Sikhs In Singapore’s Historic Collections(Koleksi Sejarah Suku Sikhs Di Singapura)

 1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUMMUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA                     

Events in Anglo-Sikh History

Pre 1800:
Guru Arjun Dev’s Martyrdom 1606     Massacre of Sikhs in Dehli 1716
1800-1900:
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1806
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1809
Tripartite Treaty 1838
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1840
Anglo-Afghan Wars 1941
Hardinges proclamation 1845
First Anglo-Sikh War 1845-46
Anglo-Sikh Treaty 1846
Anglo-Sikh Treaty Dec 1846
First Sikh Battalion – 1846
  Second Anglo-Sikh War 1848-49
Annexation of Punjab 1849

Sikhs in Singapore 1850
The Indian Mutiny – 1857
Namdhari Movement 1857
Singh Sabha Movement 1870
Kirpan Morcha 1878
Electrification of GT 1897
Battle of Saraghari 1897
Sikh Regiments 1859-1914
1900-2000:
Sikh Journalism
Ghadr Movement 1912
Komagata Maru 1914

Jallianwalla Bagh 1919
Constitutional Reform 1919
Babbar Akali Movement 1920’s
Akali Movement 1920’s
Guru Ka Bhag Morcha 1921
Morcha Chabian 1921
Sikh Forces in Iraq – 1922
Nankana Sahib Massacre 1921
Panja Sahib Massacre 1922
Pheru Morcha 1922
Sikh Gurdwara Act 1925
Communal Award 1932
  Shahid Ganj Agitation 1935
Sikh Contribution to Freedom
Transfer of Power 1947
Partition Of The Punjab – 1947
Punjabi Suba – 1966
The Turban Case 1976
Amritsar Massacre 1978
Kanpur Massacre 1978
Operation Bluestar 1984
Assasination of Indira Gandhi
Dehli Massacre 1984
Sikhs in Birmingham – 1991
Sikh Asylum Seekers 1996
Vaisakhi 99 Celebrations 1999
Queens Visit to Harimandir 2002 

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

03070035

Sikhs in Singapore
Historic Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUMMUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA                          WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM                 SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Sikh Regiments Of The British India Army – Part I

Vintage Pictures Of  The British Army India : Part I

From the archives

1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893

1st Punjaub Cavalry 1893

Note that English Officers in the Sikh Regiments wore turbans.

The respect and affection that the English had for the Sikhs is well recorded. There is no historical evidence of the English entering Sikh places of worship and desecrating them.

15th Punjab Regiment

15th Punjab Regiment

5th Battalion The Sikh Regiment

5th Battalion The Sikh Regiment

SINGAPORE SIKHS HISTORIC COLLECTIONS(KOLEKSI SEJARAH SUKU SIKHS  DI SINGAPORE)

VERSI SATU: Awal Imigran Sikh terutama polisi

Awal Sikh Imigran

prolog:
Siapa Sikh pertama di Singapura? Jawabannya adalah tidak mudah datang. Tidak ada catatan ada yang dengan jelas menyatakan yang merupakan Sikh pertama yang mendarat di sini.

1.1849

 Banyak Sikh tua masih hidup dalam cerita-cerita Singapura mengingat satu Maharaj Singh, seorang tahanan politik diasingkan ke Singapura oleh Inggris setelah Perang Kedua di Sikh Sikh 1849.A kelahiran mulia, ia menolak untuk mengakui kekalahan ke Inggris dan membentuk gerilya band dengan pengikutnya.

2.1850

Sayangnya untuk Maharaj Singh, dia tertangkap dan dipenjara sebelum ia benar-benar bisa mengatur dirinya sendiri. Tetapi popularitasnya di kalangan Sikh, bahkan setelah dia dipenjara, adalah sedemikian rupa sehingga Inggris memutuskan itu dalam kepentingan mereka sendiri untuk him.He pengasingan dikirim ke Singapura dengan hamba laki-laki, tiba di sini kira pada 1850-an. Dia ditempatkan di Penjara Jalan Outram tua dan oleh semua account adalah orang yang religius, menghabiskan waktu yang lama dalam doa dan meditasi. Tales diturunkan dari mulut ke mulut berbicara tentang dirinya yang memiliki kekuatan spiritual dan keajaiban bekerja. Tidak ada catatan ketika ia meninggal, tetapi diketahui bahwa setelah kematiannya, ia dikremasi di luar Penjara Jalan Outram. Sikh pada masa itu, percaya ia adalah suci, dibangun sebuah makam di tempat di mana ia dikremasi.

Ketika pemerintah ingin memperluas penjara, makam patah dan dibangun kembali di tempat sekitar satu mil jauhnya. Dalam tahun kemudian, Singapore General Hospital (SGH) dibangun di dekat lokasi makam. Itu tidak terganggu dan tetap dalam apa yang menjadi halaman rumah sakit. Pada tahun 1965, pemerintah meminta orang-orang Sikh untuk menghapus makam karena mereka ingin memperluas rumah sakit. Jadi sekali lagi, makam itu putus. Kali ini setelah beberapa doa, lima batu semua yang tersisa dari makam tua, dihapus dan ditempatkan di tempat peristirahatan baru di halaman depan Kuil Jalan Silat dekatnya.

Beberapa orang menyebutnya candi ini sebagai Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Mengapa Baba Karam Singh dan tidak Maharaj Singh? Ada beberapa kontroversi mengenai siapa yang makam di Outram Road dan alasan selanjutnya SGH benar-benar milik. Titik-satunya konsensus adalah bahwa itu milik orang suci. Ada orang yang percaya itu adalah Maharaj Singh. Kemudian lagi ada orang yang mengatakan itu adalah bahwa Baba Karam Singh, yang dikatakan memiliki beberapa kekuatan spiritual juga. Yang pasti adalah bahwa mereka yang mempertahankan makam dan kemudian membuatnya menjadi sebuah tempat suci macam, percaya Baba Karam Singh dan nama telah datang untuk tinggal. Mungkin ada tahanan politik lainnya diasingkan ke Singapura juga, tapi tidak ada yang dikenal dari mereka.

Gelombang pertama Sikh mendarat di Singapura datang dalam bentuk sepahi (polisi) direkrut di India untuk membantu menjaga perdamaian dan meletakkan perang geng Cina.

Fighter INDIA

 
Bhai Maharaj Singh adalah salah satu orang pertama Punjab untuk meluncurkan gerakan kemerdekaan di Punjab setelah Inggris mengambil alih Punjab. Ia mengorganisir perlawanan terhadap imperialisme Inggris setelah kekalahan Tentara Sikh, diasingkan sebagai Negara priosoner, meninggal tanggal 5 Juli 1856 di Penjara Singapura.
Bhai Maharaj SINGH JI
Kemartiran HARI – 5 JULY 1856

Dia mengatakan pada tahun 1849: “Akan ada lagi Perang Nasional”.

“Bhai Mahararaj Singh, seorang Sikh kesucian imam terkenal, dan pengaruh besar, orang pertama yang mengangkat standar pemberontakan melampaui batas-batas Multan pada tahun 1848, dan satu-satunya pemimpin dari catatan yang tidak meletakkan senjata untuk Sir Walter Gilbert di Rawalpindi. ” kata Henry Lawrence, Residen Lahore

Rencana Bhai Maharaj Singh tindakan melawan Inggris unggul dibingkai di hutan Lembah Chumb:

1. Untuk menyelamatkan Dalip Singh Maharajah dari Lahore Fort.
2. Untuk mengatur Front Persatuan dari semua kekuatan anti-Inggris.
3. Diselenggarakan gangguan oleh serangan subversi dan kejutan pada kas Inggris dan penampungan.

Dia ditampilkan jenderal militer yang luar biasa dan pengetahuan peperangan taktis. Apa yang berkelanjutan baginya adalah warisan yang kaya rohaninya.

Maharaj Singh memimpin kampanye anti-Inggris sebagai masalah kewajiban agama terhadap umat-Nya. Setelah Perang Anglo-Sikh Pertama ia pindah tentang Doab Jalandhar, sebuah wilayah Inggris dan membangkitkan orang melawan Inggris. Ia menghubungi Dewan Mool Raj, yang Nazim Multan untuk menaikkan bendera pemberontakan terhadap pemerintahan Inggris di Lahore Kerajaan. Dia pergi ke Hazara mana Sardar Singh Chattar Attariwala sedang mempersiapkan untuk memberontak. Kehadiran Maharaj Singh ada memberikan dorongan untuk penyebab pemberontakan. Para Bhai memicu, pemberontakan panjang tahun, hampir nasional di niat. Ia berusaha untuk memperpanjang ke seluruh India Utara dengan melibatkan di dalamnya Maharaja Bikaner. Dost Muhammad, Amir Afghanistan dan Maharaja Gulab Singh dari Jammu dan Kashmir tapi tidak bisa mencapai keberhasilan yang diinginkan. Lalu datanglah Perang Anglo-Sikh Kedua yang mengakibatkan pencaplokan Punjab oleh Inggris pada 29 Maret 1849.
Aneksasi Punjab oleh Inggris melambat aktivitas para pejuang kemerdekaan di provinsi untuk sejumlah alasan. Pemerintah Inggris Dalip Singh dihapus Maharaj luar Punjab ke Missouri di yang namanya para pejuang kemerdekaan telah terjadi antara 1846-1849. Kedua, Rani Jindan melarikan diri ke Nepal dan tidak bisa secara efektif membimbing gerakan. Terakhir, para pemimpin Punjab yang telah berperang melawan Inggris dalam Perang Sikh Kedua diasingkan atau dimasukkan ke dalam penjara di United Provinces.

Maharaj Singh, namun tidak mengizinkan gerakan kebebasan untuk mati. Dia dihubungkan sebuah rencana baru untuk melanjutkan perjuangan. Dia melarikan diri dari Rawalpindi ke Jammu dan dari kulit keluar dikirim utusan rahasia untuk menghubungi, khususnya, habis prajurit Angkatan Darat Khalsa, yang Jagirdars dan kepala yang telah dirampas perkebunan mereka pensiun oleh pemerintah Inggris dan juga pemegang agama perkebunan, khususnya Gosains di perbukitan Kangra, yang bisa membantunya membiayai perjuangan kemerdekaan.

Maharaj Singh meminta bantuan dari Dost Muhammad, Amir Kabul, dalam perjuangan untuk kemerdekaan Punjab dari kekuasaan asing. Dia menulis kepada Amir dan saudaranya Sultan Muhammad Khan untuk dukungan, tetapi mereka menolak untuk membuat dia membantu apapun. Bhai Maharaj Singh berencana untuk membuat jenis serangan gerilya di distrik-distrik militer Inggris dipilih Hoshiarpur, Hajipur dan mungkin Jalandhar. Anak buahnya menjarah kas pemerintah di Bajwara.

Contoh Maharaj Singh membangkitkan orang-orang yang tidak puas. Para kepala Attariwala, Dewan Hakim Rai dan Sardars Majithia itu diaduk untuk bertindak meskipun gerakan mereka dibatasi ke desa mereka oleh perintah dari pemerintah Inggris. Faquirs dan Brahmana yang telah membantu dalam membawa pesan dari Rani Jindan dan kepala lainnya selama periode pra-aneksasi mulai mengunjungi tempat-tempat mantan pemberontak, kepala pada satu dalih untuk yang lain. Intelijen Inggris melaporkan bahwa orang-orang ini menyediakan link antara Bhai Maharaj Singh dan pemimpin-pemimpin yang siap untuk memberontak melawan Inggris dalam konser dengan Bhai Sahib.

