Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia_Women In leader 1970-2000



Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

  1970 and 1990 Regent H.M. Queen ‘MaMohato Thabita ‘Masente Lerotholi Mojela of Lesotho 
1996 Regent The Mofumahali (Queen Mother) 
In 1970 she took over the regency for her son who was installed as king in place of her husband, King Moshoeshoe II, who was deposed during military coup d’etats in 1970 and 1990. In 1996 he was killed in a car-crash, where acted as regent until her son was re-installed as king David Mahato Berng Seeiso Letsie III. He was also king 1970 and 1988-90. She continued to act as Deputy Head of State and advisor of the King and Queen until her death. She was née Princess Tabita ‘Masentle Lerotholi Mojela, and lived (1941-2003).

  1970 Titular Queen Fatoma Andriamanaitri-arivo of Bemihisatra (Madagascar)
The daughter of king Andriamamatatrarivo (1923-1968), she was succeeded by Amady Andriantsoly or Amada II who was deposed by his people in 1993. Presently Soulaimana Andriantsoly is the king of sakalava kingdom.

  1970-98-? Rival Head of the Sovereign Family Princess Abigail Kinioki Kekaulike Kawananakoa of Hawai’i (USA)
The niece of Princess Abigail Kapiolani Kawananakoa, she succeeded her mother, Princess Lili’uokalani Kawananakoa Morris as President of the Friends of Iolani Palace. The mother, a grandniece of King Kalakaua I had that position (1966-70). Abigail was President of the society Until 1998. If she is still a claimant is unknown to me. (b. 1926-).

  1971-74 De-facto Ruler Simone Ovide Duvalier in Haiti
Known as “Mama Doc”, she was widow of dictator Dr. François Duvalier (“Papa Doc”), President 1957-71, who was succeeded by their son, Jean-Claude Duvalier (“Baby Doc”) who showed little interest in the government. She remained very powerful till he was ousted in 1986. Also reported to be a voodoo adept, and inspired dread among Haiti’s poor and illiterate masses. She lived (Ca. 1913-97).

  1971-89 Partner in Power Dr. Margot Honecker in the German Democratic Republic (DDR)
Very influential during her husband, Erik Honecker’s tenure as 1. Secretary of the Party of Democratic Socialism (SED) and as Chairman of the State Council (Head of State and Party). They married in 1953 but she already had her own career behind her. She was leader in the Young Socialists prior to and during the war, member of the Provisoric People’s Chamber 1949-50 and of the People’s Chamber 1950-53 and 1967-90. 1958-63 Vice-Minister and 1963-89 Minister of People’s Education and member of the Central Committee of the SED. She was both loathed and feared for her indoctrination of the school children and dogmatic views. Since 1993 she has lived in exile in Chile by her daughter. Erik died in 1994. (b. 1927-).

  1971-2003 Temporary Counsellor of State HRH The Princess Royal, Princess Anne of United Kingdom and Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Acted as ruling Counsellor about once a year until her nephew, Prince William of Wales, turned 21. In 1999 she was appointed to the ceremonial position of Golden Stick in Waiting. Only daughter of Queen Elizabeth, married twice and mother of 2 children. (b. 1950-)

  1972- H.M. Margrethe II, by the Grace of God, Denmark’s Queen 
As Queen she was also Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces and Head of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church. The Rigsfælleskab – or Commonwealth of the Realm – includes the external territories of The Faero Islands and Greenland. She has engaged in translation work and made her mark artistically in several genres. She chairs the Council of State, which includes her and the Ministers, after elections she conducts consultations with the parties (Queen’s Round or Dronningerunden) and on the advice of the Prime Minister she appoints the next Head of Government and the Ministers. She succeeded her father, Frederik 9, and married to Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, Prince Henrik. Margrethe Alexandrine þorhildur Ingrid is mother of two sons. (b. 1940-).

  1972 Regent H.M. Queen Ashi Kesang of Bhutan 
Queen Kesang-la Chöden was appointed regent during the illness of her husband, King Druk Gylapo Jingme Dorje Wangchuck (1959-72). Their son King Jingme Singye Wangchuk (1955/1972- ) succeeded him at the age of 17. She is the second daughter of Raja Sonam Tobgye Dorji, Chief Minister of Bhutan by his wife Rani Choying Wangmo Namgyal, second daughter of H.H. Maharaja Thutob Namgyal Maharaja and Chogyal of Sikkim.  (b. 1930-).

  1972-76 De-facto Leader and Member of The Gang of Four Jian Qing, China
Her name is also spelled Chiang Ching. She was the third wife of Mao Zedong and joined the Communist Party in 1938. In 1966 she was appointed deputy director of the Cultural Revolution, and incited radical youths against senior party and government officials, and replaced nearly all-earlier works of art with revolutionary Maoist works. A member of the politburo (1969-76), she was one of the most powerful political figures during Mao’s last years. In July 1977 she was expelled from the Party and dismissed from all her posts, both inside and outside the Party. In January 1981, she was sentenced to death, deferred for 2 years, and deprived of political rights for life by the Special Court under the Supreme People’s Court of the People’s Republic of China. In January 1983, her sentence was reduced to life imprisonment. She committed suicide in prison.  Born Li Yun-ho, she changed her name to Lan Ping and lived  (1914-91).

  1972-2000 Temporary Rigsforstander HM Queen Ingrid of Denmark
As the first Dowager Queen ever she became member of the Council of State and able to act as regent when her daughter, Queen Margrethe was abroad. After her grand-children Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim came of age, she was not regent so often, but she continued to act as regent when both her 2 daughters and the princes were abroad. She was born as Princess of Sweden and married Crown Prince Frederik in 1935. He was king (1947-72). She lived (1910-2000).

  1972-2001 (†) Politically Influential H.M. Queen Aishwari of Nepal
Very influential during the reign of her husband, King Birendra Bir Bikram. She, her husband, daughter, younger son and five other members of the royal family were killed in the massacre at Royal Palace at the 1st of June 2001 by her son, Crown Prince Dipendra, who was king for a few days before dying from the wounds he got during the incident. Her full name was H.M. Svasti Sri Ojaswi Rajanya Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Bada Maharani Aishwari Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahanam Sada Saubhajnabatinam, and she was a member of the Rana Princely family. She lived (1949-2001).

  1972-73 Acting Ibedul Gloria Gibbon Salii of Koror (Palau)
1975-  Bilung of the Chiefdom
Became acting High Chief of the major Eoueldaob region of Koror after the death of her uncle, Ngorikal, and also representing her grandmother who was the Queen. In 1975 she became Bilung (The female equivalent to her title). She has been member of the parliament and is President of Palau’s Women’s Union. (b. 1933-).

  1972-2005 (†) “President” Gabrielle Pourchet, Saugeais [France]
Twelve communes in Franche-Comté in the modern department of Doubs declared themselves an independent republic with her husband, Georges Pouchet, as President from 1947 until his death in 1968. In 1999 she called for the election of 30 Presidential Electors to choose her successor in due course, and in January 2006 her daughter Georgette Bertin-Pourchet, was elected as the new President. She lived (1906-2005).

  1972- Head of the Sovereign Family HRH Crown Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza of Burundi
Also using the name Son Altesse Royale, Princesse Iribagiza Mwambutsa Rose-Paula, she succeeded her brother, king Ntare V, as head of the Royal family, who was deposed in 1966 after a couple of months on the throne, after having deposed their father Mwambutsa IV Bangiriange (1915-66). Her brother died in 1972 and the father in 1977. Her first husband was André Muhirwa, chief of Busumany, was Premier Minister 1962-63. She lived in exile in Bruxelles for many years, but was elected an MP for CNDD-FDD in 2005. Married to Frédéric Van de Sande. Mother of 3 sons and 5 daughters.  (b. 1934-).

  1974-76 Executive President Maria Estella Martínez de Perón, Argentina 
Isabel Peron was Vice-Presidentand President of the Senate 1973-74, and became President after the death of her husband, President general Juan Peron. As Executive President she was also head of the Cabinet. Chairperson of Partido Justicial, The Peronist party 1974-85, As President she was unable to control the widespread strikes and political terrorism and on 24 March 1976, she was kidnapped and deposed in a bloodless coup. After remaining under house arrest for five years, she was sent into exile in Spain in 1981 and did not return until 1993. (b. 1931-).

  Around 1974-2004 The Roko Tui Dreketi, Paramount Chiefess of Rewa and Traditional Head of Burebasaga Confederacy Ro Adi Lady Litia Cakobau Lalabalavu Kaloafutoga, Lady Mara (Adi Lady Lala Mara) (Fiji)
The confederacy covers Rewa, Nadroga, Serua, the Island of Kadavu and Parts of Ba and Ra. 1950 married to Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, The Tui Lau, Tui Nayan and Tevita Uluilakeba, the Traditional Head of the Confederation of Touata Tribes (d. 2004), Prime Minister and President of Fiji. Around 1993 Co-Leader of Fijian Political Party and later Chairperson of the Regional Council of Rewa. Succeeded her father, George Cokanauto Tuiswau (1904-76) as Roko Tui Dreketi. Her mother, Adi Asenaca Vosailagi was Paramount Chieftainess of the chiefly Ka Levu clan of Nadroga. She was Paramount Chief and Radi Ni Nayau, and after her death, she is known as the Gone Marama Bale na Roko Tui Dreketi and was succeeded by sister. She was mother of 8 children, and lived (1931-2004).

  Ca. 1974-84 Politically Influential Anastasia Ivanovna Filatova in Mongolia
When her husband, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (1916-91), was Prime Minister of Mongolia 1954-74 she kept a low profile. But in their later years she reportedly had a say, for example, in matters of political appointments, which caused substantial resentment in the Mongolian ruling elites, and may have played a role in the Soviet decision to oust her husband from power in 1984. On the other hand, she is also remembered for her involvement in social programs in Mongolia, including the Children’s Fund. The couple lived in exile in Moscow for the last part of their lives. Анастасия Ивановна Филатова lived (1920-2001).

