Driwancybermsueum Galery (continiu)

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

This is te sample of DriwancyD-ROM,if you want to get it please ask via comment

Driwan Cybermuseum Home office galery

5) Kuching,

Borneo history 1905-1917,

The Borneo

History collections

Part One

The Sarawak Historic Collection







This book grew from five Oldies Indonesian collections between 1973-2000 and the new finding during travel around Sarawak in 1993,1994 and 2007. The first visit to Kuching during Motocarrelly Pontianak to Kuchin 1973,and for the first time I found the Rajah Brooke stamps and revenue,and I am starting to complete the info of this white Rajah.


Before I have only Sarawak Stamps , and after found some postally used covers and revenue in 1994 I have started to collect antiquarian books , anykind document and related area postal history like west kalimantan, brunei and North Borneo.

Very difficult to find Sarawak postal used cover before 1950 , but I have found some interesting covers . During my last visit to Sarawak, I have met Senior Sarawak from Sarawak Phillatelic association Mr Chan Kee Tex, he was very kind man , took my around Kuching and introduce me to Kuching Phillatelist like Dr Francis H.H.Ngu , they have gave me permission to used their information in this book , for that Thank You very much.
After one years preparation with many Indonesian phillatelist who help me to find new Sarawqak Information like Mr Hengky, Ir Untung and Mr Herry Hutabarat, this book finish in Mei 2009 and the resume will put in my internet Blokker .
I will contact Mr Chan and Dr F.H.H.Ngu via e –mail to send a correction , suggestion and more informations,
I want an apologize to Mr Chan and Dr Ngu because I am very late for my last promise not in time, because many areal situation probelems and after this I will on time.
I still need more informations and corrections from everybody who interest about this topics to make this unique book “The Unique Sarawak documet and Postal History will be the best book about The Raqjah Brooke administration in Sarawak.
Dr Iwan S.







Posted on July 15, 2010 by iwansuwandy

, @copyright Dr IWAN S 2012,


During my adventure at Borneo in 2008, I took a flight from Jakarta to Pontianak, and with the haelping of my ex officer Dr Sugeng and his new chief Dr Priok, I could arrange my adventure at night by bus from Pontinak to Kuching Sarwak, after that with the helping of My Friend Mr Kee Tex,Chan I have trevelling around Kuching, and at night in the second day by Bus to Miri,and from here  in the morning of the third day I went bu private Toyota Kijang to Brunei and take around  until 12.00 am, I went to Labuan from the Muara Port Sri Bengawan Brunei   by shipboat about one hours, and the nex day with boat about hree hour to Sabah (before North Borneo ) to KK (kota Kinibalu,befor Jessel town ) .two days there and back to Kucing by plane,and one day in Kuching, back to Pontianak by Bus and to Jakarta by aeroplane. (read the complete story in The adventure of Dr IWAN s)

During this adventure I found some rare collections:

1) The Charles Brooke document. at Kuching



Sarawak coat of arm




Rajah autography



MALAYSIA, SARAWAK, JAMES BROOKE TOKEN KEPING, AH 1247 (1841 AD). Copper. KM# Tn1! Sch.# 1007! SC1. Obv. : A badger to left, below J.B. Sept 24, 1841. Rev. : 1 Keping AH 1247. Minted in a private mint in Birmingham. Weight 1.89 gm! Diameter 21 mm. Small greenish encrusted on badger left! otherwise Very Fine. EXTREMELY RARE.*) Note : The date Sept 24, 1841 is his accession as Rajah of Sarawak, and the badger is the crest on the coat of arms of the Brooke family.
Limit price :   Rp.  18,000,000




rare half cent J.Brooke



James Brooke


One cent J.Brooke



Charles Brooke


half cent C.Brooke



rare postal history




Rare limited edition





1886 3¢ on 4¢ pink Coat of Arms provisional surcharged “3 CENTS” SG Type 7, VARIETY – small “3” (row 3, pos:1, 4, and 7), perf 14, very scarce and undercatalogued, seldom offered, few known, only exists mint, fresh, well centered, OG-HR F-VF …



1892 6¢ on 8¢ green Coat of Arms surcharged SG Type 22, the key major rarity to the country!, perfectly centered, OG,HR XF (Scott Retail $9,000.00)















Dai Nippon Revenue


Colony punchhole revenue








Kuching Temple

Kuching is a city in Sarawak, a state in Malaysia that is on the northern coast of the island of Borneo. The geography is a bit confusing. Borneo is a huge island divided among Indonesia (the state of Kalimantan), Malaysia (two states), and the small country of Brunei. Kuching is the capital of one of the two Malaysian states, Sarawak.

Kuching. Kuching is a great city. Malaysian Borneo seems very wealthy, maybe more so than the rest of Malaysia (which is quite wealthy in general). Kuching is a city of around 600,000. It’s clean, green, calm, quiet, wealthy, orderly, uncrowded, and great for strolling. Pretty much the opposite of my experiences in India.

Even the weather here seems noticeably different from South India. Yes, it’s tropical rainforest weather here. But 95 with 100% humidity feels downright temperate after India. There’s a big difference between 95 (Borneo) and 105+ (South India). It’s quite comfortable here compared to India, even though it’s like the heat of summer at home.

Kuching has a superb waterfront boardwalk. It’s really, really nice, as nice a boardwalk as I’ve ever seen. It runs along the tropical river that goes through Kuching, and everyone comes

Mom and Baby, Closeup

Semenggoh National Park

out and strolls along the waterfront as the sun sets. The sunsets over the river are incredible. Every night is a perfect summer evening. It’s a fine place to be.

Kuching seems to be more of a Chinese city than many cities in Malaysia. The downtown center is really one big Chinatown, and Chinese seem to outnumber both Malays and indigenous Borneo peoples. There aren’t many Indians here at all, unlike cities like Kuala Lumpur and Georgetown. In some ways, Kuching seems less diverse than most other Malaysian cities, at least the larger cities on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia. It has a mostly Chinese feel.

Kuching and Sarawak have an unusual history. They were a territory of the Sultan of Brunei, but he granted Kuching (and eventually all of Sarawak) to an Englishman named James Brooke after Brooke helped him quell uprisings in the area. James Brooke and his family ruled Sarawak as “White Rajahs” from 1842 until the Japanese took Sarawak in 1942. After World War II, the Brooke family gave Sarawak to the English; it became part of Malaysia when it became independent of England in 1963.

So basically Sarawak was built, developed,

River Taxi and Mountains

The mountains in the background of this picture are where Kubah National Park is.

and modernized over a hundred years by three generations of this one English family, the Brookes – and by the Chinese folks that the Brooke family brought in. The descendants of these Chinese settlers make up much of Kuching today. What an odd history.

Visiting the orangutans. Kuching is a delightful city, but the main reason I came is that it has several interesting, easily-accessible daytrips around it. These daytrips were excellent.

My favorite daytrip was to a place called Semenggoh National Park, where they have an organgutan rehabilitation center. The orangutans there are half-wild. They live in the forest, but they’re not scared of people. They do feedings twice a day for tourists (mostly Malaysian tourists, but plenty of white tourists too).

I pictured this place being way out in the deep forest, but it’s not. You drive past a never-ending strip of car lots, schools, restaurants, housing developments, malls, and supermarkets. Then you turn off onto a little road, and after a mile and half there is the national park.

At the park, the orangutans come crashing through the rainforest, swinging from tree to tree to get to the feeding platform. It’s a unique

Rainforest Tangles

This photo gives a sense of how in the rainforest, plants and vines just sort of grow, everywhere, all on top of each other. Kubah National Park.

experience. It’s very touristy, but the orangutans are definitely not zoo animals.

And there are a ton of them; I probably saw 20 orangutans. Two pairs of moms with babies strolled right down the middle of the lawn of the national park headquarters, just walking through all the tourists, five feet from me.

It was all pretty fascinating. I liked it a lot. I looked at it as a tourist experience rather than a wilderness experience, more like a zoo than really seeing orangutans in the wild. But it’s an excellent, fun, enthralling tourist experience. It’s a hoot. I went there twice, I liked it so much.

Visiting the rainforest. I also took two daytrips to rainforest national parks, Kubah National Park and Bako National Park. I liked them both a lot.

Kubah National Park was my favorite of the rainforest parks. It was classic “jungle” rainforest, as you can see from the photos. Borneo’s rainforests are the most biologically diverse places in the world.

I took a four-hour hike through the forest, and I didn’t really see anybody else the whole time. There were Malaysians cooling off and relaxing at a waterfall, but mostly

On the Waterfront

This captures well how pleasant and lovely Kuching’s waterfront boardwalk is.

I was alone with the sights and sounds of the forest.

Even though I was out there by myself, I felt totally safe. The trails in Malaysia are clearly marked, and I had checked in with a park ranger before going out. It’s an easy, accessible way to experience the rainforest.

I really enjoy hiking in the rainforest. It’s so deeply green, and the growth is so rampant. Plants grow on top of plants, which are growing on top of other plants. Green growth is everywhere, even covering all of the rocks. And the sounds are fascinating – the constant twitter of cricket-sounding insects, and intermittent bird calls, and rustling through the greenery as squirrels or monkeys move from tree to tree.

Hiking through the forest is hard, though. I hiked for four hours, and it poured – buckets – for the last two hours of the hike. I was soaked to the bone, and chilled despite the tropical heat. It got dark in the forest, and the trail got slippery, and I had to be careful even though I was trying to move quickly to get back. The next day I was stiff and sore. I

Astana at sunset

This was a colonial building across the river, now used as state government offices. And a really pretty sky, again, from the waterfront in Kuching.

think maybe I’m getting too old for rainforest adventuring.

I also visited Bako National Park. It was good too. The trail at Bako wasn’t as rainforest-y as Kubah National Park, but it ended up on a cliff overlooking a gorgeous beach. I hiked with two other folks from the US, and we spent a few hours on the beach, which was as tropical-postcard-pretty as any I’ve ever seen.

