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4) Palembang –

 

 

God Shiva’s Mount Nandi Indonesia Central Java 9th …

 

 

 

 

824

Sailendras in Java

 

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world.

The Sailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra. For instance,

Samaratungga married Dewi Tara, a daughter of Srivijayan maharaja Dharmasetu.

The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Sailendra had access to the international market.

 

 

Borobudur temple stupa

 

 

Detail of Borobudur temple

 

 

 

9th  century Buddhism sculptured  relief at  Borobudur temple

 

 

 

Indonesian ship relief of borobudur temple

Karangtengah inscription dated 824

mentioned about the sima (tax free) lands awarded by Çrī Kahulunan (Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.[9] Kamūlān itself from the word mula which means ‘the place of origin’, a sacred building to honor the ancestors.

This findings suggested that either the ancestors of the Sailendras were originated from Central Java, or as the sign that Sailendra have established their holds on Java. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra which in Sanskrit means “The mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood“, was the original name of Borobudur.[10]

about 825

 

Sailendra King Samaratunga, grandson of Vishnu, finishes Borobudur.

 

Borobudur
Borobudur is a huge Buddhist monument covering a volcanic hill a few miles between present-day Magelang and Yogyakarta. It is in levels representing the stages to enlightenment. The large central stupa is empty. The many beautiful relief sculptures may have been used to educate young monks.

 

825

The received version holds that the Sailendra dynasty existed next to

the Sanjaya dynasty in Java.

Much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated.

830

The decline of the Sailendras began around 830 A.D.

culminating with their ouster,

835

about 835

 

Patapan of Sanjaya takes Sailendra throne, replaces Buddhism on Java with Hinduism.

King Balitung rules in central Java.

By this time, Buddhist culture had spread as far east as Lombok.

 

Around 850 A.D.,

a prince of Sanjaya dynasty,

Rakai Pikatan

married a Sailendran princess and seized control of central Java.

about 850

 

Balaputra, claimant to Sailendra throne, takes power in Srivijaya.

New Sanjaya king Daksa in central Java begins building Hindu temples at Prambanan.

King Warmadewa rules on Bali.

From about this time we have a version of the Ramayana epic in the Old Javanese language. The work is sophisticated, and there were probably many earlier such works in Old Javanese that have not survived.

 

 

in 856 A.D.,

by a descendant of Sanjaya.

Apparently the Sanjayan line of kings ruled continuously over outlying areas of the realm as vassals of the Sailendras, and during this time they built many

Hindus temples in remote areas of Java such as the Dieng Plateau and Mt. Ungaran (south of Semarang).

 

The Sailendras fled to Sriwijaya,

where they prospered and successfully blocked all Javanese shipping in the South China Sea for more than a century.

Sailendras in Sumatra

After 824,

there are no more references to the Sailendra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record.

By 850,

the Medang kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire

Around 852

the Sanjaya ruler Pikatan had defeated Balaputra,

the offspring of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara.

 

This ended the Sailendra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[11]

Around 860

the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription in India.

According to the text, the local king had granted

‘Balaputra, the king of Suvarna-dvipa’ (Sumatra)

the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Sailendra dynasty and grandson of the king of Java.[14]

From Sumatra, the Sailendras also maintained overseas relations with

the Chola kingdom in India,

as shown by several south Indian inscriptions.

 

 

860:

 

Balaputra the Maharaja of Suvarnadvipa and the ruler of Srivijaya, construct the buddhist temple and

 

Sumatra

Other scholars hold that the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java.[7] Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Sailendra’s inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections.

Java

Another theory suggested that Sailendra was a native Javanese dynasty, and there was no such things as Sanjaya dynasty since Sri Sanjaya and his offsprings belongs to Sailendra family that initially the Shivaist ruler of Mataram Kingdom.[8] The association of Sailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory based on Carita Parahyangan that mention about the ailing King Sanjaya ordered his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to buddhism, because their Shivaistic faith was feared by the people, and in favour to the more pacifist buddhist faith.

 

Sailendras in Bali

Sri Kesari Warmadewa was said to be a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[12] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[13]

11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

suddenly the capital was transferred to east java

around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash

932

Kerajaan Sunda adalah kerajaan yang pernah ada antara tahun 932 dan 1579 Masehi di bagian Barat pulau Jawa (Provinsi Banten,Jakarta, Jawa Barat, dan sebagian J…awa Tengah sekarang).

Kerjaan ini bahkan pernah menguasai wilayah bagian selatan Pulau Sumatera. Kerajaan ini bercorak Hindu dan Buddha, kemudian sekitar abad ke-14 diketahui kerajaan ini telah beribukota di Pakuan Pajajaran serta memiliki dua kawasan pelabuhan utama di Kalapa dan Banten.

1579

Kerajaan Sunda runtuh setelah ibukota kerajaan ditaklukan oleh Maulana Yusuf pada tahun 1579. Sementara sebelumnya kedua pelabuhan utama Kerajaan Sunda itu juga telah dikuasai oleh Kerajaan Demak pada tahun 1527, Kalapa ditaklukan oleh Fatahillah dan Banten ditaklukan oleh Maulana Hasanuddin.

*Catatan sejarah
Meskipun nama Sunda disebutkan dalam prasasti, naskah-naskah kuno, dan catatan sejarah dari luar negeri, Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro dan Nugroho Notosusanto menyatakan bahwa belum begitu banyak prasasti yang ditemukan di Jawa Barat dan secara jelas menyebutkan nama kerajaannya, walau dalam berbagai sumber kesusastraan, secara tegas Sunda merujuk kepada nama kawasan. Diduga sebelum keruntuhannya tahun 1579, Kerajaan Sunda telah mengalami beberapa kali perpindahan pusat pemerintahannya, dimulai dari Galuh dan berakhir di Pakuan Pajajaran.

*Berdirinya kerajaan Sunda
Berdasarkan Prasasti Kebonkopi II, yang berbahasa Melayu Kuno dengan tarikh 932, menyebutkan seorang “Raja Sunda menduduki kembali tahtanya”.[8]

 

 

Hal ini dapat ditafsirkan bahwa Raja Sunda telah ada sebelumnya Sementara dari sumber Tiongkok pada bukuZhufan Zhi yang ditulis pada tahun 1178 oleh Zhao Rugua menyebutkan terdapat satu kawasan dari San-fo-ts’i yang bernama Sin-tokemudian dirujuk kepada Sunda.

Menurut

 

Naskah Wangsakerta,

naskah yang oleh sebagian orang diragukan keasliannya serta diragukan sebagai sumber sejarah karena sangat sistematis, menyebutkan Sunda merupakan kerajaan yang berdiri menggantikan kerajaan Tarumanagara.

Kerajaan Sunda didirikan oleh Tarusbawa pada tahun 669 (591 Saka). Kerajaan ini merupakan suatu kerajaan yang meliputi wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Provinsi Banten, Jakarta, Provinsi Jawa Barat, dan bagian barat Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Sebelum berdiri sebagai kerajaan yang mandiri, Sunda merupakan bawahan Tarumanagara. Raja Tarumanagara yang terakhir, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (memerintah hanya selama tiga tahun, 666-669 M), menikah dengan Déwi Ganggasari dari Indraprahasta. Dari Ganggasari, beliau memiliki dua anak, yang keduanya perempuan. Déwi Manasih, putri sulungnya, menikah dengan Tarusbawa dari Sunda, sedangkan yang kedua, Sobakancana, menikah dengan Dapunta Hyang Sri Janayasa, yang selanjutnya mendirikan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Setelah Linggawarman meninggal, kekuasaan Tarumanagara turun kepada menantunya, Tarusbawa. Hal ini menyebabkan penguasa Galuh, Wretikandayun (612-702) memberontak, melepaskan diri dari Tarumanagara, serta mendirikan Kerajaan Galuh yang mandiri. Tarusbawa juga menginginkan melanjutkan kerajaan Tarumanagara, dan selanjutnya memindahkan kekuasaannya ke Sunda, di hulu sungai Cipakancilan dimana di daerah tersebut sungai Ciliwung dan sungai Cisadane berdekatan dan berjajar, dekat Bogor saat ini. Sedangkan Tarumanagara diubah menjadi bawahannya. Beliau dinobatkan sebagai raja Sunda pada hari Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, bulan Yista, tahun 519 Saka (kira-kira 18 Mei 669 M). Sunda dan Galuh ini berbatasan, dengan batas kerajaanya yaitu sungai Citarum (Sunda di sebelah barat, Galuh di sebelah timur).

 

 

 

 

 

990

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa

 

990

 

Dharmavamsa and Mataram send an army overseas to attack Srivijaya and take Palembang, but fail

 

 

992

destructive raids  srivijaya from Java in 992.

10th century

The Medang or Mataram Kingdom

was a HinduBuddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries CE.

It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the founder of the Sanjaya dynasty, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra and Sanjaya families.

By 850,

the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire.

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : KUBERA
Era : Abad Ke-
9/10, Kerajaan Singhasari
Material : Perunggu
Asal : Jawa Timur

An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera
INDONESIA, 9TH/10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera
Indonesia, 9th/10th Century
Seated on a circular pillow over a stepped plinth supported by two lions, with his right hand in varada mudra and holding the mongoose in his left, wearing long flowing robes richly adorned with jeweled armlets and necklaces, his face with a serene expression with wide open eyes surmounted by a conical headdress, the throneback modeled as a gateway flanked by leogryphs mounted on elephants in openwork, all supporting a flaming nimbus, the pinth centered by a cluster of jewels, with a deep brown patina overall 13¾ in. (34.8 cm.) high

This bronze figure of Kubera is among the very few comparatively large Indonesian bronze figures recorded in public and private collections; another figure of Kubera is in the collection of the Musée Guimet, see A. Le Bonheur, La sculpture indonesienne au Musee Guimet, 1971, cat. no. 3 814, p. 182f. In its general concept, it follows contemporary Indian prototypes created in Nalanda, Bihar; Compare a related example in Inde, Cinq Mille Ans d’Art, Paris, Musee du Petit Palais, 1978/79, cat. no. 97, from the National Museum, New Delhi. The proximity in style is indicative of the direct exchange of Indian bronzes to the South-East Asian region at that time, likely by sea, disseminating Pala style and fueling further regional stylistic evolution.

