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Italian Somaliland

 
 

Italian Somaliland
Somalia Italiana
Italian colony
  1889–1936
Flag Coat of arms

Italian Somaliland

Capital Mogadiscio
Religion Islam, Roman Catholicism
Political structure Colony
Historical era Interwar period
 – Established 1889
 – Disestablished 1936
 – A.O.I. 1936-41
Currency Italian Somaliland rupia, Italian Lira

Italian Somaliland (Italian: Somalia italiana), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy from the 1880s until 1936 in the region of modern-day Somalia. Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Sultanate of Hobyo and the Majeerteen Sultanate, the territory was later acquired by Italy through various treaties.[1] In 1936, the region was integrated into Africa Orientale Italiana as part of the Italian Empire. This would last until 1941, during World War II. Italian Somaliland then came under British administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somalia, under Italian administration. On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia united as scheduled with the briefly extant State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland) to form the Somalia Republic.[2][3]

Contents

Somali-Italian treaties and creation of the protectorate

The late 19th century had a huge impact on developments occurring in the Horn of Africa. The European powers (Italy, Great Britain and France) first gained a foothold in Somalia through the signing of various pacts and agreements with the Somali Sultans that then controlled the region, such as Yusuf Ali Kenadid, Boqor Osman Mahamuud and Mohamoud Ali Shire.[1]

Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid, founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo.

In late 1888, Sultan Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italians, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate. His rival Boqor Osman was to sign a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Majeerteen Sultanate the following year. Both rulers had signed the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist objectives, with Kenadid looking to use Italy’s support in his dispute with the Sultan of Zanzibar over an area bordering Warsheekh, in addition to his ongoing power struggle over the Majeerteen Sultanate with Boqor Osman. Both Sultan Kenadid and his rival Boqor Osman also hoped to exploit the conflicting interests among the European imperial powers that were then looking to control the Somali peninsula, so as to avoid direct occupation of their territories by force.[4]

The Italians, for their part, were interested in this largely arid country mainly because of its ports, the latter of which could grant them access to the strategically important Suez Canal and the Gulf of Aden.[5] The last piece of land acquired by Italy in Somalia in order to form Italian Somaliland was the Kismayo region (Jubaland), which was earlier controlled by Britain before World War I.[5]

However, the relationship between Hobyo and Italy soured when Sultan Kenadid refused the Italians’ proposal to allow a British contingent of troops to disembark in his Sultanate so that they might then pursue their battle against the Somali religious and nationalist leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan‘s Dervish forces.[4] Viewed as too much of a threat, Sultan Kenadid was eventually exiled to Aden in Yemen and then to Eritrea, as was his son Ali Yusuf, the heir apparent to his throne.[6]

At the end of the 19th century, a growing social-political movement developed within Italy to start expanding its influence, since many other European countries had already been doing so, which was effectively leaving Italy behind. There was also a huge shortage of capital and serious economic problems in Italy.[7] It is also argued by some historians that Italy had a minor interest in the mutton and livestock that were then plentiful in Somalia, though whatever designs Italy may have had on the resource-challenged Somali landscape were undoubtedly subordinate to its interest in the region’s ports and the waters and lands they gave access to.[8]

Cesare Correnti organized an expedition under the “Società Geografica Italiana” in 1876. The next year “L’Esploratore” was established by Manfredo Camperio – a travel journal. In 1879 “Società di Esplorazioni Commerciali in Africa” was created, with the Italian Industrial Establishment involved as well. The “Club Africano”, which three years later became the “Società Africana D’Italia”, was established in Somalia in 1879.

PASSAPORTO MOLTO RARO GIOVANNI FOGLIANI D`ARAGONA VICERE` DI SICILIA 1747
DOCUMENTO IN PERFETTO STATO CON SIGILLO. DON JUAN FOGLIANI DE ARAGON MARQUES DE PELEGRINO, Y VALDIMOZZOLA, DE VICOBARONE, PUENTE ALBAROLA, RIVA, CARMIANO, SENOR DE CAFTELNOVO, DE VIGHIZZOLO. COMENDADOR ED LA ORDEN CONFLANTINIANA DE S. JORGE, ETC

<!––> <!––>

INFORMAZIONI ::
historical information on year 1747  CODE ID: 10739
Titolo: PASSAPORTO MOLTO RARO GIOVANNI FOGLIANI D`ARAGONA VICERE` DI SICILIA 1747
Issuance Date: 1747
Place Issue: NAPOLI
Nation: Italy
Dimension:L23 x H32
Autograph Signature:
FIRME AUTOGRAFE

However, in January 1887 Italian troops from Somalia fought a battle against Ras Alula Engida’s militia in Dogali, Eritrea, where they lost 500 troops. The Prime Minister, Agostino Depretis, resigned because of this defeat in July 1887. Prime Minister Francesco Crispi replaced him, and had new plans to create new areas for immigration for Italians.[citation needed] On May 2, 1889 Menelik II, the Emperor of Ethiopia, and Italy signed a peace treaty.