  1975-76 Premier Minister Élisabeth Domitién, The Central African Republic
As Prime Minister she was also Deputy Head of State and acted as President on occasions when President Bokassa was abroad. Also vice-President of the ruling Social Evolution Movement of Black Africa (MESAN) 1975-79. She criticized the plans of her cousin, Jean Bedel Bokassa, chief of state since 1966, who wanted to become emperor, and in effect he sacked her. After his fall from power in 1979 she was imprisoned and tried in February 1980. She later became an influential businesswoman in Bangui, Married to the chief of the Mobaye Canton-Mayorship. She lived (1925-2005).

  1975-81 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Seneleleni Ndwandwe of Swaziland
Married to King Sobhuza II. 

  1975-88 Makea Karika Ariki Margaret Tepo Vakatini Ariki, 32nd Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga, Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
Also known as HRH Ariki Makea Karika Ariki III, she succeeded her mother, HRH Ariki Makea Nui Teremoana Ariki (1949-75), and was succeeded by her cousin, Makea Nui Inaui Love Ariki (1988-1996), and lived (Ca. 1930-88).

  1976-77 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Zinaida Mikhaylovna Bychkovskaya, Belarus (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Acting on 2 occasions when the post of chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus was vacant – the post was equivalent to that of a President of the state – there was also a chairman of the parliament.

  1977 Minister President Lucinda E. da Costa Gomez-Matheeuws, The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch External Territory)
Minister of Health and Environment, Welfare, Youth, Sports, Culture and Recreation 1970-77 and in 1977 Minister Presidente and Minister of General Affairs. She was also Vice-President of The Nationale Volkspartij 1971-76 and around 1995 Member of the Raad van Advies, the Council of Advisors. She is the widow of Dr. M.F. da Costa Gomez (1907-66), Premier of the state 1951-54.  (b.5.4.29-).

  1977-  HRH the Royal Princess, Somdetceh Phra Debaratanarajasuda Chao Fa Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand
Second daughter of King Bhumibol Adulyadej Rama IX. Has acted as regent on several occasions – in 1997 for example she averted a military coup d’etat during her fathers illness. She is one of his closest advisors. In 1996 she was appointed General, Admiral and Air Chief-Marshall. Her full title is Somdech Phra Debratanarajasuda Chao Fa Chakri Sirindhorn Rathasimagunakornpiyajat Sayamboromrajakumri. She is unmarried. (b. 1955-).

   Ca. 1977-2001  Bulou Eta Kacalini Vosailagi, The Tui Nakoro of Nadroga Navosa (Fiji)
One of the highest-ranking Paramount Chiefs in the country. Unmarried and lived (1914-2001).

   1977- Captain Anna Katrina Christian of Bondelswart (!Gami-#nun) in Namaland  (Namibia)
An alternative spelling of her name is Anna Katrina Christiaan and her Nama name is !Garisema !Nanse Gôa-Khoes. She followed her father, Jakobus Christian (!Hao-||êib Taosemab) (1953-1977), who had only acted as Councillor, as the !Gami-#nun (Bondelswart) Captain . She was elected in 1977. Before 1977 the South African Apartheid policy only allowed councillors and no captains (since 1953). She is the seventeenth in the recorded genealogy of the !Gami-#nun captains.

  1977-81 Politically Influential First Lady Rosalynn Smith Carter in United States of America
Had already been influential during her husband, Jimmy Carter’s tenure as Governor of Georgia. As First Lady attended Cabinet meetings and major briefings, frequently represented the Chief Executive at ceremonial occasions, and served as the President’s personal emissary to Latin American countries. She focused national attention on the performing arts. She invited to the White House leading classical artists from around the world, as well as traditional American artists. She also took a strong interest in programs to aid mental health, the community, and the elderly. From 1977 to 1978, she served as the Honorary Chairperson of the President’s Commission on Mental Health. (b. 1927-).

  1978 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Meta Jangolenko-Vannas, Estonia (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
1967-69 Minister of Public Service, 1969-85 Deputy Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. The post was the post was equivalent to that of a President of the state – there was also a Speaker of the parliament. She lived (1924-2002).

  1978-94 Politically Influential Agathe Habyarimana in Rwanda
Very involved in the affairs of state during tenure of her husband, Juvenal Habyarimana. A number of her brothers were place in important positions.

  1978-80 Regent Princess Teramade Adetule of Erijiyan-Ekiti (Nigeria)
Reigned the chiefdom after the death of her brother, Oba Fabunmi-Ogbegun IV (1938-78).

  1978-2008 Politically Influential Nasreena Ibrahim in the Maldive Islands
During the term of occie of her husband, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, President 1978-2008, she had considerable influence on her husband’s political agenda and was feared by many politicians and businessmen due to her influence on the governance of the country. Her oldest twin daughter, Dunya Maumoon is the resident representative of UNFPA and is believed to have advised her father on major government policies.

  Ca. 1979- Senior Chieftainess Nkomeshya of the Soni People of Lusaka Province (Zambia) 
Also known as Hon. Chief Elizabeth Mulenje, she was Minister of State of Home Affairs 1979-86.

  1979-80 Provisoric Executive President Lidia Gueiler Tejada, Bolivia 
As President she was also Head of the Cabinet. Lidia Gueiler was member of Parliament 1956-64 and afterwards in exile for 15 years. Circa 1978 Subsecretary for Agriculture, 1978 President of Camera de Diputados. Acting President of the Congress and acting Deputy Head of State 1978-79. She was deposed shortly before elections were due. Later ambassador and party leader. She lived (1921-2011)

  1979 Acting Governor General The Hon. Dr. Dame Doris Louise Johnson, Bahamas
1968-69 Minister without Portfolio and Leader of the Government in the Senate 1968-69, Minister of Transport 1969-72. As Speaker of the Senate 1973-83 she was Deputy the Governor and at least on one occasion Acting Governor-General during the absence of the office-holder. She lived (1921-83).

  1979-90 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Margaret Thatcher, United Kingdom of Great Britain
MP 1959-90, Parliamentary Secretary of Pensions and National Insurance 1961-64, Secretary of State of Education 1970-74, Shadow Minister of Environment and Housing 1974-75, Shadow Special Minister of Finance and Public Expenditure 1975, Leader of The Conservative Party 1975-90, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition 1975-79. As Prime Minister she was also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister of the Civil Service. In 1982 she ordered British troops to the Falkland Islands to retake them from Argentina. She took a strong stand against the trade unions during the miner’s strike, and moved Britain toward privatization, selling minor interests in public utilities to the business interests. She also introduced “rate capping” which effectively took control of expenditures out of the hands of city councils, part of her policies aimed at reducing the influence of local governments. In 1989, she introduced a community poll tax. In 1990, her cabinet was divided over issues including the European Community, which forced her resignation. When her party leadership was challenged in 1990, she resigned and was Created Baroness Thatcher of Kestaven and became a member of the House of Lords 2 years later. Mother of twins. (b. 1925-).

  1979-80 President of the Council of Ministers Dr. Maria de Lurdes Ruivo da Silva Pintasilgo, Portugal
Secretary of State of Social Affairs 1974, Ambassador to UNESCO 1975-79, Minister of Social Affairs 1974-75 and was appointed Acting Prime Minister during one of the many government-crisis of the time. She was Member of the Council of State 1979-86 and Presidential Candidate in 1986. Member of the European Parliament 1979-86. Maria de Lurdes Pintasilgo was unmarried. She lived (1930-2004).

  1979-92 Kgosi-kgolo Constance Letang Kgosiemang of the Tswana Community in Gobabis (Namibia)
Succeeded as chief by Hubert Tidimalo Ditshabue as chief (Kgoshi) of the Tswana Community in Aminuis.

   1979-2005 Bulou Salote Sorovi Vavaitamana, Tui Ono (Fiji)
Her full title was Bukatatanoa na Marama na Tui Oneata, and she was the first female chief on the island of Kadavu after the death of her uncle, Ratu ilitomasi Verenakadavu, whom she was chosen to succeed despite being only the third eldest of five sisters and a brother. (b. before 1925-2005).

  1979-80 Regent-in-exile Dowager H.I.M. Shahbanou Farah Diba Pahlavi of Iran (in Egypt and France)
Acting Head of the Imperial Family after the death of the Shah, and acted as regent for son who became shah on his 20th birthday 31/10-80. (b. 1938-).

  1979 and 1981-2001 Politically Influential Nana Konadu Agyemang-Rawlings in Ghana
The wife of President Jerry Rawlings, she had no official position in government, but nevertheless played a major role in formulating and even implementing policies relating to women, successfully creating a powerful and autonomous space for herself within the country’s politics. She founded 31 December Women’s Movement and used that as her platform and power-base. Many expected her to run for president in 2000-01.

  1980- H.M. Beatrix, By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands 
Queen Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard is also Princess van Oranje-Nassau, Princess van Lippe-Biesterfeld etc, etc, etc. The Kingdom of The Netherlands includes the external territories Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. She succeeded upon the abdication of her mother, Queen Juliana, and she closely follows affairs of government and maintains regular contact with ministers, state secretaries, the vice-President of the Council of State, the Queen’s Commissioners in the provinces, burgomasters, and Dutch ambassadors etc. She meets the Prime Minister every Monday. Much of her work consists of studying and signing State documents. She regularly receives members of parliament, as well as other authorities on social issues. Married to Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Jonkheer von Amfeld (1926-2002), and mother of 3 sons. (b. 1938-).

  1980-96 President Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, Iceland 
In 1972-80 she was Director of Iceland’s National Theatre was the world’s first democratically elected female President. Since 1996 she has been involved in a wide range of international humanitarian and cultural organizations. She was a divorcee and mother of an adopted a daughter. (b.1930-).

  1980-85 Vice-President Maria Ciocan, Romania
Between 1985-89 Member of the Council of State.

  1980-95 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Dame Eugenia Charles, Dominica
When the Dominica Labour Party attempted to limit dissent with a sedition act in 1968, she became involved in politics. In 1970, she was appointed to the legislature and in 1975, to the house of assembly, where she became the leader of the opposition. She co-founded the Dominica Freedom Party. As Prime minister she immediately began programs of economic reform and to end government corruption and also encouraged the U.S. invasion of Grenada to prevent Cuban infiltration of that island.
Her primary concern was to improve the lives of the citizens. She encouraged tourism to a small degree, but was determined to preserve the island’s ecology and national identity. During her tenure as Prime Minister she was also Minister of External Affairs, Finance, Trade and Industry, Defence, Minister of Information and Public Relations. She lived (1916-2005).

