The OLD cHINA pAPERMONEY PART TWO 19TH CENTURY

SHANGHAI’S WARTIME EMERGENCY MON

This is the story of a little known aspect of China’s wartime history and an

oft neglected area of numismatics. The setting for our tale is the city of Shanghai

and the time 1939. Dire things are about to happen, but before we can fully

appreciate and understand them, a refresher course in Chinese currency might

prove useful.

For centuries the currency of China had consisted of a jumble of bank notes

and coins issued by every conceivable authority – government, provincial and

private. Most issues circulated only within limited areas (the province of issue) or,

in the case of native banks, circulation was limited to the locale of the town or city

of issue. On the lower end of the scale, notes of the myriad pawn shops and

money- lenders were heavily discounted when presented only a few blocks away or

were refused altogether! Many of these issues had little if any financial backing in

the form of reserves – most depended solely on the reputation of the person printing

and circulating the notes. This chaotic situation permitted the circulation side by

side of notes and coins denominated in cash, cents, ch’uan, coppers, fen, and chiao

much to the consternation of foreigners and to the detriment of commerce.

Silver Dollars

Steps had been taken in 1890 to modernize China’s currency system which

led to the introduction of the first steam operated press at Canton in Kwangtung

province. The mint’s initial task was to strike Chinese silver dollars to replace the

tremendously popular Mexican dollars which had been imported into China to

facilitate trade. The local merchants loved the “Mex” because of its standard

fineness and weight. The newly minted Chinese dollars retained these

characteristics while at the same time appealing to ethnic pride. The “dragon”

dollars, as they came to be called, were readily accepted by the masses. Their

popularity soon led to similar issues being struck by other provincial mints in

Wuchang, Peiyang and Foochow. By the turn of the century additional mints were

operating in Nanking, Hankow, Anking, Chengtu, Mukden and Kirin. It was not

long before these mints produced subsidiary coinage as well.

The Mexican silver dollar (top), imported into China to facilitate trade, proved very popular over

the years. Chinese silver, known as “dragon” dollars (bottom) gradually replaced the “Mex” after

the first mint was opened in Canton in 1890.

Standardization of the currency system was not possible, however, as long as

two units of silver currency – the tael and the dollar – circulated side by side. Since

the tael unit differed in weight and fineness from one locality to another, beside

which existed a number of fictitious taels used only for accounting purposes;

calculating their relative exchange rates presented an exceedingly complicated

problem.

This chaotic situation came to an end when the tael system was abolished in

1933. The Standard Silver Dollar Coinage Law thus promulgated called for a

silver dollar of 880 fineness, containing 23.49 grams of silver. This new national

dollar was to be known as the yuan and was to replace all provincial silver dollars

then in circulation. These moves brought about the first notable monetary reform

in China’s history.

After several false starts the Shanghai Mint, utilizing plant equipment and

coin presses ordered in the United States, formally opened on March 1, 1933. The

now obsolete silver sycee tales, or shoes, comprised ninety percent of the silver

thus converted into legal tender, the remainder being bullion or demonetized silver

dollars or subsidiary silver coins. Silver dollars were in great demand following

the abolition of the sycee tael, as production strained to keep up with requirements.

This first national silver dollar issued by the Shanghai mint has an

interesting story to tell. The proposed design of the new coin called for the head of

Sun-Yat-Sen, the founder of modern China, to be shown on the obverse and a

Chinese junk under sail to appear on the reverse. After reviewing different design

submissions, a winner was chosen and the work assigned the new mint at

Shanghai. The winning design showed Sun-Yat-Sen on the obverse together with

an artistic depiction of a junk sailing into a rayed sun with three geese flying

overhead. This coin, dated the 21st Year of the Republic (1932), was actually

struck between March and June 1933. Over fifty-one thousand of these pieces

entered circulation before they were withdrawn and the coin redesigned. The

reason was patriotic. By this time, the Chinese – Japanese troubles over

Manchukuo had broken out and mint officials feared the sun would be

misinterpreted as the “rising sun” of Japan, and the geese as enemy aircraft. The

redesigned coins continued to be minted in 1933 and 1934 sans the “rising sun”

and ” aircraft”! The 1932 issue is rather scarce today with the other dates

decidedly more plentiful. By 1935 China was off the silver standard, with most of

these junk dollars finding their way into the melting pot and the silver sold abroad.

The Sun Yat Sen standard silver dollar. First introduced in 1932, its reverse design contained

three geese flying over a junk which was sailing into the rising sun. When the Japanese invaded

China shortly thereafter, mint officials had the offending symbolics removed fearing the general

public would construe the geese as raiding aircraft and the rising sun as Japan. Mintage of these

beautiful pieces ceased in 1935 when China abandoned the silver standard.

Subsidiary Coinage

China’s Minister of Finance, H. H. Kung, turned his attention next to

standardizing the country’s subsidiary coinage. In 1935 he announced the

replacement of the confusing mixture of twenty cent pieces, silver dimes and

various coppers then circulating with a standard coinage based on the decimal

system. Thereupon the Shanghai mint was instructed to strike nickel coins of five,

ten and twenty cents and copper coins of one half cent and one cent of uniform

design. These coins made their initial appearance to the general public in February

1936.

All five denominations were produced by the Shanghai mint in 1936. After

that date the one half cent coin was dropped due to its unpopularity and relative

worth. Production of one, five, ten and twenty cent pieces continued throughout

1937 (the one cent only), 1938 and 1939 after which the one cent coin was struck

in aluminum owing to the advent of inflation. In 1939 a two cent piece was added

to meet the need for small change. Five, ten and twenty cent coins continued to be

struck from 1940 through 1942 by which time the need for a fifty cent specimen

manifested itself. This coin was minted over the short span of two years after

which spiraling inflation took its toll. An interesting variation exists in the

production of the ten cent coin in that after1939 the mint changed the character

used for “ten” from the official style of writing to the more popular simple style

(“+”) of expressing the value ten. Eventually all coinage ceased to circulate as

higher and higher denominations of paper money took over as the sole medium of

exchange.

It should be mentioned here that all work had to be suspended at the Central

Government Mint in August 1937 due to the outbreak of war in Shanghai. The staff

was able, however, to dismantle and remove the bulk of its machinery before the

Japanese army had a chance to occupy the mint buildings. The production of

subsidiary coins was then continued at branch mints in the interior located in

Chengtu, Chungking, Wuchang, Kweilin and Lanchow. Production was spread

evenly across all branch mints with the exception of Kweilin which produced only

ten and twenty cent pieces.

The Republic of China’s standardized coin issue was of a very pleasing

design and extremely well struck. The one half, one and two cent coins displayed

on their obverse a depiction of the republican Chinese sun within a wide border

with “Republic of China” and the date appearing above. The reverse of all

denominations was uniform. It shows a bold rendering of an ancient square-footed

spade coin, or “pu”, such as those dating to the Chou dynasty (1122-255 B.C.). A

large number of these pus have, over time, been unearthed in the Chang-tzu and

T’un-lin districts of Shansi province. A wide border containing the coin’s

denomination shown in two characters to left and right of the pu completes the

design. Several curious anomalies add interest to this series. (See Table 1.) From

the outset in 1936, production at the Shanghai mint could not keep up with demand

necessitating the contracting out of additional production to the mint in Vienna,

Austria. These coins are identical in all respects with the exception of the addition

of a mint letter “A” beneath the pu to identify them. Production was limited to

five, ten and twenty cent pieces. The Tientsin mint was also pressed into service to

alleviate demand for these coins. In 1936 this mint produced one million ten cent

coins identical to those being struck in Shanghai, yet it is possible today to tell

them apart! This incongruity stems from the fact that insufficient nickel metal

being then available at the Tientsin mint, a large quantity of diverse metals were

alloyed with the nickel to produce coins of only eighteen percent nickel. The

heavily alloyed coins struck in Tientsin proved to be non magnetic, while the pure

nickel ones (95 percent pure nickel, actually) produced in Shanghai were attracted

to a magnet.

The standard issue of subsidiary coinage released in 1936 included ½, 1, 5, 10 and 20 cent pieces.

Later 2 cent and 50 cent coins were struck. Shown here are the 1 cent (Yr. 25) typical of the ½, 1

and 2 cent design; the 50 cent coin of Yr 31 (1939) which is representative of the 5, 10, 20 and 50

cent issues; and a pattern 1 dollar coin of 1936 which never saw production. The absence of 1937

dated 5, 10 and 20 cent coins in this series is due to the Japanese occupation of Shanghai and the

evacuation of the mint to the interior in August 1937.

Table 1. China’s Standardized National Coinage

Note: * in millions

Denomination Year Metal Mintage* Remarks

½ cent 25 (1936) Bronze 64.720

1 cent 25 (1936)

26 (1937)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

Bronze

“““

311.780

307.198

12.000

75.000

2 cents 28 (1939) Brass 300.000

5 cents 25 (1936)

25 (1936)

25 (1936)

25 (1936)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

29 (1940)

30 (1941)

Nickel

““““

Copper Nickel

72.844

20.000

??

34.325

6.000

57.000

96.000

Shanghai mint

Vienna mint

With “P’ing”

With “Ch’ing”

10 cents 25 (1936)

25 (1936)

25 (1936)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

29 (1940)

29 (1940)

30 (1941)

30 (1941)

31 (1942)

Nickel

““““

Copper Nickel

““““

73.866

60.000

1.000

110.203

68.000

68.000

in above

254.000

in above

10.000

Shanghai mint

Vienna mint

Tientsin mint

Reeded edge

Plain edge

Reeded edge

Plain edge

20 cents 25 (1936)

25 (1936)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

31 (1942)

Nickel

“““

Copper Nickel

49.620

40.000

61.248

38.000

32.300

Shanghai mint

Vienna mint

50 cents 31 (1942)

32 (1943)

Copper Nickel

57.000

4.000

Three other deviations appeared in the five cent series. Two varieties of this

coin were minted at Shanghai in 1936. On one the character “P’ing” appears on

both sides of Sun-Yat-Sen’s portrait, while the other bears the inscription “Ch’ing”

in the same location. It is not known to the author why this was done. The final

oddity concerns the ten cent coin of1941 which appears with both reeded and plain

edges.

Emergency Money

In the late nineteen thirties one could stand atop Shanghai’s tallest building,

Broadway Mansion, and gaze down upon the city extending to the horizon in all

directions. No wonder the Japanese made it their headquarters in 1941! From this

vantage point the Whangpoo River and Soochow Creek were clearly discernible.

Shanghai was a thriving congested city full of bicyclists weaving between cars and

buses, the tinkling of their bells mixing with the deep blasts from the ships horns of

oceangoing freighters in the Yangtze River beyond.

To the north of Soochow Creek lay the International Settlement, home to

foreigners engulfed in a sea of Chinese. Here three million English, French,

Americans, Germans, Russians, Italians and assorted others were jammed into

twelve and a half square miles.

Beginning in 1842, following the First Opium War, China was increasingly

taken over and exploited by the West, gradually being reduced to a state bordering

on colonization. Because of its commercial importance to the West, Shanghai

symbolized this aggression and submission. Following the Opium Wars, China set

aside three parcels of land for the use of the “foreign devils” – one British, one

American and the third French. In 1863 the Americans joined with the British to

create the International Settlement. The concession enjoyed its own separate

political status, courts, municipal council and police force – all the trappings of

extraterritoriality. By treaty the International Settlement had been leased in

perpetuity from the Chinese. Above all the settlement was a place international in

character, politically neutral, and a place where the rights and privileges inherent in

extraterritoriality were strictly enforced.

Over the years the settlement increased in size ever extending into the

surrounding countryside. By the 1920s Shanghai had become the most

Westernized city in China, enjoying some of its best years. Within the walls of the

settlement foreigners enjoyed an existence of leisure, indulging in their own

pleasure while beyond its walls, the Chinese peasant lived a subsistence level

existence of hard labor with little hope for a better life. Constant fighting

surrounding the settlement (1927: Kuomintang versus Communists; 1932:

Japanese occupation of the city; and 1937: outright war between China and Japan)

did nothing to diminish the good life within. The fighting affected neither the

commerce nor the river traffic upon which Shanghai depended. Foreigners within

the settlement were so complacent that they referred to the 1932 trouble as “the war

across the bridge” (Soochow Creek), and the 1937 Japanese occupation as “the war

at the end of the street” (edge of the settlement boundary)! Of course the world

was caving in around them and the Chinese were enduring unthinkable suffering.

For the time being their enclave was secure because the Japanese war machine in

1937-1940 wasn’t yet ready to take on the world powers of Britain and America.

Still in awe of the British, the Japanese hesitated to take what they wanted.

Choosing to pay lip service to the sovereignty of her future enemies instead, Japan

developed a hands-off policy, and life within the International Settlement went on

pretty much as usual.

The situation beyond the Settlement walls presented a stark contrast,

however. Shanghai’s industrial enterprises suffered irreparable losses in

consequence of the undeclared war. The northern districts of Hongkew and Chapei

were particularly hard hit. Incessant warfare and bombing made any kind of

commerce an impossibility. Cotton mills, ironworks, soap factories, woolen mills,

tobacco factories, breweries, rubber and printing works, shipyards and wharves all

shut down as if on command. Work ceased abruptly everywhere, sending 800,000

refugees swarming into the International Settlement. Many factories were

destroyed in the course of actual fighting while many others burned to the ground.

The electric company and waterworks were one of the first casualties of Japanese

bombs, depriving greater Shanghai’s citizens of light and water. Coal, transport

and food were in short supply. The industrial might of greater Shanghai had been

brought to a standstill in a matter of weeks. Faced with all this, the Chinese people

refused to abandon hope. They stood as one solid body behind their government

with a renewed determination to resist the Japanese enemy, understanding that not

to do so would in all probability result in their permanent extinction as a nation.

The first to feel the effect of the turning tide was the city’s commerce.

Shanghai failed to completely bounce back after 1937. The surrounding

countryside was devastated in the wake of the Japanese army’s march on the

republican capital of Nanking. In an effort to deny the mighty Yangtze to the

Japanese navy, chains were stretched across the river effectively ending

commercial traffic as well. Japanese authorities took over the Chinese Maritime

Customs and commencing in 1938 dismantled factories, sending the machinery

back to Japan for scrap.

Little by little the standard coinage Minister Kung had worked so hard to

create began to disappear from general circulation. Metal currency in Shanghai

and throughout central China was aggressively siphoned off by the Japanese to

feed her war machine back home. What better way to augment scarce supplies of

copper and nickel than to assign the enemy’s coins to the crucibles of their war

industry? By mid 1939 the shortage of coin within the International Settlement

became so acute that merchants were no longer able to carry on business as usual.

The shortage of coins forced merchants to quote prices of commodities in round

numbers much to the disadvantage of the poor. Clearly, something had to be done.

Money of the Wu Tang Tsiang Restaurant and the French tramway. Typical of these emergency

issues, all notes no matter how lowly the denomination, bore serial numbers.

One must bear in mind that even at this time (1939-1940) a dollar was quite

a large sum of money to millions of Chinese, in extreme cases equating to a week’s

wages. It becomes obvious then that a great need existed for smaller units of

currency. Even the lowly cent was further divided by the Chinese into

approximately three coppers, and in rural areas the copper further divided into ten

cash.

The merchants of Shanghai, isolated from the central government in

Chungking, and tired of losing business brought about by the shortage of small

change and not being unsympathetic to the suffering of their poor clients, very

soon devised ways of overcoming this obstacle. Their approach was three fold.

First they placed into circulation certain tokens already in existence for specific

purposes. This category included telephone tokens, bus tokens and the slugs

commonly used in slot machines. Their quantity being very limited, this expedient

hardly made a dent in the situation, however. Even postage stamps were used until

the postal authorities stepped in and forbade it. Amazingly, these various and

sundry pieces were readily accepted at the assumed value of “ten cents” by the

money-starved population. The next expedient was to manufacture new coins

varying in value from one to ten cents. These “coins”, or tokens, were usually

made of aluminum and rarely of brass. The manufacture of coins being both timely

and expensive defeated this approach as it became clear that insufficient quantities

could be made to meet the demand.

In 1939 my good friend Harry Atkinson, a retired army colonel, was in

Nanking with the American advisory group. He managed to leave just one step

ahead of the advancing Japanese. His familiarity with the Shanghai tokens was

extensive. At one time Harry bought a large collection of these pieces from an old

man who was selling out and wanted to go to Taiwan. Unfortunately, they were all

stolen in a burglary many years later. Harry states that they were made in local

machine shops – some of them being as large as poker chips. Metals used were

bronze, aluminum and nickel. Americans adopted the practice also as various

military clubs, such as the Fourth Marines, issued their own tokens.

This leads us to the third method employed by the Shanghai merchants to

alleviate the coin shortage – that of printing small change paper money. The

coupon solution was the one relied upon by the overwhelming number of shops

and firms. All kinds of enterprises availed themselves of this opportunity to

alleviate the desperate need for small change. They included theaters, department

stores, tramways, bus companies, hotels, dry goods stores, coffee shops, butchers,

fish markets and a myriad of others. The stouthearted and straightforward manner

in which the Shanghai merchants rose to meet this challenge deserves attention.

Small change paper money, or script, was certainly inexpensive to print. Larger

firms printed them by the tens of thousands. The smaller shops sometimes relied

solely on scraps of paper impressed with a rubber stamp. They all bore one

characteristic in common, however – that of accountability. Almost without

exception these small scraps of paper carried a serial number on their obverse. In

addition, the lesser known firms and shops carried the handwritten signature of the

manager as well. The smaller shops were usually content to either sign the notes or

apply their “chop” after serializing them and affixing their rubber stamp. All this

for one cent! Such a system meant endless work for them, but the merchants of

Shanghai met the challenge nonetheless.

The Sun Company was a large Shanghai department store. It issued small change notes in

denominations of 1, 2, 5 and 10 cents in an effort to keep commerce flowing.

Notes typical of the smaller Chinese shops. Most carried the “chop”, or seal, of the manager, or

in many cases were hand signed by the manager himself.

Paper also being somewhat at a premium, some interesting examples may be

found of script printed on the inside of used cigarette cartons and old shoe boxes,

and in other cases, on discarded theater tickets. The cursory wording on some of

these notes is also interesting – and indicative of the times. Some examples: “This

note can be exchanged for full value after the tension is removed, or for full value

in trade at any time at this restaurant”. Another: “We will return (this note) when

the national cents notes are issued”.

Some firms placed limiting conditions upon their notes. The Majestic Dry

Cleaning Company stated that their note was “Good for ten cents in payment of

accounts” while a note of the Palace Hotel magnanimously stated “This coupon is

good for twenty cents while on the hotel’s premises”. The Sincere Company Ltd.,

living up to its name, stated on its one cent ‘national currency’ bearer coupon:

“This coupon is exchangeable at face value for goods only and being ‘Bearer

Certificated’. No registration of loss will be entertained. This coupon is not valid

unless it bears the official stamp of the company”. It did. A two cent coupon of

the Compagnie Francaise de Tramways et d’Eclairage Electrique de Shanghai, a

streetcar company operating in the French Concession, stated that its money was

good at any place along the company’s route as long as it was used before midnight

30 June 1940: “Ce coupon sera accepte en paiement du prix des places sur les

viotures de la compagnie, pour la valeur deux cents. Il cessera le 30 Juin 1940 a 24

H.”

Temporary 1 cent coupon of the Tsung Tai Money Exchange and Tobacco Shop

Twenty cent note of the Parc des Sports “Auditorium”, a well known Shanghai sports arena.

