.J. Kempees 1e Luit der Art. en fungeerend Adjudant van de Colonne Commandant. Uitgegeven te Amsterdam door J.C. Dalmeijer in  1905, 265 pp 28 foto’s van J.Neeb (aan te schaffen voor 350 euro’s bij het antiquariaat Gemilang)

.

 

Links: Overste Van Daalen. Rechts: zijn rechterhand Luitenant Christoffel

Left: Commander Of Daalen. Right: his right Lieutenant Christopher

 

De kampong Koeto Reh in de Alas landen in Atjeh op 11 juni 1904 veroverd door een marechaussee colonne onder commando van overste Van Daalen. Geheel links staande: overste Van Daalen. Foto genomen door J. Neeb

The kampong Koeto Reh in Alas countries in Aceh on 11 June 1904 conquered by a military police convoy under the command of captain Van Daalen. Far left standing: Commander Of Daalen. Photo taken by J. Neeb

 

Massagraf in de kampong Koeto Reh

Mass Grave in the kampong Koeto Reh

 

 

 

1892 (16 March).

2c / 3c stat card used from Indonesia. Atjeh – Netherlands. Via Penang (20 March). + arrival on front. Fine + scarce.[ 536460]

Bid Info: Price: $ 650.00

 

Breast Badge, silver (Dutch hallmarked, sword), named on reverse to “3t. B. / F. Lammel / E.F. / te / Atjeh”, with original suspension ring and ribbon with 30 bars (BALI1846, BALI1848, BALI1849, BORNEO18501854, BONI1859, BORNEO18591863, GUINEA18691870, DELI 1872, ATJEH 18731874, ATJEH 18731876, ATJEH 18731880, SAMALANGAN 1877, ATJEH 18961900, DJAMBI 19011904, KORINTJI 1903, GAJO en ALASLANDEN 1904, KLEINE SOENDEN EILANDEN 1905 – 1909, ATJEH 19061910, N.GUINEA 190715, ATJEH 191114, TIMOR 191117, W.AFD.BORNEO 191214, CERAM 1915, W.KUST ATJEH 19251927, ATJEH 18731885, TIMOR 1942, “ZUIDCELEBES” 19051908, ATJEH 19011905, “MIDDENSUMATRA” 19031907, TAMIANG 1893) and halfsized miniature in silver with 2 bars (MIDDENSUMATRA 19031907, 14 SEPT.27OCT. BALI 1906). Superb collector’s presentation in excellent condition, of high rarity! I RR!

La Galerie Numismatique Orders and Medals auction XVII

 

Nederland – Atjeh- of Kraton medaille 1873-1874 (MMW47, Bax51), ingesteld in 1874 – VZ Portret Willem III n.r. / KZ Atjeh binnen lauwer- en eikenkrans – verguld bronzen miniatuur 13,5 mm met blauw lint – PR

 

Nederland – Kruis voor Krijgsverrichtingen (MMW41/42, Bax50) – Vierarmig kruis met medaillon Willem III, met gespen ‘Atjeh 1873-74′ en ’14 Sept. 27 Oct. Bali 1906’ (voor een expeditie van de gesp Kleine Soenda-Eilanden 1905-1909) – Berlin-zilveren miniatu

Munten- en Postzegel Organisatie Numismatic Auction on

Closing: May 23 – May 26, 2012

Bid Info: Price: € 25.00

 

Indonesien; Sultana Atjeh, Tadj Al-Alam 1641-1675, Gold-Coupang
(1/4 Mas) o.J., beiderseits arab. Schrift SELTEN[Mitch. 3083, Millies 138 vz]

 

Mutsuhito. 1867-1912, Ni-Bu Ban Kin o.J. (3,0 g; 223 fein); dazu Indien – Travancore. Fanam o. J. 0,31 g) und Sumatra – Sultanat Atjeh. 1 Mas o. J. (19. Jh; 0,61 g). Fr. 22, 1400, 16. 3 St. G O L D vz

 

1875, Ganzsachenkarte 5 cent lila König Wilhelm III, entwertet mit „VELDPOSTK. ATJEH No.1 10.11.1875” und Punktstempel „66” auf Wertstempel, außerdem Handstempel „SPECIMEN” als portofreie Feldpost nach Batavia, Ankunftstempel „WELTEVREDEN 21.11.1875”, reiner Bedarf. Catalog Price 200,00

 

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1899 (July 24). 12½c. grey postal stationery envelope used to Havre, France; up-rated with 1870-88 12½c. slate grey tied by ´Kotia Radja´ squared circle datestamp in black. Octagonal French Paquebot datestamp ´Ligne N-Paq.Fr.No.8´ on front (Aug 4) and reverse with arrival cds (Aug 30). Scott 10.

 

1893. Kotaradja – local stat env. addressed to Military.[ 529007]

 

 

 

1893. Loembed Nonegko – Krota Pradja. 5c stat with 6 diff cds + transits incl box name town. VF.[ 528982]

 

 

 

 

 

1893

 

 

The KPM ship Reael at Atjeh in 1893

 

 

1894

 

 

Dutch Marine at atjeh in 1894

 

 

Weh Island Atjeh in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kroeng Atjeh of Kotaradja in 1894

 

 

Simeleu island west coast atjeh in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

The Landing devisi at Atjeh by Hr MS Benkoelen in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

1896

 

 

Finally! The solution to the Aceh question in 1896

Eindelijk! De oplossing van het Atjeh-Vraagstuk in 1896

1897

 

 

The caricature Of Deputy Mrs Col Cs at Atjeh  in 1897

 

1898

 

 

DEI KNIL Cavalary at Atjeh in 1898

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1899

 

Pada Januari 1899,

Belanda merasa tertipu dan amat marah sehingga mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya untuk menangkap Teuku Umar di Meulaboh. Teuku Umar akhirnya gugur pada tanggal 11 Februari 1899, dan dimakamkan di Desa Mugo, Aceh.

 

Read more

Mijn Nederlands Indie

 

Colijn

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

 


• Colijn
And yes, the later Prime Minister here in this hall of fame should not be missed.

Colijn was adjutant of Van Heutsz and pulled himself out with his men. Colijn was responsible for the capture of the women and children of Panglima Polem. Panglima Polem was thus forced to abandon his opposition.

During his trips he turned but if something horrible had to be executed and then stuck a cigar

Colijn wrote a letter to his wife, asking for: “I have seen a woman with a child of about 1/2 years in the left arm, and a long spear in his right hand on our storming. A bullet killed our mother and child. We could then give no more grace. I have 9 women and 3 children, who asked for mercy, to have put a lot, and so dead drop. It was unpleasant work, but it could not be otherwise. The soldiers rain them with pleasure to their bayonets. It was a terrible job. I will just about finish. ” His wife wrote in the margin: “How awful!”

….. Shocking that Colijn (a second lieutenant in the infantry) one hundred years ago in the tropics could learn a cigar, only to discover that his troops elated twelve or thirteen women and children were slain and …… man who later became Prime Minister and received course something like the Military Order of William.