 

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : GANESHA
Era : Abad Ke-10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

Dilelang terbuka oleh :

CHRISTIE’S New York Saleroom
20 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10020

Dengan Data :

A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha
INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha
Indonesia, circa 10th Century
Seated in svastikasana on a round cushion over a rectangular plinth, with four arms, holding a mala, a sweet, and his broken tusk, wearing a serpent brahmanical thread, ornate jatamukuta, and arm ornaments, his elephant trunk unfurling into his right hand
3¾ in. (9.6 cm.) high

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : VAJRASATTVA
Era : Abad Ke-10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva
INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva
Indonesia, circa 10th Century
Finely cast seated in ‘Royal Ease’ on a round lotus base, a lotus stem rising up to his left shoulder supporting a vajra, with a flaming arched mandorla surmounted by a parasol, with an attractive silvery green patina overall
5¾ in. (14.6 cm.) high

 

10th century

 

They Mysterious Move to East Java

 

Rakai Pikatan commemorated his victory

by erecting the splendid temple complex at Prambanan,

 

which can be considered a Hindu counterpart of Buddhist Borobudur. Both are terraced an ancestor sanctuaries, highly elaborate versions of those constructed by Indonesian rulers in prehistoric times.

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

then suddenly the capital was transferred to east java around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash.

A partially completed temple has been unearthed at Sambisar, near Prambanan, from under five metres of volcanic debris. Then, too there is the possibility of epidemics and of mass migrations to the more fertile lands of East Java.

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire prospered in the 10th Century and actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

 

Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa,

 

and splintered the realm into numerous petty fiefdoms.

It took nearly 20 years for the next great king, Airlangga, to fully restore the empire.

Airlangga was King Dharmawangsa’s nephew

and he succeded to the throne in 1019

after the Sriwijayan forces had departed. With the help of loyal followers and advisors he reconquered the realm and restored its prosperity. He is best known, though, as a patron of the arts and as an ascete. Under his rule the Indian classics were translated from Sanskrit into Javanese, thus marking the flowering of indigenous Javanese arts..

 

abad ke-7 hinga ke-15,

 

yaitu Sriwijaya di Sumatera dan Majapahit di Jawa.

Keduanya adalah kerajaan Hindu-Budha. Kerajaan Sriwijaya merupakan salah satukerajaan pantai yang kekuatan ekonominya bertumpu pada perdaganganinternasional. Sriwijaya berhubungan dengan jalan raya perdagangan internasionaldari Cina ke Eropa melalui Selat Malaka.

 

 

 

 

Pada abad ke-7 hingga ke-13 kerajaan tersebut tumbuh dan berkembang menjadipusat perdagangan di wilayah Indonesia Barat, terutama setelah berhasil menguasaidan mengamankan jalur perdagangan di sekitar Selat Malaka. Sriwijaya mewajibkansetiap kapal dagang yang lewat Selat Malaka untuk singgah ke pelabuhan Sriwijaya.

 

Oleh karena itu, kerajaan tersebut sering dikunjungi para pedagang dari Persia,Arab, India, dan Cina untuk memperdagangkan barang-barang dari negerinya ataunegeri-negeri yang dilaluinya. Barang-barang tersebut antara lain berupa tekstil,kapur barus, mutiara, kayu berharga, rempah-rempah, gading, kain katun dansengkelat, perak, emas, sutera, pecah belah serta gula.

 

:

2

Selain sebagai pusat perdagangan, Sriwijaya juga mempunyai kapal-kapal sendiriuntuk perniagaannya. Pelayaran kapal-kapal niaga Sriwijaya meliputi Asia Tenggarasampai India, bahkan hingga Madagaskar. Dominasi perdagangan Sriwijaya mulaimengalami masa surut ketika mendapat serangan dari kerajaan Cola, India padaabad ke-11

 

An 11th century inscription

 

mentioned the grant of revenues to

 

a local Buddhist sanctuary, built in 1005

by the king of the Srivijaya.

 

In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had

broken out in 1025.[15]

Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century.

 

 

 

 

1025

destructive raid on srivijaya from the Chola rulers of southern India in 1025

Rajendra Chola of southern India takes Malay peninsula from Srivijaya for twenty years.

Airlangga extends the power and influence of Kahuripan as Srivijaya is weakened.
Around this time, Tumasik was a small kingdom on the site of today’s Singapore. It may have been influenced by the newcomers from southern India.

Also around this time, the Panai kingdom was flourishing in the Batak areas of northern Sumatra

1045

Airlangga divides Kahuripan into two kingdoms, Janggala (around today’s Malang) and Kediri, for his two sons, and abdicates to live the life of an ascetic. He passes away a year later

1049

Shotly before his death in 1049,

Airlangga changed his name and became an ascetic without, however, abdicating.

To appease the ambitions of his two sons he then divided his empire into two equal halves,

Kediri and Janggala(or Daha and Koripan).

Kediri became the more powerful of the two, and it is remembered now as the source of numerous works of Old Javanese literature-mainly adaptations of the Indian epics in a Javanese poetic form known as the kekawin.

 

 

(A sculpture of Ken Dedes, the wife of Ken Arok, representing her as a goddess)

 

Singhasari and MajapahitIn subsequent centuries Java prospered as never before. The rulers of successive east Javan empires were able to combine the benefits of a strong agricultural economy with income from a lucrative overseas trade. In the process, the Javanesse became the master shipbuilders and mariners of Southeast Asia.

 

1068

Vira Rajendra, king of Coromandel, conquers Kedah from Srivijaya

 

In 1090

 

a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary

 

(it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Sailendras).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kediri or Kadiri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.

Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature.[1] Mpu Sedah’s Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh’s Gatotkacasraya, and Mpu Dharmaja’s Smaradhana blossomed in this era. The kingdom’s capital is believed to be established on west part of Brantas River valley, somewhere near modern Kediri city and surrounding Kediri Regency. Other than Kadiri, its capital was also often referred to as Daha or Dahana.

 

 

Uang Krishnala, Kerajaan Jenggala (1042-1130 M)

 

1128

Islamic Shia  from Aceh to the Minangkabau,  began spreading in 1128.
  At that time, Al-Kamil admiral Nazimudin military maneuver of the coast of Aceh to

 

Muara takus  temple at  the side of  the Right  Kampar river Riau.

 

the Kampar river Right and Left, to control the results of pepper in the area.

Nazimudin fall when the expedition in 1128.


Aceh coin during this time

Read the complete info at dr Iwan CD Rom

The Aceh History collection or The Indonesia Precolonial History


  Kampar river area occupied by foreign merchants  who from Islamic Shiite, and supported by Fathimiah dynasty in Egypt.

 

They want to monopolize the results of pepper. Results pepper Perlak was transported to the airport, continues to be brought to market Gujarat.

 

 

Read more info

 

The Largest Ancient Brick Building

This is the site of the remains of an ancient Buddhist temple, located 200 km from Pekanbaru at a point where the Kampar Kanan and Kampar Kiri river tributaries meet.

It is believed to have been built in the 7th century because of certain similarities with the Kalasan temple near Yogyakarta.

 

candi mahligai – mi’s

 

Muara Takus, an ancient temple complex close to the bank of the river Kampar Kanan. Standing in a remote area amid Sumatra’s tropical forest, the temple is a mysterious entity.

Archeological experts have not yet been able to confirm when the temple has been built.

Short inscriptions found among the ruins point to a date in the 11th or 12th century.

Other relate the complex to the Buddhist empire of Srivijaya Budhist empire , which ruled in Sumatra in the 8th through 10th century.

. Some opinions go even back to the 4th century.
The temple complex is the largest ancient brick building in Sumatra. The tall stupa, known as Candi Mahligai, has the unusual shape of a tower, rather than the squat bell-shape normally associated with Buddhist architecture.

Several other foundations can be seen nearby, like the Candi Bungsu, a platform on which once stood two stupas, and the Candi Tua, originally the largest structure of all, with two stairways leading up to yet another stupa.

Candi Tua

 

candi tua – mi’s

 

Muara Takus Temple That So exotist


 Muara takus temple | 13 koto kampar | At Rantau Berangin, 15 kilometers after Bangkinang, the roads splits and turn left, entering Bukit Barisan range, which borders Riau province. The road climbs up and reaches the recently finished hydroelectric dam of Koto Panjang.

Near Muaramahat, some 122 km west of Pekanbaru off the main road to Bukittinggi, are the ruins of Muara Takus, an ancient temple complex close to the bank of the river Kampar Kanan.

 

 

Standing in a remote area amid Sumatra’s tropical forest, the temple is a mysterious entity.