Around 1895, Italy launched the First Italo-Abyssinian War against Ethiopia from its territories in Eritrea and Somalia.

Control of the coast

Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, founder of Villaggio duca degli Abruzzi (Jowhar), the main agricultural colony in Italian Somaliland.

Italy gained control of the ports of the Benadir coastal area with the concession of a small strip of land on the coast from the Sultan of Zanzibar,[9][10] and over the following decades, Italian settlement was encouraged. In 1905, Italy assumed the responsibility of creating a colony in southern Somalia, after several failed attempts,[11] following revelations that the Benadir Company had tolerated or collaborated in the perpetuation of the slave trade.[12] The administrative regulator was Governor Mercantelli, with the six subdivisions of Brava, Merca, Lugh, Itala, Bardera, and Jumbo.

On April 5, 1908 the Italian Parliament enacted a basic law to unite all of the parts of southern Somalia into an area called “Somalia Italiana”. The colonial power was then divided between the Parliament, the metropolitan government, and the colonial government. The power of the colonial government was the only power that was changed. The civil governor controlled export rights, regulated the rate of exchange, raised or lowered native taxes, and administered all civil services and matters relating to hunting, fishing, and conservation.[13] The governor was in control of the police force, while nominating local residents and military arrangements.[13] Effective Italian control remained largely limited to the coastal areas until the early 1920s.[14] After the collapse of Muhammad Abdullah Hassan’s resistance movement, rebellion and revolt occurred with disputes between different clans in Northern Somalia. The government of the time again worked together with the old clansmen in order to try and keep peace between the several clans, while maintaining close control over the military.[15]

Colonial development and the early fascist era: 1920 – 1935

In 1920, the Società Agricola Italo-Somala (SAIS) was founded by Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, in order to explore the agricultural potential of Africa. On December 5, 1923 Fascism came to Somalia with Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi di Val Cismon. He brought with him forceful ways of colonial rule and ideas.

In green, the Mogadishu-Villabruzzi Railway, which lasted from 1914 to 1941.

After World War I, Jubaland, which was then a part of British East Africa, was ceded to Italy. This concession was purportedly a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in World War I.

In 1926, after a some resistance, southern Somalia was fully pacified. The Somali colonial troops called Dubats (and the gendarmerie Zaptié) were extensively used by De Vecchi in this military campaign.

In the early 1930s, the new Italian governors, Guido Corni and Maurizio Rava, started a policy of assimilation of the Somalis and their clans. Many Somalis were enrolled in the Italian colonial troops. Some thousands of Italian colonists moved to live in Mogadishu, which became a commercial centre with some small manufacturing companies, and in some agricultural areas around the capital such as the “Villaggio duca degli Abruzzi” (or “Villabruzzi”, today Jowhar) and “Genale”).[14][16]

In 1920, the Italian explorer and nobleman Luigi Amedeo Savoia-Aosta founded the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi as an agricultural settlement in Italian Somaliland, growing bananas, cotton and sugar.[14]

In 1926, the colony comprised 16 villages, with some 3,000 Somali and 200 Italian inhabitants, and was connected by a 114 km new railway to Mogadishu. Italian colonial policy followed two principles in Somalia: preservation of the dominant clan and ethnic configurations and respect for Islam as the colony’s religion.[17]

 Italian East Africa

In October 1935, the southern front of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War was launched into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland. Italian General Rodolfo Graziani commanded the invasion forces in the south.

In June 1936, after the war ended, Italian Somaliland became part of Italian East Africa. The new colony of the Italian Empire also included Ethiopia and Eritrea and was called Africa Orientale Italiana.

From 1936 to 1940, new roads (like the one called “Imperial Road”, from Mogadishu to Addis Abeba) were constructed in the region, as well as new railways (114 km from Mogadishu to Jowhar) and many schools, hospitals, ports, bridges, etc.