Our late Prime Minister was later also to pacify been to Lombok, but not in Bali.

Colijn’s great merit was, according to Van Heutsz, writing thick reports, which nobody understood anything and just assumed everything would be as it Colijn suggested because Colijn was “very conscientious” and moreover Reformed. When Van Heutsz and Colijn, after leave in the Netherlands, returned to India, Van Heutsz Colijn on Sunday and Monday. What he has done on Sundays in Aceh, tells the story not


 

  • ·  Colijn

En ja, de latere Minister-President mag hier in deze eregalerij natuurlijk niet ontbreken.

Colijn was adjudant van Van Heutsz en trok er ook zelf op uit met zijn mannen. Colijn was verantwoordelijk voor de gevangenneming van de vrouwen en kinderen van Panglima Polem. Panglima Polem werd zo gedwongen zijn verzet te staken.

Tijdens zijn tochten draaide hij zich maar om als er iets gruwelijks uitgevoerd moest worden en stak daarna een sigaar op

Colijn schreef een brief aan zijn vrouw, waarin o.m. : ‘Ik heb er een vrouw gezien die, met een kind van ongeveer 1/2 jaar op den linkerarm, en een lange lans in de rechterhand op ons aanstormde. Een kogel van ons doodde moeder en kind. We mochten toen geen genade meer geven. Ik heb 9 vrouwen en 3 kinderen, die genade vroegen, op een hoop moeten zetten, en zoo dood laten schieten. Het was onaangenaam werk, maar ‘t kon niet anders. De soldaten regen ze met genot aan hun bajonetten. ‘t Was een verschrikkelijk werk. Ik zal er maar over eindigen.’ Zijn vrouw schreef in de marge: ‘Hoe vreeselijk!!

…..schokkend dat Colijn (een tweede luitenant van de infanterie) honderd jaar geleden in de tropen een sigaar kon opsteken, om vervolgens te ontdekken dat zijn soldaten opgetogen twaalf of dertien vrouwen en kinderen hadden gedood……en die man werd later Minister-President en ontving uiteraard ook zo iets als de Militaire Willemsorde.

Onze latere Minister-President is later ook nog aan het pacificeren geweest op Lombok , maar niet op Bali.

Colijns grote verdienste was, volgens Van Heutsz, het schrijven van dikke rapporten, waar niemand iets van begreep en maar aannam dat het allemaal goed zou zijn, zoals Colijn het voorstelde, want Colijn was ‘zeer plichtsgetrouw’ en bovendien Gereformeerd. Toen Van Heutsz en Colijn, na verlof in Nederland, terug gingen naar Indië vertrok Van Heutsz op zondag en Colijn op maandag. Wat hij zondag’s in Atjeh heeft gedaan, vertelt de geschiedenis niet….

 

 

 

 

Top of Form

All you need to do for a Military Order of William?

The Military Order of William, for courage, Policy and Trouw was never issued to natives.
Natives received a medal for courage and loyalty, they were deemed not to enter Policy.

Colijn had the following awards:
• Knight fourth class Military William Order, August 1895, whatever it may be ……
• Endowed with the honorary saber participants for their bravery, 1900, whatever it may be ……
• Knight third class Military William Order, 1902, notes: by promoting
• Knight Order of the Dutch Lion, 1905
• Grand Cross Order of the Dutch Lion, December 23 1,936

Let us once again just browse on the internet and in my books: through this link and this book I have compiled a chronological summary of Colijns career course with emphasis on its activities and serving the Dutch East Indies, and of course with comments and photos:

Of course it is my choice to only certain aspects of Colijns career stories …………..
– Was in his youth also Driekus and Hein called
and pseudonyms and aliases
– Dixie, notes: pseudonym in the Dutch East Indies
birth place and date
– Burgerveen (N. H.), note: avg. Haarlemmermeer, June 22, 1869
death date and place
– Ilmenau (Dld.), Sept. 18. 1944, notes: heart attack
– Dutch East Indies, from 25 October 1893 to October 1,909
– London, circa 1920-1922
relevant foreign travel
– Journey through Siberia to China and the Dutch East Indies, from sept. 1913 to 23 feb. 1,914
philosophy
– Chr. separated church
– Reformed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

military career


– Training in the instruction battalion in Kampen, 24 Febr. 1886-1890
– Corporal third regiment of infantry in Bergen op Zoom, from November 1886-1888
– Sergeant third regiment of infantry in Bergen op Zoom, from 1888 to 1890
– Main course instruction battalion camps from 1890 to August 1892
officer ranks
– Second lieutenant of infantry, of 15 December 1892-1896
– First lieutenant of infantry, from 1896 to August 20, 1901
– Captain of Infantry, from 21 aug. 1901-1907
– Major of infantry titular, 1907
career
– Auxiliary teacher (volunteer) to New Vennep, from 1 October 1884 to Febr. 1,886
– Second lieutenant of infantry KNIL, of 15 December 1892-1896
– First lieutenant of infantry KNIL, from 1896 to June 1897
– Military commander and civil governor to Pulu Weh (Aceh, DEI), from June 1897 to November 1,897
– Military commander and civil governor to Lamb Djamoe (Aceh, DEI), from November 1897 to November 1,898
– Civil governor departments Indrapoeri and Selimoen (Aceh, DEI), from November 1898 to May 1899
– Officer-civil governor of Tapa Tuan (Aceh, DEI), from May 1899 to Sept. 1,901
– From Heutsz adjutant Governor of Aceh, on Sept. 4. 1901-1904
– Adjutant Governor-General Van Heutz from 1904-1907
– Advisor for administrative affairs of foreign possessions, from October 1904 to October 1,909
– Member of the House of Representatives, for constituency Sneek, from November 9 1909 tot January 4 1,911
– Minister of War, of January 4 1911 tot 29 August 1913
– Minister of Marine ad interim, of 14 May 1912 tot 29 August 1913
– Director Batavian Petroleum Company, of 9 May. 1914 tot April 1 1,922
etc etc
– Minister of Colonies ad interim, of 4 aug. 1925-26 Sept. 1,925
– Minister of Colonies of 26 May 1933 tot 24 June 1937
other positions
– Military correspondent and employee ‘The Standard’, circa 1904-1909
– Director Netherlands Indies Land Syndicate, from June 1910 to January 1,911
– Vice-Chairman State Committee for the defense of the Netherlands East Indies

from May 1912 to June 1913


– Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, 1926

 

 

 


– His father was a farmer in Haarlemmermeer
– In 1894 compagnies commander in Lombok
– In 1902 temporary commander and lieutenant governor to Lhok Seumane (east coast of Aceh)
– In 1904, charged with safeguarding the passage at the northern tip of Sumatra
– From 1904 responsible for overseeing the heads of the Gajo and Alaslanden
– In 1906 functions in Sumatra and New Guinea
– Voerde in 1924 a tax on bicycles
– Has passed in 1931 for the post of Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
– Personification of the bezuiningspolitiek (“Adaptation”) of the Thirties
– Wild on May 13, 1940 the Dutch people speak over the radio, but he was banned by General Winkelman
publications
– “Rock and the Free University” (1905)
– “Der Fathers inheritance” (1922)
– “For the preservation of property” (1925)
– “Colonial issues of today and tomorrow” (1928)
– “The Father Ghetrouwe Lands” (1933)
– “General Van Heutz: Créateur the Valeurs” (1935)
– “Dispereert not … Commemorative speech about JP Coen” (1937)
Well, then I have certainly a much larger portion omitted

 

Wat moet je allemaal doen voor een Militaire Willemsorde ?