 

.

a picture see from the road

 

 

 

picture take in front of the temple,

 

 

 

Dr Iwan Notes

 

 

In 1988 I have ever visit this temple with my son Albert, we must cross the right Kampar river by car crossing boat(pelayangan) , not so far we met this temple,not many informations found there

 

The defeat of Sriwijaya in the attack had ended Rajendra Coladewa Sailendra dynasty rule over the island of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula since 1025 . Some time later emerged a new dynasty took over the role of Sailendra Dynasty , which is called by the name of House of Mauli .
The oldest inscription ever found in the name of the king is the inscription Grahi Mauli year 1183 . The inscription contains the command Maharaja Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Grahi Warmadewa the regents named Mahasenapati Galanai that make a Buddha statue weighing 1 bhara 2 tula with gold values ​​10 Tamlin . Which makes the task of the statue named Mraten Sri Nano .
The second inscription later more than a century later , the inscription Padangroco in 1286 . This inscription mentions the existence of a king named Maharaja Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa . He got a shipment Amoghapasa statue of his superiors , namely Kertanagara Singhasari king kingdom in Java . The statue is then placed in the town Dharmasraya .
Dharmasraya in Pararaton called by the name of Malay . Thus , Tribhuwanaraja can also be referred to as the king of Malayu . Tribhuwanaraja itself is most likely descended from Trailokyaraja . Therefore , Trailokyaraja can also be regarded as the king of Malay , although inscriptions Grahi not call clearly .
What is interesting here is Trailokyaraja territory in 1183 has reached Grahi , which is located on the border of Cambodia . That means , after the defeat of Srivijaya , Malay rose again as the ruler of the Malacca Strait . However , when the resurrection would begin is uncertain , because the king of Jambi in 1082 still be subordinate Rajendra family .
The term Srimat found in front of the name and Tribhuwanaraja Trailokyaraja derived from Tamil language meaning ” lord priest ” . Thus , the revival of Malay Kingdom pioneered by the pastor . However , it is not clear whether the leaders of the revival is Srimat Trailokyaraja , or king before him , because until now have not found Mauli dynasty inscriptions older than the inscription Grahi

1222

Ken Angrok founds the Singhasari kingdom.

Putri Dedes was the wife of Ken Angrok. She was the daughter of a Buddhist priest who was stolen away by the governor of Tumapel on Java. Ken Angrok himself stole Putri Dedes away from her first husband to be his wife, but she was already pregnant, and her son (later King Anusapati) was actually the son of the governor, Tunggul Ametung. Eventually Ken Angrok conspired to have Tunggul Ametung killed so that he could become ruler of Tumapel.

Tumapel paid tribute to Kediri until Ken Angrok became powerful enough to conquer Kediri for himself in 1222. The last ruler of Kediri, Kertajaya, was considered cruel and overbearing.

Putri Dedes was long remembered as the mother of the royal line of Singhasari, and later Majapahit, Mataram, Yogya and Solo

1222

KERAJAAN SINGASARI

Kerajaan Singasari (1222-1293) adalah salah satu kerajaan besar di Nusantara vang didirikan oleh Ken Arok pada 1222. Kerajaan Singasari mencapai puncak kejayaan ketika dipimpin oleh Raja Kertanegara (1268-1292) yang bergelar Maharajadhiraja Kertanegara Wikrama Dharmottunggadewa

.

Ken Arok merebut daerah Tumapel, salah satu wilayah Kerajaan Kediri yang dipimpin oleh Tunggul Ametung, pada 1222. Ken Arok pada mulanya adalah anak buah Tunggul Ametung, namun ia membunuh Tunggul Ametung karena jatuh cinta pada istrinya, Ken Dedes. Ken Arok kemudian mengawini Ken Dedes. Pada saat dikawini Ken Arok, Ken Dedes telah mempunyai anak bernama Anusapati yang kemudian menjadi raja Singasari (1227-1248). Raja terakhir Kerajaan Singasari adalah Kertanegara.

Ken Arok

Ketika di pusat Kerajaan Kediri terjadi pertentangan antara raja dan kaum Brahmana, semua pendeta melarikan diri ke Tumapel dan dilindungi oleh Ken Arok.

Pada 1222, para pendeta Hindu kemudian menobatkan Ken Arok sebagai raja di Tumapel dengan gelar Sri Ranggah Rajasa Bhatara Sang Amurwabhumi. Adapun nama kerajaannya ialah Kerajaan Singasari. Berita pembentukan Kerajaan Singasari dan penobatan Ken Arok menimbulkan kemarahan raja Kediri, Kertajaya. la kemudian memimpin sendiri pasukan besar untuk menyerang Kerajaan Singasari. Kedua pasukan bertempur di Desa Ganter pada 1222. Ken Arok berhasil memenangkan pertempuran dan sejak itu wilayah kekuasaan Kerajaan Kediri dikuasai oleh Singasari.

 

1225

: Quanzhou’s commissioner of foreign trade noted a Chinese court order banning trade with Java, as the import of pepper was causing excessive outflow of copper cash; Javanese traders avoided the ban by calling their country Sukadana (Su-ki-tan).
Kenneth Hall, Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia, p.244, citing F. Hirth & W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua: his work on the Chinese and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, St Petersburg, 1911.

 

 

 

1225

: Quanzhou’s commissioner of foreign trade noted a Chinese court order banning trade with Java, as the import of pepper was causing excessive outflow of copper cash; Javanese traders avoided the ban by calling their country Sukadana (Su-ki-tan).
Kenneth Hall, Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia, p.244, citing F. Hirth & W.W. Rockhill, Chau Ju-kua: his work on the Chinese and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi, St Petersburg, 1911.

1227

Ken Angrok dies, and is succeeded by Anusapati.

By now, Jambi was an independent kingdom on Sumatra1227

 

Kertanegara

Ken Arok memerintah Kerajaan Singasari hanya lima tahun. Pada 1227 ia dibunuh oleh Anusapati, anak tirinya (hasil perkawinan Tunggul Ametung dan Ken Dedes). Sepuluh tahun kemudian Anusapati dibunuh oleh saudara tirinya, Tohjaya (putra Ken Arok dengan Ken Umang). Kematian Anusapati menimbulkan kemarahan Ranggawuni, putra Anusapati. Ranggawuni langsung menyerang Tohjaya. Pasukan Tohjaya kalah dalam pertempuran dan meninggal dunia dalam pelarian. Pada 1248 Ranggawuni menjadi raja Singasari bergelar Sri Jaya Wisnuwardhana. Ranggawuni memerintah Kerajaan Singasari selama 20 tahun (1248-1268) dan dibantu oleh Mahisa Cempaka (Narasingamurti). Ranggawuni wafat pada 1268 dan digantikan oleh putranya, Kertanegara. la memerintah Kerajaan Singasari selama 24 tahun (1268-1292).

1230

Penggabungan dengan Samudera Pasai

Sultan ke-17 Perlak, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12301267) menjalankan politik persahabatan dengan menikahkan dua orang putrinya dengan penguasa negeri tetangga Peureulak:

  • 1247
  • Anusapati dies after a peaceful 20-year reign. Tohjaya, son of Ken Angrok by a concubine, becomes king of Singhasari.
  • Tradition says that the kings of Singhasari during this period were all murdered by their successors, as part of the feud arising from Ken Angrok stealing away Putri Dedes. 1247:
  • A fleet from Ligor under Candrabhanu attacked Sri Lanka from Kedah (and again in 1270).
    http://www.sabrizain.demon.co.uk/malaya/hindu.htm
  • 1250
  • Tohjaya is killed in a rebellion and replaced as king by by Wisnuwardhana, son of Anusapati
  • 1267
  • Sultan terakhir Perlak adalah sultan ke-18, Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (memerintah 12671292). Setelah ia meninggal, Perlak disatukan dengan Kerajaan Samudera Pasai di bawah pemerintahan sultan Samudera Pasai, Sultan Muhammad Malik Al Zahir, putra Al Malik Al-Saleh.
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  • Daftar Sultan Perlak
  • Sultan-sultan Perlak dapat dikelompokkan menjadi dua dinasti: dinasti Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah dan dinasti Johan Berdaulat. Berikut daftar sultan yang pernah memerintah Perlak.
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Azis Shah (840864)
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Rahim Shah (864888)
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah (888913)
  • Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah (915918)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Kadir Shah Johan Berdaulat (928932)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah Johan Berdaulat (932956)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Berdaulat (956983)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat [5] (9861023)
  • Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (10231059)
  • 10.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mansur Shah Johan Berdaulat (10591078)
  • 11.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdullah Shah Johan Berdaulat (10781109)
  • 12.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ahmad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11091135)
  • 13.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Mahmud Shah Johan Berdaulat (11351160)
  • 14.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Usman Shah Johan Berdaulat (11601173)
  • 15.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Shah Johan Berdaulat (11731200)
  • 16.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Jalil Shah Johan Berdaulat (12001230)
  • 17.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Muhammad Amin Shah II Johan Berdaulat (12301267)
  • 18.  Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Abdul Aziz Johan Berdaulat (12671292)
  • Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (abad ke-13abad ke-16)
  • 1268
  • Ketika Singasari berada di bawah pemerintahan Kertanegara (1268-1292), terjadilah pergolakan di dalam kerajaan. Jayakatwang, raja Kediri yang selama ini tunduk kepada Singasari bergabung dengan Bupati Sumenep (Madura) untuk menjatuhkan Kertanegara.
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  • 1268

1268

 

King Wisnuwardhana of Singhasari dies, and is succeeded by Kertanegara. Kertanegara promotes a mixture of Hinduism and Buddhism.

 
  • 1270
  • In 1270 something,
  • the Mongols were also wreaking havoc on the Islamic headquarters in Baghdad and many Islamic intellectuals and elites became refugees and came to India in droves.