A walking, talking history lesson. Actually, my fellow hikers at Bako National Park were more interesting than the hike. One of them was a young Vietnamese-American woman from San Diego, now teaching in an international school in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), in Vietnam. She was on a week vacation from her school, using Air Asia’s flights (the same ultra-affordable airline that I’ve been using) to take a short break.

When she was three months old, her family left Vietnam, just after the Vietnam War (or the American War, as the Vietnamese call it). Her father was a pilot in the South Vietnamese army, and he had been put in a “re-education” camp after the war, and they were afraid he was going to be persecuted further by

Pretty Old Shophouse

This store is very typical of the Chinese shophouses in Kuching. People have their shop downstairs, and live upstairs.

the Vietnamese government. So they left.

It’s a bit of a long story, but they ended up on a boat without a working motor, drifting about for ten days in the middle of the South China Sea. They ran out of food and water. Her mother had no breast-milk to feed her. She was listless, limp, not moving. They were hundreds of miles from land. They were sure they were going to die.

They were rescued by a boat owned by a nonprofit called World Vision. Legally, World Vision was supposed to give them food, water, and medicine, but not take them aboard or tow them to shore. World Vision realized that if they left them at sea, they would all surely die. They took them to Singapore, and confronted the US embassy there, and the US agreed to take them in as refugees.

She recently saw an old World Vision video of herself coming off the boat when she was three months old. She said she could tell it was her, because she saw a special hat that her grandmother had knit her. It gave me chills, listening to her talk about it.

She said

River Taxi at Dusk

From Kuching’s waterfront boardwalk

that 500,000 Vietnamese died on boats in the South China Sea, trying to escape Vietnam after the war. She and her family were obviously lucky.

When I first started talking with her, she seemed like a typical smart, interesting, lively, engaging young Asian-American woman. But then she told me her story. It was riveting. She really made history come alive for me. Getting to know her made me feel, deep in my bones, a part of US history that is definitely worth remembering.

Anyway, I enjoyed her company. She also said that teaching elementary school in Vietnam was excellent. She really sold me on how good a setup teaching in Asia can be. Hmmm….

Visiting the headhunters. Well, I didn’t actually visit the headhunters. There used to be headhunters in Borneo, among many of the native groups, but James Brooke made head-hunting illegal in the mid-1800s when he became White Rajah.

I did visit a place called Sarawak Cultural Village, outside of Kuching. Sarawak Cultural Village is a beautifully-manicured tropical garden where they have built, using traditional methods and native expertise, seven different long-houses representing the major native ethnic groups in Borneo. It’s a “living museum,”

On the Cliff

Above the beach, Bako National Park

sort of like Williamsburg, but for native Borneo peoples. It was slightly cheesy, but it was also fairly authentic-feeling and interesting.

The long-houses were beautiful, and they were set up like the “real” long-houses deep in the rainforest. Members of the various tribes were in each long-house, and they would explain how things worked, how people lived. They were often demonstrating some skill (using a blow-pipe) or cooking something. There were old heads in one of the long-houses. The guy there explained the role that head-hunting used to play in that tribe’s culture.

It was totally set up for tourists, but it was well-done and felt respectful. It wasn’t spectacular, but I’m definitely glad I went. I learned a good bit about long-house life, and I didn’t really have any interest in visiting an actual long-house, so I wouldn’t have learned about this part of Borneo without visiting here.

Kuching’s waterfront. The best thing about Kuching is its waterfront. I’ve mentioned this above. The photos give a sense of it, but it’s much nicer than I could capture in a photo. It’s a long stretch of attractive cobblestones, maybe an hour’s stroll right along the river. It’s

Kolo Mee

This is a dish specific to Kuching. I eat it every day. The tea is great too – honey teh bunga, iced green tea with honey.

all shaded by beautiful tropical trees, with flowers and carefully-manicured lawns all along. The river too is gorgeous, a lazy-feeling tropical river with deep green jungly banks and little river taxis puttering back and forth across it.

Sunsets over the river are stunning. Evenings on the waterfront, as the sun goes down, are fabulous. Everyone is out strolling and chatting, and there are snacks all along the waterfront, and the sun goes down slowly and just takes your breath away. It’s a bit cooler in the dusk, and there’s a breeze off the river. Every night is perfect. Truly.

Kuching’s food. Malaysian food is my favorite. There’s a huge variety of delicious things to eat, and it’s all so tasty, so affordable, and so everywhere. One day I ate three lunches, because I kept coming across places selling food I’d never eaten, and they were all full of obviously happy eaters. I couldn’t pass them up.

There are dishes here that I haven’t seen in other parts of Malaysia. Kolo Mee is my favorite Kuching dish. Mostly it’s fresh Chinese egg noodles, but they’re so good – sort of like the difference between fresh pasta and dried





Kangchu System at  Sarawak


The first Chinese immigrants settled along the coastal regions of Sarawak in significant numbers from the 18th century onwards and were engaged in the metal mining industry, mainly for gold and bauxite. As the supply of gold became exhausted from the 1820s onwards, the Chinese miners gradually turned to trade and agriculture. The Chinese of Teochew and Hakka heritage established gambier and pepper plantations in the 1870s and 1880s,[44] and the White Rajah of Sarawak began to organise an administrative system for these plantations similar to the Kangchu system in Johor.

The Kangchu of each plantation was appointed by the Charles Brooke, the then-White Rajah. Each Kangchu was given responsibilities to oversee the operations of the plantations under his jurisdiction and the welfare of the coolies living there. In 1875, the British promulgated a set of laws which defined the roles and responsibilities of the Kangchu; they were modelled very closely to the Kanun Kangchu that was introduced by Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor in 1873.[45]

Charles Brooke encouraged the immigration of the Chinese coolies, beginning in the 1860s, to expand the state’s gambier and pepper industry. Chinese settlers in neighbouring Sabah and Pontianak also established gambier and pepper plantations, although they existed as independent fiefdoms. These plantations rose to become one of the state’s major industries as worldwide prices for gambier went up during 1880s and 1890s. In the 20th century, as worldwide gambier prices took a dive, the Kangchu channelled their efforts into pepper and opium cultivation in the state.[46] Sarawak’s Kangchu system fell into obscurity in the 1920s, as the opium trade with Hong Kong steadily declined during the course of the decade

Kuching – A cultural experience


Located in the north-western tip of Borneo, this capital city of Sarawak, is like a sleepy town which acts as the window to the hidden treasures and adventures of the primary Borneo jungle. Though the majority of the population is made up of Chinese, the influence of the ethnic races (ranging from the Bidayuhs, the Ibans, The Penans, The Orang Ulu, and The Melanaus) is felt strongly even in the city center itself.

The city centre consists of mainly 2-3 stories old shophouses, with a sprinkling of tall buildings which are either hotels of commercial buildings. The historical buildings are located mainly at the Waterfront where you can see Old State Colonial Centre, Square Tower, Round Tower, The Astana, Charles Brooke Memorial, Law Court, Fort Margherita, China Town.

Some Cultural attractions in Kuching
1. Sarakraft – This chinese-colonial style mansion houses a workshop where a wide range of traditional crafts are demonstrated by the ethnic people. There is also quite a good range of authentic Sarawak handicraft up for sale.


2. Sarawak Museum – The oldest museum in Borneo, it houses and displays local native arts and crafts and collections of local animals, including reptiles, mammals, birds etc. The models of longhouses of the various ethnic groups in Sarawak, musical instruments, various kinds of fish and animal traps, handicrafts, models of boats and others can also be found here.

3. Cat Museum – The people in Kuching are crazy about cats, hence it is also known fondly as “the Cat City”. Huge, colorful cat statues dominate the town, while the fishing cats dominate the centre square, the beckoning cat stands at the crossroads and the smiling cat stands guard at roundabouts. Hence it is not too surprising to find the world’s first Cat Museum right here in Kuching. Cat lovers will find a wide range of exhibits, photos, feline art and cat souvenirs.

4. Sarawak Cultural Village – This is a must-go place which depicts the heritage of the major racial groups of Sarawak and portrays their lifestile amidst 17 acres of vegetation.



Learn about these groups, their handicraft, their replica housings, with a “story-teller” describing and interpreting traditional cultures and lfie-styles for you. Do learn also the head-hunting habits of some of these ancient groups! Finish the tour of the village with a wonderful multi-cultural dance and songs performance.

5. Anah Rais Bidayuh Longhouse – Located in the hill slopes of Padawan district, this Bidayuh (or Land Dayak community) is accessible by road about 1 hour’s drive from city center. Here you can find the longhouse where all the villagers living under one roof, though this particular longhouse is already pretty modernized with television, proper toilets facilities, running water. This location though is most suited for those who do not have ample time to spare as the really traditional longhouses will require at least 1 night’s stay due to the long travelling distance required.


Adventure attractions in Kuching: Most of the surrounding areas of Kuching are primary rainforest, with a with land that is rich in both flora and fauna. Here is home to the rare proboscis monkey, long-tailed macaque monkeys, Orang utans, huge sea turtles, the hornbills, the giant Rafflesia flowers and many more species.

  1. 1.      Semenggoh Orang Utan Sanctuary – Currently, there are about 26 Orang Utans in this 740 acre sanctuary, moving freely around and usually gathering back to be fed by the park’s rangers. Do note that the daily feeding time is from 0900hrs–1000hrs in the mornings and 1500hrs–1530hrs in the afternoons. It is a brilliant time to see these huge animals up close and personal.






 the Serikei Official Stamped on CV Broke Stamp used as Revenue









Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $4,$5 and $10.. One type revenue not illustrated because I don’t found until this day R overprint on Postage revenue stamps. Charles Brooke revenue used until Dai Nippon Occupation L.T. Ong report, Dr Francis H.H.Ngu report bigger block 12 rveneue               $10. Please choose the best revenue, and if someone have R overprint please show in this blog send to my e.mail.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

(2)Used Sarawak cv brooke 3$ and 1$ revenue


Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $3 and $1

(3) sarawak c.brooke low nominal revenue


Rajah Charles Brooke revenue 3,5 and 50 cent




Rajah CV Brooke 20 cent UAR



Rajah CV Brooke 25 cent UAR



Rajah CV Brooke 30 and 50 cent UAR



Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR



5.9.1931 Rajah CV Brooke $1 UAR.





Rajah CV Brooke $4 revenue



Rajah CV Brooke $4 and $3 used as revenue (UAR) with Serikei Inland Dept. official chop in violet.