De Militaire Willemsorde, voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw werd nooit uitgereikt aan inlanders.
Inlanders kregen een medaille voor Moed en Trouw, zij werden geacht geen Beleid te voeren.

Colijn had de volgende onderscheidingen :

  • ·  Ridder vierde klasse Militaire Willems Orde, aug. 1895, wat het ook zijn mag……
  • ·  Begiftigd met de ere-sabel voor betoonde dapperheid, 1900, wat het ook zijn mag……
  • ·  Ridder derde klasse Militaire Willems Orde, 1902, toelichting: bij bevordering
  • ·  Ridder Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, 1905
  • ·  Grootkruis Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, 23 dec. 1936

    Laten we maar weer eens even neuzen op het internet en in mijn boeken : via deze link en dit boek heb ik een chronologische samenvatting samengesteld van Colijns carriere met natuurlijk de nadruk op zijn bezigheden in en t.b.v. Nederlands-Indië en dat natuurlijk voorzien van commentaar en foto’s :

    Uiteraard is het mijn keuze om alleen over bepaalde aspekten uit Colijns loopbaan te verhalen…………..

Werd in zijn jeugd ook wel Driekus en Hein genoemd

pseudoniemen en bij- en schuilnamen

Dixie, toelichting: pseudoniem in Ned.-Indië

geboorteplaats en -datum

Burgerveen (N.H.), toelichting: gem. Haarlemmermeer, 22 juni 1869

overlijdensplaats en -datum

Ilmenau (Dld.), 18 sept. 1944, toelichting: hartaanval

 

Ned.-Indië, van 25 okt. 1893 tot okt. 1909

 

Londen, omstreeks 1920 tot 1922

relevante buitenlandse reizen

reis via Siberië naar China en Ned.-Indië, van sept. 1913 tot 23 febr. 1914

levensbeschouwing

Chr. afgescheiden kerk

 

Gereformeerd

militaire carriere

opleiding bij het instructiebataljon te Kampen, van 24 febr. 1886 tot 1890

 

korporaal derde regiment der infanterie te Bergen op Zoom, van nov. 1886 tot 1888

 

sergeant derde regiment der infanterie te Bergen op Zoom, van 1888 tot 1890

 

hoofdcursus instructiebataljon te Kampen, van 1890 tot aug. 1892

officiersrangen

tweede luitenant der infanterie, van 15 dec. 1892 tot 1896

 

eerste luitenant der infanterie, van 1896 tot 20 aug. 1901

 

kapitein der infanterie, van 21 aug. 1901 tot 1907

 

majoor der infanterie titulair, 1907

loopbaan

hulp-onderwijzer (volontair) te Nieuw-Vennep, van 1 okt. 1884 tot febr. 1886

 

tweede luitenant der infanterie K.N.I.L., van 15 dec. 1892 tot 1896

 

eerste luitenant der infanterie K.N.I.L., van 1896 tot juni 1897

 

militair commandant en burgerlijk gezaghebber te Poeloe Weh (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van juni 1897 tot nov. 1897

 

militair commandant en burgerlijk gezaghebber te Lam Djamoe (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van nov. 1897 tot nov. 1898

 

civiel gezaghebber afdelingen Indrapoeri en Selimoen (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van nov. 1898 tot mei 1899

 

officier-civiel gezaghebber van Tapa Toean (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van mei 1899 tot sept. 1901

 

adjudant Gouverneur Van Heutsz van Atjeh, van 4 sept. 1901 tot 1904

 

adjudant Gouverneur-Generaal Van Heutz, van 1904 tot 1907

 

adviseur voor bestuurszaken der buiten-bezittingen, van okt. 1904 tot okt. 1909

 

lid Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, voor kiesdistrict Sneek, van 9 nov. 1909 tot 4 jan. 1911

 

minister van Oorlog, van 4 jan. 1911 tot 29 aug. 1913

 

minister van Marine ad interim, van 14 mei 1912 tot 29 aug. 1913

 

directeur Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, van 9 mrt. 1914 tot 1 apr. 1922

enz enz

minister van Koloniën ad interim, van 4 aug. 1925 tot 26 sept. 1925

 

minister van Koloniën van 26 mei 1933 tot 24 juni 1937

nevenfuncties

correspondent en militair medewerker “De Standaard”, omstreeks 1904 tot 1909

 

directeur Nederlandsch-Indisch Land Syndicaat, van juni 1910 tot jan. 1911

 

ondervoorzitter Staatscommissie inzake de verdediging van Nederlandsch-Indisch van mei 1912 tot juni 1913

 

Gouverneur-Generaal van Ned.-Indië, 1926

 

Zijn vader was boer in de Haarlemmermeer

 

In 1894 compagnies-commandant te Lombok

 

In 1902 tijdelijk commandant en gezaghebber te Lhok Seumane (oostkust Atjeh)

 

In 1904 belast met het vrijwaren van de doorvaart bij de noordpunt van Sumatra

 

Vanaf 1904 belast met het toezicht op de hoofden van de Gajo- en Alaslanden

 

In 1906 functies op Sumatra en Nieuw-Guinea

 

Voerde in 1924 een belasting op rijwielen in

 

Werd in 1931 gepasseerd voor de functie van Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie

 

Verpersoonlijking van de bezuiningspolitiek (“Aanpassing”) van de jaren dertig

 

Wilde op 13 mei 1940 het Nederlandse volk via de radio toespreken, maar dit werd hem door generaal Winkelman verboden

publicaties

“Indie en de Vrije Universiteit” (1905)

 

“Der Vaderen erfdeel” (1922)

 

“Om de bewaring van het pand” (1925)

 

“Koloniale vraagstukken van heden en morgen” (1928)

 

“Het Vaderlandt Ghetrouwe” (1933)

 

“Generaal Van Heutz: Createur de Valeurs” (1935)

 

“Dispereert niet…Herdenkingsrede over J.P. Coen” (1937)

Nou, en dan heb ik nog zeker een veel groter deel weggelaten…………….