  1980-85 Partner in Power Dr. Anahita Ratebzad in Afghanistan
Influential during the term in office of her partner, President Babrak Karmal. She was ambassador to Yugoslavia 1978, Minister of Social Affairs 1978-79, Minister of Education 1980, and Member of the Presidency of the Revolutionary Council and the Politburo of the Communist Party 1980-85. She was the highest-ranking woman in the parcham faction of the party and an expert propagandist. Her former husband, Dr. Qamaruddin Kakar used to be king Zahir Shah’s personal physician. (b. 1928-).

  1980-86 Politically Influential Michéle Bennett Duvalier in Haiti
Often exercised political control, issuing orders and attending cabinet meetings because she was frustrated by the ineptness of her husband, President-for-life Jean-Claude Duvalier (Baby Doc). In 1986 the couple was forced into exile and she later left him. 

  1980-90 Politically Influential Sally Hayfron Mugabe in Zimbabwe
Thought to be the chief advisor of her husband and stood by his side throughout years of struggle. She maintained her own identity as a political activist and campaigner. By 1962 she was mobilising African women to challenge Ian Smith’s racist Rhodesian constitution and was jailed for it. On becoming Zimbabwe’s first lady in 1980 she served as Deputy Secretary and later Secretary of the ZANU Women’s League. She did not have any children, and lived (1932-92).

  1981 Capitano Reggente Maria Lea Pedini Angelini, San Marino 
Every 6th month The Consiglio Grande e Generale elects 2 Captain Regents, who acts as joint Heads of State and Government and as Chairmen of the Consiglio Grande e Generale. She was the first woman on the post, and later became Director in the Ministry of Government and Foreign Affairs, and has been non-resident Ambassador in the Ministry to France, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway etc. since 1995. (b. 1954-).

  1981-93 Governor General Rt. Hon. Dr. Dame Elmira Minita Gordon, Belize
Commissioner of Belize City 1970-77, before becoming the official representative of the Queen of Belize, Queen Elizabeth. (b. 1930-).

  1981-81, 1986-89 and 1990-96 State Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, Norway
Before becoming Prime Minister, she was Minister of Environmental Protection 1974-79, Deputy Leader 1975-81, Deputy Parliamentary Leader 1980-81, Leader 1981-93 and Parliamentary Leader, Parliamentary Leader of Arbeiderpartiet, Labour, 1980-81 and 1989-90 Chairperson of the Foreign and 1989-90 of the Finance Committees, 1998-2003 Director General of the World Health Organization, WHO, and Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations. A medical doctor, daughter of Gudmond Harlem (1917-88) a former member of the government, and mother of 4 children. (b. 1939-).

   1981-86 High Commissioner Janet J. McCoy, The Trust Territories of the Pacific Island [USA]
The Territories were administered by the USA for the United Nations 1947-90. She was Director of the Office of Tourism and Visitor Service of California 1967-70, involved in a number of election-campaigns – i.e.. the “Regan For President” 1976-80. 1988-89. After her tenure as High Commissioner, she was Assistant Secretary of Interior 1988-89. She lived (1916-95).  

  1981-2001 Rain Queen Mokope Modjadji V of Balobedu (South Africa)
Very traditional in her role as Rain Queen. She lived in seclusion in the Royal Compound in Khetlhakone Village and followed all the customs the Rain Queens were expected to follow. She became good friends with President Nelson Mandela. They first met at a meeting in 1994 and even then she could only speak to him through the traditional intermediary. She did not support the idea of an ANC Government, as she believed that its anti-traditional ideas would dilute her authority. However once the ANC came to power, they treated her with respect, probably because her village was a large source of income due to tourism, as well as the fact that her gardens acted as parks to preserve the large abundance of cycad trees that grew there. She had three children, and her designated successor was Princess Makheala, who died 2 days before her, and her granddaughter Makobo became the next Rain Queen in 2003, but died after only 2 years on the throne. She lived (1937-2001).

   1981-  Iye Oba Aghahowa N’Errua of Uselu in Nigeria (Nigeria)
The Queen Mother of Benin is Ruler of the Village of Uselu and in some aspect considered to be co-ruler with the king. Aghahowa is also Priestess of Olokun. She was the first wife of Oba Akenzua II (1933-78). Breaking with tradition he did not put her aside after the birth of their first son, Oba Erediauwa who has been king of Benin since 1979. She had more sons and daughters and as Eson – chief wife – she managed her husband’s growing harem of wifes and children. In her capacity as Priestess of Olokun she is believed to wield considerable power gained in the spirit world. (b. 1907-).

  1981-89 Politically Influential First Lady Nancy Davis Reagan in United States of America
Had a strong influence over her husband. Already during Ronald Reagan’s tenure as Governor of California 1967, she oversaw her husband’s schedule, reducing it item by item if she deemed it too full. If she found any of Reagan’s staff members that were difficult or unwilling to follow her directives, she relieved them of their duties. When he became president, she arranged his schedule based on astrological charts. She was influential in the removal of Alexander Haig, Donald Regan and Lyn Nofziger from Reagan’s staff. Because her husband was hard of hearing, she would often whisper what was being said to him, cementing the perception that she would tell him what to do. She is (b. 1921-).

  1982-83 Reigning Queen Mother, The Indlovukazi Dzeliwe Shongwe of Swaziland 
The senior wife of King Sobhuza II, and joint-head of state and Queen Mother (The Indovukazi, the Great She-Elephant). The king’s death on 21 August 1982 precipitated a prolonged power struggle within the royal family. Initially she assumed the regency and appointed 15 members to the Liqoqo, a traditional advisory body that Sobhuza had sought to establish as the Supreme Council of State. However a power struggle ensued between the Prime Minister, who sought to assert the authority of the Cabinet and members of the Liqoqo. She was pressurised by the Liqoqo to dismiss the Prime Minister and replace him with a Liqoqo supporter. Subsequently she was placed under house arrest by the Liqoqo in October 1983.  The Liqoqo subsequently installed Queen Ntombi Laftwala, mother of the 14-year-old heir apparent, Prince Makhosetive, as Queen regent in late October. As Queen Mother she was also co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council the Libandla. She lost the title of Queen Mother in 1985. She lived (1927-2003).

  1982-87 President Agatha Barbara, Malta 
Labour M.P 1947-82 and for long periods the only woman in Parliament. Minister of Education and Culture 1955-58 and 1971-74 Labour, Welfare and Culture (Third in Cabinet) 1974-81. In the last period she was Acting Prime Minister on various brief occasions. She resigned asPresident 2 years ahead of schedule because Labour lost the 1987-elections. She lived (1923-2002). 

1982-89 Vice-President Emine Guri, Albania
1. Vice-President of the National Assembly 1967-79 and Member of the Council of State from 1979.

  1982-86 Chairman of the Council of Ministers Milka Planinc, Yugoslavia
Before becoming Prime Minister, she was Secretary of Treönjevka People’s Assembly 1957, Secretary of Cultural Affairs of the City of Zagreb 1961-63, Croatian Secretary for Education 1963-65, President of the Croatian Assembly 1967-71 and Leader of the Communist Party in Croatia 1971-82. She lived (1924-2010).

  1982-85 President of the Conseil General Luchette Michaux-Chevry, Guadalupe (French External Territory)
Beside her position as chief of government, she has also held posts in the French government, 1986-87 Secretary of State and 1993-95 Minister Delegate of Foreign Affairs in the French Government, 1987-95 Maire de Gourbreyre, and from 1995 Mayoress de Basse-Terre, 1992-2004 President of the Conseil Regional. (b. 1929-).

  1982-88 Queen Rufina Santana of Nasos (Panama)
The post of monarch of the Indiginas Tribe is elective within the Santana-family. She was followed by her relative César and in 1998 by Tio Santana.Rufina (in pink) with some of her relatives

  1983-86 Queen Regent and Head of State Ntombi 
laTfwala of Swaziland 
1986- Joint Head of State, Queen Mother, the Indovukazi 
Emakhosikati (Queen) Ntombi was one of the youngest wifes 
of Sobhuza II, and mother of the future king Mswati II. After the former Queen Mother Regent, Dzeliwe, was removed, she was installed as Queen Regent in late October, and she accepted the Liqoqo as the supreme body in Swaziland. She got the title of Queen Mother Indlovukazi in 1985. As Queen Mother she is Deputy Head of State and co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council the Libandla, together with the king. (b. ca. 1950-).

  1984 and 1989-90 Capitano Reggente Gloriana Ranocchini, San Marino 
Member of the Parliament before becoming joint-head of state. (b. 1957-).

  1984 Acting Head of State Carmen Pereira, Guinea Bissau 
1973-84 Deputy President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1975-80 President of the Parliament of Cap Verde (which was in union with Guinea Bissau at the time) 1981-83 Minister of Health and Social Affairs, 1984-89 President of Assembléia Nacional Popular and acting head of state during a vacancy at the post, 1989-94 Member the Council of State and 1990-91 Minister of State (Deputy Premier) for Social Affairs. (b. 1937-).

  1984-90 Governor General The Rt. Hon. Jeanne Sauvé, Canada
Former journalist and TV-presenter. She was Minister of State of Science 1972, 1974-75 Minister of Environment, 1975-79 Minister of Communication and Culture and 1980-84 Speaker of the House of Commons, before becoming the official representative of the Queen of Canada, Queen Elizabeth. She lived (1922-93).

  1984-86 and 1988-93 Minister President Maria Ph. Liberia-Peters, Nederlandse Antillen (Dutch External Territory)
Health Councillor 1977-78 and Lieutenant-Governor of Curaçau 1982. Minister of Economy 1982-83 and 1984-86 also, Minister of General Affairs and the Interior, Health and Environment. She resigned as Premier after she had lost a referendum on the autonomy of Curaçau. She was also Chairperson of the Nationale Volkspartij/Partido Nashional de Peuplo (PNP) 1984-98 and 2002-04. (b. 1941-).