20.11.34 Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent used As revenue(UAR) on Identity document.




1.8.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 3 cent used as revenue on arabic written Document.



1.10.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent on the arabic written Recieved Document.


Dai Nippon Occupation

Today I received a number of interesting old photos from Nick Chin. He seems to have established a very good source somewhere in Satok. Thanks Nick. Keep ’em coming.

Anyway, I found that many of them relate to different forms of transportation. So different from what we see today. Anyway transportation is the theme of today’s posting. See if any of the photos jog any memories. Or trigger in your mind something that certain elders in your family might have mentioned.




There were once three trains plying the Kuching to10th Mile route. The engines were named Bintang, Bulan and Jean. The train service was started in 1916 by the 2nd Rajah, Sir Charles Brooke, shortly before he handed over the the 3rd Rajah, Sir Charles Vyner Brooke. The train station or terminus in Kuching was in front of the mosque (where there’s now a car park), facing the Brooke Dockyard. Jalan Keretapi is so named because the railway  track actually went along it. There was no road back then, just the rail track.

Some time before the Japanese Occupation, the train service was discontinued by the British, and for a while the trains were kept in the terminus area (just over the fence from Lillian theatre). But during the Occupation, the Japanese restarted the train service for a while, and it was used to bring POWs to work (mainly around the 7th Mile area). Then they stopped this – probably thinking the POWs had too easy a life. Eventually the Japanese shipped the trains back to Japan for scrap iron.




I read somewhere that rickshaws first reached Kuching in 1895. Prior to that, there were only pony traps and bullock carts. There were never more than 50 to 60 rickshaws in Kuching, mostly pulled by Chinese men, and many of the pullers tended to be of the Henghua dialect.


My father told me that he noticed that sometimes on a steeper hill, the passengers had to get down and walk, as it was too much strain on the puller.All the rickshaws tended to be independent endeavours, but their machines tended to be serviced by a few “repair shops”, who seemed to have some control over them (perhaps they provided loans?).




The history of Kuching airport goes back to the years after the Second World War when the British started planning an airport for the town. The airport at the 7th Mile was eventually opened on 26th September1950 by the British Governor Sir Anthony Abell. Judging from the many automobiles and crowd, it was quite a big occasion.


The ship “Rajah Brooke” usually plied the Kuching-Singapore route. It had 1st and 2nd Class cabins. Before it sailed, there was usually a party held on board, for people (mainly the Europeans in those days) to socialise and get to know each other.The trip from Kuching to Singapore normally took 2 days and 1 night.


Besides the “Rajah Brooke”, there were other ships, with names like Marudu, Kajang, Darvel and Kimanis. This ship owners were either Sarawak Steamship, or later Straits Steamship. Besides Singapore, some of the ships, eg. Darvel and Marudu, sailed to British North Borneo (now Sabah)..


I don’t have much to comment about this last photo, except that this building appears to me to be the Police Station (I might be wrong but it sure looks similar). Anyway I included the photo above because it shows two other forms of transportation – automobile and bicycles.


Well, over to you guys for more comments.

Dai Nippon Occupations Borneo and



Apparently, Great Britain suddenly became aware that another European Power could easily take Sarawak for themselves.

This is the reason why the British finally offered Sarawak protection. Under the 1888 agreement, negotiated by Sir Charles Anthony Brooke, 2nd Rajah of Sarawak, all the foreign affairs of Sarawak were to the responsibility of British Government. Internal affairs remained the responsibility of the Brooke Rajahs.

In accordance with this 1888 Agreement, Great Britain despatched troops and material to bolster the defences of Sarawak

during the 1930s.

During the late 1930s

the Royal Air Force based 205th RAF Squadron at Kuching. This was a seaplane squadron consisting of Walrus Flying Boats.


Realizing that war was imminent, the Brooke Government, under Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, conducted preliminary work to establish airstrips at selected locations throughout the country.

These airstrips would be located at Kuching, Oya, Mukah, Bintulu, and Miri.

By 1938

work was completed on all the airstrips except Bintulu, which was discontinued

in October 1938

due to financial reasons.

On 26 September 1938,

the Kuching Airstrip was opened. It was situated at the 7th Mile (Bukit Stabar) and measured 700 meters long by 300 meters wide.

Only in late 1940

did Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham order the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to be positioned at Kuching.

They numbered about 1,050 men. In addition, the Brooke White Rajah government also organised the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 men who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen. Altogether these forces were commanded by British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane and was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

However, despite the modern air facilities available, the RAF stationed no aircraft in Sarawak

during 1941

. In addition, the Royal Navy withdrew from Sarawak, and the British Protectorates of Labuan and North Borneo in 1940.

However, this Royal air Forces Squadron at Kuching was withdrawn in 1941 and returned to Singapore

After having heard of the attack on Pearl Harbor,

on 8 December 1941,

the Brooke government instructed that the oilfields at Miri and Seria and refinery at Lutong be quickly demolished

Capt J.F. Read,

moved to the Northern Territory, and embarked for Timor

on 7 December 1941

‘with much enthusiasm’

after three and a half months of fatigue duties and training at Darwin


Officers of the 2/21st Battalion take a break in Darwin before embarking





In view of the precariousness of the defensive positions Read was obliged to effect a supply plan based on a series of dumps,

the establishment of which occupied the detachment until the invasion.






Duty  at Ambon

As part of the military agreement made by the governments of Australia and the NEI in 1941, AIF troops were sent to help garrison the island of Ambon, which lies just south of the larger island of Ceram. Ambon was an important air and sea link between Australia, New Guinea, and the northern NEI.

The airfield at Laha, and the harbours of Ambon and Binnen Bays, were considered to be of vital significance to the Allies.

Accordingly, an Australian battalion (the 2/21st), with supporting units and a detachment of Lockheed Hudson bombers from No. 13 Squadron, RAAF, was landed at Ambon in mid-December 1941.

This combined unit, known as “Gull Force”, reinforced the existing local garrison of 2,600 men, and was placed under the overall command of Dutch Lieutenant Colonel J.R.L. Kapitz


Australian Military Forces “Passed By Censor”postal used cover

Read the Driwan’s


“Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia”





With no air or sea forces stationed in or around Sarawak, the British government encouraged the Brooke Regime to adopt a “scorched earth policy” in the event of a Japanese attack.

The Singapore Conference of October 1940

further presented the dismal defence situation of Sarawak by stating that without command of the sea or air, it would be pointless to defend Sarawak and the other British colonies in the area.

An alternative plan was proposed by Air Vice-Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham which suggested that 200 RAF and Royal Dutch Aircraft be used to defend the territories of Sarawak, Labuan, Brunei, and British North Borneo. Brooke-Popham stated that this should be sufficient to defend the territories against any Japanese attack. His request for such an outrageous amount of aircraft was declined by the British and Dutch governments on the grounds that they were simply not available.

Later, it was proposed to develop a Denial Scheme. Returning to the “scorched-earth” policy mentioned earlier, Denial Schemes were in place to destroy the oil installations at Miri and Lutong. In addition, the Bukit Sabir Airfield (11 km south of Kuching, the capital of Sarawak), was to be held as long as possible, then would be destroyed.


The prelude to the war

The island of Borneo is a land of primeval jungle. The coasts are fringed with mangrove and swamp, and over nine-tenths of the interior is covered with thick evergreen forests.

In 1941

the population was small – that of the whole island was estimated at less than three million – and there were less than a dozen settlements large enough to be called towns.

There were few roads and only one short railway; communication was by the many waterways or by narrow jungle paths. Much of the interior was unexplored, or very inadequately known. It was rich in oil and other raw materials.

The island was partly Dutch and partly British. British Borneo lay along its northern seaboard and comprised the two states of British North Borneo and Sarawak, the small protected State of Brunei, and the Crown Colony of Labuan Island.

Borneo occupies a position of great strategic importance in the south-west Pacific. It lies across the main sea routes from the north to Malaya and Sumatra on the one hand, and Celebes and Java on the other. Strongly held, it could have been one of the main bastions in the defence of the Malay barrier, but neither the Dutch nor the British had the necessary resources to defend it.

The available forces had to be concentrated further south for the defence of Singapore and Java, and all that could be spared for Borneo and the outlying Dutch islands were small detachments at important points which it was hoped might prove a deterrent to attack.

To gain control of the oilfields, to guard the flank of their advance on Malaya and to facilitate their eventual attack on Sumatra and western Java, the Japanese decided, as a subsidiary operation to their Malayan campaign, to seize British Borneo. This operation was launched by Southern Army eight days after the initial attack on Malaya.

The oilfields in British Borneo lay in two groups: one at Miri close to the northern boundary of Sarawak, and the other thirty-two miles north, at Seria in the State of Brunei. The crude oil was pumped from both fields to a refinery at Lutong on the coast, from which loading lines ran out to sea.

Landings were possible all along the thirty miles of beach between Miri and Lutong and there was, with the forces available, no possibility of defending the oilfields against determined attacks. Plans had therefore been made for the destruction of the oil installations. Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, Commander-in-Chief Far East, decided it would be prudent to honor the 1888 defence agreement with Sarawak.


Consequently, in late 1940,

he ordered the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to proceed to Kuching (British North Borneo).

In December 1940

a company of 2/15th Punjab was sent to Miri for the protection of the demolition parties, and

in May 1941

the rest of 2/15th Punjab was sent there to provide a garrison. This lone battalion consisted of approximately 1,050 soldiers under the command of Major C.M. Lane. For the defence of Sarawak region, it was deployed as follows:

At Miri was deployed a force of 2 officers, and 98 other ranks:
• 1 Infantry Company from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
• 6″ Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery Battery
• 1 Platoon of Royal Engineers
These troops were entrusted with the destruction of Miri Oil Fields. It was to be known as the Miri Detachment.