Sahib Bhai diperoleh bantuan yang cukup besar dari sejumlah besar orang berpengaruh di distrik Hoshiarpur. Pada November 1849, ia menyelesaikan semua pengaturan untuk menyerang penampungan di Doab Jalandhar. Dalam jemaat terbuka di Syam Chaurasi, sebuah desa di distrik Hoshiarpur dia menyatakan Posh 20 (3 Januari 1850) selanjutnya sebagai tanggal keberuntungan untuk umum meningkat. Para Bhai membuat dirinya terlalu mencolok dan harus membayar harga untuk itu. Pada tanggal 29 Desember 1849, Vinsittat, Komisaris Wakil Jalandhar menangkapnya bersama dengan 21 pengikutnya tak bersenjata dekat Adampur. Vansttart Komisaris Wakil Jalandhar yang menangkap dia, menulis: “Guru adalah tidak manusia biasa Dia adalah penduduk asli apa yang Yesus adalah yang paling bersemangat orang Kristen mukjizat-Nya dilihat oleh puluhan ribu, dan lebih implisit diyakini dari.. yang bekerja oleh para nabi kuno. ”

Bahkan lebih murah hati adalah Mcleod, Komisaris Doab, yang menulis: “.. dia tetap pada umumnya, tapi sedikit lebih lama … penghinaan lebih dari sebuah karakter yang mengkhawatirkan akan diupayakan … yang hasilnya, akan … mungkin mustahil untuk meramalkan. ”

Kabar penangkapan Maharaj Singh dan penahanannya di Penjara Sipil Jalandhar menyebar seperti api. Sejumlah besar orang Hindu, Muslim dan Sikh kota berkumpul di luar penjara membuat pemerintah khawatir kalau-kalau orang mungkin mencoba untuk mendapatkan Bhai Sahib dirilis. Jaksa Distrik langsung mendapat Maharaj Singh dan terdekat muridnya Kharak Singh dipindahkan ke tahanan penguasa militer.

Ditemukan terlalu berisiko untuk menempatkan Bhai Maharaj Singh diadili di India dan dia dideportasi ke Singapura. Dia tiba pada “Shah Muhmed”, pada tanggal 9 Juli 1850, bersama dengan seorang murid, Kharak Singh, dan pindah ke Penjara Outram. Ia disimpan dalam kurungan tersendiri dalam sel 14 oleh 15 kaki, yang, karena sampai Walling dari jendela, telah “lanjut diberikan gelap, perahu dan benar-benar tidak sehat” (Makalah Konsultasi Rahasia, 28 Februari 1851, # 52-57 ). Dia praktis buta dalam waktu tiga tahun, menderita kanker di lidahnya, dan telah bengkak dan nyeri rematik di kakinya dan pergelangan kaki. The Surgeon Sipil, Singapura, direkomendasikan bahwa Bhai Maharaj Singh diperbolehkan sesekali berjalan kaki di tempat terbuka, tapi ini ditolak oleh Pemerintah Inggris di India. Hasilnya adalah bahwa kesehatannya terus memburuk, dan sekitar dua bulan sebelum kematiannya, leher dan lidahnya menjadi bengkak sehingga menjadi sangat sulit baginya untuk menelan.

Bhai Maharaj Singh meninggal pada 5 Juli 1856. Dia dikremasi di sebidang tanah di luar penjara, mungkin dengan Khurruck Singh, yang juga meninggal di penjara nanti.

Bhai Maharaj SINGH MEMORIAL SINGAPURA

1870

Batch pertama juga dari Patiala, Ludhiana dan Ferozepur dibawa ke Singapura pada akhir 1870 dan membentuk Kontingen Polisi Sikh pertama ditempatkan di Garis Sepoy kemudian dikenal sebagai Hill Pearl menghadap Chinatown

1873

Pada tahun 1873, Kapten Speedy direkrut 110 Sikh dari distrik Patiala, Ludhiana Punjab dan Ferozepur untuk layanan di Perak (di Malaysia). Band ini dikenal sebagai Polisi Bersenjata Perak. Keberhasilan ini direkrut awal mendorong Inggris untuk merekrut Sikh lebih dan 1888, di bawah satu Kapten Walker, kelompok itu tumbuh dan kemudian dikenal sebagai Perak 1 Sikh. Dengan 1896, gaya nomor 900 dan berganti nama menjadi negara bagian Melayu Guides dengan Walker sebagai Kolonel pertama mereka.

Sementara itu, keberhasilan Sikh sebagai polisi atau sepahi di Malaya memimpin Inggris untuk mendatangkan beberapa ke Singapura. . Sikh polisi juga direkrut oleh Perusahaan Tanjong Pagar Dock untuk membentuk Angkatan Kepolisian Tanjong Pagar Dock.

1885

Sementara gelombang pertama Sikh datang terutama sebagai polisi, pada tahun 1885 Sikh lebih dari kabupaten lain di Punjab yaitu, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar dan Lahore adalah membuat cara mereka sendiri ke Singapura untuk mencari kekayaan mereka. Sebagian besar Sikh tidak bisa masuk ke Kepolisian sebagai direkrut sebelumnya dibatasi entri selanjutnya kepada kerabat atau orang kabupaten sesama. Dengan demikian, para migran ini kemudian menjadi penjaga, polisi polisi tambahan, pengusaha waktu kecil atau pergi ke peternakan sapi perah. Kisah satu Hari Singh Choney dari Gurdaspur distrik adalah khas dari para migran awal. Hari Singh datang ke Singapura pada 1885. Dia melakukan perjalanan seperti banyak orang lain di dek, memasak makanan sendiri. Dia mendarat di Singapura di Tanjong Pagar dan dibantu oleh beberapa polisi yang bertugas Sikh yang memberinya akomodasi sementara. Satu Sunder Singh, seorang polisi polisi, membantunya menemukan pekerjaan berpatroli di dasar Botanic Gardens. Seperti banyak Sikh di Singapura kemudian, Hari Singh memimpin hidup sangat hemat, pemulangan sebagian besar tabungannya dan membantu untuk membawa keluar kerabat lainnya. Beberapa tahun setelah kedatangannya, Hari Singh dibawa keluar adiknya Jaimall Singh dan menemukannya pekerjaan sebagai polisi Polisi tambahan. Tugas ini APC pada masa itu untuk menjaga toko-toko opium Pemerintah menjalankan yang kemudian hukum di Singapura.

Banyak dari awal Sikh datang sebagai bujangan. Mereka kemudian kembali ke India dengan uang, menikah dan membawa keluarga mereka kembali. Hari Singh tidak berbeda, kecuali dalam kasus ia harus kembali agak tiba-tiba sebagai kakaknya Bhagat Singh meninggal mendadak meninggalkan seorang anak muda. Hari Singh menikah di India dan mengadopsi anak Bhagat Singh, Achar Singh.

VERSION ONE:Early Sikhs Immigrants mainly a policeman

Early Sikh Immigrants

prologue:
Who was Singapore’s first Sikh? The answer is not readily forthcoming. No records exist which clearly state who was the first Sikh to land here. 

1.1849

 Many of the older Sikhs still alive in Singapore recall tales of one Maharaj Singh, a political prisoner exiled to Singapore by the British after the Second Sikh War in 1849.A Sikh of noble birth, he refused to concede defeat to the British and formed a guerilla band with his followers. 

2.1850  

Unfortunately for maharaj Singh , he was caught and imprisoned before he could really organise himself. But his popularity among the Sikhs, even after he was jailed, was such that the British decided it was in their own interests to exile him.He was sent to Singapore with a manservant, arriving here sometime in the 1850’s. He was housed in the old Outram Road Jail and by all accounts was a religious person, spending long periods of time in prayer and meditation. Tales passed down by word of mouth speak of him possessing spiritual powers and of working miracles. There is no record of when he died, but it is known that after his death, he was cremated outside Outram Road Jail. Sikhs of that period, believing he was a saint, built a tomb on the spot where he was cremated.

When the authorities wanted to expand the prison, his tomb was broken up and rebuilt on a spot about a mile away. In later years, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) was built near the site of the tomb. It was not disturbed and remained in what became the hospital grounds. In 1965, the government asked the Sikhs to remove the tomb as they wished to expand the hospital. So once again, the tomb was broken up. This time after some prayers, five stones all that remained of the old tomb, were removed and placed in a new resting place in the forecourt of the Silat Road Temple nearby.

Some people call this temple as Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Why Baba Karam Singh and not Maharaj Singh? There is some controversy over who the tomb at Outram Road and subsequently SGH grounds really belonged to. The only point of consensus is that it belonged to a saintly person. There are those who believe it is Maharaj Singh’s. Then again there are those who say it was that of Baba Karam Singh, who was said to possess some spiritual powers too. What is certain is that those who maintained the tomb and later made it into a shrine of sorts, believed it was Baba Karam Singh and the name has come to stay. There may have been other political prisoners exiled to Singapore too, but nothing is known of them.

The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) recruited in India to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars.

Fighter of INDIA

 
Bhai Maharaj Singh was one of the first people of Punjab to launch a freedom movement in Punjab after the British took over Punjab. He organised resistance to British imperialism after the defeat of the Sikh Army, was exiled as State priosoner, died on 5th July, 1856 in Singapore Jail.

BHAI MAHARAJ SINGH JI
MARTYRDOM DAY – 5 JULY 1856

He said in 1849: “There will be another National War”.

“Bhai Mahararaj Singh, a Sikh priest of reputed sanctity, and of great influence, the first man who raised the standards of rebellion beyond the confines of Multan in 1848, and the only leader of note who did not lay down his arms to Sir Walter Gilberts at Rawalpindi.” said Henry Lawrence, Resident of Lahore

Bhai Maharaj Singh’s plan of action against the superior British was framed in the jungles of the Chumb Valley:

1. To rescue Maharajah Dalip Singh from Lahore Fort.
2. To organize a United Front of all anti-British forces.
3. Organized disruption by subversion and surprise attacks on British treasuries and cantonments.

He displayed superb military generalship and knowledge of tactical warfare. What sustained him was his rich spiritual heritage.

Maharaj Singh led the anti British campaign as a matter of religious duty towards his people. After the First Anglo-Sikh War he moved about the Jalandhar Doab, a British territory and aroused the people against the British. He contacted Dewan Mool Raj, the Nazim of Multan to raise a banner of revolt against the British administration of Lahore Kingdom. He went to Hazara where Sardar Chattar Singh Attariwala was preparing to rebel. Maharaj Singh’s presence there gave a boost to the cause of rebellion. The Bhai ignited, a year long revolt, almost national in intention. He sought to extend it all over northern India by involving in it the Maharaja of Bikaner. Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan and Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir but could not achieve desired success. Then came the Second Anglo-Sikh War which resulted in the annexation of the Punjab by the British on March 29, 1849.

The annexation of the Punjab by the British slackened the activities of the freedom fighters in the province for a number of reasons. The British Government removed Maharaj Dalip Singh outside Punjab to Missouri in whose name the freedom fighters had fought between 1846-49. Secondly, Rani Jindan escaped to Nepal and could not effectively guide the movement. Lastly, the chiefs of the Punjab who had fought the British in the Second Sikh War were exiled or were put in the prison in the United Provinces.

Maharaj Singh, however did not allow the freedom movement to die out. He chalked out a fresh plan to continue the struggle. He escaped from Rawalpindi to Jammu and from his hide out sent secret emissaries to contact, in particular, the discharged soldiers of the Khalsa Army, the Jagirdars and chiefs who had been dispossessed of their estates of pension by the British authorities and also the holders of religious estates, particularly the Gosains in the Kangra hills, who could help him finance the freedom struggle.