  1984-90 Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko, Ukraine (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Her name is also transcribed, as Valentina Semenovna Seveenko, and her position were equivalent to that of a Head of State though real power were vested in the 1. Secretary of the Communist Party.

  1984 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Nizoramo Zaripova, Tadzikistan  (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
The Vice-President of the Supreme Soviet 1966-89, she was acting on 2 occasions when the post of chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of The Tadzik AS.S. was vacant – the post was equivalent to that of a President of the state. (b. 1923-).

  1985-89 Vice-President Maria Ghitulicâ, Romania
Between 1979-82 Deputy Chairperson of the District Council of Olt, 1980-82 Secretary and 1982-85, 1988-89 Vice-President of the Grand National Assembly.

  1985-91 2nd. Vice-President and 2nd. Deputy Prime Minister Viola Harper Burnham, Guyana
As Deputy Head of State and the Government, she was in charge of Social Development. She was the widow of President Burnham who died 1985. She lived (1930-2003).

  1985-86 President of the Presidency Ema Derosi-Bjelajac, Croatia (Autonomous Republic in the Soviet Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
Born in Labin, which was then part of Italy. (b. 1926-)

  1985-87 Administrator Her Honour Carloyn Stuart, The Territory of the Cocos (Keelings) Islands (Australian Territory)
A civil servant in the Australian Ministry of Territories.

  1985- Raja Ratu Theresia Maitimu of Paso of Paso (Indonesia)
Works for peace and religious tolerance in her small statelet in the Mandar Region in the South Molukken. The title of a male Raja in the region is Latupati and for female radja it is Latumahina.

  1985-95 Principal Chief Wilma Pearl Mankiller of Tahlequaho, The Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma (USA) 
Deputy Chief 1983-85. (b. 1945-).

  1985-91 Politically Influential Raisa Maximovna Gorbacheva in the Soviet Union and Russia
Promoted and supported the political career of her husband, Michael Gorbachev, without stepping into the background. She was his closest advisor during his career as Secretary General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party 1985-90 and President of Russia 1990-91 and one of the initiator of the reforms and “Perestroika”. She was the first Soviet “first Lady” to have a public role and to be known in the west. After the coup d’etat against her husband, she withdrew from politics and died from leukaemia, and lived (1932-99). 

  Ca. 1985- Pretending Head of the Princely House HH. Begum Shehzadi Wilyat Mahal of Oudh in Uttar Pradesh (India)
Claimed to be the issue of the rulers of Oudh, and claimed the title last held by one of her ancestors and as a protest against the Indian governments’ treatment of the former rulers, she has lived in the New Delhi Railway Stations VIP-lounge since then. 

  1986-92 Executive President Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino, The Philippines 
Cory Aquino became leader of the opposition after the murder of her husband Ninoi Aquino in 1986, and was brought to power by the so-called “People Power”, which protested against President Marcos’s attempts to remain in power by rigging the elections. She was also Head of the Cabinet. 1998 she was among the senior advisors of President Estrada, but later sided with Gloria Arroyo, during “People Power II”, which brought along the fall of Estrada. Mother of 4 children. She lived (1933-2009).

  1986-90 2nd. Vice-President Victoria Garrón de Doyan, Costa Rica.
Before becoming Deputy Head of State, she was author and writer of children’s books.

  1986-91 President of the Ukrainian State Administration in Exile Jarosława Stećko (Germany)
After her husband died she took over as leader of the exile-government (The Ukrainian State Administration) and President of the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations and Chairperson of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in exile, 1991-2003 Founder and Chairperson of the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists, Deputy and President-by-Age of the Parliament. She lived (1921-2003).

  1987-2002 Vice-President Nguên Thi-Binh, Viêt Nam
Nguyễn Thị Bình was involved in the Communist Party from her very young years, and participated in the fight against the French colonial powers. She was Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Socialist Provisoric Government of North Vietnam 1969-76, Minister of Education 1976-87. Member of the Council of State since 1982 and from 1987-92 one of it’s Vice-Chairs and since 1992 the only Vice-President. (b. 1926-).

  1987 Premier Princess Stella Margaret Nomzamo Sigcau, Transkei (Nominally Independent Homeland in South Africa)
Minister of Education 1970-73, the Interior (Including Industry, Trade and Tourism) 1973-78, Internal Affairs 1979-81, Post and Telecommunication 1981-87, Leader Transkei National Independence Party in 1987, Minister of Public Enterprises 1994-98 and of Public Works and of Public Works 1998-2006 in the Government of South Africa for ANC. She was daughter of Chief Botha Jongilizwe Sigcau of East-Pontoland (1912-78) who was President of Transkei (1976-78) and the mother of 4 children. She lived (1937-2006).

  1988 Princess Regent HRH Princess Salote Mafile’o Pilolevu Tuita of Tonga (August)
1998 Princess Regent (January)
1999 Princess Regent (July)
2001 Princess Regent (September-November)
2005 Princess Regent (August-September)
2006 Princess Regent (April)
2006 Princess Regent (May-June)
2007-08 (November-January)
2008 Princess Regent (May-June and November)
2009 Princess Regent (August, October)
2010 Princess Regent (October-November)
2011 Princess Regent (January-February)
As the king’s only daughter Princess Pilolevu is traditionally the highest-ranking person in Tonga (Higher than the king). She is also a business woman and was appointed regent for the first time in August 1988 during a period where both her parents and brother, the crown prince were absent from the country, and has acted on numerous occasions since, in 2001 accepting the resignation of the Prime Minister and in June 2006 delivering the Speech from the Throne in the absence of her father, and in May 2008 when her brother was abroad.. Married to a second cousin and the mother of 4 daughters and an adopted son. (b. 1951-).

  1988-90 and 1993-96 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan
Co-Chairperson 1984-94 and Leader of Pakistan People’s Party 1994-2007, in house arrest 1977-84 and in exile 1984-86. She also held the Portfolios of Defence, Atomic Energy, Finance, Economy, Information and Establishment. Both in 1990 and 1996 she was removed from office by the President on charges of corruption and later convinced. Returned to Pakistan in 2007 after 10 years in exile in United Kingdom and Dubai to contest elections in January 2008, which she was widely expected to win, but was killed by a suicide bomb in December 2007. She was daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the former President and Prime Minister, who was executed after the coup d’etat in 1979. Her three children were born in 1988, 1989 and 1993. She lived (1953-2007).

  1988-90/93 Administrator Her Honour A. Dawn Lawrie, The Territory of the Cocos (Keelings) Islands (Australian  Territory)
A civil servant in the Australian Ministry of Territories.

  1988-91 and 2003-07 Chief Islander Anne Green, Tristan da Cunha (St. Helena) 
2003 Acting Administrator (November-December)
2004 Acting Administrator (06.03-26.05)
She was Chief Islander and in the second period also Leader of the Legislative Council. When she acted as Administrator, she was the representative of the British Governor of St. Helena,  and in 2004 she acted in the interim between the resignation of the former and arrival of the new Administrator. Appointed as Member of the Iscland Council in 2007. Her brother, James Glass, was Chief Islander from 1994. Married to Joseph Green. Photo: © J. Brock (Tristan Times) 

  1988-09 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Roza Atamuradovna Bazarova, Turkmenistan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Rosa Bazarova was Deputy Premier Minister in 1975 and Member of the Presidium of Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union 1975-88. (b. 1933-).

  1988-89 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Vera Vasilyevna Sidorova, Kazakstan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Functioned as head of the state on 2 occasions when the post of chairman of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Kazakstan was vacant – the post was equivalent to that of a President of the state.

  1988-96 Makea Nui Inanui Love Ariki, 33rd Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga, Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
The daughter of Makea Nui Takau Margaret Ariki (ca. 1934-49), she succeeded her cousin Ariki Makea Karika Ariki III. and was also known as The Makea Arikini Nui of Roatonga. The Atiawa and died on the plane on the way from Cook Islands to Aukland for emergency treatment. Makea Nui Tinirau’s oldest daughter with Lt. col. Eruea Tiwi Love was Princess Mokoroa Rio Love, who died in 1999. After her death several claimants were in invested with the title. (d. 1996).

  Until 1988 Temporary Ina Latu Thijs Tilihalawa of the Amahai/Amahein Area in the South West Ceram Island (Indonesia)
Elected as ruler 3 times. She is married to Mr. de Fretes

  1988- Temporary Ina Latu Thijs Tilihalawa of the Amahai/Amahein Area in the South West Ceram Island (Indonesia)
Also known as Elisabeth, she has been re-elected as ruler of the area 3 times, latest in 2005, because her brother handed over the dignity to her

  1989 Vice-President Elisabeth Kopp, Switzerland
Between 1974-84 President of the Municipal Grossrat (Grand Council) of Zürich, 1984-89 Federal Councillor of Justice and Police and Deputy Councillor of Finance. She had to resign from the government because of a scandal of which she was later cleared in court. (b. 1934-).

  1989 Joint Acting Head of State Doina Cornea, Romania (22.12-26.12.1989)
As Member of the Council of the National Salvation Front, which became the collective Head of State when the office of President became vacant when Ceausescu was executed. She was one of the Leaders of the Civic Alliance. (b. 1929).

  1989 Joint Acting Head of State Ana Blandiana, Romania (22.12-26.12.1989)
From 1990 Leader of Alianta Civica. (b. 1942).

  1989 Joint Acting Head of State Cristina Ciontu, Romania (22.12-26.12.1989)
Government Spokesperson 1989-90.

  1989 Joint Acting Head of State Eugenia Iorga, Romania (22.12-26.12.1989)
The spokesperson of the Council was Ion Iliescu who later became President.

  1989 Joint Acting Head of State Magdalena Ionescu, Romania (22.12-26.12.1989)
There were a total of 38 Members of the Council of the National Salvation Front.

  1989 Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Elmira Mikael-Kyzy Kafarova 
1989-90 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Эльмира Микаил кызы КАФАРОВА, Elmira Mikayıl qızı Qafarova or Gafarova was First Secretary of the Communist Party of Baku 1980, 1980-83 Minister of Education, 1983-87 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1987-89 Deputy Premier Minister, 1989 Premier Minister and in the same period she was also member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.1990-92 President of the Supreme Council of the independent Azerbaijan. Her surname is also transcribed as Mikail-Kyzy and as Gafarova. (b. 1934-).