At Kuching was deployed a force of 1 officer, and 52 other ranks:
• 6 Platoons of infantry from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
These troops were to conduct a delaying action at the Bukit Stabar Airfield outside of Kuching. They were to be known as the Kuching Detachment. The other troops from the 2/15 Punjab were to be deployed piecemeal at the other airfield and oil facilities in Sarawak.

In addition, the Brooke Government mobilized the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 troops who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen trained in the art of jungle warfare led by the European Civil Servants of the Brooke Regime. British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane who commanded the battalion was placed in charge of all forces in Sarawak, which included the native Volunteer Corps, Coastal Marine Service, the armed police and a body of native troops known as the Sarawak Rangers. Collectively, this force of 2,565 troops was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

In August 1941

a partial denial scheme, which reduced the output of oil by seventy per cent, was put into effect. It was also decided that no attempt should be made to defend British North Borneo, Brunei or Labuan, and


the Governor of North Borneo, Mr. Robert Smith,

was informed that the Volunteers and police were to be used solely for the maintenance of internal security. It was however decided to defend Kuching because of its airfield, and because its occupation by the enemy would give access to the important Dutch airfield at Singkawang II, sixty miles to the southwest and only some 350 miles from Singapore.

Order of Battle for British forces
Sarawak, December 1941

Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane (commander)

2nd Battalion of 15th Punjab Regiment

heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery

detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers)

Sarawak Rangers

Coastal Marine Service

plus other native troops

The country between Kuching and the sea is roadless, but is intersected by a number of winding waterways which flow through mangrove swamps to the sea. There are two main approaches to the town: the first by the Sarawak River, which is navigable by vessels up to sixteen foot draught; and the second by the Santubong River, which will take vessels up to twelve foot draught. The roads from Kuching run east to Pending, north-west to Matang, and south to Serian a distance of forty miles from Kuching. The airfield lay seven miles south of the town on the Serian road. At the airfield a road branched off to the west; after crossing the Sarawak River at Batu Kitang, where there was a vehicular ferry, it terminated at Krokong fifteen miles short of the Dutch frontier.

There were two plans of defence that were proposed- Plan A and Plan B.
Plan A called for a mobile defence. The objective was to hold the Bukit Stabar Airfield as long as possible. Further delaying actions were also to be conducted so as to allow for the proper execution of the denial schemes. If enemy resistance was such that it could not be delayed, then the airfield would be destroyed and the entire force would retreat into the mountains and jungles in small parties and fight as a guerrilla force for as long as possible. Unfortunately, at


the Anglo-Dutch Military Conference

during September 1941 held in Kuching,

it was pointed out that Plan A could not be carried out if the Japanese landed 3,000 to 5,000 men with air and sea support. J.L. Noakes, the defeatist Sarawak Secretary for Defence, had continued to argue the inadequacy of SARFOR and that it had no hope against the Japanese if they landed in force.

His idea was to take a ‘wait and see’ attitude and continue to appeal to Singapore for more troops and equipment.

In the event that this was not forthcoming, Sarawak should surrender so as to prevent any bloodshed. Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, was completely against this defeatist talk and vehemently argued that Sarawak should put up a fight, a fight to maintain the honor of the Brooke Raj. At the end it was decided that the town could not be defended against the weight of attack which was to be expected, and the plan was reluctantly changed to one of static defence of the airfield.

During late November 1941,

Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival, GOC Malaya Command, took a 2-day tour of Sarawak to assess the adequacy of its defence preparations. He summarized the situation as follows: “Nobody could pretend that this was a satisfactory situation, but at least it would make the enemy deploy a larger force to capture Sarawak than would have been necessary if it had not been defended at all and that, I think, is the true way to look at it…the best I could do was to promise to send them a few anti-aircraft guns and too tell them of the arrival of Prince of Wales and Repulse, which were due at Singapore in a few days…not that I expected anit-aircraft guns to be of much practical value. But I felt that the moral effect of their presence there would more than counterbalance some slight dispersion of force”.

As a result of Percival’s assessment of Sarawak’s defences, an alternative plan of action was proposed, Plan B. This was based on static defence. All available troops and supplies were to be concentrated within a 5.5 kilometer perimeter of the Bukit Stabar Airfield to ensure that its destruction was not interfered with. The rationale for Plan B was presented by Brooke-Popham as follows: “The only place which it was decided to hold was Kuching, the reason for this being not only that there was a modern airfield at this location, but that its occupation by the enemy might give access to the Dutch airfields in Borneo, furthermore, it would also give the enemy access to Singapore. Being only some 350 miles from said place”.

Further orders were issued by Vyner Brooke that all the Civil Servants not assigned to the Sarawak Rangers were to remain at their posts. No thought must be given to the abandonment of the native population by any European officer of the Brooke Raj.

The Brooke Government which had already heard of

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor


(on 7 December 1941)

quickly ordered the complete and total destruction of the oil fields and airfields at Miri and Seria. Orders for the demolition of the refinery at Lutong and the denial of the oilwells reached the officer commanding at Miri

on the morning of the 8th December,

and by the evening of the same day the task was completed.

On the following day the landing ground there was made unfit for use, and on the 13th the Punjabis and the oil officials left by sea for Kuching. The destruction of the oilfields had been completed none too soon.





(Japanese troops advancing through Malaya)


Throughout much of World War II,  British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.

The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with


The Japanese  invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan

on 8 December 1941 at 00:25,

about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7 December Hawaii time, or 01:48 on 8 December Malayan time.



They then invaded the island of Borneo in mid December 1941,



landing on the west coast near Miri in Sarawak; invasion was completed by 23 January 1942

when they landed at Balikpapan in Dutch Borneo on the east coast. During the occupation an estimated 100,000 people were killed.


Defence in Sarawak and North Borneo

The main objectives were the oilfields at Miri in Sarawak region and Seria in Brunei.


The oil was refined at Tutong near Miri. Despite rich oil supplies, the Sarawak region had no air or sea forces to defend it.




Japanese landing and the battle

The main Japanese force, led by


Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi,


consisted of units from Canton, southern China:

  • 35th Infantry Brigade Headquarters
  • 124th Infantry Regiment from Japanese 18th Division
  • 2nd Yokosuka Naval Landing Force
  • 4th Naval Construction Unit
  • 1 platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
  • 4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
  • 1 unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit



(The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942)


On 13 December 1941,

the Japanese invasion convoy


left Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina,



Invasion of French Indochina

with an escort of


the cruiser Yura


(Rear-Admiral Shintaro Hashimoto)

with the destroyers of the 12th Destroyer Division,










submarine-chaser Ch 7 and



the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru.

Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of


Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi.

The Support Force consisted of


Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita


with the cruisers Kumano


and Suzuya



the destroyers Fubuki


and Sagiri.


The AASC element commanded by Capt J.R. Burns had been cobbled together with transport, supply, bakery and butchery elements totalling 40 members in Sydney in July, moved to Darwin

and dispatched to



on 14 December 1941.


Ambon December 1941

The main supplies and ammunition stocks were held


at Laha Airfield Ambon,

defended by two infantry companies, while immediate stocks, bakery and butchery were initially positioned at Galala.

Read more

Massacre at Ambon

As part of the military agreement made by the governments of Australia and the NEI in 1941, AIF troops were sent to help garrison the island of Ambon, which lies just south of the larger island of Ceram. Ambon was an important air and sea link between Australia, New Guinea, and the northern NEI. The airfield at Laha, and the harbours of Ambon and Binnen Bays, were considered to be of vital significance to the Allies.

Accordingly, an Australian battalion (the 2/21st), with supporting units and a detachment of Lockheed Hudson bombers from No. 13 Squadron, RAAF, was landed at Ambon in mid-December 1941.

This combined unit, known as “Gull Force”, reinforced the existing local garrison of 2,600 men, and was placed under the overall command of Dutch Lieutenant Colonel J.R.L. Kapitz.


The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching and nearby airfields.

The convoy proceeded without being detected and,

at dawn on 15 December 1941,

two landing units secured Miri and Seria with only very little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured as well.

19 December 1941


Japanese troops take cover behind steam engines at the Johor railway station in the final stages of their advance down the Malayan peninsula which culminated in the surrender of all British forces, and the occupation of the British naval base on Singapore island.

Meanwhile, on 31 December 1941,

the force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy Brunei, Labuan Island, and Jesselton (now called Kota Kinabalu).

After securing the oilfields, on 22 December,

the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching.

The Japanese airforce bombed


Singkawang airfield

to prevent a Dutch attack. A

fter a battle between the Japanese fleet and a Dutch submarine, the fleet approached

the mouth of


the Santubong river on 23 December 1941


The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang and the troops in twenty transport ships, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka,’’


Japanese invasion fleet off Kuching, British Borneo, 23 December, 1941.

landed at 04:00, 24 December.

Although 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment resisted the attack, they soon became out-numbered and retreated up the river.



By the afternoon, Kuching was in the hands of Japanese forces.


At about 16:40 on 25 December,

the Japanese troops successfully captured

Kuching airfield.


Kuching airfield after thw WW II in 1950


The Punjab regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area.

After Singkawang was secured as well on 29 December,

the rest of the British and Dutch troops retreated further into the jungle southward trying to reach Sampit and Pangkalanbun, where a Dutch airfield at Kotawaringin was located. South and central Kalimantan were taken by the Japanese Navy following attacks from east and west. After ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, the Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942. Lastly, Sarawak fell into the hands of The Empire of Sun.



(Hinomaru Yosegaki – Japanese WWII Good Luck Flag)



On 1 January 1942,

two infantry platoons commanded by a company commander landed on Labuan Island, capturing the British Resident, Hugh Humphrey who later recalled: “I was repeatedly hit by a Japanese officer with his sword (in its scabbard) and exhibited for 24 hours to the public in an improvised cage, on the grounds that, before the Japanese arrived, I had sabotaged the war effort of the Imperial Japanese Forces by destroying stocks of aviation fuel on the island”. [1]


On 8 January,

Kawaguchi proceeded to




Now Kota Kinibalu

and having occupied that town and




where he disarmed the small police unit. Using ten small fishing boats, two infantry companies (minus two platoons), commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe, captured



the seat of government of British North Borneo, and rescued the 600 interned Japanese citizens.