 

Colijn op Lombok

Top of Form

Colijn on Lombok

As a young lieutenant in 1893 by the Chief Kampen Course delivered Colijn went to the Dutch East Indies. It was in the days when there really was fought, and dangerous expeditions deep into the interior, took place.
In November 1894 he was called to take part in the famous Lombok expedition. On the 18th of that month, at the storming of Tjakra Negara, he underwent the baptism of fire. His military abilities were recognized with the Knight’s Cross 4th class of the Military Order of William, since his department of the Northern troops was first penetrated the Puri of the prince, as the division of Lieutenant Van der Heyden the Confederates *


In 1895,

he, at his request, transferred to Aceh, part in the military operations in that region. In the same year a serious illness forced him to return to Java. But after recovery thereof he left with due speed back to Aceh and distinguished himself exceedingly in the military operations against Toekoe Umar.
Get Mates of Colijn from those days have stated that he was a brilliant soldier, fearless, cool-headed, tenacious, tireless, definitely, humane towards the vanquished and subjected native and good for his soldiers.
Once he saw a wounded soldier in the wilderness half dead. He did not, like the priest and the Levite, opposite him over, but as the good Samaritan came to him and bandaged his wounds, and bore him two hours far Representing the closest camp to nursing.

 

In 1925

he that old comrade again met.
On one of his posts he spread among his men “the good news”. And then they were taking more times a piece of cheese from him. A sergeant, who also have a piece of cheese pleased, pretending …. and asked him seemingly heilbegeerig to “the good news”. Colijn had by him immediately and said: A “glad tidings” you can get, but you get no piece of cheese.

Als jong luitenantje in 1893 door den Hoofdcursus te Kampen afgeleverd, ging Colijn naar Nederlandsch-Indie. ‘t Was in de dagen, dat er nog werkelijk gevochten werd, en gevaarlijke expedities, diep de binnenlanden in, plaats hadden.
In November 1894 werd hij geroepen deel te nemen aan de bekende
Lombok-expeditie. Op den 18den van die maand, bij de bestorming van TJakra Negara, onderging hij den vuurdoop. Zijn militaire bekwaamheden werden toen erkend met het ridderkruis 4e klasse van de Militaire Willemsorde, omdat zijn afdeeling van de Noordelijke troepen het eerst was doorgedrongen in de poeri van den vorst, gelijk de afdeeling van luitenant Van der Heyden bij de Zuidelijken*
In 1895 nam hij, op zijn verzoek overgeplaatst naar
Atjeh, deel aan de kriJgsverrichtingen in dat gewest. In datzelfde jaar noopte een ernstige ziekte hem naar Java terug te keeren. Maar na herstel daarvan vertrok hij met bekwamen spoed weer naar AtJeh en onderscheidde zich buitengewoon in de kriJgsverrichtingen tegen Toekoe Oemar.
Krijgsmakkers van Colijn uit die dagen hebben verklaard, dat hij een schitterend soldaat was, onverschrokken, koelbloedig, vasthoudend, onvermoeid, beslist, humaan tegenover den overwonnen en
onderworpen inlander en goed voor zijn soldaten.
Eens zag hij een gewonden soldaat in de wildernis halfdood liggen. Hij ging niet, gelijk de priester en de leviet, tegenover hem voorbij, maar kwam als de barmhartige
Samaritaan tot hem, verbond zijn wonden, en droeg hem 2 uur ver naar het naastbij gelegen bivak ter verpleging. In 1925 heeft hij dien ouden strijdmakker nog eens ontmoet.
Op een zijner posten verspreidde hij onder zijn manschappen “
de blijde boodschap“. En dan kregen ze daarbij meermalen een stukje kaas van hem. Een sergeant, die ook wel een stukje kaas lustte, deed alsof…. en vroeg hem schijnbaar heilbegeerig om een “de blijde boodschap“. Colijn had hem aanstonds door en zei : Een “de blijde boodschap” kan je krijgen, maar je krijgt geen stukje kaas.

 

Een nog zeer jonge Colijn is te zien op deze foto gemaakt in het bivak Tripa op Atjeh:

A very young Colijn is seen in this photo taken at the bivouac Tripa in Aceh

 

Colijn was the man who “a decisive blow inflicted on the Acehnese resistance”, in current Dutch: Colijn took the family of Panglima Polem hostage and forced this Panglima Polem to surrender. Today we this reprehensible method that absolutely no longer be tolerated by the UN tribunal in The Hague ………

What quotes from my Tjoetnjadin page about the Aceh National Heroes during the Dutch war of aggression against Aceh:

Now all the forces were concentrated on arresting Polem.
On the 24th January 1903 overtook the Lieutenant Christopher shelter of the great resistance leader, with books, letters and preciosa fell into our hands. Polem escaped narrowly.
On the night of 21 to 22 May of the same year were Major Van der Maaten, Polem’s mother, his wives, Potjoet Boeleuën and some relatives in our hands.
In June d.a.v. Colijn captain knew the hands on Polem’s first wife, Tengkoe Ra’ana.
Thereafter him some heavy losses inflicted so he finally the 6th of September 1903 the head in the lap and put himself, his intention already expressed before the execution, with 150 followers Lho * Seumawe came register


Colijn was de man die “
een beslissende slag toebracht aan het Atjehse verzet“, in huidig Nederlands: Colijn nam de familie van Panglima Polem in gijzeling en dwong hierdoor Panglima Polem zich over te geven. Tegenwoordig zouden we dit een afkeuringswaardige methode vinden die absoluut niet meer getolereerd zou worden volgens het VN tribunaal in Scheveningen………

Wat citaten uit mijn Tjoetnjadin pagina over de Atjehse Nationale Helden tijdens de Nederlandse agressie oorlog tegen Atjeh:

Nu werden alle krachten geconcentreerd op het arresteeren van Polem.
Den 24sten Januari 1903 overviel de Onderluitenant
Christoffel een schuilplaats van den grooten verzetsleider, waarbij boeken, brieven en preciosa in onze handen vielen. Polem ontkwam op het nippertje.
In den nacht van 21 op 22 Mei van hetzelfde jaar vielen Majoor Van der Maaten, Polem’s moeder, een zijner vrouwen, Potjoet Boeleuën en eenige familieleden in onze handen.
In Juni d.a.v. wist kapitein Colijn de hand te leggen op Polem’s eerste echtgenoote, Tengkoe Ra’ana.
Daarna werden hem nog eenige zware verliezen toegebrachte zoodat hij eindelijk den 6den September 1903 het hoofd in de schoot legde en zich, aan zijn reeds te voren geuit voornemen gevolg gevend, met 150 volgelingen te Lho* Seumawé kwam melden.

 

Panglima Polem zit links van Colijn

Panglima Polem is left of Colijn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

:

 

Another picture of the house: the surrender of Panglima Polem to Colijn:

Nog een foto voor het huis : de overgave van Panglima Polem aan Colijn

Top of Form

The second officer from the right is the future Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Colijn

According to many Colijn looks like he daily surrendering Panglima Polems receives, he seems to do nothing ….

The significance of the surrender of Panglima Polem was stretching knew nature. By submission of this sagihoofd was the Aceh War actually decided. Numerous gang heads came in the following months reporting and many refugees, whose number is estimated at 2000, returned to their villages.