  1989-2000 Partner in Power Mira Markovic in Yugoslavia
The most trusted and influential advisor of her husband, Slobodan Milosevic, who was first President of Serbia and then of Yugoslavia. During the last decade she became increasingly influential, and her husband adopted her stridently anti-Western policies and terminology. She was in is charge of the main political and personnel questions, and her influence grew so much that many compared the couple to the late Romanian dictator, Nicolae Ceauşescu and his powerful wife, Elena. Mira has been Chairperson of the neo-communist party, The Yugoslavian United Left, JUL, since 1995. (b. 1943-).

  1989- Her Excellency Queen Hompa Angelina Matumbo Ribebe of Shambyu (Namibia)
Elected as Queen among 10 candidates, one of whom was her aunt. Her grand-mother, Maria Mwengere was Hompa 1947-87. As Hompa she chairs the traditional court with the chiefs. She is divorced and mother of 4 daughters and 1 son. (b. 1959-)

  1989- Hon. Adi Samanunu Cakobau Talakuli, High Chiefess of Tailevu (Fiji)
Minister of Fijian Affairs and Regional Development and Chairperson of Great Council of Chiefs 1994-95. In 1997 in question as Vice-President of the Republic, since 1999 Ambassador to Malaysia, Thailand and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2000 Chair of the Bose ni Turagua (Council of Chiefs).  She is the eldest child of Ratu Sir George Cakobau, Vunivalu of Bau (High Chief/King) The Bose ni Turagua is the Council of Chief (200 junior chiefs, Heads of Yaunsa) that meets in times of crises. During the coups d’etat in 1987 and 2000. The council nominated her for the post of Minister of Culture and Ethnic affairs, but she was not appointed to the post. Later in the turbulent events the leader of the coup, Georges Speight, wanted her as Prime Minister. She is daughter of Ratu Sir George Kadavulevu Cakobau, the Vunivalu of Bau, Governor General of Fiji 1973-83. He lived (1912-89).  She (b. 1940-).  

  1989-2004 Adi Sainimili Cagilaba, the Marama Tui Ba (Fiji)
Also known as Ba chief, the Paramount Chiefess Adi Sainimili is head of one of the former royal families (also The Marama Kai Ba?) A nurse by profession, the late Tui Ba retired early to take up the chiefly role as Tui Ba on February 24, 1989. She was a Justice of Peace. Her sister, Adi Laite Kotomaiwasa was installed with the title in 2005. Sainimili lived (1936-2004).

  1990-96 Executive President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, Nicaragua
In 1979 Doña Violeta was member of the Ruling Junta after the overthrow of the Somoza-dictatorship, but left because of disagreement with the Revolutionary Junta. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet and Minister of Defence. She tried to pursue a policy of national reconciliation. She ended the civil war, restricted the powers of the President, and revived the economy. (b. 1929- ). 

  1990-91 Acting President Ertha Pascal-Trouillot, Haiti 
The first female High Court Judge 1986-90 and became acting President during the turbulent political situation in Haiti in a period where one Coup d’etat followed the other. During an attempted coup soldiers attempting a coup held her hostage on one occasion. (b. 1943-). 

  1990 Acting Head of State Dr. Sabine Bergmann-Pohl, East-Germany 
As President of the People’s Chamber she was acting and last Head of State of the German Democratic Republic, DDR/GDR before the reunification. After the reunification she was Federal Minister without Portfolio for the New States 1990-91, Parliamentary State Secretary of Health 1991-98 and member of the Bundestag 1998-2002. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1946-).

  1990-97 President Mary Robinson, Ireland 
In 1969 she was appointed Professor of Law, 1970-90 she was Labour-senator. As Ireland’s President, Robinson became known as a strong supporter of women’s rights and campaigned for the liberalization of laws prohibiting divorce and abortion. Internationally, she gained a reputation as a prominent human rights lawyer. As President, Robinson placed special emphasis on the needs of developing countries. She became the first head of state to visit famine-stricken Somalia in 1992, and the first to go to Rwanda after the genocide there in 1994. Assistant Secretary General and United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights 1997-2002 and since then director of the Ethical Globalization Initiative, a new venture established to support human rights. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1944-).

  1990-95 (†) Governor General Hon. Dame Nita Barrow, Barbados
She was head of national and international nurse organizations before becoming Ambassador to the UN, Cuba and the Dominican Republic 1986-90. She was the sister of Errol W. Barrow (1920-87), Prime Minister 1966-76 and 1986-87. She died in office as the official representative of Queen Elizabeth, and lived (1916-95).

  1990-96 Governor General Rt. Hon. Dame Cath Tizard, New Zealand
In 1983-90 she was Her Worship the Mayor of Auckland. A strong supporter of community, environmental, educational, and women’s causes, Catherine Tizard brought a distinctive style to her viceregal duties. She opened up Government House to many groups of citizens who were made welcome to “State House One”, creating the sense that it was their home as well as hers. Her patronage of a wide range of charities and community groups went far beyond routine duties, and she took a passionate and practical interest in helping women who had been disadvantaged in any way to move forward. By the time she became Governor-General she was divorced from a former Labour Minister and MP. Her daughter, Judith Tizard has been a Minister in the Labour Government since 1999. Dame Catherine is (b. 1931-).

  1990-91 Minister President Kasimiera Prunskienė, Lithuania
Deputy Premier and Minister of Economy 1989-90 and one of the leaders of the struggle for independence. She became leader of the government after the declaration of independence at 11.3.90, which was internationally recognized at 6.9.91. In 1991 Chairperson of Democratic Party, and from 1995-2001 Chairperson of Women’s Party, 1996-2000 Group Chairperson of the independent MP’s, and Chairperson of the Peasants and New Democratic Parties Union 2001-04. Presidential Candidate in 2002 and 2004 and Minister of Agriculture 2004-08. (b. 1945-).

  1990- Opposition Leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar-Burma
There are many female opposition leaders, but Suu Kyi is the only to have won a victory in an election without being permitted to take power. She returned to Burma in 1988, the following year she was placed in house arrest but none the less her party, The League for Democracy won 75% of the seats in the Parliament in 1990 but the junta ignored the result. and she was placed in House Arrest in Rangoon. 1991 she received the Nobel Peace Prize. She has been in House Arrest 1989-95, 2000-02 and 2003-10. On 6 May 2010, the party was declared illegal and disbanded by the ruling military junta after failing to register for the elections in November 2010. She is daughter of the freedom leader and Premier Aung San who was murdered in 1947 and Daw Khin Kyi, 1947-61 Director of Social Welfare, 1961-67 Ambassador to India (dead 1988). Her husband, the British academic Dr. Michael Aris, died of cancer in 1999, and her 2 sons lives in United Kingdom. (b. 1945-).

  1990- The Pa Tapaeru Teariki Upokotini Marie Ariki, 48th Pa Ariki of the Takitumu Tribe in Rarotonga, Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
Also known as Pa Ariki or Pa Marie, Maria Peyroux Napa succeeded her mother Pa Tapaeru Terito Ariki (Known as Pa Ariki). She was a decendant of the Pa Ariki-line and a French adventurer, Dominique Peyroux, who moved to Rarotonga in the begining of the 20th society and is is one of the 2 chiefs of the tribe (vaka) of Takitumu (Takitimu Vaka Rarotonga). President of the House of Ariki 1992-2002, her younger sister, Karirangi Lily Henderson,  claimed the title in 1998, but the High Court have confirmed her right to the title. She is married to a son of Tinomana Napa Tauei Ariki, who was Chief of Puaikura (1978-99), and mother of Noeline Teaurima, Princess Salamasina, Prince Samuela, Napa. Joined the Jehova Witnesses upon her marriage. (b. 1947-).

  1990-2002 Guardian Dowager Princess Maria Gloria von Schönburg-Glauchau of Thurn und Taxis (Germany)
Fürstin Gloria was guardian for son Albert, who succeeded his father Johannes (1926-90) as Fürst and owner of the wast family estates and properties in 1990, but has continued to be the head of the business empire of the family. Albert is born 1983 and has 2 older sisters. (b. 1960-).  

  1990- Politically Influential Grace Marufu Mugabe in Zimbabwe
Considered to be the driving force behind her husband Robert Mugabe (b. 1924-), whom she married as a junior wife in 1990 2 years after the death of his first wife, Sally. Grace has taken an active part in the land reclamation policy – claiming the farms of non-blacks for government members and other high-ranking supporters of the President, a policy that has plunged Zimbabwe into crisis and poverty, leaving more than 350.000 farm workers unemployed. The couple has become billionaires and she is famous for her shopping-sprees in London, Paris etc. where she uses hundred of thousand of dollars. She is Secretary of the ZANU Women’s League, and mother of a number of four children. (b. 1964-).

  1990-2005 Politically Influential Mariam Akayeva in Kyrgyzstan
Also known as Maryam or Meerim Duyshenovna, she is married to former president Askar Akayev, she was a autonomous and highly active politician during his term in office, and devotes much energy to charitable work. Both her 2 children and 2 sisters; Oken and Ayazgul, were elected to parliament in 2005, but the rigging of the elections caused an uprising and the family fled. At some point it was thought that Akayev would name her as his successor when he had to resign in 2005, later it was believed that he would appoint their 34-year-old daughter, Bermet Askarovna Akaeva.

  Around 1990- Warlord Bibi Ayesha Kaftar in the Narin district (Afghanistan)
Known as “The Pigeon”, she has fought the Russians, the Taleban and many local rivals in the brooding mountains on the borders of the Province of Baghlan, and claims to have 150 men under her command; while the United Nation in 2006 estimates that she has weapons for at least 50. As the only female Warlord, her only concession to social mores is that she insists that a male relative accompany her into battle, in line with Afghan tradition for women outside the home. The UN is planning to disarm her and the other illegal armed groups, but she refuses to give up her weapons. Her four surviving sons are her loyal lieutenants. 2 others have been killed in battle. (b. 1954-).