Maharaj Singh sought help from Dost Mohammad, The Amir of Kabul, in Punjab’s struggle for freedom from foreign rule. He wrote to the Amir and his brother Sultan Muhammad Khan for support; but they refused to render him any help. Bhai Maharaj Singh planned to make guerilla type of attacks on the selected British cantonments of Hoshiarpur, Hajipur and possibly Jalandhar. His men looted the government treasury at Bajwara.

Maharaj Singh’s example aroused the disgruntled people. The Attariwala chiefs, Dewan Hakim Rai and the Majithia Sardars were stirred to action though their movements were restricted to their villages by the orders of the British authorities. Faquirs and Brahmans who had helped in carrying message of Rani Jindan and other chiefs during the pre-annexation period started visiting places of ex-rebels, chiefs on one pretext to the other. The British intelligence reported that these people were providing links between Bhai Maharaj Singh and the chiefs who were prepared to rebel against the British in concert with Bhai Sahib.

The Bhai Sahib obtained substantial help from a large number of influential people in the Hoshiarpur district. In November 1849, he completed all arrangements for attacking cantonments in the Jalandhar Doab. In an open congregation at Sham Chaurasi, a village in the Hoshiarpur district he declared the 20th Posh (3rd January, 1850) next as the auspicious date for the general rising. The Bhai was making himself too conspicuous and had to pay the price for it. On December 29, 1849, Vinsittat, the Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar arrested him along with his 21 unarmed followers near Adampur. Vansttart the Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar who arrested him, wrote: “The Guru is no ordinary man. He is to the natives what Jesus was to the most zealous of Christians. His miracles were seen by tens of thousands, and are more implicitly believed than those worked by the ancient prophets.”

Even more generous was Mcleod, Commissioner of the Doab, who wrote: “.. had he remained at large, but a little longer … more outrages of an alarming character would have been attempted … the result of which,… would perhaps be impossible to foretell.”

The news of Maharaj Singh’s arrest and his detention in the Jalandhar Civil Jail spread like a wildfire. A large number of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of the town gathered outside the jail making the authorities apprehensive lest the people might attempt to get Bhai Sahib released. The District Magistrate immediately got Maharaj Singh and his closest disciple Kharak Singh transferred to the custody of the military authorities.

It was found too risky to put Bhai Maharaj Singh on trial in India and he was deported to Singapore. He arrived on the “Muhmed Shah”, on 9th July 1850, together with a disciple, Kharak Singh, and moved to Outram Jail. He was kept in solitary confinement in a cell 14 by 15 feet, which, because of the walling up of the windows, had been “further rendered dark, dinghy and absolutely unhealthy” (Secret Consultation Papers, 28th Feb 1851, #52-57). He was practically blind within three years, developed cancer on his tongue, and had rheumatic swellings and pains in his feet and ankles. The Civil Surgeon, Singapore, recommended that Bhai Maharaj Singh be allowed an occasional walk in the open, but this was turned down by the British Government of India. The result was that his health continued to deteriorate, and about two months before his death, his neck and tongue became so swollen that it became very difficult for him to swallow.

Bhai Maharaj Singh died on 5th July 1856. He was cremated on a plot of land outside the prison, presumably by Khurruck Singh, who also died in prison later.

BHAI MAHARAJ SINGH MEMORIAL SINGAPORE

1870

The first batch also from Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur was brought to Singapore in the late 1870s and formed the first Sikh Police Contingent stationed at Sepoy Lines later known as Pearl’s Hill overlooking Chinatown

1873

In 1873, Captain Speedy recruited 110 Sikhs from the Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab for service in Perak (in Malaysia). This band was known as the Perak Armed Police. The success of these early recruits prompted the British to recruit more Sikhs and by 1888, under one Captain Walker, the group had grown and came to be known as the 1st Perak Sikhs. By 1896, the force numbered 900 and was renamed the Malay States Guides with Walker as their first Colonel.

Meanwhile, the success of the Sikhs as policemen or sepoys in Malaya led the British to bring some down to Singapore. . Sikh policemen were also recruited by the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company to form the Tanjong Pagar Dock Police Force.

1885

While the first wave of Sikhs came mainly as policemen, by 1885 more Sikhs from other districts in Punjab namely, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar and Lahore were making their own way down to Singapore to seek their fortunes. Most of these Sikhs could not enter the Police Force as the earlier recruits restricted subsequent entry to their relatives or fellow district folks. As such, these later migrants became watchmen, additional police constables, small time businessmen or went into dairy farming. The story of one Hari Singh Choney from Gurdaspur district is typical of these early migrants. Hari Singh came to Singapore in 1885. He travelled like many others on deck, cooking his own meals. He landed in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar and was helped by some Sikh policemen on duty who gave him temporary accommodation. One Sunder Singh, a police constable, helped him find a job patrolling the grounds of the Botanic Gardens. Like many of the Sikhs in Singapore then, Hari Singh led a very frugal life, repatriating most of his savings and helping to bring out other relatives. A couple of years after his arrival, Hari Singh brought out his younger brother Jaimall Singh and found him a job as an Additional Police Constable. The job of these APCs in those days was to guard the Government run opium shops which were then legal in Singapore.

Many of these early Sikhs came as bachelors. They later returned to India with some money, married and brought their families back. Hari Singh was no different, except in his case he had to return rather suddenly as his elder brother Bhagat Singh died suddenly leaving behind a young son. Hari Singh got married in India and adopted Bhagat Singh’s son, Achar Singh.

1900

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Singapura. Polisi Sikh
Kartupos – “Singapura Polisi Sikh..” c1900

Hari Singh kembali ke Singapura setelah 1900 dan mendapat pekerjaan sebagai penjaga dengan Lim Hoe Chiang dari Tanjong Pagar. Ia diberi tempat tinggal di pabrik, di persimpangan Wallich Street dan Peck Seah Street. Sebelah pabrik itu sepotong terbuka tanah di mana Hari Singh memutuskan untuk membangun sebuah gudang kayu dan menjaga beberapa ekor sapi perah. Dia mulai dengan tiga ekor sapi dan mulai apa yang akhirnya menjadi bisnis penuh waktu. Anak angkatnya, Achar Singh, mulai sekolah tapi itu beberapa waktu sebelum keluarga tumbuh.

1920

Pada tahun 1920, pertama dari empat Hari Singh putra lahir. Lalu datanglah si kembar Bassan Singh dan Singh Wassawa diikuti oleh termuda, Inder Singh. Anak-anak punya banyak teman-teman Sikh sebagai oleh kemudian banyak Sikh lain telah bermigrasi ke Singapura. Satu Sewa Singh Sedukay, yang desa dekat dengan Hari Singh di India yang menetap di Wallich Street dan membangun sebuah gudang kayu di samping Hari Singh dan memulai bisnis sendiri ternak. Sewa Singh Sedukay anak tertua, Dewan Singh Randhawa sampai 1980-an berlari koran hanya Punjabi Mingguan di Singapura.

Seperti semua migran Sikh lainnya, Hari Singh menempatkan banyak penekanan pada pendidikan. Dia memastikan anak-anaknya diperoleh baik bahasa Inggris dan Punjabi pendidikan. Achar Singh bergabung dengan Kantor Percetakan Pemerintah di Johor Bahru sebagai bukti pembaca. Sewa Singh bergabung dengan Departemen Kedokteran seperti yang dilakukan Bassan Singh. Inder Singh kemudian pindah ke Inggris dan menjadi penambang batu bara. Wasswa Singh meninggal dalam usia remaja. Setelah menghabiskan hampir seluruh masa dewasanya di Singapura, Hari Singh seperti sezamannya, tidak ingin mengakhiri hari-harinya di Singapura. Dia kembali ke India pada tahun 1952 dan meninggal di sana segera setelah. Keturunannya sekarang generasi keempat Sikh di Singapura, yang duduk nyaman kelas menengah Singapura, yang sementara mereka masih menjaga hubungan dengan desa mereka di Punjab, tidak memiliki niat untuk kembali ke sana.

Para Sikh awal baik penjaga, polisi atau susu petani. Para pedagang atau pengusaha dalam masyarakat muncul banyak nanti setelah Perang Dunia Kedua dan didirikan sendiri di High Street, berurusan dengan terutama tekstil. Seperti yang dinyatakan sebelumnya, Sikh awal penekanan banyak dalam pendidikan dan tidak mengherankan, anak-anak mereka baik menjadi pegawai negeri atau profesional melalui kerja keras dan belajar.

1920

Kuil Sikh di Singapura
Agama merupakan bagian integral dari kehidupan sehari-hari Sikh. Ketika batch pertama dari Sikh dibawa ke Singapura oleh Perusahaan India Timur sebagai polisi, sebuah kuil dibangun untuk mereka di Barak Bukit Pearl. Demikian pula, Perusahaan Tanjong Pagar Dock dibangun sebuah kuil untuk Polisi di Anson Road. Pada tahun 1920, seorang pedagang Sindhi menyumbangkan rumahnya di Queen Street untuk sebuah kuil Sikh dan menamakannya “Wada Gurdwara”, yang berarti “Kuil Besar”. Komite manajemen terdiri dari wakil-wakil terpilih dari Sikh Majha, Malwa dan Doaba. Tiga candi yang mewakili daerah-daerah – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Sabha dan Khalsa Dharmak Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – dikirim tiga anggota masing-masing untuk komite manajemen dan satu anggota masing-masing untuk Komite (Makanan) Langar.

1925

Pada tahun 1925, Sikh Majha membuka sebuah kuil di sebuah rumah berlantai dua di Queen Street dekat persimpangan Bras Basah Road. Dua tahun kemudian, ada kesalahpahaman atas imam, Giani Partap Singh, karena ia membayar mas kawin untuk menikah. Santa Singh Sedukay dan Ganesa Singh Malli dibuka lagi kuil di Cecil Street dengan Partap Singh Giani sebagai imam. Jadi selama waktu yang singkat, ada dua Singh Sabhas di Singapura. Dua tahun kemudian, kedua faksi diselesaikan perbedaan mereka dan semua Sikh Mahja pindah kembali ke tempat Queen Street. Pada tahun 1931, Sabha pindah ke kuil baru di 90 Jalan Wilkie. Pada tahun 1980, Sabha pindah ke gedung baru di Jalan 92 Wilkie berdekatan yang dibangun pada tahun 1931. Gedung tua diubah menjadi Ghar Janjh dan untuk akomodasi. Ada rencana untuk museum juga.

Para Sikh Malwa mulai sebuah kuil di Jalan Chandy belakang Gedung Cathay hadir sekitar waktu yang sama seperti Sikh Majha mulai Sri Guru Singh Sabha. Dari Jalan Chandy, yang Khalsa Dharmak Sabha pindah ke gedung ini pada 18 Jalan Niven.

Para Sikh Doaba telah kuil mereka di Kirk Teras. Pemerintah memperoleh tanah mereka untuk pembangunan perkotaan dan mereka telah sejak pindah ke Lorong 19 Geyland.

Dulu ada yang lain Kuil Sikh di sebuah gedung bertingkat ganda di Kerbau Road. Ini telah ada sejak sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua.