    During this period, there were campaigns in India where Ghorids and later the Mughal invaders were establishing the faith of Islam over the subcontinent. It was during the Mongol assault on Islamic empire that the legends of Alladin were forged in India.. Alladin was in fact an islamic conqueror who campaigned in India and got alot of booty from the rich Hindu kings and their princesses…

    Southern India had its Dravidian Chola empire later Vijayanagar empire that kept contacts with Southeast Asian indic kingdoms. And in the face of the encroachment of Islam, they were in a burst of energy to build Hindu / Buddhist monuments all over the place. I wonder if that is why they sent their masons and builders to Southeast Asia to build those glorious candis and temples in Java (Dieng), Champa (Angkor Wat) and Burma (Bagan)? It was said that instead of gathering their best builders to build defence fortresses to hold back the Ghorids and Mughals, they went on an overdrive to glorify their faith and deities in the bid that such meritorious acts would save their empires..

    I think Indian didn’t sent their builder, mason, worker, etc to Southeast Asia. Instead the local southeast asian people (kings and commoners) whom build the temple. Theyadopt Indic art, architecture and philosophy, and merge it with late megalithic traditions that already established in archipelago

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  • c.1272:
  • An Odd Ball was made at the Chinese court, with representations of land, rivers, oceans, and a grid of lines… latitude & longitude?
    http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-Asia&month=0511&week=a&msg=x515H1jaKh6%2b9FvwTswQ9Q&user=&pw, citing the Yuan shi 48:999
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  • c.1272:
  • An Odd Ball was made at the Chinese court, with representations of land, rivers, oceans, and a grid of lines… latitude & longitude?
    http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-Asia&month=0511&week=a&msg=x515H1jaKh6%2b9FvwTswQ9Q&user=&pw, citing the Yuan shi 48:999
  • 1273:
  • Yuan China sent the first of four missions to Sri Lanka (Kublai Khan declared himself emperor of China in 1271, although the southern Song were finally defeated only in 1279); the dates were 1273, 1284, 1291 and 1293. In 1293, Sri Lanka sent one mission back.
    Prof W.I. Siriweera,
    http://lakdiva.net/coins/media/cdn_1998.06.21_china_trade.htm
  • 1273:
  • Yuan China sent the first of four missions to Sri Lanka (Kublai Khan declared himself emperor of China in 1271, although the southern Song were finally defeated only in 1279); the dates were 1273, 1284, 1291 and 1293. In 1293, Sri Lanka sent one mission back.
    Prof W.I. Siriweera,
    http://lakdiva.net/coins/media/cdn_1998.06.21_china_trade.htm
  • 1274:
  • Kublai Khan sent a fleet with 23-28,000 men from Korea to attack Japan, after earlier requests for tribute were refused. The fleet looted Hakata (Fukuoka), but withdrew with heavy losses after a great storm. The locals then built a 20km defensive wall, parts of which have been excavated.
    http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,61-545301,00.html; defensive wall http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/university/english/living/mongol/genko.htm
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  • 1274:
  • Kublai Khan sent a fleet with 23-28,000 men from Korea to attack Japan, after earlier requests for tribute were refused. The fleet looted Hakata (Fukuoka), but withdrew with heavy losses after a great storm. The locals then built a 20km defensive wall, parts of which have been excavated.
    http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,61-545301,00.html; defensive wall http://www.seinan-gu.ac.jp/university/english/living/mongol/genko.htm
  • 1275

1275

 

Kertanegara conquers the Melayu kingdom around Jambi on Sumatra

 
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  • 1275-76:
  • The Mongols, with unbeatable cavalry but initially inferior seapower, recruited Song traitors to help them capture port towns. By 1275 they controlled the Yangzi and had confiscated 3,000 boats. Two opportunistic Song merchants supplied a further 500 boats and several thousand crew for the assault on Hangzhou, which fell in 1276; the boy emperor Gongzong was captured.
    Louise Levathes, When China ruled the seas, p.48
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  • 1275
  • The Pararaton goes on to tell of
  •  
  • Ken Arok’s successors, particularly of the last king of the Singhasari line, Kertanegara. .
  • Kertanegara was an extraordinary figure, a scholar as well as a statesman, who belonged to the Tantric Bhairawa sect of Buddhism.
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  • 1275
  • Ekspedisi Pamalayu
  • Kertanegara terus memperluas pengaruh dan kekuasaan Kerajaan Singasari. Pada 1275 ia mengirim pasukan untuk menaklukkan Kerajaan Sriwijaya sekaligus menjalin persekutuan dengan Kerajaan Campa (Kamboja). Ekspedisi pengiriman pasukan itu dikenal dengan nama Pamalayu. Kertanegara berhasil memperluas pengaruhnya di Campa melalui perkawinan antara raja Campa dan adik perempuannya. Kerajaan Singasari sempat menguasai Sumatera, Bakulapura (Kalimantan Barat), Sunda (Jawa Barat), Madura, Bali, dan Gurun (Maluku).
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  • In 1275
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  • and again in 1291
  • Kertanegara  sent successful naval expeditions against Sriwijaya thus wresting control of the increasingly important maritime trade.
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  • 1276-1279:
  • The Song emperor was dethroned and captured, and replaced by his half brother Duanzong who had been sent to Fujian for safety. The entire court took to the sea, moving gradually southwards as the Mongols advanced. After capturing Guangzhou, the Mongols launched a naval attack, forcing the court further out to sea. The emperor’s ship sank in a hurricane; Duanzong was rescued, but died after a further attack (possibly at Lantau island, home to Hong Kong airport); his younger brother became the emperor Bing Di. In 1279 the Mongols again attacked and drove the court to sea. A three week battle ensued. More than 1000 Chinese ships had been chained together line-abreast; over 800 were captured, and 100,000 men died. Bing Di was drowned. 16 Chinese ships escaped, carrying the dowager empress Yang, who drowned herself from grief and was later worshipped as a goddess.
    Ann Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese emperors, p146-7.


Model of the Quanzhou ship

  • 1274-77:
  • tentative date of the Song dynasty ship found at Quanzhou, a three-masted compartmentalized 34-metre vessel with bamboo sails and rope made of palm, bamboo, rattan and flax. She was returning from Southeast Asia with sandalwood and other fragrant woods, medicinal products (2.4 tonnes in these categories), jewellery, peppercorns, areca nuts, frankincense, ambergris, tortoise shell, coral, copper coins, money cowries, bamboo, and wooden tags tied to the cargo with the name & address of each merchant, including one ‘Ali’.
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sultan/archeology.html; Wang Lianmao (ed), Return to the City of Light, p.74-80; Quanzhou ship museum artefacts & captions.
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  • 1275-76:
  • The Mongols, with unbeatable cavalry but initially inferior seapower, recruited Song traitors to help them capture port towns. By 1275 they controlled the Yangzi and had confiscated 3,000 boats. Two opportunistic Song merchants supplied a further 500 boats and several thousand crew for the assault on Hangzhou, which fell in 1276; the boy emperor Gongzong was captured.
    Louise Levathes, When China ruled the seas, p.48
  • 1276-1279:
  • The Song emperor was dethroned and captured, and replaced by his half brother Duanzong who had been sent to Fujian for safety. The entire court took to the sea, moving gradually southwards as the Mongols advanced. After capturing Guangzhou, the Mongols launched a naval attack, forcing the court further out to sea. The emperor’s ship sank in a hurricane; Duanzong was rescued, but died after a further attack (possibly at Lantau island, home to Hong Kong airport); his younger brother became the emperor Bing Di. In 1279 the Mongols again attacked and drove the court to sea. A three week battle ensued. More than 1000 Chinese ships had been chained together line-abreast; over 800 were captured, and 100,000 men died. Bing Di was drowned. 16 Chinese ships escaped, carrying the dowager empress Yang, who drowned herself from grief and was later worshipped as a goddess.
    Ann Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese emperors, p146-7.


Model of the Quanzhou ship

  • 1274-77:
  • tentative date of the Song dynasty ship found at Quanzhou, a three-masted compartmentalized 34-metre vessel with bamboo sails and rope made of palm, bamboo, rattan and flax. She was returning from Southeast Asia with sandalwood and other fragrant woods, medicinal products (2.4 tonnes in these categories), jewellery, peppercorns, areca nuts, frankincense, ambergris, tortoise shell, coral, copper coins, money cowries, bamboo, and wooden tags tied to the cargo with the name & address of each merchant, including one ‘Ali’.
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sultan/archeology.html; Wang Lianmao (ed), Return to the City of Light, p.74-80; Quanzhou ship museum artefacts & captions.
  • 1280s:
  • After capturing Quanzhou, the Yuan emperor despatched envoys overseas ten times. Yang Tingbi was sent in 1280 and 1282 to Quilon in Malabar, receiving promises of support from Egyptian traders and Muslim chieftains, and went on to Kenya. By 1286, ten states in Malaya, Sumatra, India and Africa had sent envoys back.
    Shen Fuwei, Cultural flow between China and the outside world, p.158
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  • 1280

1280

 

A group of Javanese from Kediri, unhappy with Kertanegara, settle around Kutai in Kalimantan

 
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  • 1280s:
  • After capturing Quanzhou, the Yuan emperor despatched envoys overseas ten times. Yang Tingbi was sent in 1280 and 1282 to Quilon in Malabar, receiving promises of support from Egyptian traders and Muslim chieftains, and went on to Kenya. By 1286, ten states in Malaya, Sumatra, India and Africa had sent envoys back.
    Shen Fuwei, Cultural flow between China and the outside world, p.158.