  1991-92 Capitano Reggente Edda Ceccoli, San Marino 
Member of the leadership of Partito Democratico Cristano Sammarinese. 

  1991-96 and 2001-06 Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia, Bangladesh
Vice-Chairperson of The Nationalist Party 1982-84 and Leader since 1984. Her husband, President Zia-ur-Rahman, was Premier Minister 1976-77 and President 1977-81 until he was assassinated. Khaleda was detained seven times during nine years of autocratic rule. In the face of mass upsurge spearheaded by the seven-party alliance, led by Khaleda, and the eight-party combine, led by Hasina, Ershad resigned in 1990 and handed over power to neutral caretaker government, bringing an end to his nine-year autocratic rule. During her first tenure as Chief of government she was also Minister of Defence, Establishment, Cabinet Diversion and Planning, Information Energy and Resources. 1996-2001 Leader of the Opposition. Resigned in October 2006 to prepare for the elections later in the year, but the military took power and in September 2007 she was arrested, charged with corruption.  (b. 1945- ).

  1991-92 Premier Minister Edith Cresson, France
Before becoming Premier Minister, she was Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, External 1981-83, Trade 1983-84, Industry 1984-86, European Affairs 1988-90. She was European Union Commissioner for Science, Research, Education and Youth 1995-99. She was accused of fraud and abuse of confidence and this brought along the downfall of the entire Commission because she refused to resign. 2003 she was officially charged with fraud. (b. 1934-).

  Before 1991- Rongomatane Ada Teaupurepure Tetupu Ariki, Rongomatane Ariki of the Ngati Paruarangi Tribe in Atiu (Cook Islands)
Also known as Rongomatane Ada Ariki or Ada Nicholls she has been President of the House of Ariki from 2006.  

  1991- Dame Tinomana Ruta Tuoro Ariki, Tinomana Ariki of the Pauaikura Tribe (Cook Islands)
Ruta Tuoro Hoskins née Browne is member of one of the lines of the family that have alternately succeeded to the title since the death of Tinomana Mareana Ariki in 1908. She was Vice-President of the House of Ariki until 2002.

  1992-93 Vice-President Blaga Nikolova Dimitrova, Bulgaria
A famous independent poet, she resigned from the post of Vice-President in protest of the political developments in the country. She lived (1922-2003).

  1992- Deputy Seigneur Beatrice Caroline Bell, Sark (Dependency of the British Crown)
1988-2000 President of the Public Health, Sea Fisheries and Pilottage Committees. Miss Bell was Member of Chief Pleas as tenant of L’Ecluse on the death of her mother, the former Deputy Seigneur Jehanne Bell. After she retired from the Chief Pleas 2002 she continues as Deputy Seigneur, Presiding over the Chief Pleas in the absence of the Seigneur.    

  1992-93 Minister President Hanna Suchocka, Poland
As Minister President she was also Vice-President of the National Security Council. She was Vice-President of the Council of Europe 1991-92 and Minister of Justice and Procurator-General 1997-2000. Since 2002 Ambassador to the Vatican. Unmarried. (b. 1946-).

  1992-2002 Chief Executive Gillian Wratt of The Ross Dependency (New Zealand Antarctic Territory)
As Chief Executive, she was in charge of the small base and oversaw the re-organization of the New Zealand program through the 1990’s and held senior posts inside the Antarctic Treaty System.

  1992- Head of the Imperial Family Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna Romanova of Russia (Titular Empress and Autocrat of All Russians)
Her claims to the throne are disputed, but founded in the dynastic laws of the family, according to which she succeeded her father Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich (1917-92), as all the male members of the Romanov family had married “below” their rang, and thus, according to the old rules, lost their right to succession – her mother, Leonida Georgiyevna Bagration-Mukhrani (1914-2010) was member of the former Georgian royal family. Maria is divorced from Prince Franz-Wilhelm zu Hohenzollern and has one son, Georgi Mikhalovitch, born 1981. (b. 1953-).  

  1992-2003 Titular Ratu Tambu Rambu Yuliana of Rende, Queen of Sumba (Indonesia)
Daughter of last full ruling Raja of Rende, Raja Umbu Hapu Hamba Ndina (1932-60). He was followed by a Regent-Raja and the more nominal-rule of Raja Umbu Wanggi Keimaruku (1960-1992). After the death of the latter, she became nominal Queen of Rende ( Rindi or Rendeh) in East-Sumatra. She didn’t rule officially, but for many persons she still had much power. She never married, because no royal of Sumba and surrounding islands could pay the high dowry for her. Also called Kita Nana, she lived (1931-2003).

  1992- Symbol of the Monarchy the Dowager Princess of Seba
Widow of the last ruling Raja, or DoaE, David D. Bireloedji, who ruled the Principality on the island of Sawu, South-West of Timor from 1963.

  1993 Capitano Reggente Patrizia Busignani, San Marino 
1983-90 President of Partito Socialista Unitario, before becoming joint Head of the State, President of the Parliament and Chief of the Government. Party President and Chief of the Parliamentary Group of Socialisti per le Riforme around 1997-2009.

  1993-94 Premier Minister and Acting Head of State Sylvie Kinigi, Burundi 
By the time of her appointment as Premier she was Head of Economic Planning in the President’s Office. During the Civil War the President was killed and as the highest-ranking reaming official, she became Acting President (27.10.93-5.2.94). After her resignation, she left politics and joined the Burundi’s Commercial Bank and now works for the UN. (b. 1952-).

  1993-97 3rd Executive Vice-President Guadalupe Jerezano Mejía, Honduras
Concurrently with the post as Deputy Head of State, she was Coordinator of the Office of Women and from 1996 Delegate to the Central-American Parliament.

  1993-96 Minister President Dr. Tansu Çiller, Turkey
Before taking over as Prime Minister, she was assistant Professor 1974-83 and 1983-90 Professor of Economics at Bosphorus University. Minister of State and Chief Economic Coordinator 1991-93, Deputy Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1996-97. She was Deputy Chairperson, 1990-93 and from 1993 Chairperson of DYP, The True Path Party. In the 2002-elections the party got 8,5% of the votes, becoming the third largest party, but it was not enough to re-enter the parliament, where the minimum vote required is 9%. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1946-).

  1993 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, Canada
Executive Director, Office of British Columbia Premier 1985-86, Progressive Conservative MP 1988-93, Minister of State (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) 1989-90, Minister of Justice and Attorney-General 1990-93 and Minister of Defence and Minister of Veteran Affairs in 1993. AsPrime Minister she was also Minister responsible for Federal-Provincial Relations. She was leader of the Progressive Conservative party, 13.06.1993-13.12.1993, resigning after the party lost all but 2 seats in the House of Commons in the 1993 election in spite of gaining about 16% of the vote. She became a lecturer at Harvard University and was Consul General of Canada in Los Angeles 1996-2000. Married with a stepdaughter. (b. 1947-).

  1993-94 (†) Premier Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana, Rwanda
Minister of Education from 1992 till her appointment as Prime Minister. On the 6/4 1994 the Hutu President Habyarimana was killed together with his Burundian colleague, Cyprien Ntaryamira, when their plane was rocketed on its way to Kigali airport. Agathe, a Hutu, was killed by the Tutsi Presidential guard together with her family and 10 Belgian soldiers, the day before she was supposed to step down as Premier Minister. The 2 killings sparked off the civil war and genocide of approximately 1 million Hutus and Tutsies. Mother of about 6 children. She lived (1953-94).

  1993-94 Premier Marita Petersen, The Faero Islands (Føroyar/ Færøerne)(Danish External Territory) 
A former Leader of the Teacher’s Union, she was Minister of Justice, Education Culture and Church Affairs 1991-93. As Premier she was also Minister of External Relations, the Underground, Administration and Public Wages. Chairperson of the Social Democrats 1993-96, Chairperson of the Lógting (Assembly) 1994-95 and 1998-2001 substitute member of the Danish Folketing. She lived (1940-2001). 

  1993 and 1998-99 Minister President Mr. Suzanne Camelia-Römer, Nederlandse Antillen (Dutch External Territory)
Suzi Römer had been Minister of Justice since 1992 when she became acting Premier after the resignation of Mrs. Liberia-Peters. 1999-2002 Vice-Premier and Minister of Economy and the National Recovery Plan, and 1998-2002 Leader of the Partido Nashional di Pueplo (b. 1959-). 

  1993-2001 Chief Secretary Anson Chan, Hong Kong (november-1/5) (United Kingdom Crown Colony and Chinese Special Administrative Region)
As Chief Secretary she was leader of the administration and principally responsible to the Chief Executive for the formulation of government policies and their implementation. 1993-97 Deputy to the British Governor, 1997-2001 Deputy to the Chinese Chief Executive. Resigned in protest with Chinas policies in the Region. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1940-). 

  1993- President of the Government-in-Exile Maryam Rajavi, Iran (in Paris)   
From 1985-92 Commander-in-Chief of Muhjedin-Army operating from Iraq. She is head of the 250-member exile-parliament. Half of its members are women and the exile-government is dominated by women.

  1993- Acting Paramount Chieftainess Mofumahadi Mathokoana Mopeli of the Bakwena Clan in the QuaQua Homeland (South Africa)
Acts during the minority of the Paramount Chief. Former mayor of the area and later District Speaker of Thabo Mafutsanyana.

  Before 1993- Pauline Margaret Rakera Ariki Taripo, The Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
One of the many female chiefs in the Cook Islands.

  1993-2001 Politically Influential First Hilary Rodham Clinton in United States of America
During her 12 years as First Lady of Arkansas from 1978, she chaired the Educational Standards Committee and co-founded a number of charities. In 1993 President Bill Clinton appointed her chairperson the Task Force on National Health Care Reform 1993. She continued to be a leading advocate for expanding health insurance coverage; ensuring children are properly immunized, and raising public awareness of health issues. Since 2001 Senator from New York, Democratic Presidential Candidate 2007-08 and Secretary of State from 2009. (b. 1947-).