On the morning of the 19th January,


the Governor Robert Smith surrendered the State


handed to him by the Governor of North Borneo

and, refusing to carry on the administration under Japanese control, was interned with his staff.

This unit then captured


Tawau and


Lahad Datu

on the 24th and 31st respectively.

This time they freed a further 1,500 Japanese citizens. The Japanese forces suffered no combat casualties during this operations.

The convoy which left



on the 22nd of December

was escorted by


the cruiser Yura,



the destroyers Murakumo,


Shirakumo and




the minesweepers W 3 and W 6 and


the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru.

Covering Force was consisted of


cruisers Kinu,


Kumano and





the destroyers Fubuki




West of Covering Force was the 2nd Division of the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Mikuma and Mogami) with


The Hatsuyuki class destroyers are optimized for the anti-ship and anti-submarine roles


destroyer Hatsuyuki.

It was sighted and reported to Air Headquarters, Far East, by Dutch reconnaissance aircraft

on the morning of the 23rd,

when it was about 150 miles from Kuching.

At 11.40 that morning

twenty-four Japanese aircraft bombed


Singkawang II airfield, so damaging the runways that a Dutch striking force which had been ordered to attack the convoy was unable to take off with a bomb load.

Despite the critical situation the Dutch authorities urged the transfer of their aircraft to Sumatra.

Air Headquarters, Far East, agreed

and during the afternoon of the 24th

the aircraft were flown to Palembang.

The convoy did not however escape unscathed.

On the evening of the 23rd

it was first attacked by Dutch submarine K-XIV (Lt.Cdr. C.A.J. van Well Groeneveld) sank two enemy ships and damaged two others,

and the following night of 23/24 December 1942

another Dutch submarine K-XVI (Lt.Cdr. L.J. Jarman) torpedoed the IJN destroyer Sagiri (1,750 tons) near Kuching, Sarawak.

Their own torpedoes caught on fire and the ship simply blew up, killing immediately 121 officers and men.

The IJN destroyer Shirakumo and minesweeper W 3 rescued 120 survivors. The K-XVI was herself sunk by Japanese submarine I-66 (Cdr. Yoshitome) on her way back to Soerabaja.

Five Bristol Blenheims of 34th (B) RAF Squadron from Singapore, at almost extreme range, bombed the ships at anchor the same evening, but did little damage.

The convoy was seen at 6 p.m. on the 23rd


approaching the mouth of the Santubong River. Two hours later Colonel Lane received orders from Singapore to destroy the airfield.

It was too late to change back to mobile defence and, as there seemed to him no point in attempting to defend a useless airfield, he asked General Percival for permission to withdraw as soon as possible into Dutch north-west Borneo.

While awaiting a reply Lane concentrated his battalion at the airfield, with forward detachments in the Pending area east of the town and on the roads to the north of it, 18-pounder gun and 3-inch mortar detachments covering the river approaches, and a Punjabi gunboat platoon, working with

the Sarawak Rangers and the Coastal Marine Service, patrolling north of Kuching.





Sarawak Rangers



Fort Margherita, named after his wife Ranee Margaret, the wife of Rajah Charles.

The Sarawak Rangers were a para-military force founded in 1872 by the second Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. They evolved from the fortmen which were raised to defend Kuching in 1846. The Sarawak Rangers were commanded by a former British Army Officer, Sir William Henry Rodway, and were highly skilled in jungle warfare and general policing duties, being equipped with various western rifles, cannons and native weaponry. This small force also manned a series of forts around the country, performed ceremonial duties and acted as the Rajahs’ personal guard.

Aside from protecting Sarawak’s borders, they were used to fight any rebels and were engaged in a number of campaigns during their history. The Sarawak Rangers were disbanded for a few years in the 1930s, only to be reformed and mobilised for the Second World War in which they attempted to defend Sarawak from Japanese invasion in 1942 at the start of the Pacific War..


The convoy proceeded westward, arriving at a point,


east of Cape Sipang

at 0300 on the 24th. At 0120,

the IJN transport Nichiran Maru with Colonel Akinosuke Oka arrived at the prearranged anchorage off the mouth of the Santubong River.

At 0400,

the unit aboard the IJN transport Nichiran Maru, commanded by Colonel A. Oka, completed its transfer to landing barges and proceeding west of Cape Sipang.

At about 9 a.m.

twenty enemy landing craft were observed approaching the shore.

The small Punjabi gunboat platoon, hopelessly outnumbered, withdrew up the river without loss.

At 11 a.m.

as they neared the town the landing craft were engaged by the gun and mortar detachments, who sank four before themselves being surrounded and killed. During the afternoon three more craft were sunk by gunfire, but the remainder were able to land their troops on both sides of the river,

and by 4.30 p.m.

the town was in Japanese hands.

Meanwhile Lane had been instructed by Percival to hold the Japanese for as long as possible and then act in the best interests of west Borneo as a whole.

Since the capture of the town threatened to cut off the forward troops, Lane ordered them to withdraw to the airfield.

The Japanese followed up and before dark  made contact with the airfield defences.

Throughout the night

sporadic firing went on as they felt their way round the perimeter.


General kawaguchi briefing japanese officers before attack

Major-General Kawaguchi


received a report from his intelligence officer that there was approximately 400-500 British troops in the vicinity of



the Kuching airfield.



As Christmas Day dawned,

firing temporarily ceased and advantage was taken of the lull to send the hospital detachment with the women and children on ahead into Dutch Borneo.

During the morning

the Japanese encircling movement continued, and a company was sent to hold the ferry crossing at


Batu Kitang



so as to keep the road clear for escape.

A general withdrawal into Dutch Borneo was ordered to start at dusk, but heavy firing was heard to the north of Batu Kitang shortly after noon and, fearing that his line of retreat would be cut, Lane decided on immediate withdrawal.

The enemy, reinforced by the 2nd Yokosuka SNLF, soon aware of his intention, launched a full-scale attack on the two Punjabi companies forming the rearguard.

Of these two companies only one platoon succeeded in rejoining the main body. The remainder, totaling four British officers and some 230 Indian troops, were cut off and either killed or captured.

At about 1640 on the 25th,

the Japanese troops completely secured the Kuching airfield. The Japanese losses during this operation (including those at sea) were about 100 killed and 100 wounded. The rest of the battalion reached Batu Kitang without loss to find the village deserted and the ferry unattended.

They had great difficulty in crossing the river, but by dark all except the covering force were over. Most of the transport had to be left behind.

. From the 26th

‘Sarfor’ ceased to exist as a combined Indian and State Force, and the Punjabis, much reduced in strength, carried on alone



Following the capture of Kuching airfield, the Detachment commander ordered Colonel Oka to secure the strategic area around Kuching with the main force of the 124th Infantry Regiment, while he with one infantry battalion (excluding two companies)

left Kuching on the 27th and returned back to Miri.

The main body made its way to


There the road ended, and the remaining vehicles and heavy equipment had to be abandoned. There, too, the Sarawak State Forces, in view of their agreement to serve only in Sarawak, were released to return to their homes



On the morning of the 27th

the column crossed the border into Dutch Borneo and two days later arrived at Singkawang II airfield where there was a garrison of 750 Dutch troops.


It was realized at Headquarters, Malaya Command, that the Punjabis would be urgently in need of food and ammunition

Sarawak Postal history

Dai Nippon Occupations Borneo Postal history Collections

North Borneo’

North Borneo:






The depiction of the Jesselton Railway Station and the Vulcan-engine train in several North Borneo stamps signify the great importance of the transportation service to the country at that time. In fact, for many years the country has been craving for roads and North Borneo might have been described as the land without a road and as Owen Rutter puts it “…and a land in that condition is as little likely to grow as a plant without water…”. Apart from a few miles of metalled road in Jesselton, Kudat and Sandakan, there wasnt a single Government highway in the country.

During the war in 1940s, the Jesselton railway station was bombed and demolished by the Japanese army under the command of Lt. General Masao Baba. This has resulted in an interruption to the railway service in North Borneo and was virtually paralysed between 1944 – 1945. Because of its vital impartance, the railway system was targeted by the Japanese and later liberated by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). Now what we see in the stamps above is no longer exist which is sad because this is one of only two depiction of building in the whole North Borneo stamps (the other being the Jesselton clock tower).Today, the steam train has been ressurected for tourism purposes and is due to open for visitors again very soon as the Sabah State Government is upgrading the railway.

[a] [b]
[a]South Road with the bomb damaged Jesselton Railway Station on the right. (Photographer Sgt. F. A. C. Burke)
[b]Beaufort area 01-07-1945. The railway engine captured by the member of 2/32 Infantry Battalion. Manned by members of 2/16 Field Company, RAE. It is now ready to move out of the yardsfor the Beaufort – Weston run


During the Japanese occupation of South East Asia (incl British Borneo) in 1942-1945, British Borneo was put under one administration. Previous stamps issues under British administration of North Borneo, Sarawak and Brunei were used with the Japanese overprints. That’s why North Borneo, Brunei or Sarawak stamps may be used in any parts of this territory:

Brunei and North Borneo stamps used in Kuching, Sarawak 1944

Japanese-issued North Borneo stamps used in Sibu, Sarawak

The Japanese occupation also produced some of the rarest and expensive Brunei stamp. For example this one with 2 Japanese overprints on it. The first horizontal overprint became faded over time, prompted the second overprint:


source: Marcel,




Lot 2548

Japanese Occupation of North Borneo, 1943 (Feb. 1) Official cover franked with two Japan 2 sen Showa pairs, canceled by complete ‘Sibu Borneo’ postmark in violet.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.


Realized HK$ 13,000





Sibu based Sarawak Coastal Ships



Dai Nippon occupation borneo definitive stamps FDC send to sibu Sarawak CDS Sibu 18.4.29 (April,29th.1943(









Lot 2549

Japanese Occupation of North Borneo, 1943 (May 17) cover franked with Japan 5 sen Showa pair tied by complete ‘Kuching Borneo’ postmark, in violet. Sarawak Military Censor’s circular cachet in orange.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.