From Panglima Polem can be testified that his word of allegiance to the Dutch Government in the most loyal manner has kept its obligations to the Geumpenie always as a man of honor is fulfilled.

 

The powerful political leader of yesteryear now sits quietly to the XXII Moekims, where he Geumpenie as a key driver has served.

Ais orthodox Muslim, he scrupulously the law and the commandments. In the whole population of Aceh, he enjoys a certain reverence, not only “for the sake of old memories”, but also to his righteous way of life.
We saw how an old and reputable for its stiffness Atjehsch head was bowed humbly on his hand.
Panglima Polem makes a boy and vieven impression. That old Aceh Serbian head said to us: “Panglima Polem is older than I am, but he will always remain young to see, because he’s a saint.”
It is unfortunate that the condition of his eyes is very bad and he gradually approaching blindness.

His knowledge of the area is huge! We heard how a young officer told him a record-patrol of five days in the Pedirsche. It was as if the shadow of a smile on Polem’s face slipped and behind his thick glasses with eyes flashing he said: You had previously trek in three days to make, when the bed of such and such aloer (brook) was followed. ”

Teukoe Panglima Polem Sri Moeda Perkasa Mohamad Daud was endowed in 1928 in the Knight’s Cross of Orange-Nassau-order. In 1929 he received from His Excellency, the Governor-General, a precious golden betel leaf as a gift and in 1932 he was the satisfaction of the Government expressed for the way he has also worked on the return to their homes in the February of that year OeIeë-Gle (Samalanga) pulled people. ‘

The second officer from the right is the future Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Colijn

Original info

Volgens velen kijkt Colijn net alsof hij dagelijks zich overgevende Panglima Polems ontvangt, het lijkt hem niets te doen….


De beteekenis van de overgave van Panglima Polem was van vérstrekkenden aard. Door de onderwerping van dit sagihoofd was de Atjehoorlog eigenlijk beslist. Tal van bendehoofden kwamen zich in de volgende maanden melden en vele uitgewekenen, welker getal wel op 2000 wordt geschat, keerden naar hun dorpen terug.

Van Panglima Polem kan worden getuigd, dat hij zijn woord van trouw aan het Nederlandsche Gouvernement op de meest loyale wijze heeft gehouden en zijn verplichtingen tegenover de Geumpenie steeds als man van eer is nagekomen. De machtige politieke aanvoerder van weleer zetelt thans rustig m de XXII Moekims, waar hij de Geumpenie als bestuurder zeer belangrijke diensten heeft bewezen.

Ais orthodox islamiet houdt hij nauwgezet de wet en de geboden. Bij de bevolking van geheel Atjeh geniet hij een zekere vereering, niet alleen “for the sake of old memories”, maar ook om zijn rechtschapen levenswandel.
Wij zagen eens hoe een oud en om zijn stugheid bekend staand Atjehsch hoofd zich ootmoedig over zijn hand boog.
Panglima Polem maakt nog een jongen en vieven indruk. Dat oude Atjehsche hoofd verklaarde ons : “Panglima Polem is ouder dan ik ben, maar hij zal er altijd jong uit blijven zien, want hij is een heilige”.
Het is jammer, dat de toestand zijner oogen zeer slecht is en hij langzamerhand de blindheid nadert.

Zijn terreinkennis is enorm! Wij hoorden hoe een jong officier hem vertelde van een record-patrouille van vijf dagen in het Pedirsche. Het was of de schaduw van een glimlach over Polem’s gelaat gleed en achter zijn dikke brilleglazen met de oogen knipperend sprak hij: U had dien tocht in drie dagen kunnen maken, wanneer u de bedding van die en die aloer (beek) had gevolgd.”

Teukoe Panglima Polem Sri Moeda Perkasa Mohamad Daoed werd in 1928 begiftigd met het ridderkruis der Oranje-Nassau-orde. In 1929 ontving hij van Zijne Excellentie, den Gouverneur-Generaal, een kostbaar gouden sirih-blad ten geschenke en in 1932 werd hem de tevredenheid der Regeering betuigd voor de wijze, waarop hij heeft medegewerkt aan den terugkeer naar hun woonplaatsen van de in Februari van dat jaar uit OeIéë-Glé (Samalanga) weggetrokken lieden. ‘

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

1900

 

Perang terhadap pendudukan Belanda terus berkobar seakan tidak pernah berhenti. Cut Nyak Meutia bersama suaminya Teuku Cik Tunon langsung memimpin perang di daerah Pasai. Perang yang berlangsung sekitar tahun 1900-an itu telah banyak memakan korban baik dari pihak pejuang kemerdekaan maupun dari pihak Belanda.

Pasukan Belanda yang mempunyai persenjataan lebih lengkap memaksa pasukan pejuang kemerdekaan yang dipimpin pasangan suami istri itu melakukan taktik perang gerilya. Berkali-kali pasukan mereka berhasil mencegat patroli pasukan Belanda. Di lain waktu, mereka juga pernah menyerang langsung ke markas pasukan Belanda di Idie.

Sudah banyak kerugian pemerintahan Belanda baik berupa pasukan yang tewas maupun materi diakibatkan perlawanan pasukan Cut Nyak Meutia. Karenanya, melalui pihak keluarga Meutia sendiri, Belanda selalu berusaha membujuknya agar menyerahkan diri. Namun Cut Nyak Meutia tidak pernah tunduk terhadap bujukan yang terkesan memaksa tersebut.

Bersama suaminya, tanpa kenal takut dia terus melakukan perlawanan. Namun naas bagi Teuku Cik Tunong, suaminya. Suatu hari di bulan Mei tahun 1905, Teuku Cik Tunong berhasil ditangkap pasukan Belanda. Ia kemudian dijatuhi hukuman tembak.

Berselang beberapa lama setelah kematian suaminya, Cut Nyak Meutia menikah lagi dengan Pang Nangru, pria yang ditunjuk dan dipesan suami pertamanya sebelum menjalani hukuman tembak. Pang Nangru adalah teman akrab dan kepercayaan suami pertamanya, Teuku Cik Tunong. Bersama suami keduanya itu, Cut Nyak Meutia terus melanjutkan perjuangan melawan pendudukan Belanda.

Di lain pihak, pengepungan pasukan Belanda pun semakin hari semakin mengetat yang mengakibatkan basis pertahanan mereka semakin menyempit. Pasukan Cut Meutia semakin tertekan mundur, masuk lebih jauh ke pedalaman rimba Pasai.

Di samping itu, mereka pun terpaksa berpindah-pindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lain untuk menyiasati pencari jejak pasukan Belanda. Namun pada satu pertempuran di Paya Cicem pada bulan September tahun 1910, Pang Nangru juga tewas di tangan pasukan Belanda. Sementara Cut Nyak Meutia sendiri masih dapat meloloskan diri.