The fact that the Shanghai money shortage was being felt as early as 1939 is

evident on the notes of the Auditorium, a well known sports palace featuring the

then very popular jai-alai games. It issued a series of well designed notes of ten

and twenty cents (and perhaps other values) upon which this statement appeared on

the reverse of the 20 cent note: “The Auditorium promises to pay the bearer the

sum of twenty dollar cents Shanghai currency on presentation of this note at the

auditorium on meeting days, or at the registered office of Parc des Sports

(Auditorium), 1 Rue Montauban. Dated at Shanghai 1st December 1939″.

The size of these notes bore no relation to their value. Many were printed in

as many as three colors. English was the most prevalent language, although some

vouchers appeared in French while most of the smaller native shops were printed

entirely in Chinese. One of my favorites is a “Good for Ten Cents” coupon of the

Doumer Theater which, so as not to miss out on any possible business, had their

script printed in English on the obverse and Chinese on the reverse, stating “In

view of the present shortage of small money this coupon is worth ten cents at the

theater where it will be taken instead of cash at any time until 1 April, 1940. This

coupon is only valid with the signature of the owner of the Doumer Theater”.

So the city of Shanghai in this manner overcame its difficulties. Each shop,

large or small, intent upon relieving its own requirements contributed to the overall

availability of small change. Eventually the flood of notes forthcoming became

sufficient to keep the lesser wheels of commerce turning. It must be said that the

system was a great success and that despite overwhelming obstacles, – it worked!

Not everyone profited from the scheme however as the poor rickshaw coolies, at

the bottom of the economic scale, had to take their fares in any way they could.

When they went to the money shop to exchange their fistful of nondescript chits

into something more tangible they found that such paper was heavily discounted.

Paper small money continued to be issued and to circulate until the International

Settlement fell to the Japanese army on 8 December 1941.

It goes without saying that after the fall of Shanghai none of this script was

redeemed. The vast majority of this money has been lost forever. Nevertheless,

enough pieces have survived to this day to allow us an insight into these troubled

times and the ingenious way in which Necessity became the Mother of invention.

The central government in far away Chungking recognized the dire straits

which had befallen the Shanghai population but were slow to do anything about it.

Not until the situation became acute did the government authorize the Central Bank

of China to produce a series of small denomination bank notes specifically for

Shanghai emergency money of 1939. Clockwise: upper left, French dog racing course; the Lyric

Theatre; unknown; 1 fen (cent) coupon of the Hongchang Cigarette Shop.; Shanghai Men’s

Toilet; and a 5 cent coupon of the U.S. Navy Y.M.C.A. Soon after Chinese shop owners

commenced issuing emergency paper, European companies soon followed suit.

Shanghai. These notes were printed in denominations of one, five, ten and twenty

cents. Although bearing dates of 1939 and 1940, they did not commence appearing

on the streets of Shanghai until February 1940.

In order to alleviate the Shanghai shortage of small change, the central government in Chungking

finally authorized special “small change” notes of 1 and 5, 10 and 20 cents for circulation there.

The smaller denomination one and five fen (cent) notes bear as their central

vignette a picture of a nine storied pagoda together with the value in cartouches at

right center and at the four corners. The Chinese date “28th Year of the Republic”

(1939) appears below. Their reverse depicts the standard republican one and five

fen “spade” coins respectively. The one cent note is red, while its five cent

companion was printed in green. The work was contracted out to two local firms,

the Union Printing Company and Union Publishers and Printers whose imprint

appears on the notes. Thus, two varieties of each exist.

The two larger denominations of one and two chiao (ten and twenty cents)

were printed by the Chung Hwa Book Company, Ltd. and are of superior

The “specific use” small change note for 20 cents authorized to replace Shanghai’s private paper

money issues.

workmanship. Both show Sun-Yat-Sen in an oval at right with their denominations

in cartouches, as mentioned before. The Chinese date on the obverse of these notes

reads “29th Year of the Republic” while on the reverse the date “1940” is shown.

Unlike the two smaller denominations, the printed signatures of the General

Manager and the Assistant General Manager appear on these notes. All carry the

title “The Central Bank of China” in Chinese on the obverse and in English on the

reverse. The one chiao specimen is light green while the two chiao note is blue.

Both notes are very common and can be easily found by collectors today attesting

to the quantities undoubtedly remaining when the Japanese authorities took over

Shanghai.

Surrender Passes

One other aspect of this story is of more than passing interest. While it has

no bearing on Shanghai directly, it is nevertheless an integral part of the overall

numismatic picture. I refer here to the surrender passes printed by the Japanese

puppet Reformed Government of the Republic of China. These interesting pieces,

rarely encountered today, constitute a part of many important Chinese collections.

After the Japanese attack on Shanghai in 1937 her Central China

Expeditionary Army swept up the Yangtzi river valley to attack Nanking, the then

capital of nationalist China and the seat of Chang Kai Shek’s government. Despite

a pledge that Nanking would never fall, the government and troops panicked

precipitating a mass exodus of civilians and garrison troops. The Japanese

bombarded the city with leaflets promising decent treatment for all civilians

remaining there. Nonetheless, the invading troops on 13 December,1937, upon

entering Nanking, unleashed upon the defeated troops and helpless civilians terror,

destruction and cruelty that has had few parallels. The wanton violence lasted

three weeks and took over 60,000 lives. This action has come to be known as “The

Rape of Nanking”.

Once Nanking had fallen, the Japanese moved to install yet another “puppet”

regime similar to those previously established in Manchukuo, Mongolia and North

China (see my article entitled “Japanese Sponsored Coin and Bank Note Issues

for the Occupied Regions of China” which appeared in the March 1997 issue of

The NI Bulletin). The new governing body was given the somewhat grandiloquent

name “Reformed Government of the Republic of China”. Its area of authority was

to extend over all of central and south China. One Liang Hongzhi, a Chinese with

Japanese sympathies, was installed as President on 28 March, 1938. Chronically

short of money his regime was forced to rely upon an alliance with the gangsters

who ran the rackets in Shanghai for much of its income. Finally the Japanese came

to the rescue by establishing the Central Reserve Bank of China in March 1941,

which was to ultimately serve central and south China as the sole bank of issue.

Initially, its bank notes met a poor reception among the local population; and in

Shanghai’s International Settlement still under the influence of Chungking, the new

notes were refused altogether.

In an effort to swell the ranks of its Japanese controlled puppet army, the

Reformed Government hit upon the idea of printing surrender leaflets and good

conduct passes to entice the morale stricken Nationalist troops to come over to

their side. Issued by the Nanking government’s Military Affairs Committee, these

Front and back sides of a surrender pass guaranteeing safe conduct through the lines. This leaflet

was the product of the newly created Reformed Government of the Republic of China, a Japanese

controlled political entity set up to administer the “liberated” area of China. Its purpose was to

encourage defection of soldiers from Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalist Army. Note that the face of

the note is identical to the 5 cent Shanghai emergency issue of the Central Bank of China. The

printers imprint of the obverse of the real note is lacking on the leaflet, however.

surrender leaflets took the form and appearance of previously issued Central Bank

of China “fa-pai” (legal tender) notes. It is known that the lowly five cent note

prepared to alleviate the Shanghai coin shortage and an obsolete one yuan note of

1936 were used for this purpose. Other examples may exist. The propaganda use

of these notes must therefore equate to the year 1940 – subsequent to the issue of

the five cent note (1939) and prior to the run away inflation commencing in 1942.

For sake of comparison it should be pointed out that a rickshaw fare costing sixty

cents in 1939 had escalated to four hundred dollars by late 1942. To be of any use

for propaganda purposes the notes scattered over Nationalist lines by Japanese

aircraft had to have sufficient value to be picked up and examined!

The surrender pass most usually encountered (although very rarely) is the

green five cent piece, the face of which was printed to resemble its genuine

counterpart. Harry Atkinson, having such a note in his collection, reports that this

pass was also issued in a light-blue ink. The back of the leaflet consisted of a

reproduction of the one yuan note printed by Thomas de la Rue dated 1936 which

had been modified by removing the central and right hand vignettes to

accommodate the propaganda message. All bear the serial number 558829 N/E.

A translation of the message appearing on the reverse of these notes is as follows:

Caption: Certificate for Returning Soldiers

Left hand vertical: Welcome. Join the peace movement.

Right hand vertical: Protect safety of life.

Nine column central message:

This certificate is issued to those who volunteer to join the peace movement

of the New Central Government before a circular is issued by the Military Council.

Agreement has been made with Japanese troops at the front that this certificate will

provide for protection if produced to the Japanese patrol and also for conveniences

for coming back to the New Central Government.

Issued by the Military Council of the Nanking Government.

(Translation courtesy of Harry Atkinson)

Having passed through Shanghai during the war while experiencing some of

China’s history first hand, I have always held a fascination for Asian numismatics.

I have enjoyed researching this little known story of Shanghai’s emergency money

and in shedding new light on this seldom reported and often neglected field.

Bibliography

Ball, J. Dyer Things Chinese, Singapore, 1949, The

International Press

Chen, Jian H. “Development of the Central Mint”, The Journal

of East Asian Numismatics, New York, Vol. III,

Summer 1996

Jacobs, Wayne L. “The Universal Dollar of Republican China”,

Chinese Coins, Montreal, 1969

Lee, Frederic Currency, Banking and Finance in China,

Washington, D.C., 1926, Government Printing Office

Miyashita, Tadao The Currency and Financial System of

Mainland China, Tokyo, 1966, Daini Insatsu

Printing Company

O’Neill, Hugh B. Companion to Chinese History, Oxford, 1987,

Facts on File Publications

Rand, Peter China Hands, New York, 1995, Simon and

Schuster

Sergeant, Harriet Shanghai, New York, 1990, Crown Publishers,

Inc.

Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China, London, 1990,

W.W. Norton and Company

Tong, Hollington K. China Handbook 1937-1943, New York, 1943,

The Macmillan Company

Woodhead, H.G.W. The China Yearbook – 1939, Shanghai, 1939,

The North China Daily News and Herald, Ltd

SHANGHAI’S WARTIME EMERGENCY MONEY

John E. Sandrock

This is the story of a little known aspect of China’s wartime history and an

oft neglected area of numismatics. The setting for our tale is the city of Shanghai

and the time 1939. Dire things are about to happen, but before we can fully

appreciate and understand them, a refresher course in Chinese currency might

prove useful.

For centuries the currency of China had consisted of a jumble of bank notes

and coins issued by every conceivable authority – government, provincial and

private. Most issues circulated only within limited areas (the province of issue) or,

in the case of native banks, circulation was limited to the locale of the town or city

of issue. On the lower end of the scale, notes of the myriad pawn shops and

money- lenders were heavily discounted when presented only a few blocks away or

were refused altogether! Many of these issues had little if any financial backing in

the form of reserves – most depended solely on the reputation of the person printing

and circulating the notes. This chaotic situation permitted the circulation side by

side of notes and coins denominated in cash, cents, ch’uan, coppers, fen, and chiao

much to the consternation of foreigners and to the detriment of commerce.

Silver Dollars

Steps had been taken in 1890 to modernize China’s currency system which

led to the introduction of the first steam operated press at Canton in Kwangtung

province. The mint’s initial task was to strike Chinese silver dollars to replace the

tremendously popular Mexican dollars which had been imported into China to

facilitate trade. The local merchants loved the “Mex” because of its standard

fineness and weight. The newly minted Chinese dollars retained these

characteristics while at the same time appealing to ethnic pride. The “dragon”

dollars, as they came to be called, were readily accepted by the masses. Their

popularity soon led to similar issues being struck by other provincial mints in

Wuchang, Peiyang and Foochow. By the turn of the century additional mints were

operating in Nanking, Hankow, Anking, Chengtu, Mukden and Kirin. It was not

long before these mints produced subsidiary coinage as well.

The Mexican silver dollar (top), imported into China to facilitate trade, proved very popular over

the years. Chinese silver, known as “dragon” dollars (bottom) gradually replaced the “Mex” after

the first mint was opened in Canton in 1890.

Standardization of the currency system was not possible, however, as long as

two units of silver currency – the tael and the dollar – circulated side by side. Since

the tael unit differed in weight and fineness from one locality to another, beside

which existed a number of fictitious taels used only for accounting purposes;

calculating their relative exchange rates presented an exceedingly complicated

problem.

This chaotic situation came to an end when the tael system was abolished in

1933. The Standard Silver Dollar Coinage Law thus promulgated called for a

silver dollar of 880 fineness, containing 23.49 grams of silver. This new national

dollar was to be known as the yuan and was to replace all provincial silver dollars

then in circulation. These moves brought about the first notable monetary reform

in China’s history.

After several false starts the Shanghai Mint, utilizing plant equipment and

coin presses ordered in the United States, formally opened on March 1, 1933. The

now obsolete silver sycee tales, or shoes, comprised ninety percent of the silver

thus converted into legal tender, the remainder being bullion or demonetized silver

dollars or subsidiary silver coins. Silver dollars were in great demand following

the abolition of the sycee tael, as production strained to keep up with requirements.

This first national silver dollar issued by the Shanghai mint has an

interesting story to tell. The proposed design of the new coin called for the head of

Sun-Yat-Sen, the founder of modern China, to be shown on the obverse and a

Chinese junk under sail to appear on the reverse. After reviewing different design

submissions, a winner was chosen and the work assigned the new mint at

Shanghai. The winning design showed Sun-Yat-Sen on the obverse together with

an artistic depiction of a junk sailing into a rayed sun with three geese flying

overhead. This coin, dated the 21st Year of the Republic (1932), was actually

struck between March and June 1933. Over fifty-one thousand of these pieces

entered circulation before they were withdrawn and the coin redesigned. The

reason was patriotic. By this time, the Chinese – Japanese troubles over

Manchukuo had broken out and mint officials feared the sun would be

misinterpreted as the “rising sun” of Japan, and the geese as enemy aircraft. The

redesigned coins continued to be minted in 1933 and 1934 sans the “rising sun”

and ” aircraft”! The 1932 issue is rather scarce today with the other dates

decidedly more plentiful. By 1935 China was off the silver standard, with most of

these junk dollars finding their way into the melting pot and the silver sold abroad.

The Sun Yat Sen standard silver dollar. First introduced in 1932, its reverse design contained

three geese flying over a junk which was sailing into the rising sun. When the Japanese invaded

China shortly thereafter, mint officials had the offending symbolics removed fearing the general

public would construe the geese as raiding aircraft and the rising sun as Japan. Mintage of these

beautiful pieces ceased in 1935 when China abandoned the silver standard.

Subsidiary Coinage

China’s Minister of Finance, H. H. Kung, turned his attention next to

standardizing the country’s subsidiary coinage. In 1935 he announced the

replacement of the confusing mixture of twenty cent pieces, silver dimes and

various coppers then circulating with a standard coinage based on the decimal

system. Thereupon the Shanghai mint was instructed to strike nickel coins of five,

ten and twenty cents and copper coins of one half cent and one cent of uniform

design. These coins made their initial appearance to the general public in February

1936.

All five denominations were produced by the Shanghai mint in 1936. After

that date the one half cent coin was dropped due to its unpopularity and relative

worth. Production of one, five, ten and twenty cent pieces continued throughout

1937 (the one cent only), 1938 and 1939 after which the one cent coin was struck

in aluminum owing to the advent of inflation. In 1939 a two cent piece was added

to meet the need for small change. Five, ten and twenty cent coins continued to be

struck from 1940 through 1942 by which time the need for a fifty cent specimen

manifested itself. This coin was minted over the short span of two years after

which spiraling inflation took its toll. An interesting variation exists in the

production of the ten cent coin in that after1939 the mint changed the character

used for “ten” from the official style of writing to the more popular simple style

(“+”) of expressing the value ten. Eventually all coinage ceased to circulate as

higher and higher denominations of paper money took over as the sole medium of

exchange.

It should be mentioned here that all work had to be suspended at the Central

Government Mint in August 1937 due to the outbreak of war in Shanghai. The staff

was able, however, to dismantle and remove the bulk of its machinery before the

Japanese army had a chance to occupy the mint buildings. The production of

subsidiary coins was then continued at branch mints in the interior located in

Chengtu, Chungking, Wuchang, Kweilin and Lanchow. Production was spread

evenly across all branch mints with the exception of Kweilin which produced only

ten and twenty cent pieces.

The Republic of China’s standardized coin issue was of a very pleasing

design and extremely well struck. The one half, one and two cent coins displayed

on their obverse a depiction of the republican Chinese sun within a wide border

with “Republic of China” and the date appearing above. The reverse of all

denominations was uniform. It shows a bold rendering of an ancient square-footed

spade coin, or “pu”, such as those dating to the Chou dynasty (1122-255 B.C.). A

large number of these pus have, over time, been unearthed in the Chang-tzu and

T’un-lin districts of Shansi province. A wide border containing the coin’s

denomination shown in two characters to left and right of the pu completes the

design. Several curious anomalies add interest to this series. (See Table 1.) From

the outset in 1936, production at the Shanghai mint could not keep up with demand

necessitating the contracting out of additional production to the mint in Vienna,

Austria. These coins are identical in all respects with the exception of the addition

of a mint letter “A” beneath the pu to identify them. Production was limited to

five, ten and twenty cent pieces. The Tientsin mint was also pressed into service to

alleviate demand for these coins. In 1936 this mint produced one million ten cent

coins identical to those being struck in Shanghai, yet it is possible today to tell

them apart! This incongruity stems from the fact that insufficient nickel metal

being then available at the Tientsin mint, a large quantity of diverse metals were

alloyed with the nickel to produce coins of only eighteen percent nickel. The

heavily alloyed coins struck in Tientsin proved to be non magnetic, while the pure

nickel ones (95 percent pure nickel, actually) produced in Shanghai were attracted

to a magnet.

The standard issue of subsidiary coinage released in 1936 included ½, 1, 5, 10 and 20 cent pieces.

Later 2 cent and 50 cent coins were struck. Shown here are the 1 cent (Yr. 25) typical of the ½, 1

and 2 cent design; the 50 cent coin of Yr 31 (1939) which is representative of the 5, 10, 20 and 50

cent issues; and a pattern 1 dollar coin of 1936 which never saw production. The absence of 1937

dated 5, 10 and 20 cent coins in this series is due to the Japanese occupation of Shanghai and the

evacuation of the mint to the interior in August 1937.

Table 1. China’s Standardized National Coinage

Note: * in millions

Denomination Year Metal Mintage* Remarks

½ cent 25 (1936) Bronze 64.720

1 cent 25 (1936)

26 (1937)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

Bronze

“““

311.780

307.198

12.000

75.000

2 cents 28 (1939) Brass 300.000

5 cents 25 (1936)

25 (1936)

25 (1936)

25 (1936)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

29 (1940)

30 (1941)

Nickel

““““

Copper Nickel

72.844

20.000

??

34.325

6.000

57.000

96.000

Shanghai mint

Vienna mint

With “P’ing”

With “Ch’ing”

10 cents 25 (1936)

25 (1936)

25 (1936)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

29 (1940)

29 (1940)

30 (1941)

30 (1941)

31 (1942)

Nickel

““““

Copper Nickel

““““

73.866

60.000

1.000

110.203

68.000

68.000

in above

254.000

in above

10.000

Shanghai mint

Vienna mint

Tientsin mint

Reeded edge

Plain edge

Reeded edge

Plain edge

20 cents 25 (1936)

25 (1936)

27 (1938)

28 (1939)

31 (1942)

Nickel

“““

Copper Nickel

49.620

40.000

61.248

38.000

32.300

Shanghai mint

Vienna mint

50 cents 31 (1942)

32 (1943)

Copper Nickel

57.000

4.000

Three other deviations appeared in the five cent series. Two varieties of this

coin were minted at Shanghai in 1936. On one the character “P’ing” appears on

both sides of Sun-Yat-Sen’s portrait, while the other bears the inscription “Ch’ing”

in the same location. It is not known to the author why this was done. The final

oddity concerns the ten cent coin of1941 which appears with both reeded and plain

edges.