1936-1937 Angelo De Ruben – Ruggiero Santini(,her grandduaghter Denise Santini Meinardus have contact me, she told that hsi grandfather Ruggero Santini or Ruggeiro Santini was an Italian Governor of Somalia,plese who had mor einfo about this governor please  send me more info for his grandaughter,dr Iwan note) 

The Italian “Grande Somalia” enlarged borders during WWII, under the governor Carlo De Simone

Since the start of the colony, many Somali troops fought in the so-called Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali. The soldiers were enrolled as Dubats, Zaptié and Bande irregolari. During World War II, these troops were regarded as a wing of the Italian Army’s Infantry Division, as was the case in Libya and Eritrea. The Zaptié were considered the best: they provided a ceremonial escort for the Italian Viceroy (Governor) as well as the territorial police. There were already more than one thousand such soldiers in 1922. In 1941, in Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, 2,186 Zaptìé plus an additional 500 recruits under training officially constituted a part of the Carabinieri. They were organised into a battalion commanded by Major Alfredo Serranti that defended Culqualber (Ethiopia) for three months until this military unit was destroyed by the Allies. After heavy fighting, all the Italian Carabinieri, including the Somali troops, received full military honors from the British.[18]

In the first half of 1940, there were 22,000 Italians living in Somalia and the colony was one of the most developed in Africa in terms of the standard of living of the colonists and of the Somalis, mainly in the urban areas. More than 10,000 Italians were living in Mogadishu, an administrative capital of the Africa Orientale Italiana, and new buildings were erected in the Italian architectural tradition. By 1940, the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi (or “Villabruzzi”) had a population of 12,000 people, of whom nearly 3,000 were Italian Somalians, and enjoyed a notable level of development with a small manufacturing area with agricultural industries (sugar mills, etc.).[19]

In the second half of 1940, Italian troops invaded British Somaliland[20] and ejected the British. The Italians also occupied Kenyan areas bordering Jubaland around the villages of Moyale and Buna.[21] In August 1940 Benito Mussolini boasted to a group of Somalis in Rome that with the conquest of British Somalia (that he annexed to Italian Somalia) nearly all the Somali people were united, fulfilling their dream of a union of all Somalis (Greater Somalia).[22]

In the spring of 1941 Britain regained control of British Somaliland and conquered Italian Somaliland with the Ogaden, but until the summer of 1943 there was an Italian guerrilla war in all the areas of the former Italian East Africa.

Trust Territory

Italian Somaliland then came under British administration until 1949, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somalia, under Italian administration. This administration lasted ten years, from 1950 to 1960, with legislative elections held in 1956 and 1959.

In 1960, the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) became independent, following in the footsteps of the briefly extant State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland) which had gained independence five days earlier on June 26, 1960.[23] On July 1, 1960, the two territories united as planned to form the Somali Republic.[24][25] A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa, with Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister, later to become President (from 1967–1969). On July 20, 1961 and through a popular referendum, the Somali people ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.[26]

Italian governors

  • 1908-1910 Tommaso Carletti
  • 1910-1916 Giacomo De Martino
  • 1916-1919 Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
  • 1920-1923 Carlo Ricci
  • 1923-1928 Cesare Maria De Vecchi
  • 1928-1931 Guido Corni
  • 1931-1935 Maurizio Rava
  • 1935-1936 Rodolfo Graziani
  • 1936-1937 Angelo De Ruben – Ruggiero Santini
  • 1937-1939 Francesco Saveno
  • 1939-1940 Gustavo Pesenti
  • 1940-1941 Carlo De Simone

Gallery

  • Mogadiscio in 1936, with the Catholic Cathedral and the Triumphal Arch dedicated to the King of Italy

  • Fiat’s Boero Building in Mogadishu (1940)

  • The Parliament Building in Mogadishu, originally built in typical fascist style during the thirties

  • Stamps of 1926 celebrating the union of Jubaland to Italian Somaliland

  • Hotel in the agricultural rural area of “Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi”, built by Duke Luigi Amedeo of Savoia

  • The first cinema opened in Mogadishu

  • Mogadishu “Gate to gardens” 1931

  • “Mogadiscio” Catholic Cathedral

  •  Italian governors

    • 1908-1910 Tommaso Carletti
    • 1910-1916 Giacomo De Martino
    • 1916-1919 Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
    • 1920-1923 Carlo Ricci
    • 1923-1928 Cesare Maria De Vecchi
    • 1928-1931 Guido Corni
    • 1931-1935 Maurizio Rava
    • 1935-1936 Rodolfo Graziani
    • 1936-1937 Angelo De Ruben – Ruggiero Santini
    • 1937-1939 Francesco Saveno
    • 1939-1940 Gustavo Pesenti
    • 1940-1941 Carlo De Simone