Mongol ship, landing craft & water carrier: drawing in the Takashima museum


Mongol ship, landing craft & water carrier: drawing in the Takashima museum

1281

 

Muslims from Jambi send an embassy to Kublai Khan

 
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  • 1282:
  • Mongol general Toa Do (Gogetu) landed in Champa; he seized the capital in 1283, but encountered fierce resistance. In 1285 Mongols took control of the Red River delta, but were evicted.
    Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.45-48.
  • 1282:
  • Mongol general Toa Do (Gogetu) landed in Champa; he seized the capital in 1283, but encountered fierce resistance. In 1285 Mongols took control of the Red River delta, but were evicted.
    Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.45-48.
  •  
  • -1284:
  • A Chinese celadon bowl and two white Ding bowls were found at Yapahuwa in Sri Lanka, which was destroyed and abandoned in 1284.
    John Carswell, Blue & White: Chinese porcelain around the world, p.63, citing Carswell, ‘China & Islam in the Maldive islands’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 1978, p.128.
  • 1284

1284

 

Kertanegara takes Bali for Singhasari

 
  • -1284:
  • A Chinese celadon bowl and two white Ding bowls were found at Yapahuwa in Sri Lanka, which was destroyed and abandoned in 1284.
    John Carswell, Blue & White: Chinese porcelain around the world, p.63, citing Carswell, ‘China & Islam in the Maldive islands’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 1978, p.128.
  • 1288:
  • A new Mongol fleet was defeated in the Bach Dang river by Tran Hung Dao, using metal-tipped stakes just as 350 years earlier. 30,000 Mongols died; 100 of their ships were destroyed, and 400 captured. Archaeologists have found wooden stakes of both periods, but as yet no ships.
    Le Ti Lien et al,’Understanding the Bach Dang Battlefield from Recent Research Results’,
    www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1266; www.themua.org/vietnam/bdp.php; Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.49-50; Hanoi History Museum captions; Dr Trinh Cao Tuong, Institute of Archaeology, personal conversation; Mark Staniforth, ‘The lost fleet of Kublai Khan’, http://www.latrobe.edu.au/news/articles/2011/podcasts/the-lost-fleet-of-kublai-khan/transcript.
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  • 1288:
  • A new Mongol fleet was defeated in the Bach Dang river by Tran Hung Dao, using metal-tipped stakes just as 350 years earlier. 30,000 Mongols died; 100 of their ships were destroyed, and 400 captured. Archaeologists have found wooden stakes of both periods, but as yet no ships.
    Le Ti Lien et al,’Understanding the Bach Dang Battlefield from Recent Research Results’,
    www.themua.org/collections/items/show/1266; www.themua.org/vietnam/bdp.php; Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p.49-50; Hanoi History Museum captions; Dr Trinh Cao Tuong, Institute of Archaeology, personal conversation; Mark Staniforth, ‘The lost fleet of Kublai Khan’, http://www.latrobe.edu.au/news/articles/2011/podcasts/the-lost-fleet-of-kublai-khan/transcript.
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  • 1289

1289

 

Kublai Khan sends messengers to Singhasari to demand tribute; Kertanegara slashes their faces and sends them home

 
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  • 1289
  • Serangan Pasukan Mongol
  • Pasukan Pamalayu dipersiapkan Kertanegara untuk menghadapi serangan kaisar Mongol, Kubilai Khan, yang berkuasa di Cina. Utusan Kubilai Khan beberapa kali datang ke Singasari untuk meminta Kertanegara tunduk di bawah Kubilai Khan.
  • Apabila menolak maka Singasari akan diserang. Permintaan ini menimbulkan kemarahan Kertanegara dengan melukai utusan khusus Kubilai Khan, Meng Ki, pada 1289.
  • Kertanegara menyadari tindakannya ini akan dibalas oleh pasukan Mongol. la kemudian memperkuat pasukannya di Sumatera.
  • 1290
  • On the northern coast of Sumatra, several small trading states,
  • Aru, Tamiang, Perlak, Pasai, Samudra and Lamuri now came to prominence.
  • These states were the first in Indonesia to convert to Islam,
  • Perlak
  • probably being the earliest in about 1290.
  • In central Sumatra, the Buddhist kingdom of the Minangkabau, sometimes called Pagarruyung after its capital, emerged in about 1250
  • and extended its hegemony down into the coastal regions facing the strait. Palembang and Jambi, however, declined in importance, though they remained significant regional ports.
  • 1290
  • After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java altogether in 1290,
  •  
  • the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute.
  • Kertanegara, last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a massive 1000 ship expedition which arrived off the coast of Java
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  • 1290

1290

 

Kertanegara conquers Srivijaya

 
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  • 1291-1292:
  • Kublai Khan despatched a princess as replacement bride for the Persian king Arghun, by sea since she had encountered problems on the land journey – escorted by the three Polos, returning home after almost two decades, with messages from the khan for the pope and the kings of Christendom.
    Marco Polo, The Travels, p.42-43. (See also Frances Wood, Did Marco Polo go to China? She argues that the whole account, supposedly dictated in Genoa in 1298, was largely invented. In any case a lot of information came into European circulation, albeit partially garbled.)
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  • 1293

1293

 

Vijaya forms alliance with Mongol forces against remainder of Singhasari in Kediri, led by Jayakatwang.

March Combined force of Mongol/Chinese soldiers and Majapahit takes Kediri.

Vijaya returns to Trowulan, then attacks Mongols in a surprise attack. Mongols retreat and leave Java.

November Vijaya is enthroned as king Kertarajasa Jayawardhana of new Majapahit.


Vijaya being crowned the king of Majapahit, in a sculpture from that time.

Vijaya married all four daughters of the former king Kertanegara

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  • The Hindu Majapahit Empire
  • (1293–1520 AD)
  • on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343.
  • When the empire declined, there was an exodus of intellectuals, artists, priests, and musicians from Java to Bali in the 15th century
  • Uang Gobog Wayang, Kerajaan Majapahit (Abad k-13)
  • Pada zaman Majapahit, keping koin ini dikenal atau disebut sebagai “Gobog Wayang”, dimana untuk pertama kalinya diperkenalkan oleh Thomas Raffles, dalam bukunya The History of Java.
  • Majapahit Soldier
  • Bentuknya bulat dengan lubang kotak ditengah karena pengaruh dari koin cash dari Cina ataupun koin-koin serupa lainnya yang berasal dari Cina atau Jepang.
  • Koin Gobog Wayang adalah asli buatan lokal, namun tidak digunakan sebagai alat tukar (hanya sebagai koin token).
  • Sebenarnya koin-koin ini digunakan untuk persembahan di kuil-kuil seperti yang dilakukan di Cina ataupun di Jepang sehingga disebut juga sebagai “koin-koin kuil”.
  • Setelah redup dan runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit di Jawa Timur pada sekitar tahun 1528, maka mulai muncul kerajaan Banten di Jawa bagian barat. Kerajaan Banten dikenal juga sebagai kerajaan dengan ibukota dagangnya yang semakin ramai.
  • 5. Uang Dirham, Kerajaan Samudera Pasai (1297 M)
  • Kesultanan Pasai, juga dikenal dengan Samudera Darussalam, atau Samudera Pasai, adalah kerajaan Islam yang terletak di pesisir pantai utara Sumatera, kurang lebih di sekitar Kota Lhokseumawe dan Aceh Utara, Provinsi Aceh, Indonesia.
  • Belum begitu banyak bukti arkeologis tentang kerajaan ini untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan kajian sejarah. Namun beberapa sejarahwan memulai menelusuri keberadaan kerajaan ini bersumberkan dari Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai, dan ini dikaitkan dengan beberapa makam raja serta penemuan koin berbahan emas dan perak dengan tertera nama rajanya.
  • Mata uang emas dari Kerajaan Samudera Pasai untuk pertama kalinya dicetak oleh Sultan Muhammad yang berkuasa sekitar tahun 1297-1326 Masehi.
  • Mata uangnya disebut “Dirham” atau “Mas” dan mempunyai standar berat 0,60 gram (berat standar Kupang).
  • Namun ada juga koin-koin Dirham Pasai yang sangat kecil dengan berat hanya 0,30 gram (1/2 dari Kupang atau 3 kali Saga). Uang Mas Pasai mempunyai diameter 10–11 mm, sedangkan yang 1/2 Mas berdiameter 6 mm.
  • Pada hampir semua koinnya ditulis nama Sultan dengan gelar “Malik az-Zahir” atau “Malik at-Tahir”. Nama dirham menunjukkan pengaruh kuat pedagang Arab dan budaya Islam di kerajaan tersebut
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  • 1292

1292

 

Marco Polo visits Sumatra and Java.

Kublai Khan prepares invasion fleet of 1000 ships to take Java.

Kertanegara killed in court rebellion; son-in-law Vijaya retreats and founds new court at Majapahit (today Trowulan), with the help of Arya Wiraraja, local ruler of Madura.

Bali breaks away from Singhasari under Pejeng kings at Ubud.

November Mongol fleet leaves for Java; lands at Tuban.

Majapahit was one of the few countries of that time to defeat a Mongol invasion, along with Japan and Egypt. However, the Mongol fleet was hit by a typhoon along the way, and was refused permission to land in Champa (in today’s Vietnam) to take on supplies. By the time the fleet reached Tuban, the army was sickened and weak

1293

 

Vijaya forms alliance with Mongol forces against remainder of Singhasari in Kediri, led by Jayakatwang.

March Combined force of Mongol/Chinese soldiers and Majapahit takes Kediri.

Vijaya returns to Trowulan, then attacks Mongols in a surprise attack. Mongols retreat and leave Java.

November Vijaya is enthroned as king Kertarajasa Jayawardhana of new Majapahit.


Vijaya being crowned the king of Majapahit, in a sculpture from that time.