Ada juga Kuil Sikh lain yang dibangun untuk kenyamanan Sikh yang tinggal di dekatnya. Salah satu candi tersebut adalah Jalan Gurdwara Kayu. Ada juga satu di Naval Base untuk Sikh bekerja di pangkalan. Lain adalah di Sembawang Jalan bagi mereka yang tinggal dan bekerja di luar daerah basis. Hari ini, sebuah kuil baru ada di Yishun disebut Yishun Gurdwara. Ini merupakan hasil penggabungan dari Kayu Jalan dan Gurdwaras Sembawang, mengikuti perkembangan perumahan di utara Singapura. Ketika Pemerintah Inggris memutuskan untuk meningkatkan dan memperluas daerah Dewan Harbour, itu perlu untuk menghancurkan Barak Polisi Dock mana candi ini terletak. Ini ditawarkan tanah Kontingen Sikh di Jalan Silat untuk bait suci dan juga memberikan bantuan moneter. Dua polisi dari Kontingen Sikh dinominasikan untuk mengumpulkan dana untuk membangun candi ini. Salah satunya adalah Wasawa Singh, ayah dari Bakshis Singh, seorang pensiunan kepala sekolah. Dana dikumpulkan dari masyarakat Sikh di Singapura, Malaya dan Pulau Christmas dan Silat Jalan Sikh Temple menjadi kenyataan. Pengelolaan kuil itu diserahkan kepada polisi Sikh di bawah pimpinan seorang petugas Kontingen Sikh. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kontingen Sikh dibubarkan dan Kuil Jalan Silat diserahkan ke Komite Sentral Kuil Sikh. Bait suci adalah hari ini bagian dari Kuil Sikh Tengah.

Ketika India dan Pakistan mencapai kemerdekaan, pengusaha Sikh banyak orang yang tercerabut dari rumah mereka datang ke Singapura dan secara bertahap jumlah ini tumbuh. Pada awalnya, ini digunakan untuk berdoa Sikh di Kuil Sikh Tengah di Queen Street. Kemudian, mereka mulai bergerak memegang sebuah kuil doa di rumah-rumah anggota mereka dengan rotasi. Mereka segera memutuskan untuk memiliki bait suci mereka sendiri dan dalam waktu membeli sebuah gedung di Jalan Wilkinson mana mereka telah berubah menjadi sebuah kuil yang indah. Keanggotaan terbatas pada para pendiri asli. Keanggotaan asosiasi ini terbuka untuk semua tetapi ini tidak memiliki anggota mengatakan dalam menjalankan kuil.

Baru Tengah Sikh Temple bangunan selesai pada tahun 1986 dan dibangun dengan biaya $ 6 juta. Ini memiliki ruang doa ber-AC dan kedap suara. Ada parkir bawah tanah, fasilitas dapur modern, akomodasi bagi para imam, ruang untuk pertemuan, dan perpustakaan.

Sikh Awal Imam dan Ragis
Para imam pertama dari kalangan polisi Sikh atau sepahi. Dua dari mereka Bhai Bhai Wasawa Singh dan Amar Singh. Di antara para imam awal di Singapura Narain Singh Bhai Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, dijuluki Bhai Pawa karena ia sangat pendek, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh dan Singh Bhai Ganda.

1920

Pada 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, ada sekelompok Shabad (himne) penyanyi dari desa Mallian. Mereka lima nomor, semua saudara dan sepupu dan semua lebih dari enam meter. Mereka mengenakan malmal (jenis yang sangat tipis dari kain katun) kameez atau kemeja seperti yang dipakai oleh Pahelwans (pegulat), dan kalung emas. Mereka sebagian besar pasir Halle dey Shabads, (dinyanyikan seperti Kawalis dengan beat cepat). Anak-anak menemukan beat yang cepat dengan Dholak (drum), Shaney (simbal kecil), Chimta dan Khartale (instrumen musik India) yang sangat menawan

1930.

Barulah pada tahun 1930-an yang Sikh di Singapura memiliki kesempatan untuk mendengarkan jenis lain dari penyanyi profesional dari India ketika Janki Bai dan Kalka Bai Calcutta menghabiskan waktu sebulan di Singapura dan memberikan pertunjukan setiap malam di Serangoon Road. Ada juga konser diberikan oleh para profesional. Di antara musisi terkenal dan berbakat dan penyanyi adalah Dr Chotta Singh, Guru Sawan, Ustad Noor Md Khan, Veer Chand dan Master Muhammad.

Ada juga banyak berbakat Tabla (drum) pemain termasuk Sardar Khan, Ustad Muhammad dan Krishna Deo Tiwari. Seorang mahasiswa Gwalior, Krishan Deo juga eksponen brilian Mirdhang tersebut. Dia memberikan sejumlah pertunjukan solo di Teater Victoria dan antara Masyarakat India Utara ia biasanya disebut Mirdhangi. Sangat sedikit orang yang tahu nama yang sebenarnya.

Saat ini, banyak Kirtan dilakukan di candi ini baik oleh imam atau oleh Ragis profesional (musisi) yang datang pada tur. Akibatnya, sangat sedikit melakukan Kirtan Singapura Sikh di kuil-kuil sekarang. Seva Singh dan keluarganya digunakan untuk menjadi salah satu pengecualian. Putra sulungnya, Terlochan Singh adalah Sitarist dari Willayat Khna Gharana dan penyanyi klasik dicapai. Satwant Singh dan Surinderjeet Singh dicapai Tabla (drum) pemain. Dengan mereka seperti Sikh Singapura kebanyakan, Kirtan hanya hobi.

pada 1930 di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura. Ia belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah dia. Kemudian Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India

Almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik di tahun 1930-an di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura.

1931

Pada tahun 1931 kegiatan Olahraga, sekelompok anak muda Sikh berkumpul dan membentuk Asosiasi Khalsa. Yang termasuk kelompok ini Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa dan Teja Singh. Clubhouse pertama di padang (lapangan) pada akhir St.Georges Road. Ini adalah sebuah pondok kayu. Pada hari-hari, para anggota merasa sulit bahkan untuk membayar gaji pengurus.

Sebagai Sikh lebih dan lebih bergabung asosiasi, hal dimeriahkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, asosiasi pindah ke Jalan Bahagia mana klub yang tepat dibangun. Ada bidang yang bagus untuk game dan untuk pameran tahunan menyenangkan, Mela Punjabi. Beberapa tahun kemudian, pemerintah menawarkan sebuah situs di Tessensohn Jalan dengan kompensasi untuk bangunan tua. Sebuah komite dibentuk bangunan dengan Keadilan Choor Singh sebagai ketua. Clubhouse baru tidak pernah bisa dibangun tanpa upaya tak kenal lelah dari komite yang terdiri dari Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta dan Tharam Singh.

Anak laki-laki kami selalu dilakukan dengan baik dalam olahraga, memenangkan kejuaraan liga dan kompetisi knockout di kali banyak hoki. Dalam kriket, kami biasa kurang baik. Selain Sekolah kemudian Punjabi bertempat di klub, Tae Kwon Do dan Karate pelajaran juga dilakukan di sana. Klub ini masih digunakan untuk pernikahan dan pesta makan malam.

Komunitas Sikh selalu mengambil bagian aktif dalam semua Perayaan Hari Nasional dengan mengirimkan kontingen peserta pawai untuk Parade di bawah bendera Singapore Khalsa Asosiasi. Dalam salah satu Kompetisi Lampung Hari Nasional, kami memenangkan Hadiah Terbaik Lampung Budaya dan kami diberikan Piala Perak. Untuk upaya ini menang, kita harus berterima kasih Satwant Bath Singh, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Candler, Terlochan Harbans Singh dan Singh untuk kerja keras mereka. Para Penari Bhangra di masa lalu pawai digunakan untuk menjadi hit besar dengan penonton. Pada suatu hari yang basah keterangan di The Straits Times dengan gambar para penari membaca: “Tarian kegembiraan di jalan-jalan Singapura”.

1934

Setelah kembali pada tahun 1934, ia mengambil pekerjaan lamanya sebagai imam Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia membantu semua orang yang datang kepadanya dan tidak pernah berubah siapa pun menjauh. Selama pendudukan Jepang, dia mulai berdandan dengan chaddar (sepotong kain putih) dan segera orang mulai menangani dia sebagai Sant Sohan Singh. Dia memegang Granthi Samelans (Konferensi Para Imam) untuk semua imam Sikh di Malaya dan Singapura di mana topik-topik kepentingan bersama dibahas. Setelah kematiannya, ada lebih seperti konferensi berlangsung. Pada tahun 1921, Dewan Khalsa Bhai Malaya dipekerjakan Singh Pall, Bhai Badan Singh dan Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musisi) untuk melakukan parchaar (mengkhotbahkan agama) di Malaya. Singapura Sikh mampu mendengarkan mereka kadang-kadang ketika mereka diundang ke Singapura. Bhai Bhai Pall Singh dan Badan Singh baik siswa dari Jowalla Bhai terkenal Singh dari Baba Bakala. Sangat menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan melodi klasik mereka. Iringan pada drum dengan Bahadur Singh menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan. Anak Bhai Singh Pall yang tumbuh dan bergabung dengan kelompok ayah mereka. Sohan Singh Josh, anak sulung adalah Tabla dicapai (drum) player. Bhai Badan Singh hidup sampai usia lanjut. Dia dikenang oleh banyak siswa di seluruh negeri.

Almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik

.1937

Mr Singh Bhag belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah dia. Kemudian Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India.

1940

Tahun 1940 Sikh Misionaris Socierty, kelompok Sikh membentuk sebuah asosiasi untuk menyebarkan iman Sikh dan menyebutnya Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. Pria di balik langkah itu Bhag Singh, seorang guru sekolah. Yang lain dalam kelompok itu Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Gulzar Singh Hitashi dan. Kantor terdaftar dari Masyarakat berada di 175 Queen Street. Komite Masyarakat kemudian berhasil mendapatkan Giani Phuman Singh, seorang Sikh yang terpelajar dari India untuk bergabung. Selama tahun-tahun berikutnya, kelompok pemuda pekerja berbuat banyak untuk menyebarkan agama Sikh. Traktat dalam bahasa Tamil, Melayu, Cina dan Inggris itu dibagikan gratis sehingga masyarakat lain akan datang untuk mengetahui Sikh dan iman mereka lebih baik. Giani Phuman Singh perjalanan seluruh Malaya dan memberikan ceramah di kuil-kuil.

Sikh Missionary Society juga meluncurkan Dana Beasiswa untuk siswa miskin Sikh untuk mengejar pendidikan mereka di universitas. Membantu Moneter juga diberikan kepada anak-anak untuk studi sekunder mereka sekolah. Para penerima pertama Gorboux Singh, yang menjadi kepala sekolah, Harbans Singh, yang menjadi seorang pengacara dan Nachatar Singh.

Kekuatan pendorong di belakang masyarakat itu Bhag Singh. Kematiannya pada tahun 1960 adalah kehilangan besar Sikh di Singapura dan Malaya. Komite bahwa alat selama menjalankan Masyarakat tidak bisa melanjutkan seperti sebelumnya dan sekarang masyarakat hanya nama dalam buku-buku dari Registrar of Societies.

Pada tahun 1940 kami telah Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Kartar Singh Giani Khandawalla dan Hazara Singh Bhai. Imam-imam belajar menjalani kehidupan mereka berkhotbah dan dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat. Selama waktu luang mereka, mereka memberikan pelajaran gratis Gurmukhi kepada anak-anak. Beberapa dari mereka juga bisa melakukan Kirtan dengan iringan tabla dan harmonium.