    List of colonial heads of Italian Somaliland

     
     
     
    Term Incumbent Notes
    Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate
    3 August 1889 to 15 May 1893 Vincenzo Filonardi, Governor 1st time
    15 May 1893 to 1896 Vacant  
    1896 to 1897 Vincenzo Filonardi, Commissioner 2nd time
    1897 Ernesto Dulio, Commissioner  
    1897 to 25 May 1898 Giorgio Sorrentino, Commissioner  
    25 May 1898 to 16 March 1905 Emilio Dulio, Governor  
    Italian Somaliland Colony
    16 March 1905 to 1906 Luigi Mercatelli, Commissioner-General  
    1906 to 1907 Giuseppe Salvago Raggi, Commissioner-General  
    1907 to 1908 Tommaso Carletti, Commissioner-General  
    1908 to July 1910 Tommaso Carletti, Governor  
    Italian Somaliland Crown Colony
    July 1910 to 1916 Giacomo De Martino, Governor  
    1916 to 1919 Giovanni Cherina Ferroni, Governor  
    1919 to 21 June 1920 Vacant  
    21 June 1920 to 8 December 1923 Carlo Ricci, Governor  
    8 December 1923 to 1 June 1928 Cesare Maria De Vecchi, Governor From 1925 conte di Val Cismon
    1 June 1928 to 1 July 1931 Guido Corni, Governor  
    1 July 1931 to 6 March 1935 Maurizio Rava, Governor  
    6 March 1935 to 22 May 1936 Rodolfo Graziani, Governor  
    22 May 1936 to 24 May 1936 Angelo De Ruben, Governor De facto Governor since January 1936
    24 May 1936 to 15 December 1937 Ruggiero Santini, Governor

    • 24 May 1936 to 15 December 1937 | Ruggiero Santini , Governor | 15 December 1937 to 11 June 1940 | Francesco Saveno Caroselli , Governor
      5 KB (411 words) – 13:51, 2 April 2011
    • Italian governors : 1936-1937 Angelo De Ruben – Ruggiero Santini. 1937-1939 Francesco Saveno. 1939-1940 Gustavo Pesenti. 1940-1941 Carlo De Simone
      21 KB (2,871 words) – 14:59, 6 September 2011
    • Ernest Borgnine as Dominic Santini , Alex Cord as Archangel and Hero | DirectedBy Leslie H. Martinson | WrittenBy Alfonse M. Ruggiero, Jr. |
      75 KB (11,423 words) – 14:11, 12 September 2011
    • B : Matteo Barbieri Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich Vincenzo Brunacci C S : Leonardo Salimbeni Giovanni Santini Umberto Scarpis Corrado Segre
      15 KB (1,427 words) – 05:58, 23 May 2011
    • Dalmazio Santini (1923–2003), classical composer Russ Columbo (1908–1934), born Ruggiero Eugenio di Rodolpho Colombo, composer, singer,
      33 KB (4,383 words) – 08:17, 7 September 2011
    • Semiramide | Semiramide | La Scala | Santini | 1963-06-20 20 Jun 1963 Alcina —Joan Sutherland (Alcina), Margreta Elkins (Ruggiero), Lauris
      60 KB (7,998 words) – 12:38, 25 August 2011
     
    15 December 1937 to 11 June 1940 Francesco Saveno Caroselli, Governor  
    11 June 1940 to 31 December 1940 Gustavo Pesenti, acting Governor  
    31 December 1940 to 9 March 1941 Carlo De Simone, acting Governor  
    British administration of Italian Somaliland
    26 February 1941 to 1941 Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith, Administrator  
    1941 to 1943 William Eric Halstead Scuphan, Administrator  
    1943 to 1948 Denis Henry Widcham, Administrator  
    1948 Eric Armar Vully de Candole, Administrator  
    1948 to 21 November 1949 Geoffrey Massey Gamble, Administrator  
    Italian Somaliland, United Nations Trust Territory
    Under Italian administration
    21 November 1949 to 1953 Giovanni Fornari, Administrator  
    1953 to 1954 Vacant  
    1954 to 1957 Enrico Martino, Administrator  
    1957 to 24 July 1958 Enrico Anzilotti, Administrator  
    24 July 1958 to 1 July 1960 Mario Di Stefano, Administrator  
    1 July 1960 Unification of Italian Somaliland with State of Somaliland and Independence as Somali Republic