  1994 Prime Minister
1994-2005 President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Sri Lanka 
1993-94 Chief Minister of the Colombo Province and in a few months in 1994 Prime Minister. As Executive President she is assisted in her duties by the Prime Minister, and was also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and held the Portfolio of Defence and Finance and Planning until 2002. She is the first person in the world to be daughter of 2 Premier-Ministers, Solomon and Sirivamo Bandaranaike and the first to have appointed her mother to the post of Prime Minister. She was constitutionally barred from running for re-election in 2005. (b. 1945-). 

  1994-98 2nd Vice-President Rebecca Grynspan Mayfis, Costa Rica
Concurrently with the post of Deputy Head of State, she was Minister of Housing and Urban Development 1997-98.

  1994-2003 Vice-President Dr. Wandira Specioza Kazibwe, Uganda
1989-91 Deputy Minister of Industry, 1992-94 Minister of Culture, Women and Youth, 1994-96 Minister of Gender and Community Development and 1996-99 Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries before becoming Deputy Head of State.

  1994-95 Interim Minister President Reneta Ivanova Indzhova, Bulgaria
Also known as Reneta Injova, she was leader of an interim government consisting of technocrats. Her Deputy Premier and Minister of Economy and Finance was Hristina Vucheva. In 1995 Renata ran for the post of Mayor of Sofia and 2001 she was Presidential candidate. (b.1953-). 

  1994-96 Government-Delegate Maria del Carmen Cedeira Morterero, Ciudad de Ceuta (Spanish External Territory)
1983-86 she was Councillor of the City of Ceuta, Senator in Spain 1987-89 and MEP since 1999. (b. 1958-)

  1994- Dwabenhemaa Nana Akosua Akyaamaa III of Dwaben (Ghana)
Nana is a very astute Queen, wielding significant power and rules concurrently with her brother, Nana Otuo Serebour II, who is the Dwabenhene. Apart from ruling with her brother, she acts as his chief adviser cum admonisher and also, in Dwaben tradition, she is the ”mother” of the King.

  1994- De-facto Tribal Leader and SheikaSafia Taleb al-Souhail of the Beni-Tamim Tribe (Iraq)
2nd of 8 daughters of a powerful tribal sheikh – the chief of the Central Iraqi shi’ite tribe the Bani Tamim, and helped her father plan a coup against Hussein. When he was killed by Iraqi intelligence in Beirut in 1994, she became the tribe’s political representative and de-facto leader, Sheikha, of the 1 million members of the tribe. She was exile-leader and has returned to Iraq and is rather influential. In 2003 she was mentioned as a candidate for the governing council. (b. 1965-).

  1995-97 Vice-PresidentJulia de la Cruz Mena Rivera, Nicaragua
Julia Mena was the first woman to serve as deputy to a female President (Violeta de Chamorro).  She was former 1. Vice-President of the Assembléia Nacional and since 1999 President of the Partido Liberal Independiente and Vice-President of the Parlamento Centroamericano.

  1995-96 Premier Minister Claudette Werleigh, Haïti
An economist she became Minister of Social Affairs 1990-91, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1993-95 and was Executive Director of the Washington Office of Haiti 1993, before becoming head of the government. Later an UN official. (b. 1946-). 

  1995-2001 Rigsombudsmand Vibeke Larsen, Faero Islands (Danish External Territory)  
Before becoming Ríkisumboðsmann or High Commissioner in Færøerne or the Føroyar, she was Assistant Secretary in a Local Government in Denmark. 2001-07 Statsamtmand of Vestsjælland 2005-07 Acting Statsamtmand of the County of Storstrøm. since 2005 Acting Stiftamtmand of the Diocese of Lolland-Falster, from 2006- Director of the State Administration for the Region of Sealand and since 2007 Stiftamtmand of the Diocese of Roskilde. (b. 1944-).

  1995-98 Sysselmann Ann-Kristin Olsen, Svalbard (Norwegian External Territory)
1983-95 Chief of Police of Halden (as the first woman in the country). After her tenure as Sysselmann, she was appointed Fylkesmann of Aust-Augdar (b. 1945-). 

  1995-99 District Commissioner Jenny Manderson, Cayman Brac and Little Cayman (Cayman Islands, a British External Territory)
Permanent Secretary in the Personnel Department, Permanent Secretary of Personnel 1987-95 and 1999-2001. As District Commissioner she was the representative of the Governor of Cayman Islands.

  Ca. 1995-99 Island Secretary Olive Jal Christian, Pitcairn Island (United Kingdom Dependency)
Second ranking resident officer in the island, just below the Chief Executive, the Magistrate. The island’s administrator is the British Ambassador (High Commissioner) to New Zealand; she was ex-officio member of the Council. The ca. 60 inhabitants in the extremely isolated Pitcairn Island are descendants of the mutineers of the Bounty that settled the island with their Tahitian companions in 1790. Member of the Island Council from 2005. (b. 1952-). 

  1995- Queen Yvonne Pryor of the Madingo (The Gambia)
A Surinam-Dutch woman, she was elected the Incarnated Lion King of the Madingos, because she was considered to be a reincarnation of a 17th. century-King. She was recognized as the incarnation in 1991 and spent the next years going through various tests to prove that she actually was an incarnation. Mother of 6 children. 

  1995- Chief Sinqobile Mabhena of the Ndebele Tribe (Zimbabwe)
Sinqobile Bahle Mabhena-Sibanda succeeded her father as the first female chief of the country’s second largest tribe. (b. 1974-).   

  1996-97 Chairperson of the Council of StateRuth Sando Perry, Liberia 
1985-96 senator. Appointed to Chair the Council of State preparing the transfer to democracy after many years of civil war. (b. 1939-). 

  1996-2001 Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed, Bangladesh
Leader of the Awami League since 1981 and Leader of the Opposition 1991-96. As Premier she was also Minister of Defence. She took over the Party-Leadership after her father, Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-72-75), was murdered during a coup d’etat. Also her mother, 3 brothers and 2 sisters-in-laws were killed, only a sister survived. Arrested by the military government in 2007 on charges of corruption, extortion and murder. Mother of 2 sons (b. 1945- ).

  1996-98 President Biljana Plavsic, Republic of Srpska, (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
1992-94 Member of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1994-96 Vice-President of Srpska. In 1998 she lost the bit for re-election as the first female incumbent President ever. 2002 she was convicted for war crimes during the Bosnian war. (b. 1930-). 

  1996-97 Deputy High RepresentativeCheryl Plumridge, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Also Supervisor and Head of the Banja Luka Regional Office in Srpska.

  1996- Ariki Makea Margaret Ariki, 34th Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga, Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
Also known as Margaret Karika Ariki or Mere Maraea, she is daughter of Inanui Love-Nia, who was Makea Nui Ariki until 1995.

  1997- PresidentMary McAleese, Ireland 
Before becoming Head of State, she was Professor of Law and 1993-97 Pro-chancellor of University of Belfast. The eldest of nine children, she grew up in Northern Ireland and her family was one of many adversely affected by the conflict. She is an experienced broadcaster, having worked as a current affairs journalist and presenter in radio and television with Radio Telefís Éireann. During the 1997-elections 5 candidates were female and there was only one token male candidates finishing a distant last. 2004 she was returned unopposed for a second term (b. 1951-).

  1997 Acting President Rosalia Arteaga Serrano de Fernández de Córdova, Ecuador
A former governor and minister, she was Vice-President 1994-98 and Presidential Candidate in 1998. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet. (b. 1953-).

  1997-  Hon. Dr. Dame C. Pearlette Louisy, St. Lucia
Calliopa Pearlette Louisy was a teacher, administrator, Vice-Principal and then Principal of St. Lucia’s College. (b. 1946-), before becoming the official representative of Queen Elizabeth. (b. 1946-)

  1997 Prime Minister Janet Jagan, Guyana 
1997-99 President 
Her country’s first white and first female President and was executive President but worked together with the Prime Minister. 1950-90 she held leading posts in the Progressive People’s Party, PPP, 1953 Deputy President of the National Assembly, 1954 imprisoned by the British authorities for her activities for independence 1957-61. Minister of Labour, Health and Housing, 1963-64 Minister of Home Affairs (Senator), 1973-97 Editor-in-Chief of The Mirror, 1993 Acting Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In 1997 her husband, President Dr. Cheddi Bharat Jagan, died, and she was chosen to replace the Premier, who had become President. She was chosen as her party’s candidate in the following Presidential elections. She was in office until July 1999 when she suffered a mild hart attack and chose to resign from her post 3 years ahead of time, and lived (1920-2009).

  1997-2005 Vice-President Prof. Dr. Masoumek Ebtekar, Iran
As Vice-President she is in charge of Environment. (b. 1960-).

  1997- Deputy Head of State, HRH Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden
Also Duchess of Västergötland. On her 18th birthday the 14th of June the crown Princess swore the oath on the constitution and was inaugurated as Deputy Head of State. (b. 1979-).

  1997-99 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Jenny Shipley, New Zealand
Minister of Women’s Affairs 1990-98, Social Affairs 1990-93, Minister of Health 1993-96, Transport, State Services and State-Owned Enterprises, Accident Rehabilitation and Compensation Insurance 1996-97. As Premier she was also Minister in charge of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service. She ousted then Prime Minister Jim Bolger as leader of the National Party and after his resignation she became leader of the government. 1999-2001 she was Leader of the Opposition. Mother of 2 children. (b. 1952-).

  1997-98 PremierHon. Pamela Felicity Gordon, Bermuda (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
Parliamentary Secretary of Community Development, Culture and Youth 1992, Minister of Youth, Sport and Recreation 1992-96, Environment, Planning and National Resources 1996-97. As Premier she was also Minister of Information and Attorney General. She was former Deputy Chairperson and was elected to succeed the previous Premier after his resignation. She was Leader of the United Bermuda Party 1997-2001 and leader of the Opposition 1998-2001. (b. 1955-).

  1997-2005 Chief Secretary Hon. Cynthia Astwood, Turk and Caicos Islands (Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom)
2002 Acting Governor (26.11-16.12)
Member of the Executive Council, ranking below the Governor and has acted as such on various occasions when the incumbent was abroad. In 2002 she filled the gap between 2 governors.