Emergency Money

In the late nineteen thirties one could stand atop Shanghai’s tallest building,

Broadway Mansion, and gaze down upon the city extending to the horizon in all

directions. No wonder the Japanese made it their headquarters in 1941! From this

vantage point the Whangpoo River and Soochow Creek were clearly discernible.

Shanghai was a thriving congested city full of bicyclists weaving between cars and

buses, the tinkling of their bells mixing with the deep blasts from the ships horns of

oceangoing freighters in the Yangtze River beyond.

To the north of Soochow Creek lay the International Settlement, home to

foreigners engulfed in a sea of Chinese. Here three million English, French,

Americans, Germans, Russians, Italians and assorted others were jammed into

twelve and a half square miles.

Beginning in 1842, following the First Opium War, China was increasingly

taken over and exploited by the West, gradually being reduced to a state bordering

on colonization. Because of its commercial importance to the West, Shanghai

symbolized this aggression and submission. Following the Opium Wars, China set

aside three parcels of land for the use of the “foreign devils” – one British, one

American and the third French. In 1863 the Americans joined with the British to

create the International Settlement. The concession enjoyed its own separate

political status, courts, municipal council and police force – all the trappings of

extraterritoriality. By treaty the International Settlement had been leased in

perpetuity from the Chinese. Above all the settlement was a place international in

character, politically neutral, and a place where the rights and privileges inherent in

extraterritoriality were strictly enforced.

Over the years the settlement increased in size ever extending into the

surrounding countryside. By the 1920s Shanghai had become the most

Westernized city in China, enjoying some of its best years. Within the walls of the

settlement foreigners enjoyed an existence of leisure, indulging in their own

pleasure while beyond its walls, the Chinese peasant lived a subsistence level

existence of hard labor with little hope for a better life. Constant fighting

surrounding the settlement (1927: Kuomintang versus Communists; 1932:

Japanese occupation of the city; and 1937: outright war between China and Japan)

did nothing to diminish the good life within. The fighting affected neither the

commerce nor the river traffic upon which Shanghai depended. Foreigners within

the settlement were so complacent that they referred to the 1932 trouble as “the war

across the bridge” (Soochow Creek), and the 1937 Japanese occupation as “the war

at the end of the street” (edge of the settlement boundary)! Of course the world

was caving in around them and the Chinese were enduring unthinkable suffering.

For the time being their enclave was secure because the Japanese war machine in

1937-1940 wasn’t yet ready to take on the world powers of Britain and America.

Still in awe of the British, the Japanese hesitated to take what they wanted.

Choosing to pay lip service to the sovereignty of her future enemies instead, Japan

developed a hands-off policy, and life within the International Settlement went on

pretty much as usual.

The situation beyond the Settlement walls presented a stark contrast,

however. Shanghai’s industrial enterprises suffered irreparable losses in

consequence of the undeclared war. The northern districts of Hongkew and Chapei

were particularly hard hit. Incessant warfare and bombing made any kind of

commerce an impossibility. Cotton mills, ironworks, soap factories, woolen mills,

tobacco factories, breweries, rubber and printing works, shipyards and wharves all

shut down as if on command. Work ceased abruptly everywhere, sending 800,000

refugees swarming into the International Settlement. Many factories were

destroyed in the course of actual fighting while many others burned to the ground.

The electric company and waterworks were one of the first casualties of Japanese

bombs, depriving greater Shanghai’s citizens of light and water. Coal, transport

and food were in short supply. The industrial might of greater Shanghai had been

brought to a standstill in a matter of weeks. Faced with all this, the Chinese people

refused to abandon hope. They stood as one solid body behind their government

with a renewed determination to resist the Japanese enemy, understanding that not

to do so would in all probability result in their permanent extinction as a nation.

The first to feel the effect of the turning tide was the city’s commerce.

Shanghai failed to completely bounce back after 1937. The surrounding

countryside was devastated in the wake of the Japanese army’s march on the

republican capital of Nanking. In an effort to deny the mighty Yangtze to the

Japanese navy, chains were stretched across the river effectively ending

commercial traffic as well. Japanese authorities took over the Chinese Maritime

Customs and commencing in 1938 dismantled factories, sending the machinery

back to Japan for scrap.

Little by little the standard coinage Minister Kung had worked so hard to

create began to disappear from general circulation. Metal currency in Shanghai

and throughout central China was aggressively siphoned off by the Japanese to

feed her war machine back home. What better way to augment scarce supplies of

copper and nickel than to assign the enemy’s coins to the crucibles of their war

industry? By mid 1939 the shortage of coin within the International Settlement

became so acute that merchants were no longer able to carry on business as usual.

The shortage of coins forced merchants to quote prices of commodities in round

numbers much to the disadvantage of the poor. Clearly, something had to be done.

Money of the Wu Tang Tsiang Restaurant and the French tramway. Typical of these emergency

issues, all notes no matter how lowly the denomination, bore serial numbers.

One must bear in mind that even at this time (1939-1940) a dollar was quite

a large sum of money to millions of Chinese, in extreme cases equating to a week’s

wages. It becomes obvious then that a great need existed for smaller units of

currency. Even the lowly cent was further divided by the Chinese into

approximately three coppers, and in rural areas the copper further divided into ten

cash.

The merchants of Shanghai, isolated from the central government in

Chungking, and tired of losing business brought about by the shortage of small

change and not being unsympathetic to the suffering of their poor clients, very

soon devised ways of overcoming this obstacle. Their approach was three fold.

First they placed into circulation certain tokens already in existence for specific

purposes. This category included telephone tokens, bus tokens and the slugs

commonly used in slot machines. Their quantity being very limited, this expedient

hardly made a dent in the situation, however. Even postage stamps were used until

the postal authorities stepped in and forbade it. Amazingly, these various and

sundry pieces were readily accepted at the assumed value of “ten cents” by the

money-starved population. The next expedient was to manufacture new coins

varying in value from one to ten cents. These “coins”, or tokens, were usually

made of aluminum and rarely of brass. The manufacture of coins being both timely

and expensive defeated this approach as it became clear that insufficient quantities

could be made to meet the demand.

In 1939 my good friend Harry Atkinson, a retired army colonel, was in

Nanking with the American advisory group. He managed to leave just one step

ahead of the advancing Japanese. His familiarity with the Shanghai tokens was

extensive. At one time Harry bought a large collection of these pieces from an old

man who was selling out and wanted to go to Taiwan. Unfortunately, they were all

stolen in a burglary many years later. Harry states that they were made in local

machine shops – some of them being as large as poker chips. Metals used were

bronze, aluminum and nickel. Americans adopted the practice also as various

military clubs, such as the Fourth Marines, issued their own tokens.

This leads us to the third method employed by the Shanghai merchants to

alleviate the coin shortage – that of printing small change paper money. The

coupon solution was the one relied upon by the overwhelming number of shops

and firms. All kinds of enterprises availed themselves of this opportunity to

alleviate the desperate need for small change. They included theaters, department

stores, tramways, bus companies, hotels, dry goods stores, coffee shops, butchers,

fish markets and a myriad of others. The stouthearted and straightforward manner

in which the Shanghai merchants rose to meet this challenge deserves attention.

Small change paper money, or script, was certainly inexpensive to print. Larger

firms printed them by the tens of thousands. The smaller shops sometimes relied

solely on scraps of paper impressed with a rubber stamp. They all bore one

characteristic in common, however – that of accountability. Almost without

exception these small scraps of paper carried a serial number on their obverse. In

addition, the lesser known firms and shops carried the handwritten signature of the

manager as well. The smaller shops were usually content to either sign the notes or

apply their “chop” after serializing them and affixing their rubber stamp. All this

for one cent! Such a system meant endless work for them, but the merchants of

SHsANGHAI

Shanghai met the challenge nonetheless.

The Sun Company was a large Shanghai department store. It issued small change notes in

denominations of 1, 2, 5 and 10 cents in an effort to keep commerce flowing.

Notes typical of the smaller Chinese shops. Most carried the “chop”, or seal, of the manager, or

in many cases were hand signed by the manager himself.

Paper also being somewhat at a premium, some interesting examples may be

found of script printed on the inside of used cigarette cartons and old shoe boxes,

and in other cases, on discarded theater tickets. The cursory wording on some of

these notes is also interesting – and indicative of the times. Some examples: “This

note can be exchanged for full value after the tension is removed, or for full value

in trade at any time at this restaurant”. Another: “We will return (this note) when

the national cents notes are issued”.

Some firms placed limiting conditions upon their notes. The Majestic Dry

Cleaning Company stated that their note was “Good for ten cents in payment of

accounts” while a note of the Palace Hotel magnanimously stated “This coupon is

good for twenty cents while on the hotel’s premises”. The Sincere Company Ltd.,

living up to its name, stated on its one cent ‘national currency’ bearer coupon:

“This coupon is exchangeable at face value for goods only and being ‘Bearer

Certificated’. No registration of loss will be entertained. This coupon is not valid

unless it bears the official stamp of the company”. It did. A two cent coupon of

the Compagnie Francaise de Tramways et d’Eclairage Electrique de Shanghai, a

streetcar company operating in the French Concession, stated that its money was

good at any place along the company’s route as long as it was used before midnight

30 June 1940: “Ce coupon sera accepte en paiement du prix des places sur les

viotures de la compagnie, pour la valeur deux cents. Il cessera le 30 Juin 1940 a 24

H.”

Temporary 1 cent coupon of the Tsung Tai Money Exchange and Tobacco Shop

Twenty cent note of the Parc des Sports “Auditorium”, a well known Shanghai sports arena.

The fact that the Shanghai money shortage was being felt as early as 1939 is

evident on the notes of the Auditorium, a well known sports palace featuring the

then very popular jai-alai games. It issued a series of well designed notes of ten

and twenty cents (and perhaps other values) upon which this statement appeared on

the reverse of the 20 cent note: “The Auditorium promises to pay the bearer the

sum of twenty dollar cents Shanghai currency on presentation of this note at the

auditorium on meeting days, or at the registered office of Parc des Sports

(Auditorium), 1 Rue Montauban. Dated at Shanghai 1st December 1939″.

The size of these notes bore no relation to their value. Many were printed in

as many as three colors. English was the most prevalent language, although some

vouchers appeared in French while most of the smaller native shops were printed

entirely in Chinese. One of my favorites is a “Good for Ten Cents” coupon of the

Doumer Theater which, so as not to miss out on any possible business, had their

script printed in English on the obverse and Chinese on the reverse, stating “In

view of the present shortage of small money this coupon is worth ten cents at the

theater where it will be taken instead of cash at any time until 1 April, 1940. This

coupon is only valid with the signature of the owner of the Doumer Theater”.

So the city of Shanghai in this manner overcame its difficulties. Each shop,

large or small, intent upon relieving its own requirements contributed to the overall

availability of small change. Eventually the flood of notes forthcoming became

sufficient to keep the lesser wheels of commerce turning. It must be said that the

system was a great success and that despite overwhelming obstacles, – it worked!

Not everyone profited from the scheme however as the poor rickshaw coolies, at

the bottom of the economic scale, had to take their fares in any way they could.

When they went to the money shop to exchange their fistful of nondescript chits

into something more tangible they found that such paper was heavily discounted.

Paper small money continued to be issued and to circulate until the International

Settlement fell to the Japanese army on 8 December 1941.

It goes without saying that after the fall of Shanghai none of this script was

redeemed. The vast majority of this money has been lost forever. Nevertheless,

enough pieces have survived to this day to allow us an insight into these troubled

times and the ingenious way in which Necessity became the Mother of invention.

The central government in far away Chungking recognized the dire straits

which had befallen the Shanghai population but were slow to do anything about it.

Not until the situation became acute did the government authorize the Central Bank

of China to produce a series of small denomination bank notes specifically for

Shanghai emergency money of 1939. Clockwise: upper left, French dog racing course; the Lyric

Theatre; unknown; 1 fen (cent) coupon of the Hongchang Cigarette Shop.; Shanghai Men’s

Toilet; and a 5 cent coupon of the U.S. Navy Y.M.C.A. Soon after Chinese shop owners

commenced issuing emergency paper, European companies soon followed suit.

Shanghai. These notes were printed in denominations of one, five, ten and twenty

cents. Although bearing dates of 1939 and 1940, they did not commence appearing

on the streets of Shanghai until February 1940.

In order to alleviate the Shanghai shortage of small change, the central government in Chungking

finally authorized special “small change” notes of 1 and 5, 10 and 20 cents for circulation there.

The smaller denomination one and five fen (cent) notes bear as their central

vignette a picture of a nine storied pagoda together with the value in cartouches at

right center and at the four corners. The Chinese date “28th Year of the Republic”

(1939) appears below. Their reverse depicts the standard republican one and five

fen “spade” coins respectively. The one cent note is red, while its five cent

companion was printed in green. The work was contracted out to two local firms,

the Union Printing Company and Union Publishers and Printers whose imprint

appears on the notes. Thus, two varieties of each exist.

The two larger denominations of one and two chiao (ten and twenty cents)

were printed by the Chung Hwa Book Company, Ltd. and are of superior

The “specific use” small change note for 20 cents authorized to replace Shanghai’s private paper

money issues.

workmanship. Both show Sun-Yat-Sen in an oval at right with their denominations

in cartouches, as mentioned before. The Chinese date on the obverse of these notes

reads “29th Year of the Republic” while on the reverse the date “1940” is shown.

Unlike the two smaller denominations, the printed signatures of the General

Manager and the Assistant General Manager appear on these notes. All carry the

title “The Central Bank of China” in Chinese on the obverse and in English on the

reverse. The one chiao specimen is light green while the two chiao note is blue.

Both notes are very common and can be easily found by collectors today attesting

to the quantities undoubtedly remaining when the Japanese authorities took over

Shanghai.

Surrender Passes

One other aspect of this story is of more than passing interest. While it has

no bearing on Shanghai directly, it is nevertheless an integral part of the overall

numismatic picture. I refer here to the surrender passes printed by the Japanese

puppet Reformed Government of the Republic of China. These interesting pieces,

rarely encountered today, constitute a part of many important Chinese collections.

After the Japanese attack on Shanghai in 1937 her Central China

Expeditionary Army swept up the Yangtzi river valley to attack Nanking, the then

capital of nationalist China and the seat of Chang Kai Shek’s government. Despite

a pledge that Nanking would never fall, the government and troops panicked

precipitating a mass exodus of civilians and garrison troops. The Japanese

bombarded the city with leaflets promising decent treatment for all civilians

remaining there. Nonetheless, the invading troops on 13 December,1937, upon

entering Nanking, unleashed upon the defeated troops and helpless civilians terror,

destruction and cruelty that has had few parallels. The wanton violence lasted

three weeks and took over 60,000 lives. This action has come to be known as “The

Rape of Nanking”.

Once Nanking had fallen, the Japanese moved to install yet another “puppet”

regime similar to those previously established in Manchukuo, Mongolia and North

China (see my article entitled “Japanese Sponsored Coin and Bank Note Issues

for the Occupied Regions of China” which appeared in the March 1997 issue of

The NI Bulletin). The new governing body was given the somewhat grandiloquent

name “Reformed Government of the Republic of China”. Its area of authority was

to extend over all of central and south China. One Liang Hongzhi, a Chinese with

Japanese sympathies, was installed as President on 28 March, 1938. Chronically

short of money his regime was forced to rely upon an alliance with the gangsters

who ran the rackets in Shanghai for much of its income. Finally the Japanese came

to the rescue by establishing the Central Reserve Bank of China in March 1941,

which was to ultimately serve central and south China as the sole bank of issue.

Initially, its bank notes met a poor reception among the local population; and in

Shanghai’s International Settlement still under the influence of Chungking, the new

notes were refused altogether.

In an effort to swell the ranks of its Japanese controlled puppet army, the

Reformed Government hit upon the idea of printing surrender leaflets and good

conduct passes to entice the morale stricken Nationalist troops to come over to

their side. Issued by the Nanking government’s Military Affairs Committee, these

Front and back sides of a surrender pass guaranteeing safe conduct through the lines. This leaflet

was the product of the newly created Reformed Government of the Republic of China, a Japanese

controlled political entity set up to administer the “liberated” area of China. Its purpose was to

encourage defection of soldiers from Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalist Army. Note that the face of

the note is identical to the 5 cent Shanghai emergency issue of the Central Bank of China. The

printers imprint of the obverse of the real note is lacking on the leaflet, however.

surrender leaflets took the form and appearance of previously issued Central Bank

of China “fa-pai” (legal tender) notes. It is known that the lowly five cent note

prepared to alleviate the Shanghai coin shortage and an obsolete one yuan note of

1936 were used for this purpose. Other examples may exist. The propaganda use

of these notes must therefore equate to the year 1940 – subsequent to the issue of

the five cent note (1939) and prior to the run away inflation commencing in 1942.

For sake of comparison it should be pointed out that a rickshaw fare costing sixty

cents in 1939 had escalated to four hundred dollars by late 1942. To be of any use

for propaganda purposes the notes scattered over Nationalist lines by Japanese

aircraft had to have sufficient value to be picked up and examined!

The surrender pass most usually encountered (although very rarely) is the

green five cent piece, the face of which was printed to resemble its genuine

counterpart. Harry Atkinson, having such a note in his collection, reports that this

pass was also issued in a light-blue ink. The back of the leaflet consisted of a

reproduction of the one yuan note printed by Thomas de la Rue dated 1936 which

had been modified by removing the central and right hand vignettes to

accommodate the propaganda message. All bear the serial number 558829 N/E.

A translation of the message appearing on the reverse of these notes is as follows:

Caption: Certificate for Returning Soldiers

Left hand vertical: Welcome. Join the peace movement.

Right hand vertical: Protect safety of life.

Nine column central message:

This certificate is issued to those who volunteer to join the peace movement

of the New Central Government before a circular is issued by the Military Council.

Agreement has been made with Japanese troops at the front that this certificate will

provide for protection if produced to the Japanese patrol and also for conveniences

for coming back to the New Central Government.

Issued by the Military Council of the Nanking Government.

(Translation courtesy of Harry Atkinson)

Having passed through Shanghai during the war while experiencing some of

China’s history first hand, I have always held a fascination for Asian numismatics.

I have enjoyed researching this little known story of Shanghai’s emergency money

and in shedding new light on this seldom reported and often neglected field.

Bibliography

Ball, J. Dyer Things Chinese, Singapore, 1949, The

International Press

Chen, Jian H. “Development of the Central Mint”, The Journal

of East Asian Numismatics, New York, Vol. III,

Summer 1996

Jacobs, Wayne L. “The Universal Dollar of Republican China”,

Chinese Coins, Montreal, 1969

Lee, Frederic Currency, Banking and Finance in China,

Washington, D.C., 1926, Government Printing Office

Miyashita, Tadao The Currency and Financial System of

Mainland China, Tokyo, 1966, Daini Insatsu

Printing Company

O’Neill, Hugh B. Companion to Chinese History, Oxford, 1987,

Facts on File Publications

Rand, Peter China Hands, New York, 1995, Simon and

Schuster

Sergeant, Harriet Shanghai, New York, 1990, Crown Publishers,

Inc.

Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China, London, 1990,

W.W. Norton and Company

Tong, Hollington K. China Handbook 1937-1943, New York, 1943,

The Macmillan Company

Woodhead, H.G.W. The China Yearbook – 1939, Shanghai, 1939,

The North China Daily News and Herald, Ltd

.The Illustration only for premium member,

please subscribed via comment.