    7. Gallery

    Mogadiscio in 1936, with the Catholic Cathedral and the Triumphal Arch dedicated to the King of Italy
    Fiat’s Boero Building in Mogadishu (1940)
    The Parliament Building in Mogadishu, originally built in typical fascist style during the thirties
    Stamps of 1926 celebrating the union of Jubaland to Italian Somaliland
    Hotel in the agricultural rural area of “Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi”, built by Duke Luigi Amedeo of Savoia
    The first cinema opened in Mogadishu
    Mogadishu “Gate to gardens” 1931
    “Mogadiscio” Catholic Cathedral

     

  • 8. Notes

    1. ^ Mariam Arif Gassem, Somalia: clan vs. nation, (s.n.: 2002), p.4
    2. Somalia
    3. Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2002), p.835
    4. ^ The Majeerteen Sultanates
    5. ^ Fitzgerald, Nina J. Somalia (New York: Nova Science, 2002), p 33
    6. Sheik-ʻAbdi, ʻAbdi ʻAbdulqadir (1993). Divine madness: Moḥammed ʻAbdulle Ḥassan (1856-1920). Zed Books. pp. 129. ISBN 0862324440. http://books.google.ca/books?id=EOhyAAAAMAAJ.
    7. Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia. New York: St. Martin’s P Inc,, 1999. p 16
    8. Tripodi, Paolo. The Colonial Legacy in Somalia, p 12-13
    9. Ben-Ghiat, Ruth, Italy and its colonies, in A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: continental Europe and Africa, Poddar, Prem, Patke, Rejeev S. and Jensen, Lars eds., Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008, p. 310
    10. Olsen, James Stuart and Shadle, Robert, eds., Historical dictionary of European imperialism, Westport, Conn.: 1991, Greenwood Press, p. 567
    11. Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism in Somalia Chicago: University of Chicago P, 1966. p 101
    12. Cassanelli, Lee V. The End of slavery in Africa, Meiers, Suzanne and Roberts, Richard L., eds, University of Wisconsin Press, p. 310
    13. ^ Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism, p 102
    14. ^ Ben-Ghiat, p. 310
    15. Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism, p 146
    16. Bevilacqua, Piero. Storia dell’emigrazione italiana. p. 233
    17. Ben-Ghiat, p. 311
    18. “Non tutti sanno che… Zaptié” (in Italian)
    19. Article with photos on a 2005 visit to ‘Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi’ and areas of former Italian Somaliland (in italian)
    20. http://books.google.it/books?id=_PwCu_D-HiUC&pg=PT1&lpg=PT1&dq=Mussolini+unleashed+1939-1941&source=web&ots=bmUFdHvwt3&sig=jC3JifKMffvOg6Ss83em2gWtQm4&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA154,M1
    21. http://www.lasecondaguerramondiale.it/africa_orie_2.html The first map shows the Italian occupied areas around Moyale/Buna
    22. Antonicelli, Franco. Trent’anni di storia italiana 1915 – 1945. p. 47
    23. Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Encyclopaedia Britannica: 2002), p.835
    24. “The dawn of the Somali nation-state in 1960”. Buluugleey.com. http://www.buluugleey.com/warkiidanbe/Governance.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
    25. “The making of a Somalia state”. Strategypage.com. 2006-08-09. http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htwin/articles/20060809.aspx. Retrieved 2009-02-25.
    26. Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p.338

     

     

    Ruggiero Santini, Governor Italian somaliland

    informations

    Generals from Italy Flag for Italy
    Portrait of General Ruggero Santini

    Santini

    Ruggero, General

    (1870 – 1958)

     
    1916
    – 1917
    Intendant 2nd Army
    1917
    – 1918
    Intendant Carnia Zone
    1918
    Commandng Officer Brigade “Lecce”
    1918
    – 1919
    Chief of Staff XXIII Corps
    1919
    – 1921
    Intendant Italian Forces in Albania
    1921
    – 1924
    Commanding Officer Brigade “Friuli”
    1924
    – 1927
    Head of Organization & Mobilization Office, General Staff
    1927
    – 1928
    Commanding Officer 6th Infantry Brigade
    1928
    – 1932
    General Officer Commanding Milan Territorial Division
    1932
    – 1935
    General Officer Commanding Army Corps Milan
    1935
    – 1936
    General Officer Commanding I Corps [Ethiopia]
    1936
    – 1937
    Governor of Italian Somiland
    1936
    – 1938
    General Officer Commanding Somalia
    1939
    – 1941
    Vice-President of the Commission of the Affairs of Italian Africa, Senate
    1941
    – 1943
    Member of the Commission for the Armed Forces, Senate

    Giavanna Santini (1865 – )

    Born in Italy on 1865 to Nicolo Santini and Felicia Petrocini. Giavanna married Vincenzo Coscia and had 4 children. Giavanna married Luciano Costabile and had 2 children. She passed away in Italy.