Kematian Pang Nangru membuat beberapa orang teman Pang Nangru akhirnya menyerahkan diri. Sedangkan Meutia walaupun dibujuk untuk menyerah namun tetap tidak bersedia. Di pedalaman rimba Pasai, dia hidup berpindah-pindah bersama anaknya, Raja Sabil, yang masih berumur sebelas tahun untuk menghindari pengejaran pasukan Belanda.

 

 

 

 

1900

 

 

Atjeh arm bracelets  collections in 1900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Atjeh Jewellary collections in 1900

 

 

The Atjeh beatlle nut (kapur sirih) collections in 1900

 

 

Kain Tenun Sarong plakat(doek) of atjeh in 1900

 

 

Young atjeh women in 1900

 

 

 

 

Two pictures of  KNIL ceremony during Queen day  at Blangkajeren Atjeh in 1900

1901

But back to Colijn:

In 1901,

Colijn adjutant From Heutsz, this was not without a struggle. From Heutsz had originally objected to Colijn: “From Colijn I know only that he prayed, but not that he can fight. Fighters And I need”
When Van Heutsz more information about Colijn had received was: “Now I see that you work with prayer unites, I can use”
Colijn to 1909 From Heutsz faithfully served. Colijn on its part had yet some drawbacks: dancing and cards did not Colijn and Van Heutsz well, especially during the tour (a euphemism for a military expedition)
Of these objections Heutsz waved away immediately and spoke the famous words: “It was not my intention to encourage you in choosing to wear due skill in dancing or card game”

One of the tasks of Colijn was the “political reorganization of the outer possessions” or the final establishment of the Dutch authority in areas where until that time actually rare Dutch came.

The country was first “pacified” (by Christopher to) and then the board “reorganized” by Colijn.

But back to Colijn :

In 1901 Colijn aide Heutsz was this was not without a struggle . Heutsz had initially objected to Colijn : ” From Colijn I just know that he is praying , but he can also fight and fighters I need . ”
When Heutsz more information about Colijn had received was : ” Now I see that you work with the prayer unites , I can use ”
Colijn has served faithfully until 1909 Heutsz . Colijn had his hand still some drawbacks : dancing and cards Colijn and did not Heutsz well, especially during the tour ( a euphemism for a military draft)
Heutsz these concerns waved away immediately and spoke the famous words : ” It was not my intention to encourage you to choose to wear because of skill in dancing or card game ”

One of the tasks of Colijn was the ” political reorganization of the outer possessions ” or the final establishment of Dutch authority in areas where at that time is actually rare Dutch arrived .

The land was first ” pacified ” (due to Christopher ) and then the board was ” reorganized” by Colijn .
Source
http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

1903

Sultan M. Dawud akhirnya meyerahkan diri kepada Belanda pada tahun 1903 setelah dua istrinya, anak serta ibundanya terlebih dahulu ditangkap oleh Belanda. Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh seluruhnya pada tahun 1904. Saat itu, hampir seluruh Aceh telah direbut Belanda.

Sultan Aceh

Sultan Aceh merupakan penguasa / raja dari Kesultanan Aceh, tidak hanya sultan, di Aceh juga terdapat Sultanah / Sultan Wanita. Daftar Sultan yang pernah berkuasa di Aceh dapat dilihat lebih jauh di artikel utama dari Sultan Aceh.

Tradisi kesultanan

Gelar-Gelar yang Digunakan dalam Kerajaan Aceh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1905


Tjoet Nja Dhien and Pang Laot after her capture.
Tjoet Nja Dhien continued guerilla warfare in West Aceh area, assited by Pang Laot. Years of living in the jungle caused her to go blind and she also suffered rheumatism, yet she refused to surrender.

 

 

 

On 16 October 1905,
Just let Pang, unable to let Tjoet Nha Dhien Suffered anymore, led a Dutch Marechausse squad under Lieutenant Van Vuuren to her hideout. She was arrested and exiled to West Java, where she died in 1908.

1903

After 30 years of endless warfare without prospect of recovery, Acehnese guerrilla leaders started to surrender.
On 5 January 1903,
Sultan Mohammad Daoud, now 33 years old, surrendered in Sigli after living in the jungle for 30 years!


Sultan Mohammad Daoed swore oath of loyalty to the portrait of Queen Wilhelmina in Atjeh governor’s office on February 1903.


Sultan Mohammad Daoed on January 1903 after his surrender in Sigli, Pidie. He abdicate from the throne, and acknowledged the suzerainity of Queen Wilhelmina over his former sultanate of Atjeh. He spend his days under Dutch house-arrest in Koetaradja and died there in 1928.


Panglima Polim Sri Moeda Perkasa Shah (centre), who had fought the Dutch in Koetaradja since 1873 and was a guerilla leader in Lhokseumawe area, surrendered to the Dutch Kapitein Hendricus Colijn (third from right) in Lhokseumawe in 6 September 1903, together with 150 of his men.

 

 

 

 

1906

 

 

Aceh Peace or The People magazine cover in 1906

Vrede Atjeh of  Het Volk magazine cover  in 1906

 

Christopher with the long stick, on tour, as it was called

Christoffel met de lange stok, op excursie, zoals dat toen genoemd werd

In 1907,

this was described as follows:

“No war, but termination of any war, no correction of foreign tribes, but the submission to a regular state of all, under the Dutch flag standing peoples of the archipelago, in the public interest, which is the goal”

You just raises, the country is now under Dutch rule, because there’s ever been a Dutchman, and so we have the moral sovereignty of this country, because we are much more developed. Then go to those nations with violence explain why they now stand among civilized Dutch rule …….. and it is in their own interest!

Colijn with family for his house with nameplate in Buitenzorg

 

 

 

In 1907 it was described as follows:

“No war, but termination of any war, no correction of foreign tribes, but the submission to a controlled state of all, under the Dutch flag standing peoples of the archipelago, in the public interest, which is the goal”

You just call, the country is now under Dutch rule, as there has ever ever been a Dutchman, and so we have the moral sovereignty over this country, because after all, we are much more developed. Then go to the nations by force to explain why they are …….. among civilized Dutch government now and in their own interest!

Colijn with family to his home with nameplate in Buitenzorg:
Source
http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

1908

 

 

The Atjeg women asking Young man to dance 8in 1908

1908

 

The group of Whatley after the conquest of the kampong Koeto Reh. Behind boulder chief Whatley. Photo J. Neeb


The group of Whatley after the conquest of the kampong Koeto Reh. Behind boulder captain Whatley. Photo J. Neeb


In mid 1908,

 Whatley succeeded by the then Lieutenant-Colonel HNA Swart. From 1910 Whatley was appointed commander of the army in the Dutch East Indies. From Whatley left the military service in 1914.
Whatley was followed in mid 1908 by the then Lieutenant Colonel HNA Swart. Whatley was in 1910 was appointed commander of the army in the Dutch East Indies. Whatley left military service in 1914.