Pick #

Date

 
    A Brief History of the Bank of ChinaHhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com– The Bank of China’s beginnings lie within the Imperial Chinese Court.The Hupu Bank
The Hupu Bank was organized by the Imperial Ministry of Revenues in 1904 during the Qing Dynasty. It is the oldest government owned and operated bank in China and opened its first office in Beijing on September 27, 1905 (August 29, 31st year of Guangxu – Qing Dynasty). In 1907, the Hupu Bank established a Jinan branch. In 1908 its name was changed to “Great Qing Bank” (The Da Ching Government Bank) The Imperial Court of China effectively ended in 1911 when Pu Yi, the young Emperor, abdicated in favor of the new Republic of China envisaged by Sun Yat-Sen. The Republic of China was promulgated on January 1, 1912, with the seat of government being based in Nanjing. The Local Chupu Banknote:

 

 

The Ta Ching Government Bank
The Ta Ching Government Bank became the only authorized note issuing authority in China until its name was changed to the Bank of China in 1912. The Bank of China today therefore has its roots in Imperial China. The bank had its operations at 3-5, Hankou Road, Shanghai, before being changed to the Bank of China. The building is still there.

The Bank Of China
Founded in 1912 to absorb and replace the Ta Ching Government Bank, this is the oldest bank in China. From its establishment until 1942, it issued banknotes on behalf of the Central Government along with the “Big Four” banks of the period: the Central Bank of China, The Farmer’s Bank of China and the Bank of Communications. It opened its first branch in Hong Kong in 1917. Although it initially functioned as mainland China’s central bank, it was replaced in this role by the Central Bank of China in 1928. Subsequently, it became a purely commercial bank. After the Chinese civil war ended in 1949, the Bank of China effectively split into two operations. The mainland operation is the current entity known as the Bank of China, and is now the second largest lender in China overall, and the 8th largest bank in the world by market capitalization value. The Taiwanese portion of the bank relocated to Taiwan with the Kuomingtang government in 1949. It was privatized in 1971 to become the International Commercial Bank of China, then subsequently merged with the Taiwan Bank of Communications (Chiao Tung Bank), to become the Mega International Commercial Bank.

Today, the Bank of China has over RMB 3 trillion in assets, making the Fortune Global 500 for the past 17 years. The Bank of China building in Hong Kong, designed by I.M. Pei and opened in 1990, and is currently the 10th tallest building in the world.



Many early 20th-century China banknotes are beautiful and this c.1914 issue is no exception.  It was issued by the Bank of Communications in China but printed by the American Banknote Co. which did much early-20th century printing for foreign governments’ paper money, stamps and US stamps as well.  this says “10 yuan of the national coinage of the Republic of China.”
 
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Here are the 1 yuan and 5 yuan notes from China issued in 1937, the year Japan fully invaded China thus beginning the war in ernest for these two countries. The Bank of China used Sun Yat Sen on a lot of its currency at this time.




Here are the 5-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-yuan denomination banknotes for the same Bank of China 1940 issue.  The American Bank Note Co. printed the 1940 series while the English Thomas de la Rue Co. did the 1937 notes, above.
 
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1941 Bank of Communications 10 yuan banknote for China.

Central Bank of China 1942 10 yuan note.

1945 500 yuan note with Sun Yat Sen at center.

the Farmer’s Bank of China’s 10 yuan banknote from 1940.

Central Reserve Bank of China 1 yuan note from 1940.

The 10 yuan note from the same bank and year.
the Central Reserve Bank of China was a ‘puppet’ bank of the Japanese government and occupying military forces.  In order to gain more acceptance, the Jpanaes put Sun Yat Sen (a national hero of the Chinese) and his masoleum–perhaps as a subtle jibe at him.

The Bank of China ceased issuing bank notes in 1942, when the Communist Party reorganized China’s banking system and re-positioned the Peoples Bank of China as the main bank note issuing authority, a position which it retains today. The only exceptions for issuance of notes by the Bank of China have been the old Foreign Exchange Certificates, issued only to foreigners until 1990, and two special commemorative issues, for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and for the new millennium.
Pictured below are examples of notes the bank issued as one of China’s four issuing banks and then as FEC and commemorative issues:

1918 5 yuan bank note

1930 Bank of China 5 dollar note

1940 Bank of China 10 yuan note (picturing Dr. Sun Yat-Sen; printed by the American Bank Note Company)

1988 Bank of China RMB50 FEC

2000 Bank of China RMB100 millennium commemorative note

Responses to A Brief History of the Bank of China

I AM IN POSSESSION OF A $100 BANK NOTE ISSUED BY THE CENTRAL BANK OF CHINA IN 1928 WITH THE PORTRAIT OF SUN YAT-SEN ON THE FRONT. THE SERIAL NUMBERS ON THE BACK ARE IN RED INK AND READ AS FOLLOWS: SC097873M. FROM THE LITERATURE I’VE READ, THIS IS THE FIRST YEAR THE CENTRAL BANK OF CHINA ISSUED THESE BANK NOTES. IF AT ALL POSSIBLE CAN YOU PROVIDE ME WITH MORE LITERATURE OR PERHAPS TELL WHERE I CAN FIND MORE LITERATURE REGARDING THIS OLD AND APPARENTLY RARE BANK NOTE.

  1. 1.    THE VALUE MOF CHINA BANKNOTE
  2. 2.    CHINA55. Ch’Ing Dynasty, Taiping Rebellion year 6 (1856) 500 cash, 128 x 230mm.blue and red. (A1) Nice VF. View Item  $ 200
  3. 3.    56. Bank of Communications, 1914, 5 yuan, stamped SHANGHAI, with locomotive on obverse, (P117o). Unc. View Item  $ 35
  4. 4.    57. Bank of Communications, 1927, 1 yuan, stamped Tsingtau, 150 x 80mm. yellow. (145Ba), Fine. View Item  $ 20
  5. 5.    58. Bank of Communications, 1914, 100 yuan, stamped SHANGHAI, with locomotive on reverse,168 x 90mm. purple. (P120). VF.View Item $ 2059. Bank of Communications, 1941, 50 yuan, 170 x 83mm. brown. (P161b) Unc. View Item $ 2060. Bank of China, 1918, 20 cents, 116 x 62mm. black. (P49b)Unc. View Item $ 7561. Central Bank of China, 1930, 10 cents, 120 x 57mm. purple, (P323a). Unc. View Item  $ 4062. Central Bank of China, 1930, 20 cents, 128 x 63mm, green, (P324a). Unc. View Item  $ 4563. Central Bank of China, 1930, 250 gold units, 163 x 78mm. (P331). Unc. View Item  $ 2064. Central Bank of China, 1948, 50,000 gold units, 66 x 150 mm. red, (P370). Unc. View Item  $ 2565. Central Bank of China, 1948, 50,000 gold units, 73 x 165 mm. deep purple, (P372). Unc. View Item  $ 30
  6. 6.    66. Central Bank of China, bulk lot of four similar gold unit notes with each note oriented in the vertical. Nos. P325d, one gold unit; P326, 5 gold units; P327d, 10 gold units; P330, 100 gold units; Unc. $ 15/467. Central Bank of China, bulk lot of five similar gold unit notes with each note oriented in the vertical. Nos. P 339c, 1000 gold units; P340, 2000 gold units; P343, 2000 gold units, P344, 2000 gold units; and P347, 5000 gold units. All unc. $ 32.50/568. Central Bank of China, bulk lot of seven similar gold unit notes with each note oriented in the vertical. Nos. P335, 500 gold units; P350, 5000 gold units (with grafitti); P351, 5000 gold units; P352, 5000 gold units; P354, 10,000 gold units; P361, 5000 gold units; and P364, 10,000 gold units.EF-Unc. $ 60/769. Central Bank of China, bulk lot of six notes with each note oriented in the normal horizontal fashion. Nos. P168, 20 cents;P194b, 20 cents; P195c, $1; P196d, $5; P252, 1000 yuan; P253, 2000 yuan. XF-Unc. $ 100/6
    70. Sino-Scandinavian Bank, 1922, five yuan, 155 x 82mm. brown, stamped Tientsin, with Viking ship cartouche. (S541). Unc.View Item  $ 2571. Sino-Scandinavian Bank, 1922, one yuan, 145 x 75mm. green, (S580). Unc. SPECIMEN Note, unpublished. Unique? View Item  $ 500
  7. 7.     
  8. 8.     
  9. 9.     
  10. 10.   
  11. 11.   
  12. 12.   
  13. 13.  72. Tung Wai Bank, 1912, One Dollar, 153 x 90 mm. green with pair of flying bats on obverse and reverse. Reverse in purple and green. (S&MC31). Folded in center. XF and rare. View Item  $ 150
  14. 14.  73. Gwa Swarmun Yiack Bank, (1914) 1 dollar, 135 x 95mm. green- yellow/blue, (S&M WW1). Unc. View Item  $ 75
  15. 15.  74. Provincial Bank of Chihli, (ND) a lot of two small size notes for 10 and 20 cents. 110 x 57mm. Nos. 1285-1286. Purple and green respectively. Unc. View Item  $ 50/2
  16. 16.  75. Provincial Bank of Chihli,1920, $1,TIENTSIN, 145 x 77mm. green. (S1263). VF+, scarce. View Item  $ 50
  17. 17.  76. Provincial Bank of Honan, 1923, five yuan, TIENTSIN, 150 x 85mm. brown on back. (S1689b). XF. View Item $ 4077. Hunan Provicial Bank, 1938, 10 cents, 95 x 48mm. purple, (S1989). Unc. View Item $ 3078. Kueichou Bank, (ND) ten cents, 120 x 62mm. green. (S2477) XF. View Item $ 4079. Kwangtung Provincial Bank, 1931, $ 10, 142 x 88mm. red. (S2423). XF; 140 x 70mm,along with Kwangtung Province, $ 50, 180 x 95mm. green on back, o/s on front. (S2-104). VF. $ 50/280. Provincial Army Note of Shantung, 1926, 10 cents, 110 x 62mm, purple, (S3936) Fine, scarce. $ 2081. Provincial Army Note of Shantung, 1926, one yuan, 147 x 78mm. purple, misprint on right margin of obverse. Some staining, (S3939) VF. View Item  $ 70
  18. 18.  82. Provincial Army Note of Shantung, 1926, 5 yuan, 155 x 85 mm. red, (S3946). Unc. Rare! View Item $ 12583. Bank of the Northwest, Kalgan, 1925, 20 copper coins, 120 x 70mm. green. (S3865a). XF. View Item $ 5084. Peoples Republic, 1949, 200 yuan, 130 x 70mm. blue, (P841). VF. View Item $ 8085. Peoples Republic, 1949, 500 yuan, 133 x 70mm. brown and black, (P843). VF. View Item  $ 3086. Peoples Republic, 1949, 5000 yuan, 140 x 75mm. dark green, (P852). VF+. View Item  $ 7587. Peoples Republic, 1949, 10,000 yuan, 140 x 75mm. dark brown, (P853). XF. View Item  $ 35JAPANESE PUPPET BANKS IN CHINA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AA2-10

20

 

300

 

1000

RMB

 

 

3000

 

9000

 

10000

 

1368-99

20, 300, 1.000 cash

A1-8

1853-59

 

RMB

 3000

500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000, 5.000, 10.000, 50.000, 100.000 cash

A9-13

1853-59

1, 3, 5 10, 50 Tael
    – General Bank of Communications

1$

5$*

10$

A14-9

1904

 

 

1909

1, 5 10 dollars; Canton, Hankow, Kaifeng, Shanghai, Swatow, Wusih or Yingkow Branch
    – Hu Pu Bank 

A24

1905

1906

1 dollar

A25-35

(1909)

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 50, 100, 500 Teals
    – Imperial Bank of China

A36-8

$1*

1898

1, 5, 10 dollars; Canton Branch

A39-44

1898

5 mace, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 tales; Peking Branch

A39-44

1898

5 mace, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 tales; Peking Branch

A45-50

1898

1/2, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 tales; Sanghai Branch

A51-54A

1898

1, 5, 10, 50, 100 dollars; Shanghai Branch

A55-55A

$5

$10*

1904

5, 10 dollars
    – Imperial Chinese Railways

A56

1895

1 dollar; Peiyang Branch

A57-61

1895

1, 5, 10 dollars; Shanghai Branch
    – Ningpo Commercial Bank

A61A-D

1909

1, 2, 5, 10 dollars
    – Ta Ch’ing Government Bank 

A62-75

1906

1, 5, 10 dollars; Chinanfu, Fengtien, Foochow, Hangchow, Hankow, Hunan, Kaifong, Kalgan, Kwangchow, Peking, Shanghai, Tientsin, Urga, Wuhu, Yingkow, Yunnan Branch

A76-78B

1909

1, 5, 10, 50, 100 dollars

A79-82

(1910)

1, 5, 10, 100 dollars
    – Ta Ch’ing Government Bank, Shansi

A83-83J

5 yuan*

(1911)

(1912)

1, 3, 100, 1.000 talesShanghai yuan 

 

$1

 

 

 

$5.-

 

 

3000

2000

5000

RMB

Charter bank of Inida,Australia and China
Close Window

 

$10

Date

 20.000

RMB

Sino_Belgian Bank   Hongkong banknote

 

 

Hong Kong,10 Dollars,
The Chartered Bank of India,Australia and China.
1st.Sept.1956.

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
   

 

 

 

   

    
        
  
      
     
    
 
 
 

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1940-1970

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  1940-44 Head of State Khertek Anchimaa-Toka, People’s Republic of Tannu Tuva
As Chairperson of the Presidium of the Parliament, the Little Hüral, Khertek Amyrbitovna was the Head of the state which became Independent in 1921, a People’s Republic in 1926, was incoroprated into the Soviet Union in 1944. She had held various jobs in local administration and the party administration, Chairperson of the Women Department of the Central Committee of  the Tuvinian People’s Revolutionary Party 1938-1940. Married to the First Secretary of the TPRP, Salchak Kalbakkhorekovich Toka in 1940, Deputy Chairperson of Oblast Executive Committee 1944-1961 and Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Ministers of Tuva 1961-1972. She lived (1912-2008).

  1940-46 and 1946-47 HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Tara Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)
Also known as Tarabai Sahib ChhaatrapatiorIndumati Devi, she was widow of Maharaja Sir Rajaram II Bhonsle Chhatrapathi Maharaj who “only” had one daughter. She therefore adopted a relative, Shivaji V, who lived (1941-46). Tarabai also adopted his successor. Born as Princess of Baroda (b.1904-).

  1941-60 Acting Paramount Chief The Mofumahali ‘MaNtsebo Amalia ‘Matsaba Sempe of Basutoland (Lesotho)
Reigned after the death of her husband and succeeded as ruler of the British protectorate of Basutoland – now known as Leshoto – by her son, Moshoeshoe II, who was King 1960-70, 1970-88 and 1990-96. She lived (1902-65).

  1941-43 and 1947-48 Regent HH Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Pramula Bai Maharaj Sahib of Dewas (Senior) (India)
Her husband, Maharaja Sir Shahaji II (or Sir Vikramsinh Rao Tukoji Rao Puar (1901-83)) was ruler of Dewar (1937-41) but abdicated in order to become ruler of Kolhapur. He had been adopted by Dowager Maharani Tara Bai (See below) and was succeeded in Dewar by oldest son, Krishnaji Rao II. In Kolhapur succeeded by son of oldest daughter, whom Sir Shahaji adopted. Pramula Bai is born as Princess of Jath (b. 1910-).

  1941 and 1942-1943 Regent Maharani Shri Gulab Kunwarba Sahib of  Nawanagar (India)
In charge of the government during the absences of her husband since 1935, Maharaja Jam Shri Sir Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji Sahib Bahadur of Nawanagar. She was Daughter of H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharao Shri Sir Sarup Ram Singhji Bahadur, Maharao of Sirohi, by his first wife, H.H. Maharani Krishna Kunwarba Sahib, and lived (1910-94

  1941-46 Acting Paramount Chiefess Elizabeth Tshatshu of the Xhosa Tribe of amaNtinde (South Africa)
Acted after the death of Mgcawezulu a Nongane until she was succeeded by Zwelitsha a Mgcawezulu, who is still Inkosi Enkhulu.

  1941 Queen Mother Mutaleni kaMpingana of Ondonga (Namibia)
After the death of King Martin Nambala yaKadhikwa she played an important role in the selection of the 13th King of the Ondonga area, Kambonde kaNamene (1942-1960).

  1941-79 Politically Influential HIH Princess Ashraf Pahlavi of Iran
In 1946 her twin brother, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, send her to negotiate with Stalin in the Kremlin, to secure the return of some Soviet occupied parts of Iran. She was Head of the Woman’s Organization of Iran and a Special Ambassador to the United Nations. Her first two marriages ended in divorce, her third husband died. According to Iranian usage, her sons two sons and their children had the title H.H. Prince and father’s surname. Her daughter is H.H. Princess and the husband’s surname. (b. 1919-).

  1942-44 Counsellor of State HH Princess Maud Duff of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Countess of Southeask
Princess Maude only acted as ruling Counsellor once in 1943. She was the younger daughter of The Princess Royal and the Duke of Fife, and was married to the 11th Earl of Southeask (1893-1992). Her only son, James Carnagie, succeeded her sister as 3rd Duke of Fife. Maude was appointed as one of the Counsellors of State during king George VI’s visit to Africa, and lived (1893-1945)

  1942-69 Dwabenhemaa Nana Dwaben Serwaa II of Dwaben (Ghana)
1959-63 Dwabenhene (King)
Concurrent Queen and King of Dwaben. First enstooled as the Queen of Dwaben and held the joint offices until1963, when she placed her son, Nana Kwabena Boateng II on the male Stool of Dwaben, making him Dwabenhene. She continued to rule as Dwabenhemaa until 1969, when she abdicated. Nana Dwaben Serwaa II, is still alive and well over a 100yrs of age. She lives in Dwaben, in Ashanti and in Ghana.

  1943-57 Acting Chiefess Nofikile a Ngongo of the Xhosa Tribe of imiDushane kaNdlambe (South Africa) 
Acting after the death of Inkosi Enkhulu Gushiphela a Menziwa and succeeded by Zimlindile Payment Muyaka a Gushiphela, who is still Chief of the tribe. 

  1943-55 Guardian Dowager Queen Ioanna of Italy of Bulgaria
Married to King Boris III, who tried to remain natural as World War II broke out, but he met with Hitler in 1940, and in 1941 became part of the pact allying Germany, Italy and Japan. The king has long been described as having been appalled at Hitler’s massacres of Jews, and on two occasions he refused orders to deport Bulgarian Jews. Queen Ioanna intervened to obtain transit visas to enable a number of Jews to escape to Argentina. After the death of her husband, Boris III (1894-1918-43) her brother-in-law, Prince Cyrill became regent for her son, Simoen II (1937-43-46-), until a referendum abolished the Monarchy, and she fled with her children to Egypt and later to Spain. Her son became Premier Minister of Bulgaria in 2001 under the name of Saxe-Coburg. Born as Giovanna Savoia of Italy, she lived (1910-2001).

  1944-48 Tenant Madame Fortington of Jethou (Crown Dependency of the British Monarch)
Took over the Tenantcy of the tiny Channel Island after the death of Harold Fortington (1934-44). George MacDonald was Subtenant (1940-45) and William Gill Withycombe was tenant (1948-55).

  Before 1944 Regent Princess Sharifah Leng binti al-Marhum Yang di-Pertuan Muda Syed Abdul Hamid of Tampin (Malaysia)
Daughter Sultan Sharif Abdul Hamid ibni al-Marhum Yang di-Pertuan Muda Sultan Muhammad Shah al-Qadri (1872-94) she was regent for her nephew Syed Akil bin Syed Dewa al-Qadri, Tunku Besar of Tampin, who died at the age of 20, and whose brother, Syed Muhammad bin Syed Dewa al-Qadri, ruled until 1944.