Vijaya married all four daughters of the former king Kertan

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  •  
  • 1291-1292:
  • Kublai Khan despatched a princess as replacement bride for the Persian king Arghun, by sea since she had encountered problems on the land journey – escorted by the three Polos, returning home after almost two decades, with messages from the khan for the pope and the kings of Christendom.
    Marco Polo, The Travels, p.42-43. (See also Frances Wood, Did Marco Polo go to China? She argues that the whole account, supposedly dictated in Genoa in 1298, was largely invented. In any case a lot of information came into European circulation, albeit partially garbled.)
  • 1292-1293:
  • Kublai Khan sent 1000 ships to attack Java. Hit by a typhoon, and refused permission to land in Champa, the fleet arrived enfeebled. Vijaya, the ruler of Majapahit, joined the Mongols to attack Kediri, and then launched a surprise attack on the Mongols, who withdrew.
    http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/Indonesia/100.htm
  • 1292:
  • Queen The Return Nata Pali I
  • ruled the Kingdom of Hedgehog, West Kalimantan.

  • 1292
  • Kertanegara  was eventually murdered in 1292 by the king of Kediri

  • So powerful did become, in fact, that Kublai Khan,
  • the Mongol emperor of China sent ambassador, a gesture which so enraged
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • 1292
  • Akhirnya pada tahun 1292 Jayakatwang berhasil mengalahkan Kertanegara dan membangun kembali kejayaan Kerajaan Kediri.
  • 1292
  • Pengelana Venesia Marco Polo (1292)[6][7] yang singgah di Sumatera menulis bahwa penduduk pedalaman pada umumnya masih belum beragama Islam
  •  
  • 1292
  • Para geografer muslim abad ke-9 dan 10, seperti Ibnu Khurdadzbih dan Al Biruni, menuliskan bahwa Sumatera (yang mereka sebut Zabaj) adalah bagian rute perdagangan mereka menuju Cina.[5]
  • Pengelana Venesia Marco Polo (1292)[6][7] yang singgah di Sumatera menulis bahwa penduduk pedalaman pada umumnya masih belum beragama Islam
  •  
  • Mystery 13th Century eruption traced to Lombok, Indonesia
  • By Jonathan Amos Science correspondent, BBC News
  • The bowl that is today Segara Anak Crater Lake formed after the eruption
  • Continue reading the main story
  • Related Stories
  • ‘World’s largest volcano’ discovered
  • Volcanic ‘scream’ precedes eruption
  • Volcano catastrophe idea ‘dismissed’
  • Scientists think they have found the volcano responsible for a huge eruption that occurred in the 13th Century.
  • The mystery event in 1257 was so large its chemical signature is recorded in the ice of both the Arctic and the Antarctic.
  • European medieval texts talk of a sudden cooling of the climate, and of failed harvests.
  • In the PNAS journal, an international team points the finger at the Samalas Volcano on Lombok Island, Indonesia.
  • Little remains of the original mountain structure – just a huge crater lake.
  • The team has tied sulphur and dust traces in the polar ice to a swathe of data gathered in the Lombok region itself, including radiocarbon dates, the type and spread of ejected rock and ash, tree-rings, and even local chronicles that recall the fall of the Lombok Kingdom sometime in the 13th Century.
  • “The evidence is very strong and compelling,” Prof Clive Oppenheimer, from Cambridge University, UK, told the BBC’s Science In Action programme.
  • Co-worker Prof Franck Lavigne, from the Pantheon-Sorbonne University, France, added: “We conducted something similar to a criminal investigation.
  •  
  •  
  • in 1293.
  •  
  • By that time, a rebel from Kediri, Jayakatwang had usurped and killed Kertanagara.
  • 1293
  • Runtuhnya Kediri
    Setelah berhasil mengalah kan Kertanegara, Kerajaan Kediri bangkit kembali di bawah pemerintahan Jayakatwang. Salah seorang pemimpin pasukan Singasari, Raden Wijaya, berhasil meloloskan diri ke Madura.
  • Karena perilakunya yang baik, Jayakatwang memperbolehkan Raden Wijaya untuk membuka Hutan Tarik sebagai daerah tempat tinggalnya. Pada tahun 1293, datang tentara Mongol yang dikirim oleh Kaisar Kubilai Khan untuk membalas dendam terhadap Kertanegara.
  • Keadaan ini dimanfaatkan Raden Wijaya untuk menyerang Jayakatwang. Ia bekerjasama dengan tentara Mongol dan pasukan Madura di bawah pimpinan Arya Wiraraja untuk menggempur Kediri. Dalam perang tersebut pasukan Jayakatwang mudah dikalahkan.
  • Setelah itu tidak ada lagi berita tentang Kerajaan Kediri.
  • Atas: Arca Syiwa ini dibangun pada masa Kerajaan Kediri yang bercorak Hindu sebagai persembahan kepada Dewa Syiwa.
  • Kiri atas :
  • Kerjasama tentara Mongol dan pasukan Arya Wiraraja dapat mengalahkan pasukan Kediri di bawah pimpinan Jayakatwang.
    Sumber : Syukur, Abdul, Ensiklopedi Umum untuk Pelajar , Jilid 5, Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve, 2005. Halaman 115.
  • 1293
  • Pada 1293 pasukan Mongol menyerang Kerajaan Singasari. Namun Kertanegara telah dibunuh oleh raja Kediri, Jayakatwang, setahun sebelumnya. Singasari kemudian dikuasai oleh Jayakatwang
  • .
  • Atas: Arca Dwarapala merupakan salah satu peninggalan Kerajaan Singasari.
  •  
  • Atas : Candi Kidal dibangun di Rejokidal, Tumpang, Malang, yang dipersembahkan kepada Anusapati, raja kedua dan anak tiri Ken Arok.
  • Sumber : Syukur, Abdul, Ensiklopedi Umum untuk Pelajar , Jilid 9, Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru van Hoeve, 2005. Halaman 110.
  • 1293
  • Majapahit’s empire on Java
  • Intro
  • Sejarah Ringkas Kerajaan Majapahit
  • ( Junus Satrio,2010)
  • Setelah raja Kertanegara  gugur, kerajaan Singpsari  berada di bawah kekuasaan raja Jayakatwang dari Kadiri. Salah satu keturunan penguasa Singosari, yaitu Raden Wijaya, kemudian berusaha merebut kembali kekuasaan nenek moyangnya.
  • Ia adalah keturunan Ken Angrok, raja Singosari pertama dan anak dari Dyah Lembu Tal.
  • Ia juga dikenal dengan nama lain, yaitu Nararyya Sanggramawijaya. Menurut sumber sejarah, Raden Wijaya sebenarnya adalah mantu Kertanegara yang masih terhitung keponakan.
  •  
  • Kitab Pararaton menyebutkan bahwa ia mengawini dua anak sang raja sekaligus, tetapi kitab Negarakertagama menyebutkan bukannya dua melainkan keempat anak perempuan Kertanegara dinikahinya semua. Pada waktu Jayakatwang menyerang Singosari , Raden Wijaya diperintahkan untuk mempertahankan ibukota di arah utara.
  • Kekalahan yang diderita Singosari  menyebabkan Raden Wijaya mencari perlindungan ke sebuah desa bernama Kudadu, lelah dikejar-kejar musuh dengan sisa pasukan tinggal duabelas orang.
  • Berkat pertolongan Kepala Desa Kudadu, rombongan Raden Wijaya dapat menyeberang laut ke Madura dan di sana memperoleh perlindungan dari Aryya Wiraraja, seorang bupati di pulau ini. Berkat bantuan Aryya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya kemudian dapat kembali ke Jawa dan diterima oleh raja Jayakatwang. Tidak lama kemudian ia diberi sebuah daerah di hutan T?rik untuk dibuka menjadi desa, dengan dalih untuk mengantisipasi serangan musuh dari arah utara sungai Brantas. Berkat bantuan Aryya Wiraraja ia kemudian mendirikan desa baru yang diberi nama Majapahit. Di desa inilah Raden Wijaya kemudian memimpin dan menghimpun kekuatan, khususnya rakyat yang loyal terhadap almarhum Kertanegara yang berasal dari daerah Daha dan Tumapel. Aryya Wiraraja sendiri menyiapkan pasukannya di Madura untuk membantu Raden Wijaya bila saatnya diperlukan. Rupaya ia pun kurang menyukai raja Jayakatwang.
  • Tidak terduga sebelumnya bahwa pada tahun 1293 Jawa kedatangan pasukan dari Cina yang diutus oleh Kubhilai Khan untuk menghukum Singhas?ri atas penghinaan yang pernah diterima utusannya pada tahun 1289. Pasukan berjumlah besar ini setelah berhenti di Pulau Belitung untuk beberapa bulan dan kemudian memasuki Jawa melalui sungai Brantas langsung menuju ke Daha. Kedatangan ini diketahui oleh Raden Wijaya, ia meminta izin untuk bergabung dengan pasukan Cina yang diterima dengan sukacita. Serbuan ke Daha dilakukan dari darat maupun sungai yang berjalan sengit sepanjang pagi hingga siang hari. Gabungan pasukan Cina dan Raden Wijaya berhasil membinasakan 5.000 tentara Daha. Dengan kekuatan yang tinggal setengah, Jayakatwang mundur untuk berlindung di dalam benteng. Sore hari, menyadari bahwa ia tidak mungkin mempertahankan lagi Daha, Jayakatwang keluar dari benteng dan menyerahkan diri untuk kemudian ditawan oleh pasukan Cina.
  • Dengan dikawal dua perwira dan 200 pasukan Cina, Raden Wijaya minta izin kembali ke Majapahit untuk menyiapkan upeti bagi kaisar Khubilai Khan. Namun dengan menggunakan tipu muslihat kedua perwira dan para pengawalnya berhasil dibinasakan oleh Raden Wijaya. Bahkan ia berbalik memimpin pasukan Majapahit menyerbu pasukan Cina yang masih tersisa yang tidak menyadari bahwa Raden Wijaya akan bertindak demikian. Tiga ribu anggota pasukan kerajaan Yuan dari Cina ini dapat dibinasakan oleh pasukan Majapahit, selebihnya melarikan dari keluar Jawa dengan meninggalkan banyak korban. Akhirnya cita-cita Raden Wijaya untuk menjatuhkan Daha dan membalas sakit hatinya kepada Jayakatwang dapat diwujudkan dengan memanfaatkan tentara asing. Ia kemudian memproklamasikan berdirinya sebuah kerajaan baru yang dinamakan Majapahit. Pada tahun 1215 Raden Wijaya dinobatkan sebagai raja pertama dengan gelar ?ri K?rtar?jasa Jayawardhana. Keempat anak Kertanegara dijadikan permaisuri dengan gelar ?ri Parame?wari Dyah Dewi Tribh?wane?wari, ?ri Mah?dewi Dyah Dewi Narendraduhit?, ?ri Jayendradewi Dyah Dewi Prajny?paramit?, dan ?ri R?jendradewi Dyah Dewi Gayatri. Dari Tribh?wane?wari ia memperoleh seorang anak laki bernama Jayanagara sebagai putera mahkota yang memerintah di Kadiri. Dari Gayatri ia memperoleh dua anak perempuan, Tribh?wanottunggadewi Jayawisnuwardhani yang berkedudukan di Jiwana (Kahuripan) dan R?jadewi Mah?r?jasa di Daha. Raden Wijaya masih menikah dengan seorang isteri lagi, kali ini berasal dari Jambi di Sumatera bernama Dara Petak dan memiliki anak darinya yang diberi nama Kalag?m?t. Seorang perempuan lain yang juga datang bersama Dara Petak yaitu Dara Jingga, diperisteri oleh kerabat raja bergelar ‘dewa’ dan memiliki anak bernama Tuhan Janaka, yang dikemudian hari lebih dikenal sebagai Adhityawarman, raja kerajaan Malayu di Sumatera. Kedatangan kedua orang perempuan dari Jambi ini adalah hasil diplomasi persahabatan yaang dilakukan oleh K?rtan?gara kepada raja Malayu di Jambi untuk bersama-sama membendung pengaruh Kubhilai Khan. Atas dasar rasa persahabatan inilah raja Malayu, ?rimat Tribh?wanar?ja Mauliwarmadewa, mengirimkan dua kerabatnya untuk dinikahkan dengan raja Singhas?ri. Dari catatan sejarah diketahui bahwa Dara Jingga tidak betah tinggal di Majapahit dan akhirnya pulang kembali ke kampung halamannya.