     
     
     
     

    Possible photos and documents for Giavanna Santini


    Annuncio Santini

    Ruggiero Santini

    Ruggiero Santini

    Maria “Mariafiore” Santini

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  • Top Ancestry.com record matches for Giavanna Santini

    1930 United States Federal Census

    • Name: Antionette Santini
    1930 United States Federal Census

    • Name: Joseph Santini
    1930 United States Federal Census

    • Name: Martino Santini
     

    Giavanna’s Family Members

    Parents
    Nicolo Santini

    Unknown-Unknown

     
    Felicia Petrocini

    Unknown-Unknown

     
    Spouses & Children
    Vincenzo Coscia

    1830-Unknown

     
    Luciano Costabile

    1878-1953

     
     

    Santini name meaning

    Italian: patronymic form ofSantino.

     

    More resources on Ancestry.com

     

    Index Chronology1548                       Zelia part of Ottoman Empire.
    1875 - 1876                Kismayu occupied by Egypt.
     7 Sep 1877                Zeila annexed by Egypt (Egyptian Somaliland),
                                 both under nominal Ottoman suzerainty.
    Feb 1884                   British take over former Egyptian Somaliland.
    20 Jul 1887                British Somaliland protectorate (in the north) 
                                 subordinated to Aden to 1905.
     3 Aug 1889                Benadir Coast Italian Protectorate (in the north
                                 east)(unoccupied until May 1893).
    16 Mar 1905                Italian Somalia (Italian Somaliland) colony (in 
                                 the northeast and in the south).
    Jul 1910                   Italian Somaliland a crown colony.
    15 Jan 1935                Italian Somalia Part of Italian East Africa with 
                                 It. Eritrea (and from 1936 Ethiopia)
                                 (see under Ethiopia).
     1 Jun 1936                Part of Italian East Africa (province of 
                                 Somalia, formed by the merger of the colony
                                 and the Ethiopian region of Ogaden; 
                                 see Ethiopia).
    19 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941  Italian occupation of British Somaliland.
    Feb 1941                   British administration of Italian Somalia.
     1 Apr 1950                Italian Somalia becomes United Nations trust
                                 territory under Italian administration.
    26 Jun 1960                Independence of British Somaliland as the
                                 State of Somaliland.
     1 Jul 1960                Unification of Somaliland with Italian Somalia 
                                 to form the Somali Republic.
    21 Oct 1969                Somali Democratic Republic
     1 Jan 1991                Somalia collapses, no single functioning
                                 government.
    18 May 1991                Secession of former British Somaliland;
                                 as Republic of Somaliland which is
                                 proclaimed 24 May 1991 (not internationally
                                 recognized).
    21 Jul 1991                Somali Republic
    27 Jul 1992 - 27 Aug 2000  United Nations declares Somalia a country 
                                 "without a government."
    Somalia
    (from 1960)
    Traditional
    States
    Italian Somalia
    (1889-1960)
    Somaliland
    (1548-1884, 1960)
    Jubaland
    (1924-1926, 1998-2001)
    Puntland
    (1998-)
    Southwestern Somalia
    (2002-2005)
    Galmudug
    Maakhir
    (2007-2009)
    Historical Maps
    of Somalia

     

    Italian Somaliland
     

    [Kingdom of Italy flag]
             3 Aug 1889 – 26 Feb 1941
    [Flag of the United Kingdom]
            26 Feb 1941 – 1 Apr 1950 
    [Flag of Italy]
             1 Apr 1950 – 10 Oct 1954
    [Somalia]
             12 Oct 1954 – 1 Jul 1960

    Governor
     3 Aug 1889 - 15 May 1893  Vincenzo Filonardi                 (b. 1853 - d. 1916)
    Commissioners
    15 May 1893 - Sep 1896     Vincenzo Filonardi                 (s.a.)
    1896 - 26 Nov 1896         Antonio Cecchi                     (b. 1849 - d. 1896)
    1896 - Jan 1897            Emilio Dulio                       (d. 19..)
    26 Jan 1897 - Nov 1897     Giorgio Sorrentino
    Governors
    Nov 1897 -  5 Oct 1903     Emilio Dulio                       (s.a.)
    Oct 1903 - Nov 1903        E. Cappello
    Nov 1903 - Dec 1903        Ugo Ferrandi                       (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
    10 Dec 1903 - 30 Apr 1905  Alessandro
    Sapelli (1st time)
    Commissioners-general