  1944-77 12th Asantehemaa Nana Ama Serwaa Nyarko II of Asante (Ghana)
The second Queen mother during the reign of king Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempe II (1892-1931/35-70) and during of Otumfuo Nana Opoku Ware II (1919-70-99). She was granddaughter of Aufa Kobi Serwaa Ampen I, who was (1859-1884) and daughter of daughter of Akua Afriyie, the Kumasehemaa. In 1977 she was succeeded by the present Asantehemaa, Nana Afua Kobi Sewaa Ampem II – who is Queen Mother for the present king, Otumfuo Nana Osei Tutu II (1950-99-).

  1944-55 Acting Head of the Princely Family HSH. Dowager Princess Margareta Fouche d’Otrante of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg (Germany)
After her husband Gustaf Richard was reported missing during WWII she became guardian for her son, Prince Richard (1934/44-). The family went into exile in her Sweden, where she was born. Prince Richard later married HRH Princess Benedikte of Denmark. Born as Duchess Fouche d’Otrante, she lived (1909-2005).

  1944-58 Acting Head of the Princely Family HIH Dowager Grand Duchess Alexandra zu Hannover-Cumberland of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Friedrich Franz IV, she was guardian for her son, Grand Duke Friedrich Franz V (d. 2002) as the last of his family. She was daughter of Princess Thyra of Denmark and Ernst August von Hannover, Duke of Cumberland, mother of four children and lived (1882-1963). 

  1946-58 Acting Paramount Chiefess, Queen Mother Elizabeth Pulane Seeco of baTawana (British Protectorate, Botswana)
Also known as Princess Pulane Moremi, she widow of Moremi III (1915-37-46)As regent she administration of the Tribal Administration, which had been mired by inefficiency and corruption. Her regency was troubled by the need to balance the interests of her morafe’s diverse population. She helped open the door for such groups as the Wayeyi and Ovaherero to run their own affairs. On the national stage she joined forces with Dikgosi Tshekedi and Bathoen II in calling for self government. Stepped down in favour of her son Letsholathebe II (1940-58-81), and lived (1912-81). 

  1946-47 Rani Mariyumma Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)
Also known as Ali Raja Bibi Arakkal Mariumma or Ali Raja Mariumma Beevi Thangal, she was the last ruler before the principality was incorporated in the Republic of India. It is not known when she died but Adiraja Ayisha Muthu Beevi (1922-2006) was head of the Head of the Arakkal royal house from 1997 and was succeed by Adiraja Ayisha Beevi as the Arakkal Beevi (or Beebi) near the City that is now known as Kannur.

  1946-68 Deputy Seigneur Jehanne Beaumont Bell of Sark
Youngest of Dame Sibyl Hathaway’s 6 children, she was appointed to act as her mother’s substitute during her absence in 1946. In 1947 she was elected Deputy of the People on Chief Pleas and retired from the post of Deputy Seigneur in 1968 due to ill health, but continued to take an interest in Sark’s affairs, advising the present Seigneur when he succeeded on the death of La Dame in 1974 until her death. She married in 1948 and lived (1919-88).

  1946-90 Partner in Power Nexhmije Xhugilini Hoxa, Albania
Married to Enver Hoxa, Prime minister 1945-53 and President 1954-85. During the resistance war 1941-46, she was a close advisor of her husband. 1946-55 Chairperson of the Women’s Wing of the Communist Party, 1952-90 MP, 1968-90 Director of the Institute of Marxist Studies and 1986-90 Chairperson of Albania’s Democratic Front, which controlled all the political organizations of the country, and appointed candidates for the parliament. She was imprisoned 1991-96 charged with corruption and abuse of power. (b. 1921-).

  1946-54 Partner in Power Eva Duarte de Peron, Argentina 
Known as Evita Peron, she was very powerful during her husband, Juan D. Peron’s first tenure as President (1946-55). In 1951 the military prevented her candidature for the post of Vice-President. Very popular among the masses. Juan Peron’s third wife, Isabel Peron, was vice-President 1973-74 during his second term in office, and succeeded him as President after his death in 1974. Eva Peron lived (1919-54).

  1947 and 1948 Princess-Regent Juliana of the Netherlands 
1948-80 By the Grace of God Queen of the Netherlands 
Member of the Council of State from her 18th birthday in 1927. From 1927 to 1930, she attended lectures at Leiden University. Regent during the illness of her mother, Wilhelmina and succeeded her upon her abdication. The people of the Netherlands watched as their Queen often appeared in public dressed like any ordinary Dutch woman. Like her mother had out of necessity, Queen Juliana began riding a bicycle for exercise and fresh air. She began visiting with the citizens of the nearby towns and, unannounced, would drop in on social institutions and schools. Her refreshingly straightforward manner and talk made her a powerful public speaker. On the international stage, Queen Juliana was particularly interested in the problems of developing countries, the refugee problem, and had a very special interest in child welfare, particularly in the developing countries. In 1949, she signed the documents transferring sovereignty to Indonesia and in 1954 she gave her assent to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which formed the basis for cooperation between the three remaining parts of the Kingdom: the Netherlands, Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. Suriname became an independent republic in 1975. Closely involved in social questions and involved in the running of the government until her abdication in favour of her oldest daughter, Queen Beatrix. She has since been known as HRH Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, and since the early 1990s, she has gradually withdrawn from public life. Also Princess van Oranje Nassau, Duchess van Mecklenburg-Schwerin etc, etc, etc., she was married to Prince Bernhard zu Lippe-Biesterfeld (1911-2004), and mother of four daughters. She lived (1909-2004).

  1947-49 Regent Rajmata Krishna Kumari of Marwar and Jodhpur (India)
1949-69 Acting Head of the Princely Family
H.H. Maharani Shri Krishna Kunwarba Baiji Sahiba, Princess of Dhrangadhra, she was regent for son, Maharaja Gaj Singh II (1923-47-52-), After her husband, Maharaja Shri Hanwant Singhji Sahib Bahadur was killed in a plane-crash, and continued as his guardian and was in charge of the interests of the princely family . She provides a strong cultural binding to the family.  She was Member of the Lok Sabha 1971-77 and continues to participate in a myriad of social and religious activities. (b. 1926-).

  1947-48 President of the Council of Regency Dowager Maharani H.H. Sri Srimati Maharani Kanchan Prabhavati Mahadevi Sahiba of Tripura (India)
1948-49 Regent (Radhakrishnapada Srila Srimati Maharani)
Also known as Kanchan Prabha Devi. After the death of her husband Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in May 1947, a council of regency under her leadership took over charge of administration on behalf of her minor son, prince Kirit Bikram Kishore Manikya (b. 1933). The state was faced an immediate refugee problem, which brought conflict between the people, severe strain on the administration and threatened to exhaust the meagre resources of the state, and she was forced to cede sovereignty to India within a few months and signed the treaty which transferred the state to the Union of India on 9th September 1947 coming effect two years later. Tripura became a Union Territory on 1st November 1956. The Territorial Council was formed on August 15, 1959. The dissolution of Territorial Council and formation of Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers in July 1963 were notable events. Finally Tripura became a full-fledged State in January 1972. She was the eldest daughter of Colonel H.H. Mahendra Maharaja Sri Sir Yadvendra Singh Ju Deo Bahadur, Maharaja of Panna, by his first wife, H.H. Mahendra Maharani Sri Manhar Kunwarba Sahiba, and lived (1914-73).

  1947-50 President of the Minority Administration H.H. Jadeji Maharani Shri Krishna Kunverba Sahib of Sirohi (India)
Known as H.H. the Rajmata Sahiba, she became regent for the adopted son of her husband,  H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharao Shri Tej Ram Singhji Bahadur (1946-50) after it had been headed by the Chief Minister for since his accession. Her husband, Maharajadhiraj Maharao Shri Sir Sarup Ram Singhji Bahadur had reigned 1920-46. Tej Ram Singhji  was removed by the Government of India in 1950 and replaced by Thakuran Raj Shri Abhai Singhji of Manadar, following a lengthy investigation into the circumstances surrounding his adoption. She was born as Maharajkumari Bai Shri Takhatba Sahib as the fourth and youngest daughter of H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharao Mirza Shri Khengarji III Sawai Bahadur of Cutc and she (d. 1979).

  1947-57 Maradia Regnant of Balan(g)nipa (Indonesia)
After the abdication of her husband, Haji Andi Depu Baso, she ruled in her own right until 1950 and the following seven years in a temporary basis. She was succeeded by the grandson of the brother of the father of her husband, Puang Manda’ alias Haji Andi Syahribulan (1959-1963) as the last ruler of the Mandar area north of the main Buginese area. It was a sort of confederation of seven principalities with the Maradia of Balangnipa as chief. In 1873 the Dutch made all the seven states real separate principalities. (b. 1907-).

  1947-87 Queen Maria Mwengere of Shambyu (Namibia)
Succeeded king Mbambangandu II, who became blind. She prohibited the brewing of traditional beers with sugar, but also curtailed the sale of all kinds of liquor in the Sambyu area. The brewing of traditional beers without the use of sugar for own consumption was however still permitted. On many occasions during the sixties, she severely punished transgressors by fining them up to four head of cattle, but she later stopped this praxis because of strong opposition from her people. In 1989 Hompa Angelina Ribebe Matumbo became Queen of the Shambyu.

  1949-52 Vice-Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Ana Pauker, Romania
Minister of Foreign Affairs 1947-52 and Vice-Premier. Before that she had been Leader of the Romanian Communists in USSR 1940-44 and ca. 1940-53 Responsible for the collectivizing of the Agriculture in the Politburo, 1944-56 Secretary General of the Communist Party. She was born Rabinovici but changed her name because of anti-Semitic sentiments, which eventually caused her downfall. She was daughter of Rabbi Hersch Kaufmann Robinsohn and lived (1893-1960).

  1949-75 Makea Nui Teremoana Ariki, 31st Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)
Also known as Makea Nui Teremona Ariki Tapuanoanoa Tinirau Cowan, she was member of the Rarotongan Legislature 1947-59 and represented the Cook Islands in the South Pacific Commission an institution established by the regional Colonial powers to promote ‘native welfare’ in their Pacific colonies in 1947. She succeeded her sister, Makea Nui Tinirau Ariki, and married Kainuku Parapu Ariki and was succeeded by daughter, Margaret Tepo Vakatini Ariki, who died in 1988 and then by her oldest daughter. She lived (ca. 1910-75).

  1949-94 Makea Karika Takau Margaret Ariki, 27th Makea Karika Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)
Margaret Tarau was President of the House of Ariki 1978-80 and 1990-94, and was one of the 3 chief of the Teauotonga tribe in succession to her father, Makea Karika George Pa, who had succeeded his mother Makea Karika Takau Tuaraupoko Mokoroa ki Aitu in 1942, and lived (1919-ca. 94).

  1949-62 Titular Acting Head of the Sovereign Family Baroness Maria Gizela Tunkl-Iturbide, Princess de Iturbide of Mexico 
Her mother, Princess Maria Josepha Sophia had stated in her will and Maria Gizela and her older unmarried sister Maria Anna Wilhelmina (b. 1909) had agreed that the leadership of the Mexican Imperial Family passed to Maria Grizela’s son, Count Maximiliano von Goetzen Iturbide, (b. 1944), who continues to be head of the Iturbide dynasty but has made no attempt to press his claim to the imperial throne of Mexico. He is married and currently lives in Australia where he is a successful businessman. His heir apparent is his son Count Fernando Goetzen Iturbide (b. 1992). Baroness Maria Gizela first lived in Venezuela and Uruguay before moving to Australia. She is  (b. 1912-).

  1950-ca. 95 Temporary Royal Regent HRH The Princess Mother, Somdet Phra Srinagarindra Boromarajajonani of Thailand
Sangwalya Chrukamol was born as the daughter of a goldsmith. She was married to Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, son of king Chulalongkorn Rama V (1868-1910) by one of his 92 wifes. She was mother of King Anadan Mahidol Rama VIII (1925-35-46) and of King Bhumibol Adulyadej Rama IX (1927-46). She acted as regent on nine different occasions during Bhumibol’s reign. She lived (2443-2538 or 1900-95).

  1950-ca 59 Datuk I Suji of Suppa (Indonesia)
Her son La Kane (or Kunen/Kuneng) is the present chief of the dynasty of Suppa. She (d. ca. 1992).

  1951-… Adatuwang Regnant Bau Rukiah of Sawito(Indonesia)
Appointed as ruler of the state.

  1951-85  Counsellor of State HRH Princess Margaret of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
As the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II, she acted as Counsellor of State on various occasions until her youngest nephew, Prince Edward, turned 21. Among others Special Representative of the Queen to the Independence Celebrations of Jamaica in 1962, Domenica and Tuvalu 1978 and of Antigua and Barbuda and of Saint Christopher and Nevis in 1980. Divorced from Anthony Armstrong-Jones, who were created 1st Earl of Snowdon, and mother of two children. She lived (1930-2002).

  1952- H.M. Elizabeth II of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Defender of the Faith, Head of the Commonwealth 
Until 1953 her title was Queen of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Overseas Dominions. She is head if state in 15 countries apart from Great Britain and as Head of the Commonwealth, she is the front person of the organization of many other former British colonies and territories. She is the first child of The Duke and Duchess of York. Although when born it was unlikely that she would become Queen, events in the 1930s led to her father’s Accession and her becoming heir to the Throne. Her reign takes place during a period of great social change, she has carried out her political duties as Head of State, the ceremonial responsibilities of the Sovereign and an unprecedented programme of visits in the United Kingdom, Commonwealth and overseas. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary is the mother of three sons and a daughter. Married to Phillip Mountbatten, former Prince of Greece. (b. 1926-). 

  1952-53 Head of the Regency Council H.M. Queen Zein al-Sharaf of Jordan
In her official Jordanian biography it says that her political instincts and courage allowed her to successfully fill a constitutional vacuum after the assassination of the late King Abdullah in 1951, while the newly proclaimed King Talal was being treated outside the Kingdom for his mental illness. When he was deposed in August 1952 she was regent until her son, Hussein I, until he turned 18 in May the following year. She played a major role in the political development of the Kingdom in the early 1950s, and took part in the writing of the 1952 Constitution that gave full rights to women and enhanced the social development of the country. Born in Egypt as daughter of the Court Chamberlain, Sharif Jamal Ali bin Nasser, she was mother of three sons and a daughter, and lived (1916-94).

  Around 1952 Liurai Clara Assi of Fatu Mean (Timor Leste)
The state was included in the list made by the Portuguese in 1952, then in the district of Bobonaro.

  Around 1952 Liurai Bai Buti of Irlelo (Timor-Lester)
Also situated in the former district of Bobonaro in East Timor, which was occupied by Indonesia 1974-99, an UN Protectorate until 2002, when it became independent.

  1953-54 Acting Head of State Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa, Mongolia 
Member of the Politburo of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) 1940-54, Secretary of the Central Committee of the MPRP 1941-47), was member of the Presidium of the Little Hüral 1940-50 and of the People’s Great Hüral 1950-62, and as 1. Deputy Chair of the Great Hüral since 1950, she took over during a vacancy on the post of Head of State and Chairperson of the Hüral. ) She was the widow of the great national hero Damdiny Sühbaatar (1893-1923), born as Nemendeyen Yanjmaa and lived (1893-1963).

  1953-58 H.H. Queen Aloisia Lavelua of Uvea (Wallis and Futuna) (French External Territory)
The Monarchs and chiefs are still involved with the government of the French External Territory Wallis and Futuna. After the death of King Kapeliele Tufele Lavelua (1950-53), the Council of Ministers reigned until Soane Toke Lavelua became king for one day – 18.-19. December. On 22. December Aloisia became Queen. After her abdication, the Council of Ministers again reigned until Tomasi Kulimoetoke II became king at the 12th of March 1959 and reigned until 2007.

  From 1953 Acting Paramount Chiefess Nonayithi Jali a Mthati of the Xhosa Tribe of imiQhayi (South Africa) 
Acting after the death of the acting Chief Bofolo a Ntonisi a Donddashe. It is not known when she was succeeded by Inkosi Enkhulu Mabundu Bangelizwe Jali a Enoch, who is still chief.

  1953-67 and 1992-2006 Paramount Chiefess Madam Ella Koblo Gulama of Kaiyamban (Sierra Leone)
Elected to succeed her father, Julius Gulama, as head of the tribe and district. 1957 she was elected the first female MP and was Minister without Portfolio 1963-67. Imprisoned during the political unrest from 1967-70 and deposed as Paramount Chief, Vice-President of the conference on Finance and Administration of the United Methodist Church 1985-91, she also worked hard to promote the education of girls and to improve the lot of women as President of the Federation of Women’s Organisations in Sierra Leone 1960-67 and President of the National Organization for Women 1985-91. Re-elected Paramount Chief of Kaiyamba Chiefdom by a unanimous vote in 1992.  The rebel war and its effects were devastating to Moyamba District and the country as a whole, resulting in complete set­back to development and progress. She was forced to leave Moyamba and seek refuge in Freetown. On her return to Moyamba, she again put all her efforts into the rehabilitation of her Chiefdom and District. Director of the Sierra Leone Export Development and Investment Corporation (SLEDIC) 1994-96 and also a director of The Sierra Leone Commercial Bank Limited. 1997 she fell ill and appointed a regent. She was married to Paramount Chief Bai Koblo Pathbana II Marampa Masimera Chiefdom,  mother of 7 children, and lived (1921-2006). 

  1953 Candidate for the Throne Princess Fatima Ibrahim Didi Tuttu Goma of the Maldive Islands
In 1944 the throne was first offered to the erstwhile Prime Minister Athireegey Abdul Majeed Rannabandeyri Kilegefan, but he declined and remained in exile until his death in 1952. She was offered the throne in 1953 but withdrew her candidature when opposed by the clerics headed by ‘Abdu’llah Jalal ud-din. Born as Princess Fatima Tuttu Goma, she was daughter Princess Gulistan of the Maldives and her cousin Al-Amir Ibrahim Fa’amuladeri Kilegefa’anu, who later became Ekgamuge Ibrahim ‘Ali Didi (d. 1975), and was member of the Regency 1943-1953 and Prime Minister 1953-1957. She was President of the Senate of the First Republic 1953-54. Married to H.E. Ahmad Zaki (1931-96), who held many government and ambassadorial posts, including that of Prime Minister 1972-1975 and Permanent Representative at the UN 1979-1983 and 1993-1996. One of her two sons were Defence Minister. She lived (1918-2008).

  1953-77 Politically Influential Jovanka Budisavlevic Broz, Yugoslavia
Thought to have had a substantial influence in the army and the country, until her husband, Josef Broz Tito, sent her in internal-exile. She was a lieutenant in the army when they got married. (b. 1923-).

  1953-98 Partner in Power Kim Song Ae in North Korea 
Married Kim II Sung (1912-94) in 1953. He was General Secretary of the Korean Worker’s Party 1948-94, Premier Minister (1948-72), President (1972-94) and created an austere and militarized regime. Kim song Ae was Vice-Chairperson 1965-71 and 1971-98 Chairperson of the Central Committee for the Women’s League, since 1980 Member of the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party, from 1982 Member of the Standing Committee in the Supreme People’s Assembly, and considered to be domineering force and very influential. (b. 1924-).

  1954-63 Partner in Power Van Le Xuan Tran in South Vietnam
In the Westen World she was also known as Mme Ngo Dinh Nhu, she was the official first-Lady during her brother-in-law, Ngo Dinh Dimen’s term as Premier 1954 and President 1955-63. She was also member of the National Assembly. Ngo was deposed and killed together with her husband, Ngo Dinh Nhu, Chief of the Secret Police. She survived because she was in USA on a Public Relation Tour together with her daughter. (b. 1920-).