Realized HK$ 13,000



Dai Nippon Occupation Sarawak revenue history




Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent(2x) bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint”recieved inwar” with Squqred court chop in red on fragment Deposit Document.



Rajah CV Brooke $1(2x) with Bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint “Recieved Inward” with Square court chop in red on fragment Deposit document.



Rajah CV Brooke $2 with violet Dai Nippon revenue overprint “Recieve in ward ” and Square court Chop in Red ,fragment Deposit document.



Rajah CV Brooke $2 + $1 overprint red Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward” with Dai Nippon squared court choped on fragment Deposit document.



Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent with unidentified Black round overprint (Private or official Dai Nippon ? please comment)



Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent with unidenytified hanchoped (private or Dai Nippon Official revenue Handchope?please comment)



Rajah CV Brooke $1 with double Dai Nippon overprint thin red “recived inaward” and violet sarawak Dai nippron yubin Kyoku (not clear official or private handchoped ,please comment)



Rajah CV Brooke $1 overprint thin violet Dai Nippon Revenue “Recieved inward’



Rajah CV Brooke $2 overprint thin violet Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward”



Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint thin violet Dainippon revenue overprint”Recieved Inward”



1945- Rajah CV Brooke $2 (2x) with red Dai Nippon “Recieved Inward” overprint on the Land’s Change of Name certificate issued at Sibu.





Sarawak revenue History


2.11.1941. Rajah CV brooke 3 cent UAR n the recieved fro Sime Darby & Co Ltd sign by Alan Dant (courtesy PSKS,Hong Ming Yong,photocopy) III. DURING BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK



Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown $5 (UAR)




14.1.1949.Rajah CV brooke 8 cent overprint Crown used as renenue ( UAR) on the recieved of buying gun at Hong Joo Company 3,Gambier road,Kuching .Sarawak.



1.10.1949 Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown 6 cent Used as revenue on The recieved of buying Guns at Kuching Gun Shop.



22.11.1945 the bigger block ever seen , Block six Rajah CV brooke overprint crown $5 , the disposal stamp with puched hole used as revenue(UAR),please comment.



26.8.1949. Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint crown (2x) added CV Brooke $1 with punch hole disposal stamps Used As Revenue(UAR) , rare combination from two era before the wW II and after Dai Nippon Occupation (British Colony), emergency used because during Sarawak British Colony no reveneu issue and disposal punche hole old stamps UAR , and after that regualr Stamp without punched hole also used, see below.



10.4.1950. Block six Rajah CV Brooke $4 overprint Crown , the disposal punch hole stamps Use As Revenue(UAR), only one exist,please comment.



King G-V 50 cent and $2 UAR(used as Revenue)



King G-V $1 Used As Revenue(UAR)




Queen E-II $1 and $2 used as revenue(UAR) THE END @copy right Dr iwan S 2010.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com blog










The Sarawak Postal History after WWII

charge@COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010

This story dedicated to my Sarawak stamps and revenue collectors which I had met and made a restaurant meeting in September 2007,especially my medical doctor health administrators friend who have the same age,profession,and family name DR FRANCIS NGU .also for my Indonesian collectors Mr Herry H, and Mr Aris.


NO.S-POSTWWII 001British colony sarawak postally used cover with CV Brooke stamps over print crown sent from kuching to surabaya Indonesia, send by the ex Sime Darby ,famous expatiat factory in Sarawak,some of my friend found the sime darby reciept with sarawak stamp used as revenue before WW II, and I looked in TV this factory still exist now.Very interseting postal history,one of my best and rare collections. look at the back of this cover with sime darby name but have change with only Sarawak and Malaya  was off by pen and added the anme of sander Sim Thian Peck Borneo,who know him please give info trough comment (Dr Iwan S.)


Anthony Brooke , the son of Betram Brooke, with tittle Raja Muda Sarawak, have knowed that The Brithis Empire will asked to have more power in Sarawak after the war.
Due to that situation he have prepared to handle the problem , he prepare the new law to serve the Rajah and Colonial Office.
When he was announced by the king as the chief of Sarawak state delegations in the conference with the British Colonial Office in 1945.
The Colonial office officer want the foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 have been done, transfere the sarawak state to British Crown colony and change the Brooke power to be same as the Malaya State King and join the Mac Michael agreement “ Malaya Union”.
In January 1944, British Empire to occupied North Borneo and asked Sarawak to made a new agreement to give the British empire the power to make new laws and system like in Malaya state.
In July 1945 the change of power from Rajah Charles Vyner Brooke to “yang Dipertua Negeri” like Malaya state.
On 11th September 1945, the Australian forces entered Kuching and on the same day recieved the formal surrender from the japanese soldiers.Military rule did not come to end end until April 15th 1946, when civil government was oncemore restored to the country.
The administration was then handed back to the Rajah , who had arrived a few days before with his wife.
The scene in Kuching was one of enthusiastic rejoicing and many thought it strange that a man, who had already decided to abandon his country ,could still command so much devotion.
The British Empire want the Borneo army under British Army, and after the Japanese Army surender there were the meeting between Brithis Empire Official with sarawak state official.
IN 28th February 1945, Anthony Brooke write a letter to the secretary of British Colonial that he and his friend was announce by the Rajah as the vice of Sarawak’s people in the meeting with them.
The British Colonial Office didn’t accepted the Anthony proposal, and they write a letter to Rajah the Anthony delegation cann’t had the responbility .
Rajah Vyner Brooke at least take the responbility of Sarawak State in nhis own hand, and fire Anthony Brooke.
In 1945 Rajah Vyner Brooke told the British Colonial secretary that he will give Sarawak to the King of Britain.
In 6th February 1946, GTM Mac Bryan as the secretary of British Colonial have came to Sarawak and have a meeting with the Sarawak’s People Council about The Sarawak treasure in England one million Poundsterning.
As the Father’s Will, Vyner Brooke must consultation with Tuan Muda about the Sarawak Kingdom after heard from Radio BCC about the Brithish Colonial proposal about Sarawak.
In 27th March 1946, two delegation from England Capt. Gammans and Lt.Colonel Rees-Williams came to sarawak to research the sarawak people actions to the law of Rajah give the power to British Empire as Colony State.
MacBryant report that the Malayu and Chinese people of Sarawak agree to the Rajah proposal to give Sarawak to the King of Britain, many Malayu adn Chinese leader didn’t agree.
The secret was opened that Datuk Patinggi of Madjlis Mesyuarat Tertinggi have recieved 12.000 poundsterling from Mac Bryan as the “Hadiah”present , and Datuk Menteri, Datuk Hakim and datuk Amat also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , and Datuk Pahlawan also recieved 10.000 poundsterling , Mac Bryan also give 2000 poundsterning to Tuan Haji Nawawi who be “Saksi” the sign of Letter “”Wang yang saya terima dari Mac Bryan telah saya serahkan kepada pihak Pasukan Pentadbir Hal Ehwal Awam British Borneo kerana saya pondang wang itu sebagai Suap”
Datuk Patinggi also give 12.000 Poundsterling to “Pihak Pentadbiran British “ with “Surat Keterangan”.
The People of Sarawak think that the step of “Penyerahan” Sarawak was excellent and Tuan Muda have agreed .
The Poeple think that the situation didn’t have change, they still have the Raja , but this only the title without the power.

The Vyner Brooke Stamps still used but with BMA and crown overprint





In 1948 the first sarawak colonial stamps were printed due to commemoration of Royal Silver Wedding, and the last colonial stamps issued in 1961.




General Introduction

The history of all Dayak Ibans and other Dayak communities (Dayaklama and/or Dayakbaru) of Sarawak. The Dayaks (Dayak Iban, Dayak Bidayuh and Dayak Orang Ulu), in Sarawak may not have 20 points like State of Sabah but we extremely have at least 21 points agreement prior to the formation of the “Federation of Malaysia”.

“Kapit Resolution 1962”

was the key treaty and/or agreement mooted by the native Ibans with regard to the proposal of the “Federation of Malaysia” via the Malaysia Plan “Aum” 1962.


47 years of independence, Malaysia and/or the Federation of Malaya (promoted by UMNO) had failed to safeguard the natives’ rights and/or privileges and had also failed to accelerate efforts to improve the economics future of the natives in Sarawak.

Our history began here in 1962

The Ibans form the largest single group of the population and by far the largest native group.

Ibans are primarily country people and few take to town life. Although they are to be found throughout the country, nearly 75% of their total number live in the Second and Third Divisions.

Special Privileges for Natives Sarawak

Groups from all natives populations expressed a general desires;

a. The Head of State should be a native of Sarawak.

b. That special privileges should be given to the natives. They were extremely anxious that their position in the new Federation should be analogous to that of the Malays in the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya.

c. There was a general agreement that economic development should be accelerated and increased attention paid to education, in particular reference to the needs of the natives;

d. That the land, forestry and agriculture should be subjected to be controlled by the State Government. Great emphasis was also laid on the need to safeguard customary rights and practices.

e. Customary land and other native rights should be protected.

General natives’ opinions toward the formation of “The Federation of Malaysia”

On a number of other points there are also some differences in opinions:

a. Some elements favor the arrangement that the Head of State of Sarawak should also be eligible to be the Head of the Federation of Malaysia, while others, a smaller element, favor a popularly elected of the Federation.

b. There were differences in attitude towards the acceptance of Islam as the national religions for Malaysia as a whole, and towards its particular application to Sarawak.

c. There were similar differences in attitude towards Malay as the national language for Malaysia as a whole and towards its application to Sarawak; and also as to official languages for Sarawak

d. There was conflict regarding the Constitutional allocation of the legislative powers between the Federal and the State Governments in the new Federation, to which is related the question of a formula for representation in the new Federal Parliament.

e. The immigration into Sarawak from other territories of the proposed Federation should be under the control of the State authorities. This springs from the fear that, on the establishment of “Malaysia”, the people of Malaya and Singapore in particular would migrate in large numbers to Sarawak to take advantage of the land and opportunities available, to the detriment of the people of Sarawak themselves. Coupled with this general anxiety, there is particular concern about the possible entry of undesirable elements from “outside”

f. There should also be no rapid change in the administrative arrangements affecting the daily life of the people or in such matters as taxation.

g. Rural development should be accelerated as it has been in the Federation of Malaya so that the general standard of living could be raised as soon as possible.