Nama lain yang terkenal adalah Sant Sohan Singh dari Malaka. Ia lahir di India pada tahun 1902 dan datang ke Malaya pada tahun 1926. Dia tinggal di Kuil Sikh Seremban untuk waktu yang singkat dan pada 1926 diangkat imam di Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia adalah seorang Pathi Akhand sangat baik dan segera setiap orang mulai memanggilnya Sohan Singh Giani. Hubungannya dengan tiga imam sangat terpelajar, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Pasir Gulab Singh dan Singh Giani Chanan Gurne, membuatnya sadar bahwa dia tidak memiliki banyak pengetahuan sejauh tulisan suci yang bersangkutan. Jadi pada tahun 1932, ia pergi cuti ke India dan bergabung College Gurmat di Damdama Sahib dan di sana ia belajar di bawah Kartar Singh Dakha, seorang sarjana Sikh sangat terkenal. Ia memperoleh gelar dalam Giani dan juga diberikan gelar “Maha Kawya Kawi Giani” (belajar penyair besar intelektual) untuk puisiny

 THE 20th CENTURY

1900

03070035

Singapore. Sikh Policeman
Postcard – “Singapore. Sikh Policeman.” c1900

Hari Singh returned to Singapore after 1900 and got a job as a watchman with Lim Hoe Chiang of Tanjong Pagar. He was given a place to stay at the factory, at the junction of Wallich Street and Peck Seah Street. Next to the factory was an open piece of ground where Hari Singh decided to build a wooden shed and keep some dairy cows. He started with three cows and began what was eventually to become a full-time business. His adopted son, Achar Singh, started schooling but it was some time before the family grew.

1915-1918 during WW I

1920

In 1920, the first of Hari Singh’s four sons was born. Then came the twins Bassan Singh and Wassawa Singh followed by the youngest, Inder Singh. The boys had plenty of Sikh friends as by then a lot of other Sikhs had migrated to Singapore. One Sewa Singh Sedukay, whose village is close to Hari Singh’s in India settled in Wallich Street and built a wooden shed next to Hari Singh’s and started his own cattle business. Sewa Singh Sedukay’s eldest son, Dewan Singh Randhawa till the 1980s ran the only Punjabi Weekly newspaper in Singapore.

Like all other Sikh migrants, Hari Singh put a lot of emphasis on education. He made sure his children acquired both English and Punjabi education. Achar Singh joined the Government Printing Office in Johor Bahru as a proof reader. Sewa Singh joined the Medical Department as did Bassan Singh. Inder Singh later migrated to England and became a coal miner. Wasswa Singh died in his teens. After spending virtually his whole adult life in Singapore, Hari Singh like his contemporaries, did not wish to end his days in Singapore. He returned to India in 1952 and died there soon after. His descendants now fourth generation Sikhs in Singapore, are comfortably settled middle class Singaporeans, who while they still maintain links with their village in Punjab, have no intentions to return there.

The early Sikhs were either watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers. The traders or businessmen in the community came much later after the Second World War and established themselves in High Street, dealing in mainly textiles. As stated earlier, the early Sikhs placed much emphasis in education and not surprisingly, their children either became civil servants or professionals through hard work and study.

1920

Sikh Temples in Singapore
Religion is an integral part of the daily life of a Sikh. When the first batch of Sikhs was brought to Singapore by the East India Company as policemen, a temple was built for them at Pearl’s Hill Barracks. Similarly, the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company built a temple for the Police in Anson Road. In 1920, a Sindhi merchant donated his house in Queen Street for a temple and the Sikhs named it “Wada Gurdwara”, meaning “The Big Temple”. The management committee consisted of elected representatives of the Majha, Malwa and Doaba Sikhs. The three temples representing these areas – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Khalsa Dharmak Sabha and Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – sent three members each for the management committee and one member each for the Langar (Food) Committee.

1925

In 1925, the Majha Sikhs opened a temple in a double storey house in Queen Street near the junction of Bras Basah Road. Two years later, there was a misunderstanding over the priest, Giani Partap Singh, because he paid a dowry to get married. Santa Singh Sedukay and Ganesa Singh Malli opened another temple in Cecil Street with Giani Partap Singh as priest. So during this short period, there were two Singh Sabhas in Singapore. Two years later, both factions settled their differences and all the Mahja Sikhs moved back to the Queen Street premises. In 1931, the Sabha moved to its new temple at 90 Wilkie Road. In 1980, the Sabha moved to a new building at 92 Wilkie Road adjacent to the one built in 1931. The old building was converted into a Janjh Ghar and for accomodation. There are plans for a museum as well.

The Malwa Sikhs started a temple in Chandy Road behind the present Cathay Building about the same time as the Majha Sikhs started the Sri Guru Singh Sabha. From Chandy Road, the Khalsa Dharmak Sabha moved to its present building at 18 Niven Road.

The Doaba Sikhs had their temple at Kirk Terrace. The government acquired their land for urban development and they have since moved to Lorong 19 Geyland.

There used to be another Sikh Temple in a double storey building in Kerbau Road. This had been in existence since before the Second World War.

There were also other Sikh Temples built for the convenience of Sikhs living in nearby. One such temple was the Jalan Kayu Gurdwara. There was also one in the Naval Base for Sikhs working in the base. Another was in Sembawang Road for those living and working outside the base area. Today, a new temple exists in Yishun called Yishun Gurdwara. This is the result of the merger of the Jalan Kayu and Sembawang Gurdwaras, following the residential developments in the north of Singapore. When the British Government decided to improve and extend the Harbour Board area, it was necessary to demolish the Dock Police Barracks where the temple was situated. It offered the Sikh Contingent land in Silat Road for the temple and also gave monetary aid. Two policemen from the Sikh Contingent were nominated to collect funds for the building of this temple. One of them was Wasawa Singh, father of Bakshis Singh, a retired school principal. Funds were collected from the Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple.

When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple.

The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground car park, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.

The Early Sikh Priests and Ragis
The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.

1920

In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type of cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sand mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating

1930. 

It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed.

There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name.

Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.

in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore.

1931

In 1931 Sport activities , a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.

As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Road with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh.

Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

The Sikh Community has always taken an active part in all the National Day Celebrations by sending a contingent of marchers to the Parade under the banner of the Singapore Khalsa Association. In one of the National Day Float Competitions, we won the Best Cultural Float Prize and we were awarded the Silver Cup. For this winning effort, we have to thank Satwant Singh Bath, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Dler, Terlochan Singh and Harbans Singh for their hard work. The Bhangra Dancers in the march past used to be a great hit with the spectators. On one wet day the caption in The Straits Times with a picture of the dancers read : “The dance of joy in the streets of Singapore”.

1934

On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music

.1937

Mr Bhag Singh studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India.

1940

In 1940 the Sikh Missionary Socierty , a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

In the 1940s we had Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment.

Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of “Kawi Kawya Maha Giani” (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry.

During Dai Nippon Occupation 1942-1945

. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

 .
In 1940 the Sikh Missionary Socierty , a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

1950

In early 1950 the Sikh Partinidh Sabda, at a meeting held at the Queen Street Sikh Temple, the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was formed. Its function was to run the Khalsa English School in Niven Road and the Khalsa Punjab School in Wilkie Road.

The Khalsa English School was very necessary at this time because there was a shortage of schools in Singapore and many of our Sikh children could not find places in government and government aided schools. Classes were from primary to secondary levels. When there were sufficient schools in Singapore to absorb all the children, the Khalsa English School was closed. The Khalsa Punjabi School at the Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Wilkie Road was transferred to the Singapore Khalsa Association and the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was dissolved.

The Sikh Newspapers and the Press
The first Sikh newspaper was started in Malaya in 1936 and was called the Pardesi Khalsa Sewak. In 1965, there was a change of ownership and the name was changes to Malayan Samachar. Dewan Singh Randhawa, who resigned from the Singapore Police Force in 1946, started the first Punjabi paper in Singapore in 1951. He called it the Navjiwan (New Life). It was printed in Gurmukhi script and the paper had to struggle even though it was the only Punjabi paper in Southeast Asia. Advertisments, printing of wedding cards and commercial printing kept the paper going. In the late seventies and early eighties, things brightened up. The paper brought in the latest in off-set printing. It by now had subscribers not only in Singapore, but in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Australia.

Two other Sikhs have gone into the printing business and do only commercial printing. They are Kartar Singh, a retired police officer who owns Ford Printers and Gurpal Singh who owns Magh Printers. Incidentally, Gurpal Singh learned the printing business as a teenager at Navjiwan.

After Independence, the Congress leaders of India forgot their promises given to Sikh people. These very Congress lead adopted every conceivable postureand shrank from no stratagem to keep Sikhs permanently under their political heel, first, by refusing to form a Punjabi speaking state in which the Sikhs might acquire political effectiveness, and second, by not giving Sikhs and Punjab a special status in the Constitution Act of India.

In 1954, when Master Tara Singh reminded Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru of the solemn undertaking given to Sikhs many times on behalf of the majority community that after Independence Sikhs will be given an autonomous state, he coolly replied, “the circumstances have now changed “

After eighteen years of agitation and suffering, creation of a Punjabi speaking state was announced. But the commission which demarcated the boundaries on the impugned and tainted 1961 census left some of the Punjabi speaking areas out of Punjab state and gave them over to Haryana which was created out of residuary areas. The commission even allocated Chandigarh to Haryana. The problem of getting Punjabi speaking areas and Chandigarh restored to the Punjab became a major issue. Many fasts and counter fasts were kept by Sikhs and Hindus on this issue. Sardar Darshan Singh Pheruman courted martyrdom by fasting unto death on October 27, 1969. He died on 74th day of his fast, renewing the Sikh tradition of sacrifice and martyrdom. On January 26, 1970 Sant Fateh Singh, President of Shiromani Akali Dal went on fast declaring that if demand for restoring Chandigarh to Punjab is not met, he would burn himself alive On February 1, 1970 the Government announced its decision to hand over Chandigarh to Punjab, in lieu of areas of Fazilka and Abohar Tehsil to Haryana.

 

Due to the split in the Sikh leadership which started showing on the surface in 1960 onwards two factions in the Akal Dal were created: one led by Master Tara Singh and the other by Sant Fateh Singh. The result of these divisions among the Sikhs was that Akali Dal was never able to form a pure Sikh Government in Punjab. In 1967 Akali Dal formed the first non-Congress Government in Punjab with the support of Jan Sangh and the Communist party. After that Akali Dal formed the non-Congress Government twice, but both the times it was with the help of Jan Sangh or Janata Party. It speaks poorly of the Sikh ieadership and politics that even in a state in which they have majority they could not form a government, run purely by their political wing, Akali Dal.On October 16, 1973 the Akali Dal, when it was not in power, passed “The Anandpur Sahib Resolution.” The major provisions this resolution were;
regional autonomy for punjab,
return of Chandigarh to Punjab,
special status for Sikhs in the Indian union,
a supreme court review of Punjab river waters,
return of the Punjabi speaking areas to Punjab,
return of the administration of the Punjab Electric Board as well as the three thermal headworks to Punjab,
provision of a fare share of electricity to Punjab,
and some minor religious demands.

 

During the 1970’s and till the 1980’S the Akali Dal and Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee leaders has been centering around the following leaders: Prakash Singh Badal, Gurcharn Singh Tohra, Jagdev Singh Talwandi, Sujit Singh Barnala, Balwant Singh and Harchand Singh Longowal. But these leaders did not do much to get the Anandpur Sahib Resolution implemented in Punjab. Even when Akalis formed their Government supported by Janata Party in 1977 in Punjab, they did nothing outstanding to ensure that the provisions of Anandpur Sahib Resolution were implementedThey went out of their way to discourage and crush the anti-Nirankari movement started by Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and the Babbar Khalsa as a result of April 13, 1978 incident, in which thirteen devout Amritdhari Gursikhs were shot dead by the Nirankaris in Amritsar.Particularly, the behaviour of Jiwan Singh Umranangal and P.S.Badal, who were keen to win over Hindus even if it meant harming the interests of Sikhs, was most deplorable. By the time Congress (I) Government came into power again in 1980, the gap between the Akali leaders and Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had widenedWith a view to win over Hindu majority of North India and Punjab, Mrs. Indira Gandhi mischievously exploited the anti-Nirankari movement in Punjab to create communal antagonism between Sikhs and Hindus in 1980. State terrorism against devout Amritdhari Sikhs was started in Punjab through her stooge Chief Minister of Punjab, Darbara Singh, during 1982. As a reaction to the Police terrorism on Sikhs, the devout Sikhs started taking revenge on Police and officials who ordered persecution of Sikhs in 1982-83.