  1954-71 Guardian Regent Dowager H.H. Sri Badrukhanwala Maharani Malvender Kaur Sahiba of Dholpur (India)
When her husband, Maharajadhiraja Shri Sawai Maharaj Rana Sir Udai Bhan Singh, she adopted the second son of their only daughter, Maharani Urmila Devi Sahiba (1924-97) and her husband Maharaja Shri Sir Pratap Singh Malvendra Bahadur of Nabha,  Maharajadhiraja Shri Sawai Maharaj Rana Shri Hemant Singh (b. 1951-), who was recognized as the new Maharaja by the government of India in 1956 with effect from October 1954, but was deposed as “ruler” in 1971 following the new constitution. He is married to Maharajkumari Shrimant Vasundhara Raje Sahib Scindia, BJP Politician, former Union Minister of State and Chief Minister of Rajasthan since 2003. Maharani Malvender lived (1893-1981).

  1954-61 Head of the Sovereign Family HH. Princess Abigail Kapiolani Kawananakoa of Hawai’i  (USA)
Succeeded her brother Prince David, who became Head of the Royal Family in 1917 as successor to their cousin, Queen Lil’uokalani. Abigail was succeeded by son by Andrew A. Lambert, HRH Prince Edward Keliiahonui Kawananakoa, who died in 1997 and was succeeded by his son Edward J. Kawananakoa. Other relatives also claim the throne.  She lived (1903-61)

  1956 Regent H.M. Somdetch Pra Nang Chao Sirikit Phra Baromma Rajini Nath of Thailand (22.10-07.12)
Took the oath as regent before the National Assembly, as her husband, King Bhumibol, retired to do the traditional Buddhist studies. She was born as Mom Rajawong Sikrit Kitiyakara of Chandaburi – as a distant member of the royal family. Since 1956 she has had the title Somdetch Pra Nang Chao Sirikit Phra Baromma Rajini Nath (Queen Regent) and still occasionally acts as Deputy Head of State. Mother of a son and three daughters. (b. 1932).

  1956-60s Politically Influential Khieu Ponnary in Cambodia
Known as “Sister Number One”, she played a key role in the development of the Khmer Rouge, and was head of the Cambodian national women’s association during the period 1975-1979. She was the first Cambodian woman to get a high school degree and met Pol Pot, also known as Saloth Sar, in 1951, during her studies in Paris. They married in 1956 and returned to Cambodia, where she helped him build his revolutionary ultra-communist movement, the Khmer Rouge. From the 1970s she suffered from dementia and mental illness. Her sister Khieu Ieng Thirith was Minister in the government until 1982. Ponnary lived (1920-2003).

  1957-75 Joint Head of State The Ndlovukati Zihlathi Ndwandwe of Swaziland
Senior wife of King Sobhuza II. 

  1957-62/80  Counsellor of State HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent, of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland
Dughter of Queen Elizabeth’s late cousin, the Duke of Kent, she acted as Counsellor of State during the minority of the closest heirs to the throne, and among others special representative of the Queen at the independence Celebrations of Nigeria in 1960 and Saint Lucia 1979. Widow of Sir Angus Ogilvy (1928-2004), and mother of two children. (b. 1936-).

  1957-62 Queen Dowager Doña Isabel Maria da Gama of Kongo (Angola)
1962-?75 Queen Regent
Her husband, Dom Antonio III, was king (1955-58), she succeeded him and in 1962 her son, Dom Pedro VIII Mansala, was king September-October and afterwards she took over the reigns again with the title Ntolia y aNtino ne Kongo. Some sources claims she is still in office, others that her regency ended in 1975.

  1958 Acting Chief Executive Angie Elizabeth Brook-Randolph, Liberia
1967-68 President of the United Nations-Trusteeship Council in charge of Nauru, Papua New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands Territories
1953-58 Assistant Attorney General and 1956-73 Assistant Secretary of State. In 1958 she acted as Chief Executive as both the President and the Secretary of State were abroad for some days. 1967-68 President of the United Nations-Trusteeship Council (Administering Nauru, Papua New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands Territories), 1969 and 1976 she was President of the General Assembly of the UN, 1973-75 Ambassador-at-Large, 1975-77 Ambassador to the United Nations and Cuba, and in 1977 appointed Judge in the Supreme Court. (b. 1928-).

  1958 Acting Prime Minister The Hon. Ellen Lourkes Fairclough, Canada (19.02-20.02)
Progressive Conservative MP 1950-63, and has been Privy Councillor since 1957 when she became the first female member of the Government as Secretary of State for Canada, 1958-62 Minister for Citizenship and Immigration and1962-63 Postmaster General. She was appointed Acting Premier for the first of January 1958. She lived (1905-2004).

  1958 Acting Prime Minister Ulla Lindström, Sweden
The longest serving Minister as Minister without Portfolio of Family Affairs 1954-66. Already in 1950 Premier Minister Tage Erlander (1946-69) wanted to appoint her as Foreign Minister, but the majority of the Social Democrats was against it. She was daughter of Nils Wohlin, Minister of Trade in the 1920s and 1928-29 for two right-wing parties. She lived (1910-99).

  1958- Queen Kanuni II of Uukwangali (Namibia)
Succeeded king Sivute, who succeeded Queen Kanuni I in 1941.

  1958-66 (†) Politically Influential Aisha Diori in Niger
Controlled her husband, president Hamani Diori, (1916-89), like a marionette. She was killed during an attempted coup d’etat but executed Aisha. Her husband was the Prime Minister (1958-60) and the first President after Niger’s independence in 1960 until he was deposed in 1974.

  1959-80 Rain Queen Makoma Modjadji IV of Balobedu (South Africa)
The Queen, apart from her ruling responsibilites, has the duty of providing her nation with rain. Succeeded by daughter Mokope Modjadji V in 1981.

  1959-70 Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Yadar Sadykovna Nariddinova, Uzbekistan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
1952-59 Deputy Premier, Minister of Construction Industry in Uzbekistan, 1959-70 Vice-Chairperson of the Supreme Soviet before becoming “Head of State” of the Republic. 1970-74 she was President of the Federation Council of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. She lived (1920-2006).

  1959- Mulena Mukwai  Makwibi Mwanawina, Chief of the Southern Part of Bulozi and Regent Princess of Barotseland (Zambia)
As Mulena Mukwai Mboanyikana of Libonda 1951-58, she was third-ranking in the hierarchy of the kingdom. She is daughter of Sir Mwanawina III, Litunga of the Lozi and Paramount Chief of Borotselan (1888-1948-68). Most of the year she is based at Nololo, the traditional capital of the south and second most important royal centre of Barotseland, but in the flood season, she proceeds in her own Nalikwanda barge to Muoyo on the eastern margin of the flood plain. (b. 1919-)

  1959-68-? Manavara Upoko Tiao Campbell, The Cook Islands (New Zealand External Territory)
Inherited the title of Manavara in 1959. The mother of two daughters.
[Perhaps she is identical with Tangianau Upoko, who was born 1926 and was the Kavana and is Pava (High Chief) of Veitatei District and the Kairanga Nuku (Subchief) from 1950 and High Chief 1980-2000). Tangianau Upoko is married to Tuaere Utikere.

  1960-70 Ceremonial Head of State, Symbol, Incarnation and Representative of the Crown H.M. Queen Sisovath Monivong Kossomak Nearieath Serey Cathana of Cambodia (20.06-18.03)
In 1955 she was crowned with her husband King Norodom Suramit, who succeeded their son, Prince Norodom Sihanouk who had succeeded her father as king in 1941. After her husband’s death, After her husband’s death she was officially nominated as Queen Regnant in the Crown Council, but instead her son became Head of State after a referendum, and during the swearing-in ceremony in the National Assembly he declared that “The Queen Kossamak incarnate and represent the Cambodian Dynasty”. She carried out the ceremonial duties and was in effect Queen Regnant without reigning. After her son was deposed in 1970 she spend the rest of her life in exile in Beijing. She lived (1904-75).  

  1960-65, 1970-77 and 1994-2000 Prime Minister Hon. Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike, Sri Lanka
As Prime Minister, she also held the posts as Minister of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Finance etc. She was the world’s first female Prime minister, and was born into an influential Sri Lankan family, many of whose members had been involved in politics. In 1940, in an arranged marriage, she wed the politician Solomon Bandaranaike, who was 17 years her senior. Her husband became Prime minister in 1951, but she did not take a prominent political role herself at this time. However, when a Buddhist extremist assassinated him in 1959, she campaigned to succeed him and won the ensuing election. During her second term of office her domestic policies of nationalization and social welfare proved popular with her Sinhalese compatriots, as did the creation of a Sri Lankan republic in 1972. Yet the attempt to make Sinhalese the island’s official language – long a goal of her husband – alienated the Tamil minority population. Economic difficulties and charges of corruption caused her downfall in 1977. In 1980 she was convicted of abuse of power during her term as Prime minister and debarred from office for four years. 1988 Presidential Candidate and before her appointment to Prime Minister in 1994, she was Senior Minister without Portfolio (Second in Cabinet) in her daughter, Chandrika’s Kumaratunge’s cabinet. She was Chairperson 1960-93 and 1993-2000 President of Sri Lanka Freedom Party, 1965-70 and 1988-94 Leader of The Opposition and 1976 Chairperson of the Association of Non Aligned Nations. Two of her three children are also politicians. She lived (1916-2000).

  1960-61 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Kapitolina Nikolaevna Kryukova, Kazakstan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Trough many years Vice-Chairperson of the Presidium of the local Supreme Soviet and acting as it’s chair, during a vacancy at the post, which were equivalent to that of Heads of State of the Soviet Republics, though power were vested in the First Secretary of the Communist Party.

  1960-62 Chief Alphonsine Lafond, Muskeg Lake (Canada)
The first female chief of Muskeg Lake Reserve in Saskatchewan. She was Councillor 1958-60, before elected chief in an open democratic election. In 1960, the Department of Indian Affairs installed the first residential phone on the reserve in Alpha’s home.  Her priorities as chief were to improve education, housing and roads. She retired in 1990, but was a member of the education and housing committees as an Elder until her death. She lived (1926-2000).

  1960-62 Chief Mary Louise Bernard, of the Lennox-Island Confederacy of Indian Nations in Nova Scotia (Canada)
Throughout many years Chief of the Wagmatcook First Nation – or band, and involved in the Confederacy politics.

  Until 1960s Sachem Elizabeth Sakaskantawe Brown of the he Quinnipiac in Totoket (Branford in Conneticut) (USA)
The last hereditary matriarch; and she was related to the last Sachems of Mioonkhtuck James Mah-wee-yeuh. Married three times and lived (1850s-1960s)

  1960-93 Partner in Power Mama Cecilia Tamanda Kadzamia in Malawi
Functioned as secretary, partner and hostess of President Hastings K. Bandas (1896-1997) and very influential. From the late 1980s Bandas became unceasingly senile, and she is believed to have been the real person in power. From 1986 President of Malawi’s Women’s Organization.

  1960-95 Head of the Princely Family H.H. Sikander Saulat Iftikhar ul-Mulk Haji Nawab Mehr Tai Sajida Sultan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
Recognized by the Government of India as ruler of Bhopal, at the 13. of January 1961 with effect from 4. February 1960, as her older sister, Abaida Sultan had emmigrated to Pakistan. After her husband, Muhammed Iftikhar Ali Khan of Pataudi (1910-1917-52) was killed in a polo-accident, she was regent for her son Mansur Ali Khan (b. 1941), who was captain of the Indian Cricket team 1960-75. Under the name of Begum Sajida Sultan, she was member of the Indian Parliament for Bhopal 1957-62. Succeeded by grandson, and lived (1915-95).

  1961-66 Vice-President Maria Paretti, Romania
Had been member of the Council of State for some years before becoming it’s vice-Chairperson and deputy head of state.

  1961-74 Politically Influential H.I.H. Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie of Ethiopia
After the death of her mother Empress Menen she became the most visible and foremost woman at the Imperial court. She played an ever-increasing advisory role. The Princess was one of the few people who were able to freely offer criticism of official policy to the Emperor, and was often a conduit of various points of view to the Emperor when those offering opinions were too intimidated by the Emperor to offer them themselves. A strong personality with conservative views, she was widely regarded as being a guardian of the institution of the monarchy, and was concerned that it be upheld in an era of rapid and often unpredictable change. She was perceived as a leader of the traditionalist element within the nobility that was very wary of demands for constitutional reform and land reform policies. After the revolution, the women of the Imperial House were imprisoned 1974-89, and one year later she left the country. She returned to Ethiopia in 1999. She was First married to Ras Desta Damtew, Governor of the Province of Sidamo. Secondly to Ato Abebe Retta, who later served in ambassadorial and other roles in the post-war Imperial government, and would eventually become President of the Imperial Senate after their separation and thirdly to Ras Andargatchew Messai, who had been representative for the underage Prince Makonnen in his Duchy of Harrar. He was appointed Governor-General of Beghemidir and Simien Province and in 1951 vice-roy of Ethiopia. Mother of seven children with her two first husbands, and lived (1912-2003).

  1961- Head of the Princely Family H.H. Maharani Ushadevi Holkar of Indore (India)
Her full title is H.H. Maharanidhiraja Rani Rajeshwar Sawai Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur. She had been declared Heir-Apparent, in preference to her only brother, Prince Richard Holkars, whose mother was American, by special gazette of the Government of India, 1950. Like all the other royals she was deprived of her rank, titles and honours by the government in 1971. Married to the industrialist Shrimant Sardar Satish Chandra Malhotra and mother of 2 sons and 2 or 3 daughters. (b. 1933-).

  1961-99 Paramount Chief Madam Honoraria Bailor Caulker of (Sierra Leone)
Member of the National Advisory Council and later of the National Reformation Council from 1961. President of the Women’s Action for New Directions. She lived (1922-99).

  1962-63 President of the Narodna Skubscina Vida Tomsic, Slovenia (Autonomous Republic in the Soviet Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
In 1945-46 she was Minister for Social Politics and in the 1950s Member of the Executive Council and during her first tenure as President of the Parliament she was also “Head of State”. During her second period as President of the Narodna Skubscina 1974-78, the President of the Presidency of the state filled this position. (b.1913-).

  1962-69 Regent Princess Maria Molinas Bertoleoni of Tavolara (Italy)
Laid claim to the throne at a time when her cousin, King Carlos II, also claimed the crown. The same year a NATO station was installed at the Island, the effective end of Tavolaran sovereignty. She was daughter of the former regent, Princess Mariangela and Bachisio Molinas, and lived (1869-1969)

  Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Boi Sei Kenja III of Imperi (Sierra Leone)
Her chiefdom covered 93 Chiefs. At the time the Paramount Chiefs were heads of the local administration of Sierra Leone. There were a total of 148 paramount chiefs.

  Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Kadiyatta Gata of Jong (Sierra Leone)
Head of 172 Chiefs.

  Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Tity Messi of Kwameba Krim (Sierra Leone)
Paramount head of 66 chiefs.

  Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Tiange Gbatekaka of Gaura (Sierra Leone)
Head of 195 chiefs.

  Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Benya of Small Bo (Sierra Leone)
Her chiefdom covered 235 chiefs.

  Around 1963 Paramount Chiefess Madam Mammawa Sama of Tunika (Sierra Leone)
Head of 171 chiefs.

  1963-69 Politically Influential First Lady Lady Bird Johnson, United States of America
Played a key role during the term of office of her husband, Lyndon Baines Johnson, who became President when John F Kennedy was assassinated. Despite her unassuming manner, she played a key part in her husband’s ascension to the presidency; and her interest in social, political and environmental problems made her one of the most influential First Ladies since Eleanor Roosevelt. In 1968, she persuaded her husband not to run for a second term; his dramatic television announcement shocked the nation, and he died of another hart attack in 1973. She was a journalist and owned a radio and tv-station in Texas. Born Claudia Alta Taylor, whe was given the nickname of Lady Bird by a nursemaid. She was mother of 2 daughters and lived (1912-2007).

  1964-68 Administrator Ruth Gill Van Cleve of the United Nations Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands [USA]
Director of the Office of the Territories in the United State Department of the Interior, which administered the Pacific Island Territory for the United Nation. The territory included The Commonwealth of the Federated States of the Northern Mariana Islands, which remains an US external Territory. 

  1964-71 22nd Tenant Susan Summers Faed, Jetohou (Bailiwick of Guernsey, British Crown Dependency)
Together with her husband, Angus Faed, and their four children she inhabited Jethou, which is a part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey in The Channel Islands, which are British Islands, but not part of the United Kingdom; they are dependencies of the British Crown, lacking full sovereignty.

  1964-69 Independence Leader, Head of the Shan State War Council Sao Nang Hearn Kham, the Mahadevi of Yawnghwe (Burma)
Given in marriage to Prince Shwe Thaike of Yawnghwe in 1937. The following year, she was recognized as Mahadevi (Chief Queen). Following independence in 1948, her husband became President of Burma  (1948-52). She was elected to Parliament in 1956. In 1961, Prince Shwe Thaike led talks to reform the Burmese constitution to accommodate distinct ethnic groups like the Shan and Karen. The next year, General Ne Win staged his second coup and Sao’s husband died in jail. She then fled to the Thai border region where she headed the Shan State War Council until immigrating to Canada in 1969. (b. 1915-).

  1964-89 Anti-Apartheid Leader Nomzano Winnie Mandela in South Africa
During the imprisonment of her husband, Nelson Mandela (1964-89) she was known as “Mother of the Nation” and among the leaders of the Anti-Apartheid Movement and ANC. She also was President of the Women’s Wing of ANC, 1994-95 she was Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. In 1997 she withdrew her candidature for the post of vice-President of ANC (and of the Republic) after revelations of her involvement in killings during Apartheid.  Since the divorce from Nelson Mandela in 1995 she has been known as Madikizela-Mandela.  (b. 1934-).

  1965-87 Partner in Power Imelda Ramúaldez Marcos in The Philippines
Very influential during her husband, Ferdinand Marcos’s tenure as President and later dictator. In exile in Hawai’i after 1987, where her husband died. She was Governor of Manila 1975-86, Secretary of Resettlement 1978-84, Secretary of Ecology 1978-83, Member of Executive Council of Cabinet 1982-84, and Leader New Society Movement Party 1987-1993. She was Presidential candidate in 1992 and 1998, when she withdrew her candidature before the elections  but was elected to the House of Representatives. (b. 1927-).

  1965- Temporary Rigsforstander HRH Princess Benedikte of Denmark
Became a member of the Council of State by the age of 21 and has acted as regent (Rigsforstander) first in the place of her father and then for her sister, Queen Margrethe 2, whey they were abroad – alternating with Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim of Denmark, since they came of age. Princess Benedikte is married to HH Prince Richard zu Sayn- Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives in Germany. Mother of 3 children. (b. 1944-).

  1965- Temporary Regent H.M. Queen Halaevalu Mata’aho of Tonga
1998 (8.5-14.5) Queen Regnant
1999 (-30.4-) Queen Regnant
Has acted as regent on several occasions trough the reign of her husband king Taf’ahau Toupu IV (1918-65-2006), on occations when he was aboard. Born as Princess Halaevalu Mata’aho Ahomee. (b. 1926-).

  1965- Titular Queen Ampanjaka Soazara of Boina (Madagascar)
Great-granddaughter of Queen Tsiomeko (1836-40) and head of the Kamany-Dynasty that still rules the Menabe. And she governs the Boina population at the Northern tip of the Sakalava territory. She still retains an important place in the tradition and respect of customs and habits. And despite modernisation and the exodus of her subjects to the centre of the country, she maintains an important traditional authority, all the more so because the area is isolated.

  1965 or 1985-ca. 1990 Symbol of the Monarchy Andi Tenri Padang Opu Datu of Luwu (Indonesia)
Took the role after the death of her husband since 1944, Datu Andi Jemma Barue. She was daughter of Arumpone Andi Mappanyuki of Bone (d. 1967), who ruled in Suppa as Datu 1900-1905 and 1931-1946 and 1957-1960 as area chief. (d. ca. 1990).