  • Raden Wijaya wafat pada tahun 1309 digantikan oleh Jayan?gara. Seperti pada masa akhir pemerintahan ayahnya, masa pemerintahan raja Jayan?gara banyak dirongrong oleh pemberontakan orang-orang yang sebelumnya membantu Raden Wijaya mendirikan kerajaan Majapahit. Perebutan pengaruh dan penghianatan menyebabkan banyak pahlawan yang berjasa besar akhirnya dicap sebagai musuh kerajaan. Pada mulanya Jayan?gara juga terpengaruh oleh hasutan Mah?pati yang menjadi biang keladi perselisihan tersebut, namun kemudian ia menyadari kesalahan ini dan memerintahkan pengawalnya untuk menghukum mati orang kepercayaannya itu. Dalam situasi yang demikian muncul seorang prajurit yang cerdas dan gagah berani bernama Gajah Mada. Ia muncul sebagai tokoh yang berhasil mamadamkan pemberontakan Kuti, padahal kedudukannya pada waktu itu hanya berstatus sebagai pengawal raja (b?k?l bhayangk?ri). Kemahirannya mengatur siasat dan berdiplomasi dikemudian hari akan membawa Gajah Mada pada posisi yang sangat tinggi di jajaran pemerintahan kerajaan Majapahit, yaitu sebagai Mahamantri kerajaan.
  • Pada masa Jayan?gara hubungan dengan Cina kembali pulih. Perdagangan antara kedua negara meningkat dan banyak orang Cina yang menetap di Majapahit. Jayan?gara memerintah sekitar 11 tahun, pada tahun 1328 ia dibunuh oleh tabibnya yang bernama Tanca karena berbuat serong dengan isterinya. Tanca kemudian dihukum mati oleh Gajah Mada.
  • Karena tidak memiliki putera, tampuk pimpinan Majapahit akhirnya diambil alih oleh adik perempuan Jayan?gara bernama Jayawisnuwarddhani, atau dikenal sebagai Bhre Kahuripan sesuai dengan wilayah yang diperintah olehnya sebelum menjadi ratu. Namun pemberontakan di dalam negeri yang terus berlangsung menyebabkan Majapahit selalu dalam keadaan berperang. Salah satunya adalah pemberontakan Sad?ng dan Keta tahun 1331 memunculkan kembali nama Gajah Mada ke permukaan. Keduanya dapat dipadamkan dengan kemenangan mutlak pada pihak Majapahit. Setelah persitiwa ini, Mahapatih Gajah Mada mengucapkan sumpahnya yang terkenal, bahwa ia tidak akan amukti palapa sebelum menundukkan daerah-daerah di Nusantara, seperti Gurun (di Kalimantan), Seran (?), Tanjungpura (Kalimantan), Haru (Maluku?), Pahang (Malaysia), Dompo (Sumbawa), Bali, Sunda (Jawa Barat), Palembang (Sumatera), dan Tumasik (Singapura). Untuk membuktikan sumpahnya, pada tahun 1343 Bali berhasil ia ditundukan.
  • Ratu Jayawisnuwaddhani memerintah cukup lama, 22 tahun sebelum mengundurkan diri dan digantikan oleh anaknya yang bernama Hayam wuruk dari perkawinannya dengan Cakradhara, penguasa wilayah Singh?sari. Hayam Wuruk dinobatkan sebagai raja tahun 1350 dengan gelar ?ri Rajasan?gara. Gajah Mada tetap mengabdi sebagai Patih Hamangkubh?mi (mah?patih) yang sudah diperolehnya ketika mengabdi kepada ibunda sang raja. Di masa pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk inilah Majapahit mencapai puncak kebesarannya. Ambisi Gajah Mada untuk menundukkan nusantara mencapai hasilnya di masa ini sehingga pengaruh kekuasaan Majapahit dirasakan sampai ke Semenanjung Malaysia, Sumatera, Kalimantan, Maluku, hingga Papua. Tetapi Jawa Barat baru dapat ditaklukkan pada tahun 1357 melalui sebuah peperangan yang dikenal dengan peristiwa Bubat, yaitu ketika rencana pernikahan antara Dyah Pitalok?, puteri raja Pajajaran, dengan Hayam Wuruk berubah menjadi peperangan terbuka di lapangan Bubat, yaitu sebuah lapangan di ibukota kerajaan yang menjadi lokasi perkemahan rombongan kerajaan tersebut. Akibat peperangan itu Dyah Pitalok? bunuh diri yang menyebabkan perkawinan politik dua kerajaan di Pulau Jawa ini gagal. Dalam kitab Pararaton disebutkan bahwa setelah peristiwa itu Hayam Wuruk menyelenggarakan upacara besar untuk menghormati orang-orang Sunda yang tewas dalam peristiwa tersebut. Perlu dicatat bawa pada waktu yang bersamaan sebenarnya kerajaan Majapahit juga tengah melakukan eskpedisi ke Dompo (Padompo) dipimpin oleh seorang petinggi bernama Nala.
  • Setelah peristiwa Bubat, Mah?patih Gajah Mada mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya karena usia lanjut, sedangkan Hayam Wuruk akhirnya menikah dengan sepupunya sendiri bernama P?duka ?ori, anak dari Bhre W?ngk?r yang masih terhitung bibinya.
  • Di bawah kekuasaan Hayam Wuruk kerajaan Majapahit menjadi sebuah kerajaan besar yang kuat, baik di bidang ekonomi maupun politik. Hayam Wuruk memerintahkan pembuatan bendungan-bendungan dan saluran-saluran air untuk kepentingan irigasi dan mengendalikan banjir. Sejumlah pelabuhan sungai pun dibuat untuk memudahkan transportasi dan bongkar muat barang. Empat belas tahun setelah ia memerintah, Mah?patih Gajah Mada meninggal dunia di tahun 1364. Jabatan patih Hamangkubh?mi tidak terisi selama tiga tahun sebelum akhirnya Gajah Enggon ditunjuk Hayam Wuruk mengisi jabatan itu. Sayangnya tidak banyak informasi tentang Gajah Enggon di dalam prasasti atau pun naskah-naskah masa Majapahit yang dapat mengungkap sepak terjangnya.
  • Raja Hayam Wuruk wafat tahun 1389. Menantu yang sekaligus merupakan keponakannya sendiri yang bernama Wikramawarddhana naik tahta sebagai raja, justru bukan Kusumawarddhani yang merupakan garis keturunan langsung dari Hayam Wuruk. Ia memerintah selama duabelas tahun sebelum mengundurkan diri sebagai pendeta. Sebelum turun tahta ia menujuk puterinya, Suhita menjadi ratu. Hal ini tidak disetujui oleh Bhre Wirabh?mi, anak Hayam Wuruk dari seorang selir yang menghendaki tahta itu dari keponakannya. Perebutan kekuasaan ini membuahkan sebuah perang saudara yang dikenal dengan Perang Par?gr?g. Bhre Wirabhumi yang semula memperoleh kemenanggan akhirnya harus melarikan diri setelah Bhre Tumap?l ikut campur membantu pihak Suhita. Bhre Wirabh?mi kalah bahkan akhirnya terbunuh oleh Raden Gajah. Perselisihan keluarga ini membawa dendam yang tidak berkesudahan. Beberapa tahun setelah terbunuhnya Bhre Wirabh?mi kini giliran Raden Gajah yang dihukum mati karena dianggap bersalah membunuh bangsawan tersebut.
  • Suhita wafat tahun 1477, dan karena tidak mempunyai anak maka kedudukannya digantikan oleh adiknya, Bhre Tumap?l Dyah K?rtawijaya. Tidak lama ia memerintah digantikan oleh Bhre Pamotan bergelar ?ri R?jasawardhana yang juga hanya tiga tahun memegang tampuk pemerintahan. Bahkan antara tahun 1453-1456 kerajaan Majapahit tidak memiliki seorang raja pun karena pertentangan di dalam keluarga yang semakin meruncing. Situasi sedikit mereda ketika Dyah S?ryawikrama Giri?awardhana naik tahta. Ia pun tidak lama memegang kendali kerajaan karena setelah itu perebutan kekuasaan kembali berkecambuk. Demikianlah kekuasaan silih berganti beberapa kali dari tahun 1466 sampai menjelang tahun 1500. Berita-berita Cina, Italia, dan Portugis masih menyebutkan nama Majapahit di tahun 1499 tanpa menyebutkan nama rajanya. Semakin meluasnya pengaruh kerajaan kecil Demak di pesisir utara Jawa yang menganut agama Islam, merupakan salah satu penyebab runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit. Tahun 1522 Majapahit tidak lagi disebut sebagai sebuah kerajaan melainkan hanya sebuah kota. Pemerintahan di Pulau Jawa telah beralih ke Demak di bawah kekuasaan Adipati Unus, anak Raden Patah, pendiri kerajaan Demak yang masih keturunan Bhre Kertabh?mi. Ia menghancurkan Majapahit karena ingin membalas sakit hati neneknya yang pernah dikalahkan raja Girindrawarddhana Dyah Ranawijaya. Demikianlah maka pada tahun 1478 hancurlah Majapahit sebagai sebuah kerajaan penguasa nusantara dan berubah satusnya sebagai daerah taklukan raja Demak. Berakhir pula rangkaian penguasaan raja-raja Hindu di Jawa Timur yang dimulai oleh Keng Angrok saat mendirikan kerajaan Singh?sari, digantikan oleh sebuah bentuk kerajaan baru bercorak agama Islam.
  • Ironisnya, pertikaian keluarga dan dendam yang berkelanjutan menyebabkan ambruknya kerajaan ini, bukan disebabkan oleh serbuan dari bangsa lain yang menduduki Pulau Jawa.
  • (Sumber : http://www.majapahit-kingdom.com)
  •  
  • Kertanegara’s assertiveness
  • brought him into conflict with the new Mongol rulers of China,
  • who objected to his attempts to establish hegemony over the southern approaches to the Melaka Strait.
  • The Mongol emperor Kublai Khan then sent envoys to Java to demand Kertanegara’s formal submission;
  • he responded by mutilating and sending them back.
  • The angry Khan then sent a military expedition to punish the Javanese,
  • but by the time it arrived Kertanegara had been killed in a rebellion.
  • 1293
  • In a piece of deft diplomacy, Kertanegara’s son-in-law,
  • Kertarajasa,
  • enlisted the help of the Mongol troops to overthrow the usurper before turning on the Mongols and driving them out in 1293.
  • The empire which he founded, Majapahit, became the most powerful of all the early Javanese kingdoms. The 14th century chronicle, Nagarakertagama (now known as the Desawarnyana), gives a detailed insight into life in Majapahit.
  •  
  •  
  • the great Khan that in 1293
  • he sent a powerful fleet to Java to avenge the insult.
  • The fleet landed only to discover that Kartanegara had already died at the hands of Jayakatwang, one of his vassals.The Chinese remained on Javanese soil for about a year just long enough to defeat the muderous Jayakatwang.
  • Battles raged back and forth across the Brantas valley for many months,
  • eventually producing victory for Kertanegara’s son-in-low, Wijaya, and his Chinese allies.
  • In the end Wijaya entrapped the Mongol generals and chased the foreign troops back to their ships.
  • The Chinese fleet returned to China, and its commanders were severely punished by the great Khan for their failure to subdue Java
  • .Wijaya married four of Kertanegara’s daughters
  • and established a new capital in 1294 on the bank of the Brantas River between Kediri and the sea (near present-day Trowulan). This was an area known for its pahit (bitter) maja fruits, and
  • the new kingdom became known as Majapahit.
  • The capital citu was constructed entirely of red bricks, only the foundations of which now remain. Aerial photographs reveal that the city had an extensive system of canals and barges were probably used to transport rice and other trade goods down the river from Majapahit to the seaport as the mouth of the Brantas.