 

In August 1982 the ‘Dharam Yudh’ agitation was started under the dictatorship of Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, to whom all Akali Dal members of Legislative Assembly and Parliament had submitted the resignation. In October 1983, the Centre Government imposed President’s Rule Punjab.From October 1983 to June 1984, is a story of political manipulations and mischievous designs on the part of Indira Gandhi to destroy the Sikh faith and exterminate the Sikh people with a view to win over Hindu votes in India.Indira Gandhi throughout negotiations between Akali Dal and Centre never let the negotiations reach finalization or settlement because she had an ulterior motive. She let the Punjab crisis drag on in order to rally the state’s Hindus behind her and in order unify the Hindu majority of North Indian states, all of whom were concerned about the growing shrillness of the Sikh agitation. The Hindu psyche had been poisoned so much against the Sikhs through communication media and mischievous political manipulations that they wanted the Delhi Government to deal more forcefully with Sikhs. By stone-walling the Sikhs, Gandhi was consolidating her position with the Hindu majority , particularly of North India, whose support she considered necessary to win in national elections that were to be held January 1985.Sant Jarnail Singh Ji, Khalsa, Bhindranwale was one man who had the political foresight and vision and who knew that Indira Gandhi was not finalizing the negotiation because she wanted to derive the politcal advantage out of it. He also knew that all the Akali Dal leaders stood fast supported the Sikh masses of Punjab, could not damage the Sikhs. On contrary, if the Akali Dal leader show split, and entered into underhand negotiations with her, she will not only outmaneuver them, but also defeat the efforts jointly put in by all Sikhs in Dharam Yudh agitation for acceptance of Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

 

It was the saddest thing for the Sikhs to happen: Almost all the Akali leaders betrayed the Sikhs and Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale for their selfish ends and had secret meetings with representatives of Mrs.Indira Gandhi. They reached a secret understanding with her; they would not stand in her way if she used armed forces to attack Golden Temple complex and destroy Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his associates. All that they wanted in return were minister and chiefminister positions for themselves.As a result of such underhand negotiations and understanding, Mrs. Gandhi gathered the courage for launching of Operation Bluestar. The Sikhs know very well the details of desecration and destruction caused to Golden Temple complex, as also the massacre of thousands of innocent Sikh pilgrims in Golden Temple. But strangely enough H.S.Longowal and G.S.Tohra were safely escorted to the Government Guest houses! The developments, after they were released from their sanctuaries, clearly show as to what sort of loyalty these leaders had to the Sikh Panth. After playing their political gimmicks, they were again back in their saddles of President Akali Dal and President SGPC. They shamelessly built their palaces of power positions on the graveyards of tens of thousands of innocent Sikhs and on rubbles of the Akal Takhat and other historic shrines. Tens thousands of Sikhs were massacred burnt alive all over India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi, because there was no Sikh leader like Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, whom the Hidhu leaders feared.Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale was a Sikh leader, whom the Delhi rulers feared. For they knew that the Sikh masses were behind him and he could not be bought on any cost; He was a selfless servant of the Khalsa, for, he had transcended all earthly temptations which enslave the mortal beings. He was an example of the true Khalsa, who lived for Truth and died fighting for Truth.

 

A RECORD OF BETRAYAL1. [1950] The Indian Consitution was adopted. The Sikh leaders did not endorse it because all promises and assurances previously made were ignored.2. [1954] When jawaharlal Nehru was reminded of past promises, he answered, “The circumstances have now changed”3. [1956] Indian States were reorganized on language basis. Only Punjab is left out4. [1966] After a prolonged struggle and peaceful agitation, a Punjabi speaking state was created by divding Punjab further into three states.5. [1975] Indira Gandhi was found guilty of election fraud by the Indian courts. She suspended the constitution to stay in office. The Sikhs spearheaded a non violent protest against this blow to democracy. 50,000 Sikhs went to jail. Indira Gandhi never forgot that the Sikhs had opposed her one person rule.6. [1981-1984] More than 250 Sikhs were butchered by Indian security forces in fake encounters. More than 250,000 were arrested during this period while peacefully demanding state autonomy for Punjab and the rest of the state in India and their just share of Punjab waters as envisaged by international riparian laws.7. [1984] Indira Gandhi’s response to the Sikhs was uniquely senseless. From June 5-7 a full scale army attack was launched on the Golden Temple and 40 other temples, killing thousands of innocent Sikhs – men, women and children. Many of the dead have never been accounted for.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

SHIKS IN SINGAPORE VERSION TWO 


 

 

second version:

Sikhism in Singapore 

There are some 15,000 Sikhs in Singapore. The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) in 1873 brought by the British to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars. The early Sikhs were employed as watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers.

It was only after the Second World War that they established themselves as traders or businessmen in the community in High Street, mainly dealing in textiles. Today there are about 15,000 Sikhs in Singapore.

Contents

 

Early Sikh Immigrants

Who was Singapore’s first Sikh? The answer is not readily forthcoming. No records exist which clearly state who was the first Sikh to land here. But many of the older Sikhs still alive in Singapore recall tales of one Maharaj Singh, a political prisoner exiled to Singapore by the British after the Second Sikh War in 1849.

A Sikh of noble birth, he refused to concede defeat to the British and formed a guerilla band with his followers. Unfortunately for him, he was caught and imprisoned before he could really organise himself. But his popularity among the Sikhs, even after he was jailed, was such that the British decided it was in their own interests to exile him.

He was sent to Singapore with a manservant, arriving here sometime in the 1850’s. He was housed in the old Outram Road Jail and by all accounts was a religious person, spending long periods of time in prayer and meditation. Tales passed down by word of mouth speak of him possessing spiritual powers and of working miracles. There is no record of when he died, but it is known that after his death, he was cremated outside Outram Road Jail. Sikhs of that period, believing he was a saint, built a tomb on the spot where he was cremated.

When the authorities wanted to expand the prison, his tomb was broken up and rebuilt on a spot about a mile away. In later years, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) was built near the site of the tomb. It was not disturbed and remained in what became the hospital grounds. In 1965, the government asked the Sikhs to remove the tomb as they wished to expand the hospital. So once again, the tomb was broken up. This time after some prayers, five stones all that remained of the old tomb, were removed and placed in a new resting place in the forecourt of the Silat Road Temple nearby.

Some people call this temple as Gurdwara Baba Karam Singh. Why Baba Karam Singh and not Maharaj Singh? There is some controversy over who the tomb at Outram Road and subsequently SGH grounds really belonged to. The only point of consensus is that it belonged to a saintly person. There are those who believe it is Maharaj Singh’s. Then again there are those who say it was that of Baba Karam Singh, who was said to possess some spiritual powers too. What is certain is that those who maintained the tomb and later made it into a shrine of sorts, believed it was Baba Karam Singh and the name has come to stay. There may have been other political prisoners exiled to Singapore too, but nothing is known of them.

The first wave of Sikhs to land in Singapore came in the form of sepoys (policemen) recruited in India to help keep the peace and put down the Chinese gang wars. In 1873, Captain Speedy recruited 110 Sikhs from the Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab for service in Perak (in Malaysia). This band was known as the Perak Armed Police. The success of these early recruits prompted the British to recruit more Sikhs and by 1888, under one Captain Walker, the group had grown and came to be known as the 1st Perak Sikhs. By 1896, the force numbered 900 and was renamed the Malay States Guides with Walker as their first Colonel.

Meanwhile, the success of the Sikhs as policemen or sepoys in Malaya led the British to bring some down to Singapore. The first batch also from Patiala, Ludhiana and Ferozepur was brought to Singapore in the late 1870s and formed the first Sikh Police Contingent stationed at Sepoy Lines later known as Pearl’s Hill overlooking Chinatown. Sikh policemen were also recruited by the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company to form the Tanjong Pagar Dock Police Force.

While the first wave of Sikhs came mainly as policemen, by 1885 more Sikhs from other districts in Punjab namely, Grurdaspur, Amritsar, Jullundhar and Lahore were making their own way down to Singapore to seek their fortunes. Most of these Sikhs could not enter the Police Force as the earlier recruits restricted subsequent entry to their relatives or fellow district folks. As such, these later migrants became watchmen, additional police constables, small time businessmen or went into dairy farming. The story of one Hari Singh Choney from Gurdaspur district is typical of these early migrants. Hari Singh came to Singapore in 1885. He travelled like many others on deck, cooking his own meals. He landed in Singapore at Tanjong Pagar and was helped by some Sikh policemen on duty who gave him temporary accommodation. One Sunder Singh, a police constable, helped him find a job patrolling the grounds of the Botanic Gardens. Like many of the Sikhs in Singapore then, Hari Singh led a very frugal life, repatriating most of his savings and helping to bring out other relatives. A couple of years after his arrival, Hari Singh brought out his younger brother Jaimall Singh and found him a job as an Additional Police Constable. The job of these APCs in those days was to guard the Government run opium shops which were then legal in Singapore.

Many of these early Sikhs came as bachelors. They later returned to India with some money, married and brought their families back. Hari Singh was no different, except in his case he had to return rather suddenly as his elder brother Bhagat Singh died suddenly leaving behind a young son. Hari Singh got married in India and adopted Bhagat Singh’s son, Achar Singh.

Hari Singh returned to Singapore after 1900 and got a job as a watchman with Lim Hoe Chiang of Tanjong Pagar. He was given a place to stay at the factory, at the junction of Wallich Street and Peck Seah Street. Next to the factory was an open piece of ground where Hari Singh decided to build a wooden shed and keep some dairy cows. He started with three cows and began what was eventually to become a full-time business. His adopted son, Achar Singh, started schooling but it was some time before the family grew. In 1920, the first of Hari Singh’s four sons was born. Then came the twins Bassan Singh and Wassawa Singh followed by the youngest, Inder Singh. The boys had plenty of Sikh friends as by then a lot of other Sikhs had migrated to Singapore. One Sewa Singh Sedukay, whose village is close to Hari Singh’s in India settled in Wallich Street and built a wooden shed next to Hari Singh’s and started his own cattle business. Sewa Singh Sedukay’s eldest son, Dewan Singh Randhawa till the 1980s ran the only Punjabi Weekly newspaper in Singapore.

Like all other Sikh migrants, Hari Singh put a lot of emphasis on education. He made sure his children acquired both English and Punjabi education. Achar Singh joined the Government Printing Office in Johor Bahru as a proof reader. Sewa Singh joined the Medical Department as did Bassan Singh. Inder Singh later migrated to England and became a coal miner. Wasswa Singh died in his teens. After spending virtually his whole adult life in Singapore, Hari Singh like his contemporaries, did not wish to end his days in Singapore. He returned to India in 1952 and died there soon after. His descendants now fourth generation Sikhs in Singapore, are comfortably settled middle class Singaporeans, who while they still maintain links with their village in Punjab, have no intentions to return there.

The early Sikhs were either watchmen, policemen or dairy farmers. The traders or businessmen in the community came much later after the Second World War and established themselves in High Street, dealing in mainly textiles. As stated earlier, the early Sikhs placed much emphasis in education and not surprisingly, their children either became civil servants or professionals through hard work and study.