  1966-77 and 1980-84 (†) Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, India
President 1959-60 and 1966-77 Leader of the Congress Party. She was Minister of Information 1964-66 and member of Rajya Sabha 1964-67 and of Lok Sabha 1967-77, 1978 and 1980-84. In 1975 she declared a stated of emergency and ruled as a dictator. As Prime Minister she held a number of other portfolios. She lost the 1977-elections and was imprisoned. She was remarkable for her ambition for personal power, her endurance and political tenacity. On a world front she insisted on India’s independence, gradually loosening the ties with the USSR developed in the early 1970s when China seemed menacing, and was a forceful spokeswomen for the rights of poorer nations. Her ruthless and autocratic methods were often at variance with her democratic principles and she continued to face determined opposition in India, especially in 1983 and early 1984 when in response to disturbances among Sikhs in the Punjab she sent in government troops, who sacked the Golden Temple of Amritsar. She was assassinated in the garden of her official residence in New Delhi by two Sikh bodyguards, and India was plunged into sectarian violence, during which over 1000 people died. Her son Rajiv Gandhi was immediately sworn in as Prime Minister. She lived (1917-84).

  1966-2006 The Maori Queen Te Ata-i Rangi-Kaahu Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau in New Zealand  
Also known asTe Arikinui Te Ātairangikaahu te Kuīni Māori orTe Arikinui Dame Te Atairangikaahu, she was usually addressed as Te Arikinui, or Dame Te Ata, and was Queen or Kingitanga of the Tainui and Ariki nui (Paramount Chief) of the other Maori Groups and Tribes. A direct descendant of the first Màori King, Pòtatau Te Wherowhero, and daughter of King Korokì V. Her role was only titular, but she was very influential and hosted many royal and diplomatic visitors to New Zealand, and she represented her people at state events overseas. She supported both traditional and contemporary Màori arts, and urged her people to pursue quality and excellence in everything they did, from sports to tribal enterprise and national management, and attended 28 Poukai (formal Maori assemblies) each year. She had expressed to the wish to be succeeded by her oldest child, Princess Heeni Katipa, but the tribes elected her third child and oldest son as king. Born as Piki Paki (nee Mahuta), she was mother of 5 daughters and 2 sons, and lived (1932-2006).

  1966-70 Vice-President Constanta Craciun, Romania
1953-62 Chairperson of the State-Committee for Culture and Art 1962-66 Minister of Culture.

  1966-80 Politically Influential Lady Ruth Williams Khama, Botswana
Influential during the tenure of her husband, Sir Seretse Khama as President. He had been Paramount Chief of Bamagwato (1949-56), but was not recognized by the British protectorate authority and lived i exile until he renounced his claims in 1956. He lived (1921-80). Their son, Seretse Khama Ian Khama, the Paramount Chief of the Bamangwato tribe vas Vice-President 1998-2008 and President from 2008. She lived (1924-2002).

  1967-72 Governor The Hon. Dr. Dame Hilda Louisa Bynoe, Grenada (British Dependency)    
A former doctor and Hospital Administrator she is so far the only woman to have been governor of one of the British Dependencies. (b. 1921).

  1967-68 and 1971 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Valentina Alekseyevna Klochkova, Belarus (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Acting on two occasions when the post of Chairperson of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus was vacant – the post was equivalent to that of a President of the state – though power were vested in the First Secretary of the Communist Party- there was also a chairman of the parliament.

  1967-69 Premier Minister Savka Dabčević-Kúčar of Croatia (Yugoslavia)
1969-70 Leader of Communist Party in Croatia
Marshall Tito dismissed Dabcevic-Kucar as CP-leader because he considered her views too liberal, 1970-71 Co-Leader of the Croatian Spring- movement, from 1990 Chairperson of the Democratic Party and 1992 Presidential Candidate. She lived (1923-2009).

  1967-89 (†) Partner in Power Dr. Elena Ceauşescu, Romania   
For many years she was de-facto second in command after her husband Nicolai Ceauşescu, who was Head of State and the Communist Party (1967-89), and as he got more and more ill throughout the 1980s she became de-facto leader of the country, and considered his most likely successor. She was Member of the Politburo 1973-89, Minister and Chairperson of the Academy of Science and first Vice-Chairperson of the Council of Ministers and 1979-89. They were both executed during the December-revolution of 1989. She lived  (1919-89).

  1967-71 Head of the Tribal Council Chief Betty Mae Jumper of the Seminole Nation (USA)
In the Seminole Nation the clans are perpetuated trough women. She was elected the first female chief and her main concern was to raise the living standards of her tribe trough education. (b. 1923-).

  1967- “Princess Joan I Bates of Sealand”
In 1942 Britain constructed a base consisting of concrete and steel outside British territorial waters. The fort was abandoned after World War II, and on 2nd of September Roy I Bates created the Principality of Sealand, and proclamed himself and his wife as joint rulers. (b. 1929-).

  31.10.1968-24.02.72 Acting Head of State Song Qingling, China
(06.07.1976-05.03.78 Acting Head of State)
1979-1980 “Honorary President”
Born into a rich Christian family, she was educated in the USA. In 1927-29 she was member of Government Council, 1929-49 Leader of Opposition against her brother-in-Law President Chiang Kai-chek and 1948 Honorary Chairperson of the Kuomintang, 1949-54 Deputy Premier Minister, 1954-59 Vice-Chairperson of The Peoples’ Republic (Deputy Head of State), 1954-76 and 1975-78 Vice-Chairperson of the National People’s Congress, Vice-Chairperson of China People’s Consultative Consultative Conference, CPPCC. In 1968-74 the Post of Chair of the Republic was vacant and she and the other Vice-Chairperson, Dong Biw shared the Presidential Powers. In 1976 the Chairperson of the NPC died and the 21 vice-chairmen, including Song, acted as collective heads of state until 1978 when a replacement was elected. 1980 she was Chairperson of the 3rd Session of the National People’s Congress. Soong Qingling was widow of Sun Yat-Sen, Provisoric President of China in 1911. She lived (1893-1981).

  1968 De facto Acting Prime Minister Bozena Machácová-Dastálová, Czechoslovakia (ca. 22.08-28.08)
When Soviet army invaded Czechoslovakia on Aug. 21st 1968, they captured, imprisoned and later deported to Moscow the Prime Minister Oldrich Cernik. All the Vice Premier Ministers escaped the captivity and were hiding themselves. National Assembly put her in charge of Cabinet meetings. She was not Premier Minister “de iure” (did not have official appointment by President – because he was also deported to Moscow), only “de facto”. After the return of deported politicians on around August 28th all portfolios returned to pre-occupation period. She was Minister of Agricultural Production 1954 and minister of Minister of Consumer Industry until 1968. She lived (1903-73).

  1968-72 Chief Secretary of the Communist Party Dr. Latinka Petrovic, Serbia (Yugoslavia)
President of the Commission for Ideological Work of the Yugoslav Central Committee 1965-66, and Secretary of the same Committee for re-organization 1966-68. Member of the Serbian Central Committee. Like her colleague in Croatia, Savka Dabcevic-Kúcar she was removed from office because Tito considered her views too liberal. (b. 1933-).

  1968-75 Reigning Queen Mother Mankopodi of baPedi (South Africa)
Reigned during the minority of her son, but was deposed by the Royal Council, as a  result of a dispute. (d. late 1970’s).

  1968-96 (†) Partner in Power Siti Hartinah, Indonesia
Also Known as Ibu Tien (Mother Tien), she was the most loyal aide and the closest and most influential advisor of her husband, President Suharto. She was known to express preferences as well as dislikes toward certain cabinet ministers, often connected with their personal lives. She was known as “Madame Ten Percent”, because of her corruption. Born as Princess of Mangkunegara in Surakarta, Central Java, and lived (1923-96).

  1969-74 Minister President Golda Meïr, Israel
1946-48 Acting head of the political department of the Jewish Agency, 1948-49 Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Minister of Labour and National Insurance 1949-56, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1956-66 when she became Secretary-General first of Mapai and then of the newly formed “Alignment” (made up of three Labour factions). Upon the death of Prime Minister Levi Eshkol in 1969, she was chosen to succeed him as the  “consensus candidate”. In the October 1969 elections, she led her party to victory. Shortly after she took office, the War of Attrition – sporadic military actions along the Suez Canal, which escalated into full-scale war – ended in a cease-fire agreement with Egypt. Though the cease-fire was broken time and again by the advancement of Egyptian missiles on the Suez Canal front, it did bring a three-year period of tranquillity, shattered only in October 1973 by the Yom Kippur War. As Prime Minister, Golda Meir concentrated much of her energies on the diplomatic front – artfully mixing personal diplomacy with skilful use of the mass media. Armed with an iron will, a warm personality and grandmotherly image, simple but highly effective rhetoric and a “shopping list,” she successfully solicited financial and military aid in unprecedented measure. She showed strong leadership during the surprise attack of the Yom Kippur War, securing an American airlift of arms while standing firm on the terms of disengagement-of-forces negotiations and rapid return of POWs. After she led her party to victory in the December 1973 elections, she resigned in mid-1974. She was born in Russia as Golda Mabovic and later immigrated to USA. Mother of two children and she lived (1898-1978).

  1969-71 Administrator Elizabeth P. Farrington of the United Nations Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands [USA]
Director of the Office of the Territories in the United State Department of the Interior that administered the Pacific Island Territory for the United Nation.

  1969-94 Dwabenhemaa Nana Akosua Akyaamaa II of Dwaben
Also known as Nana Akosua Domtie, she succeeded Nana Dwaben Serwaa II, who abdicated in that year. Her daughter, Nana Akosua Akyaamaa III, succeeded her on the Queenship throne of Dwaben and her son, Nana Otuo Serebour II, is the present King of Dwaben.

  1970 and 1990 Regent H.M. Queen ‘MaMohato Thabita ‘Masente Lerotholi Mojela of Lesotho 
1996 Regent The Mofumahali (Queen Mother) 
In 1970 she took over the regency for her son who was installed as king in place of her husband, King Moshoeshoe II, who was deposed during military coup d’etats in 1970 and 1990. In 1996 he was killed in a car-crash, where acted as regent until her son was re-installed as king David Mahato Berng Seeiso Letsie III. He was also king 1970 and 1988-90. She continued to act as Deputy Head of State and advisor of the King and Queen until her death. She was née Princess Tabita ‘Masentle Lerotholi Mojela, and lived (1941-2003).

  1972- H.M. Margrethe II, by the Grace of God, Denmark’s Queen 
As Queen she was also Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces and Head of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church. The Rigsfælleskab – or
Commonwealth of the Realm – includes the external territories of The Faero Islands and Greenland. She has engaged in translation work and made her mark artistically in several genres. She chairs the Council of State, which includes her and the Ministers, after elections she conducts consultations with the parties (Queen’s Round (Dronningerunden) and on the advice of the Prime Minister she appoints the next Head of Government and the Ministers. She succeeded her father, Frederik 9, and married to Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, Prince Henrik. Margrethe Alexandrine þorhildur Ingrid is mother of two sons. (b. 1940-).

  1972- Head of the Sovereign Family HRH Crown Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza of Burundi
Also using the name Son Altesse Royale, Princesse Iribagiza Mwambutsa Rose-Paula, she succeeded her brother, king Ntare V, as head of the Royal family, who was deposed in 1966 after a couple of months on the throne, after having deposed their father Mwambutsa IV Bangiriange (1915-66). Her brother died in 1972 and the father in 1977. Her first husband was André Muhirwa, chief of Busumany, was Premier Minister 1962-63. She lived in exile in Bruxelles for many years, but was elected an MP for CNDD-FDD in 2005. Married to Frédéric Van de Sande. Mother of 3 sons and 5 daughters.  (b. 1934-).

  1974-76 Executive President Maria Estella Martínez de Perón, Argentina 
Isabel Peron was Vice-Presidentand President of the Senate 1973-74, and became President after the death of her husband, President general Juan Peron. As Executive President she was also head of the Cabinet. Chairperson of Partido Justicial, The Peronist party 1974-85, As President she was unable to control the widespread strikes and political terrorism and on 24 March 1976, she was kidnapped and deposed in a bloodless coup. After remaining under house arrest for five years, she was sent into exile in Spain in 1981 and did not return until 1993. (b. 1931-).

  1975-76 Premier Minister Élisabeth Domitién, The Central African Republic
As Prime Minister she was also Deputy Head of State and acted as President on occasions when President Bokassa was abroad. Also vice-President of the ruling Social Evolution Movement of Black Africa (MESAN) 1975-79. She criticized the plans of her cousin, Jean Bedel Bokassa, chief of state since 1966, who wanted to become emperor, and in effect he sacked her. After his fall from power in 1979 she was imprisoned and tried in February 1980. She later became an influential businesswoman in Bangui, Married to the chief of the Mobaye Canton-Mayorship. She lived (1925-2005).

  1977 Minister President Lucinda E. da Costa Gomez-Matheeuws, The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch External Territory)
Minister of Health and Environment, Welfare, Youth, Sports, Culture and Recreation 1970-77 and in 1977 Minister Presidente and Minister of General Affairs. She was also Vice-President of The Nationale Volkspartij 1971-76 and around 1995 Member of the Raad van Advies, the Council of Advisors. She is the widow of Dr. M.F. da Costa Gomez (1907-66), Premier of the state 1951-54.  (b.5.4.29-).

  1979-80 Provisoric Executive President Lidia Gueiler Tejada, Bolivia 
As President she was also Head of the Cabinet. Lidia Gueiler was member of Parliament 1956-64 and afterwards in exile for 15 years. Circa 1978 Subsecretary for Agriculture, 1978 President of Camera de Diputados. Acting President of the Congress and acting Deputy Head of State 1978-79. She was deposed shortly before elections were due. Later ambassador and party leader. (b. 1921-).

  1979-90 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Margaret Thatcher, United Kingdom of Great Britain
MP 1959-90, Parliamentary Secretary of Pensions and National Insurance 1961-64, Secretary of State of Education 1970-74, Shadow Minister of Environment and Housing 1974-75, Shadow Special Minister of Finance and Public Expenditure 1975, Leader of The Conservative Party 1975-90, Leader of Her Majesty’s Opposition 1975-79. As Prime Minister she was also First Lord of the Treasury and Minister of the Civil Service. In 1982 she ordered British troops to the Falkland Islands to retake them from Argentina. She took a strong stand against the trade unions during the miner’s strike, and moved Britain toward privatization, selling minor interests in public utilities to the business interests. She also introduced “rate capping” which effectively took control of expenditures out of the hands of city councils, part of her policies aimed at reducing the influence of local governments. In 1989, she introduced a community poll tax. In 1990, her cabinet was divided over issues including the European Community, which forced her resignation. When her party leadership was challenged in 1990, she resigned and was Created Baroness Thatcher of Kestaven and became a member of the House of Lords two years later. Mother of twins. (b. 1925-).

  1979-80 President of the Council of Ministers Dr. Maria de Lurdes Ruivo da Silva Pintasilgo, Portugal
Secretary of State of Social Affairs 1974, Ambassador to UNESCO 1975-79, Minister of Social Affairs 1974-75 and was appointed Acting Prime Minister during one of the many government-crisis of the time. She was Member of the Council of State 1979-86 and Presidential Candidate in 1986. Member of the European Parliament 1979-86. Maria de Lurdes Pintasilgo was unmarried. She lived (1930-2004).

  1980- H.M. Beatrix, By the Grace of God, Queen of the Netherlands 
Queen Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard is also Princess van Oranje-Nassau, Princess van Lippe-Biesterfeld etc, etc, etc. The Kingdom of The Netherlands includes the external territories of Aruba and The Nederlandse Antillen. She succeeded upon the abdication of her mother, Queen Juliana, and she closely follows affairs of government and maintains regular contact with ministers, state secretaries, the vice-President of the Council of State, the Queen’s Commissioners in the provinces, burgomasters, and Dutch ambassadors etc. She meets the Prime Minister every Monday. Much of her work consists of studying and signing State documents. She regularly receives members of parliament, as well as other authorities on social issues. Married to Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Jonkheer von Amfeld (1926-2002), and mother of 3 sons. (b. 1938-).

  1980-96 President Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, Iceland 
In 1972-80 she was Director of Iceland’s National Theatre was the world’s first democratically elected female President. Since 1996 she has been involved in a wide range of international humanitarian and cultural organizations. She was a divorcee and mother of an adopted a daughter. (b.1930-).

  1980-95 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Dame Eugenia Charles, Dominica
When the Dominica Labour Party attempted to limit dissent with a sedition act in 1968, Charles became involved in politics. In 1970, she was appointed to the legislature and in 1975, to the house of assembly, where she became the leader of the opposition. She co-founded the Dominica Freedom Party. As Prime minister she immediately began programs of economic reform and to end government corruption. She is a strict constitutionalist and her colleagues consider her a brilliant lawyer and a savvy politician. In 1983, Charles encouraged the U.S. invasion of Grenada to prevent Cuban infiltration of that island.
Her primary concern was to improve the lives of the citizens. She encouraged tourism to a small degree, but was determined to preserve the island’s ecology and national identity. During her tenure as Prime Minister she was also Minister of External Affairs, Finance, Trade and Industry, Defence, Minister of Information and Public Relations. She lived (1916-2005).

  1981 Capitano Reggente Maria Lea Pedini Angelini, San Marino 
Every 6th month The Consiglio Grande e Generale elects two Captain Regents, who acts as joint Heads of State and Government and as Chairmen of the Consiglio Grande e Generale. Maria Lea Pedini Angelini was the first woman on the post, and later became Director in the Ministry of Government and Foreign Affairs, and has been non-resident Ambassador in the Ministry to France, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway etc. since 1995. (b. 1954-).

  1981-93 Governor General Rt. Hon. Dr. Dame Elmira Minita Gordon, Belize
Commissioner of Belize City 1970-77, before becoming the official representative of the Queen of Belize, Queen Elizabeth. (b. 1930-).

  1981-81, 1986-89 and 1990-96 State Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, Norway
Before becoming Prime Minister, she was Minister of Environmental Protection 1974-79, Deputy Leader 1975-81, Deputy Parliamentary Leader 1980-81, Leader 1981-93 and Parliamentary Leader, Parliamentary Leader of Arbeiderpartiet, Labour, 1980-81 and 1989-90 Chairperson of the Foreign and 1989-90 of the Finance Committees, 1998-2003 Director General of the World Health Organization, WHO, and Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations. A medical doctor, daughter of Gudmond Harlem (1917-88) a former member of the government, and mother of 4 children. (b. 1939-).

   1981-86 High Commissioner Janet J. McCoy, The Trust Territories of the Pacific Island [USA]
The Territories were administered by the USA for the United Nations 1947-90. McCoy was Director of the Office of Tourism and Visitor Service of California 1967-70, involved in a number of election-campaigns – i.e.. the “Regan For President” 1976-80. 1988-89. After her tenure as High Commissioner, she was Assistant Secretary of Interior 1988-89. She lived (1916-95).  

  1982-83 Reigning Queen Mother, The Indlovukazi Dzeliwe Shongwe of Swaziland 
The senior wife of King Sobhuza II, and joint-head of state and Queen Mother (The Indovukazi, the Great She-Elephant). The king’s death on 21 August 1982 precipitated a prolonged power struggle within the royal family. Initially she assumed the regency and appointed 15 members to the Liqoqo, a traditional advisory body that Sobhuza had sought to establish as the Supreme Council of State. However a power struggle ensued between the Prime Minister, who sought to assert the authority of the Cabinet and members of the Liqoqo. She was pressurised by the Liqoqo to dismiss the Prime Minister and replace him with a Liqoqo supporter. Subsequently she was placed under house arrest by the Liqoqo in October 1983.  The Liqoqo subsequently installed Queen Ntombi Laftwala, mother of the 14-year-old heir apparent, Prince Makhosetive, as Queen regent in late October. As Queen Mother she was also co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council the Libandla. She lost the title of Queen Mother in 1985. (b. 1927-).