“Aum Kapit” Malaysia Plan 1962



“Aum” in Iban herein referred to as “conference”.

The most important single center of the Ibans is at Kapit in the Third Division. A conference (or “aum”) of 51 elected Chiefs (Pengarahs and Penghulus) had been held there on the 15th February, 1962, to discuss the proposals for a “Federation of Malaysia” set out in the Sarawak Government’s Paper.


The Iban conference @Aum reached their general agreement that the “scheme” should be supported, subject to certain conditions, and their resolutions  when the Cobbold Commission visited Kapit on the 19th March 1962.

The “Kapit Resolutions 1962” were as follows:

1. Head of Sarawak State: The Head of the State of Sarawak to be a native of Sarawak.

Some groups expressed a wish that he should be elected by the people. Some would like him to have the title of Rajah and to be an Iban.

In either case, it was held that he should be eligible, with the Heads of other States in the new Federation, for the post of Head of the Federations. One or two groups asked that, during the initial period, a British Governor should be retained.

2. Head of State of Malaysia: The Head of each State in the Federation of Malaysia to be eligible in due course to be the Head of the Federation of Malaysia.

Some Ibans asked that he should be given the title of President as the title Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Malay, and is not acceptable.

3. Tradition Custom: “Adat Lama” to remain under the control of the Government of the State of Sarawak as it has until to-day.

4. Sarawak Land: Land to be under the control of the State including the existing rights of the natives of Sarawak in such matters as land.

5. National language: There was some difference of opinion. Some groups suggested that there should be no national language; others wanted it to be Iban. Still others were willing to have Malay or Iban.

6. Official Language: English to remain the official language of the State of Sarawak and to continue to be one of the official languages of Malaysia.

There was agreement among groups that English should be retained either indefinitely or for at least fifteen (15) years as the official language, not only in Sarawak but in the new Federation as well. Some groups wished Iban as well as English to be an official language.

7. Religion: Freedom in religious worship

8. Federal Representation: There is to be adequate representation for Sarawak in the Federal Government.

A number of groups asked that this should be worked out on a combined population and areas basis and that, within the number of seats allocated to Sarawak in the House of Representatives, the Ibans should have equal representation with the Malays and the Chinese.

9. Native Employment: British officers to remain until replaced by properly qualified local people. Natives to have a fair share of Government employment.

10. Native Privileges and Status: Sarawak natives to enjoy the same status and privileges as Malays in Malaya.

11. Education: Education to be a Federal subject and to be equalized throughout Malaysia as soon as possible. Sarawak natives to have a fair share of overseas scholarships.

12. Medium of instruction in schools: English should be retained as the medium of instruction, but Iban should be taught as a subject.

13. Immigration: Immigration to remain under the control of the State of Sarawak.

14. State Powers: Powers reserved in the Constitution to a State may not be changed without the agreement of the State.

15. Development: Development in Sarawak to be accelerated.

16. Religion: Much emphasis was placed on the need for freedom of religion as there is at present, i.e., freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.

There was a general feeling that Sarawak should be a secular State and the suggestion was made that if Muslims were given assistance from Federal funds, other religions – Christianity was specially mentioned – should enjoy similar treatment.

17. Name of the new Federation: There was dislike of the name “MALAYSIA” and hope that some other name could be devised. Many alternatives were suggested.

18. Armed Forces: The Ibans are anxious to have a fair chance of service in the Federation’s armed forces.

19. Sarawak State: A number of groups wanted to be sure that they could have a separate Sarawak State flag – some mentioned the old Rajah’s flag – a State anthem and a National Day.

20. Self-Government: The Ibans had been looking forward to the self-government which had been promised to them, and the principal reason why they were ready, on conditions, to accept the Malaysia proposals, despite their uncertainties, was because they were confident that the British Government would not recommend the scheme if it was not going to be beneficial to them.

21.  Equal rights: Ibans wanted to be treated by the Malays as brothers, but not as the younger brothers. They were opposed to the idea that Sarawak should be treated as only one of 15 States in a Federation of Malaysia; they maintained that this would give her too small a voice in the new Federation’s affairs.

The 51 Chiefs at the conference together were said to represent some 112,000 Ibans out of a total population of nearly 238,000 and many delegations of Ibans who came before the Cobbold Commission teams at different centers in the Third Division confirmed that they supported the “Kapit Resolutions 1962”.

In a small number of cases a demand was made that they should either be accepted without alteration or that any changes should be made only after there had been opportunity for further discussion with the Iban people.

While the great majority of the Ibans in the Third Division who were in favor of the Malaysia plan took their stand on the “Kapit Resolutions 1962”, there were some groups who gave their full support to the “scheme” on the basis of the recommendations in the report of the Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (MSCC).

Notes: The Sarawak MSCC Delegations in Singapore were represented by (3rd February 1962):

  • Yeo Cheng Hoe – Leader
  • Ong Kee Hui – Member
  • Temenggong Jugah Ak Barieng – Member
  • Pengarah Montegrai Ak Tugang – Member
  • Dato Abang Haji Openg – Member
  • Ling Beng Siew – Member
  • James Wong – Member
  • Remigius Durin Ak Nganau – Member

Other Desirable Provisions

Some felt that this was a desirable provision in a new venture about which they felt some doubts. Others suggested that it should apply only in certain circumstances such as:

a. A change of regime in Kuala Lumpur.

b. A change in the Federal Constitution which had not been accepted by Sarawak.

One group from the Baram River hotly opposed the creation of a Federation of Malaysia but recognized that the decision might go against them.

They insisted that, if this was so, certain conditions should be met. These were much the same as those set out in the “Kapit Resolutions 1962”, but went further in some respects and the group was not prepared to discuss any modification of them.

Right to withdraw from the new Federation

There was fear too that a large proportion of Sarawak’s revenue would be handed over to the Federal Government without a corresponding return in the shape of services to the people of Sarawak.

The question of the right to withdraw from the new Federation was raised with Sarawak MCSS at Kapit and elsewhere.

In certain circumstances there should be such a right at least for a period of five (5) years, and that this should be specifically stated in the Federal Constitution.








Taken from: Sarawak Headhunter

By Bunga Pakma



The story of Sarawak getting colonize by Malaya  is told in the simplest of way. We can now appreciate Sarawak history from the eye of the author of this article. I am sure there are others who hold on to difference views. But then, history is not an exact science anymore as far as Malaysia is concerned. many historical facts in Malaysia has been change to suit the political agenda of the current government and Sarawak history is not spared from such scandalous act.


We must vote for change, it is not an option. Change WE must.

On 16 September 1963, all the elements were in place for the unfolding of a political story which, whatever its outcome would be, was certain to go through strange and wrenching twists of plot. Some of these elements were clear to see, others hidden.

What formed Malaysia?

It must have crossed many observers’ minds that the component states that made up this new “Malaysia” were an odd quartet. Malaya was a patchwork of small states, most of them feudal régimes headed by Malay kinglets. Singapore was a commercial city-state, predominantly Chinese with a strong British cast, but wholly business. Sarawak—Britain’s last pukka colony—had been ruled by a white family for 100 years, and Sabah had emerged from the strange position of being run by a Limited Company.

Each partner-to-be in the Malaysian enterprise joined with vastly differing experiences and expectations. The only thing they had in common was that each territory was home to a bewildering variety of peoples, languages and cultures, and none of these people had ever known anything except authoritarian rule. Upon what did they believe they were to agree? Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

My friend told me not to touch “racial issues” but I replied it depends. We have heard of many cases both reported in the media and more that is not being reported about mixed parentage contribute to mixed up in children racial category. Personally, I have friends who are married to different races Dayak marry Chinese, Indian marry Dayak, Malay marry Dayak, Dayak marry European ( or whites) etc. What make this complicated is our ability to predict the race of the children. As a multi-racial country we have to come and face this reality and find solution that is not “double standard” so as not to rob the rights of the children as individual.

General rules

Generally the children race would follow that of the father. So if the father is Dayak Iban and marry to Chinese / Indian / whites then the children should be Dayak Iban. Accordingly in Taib’s case, the late Puan Laila is from Poland ( or there about) then  his children are categorize as Melanau and therefor a bumiputera. But then we have many cases whereby the father is Dayak Iban and the mother is Chinese but is not recognize by the government as Dayak Iban or bumiputera. Now you readers help me understand what is the difference of this scenario when compared to Taib Mahmud’s case?

In the case of a Muslim – what is the rule?

A Malay friend says if you are a Muslim then there is no problem. Is there really another standard for Muslim in Malaysia pertaining to the category of “race”?.

Imagine this as many so called Malay are actually Pakistani / Indians from India and new addition is the Bangladeshi. If the father is Bangladeshi and has not earn his citizenship in Malaysia and marry a Malay Muslim women, then what is the race of the child. By following the general rule then the child / children should be Bangladeshi or “lain-lain”. But in most instances the child is registered as Malay. I would like to be corrected by any “Official” who happen to read this article on this matter. Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

All the official forms ( borang kerjaan) has 4 racial categories: Malay, Chinese, Indian dan Lain Lain. As a Dayak I presumed that i belong to “Lain Lain” category. Why is it so difficult to add “Native of Sabah and Sarawak” as a category as provided for by the  Federal Constitution. It seems that NO Member of Parliament or Sarawak Dayak based parties has brought this matter up in their debate. As Dayak we wanted tp know this “logic” because the racial category is really an insult to the native of Sabah and Sarawak. On top of that, I think it does affect our opportunity to secure government job, opportunities as bumiputera, etc. Why is this so I would want to know!