Raden Wijaya is the name commonly applied by historians to refer to the founder of Majapahit Kingdom. This name is contained in Pararaton written around the end of the 15th century. Somepermanences Pararaton then wrote it in full, namely Raden Harsawijaya. Yet according to the memorial statue grow up, during the life Wijaya (Century 13 or 14) use raden fee simple has not been in good odor.

Nagarakretagama written in the intermediatory of the 14th century called the founder of Majapahit named Dyah Wijaya. Dyah cryptonym is a denominate of brilliance that congregational at that omnisciency and became the forerunners of the drop head Raden. Raden own terms is estimated to under construction from the word Dyah or Ra Ra Ra Dyan or Hadyan.

The character name of the founder of Majapahit the most confiscate is Nararya Sanggramawijaya, because this name is contained in the epitaph Kudadu issued by Wijaya himself in 1294. Nararya canon is in addition a cognomen of high life, although the MBA Dyah more frequently misspent.
 
Origins
According
Pararaton, Raden Wijaya was the son Mahisa Campaka, a prince of the kingdom Singhasari.

According to Reader Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Raden Wijaya was the son of the couple Rakeyan Jayadarma and Dyah Ox Tal. His father was the son of King Master Darmasiksa, king of the Kingdom of Sunda Galuh, while his mother was the daughter of the Kingdom Singhasari Mahisa Campaka. After Rakeyan Jayadarma died poisoned enemy, Ox-Tal returned to Singhasari bring Wijaya. Thus, Raden Wijaya is a mix of Sundanese and Javanese blood.

The story above is similar to the Babad Tanah Jawi who called the founder of the kingdom of Majapahit named Jake Sesuruh son of King Sri Pamekas king Pajajaran Kingdom, which is also located in the Sunda region. Jake Sesuruh fled to the east because the defeated his half-brother named Siyung Vanara. He then built the Kingdom of Majapahit and turned to quell Siyung Vanara.

News at the top as opposed to calling Dyah Nagarakretagama Ox-Tal was a man, son Narasinghamurti. This text Ox-Tal praised as a courageous officer Yuda and was the father of Dyah Wijaya.

Pedigree in the family
Raden Wijaya the inscription Balawi in 1305 declared himself as a member of the House of Rajasa. According Nagarakretagama, Wijaya was the son Dyah Ox-Tal, the son Narasinghamurti. According Pararaton, Narasinghamurti nom de plume Mahisa Campaka Mahisa Wonga is the son of Ken Arok son of the founder teleng Wangsa Rajasa.

According to the inscription Balawi and Nagarakretagama, Raden Wijaya married with four daughters Kertanagara, the last king of the Kingdom of Singhasari, namely Tribhuwaneswari, Narendraduhita, Jayendradewi, and Gayatri. Meanwhile, according Pararaton, he only married two daughters Kertanagara only, and a daughter of the Malay kingdom called Dara Petak.

According to the inscriptions and inscriptions Sukamerta Balawi, Raden Wijaya had a son from Tribhuwaneswari named Jayanagara. Meanwhile, according Pararaton Jayanagara is the son of Dara Petak, and according to Nagarakretagama is the son Indreswari. Meanwhile, the Gayatri was born two daughters named Dyah Gitarja and Dyah Wiyat.

However there is also another opinion, which also took Dara Raden Wijaya who was also one of Orange’s daughter as his wife in addition to Malay kingdom of Dara Petak, because Dara Orange is also known to have called sira alaki dewa – he’s a married man who holds the deity.

Establish Village Majapahit
According to the Greek badge of office Kudadu, uprisings occurred in 1292 Bracelet-Bracelet Jayakatwang regent of the kingdom of power Singhasari. Raden Wijaya was appointed Kertanegara to quell Bracelet-Bracelet armed force who attacked wizard the north Singhasari. Wijaya managed to cold-shoulder the contrary. However, a larger rebel forces coming wizard the eastland and successfully killed Kertanagara.

Realizing this, Raden Wijaya fail refuge to escape to the north Singhasari Eggplant. However, due to hold off to be being chased by the enemies he chooses to go to the landmass. With the help of suburban heads Kudadu, he managed to avellan azure the Strait of Madura to be exposed to Arya Wiraraja Songeneb ruler (the old name Sumenep).

Together Arya Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya figured airborne tactics to reextort the loo withdrawn the hands Jayakatwang. Wijaya promised, if he managed to beat Jayakatwang, the territory will be divided by two for himself and Wiraraja. The eminent maneuver was brought about. At eminent place, delivered the news to Jayakatwang Wiraraja Wijaya stated that knuckle. Jayakatwang who has resmelted his mother country, namely the kingdom of Kadiri accept it gladly. He plus sent a Pheidippides to pick up at the behavior Jungbiru Wijaya.

The juxtapositional tactic, Wijaya put in for Pull national protection scrub Eastern Hemisphere of Kadiri to be put together as a cast abouting tourism. Wijaya authority to ache to to settle there. Jayakatwang who likes to explore up at once grant it without wink. Wiraraja inter alia fire people to help Wijaya Songeneb open chase. According to Panji Wijayakrama Song, one of Madura achieve maja dyke that tastes bitter. Therefore, the duchy settlements categorically true Wijaya was vet given the name of Majapahit.

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