  Before 1997 Chief Nana Osei Boakye Yiadom II of Aburi-Akuapem (Ghana)
Elizabeth Apeadu was the first woman chief of her village and an administrative judge and conciliator in the Akan political process as well as head of all Akan cultural and religious ceremonies. Since 1986 she serves as a consultant on the UN Decade for Women, advising the Committee on African Women’s Affairs.

  1997- President of the Council Ivonka J. Survilla, Belarussian Democratic Republic-in-Exile (Canada)
She is head of the exile-government was established in 1918 and situated in Canada. She spent only eight years of her life in her native Belarus.  After a dramatic exodus through Eastern Prussia, she lived in Denmark, France and Spain before moving to Canada in 1969. Also known as Ivonka Symaniec-Survilla, she is a painter and born in Stoupcy, a small town West of Miensk, (b. 1936-).

  1998-2002 1st. Vice-President Dr. Astrid Fischel Volio, Costa Rica
Apart from being Deputy Head of State, she also held the post of Minister of Culture and Sports. She is Professor of History at the University of Costa Rica.

  1998-2002 2nd Vice-PresidentDr. Elizabeth Odio Benito, Costa Rica
Apart from being Deputy Head of State, she was also Minister of Environment and Energy. She was Minister of Justice and Attorney-General 1978-82 and 1990-94, Vice-rector of The University of Costa Rica, 1994 Ambassador to UN in Europe, 1994-97 Judge by the International Tribunal in the former Yugoslavia. From 2002 Minister of Education.

  1998 Acting Prime Minister Anne Enger Lahnstein, Norway  (31.08-23.09)
In charge of the government during Kjell Magne Bondevik’s sick leave because of stress and psychological problems. She was Deputy Leader 1983-91, Parliamentary Leader, 1989-91 and Leader of The Centre Party 1991-99. 1. Deputy to the Prime Minister and Minister of Culture of the centre-right-government 1997-99, Vice Chairperson of the Defence Committee of Stortinget 1999-2001 and Governor of Østfold since 2003. (b. 1950-).

  1998-2003 PremierHon. Jennifer Meridith Smith, Bermuda (United Kingdom Dependency)
Deputy Opposition Leader 1994-96, Opposition Leader 1996-98 as Leader of the Progressive Labour Party, PLP. As Premier she also held the Portfolios of Education and Human Affairs. Her own party ousted her just three days after she led it to an historic General Election victory. Deputy Speaker of the Parliament from 2003. (b. ca. 1948-).

  1998-2000 Administrator-Superieur Brigitte Girardin, French Southern and Antarctic Lands (French External Territory)
Superior Administrator of the Terres Australes et Antarctique Francaises 25.3.1998-27.1.2000, Technical Advisor of the President of France in Charge of Arctic Affairs 2000-02, Minister of Oversea’s Affairs 2002-05 and Delegate-Minister of Cooperation, Development and the Francophonie from 2005. (b. 1953-).

  1998-2004 Adi Kuini Teimumu Vuikaba Speed, Tui Noikoro of Navosa (Fiji)
From 1989-91 Leader of Fiji Labour Party, 1995 Leader of Fiji Labour National Federation, 1995-98 Vice-President of Fijian Association Party, 1998-2001 Party Leader. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Fijian Affairs 1999-2000. She was widow of the former Prime Minister Dr. Timoci Bavadra who died in 1989 and later remarried. She succeeded her father, Ratu Aseri Qoro Latianara, the Tui Nokoro and Roko Tui Naitasiri until 1977, as Paramount Chief of Navosa in 1998 (Her father lived 1924-98) Married three times and mother of 2 sons and 2 daughters daughter, and lived (1949-2004).

  Before 1998- The Tika Mataiapo Dorice Reid, The Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
President of the Koutu Nui, the assembly of sub-chiefs in from 1998.

  1999 President of the Confederation Ruth Dreifuss, Switzerland 
1981 she was elected to the general secretariat of the Federation of Swiss Trade Unionists. The Swiss President is considered “first among equals,” in the four-party political system. The President oversees the Cabinet, but he or she has no inherent power to set policy, that power is reserved for the Cabinet as a whole, which is led, not controlled, by the President. She was Councillor of Interior 1992-2002 and Vice-President 1998-99. (b. 1939-). 

  1999 and 2008 Capitano Reggente Rosa Zafferani, San Marino 
Director in the Department of Finance, Budget and Programs before she was elected to the Consiglio Grande e Generale in 1998. Secretary of State of Health, Social Security and Provision 2002-04, Secretary of State of Public Education, University, and Cultural Institutions from 2004 and 2005-06 also in charge of Internal Affairs. (b. 1960 in USA).

  1999-2007 President Dr. Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Latvia 
Vike-Freiberga was born in Latvia and grew up in refugee camps in Germany, went to school in French Morocco, University studies in Canada. Retired from the Universite de Montreal in 1998, after being a professor of psychology there since 1965 and involved in various scientific and administrative committees, among others as Vice-Chairperson of the Science Council of Canada. She moved to Latvia as Director of the newly created Latvian Institute in Riga. Candiate for the Post of Secretary General of the United Nations in 2006. Married to her fellow countryman, Imants Freibergs, also exiled in Canada, who moved to Latvia in October 1999. Re-elected as President in 2002 and official candidate for the post of Secretary General of the United Nations in 2006. Mother of a son and a daughter. (b. 1937-).

  1999-2004 Executive President Mireya Moscoso Rodrígez, Panama 
Since 1991 President of the Arnolfist Party, 1994 Presidential Candidate. Constitutionally barred from running for re-election in 2004. As Executive President she was also head of the Cabinet, and she was the first female President to have officially appointed a First Lady – her sister, Ruby Moscoso de Young. She was constitutionally barred from run for a second term. Mireya was first married to President Arnolfo Arias Madrid (1901-88) who was President of Panama 1940-41, 1949-51 and 1968. Married to Mr. Gruber 1991-97 and mother of an adopted a child. (b. 1946-).

  1999-2005 Governor GeneralRt. Hon. Adrienne Poy Clarkson, Canada
Second female and first Governor General of Asian origin. She is broadcaster and journalist and acted as Agent-General of Ontario in Paris 1982-87. She married her long-time partner John Saul (b. 1947-) shortly before taking office, as the before becoming the official representative of the Queen of Canada, Queen Elizabeth. Mother of three children. Born in Hong Kong as Ng Bing Tse, which was changed to Adrienne Poy. (b. 1939-).

  1999-2008 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Helen Clark, New Zealand
MP since 1981. Chairperson of the Foreign Affairs and Defence Select Committee 1984-87, Minister of Housing and Conservation 1987-89, Deputy Premier and Minister of Labour and Health 1989-90, Deputy Leader of Labour and of the Opposition 1990-93, Leader of Labour 1993-2008 of the Opposition 1993-99. As Prime Minister she also held the portfolios of Arts and Culture and Security Intelligence Service and Ministerial Services. Acting Foreign Minister in 2008, Head of the United Nations Development Programme, UNDP from 2009.  In 1981 she married Dr. Peter Davis. No children. (b. 1950-).

  1999 and 1999 Acting Minister President Irena Degutiené, Lithuania
Medical Doctor, 1994-97 Vice-Minister of Health and Minister of Labour and Social Affairs 1997-2000, she acted as Prime Minister during 2 government crisis within a short period of time. (b. 1949-).

  1999 Acting Premier MinisterTuyaa Nyam-Osoryn, Mongolia
A former journalist and director in the Foreign Ministry, she was Minister of Foreign Affairs 1998-2000 and appointed Acting Prime Minister after her predecessor’s resignation. (b. 1958-). 

  1999-2000 Deputy Administrator Deb Blaskett, The Territory of the Cocos (Keelings) Islands (Australian territory)
Since 1999 the Administrator of Christmas Island is also in charge of Cocos Islands, represented by the Deputy Administrator.

  1999- Island Secretary Betty Christian, Pitcairn Island (United Kingdom Dependency)
1990 and 1993 she was member of the Legislative Council. In 1999 the office of Magistrate was replaced with that of a Mayor. The Island Secretary continued as second in command and ex-officio member of the Council. From 2005 the four elected Councillors were all women. Betty Christian is also the Island’s Communication Officer. Mother of 4 daughters. (b. 1942-).

  1999-2008 Tenant Pennie Wood Heyworth of Herm (Bailiwick of Guernsey a Dependency of the British Crown)
Together with her husband, she succeeded her father, Peter Wood, Tenant from 1949 until his death. They had been wards of the island since the 1980s. They sold the teantcy in 2008. Mother of 3 daughters.

  Before 1999-? Taputapu Ariki Ngaau née Ngatama, The Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand)
One of the many female chiefs in the Cook Islands.

  1999-  Erelu Oba Princess (Chief) Rafiat Abimbola Dosumu-Shitta of Lagos, Erelu Oba of Saki (Nigeria)
A member of the Dosumu royal family of Lagos and the Ado ruling house of Saki, she is the first Yeye Omobalufon of Lagos, the current Erelu Oba of Lagos and is also the first Erelu Oba of Saki land in Oyo State. She is Married with 5 children.

  1999- Queen Mother of Babété  (Cameroon)
Regent for her son, King Sob Ngoumbo Soumo (b. 1993-) who was elected by the 60.000 members of the tribe to succeed his father King Soumo I, who died august 1998. Sob has 23 siblings.

  Until 1999 The TeremonaTeri, The Cook Islands (Free Association with New Zealand) 
Known as Mama Maggi, she died in 1999.

  Ca. 1999- Motarilavoa Hilda Lini of the Turaga nation of Pentecost Island in Vanuatu
From 1987 the first female MP. In 1996 she was replaced in the government by her brother ex-premier Father Walter Lini (1942-1982-90-99), 1991-95 Minister of Rural Water Supply and Health, 1993 Acting Minister of External Affairs and Tourism and 1996 Minister of Justice, Culture and Women’s Affairs. She resigned from the National Party and founded her own party, the Tu Vanuatu kominiti, The Vanuatu Movement, Director of the Pacific Concerns Resource Center 2000-04, Representative of the Pacific Region at the UN Nonproliferation Review Conference in 2004 and a chief of the Turaga nation.

the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011


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