 

 

 

1908

 

Luitenant-kolonel H.N.A. Swart, ‘pacificator’ van Atjeh

LieutenantColonel H.N.A. Swart, “pacifier” of Aceh
From 1908-1918 Swart acted as governor of Aceh. His pacification of Aceh involves many bloody battles. In the Gayo highlands were still under Dutch estimates 5-6000 Acehnese, who were willing to fight to the death they were animated by the Teungku Di Tiro, the sons and grandsons of Teungku Tjèh Thaman di Tiro. (About this resistance fighter I have already written) .. The trooper pulled the rough highlands and gave chase. Exhausted by the constant raids saw some opposition leaders Atjeese no alternative but to surrender. Lieutenant H. J. Schmidt was commissioned in 1909 to devote themselves entirely to disable the last Teungku Di Tiro, located in the mountains near Tangse had entrenched.

Van 1908 tot 1918 trad Swart op als gouverneur van Atjeh. Zijn pacificatie van Atjeh gaat gepaard met vele bloedige veldslagen. In de Gajo-hooglanden waren volgens Nederlandse schattingen nog vijf tot zesduizend Atjehers, die bereid waren  zich dood te vechten Ze werden bezield door de Teungkoe Di Tiro, de zonen en de kleinzonen van Teungkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tiro. (Over deze verzetstrijder heb ik al eerder geschreven).. De marechaussee trok de ruwe hooglanden in en zette de achtervolging in. Uitgeput door de voortdurende klopjachten zagen sommige Atjeese verzetsleiders geen andere uitweg dan zich over te geven.  Luitenant H.J. Schmidt kreeg in 1909 de opdracht zich geheel te wijden aan het uitschakelen van de laatste Teungkoe Di Tiro, die zich in de bergen in de omgeving van Tangsé hadden verschanst.

 

 

1910

However pursuit intensive Dutch troops could make no escape anymore. Uncovered secret hiding place. In a neat and tight siege on October 24, 1910, Tjut Nyak Meutia found.

Although the Dutch armed forces complete but that does not make him squirm.
It with a dagger in hand, he maintained resistance.
But three Dutch soldiers fired close to him.
He was killed after a bullet hit his head and the other two on his chest.

Nyak Cut Meutia fall as defenders of the nation’s warriors. For the services and sacrifices, by country name has been named as a National Hero authorized by Presidential Decree 107 of 1964, dated May 2, 1964

 

 

 

 

 

In May 1910,

he finally figured out where a shelter was and managed to kill him. In 1911 Schmidt knew more relatives of

 

 

 

the Di Tiro’s killing.

 

Thus came to an end the pacification of Aceh. (Later Schmidt chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina, with the exclusive task as a financial watchdog Prince Henry to shadows and for new loans to save).

 

In 1918

Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired. On August 12, 1918 appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

This concludes the summary of the fourth Aceh war of the period 1989-1918.
Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war, I would make the following comments. It is good to read the text keeping in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. So it is understandable that the soldiers have received high awards and even by Queen Wilhelmina were congratulated for their military operations.

 

 

To this spirit a good example, I quote the beginning of the book of Lieutenant-General Jan van Swieten, the truth about our branch in Aceh. He has during the second Aceh war a very important role, as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy.
“Colonial powers can rarely langdurigen in a state of calm delight. Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership is not high concept, they are by provocatien, not infrequently by deeds from violence, – as men and beach robbery on hull types and expiration of commercial vessels, armed raids, constant disputes wrapped, leading to hostilities skip, and finally, in order to avoid repetition, force the borders to move and the area extending ‘
Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan at war with the Taliban guerrilla forces. Through the media we are told that there is again much Talibans by our troops are slain. But I wonder whether, why we only get messages about the killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians, wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we take in Uruzgan. Just as the Aceh war, this war mission by our parliament approved and considered as a legitimate struggle. It might sometimes happen that the spirit of this war as will change as the Aceh war. Time will tell.
Used Literature
Cohen Stuart., W. J. (1937) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts. Hague-Algemeene National Printing
Croo, M. H. Du (1943) General Swart pacifier of Aceh. Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees, J.C.J. (1905) The journey of Commander Of Daalen by Gajo, and Alas and Batak. Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld, Herman (1998) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944, part one 1869-1944. Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep., Jelte (1996) Aceh, Aceh!. Publishing the Prom Baarn. ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullman, Dr. J. C. (1933) Dr. H. Colijn. Leiden, A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Publishing Company N.V.
Spring, Paul van ‘t (1969) The Aceh War. Amsterdam. Publishing the Arbeiderspers
Too much information on the Internet about Aceh and Lombok found and used.

 

 

 

 

They were considered the most dangerous opponents of the Dutch authorities . Schmidt left with two brigades . He tried to win anywhere information ( Schmidt spoke fluent Achinese ) , but no one said a word about the whereabouts of the Di Tiro ‘s .

 

 In May 1910 ,

he finally found out where a shelter was and managed to kill him.

 

 In 1911,

Schmidt was able to kill even more. Relatives of Di Tiro ‘s Thus came an end to the pacification of Aceh . ( Later, Schmidt became chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina , with the exclusive mandate to shadows as a financial watchdog Prince Henry and new loans to save ) . In 1918, Swart was retired with the rank of lieutenant general . On August 12, 1918 appointed vice – president of the Council of India until 1922 . He received his military operations , the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm
This summary of the fourth Aceh War of 1989-1918 period ends.

Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war , I would make the following comments . It is good to read bearing in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. Text So it is understandable that the soldiers involved have received very high honors and even were congratulated for their military operations .

 

 By Queen Wilhelmina To give a good example of this spirit , I quote the beginning of the book by Lieutenant – General Jan van Swieten , the truth about our office in Aceh . He has played a very important role during the Second Aceh war , as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy .
“Colonial powers can rarely in a protracted state of calm delight . Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership are not high concept , they are by provocatien , often by acts of violence – just as men and beach robbery , immersive men and lapses of commercial vessels , armed raids , constantly wrapped in disputes skip to hostilities , and finally , in order to prevent recurrence , forcing to move the borders and expand the area of ”
Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan war wound with the Taliban guerrilla forces . Through the media, we are told that there will be as many Talibans by our troops are slain . However, I question whether , why do we only get messages about the number of killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians , wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we do in Uruzgan . Just as the Aceh war , this war mission approved by our parliament and considered a legitimate struggle . It might sometimes happen that the spirit will change as the Aceh war happened. About this war as Time will tell.
used Books
Stuart Cohen . , W. J. (1937 ) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts . Hague – Common uses National Printing
Croo , M. H. Du (1943 ) General Swart pacifier of Aceh . Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees , J.C.J. ( 1905) The journey of Commander Whatley by the Gayo , and Alas and Batak . Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld , Herman (1998 ) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944 , part one 1869-1944 . Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep. Jelte (1996 ) Aceh , Aceh ! . Publisher Prom Baarn . ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullmann , Dr. J. C. (1933 ) Dr. H. Colijn . Leiden , A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V.
Feather, Paul van ‘t (1969 ) The Aceh War . Amsterdam . Publisher Arbeiderspers
Too much information about Aceh and Lombok found on the Internet and used

 

1913

 

 

Goldsmith atjeh in 1913

Source: CVNL search memory of the Netherlands

 

 

In 1914

Colijn wrote a brochure on the occasion of the opening of the Hague Peace Palace (!)the ordinary power imperialism was no longer justified, the cultural imperialism is a calling of a higher order

Under cultural imperialism understood Colijn (and many were to agree with) the desire to own knowledge and power serviceable to the culture of other nations, which, left to itself, prey remain in a state of disorder, injustice and profound ignorance which prevented them the blessings of Western civilization to acquire.