    May 1905 - Jan 1906        Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 1853 - d. 1922)
    Jan 1906 - Feb 1906        Alessandro Sapelli (2nd time) 
    Feb 1906 - May 1907
           Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (b. 1866 - d. 1952)    
    May 1907 - Apr 1908        Tommaso Carletti                   (b. 1860 - d. 1919)
    Governors
    Apr 1908 - Dec 1908        Tommaso Carletti                   (s.a.)
    Dec 1908 - Apr 1910        Gino Macchioro
    Apr 1910 - Sep 1916        Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)

    Sep 1916 - Jun 1920        Giovanni Cerrina Feroni            (s.a.)
    21 Jun 1920 -  8 Dec 1923  Carlo Riveri
     8 Dec 1923 -  1 Jun 1928  Cesare Maria De Vecchi,            (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
                                 (from 1925) conte di Val Cismon 
     1 Jun 1928 -  1 Jul 1931  Guido Corni                        (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
     1 Jul 1931 -  6 Mar 1935  Maurizio Rava                      (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
     6 Mar 1935 - 22 May 1936  Rodolfo Graziani                   (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
    22 May 1936 - 24 May 1936  Angelo De Ruben 
                                 (de facto governor since Jan 1936)
    24 May 1936 - 15 Dec 1937  Ruggiero Santini                   (b. 1870 - d. 1958)
    15 Dec 1937 - 11 Jun 1940  Francesco Saverio Caroselli        (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
    11 Jun 1940 - 31 Dec 1940  Gustavo Pesenti (acting)           (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
    31 Dec 1940 -  9 Mar 1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)           (b. 1885 - d. 1951?)
    Administrators
    26 Feb 1941 - 1941         Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith     (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
    1941 - 1943                William Eric Halstead Scupham      (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
    Mar 1943 - 1948            Denis Henry Wickham                (b. 1895? - d. 1950)
    1948                       Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
    1948 - 21 Nov 1949         Geoffrey Massey Gamble             (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
    21 Nov 1949 - 1953         Giovanni Fornari                   (b. 1903)
    1954 - 1957                Enrico Martino                     (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
    1957 - 24 Jul 1958         Enrico Anzilotti                   (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
    24 Jul 1958 -  1 Jul 1960  Mario Di Stefano                   (b. 1900? - d. 1963)

    Prime minister
    29 Feb 1956 -  1 Jul 1960  Abdullahi Issa Mohamud             (b. 1922)             SYL

  • Somalia Italiana 1889/1960
    Governatori italiani 1889/1893
    3/8/1889 15/5/1893 Vincenzo Filonardi
    Vincenzo Filonardi


    up

    Commissari 1896/1898
    1896 1897 Vincenzo Filonardi
    Vincenzo Filonardi
    1897   Ernesto Dulio
    1897   Giorgio Sorrentino


    up

    Governatore 1898/1905
    25/5/1898 16/3/1905 Emilio Dulio


    up

    Commissari Generali 1905/1908

    16/3/1905 1906 Luigi Mercatelli
    1906 1907 Giuseppe Salvago Raggi
    1907 1908 Tommaso Carletti

    up
    Governatori 1908/1941

    1908 7/1910  Tommaso Carletti
    7/1910 1916  Giacomo De Martino
    1916 1919  Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
    21/6/1920 8/12/1923  Carlo Ricci
    8/12/1923 1/6/1928  Cesare Maria De Vecchi, (dal 1925) conte di Val Cismon
    1/6/1928 1/7/1931  Guido Corni
    1/7/1931 6/3/1935  Maurizio Rava
    6/3/1935 22/5/1936  Rodolfo Graziani
    22/5/1936 24/5/1936  Angelo De Ruben (de facto Governatori dal 1/1936)
    24/5/1936 15/12/1937  Ruggiero Santini
    15/12/1937 11/6/1940  Francesco Saveno Caroselli
    11/6/1940 31/12/1940  Gustavo Pesenti (acting)
    31/12/1940 9/3/1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)

     
    Amministratori Britannici 1941/1949

    26/2/1941  1941  Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman Smith
    1941  1943  William Eric Halstead Scuphan
    1943  1948 Denis Henry Widcham
    1948    Eric Armar Vully de Candole
    1948  21/11/1949  Geoffrey Massey Gamble

     