Sikh Temples in Singapore

Religion is an integral part of the daily life of a Sikh. When the first batch of Sikhs was brought to Singapore by the East India Company as policemen, a temple was built for them at Pearl’s Hill Barracks. Similarly, the Tanjong Pagar Dock Company built a temple for the Police in Anson Road. In 1920, a Sindhi merchant donated his house in Queen Street for a temple and the Sikhs named it Wada Gurdwara, meaning The Big Temple. The management committee consisted of elected representatives of the Majha, Malwa and Doaba Sikhs. The three temples representing these areas – Sri Guru Singh Sabha, Khalsa Dharmak Sabha and Pardesi Khalsa Dharmak Dewa – sent three members each for the management committee and one member each for the Langar (Food) Committee.

In 1925, the Majha Sikhs opened a temple in a double storey house in Queen Street near the junction of Bras Basah Road. Two years later, there was a misunderstanding over the priest, Giani Partap Singh, because he paid a dowry to get married. Santa Singh Sedukay and Ganesa Singh Malli opened another temple in Cecil Street with Giani Partap Singh as priest. So during this short period, there were two Singh Sabhas in Singapore. Two years later, both factions settled their differences and all the Mahja Sikhs moved back to the Queen Street premises. In 1931, the Sabha moved to its new temple at 90 Wilkie Road. In 1980, the Sabha moved to a new building at 92 Wilkie Road adjacent to the one built in 1931. The old building was converted into a Janjh Ghar and for accomodation. There are plans for a museum as well.

The Malwa Sikhs started a temple in Chandy Road behind the present Cathay Building about the same time as the Majha Sikhs started the Sri Guru Singh Sabha. From Chandy Road, the Khalsa Dharmak Sabha moved to its present building at 18 Niven Road.

The Doaba Sikhs had their temple at Kirk Terrace. The government acquired their land for urban development and they have since moved to Lorong 19 Geyland.

There used to be another Sikh Temple in a double storey building in Kerbau Road. This had been in existence since before the Second World War.

There were also other Sikh Temples built for the convenience of Sikhs living in nearby. One such temple was the Jalan Kayu Gurdwara. There was also one in the Naval Base for Sikhs working in the base. Another was in Sembawang Road for those living and working outside the base area. Today, a new temple exists in Yishun called Yishun Gurdwara. This is the result of the merger of the Jalan Kayu and Sembawang Gurdwaras, following the residential developments in the north of Singapore. When the British Government decided to improve and extend the Harbour Board area, it was necessary to demolish the Dock Police Barracks where the temple was situated. It offered the Sikh Contingent land in Silat Road for the temple and also gave monetary aid. Two policemen from the Sikh Contingent were nominated to collect funds for the building of this temple. One of them was Wasawa Singh, father of Bakshis Singh, a retired school principal. Funds were collected from the Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple.

When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple.

The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground car park, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.

The Early Sikh Priests and Ragis

The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.

In the 1940s we had Bhai Assa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment.

Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh Pandit, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of Kawi Kawya Maha Giani (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry.

On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country.

The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him. Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India.

In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type of cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sand mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating.

It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed.

There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name.

Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.

Sports and Other Activities

In 1931, a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.

As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Road with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh.

Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

The Sikh Community has always taken an active part in all the National Day Celebrations by sending a contingent of marchers to the Parade under the banner of the Singapore Khalsa Association. In one of the National Day Float Competitions, we won the Best Cultural Float Prize and we were awarded the Silver Cup. For this winning effort, we have to thank Satwant Singh Bath, Pritam Singh Malli, Dharam Singh Dler, Terlochan Singh and Harbans Singh for their hard work. The Bhangra Dancers in the march past used to be a great hit with the spectators. On one wet day the caption in The Straits Times with a picture of the dancers read : The dance of joy in the streets of Singapore.

The Sikh Missionary Society

In 1940, a group of Sikhs formed an association to propagate the Sikh faith and called it the Sikh Missionary Society of Malaya. The man behind the move was Bhag Singh, a school teacher. The others in the group were Sadhu Singh Khaira, Sohan Singh Panj Garain, Ujagar Singh, Teja Singh Hitashi and Gulzar Singh. The registered office of the Society was at 175 Queen Street. The committee of the Society later managed to get Giani Phuman Singh, a very learned Sikh from India to join it. During the following years, this young group of workers did much to propagate the Sikh religion. Tracts in Tamil, Malay, Chinese and English were distributed free so that the other communities would come to know the Sikhs and their faith better. Giani Phuman Singh travelled all over Malaya and gave lectures in temples.

The Sikh Missionary Society also launched a Scholarship Fund for needy Sikh students to pursue their university education. Monetary help was also given to children for their secondary school studies. The first recipients were Gorboux Singh, who became a school principal, Harbans Singh, who became a lawyer and Nachatar Singh.

The driving force behind the society was Bhag Singh. His untimely death in 1960 was a big loss to the Sikhs in Singapore and Malaya. The committees that tool over the running of the Society could not carry on as before and now the society is just a name in the books of the Registrar of Societies.

The Sikh Partinidh Sabha

In early 1950, at a meeting held at the Queen Street Sikh Temple, the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was formed. Its function was to run the Khalsa English School in Niven Road and the Khalsa Punjab School in Wilkie Road.

The Khalsa English School was very necessary at this time because there was a shortage of schools in Singapore and many of our Sikh children could not find places in government and government aided schools. Classes were from primary to secondary levels. When there were sufficient schools in Singapore to absorb all the children, the Khalsa English School was closed. The Khalsa Punjabi School at the Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Wilkie Road was transferred to the Singapore Khalsa Association and the Sikh Partinidh Sabha was dissolved.

The Sikh Newspapers and the Press

The first Sikh newspaper was started in Malaya in 1936 and was called the Pardesi Khalsa Sewak. In 1965, there was a change of ownership and the name was changes to Malayan Samachar. Dewan Singh Randhawa, who resigned from the Singapore Police Force in 1946, started the first Punjabi paper in Singapore in 1951. He called it the Navjiwan (New Life). It was printed in Gurmukhi script and the paper had to struggle even though it was the only Punjabi paper in Southeast Asia. Advertisments, printing of wedding cards and commercial printing kept the paper going. In the late seventies and early eighties, things brightened up. The paper brought in the latest in off-set printing. It by now had subscribers not only in Singapore, but in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Australia.

Two other Sikhs have gone into the printing business and do only commercial printing. They are Kartar Singh, a retired police officer who owns Ford Printers and Gurpal Singh who owns Magh Printers. Incidentally, Gurpal Singh learned the printing business as a teenager at Navjiwan

Version three

 Komunitas Sikh di Singapura, Malaya dan Pulau Christmas dan Silat Jalan Sikh Temple menjadi kenyataan. Pengelolaan kuil itu diserahkan kepada polisi Sikh di bawah pimpinan seorang petugas Kontingen Sikh. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kontingen Sikh dibubarkan dan Kuil Jalan Silat diserahkan ke Komite Sentral Kuil Sikh. Bait suci adalah hari ini bagian dari Kuil Sikh Tengah. Ketika India dan Pakistan mencapai kemerdekaan, pengusaha Sikh banyak orang yang tercerabut dari rumah mereka datang ke Singapura dan secara bertahap jumlah ini tumbuh. Pada awalnya, ini digunakan untuk berdoa Sikh di Kuil Sikh Tengah di Queen Street. Kemudian, mereka mulai bergerak memegang sebuah kuil doa di rumah-rumah anggota mereka dengan rotasi. Mereka segera memutuskan untuk memiliki bait suci mereka sendiri dan dalam waktu membeli sebuah gedung di Jalan Wilkinson mana mereka telah berubah menjadi sebuah kuil yang indah. Keanggotaan terbatas pada para pendiri asli. Keanggotaan asosiasi ini terbuka untuk semua tetapi ini tidak memiliki anggota mengatakan dalam menjalankan kuil. Baru Tengah Sikh Temple bangunan selesai pada tahun 1986 dan dibangun dengan biaya $ 6 juta. Ini memiliki ruang doa ber-AC dan kedap suara. Ada parkir bawah tanah, fasilitas dapur modern, akomodasi bagi para imam, ruang untuk pertemuan, dan imam pertama library.The berasal dari kalangan polisi Sikh atau sepahi. Dua dari mereka Bhai Bhai Wasawa Singh dan Amar Singh. Di antara para imam awal di Singapura Narain Singh Bhai Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, dijuluki Bhai Pawa karena ia sangat pendek, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Bhai Inder Singh dan Ganda Singh.In tahun 1940 kami telah Bhai Sebagai sa Bandal Singh, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Kartar Singh Giani Khandawalla dan Hazara Singh Bhai. Imam-imam belajar menjalani kehidupan mereka berkhotbah dan dijunjung tinggi oleh masyarakat. Selama waktu luang mereka, mereka memberikan pelajaran gratis Gurmukhi kepada anak-anak. Beberapa dari mereka juga bisa melakukan Kirtan dengan iringan tabla dan harmonium. Nama lain yang terkenal adalah Sant Sohan Singh dari Malaka. Ia lahir di India pada tahun 1902 dan datang ke Malaya pada tahun 1926. Dia tinggal di Kuil Sikh Seremban untuk waktu yang singkat dan pada 1926 diangkat imam di Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia adalah seorang Pathi Akhand sangat baik dan segera setiap orang mulai memanggilnya Sohan Singh Giani. Hubungannya dengan tiga imam sangat terpelajar, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Pasir Gulab Singh dan Singh Giani Chanan Gurne, membuatnya sadar bahwa dia tidak memiliki banyak pengetahuan sejauh tulisan suci yang bersangkutan. Jadi pada tahun 1932, ia pergi cuti ke India dan bergabung College Gurmat di Damdama Sahib dan di sana ia belajar di bawah Kartar Singh Dakha, seorang sarjana Sikh sangat terkenal. Ia memperoleh gelar dalam Giani dan juga diberikan gelar “Maha Kawya Kawi Giani” (belajar penyair besar intelektual) untuk puisinya. Setelah kembali pada tahun 1934, ia mengambil pekerjaan lamanya sebagai imam Malaka Sikh Temple. Dia membantu semua orang yang datang kepadanya dan tidak pernah berubah siapa pun menjauh. Selama pendudukan Jepang, dia mulai berdandan dengan chaddar (sepotong kain putih) dan segera orang mulai menangani dia sebagai Sant Sohan Singh. Dia memegang Granthi Samelans (Konferensi Para Imam) untuk semua imam Sikh di Malaya dan Singapura di mana topik-topik kepentingan bersama dibahas. Setelah kematiannya, ada lebih seperti konferensi berlangsung. Pada tahun 1921, Dewan Khalsa Bhai Malaya dipekerjakan Singh Pall, Bhai Badan Singh dan Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musisi) untuk melakukan parchaar (mengkhotbahkan agama) di Malaya. Singapura Sikh mampu mendengarkan mereka kadang-kadang ketika mereka diundang ke Singapura. Bhai Bhai Pall Singh dan Badan Singh baik siswa dari Jowalla Bhai terkenal Singh dari Baba Bakala. Sangat menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan melodi klasik mereka. Iringan pada drum dengan Bahadur Singh menyenangkan untuk mendengarkan. Anak Bhai Singh Pall yang tumbuh dan bergabung dengan kelompok ayah mereka. Sohan Singh Josh, anak sulung adalah Tabla dicapai (drum) player. Bhai Badan Singh hidup sampai usia lanjut. Dia dikenang oleh banyak siswa di seluruh negeri ini almarhum Mr Bhag Singh, seorang kepala sekolah, mengambil musik di tahun 1930-an di Kuala Lumpur dan kemudian pindah ke Singapura. Ia belajar di bawah Ustad Jeevan Khan 1937-1939. Ustad Ji milik Gharana Patiala musik. Mahasiswa pertama Bhag Singh Ram Singh Gulzar. Penulis, Seva Singh, bergabung dengan kelompok Bhag Singh selama Pendudukan Jepang dan awalnya belajar di bawah him.Later Seva Singh meningkatkan pengetahuan dari berbagai sumber lainnya di India dan Pakistan. Kubu Bhag Singh adalah lokal pertama kelompok pemuda Sikh lahir musik di Singapura dan adalah sebanding dengan kelompok yang didirikan di India. Pada 1920-an dan awal 1930-an, ada sekelompok Shabad (himne) penyanyi dari desa Mallian. Mereka lima nomor, semua saudara dan sepupu dan semua lebih dari enam meter. Mereka mengenakan malmal (jenis yang sangat tipis dari kain katun) kameez atau kemeja seperti yang dipakai oleh Pahelwans (pegulat), dan kalung emas. Mereka menyanyikan sebagian besar Halle dey Shabads, (dinyanyikan seperti Kawalis dengan beat cepat). Anak-anak menemukan beat yang cepat dengan Dholak (drum), Shaney (simbal kecil), Chimta dan Khartale (instrumen musik India) yang sangat menawan. Barulah pada tahun 1930-an yang Sikh di Singapura memiliki kesempatan untuk mendengarkan jenis lain dari penyanyi profesional dari India ketika Janki Bai dan Kalka Bai Calcutta menghabiskan waktu sebulan di Singapura dan memberikan pertunjukan setiap malam di Serangoon Road. Ada juga konser diberikan oleh para profesional. Di antara musisi terkenal dan berbakat dan penyanyi adalah Dr Chotta Singh, Guru Sawan, Ustad Noor Md Khan, Veer Chand dan Master Muhammad. Ada juga banyak berbakat Tabla (drum) pemain termasuk Sardar Khan, Ustad Muhammad dan Krishna Deo Tiwari. Seorang mahasiswa Gwalior, Krishan Deo juga eksponen brilian Mirdhang tersebut. Dia memberikan sejumlah pertunjukan solo di Teater Victoria dan antara Masyarakat India Utara ia biasanya disebut Mirdhangi. Sangat sedikit orang yang tahu nama yang sebenarnya. Saat ini, banyak Kirtan dilakukan di candi ini baik oleh imam atau oleh Ragis profesional (musisi) yang datang pada tur. Akibatnya, sangat sedikit melakukan Kirtan Singapura Sikh di kuil-kuil sekarang. Seva Singh dan keluarganya digunakan untuk menjadi salah satu pengecualian. Putra sulungnya, Terlochan Singh adalah Sitarist dari Willayat Khna Gharana dan penyanyi klasik dicapai. Satwant Singh dan Surinderjeet Singh dicapai Tabla (drum) pemain. Dengan mereka seperti Sikh Singapura kebanyakan, Kirtan hanya hobby.In 1931, sekelompok anak muda Sikh berkumpul dan membentuk Asosiasi Khalsa. Yang termasuk kelompok ini Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa, Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa dan Teja Singh. Clubhouse pertama di padang (lapangan) pada akhir St.Georges Road. Ini adalah sebuah pondok kayu. Pada hari-hari, para anggota merasa sulit bahkan untuk membayar gaji caretaker.As Sikh lebih dan lebih bergabung asosiasi, hal dimeriahkan. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, asosiasi pindah ke Jalan Bahagia mana klub yang tepat dibangun. Ada bidang yang bagus untuk game dan untuk pameran tahunan menyenangkan, Mela Punjabi. Beberapa tahun kemudian, pemerintah menawarkan sebuah situs di Tessensohn Roadn dengan kompensasi untuk bangunan tua. Sebuah komite dibentuk bangunan dengan Keadilan Choor Singh sebagai ketua. Clubhouse baru tidak pernah bisa dibangun tanpa upaya tak kenal lelah dari komite yang terdiri dari Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta dan Tharam Singh. Anak laki-laki kami selalu dilakukan dengan baik dalam olahraga, memenangkan kejuaraan liga dan kompetisi knockout di kali banyak hoki. Dalam kriket, kami biasa kurang baik. Selain Sekolah kemudian Punjabi bertempat di klub, Tae Kwon Do dan Karate pelajaran juga dilakukan di sana. Klub ini masih digunakan untuk pernikahan dan pesta makan malam.