 

One has the primitive peoples to educate such there degree of social, political and economic development that they are able to administer its own affairs in accordance with the generally accepted principles in civilized states.

 

 

Netherlands has callings in the East Indian archipelago. (But there is still a venomous tail🙂 by the possession of the insular territory to the Motherland more than a privilege, it is an economic issue life (and that’s the natural order)

Because also in 1914

Colijn in the oil, as it was called, he was director of the BPM who had major interests in Sumatra. After this period he was financially independent. Contemporaries thought then that he had compromised and not as an independent politician could occur especially not Dutch Indies.

Colijn was also the man who ordered the bombing of the Seven Provinces to as the mutiny on the ship to suppress.

On the said Colijn, insolent parliamentary questions from Mr. Rustam Effendi:
1. Will the Government explain why it was passed to limit the right to attend meetings of various political unions in Indonesia and why they are a series of other measures have been taken to further the freedom of press and assembly for the Indian population limit?
2. Will the Government inform the reasons that on the night of August 1 jl led to the arrest in Batavia Ir Soekarno?
3. If the Government does not consider that the above measures by the free expression of the Indonesian population is more oppressed?
4. Are these measures relating to the trials of the crew of the Seven Provinces?
5. Is the Government prepared to take measures which immediately above repressions be undone?

Colijn was the same in his office as Minister of Colonies replied:
1. Since the Indian Government the foregoing necessary
2. Since the Indian Government a thing necessary
3. No
4. Unknown
No

On this very curt reply from the Government showed Tribune is outraged:

At the most trivial vraagjes civil MPs is extensively and completely to the form answer to a representative of 50 million people, who groan under the yoke of imperialism eight Dutch Colijn not even need to answer

 

 

They were considered the most dangerous opponents of the Dutch authorities . Schmidt left with two brigades .

He tried to win anywhere information ( Schmidt spoke fluent Achinese ) , but no one said a word about the whereabouts of the Di Tiro ‘s . In May 1910 , he finally found out where a shelter was and managed to kill him.

In 1911,

Schmidt was able to kill even more. Relatives of Di Tiro ‘s Thus came an end to the pacification of Aceh . ( Later, Schmidt became chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina , with the exclusive mandate to shadows as a financial watchdog Prince Henry and new loans to save ) . In 1918, Swart was retired with the rank of lieutenant general .

 

On August 12, 1918

 appointed vice – president of the Council of India until 1922 . He received his military operations , the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm
This summary of the fourth Aceh War of 1989-1918 period ends.

Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war , I would make the following comments . It is good to read bearing in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. Text So it is understandable that the soldiers involved have received very high honors and even were congratulated for their military operations .

 

By Queen Wilhelmina To give a good example of this spirit , I quote the beginning of the book by Lieutenant – General Jan van Swieten , the truth about our office in Aceh . He has played a very important role during the Second Aceh war , as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy .


“Colonial powers can rarely in a protracted state of calm delight . Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership are not high concept , they are by provocatien , often by acts of violence – just as men and beach robbery , immersive men and lapses of commercial vessels , armed raids , constantly wrapped in disputes skip to hostilities , and finally , in order to prevent recurrence , forcing to move the borders and expand the area of ”

Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan war wound with the Taliban guerrilla forces . Through the media, we are told that there will be as many Talibans by our troops are slain . However, I question whether , why do we only get messages about the number of killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians , wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we do in Uruzgan . Just as the Aceh war , this war mission approved by our parliament and considered a legitimate struggle . It might sometimes happen that the spirit will change as the Aceh war happened. About this war as Time will tell.
used Books
Stuart Cohen . , W. J. (1937 ) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts . Hague – Common uses National Printing
Croo , M. H. Du (1943 ) General Swart pacifier of Aceh . Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees , J.C.J. ( 1905) The journey of Commander Whatley by the Gayo , and Alas and Batak . Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld , Herman (1998 ) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944 , part one 1869-1944 . Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep. Jelte (1996 ) Aceh , Aceh ! . Publisher Prom Baarn . ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullmann , Dr. J. C. (1933 ) Dr. H. Colijn . Leiden , A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V.
Feather, Paul van ‘t (1969 ) The Aceh War . Amsterdam . Publisher Arbeiderspers
Too much information about Aceh and Lombok found on the Internet and used.

 

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

1918

In 1918  Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired.

 

On August 12, 1918

appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

 

 

 

The end of atjeh war,the meeting between Panglima Polim and Zgeneral van Heutz

1920

 

 

 

Drinks at the inauguration of a new bridge. For this occasion, senior military guests at the military police of Blangkedjerèn. The marks on the collar of the policemen are “blood fingers” called

Borrel bij de inwijding van een nieuwe brug. Voor deze gelegenheid zijn hoge militairen te gast bij de marechaussees van Blangkedjerèn. De kentekenen op de kraag van de marechaussees worden ‘bloedvingers’ genoemd.

 

 

 

 

 

1926

 

 

KNIL at atjeh in 1926

 

 

Marsose at blangkajeren atjeh in 1926

 

 

 

Blangkajeren  Atjeh 1926

Blangkajeren Aceh 1926
Festive inauguration of a Model T Ford. The priest pours holy water in the radiator of the car while the present policemen watch. Ford has put together after he disassembled state by carriers on a footpath through the mountains to the tangsi is charged. The man in the white left of the Ford is the mechanic. Guitar Music and beer will be the party complete. The newly captured elephant May on the photo.
Festive inauguration of a Model T Ford. The priest pours holy water in the radiator of the car while the policemen present watch. The Ford was put together after he was charged. Disassembled by carriers on a footpath through the mountains to the tangsi The man in white to the left of the Ford is the mechanic. Guitar music and beer will be the party complete. Also, the newly captured elephant may in the picture.

 

1927

 

 

KNIL officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1927

1928

Panglima  Polim  was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of Nassau-Oranje Orde


Old Panglima Polim, raja of Sigli, wearing medal of The House of Orange in 1938, one year before his death.

1931

 

 

KNIl officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1931

1941

 

1.THE MILITARY SENCORED KUTARAJA ACEH AND MEDAN 1941

 

 

 

kabandjahe

 

Dai Nippon Occupation Aceh

 

1942-1945

 

Atjeh ster in rood op 2 cent Moehammadijah, vrijwel pracht ex. (iets tropisch), cat.w. 90

Corinphila veilingen 211 Part II

 

 

 

 

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