    Amministratori Italiani 1949/1960

    21/11/1949

     1953

     Giovanni Fornari

    1954

     1957

     Enrico Martino

    1957

     24/7/1958

     Enrico Anzilotti

    24/7/1958

     1/7/1960

     Mario Di Stefano

    up

    Primo Ministro 1956/1960

    29/2/1956

     1/7/1960

     Abdullahi Issa Mohamud

     

     

     
     
     
     

    Ruggiero Santini
    (1870-1958)
    Family Links
    Spouses/Children:
    Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten

    Ruggiero Santini

    • Born: 16 Apr 1870, Ventimiglia Di Sicilia Sicily Italy 78
    • Marriage: Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten
    • Died: 4 Apr 1958, Rome Italy [64 Via Arno] aged 87 78

    picture

    bullet  Birth Notes:

    Parents: Andrea and Fazio Mathilde Santini, wife Bergallo Violante, legitimate sons: Andrea and Giovanni.

    picture

    bullet  Noted events in his life were:

    • Occupation: Brigadier General Italian Army, 1890-1943. 78 Governor of Italian Somalia 1936-37.

    picture

    Ruggiero married Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten, daughter of Frederick Stanley Hatten and Florence Gabrielle Wilton. (Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten was born on 11 Apr 1914 in Vancouver British Columbia Canada 1 and died on 16 Jun 1991 in Oxford Oxfordshire [58 Bartlemas Road] 1.)

    arrow   arrow        
    Frederick Stanley Hatten
    (1888-1971)
    Florence Gabrielle Wilton
    (1893-1956)

    Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten
    (1914-1991)

     

    Family Links
    Spouses/Children:
    1. Ruggiero Santini

    2. Evdokim Evdokimov

    Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten

    • Born: 11 Apr 1914, Vancouver British Columbia Canada 1
    • Marriage (1): Ruggiero Santini
    • Marriage (2): Evdokim Evdokimov circa 1947 in Geneva Switzerland 80
    • Died: 16 Jun 1991, Oxford Oxfordshire [58 Bartlemas Road] aged 77 1

    picture

    bullet  Birth Notes:

    Later known as Thora Beaubien
    Known as an assertive “typical ballet mother”!

    bullet  Death Notes:

    Name given as Thora Marie-Jeanne Evdokimova née de Beaubien, informant Eva Evdokimova-Gregori, daughter.

    picture

    bullet  Noted events in her life were:

    • Census, 1930, Oakland California USA. 23 Listed as Thora Beaubien, aged 16. With stepfather George (45), mother Florence (36), sister Fredericka (13) and half-brothers Stewart (10) and George Antoine (3).

    • Graduation, 1930, Oakland California USA [St. Elizabeth High School]. 78

    • Graduation, 15 May 1936, Oakland California USA [Holy Names College]. 78

    • Residence, 1945-1948, Geneva Switzerland. 80

    • Residence, 1960-1966, London. 80

    • Residence, 1967-1969, Copenhagen Denmark. 80

    • Residence, 1969-1975, Berlin Germany. 80

    • Residence, 1975-1991, Oxford Oxfordshire. 80

    • Education: Berlin Germany, 1936-1939. 78 Studied German language and literature

    • Occupation: UN employee, 1945-1948. 80

    picture

    Thora married Ruggiero Santini. (Ruggiero Santini was born on 16 Apr 1870 in Ventimiglia Di Sicilia Sicily Italy 78 and died on 4 Apr 1958 in Rome Italy [64 Via Arno] 78.)

    bullet  Noted events in their marriage were:

    • Not married: Not married.

    picture

    Thora next married Evdokim Evdokimov circa 1947 in Geneva Switzerland.80 The marriage ended in divorce. (Evdokim Evdokimov was born on 14 Mar 1919 in Vidin Bulgaria 80 and died on 21 Jul 2008 in Munich Germany 80.)

    bullet  Noted events in their marriage were:

    • Divorce: Divorce, 1959, Geneva Switzerland. 80 Evdokim later married Evamaria on 12/10/1961, still alive in 2011, living in Munich, Germany, aged 85. He had son Alexander Evdokimov 1962, Eva’s half-brother, living in Cape Coral, Florida, USA.

    • Residence, 1948-1952, Geneva Switzerland. 80

    • Residence, 1952-1959, Munich Germany. 80

    bullet  Marriage Notes:

    Separated around 1960.

            arrow   arrow
    Ruggiero Santini
    (1870-1958)
    Thora Marie-Jeanne Hatten
    (1914-1991)
    Boris Santini
    (-)

     

    Family Links
     

    Boris Santini

    picture

    bullet  General Notes:

    living – details excluded

  • the end @ copyright r iwan suwandy 2011

 

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