 
 

Sikh communities in Singapore, Malaya and Christmas Island and the Silat Road Sikh Temple became a reality. The management of the temple was left to the Sikh policemen under the chairmanship of an officer of the Sikh Contingent. After the Second World War, the Sikh Contingent was disbanded and the Silat Road Temple was handed over to the Central Sikh Temple Committee. The temple is today a part of the Central Sikh Temple. When India and Pakistan attained independence, many Sikh businessmen who were uprooted from their homes came to Singapore and gradually this number grew. In the beginning, these Sikhs used to pray at the Central Sikh Temple in Queen Street. Later, they started a mobile temple holding prayers in the homes of their members by rotation. They soon decided to have their own temple and in time bought a building in Wilkinson Road which they have turned into a beautiful temple. Membership is limited to these original founders. Associate membership is open to all but these members have no say in the running of the temple. The new Central Sikh Temple building was completed in 1986 and was built at a cost of $6 million. It has an air-conditioned prayer hall and is sound proofed. There is an underground carpark, modern kitchen facilities, accommodation for the priests, rooms for meetings, and a library.The first priests were from among the Sikh policemen or sepoys. Two of these were Bhai Wasawa Singh and Bhai Amar Singh. Among the early priests in Singapore were Bhai Narain Singh Chambal, Bhai Gurdit Singh, nicknamed Bhai Pawa as he was very short, Bhai Partap Singh Nangal, Bhai Inder Singh and Bhai Ganda Singh.In the 1940s we had Bhai As sa Singh Bandal, Bhai Arjan Singh, Giani Gurcharan Singh, Giani Mohinder Singh Chakarwarti, Giani Kartar Singh Khandawalla and Bhai Hazara Singh. These learned priests lived the life they preached and were held in high esteem by the community. During their free time, they gave free Gurmukhi lessons to the children. A few of them could also do Kirtan with tabla and harmonium accompaniment. Another well-known name was Sant Sohan Singh of Malacca. He was born in India in 1902 and came to Malaya in 1926. He stayed in the Seremban Sikh Temple for a short time and in 1926 was appointed priest at the Malacca Sikh Temple. He was an excellent Akhand Pathi and soon everyone began calling him Giani Sohan Singh. His association with three very learned priests, Giani Gurbax Singh “Pandit”, Sand Gulab Singh and Giani Chanan Singh Gurne, made him realise that he lacked a great deal of knowledge as far as the scriptures were concerned. So in 1932, he went on leave to India and joined the Gurmat College at Damdama Sahib and there he studied under Kartar Singh Dakha, a very famous Sikh scholar. He obtained a degree in Giani and was also conferred the title of “Kawi Kawya Maha Giani” (learned poet great intellectual) for his poetry. On his return in 1934, he took up his old job as priest of Malacca Sikh Temple. He helped all those who came to him and never turned anyone away. During the Japanese Occupation, he started dressing up with a chaddar (white piece of cloth) and soon everyone began addressing him as Sant Sohan Singh. He held Granthi Samelans (Conference of Priests) for all the Sikh priests in Malaya and Singapore at which topics of common interests were discussed. After his death, no more such conferences took place. In 1921, the Khalsa Dewan Malaya employed Bhai Pall Singh, Bhai Badan Singh and Bahadur Singh Ragi Jetha (Musicians) to do parchaar (preach religion) in Malaya. Singapore Sikhs were able to listen to them occasionally when they were invited to Singapore. Bhai Pall Singh and Bhai Badan Singh were both students of the famous Bhai Jowalla Singh of Baba Bakala. It was a pleasure to listen to their classical melodies. The accompaniment on the drums by Bahadur Singh was a joy to listen to. Bhai Pall’s Singh’s children grew up and joined their father’s group. Sohan Singh Josh, the eldest son was an accomplished Tabla (drums) player. Bhai Badan Singh lived to a ripe old age. He is remembered by many of his students throughout the country The late Mr. Bhag Singh, a school principal, took up music in the 1930s in Kuala Lumpur and later moved to Singapore. He studied under Ustad Jeevan Khan from 1937 to 1939. Ustad Ji belonged to the Patiala Gharana of music. Bhag Singh’s first student was Ram Singh Gulzar. The author, Seva Singh, joined Bhag Singh’s group during the Japanese Occupation and initially studied under him.Later Seva Singh increased his knowledge from various other sources in India and Pakistan. Mr Bhag Singh’s group was the first local born Sikh youth musical group in Singapore and was comparable to many established groups in India. In the 1920s and early 1930s, there was a group of Shabad (hymns) singers from the village of Mallian. They were five in number, all brothers and cousins and all were more than six feet tall. They wore malmal (very thin type o f cotton cloth) kameez or shirts like those worn by Pahelwans (wrestlers), and gold necklaces. They sang mostly Halle dey Shabads, (sung like Kawalis with a fast beat). The youngsters found the fast beat with Dholak (drums), Shaney (small cymbals), Chimta and Khartale (other Indian musical instruments) very captivating. It was only in the 1930s that Sikhs in Singapore had the opportunity to listen to other types of professional singers from India when Janki Bai and Kalka Bai of Calcutta spent a month in Singapore and gave performances every evening in Serangoon Road. There were also concerts given by professionals. Among the well known and talented musicians and singers were Dr. Chotta Singh, Master Sawan, Ustad Noor Md. Khan, Veer Chand and Master Mohammed. There were also many talented Tabla (drum) players including Sardar Khan, Ustad Mohammed and Krishan Deo Tiwari. A student of Gwalior, Krishan Deo was also a brilliant exponent of the Mirdhang. He gave a number of solo performances at the Victoria Theatre and among the North Indian Community he was usually called Mirdhangi. Very few people knew his actual name. Today, much of the kirtan done in the temple is either by the priests or by professional Ragis (musicians) who come on tours. As a result, very few Singaporean Sikhs do Kirtan in the temples now. Seva Singh and his family used to be one of the exceptions. His eldest son, Terlochan Singh is a Sitarist of Willayat Khna Gharana and an accomplished classical singer. Satwant Singh and Surinderjeet Singh are accomplished Tabla (drum) players. With them as with most Singapore Sikhs, Kirtan is only a hobby.In 1931, a group of young Sikhs got together and formed the Khalsa Association. This group included Tara Singh, Wazir Singh, Choor Singh, Bhag Singh, Sohan Singh (Kadoo) Randhawa,Hardit Singh Karmuwalla, Terlok Singh, Mahambir Singh, Durga Das Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa and Teja Singh. The first clubhouse was in a padang (field) at the end of St.Georges Road. It was a wooden hut. In those days, the members found it difficult even to pay the salary of the caretaker.As more and more Sikhs joined the association, things livened up. After the Second World War, the association moved to Jalan Bahagia where a proper clubhouse was built. There was a good field for games and for the yearly fun fair, the Punjabi Mela. Some years later, the government offered a site in Tessensohn Roadn with compensation for the old building. A building committee was formed with Justice Choor Singh as chairman. The new clubhouse could never have been built without the untiring efforts of the committee which comprised of Jaswant Singh Gill, Sadhu Singh Khaira, Khushal Singh, Sardara Singh, Dewan Singh Randhawa, Mukhtiar Singh Matta and Tharam Singh. Our boys have always done well in sports, winning the league championship and knockout competition in hockey many times. In cricket, we used to less well. Besides the then Punjabi School housed in the clubhouse, Tae Kwon Do and Karate lessons were also conducted there. The club is still used for weddings and dinner parties.

 

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

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