To me this particular word “lain-lain” or if I can translate it correctly as ‘others” really do not show that we are the natives in Malaysia. We are more bumiputera to the Malay as you cannot find Dayak in any other places in the world, but on the island of Borneo. This “official form” treated the native of Borneo / Malaysia like a no body. As native the Malaysia federal Government seen it fits to label us others as if we Dayak are of no consequences in this country. Read more

Written by: Dr John Brian Anthony

In an effort to understand more about Sarawak Rangers I went into wikipedia and found this:

The Sarawak Rangers were a para-military force founded in 1862 by the second Rajah of Sarawak, Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke. They evolved from the fortmen which were raised to defend Kuching in 1846. The Sarawak Rangers were first commanded by William Henry Rodway, briefly in 1862 and again from 1872 to his retirement in 1881, and were highly skilled in jungle warfare and general policing duties, being equipped with various western rifles, cannons and native weaponry.

They were based in a number of forts constructed at strategic locations in towns and at river mouths. Aside from protecting Sarawak’s borders, they were used to fight any rebels and were engaged in a number of campaigns during their history. In times of emergency or war, they could depend on the support of the local population and tribespeople.

The Sarawak Rangers were disbanded for a few years in the 1930s, only to be reformed and mobilised for the Second World War in which they attempted to defend Sarawak from Japanese invasion in 1942 at the start of the Pacific War. After the abdication of Charles Vyner Brooke in 1946, the Sarawak Rangers became a colonial unit under direct British control and saw action in both the Malayan Emergency and the Borneo Confrontation. In 1963, after the formation of Malaysia, the Sarawak Rangers became part of the Royal Ranger Regiment.

The Sarawak Rangers Unit that has been proposed  to be formed will be a multi-racial unit.

The proposal for the revival of the Sarawak Ranger is reported by The Star here below. Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

I would like to draw readers attention to the below article extracted from the Borneo Herald Blog. Many of the younger generation may not have heard of the Inter-Governmental Committee  that was formed prior to the formation of Malaysia. This committee is formed to ensure that Sabah and Sarawak do not exchange their colonial master (the British) to be replaced by another (Malaya).

In response to Sabah and Sarawak concerns of being colonized by Malaya the late Tunku Abdul Rahman formed an Inter-governmental Committee to ensure that this do not happen.

However, this Inter-Governmental Committee has never devise a compliance mechanism to ensure that the condition of the formation of Malaysia are implemented. Today we witness and experience “the colonization” of Sabah and Sarawak by Malaya. No wonder many young Sabahan and Sarawakian are asking why are we still in Malaysia. Many demanded to end our partnership with Malaysia as Sarawakian now are at the losing end of the formation of Malaysia.

This is more reason why our Dayak voices must be heard in Parliament. We know that BN member of Parliament will never speak of the “colonization” of Sabah and Sarawak. If that is so, we must support Dayak opposition voices to be heard in Parliament to demand for the review of the Malaysia agreement to enusre the Borneonization of Sabah and Sarawak and end Malaya colonization of Sabah and Sarawak. Read more

Written by: Dr. John Brian Anthony

Malaysian History try to tell us in the best possible way the important dates to remember and honor in our country. There are some flaws in the way that the history is presented to the student despite good record keeping of the event. It is accidental or a deliberate effort to rewrite history in order to unite the new nation? Instead of accepting the Government effort to reunite the nation by selecting a date for independence many saw the effort as sidelining the TRUTH. By not explaining why a date has been chosen (31st Aug)  and not 16th September it put aside an important date and impose Malaya independence day as the truth – which it is NOT!.

It is similar to Harimau Malaya now for the name of the Malaysian Football team. It makes Sabah and Sarawak a non entity in the name of the team. So why should Sabah and Sarawak support the Malaysian team when the name is exclusive to Malaya? Then the next question is WHAT is 1 Malaysia when the Federal Government did not put a few words of advise to the football national body?

Independence Day

MERDEKA is just round the corner: 31st August. Almost everyday we hear the PM and his cabinet members reminding us to fly the Malaysian Flag “Jalur Gemilang” to show our patriotism for our country. We all know that Merdeka Day is when Malaya gained their independence from the British. Can we accept that despite the historical flaw that 31st August is MALAYSIA day of independence? Read more

Taken from: Malaysiakini

Mohd Jidin asked for the number of army recruits in the last two years and the breakdown of the numbers by ethnicity.

He also asked for the reasons behind the small number of a certain race in the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF).

Breakdown of intake into Armed Forces

According to Zahid, in the last two years 9,054 officers and those of other ranks were taken into the MAF compared to 14,749 officers and personnel of other ranks who were hired from 2006 to 2008.


From 2008 to 2009, 8,151 or 90 percent of those recruited were Malays, 26 or 0.29 percent were Chinese and 82 or 0.91 percent were Indians, while 795 or 8.8 percent were ‘others’ including Sabah and Sarawak bumiputeras.

“The ministry finds that the participation of non-Malays especially among the Chinese and Indians is still below par,” Zahid said.

DayakBaru Thoughts

I counted many former MAF Officers among my close friends. These are people with integrity and patriotism for Malaysia. As we have seen, the first Dayak to become general is after 47 years of forming Malaysia. By all account, there do not seemed to be another Dayak from Sabah or Sarawak that isof high rank today that can take Brig Gen Stephen Mundau placed when it time for him to retire. The MAF must have a program to groom Dayak  successor that will be able to take the General position when the current Dayak General retire.

Many of my ex MAF Officers friends choose early  retirement as they see no hope in getting into higher position in the MAF. The MAF is very Malay bias and very political in nature. In the statement by Zahid it is very clear that those under the category of  “others and bumiputera from Sabah and Sarawak” is clearly differentiated. Why can’t we just have a Malaysian Army without resorting to races and ethnics. It interferes with unity thinking as you would have seen I am now talking about Dayak General as if he is not a Malaysian. I have such feeling because of the perception that I have of the MAF that is racially bias.


It is wrong for Zahid to say that Chinese and Indian are less patriotic then Malays. The Chinese, Malay and Others are no less patriotic. But if history and the evidence of MAF you have in hand indicated that meritocracy is not a key element in your career advancement and instead depended on race and religion then it is better to avoid such job as it is going to be frustrating and non-value adding.

The same story goes to working in the civil service. It is not only dominated by Malay and Muslim, it become clear that is the policy and behavior of the government to be racialist in career advancement in te civil service.

For Sabah and Sarawak, where are our share of director General, Secretary to Federal ministry position etc. The British designed the civil service as such but it does not mean the government cannot do anything to improve the arrangement by reflecting the content of Malaysia’s population in the civil service. The Malay are too happy with their position that they forgot we are now Malaysia and no more in the Federated Malay States of Malaya.

Zahid must be more careful about his words as we can see arrogance is seeping in deeply into his thoughts. So that is reflecting on UMNO racial supremacy ideology and young Malaysian do not like that. Talking about 1 Malaysia, is patriotism not an important element of that “slogan”.?

Lack of patriotic spirit

Besides the lack of “patriotic spirit”, Zahid also pointed out other reasons that could have resulted in the poor participation of other races in the MAF.

“Maybe it is the fear of tough military discipline, low pay compared to private jobs or no encouragement from families,” he said.

It could also be the result of “lack of backing from their ethnic communities” or “the negative aspersions cast on the MAF”.

Minister a coward, says Kulasegaran.

As Zahid had already left the House by then, Kulasegaran branded him a “coward”, given that the minister had been asked to remain in the House.

Speaker Pandikar Amin Mulia did not order Zahid to withdraw his remarks but instead reprimanded Kulasegaran for his use of the unparliamentary word “coward”. – Malaysiakini

Written by gkm2020



Stephen Mundaw picture on the left.


Stephen Mundaw picture in the center.


Stephen Mundaw picture on the right.

The 52 years old Stephen Mundaw is the first Dayak Iban highest ranking native officer to become a general in the Malaysian Armed Forces history today.

It was also a sweet moment for the Army Chief, Gen Datuk Zulkifeli Mohd Zin, who pinned the insignia of Brigader-General on Mundaw at the parade ground of the 6th Royal Ranger Regimant camp at Ulu Oya Road here today, 1st November 2010.

Stephen Mundaw is from Sungai Melaban, Pakit of Sri Aman Divsion, is the first of Gen Datuk Zukifeli’s students from the army combat training school to attain the rank.

Mundaw graduated as a Second Lieutenant from the Sebatang Karah Officer Cadet Training School in Port Dickson and later the Officer Cadet School at Portsea in Australia in June 1979. Mundaw was then appointed a Platoon Commander with the 6th Battalion of the Royal Ranger Regiment.

Today, he takes over from Brig-Gen Zullkapri Rahamat as the new commander of the 9th Infantry Brigade at RASCOM Camp, 10th Miles Oya Road here.

Also present during the handing and takingover ceremonial were 1st Divison Commanding Officer, Mej-Gen Datuk Awie Suboh, PW I (Rtd) Temenggong Kanang anak Langkau (SP & PGB) and Mundaw”s former commanding officer, Col (Rtd) Dunstan Nyaring Angking.



The Second Division Ibans were not represented at the “Aum Kapit” but most of the many groups supported the idea of Malaysia, though they asked for safeguards.

In many places, more especially in the more remote areas and in areas where the Ibans form a proportionately those who opposed it.

Finally, the view was expressed by the Ibans in many centers that it was of great importance that a decision on Malaysia should be reached as soon as possible.

So, where are Ibans and other native Dayaks today? What is your general status?

If you failed to vote your rights, you failed to protect and/or defend your “Special Privilegessmaller section of the population, a feeling of general uncertainty was apparent.

The Ibans and others who had given the matter careful thought, that the “Kapit Resolutions 1962” had to be considered against a background of implicit trust in the British Government.

Political activity had been stimulated to an alarming degree by the “Malaysia” proposals and many Ibans were afraid that there might be violence not only between different races but between Ibans who supported the “Malaysia Plan” and

The last day of British colonial Internal Administration in Sarawak 39th August 1963 and is conjuction to comm, the United nation team visited Limbang on the same day to Asseses the people view on joining malaysia.


during my visit Kota kinibalu Sabah(before British Colony North Borneo), I found interesting postal history there.this rare cover send from Show Brother film Co Sandakan to Limbang theater , with CDS Sandakan 1963 and Limbang Recieved CDS 1963. in the back.


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