  1982-87 President Agatha Barbara, Malta 
Labour M.P 1947-82 and for long periods the only woman in Parliament. Minister of Education and Culture 1955-58 and 1971-74 Labour, Welfare and Culture (Third in Cabinet) 1974-81. In the last period she was Acting Prime Minister on various brief occasions. She resigned asPresident 2 years ahead of schedule because Labour lost the 1987-elections. She lived (1923-2002). 

  1982-86 Chairman of the Council of Ministers Milka Planinc, Yugoslavia
Before becoming Prime Minister, she was Secretary of Treönjevka People’s Assembly 1957, Secretary of Cultural Affairs of the City of Zagreb 1961-63, Croatian Secretary for Education 1963-65, President of the Croatian Assembly 1967-71 and Leader of the Communist Party in Croatia 1971-82. (b. 1924-).

  1982-85 President of the Conseil General 
1983 President of Conseil Regional
1991-2004 President of the Conseil General Luchette Michaux-Chevry, Guadalupe (French External Territory)
Beside her position as chief of government, she has also held posts in the French government, 1986-87 Secretary of State and 1993-95 Minister Delegate of Foreign Affairs in the French Government, 1987-95 Maire de Gourbreyre, and from 1995 Mayoress de Basse-Terre (b. 1929-).

  1983-86 Queen Regent and Head of State Ntombi 
laTfwala of Swaziland 
1986- Joint Head of State, Queen Mother, the Indovukazi 
Emakhosikati (Queen) Ntombi was one of the youngest wifes 
of Sobhuza II, and mother of the future king Mswati II. After the former Queen Mother Regent, Dzeliwe, was removed, she was installed as Queen Regent in late October, and she accepted the Liqoqo as the supreme body in Swaziland. She got the title of Queen Mother Indlovukazi in 1985. As Queen Mother she is Deputy Head of State and co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council the Libandla, together with the king. (b. ca. 1950-).

  1984 and 1989-90 Capitano Reggente Gloriana Ranocchini, San Marino 
Member of the Parliament before becoming joint-head of state. (b. 1957-).

  1984 Acting Head of State Carmen Pereira, Guinea Bissau 
1973-84 Deputy President of Assembléia Nacional Popular, 1975-80 President of the Parliament of Cap Verde (which was in union with Guinea Bissau at the time) 1981-83 Minister of Health and Social Affairs, 1984-89 President of Assembléia Nacional Popular and acting head of state during a vacancy at the post, 1989-94 Member the Council of State and 1990-91 Minister of State (Deputy Premier) for Social Affairs. (b. 1937-).

  1984-90 Governor General The Rt. Hon. Jeanne Sauvé, Canada
Former journalist and TV-presenter. She was Minister of State of Science 1972, 1974-75 Minister of Environment, 1975-79 Minister of Communication and Culture and 1980-84 Speaker of the House of Commons, before becoming the official representative of the Queen of Canada, Queen Elizabeth. She lived (1922-93).

  1984-86 and 1988-93 Minister President Maria Ph. Liberia-Peters, Nederlandse Antillen (Dutch External Territory)
Health Councillor 1977-78 and Lieutenant-Governor of Curaçau 1982. Minister of Economy 1982-83 and 1984-86 also, Minister of General Affairs and the Interior, Health and Environment. She resigned as Premier after she had lost a referendum on the autonomy of Curaçau. She was also Chairperson of the Nationale Volkspartij/Partido Nashional de Peuplo (PNP) 1984-98 and 2002-04. (b. 1941-).

  1984-90 Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko, Ukraine (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Her name is also transcribed, as Valentina Semenovna Seveenko, and her position were equivalent to that of a Head of State though real power were vested in the 1. Secretary of the Communist Party.

  1986-92 Executive President Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino, The Philippines 
Cory Aquino became leader of the opposition after the murder of her husband Ninoi Aquino in 1986, and was brought to power by the so-called “People Power”, which protested against President Marcos’s attempts to remain in power by rigging the elections. She was also Head of the Cabinet. 1998 she was among the senior advisors of President Estrada, but later sided with Gloria Arroyo, during “People Power II”, which brought along the fall of Estrada. Mother of 4 children. She lived (1933-2009).

  1987 Premier Princess Stella Margaret Nomzamo Sigcau, Transkei (Nominally Independent Homeland in South Africa)
Minister of Education 1970-73, the Interior (Including Industry, Trade and Tourism) 1973-78, Internal Affairs 1979-81, Post and Telecommunication 1981-87, Leader Transkei National Independence Party in 1987, Minister of Public Enterprises 1994-98 and of Public Works and of Public Works 1998-2006 in the Government of South Africa for ANC. She was daughter of Chief Botha Jongilizwe Sigcau of East-Pontoland (1912-78) who was President of Transkei (1976-78) and the mother of four children. She lived (1937-2006).

  1988-90 and 1993-96 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Pakistan
Co-Chairperson 1984-94 and Leader of Pakistan People’s Party 1994-2007, in house arrest 1977-84 and in exile 1984-86. She also held the Portfolios of Defence, Atomic Energy, Finance, Economy, Information and Establishment. Both in 1990 and 1996 she was removed from office by the President on charges of corruption and later convinced. Returned to Pakistan in 2007 after 10 years in exile in United Kingdom and Dubai to contest elections in January 2008, which she was widely expected to win, but was killed by a suicide bomb in December 2007. She was daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the former President and Prime Minister, who was executed after the coup d’etat in 1979. Her three children were born in 1988, 1989 and 1993. She lived (1953-2007).

  1988-91 and 2003-07 Chief Islander Anne Green, Tristan da Cunha (St. Helena) 
2003 Acting Administrator (November-December)
2004 Acting Administrator (06.03-26.05)
She was Chief Islander and in the second period also Leader of the Legislative Council. When she acted as Administrator, she was the representative of the British Governor of St. Helena,  and in 2004 she acted in the interim between the resignation of the former and arrival of the new Administrator. Appointed as Member of the Iscland Council in 2007. Her brother, James Glass, was Chief Islander from 1994. Married to Joseph Green. Photo: © J. Brock (Tristan Times) 

  1989 Chairperson of the Council of Ministers Elmira Mikael-Kyzy Kafarova 
1989-90 Acting Chairperson of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan (Autonomous Soviet Republic in the USSR)
Эльмира Микаил кызы КАФАРОВА, Elmira Mikayıl qızı Qafarova or Gafarova was First Secretary of the Communist Party of Baku 1980, 1980-83 Minister of Education, 1983-87 Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1987-89 Deputy Premier Minister, 1989 Premier Minister and in the same period she was also member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.1990-92 President of the Supreme Council of the independent Azerbaijan. Her surname is also transcribed as Mikail-Kyzy and as Gafarova. (b. 1934-).

  1990-96 Executive President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, Nicaragua
In 1979 Doña Violeta was member of the Ruling Junta after the overthrow of the Somoza-dictatorship, but left because of disagreement with the Revolutionary Junta. As Executive President she was also Head of the Cabinet and Minister of Defence. She tried to pursue a policy of national reconciliation. She ended the civil war, restricted the powers of the President, and revived the economy. (b. 1929- ). 

  1990-91 Acting President Ertha Pascal-Trouillot, Haiti 
The first female High Court Judge 1986-90 and became acting President during the turbulent political situation in Haiti in a period where one Coup d’etat followed the other. During an attempted coup soldiers attempting a coup held her hostage on one occasion. (b. 1943-). 

  1990 Acting Head of State Dr. Sabine Bergmann-Pohl, East-Germany 
As President of the People’s Chamber she was acting and last Head of State of the German Democratic Republic, DDR/GDR before the reunification. After the reunification she was Federal Minister without Portfolio for the New Bundesstates 1990-91, Parliamentary State Secretary of Health 1991-98 and member of the Bundestag 1998-2002. Mother of two children.  (b. 1946-).

  1990-97 President Mary Robinson, Ireland 
In 1969 she was appointed Professor of Law, 1970-90 she was Labour-senator. As Ireland’s President, Robinson became known as a strong supporter of women’s rights and campaigned for the liberalization of laws prohibiting divorce and abortion. Internationally, she gained a reputation as a prominent human rights lawyer. As President, Robinson placed special emphasis on the needs of developing countries. She became the first head of state to visit famine-stricken Somalia in 1992, and the first to go to Rwanda after the genocide there in 1994. Assistant Secretary General and United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights 1997-2002 and since then director of the Ethical Globalization Initiative, a new venture established to support human rights. Her Irish title and name was Uachtarán na hEeireann Máire Mhic Roíbín. Mother of two children. (b. 1944-).

  1990-95 (†) Governor General Hon. Dame Nita Barrow, Barbados
She was head of national and international nurse organizations before becoming Ambassador to the UN, Cuba and the Dominican Republic 1986-90. She was the sister of Errol W. Barrow (1920-87), Prime Minister 1966-76 and 1986-87. She died in office as the official representative of Queen Elizabeth, and lived (1916-95).

  1990-96 Governor General Rt. Hon. Dame Cath Tizard, New Zealand
In 1983-90 she was Her Worship the Mayor of Auckland. A strong supporter of community, environmental, educational, and women’s causes, Catherine Tizard brought a distinctive style to her viceregal duties. She opened up Government House to many groups of citizens who were made welcome to “State House One”, creating the sense that it was their home as well as hers. Her patronage of a wide range of charities and community groups went far beyond routine duties, and she took a passionate and practical interest in helping women who had been disadvantaged in any way to move forward. By the time she became Governor-General she was divorced from a former Labour Minister and MP. Her daughter, Judith Tizard has been a Minister in the Labour Government since 1999. Dame Catherine is (b. 1931-).

  1991-92 Capitano Reggente Edda Ceccoli, San Marino 
Member of the leadership of Partito Democratico Cristano Sammarinese. 

  1990-91 Minister President Kasimiera Prunskienė, Lithuania
Deputy Premier and Minister of Economy 1989-90 and one of the leaders of the struggle for independence. She became leader of the government after the declaration of independence at 11.3.90, which was internationally recognized at 6.9.91. In 1991 Chairperson of Democratic Party, and from 1995-2001 Chairperson of Women’s Party, 1996-2000 Group Chairperson of the independent MP’s, and Chairperson of the Peasants and New Democratic Parties Union 2001-04. Presidential Candidate in 2002 and 2004, and Minister of Agriculture from 2004. (b. 1945-).

  1991-96 and 2001-06 Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia, Bangladesh
Vice-Chairperson of The Nationalist Party 1982-84 and Leader since 1984. Her husband, President Zia-ur-Rahman, was Premier Minister 1976-77 and President 1977-81 until he was assassinated. Khaleda was detained seven times during nine years of autocratic rule. In the face of mass upsurge spearheaded by the seven-party alliance, led by Khaleda, and the eight-party combine, led by Hasina, Ershad resigned in 1990 and handed over power to neutral caretaker government, bringing an end to his nine-year autocratic rule. During her first tenure as Chief of government she was also Minister of Defence, Establishment, Cabinet Diversion and Planning, Information Energy and Resources. 1996-2001 Leader of the Opposition. Resigned in October 2006 to prepare for the elections later in the year, but the military took power and in September 2007 she was arrested, charged with corruption.  (b. 1945- ).

  1991-92 Premier Minister Edith Cresson, France
Before becoming Premier Minister, she was Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, External 1981-83, Trade 1983-84, Industry 1984-86, European Affairs 1988-90. She was European Union Commissioner for Science, Research, Education and Youth 1995-99. She was accused of fraud and abuse of confidence and this brought along the downfall of the entire Commission because she refused to resign. 2003 she was officially charged with fraud. (b. 1934-).

  1992-93 Minister President Hanna Suchocka, Poland
As Minister President she was also Vice-President of the National Security Council. She was Vice-President of the Council of Europe 1991-92 and Minister of Justice and Procurator-General 1997-2000. Since 2002 Ambassador to the Vatican. Unmarried. (b. 1946-).

  1993 Capitano Reggente Patrizia Busignani, San Marino 
1983-90 President of Partito Socialista Unitario, before becoming joint Head of the State, President of the Parliament and Chief of the Government. From around 1997 she has been Chief of the Parliamentary Group of Socialisti per le Riforme.  

  1993-94 Premier Minister and Acting Head of State Sylvie Kinigi, Burundi 
By the time of her appointment as Premier she was Head of the Economic Planning Office in the President’s Office. During the Civil War the President was killed and as the highest-ranking reaming official, she became Acting President (27.10.93-5.2.94). After her resignation, she left politics and joined the Burundi’s Commercial Bank and now works for the UN. (b. 1952-).

  1993-97 3rd Executive Vice-President Guadalupe Jerezano Mejía, Honduras
Concurrently with the post as Deputy Head of State, she was Coordinator of the Office of Women and from 1996 Delegate to the Central-American Parliament.

  1993-96 Minister President Dr. Tansu Çiller, Turkey
Before taking over as Prime Minister, she was assistant Professor 1974-83 and 1983-90 Professor of Economics at Bosphorus University. Minister of State and Chief Economic Coordinator 1991-93, Deputy Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs 1996-97. She was Deputy Chairperson, 1990-93 and from 1993 Chairperson of DYP, The True Path Party. In the 2002-elections the party got 8,5% of the votes, becoming the third largest party, but it was not enough to re-enter the parliament, where the minimum vote required is 9%. Mother of two children. (b. 1946-).

  1993 Prime Minister The Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, Canada
Executive Director, Office of British Columbia Premier 1985-86, Progressive Conservative MP 1988-93, Minister of State (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) 1989-90, Minister of Justice and Attorney-General 1990-93 and Minister of Defence and Minister of Veteran Affairs in 1993. AsPrime Minister she was also Minister responsible for Federal-Provincial Relations. She was leader of the Progressive Conservative party, 13.06.1993-13.12.1993, resigning after the party lost all but two seats in the House of Commons in the 1993 election in spite of gaining about 16% of the vote. She became a lecturer at Harvard University and has been Consul General of Canada in Los Angeles since 1996. Married with a stepdaughter. (b. 1947-).

  1993-94 (†) Premier Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana, Rwanda
Minister of Education from 1992 till her appointment as Prime Minister. On the 6/4 1994 the Hutu President Habyarimana was killed together with his Burundian colleague, Cyprien Ntaryamira, when their plane was rocketed on its way to Kigali airport. Agathe, a Hutu, was killed by the Tutsi Presidential guard together with her family and 10 Belgian soldiers, the day before she was supposed to step down as Premier Minister. The two killings sparked off the civil war and genocide of approximately 1 million Hutus and Tutsies. Mother of about 6 children. She lived (1953-94).

  1993-94 Premier Marita Petersen, The Faero Islands (Føroyar/ Færøerne)(Danish External Territory) 
A former Leader of the Teacher’s Union, she was Minister of Justice, Education Culture and Church Affairs 1991-93. As Premier she was also Minister of External Relations, the Underground, Administration and Public Wages. Chairperson of the Social Democrats 1993-96, Chairperson of the Lógting (Assembly) 1994-95 and 1998-2001 substitute member of the Danish Folketing. She lived (1940-2001). 

  1993 and 1998-99 Minister President Mr. Suzanne Camelia-Römer, Nederlandse Antillen (Dutch External Territory)
Suzi Römer had been Minister of Justice since 1992 when she became acting Premier after the resignation of Mrs. Liberia-Peters. 1999-2002 Vice-Premier and Minister of Economy and the National Recovery Plan, and 1998-2002 Leader of the Partido Nashional di Pueplo (b. 1959). 

  1993-2001 Chief Secretary Anson Chan, Hong Kong (november-1/5) (United Kingdom Crown Colony and Chinese Special Administrative Region)
As Chief Secretary she was leader of the administration and principally responsible to the Chief Executive for the formulation of government policies and their implementation. 1993-97 Deputy to the British Governor, 1997-2001 Deputy to the Chinese Chief Executive. Resigned in protest with Chinas policies in the Region. Mother of two children. (b. 1940-). 

  1993-99 President of Conseil Regional Margie Sudre-Demaiche, Réunion (French External Territory)
Apart from being Chief of Government, she also held posts in the French government in 1995-97 as Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs for the Francophonie. (Born in Vietnam 1943-).

  1994 Prime Minister
1994-2005 President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, Sri Lanka 
1993-94 Chief Minister of the Colombo Province and in a few months in 1994 Prime Minister. As Executive President she is assisted in her duties by the Prime Minister, and was also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and held the Portfolio of Defence and Finance and Planning until 2002. She is the first person in the world to be daughter of two Premier-Ministers, Solomon and Sirivamo Bandaranaike and the first to have appointed her mother to the post of Prime Minister. She was constitutionally barred from running for re-election in 2005. (b. 1945-). 

  1994-95 Interim Minister President Reneta Ivanova Indzhova, Bulgaria
Also known as Reneta Injova, she was leader of an interim government consisting of technocrats. Her Deputy Premier and Minister of Economy and Finance was Hristina Vucheva. In 1995 Renata ran for the post of Mayor of Sofia and 2001 she was Presidential candidate. (b.1953-). 

  1995-96 Premier Minister Claudette Werleigh, Haïti
An economist she became Minister of Social Affairs 1990-91, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1993-95 and was Executive Director of the Washington Office of Haiti 1993, before becoming head of the government. Later an UN official. (b. 1946-). 

  1995-2001 Rigsombudsmand Vibeke Larsen, Faero Islands (Danish External Territory)  
Before becoming Ríkisumboðsmann or High Commissioner in Færøerne or the Føroyar, she was Assistant Secretary in a Local Government in Denmark. 2001-07 Statsamtmand of Vestsjælland 2005-07 Acting Statsamtmand of the County of Storstrøm. since 2005 Acting Stiftamtmand of the Diocese of Lolland-Falster, from 2006- Director of the State Administration for the Region of Sealand and since 2007 Stiftamtmand of the Diocese of Roskilde. (b. 1944-).

  1995-98 Sysselmann Ann-Kristin Olsen, Svalbard (Norwegian External Territory)
1983-95 Chief of Police of Halden (as the first woman in the country). After her tenure as Sysselmann, she was appointed Fylkesmann of Aust-Augdar (b. 1945-). 

  1996-97 Chairperson of the Council of State Ruth Sando Perry, Liberia 
1985-96 senator. Appointed to Chair the Council of State preparing the transfer to democracy after many years of civil war. (b. 1937-). 

  1996-2001 Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed, Bangladesh
Leader of the Awami League since 1981 and Leader of the Opposition 1991-96. As Premier she was also Minister of Defence. She took over the Party-Leadership after her father, Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-72-75), was murdered during a coup d’etat. Also her mother, 3 brothers and 2 sisters-in-laws were killed, only a sister survived. Arrested by the military government in 2007 on charges of corruption, extortion and murder. Mother of 2 sons (b. 1945- ).

  1996-98 President Biljana Plavsic, Republic of Srpska, (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
1992-94 Member of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1994-96 Vice-President of Srpska. In 1998 she lost the bit for re-election as the first female incumbent President ever. 2002 she was convicted for war crimes during the civil war. (b. 1930-). 

2 thoughts on “The OLD cHINA pAPERMONEY PART TWO 19TH CENTURY

  1. niken March 29, 2012 / 12:59 am

    I have the old book title :
    1- “The history of modern Europe” by Stephen H. Roberts, Sydney University.
    (Sorry cover has been damaged).
    2- “Sarinah” by Dr. It. Soekarno (the first President of the Republic of Indonesia) November 1947
    Episode- 2 (1951)
    If your interest I want to sale.
    Thank you,
    Your sincerely,
    Niken

    • iwansuwandy March 30, 2012 / 12:07 am

      hallo Niken,
      thanks for visit my blog. all the book related to Indonesia I amolost have all,including your book
      sincerely
      Dr Iwan

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